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Sample records for enteroctopus megalocyathus gould

  1. Morfología del aparato digestivo de Enteroctopus megalocyathus y Loligo sanpaulensis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda

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    Garri Rosana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description of the morphology of the digestive organs of Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Gould, 1852 and Loligo sanpaulensis Brakoniecki, 1984 is given. The mandibles, the crop diverticulum, a doubly coiled caecum, the loop of the medium intestine and the appendages of the digestive gland are first described for E. megalocyathus. The most outstanding finding in L. sanpaulensis is the location of the single posterior salivary gland, wholly embedded in the digestive gland.

  2. Uso del microhábitat por el protozoo parásito Aggregata patagonica Sardella, Ré & Timi, 2000 (Apicomplexa: Aggregatidae en su hospedador definitivo, el pulpo Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Gould, 1852 (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae en el sur de Chile Microhabitat use by the protozoan parasite Aggregata patagonica Sardella, Ré & Timi, 2000 (Apicomplexa: Aggregatidae in his definitive host Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Gould, 1852 (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae in southern Chile

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    CHRISTIAN M. IBÁÑEZ

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Los protozoos de la familia Aggregatidae requieren de dos hospedadores para completar su ciclo biológico: un crustáceo y un cefalópodo. En este estudio se busca evidenciar si existe un uso diferencial de microhábitats de las infrapoblaciones de Aggregata patagonica entre dos zonas del tracto digestivo de su hospedador definitivo, el pulpo Enteroctopus megalocyathus. Para ello, se examinaron 40 ejemplares de Ancud y 37 de Quellón, provenientes de las capturas artesanales de la Isla de Chiloé. El tamaño y la densidad de los ooquistes se cuantificaron en el ciego y el intestino del hospedador. Además, se efectuaron observaciones histológicas para determinar cuantitativamente la ocurrencia de los distintos estados de desarrollo del parásito. En Ancud el 80 % de los pulpos estaban parasitados en el ciego y el intestino, mientras que en Quellón era el 100 %. Se determinaron cuatro estados de desarrollo (microgametos, cigotos, esporoquistes inmaduros y maduros. Los ooquistes de A. patagonica fueron más pequeños y abundantes en el ciego, pero la cobertura fue mayor en el intestino. Además, la densidad y cobertura aumenta en pocos meses entre una muestra y otra. Al parecer, A. patagonica no usaría a los dos microhábitats como lugares de preferencia para pasar los diferentes estados de desarrollo, sino más bien, y según las condiciones del microhábitat, en el intestino crecerían más los ooquistes pero en menos cantidad, ocupando una mayor superficie del microhábitat, contrario a lo que ocurre en el ciego. Por esto se sugiere que A. patagonica hace un uso diferencial del microhábitat, mediante dos estrategias distintas de historia de vidaThe protozoan parasites of the family Aggregatidae, require two hosts to complete their life cycle, a crustacean and a cephalopod. This research looks for evidence of differential microhabitat use of Aggregata patagonica infrapopulations between two zones of the digestive tract of his definitive host

  3. Interacciones macho-hembra del pulpo rojo patagónico Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae durante el comportamiento de apareamiento Male-female interactions of Patagonian red octopus Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae during mating behavior

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    Ranferi Gutiérrez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúa, en condiciones de laboratorio, el comportamiento de apareamiento de ocho parejas de Enteroctopus megalocyathus mediante videograbaciones durante 24 h. El comportamiento precopulatorio (CP se caracterizó por presentar tres eventos (natación, exhibición y contacto y el comportamiento copulatorio (CC se caracterizó por mostrar un solo evento (cópula. Del tiempo total de interacción de las parejas, el 34,4% correspondió al CP y el 65,6% correspondió al CC. Entre los tiempos de machos y hembras no hubo diferencias significativas por evento. Al compararse todos los eventos entre sí en relación al tiempo de duración, se presentó el siguiente orden: cópula > contacto > exhibición > natación. Se observó una tendencia a periodos de apareamiento más largos donde el peso de la hembra fue superior al macho, sugiriendo que el peso de la hembra es un factor determinante en la duración de los encuentros de apareamiento.The mating behavior of eight couples of Enteroctopus megalocyathus was evaluated under laboratory conditions by videotaping for 24 h. The precopulatory behavior (CP was characterized by three patterns (swimming, exhibition and contact and copulatory behavior (CC was characterized by display of a single pattern (copulation. Of the total interaction time between octopuses, 34.4% corresponds to CP and 65.6% corresponds to CC. Between times of males and females were not significantly different by pattern. In all events, compared to each other for the duration, presented the following order: copulation > contact > exhibition > swimming. There was a trend towards longer periods of mating where the female weight was higher than the male, suggesting that female weight is a determining factor in the duration of mating encounters.

  4. DESARROLLO BIOTECNOLOGICO PARA LA PRODUCCION SUSTENTABLE DE JUVENILES DE PULPO PATAGONICO (ENTEROCTOPUS MEGALOCYATHUS)

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    URIARTE MERINO, IKER

    2012-01-01

    El proyecto avanzó en 4 de los 5 objetivos contemplados. Respecto del Objetivo 1 "Crear un sistema de manejo de reproductores que permita tener un control sobre la fecundación de las hembras y sobre la calidad de los embriones", se obtuvo la pesca de investigación y se informa el éxito y gran avance obtenidos del primer acondicionamiento reproductivo (sistema en línea no lo aceptó por suspensión administrativa del proyecto). En el Objetivo 2 "Desarrollar la tecnología para la incubación ex...

  5. RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW OF MORTALITY IN GIANT PACIFIC OCTOPUS (ENTEROCTOPUS DOFLEINI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Kathryn E; Clayton, Leigh A; Hadfield, Catherine A; Muth, Dillon; Mankowski, Joseph L; Kelly, Kathleen M

    2016-03-01

    The giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) is a popular exhibit species in public display aquaria, but information on health and disease is limited. This retrospective review evaluates time in collection and describes antemortem clinical signs and pathology of giant Pacific octopuses in an aquarium setting. Between March 2004 and December 2013, there were 19 mortalities: eight males, 10 females, and one individual whose sex was not recorded. Average time spent in collection for all octopuses was 375 ± 173 days (males 351 ± 148 days, females 410 ± 196 days). Ten (52.6%) of the octopuses were sexually mature at the time of death, six (31.6%) were not sexually mature, and reproductive status could not be determined in three octopuses (15.8%). Minimal changes were noted on gross necropsy but branchitis was histologically evident in 14 octopuses, often in conjunction with amoeboid or flagellate parasites. Senescence, parasitism, and husbandry were all important contributors to mortality and should be considered when caring for captive octopuses.

  6. Stephen Jay Gould on intelligence.

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    Korb, K B

    1994-08-01

    In The Mismeasure of Man (1981) Stephen Jay Gould provides a typically readable history of one of our most vexatious intellectual enterprises: the scientific study of intelligence. Gould is successful, as always, in rendering the relevant scientific debates accessible to general readers. What Gould does less well is to carry through his attack on prior attempts to understand natural intelligence scientifically: attempting to muster all possible arguments against such science, he conjures up a variety of impossible arguments as well. One such argument urges that Gould's predecessors are not to be taken seriously because they are racists and have let their racism influence their scientific practice. Gould has no difficulty in demonstrating the influence of racism; where he goes astray is in his dismissal of such prior work as simply unscientific because the racist conclusions preceded the collection of data. Advancing hypotheses prior to experimentation is how all of science proceeds, and is no mark of inferior work. And no science is immune to influences--racist or otherwise--from the culture in which it is embedded, as Gould elsewhere readily acknowledges. Another failed argument claims that all of the factor analysts studying intelligence have committed the intellectual sin of reifying the factors uncovered in IQ tests--concluding that the factors are real solely on the basis of how a factor analysis summarizes IQ data. Gould concludes that factor analysis is worthless for the study of intelligence. However: (1) contrary to what Gould suggests, the factor analysts themselves warned against concluding that the factors "discovered" are physiologically real merely on the basis of a factor analysis; and (2) factor analysis nevertheless remains a strong candidate technique for developing causal models worth investigating subsequently by other means.

  7. Microsatellite marker isolation and development for the giant Pacific Octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini)

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    Toussaint, Rebecca K.; Sage, G. Kevin; Talbot, Sandra L.; Scheel, David

    2012-01-01

    We isolated and developed 18 novel microsatellite markers for the giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) and examined them for 31 individuals from Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. These loci displayed moderate levels of allelic diversity (averaging 11 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity (averaging 65%). Seven loci deviated from Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) due to heterozygote deficiency for the PWS population, although deviations were not observed for all these loci in other populations, suggesting the PWS population is not in mutation-drift equilibrium. These novel microsatellite loci yielded sufficient genetic diversity for potential use in population genetics, individual identification, and parentage studies.

  8. Redescription of Dicyemennea nouveli (Phylum: Dicyemida) from Enteroctopus dofleini (Mollusca: Cephalopoda: Octopoda).

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    Furuya, Hidetaka

    2008-10-01

    A species of dicyemid mesozoan is redescribed from the giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini (Wülker, 1910), collected off Iwase in Toyama Bay, Honshu, Japan. Dicyemennea nouveli McConnaughey, 1959, is a large species that reaches about 12,000 microm in length. This species lives in folds of the renal appendages. The vermiform stages are characterized as having 30-41 peripheral cells, a conical calotte, and an axial cell that extends to the middle of the metapolar cells. An anterior abortive axial cell is present in vermiform embryos. Full-grown vermiform embryos have as many as 4 agametes. Infusoriform embryos consist of 39 cells; 2 nuclei are present in each urn cell and the refringent bodies are solid.

  9. Adaptionism-30 years after Gould and Lewontin

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    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    Gould and Lewontin's 30-year-old critique of adaptionism fundamentally changed the discourse of evolutionary biology. However, with the influx of new ideas and scientific traditions from genomics into evolutionary biology, the old adaptionist controversies are being recycled in a new context...

  10. Use of swabs for sampling epithelial cells for molecular genetics analyses in Enteroctopus

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    Hollenback, Nathan; Scheel, David; Gravley, Meg C.; Sage, George K.; Toussaint, Rebecca K.; Talbot, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of using swabs to collect cells from the epidermis of octopus as a non-invasive DNA source for classical genetic studies, and demonstrated value of the technique by incorporating it into an effort to determine, within a day, the lineage of captured, live Enteroctopus (E. dofleini or a cryptic lineage). The cryptic lineage was targeted for captive behavioral and morphological studies, while once genetically identified, the non-target lineage could be more rapidly released back to the wild. We used commercially available sterile foamtipped swabs and a high-salt preservation buffer to collect and store paired swab and muscle (arm tip) tissue sampled from live Enteroctopus collected from Prince William Sound, Alaska. We performed a one-day extraction of DNA from epithelial swab samples and amplification of two diagnostic microsatellite loci to determine the lineage of each of the 21 individuals. Following this rapid lineage assessment, which allowed us to release non-target individuals within a day of laboratory work, we compared paired swab and muscle tissue samples from each individual to assess quantity of DNA yields and consistency of genotyping results, followed by assessment of locus-by-locus reliability of DNA extracts from swabs. Epithelial swabs yielded, on average, lower quantities of DNA (170.32 ± 74.72 (SD) ng/μL) relative to DNA obtained from tissues collected using invasive or destructive techniques (310.95 ± 147.37 (SD) ng/μL. We observed some decrease in yields of DNA from extractions of swab samples conducted 19 and 31 months after initial extractions when samples were stored at room temperature in lysis buffer. All extractions yielded quantities of DNA sufficient to amplify and score all loci, which included fragment data from 10 microsatellite loci (nine polymorphic loci and monomorphic locus EdoμA106), and nucleotide sequence data from a 528 base pair portion of the nuclear octopine dehydrogenase gene. All results

  11. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Understanding the influence of outflows on Gould Belt clouds

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    Drabek-Maunder, E.; Hatchell, J.; Buckle, J. V.; Di Francesco, J.; Richer, J.

    2016-03-01

    Using James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey data from CO J = 3 → 2 isotopologues, we present a meta-analysis of the outflows and energetics of star-forming regions in several Gould Belt clouds. The majority of the regions are strongly gravitationally bound. There is evidence that molecular outflows transport large quantities of momentum and energy. Outflow energies are at least 20 per cent of the total turbulent kinetic energies in all of the regions studied and greater than the turbulent energy in half of the regions. However, we find no evidence that outflows increase levels of turbulence, and there is no correlation between the outflow and turbulent energies. Even though outflows in some regions contribute significantly to maintaining turbulence levels against dissipation, this relies on outflows efficiently coupling to bulk motions. Other mechanisms (e.g. supernovae) must be the main drivers of turbulence in most if not all of these regions.

  12. Research Ship Laurence M. Gould Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Laurence M. Gould Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  13. Gould on species, metaphysics and macroevolution: A critical appraisal.

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    Boucher, Sandy C

    2017-04-01

    Stephen Jay Gould's views on the ontology of species were an important plank of his revisionist program in evolutionary theory. In this paper I cast a critical eye over those views. I focus on three central aspects of Gould's views on species: the relation between the Darwinian and the metaphysical notions of individuality, the relation between the ontology of species and macroevolution, and the issue of contextualism and conventionalism about the metaphysics of species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE GOULD BELT

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    Dunham, Michael M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Allen, Lori E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Evans II, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul M. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Cieza, Lucas A. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Di Francesco, James; Johnstone, Doug; Matthews, Brenda C. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics Programs, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Gutermuth, Robert A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Hatchell, Jennifer [Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Heiderman, Amanda [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Huard, Tracy L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Kirk, Jason M. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Miller, Jennifer F. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Peterson, Dawn E. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Young, Kaisa E., E-mail: mdunham@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physical Sciences, Nicholls State University, P.O. Box 2022, Thibodaux, LA 70310 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    We present the full catalog of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) identified in the 18 molecular clouds surveyed by the Spitzer Space Telescope “cores to disks” (c2d) and “Gould Belt” (GB) Legacy surveys. Using standard techniques developed by the c2d project, we identify 3239 candidate YSOs in the 18 clouds, 2966 of which survive visual inspection and form our final catalog of YSOs in the GB. We compile extinction corrected spectral energy distributions for all 2966 YSOs and calculate and tabulate the infrared spectral index, bolometric luminosity, and bolometric temperature for each object. We find that 326 (11%), 210 (7%), 1248 (42%), and 1182 (40%) are classified as Class 0 + I, Flat-spectrum, Class II, and Class III, respectively, and show that the Class III sample suffers from an overall contamination rate by background Asymptotic Giant Branch stars between 25% and 90%. Adopting standard assumptions, we derive durations of 0.40–0.78 Myr for Class 0 + I YSOs and 0.26–0.50 Myr for Flat-spectrum YSOs, where the ranges encompass uncertainties in the adopted assumptions. Including information from (sub)millimeter wavelengths, one-third of the Class 0 + I sample is classified as Class 0, leading to durations of 0.13–0.26 Myr (Class 0) and 0.27–0.52 Myr (Class I). We revisit infrared color–color diagrams used in the literature to classify YSOs and propose minor revisions to classification boundaries in these diagrams. Finally, we show that the bolometric temperature is a poor discriminator between Class II and Class III YSOs.

  15. Gould, Darwin e l'ombra dello Zeitgeist

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    Giacomo Scarpelli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available GOULD, DARWIN AND THE SHADOW OF ZEITGEIST The aim of this essay is, on one side, to explore the Stephen Jay Gould’s evolutionistic thought – from the theory of punctuated equilibria to the human neoteny – as a deep renovation of Darwinian theory of Natural Selection. On the other side, we will illustrate how Gould was able to find in Darwin’s scientific doctrine the influence of his personal liberal views, especially about the idea of evolutionary gradualism. Furthermore, we will also individuate in Gould’s work the effect of the socio‐political climate of his time on his radical renewal of Evolutionism. At last, we will discuss about the relationship between scientific imagination and creative spirit of childhood, as an expression of psychic neoteny of Homo sapiens.

  16. The Approximation Szász-Chlodowsky Type Operators Involving Gould-Hopper Type Polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Baxhaku, Behar; Berisha, Artan

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the Szász and Chlodowsky operators based on Gould-Hopper polynomials and study the statistical convergence of these operators in a weighted space of functions on a positive semiaxis. Further, a Voronovskaja type result is obtained for the operators containing Gould-Hopper polynomials. Finally, some graphical examples for the convergence of this type of operator are given.

  17. Trivelpiece-Gould modes in a uniform unbounded plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) modes originally described electrostatic surface waves on an axially magnetized cylindrical plasma column. Subsequent studies of electromagnetic waves in such plasma columns revealed two modes, a predominantly magnetic helicon mode (H) and the mixed magnetic and electrostatic Trivelpiece-Gould modes (TG). The latter are similar to whistler modes near the oblique cyclotron resonance in unbounded plasmas. The wave propagation in cylindrical geometry is assumed to be paraxial while the modes exhibit radial standing waves. The present work shows that TG modes also arise in a uniform plasma without radial standing waves. It is shown experimentally that oblique cyclotron resonance arises in large mode number helicons. Their azimuthal wave number far exceeds the axial wave number which creates whistlers near the oblique cyclotron resonance. Cyclotron damping absorbs the TG mode and can energize electrons in the center of a plasma column rather than the edge of conventional TG modes. The angular orbital field momentum can produce new perpendicular wave-particle interactions.

  18. The Green Bank Ammonia Survey of the Gould Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Rachel; Pineda, Jaime; GAS Team

    2018-01-01

    The past several years have seen a tremendous advancement in our ability to characterize the structure of nearby molecular clouds traced by large-scale continuum surveys. Critical, comparable data on the dense gas kinematics and temperatures are needed to understand the history and future fate of star-forming material. Filling this gap is the Green Bank Ammonia Survey (GAS), an ambitious legacy survey for the Green Bank Telescope to observe key molecular tracers of dense gas within all Gould Belt clouds visible from the northern hemisphere. I will present the latest science from GAS, whose goals are to 1) evaluate the stability of dense gas structures as a function of scale, 2) track the dissipation of turbulence and evolution of angular momentum in filaments and cores, and 3) quantitatively test predictions of models of core and filament formation via mass flows and accretion.

  19. Time Restored - The Harrison Timekeepers and R.T. Gould, the Man Who Knew (Almost) Everything

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    Betts, Jonathan

    2006-09-01

    This is the story of Rupert T. Gould (1890-1948), the polymath and horologist. A remarkable man, Lt Cmdr Gould made important contributions in an extraordinary range of subject areas throughout his relatively short and dramatically troubled life. From antique clocks to scientific mysteries, from typewriters to the first systematic study of the Loch Ness Monster, Gould studied and published on them all. With the title The Stargazer, Gould was an early broadcaster on the BBC's Children's Hour when, with his encyclopaedic knowledge, he became known as The Man Who Knew Everything. Not surprisingly, he was also part of that elite group on BBC radio who formed The Brains Trust, giving on-the-spot answers to all manner of wide ranging and difficult questions. With his wide learning and photographic memory, Gould awed a national audience, becoming one of the era's radio celebrities. During the 1920s Gould restored the complex and highly significant marine timekeepers constructed by John Harrison (1693-1776), and wrote the unsurpassed classic, The Marine Chronometer, its History and Development . Today he is virtually unknown, his horological contributions scarcely mentioned in Dava Sobel's bestseller Longitude. The TV version of Longitude, in which Jeremy Irons played Rupert Gould, did at least introduce Gould's name to a wider public. Gould suffered terrible bouts of depression, resulting in a number of nervous breakdowns. These, coupled with his obsessive and pedantic nature, led to a scandalously-reported separation from his wife and cost him his family, his home, his job, and his closest friends. In this first-ever biography of Rupert Gould, Jonathan Betts, the Royal Observatory Greenwich's Senior Horologist, has given us a compelling account of a talented but flawed individual. Using hitherto unknown personal journals, the family's extensive collection of photographs, and the polymath's surviving records and notes, Betts tells the story of how Gould's early life, his

  20. The Approximation Szász-Chlodowsky Type Operators Involving Gould-Hopper Type Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar Baxhaku

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Szász and Chlodowsky operators based on Gould-Hopper polynomials and study the statistical convergence of these operators in a weighted space of functions on a positive semiaxis. Further, a Voronovskaja type result is obtained for the operators containing Gould-Hopper polynomials. Finally, some graphical examples for the convergence of this type of operator are given.

  1. Multiple Paternity and Preliminary Population Genetics of Giant Pacific Octopuses, Enteroctopus dofleini, in Oregon, Washington and the Southeast Coast of Vancouver Island, BC

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    Shawn Larson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 77 giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini, tissue samples were collected from the Oregon Coast (OR, Neah Bay Washington (NB, Puget Sound Washington (PS and the southeast coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada (BC for genetic analyses. A suite of eight variable microsatellite markers developed from giant Pacific octopuses were amplified in these samples to determine population diversity, structure, relatedness and paternity. The majority of loci met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations within each population. We found moderate genetic diversity (average observed heterozygosity = 0.445, range = 0.307–0.515 and average expected heterozygosity = 0.567, range = 0.506–0.696 and moderate population structuring with distinct separation of groups (FST values ranged from 0.101 between BC and PS to 0.237 between BC and NB. Several egg strings from the BC population were collected from three female octopus dens for relatedness and paternity analyses. Results suggest strong support for multiple paternity within one egg clutch with progeny sired by between two to four males.

  2. Initial Highlights from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Philippe; Men'shchikov, Alexander

    The Herschel Space Observatory provides a unique opportunity to improve our global un-derstanding of the earliest phases of star formation. I will present an overview of the first results from the Gould Belt survey (cf. http://gouldbelt-herschel.cea.fr/), one of the largest key projects with Herschel. The immediate objective of this SPIRE/PACS imaging survey is to obtain complete samples of nearby prestellar cores and Class 0 protostars with well char-acterized luminosities, temperatures, and density profiles, as well as robust core mass func-tions and protostar luminosity functions, in a variety of star-forming environments. Thanks to its high sensitivity and large spatial dynamic range, this survey can also probe, for the first time, the link between diffuse cirrus-like structures and compact self-gravitating cores. The main scientific goal is to elucidate the physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of prestellar cores out of the diffuse interstellar medium, crucial for understanding the origin of the stellar initial mass function. The first results, obtained toward the Aquila Rift and Polaris Flare regions during the 'Science Demonstration Phase' (SDP), are very promising (cf. http://herschel.esac.esa.int/SDPw kshops/presentations/IR/25A ndreG ouldBeltS DP 2009.pdf ).Basedonth

  3. CULTIVO EXPERIMENTAL DE OCTOPUS MIMUS, GOULD 1852 EN EL PERÚ

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    Paul Baltazar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Octopus mimus Gould, 1852 es un recurso bentónico muy importante en la pesquería artesanal peruana y de gran demanda en el mercado internacional. Actualmente no existen antecedentes sobre el cultivo de esta especie en el Pacifico Sudeste, salvo los realizados por Zuñiga (1995,1996 a, b y Baltazar et al. (1999. Las experiencias de cultivo se realizaron en las instalaciones del Centro de Acuicultura La Arena, Casma, Perú, empleándose tanques de fibra de vidrio y long-line en el mar. La alimentación fue a base de peces, crustáceos y moluscos, se ensayó con pienso húmedo que fue aceptado tras un periodo de inanición. La cópula se realizó con ejemplares mayores a 1,5 kg. Se observó diferencias en el crecimiento, en los tanques (185 y 369 g/mes fue mayor que en las líneas de cultivo (120,6 g/mes. Se obtuvieron paralarvas con una supervivencia máxima de 17 días a temperaturas de 21 a 22 oC, las que fueron alimentadas con nauplios de artemia (camarón de salmuera.

  4. Before hierarchy: the rise and fall of Stephen Jay Gould's first macroevolutionary synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresow, Max W

    2017-06-01

    Few of Stephen Jay Gould's accomplishments in evolutionary biology have received more attention than his hierarchical theory of evolution, which postulates a causal discontinuity between micro- and macroevolutionary events. But Gould's hierarchical theory was his second attempt to supply a theoretical framework for macroevolutionary studies-and one he did not inaugurate until the mid-1970s. In this paper, I examine Gould's first attempt: a proposed fusion of theoretical morphology, multivariate biometry and the experimental study of adaptation in fossils. This early "macroevolutionary synthesis" was predicated on the notion that parallelism and convergence dominate the history of higher taxa, and moreover, that they can be explained in terms of adaptation leading to mechanical improvement. In this paper, I explore the origins and contents of Gould's first macroevolutionary synthesis, as well as the reasons for its downfall. In addition, I consider how various developments during the mid-1970s led Gould to identify hierarchy and constraint as the leading themes of macroevolutionary studies-and adaptation as a macroevolutionary red herring.

  5. Planck intermediate results. XII: Diffuse Galactic components in the Gould Belt System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    We perform an analysis of the diffuse low-frequency Galactic components in the Southern part of the Gould Belt system (130^\\circ\\leq l\\leq 230^\\circ and -50^\\circ\\leq b\\leq -10^\\circ). Strong ultra-violet (UV) flux coming from the Gould Belt super-association is responsible for bright diffuse....... By combining physical models for vibrational and rotational dust emission and adding the constraints from the thermal dust spectrum from Planck and IRAS we are able to get a good description of the frequency spectrum of the AME for plausible values of the local density and radiation field....

  6. Stephen Jay Gould and the Value of Neutrality of Science During the Cold War.

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    Sheldon, Myrna

    2016-12-01

    Stephen Jay Gould was a paleontologist and scientific celebrity at the close of the twentieth century, most famous for his popular writings on evolution and his role in the American creationist controversies of that era. In the early 1980s, Gould was drawn into the "nuclear winter" episode through his friendship with Carl Sagan, an astronomer and popular science celebrity. Sagan helped develop the theory of nuclear winter and subsequently used the theory as evidence to petition the United States government to scale back its nuclear armament. The theory of nuclear winter claimed that even a small nuclear exchange could result in a atmospheric blackening akin to the extinction event of the late Cretaceous. Gould was not a climate scientist but he testified before the U.S. House of Representatives as an expert on historical extinction events. Gould's insistence on the value-neutrality of nuclear winter reveals much about the moral politics of science in late Cold War America. Coming at the heels of leftist scientific activism of the 1980s, the nuclear winter episode demonstrates how value-neutrality emerged the salient feature of scientific involvement in American politics in this period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. On the occurrence of Platalea regia, Gould on Celebes, Boeroe and Timor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1907-01-01

    While making the osteological catalogue of the birds of our Museum, I met with an imperfect skull of a spoonbill, which has been sent over from Celebes by von Rosenberg in the year 1864. The skull belongs to the black-billed australian spoonbill, Platalea regia Gould. This object is the bill of a

  8. Resisting Biopolitics through “Diaphanous Wonder”: Richard Flanagan's Gould's Book of Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiese, Doro

    2014-01-01

    In Gould's Book of Fish (2003), author Richard Flanagan manages to invent a format in which content and style account for historical events on Sarah Island, Tasmania in the 1820s, yet he does so in a manner that is not in the least objective, disinterested or fact-orientated. The perspective of

  9. First Results from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey in Taurus and Comparison with Other Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Jason

    The unparalleled sensitivity and mapping speed of the ESA Herschel Space Observatory makes it possible to now map entire star formation regions in the time it would once have taken to map a single prestellar core. The Herschel Gould Belt Survey is a key program designed to fully map the clouds of the Gould Belt at five wavelengths between 70 and 500 μm. These clouds span a range of physical conditions from the sterility of Polaris to the active cluster forming complexes of Orion and Aquila. These clouds allow us to examine the genesis of the core mass function and how the history of star formation in different regions varies. The early results have demonstrated the markedly different populations of cores in these regions and have revealed the nearly ubiquitous relationship of those cores with dense filaments.

  10. Goulds Belt, Interstellar Clouds, and the Eocene-Oligocene Helium-3 Spike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2015-01-01

    Drag from hydrogen in the interstellar cloud which formed Gould's Belt may have sent small meteoroids with embedded helium to the Earth, perhaps explaining part or all of the (sup 3) He spike seen in the sedimentary record at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Assuming the Solar System passed through part of the cloud, meteoroids in the asteroid belt up to centimeter size may have been dragged to the resonances, where their orbital eccentricities were pumped up into Earth-crossing orbits.

  11. Taxonomic revision of the Elephant Pupinid snail genus Pollicaria Gould, 1856 (Prosobranchia, Pupinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangon Kongim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The status of species currently assigned to the Southeast Asian Elephant Pupinid snail genus Pollicaria Gould, 1856 is reassessed. Shell, radular and reproductive morphology are investigated and analysed with reference to karyotype patterns previously reported and to distribution patterns among the species. Six previously described species are recognised: P. gravida (Benson, 1856, P. myersii (Haines, 1855, P. mouhoti (Pfeiffer, 1862, P. elephas (Morgan, 1885, P. crossei (Dautzenberg & d’Hamonville, 1887 and P. rochebruni (Mabille, 1887. A new subspecies, P. mouhoti monochroma ssp. n., is proposed and a dichotomous key to species is provided.

  12. Phylogeny mandalas of birds using the lithographs of John Gould's folio bird books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Masami; Kuroda, Sayako

    2017-12-01

    The phylogeny mandala, which is a circular phylogeny with photos or drawings of species, is a suitable way to show visually how the biodiversity has developed in the course of evolution as clarified by the molecular phylogenetics. In this article, in order to demonstrate the recent progress of avian molecular phylogenetics, six phylogeny mandalas of various taxonomic groups of birds are presented with the lithographs of John Gould's folio bird books; i.e., (1) whole Aves, (2) Passeriformes, (3) Paradisaeidae in Corvoidea (Passeriformes), (4) Meliphagoidea (Passeriformes), (5) Trochili in Apodiformes, and (6) Galliformes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Goulds Belt, Interstellar Clouds, and the Eocene Oligocene Helium-3 Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2015-01-01

    Drag from hydrogen in the interstellar cloud which formed Gould's Belt may have sent interplanetary dust particle (IDPs) and small meteoroids with embedded helium to the Earth, perhaps explaining part the helium-3 flux increase seen in the sedimentary record near the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Assuming the Solar System passed through part of the cloud, IDPs in the inner Solar System may have been dragged to Earth, while dust and small meteoroids in the asteroid belt up to centimeter size may have been dragged to the resonances, where their orbital eccentricities were pumped up into Earth-crossing orbits; however, this hypotheses does not explain the Popigai and Chesapeake Bay impacts.

  14. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Evidence for radiative heating and contamination in the W40 complex

    OpenAIRE

    Rumble, D.; Hatchell, J.; Pattle, K.; Kirk, H; Wilson, T; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pineda, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    We present SCUBA-2 450 µm and 850 µm observations of the W40 complex in the Serpens-Aquila region as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey (GBS) of nearby star-forming regions. We investigate radiative heating by con- structing temperature maps from the ratio of SCUBA-2 fluxes using a fixed dust opacity\\ud spectral index, β = 1.8, and a beam convolution kernel to achieve a common 14.811 res- olution. We identify 82 clumps ranging between 10 and 36 K with a mean te...

  15. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: SCUBA-2 observations of radiative feedback in NGC1333

    OpenAIRE

    Hatchell, J.; Wilson, T; Drabek, E.; Curtis, E; Richer, J; Nutter, D.; Di Francesco, J.; consortium, D. Ward-Thompson on behalf of the JCMT GBS

    2012-01-01

    We present observations of NGC1333 from SCUBA-2 on JCMT, observed as a JCMT Gould Belt Survey pilot project during the shared risk campaign when the first of four arrays was installed at each of 450 and 850 microns. Temperature maps are derived from 450 micron and 850 micron ratios under the assumption of constant dust opacity spectral index beta=1.8. Temperatures indicate that the dust in the northern (IRAS 6/8) region of NGC1333 is hot, 20-40 K, due to heating by the B star SVS3, other youn...

  16. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Dense Core Clusters in Orion A

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, J; Kirk, H; Johnstone, D.; Mairs, S.; Francesco, J. Di; Sadavoy, S.; Hatchell, J.; Berry, D. S.; Jenness, T.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2016-01-01

    The Orion A molecular cloud is one of the most well-studied nearby star-forming regions, and includes regions of both highly clustered and more dispersed star formation across its full extent. Here, we analyze dense, star-forming cores identified in the 850 {\\mu}m and 450 {\\mu}m SCUBA-2 maps from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify dense cores in a uniform manner across the Orion A cloud and analyze their clustering properties. Using two independent lines of analysis, we find evide...

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: JCMT Gould Belt Survey: dense cores in Orion B (Kirk+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, H.; Di Francesco, J.; Johnstone, D.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Sadavoy, S.; Hatchell, J.; Mottram, J. C.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2016-04-01

    Orion B was observed with SCUBA-2 at 850 and 450um as part of the JCMT Gould Belt Survey (Ward-Thompson et al. 2007PASP..119..855W). Three separate regions were observed: the areas around L1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, as illustrated in Figure 1. The SCUBA-2 observations were obtained between 2012 February and 2014 November with some initial science verification data taken in 2011 October and November. Portions of the NGC 2023/2024 and NGC 2068/2071 regions were also observed by the Gould Belt Survey (GBS) in 12CO(3-2) with HARP. (1 data file).

  18. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Dense Core Clusters in Orion A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J.; Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Mairs, S.; Di Francesco, J.; Sadavoy, S.; Hatchell, J.; Berry, D. S.; Jenness, T.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; The JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2016-12-01

    The Orion A molecular cloud is one of the most well-studied nearby star-forming regions, and includes regions of both highly clustered and more dispersed star formation across its full extent. Here, we analyze dense, star-forming cores identified in the 850 and 450 μm SCUBA-2 maps from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify dense cores in a uniform manner across the Orion A cloud and analyze their clustering properties. Using two independent lines of analysis, we find evidence that clusters of dense cores tend to be mass segregated, suggesting that stellar clusters may have some amount of primordial mass segregation already imprinted in them at an early stage. We also demonstrate that the dense core clusters have a tendency to be elongated, perhaps indicating a formation mechanism linked to the filamentary structure within molecular clouds.

  19. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Dense Core Clusters in Orion B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Di Francesco, J.; Lane, J.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; The JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2016-04-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Gould Belt Legacy Survey obtained SCUBA-2 observations of dense cores within three sub-regions of Orion B: LDN 1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, all of which contain clusters of cores. We present an analysis of the clustering properties of these cores, including the two-point correlation function and Cartwright’s Q parameter. We identify individual clusters of dense cores across all three regions using a minimal spanning tree technique, and find that in each cluster, the most massive cores tend to be centrally located. We also apply the independent M-Σ technique and find a strong correlation between core mass and the local surface density of cores. These two lines of evidence jointly suggest that some amount of mass segregation in clusters has happened already at the dense core stage.

  20. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: first results from SCUBA-2 observations of the Cepheus Flare region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattle, K.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Kirk, J. M.; Di Francesco, J.; Kirk, H.; Mottram, J. C.; Keown, J.; Buckle, J.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Nutter, D.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coudé, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2017-02-01

    We present observations of the Cepheus Flare obtained as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Legacy Survey (GBLS) with the SCUBA-2 instrument. We produce a catalogue of sources found by SCUBA-2, and separate these into starless cores and protostars. We determine masses and densities for each of our sources, using source temperatures determined by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. We compare the properties of starless cores in four different molecular clouds: L1147/58, L1172/74, L1251 and L1228. We find that the core mass functions for each region typically show shallower-than-Salpeter behaviour. We find that L1147/58 and L1228 have a high ratio of starless cores to Class II protostars, while L1251 and L1174 have a low ratio, consistent with the latter regions being more active sites of current star formation, while the former are forming stars less actively. We determine that if modelled as thermally supported Bonnor-Ebert spheres, most of our cores have stable configurations accessible to them. We estimate the external pressures on our cores using archival 13CO velocity dispersion measurements and find that our cores are typically pressure confined, rather than gravitationally bound. We perform a virial analysis on our cores, and find that they typically cannot be supported against collapse by internal thermal energy alone, due primarily to the measured external pressures. This suggests that the dominant mode of internal support in starless cores in the Cepheus Flare is either non-thermal motions or internal magnetic fields.

  1. Many ways of being human, the Stephen J. Gould's legacy to Palaeo-Anthropology (2002-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pievani, Telmo

    2012-01-01

    As an invertebrate palaeontologist and evolutionary theorist, Stephen J. Gould did not publish any direct experimental results in palaeo-anthropology (with the exception of Pilbeam and Gould, 1974), but he did prepare the stage for many debates within the discipline. We argue here that his scientific legacy in the anthropological fields has a clear and coherent conceptual structure. It is based on four main pillars: (1) the famed deconstruction of the "ladder of progress" as an influential metaphor in human evolution; (2) Punctuated Equilibria and their significance in human macro-evolution viewed as a directionless "bushy tree" of species; (3) the trade-offs between functional and structural factors in evolution and the notion of exaptation; (4) delayed growth, or neoteny, as an evidence in human evolution. These keystones should be considered as consequences of the enduring theoretical legacy of the eminent Harvard evolutionist: the proposal of an extended and revised Darwinism, coherently outlined in the last twenty years of his life (1982-2002) and set out in 2002 in his final work, The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. It is in the light of his "Darwinian pluralism", able to integrate in a new frame the multiplicity of explanatory patterns emerging from different evolutionary fields, that we understand Stephen J. Gould's legacy in palaeo-anthropology today, both in terms of provocative shocks to comfortable visions of human evolution and, above all, in terms of specific scientific predictions about future research.

  2. Neurogenesis in the mossy chiton, Mopalia muscosa (Gould) (Polyplacophora): evidence against molluscan metamerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Stefan; Wanninger, Andreas; Brückner, Martin; Haszprunar, Gerhard

    2002-08-01

    Neurogenesis in the chiton Mopalia muscosa (Gould, 1846) was investigated by applying differential interference contrast microscopy, semithin serial sectioning combined with reconstruction techniques, as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy for the detection of fluorescence-conjugated antibodies against serotonin and FMRFamide. The ontogeny of serotonergic nervous structures starts with cells of the apical organ followed by those of the cerebral commissure, whereas the serotonergic prototroch innervation, pedal system, and the lateral cords develop later. In addition, there are eight symmetrically arranged serotonergic sensory cells in the dorsal pretrochal area of the larva. FMRFamide-positive neural elements include the cerebral commissure, specific "ampullary" sensory cells in the pretrochal region, as well as the larval lateral and pedal system. In the early juvenile the cerebral system no longer stains with either of the two antibodies and the pedal system lacks anti-FMRFamide immunoreactivity. Outgroup comparison with all other molluscan classes and related phyla suggests that the cord-like, nonganglionized cerebral system in the Polyplacophora is a reduced condition rather than a primitive molluscan condition. The immunosensitivity of the pedal commissures develops from posterior to anterior, suggesting independent serial repetition rather than annelid-like conditions and there is no trace of true segmentation during nervous system development. Polyplacophoran neurogenesis and all other available data on the subject contradict the idea of a segmented molluscan stem species. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Southern Orion A (Mairs+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairs, S.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Graves, S.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Salji, C.; di, Francesco J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2017-11-01

    The observations presented throughout this paper were performed using the SCUBA-2 instrument (Holland et al., 2013MNRAS.430.2513H) as part of the JCMT Gould Belt Survey (Ward-Thompson et al., 2007PASP..119..855W). This instrument has provided continuum coverage at both 850um and 450um simultaneously at effective beam sizes of 14.1-arcsec and 9.6-arcsec, respectively (Dempsey et al., 2013MNRAS.430.2534D). In this work, we present Southern Orion A in both wavelengths, but focus mainly on the 850um data for analysis. All of the observations were taken in the PONG1800 mapping mode, yielding circular maps ('PONGs') of 0.5° in diameter. There are 17 0.5° subregions across the Orion A Molecular Cloud, 13 of which cover Southern Orion A. These locations were individually observed four to six times throughout 2012 February to 2015 January, and were then co-added (once co-added, these structures are referred to as 'tiles') and mosaicked to form the final map. (3 data files).

  4. The Effect of Modified Brostrom-Gould Repair for Lateral Ankle Instability on In Vivo Tibiotalar Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainright, William B; Spritzer, Charles E.; Lee, Jun Young; Easley, Mark E.; DeOrio, James K.; Nunley, James A.; DeFrate, Louis E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Lateral ankle instability leads to an increased risk of tibiotalar joint osteoarthritis. Previous studies have found abnormal tibiotalar joint motions with lateral ankle instability that may contribute to this increased incidence of osteoarthritis, including increased anterior translation and internal rotation of the talus under weight-bearing loading. Surgical repairs for lateral ankle instability have shown good clinical results, but the effects of repair on in vivo ankle motion are not well understood. Hypothesis The modified Broström-Gould lateral ligament reconstruction decreases anterior translation and internal rotation of the talus under in vivo weight-bearing loading conditions. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Seven patients underwent modified Brostöm-Gould repair for unilateral lateral ankle instability. Ankle joint kinematics as a function of increasing body weight were studied with magnetic resonance imaging and biplanar fluoroscopy. Tibiotalar kinematics were measured in unstable ankles preoperatively and postoperatively at a mean follow-up of 12 months, as well as in the uninjured contralateral ankles of the same individuals. Results Surgical repair resulted in statistically significant decreases in anterior translation of the talus (0.9±0.3mm, p=0.018) at 100% bodyweight and internal rotation of the talus at 75% (2.6±0.8°, p=0.019) and 100% (2.7±0.8°, p=0.013) bodyweight compared to ankle kinematics measured before repair. No statistically significant differences were detected between repaired ankles and contralateral normal ankles. Conclusion The modified Broström-Gould repair improved the abnormal joint motion observed in patients with lateral ankle instability, decreasing anterior translation and internal rotation of the talus. Clinical Relevance Altered kinematics may contribute to the tibiotalar joint degeneration that occurs with chronic lateral ankle instability. The findings of the current study support

  5. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: a first look at Southern Orion A with SCUBA-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairs, S.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Graves, S.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Salji, C.; Di Francesco, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coudé, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2016-10-01

    We present the JCMT Gould Belt Survey's first look results of the southern extent of the Orion A Molecular Cloud (δ ≤ -5:31:27.5). Employing a two-step structure identification process, we construct individual catalogues for large-scale regions of significant emission labelled as islands and smaller-scale subregions called fragments using the 850 μm continuum maps obtained using SCUBA-2. We calculate object masses, sizes, column densities, and concentrations. We discuss fragmentation in terms of a Jeans instability analysis and highlight interesting structures as candidates for follow-up studies. Furthermore, we associate the detected emission with young stellar objects (YSOs) identified by Spitzer and Herschel. We find that although the population of active star-forming regions contains a wide variety of sizes and morphologies, there is a strong positive correlation between the concentration of an emission region and its calculated Jeans instability. There are, however, a number of highly unstable subregions in dense areas of the map that show no evidence of star formation. We find that only ˜72 per cent of the YSOs defined as Class 0+I and flat-spectrum protostars coincide with dense 850 μm emission structures (column densities >3.7 × 1021 cm-2). The remaining 28 per cent of these objects, which are expected to be embedded in dust and gas, may be misclassified. Finally, we suggest that there is an evolution in the velocity dispersion of YSOs such that sources which are more evolved are associated with higher velocities.

  6. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: evidence for radiative heating and contamination in the W40 complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, D.; Hatchell, J.; Pattle, K.; Kirk, H.; Wilson, T.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; di Francesco, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2016-08-01

    We present SCUBA-2 450 μm and 850 μm observations of the W40 complex in the Serpens-Aquila region as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey (GBS) of nearby star-forming regions. We investigate radiative heating by constructing temperature maps from the ratio of SCUBA-2 fluxes using a fixed dust opacity spectral index, β = 1.8, and a beam convolution kernel to achieve a common 14.8 arcsec resolution. We identify 82 clumps ranging between 10 and 36 K with a mean temperature of 20 ± 3 K. Clump temperature is strongly correlated with proximity to the external OB association and there is no evidence that the embedded protostars significantly heat the dust. We identify 31 clumps that have cores with densities greater than 105cm-3. 13 of these cores contain embedded Class 0/I protostars. Many cores are associated with bright-rimmed clouds seen in Herschel 70 μm images. From JCMT HARP observations of the 12CO 3-2 line, we find contamination of the 850 μm band of up to 20 per cent. We investigate the free-free contribution to SCUBA-2 bands from large-scale and ultracompact H II regions using archival VLA data and find the contribution is limited to individual stars, accounting for 9 per cent of flux per beam at 450 μm or 12 per cent at 850 μm in these cases. We conclude that radiative heating has potentially influenced the formation of stars in the Dust Arc sub-region, favouring Jeans stable clouds in the warm east and fragmentation in the cool west.

  7. THE JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEY: A FIRST LOOK AT DENSE CORES IN ORION B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, H.; Francesco, J. Di; Johnstone, D. [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Rd, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Duarte-Cabral, A.; Hatchell, J. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Sadavoy, S.; Mottram, J. C. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Buckle, J.; Salji, C. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Berry, D. S.; Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 N. A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, Hawaii 96720 (United States); Broekhoven-Fiene, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 1A1 (Canada); Fich, M.; Tisi, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Nutter, D.; Quinn, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Pattle, K. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Pineda, J. E. [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Garching (Germany); Hogerheijde, M. R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); and others

    2016-02-01

    We present a first look at the SCUBA-2 observations of three sub-regions of the Orion B molecular cloud: LDN 1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify 29, 564, and 322 dense cores in L1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071 respectively, using the SCUBA-2 850 μm map, and present their basic properties, including their peak fluxes, total fluxes, and sizes, and an estimate of the corresponding 450 μm peak fluxes and total fluxes, using the FellWalker source extraction algorithm. Assuming a constant temperature of 20 K, the starless dense cores have a mass function similar to that found in previous dense core analyses, with a Salpeter-like slope at the high-mass end. The majority of cores appear stable to gravitational collapse when considering only thermal pressure; indeed, most of the cores which have masses above the thermal Jeans mass are already associated with at least one protostar. At higher cloud column densities, above 1–2 × 10{sup 23} cm{sup −2}, most of the mass is found within dense cores, while at lower cloud column densities, below 1 × 10{sup 23} cm{sup −2}, this fraction drops to 10% or lower. Overall, the fraction of dense cores associated with a protostar is quite small (<8%), but becomes larger for the densest and most centrally concentrated cores. NGC 2023/2024 and NGC 2068/2071 appear to be on the path to forming a significant number of stars in the future, while L1622 has little additional mass in dense cores to form many new stars.

  8. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: A First Look at Dense Cores in Orion B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, H.; Di Francesco, J.; Johnstone, D.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Sadavoy, S.; Hatchell, J.; Mottram, J. C.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2016-02-01

    We present a first look at the SCUBA-2 observations of three sub-regions of the Orion B molecular cloud: LDN 1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify 29, 564, and 322 dense cores in L1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071 respectively, using the SCUBA-2 850 μm map, and present their basic properties, including their peak fluxes, total fluxes, and sizes, and an estimate of the corresponding 450 μm peak fluxes and total fluxes, using the FellWalker source extraction algorithm. Assuming a constant temperature of 20 K, the starless dense cores have a mass function similar to that found in previous dense core analyses, with a Salpeter-like slope at the high-mass end. The majority of cores appear stable to gravitational collapse when considering only thermal pressure; indeed, most of the cores which have masses above the thermal Jeans mass are already associated with at least one protostar. At higher cloud column densities, above 1-2 × 1023 cm-2, most of the mass is found within dense cores, while at lower cloud column densities, below 1 × 1023 cm-2, this fraction drops to 10% or lower. Overall, the fraction of dense cores associated with a protostar is quite small (<8%), but becomes larger for the densest and most centrally concentrated cores. NGC 2023/2024 and NGC 2068/2071 appear to be on the path to forming a significant number of stars in the future, while L1622 has little additional mass in dense cores to form many new stars.

  9. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: A First Look at IC 5146

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, D.; Ciccone, S.; Kirk, H.; Mairs, S.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Pattle, K.; Tisi, S.; Di Francesco, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coudé, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fich, M.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Nutter, D.; Pineda, J. E.; Salji, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2017-02-01

    We present 450 and 850 μm submillimeter continuum observations of the IC 5146 star-forming region taken as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Gould Belt Survey. We investigate the location of bright submillimeter (clumped) emission with the larger-scale molecular cloud through comparison with extinction maps, and find that these denser structures correlate with higher cloud column density. Ninety-six individual submillimeter clumps are identified using FellWalker, and their physical properties are examined. These clumps are found to be relatively massive, ranging from 0.5 {M}⊙ to 116 {M}⊙ with a mean mass of 8 {M}⊙ and a median mass of 3.7 {M}⊙ . A stability analysis for the clumps suggests that the majority are (thermally) Jeans stable, with M/{M}J< 1. We further compare the locations of known protostars with the observed submillimeter emission, finding that younger protostars, I.e., Class 0 and I sources, are strongly correlated with submillimeter peaks and that the clumps with protostars are among the most Jeans unstable. Finally, we contrast the evolutionary conditions in the two major star-forming regions within IC 5146: the young cluster associated with the Cocoon Nebula and the more distributed star formation associated with the Northern Streamer filaments. The Cocoon Nebula appears to have converted a higher fraction of its mass into dense clumps and protostars, the clumps are more likely to be Jeans unstable, and a larger fraction of these remaining clumps contain embedded protostars. The Northern Streamer, however, has a larger number of clumps in total and a larger fraction of the known protostars are still embedded within these clumps.

  10. Música y medios de comunicación: en torno a Glenn Gould (1932-1982 Música y medios de comunicación: en torno a Glenn Gould (1932-1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Dufour

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Glenn Gould (Toronto,1932-82 fue una de las figuras artísticas más importantes de Canadá en el siglo XX. A 25 años de su muerte se conmemora no sólo a un gran virtuoso del piano; también a un actor social relevante, que contribuyó a la redefinición de la experiencia musical culta a partir del poder de las nuevas tecnologías en la sociedad contemporánea. Su vida y obra crítica guarda una estrecha relación –implícita o explícita– con otros importantes pensadores de su tiempo, como Marshall McLuhan, Theodor W. Adorno, Max Horkheimer y Walter Benjamin. Todos ellos involucrados en reflexionar sobre el devenir de la obra de arte en la era de la reproducción industrial y de la cultura de masa.Glenn Gould (Toronto,1932-82 has been one of the most important artistic personality of Canada in the twentieth century. Twenty five years after his death, we commemorate not only a great virtuoso of the piano but also an outstanding social actor who contributed to redefine the musical experience considering the power of mass medias in the contemporary society. His life and critical writings keep a link –implicit or explicitly– with others important thinkers of his time like Marshall McLuhan, Theodor W. Adorno, Max Horkheimer and Walter Benjamin, all of them involucrate in the process of redefinition of the work of art in the industrial reproduction era and mass culture.

  11. Bacteria Biomass and Chlorophyll-a depth profiles from bottle casts off the western Antarctic Peninsula from the R/V LAURENCE M. GOULD from 23 April 2001 to 01 September 2001 (NODC Accession 0000820)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteria and Chlorophyll data were collected from bottle cast of the western Antarctic peninsula from the R/V Laurence M. Gould. Data were collected by the...

  12. The Green Bank Ammonia Survey: First Results of NH3 Mapping of the Gould Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Rachel K.; Pineda, Jaime E.; co-PIs; Rosolowsky, Erik; Alves, Felipe; Chacón-Tanarro, Ana; How-Huan Chen, Hope; Chun-Yuan Chen, Michael; Di Francesco, James; Keown, Jared; Kirk, Helen; Punanova, Anna; Seo, Youngmin; Shirley, Yancy; Ginsburg, Adam; Hall, Christine; Offner, Stella S. R.; Singh, Ayushi; Arce, Héctor G.; Caselli, Paola; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Martin, Peter G.; Matzner, Christopher; Myers, Philip C.; Redaelli, Elena; The GAS Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    We present an overview of the first data release (DR1) and first-look science from the Green Bank Ammonia Survey (GAS). GAS is a Large Program at the Green Bank Telescope to map all Gould Belt star-forming regions with {A}{{V}}≳ 7 mag visible from the northern hemisphere in emission from NH3 and other key molecular tracers. This first release includes the data for four regions in the Gould Belt clouds: B18 in Taurus, NGC 1333 in Perseus, L1688 in Ophiuchus, and Orion A North in Orion. We compare the NH3 emission to dust continuum emission from Herschel and find that the two tracers correspond closely. We find that NH3 is present in over 60% of the lines of sight with {A}{{V}}≳ 7 mag in three of the four DR1 regions, in agreement with expectations from previous observations. The sole exception is B18, where NH3 is detected toward ∼40% of the lines of sight with {A}{{V}}≳ 7 mag. Moreover, we find that the NH3 emission is generally extended beyond the typical 0.1 pc length scales of dense cores. We produce maps of the gas kinematics, temperature, and NH3 column densities through forward modeling of the hyperfine structure of the NH3 (1, 1) and (2, 2) lines. We show that the NH3 velocity dispersion, {σ }v, and gas kinetic temperature, T K, vary systematically between the regions included in this release, with an increase in both the mean value and the spread of {σ }v and T K with increasing star formation activity. The data presented in this paper are publicly available (https://dataverse.harvard.edu/dataverse/GAS_DR1).

  13. The JCMT Transient Survey: Identifying Submillimeter Continuum Variability over Several Year Timescales Using Archival JCMT Gould Belt Survey Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairs, Steve; Johnstone, Doug; Kirk, Helen; Lane, James; Bell, Graham S.; Graves, Sarah; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Scicluna, Peter; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Chen, Huei-Ru Vivien; Hatchell, Jennifer; Aikawa, Yuri; Chen, Wen-Ping; Kang, Miju; Kang, Sung-Ju; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Morata, Oscar; Pon, Andy; Scholz, Aleks; Takahashi, Satoko; Yoo, Hyunju; The JCMT Transient Team

    2017-11-01

    Investigating variability at the earliest stages of low-mass star formation is fundamental in understanding how a protostar assembles mass. While many simulations of protostellar disks predict non-steady accretion onto protostars, deeper investigation requires robust observational constraints on the frequency and amplitude of variability events characterized across the observable SED. In this study, we develop methods to robustly analyze repeated observations of an area of the sky for submillimeter variability in order to determine constraints on the magnitude and frequency of deeply embedded protostars. We compare 850 μm JCMT Transient Survey data with archival JCMT Gould Belt Survey data to investigate variability over 2-4 year timescales. Out of 175 bright, independent emission sources identified in the overlapping fields, we find seven variable candidates, five of which we classify as Strong, and the remaining two we classify as Extended to indicate that the latter are associated with larger-scale structure. For the Strong variable candidates, we find an average fractional peak brightness change per year of | 4.0| % {{yr}}-1, with a standard deviation of 2.7 % {{yr}}-1. In total, 7% of the protostars associated with 850 μm emission in our sample show signs of variability. Four of the five Strong sources are associated with a known protostar. The remaining source is a good follow-up target for an object that is anticipated to contain an enshrouded, deeply embedded protostar. In addition, we estimate the 850 μm periodicity of the submillimeter variable source, EC 53, to be 567 ± 32 days, based on the archival Gould Belt Survey data.

  14. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: A First Look at SCUBA-2 Observations of the Lupus I Molecular Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowat, C.; Hatchell, J.; Rumble, D.; Kirk, H.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Pattle, K.; Tisi, S.; Di Francesco, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coudé, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fich, M.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Rawlings, J.; Retter, B.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents observations of the Lupus I molecular cloud at 450 and 850 μm with Submillimetre Common User Bolometer Array (SCUBA-2) as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Gould Belt Survey (JCMT GBS). Nine compact sources, assumed to be the discs of young stellar objects (YSOs), 12 extended protostellar, pre-stellar and starless cores, and one isolated, low-luminosity protostar, are detected in the region. Spectral energy distributions, including submillimetre fluxes, are produced for 15 YSOs, and each is fitted with the models of Robitaille et al. The proportion of Class 0/I protostars is higher than that seen in other Gould Belt regions such as Ophiuchus and Serpens. Circumstellar disc masses are calculated for more evolved sources, while protostellar envelope masses are calculated for protostars. Up to four very low luminosity objects are found; a large fraction when compared to other Spitzer c2d regions. One YSO has a disc mass greater than the minimum mass solar nebula. 12 starless/protostellar cores are detected by SCUBA-2 and their masses are calculated. The stability of these cores is examined using both the thermal Jeans mass and a turbulent virial mass when possible. Two cores in Lupus I are super-Jeans and contain no known YSOs. One of these cores has a virial parameter of 1.1 ± 0.4, and could therefore be pre-stellar. The high ratio of Class 0/I to Class III YSOs (1:1), and the presence of a pre-stellar core candidate, provides support for the hypothesis that a shock recently triggered star formation in Lupus I.

  15. New records of early life-stages of cephalopods in the Chiloé Interior Sea Nuevos registros de estadios de vida tempranos de cefalópodos en el mar interior de Chiloé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Carrasco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Early life stages of cephalopods were sampled with zooplankton nets in southern Chile (41°-43°S during the CIMAR 11 Fiordos cruise, November 2005. A total of 52 individuals were collected, comprising three families (Octopodidae, Sepiolidae, Onychoteuthidae and four species (Robsonella fontaniana, Enteroctopus megalocyathus, Semirossia patagonica, an undetermined Onychoteuthidae species. Paralarvae of Octopodidae have been previously recorded in northern and southern Chile; however, for Sepiolidae and Onychoteuthidae, this is the first record of early life stages in Chilean waters.Estadios tempranos de cefalópodos fueron obtenidos con redes de zooplancton en el sur de Chile (41°-43°S durante el crucero CIMAR 11 Fiordos en noviembre de 2005. Un total de cincuenta y dos individuos fueron recolectados, comprendiendo tres familias (Octopodidae, Sepiolidae and Onychoteuthidae y cuatro especies (Robsonella fontaniana, Enteroctopus megalocyathus, Semirossia patagonica, y una especie indeterminada de Onychoteuthidae. Si bien existen descripciones previas de paralarvas de Octopodidae para el norte y sur de Chile, este trabajo provee el primer registro de estadios tempranos de vida de Sepiolidae y Onychoteuthidae para aguas chilenas.

  16. Biomechanical comparison of an all-soft suture anchor with a modified Broström-Gould suture repair for lateral ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher A; Hurwit, Daniel; Behn, Anthony; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2014-02-01

    Anatomic repair is indicated for patients who have recurrent lateral ankle instability despite nonoperative measures. There is no difference in repair stiffness, failure torque, or failure angle between specimens repaired with all-soft suture anchors versus the modified Broström-Gould technique with sutures only. Controlled laboratory study. In 10 matched pairs of human cadaveric ankles, the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) was incised from its origin on the fibula. After randomization, 1 ankle was repaired to its anatomic insertion using two 1.4-mm JuggerKnot all-soft suture anchors; the other ankle was repaired with a modified Broström-Gould technique using 2-0 FiberWire. All were augmented using the inferior extensor retinaculum. All ankles were mounted to the testing machine in 20° of plantar flexion and 15° of internal rotation and loaded to failure after the repair. Stiffness, failure torque, and failure angle were recorded and compared using a paired Student t test with a significance level set at P anchors pulled out of bone. The primary mode of failure was pulling through the ATFL tissue. There was no statistical difference in strength or stiffness between a 1.4-mm all-soft suture anchor and a modified Broström-Gould repair with 2-0 FiberWire. The primary mode of failure was at the tissue level rather than knot failure or anchor pullout. The particular implant choice (suture only, tunnel, anchor) in repairing the lateral ligament complex may not be as important as the time to biological healing. The suture-only construct as described in the Broström-Gould repair was as strong as all-soft suture anchors, and the majority of the ankles failed at the tissue level. For those surgeons whose preference is to use anchor repair, this novel all-soft suture anchor may be an alternative to other larger anchors, as none failed by pullout.

  17. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: A First Look at the Auriga–California Molecular Cloud with SCUBA-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Matthews, B. C.; Harvey, P.; Kirk, H.; Chen, M.; Currie, M. J.; Pattle, K.; Lane, J.; Buckle, J.; Di Francesco, J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Johnstone, D.; Berry, D. S.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wilson, C. D.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2018-01-01

    We present 850 and 450 μm observations of the dense regions within the Auriga–California molecular cloud using SCUBA-2 as part of the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey to identify candidate protostellar objects, measure the masses of their circumstellar material (disk and envelope), and compare the star formation to that in the Orion A molecular cloud. We identify 59 candidate protostars based on the presence of compact submillimeter emission, complementing these observations with existing Herschel/SPIRE maps. Of our candidate protostars, 24 are associated with young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Spitzer and Herschel/PACS catalogs of 166 and 60 YSOs, respectively (177 unique), confirming their protostellar nature. The remaining 35 candidate protostars are in regions, particularly around LkHα 101, where the background cloud emission is too bright to verify or rule out the presence of the compact 70 μm emission that is expected for a protostellar source. We keep these candidate protostars in our sample but note that they may indeed be prestellar in nature. Our observations are sensitive to the high end of the mass distribution in Auriga–Cal. We find that the disparity between the richness of infrared star-forming objects in Orion A and the sparsity in Auriga–Cal extends to the submillimeter, suggesting that the relative star formation rates have not varied over the Class II lifetime and that Auriga–Cal will maintain a lower star formation efficiency.

  18. L’ermite et le virtuose The hermit and the virtuosoGlenn Gould and Georges Cziffra figures of pianistic asceticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Laborde

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cette contribution est consacrée à deux pianistes virtuoses de la seconde moitié du XXe siècle : Glenn Gould (1932-1982 et Georges Cziffra (1921-1994. Glenn Gould vécut en ascète dans l’Ontario, renonçant au concert, qu’il assimilait à la corrida, pour se consacrer à l’enregistrement. Georges Cziffra se retira à Senlis, près de cette chapelle Saint-Frambourg dont il fit le siège de sa fondation après avoir bâti le célèbre festival de La Chaise-Dieu et avoir consacré une vie de virtuose à ces salles de concert et ces plateaux de télévision qui l’accueillirent dans le monde entier. Ces deux artistes incarnèrent deux figures antagoniques du pianiste : l’un, pour qui la pratique musicienne n’était « ni une démonstration de la virtus (virtuosité du soliste, ni la complaisante exhibition d’une pratique de soi » (Schneider, 1988 : 40, incarna la figure érémitique de l’artiste en prise sur « la musique » ; l’autre, « le type qui peut jouer du piano plus vite que tous les autres » (Böhm, 1995 : 88, incarna la figure mondaine du virtuose. Aucun ne fit l’unanimité, aucun ne laissa indifférent. Ainsi se construisirent, aux deux extrêmes d’une rhétorique de la virtuosité, deux figures antagoniques de l’ascèse pianistique : Gould, absorbé par la technologie ; Cziffra, par la technique.This contribution is devoted to two pianists virtuoso of the second half of the XXe century: Glenn Gould (1932-1982 and Georges Cziffra (1921-1994. Glenn Gould lived as an ascetic in Ontario, giving up concerts, which he likened to bullfights, to devote himself to recording. Georges Cziffra withdrew to Senlis, near the chapel of St. Frambourg which he turned into his foundation after having built the famous Festival de La Chaise-Dieu and having devoted a virtuoso lifetime to these concert halls and television studios that welcomed him worldwide. These two artists incarnated two conflicting pianist

  19. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: the effect of molecular contamination in SCUBA-2 observations of Orion A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudé, S.; Bastien, P.; Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Graves, S.; Hatchell, J.; Chapin, E. L.; Gibb, A. G.; Matthews, B.; JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2016-04-01

    Thermal emission from cold dust grains in giant molecular clouds can be used to probe the physical properties, such as density, temperature and emissivity in star-forming regions. We present the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA-2) shared-risk observations at 450 and 850 μm of the Orion A molecular cloud complex taken at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Previous studies showed that molecular emission lines can contribute significantly to the measured fluxes in those continuum bands. We use the Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme 12CO J = 3-2 integrated intensity map for Orion A in order to evaluate the molecular line contamination and its effects on the SCUBA-2 maps. With the corrected fluxes, we have obtained a new spectral index α map for the thermal emission of dust in the well-known integral-shaped filament. Furthermore, we compare a sample of 33 sources, selected over the Orion A molecular cloud complex for their high 12CO J = 3-2 line contamination, to 27 previously identified clumps in OMC 4. This allows us to quantify the effect of line contamination on the ratio of 850-450 μm flux densities and how it modifies the deduced spectral index of emissivity β for the dust grains. We also show that at least one Spitzer-identified protostellar core in OMC 5 has a 12CO J = 3-2 contamination level of 16 per cent. Furthermore, we find the strongest contamination level (44 per cent) towards a young star with disc near OMC 2. This work is part of the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey.

  20. ITER Plasma at Electron Cyclotron Frequency Domain: Stimulated Raman Scattering off Gould-Trivelpiece Modes and Generation of Suprathermal Electrons and Energetic Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering in the electron cyclotron frequency range of the X-Mode and O-Mode driver with the ITER plasma leads to the ``tail heating'' via the generation of suprathermal electrons and energetic ions. The scattering off Trivelpiece-Gould (T-G) modes is studied for the gyrotron frequency of 170GHz; X-Mode and O-Mode power of 24 MW CW; on-axis B-field of 10T. The synergy between the two-plasmon decay and Raman scattering is analyzed in reference to the bulk plasma heating. Supported in part by Nikola TESLA Labs, La Jolla, CA

  1. The Spitzer Survey of Interstellar Clouds in the Gould Belt. VI. The Auriga-California Molecular Cloud Observed with IRAC and MIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Harvey, Paul M.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Huard, Tracy L.; Tothill, Nicholas F. H.; Nutter, David; Bourke, Tyler L.; DiFrancesco, James; Jorgensen, Jes K.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud (AMC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70 and 160 micrometers observed with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey. The total mapped areas are 2.5 deg(exp 2) with IRAC and 10.47 deg2 with MIPS. This giant molecular cloud is one of two in the nearby Gould Belt of star-forming regions, the other being the Orion A Molecular Cloud (OMC). We compare source counts, colors and magnitudes in our observed region to a subset of the SWIRE data that was processed through our pipeline. Using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we find evidence for a substantial population of 166 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud, many of which were previously unknown. Most of this population is concentrated around the LkH(alpha) 101 cluster and the filament extending from it. We present a quantitative description of the degree of clustering and discuss the fraction of YSOs in the region with disks relative to an estimate of the diskless YSO population. Although the AMC is similar in mass, size and distance to the OMC, it is forming about 15 - 20 times fewer stars.

  2. Review of the Nassarius pauperus (Gould, 1850 complex (Nassariidae: Part 3, reinstatement of the genus Reticunassa, with the description of six new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Ann Galindo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review (third part, several species within the Nassarius pauperus complex from the eastern Indian Ocean and western Pacific are treated, including a revised concept of Nassa paupera Gould, 1850, type species of the genus Reticunassa Iredale, 1936. In the most recent taxonomic revision, several species had been synonymized with Nassarius pauperus (Gould, 1850, despite distinctive differences among these species in shell morphology. We sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial COI and the nuclear 28S genes of all available Nassarius pauperus complex species. Automatic barcode gap discovery and reciprocal monophyly were applied to propose species delimitation hypotheses and to support a new concept of the genus. Using morphological and molecular characters, Reticunassa is elevated to full genus rank. Six new species are described: Reticunassa visayaensis sp. nov., R. poppeorum sp. nov., R. annabolteae sp. nov., R. goliath sp. nov., R. intrudens sp. nov. and R. thailandensis sp. nov., while R. tringa (Souverbie, 1864 is recognized as a valid species.

  3. The Spitzer survey of interstellar clouds in the gould belt. VI. The Auriga-California molecular cloud observed with IRAC and MIPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Harvey, Paul M. [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Gutermuth, Robert A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Huard, Tracy L.; Miller, Jennifer F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Tothill, Nicholas F. H. [School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751 (Australia); Nutter, David [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bourke, Tyler L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); DiFrancesco, James [National Research Council Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Jørgensen, Jes K. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø. (Denmark); Allen, Lori E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Chapman, Nicholas L. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Dunham, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Merín, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, ESAC-ESA, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Terebey, Susan [Department of Physics and Astronomy PS315, 5151 State University Drive, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Peterson, Dawn E. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    We present observations of the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud (AMC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70, and 160 μm observed with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey. The total mapped areas are 2.5 deg{sup 2} with IRAC and 10.47 deg{sup 2} with MIPS. This giant molecular cloud is one of two in the nearby Gould Belt of star-forming regions, the other being the Orion A Molecular Cloud (OMC). We compare source counts, colors, and magnitudes in our observed region to a subset of the SWIRE data that was processed through our pipeline. Using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we find evidence for a substantial population of 166 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud, many of which were previously unknown. Most of this population is concentrated around the LkHα 101 cluster and the filament extending from it. We present a quantitative description of the degree of clustering and discuss the relative fraction of YSOs in earlier (Class I and F) and later (Class II) classes compared to other clouds. We perform simple SED modeling of the YSOs with disks to compare the mid-IR properties to disks in other clouds and identify 14 classical transition disk candidates. Although the AMC is similar in mass, size, and distance to the OMC, it is forming about 15-20 times fewer stars.

  4. THE HERSCHEL AND JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEYS: CONSTRAINING DUST PROPERTIES IN THE PERSEUS B1 CLUMP WITH PACS, SPIRE, AND SCUBA-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadavoy, S. I.; Di Francesco, J.; Johnstone, D.; Fallscheer, C.; Matthews, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 355, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 N. A' ohoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Drabek, E.; Hatchell, J. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Nutter, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Andre, Ph.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Koenyves, V. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d' Astrophysique, Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Arzoumanian, D. [IAS, CNRS (UMR 8617), Universite Paris-Sud 11, Batiment 121, F-91400 Orsay (France); Benedettini, M. [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bernard, J.-P. [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Duarte-Cabral, A. [Universite de Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac (France); Friesen, R. [Dunlap Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Greaves, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Collaboration: JCMT and Herschel Gould Belt Survey teams; and others

    2013-04-20

    We present Herschel observations from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey and SCUBA-2 science verification observations from the JCMT Gould Belt Survey of the B1 clump in the Perseus molecular cloud. We determined the dust emissivity index using four different techniques to combine the Herschel PACS+SPIRE data at 160-500 {mu}m with the SCUBA-2 data at 450 {mu}m and 850 {mu}m. Of our four techniques, we found that the most robust method was filtering out the large-scale emission in the Herschel bands to match the spatial scales recovered by the SCUBA-2 reduction pipeline. Using this method, we find {beta} Almost-Equal-To 2 toward the filament region and moderately dense material and lower {beta} values ({beta} {approx}> 1.6) toward the dense protostellar cores, possibly due to dust grain growth. We find that {beta} and temperature are more robust with the inclusion of the SCUBA-2 data, improving estimates from Herschel data alone by factors of {approx}2 for {beta} and by {approx}40% for temperature. Furthermore, we find core mass differences of {approx}< 30% compared to Herschel-only estimates with an adopted {beta} = 2, highlighting the necessity of long-wavelength submillimeter data for deriving accurate masses of prestellar and protostellar cores.

  5. Some Srivastava-Brafman Type Generating Relations For A General Class Of Multi-Index And Multi-Variable Gould-Hopper And Dattoli Type Hypergeometric Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi M. I.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we first introduce and study a new family of the multi-index and multi-variable Gould-Hopper and Dattoli type polynomials {Hn(cm, cm-1,…, c3, c2(a1, a2, …, am} defined by (2.1, which are an extension of different types of Her-mite polynomials defined in section 1. We next consider multi-variable linear, bilinear and bilateral generating relations of the newly defined hypergeometric polynomials, using series iteration techniques. Further, we generalize these generating relations in the forms of multiple series identities involving bounded multiple sequences, Fox-Wright hypergeometric function and Srivastava-Daoust multi-variable hypergeometric function.

  6. Snow thickness, Freeboard, cloud amount/frequency, Albedo and other site samples data collected in the South Pacific Ocean on the LAURENCE M. GOULD cruises LMG0106 and LMG0205 as part of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC project from 2001-08-07 to 2002-09-08 (NODC Accession 0112864)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112864 includes site samples, meteorological and physical data collected aboard the LAURENCE M. GOULD during cruises LMG0106 and LMG0205 in the South...

  7. SPECIES IDENTIFICATION - DRY WEIGHT, SPECIES IDENTIFICATION - ORGANISM LENGTH, Condition factor, Carbon content of specimen and Nitrogen content of specimen site samples data collected in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean on the LAURENCE M. GOULD cruises LMG0106 and LMG0205 as part of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC project from 2001-07-29 to 2002-09-09 (NODC Accession 0112563)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112563 includes site samples and biological data collected aboard the LAURENCE M. GOULD during cruises LMG0106 and LMG0205 in the South Atlantic...

  8. PIGMENTS, SPECIES IDENTIFICATION - LIFE STAGE and SPECIES IDENTIFICATION - WET WEIGHT site samples data collected in the South Pacific Ocean on the LAURENCE M. GOULD cruises LMG0106 and LMG0205 as part of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC project from 2001-08-06 to 2002-09-09 (NODC Accession 0112635)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112635 includes site samples and biological data collected aboard the LAURENCE M. GOULD during cruises LMG0106 and LMG0205 in the South Pacific Ocean...

  9. Species abundance profile and discrete sample data collected in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean on the LAURENCE M. GOULD and NATHANIEL B. PALMER cruises LMG0104, LMG0203 and others as part of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC project from 2001-05-01 to 2002-09-11 (NODC Accession 0112189)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112189 includes profile, discrete sample and biological data collected aboard the LAURENCE M. GOULD and NATHANIEL B. PALMER during cruises LMG0104,...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2004-01-02 to 2004-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0148768)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148768 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2008-12-31 to 2009-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0144533)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144533 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  12. MARINE MAMMALS marine mammal observation data collected in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean on the LAURENCE M. GOULD and NATHANIEL B. PALMER cruises LMG0103, NBP0103 and NBP0104 as part of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC project from 2001-03-21 to 2001-08-28 (NODC Accession 0112169)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112169 includes marine mammal observation and biological data collected aboard the LAURENCE M. GOULD and NATHANIEL B. PALMER during cruises LMG0103,...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2006-03-21 to 2006-04-04 (NODC Accession 0108070)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108070 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2006-03-21 to...

  14. Documentation only - no data type documentation only - no observation type data collected in the South Pacific Ocean on the LAURENCE M. GOULD cruise LMG0106 as part of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC project from 2001-08-06 to 2001-11-10 (NODC Accession 0115276)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115276 includes documentation only - no observation type data collected aboard the LAURENCE M. GOULD during cruise LMG0106 in the South Pacific Ocean...

  15. INCOMING SOLAR RADIATION time series data collected in the South Pacific Ocean on the LAURENCE M. GOULD cruise LMG0106 as part of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC project from 2001-08-06 to 2001-11-10 (NODC Accession 0112375)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112375 includes meteorological and time series data collected aboard the LAURENCE M. GOULD during cruise LMG0106 in the South Pacific Ocean from...

  16. CORE - BULK DENSITY, Snow thickness, Snow temperature, Snow type and other site samples data collected in the South Pacific Ocean on the LAURENCE M. GOULD cruises LMG0106 and LMG0205 as part of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC project from 2001-07-28 to 2002-09-08 (NODC Accession 0112865)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112865 includes site samples, meteorological and physical data collected aboard the LAURENCE M. GOULD during cruises LMG0106 and LMG0205 in the South...

  17. CHLOROPHYLL A and BACTERIA - BACTERIAL DENSITY ice core data collected in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean on the LAURENCE M. GOULD and NATHANIEL B. PALMER cruises LMG0106, LMG0205 and others as part of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC project from 2001-07-28 to 2002-09-11 (NODC Accession 0112364)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112364 includes biological and ice core data collected aboard the LAURENCE M. GOULD and NATHANIEL B. PALMER during cruises LMG0106, LMG0205, NBP0104...

  18. CHLOROPHYLL A and BACTERIA - BACTERIAL DENSITY profile data collected in the South Pacific Ocean on the LAURENCE M. GOULD cruises LMG0104 and LMG0106 as part of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC project from 2001-04-29 to 2001-08-20 (NODC Accession 0112521)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112521 includes profile and biological data collected aboard the LAURENCE M. GOULD during cruises LMG0104 and LMG0106 in the South Pacific Ocean from...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2008-12-31 to 2009-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0148771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148771 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  20. ANIMALS - INDIVIDUAL - COUNTS, SPECIES IDENTIFICATION - ORGANISM LENGTH, SPECIES IDENTIFICATION - LIFE STAGE, TAXONOMIC CODE and species abundance profile and discrete sample data collected in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean on the LAURENCE M. GOULD cruises LMG0104 and LMG0203 as part of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC project from 2001-05-01 to 2002-05-10 (NODC Accession 0112167)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112167 includes profile, discrete sample and biological data collected aboard the LAURENCE M. GOULD during cruises LMG0104 and LMG0203 in the South...

  1. PIGMENTS, growth rate and Condition factor site samples data collected in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean on the LAURENCE M. GOULD cruises LMG0106 and LMG0205 as part of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC project from 2001-07-28 to 2002-09-09 (NODC Accession 0112636)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112636 includes site samples and biological data collected aboard the LAURENCE M. GOULD during cruises LMG0106 and LMG0205 in the South Atlantic...

  2. WIND DIRECTION, Snow thickness, ICE - TYPE, SPECIES IDENTIFICATION - COUNT and other visual observation data collected in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean on the LAURENCE M. GOULD and NATHANIEL B. PALMER cruises LMG0106, LMG0205 and others as part of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC project from 2001-07-26 to 2002-09-15 (NODC Accession 0112820)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112820 includes meteorological, visual observation and physical data collected aboard the LAURENCE M. GOULD and NATHANIEL B. PALMER during cruises...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-12-31 to 2005-12-26 (NCEI Accession 0144531)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144531 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  4. SPECIES IDENTIFICATION - ORGANISM LENGTH, growth rate and SPECIES IDENTIFICATION - LIFE STAGE site samples data collected in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean on the LAURENCE M. GOULD cruises LMG0106 and LMG0205 as part of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC project from 2001-07-28 to 2002-09-05 (NODC Accession 0112634)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112634 includes site samples and biological data collected aboard the LAURENCE M. GOULD during cruises LMG0106 and LMG0205 in the South Atlantic...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2009-09-16 to 2009-10-09 (NODC Accession 0112845)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0112845 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees...

  6. MARINE MAMMALS and WATER TEMPERATURE marine mammal observation data collected in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean on the LAURENCE M. GOULD cruises LMG0104, LMG0106 and others as part of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC project from 2001-05-07 to 2002-10-25 (NODC Accession 0112822)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112822 includes marine mammal observation, biological and physical data collected aboard the LAURENCE M. GOULD during cruises LMG0104, LMG0106,...

  7. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Gulf of Guinea, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-03-23 to 2010-11-02 (NCEI Accession 0144979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144979 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Gulf of Guinea, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-12-30 to 2005-11-20 (NCEI Accession 0148772)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148772 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  9. ANIMALS - INDIVIDUAL - COUNTS, Displacement Volume, SPECIES IDENTIFICATION - LIFE STAGE, TAXONOMIC CODE and species abundance profile and discrete sample data collected in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean on the LAURENCE M. GOULD cruises LMG0104 and LMG0203 as part of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC project from 2001-05-01 to 2002-05-10 (NODC Accession 0112170)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112170 includes profile, discrete sample and biological data collected aboard the LAURENCE M. GOULD during cruises LMG0104 and LMG0203 in the South...

  10. CHLOROPHYLL A and PHAEOPIGMENTS underway - surface data collected in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean on the LAURENCE M. GOULD and NATHANIEL B. PALMER cruises LMG0203, NBP0104 and NBP0204 as part of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC project from 2001-08-03 to 2002-09-11 (NODC Accession 0112638)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112638 includes underway - surface and biological data collected aboard the LAURENCE M. GOULD and NATHANIEL B. PALMER during cruises LMG0203, NBP0104...

  11. SPECIES IDENTIFICATION - ORGANISM LENGTH, MARINE MAMMALS, SPECIES IDENTIFICATION, body fat and other marine mammal observation data collected in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean on the LAURENCE M. GOULD cruises LMG0104, LMG0106 and others as part of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC project from 2001-05-05 to 2002-09-09 (NODC Accession 0112821)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112821 includes marine mammal observation and biological data collected aboard the LAURENCE M. GOULD during cruises LMG0104, LMG0106, LMG0203 and...

  12. The culture of pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata (Gould, 1850 in Phuket with temperature shock method and survival rates on various feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rativat, V.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine pearl farming at Phuket Island has exploited natural pearl oysters. In order to obtain sufficient pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata (Gould, 1850, the oyster cultivation was carried out to determine appropriate kinds of food and types of spat collectors. The male and female oysters were stimulated to spawn with this temperature shock method (treated with 32ºC and then with 26ºC. The fertilized eggs developed into the stages of polar body, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, trochophore and then D-shape larvae. At the ageof 19-26 hrs. the larvae were fed with three kinds of food: Isochrysis galbana, Chaetoceros calcitrans and the mixture of 1:1 I. galbana and C. calcitrans. Upon the first 30 days, shell lengths of the spats fed with I. Galbana, C. calcitrans and the mixture were 422.00±59.32, 221.33±12.46 and 347.33±67.98 μg, respectively. The 26-29th day spat stage settled to the collectors: saran net, plastic plates and wavy tile. Number of spats settling to saran net was the highest. But after being moved into the sea for 30 days, the survival rate was89.06% which was lower than for those settling to plastic plates (93.29% and wavy tile (93.99%.

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2014-12-30 to 2015-07-01 (NCEI Accession 0144343)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144343 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2002-03-07 to 2012-11-24 (NODC Accession 0083196)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0083196 includes chemical, physical and underway - surface data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean, South...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-01-02 to 2011-12-18 (NCEI Accession 0148767)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148767 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2002-12-29 to 2003-11-30 (NCEI Accession 0144351)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144351 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-01-02 to 2007-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0148773)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148773 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-30 to 2008-10-28 (NCEI Accession 0144348)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144348 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-12-30 to 2012-12-24 (NCEI Accession 0144349)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144349 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2014-01-01 to 2014-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0145200)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0145200 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-01-02 to 2007-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0144528)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144528 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-01-02 to 2011-12-19 (NCEI Accession 0144354)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144354 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2002-03-23 to 2002-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0148766)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148766 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-01-01 to 2006-12-27 (NCEI Accession 0144535)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144535 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2013-12-31 to 2014-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0144532)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144532 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2002-03-07 to 2002-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0144356)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144356 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-12-30 to 2012-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0148774)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148774 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-01-02 to 2006-12-26 (NCEI Accession 0148764)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148764 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2010-01-01 to 2011-12-19 (NCEI Accession 0148765)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148765 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2014-12-30 to 2015-12-27 (NCEI Accession 0148769)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148769 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2003-01-01 to 2003-12-29 (NCEI Accession 0148770)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148770 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-31 to 2008-10-27 (NCEI Accession 0148763)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148763 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  13. Annual gametogenesis and reproductive effort of the limpet Cellana grata (Gould, 1859) (Gastropoda: Nacellidae) in a rocky intertidal beach at Ulleungdo Island off the east coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun-Sung; Kang, Do-Hyung; Park, Heung-Sik; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2017-06-01

    Widely distributed from the northern coast of Vietnam to the northern Japan, the limpet Cellana grata (Gould, 1859) occurs commonly on the south and east coasts of Korea. Despite their wide distribution range, few studies have investigated the annual gametogenesis and reproductive effort of C. grata. In an attempt to understand the reproductive physiology of the limpet, we investigated the annual gametogenesis and reproductive effort of C. grata from Ulleungdo Island off the east coast of Korea. Histology revealed that the gonial mitosis commenced in January, as the female exhibited small oogonia (10-40 μm) in the follicle. From March to June, the oocyte size increased dramatically, and fully mature eggs (110-170 μm in diameter) appeared in early summer. First spawning males and females were observed in July, as the surface seawater temperature (SST) reached 22.1°C. The spawning male and females could be observed until the end of December. Gonad somatic index (GSI), a ratio of gonad mass to the total tissue weight, of the male ranged from 0.6 (April) to 17.9 (July), while the female GSI varied from 1.0 (February) to 18.3 (July). GSI of male and female declined rapidly from July to August, suggesting that the major purse of the spawning at the study site was between July and August. Our study suggested that the commercial catch of C. grata during July and August must be suspended at Ulleungdo Island, in order to protect the spawning limpets, which enhances C. grata recruitment and the population.

  14. Annual gametogenesis and reproductive effort of the limpet Cellana grata (Gould, 1859) (Gastropoda: Nacellidae) in a rocky intertidal beach at Ulleungdo Island off the east coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun-Sung; Kang, Do-Hyung; Park, Heung-Sik; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2017-12-01

    Widely distributed from the northern coast of Vietnam to the northern Japan, the limpet Cellana grata (Gould, 1859) occurs commonly on the south and east coasts of Korea. Despite their wide distribution range, few studies have investigated the annual gametogenesis and reproductive effort of C. grata. In an attempt to understand the reproductive physiology of the limpet, we investigated the annual gametogenesis and reproductive effort of C. grata from Ulleungdo Island off the east coast of Korea. Histology revealed that the gonial mitosis commenced in January, as the female exhibited small oogonia (10-40 μm) in the follicle. From March to June, the oocyte size increased dramatically, and fully mature eggs (110-170 μm in diameter) appeared in early summer. First spawning males and females were observed in July, as the surface seawater temperature (SST) reached 22.1°C. The spawning male and females could be observed until the end of December. Gonad somatic index (GSI), a ratio of gonad mass to the total tissue weight, of the male ranged from 0.6 (April) to 17.9 (July), while the female GSI varied from 1.0 (February) to 18.3 (July). GSI of male and female declined rapidly from July to August, suggesting that the major purse of the spawning at the study site was between July and August. Our study suggested that the commercial catch of C. grata during July and August must be suspended at Ulleungdo Island, in order to protect the spawning limpets, which enhances C. grata recruitment and the population.

  15. The JCMT and Herschel Gould Belt Surveys: a comparison of SCUBA-2 and Herschel data of dense cores in the Taurus dark cloud L1495

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Thompson, D.; Pattle, K.; Kirk, J. M.; Marsh, K.; Buckle, J.; Hatchell, J.; Nutter, D. J.; Griffin, M. J.; Di Francesco, J.; André, P.; Beaulieu, S.; Berry, D.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Mottram, J.; Pineda, J.; Quinn, C.; Sadavoy, S.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; White, G.; Hill, T.; Könyves, V.; Palmeirim, P.; Pezzuto, S.

    2016-11-01

    We present a comparison of Submillimetre Common User Bolometer Array-2 (SCUBA-2) 850-μm and Herschel 70-500-μm observations of the L1495 filament in the Taurus Molecular Cloud with the goal of characterizing the SCUBA-2 Gould Belt Survey (GBS) data set. We identify and characterize starless cores in three data sets: SCUBA-2 850-μm, Herschel 250-μm, and Herschel 250-μm spatially filtered to mimic the SCUBA-2 data. SCUBA-2 detects only the highest-surface-brightness sources, principally detecting protostellar sources and starless cores embedded in filaments, while Herschel is sensitive to most of the cloud structure, including extended low-surface-brightness emission. Herschel detects considerably more sources than SCUBA-2 even after spatial filtering. We investigate which properties of a starless core detected by Herschel determine its detectability by SCUBA-2, and find that they are the core's temperature and column density (for given dust properties). For similar-temperature cores, such as those seen in L1495, the surface brightnesses of the cores are determined by their column densities, with the highest-column-density cores being detected by SCUBA-2. For roughly spherical geometries, column density corresponds to volume density, and so SCUBA-2 selects the densest cores from a population at a given temperature. This selection effect, which we quantify as a function of distance, makes SCUBA-2 ideal for identifying those cores in Herschel catalogues that are closest to forming stars. Our results can now be used by anyone wishing to use the SCUBA-2 GBS data set.

  16. Ecological effects of the harvest phase of geoduck clam (Panopea generosa Gould, 1850) aquaculture on infaunal communities in southern Puget Sound, Washington USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBlaricom, Glenn R.; Eccles, Jennifer L.; Olden, Julian D.; Mcdonald, P. Sean

    2015-01-01

    Intertidal aquaculture for geoducks (Panopea generosa Gould, 1850) is expanding in southern Puget Sound, Washington, where gently sloping sandy beaches are used for field culture. Geoduck aquaculture contributes significantly to the regional economy, but has become controversial because of a range of unresolved questions involving potential biological impacts on marine ecosystems. From 2008 through 2012, the authors used a “before-after-control-impact” experimental design, emphasizing spatial scales comparable with those used by geoduck culturists to evaluate the effects of harvesting market-ready geoducks on associated benthic infaunal communities. Infauna were sampled at three different study locations in southern Puget Sound at monthly intervals before, during, and after harvests of clams, and along extralimital transects extending away from the edges of cultured plots to assess the effects of harvest activities in adjacent uncultured habitat. Using multivariate statistical approaches, strong seasonal and spatial signals in patterns of abundance were found, but there was scant evidence of effects on the community structure associated with geoduck harvest disturbances within cultured plots. Likewise, no indications of significant “spillover” effects of harvest on uncultured habitat adjacent to cultured plots were noted. Complementary univariate approaches revealed little evidence of harvest effects on infaunal biodiversity and indications of modest effects on populations of individual infaunal taxa. Of 10 common taxa analyzed, only three showed evidence of reduced densities, although minor, after harvests whereas the remaining seven taxa indicated either neutral responses to harvest disturbances or increased abundance either during or in the months after harvest events. It is suggested that a relatively active natural disturbance regime, including both small-scale and large-scale events that occur with comparable intensity but more frequently than

  17. Commentary: Stephen Jay Gould (1941–2002)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , Bat 13-BP1, CNRS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France. Journal of Biosciences. Current Issue : Vol. 42, Issue 3 · Current Issue Volume 42 | Issue 3. September 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Gallery ...

  18. Multi-variable Gould-Hopper and Laguerre polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Cassisa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The monomiality principle was introduced by G. Dattoli, in order to derive the properties of special or generalized polynomials starting from the corresponding ones of monomials. In this article we show a general technique to extend themonomiality approach tomulti-index polynomials in several variables. Application to the case of Hermite, Laguerre-type and mixed-type (i.e. between Laguerre and Hermite are derived.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: JCMT Gould Belt Survey: W40 complex (Rumble+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, D.; Hatchell, J.; Pattle, K.; Kirk, H.; Wilson, T.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; di, Francesco J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2017-11-01

    Aquila was observed with SCUBA-2 (Holland et al., 2013MNRAS.430.2513H) between 2012 April 21 and July 5 as part of the JCMT GBS MJLSG33 SCUBA-2 Serpens Campaign. Four separate fully sampled 30 arcmin diameter circular continuum observations (PONG1800 mapping mode) were taken simultaneously at 850um and 450um, and subsequently combined into mosaics. (3 data files).

  20. H08230: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Jumbo Island to Gould Island, Alaska, 1955-06-28

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  1. THE LUMINOSITIES OF PROTOSTARS IN THE SPITZER c2d AND GOULD BELT LEGACY CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, Michael M.; Arce, Hector G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Allen, Lori E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Evans II, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C. [Herzberg Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 W. Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Chapman, Nicholas L. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Department of Physics and Astronomy, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Cieza, Lucas A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Gutermuth, Robert A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Hatchell, Jennifer [Astrophysics Group, Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Huard, Tracy L.; Miller, Jennifer F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Kirk, Jason M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Merin, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, ESAC-ESA, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Peterson, Dawn E. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Spezzi, Loredana, E-mail: michael.dunham@yale.edu [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Motivated by the long-standing 'luminosity problem' in low-mass star formation whereby protostars are underluminous compared to theoretical expectations, we identify 230 protostars in 18 molecular clouds observed by two Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy surveys of nearby star-forming regions. We compile complete spectral energy distributions, calculate L{sub bol} for each source, and study the protostellar luminosity distribution. This distribution extends over three orders of magnitude, from 0.01 L{sub Sun} to 69 L{sub Sun }, and has a mean and median of 4.3 L{sub Sun} and 1.3 L{sub Sun }, respectively. The distributions are very similar for Class 0 and Class I sources except for an excess of low luminosity (L{sub bol} {approx}< 0.5 L{sub Sun }) Class I sources compared to Class 0. 100 out of the 230 protostars (43%) lack any available data in the far-infrared and submillimeter (70 {mu}m <{lambda} < 850 {mu}m) and have L{sub bol} underestimated by factors of 2.5 on average, and up to factors of 8-10 in extreme cases. Correcting these underestimates for each source individually once additional data becomes available will likely increase both the mean and median of the sample by 35%-40%. We discuss and compare our results to several recent theoretical studies of protostellar luminosities and show that our new results do not invalidate the conclusions of any of these studies. As these studies demonstrate that there is more than one plausible accretion scenario that can match observations, future attention is clearly needed. The better statistics provided by our increased data set should aid such future work.

  2. Note on the Zuiderzee Crab, Rithropanopeus harrisii (Gould) subspecies tridentatus (Maitland)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitendijk, A.M.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1949-01-01

    In the former Zuiderzee, the large brackish inland sea of the Netherlands, a species of crab was commonly met with, which species generally was considered to be endemic in the Dutch inland waters, and was named by most authors Heteropanope tridentata (Maitland). Examination of material and

  3. Biosystematic studies of Elymus repens (L. Gould (Poaceae: patterns of phenotypic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Szczepaniak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inter- and intrapopulational morphological variability of Elymus repens, a cool-season peren-nial grass and a tenacious weed that spreads both by seeds and rhizomes forming a thick and stout net, was examined. Multivariate statistical analysis of 48 initial morphological characters obtained from 44 population samples (1180 specimens collected in different habitats revealed the conspicuous variation within E. repens. Principal Component Analysis revealed three extremes of the morphological gradient that were referred to as three varieties of E. repens: var. repens, var. aristatus and var. subulatus, not correlated with the habitat type or geographi-cal location. Canonical Discriminant Analysis proved the taxonomic usefulness of characters such as awned or awnless glumes and lemmas as well as the shape of glumes for variety di-stinction. Results of morphological analysis, in relation to the low level of genetic variation showed in the previous studies, suggest that the extensive morphological variation of E. re-pens can be caused by its plasticity where different morphological patterns are realized on the same genome basis. Additionally, the open-pollinated system of mating results in new combi-nations of morphological characters of plants that further reproduce vegetatively by rhizomes. The nomenclature, taxonomic descriptions and a key to the three varieties are provided.

  4. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Evidence for Dust Grain Evolution in Perseus Star-forming Clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michael Chun-Yuan; Di Francesco, J.; Johnstone, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Hatchell, J.; Mottram, J. C.; Kirk, H.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Pezzuto, S.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Schneider-Bontemps, N.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2016-07-01

    The dust emissivity spectral index, β, is a critical parameter for deriving the mass and temperature of star-forming structures and, consequently, their gravitational stability. The β value is dependent on various dust grain properties, such as size, porosity, and surface composition, and is expected to vary as dust grains evolve. Here we present β, dust temperature, and optical depth maps of the star-forming clumps in the Perseus Molecular Cloud determined from fitting spectral energy distributions to combined Herschel and JCMT observations in the 160, 250, 350, 500, and 850 μm bands. Most of the derived β and dust temperature values fall within the ranges of 1.0-2.7 and 8-20 K, respectively. In Perseus, we find the β distribution differs significantly from clump to clump, indicative of grain growth. Furthermore, we also see significant localized β variations within individual clumps and find low-β regions correlate with local temperature peaks, hinting at the possible origins of low-β grains. Throughout Perseus, we also see indications of heating from B stars and embedded protostars, as well evidence of outflows shaping the local landscape.

  5. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: a quantitative comparison between SCUBA-2 data reduction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Mairs, S.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H; Graves, S.; Buckle, J.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.

    2015-01-01

    Performing ground-based submillimetre observations is a difficult task as the measurements are subject to absorption and emission from water vapour in the Earth's atmosphere and time variation in weather and instrument stability. Removing these features and other artefacts from the data is a vital process which affects the characteristics of the recovered astronomical structure we seek to study. In this paper, we explore two data reduction methods for data taken with the Submillimetre Common-...

  6. THE GOULD'S BELT VERY LARGE ARRAY SURVEY. IV. THE TAURUS-AURIGA COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzib, Sergio A. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Mioduszewski, Amy J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Domenici Science Operations Center, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kounkel, Marina A.; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Torres, Rosa M. [Instituto de Astronomía y Meteorología, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Vallarta No. 2602, Col. Arcos Vallarta, CP 44130 Guadalajara, Jalisco, México (Mexico); Boden, Andrew F. [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans II, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Briceño, Cesar [Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Tobin, John, E-mail: sdzib@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-03-10

    We present a multi-epoch radio study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming complex made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at frequencies of 4.5 GHz and 7.5 GHz. We detect a total of 610 sources, 59 of which are related to young stellar objects (YSOs) and 18 to field stars. The properties of 56% of the young stars are compatible with non-thermal radio emission. We also show that the radio emission of more evolved YSOs tends to be more non-thermal in origin and, in general, that their radio properties are compatible with those found in other star-forming regions. By comparing our results with previously reported X-ray observations, we notice that YSOs in Taurus-Auriga follow a Güdel-Benz relation with κ = 0.03, as we previously suggested for other regions of star formation. In general, YSOs in Taurus-Auriga and in all the previous studied regions seem to follow this relation with a dispersion of ∼1 dex. Finally, we propose that most of the remaining sources are related with extragalactic objects but provide a list of 46 unidentified radio sources whose radio properties are compatible with a YSO nature.

  7. AFSC NPRB Conrath Conners Octopus Studies 2009-2011 Kodiak Alaska Life History and Habitat Pot Gear

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data collected during 2010-2011 field studies of giant Pacific octopus Enteroctopus dofleini for NPRB. Includes data on habitat pot gear study: fishing locations,...

  8. Construction of cDNA subtractive library from pearl oyster ( Pinctada fucata Gould) with red color shell by SSH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yunyan; Huang, Liangmin; He, Maoxian

    2011-05-01

    The molecular basis of color polymorphism in the shells of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata is largely unknown. We developed a red-shelled family line and used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to screen for differentially expressed genes in red- and non-red-shelled pearl oysters. We constructed forward and reverse cDNA subtractive libraries consisting of 2 506 and 797 clones, respectively. Among 343 randomly selected clones in the forward library, 304 sequences were identified in GenBank using BLASTx and BLASTn. Of the 304 sequences, 13 showed no similarity to known sequences and 291 were matched with known genes of the pearl oyster, including shematrin-1, shematrin-2, shematrin-6, shematrin-7, nacrein, nacrein-like protein, aspein for shell matrix protein, glycine-rich protein, mantle gene 5, 28S, EST00031, EST00036, 16S, and COI. In the reverse library, 7 clones were sequenced and analyzed by BLAST. Two sequences shared similarity with EST00036 from the P. fucata subtraction cDNA library, four with the P. fucata mitochondrial gene for 16S rRNA and 1 with P. fucata shematrin-2. We evaluated the expression of 12 genes from the forward library using RT PCR. Two sequences matched with 16S and COI so were considered to be false positives. The remaining 10 sequences were differentially expression in the red-shelled pearl oysters. Our results suggest that differential expression of these genes may be related to color variation in the red-shelled family line of the pearl oyster.

  9. The James clerk maxwell telescope legacy survey of nearby star-forming regions in the gould belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward-Thompson, D.; Di Francesco, J.; Hatchell, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Nutter, D.; Bastien, P.; Basu, S.; Bonnell, I.; Bowey, J.; Brunt, C.; Buckle, J.; Butner, H.; Cavanagh, B.; Chrysostomou, A.; Curtis, E.; Davis, C. J.; Dent, W. R. F.; van Dishoeck, E.; Edmunds, M. G.; Fich, M.; Fiege, J.; Fissel, L.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Frieswijk, W.; Fuller, G. A.; Gosling, A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J. S.; Helmich, F.; Hills, R. E.; Holland, W. S.; Houde, M.; Jayawardhana, R.; Johnstone, D.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, H.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Matthews, B.; Matthews, H.; Matzner, C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G. H.; Naylor, D.; Padman, R.; Plume, R.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Redman, R. O.; Reid, M.; Richer, J. S.; Shipman, R.; Simpson, R. J.; Spaans, M.; Stamatellos, D.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Viti, S.; Weferling, B.; White, G. J.; Whitworth, A. P.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    This paper describes a James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) legacy survey that has been awarded roughly 500 hr of observing time to be carried out from 2007 to 2009. In this survey, we will map with SCUBA-2 (Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2) almost all of the well-known low-mass and

  10. Genetic, Ecological and Morphological Distinctness of the Blue Mussels Mytilus trossulus Gould and M. edulis L. in the White Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katolikova, Marina; Khaitov, Vadim; Väinölä, Risto; Gantsevich, Michael; Strelkov, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Two blue mussel lineages of Pliocene origin, Mytilus edulis (ME) and M. trossulus (MT), co-occur and hybridize in several regions on the shores of the North Atlantic. The two species were distinguished from each other by molecular methods in the 1980s, and a large amount of comparative data on them has been accumulated since that time. However, while ME and MT are now routinely distinguished by various genetic markers, they tend to be overlooked in ecological studies since morphological characters for taxonomic identification have been lacking, and no consistent habitat differences between lineages have been reported. Surveying a recently discovered area of ME and MT co-occurrence in the White Sea and employing a set of allozyme markers for identification, we address the issue whether ME and MT are true biological species with distinct ecological characteristics or just virtual genetic entities with no matching morphological and ecological identities. We find that: (1) in the White Sea, the occurrence of MT is largely concentrated in harbors, in line with observations from other subarctic regions of Europe; (2) mixed populations of ME and MT are always dominated by purebred individuals, animals classified as hybrids constituting only ca. 18%; (3) in terms of shell morphology, 80% of MT bear a distinct uninterrupted dark prismatic strip under the ligament while 97% of ME lack this character; (4) at sites of sympatry MT is more common on algal substrates while ME mostly lives directly on the bottom. This segregation by the substrate may contribute to maintaining reproductive isolation and decreasing competition between taxa. We conclude that while ME and MT are not fully reproductively isolated, they do represent clearly distinguishable biological, ecological and morphological entities in the White Sea. It remains to be documented whether the observed morphological and ecological differences are of a local character, or whether they have simply been overlooked in other contact zones. PMID:27044013

  11. Genetic, Ecological and Morphological Distinctness of the Blue Mussels Mytilus trossulus Gould and M. edulis L. in the White Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Katolikova

    Full Text Available Two blue mussel lineages of Pliocene origin, Mytilus edulis (ME and M. trossulus (MT, co-occur and hybridize in several regions on the shores of the North Atlantic. The two species were distinguished from each other by molecular methods in the 1980s, and a large amount of comparative data on them has been accumulated since that time. However, while ME and MT are now routinely distinguished by various genetic markers, they tend to be overlooked in ecological studies since morphological characters for taxonomic identification have been lacking, and no consistent habitat differences between lineages have been reported. Surveying a recently discovered area of ME and MT co-occurrence in the White Sea and employing a set of allozyme markers for identification, we address the issue whether ME and MT are true biological species with distinct ecological characteristics or just virtual genetic entities with no matching morphological and ecological identities. We find that: (1 in the White Sea, the occurrence of MT is largely concentrated in harbors, in line with observations from other subarctic regions of Europe; (2 mixed populations of ME and MT are always dominated by purebred individuals, animals classified as hybrids constituting only ca. 18%; (3 in terms of shell morphology, 80% of MT bear a distinct uninterrupted dark prismatic strip under the ligament while 97% of ME lack this character; (4 at sites of sympatry MT is more common on algal substrates while ME mostly lives directly on the bottom. This segregation by the substrate may contribute to maintaining reproductive isolation and decreasing competition between taxa. We conclude that while ME and MT are not fully reproductively isolated, they do represent clearly distinguishable biological, ecological and morphological entities in the White Sea. It remains to be documented whether the observed morphological and ecological differences are of a local character, or whether they have simply been overlooked in other contact zones.

  12. Possible implications of Rabbit Calicivirus Disease for malleefowl Leipoa ocellata Gould in the north-west of Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandell, P.

    1999-01-01

    Parks Victoria and the Department of Natural Resources & Environment (NRE) are collaborating with agencies from the other States and the Commonwealth of Australia in a national program of detailed monitoring and surveillance of the effects of Rabbit Calicivirus Disease (RCD). A component of the

  13. Interactions between the Avian Parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae) and the Galapagos Flycatcher, Myiarchus magnirostris Gould (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincango, Piedad; Causton, Charlotte; Cedeño, Daniel; Castañeda, Johanna; Hillstrom, Alexandra; Freund, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    An incidental observation of the fly Philornis downsi parasitizing a Galapagos Flycatcher (Myiarchus magnirostris) nest has revealed new insights into the searching behavior and biology of this invasive fly parasite and its interactions with endemic landbirds in the Galapagos Islands. Observations suggest that P. downsi relies on olfactory cues, or olfactory cues combined with the activity of adult birds, to locate nests and that flies continue to visit nests when chicks are >3 d old. At least 200 eggs were laid by P. downsi in different parts of the nest and >40 early-instar larvae were found inside the head of one chick, with additional larvae found in the base of the nest. Parasitism was the likely cause of mortality of both chicks found in or near the nest. This description of P. downsi parasitizing chicks of M. magnirostris highlights the vulnerability of this endemic bird species to this invasive fly.

  14. Theory and operation of the Gould 32/27 programs ABLE-2A and EBLE for the tropospheric air motion measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, C.

    1986-01-01

    Software development for the Trospheric Air Motion Measurement Systems (TAMMS) is documented. In July/August the TAMMS was flown on the NASA/Goddard Flight Center Electra aircraft for 19 mission for the ABLE-2A (Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment) in Brazil. In December 1985, several flights were performed to assess the contamination and boundary layer of the Electra. Position data, flow angles, pressure transducer measurements were recorded. The programs written for the ABLE-2A were modified due to timing considerations for this particular program. The 3-step programs written for EBLE (Electra Boundary Layer Experiment) are described. Power up and log-on procedures are discussed. A few editing techniques are described for modification of the programs.

  15. Non-native crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould, 1984 - a new component of the benthic communities in the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Hegele-Drywa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence, spatial distribution and abundance pattern of the Harris mud crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii in the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea. Between 2006 and 2010, this species was found at 69 out of 129 sampling stations, at depths from 0 to 20 m. Two main aggregations of the Harris mud crab were established: (1 in Puck Bay (max. density 19 indiv. 100 m-2 and (2 in the Gdynia and Sopot area (max. density 5 indiv. 100 m-2. 920 specimens were collected during the whole sampling period: 150 juveniles, 370 females and 400 males. The minimum measured carapace width was 1.96 mm, the maximum 21.40 mm (mean 9.03 ±4.11 mm.

  16. The Spitzer survey of interstellar clouds in the Gould Belt. III. A multi-wavelength view of Corona Australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Dawn E.; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Bourke, Tyler L.

    2011-01-01

    with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) covering R CrA, IRS 5, IRS 7, and IRAS 18595-3712 (IRAS 32). We also present multi-epoch H2 maps and detect jets and outflows, study their proper motions, and identify exciting sources. The Spitzer and ISAAC/VLT observations of IRAS 32 show a bipolar precessing jet, which drives a CO(2......-1) outflow detected in the SMA observations. There is also clear evidence for a parsec-scale precessing outflow, which is east-west oriented and originates in the SMA 2 region and likely driven by SMA 2 or IRS 7A....

  17. Determinación de la actividad antimicrobiana de la melanina purificada, a partir de la tinta de Octopus mimus Gould, 1852(Cephalopoda: Octopodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Vega Petkovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Los cefalópodos, constituyen importantes modelos biomédicos orientados a vertebrados, con potencial farmacológico. Estos animales poseen una glándula de tinta, que produce un líquido marrón o negro (tinta, con una elevada concentración de melanina, a la cual se le han atribuido propiedades antibacterianas. Con esta información, se busca determinar el efecto protector de la melanina de Octopus mimus, mediante la extracción y purificación de la tinta y posterior evaluación de su actividad antimicrobiana frente a dos cepas (Staphylococcus aureus y Escherichia coli. Los resultados indican una actividad antimicrobiana moderada, en comparación con el antibiótico comercial (ampicilina 0,05 mg mL-1, y una concentración inhibitoria mínima diferencial entre ambas cepas bacterianas.

  18. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Gould S J 1999b Branching through a wormhole; Nat. Hist. 108 (March) 24–26; 84–89. Gould S J 1999c Dorothy, it's really Oz. A pro-creationist decision in Kansas is more than a blow against. Darwin; Time Magazine (August 23) 59. Gould S J 2002 The Structure of Evolutionary Theory (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University ...

  19. Nuclear and mitochondrial markers reveal evidence for genetically segregated cryptic speciation in giant Pacific octopuses from Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Rebecca K.; Scheel, David; Sage, G.K.; Talbot, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple species of large octopus are known from the north Pacific waters around Japan, however only one large species is known in the Gulf of Alaska (the giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini). Current taxonomy of E. dofleini is based on geographic and morphological characteristics, although with advances in genetic technology that is changing. Here, we used two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I), three nuclear genes (rhodopsin, octopine dehydrogenase, and paired-box 6), and 18 microsatellite loci for phylogeographic and phylogenetic analyses of octopuses collected from across southcentral and the eastern Aleutian Islands (Dutch Harbor), Alaska. Our results suggest the presence of a cryptic Enteroctopus species that is allied to, but distinguished from E. dofleini in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Existence of an undescribed and previously unrecognized taxon raises important questions about the taxonomy of octopus in southcentral Alaska waters.

  20. Physical profiles collected by the R/V Laurence M. Gould in the Southern Oceans to support the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research for the purpose of ecosystem and physical oceanography research, January 6 - February 1, 2003 (NODC Accession 0039429)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Palmer Long Term Ecological Research (PAL-LTER) Temperature and Salinity profile data collected west of the Antarctic Peninsula. These data from January/February...

  1. Physical profiles collected by the R/V Laurence M. Gould in the Southern Ocean to support the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research for the purpose of ecosystem and physical oceanography research, January 4 - January 31, 2005 (NODC Accession 0039426)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Palmer Long Term Ecological Research (PAL-LTER) Temperature and Salinity profile data collected west of the Antarctic Peninsula. These data from January 2005 are...

  2. Physical profiles collected by the R/V Laurence M. Gould in the Southern Oceans to support the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research for the purpose of ecosystem and physical oceanography research, January 7 - February 3, 2006 (NODC Accession 0039224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Palmer Long Term Ecological Research (PAL-LTER) Temperature and Salinity profile data collected west of the Antarctic Peninsula. These data from January/February...

  3. Physical profiles collected by the R/V Laurence M. Gould in the Southern Oceans to support the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research for the purpose of ecosystem and physical oceanography research, January 7 - January 31, 2004 (NODC Accession 0039427)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Palmer Long Term Ecological Research (PAL-LTER) Temperature and Salinity profile data collected west of the Antarctic Peninsula. These data from January 2004 are...

  4. Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business and market researchers Christina Goulding Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business and market researchers Sage Publications No of pages: 186 £18.99 0761966838 0761966838 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Leslie

    2003-10-01

    Much has been written about the grounded theory approach to qualitative research, however the number of books devoted solely to this methodology remains relatively few. Therefore, any new book dedicated to the subject is always likely to attract attention - especially given the increasing popularity of grounded theory in healthcare research.

  5. Adaptación e implementación de un programa de intervención en la escuela a través de la educación física: el Programa de responsabilidad personal y social

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diana Marín Suelves

    2014-01-01

    ...; Hawkins, Catalano, Kosterman, Abbot, & Hill, 1999). Por ello, han surgido programas para mejorar las competencias personales y sociales de sus participantes (Brustad & Parker, 2005; Gould & Carson, 2008...

  6. Time frames: the rethinking of Darwinian evolution and the theory of punctuated equilibria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eldredge, Niles

    1985-01-01

    .... Two eminent scientists, Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould, startled the world by challenging Darwin's cherished beliefs - proposing instead that once a species has evolved it rarely undergoes...

  7. Fourth Global Health Systems Research Symposium features ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-01-13

    Fourth Global Health Systems Research Symposium features innovative research on improving maternal and child health in Africa. January 13, 2017. Image. Sue Szabo and Karina Gould at HSR2016 Conference. IDRC / Louise Guenette. Sue Szabo and Karina Gould at the Fourth Global Symposium on Health Systems ...

  8. Evolusie: Die misverstand tussen teologie en biologie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engelbrecht, J & Van Dyk P J (eds) 1987. On creation and re-creation: Themes from the Bible: Creation, justice, faith, and the church. Pretoria: Van Schaik. Gould, SJ 1977. Ever since Danvin: Reflections in natural history. New York: Nor ton. Gould, S J & Lewontin, R C 1979. The spandrels of San Marco and the panglossian.

  9. 78 FR 48658 - Defense Acquisition University Board of Visitors; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    .... DAU Strategic Plan/FY14 Performance Plan 10:15 a.m. Knowledge Sharing Study 11:15 a.m. Team Training...: Christen Goulding, Protocol Director, DAU. Phone: 703-805-5134. Fax: 703-805-5940. Email: christen.goulding... Point of Contact: Ms. Kelley Berta, Phone: 703-805-5412, Email: [email protected] . Dated: August 6...

  10. The Natural and Cultural Environmental Resources of the Aquilla Creek Watershed, Hill County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-11-01

    Shinners Annual Aster Aster texanus Burgess Texas Aster Avena sativa L. Oats Bothriochloa saccharoides (Sw.) Rydb. var. longi- paniculata (Gould) Gould...Warbler U R F,Wd- Dendroica dominica: Yellow-throated Warbler* U R F,Wd- Dendroica pensylvanica: Chestnut-sided Warbler C R F,Th- Dendroica castanea : Bay

  11. The first records of quill mites of the family Syringophilidae (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) from trogoniform birds (Aves: Trogoniformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of quill mites of the family Syringophilidae parasitising trogoniform birds (Trogoniformes: Trogonidae) are described: Syringophiloidus quetzali sp. nov. from Pharomachrus mocinno Llave and Ph. antisianus (Orbigny); and Syringophilopsis trogoni sp. nov. from Trogon citreolus Gould and T. melanocephalus Gould. These findings are the first records of syringophilids associated with trogoniform birds.

  12. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Goldschmidt's ideas by Allan Wilson (King and Wilson. 1975) and Stephen Jay Gould (Gould 1982) was based on the discovery of regulatory genes, and the potential dramatic effects of their variations on evolution. The evolutionary models proposed by functional biologists, and in particular molecular biologists, deserve.

  13. Biological dataset collected from bottle casts from the R/V LAURENCE M. GOULD and the R/V NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Southern Drake Passage and Scotia Sea in support of National Science Foundation projects OPP 03-30443 and ANT 04-44134 from 15 February 2004 to 09 August 2006 (NODC Accession 0049902)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean biology data were collected in Southern Drake Passage and Scotia Sea during two research cruises supported by NSF awards. These two cruises, namely LMG0402 and...

  14. 33 CFR 110.145 - Narragansett Bay, R.I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mooring piles or stakes will not be allowed. (ii) Anchorage X-1, Naval explosives and ammunition handling anchorage. The waters of Narragansett Bay northeasterly of Gould Island within a circle having a radius of...

  15. DVD. Alar Niineväli hoiatab. "Hüppaja" / Alar Niineväli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niineväli, Alar

    2008-01-01

    Ulmeline seiklusfilm "Hüppaja" ("Jumper") Steven Gould'i teoste põhjal : stsenaristid David Goyer, Simon Kinberg, Jim Uhls : režissöör Doug Liman : peaosas Hayden Christensen : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008

  16. On alles hüpe! / Laurence Lumiere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lumiere, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Ulmeline seiklusfilm "Hüppaja" ("Jumper") Steven Gould'i teoste põhjal : stsenaristid David Goyer, Simon Kinberg, Jim Uhls : režissöör Doug Liman : peaosas Hayden Christensen : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008

  17. Common geriatric emergencies in a rural hospital in South-Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... of elderly age group rises, the epidemiological profiles of. Nigerians will ... The geriatric health, wellness, illness, and disease states are influenced by the ..... Gould CL, Hofman KJ. The global burden of chronic diseases:.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decarboxylase malonic aciduria malonyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase deficiency MCD deficiency Related Information How are genetic conditions and ... Morrell JC, Wanders RJ, Matalon R, Gould SJ. MCD encodes peroxisomal and cytoplasmic forms of malonyl-CoA ...

  19. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  20. South African Crime Quarterly - Vol 33 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the record: Interview with Frikkie Venter, G4S Managing Director: Care and Justice Services · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C Gould, 33-34 ...

  1. Something to Say about music: Daily Edition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    OMER SHOMRONY

    2006-01-01

    .... A regular guest with the world's most esteemed orchestras, he is now here to perform with the Israel Philharmonic in three different programs under Spanish conductor Rafael Fruhbeck de Burgos. Strange as [Glenn Gould...

  2. The Oxford book of modern science writing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dawkins, Richard

    2008-01-01

    ..." to "the terror and vastness of the universe." Edited by renowned scientist Richard Dawkins, this collection brings together pieces by a who's who of scientists and science writers, including Stephen Pinker, Stephen Jay Gould, Martin Gardner...

  3. On the Record: Savera Kalideen, senior Advocacy Manager for Soul ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Chandré Gould speaks to Savera Kalideen, senior Advocacy Manager for Soul City, about the Phuza Wize campaign and the challenges of developing and implementing holistic violence prevention campaigns.

  4. Presentations from the session "The revised EU import scheme: ensuring organic integrity?!" at the BioFach Congress 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Willer, Helga; Julia, Lernoud; Beate, Huber; Amarjit, Sahota

    2013-01-01

    At this session, papers were presented by David Gould, IFOAM Christina Gerstgrasser, EU Commission Sergyi Galashevsky, Organic Standard Jim Pierce, Oregon Tilth Jochen Neuendorff, GfRS Beate Huber, FiBL

  5. A Compilation Catalog in the Direction of the Galactic Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-18

    and Argelander 1890) 3) Catalogo de Zonas Estrellas (GA; Gould 1884a, b) 4) Catalogue of 12441 Stars for the Epoch 1880 (Cp 80; Stone 1881) 2 5... Catalogo General Argentino (Gou; Gould 1886) 6) Catalogo de 15200 Estrellas (Cord B; Perrine 1914) 7) Albany Zone Catalogue of 8276 Stars Between -200 and...410 for the Epoch 1900 (Alb00 ; Boss 1918) 8) San Luis Catalogue of 15333 Stars for the Epcoh 1910 (SL; Tucker, Roy, and Varnum 1928) 9) Catalogo

  6. Browse Author Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 192 ... A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z All. G. Gardiner, Alan · Gasa, N · Gear, S · Gevers, A · Goga, K · Gonçalves, Duarte · Gordon, Steven · Gould, C · Gould, Chandré · Govender, M · Griffiths, Megan. H. Hansungule, Z · Hansungule, Zita · Hargovan, H · Hargovan, Hema

  7. Combat Airmen: Examining USAF Expeditionary Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    McKay Company. Inc. ISBN 0- 679-30210-7, 0-582-32385-1 (1964). 19 Donald Tharp, Anthony Gould, and Robert Potter , Leveraging Affective Learning for...Ibid., 1. 22 Ibid., 23. 23 David J. Bryant and Harry Angel, “Retention and Fading of Military Skills: Literature Review,” (2000) http://www.dtic.mil...Haccoun, “Personal and Situational Characteristics,” 169. 38 Tharp, Gould, and Potter , “Leveraging Affective Learning,” 2. 39 Wisher, Sabol, and Ellis

  8. Neutrino-driven electrostatic instabilities in a magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Fernando; Pascoal, Kellen Alves; Mendonça, José Tito

    2017-07-01

    The destabilizing role of neutrino beams on the Trivelpiece-Gould modes is considered, assuming electrostatic perturbations in a magnetized plasma composed by electrons in a neutralizing ionic background, coupled to a neutrino species by means of an effective neutrino force arising from the electroweak interaction. The magnetic field is found to significantly improve the linear instability growth rate, as calculated for supernova type II environments. On the formal level, for wave vectors parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field, the instability growth rate is found from the unmagnetized case replacing the plasma frequency by the appropriated Trivelpiece-Gould frequency. The growth rate associated with oblique propagation is also obtained.

  9. 78 FR 21599 - Defense Acquisition University Board of Visitors; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Power 2.0 10:30 a.m. Acker Knowledge Repository 11:00 a.m. Sequestration Impacts on DAU 11:30 a.m... attend the meeting should call Ms. Christen Goulding at 703-805-5134. Committee's Designated Federal Officer or Point of Contact: Ms. Kelley Berta, 703-805-5412. Dated: April 5, 2013. Aaron Siegel, Alternate...

  10. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 11. Issue front cover thumbnail Issue back cover thumbnail. Volume 7, Issue 11. November 2002, pages 1-102. pp 1-1 Editorial. Editorial · Biman Nath · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 2-5 Article-in-a-Box. Stephen Jay Gould: A View of Life.

  11. Exaptation Roger Lass Konrad Lorenz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    organisms of large amounts of "redundant DNA" in the form of duplicate genes. Gould and Vrba point out that ... Exaptation then is the opportunistic cooptation of a feature whose origin is unrelated to its subsequent use ... which serves as the nucleus of a grand new structure gra- dually erected around it. In the course of time ...

  12. Breast-Feeding May Lower Risk of MS, Study Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of ovulation might play a role in MS risk. But the results showed that the total number of years a woman ovulated was not ... particularly for someone who might be at greater risk to begin with, such as a family history of MS." Langer-Gould said further investigation ...

  13. Theoretical Analyses of the Functional Regions of the Heavy Chain of Botulinum Neurotoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    hemifacial spasm . Mov Disord 1987:4:237-254. 5. Brin MF. Blitzer A, Fahn S, Gould W. Lovelace RE. Adductor laryngeal dystonia (spastic dysphonia): treatment... reviews (6-9). The primary toxic effect of all the BTX serotypes (excluding the C2 and C3 serotypes I10)) is flaccid paralysis. The toxin prevents

  14. Disease: H00204 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2006.09.010 ... PMID:10904262 ... AUTHORS ... Gould SJ, Valle D ... TITLE ... Peroxisome biogenesis disorders... Peroxisome biogenesis disorders. ... JOURNAL ... Biochim Biophys Acta 1763:1733-48 (2006) DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr....510 PMID:17055079 ... AUTHORS ... Steinberg SJ, Dodt G, Raymond GV, Braverman NE, Moser AB, Moser HW ... TITLE ...

  15. Assessment of Reservoir Storage in a Semi-Arid Environment Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study made an assessment of the existing reservoir capacity of Tiga Dam in Kano State, Nigeria, of 1090 x 106m3 using Gould Probability Matrix method. A generated annual inflow series between (1906 and 2004), rainfall and evaporation loss estimated for the period between 1990 and 2004 coupled with demand ...

  16. Resolution Study of a Hyperspectral Sensor using Computed Tomography in the Presence of Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    UC Santa Bar- bara]. 2. Barrett, H. H. and W. Swindell . Radiological imaging the theory of image for- mation, detection and processing, volume 2...2000. 11. Goodman, J. W. Introudction to Fourier Optics. Roberts and Company, Green- wood Village, CO, 2005. 12. Gould, M. and S. Cain. “Development

  17. The Women’s Army Corps: 1945-1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    director of the Women Marines; Helen Hayes, actress; Sarah G. Blanding, president of Vassar College; Lillian Gilbreth , engineer; and Beatrice G. Gould...81 Gia Ray, 250 consolidated WAC/male training, 98, Gibson, Lt. Col. Gwen, 355n 145, 364 Gibson, Sgt. Ist Cl. Gwendolyn, 342n draft, 92 Gilbreth

  18. Visual Observation and Measurements of 33 so far Unconfirmed Tycho Double Stars in Cygnus with 2 Arcseconds Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Wilfried

    2017-04-01

    As already reported (Knapp and Gould 2016), most Tycho Double Star objects in the WDS catalog are unconfirmed. From the huge number of in total nearly 1000 TDS/TDT objects in the Cygnus constellation, all unconfirmed pairs (per beginning of 2016) listed with 2" separation were visually observed and measured based on CCD images.

  19. Hand washing practices amongst medical students in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    org. 4. arvis WR. Handwashing the Semmelweis lesson forgotten? The Lancet 1994: 344: 1311 1312. 5. Teare L, Cookson B, French G, Gould D, Jenner E,. McCollough J, et al (Hand Washing liason group). Hand washing modest measure- big ...

  20. Darwin's Revolution in Thought: An Illustrated Lecture. Teaching Guide and Videotape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Stephen Jay

    "Darwin's Revolution in Thought" is Stephen Jay Gould's definitive treatise on Charles Darwin. This 50-minute classroom edition videotaped lecture is structured in the form of a paradox and three riddles about Darwin's life. Each is designed to shed light on one of the key features of the theory of natural selection, its philosophical…

  1. Malleefowl conservation in New South Wales: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priddel, D.; Wheeler, R.

    1999-01-01

    Together with land clearance, grazing by stock and inappropriate fire regimes, predation by the introduced European red fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758) has decimated populations of malleefowl Leipoa ocellata Gould, 1840. The decline of the malleefowl has been most pronounced in New South Wales,

  2. Purified Mojave Toxin Interacts with CA++Mg++ ATPase in Rat Synaptic Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    affinity binding sites for nimodipine , a dihydropyrdine calcium channel blocker, are sensitive to phospholipases A and C. However, solubilization of...Purification ofPutative Calcium Cnannels Labelled with (3H)- Nimodipine . Arch. Pharma, 323, 279-291 (1983). 15 04 %.- . |• .... 15. Murphy, K., Gould, R

  3. effects of copper and lead on growth, feeding and mortality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    fresh water molluscs as accumulation indicator for monitoring heavy ... metal ions than other groups of invertebrates. The incidence ..... of mollusc. Marine Biological Associations of the U.K. Journal 57(3), 675-714. Calabresse, A, thurberg, F. P. and Gould, E. (1977). Effects of Cadmium, Mercury and silver on marine animals.

  4. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    seemed natural, part of a positive, exhuberant attitude toward learning and life that embraced the humanities alongside science, and the general public alongside scientists. Gould's scientific inspiration, including the idea of punctuated evolutionary change, came from his studies of fossil snails. His doctoral thesis on a ...

  5. An Alternative Path for Academic Success: Evaluating the Role of Mental Skills in an English Composition Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Brittney; Hammermeister, Jon; Briggs, Lynn; Young, Justin; Flynn, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    Higher levels of mental skill use and knowledge have been consistently associated with enhanced performances in athletic settings (e.g., Greenleaf, Gould & Dieffenbach, 2001; Hatzigeorgiadis, Zourbanos, Galanis, & Theodorakis, 2011; Weinberg, 2008). More specifically, exceptional athletic performances have been linked to the practice and…

  6. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-03-25

    Mar 25, 2014 ... Effect of Variety and Storage on the Tuber Quality of Potatoes Cultivated in the Eastern .... end use such as for processing into chips and French fries. ... taking 3 kg of potato tubers randomly as the ratio of tuber weight in air to the weight of water displaced by the tuber. (Gould, 1995). water in. Weight airin.

  7. Evaluating the toxicity of permeability enhanchers of polyethylene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-06-18

    Jun 18, 2010 ... Active Agents on Membranes. Thesis (Ph. D.)-University of London,. 1996. Depart. of Pharmacy London, UK. OCLC: 53674106. Gould LA, Lansley AB, Brown MB, Forbes B, Martin GP (2000). Mitgation of Surfactants Erythrocyte Toxicity by Egy Phosphatidyl- choline. J. Pharm. Parmacol. 52(10): 1203-1209.

  8. South African Crime Quarterly - Vol 32 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of Nigerians, albinos, satanists and anecdotes: A critical review of the HSRC report on human trafficking · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C Gould, M Richter, I Palmery, 37-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2413-3108/2010/v0i32a883 ...

  9. 2017-12-03T21:57:23Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    article/101473 2017-12-03T21:57:23Z sacq:ART Of Nigerians, albinos, satanists and anecdotes: A critical review of the HSRC report on human trafficking Gould, C Richter, M Palmery, I The deluge of news articles about human trafficking in South ...

  10. Assessment of Reservoir Storage in a Semi-Arid Environment Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    There was also clear indication of climatic change within the region as rainfall of North Central and ... probability matrix to 156 Australian streams but modified the Gould. Probability procedure and estimated the ... The climate of the area was a semi-arid, tropical climate dominated by the tropical maritime air mass which ...

  11. Safe Food (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-14

    A healthy diet is important, but if food is mishandled or improperly prepared, a wholesome meal can result in a severe illness. In this podcast, Dr. Hannah Gould discusses ways to avoid foodborne illnesses.  Created: 2/14/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 2/14/2013.

  12. 75 FR 15725 - Termination of Royalty-in-Kind (RIK) Eligible Refiner Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ...: March 18, 2010. Gregory J. Gould, Associate Director for Minerals Revenue Management. BILLING CODE 4310... Minerals Management Service Termination of Royalty-in-Kind (RIK) Eligible Refiner Program AGENCY: Minerals Management Service, Interior. ACTION: Advance notice for the termination of the RIK Eligible Refiner Program...

  13. Roles and Relationships in Virtual Environments: A Model for Adult Distance Educators Extrapolated from Leadership in Experiences in Virtual Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchoma, Gale

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, Larkin and Gould's (1999) activity theory methodology for defining work-related roles and Burns' (1963) analysis of organismic organizational form are merged into a model that describes associate and leadership roles and relationships in virtual organizations. The effects of a lack of shared physical space and face-to-face social…

  14. Assessment of Reservoir Storage in a Semi-Arid Environment Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Reservoir Storage in a Semi-Arid Environment Using Gould Probability Matrix. ... a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  15. Anatomy of the inferior extensor retinaculum and its role in lateral ankle ligament reconstruction: a pictorial essay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmau-Pastor, M.; Yasui, Y.; Calder, J. D.; Karlsson, J.; Kerkhoffs, G. M. M. J.; Kennedy, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The inferior extensor retinaculum (IER) is an aponeurotic structure, which is in continuation with the anterior part of the sural fascia. The IER has often been used to augment the reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligaments, for instance in the Broström-Gould procedure, with good outcomes

  16. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most insecticides. have been non-selective and their extensive use has led to health and environmental problems. Many cases of lethal and sub-lethal pesticide poisoning of humans have occurred (Goulding, 1988; Forget,. 1989). The problems of resistance and high cost to the available insecticides revived interest in the.

  17. Testing gradual and speciational models of evolution in extant taxa: the example of ratites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurin, M.; Gussekloo, S.W.S.; Marjanovic, D.; Legendre, L.; Cubo, J.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since Eldredge and Gould proposed their model of punctuated equilibria, evolutionary biologists have debated how often this model is the best description of nature and how important it is compared to the more gradual models of evolution expected from natural selection and the neo-Darwinian

  18. 78 FR 77495 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... International; Joyce Lukima, Vice President of Services, Pennsylvania Coalition Against Rape; Montana State... Shayo Buchanan, Associate Professor of Law and Gender Studies, USC Gould School of Law; Paulding... Facility, Ohio Department of Youth Services--facility with a high prevalence of sexual victimization...

  19. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    paper on the spandrels of San Marco (Gould and Lewontin 1979), he attacked the practice of determining the adaptive significance of a particular structure by trying to correlate its presence or absence in different taxa to the presence or absence of particular environmental factors. Such an approach tends to deal only with ...

  20. Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gould SJ and Lewontin RC 1979 The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 205 581–598. Hershey AD and Chase M 1952 Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage. J. Gen. Physiol. 36 39–56.

  1. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    'exaptations' but, for unclear reasons the paper and the new term went forgotten. A similar idea was developed with R C Lewontin (Gould and Lewontin 1979), telling that “the Spandrels of San. Marco” are an architectural constraint, not an aesthetic choice from the architect, and that similar phenomena do occur frequently in ...

  2. Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-04

    Aug 4, 2016 ... lymphocyte-differentiating properties and is probably repre- sented universally in living cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 72 11–15. Gould SJ and Lewontin R 1979 The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme. Proc. Roy. Soc. London B. 205 581–598.

  3. R-ES-ONA--NCEI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spandrels of San Marco and the Pang/ossian. Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist. Programme, Gould and Lewontin claimed that evolutionary biologists were prone to excessive adaptationist thinking. Students of evolution should consider the possibility that structures were often not perfectly adapted either due to.

  4. SAMJ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pandrels of San Marco and the. Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adap13tionisl programme. ?roe R Soc Lond (BWl) 1979; 205: 5 I-59 . Gombrich EH. The ,;suaI image. Scienrific American 1972; 227(3):. 2-97. 9. Gould Sj. Hen's Teeeh and Horse's Toes. Harmondsworth: Penguin,. 197: 177-198. 10. Lewontin RC ...

  5. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chandré Gould, Crime and Justice Programme of the. Institute for Security Studies. Marlise Richter, PhD ... frameworks, and women's and children's rights instruments c. Analyse counter-trafficking responses ..... education and awareness (127-108/D/SER/ZA). Terms of reference: Baseline study on understanding of.

  6. Uso de terreno urbano y rural en Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez; Maya Quinones; Michael E. Jimenez

    2008-01-01

    El Proyecto de Analisis de Gap de Puerto Rico (PRGAP) (Gould et al. 2008) desarrollo tres usos de terrenos para Puerto Rico: Urbano, Suburbano, y Rural (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). Estas regiones tambien pueden ser consideradas como urbano, densamente-poblado rural, y escasamente-poblado rural, o como urbano y area silvestre con una interfase de area silvestre-urbana. La...

  7. Analisis espacial de las areas protegidas terrestres de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Quinones; W.A. Gould; J. Castro-Prieto; S. Martinuzzi

    2013-01-01

    En este mapa de investigacion describimos las areas protegidas terrestres de Puerto Rico basado en elementos naturales y antropogenicos del paisaje. Utilizamos datos geoespaciales para calcular la extension y representatividad de elementos del paisaje dentro de las areas protegidas de Puerto Rico, i.e., cobertura del terreno (Gould et al. 2007), asentamientos urbanos...

  8. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tenuousness that permits us to build a ladder reaching only to the heart of our own folly and hubris. Acknowledgements. From Bully for Brontosaurus: Reflections in Natural History by Stephen Jay Gould, Pub- lished by Hutchinson. Reprinted by Permission of the The Random House Group Ltd. --------~--------. 98.

  9. Mercury affects the distribution of culturable species of Pseudomonas in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtze, Maria Sommer; Nielsen, Preben; Ekelund, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    and subsequent 16S rDNA partial sequencing of representative isolates. To verify the selectivity of Gould's S1 agar and the FT-IR characterisation, all 450 isolates were subjected to the following tests: Gram-determination, catalase and oxidase activity, pigment production on PDA and growth at different...

  10. Pyrantel Pamoate in Roundworm Infestations*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1973-01-20

    Jan 20, 1973 ... Aust., 2, 254. 7. Bell, W. J. and Gould, G. C. (1971): E. Afr. Med. J., 48, 143. 8. Pandey, K. N., Sharathchandra, S. G., Sarin, G. C., Ajmani, N. K. and Chuttani, H. K. (1971): Brit. Med. J., 4, 399. 9. Heinz, K. P.: Personal communication. 10. Nelson, H.: Personal communication. 11. Layrisse. M.. Marrinez-Torres ...

  11. Polarization Characteristics of Pulsar Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J. L.; Manchester, R. N.; Qiao, G. J.

    Polarization profiles of several hundred pulsars have been published recently (eg. Gould & Lyne 1998, GL98; Weisberg et al. 1999). In this report, we summarize the characteristics of circular and high linear polarizations of pulsar profiles, based on all previously published data.

  12. The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program Evaluation. Report 3: Longitudinal Analysis of the Impact of Master Resilience Training on Self-Reported Resilience and Psychological Health Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    psychoeducational program . Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20, 505-515. Greenberg, N., Langston, V., Fear, N. T., Jones, M., & Wessely, S. (2009). An... psychoeducational program designed to increase resilience led to improved mental health among British Royal Navy personnel. Cohn and Pakenham (2008...Finally, Gould, Greenberg, and Hetherton (2007) found that a psychoeducational program geared toward understanding symptoms of stress reactions

  13. From Eden to Agora: The E-Learning Trading Zone | Sturm | Critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E-learning is not just a learning and teaching innovation; it also signals a shift in human cognition and communication. The lexicon of e-learning borrows from the barren lexicon of information science: of users, usage and usability (Gould and Lewis, 1985), or of information-seeking and affordances (Pirolli and Card, 1999).

  14. Urban and rural land use in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez; Maya Quinones; Michael E. Jimenez

    2008-01-01

    We have developed three land use regions for Puerto Rico: Urban, Suburban, and Rural (Gould et al. 2008; Martinuzzi et al. 2007). These three regions can also be considered urban, densely-populated rural, and sparsely-populated rural or as urban and wildland with a wildland-urban interface. The suburban use is the most dynamic in terms of population growth and land...

  15. CQ No. 25

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-10

    Jun 10, 2013 ... The author would like to thank Elona Toska, Chandré. Gould, Bill Dixon, Anthony Collins and an anonymous reviewer for their very helpful comments on earlier draft of this paper. ** Andrew Faull is a doctoral researcher based at the. Centre for Criminology, University of Oxford. Violence, masculinity and.

  16. CQ No. 25

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the daughter of a Lutheran church pastor, Rev LD. Gcaba. The child of ... father wanted me to teach but I chose nursing. Chandré Gould ... When we had to pray we would mention the same names, sometimes getting them mixed up, just saying them to impress our father. But in high school I started to see that something was ...

  17. Psychological factors in developing high performance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael

    2017-01-01

    Top-level athletes are often said to have extraordinary personalities and special psychological characteristics (Gould, Dieffenbach & Moffett, 2002). This is not surprising when considering the many years of training needed to achieve athletic success. This long-term engagement in intense training...

  18. CQ No. 25

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chandré Gould (CG): Rachel, you and your colleagues have conducted more extensive and sustained research on gender-based violence in. South Africa than any other research outfit. Do we know enough about rape and intimate partner violence, both in terms of risk factors for perpetration and in terms of what might work ...

  19. How Research Helped Us to Move from Awareness to Action and Then to Systems Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Patricia; Grant, Jim

    2004-01-01

    How can an organisation move from awareness raising, in the form of natural history poster production, to the development of systems that change organisations? Through close integration of research and practice, the Gould League has achieved this transformation. It began with extensive research into best practice environmental education, going…

  20. Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Regulators Workshop: Lessons from Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E. Ian

    2015-09-03

    Ian Baring-Gould presented these lessons learned from wind energy to an audience of marine hydrokinetic regulators. Lessons learned spanned the areas of technology advances, using collaborative approaches to involve key stakeholders; using baseline studies to measure and prioritize wildlife impacts, and look at avoidance and mitigation options early in the process.

  1. Editorial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gould desisted thinking of evolution as some sort of progression, and often offered instances which showed the importance of historical and structural constraints. (Vagaries of history show up in the most unexpected of places. Things often cannot be perfectly planned, otherwise you wouldn't be reading an editorial for an ...

  2. saosakwe@yahoo.com Chemical Speciation and Mobility of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Chemical Speciation and Mobility of Some Heavy Metals in Soils around Automobile. Waste Dumpsites in Northern ... dumpsites in Northern part of Niger Delta was assessed using Tessier et al. five syteps sequential chemical extraction procedure. ...... Traceinorganics in water Gould, R.F. (ed) Advances in Chemistry Series ...

  3. Subterranean sympatry: An investigation into diet using stable isotope analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Robb, GN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ?302. 7. Abbott I, Abbott LK, Grant PR (1977) Comparative ecology of Galapagos ground finches (Geospiza, Gould): evaluation of the importance of floristic diversity and interspecific competition. Ecol Monogr 47: 151?184. 8. Bennett NC (1989) The social...

  4. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LTCHarms

    In other words, as George Orwell would have said, 'all languages are equal but. English is more equal than others.' The simple fact is that languages in a multi- cultural society are not equal. One may agree with Stephen Jay Gould that English has become the lingua franca, of scientific discourse (The Hedgehog, the Fox ...

  5. Adult Development: Implications for Adult Education. Overview. ERIC Digest No. 41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Michele

    Various researchers, including Carl Jung, Charlotte Buhler, Erik Erikson, and Robert Havighurst, have formulated sequential models of adult development. More recent investigators, such as Daniel Levinson, Roger Gould, and Gail Sheehy have formulated age-related sequential models of adult development that view the various stages of adulthood in…

  6. Corruption and the Body Politic in Post-Colonial Ghana: A Re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption has been an important subject of analysis by social scientists for many years (Bayley 1966; Huntington 1968, 1990; Gould 1980, 1989; Ali 1985; Crowder 1987; Kimenyi 1987; Alam 1989; Mbaku 1991; Couch et. al. 1992 etc.). In the 1960s, however, two major events rekindled interest in the study of corruption, ...

  7. Planck intermediate results XXXV. Probing the role of the magnetic field in the formation of structure in molecular clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.

    2016-01-01

    Within ten nearby (d <450 pc) Gould belt molecular clouds we evaluate statistically the relative orientation between the magnetic field projected on the plane of sky, inferred from the polarized thermal emission of Galactic dust observed by Planck at 353 GHz, and the gas column density structures...

  8. Extension of shelf life of garri by hygienic handling and sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Similar findings have been reported for foods preserved by combination of preservative factors (Gould, 1988;. Leistner, 1994; Beuchat, 1997; Efiuvwevwere and Isiah,. 1998). The significantly fewer groups of microorganisms genera isolated from the hygienically handled garri samples as opposed to the 12 genera isolated ...

  9. On the record: Sindiswa Chikunga, Chairperson of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chandré Gould interviews Sindisiwe (better known as Sindi) Chikunga, Chair of the Parliamentary Portfolio Committee on Police, about the work of the Committee, and what she thinks is needed to fix the problems in the South African Police Service (SAPS).

  10. Rearing and growth of the Octopus Robsonella fontaniana (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) from planktonic hatchlings to benthic juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte, Iker; Hernández, Jorge; Dörner, Jessica; Paschke, Kurt; Farías, Ana; Crovetto, Enzo; Rosas, Carlos

    2010-04-01

    Globally, octopus larviculture is one of the challenges faced in the attempt to diversify aquaculture and achieve cephalopod farming. Currently, only juveniles of Octopus vulgaris, Octopus joubini, and Enteroctopus dofleini have been obtained at an experimental level. This is the first study to look at the characteristics of planktonic and benthic Robsonella fontaniana juveniles in an effort to analyze the morphometric changes occurring during their planktonic and benthic phases and to explore the feasibility of obtaining settlement under controlled conditions. The morphometric measurements varied exponentially over time and did not show different tendencies before and after settlement. Mantle growth in relation to total length fit a logarithmic regression, whereas arm length and eye diameter increased linearly with respect to total length throughout the entire paralarval and juvenile periods. This suggests that the size of the mantle decreases with age in proportion to the total octopus length, whereas the organs more directly involved in catching prey tend to increase in direct proportion to the total length. The present study shows that R. fontaniana can be reared from hatching through the final paralarval stage on a diet of Lithodes santolla (king crab) zoeae; after settlement, the juveniles can be reared on a diet of crab such as Petrolisthes.

  11. Birds, Lower Sangay National Park, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara, E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sangay National Park is located at the mid-eastern Andean foothills of the Cordillera Oriental ofEcuador. We present a preliminary avifauna inventory corresponding to the lower zone of the Sangay NationalPark (SNP. One-hundred and twenty-seven bird species belonging to 39 families were recorded, includingnoteworthy records that represent range extensions for four species, Phaetornis hispidus (Gould 1846 (WhitebeardedHermit, Ramphastos ambiguus Swainson 1823 (Black-mandibled Toucan, Phylloscartes orbitalis(Cabanis 1873 (Spectacled Bristle Tyrant, and Microcerculus bambla (Boddaert 1783 (Wing-banded Wren.We also obtained information on threatened species such as Aburria aburri (Lesson 1828 (Wattled Guan,Phlogophilus hemileucurus Gould 1860 (Ecuadorian Piedtail, and Dendroica cerulea (Wilson 1810 (CeruleanWarbler and reproductive data on one species, Patagioenas speciosa (Gmelin 1789 (Scaled Pigeon. To ourknowledge this is a first ornithological survey carried out at this specific site of the SNP.

  12. Trémaux on species: a theory of allopatric speciation (and punctuated equilibrium) before Wagner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, John S; Nelson, Gareth J

    2008-01-01

    Pierre Trémaux's 1865 ideas on speciation have been unjustly derided following his acceptance by Marx and rejection by Engels, and almost nobody has read his ideas in a charitable light. Here we offer an interpretation based on translating the term sol as "habitat," in order to show that Trémaux proposed a theory of allopatric speciation before Wagner and a punctuated equilibrium theory before Gould and Eldredge, and we translate the relevant discussion from the French. We believe he may have influenced Darwin's revision to the third edition of the Origin on rates of evolution. We also suggest that Gould's dismissal of Trémaux is motivated by concern that others might think punctuated equilibrium theory was tainted by a connection with Trémaux.

  13. Testing of sealed lead-acid batteries. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, D.M.; Sealey, J.D.; Miller, D.W.

    1985-05-01

    In early January 1981, Sandia began testing sealed lead-acid batteries which were being developed under Sandia contracts. Goal was to develop a totally maintenance-free sealed lead-acid battery capable of deep-discharge operation in a photovoltaic power system. During contracts with Gould and Eagle-Picher, batteries were received quarterly and placed on test. Testing of these batteries has now been completed. With proper charging, battery life averaged over 800 deep cycles. This was achieved with both the standard NEMA cycle test as well as a partial state of charge test. Charging voltages above 2.50 volts per cell appeared to be detrimental to the performance of the Gould batteries.

  14. Sealed lead-acid batteries for solar applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, D.; Sealey, D.

    1984-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is involved in the development of sealed lead-acid batteries capable of deep-discharge operation. This effort is an extension of existing technology employing an immobilized, starved electrolyte system with internal recombination of oxygen. Since watering is not required and there is no acid mist to cause external corrosion, the battery is maintenance-free. During contracts with Gould and Eagle-Picher, batteries were received quarterly and placed on test. With few exceptions, testing of these batteries has been completed. With proper charging, battery life averaged over 800 deep cycles. This was achieved with both the standard NEMA cycle test as well as a partial state of charge test. Charging voltages above 2.50 volts per cell appeared to be detrimental to the performance of the Gould batteries.

  15. Sealed lead-acid batteries for solar applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, D.; Sealey, D.

    1984-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is involved in the development of sealed lead-acid batteries capable of deep-discharge operation. This effort is an extension of existing technology employing an immobilized, starved electrolyte system with internal recombination of oxygen. Since watering is not required and there is no acid mist to cause external corrosion, the battery is maintenance-free. During contracts with Gould and Eagle-Picher, batteries were received quarterly and placed on test. With few exceptions, testing of these batteries has been completed. With proper charging, battery life averaged over 800 deep cycles. This was achieved with both the standard NEMA cycle test as well as a partial state of charge test. Charging voltages above 2.50 volts per cell appeared to be detrimental to the performance of the Gould batteries.

  16. S.J. Goulda koncepcja rozłącznych magisteriów nauki i wiary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Herda

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many different approaches to the problem of the relation between science and religion. It is often claimed that there exists a conflict between those two domains. However, S. J. Gould cannot see neither how the two enterprises can stay in any conflict nor how they can be reconciled or unified. He developed a concept of two Non-Overlapping Magisteria (NOMA. Gould claims that science and religion are characterized by completely different areas of investigation. The two magisteria ask different questions and provide different explanations. Science investigates the factual character of the natural world while religion explores the world of values, meanings and purposes of human life. One could say that this is a reasonable point of view, but at a closer glance it does not seem to be a satisfactory solution.

  17. Adaptación e implementación de un programa de intervención en la escuela a través de la educación física: el Programa de responsabilidad personal y social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marín Suelves

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas ha aumentado en padres y educadores la preocupación por el fracaso y la violencia escolar (Fraser-Thomas, Côté, & Deakin, 2005; Hawkins, Catalano, Kosterman, Abbot, & Hill, 1999. Por ello, han surgido programas para mejorar las competencias personales y sociales de sus participantes (Brustad & Parker, 2005; Gould & Carson, 2008 mediante la actividad física y el deporte (Petitpas, Cornelius, Van Raalte, & Jones, 2005; Sandford, Armour, & Warmington, 2006; Wright & Burton, 2008. Muchos de estos programas se desarrollan en las clases de educación física por ser este un contexto idóneo para el desarrollo positivo (Gould & Carson, 2008, por las horas de permanencia en la escuela (Ward, Saunders, & Pate, 2007 y por las posibilidades para el aprendizaje de valores útiles en la escuela y en la vida (Sandford et al., 2006.

  18. Evaluations of Threshold and Curvature Mixed Layer Depths by Various Mixing Schemes in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. REPORT...initialized based on the 1/8° climatological monthly mean temperature and salinity fields from the Generalized Digital Environmental Model (CDEM) clima ...during 2003-2006. 5.1. Profile data and quality control In situ T and S profiles were acquired from three data sources: (1) Argo float data (Gould

  19. Assessing Israeli Military Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    tactical and operational performance in the 1967 Arab-Israeli War. This attitude they had was a result of the lightning quick fashion they had achieved...invented to describe lightning attack utilizing combined-arms teams) against Egyptian fixed defenses, most notably in areas such as Rafah and Abu Ageila... balls …. You’ll never know what assets you’ll need on the ground to protect American interests” (Gould, 2014). 48 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT

  20. Disease: H00686 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ophthalmos, a bifid or notched nose, and anal anomalies. MOTA syndrome is inherited in an autosomal recessiv...AE Manitoba Oculotrichoanal (MOTA) syndrome: report of eight new cases. Am J Med Genet A 143A:853-7 (2007) P...san MG, Gould DB, Madireddy L, Li C, Cox TC, Smyth I, Chudley AE, Zenker M Manitoba-oculo-tricho-anal (MOTA) syndrome is cause

  1. Farming subsidy reform dividends

    OpenAIRE

    Lattimore, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    A great deal has been written on the subject of ‘Farming without Subsidies’ in New Zealand. This paper draws heavily on much of that work, particularly Sandry and Reynolds (1990), Meat and Wool NZ (2005), Vitalis (2005), Gould (1982), Johnson and Forbes (2000), Lattimore (1987), Rayner et al (1991), Evans et al (1996), Silverstone et al (1996), Federated Farmers (2002) and Morrison et al (2000). Dalziel and Lattimore (2004) has a comprehensive bibliography of the business, economic, sociology...

  2. Resource effective control of Elymus repens

    OpenAIRE

    Ringselle, B.; Andersson, L.; Bergkvist, G.; Aronsson, H.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary results show that there is room for improvement within existing control methods of couch grass (Elymus repens (L.) Gould). It may be possible to reduce the number of stubble cultivations during autumn by timing the treatment, and to reduce the cultivation depth by using a goose foot cultivator (5 cm) instead of a disc cultivator (10 cm), without sacrificing couch grass control efficiency. The first year of the experiment, the use of a goose foot cultivator resulted in less nitroge...

  3. Mechanical Limits to Size in Wave-Swept Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-10

    predation on Daphnia by rainbow trout and yellow perch. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 96:1-10. Galilei , Galileo (1638) Discorsie e...nature (.., Galilei 1638, Thompson 1917, Haldane 1928). Various patterns have been noted in the ecological roles of orgenisms of different sizes...skeletons would deflect too much, break, buckle, or be too bulky to be moved (e.g., Galilei 1638, Haldane 1928, Gould 1966, Currey 1970, MacMahon 1973

  4. Birds, Lower Sangay National Park, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara, E.; Santander, T.; GUEVARA, J. E.; Gualotuña, R.; Ortiz, V.

    2010-01-01

    Sangay National Park is located at the mid-eastern Andean foothills of the Cordillera Oriental of Ecuador. We present a preliminary avifauna inventory corresponding to the lower zone of the Sangay National Park (SNP). One-hundred and twenty-seven bird species belonging to 39 families were recorded, including noteworthy records that represent range extensions for four species, Phaetornis hispidus (Gould 1846) (White-bearded Hermit), Ramphastos ambiguus Swainson 1823 (Black-mandibled Toucan), P...

  5. Stoch-aptation: a new term in evolutionary biology and paleontology

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Following two seminal papers published in the journal Paleobiology by Stephen Jay Gould and Elisabeth Vrba several decades ago, I suggest a new term (stoch-aptation) to refer to those individual traits or sets of traits that provide, just by chance, fitness adventages to species when faced with catastrophes (i.e. geological events triggering massive mortality), and that may lead to the origin of taxonomical entities above the species level. I provide as an example of s...

  6. Novel Therapeutic Targets to Treat Social Behavior Deficits in Autism and Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    electronically file Invention Disclosures and Patent Applications using the Interagency Edison (iEdison) system through the National Institutes of...40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 17 acetaminophen and some SSRIs (Deacon, 2006; Thomas et al., 2009; Gould et al., 2012...disorders. Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America. 17, 753-771. Thomas , A., Burant, A., Bui, N., Graham, D., Yuva-Paylor, L.A

  7. Wind Energy Workforce Development: A Roadmap to a Wind Energy Educational Infrastructure (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2011-05-01

    Wind Powering America national technical director Ian Baring-Gould made this presentation about workforce development in the wind energy industry to an audience at the American Wind Energy Association's annual WINDPOWER conference in Anaheim. The presentation outlines job projections from the 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report and steps to take at all levels of educational institutions to meet those projections.

  8. Complexity and Chaos - State-of-the-Art; Formulations and Measures of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    multiple and overlapping functions will limit reduction in biology; [11] which discusses the application to public policy in forestry ; [247] which...Science: a reply to Cohen, P. In SUPPE, F (ed.). The Structure of Scientific Theories. Urbana , IL: University of Urbana Press, 1973, 350-360. [7...253-268. [11] ALLEN, GM; GOULD, EM. Complexity, Wickedness and Public Forests. Journal of Forestry , 1986, 84, 20-23. [12] ANDERSON, AR; BELNAP, ND

  9. An Annotated Bibliography on Tactical Map Display Symbology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    reaching different maxima for each of the three coding schemes studied. From the present viewpoint, therefore, it is not meaningful to summarize...substantially altered. In that instance a four-choice response-time task is recommended. 099 Grice , G. R., Canham, L., & Boroughs, J. M. (1983). Forest...Gorrell, E. L. (094) Gould, J. D. (095) Green, B. F. (096) Green, P. A. (097) (098) Grice , G. R. (099) Gutmann, J. C. (145) 103 H Hagman, J. D. (033) Hake

  10. Disease: H00207 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available , Braverman NE, Moser AB, Moser HW Peroxisome biogenesis disorders. Biochim Bioph...ys Acta 1763:1733-48 (2006) PMID:15679822 Wanders RJ, Waterham HR Peroxisomal disorders I: biochemistry and ...genetics of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. Clin Genet 67:107-33 (2005) PMID:11478383 Powers JM Normal and ...defective neuronal membranes: structure and function: neuronal lesions in peroxisomal disorders.... J Mol Neurosci 16:285-7; discussion 317-21 (2001) PMID:10904262 Gould SJ, Valle D Peroxisome biogenesis disorders

  11. Disease: H00204 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MID:17055079 Steinberg SJ, Dodt G, Raymond GV, Braverman NE, Moser AB, Moser HW Peroxisome biogenesis disorders.... Biochim Biophys Acta 1763:1733-48 (2006) PMID:15679822 Wanders RJ, Waterham HR Peroxisomal disorders I:... biochemistry and genetics of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. Clin Genet 67:107-...33 (2005) PMID:10904262 Gould SJ, Valle D Peroxisome biogenesis disorders: genetics and cell biology. Trends...chemical abnormalities, and phenotypic heterogeneity in peroxisome biogenesis disorders. J Med Genet 36:779-81 (1999) ...

  12. Teaching the Classics: The Origin of Species as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Many (including the author) argue that reading the classics in the field should be part of a scientist's education. However, how you read the classics can be very different depending on whether you read them as a historian or as a practicing scientist. This point will be made by comparing two readings of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species, and by looking at the use that Stephen Jay Gould made of the history of science in his quest to promote his scientific ideas.

  13. Houma Navigation Canal Deepening Project Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana: Cultural Resources Literature Search, Records Review and Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    except in the City; connected by a platform raised upon them upon hogs lard is made its substitute in all culinary which .... Platform they carry Horses...of Engineers. siana Department of Culture, Recreation and Tourism , Baton Rouge. Glass, J.S. (Publisher) 1901 The Southern Manufacturer. Volume V...Department of Culture Recreation and of Transportation and Development, Ba- Tourism , Baton Rouge. ton Rouge. Gould, E.W. Harris, Frederic R., Inc. 1951

  14. Orgasm Induced Seizures: A Rare Phenomenon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006;47:2193‑7. 6. Janszky J, Ebner A, Szupera Z, Schulz R, Hollo A,. Szücs A, et al. Orgasmic aura – A report of seven cases. Seizure. 2004;13:441‑4. 7. Sengupta A, Mahmoud A, Tun SZ, Goulding P. Orgasm‑induced seizures: Male studied with ictal electroencephalography. Seizure 2010;19:306‑9. 8. Bancaud J, Favel P, ...

  15. Gender Differences in Competitive Balance in Intercollegiate Basketball

    OpenAIRE

    Jaret Treber; Rachel Levy; Victor Matheson

    2011-01-01

    This paper adds to the literature on competitive balance in college sports by comparing men's and women's NCAA basketball. Using data from the Division I National Championships, we find evidence consistent with the idea that women’s college basketball is less competitively balanced than men’s college basketball. We argue that this difference may be explained by a theory of player ability borrowed from evolutionary biology first promulgated by paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould and subsequently ...

  16. Characterization of the Pathological and Biochemical Markers that Correlate to the Clinical Features of Autism: The Neuropathological Markers of Abnormal Brain Development and Aging in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    autism brain may contribute to defi cits in expres- sion of emotions , processing of social stimuli, learning of social behaviors, verbal and nonverbal...Feineis-Matthews, D. Prvulovic, T. Dierks, and F. Poustka (2006). Facial affect recognition training in autism : Can we animate the fusiform gyrus...Topography, and Sequelae of Neuropathological Changes 27 Howlin, P., L. Wing, and J. Gould. 1995. The recognition of autism in children with Down syndrome

  17. The Weighted Airman Promotion System: Standardizing Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Imagery Analysis 1N2X1 Communications Signals Intelligence 1N3X0 Cryptologic Linguist (Superintendent) 1N3X1 Germanic Cryptologic Linguist 1N3X2 Romance ...different scoring method would also need to be developed. Such a plan would have to consider the psychological and perceived sensi- tivities to changing... Psychological Association, 1997. Shore, C. Wayne, and R. Bruce Gould, Revalidation of WAPS and SNCOPP, Volume I: Background, Procedure, and Statistical

  18. Biafra Still Matters: Contested Humanitarian Airlift and American Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    cultural exclusivity and influence of the Igbo ”carpetbaggers.” The British certainly understood these dynamics and incorporated them into their...Coup Culture ,1966-1976 (New York: Algora Pub., 2009), 47 26 Siollun, 44 27 Siollun, 42. 28 Gould, 5. 29 Baxter, 12. 16 As head of state...Flughjalp (Aid by Air in English) and registered it in Iceland . Flughjalp consolidated all of Transavia DC-6Bs.57 The combination of the DC-6Bs

  19. Exaptation, adaptation, and evolutionary psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Armin

    2013-01-01

    One of the most well known methodological criticisms of evolutionary psychology is Gould's claim that the program pays too much attention to adaptations, and not enough to exaptations. Almost as well known is the standard rebuttal of that criticism: namely, that the study of exaptations in fact depends on the study of adaptations. However, as I try to show in this paper, it is premature to think that this is where this debate ends. First, the notion of exaptation that is commonly used in this debate is different from the one that Gould and Vrba originally defined. Noting this is particularly important, since, second, the standard reply to Gould's criticism only works if the criticism is framed in terms of the former notion of exaptation, and not the latter. However, third, this ultimately does not change the outcome of the debate much, as evolutionary psychologists can respond to the revamped criticism of their program by claiming that the original notion of exaptation is theoretically and empirically uninteresting. By discussing these issues further, I also seek to determine, more generally, which ways of approaching the adaptationism debate in evolutionary biology are useful, and which not.

  20. Individual prey choices of octopuses: Are they generalist or specialist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. MATHER, Tatiana S. LEITE, Allan T. BATISTA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Prey choice is often evaluated at the species or population level. Here, we analyzed the diet of octopuses of different populations with the aim to assess the importance of individual feeding habits as a factor affecting prey choice. Two methods were used, an assessment of the extent to which an individual octopus made choices of species representative of those population (PSi and IS and 25% cutoff values for number of choices and percentage intake of individual on their prey. In one population of Octopus cf vulgaris in Bermuda individuals were generalist by IS=0.77, but most chose many prey of the same species, and were specialists on it by >75% intake. Another population had a wider prey selection, still generalist with PSi=0.66, but two individuals specialized by choices. In Bonaire, there was a wide range of prey species chosen, and the population was specialists by IS= 0.42. Individual choices revealed seven specialists and four generalists. A population of Octopus cyanea in Hawaii all had similar choices of crustaceans, so the population was generalist by IS with 0.74. But by individual choices, three were considered a specialist. A population of Enteroctopus dofleini from Puget Sound had a wide range of preferences, in which seven were also specialists, IS=0.53. By individual choices, thirteen were also specialists. Given the octopus specialty of learning during foraging, we hypothesize that both localized prey availability and individual personality differences could influence the exploration for prey and this translates into different prey choices across individuals and populations showed in this study [Current Zoology 58 (4: 597-603, 2012].

  1. Beam--plasma instabilities and the beam--plasma discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, P.J.; Boswell, R.W.

    1986-05-01

    Using a new electron gun, a number of measurements bearing on the generation of beam--plasma discharge (BPD) in WOMBAT (waves on magnetized beams and turbulence) (R. W. Boswell and P. J. Kellogg, Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 565 (1983)) have been made. A beam--plasma discharge is an rf discharge in which the rf fields are provided by instabilities (W. D. Getty and L. D. Smullin, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3421 (1963)). The new gun has a narrower divergence angle than the old, and comparison of the BPD thresholds for the two guns verifies that the BPD ignition current is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the plasma. The high-frequency instabilities, precursors to the BPD, are identified with the two Trivelpiece--Gould modes (A. W. Trivelpiece and R. W. Gould, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 1784 (1959)). Which frequency appears depends on the neutral pressure. The measured frequencies are not consistent with the simple interpretation of the lower frequency as a Cerenkov resonance with the low-Trivelpiece--Gould mode; it must be a cyclotron resonance. As is generally true in such beam--plasma interaction experiments, strong low-frequency waves appear at currents far below those necessary for BPD ignition. These low-frequency waves are shown to control the onset of the high-frequency precursors to the BPD. A mechanism for this control is suggested, which involves the conversion of a convective instability to an absolute one by trapping of the unstable waves in the density perturbations of the low-frequency waves. This process greatly reduces the current necessary for BPD ignition.

  2. The role of growth stop as a morphogenetic factor in Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia: Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadda, Carlo; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated growth patterns under three different environmental conditions in a single population of the rodent Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia, Muridae) in Morogoro, Tanzania. The study aimed to test whether and how post-weaning ontogenetic processes are affected by different...... there was a continuity between both rainfall peaks. Analyses of size and shape following both Huxley-Jolicoeur and Gould-Mosimann approaches revealed that the three groups differ significantly both in size and shape. In both cases, the importance of the environment in assessing growth trajectories during post...

  3. The Frenkel Kontorova Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floría, L. M.; Baesens, C.; Gómez-Gardeñes, J.

    In the preface to his monograph on the structure of Evolutionary Theory [1], the late professor Stephen Jay Gould attributes to the philosopher Immanuel Kant the following aphorism in Science Philosophy: "Percepts without concepts are blind; concepts without percepts are empty". Using with a bit of freedom these Kantian terms, one would say that a scientific model is a framework (or network) of interrelated concepts and percepts where experts build up scientific consistent explanations of a given set of observations. Good models are those which are both, conceptually simple and universal in their perceptions. Let us illustrate with examples the meaning of this statement.

  4. The development of an automated flight test management system for flight test planning and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Marle D.; Tartt, David M.; Duke, Eugene L.; Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Brumbaugh, Randal W.

    1988-01-01

    The development of an automated flight test management system (ATMS) as a component of a rapid-prototyping flight research facility for AI-based flight systems concepts is described. The rapid-prototyping facility includes real-time high-fidelity simulators, numeric and symbolic processors, and high-performance research aircraft modified to accept commands for a ground-based remotely augmented vehicle facility. The flight system configuration of the ATMS includes three computers: the TI explorer LX and two GOULD SEL 32/27s.

  5. Towards a Philosophy of Science for Black - White Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-20

    methodology has an ideology ( Habermas , 1975), and this ideology differs from my own. In taking this position I affirm the ineluctable presence of ideology in...groups and across belief systems ( Habermas , 1975). The thesis of this paper is that truth is elusive -- a construct with no counterpart in reality. In...R. A. Race and Races; New York: Macmillan, 1971 Gould, S. J. The Mismeasure of Man; New York: W. W. Norton, 1981 I/1988/595OB/DMP(32) - 33 - Habermas

  6. Disease: H00205 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP1) [DS:H00207] Peroxisome biogenesis disorder (PBD) is a group of lethal disorders...nberg SJ, Dodt G, Raymond GV, Braverman NE, Moser AB, Moser HW ... TITLE ... Peroxisome biogenesis disorders. ....010 ... PMID:15679822 ... AUTHORS ... Wanders RJ, Waterham HR ... TITLE ... Peroxisomal disorders I: biochemistry an...d genetics of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. ... JOURNAL ... Clin Genet 67:107-33 (2005) DOI:10.1111/j.1399-00...04.2004.00329.x ... PMID:10904262 ... AUTHORS ... Gould SJ, Valle D ... TITLE ... Peroxisome biogenesis disorders: ge

  7. Las comunidades de mitilidos del mediolitoral rocoso del departamento de Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 34 muestras de los conglomerados de mitilidos de la zona medio litoral rocosa del Departamento de Lima, (10°45'38"S a 12°57'39"S, tomadas periódicamente, entre junio y noviembre de 1972. Utilizando el método del índice biológico, se determinó la existencia de dos comunidades: Comunidad de Perumytilus purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819, en el horizonte medio de la zona mediolitoral. Comunidad de Semimytilus algosus (Gould, 1850, en el horizonte inferior de la zona mediolitoral.

  8. Development of Conventional and Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays to Detect Tembusu Virus in Culex tarsalis Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-11

    reaction buffer, additional 3 mMMgSO4, 5 mg bovine serum albumin (Roche, Pleasanton, CA), 1 mL each 18 mM forward and reverse primers, and 1 mL 5 mM...Lamballerie X, Qin CF, Gould EA, Su J, Gao GF, 2012. Genomic and antigenic characterization of the newly emerging Chinese duck egg -drop syndrome...Mok NS, Wang P, Wang M, Tian K, Gao GF, 2011. Duck egg -drop syndrome caused by BYD virus, a new Tembusu-related flavivirus. PLoS One 6: e18106. 10

  9. Padronização da pesquisa de linfonodos sentinelas em estômago por métodos combinados : estudo experimental em coelhos = Standardization of sentinel lymph node navigation in stomach by combined methods: experimental study in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    José Roberto Alves

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Introdução - Com os estudos de Gould et al. (1960), Cabanas (1977) e Morton et al. (1992), estabeleceu-se o conceito da pesquisa do linfonodo sentinela. Esse se baseia na teoria de que ao identificar a presença ou ausência de metástase no primeiro linfonodo que recebe a drenagem linfática a partir do tumor (sentinela), poderia representar o estado de acometimento dos outros linfonodos. Isto evitaria a realização desnecessária de linfadenectomias. Com o passar dos anos, foi consagrada ...

  10. First record of the genus Dermatobranchus van Hasselt, 1824, in the Mediterranean Sea (Nudibranchia: Arminidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. COLUCCI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Three individuals of a nudibranch belonging to the genus Dermatobranchus (Arminidae were found at a depth of 3 meters, in a bottom with sand and gravel, during night SCUBA diving activity in Porto Pirrone, Leporano (Taranto, Apulia, Italy. The external morphology and coloration of these Mediterranean individuals clearly resemble those of D. rubidus (Gould, 1852, a species known only from the central and western Pacific Ocean. This is the first record of the genus Dermatobranchus van Hasselt, 1824 for the Mediterranean Sea.

  11. A new species of Nassarius (Gastropoda, Nassariidae from Canopus Bank, off Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Abbate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nassarius levis sp. nov. is described from Canopus Bank, off Ceará, Northeast Brazil, based on shell morphology. It differs from other Brazilian species of the genus in having a more elongate shell, with a weakly developed parietal shield and a notably smooth surface. This last trait has not yet been described among the Western Atlantic Nassarius, but it is common to other congeners from the Eastern Atlantic, such as Nassarius elatus (Gould, 1845 and the Indo-Pacific, such as Nassarius excellens (Kuroda & Habe, 1961.

  12. Emergence and Frustration of Magnetism with Variable-Range Interactions in a Quantum Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    2 November 2012; accepted 8 February 2013 10.1126/science.1232296 REPORTS Kepler -62: A Five-Planet System with Planets of 1.4 and 1.6 Earth Radii in...13 Mark E. Everett,20 Eric B. Ford,21 Jonathan Fortney,8 Thomas N. Gautier III,22 John C. Geary,3 Alan Gould,23 Michael Haas,1 Christopher Henze,1...Joshua N. Winn30 We present the detection of five planets— Kepler -62b, c, d, e, and f—of size 1.31, 0.54, 1.95, 1.61 and 1.41 Earth radii (R⊕), orbiting a

  13. Athletes' and coaches' perceptions of sport psychology services offered by graduate students at one NCAA Division I university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, Noah B; Fisher, Leslee A; Wrisberg, Craig A

    2004-02-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing calls for graduate programs in sport psychology to include supervised practicum experiences. While supervision and applied experience is vital to the professional growth of graduate students, periodic evaluations are also needed to determine students' effectiveness in providing sport psychology services. This study represented an initial attempt to assess athletes' and coaches' perceptions of services provided by graduate students at one NCAA Division I university. Analyses showed 118 participants' ratings of consultants' effectiveness were comparable to those provided by U.S. Olympic athletes for professional consultants in earlier research by Gould, Murphy, Tammen, and May.

  14. Oral Vaccination Against Anthrax Using a Transgenic Plant Expressing Protective Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    34 Anal. Biochem. 169:227-223. 10. Gould, J., M. Devey, 0. Hasegawa, E.C. Ulian, G. Peterson, and R.H. Smith (1991) "Transformation of Zea mays L. using...Against Anthrax Using a Transgenic Plant Expressing Protective Antigen PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Karen K. Oishi CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: CropTech/Vet...COVERED I September 1996 Final - Phase I, 15 Auxg 95-14 Aug 96 4. TITLE AND 9UBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Oral Vaccination Against Anthrax Using a Transgenic

  15. Suppressive Effect of Some Forage Plants on the Growth of Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Iva xanthiifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senka Milanova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A pot trial in greenhouse conditions has been carried out to investigate the role ofsome plant species in suppression of Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Iva xanthiifolia growth.Screening of several plant species (Medicago sativa L., Lolium perenne L., Dactylis glomerataL. and Elymus repens (L. Gould – all from both turf and seeds was conducted. Theresults of the experiment showed that some perennial plants, especially L. perenne, D.glomerata and M. sativa, can be a reliable means of suppression of the growth and seedproduction of A. artemisiifolia and I. xanthiifolia. Moreover, simple greenhouse screeningturned to be a reliable method for predicting this potential suppressive role under certainconditions.

  16. The Influence of Blade Profile and Slots on the Performance of a Centrifugal Impeller (Influence du Profil de Pales et Fentes sur la Performance d’un Ventilateur Centrifuge),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Engine Laboratory/Laboratoire des moteur . Divetor/Directeur qh & SUMMARY As part of the program of studies on centrifugal impellers, the problem of...supply of high energy air into the boundary layer, in the hope of keeping it attached. On the basis of Gould’s use of aerofoil-type generators on the...boundary layer on the wing lower surface are just separate". In other words, the gap must be wide enough to allow a jet of free -stream air from the

  17. Counter-Checking Tycho Double Stars with the SDSS DR9 Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Wilfried

    2017-01-01

    As already reported (Knapp and Gould 2016), most Tycho Double Star objects in the WDS catalog are unconfirmed. Small separation and faint components make these objects hard to resolve either by visual observation or by imaging in the V-band and only few public domain star catalogs offer resolution for stars with less than 2-3 arcseconds. One exception is the SDSS DR9 catalog based on images with a resolution of 0.396 arcseconds per pixel. This report shows that SDSS DR9 is of good use for counter-checking double stars down to a separation of 1.5 arcseconds or even less.

  18. Easily Stated but Hard Statistical Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    contains presence-absence data of the six species of ground finches in genus Geospiza on 23 Galapagos islands. The data are taken from Meeter (1986) who...r* (A O (/) rf »—• P r* W <-t H- ►- H V H- in (/I H- (/) at w tn w OJ CM w w M OJ w o o o o ►- •- Darwin H P» ^ o o o o...Comparative ecology of Galapagos ground finches (Geospiza Gould): Evaluation of the importance of floristic diversity and interspecific competition

  19. Electrode surface rf harmonics generated by the nonlinear sheath in a coaxial capacitive rf discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savas, S.E. (Applied Materials, Santa Clara, CA (USA))

    1989-07-01

    rf harmonics of the 13.56 MHz excitation signal have been measured on the electrode surface in a large coaxial capacitive discharge. These are seen to have from 10% of the fundamental amplitude for the second harmonic to between 1% and 4% for the third and fourth harmonics. There is evidence that these modes propragate as TEM surface waves (Gould-Trivelpiece modes) along the length of the electrode. The Telegrapher's equations can be written for the system with non-constant shunt capacitance and admittance. The resulting nonlinear equation for the sheath voltage is solved for the harmonics to yield approximate agreement with their observed magnitudes.

  20. Research Laboratory of Electronics Annual Report Number 125.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Students S. Alias, L. Brewer, S.L. Dexheimer, C.W. Engelke, T. Gentile , P.L. Gould, B. Hughey, R.G. Hulet, M.M. Kash, P.D. Magill. A.L. Migdall, P.E...Francis, R.C. Garner, T.R. Gentile . P.. Gierszewski, K.E. Hackett, LP. Harten, D. Hinsheiwood, R.S. -C. Hu, D.K. Ingram, N.A. Ismail, K.D. Jacobs, J.L...McCormick, J.J. Paulos , J. Pineda, L.D. Seller, J. Siskind, B.C. Williams, J. T. Wroclawski 25.1 Conversion of Algorithms to Custom Integrated Circuits

  1. Origine e funzioni della tecnologia corporea del linguaggio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pennisi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis of this paper is the need of a new formulation of the question of the origin of human verbal language starting from the concept of “technology”. The paper has a regard for the possible definition of human language as “species ‐ specific” body technology applied to particular needs. So, not only the language but the whole body results a technology: thus the author reads the question of Exaptation by Gould and Vrba. So, the human verbal language represents a “speech ‐ making technology” just like the “tool ‐ making technology”, and both evolved for the same social tasks.

  2. Estructura espacial y cinemática de la componente estelar joven en el entorno solar

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Barba, David

    2005-01-01

    EN CASTELLANO:En este trabajo se ha realizado un estudio de la estructura espacial y cinemática de la componente estelar joven de la Galaxia en el entorno solar en tres escalas diferentes, que han permitido estudiar la estructura espiral galáctica, el Cinturón de Gould y la componente estelar joven en el entorno solar más cercano.Se han construido tres muestras de estrellas con datos procedentes del catálogo Hipparcos. La primera de ellas está formada por estrellas de los tipos espectrales O ...

  3. Nothing in biology makes sense except in light of theology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    This essay analyzes Theodosius Dobzhansky's famous article, "Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution," in which he presents some of his best arguments for evolution. I contend that all of Dobzhansky's arguments hinge upon sectarian claims about God's nature, actions, purposes, or duties. Moreover, Dobzhansky's theology manifests several tensions, both in the epistemic justification of his theological claims and in their collective coherence. I note that other prominent biologists--such as Mayr, Dawkins, Eldredge, Ayala, de Beer, Futuyma, and Gould--also use theology-laden arguments. I recommend increased analysis of the justification, complexity, and coherence of this theology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application and Extension of an Analytical Model of the Confined Acoustic Beam Generated by a Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    one-dimensional ==> Fourier- Fubini series. EXAMPLE Parameters ty Gould et al (1965) - was axisymmetric. 2.5M1 .a=1 I mm, c =1475 M/s ,ka = 14 -16 z 0...8217 instead, we develop a representation that is derived from the Neumann addition theorem [21], J (nR + m ) - J (nR) J (7R) L _- j-k k L ______k. (nR - mR) - k... Fubini -Ghiron solution [24] for a planar wave. First, in order to avoid ambiguities, let us convert the transform F to polar, n Fn - Vn exp(ie ) (66

  5. The Green Bank Ammonia Survey: Dense Cores under Pressure in Orion A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Helen; Friesen, Rachel K.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Rosolowsky, Erik; Offner, Stella S. R.; Matzner, Christopher D.; Myers, Philip C.; Di Francesco, James; Caselli, Paola; Alves, Felipe O.; Chacón-Tanarro, Ana; Chen, How-Huan; Chun-Yuan Chen, Michael; Keown, Jared; Punanova, Anna; Seo, Young Min; Shirley, Yancy; Ginsburg, Adam; Hall, Christine; Singh, Ayushi; Arce, Héctor G.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Martin, Peter; Redaelli, Elena

    2017-09-01

    We use data on gas temperature and velocity dispersion from the Green Bank Ammonia Survey and core masses and sizes from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Gould Belt Survey to estimate the virial states of dense cores within the Orion A molecular cloud. Surprisingly, we find that almost none of the dense cores are sufficiently massive to be bound when considering only the balance between self-gravity and the thermal and non-thermal motions present in the dense gas. Including the additional pressure binding imposed by the weight of the ambient molecular cloud material and additional smaller pressure terms, however, suggests that most of the dense cores are pressure-confined.

  6. Universe in creation a new understanding of the Big Bang and the emergence of life

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Roy G

    2018-01-01

    We know the universe has a history, but does it also have a story of self-creation to tell? Yes, in Roy R. Gould's account. He offers a compelling narrative of how the universe with no instruction other than its own laws evolved into billions of galaxies and gave rise to life, including humans who have been trying for millennia to comprehend it. Far from being a random accident, the universe is hard at work, extracting order from chaos. Making use of the best current science, Gould turns what many assume to be true about the universe on its head. The cosmos expands inward, not outward. Gravity can drive things apart, not merely together. And the universe seems to defy entropy as it becomes more ordered, rather than the other way around. Strangest of all, the universe is exquisitely hospitable to life, despite its being constructed from undistinguished atoms and a few unexceptional rules of behavior. Universe in Creation explores whether the emergence of life, rather than being a mere cosmic afterthought, may...

  7. Paleontology at the "high table"? Popularization and disciplinary status in recent paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepkoski, David

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines the way in which paleontologists used "popular books" to call for a broader "expanded synthesis" of evolutionary biology. Beginning in the 1970s, a group of influential paleontologists, including Stephen Jay Gould, Niles Eldredge, David Raup, Steven Stanley, and others, aggressively promoted a new theoretical, evolutionary approach to the fossil record as an important revision of the existing synthetic view of Darwinism. This work had a transformative effect within the discipline of paleontology. However, by the 1980s, paleontologists began making their case to a wider audience, both within evolutionary biology, and to the general public. Many of their books-for example, Eldredge's provocatively-titled Unfinished Synthesis-explicitly argued that the received synthetic view of Darwinian evolution was incomplete, and that paleontological contributions such as punctuated equilibria, the hierarchical model of macroevolution, and the study of mass extinction dynamics offered a substantial corrective to evolutionary theory. This paper argues that books-far from being "mere popularizations" of scientific ideas-played an important role in disciplinary debates surrounding evolutionary theory during the 1980s, and in particular that paleontologists like Gould and Eldredge self-consciously adopted the book format because of the importance of that genre in the history of evolutionary biology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A new species of Nassarius (Gastropoda, Nassariidae from Canopus Bank, off Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Abbate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nassarius levis sp. nov. is described from Canopus Bank, off Ceará, Northeast Brazil, based on shell morphology. It differs from other Brazilian species of the genus in having a more elongate shell, with a weakly developed parietal shield and a notably smooth surface. This last trait has not yet been described among the Western Atlantic Nassarius, but it is common to other congeners from the Eastern Atlantic, such as Nassarius elatus (Gould, 1845 and the Indo-Pacific, such as Nassarius excellens (Kuroda & Habe, 1961.Nassarius levis sp. nov. é descrita para o banco de Canopus, estado do Ceará, Brasil com base na morfologia da concha. Difere das outras espécies locais por apresentar uma concha mais alongada, com um escudo parietal pouco desenvolvido e uma superfície notavelmente lisa. Essa última característica ainda não foi descrita entre as espécies de Nassarius do Atlântico oeste, mas é comum a outros congêneres do Atlântico leste, como Nassarius elatus (Gould, 1845 e Indo-Pacífico, como Nassarius excellens (Kuroda & Habe, 1961.

  9. Development and validation of model for sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Church P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing requirement within QinetiQ to develop models for assessments when there is very little experimental data. A theoretical approach to developing equations of state for geological materials has been developed using Quantitative Structure Property Modelling based on the Porter-Gould model approach. This has been applied to well-controlled sand with different moisture contents and particle shapes. The Porter-Gould model describes an elastic response and gives good agreement at high impact pressures with experiment indicating that the response under these conditions is dominated by the molecular response. However at lower pressures the compaction behaviour is dominated by a micro-mechanical response which drives the need for additional theoretical tools and experiments to separate the volumetric and shear compaction behaviour. The constitutive response is fitted to existing triaxial cell data and Quasi-Static (QS compaction data. This data is then used to construct a model in the hydrocode. The model shows great promise in predicting plate impact, Hopkinson bar, fragment penetration and residual velocity of fragments through a finite thickness of sand.

  10. Latest Results From Bistro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattle, Katherine

    2017-10-01

    The BISTRO Survey (B-fields in Star-forming Region Observations) is one of the six next generation Large Programmes currently being carried out on the JCMT. It is the only Large Programme that is using the new SCUBA2 polarimeter POL2. This exciting programme plans to map the densest regions of all of the nearby star-forming regions within the Gould Belt, to measure the magnetic field orientation and strength in all of these regions. We will present the latest results from the BISTRO survey - a large programme using SCUBA2 and POL2 on JCMT. We will show the structure of the B-fields in several nearby Gould Belt star-forming regions, including Orion, Serpens and Ophiuchus. We will compare our results to various model predictions and theoretical simulations. The ultimate goals of the BISTRO programme are to understand dust grain alignment mechanisms, to compare the data to models of magnetic field geometry, and to explore the relations between fields and filaments, turbulence, outflows, and core geometries. We will comment on these topics.

  11. O sonoro e o visual: questões históricas, fenomenológicas e uma abertura à estética comparada The sonorous and the visual: questions concerning history, phenomenology and the exploration of compared aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Siqueira de Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo visa levantar questões relativas ao sonoro e o visual e apresentar possibilidades de abertura ao exercício da estética comparada. Na primeira parte, questões de ordem histórica revelam o interesse que o tema vem há séculos suscitando. A segunda parte discorre sobre a natureza temporal de práticas artísticas a partir de textos de artistas (Klee, Delaunay, Gould e Messiaen e de Nattiez. A estética comparada é definida na quarta parte do artigo a partir dos conceitos de Étienne Souriau e sua abertura é apresentada através do reconhecimento da objetalidade do fato musical.This article aims to raise questions about the sonorous and the visual and presents possibilities of ouvertures to the compared aesthetic. In the first part, questions of historical order reveal the interest this theme has provoked for centuries. The second part discusses the temporal nature of artistic practices through texts by artists (Klee, Delaunay, Gould e Messiaen and Nattiez. The compared aesthetics is defined in the third part by the concepts of Étienne Souriau and his ouvertures are presented through the recognition of the "objetality" of the musical fact.

  12. Ser ou não ser consiliente: eis a questão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Eduardo Rodrigues

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Stephen J. Gould e Edward Wilson são autores emblemáticos de duas tendências opostas do darwinismo. A primeira defende a separação entre os duros fatos da natureza, tal como nos são apresentados pela teoria da seleção natural, e as questões de valor e significado propostas pelas tradições religiosas e humanistas. A segunda nos propõe uma 'consiliência', ou seja, a gradual extensão do paradigma darwiniano para dar conta também dessas tradições. O presente argumento aborda, primeiramente, a necessidade de modelos e narrativas para o pensamento humano e a possibilidade da ciência fornecê-los; segundo, assumindo o ceticismo saudável das propostas de Gould, apresentamos o termo 'consonância', trabalhado por programas de pesquisa que esse autor ignora, como histórica e filosoficamente mais apropriado do que 'consiliência', para a abordagem das relações entre o paradigma darwiniano e as tradições religiosas.

  13. Automated non-invasive measurement of cardiac output: comparison of electrical bioimpedance and carbon dioxide rebreathing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S A; Russell, A E; West, M J; Chalmers, J

    1988-01-01

    Two commercial automated, non-invasive systems for estimation of cardiac output were evaluated. Values of cardiac output obtained by electrical bioimpedance cardiography (BoMed NCCOM3 machine) were compared with values derived from an indirect Fick technique that uses carbon dioxide rebreathing (Gould 9000 IV system) during 103 simultaneous measurements made at rest in 19 randomly selected subjects and on exercise in 11 subjects. Cardiac output values obtained with impedance cardiography were significantly correlated with those measured by the indirect Fick method, although there was a wide scatter with over 73% of the readings lying outside the limits defined by the line of identity +/- 20%. This correlation was greatly reduced when stroke volume index was used instead of cardiac output. Indirect Fick results were linearly related to oxygen uptake both at rest and on exercise, while impedance cardiography results did not correlate with oxygen uptake. Impedance cardiography gave consistently lower results for cardiac output than indirect Fick at all levels of exercise. Both machines were easy to use and produced acceptable mean (SE) coefficients of variation (BoMed NCCOM3 7.7 (1.0)%, Gould 9000 IV 10.6 (1.4)%). Further validation is required before either of these machines can be recommended as an alternative to invasive monitoring in clinical practice. PMID:3128316

  14. The mismeasure of ape social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavens, David A; Bard, Kim A; Hopkins, William D

    2017-08-04

    In his classic analysis, Gould (The mismeasure of man, WW Norton, New York, 1981) demolished the idea that intelligence was an inherent, genetic trait of different human groups by emphasizing, among other things, (a) its sensitivity to environmental input, (b) the incommensurate pre-test preparation of different human groups, and (c) the inadequacy of the testing contexts, in many cases. According to Gould, the root cause of these oversights was confirmation bias by psychometricians, an unwarranted commitment to the idea that intelligence was a fixed, immutable quality of people. By virtue of a similar, systemic interpretive bias, in the last two decades, numerous contemporary researchers in comparative psychology have claimed human superiority over apes in social intelligence, based on two-group comparisons between postindustrial, Western Europeans and captive apes, where the apes have been isolated from European styles of social interaction, and tested with radically different procedures. Moreover, direct comparisons of humans with apes suffer from pervasive lapses in argumentation: Research designs in wide contemporary use are inherently mute about the underlying psychological causes of overt behavior. Here we analyze these problems and offer a more fruitful approach to the comparative study of social intelligence, which focuses on specific individual learning histories in specific ecological circumstances.

  15. Molecular phylogeny of coleoid cephalopods (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) using a multigene approach; the effect of data partitioning on resolving phylogenies in a Bayesian framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugnell, Jan; Norman, Mark; Jackson, Jennifer; Drummond, Alexei J; Cooper, Alan

    2005-11-01

    rates of evolution than the Octopodiformes. The following taxonomic conclusions are drawn from our analyses: (1) the order Octopoda and suborders Cirrata, Incirrata, and Oegopsida are monophyletic groups; (2) the family Spirulidae (Ram's horn squids) are the sister taxon to the family Sepiidae (cuttlefishes); (3) the family Octopodidae, as currently defined, is paraphyletic; (4) the superfamily Argonautoidea are basal within the suborder Incirrata; and (5) the benthic octopus genera Benthoctopus and Enteroctopus are sister taxa.

  16. Observaciones sobre la biología de Octopus mimus (Cephalopoda: Octopoda en la costa peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Cardoso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizan un total de 1339 ejemplares de Octopus mimus Gould, 1852, procedentes de muestreos mensuales realizados en las localidades de Ilo durante el año 1993, Pucusana durante 1997 y en el Callao durante 1998. La relación talla-peso de los ejemplares de Ilo y Callao mostraron un crecimiento alométrico para ambos sexos. Las hembras alcanzan la talla de desove a los 14,3 cm de longitud del manto. Esta talla fue utilizada para estimar un peso mínimo de captura de 1 Kg. La dieta es variable y consiste de crustáceos, moluscos, peces y equinodermos. Las capturas fueron 6 veces más altas durante El Niño 1997-1998 que El Niño 1982-1983. La presente información es comparada y discutida con los datos de Chile.

  17. Extraordinary fossils reveal the nature of Cambrian life: a commentary on Whittington (1975) ‘The enigmatic animal Opabinia regalis, Middle Cambrian, Burgess Shale, British Columbia’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Derek E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Harry Whittington's 1975 monograph on Opabinia was the first to highlight how some of the Burgess Shale animals differ markedly from those that populate today's oceans. Categorized by Stephen J. Gould as a ‘weird wonder’ (Wonderful life, 1989) Opabinia, together with other unusual Burgess Shale fossils, stimulated ongoing debates about the early evolution of the major animal groups and the nature of the Cambrian explosion. The subsequent discovery of a number of other exceptionally preserved fossil faunas of Cambrian and early Ordovician age has significantly augmented the information available on this critical interval in the history of life. Although Opabinia initially defied assignment to any group of modern animals, it is now interpreted as lying below anomalocaridids on the stem leading to the living arthropods. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750235

  18. Extraordinary fossils reveal the nature of Cambrian life: a commentary on Whittington (1975) 'The enigmatic animal Opabinia regalis, Middle Cambrian, Burgess Shale, British Columbia'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Derek E G

    2015-04-19

    Harry Whittington's 1975 monograph on Opabinia was the first to highlight how some of the Burgess Shale animals differ markedly from those that populate today's oceans. Categorized by Stephen J. Gould as a 'weird wonder' (Wonderful life, 1989) Opabinia, together with other unusual Burgess Shale fossils, stimulated ongoing debates about the early evolution of the major animal groups and the nature of the Cambrian explosion. The subsequent discovery of a number of other exceptionally preserved fossil faunas of Cambrian and early Ordovician age has significantly augmented the information available on this critical interval in the history of life. Although Opabinia initially defied assignment to any group of modern animals, it is now interpreted as lying below anomalocaridids on the stem leading to the living arthropods. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  19. Mondialisation des réseaux de circulation en Afrique de l’Ouest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Debrie

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available omprendre les circulations et leurs évolutions dans un espace précis, ici celui de l’Ouest de l’Afrique, peut être une démarche fructueuse pour aborder la thématique très générale de la mondialisation. Des travaux anciens avaient déjà proposé une modélisation de l’imposition de l’échelle mondiale à l’espace dominé des colonies européennes (Taaffe, Morril, Gould, Rimmer. À la suite de ces productions, l’article propose une modélisation.

  20. El origen del lenguaje desde la psicobiología contemporánea: salto lingüístico o gradualismo

    OpenAIRE

    Escalonilla González, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo interdisciplinar, que podría ser enmarcado dentro de la Filosofía de la Ciencia, se propone la hipótesis TELES (Teoría de la Evolución del Lenguaje mediante Emergencias y Selección Natural en tres pasos), fundamentándola en tres marcos teóricos: (i) Desde una dimensión biológica, se resalta la naturalidad y la frecuencia de los procesos evolutivos emergentes: emergencias saltacionales por asociación; emergencias de punto crítico (reid, 2007); exaptación y co-optación (Gould, 2...

  1. Feeding ecology of the American crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Crustacea, Decapoda in the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Hegele-Drywa

    Full Text Available The feeding ecology of the American crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii Gould, 1841 from brackish waters of the Baltic Sea was studied by analyses of the stomach repletion index (SRI and stomach content with regard to sex, size and habitat (Dead Vistula River and the Gulf of Gdańsk. Neither the sex nor the size of an individual crab had a significant (P > 0.05 influence on the SRI or on the diversity of food items found in the stomachs of R. harrisii. But the type of food consumed was significantly (P < 0.05 dependent on the locality inhabited: the greater the biodiversity of the habitat, the richer the dietary composition. In Baltic coastal waters this species feeds on detritus, and also on animal and plant matter. Remains of Chlorophyta, Amphipoda, Ostracoda, Polychaeta, Gastropoda and Bivalvia were found in the stomachs of the specimens analysed.

  2. La insustancia de la voz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Morin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La voz es el punto primitivo deinserción del deseo del Otro. Apartir de este dato fundamentalIsabelle Morin intenta respondera la pregunta planteada por Lacanrespecto a lo que ocurre con la pulsiónal final del análisis. La autorapropone que, al final del análisis, elanalizante se encuentra, así sea porun momento, con una extraccióndel a minúscula del objeto, su sustanciagozante para dejar el objetovoz al desnudo. Esta insustancia delobjeto es interrogada a partir detestimonios de los músicos GlennGould y Pascal Dusapin, quieneshan buscado extraer el sonido de lamúsica para reducirla a la letra.Palabras clave: voz, sonido, insustancia,extracción de goce, objeto a.

  3. Extended physics as a theoretical framework for systems biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Paul-Antoine

    2011-08-01

    In this essay we examine whether a theoretical and conceptual framework for systems biology could be built from the Bailly and Longo (2008, 2009) proposal. These authors aim to understand life as a coherent critical structure, and propose to develop an extended physical approach of evolution, as a diffusion of biomass in a space of complexity. Their attempt leads to a simple mathematical reconstruction of Gould's assumption (1989) concerning the bacterial world as a "left wall of least complexity" that we will examine. Extended physical systems are characterized by their constructive properties. Time is acting and new properties emerge by their history that can open the list of their initial properties. This conceptual and theoretical framework is nothing more than a philosophical assumption, but as such it provides a new and exciting approach concerning the evolution of life, and the transition between physics and biology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Roster of president's Advisory Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-30

    Twenty-three of the thirty members of President Clinton's Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS are listed. Seven members will be named at a later date. R. Scott Hitt, a physician and member of the board of directors of AIDS Project Los Angeles, will chair the Council. Bob Hattoy, Jeremy Landau, Steve Lew, and H. Alexander Robinson, each working in the AIDS community, are all living with HIV disease. Other members include Terje Anderson, Regina Aragon, Mary Boland, Nicholas Bollman, Robert L. Fogel, Debra Frazer-Howze, Kathleen M. Gerus, Edward Gould, Phyllis Greenberger, Carole laFavor, Alexandra Mary Levine, Altagracia Perez, Debbie Runions, Benjamin Schatz, Denise Stokes, Charles Quincy Troupe, Sandra Thurman, and Bruce G. Weninger.

  5. The interstellar oxygen edge in the X-ray spectrum of the Crab Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, P. A.; Kahn, S. M.; Bowyer, S.; Blissett, R. J.; Culhane, J. L.; Cruise, A. M.; Garmire, G.

    1979-01-01

    Measurement of the X-ray spectrum of the Crab Nebula by the HEAO 1 A-2 low-energy (0.15-3 keV) detectors is reported. The spectral restoration techniques described by Blissett and Cruise (1979) and Kahn and Blissett (1979) are used to demonstrate explicitly the existence of a 'negative' feature near 0.5 keV that is consistent with the edge expected due to absorption by interstellar oxygen. For a simple power-law model with photon index -2.08, the data require a column density of 3.0 + or - 0.1 x 10 to the 21st per sq cm and an oxygen abundance of 1.0 + or - 0.1 times the Brown and Gould (1970) value. Satisfactory fits can also be achieved with the more sophisticated Fireman (1974) models, but no model can be adjusted to fit the data without the inclusion of interstellar oxygen.

  6. RF sheath and admittance characteristics of a spherical plasma probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Development of a radio-frequency sheath model for a spherical probe in a collisionless plasma. The method of solution is based on the quasi-static approximation and the electrostatic probe theory of Bernstein and Rabinowitz (1959). The resistive part of the admittance is ascribed to the sheath transit-time collisionless dissipation mechanism suggested by Mayer (1963) and developed by Gould (1964). Expressions are obtained for the effective sheath thickness and the equivalent resistance of the transit-time dissipation. The sheath model and, hence, the admittance are completely determined in terms of the bias potential, the probe radius, the plasma frequency, and the Debye length - i.e., there are no adjustable parameters in the proposed theory which are to be determined by experiment. The results obtained agree favorably with Cohen and Bekefi's (1971) experimental data on the conductance resonant frequency and the width of the conductance peak.

  7. Anatomy of the inferior extensor retinaculum and its role in lateral ankle ligament reconstruction: a pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmau-Pastor, M; Yasui, Y; Calder, J D; Karlsson, J; Kerkhoffs, G M M J; Kennedy, J G

    2016-04-01

    The inferior extensor retinaculum (IER) is an aponeurotic structure, which is in continuation with the anterior part of the sural fascia. The IER has often been used to augment the reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligaments, for instance in the Broström-Gould procedure, with good outcomes reported. However, its anatomy has not been described in detail and only a few studies are available on this structure. The presence of a non-constant oblique supero-lateral band appears to be important. This structure defines whether the augmentation of the lateral ankle ligaments reconstruction is performed using true IER or only the anterior part of the sural fascia. It is concluded that the use of this structure will have an impact on the resulting ankle stability.

  8. Pursuing the quest for better understanding the taxonomic distribution of the system of doubly uniparental inheritance of mtDNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Gusman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is only one exception to strict maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in the animal kingdom: a system named doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI, which is found in several bivalve species. Why and how such a radically different system of mitochondrial transmission evolved in bivalve remains obscure. Obtaining a more complete taxonomic distribution of DUI in the Bivalvia may help to better understand its origin and function. In this study we provide evidence for the presence of sex-linked heteroplasmy (thus the possible presence of DUI in two bivalve species, i.e., the nuculanoid Yoldia hyperborea(Gould, 1841and the veneroid Scrobicularia plana(Da Costa,1778, increasing the number of families in which DUI has been found by two. An update on the taxonomic distribution of DUI in the Bivalvia is also presented.

  9. Studies on zinc nodules electrodeposited from acid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Rolfe [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tobias, Charles W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1984-12-01

    The development of morphology of electrodeposited zinc was investigated by studying the initial stages of deposition. Zinc was deposited galvanostatically from 1.0 M ZnCl2 electrolyte (0.7 < pH < 4.6) on rotating disc electrodes at current densities from 5 to 130 ma/cm2. Pine glassy carbon, Union Carbide pyrolytic graphite, Gould pyrolytic graphite, Exxon graphite loaded polymer, and platinum substrates were used. The number densities of nodules (diameter greater than 1 μm), typically encountered during incipient morphological development, were measured using scanning electron microscopy and image analysis. Nodule densities up to 7 x 104 nodules/mm2 were measured.

  10. Counterfactuals and history: Contingency and convergence in histories of science and life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Ian

    2016-08-01

    This article examines a series of recent histories of science that have attempted to consider how science may have developed in slightly altered historical realities. These works have, moreover, been influenced by debates in evolutionary science about the opposing forces of contingency and convergence in regard to Stephen Jay Gould's notion of "replaying life's tape." The article argues that while the historians under analysis seem to embrace contingency in order to present their counterfactual narratives, for the sake of historical plausibility they are forced to accept a fairly weak role for contingency in shaping the development of science. It is therefore argued that Simon Conway Morris's theory of evolutionary convergence comes closer to describing the restrained counterfactual worlds imagined by these historians of science than does contingency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Joint Route Choice Model for Electric and Conventional Car Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Fjendbo; Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    Introduction Worldwide, governments have committed to reducing air pollution and carbon emissions. With a higher share of renewable sources in the electricity production, battery electric cars (EVs) could play a significant role in maintaining these commitments. Growing literature shows...... an increasing interest in EVs and their market, but current EV travel demand studies are usually based on data collected from users of conventional gasoline or diesel engine cars (CVs) (see e.g. (Golob and Gould 1998; Pearre et al. 2011; Greaves et al. 2014). EVs are however different from CVs in a number...... effects, such as effects on the electricity network and the transport network. The objective of this study is to use revealed preferences (RP) data to investigate differences in route choice behaviour between CV and EV users. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a state-of-the-art route choice...

  12. Neurological problems of famous musicians: the classical genre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, Jonathan

    2009-08-01

    Neurological histories of great musicians allow for a unique perspective on music physiology. Bedrich Smetana's autobiographical string quartet ends with the musical equivalent of tinnitus in the fourth movement, rendering the youthful and passionate themes of earlier movements moot as the piece ends depicting his ultimately fatal disease, neurosyphilis. Dmitri Shostakovich survived the censorship of Joseph Stalin's apparatchiks but suffered a prolonged form of paralysis attributable to slowly progressive motor neuron disease, although the viola sonata he wrote on his deathbed has become standard repertoire. Glenn Gould was a hypochondriacal pianist with obsessive-compulsive disorder and suspected Asperger syndrome. Vissarion Shebalin and (Ira) Randall Thompson had strokes followed by aphasia without amusia. Domenico Scarlatti provides an example of how even great composers must alter their technical expectations depending upon the skills and body habitus of their chief patrons. The focal dystonia afflicting Leon Fleisher and Gary Graffman catalyzed the discipline of performing arts medicine.

  13. RLE (Research Laboratory of Electronics) Progress Report Number 125.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    L. Brewer, S.L. Dexheimer, C.W. Engelke, T. Gentile , P.L. Gould, B. Hughey, R.G. Hulet, M.M. Kash, P.D. Magill, A.L. Migdall, P.E. Moskowitz, W.P...M.E. Foord, G. Francis, R.C. Garner, T.R. Gentile , P.J. Gierszewski, K.E. Hackett, L.P. Harten, D. Hinsheiwood, R.S.-C. Hu, D.K. Ingram, N.A. Ismail...Brown, W.H. Evans, L.P.J. Hoyte, A. Fujimura, M.D. Matson, S.P. McCormick, J.J. Paulos , J. Pineda, L.D. Seller, J. Siskind, B.C. Williams, J. T

  14. The Block-Elmegreen conference

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce; Block, David; Woolway, Matthew

    2015-01-01

     Our understanding of galaxy formation comes mostly from two sources: sensitive observations at high angular resolution of the high-redshift Universe, where galaxies are observed to be forming, and detailed observations of individual stars and clouds in the Local Group, where telltale remnants from its formative time remain and similar processes operate at a low level today. The current conference focusses on key aspects of the Local Group, composed of the Milky Way, Andromeda and Triangulum Spiral Galaxies, the Large and Small Magellanic Cloud galaxies, numerous dwarf and irregular galaxies, and intergalactic gas. Topics include the halo and thick disk of the Milky Way with its first stars and stellar streams; the Milky Way bar, bulge and outer edge; interstellar dust and turbulence; star formation processes and stellar scattering in spiral arms; views through the infrared Eyes of the Spitzer Space Telescope; globular clusters; the Local Gould Belt; stellar metallicities and elemental abundances; the enviro...

  15. The communication strategies of neocreationism between the United States and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Pizzo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In their essay which appeared in 1972 in Models in Paleobiology, Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge, introducing the theory of punctuated equilibrium, stressed the fact that no scientific theory develops as a simple and logical extension of facts and of patiently recorded observations, and that the particular vision of the world that the scientist adheres to is able to influence, even unconsciously, the way in which data are collected, selected and then interpreted. Scientists, being aware of the existence of an intrinsic problem of prejudice in their scientific research activity, know that, in order to produce original and innovative ideas, it is fundamental to try to revolutionise their research image, to look at reality in a new light, to read data with alternative viewpoints.

  16. The communication strategies of neocreationism between the United States and Europe (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Pizzo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In their essay which appeared in 1972 in Models in Paleobiology, Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge, introducing the theory of punctuated equilibrium, stressed the fact that no scientific theory develops as a simple and logical extension of facts and of patiently recorded observations, and that the particular vision of the world that the scientist adheres to is able to influence, even unconsciously, the way in which data are collected, selected and then interpreted. Scientists, being aware of the existence of an intrinsic problem of prejudice in their scientific research activity, know that, in order to produce original and innovative ideas, it is fundamental to try to revolutionise their research image, to look at reality in a new light, to read data with alternative viewpoints.

  17. Atlanta Tower Simulation. Volume 2. Appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    a~ 99q9;q.q S qSq X-COOROINPTES C-86 03/ 15189 09:53:01 TASK # 17000080 ALGEO GCULD C.S.D. MPX-: ATLA DATE OF RUN 10/04/88 RUN - 23 PLOT- 2 ASE130...144 1439 884.289 763.923 4062. 1U60 .45 145 1449 884.788 763.923 3886. 1060 .95 C-87 03/ 15189 09:53:01 TASK 1 17000080 ALGEO GCULD C.S.DO. MPX-- 146...I II I4 03/ 15189 09:47:40 TASK # 3COCOOA4 ALGEO GOULD C.S.D. MPX-3 ATLA DATE OF RUN 10/04/88 RUN - 24 PLOT- 9 EME3196 ACTUAL FLIGHT: INC TIME X y

  18. Seleção de modelos polinomiais para representar o perfil e volume do fuste de Tectona grandis L.f. Selection of polynomial models to represent the profile and volume of the bole of Tectona grandisL.f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Orfanó Figueiredo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A precisão do volume de um povoamento florestal torna-se importante à medida que as empresas florestais integram verticalmente suas atividades e o resíduo da elaboração de um produto torna-se matéria-prima para outros. Os estudos realizados objetivaram avaliar a acurácia dos modelos polinomiais propostos por Schöepfer (1966, Hradetzky (1976 e Goulding & Murray (1976, na estimativa dos diâmetros e volumes ao longo do fuste de Tectona grandis L.f. de quatro povoamentos localizados na microrregião do Baixo Rio Acre e, ainda, testar a identidade do melhor modelo polinomial, avaliando-se a adequação de manter as áreas agrupadas ou segregá-las em grupos menores ou individualmente. A base de dados foi constituída de 159 árvores cubadas rigorosamente. Na avaliação da acurácia dos modelos foram empregadas estatísticas de desvio médio, desvio padrão das diferenças, soma dos quadrados dos resíduos relativos e resíduos percentuais. O modelo Goulding & Murray (1976 gerou as melhores estimativas de diâmetros e volumes ao longo do fuste, seguido pelos modelos Hradetzky (1976 e Schöepfer (1966. O teste de identidade de modelo mostrou ser mais adequado realizar ajustes independentes para as áreas 1 e 4 e para o subgrupo 2 e 3.The precise estimate of the volume of a forest stand become important as forest enterprises integrate vertically their activities and the residue of the manufacture of a product becomes the raw material for the manufacture of other. The accomplished studies aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the polynomial models proposed by Schöepfer (1966, Hradetzky (1976 and Goulding & Murray (1976 in the estimate of the diameters and volumes along the bole of Tectona grandis L.f from four stands situated in the Baixo Rio Acre micro region and further, to test the identity of the best polynomial model by evaluating the adequacy of maintaining the grouped areas or segregate them into smaller groups or singly. The data base was

  19. Conservación de material histórico sobre papel en el Observatorio Astronómico de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguzzi, N.; Tonini, A.; Andreoli, G.; Goldes, G.; Paolantonio, S.; Cequeira, F.; Landi, L.; Alba, J.

    At the recently created Astronomical Museum ``Pte. Sarmiento - Dr. Benjamin Gould", the task of preventive conservation of historic documents has been faced. These materials include: 1) letters exchanged between national authorities and the directors of the Observatory, during the first decades (1870-1880-1890); b) original observation logs from these very first times, containing astrometrical and photometrical data; c) a variety of ancient books and papers; d) administrative documents. The state of conservation of this patrimony was varied: since well-conserved books and letters, to highly degraded logs. The observation logs written by B. Gould and the astronomers who followed him had been stocked in a safe with a permanent humidity of about 70 %, without any ventilation and exposed to the attack of insects of the family ``dermestidae." These conditions could not be worse for the conservation of paper. In order to stop the proccess of degradation and create a healthy environment for written-paper conservation, a team was formed with personnel belonging to the Cultural Area of the Municipality. The tasks being performed on the observation logs are: 1) an initial, mechanical cleaning, performed once the material is extracted from the contaminated safe: by these means, adult insects and pupas are removed 2) a stage of about two weeks of duration, in which the logs are mantained in a vacuum chamber, in orden to completely eliminate the adult, pupa and egg stage insects by anoxia 3) the final mechanical cleaning 4) storage in a clean location. In order to perform these tasks, we work in collaboration with the Environmental Observatory of the City, and the group of Material-Science Research of Fa.M.A.F. Regarding the letters, a mechanical cleaning was performed. After that, the letters were digitized by means of a scanner, inventoried, put inside acid-free polipropylene envelops and filed for conservation, protected from intense light and external sources of

  20. Nueva residencia y edificios tecnológicos. Universidad de Nueva York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breuer, Marcel

    1963-04-01

    Full Text Available These new buildings have been erected on the Brosum Field of New York University, on an inclined site. They comprise four blocks which house, respectively, the bedrooms, general services, lecture rooms and laboratories. A number of bridges and terraces enable students to move between the various blocks, on the same level, although the buildings themselves are on the slopes of a hill. The total project is outstanding because of its originality in design and its enveloping outlines. It enjoys a privileged position, from which a fine view over the Harlem river can be enjoyed. It also harmonises very well, due to the texture and colour of its building materials, with the fine «The Fame» and «Gould Library» buildings, which are of earlier design.Las nuevas edificaciones han sido construidas en el Campo Brosun de la Universidad de Nueva York, sobre un terreno en declive. Comprenden cuatro bloques, dedicados, respectivamente, a dormitorios, servicios generales, salas de conferencias y laboratorios. Una serie de puentes y terrazas permiten a los estudiantes circular entre las distintas construcciones, siempre a un mismo nivel, no obstante estar enclavadas en la ladera inclinada de una colina. El conjunto de edificios destaca por la originalidad del proyecto y diseño de formas envolventes Su situación privilegiada le permite disfrutar de una bella vista sobre el no Harlem. Y al mismo tiempo logra armonizar con éxito, dada la textura y color de los materiales empleados —hormigón visto, ladrillo y piedra—, con los magníficos edificios de «La Fame» y «Biblioteca Gould», construidos con anterioridad.

  1. Estrategias para la enseñanza de competencias de vida a través del deporte en jóvenes en riesgo de exclusión social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Marques

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es investigar cuáles son las estrategias utilizadas por entrenadores de fútbol para la enseñanza de competencias de vida a jóvenes que viven en zonas de riesgo de exclusión social. Para eso entrevistamos cinco entrenadores de fútbol (cuatro hombres y una mujer con edades entre 19 y 40 años. Se indagó sobre cómo gestionaban los entrenamientos de sus equipos, cuál era su filosofía de entrenamiento y sus métodos de trabajo. El análisis de contenido de las entrevistas se hizo en base a las dimensiones llamadas estrategias efectivas de entrenamiento y estrategias de desarrollo de jóvenes creadas en el estudio de Gould, Collins, Lauer y Chung (2007. Se han identificado dos categorías nuevas dentro de la primera dimensión: comunicación y actuación. Las estrategias de desarrollo de jóvenes se agruparon en las categorías: “estrategias de mejora de participación” y “enseñanza de competencias de vida”, igual que en el trabajo original de Gould, Collins et al. (2007. También se ha averiguado y agrupado cuáles son las competencias de vida facilitadas o desarrolladas por la práctica deportiva, que se pueden trasladar a otros ámbitos como el familiar, el educativo o el profesional.

  2. An annotated catalogue and bibliography of the taxonomy, synonymy and distribution of the Recent Vetigastropoda of South Africa (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, David G

    2015-11-30

    A complete inventory of the known Recent vetigastropod fauna of South Africa is provided. Bibliographic citations to works discussing the taxonomy, synonymy and distribution of the species in a southern African or south-western Indian Ocean context are provided. Additional explanatory notes are given where pertinent. New genus records for South Africa: Acremodontina B.A. Marshall, 1995; Choristella Bush, 1879; Cocculinella Thiele, 1909; Conjectura Finlay, 1926; Crosseola Iredale, 1924; Falsimargarita Powell, 1951; Lepetella Verrill, 1880; Profundisepta McLean & Geiger, 1998; Stomatella Lamarck, 1816; Stomatia Helbling, 1779; Stomatolina Iredale, 1937; Synaptocochlea Pilsbry, 1890; Tibatrochus Nomura, 1940; Visayaseguenzia Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006; Zetela Finlay, 1926. New species records for South Africa: Acremodontina aff. carinata Powell, 1940; Anatoma finlayi (Powell, 1937); Anatoma munieri (P. Fischer, 1862); Calliotropis acherontis B.A. Marshall, 1979; Calliotropis bucina Vilvens, 2006; Cocculinella minutissima (E.A. Smith, 1904); Diodora ruppellii (G.B. Sowerby (I), 1835); Emarginula costulata Deshayes, 1863; Emarginula decorata Deshayes, 1863; Jujubinus hubrechti Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006; Lepetella sp.; Seguenzia orientalis Thiele, 1925; Stomatella auricula Lamarck, 1816; Stomatia phymotis Helbling, 1779; Stomatolina angulata (A. Adams, 1850); Stomatolina cf. calliostoma (A. Adams, 1850); Stomatolina aff. danblumi Singer & Mienis, 1999; Stomatolina cf. rubra (Lamarck, 1822); Stomatolina sp.; Synaptocochlea concinna (Gould, 1845); Tectus mauritianus (Gmelin, 1791); Tibatrochus cf. incertus (Schepman, 1908); Turbo imperialis Gmelin, 1791; Turbo tursicus Reeve, 1848; Visayaseguenzia compsa (Melvill, 1904).New species: Spectamen martensi, replacement name for Spectamen semisculptum sensu Herbert (1987) (non Martens, 1904). New name: Oxystele antoni is proposed as a new name for Trochus (Turbo) variegatus (non Gmelin, 1791 =Heliacus) Anton, 1838. Revised

  3. IN MY OPINION: Is Physics debatable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ken

    2000-01-01

    Stephen Jay Gould is, unfortunately, a palaeontologist. I write unfortunately because if he were a physicist we would all have benefited from his innumerable entertaining and informative essays [1]. His steady theme involves an obscure subject like palaeontology and why the subject links so strongly with the human condition. The key, of course, is evolution, and the light it sheds on what it means to be human. The new National Curriculum for England (and probably Wales) requires that pupils be taught: * how scientific controversies can arise from different ways of interpreting empirical evidence and models based on this evidence, and * ways in which scientific ideas may be affected by the context in which they develop, e.g. social, historical, moral and spiritual , and how these contexts may affect whether or not the ideas are accepted. Stephen Jay Gould produces an essay a month (in the US Natural History magazine) and so seems to have few problems in finding topics to write about that would fit well into one or both of the National Curriculum requirements. Good for biologists, but it doesn't seem to be so easy in physics. Admittedly Gould has to have recourse to a great number of historical cases - but he usually manages to link these with up-to-date issues. After all, he comes from a country where several states put `creation science' on a par with the Darwinian model of Earth history, so he has not only scope but need for encouraging some humane rationality. Can the history of physics provide such relevance? Does physics provide nice meaty controversies that might tempt the adolescent to think? We might be able to tell some stories with some level of drama, but it is hard for teachers to produce much enthusiasm in ordinary students at age 14 to 16 for controversies between Newton and Hooke, or Newton and Leibnitz (or Newton and most of his contemporaries, to be honest). They might be made to sympathize with Thomas Young, agonize over Boltzmann, celebrate with

  4. A propósito de um texto de Habermas: a herança brasileira de um dilema da civilização ocidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R. Cruz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available HABERMAS, em um texto recente sobre os acontecimentos de 2001, colocou novamente em questão as relações entre fé e saber na modernidade. A visão moderna que a religião deve ser excluída da esfera pública encontra resistências, que sugerem um outro cenário para um mundo pós-secular. Habermas fala do diálogo entre os dois "pilares do tempo" (Gould apenas para o plano moral, mas o argumento do presente trabalho destaca as razões para se valorizar o aspecto cognitivo da religião. Estudos recentes, principalmente no âmbito das ciências cognitivas, revelam a origem natural comum da ciência e da religião. No âmbito da história e da filosofia, sugerem-se hoje outros elementos comuns para a "fé" e o "saber". No caso brasileiro, enfatiza-se a necessidade de um esforço comum em face de ameaças como o criacionismo, e em prol de uma educação que desenvolva a cidadania e o conhecimento são.HABERMAS, in a recent paper on 9/11, questions again the relationship between faith and knowledge in modernity. The modern outlook, excluding religion in the public realm, faces resistance that suggests another scenario for a post-secular world. He speaks about the dialogue between the two "rocks of ages" (Gould only at the moral level, but the argument of the present paper highlights the reasons to give more weight to the cognitive role of religion. Recent studies, mainly in the realm of cognitive sciences, reveal the natural origin both of science and religion. In the realm of history and philosophy, other elements are suggested today for "faith" and "knowledge". In the Brazilian case, we emphasize the need for a common effort in face of threats such as creationism, and in favor of educational patterns that foster citizenship and sound knowledge.

  5. Los coleópteros y heterópteros acuáticos del Parque Nacional Calilegua (Provincia de Jujuy, Argentina Aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera from Calilegua National Park (Jujuy Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L. M. Torres

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se expone una lista de las especies de Coleoptera y Heteroptera presentes en los cuerpos de agua del Parque Nacional Calilegua. Se registraron 51 especies de Coleoptera incluidas en 28 géneros y cinco familias, y 37 especies de Heteroptera distribuidas en 22 géneros y 10 familias; sólo cuatro especies de Coleoptera y cinco de Heteroptera fueron citadas previamente del parque. Se mencionan por primera vez para la Argentina dos especies de Veliidae (Heteroptera: Rhagovelia trista Gould y Platyvelia brachialis (Stål, así como una especie y un género de Dytiscidae (Coleoptera: Desmopachria chei K. B. Miller y Bidessonotus Régimbart. Además, es la primera ocasión en que se mencionan para la provincia de Jujuy 24 especies y 11 géneros de Coleoptera (Leuronectes Sharp, Bidessonotus, Hypodessus Guignot, Desmopachria Babington, Celina Aubé, Gyrinus Linné, Haliplus Latreille, Hydrocanthus Say, Suphis Aubé, Anacaena Thomson, Derallus Sharp y 19 especies y 12 géneros de Heteroptera (Mesovelia Mulsant & Rey, Hebrus Curtis, Merragata White, Microvelia Westwood, Rhagovelia Mayr, Platyvelia J. T. Polhemus & D. A. Polhemus, Limnogonus Stål, Curicta Stål, Ranatra Fabricius, Centrocorisa Lundblad, Pelocoris Stål, Neoplea Esaki & China.A list of the species of aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera occurring in Calilegua National Park is presented. Fifty-one species of Coleoptera included in 28 genera and five families, and 37 species of Heteroptera belonging to 22 genera and 10 families were recorded. Only four species of Coleoptera and five of Heteroptera had been previously cited from the park. Two species of Veliidae (Heteroptera (Rhagovelia trista Gould, Platyvelia brachialis (Stål, along with one species and one genus of Dytiscidae (Coleoptera (Desmopachria chei K. B. Miller, Bidessonotus Régimbart are new records for Argentina. Twenty-four species and 11 genera of Coleoptera (Leuronectes Sharp, Bidessonotus, Hypodessus Guignot, Desmopachria

  6. Experimental Study of Current-Driven Turbulence During Magnetic Reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porkolab, Miklos; Egedal-Pedersen, Jan; Fox, William

    2010-08-31

    CMPD Final Report Experimental Study of Current-Driven Turbulence During Magnetic Reconnection Miklos Porkolab, PI, Jan Egedal, co-PI, William Fox, graduate student. This is the final report for Grant DE-FC02-04ER54786, MIT Participation in the Center for Multiscale Plasma Dynamics, which was active from 8/1/2004 to 7/31/2010. This Grant supported the thesis work of one MIT graduate student, William Fox, The thesis research consisted of an experimental study of the fluctuations arising during magnetic reconnection in plasmas on the Versatile Toroidal Facility (VTF) at MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC). The thesis was submitted and accepted by the MIT physics Department,. Fox, Experimental Study of Current-Driven Turbulence During Magnetic Reconnection, Ph.D. Thesis, MIT (2009). In the VTF experiment reconnection and current-sheet formation is driven by quickly changing currents in a specially arranged set of internal conductors. Previous work on this device [Egedal, et al, PRL 98, 015003, (2007)] identified a spontaneous reconnection regime. In this work fluctuations were studied using impedance-matched, high-bandwidth Langmuir probes. Strong, broadband fluctuations, with frequencies extending from near the lower-hybrid frequency [fLH = (fcefci)1/2] to the electron cyclotron frequency fce were found to arise during the reconnection events. Based on frequency and wavelength measurements, lower-hybrid waves and Trivelpiece-Gould waves were identified. The lower-hybrid waves are easiest to drive with strong perpendicular drifts or gradients which arise due to the reconnection events; an appealing possibility is strong temperature gradients. The Trivelpiece-Gould modes can result from kinetic, bump-on-tail instability of a runaway electron population energized by the reconnection events. We also observed that the turbulence is often spiky, consisting of discrete positive-potential spikes, which were identified as electron phase-space holes, a class of

  7. Jouer du piano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fériel Kaddour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La réflexion s’appuie dans un premier temps sur une opposition entre deux attitudes de pianistes  à l’égard du travail à l’instrument : Gould, qui revendique une séparation d’avec le clavier pour ne privilégier que la lecture; Arrau, dont la technique au contraire vise à « faire corps » avec son piano. L’étude de ces deux démarches d’interprètes conduit à une conclusion croisée : l’abstraction gouldienne n’est rien d’autre qu’un déplacement du jeu vers d’autres instruments (ceux qui servent à la prise de son et au montage de ses enregistrements ; le « faire-corps » hérité de la culture pianistique romantique est plus dialectique que fusionnel, et en cela implique une capacité de mise à distance. A partir de cette double conclusion, on tâche enfin de repenser la place du jeu à l’instrument dans la mise en œuvre d’une interprétation, en interrogeant le dialogue qui s’instaure entre la partition telle qu’elle s’écrit et le geste tel qu’il se joue.Our study leans on an opposition between two pianists' attitudes about their work with the instrument. Gould claims a necessary separation from the keyboard in order to prioritize reading. Arrau, on the contrary, relies on a technique which consists in “being one” with his piano. The analysis of these two interprets’ behaviours leads to a crossed conclusion: the gouldian abstraction is nothing else than a displacement of the playing towards another kind of instruments, the ones he uses in sound recording and cut up; Arrau’s “being one” is more dialectic than at first sight, and it therefore implies a real distancing from the piano. This constatation leads to rethink the place of the piano playing in the setting of an interpretation, and to highlight the real dialogue which develops itself between the score as it has been written and the gesture as it is played.

  8. Reasons for dropout in youth soccer: a comparison with other team sports Motivos de abandono en el fútbol juvenil: comparación con otros deportes colectivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Molinero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of our study was to identify the main reasons for dropout in young soccer players and to compare withdrawal motives to those rated important by participants in other team sports. Dropouts (150 males and 159 females, ranging in age from 14 to 18 years were administered the Questionnaire of Reasons for Attrition by Gould, Feltz, Horn and Weiss (1982. Represented were youth who participated in the sport of soccer (n=127, basketball (n=122, and volleyball (n=60. The most important reasons for attrition from the different team sports were having other things to do, dislike of the coach, and lack of team spirit. Reasons related to the team work were also given high ratings. Less important reasons concerned old age, rewards and competition. Although discriminant analysis revealed some differences between sports, the finding remains that both conflict of interests and aspects of the sports environment are major motives for withdrawal from team sports.
    Key Words: Dropout, team sport, soccer.

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar las razones para el abandono en jóvenes jugadores de fútbol y comparar los motivos de abandono con los descritos en practicantes de otros deportes colectivos. Los sujetos (150 varones y 159 mujeres, con edades comprendidas entre los 14 y los 18 años respondieron la versión española del Questionnaire of Reasons for Attrition de Gould, Feltz, Horn y Weiss (1982. La muestra estaba constituida por practicantes de fútbol (n=127, baloncesto (n=122, y voleibol (n=60. Las razones consideradas como más importantes para el abandono fueron el tener otras cosas que hacer, las malas relaciones con el entrenador y la falta de espíritu de equipo. También alcanzaron puntuaciones elevadas los motivos relacionados con el trabajo de equipo. Las razones a las que se otorgaba menos importancia se relacionaban con edad excesiva, recompensas y

  9. Cosmic-ray spectrum in the local Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neronov, Andrii; Malyshev, Denys; Semikoz, Dmitri V.

    2017-09-01

    Aims: We study the spectral properties of the cosmic-ray spectrum in the interstellar medium within 1 kpc distance from the Sun. Methods: We used eight-year exposure data of molecular clouds of the Gould Belt obtained with the Fermi-LAT telescope to precisely measure the cosmic-ray spectrum at different locations in the local Galaxy. We compared this measurement with the direct measurements of the cosmic-ray flux in and around the solar system obtained by Voyager and AMS-02 or PAMELA. Results: We find that the average cosmic-ray spectrum in the local Galaxy in the 1-100 GeV range is well described by a broken power-law in rigidity with a low-energy slope of 2.33+0.06-0.08 and a break at 18+7-4 GV, with a slope change by 0.59 ± 0.11. This result is consistent with an earlier analysis of the γ-ray signal from the Gould Belt clouds based on a shorter exposure of Fermi-LAT and with a different event selection. The break at 10-20 GV is also consistent with the combined Voyager + AMS-02 measurements in/around the solar system. The slope of the spectrum below the break agrees with the slope of the average cosmic-ray spectrum in the inner part of the disk of the Milky Way that was previously derived from the Fermi-LAT γ-ray data. We conjecture that it is this slope of 2.33 and not the locally measured softer slope of 2.7-2.8 that is determined by the balance between a steady-state injection of cosmic rays with a power-law slope of 2-2.1 that is due to Fermi acceleration and the energy-dependent propagation of cosmic-ray particles through the turbulent interstellar magnetic field with a Kolmogorov turbulence spectrum. The approximation of a continuous-in-time injection of cosmic rays at a constant rate breaks down, which causes the softening of the spectrum at higher energies.

  10. Fundamental parameters and infrared excesses of Tycho-Gaia stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Watson, R. A.

    2017-10-01

    Effective temperatures and luminosities are calculated for 1475 921 Tycho-2 and 107 145 Hipparcos stars, based on distances from Gaia Data Release 1. Parameters are derived by comparing multi-wavelength archival photometry to bt-settl model atmospheres. The 1σ uncertainties for the Tycho-2 and Hipparcos stars are ±137 and ±125 K in temperature and ±35 and ±19 per cent in luminosity. The luminosity uncertainty is dominated by that of the Gaia parallax. Evidence for infrared excess between 4.6 and 25 μm is found for 4256 stars, of which 1883 are strong candidates. These include asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, Cepheids, Herbig Ae/Be stars, young stellar objects and other sources. We briefly demonstrate the capabilities of this data set by exploring local interstellar extinction, the onset of dust production in AGB stars, the age and metallicity gradients of the solar neighbourhood and structure within the Gould Belt. We close by discussing the potential impact of future Gaia data releases.

  11. Dynamical ejections of stars due to an accelerating gas filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekholt, T. C. N.; Stutz, A. M.; Fellhauer, M.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Matus Carrillo, D. R.

    2017-11-01

    Observations of the Orion A integral shaped filament (ISF) have shown indications of an oscillatory motion of the gas filament. This evidence is based on both the wave-like morphology of the filament and the kinematics of the gas and stars, where the characteristic velocities of the stars require a dynamical heating mechanism. As proposed by Stutz & Gould, such a heating mechanism (the `Slingshot') may be the result of an oscillating gas filament in a gas-dominated (as opposed to stellar-mass dominated) system. Here we test this hypothesis with the first stellar-dynamical simulations in which the stars are subjected to the influence of an oscillating cylindrical potential. The accelerating, cylindrical background potential is populated with a narrow distribution of stars. By coupling the potential to N-body dynamics, we are able to measure the influence of the potential on the stellar distribution. The simulations provide evidence that the slingshot mechanism can successfully reproduce several stringent observational constraints. These include the stellar spread (both in projected position and in velocity) around the filament, the symmetry in these distributions, and a bulk motion of the stars with respect to the filament. Using simple considerations, we show that star-star interactions are incapable of reproducing these spreads on their own when properly accounting for the gas potential. Thus, properly accounting for the gas potential is essential for understanding the dynamical evolution of star-forming filamentary systems in the era of Gaia (Gaia Collaboration 2016).

  12. The Participation Decision Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Y. Ficaj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 participation decision study involved exploration into the impact of the external education environment on the decision for private school participation in Federal funding, one deliberately declining player in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001(NCLB choice and competition equation. In the qualitative collective case, three religiously triangulated Michigan private school decision-makers submitted to semi-structured interviews. Analysis of the external environmental factors was through the lens of Gould and Eldredge’s (1977 environmentally oriented theory, punctuated equilibria philosophy of change. Analysis involved layering, direct interpretation, categorical aggregation, and cross-comparison of two external environmental categories identified at literature review (NCLB-content and privatization-dynamic with numerous major and sub-groupings and space for newly emergent material. The category privatization-dynamics emerged as significant influence, as did the major theme trust and the sub-themes motivational intent, competency, consistency, grapevine, creativity or inspiration, restrictions on curriculum, lack of awareness of opportunities available, and fear of failure. The study included five specific recommendations for leaders of change to explain, predict, and improve organizational performance toward greater synchronization in operation of the NCLB choice and competition mechanisms.

  13. Feather mites of the genera Dubininia and Cacatualges (Acari: Xolalgidae) associated with parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes) of the Old World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, Sergey V; Ehrnsberger, Rainer; Dabert, Jacek

    2017-05-31

    This paper gives a systematic revision of feather mites of the genera Dubininia Vassilev, 1958 and Cacatualges Dabert, Badek and Skoracki, 2007 (Xolalgidae: Ingrassiinae) associated with parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes) of the Old World. Five new species are described: Cacatualges probosciger sp. n. from Probosciger aterrimus (Gmelin) (Cacatuidae) from New Guinea, Dubininia charmosynae sp. n. from Charmosyna pulchella Gray GR (Psittaculidae) from New Guinea, D. micropsittae sp. n. from Micropsitta pusio pusio (Scaltter) (Psittaculidae) from New Guinea, D. nestori sp. n. from Nestor notabilis Gould (Strigopidae) from New Zealand, and D. pezopori sp. n. from Pezoporus wallicus (Kerr) (Psittaculidae) from Tasmania, Australia. Four previously described species of Dubininia are redescribed based on material from type hosts: D. curta (Trouessart, 1885) from Platycercus elegans (Gmelin) (Psittaculidae), D. lorina (Trouessart, 1885) from Lorius domicella (Linnaeus) (Psittaculidae), D. melopsittaci Atyeo and Gaud, 1987 from Melopsittacus undulatus (Shaw) (Psittaculidae), and D. psittacina (Trouessart, 1885) from Strigops harboptilus Gray GR (Strigopidae) from New Zealand. A new diagnosis for the genus Dubininia is provided. A key to all presently known Dubininia species is provided for the first time.

  14. Assessing the roles of brokerage: an evaluation of a hospital-based Public Health epidemiologist program in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevc, Christine A; Markiewicz, Milissa L; Hegle, Jennifer; Horney, Jennifer A; MacDonald, Pia D M

    2012-11-01

    The North Carolina Division of Public Health established an innovative program in 2003 that placed public health epidemiologists (PHEs) in hospitals around the state to improve communication between hospitals and local public health departments (LHDs) and bolster public health surveillance and response. To use social network analysis to assess how the hospital-based PHE program in North Carolina facilitates the exchange of public health surveillance information. Using a Gould-Fernandez brokerage analysis, this study examines communication among organizational actors and their dependence on third parties to broker information and knowledge. Survey and interview data were collected to identify the interorganizational network among 220 organizational actors and their public health surveillance-related activities, including 11 PHEs, 100 county-level offices of North Carolina's 85 LHDs, and 109 hospitals. Social network analysis is used to calculate the frequency with which an actor serves as an intermediary in each of the 5 brokerage roles as well as total brokerage equal to the sum of the number of times an actor occupies each role. Results identify a frequent tendency for PHEs to serve as an intermediary between LHDs and hospitals. Interactions between these entities are frequently facilitated by PHEs, with a high measure of degree centrality by LHDs and a low frequency of brokerage among hospitals. Results validate PHEs' mission to enhance communication between LHDs and hospitals around communicable disease surveillance, reporting, and management.

  15. Overview of the land analysis system (LAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Bruce K.; Olseson, Lyndon R.

    1987-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is a fully integrated digital analysis system designed to support remote sensing, image processing, and geographic information systems research. LAS is being developed through a cooperative effort between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center and the U. S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center. LAS has over 275 analysis modules capable to performing input and output, radiometric correction, geometric registration, signal processing, logical operations, data transformation, classification, spatial analysis, nominal filtering, conversion between raster and vector data types, and display manipulation of image and ancillary data. LAS is currently implant using the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE). While TAE was designed primarily to be transportable, it still provides the necessary components for a standard user interface, terminal handling, input and output services, display management, and intersystem communications. With TAE the analyst uses the same interface to the processing modules regardless of the host computer or operating system. LAS was originally implemented at EROS on a Digital Equipment Corporation computer system under the Virtual Memorial System operating system with DeAnza displays and is presently being converted to run on a Gould Power Node and Sun workstation under the Berkeley System Distribution UNIX operating system.

  16. Helicon waves in uniform plasmas. IV. Bessel beams, Gendrin beams, and helicons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Electromagnetic waves in the low frequency whistler mode regime are investigated experimentally and by digital data superposition. The radiation from a novel circular antenna array is shown to produce highly collimated helicon beams in a uniform unbounded plasma. The differences to Bessel beams in free space are remarked upon. Low divergence beams arise from the parallel group velocity of whistlers with phase velocity either along the guide field or at the Gendrin angle. Waves with angular momentum are produced by phasing the array in the circular direction. The differences in the field topologies for positive and negative modes numbers are shown. It is also shown that in uniform plasmas, the radial amplitude profile of the waves depends on the antenna field topology. Thus, there are no helicon “eigenmodes” with radial Bessel function profiles in uniform plasmas. It is pointed out that phase measurements in helicon devices indicate radial wave propagation which is inconsistent with helicon eigenmode theory based on paraxial wave propagation. Trivelpiece-Gould modes also exist in uniform unbounded plasmas.

  17. Autism and genius: is there a link? The involvement of central brain loops and hypotheses for functional testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boso, M; Emanuele, E; Prestori, Francesca; Politi, P; Barale, F; D'Angelo, E

    2010-01-01

    Mental processing is the product of the huge number of synaptic interactions that occur in the brain. It is easier to understand how brain functions can deteriorate than how they might be boosted. Lying at the border between the humanities, cognitive science and neurophysiology, some mental diseases offer new angles on this problematic issue. Despite their social deficits, autistic subjects can display unexpected and extraordinary skills in numerous fields, including music, the arts, calculation and memory. The advanced skills found in a subgroup of people with autism may be explained by their special mental functioning, in particular by their weak central coherence, one of the pivotal characteristics of the disorder. As a result of the increasing interest in autistic talent, there has recently emerged a tendency to screen any eccentric artist or scientist for traits of the autistic spectrum. Following this trend, we analyze the eccentricity of the popular pianist Glenn Gould and briefly discuss the major functional hypotheses on autistic hyperfunctioning, advancing proposals for functional testing. In particular, the potential involvement of rhythm-entrained systems and cerebro-cerebellar loops opens up new perspectives for the investigation of autistic disorders and brain hyperfunctioning.

  18. First Test of Long-Range Collisional Drag via Plasma Wave Damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Matthew

    2017-10-01

    In magnetized plasmas, the rate of particle collisions is enhanced over classical predictions when the cyclotron radius rc is less than the Debye length λD. Classical theories describe local velocity scattering collisions with impact parameters ρ theory have shown that these long-range collisions enhance cross-field diffusion, heat transport, and viscosity by orders of magnitude over classical predictions. Here, we present the first experimental confirmation of a new theory, which predicts enhanced parallel velocity slowing due to these long-range collisions. These experiments measure the damping of Trivelpiece-Gould waves in a multispecies pure ion plasma. The damping is dominated by interspecies collisional drag when Landau damping is weak. In this ``drag damping'' regime, the measured damping rates exceed classical predictions of collisional drag damping by as much as an order of magnitude, but agree with the new long-range enhanced collision theory. The enhanced slowing is most significant for strong magnetization and low temperatures. For example, the slowing of anti-protons at a density of 107 cm-3 and a temperature of 10 K in a 6 T trap is enhanced by a factor of 30. Supported by NSF Grant PHY-1414570 and DOE Grant DE-SC0002451. In collaboration with F. Anderegg, D.H.E. Dubin, and C.F. Driscoll.

  19. Study of the operating parameters of a helicon plasma discharge source using PIC-MCC simulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafarian, Rokhsare; Ganjovi, Alireza; Etaati, Gholamreza

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a Particle in Cell-Monte Carlo Collision simulation technique is used to study the operating parameters of a typical helicon plasma source. These parameters mainly include the gas pressure, externally applied static magnetic field, the length and radius of the helicon antenna, and the frequency and voltage amplitude of the applied RF power on the helicon antenna. It is shown that, while the strong radial gradient of the formed plasma density in the proximity of the plasma surface is substantially proportional to the energy absorption from the existing Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) modes, the observed high electron temperature in the helicon source at lower static magnetic fields is significant evidence for the energy absorption from the helicon modes. Furthermore, it is found that, at higher gas pressures, both the plasma electron density and temperature are reduced. Besides, it is shown that, at higher static magnetic fields, owing to the enhancement of the energy absorption by the plasma charged species, the plasma electron density is linearly increased. Moreover, it is seen that, at the higher spatial dimensions of the antenna, both the plasma electron density and temperature are reduced. Additionally, while, for the applied frequencies of 13.56 MHz and 27.12 MHz on the helicon antenna, the TG modes appear, for the applied frequency of 18.12 MHz on the helicon antenna, the existence of helicon modes is proved. Moreover, by increasing the applied voltage amplitude on the antenna, the generation of mono-energetic electrons is more probable.

  20. Rhagovelia (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Veliidae de la cuenta alta del Río Putumayo (Putumayo, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Nancy Padilla-Gil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio presenta la composición, diversidad, abundancia y distribución geográfica y altitudinal de las especies del género Rhagovelia en la cuenca alta de Río Putumayo, Piedemonte sur de la Amazonia, departamento de Putumayo. Las estaciones de muestreo fueron establecidas en el rango altitudinal entre los 160 a 590 m snm, comprendido entre las localidades de Mocoa a Puerto Asis. Las muestras fueron colectadas en Junio y Noviembre de 2015, usando redes entomológicas. En total se presentan siete especies del género Rhagovelia, pertenecientes a los grupos bisignata y robusta; se describe la forma macróptera de la especie Rhagovelia longipes Gould, 1931. Se amplió el rango geográfico para la mayoría de las especies y se preciso el rango altitudinal de tales especies en el pidemonte de la Amazonia. Para cada especie también se caracterizó el hábitat a través de los paramentros físico-químicos del agua donde se recolectaron los especímenes.

  1. Sewall Wright, shifting balance theory, and the hardening of the modern synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yoichi

    2017-02-01

    The period between the 1940s and 1960s saw the hardening of the modern synthesis in evolutionary biology. Gould and Provine argue that Wright's shifting balance theory of evolution hardened during this period. But their account does not do justice to Wright, who always regarded selection as acting together with drift. This paper presents a more adequate account of the development of Wright's shifting balance theory, paying particular attention to his application of the theory to the geographical distribution of flower color dimorphism in Linanthus parryae. The account shows that even in the heyday of the hardened synthesis, the balance or interaction of evolutionary factors, such as drift, selection, and migration, occupied pride of place in Wright's theory, and that between the 1940s and 1970s, Wright developed the theory of isolation by distance to quantitatively represent the structure of the Linanthus population, which he argued had the kind of structure posited by his shifting balance theory. In the end, Wright arrived at a sophisticated description of the structure of the Linanthus population, where the interaction between drift and selection varied spatially. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving health consciousness and life skills in young people through peer-leadership in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerachote, C; Kessomboon, P; Rattanasiri, A; Koju, R

    2013-01-01

    Peer leadership is widely recognized as an effective approach to health promotion and empowerment among people of similar ages, especially the youth. Such programs build peer leaders who in turn help empower the youths in their groups to improve their health and life skills related to health. Most previous studies have focused on the effectiveness of such activities in target groups but have neglected to effectively address and explore the transformations in peer leaders themselves. This descriptive study aimed to investigate the level of social change and health consciousness among student peer leaders in three Youth health promotion programs in Thailand: Friend's Corner, Smart Consumer and Volunteer Minded Young Dentists, and to compare them with the general students. The study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire, which was developed based on Tyree's Social Change Model of leadership, Gould's concept and Dutta-Bergman's concept. The study population comprised of 11th grade students (N=660) from Kalasin Province in Thailand, 320 of whom were peer leaders. The findings revealed that the peer leaders scored higher than non peer leaders in all domains. Among the peer leaders, it was found that Volunteer Minded Young Dentists group had the highest scores in "controversy with civility", "social change agent" characteristics, "holistic health perceptions" and "responsibility for one's own health" regarding health consciousness. The results of this study confirmed that the peer leadership approach can help young people to develop life skills through social transformation and increase health consciousness for better status of health in the community.

  3. Economical Feasibility of Utilizing Photovoltaics for Water Pumping in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Z. Sahin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy and water are the two major need of the globe which need to be addressed for the sustenance of the human beings on this planet. All the nations, no matter most populous, developed and developing need to diversify the means and ways of producing energy and at the same time guarding the environment. This study aims at techno economical feasibility of producing energy using PV solar panels and utilizing it to pump-water at Dhahran, Riyadh, Jeddah, Guriat, and Nejran regions in Saudi Arabia. The solar radiation data from these stations was used to generate electricity using PV panels of 9.99 kW total capacity. Nejran region was found to be most economical in terms of minimal payback period and cost of energy and maximum internal rate of return whereas PV power production was concerned. Water-pumping capacity of the solar PV energy system was calculated at five locations based on the PV power production and Goulds model 45J series of pumps. Monthly total and annual total water pumping capacities were determined. Considering the capital cost of combined solar PV energy system and the pump unit a cost analysis of water pumping for a well of 50 m total dynamic head (TDH was carried out. The cost of water pumping was found to vary between 2 and 3 /m3.

  4. Impact of Consumers’ Self-Image and Demographics on Preference for Healthy Labeled Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Hanspal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are becoming more health conscious. Increasingly, products that are labeled “healthy” are being marketed as new retailers and new brands vie for the consumers’ share of wallet. This research identifies the self-image factors that constitute a health conscious image of the self and examines how self-image impacts consumer buying of foods that are labeled healthy. It also makes an effort to find out whether specific self-image factors are significantly associated with demographics. This study employs a scale consisting of 15 statements that included four statements from the Health Consciousness scale developed by Gould. The psychometric properties of the scale used in the study are reported. The study uses factor analysis to identify five factors of consumer self-image as they relate to health consciousness. Furthermore, the study explores the relationship between demographics such as age, gender, education, and relationship status with the self-image factors and reports results for consumer preferences for choosing healthy foods when hungry. This research has important implications for marketers in the health food industry and for such other companies that might use consumer health consciousness as a basis for market segmentation and strategy design.

  5. The Creativity of Natural Selection? Part I: Darwin, Darwinism, and the Mutationists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, John

    2016-12-01

    This is the first of a two-part essay on the history of debates concerning the creativity of natural selection, from Darwin through the evolutionary synthesis and up to the present. Here I focus on the mid-late nineteenth century to the early twentieth, with special emphasis on early Darwinism and its critics, the self-styled "mutationists." The second part focuses on the evolutionary synthesis and some of its critics, especially the "neutralists" and "neo-mutationists." Like Stephen Gould, I consider the creativity of natural selection to be a key component of what has traditionally counted as "Darwinism." I argue that the creativity of natural selection is best understood in terms of (1) selection initiating evolutionary change, and (2) selection being responsible for the presence of the variation it acts upon, for example by directing the course of variation. I consider the respects in which both of these claims sound non-Darwinian, even though they have long been understood by supporters and critics alike to be virtually constitutive of Darwinism.

  6. Amphibian mortality events and ranavirus outbreaks in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patla, Debra A.; St-Hilaire, Sophia; Rayburn, Andrew P.; Hossack, Blake R.; Peterson, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    Mortality events in wild amphibians go largely undocumented, and where events are detected, the numbers of dead amphibians observed are probably a small fraction of actual mortality (Green and Sherman 2001; Skerratt et al. 2007). Incidental observations from field surveys can, despite limitations, provide valuable information on the presence, host species, and spatial distribution of diseases. Here we summarize amphibian mortality events and diagnoses recorded from 2000 to 2014 in three management areas: Yellowstone National Park; Grand Teton National Park (including John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway); and the National Elk Refuge, which together span a large portion of protected areas within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE; Noss et al. 2002). Our combined amphibian monitoring projects (e.g., Gould et al. 2012) surveyed an average of 240 wetlands per year over the 15 years. Field crews recorded amphibian mortalities during visual encounter and dip-netting surveys and collected moribund and dead specimens for diagnostic examinations. Amphibian and fish research projects during these years contributed additional mortality observations, specimens, and diagnoses.

  7. New insights into the earliest phases of low-mass star formation with the Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, J.

    The Herschel Space Observatory has been revolutionizing our understanding of the the earliest phases of star formation. In this contribution, we describe early results from the Gould Belt Survey, a Herschel Key Project to map 15 nearby molecular clouds in continuum emission from 70 μm to 500 μm. In particular, I describe how the sensitive and wide maps of the Aquila Rift have strongly confirmed the similarity between the shapes of the stellar Initial Mass Function and the prestellar core mass function (CMF). Also, the Herschel map sensitivity to larger scale emission has revealed that prestellar cores form almost exclusively within dense filaments that exceed a critical mass per unit length defined by temperature (and gravity). Finally, filaments in three clouds, IC 5146, Polaris and Aquila, are found to have similar widths of ˜0.1 pc, approximately the scale where the turbulent velocity equals the sound speed of 10 K gas. This common width suggests filaments themselves are formed through collisional shocks of turbulent flows and evolve in quasi-virial balance through mass accretion.

  8. Synthetic biology: a challenge to mechanical explanations in biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morange, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In their plans to modify organisms, synthetic biologists have contrasted engineering and tinkering. By drawing this contrast between their endeavors and what has happened during the evolution of organisms by natural selection, they underline the novelty of their projects and justify their ambitions. Synthetic biologists are at odds with a long tradition that has considered organisms as "perfect machines." This tradition had already been questioned by Stephen Jay Gould in the 1970s and received a major blow with the comparison made by François Jacob between organisms and the results of "bricolage" (tinkering). These contrasts between engineering and tinkering, synthetic biology and evolution, have no raison d'être. Machines built by humans are increasingly inspired by observations made on organisms. This is not a simple reversal of the previous trend-the mechanical conception of organisms-in which the characteristics of the latter were explained by comparison with human-built machines. Relations between organisms and machines have always been complex and ambiguous.

  9. Liolope copulans (Trematoda: Digenea: Liolopidae) parasitic in Andrias japonicus (Amphibia: Caudata: Cryptobranchidae) in Japan: Life cycle and systematic position inferred from morphological and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Takashi; Hosoi, Masatomi; Urabe, Misako; Shimazu, Takeshi; Tochimoto, Takeyoshi; Hasegawa, Hideo

    2011-06-01

    The life cycle of Liolope copulans Cohn, 1902 (Trematoda: Digenea: Liolopidae), an intestinal parasite of the Japanese giant salamander Andrias japonicus (Temminck) (Amphibia: Caudata: Cryptobranchidae), was studied in the field and laboratory in Japan. This is the first description of mother sporocyst, daughter sporocyst and cercariae of a liolopid species. Non-oculate longifurcate pharyngeate cercariae were formed in lanceolate-cylindrical daughter sporocysts in Semisulcospira libertina (Gould) (Gastropoda: Sorbeoconcha: Pleuroceridae). They successfully developed to encapsulated metacercariae in cyprinid fishes, Nipponocypris sieboldii (Temminck and Schlegel) and Rhynchocypris lagowskii (Dybowski), by experimental infection. Cercariae had a V-shaped excretory vesicle with two looped arms, as in metacercariae and adults. Developmental stages from mother sporocyst to adult are described and illustrated. DNA sequencing was conducted for 28S and 18S rDNA of mother and daughter sporocysts, cercariae, and an adult. The result of molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that L. copulans may be one of the basal taxa of the order Diplostomida Olson, Cribb, Tkach, Bray, and Littlewood, 2003, but its systematic position is still unclear because of the topological inconsistence between the 28S and 18S trees. Therefore, we tentatively place the family Liolopidae in the superfamily Diplostomoidea, mainly based on the morphology of sporocysts and cercariae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Testing gradual and speciational models of evolution in extant taxa: the example of ratites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, M; Gussekloo, S W S; Marjanović, D; Legendre, L; Cubo, J

    2012-02-01

    Ever since Eldredge and Gould proposed their model of punctuated equilibria, evolutionary biologists have debated how often this model is the best description of nature and how important it is compared to the more gradual models of evolution expected from natural selection and the neo-Darwinian paradigm. Recently, Cubo proposed a method to test whether morphological data in extant ratites are more compatible with a gradual or with a speciational model (close to the punctuated equilibrium model). As shown by our simulations, a new method to test the mode of evolution of characters (involving regression of standardized contrasts on their expected standard deviation) is easier to implement and more powerful than the previously proposed method, but the Mesquite module comet (aimed at investigating evolutionary models using comparative data) performs better still. Uncertainties in branch length estimates are probably the largest source of potential error. Cubo hypothesized that heterochronic mechanisms may underlie morphological changes in bone shape during the evolution of ratites. He predicted that the outcome of these changes may be consistent with a speciational model of character evolution because heterochronic changes can be instantaneous in terms of geological time. Analysis of a more extensive data set confirms his prediction despite branch length uncertainties: evolution in ratites has been mostly speciational for shape-related characters. However, it has been mostly gradual for size-related ones. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Emotions in social movilization: the bulgarian protests of 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Popkovacheva-Terzieva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Las emociones juegan un papel principal en los ciclos de los movimientos sociales. Sin embargo, definir el término “emoción” es sujeto de calientes debates escolares porque las emociones varían mucho según su naturaleza y manifestación. Sin embargo, una reseña de la literatura empírica y teórica escolar perece demostrar que las emociones pueden ser entendidas de la mejor manera a través de dos instrumentos - los mecanismos de Jon Elster’s y los habitus emocionales de Deborah Gould. El objetivo de este artículo es hablar de los dos instrumentos y combinarlos con la paradigmática teoría sobre el papel de las emociones en la movilización social de James M. Jasper y Jeff Goodwin, para marcar las conclusiones sobre lo que las emociones pueden ofrecer al entendimiento de los movimientos sociales. Como caso de estudio se van a revisar las olas de las protestas búlgaras del junio del 2013.  Normal 0 21 false false false RU JA X-NONE

  12. Medical data sheet in safe havens - A tri-layer cryptic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveenkumar, Padmapriya; Amirtharajan, Rengarajan; Thenmozhi, K; Balaguru Rayappan, John Bosco

    2015-07-01

    Secured sharing of the diagnostic reports and scan images of patients among doctors with complementary expertise for collaborative treatment will help to provide maximum care through faster and decisive decisions. In this context, a tri-layer cryptic solution has been proposed and implemented on Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images to establish a secured communication for effective referrals among peers without compromising the privacy of patients. In this approach, a blend of three cryptic schemes, namely Latin square image cipher (LSIC), discrete Gould transform (DGT) and Rubik׳s encryption, has been adopted. Among them, LSIC provides better substitution, confusion and shuffling of the image blocks; DGT incorporates tamper proofing with authentication; and Rubik renders a permutation of DICOM image pixels. The developed algorithm has been successfully implemented and tested in both the software (MATLAB 7) and hardware Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) environments. Specifically, the encrypted data were tested by transmitting them through an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel model. Furthermore, the sternness of the implemented algorithm was validated by employing standard metrics such as the unified average changing intensity (UACI), number of pixels change rate (NPCR), correlation values and histograms. The estimated metrics have also been compared with the existing methods and dominate in terms of large key space to defy brute force attack, cropping attack, strong key sensitivity and uniform pixel value distribution on encryption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Appraisal of suicidal risk among adolescents and young adults through the Rorschach test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasczyk-Schiep, Sybilla; Kazén, Miguel; Kuhl, Julius; Grygielski, Michał

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate suicidal behaviors among adolescents and young adults and to test an index composed using Rorschach test responses related to an increased risk of suicide. Using a cross-sectional design, 4 groups were studied (according to criteria of the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment [Posner, Oquendo, Gould, Stanley, & Davies, 2007]): A group with suicidal ideation (n = 30), a group with parasuicidal behavior (n = 30), a group with near-lethal suicide attempts (n = 26), and a control group (n = 30). Responses to the Rorschach test yielded 6 potential indicators of suicidal behavior (scored according to Exner's Comprehensive System and the Suicidal Index for Adolescents; Silberg & Armstrong, 1992 ). Rorschach scores including at least 4 of these 6 indicators selected 69% of the people who had committed serious suicide attempts. The Rorschach Suicidal Index reached an acceptable reliability and was related to other criteria of suicide risk, such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck, Ward, Mendelsohn, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961) and Linehan Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL-I; Linehan, Goodstein, Nielsen, & Chiles, 1983). Moreover, the Rorschach Suicidal Index showed incremental validity over the BDI and the RFL-I to predict suicidal behavior. A path analysis additionally showed that low social support was an important mediator between the Rorschach Suicidal Index and the number of suicide attempts committed by participants.

  14. Social Science Energy Review: a quarterly publication. Vol. 1, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, L C [ed.

    1978-01-01

    The Yale University Institution for Social and Policy Studies Mapping Project on Energy and the Social Sciences brings together an interdisciplinary group of Yale and visiting faculty, ISPS staff, and Yale graduate students meeting weekly to discuss topics in energy and the social sciences and to study and evaluate the importance for social policy of existing and potential social science energy research projects. The primary purposes of the project are: (1) to encourage timely social science investigations into important energy-related social issues, (2) to explore the present and potential roles for academic social science research in energy decision-making, and (3) to advise DOE and other government personnel in the planning of social science energy research. In addition to an overview of the Mapping Project, this report contains the following: (1) Social Science Research on ''The Energy Boomtown,'' by Leroy C. Gould--contains literature survey (66 references) and conveys Mapping Project's suggestions as to priorities on future social science research on ''energy boomtowns.'' (2) Men and Coal in Appalachia: a Survey of the Academic Literature, by Peter B. Allison (bibliography cites 7 journals, 3 government documents, and 70 books and articles). (3) Energy Research in Psychology, by John Sweeney (reprint of review of current status of energy research in psychology that appeared in December, 1977 issue of APA Monitor under the title, ''Boosting Energy Research'').

  15. High-performance batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage. Progress report, October 1978-September 1979. [40 kWh, Li-Al and Li-Si anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, D. L.; Steunenberg, R. K.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Gay, E. C.; Battles, J. E.; Hornstra, F.; Miller, W. E.; Vissers, D. R.; Roche, M. F.; Shimotake, H.; Hudson, R.; Askew, B. A.; Sudar, S.

    1980-03-01

    The research, development, and management activities of the programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at contractors' laboratories on high-temperature batteries during the period October 1978 to September 1979 are reported. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary energy-storage applications. The present cells, which operate at 400 to 500/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing negative electrodes of lithium-aluminum or lithium-silicon alloy, and molten LiCl-KC1 electrolyte. During this reporting period, cell and battery development work has continued at ANL and contractors' laboratories. A 40 kWh electric-vehicle battery (designated Mark IA) was fabricated and delivered to ANL for testing. During the initial heat-up, one of the two modules failed due to a short circuit. A failure analysis was conducted, and the Mark IA program completed. Development work on the next electric-vehicle battery (Mark II) was initiated at Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. and Gould, Inc. Work on stationary energy-storage batteries during this period has consisted primarily of conceptual design studies. 107 figures, 67 tables.

  16. Modeling and Theory of RF Antenna Systems on Proto-MPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowicz, P. A.; Caneses, J. F.; Goulding, R. H.; Green, D.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Ruzic, D. N.; Proto-MPEX Team

    2017-10-01

    The RF wave coupling of the helicon and ICH antennas installed on the Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX) has been explored theoretically and via a full wave model implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics. The high-density mode in Proto-MPEX has been shown to occur when exciting radial eigenmodes of the plasma column which coincides with entering a Trivelpiece Gould (TG) anti-resonant regime, therefore suppressing edge heating in favor of core power deposition. The fast wave launched by the helicon antenna has a large wavelength and travels at a steep group velocity angle with the background magnetic field; for this reason the fast wave launched by the helicon antenna efficiently couples power to the core plasma. However, the ICH heating scheme relies on a small wavelength slow wave to couple power to the core of the plasma column. Coupling slow wave power to the core of the plasma column is sensitive to the location of the Alfven resonance. The wave-vector and group velocity vector of the slow wave in this parameter regime undergoes a drastic change in behavior when approaching the Alfven resonance. Full wave simulation results and dispersion analysis will be presented with suggestions to guide experimental progress. This work was supported by the US. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  17. Authoritative Images. The Kiwi and the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadelli, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The first exemplar of a kiwi, the wingless bird of New Zealand, arrived in the form of a lifeless specimen in Europe in 1812. A debate was sparked over the appearance and nature of this strange creature and indeed whether it actually existed. In 1833 the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London entered the debate and the illustrations published in this journal contributed greatly to the acceptance and further study of the kiwi. Some of the most eminent British zoologists and anatomists of the time were involved, from William Yarrell to Richard Owen, and from John Gould to Abraham Dee Bartlett. This crucial period in the discussion, which would extend over two decades and would only be brought to a close with the arrival of the first living specimen in the London Zoological Garden in 1851, will be analyzed based on a detailed examination of the reports published in the Transactions and other journals. This essay will show how images of the bird were produced and used by zoologists during different stages in the early research on the bird and how these figures circulated inside and outside the zoologists' community.

  18. Rich eight-branch spectrum of the oblique propagating longitudinal waves in partially spin-polarized electron-positron-ion plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Pavel A; Iqbal, Z

    2016-03-01

    We consider the separate spin evolution of electrons and positrons in electron-positron and electron-positron-ion plasmas. We consider the oblique propagating longitudinal waves in these systems. Working in a regime of high-density n(0) ∼ 10(27) cm(-3) and high-magnetic-field B(0)=10(10) G, we report the presence of the spin-electron acoustic waves and their dispersion dependencies. In electron-positron plasmas, similarly to the electron-ion plasmas, we find one spin-electron acoustic wave (SEAW) at the propagation parallel or perpendicular to the external field and two spin-electron acoustic waves at the oblique propagation. At the parallel or perpendicular propagation of the longitudinal waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas, we find four branches: the Langmuir wave, the positron-acoustic wave, and a pair of waves having spin nature, they are the SEAW and the wave discovered in this paper, called the spin-electron-positron acoustic wave (SEPAW). At the oblique propagation we find eight longitudinal waves: the Langmuir wave, the Trivelpiece--Gould wave, a pair of positron-acoustic waves, a pair of SEAWs, and a pair of SEPAWs. Thus, for the first time, we report the existence of the second positron-acoustic wave existing at the oblique propagation and the existence of SEPAWs.

  19. Ripensare Darwin? Di ex‐aptations e neotenie. E di Topolino, Pippo e simpatiche salamandre messicane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Amodio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RETHINKING DARWIN? ABOUT EX‐APTATIONS AND NEOTENIES. CONCERNING MICKEY MOUSE, GOOFY AND LIKEABLE MEXICAN SALAMANDERS The theory of evolution by natural selection of Charles Darwin, whose first general exposure dates back to 1859, with the publication of the Origin of Species, is still a matter of intense debate among natural sciences’ scholars and philosophers. After the merger of Darwinian evolutionary research program with the theory of heredity of Gregor Mendel, the mathematical form of population genetics and the analysis of paleontological data (Modern Synthesis and the the important contributions of post‐Darwinian authors such as S.J. Gould and N. Eldredge we are entering a new era of great discoveries and news. On the one hand, new data from genetics and paleoanthropology, on the other hand the impetuous development of some fields of applied science such as nanobiotechnology, genetic engineering and synthetic biology put us into the need and the urgency to underline, once again, the relevance and the extraordinary heuristic power of Darwinian research program, an even greater urgency since some authors have announced that we would be at a time to access a post‐Darwinian and post‐ evolutionary era in which man as we actually know it is about to disappear.

  20. Ripensare Darwin? Di ex‐aptations e neotenie.   E di Topolino, Pippo e simpatiche salamandre messicane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Amodio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RETHINKING DARWIN? ABOUT EX‐APTATIONS AND NEOTENIES. CONCERNING MICKEY MOUSE, GOOFY AND LIKEABLE MEXICAN SALAMANDERS The theory of evolution by natural selection of Charles Darwin, whose first general exposure dates back to 1859, with the publication of the Origin of Species, is still a matter of intense debate among natural sciences’ scholars and philosophers. After the merger of Darwinian evolutionary research program with the theory of heredity of Gregor Mendel, the mathematical form of population genetics and the analysis of paleontological data (Modern Synthesis and the the important contributions of post‐Darwinian authors such as S.J. Gould and N. Eldredge we are entering a new era of great discoveries and news. On the one hand, new data from genetics and paleoanthropology, on the other hand the impetuous development of some fields of applied science such as nanobiotechnology, genetic engineering and synthetic biology put us into the need and the urgency to underline, once again, the relevance and the extraordinary heuristic power of Darwinian research program, an even greater urgency since some authors have announced that we would be at a time to access a post‐Darwinian and post‐ evolutionary era in which man as we actually know it is about to disappear.

  1. The Exoplanet Mass-Ratio Function From the MOA-II Survey: Discovery of a Break and Likely Peak at a Neptune Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, D.; Bennett, D. P.; Sumi, T.; Bond, I. A.; Rogers, L. A.; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Bhattacharya, A.; Donachie, M.; Freeman, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of the statistical analysis of planetary signals discovered in MOA-II microlensing survey alert system events from 2007 to 2012. We determine the survey sensitivity as a function of planet star mass ratio, q, and projected planet star separation, s, in Einstein radius units. We find that the mass-ratio function is not a single power law, but has a change in slope at q approx.10(exp -4), corresponding to approx. 20 Stellar Mass for the median host-star mass of approx. 0.6 M. We find significant planetary signals in 23 of the 1474 alert events that are well-characterized by the MOA-II survey data alone. Data from other groups are used only to characterize planetary signals that have been identified in the MOA data alone. The distribution of mass ratios and separations of the planets found in our sample are well fit by a broken power-law model. We also combine this analysis with the previous analyses of Gould et al. and Cassan et al., bringing the total sample to 30 planets. The unbroken power-law model is disfavored with a p-value of 0.0022, which corresponds to a Bayes factor of 27 favoring the broken power-law model. These results imply that cold Neptunes are likely to be the most common type of planets beyond the snow line.

  2. Franz Samelson (1923-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Franz Samelson, social psychologist and historian of psychology, died in Manhattan, Kansas, on March 16, 2015. Franz joined the Psychology Department at Kansas State University (KSU) in 1957 and rose through the ranks to retire as Professor in 1990. At KSU he taught social psychology informed by his dislike of narrow empiricism and a growing interest in historical topics. The history of social psychology, Franz believed, was distorted by post-World War II desires for value-free empiricism. Gordon Allport, he showed, created an origin myth for the field that suited his values, obscuring the ideological diversity of his predecessors. Turning to intelligence and intelligence testing, Franz's research again altered the scholarly landscape. Although it was long believed that psychologists' testing in World War I demonstrated the usefulness of their young science, Franz revealed this to be another disciplinary myth. Next, Franz showed that a popular history of IQ testing (Stephen Jay Gould's Mismeasure of Man) was distorted by the author's liberal enthusiasm-again showing his willingness to take on the political left as well as the right. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The rise and rise of medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, Paula E-mail: Paula.Gould@absw.org.uk

    2003-08-01

    As Sydney gets ready to host the World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering later this month, Paula Gould reports on the state of the art in imaging technology. Medical physics has come a long way since Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen first described a 'new kind of ray' back in 1895. The discovery that X-rays could be used to display the innermost workings of the human body on a photographic plate was of immediate interest to the medical community at the time. Today, over a century later, the phrase 'going for a scan' can refer to any one of a multitude of different medical-imaging techniques that are used for diagnosis and treatment. The transmission and detection of X-rays still lies at the heart of radiography, angiography, fluoroscopy and conventional mammography examinations. However, traditional film-based scanners are gradually being replaced by digital systems that are based primarily on caesium-iodide scintillators coupled to flat-panel detectors. Some systems rely on charged-coupled devices (CCD) rather than flat panels but the end result is the same: the data can be viewed, moved and stored without a single piece of film ever being exposed. (U.K.)

  4. Process Management Development for Quality Monitoring on Resistance Weldment of Nuclear Fuel Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Tae Hyung; Yang, Kyung Hwan; Kim, In Kyu [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The current, welding force, and displacement are displayed on the indicator during welding. However, real-time quality control is not performed. Due to the importance of fuel rod weldment, many studies on welding procedures have been conducted. However, there are not enough studies regarding weldment quality evaluation. On the other hand, there are continuous studies on the monitoring and control of welding phenomena. In resistance welding, which is performed in a very short time, it is important to find the process parameters that well represent the weld zone formation and the welding process. In his study, Gould attempted to analyze melt zone formation using the finite difference method. Using the artificial neural network, Javed and Sanders, Messler Jr et al., Cho and Rhee, Li and Gong et al. estimated the size of the melt zone by mapping a nonlinear functional relation between the weldment and the electrode head movement, which is a typical welding process parameter. Applications of the artificial intelligence method include fuzzy control using electrode displacement, fuzzy control using the optimal power curve, neural network control using the dynamic resistance curve, fuzzy adaptive control using the optimal electrode curve, etc. Therefore, this study induced quality factors for the real-time quality control of nuclear fuel rod end plug weldment using instantaneous dynamic resistance (IDR), which incorporates the instantaneous value of secondary current and voltage of the transformer, and using instantaneous dynamic force (IDF), obtained real-time during welding.

  5. Life history and spatial distribution of Oriental beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in golf courses in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Ho Yul; Lee, Dong Woon; Park, Ji Woong; Kaya, Harry K; Smitley, David R; Lee, Sang Myeong; Choo, Young Moo

    2002-02-01

    Larval and adult activity of the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis (Waterhouse), a pest of turfgrass in Korea, was investigated at four golf clubs in Pusan, Korea, from 1995 to 1999. Adult emergence was first observed on the greens in late May with peak activity occurring 2 wk later. During the day, E. orientalis adults were most active between 1800 and 2200 hours. First instars were found mostly in early July, second instars mostly in late July, and third instars from August to April. The density of larvae in fixed plots decreased steadily from the time of egg laying to pupation: 667/m3 on 26 July, 267/m3 on 29 August, and 122/m3 on 2 October 1997. All the observed E. orientalis completed one generation per year. Adult females were observed feeding on flowers of a late-blooming variety of Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb & Zucc). E. orientalis larval densities were higher in greens with Japanese chestnut nearby, and where magpie, Pica pica sericea (Gould), feeding was observed. More E. orientalis adults emerged from the right, left, and back of greens than from the front or middle. The intensity of emergence was inversely proportional to the amount of golfer traffic on various parts of the green. Counting emergence holes may be a way that golf course superintendents can predict which greens and tees are most likely to be damaged from E. orientalis larvae without destructive sampling.

  6. The diversity of weed species occurring in living mulch in an apple orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Licznar-Małańczuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In a study conducted at the Research Station of the Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, weed occurrence in living mulches maintained in apple tree rows of ‘Pinova’ cv. was assessed during the first seven years after sowing. The trees were planted in spring 2004 (3.5 × 1.2 m. In the same year, living mulches: colonial bent grass, white clover and French marigold, were sown into 1 m wide tree rows. Blue fescue, the only perennial cover crop with herbicide application against dicot weeds once in the second year after sowing, was introduced in the second year after planting the trees to replace dwarf nasturtium which was sown in the year of orchard establishment. In the inter-row spaces, perennial grass was maintained. During the first seven years, variation in weeds was observed depending on living mulch. Multi-species weed infestation persisted throughout the study period only in the case of annually resown French marigold. Perennial living mulches were significantly suppressed the annual weeds. Significant suppression of Taraxacum officinale Web. was found where the soil surface was covered by perennial grass sod in more than ¾. The maintenance of blue fescue resulted in significantly lower average soil coverage by Elymus repens (L. Gould; the growth of this weed significantly contributed to the reduction of white clover sod and French marigold plants.

  7. "Not Just Right Experiences" as a psychological endophenotype for obsessive-compulsive disorder: Evidence from an Italian family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Claudio; Bottesi, Gioia; Caudek, Corrado; Orsucci, Antonella; Ghisi, Marta

    2016-11-30

    The heart of the obsessional process may be considered the subject's underlying impression that "something is wrong" or "that something is not just as it should be". This phenomenon, labeled "not just right experiences" (NJREs), has increasingly been receiving attention as a possible marker of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study sought to add to the evidence that NJREs may be a putative endophenotype of obsessional symptoms. To this aim, measures of NJREs, obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and psychological distress were compared in offspring of parents with and without OC symptoms. The offspring of parents with OC symptoms (N=120) reported higher frequency and severity of NJREs compared to offspring of parents without OC symptoms (N=106). Such differences remained significant for NJREs frequency and close to significance for NJREs severity, when general distress (i.e., anxiety and depression) was controlled. The possible role of NJREs as an endophenotype for OCD is discussed in reference to Gottesman and Gould criteria and the National Institute of Mental Health RDoC initiative. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. On the Naturalistic Fallacy: A Conceptual Basis for Evolutionary Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Teehan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In debates concerning evolutionary approaches to ethics the Naturalistic Fallacy (i.e., deriving values from facts or “ought” from “is” is often invoked as a constraining principle. For example, Stephen Jay Gould asserts the most that evolutionary studies can hope to do is set out the conditions under which certain morals or values might have arisen, but it can say nothing about the validity of such values, on pain of committing the Naturalistic Fallacy. Such questions of moral validity, he continues, are best left in the domain of religion. This is a common critique of evolutionary ethics but it is based on an insufficient appreciation of the full implications of the Naturalistic Fallacy. Broadly conceived, the Naturalistic Fallacy rules out any attempt to treat morality as defined according to some pre-existent reality, whether that reality is expressed in natural or non-natural terms. Consequent to this is that morality must be treated as a product of natural human interactions. As such, any discipline which sheds light on the conditions under which values originate, and on the workings of moral psychology, may play a crucial role in questions of moral validity. The authors contend that rather than being a constraint on evolutionary approaches to ethics, the Naturalistic Fallacy, so understood, clears the way, conceptually, for just such an approach.

  9. Mollusc-Algal Chloroplast Endosymbiosis. Photosynthesis, Thylakoid Protein Maintenance, and Chloroplast Gene Expression Continue for Many Months in the Absence of the Algal Nucleus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Brian J.; Li, Wei-Ye; Manhart, James R.; Fox, Theodore C.; Summer, Elizabeth J.; Kennedy, Robert A.; Pierce, Sidney K.; Rumpho, Mary E.

    2000-01-01

    Early in its life cycle, the marine mollusc Elysia chlorotica Gould forms an intracellular endosymbiotic association with chloroplasts of the chromophytic alga Vaucheria litorea C. Agardh. As a result, the dark green sea slug can be sustained in culture solely by photoautotrophic CO2 fixation for at least 9 months if provided with only light and a source of CO2. Here we demonstrate that the sea slug symbiont chloroplasts maintain photosynthetic oxygen evolution and electron transport activity through photosystems I and II for several months in the absence of any external algal food supply. This activity is correlated to the maintenance of functional levels of chloroplast-encoded photosystem proteins, due in part at least to de novo protein synthesis of chloroplast proteins in the sea slug. Levels of at least one putative algal nuclear encoded protein, a light-harvesting complex protein homolog, were also maintained throughout the 9-month culture period. The chloroplast genome of V. litorea was found to be 119.1 kb, similar to that of other chromophytic algae. Southern analysis and polymerase chain reaction did not detect an algal nuclear genome in the slug, in agreement with earlier microscopic observations. Therefore, the maintenance of photosynthetic activity in the captured chloroplasts is regulated solely by the algal chloroplast and animal nuclear genomes. PMID:10982447

  10. Macroevolution is more than repeated rounds of microevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, D H

    2000-01-01

    Arguments over macroevolution versus microevolution have waxed and waned through most of the twentieth century. Initially, paleontologists and other evolutionary biologists advanced a variety of non-Darwinian evolutionary processes as explanations for patterns found in the fossil record, emphasizing macroevolution as a source of morphologic novelty. Later, paleontologists, from Simpson to Gould, Stanley, and others, accepted the primacy of natural selection but argued that rapid speciation produced a discontinuity between micro- and macroevolution. This second phase emphasizes the sorting of innovations between species. Other discontinuities appear in the persistence of trends (differential success of species within clades), including species sorting, in the differential success between clades and in the origination and establishment of evolutionary novelties. These discontinuities impose a hierarchical structure to evolution and discredit any smooth extrapolation from allelic substitution to large-scale evolutionary patterns. Recent developments in comparative developmental biology suggest a need to reconsider the possibility that some macroevolutionary discontinuites may be associated with the origination of evolutionary innovation. The attractiveness of macroevolution reflects the exhaustive documentation of large-scale patterns which reveal a richness to evolution unexplained by microevolution. If the goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the history of life, rather than simply document experimental analysis of evolution, studies from paleontology, phylogenetics, developmental biology, and other fields demand the deeper view provided by macroevolution.

  11. Are allometry and macroevolution related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bruce J.; West, Damien

    2011-05-01

    The allometric relationship between the basal metabolic rate B and total body mass M is B = aM, where the allometry coefficient a and the allometry exponent b have been fit to various data sets for over 150 years. The best fit of the allometry exponent to 391 mammalian species is given by Heusner [7] to be midway between the leading theoretical values of 2/3 and 3/4. Most theoretical investigations have focused on determining the proper value of b entailed by an appropriate biological model and with some notable exceptions ignored the allometry coefficient a altogether. Herein, we shift the focus and use the above data to settle on an empirical value of b that gives rise to an allometry coefficient with random variability described by a Pareto distribution. This new perspective suggests an interesting biological interpretation of the statistical fluctuations of the allometry coefficient. The time distribution of the intermittent fluctuations in a are determined to be of the same statistical form as those of speciation found in the punctuated equilibrium theory of macroevolution (Eldredge and Gould [3], Sneppen et al. [5] and Rikvold and Zia [17]).

  12. Antievolutionism in the Antipodes: from protesting evolution to promoting creationism in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numbers, R L; Stenhouse, J

    2000-09-01

    Like other English-speaking peoples around the world, New Zealanders began debating Darwinism in the early 1860s, shortly after the publication of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species. Despite the opposition of some religious and political leaders - and even the odd scientist - biological evolution made deep inroads in a culture that increasingly identified itself as secular. The introduction of pro-evolution curricula and radio broadcasts provoked occasional antievolution outbursts, but creationism remained more an object of ridicule than a threat until the last decades of the twentieth century, when first American and then Australian creationists began fomenting antievolutionism among New Zealanders. Although Stephen Jay Gould assured them in 1986 that they had little to fear from so-called scientific creationism, because it was a 'peculiarly American' phenomenon, scientific creationism by the mid-1990s had captured the allegiance of an estimated five per cent of the country and proved especially attractive to Maori and Pacific Islanders. In 1992 New Zealand creationists formed their own antievolution society, Creation Science (NZ).

  13. [The jibarization of logos: how medical reductionism can kill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Juan Emilio

    In recent decades, a disciplinary and subdisciplinary proliferation has triggered both in the medical fields and science in general. This trend may be partially explained by two diachronic, dialectically interconnected facts: the deepening of technical, social and international division of labor in the globalized capitalist world, and the triumph of the reductionist program, mainly developed by the logical empiricism of the Vienna Circle. This paper aims to deepen the debate on the intricate links between medicine, biology, philosophy, reductionism and complex thought, by using two examples: a case report of current medicine and the situation experienced by a famous American scientist, Stephen Jay Gould, about his first cancer, an abdominal mesothelioma. We have witnessed how the two above-mentioned historical facts have been operating as a super-structure like a pair of "tweezers", dismembering and compressing at the same moment the object of knowledge, the theories that allow their study, and the subject that receives the knowledge. This jibarization of logos is a real problem for public health, from the moment that it impacts, omnipresent, in the actual hegemonic medical model, leading to potentially dangerous attitudes to the various components of health systems. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Size, shape, and form: concepts of allometry in geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingenberg, Christian Peter

    2016-06-01

    Allometry refers to the size-related changes of morphological traits and remains an essential concept for the study of evolution and development. This review is the first systematic comparison of allometric methods in the context of geometric morphometrics that considers the structure of morphological spaces and their implications for characterizing allometry and performing size correction. The distinction of two main schools of thought is useful for understanding the differences and relationships between alternative methods for studying allometry. The Gould-Mosimann school defines allometry as the covariation of shape with size. This concept of allometry is implemented in geometric morphometrics through the multivariate regression of shape variables on a measure of size. In the Huxley-Jolicoeur school, allometry is the covariation among morphological features that all contain size information. In this framework, allometric trajectories are characterized by the first principal component, which is a line of best fit to the data points. In geometric morphometrics, this concept is implemented in analyses using either Procrustes form space or conformation space (the latter also known as size-and-shape space). Whereas these spaces differ substantially in their global structure, there are also close connections in their localized geometry. For the model of small isotropic variation of landmark positions, they are equivalent up to scaling. The methods differ in their emphasis and thus provide investigators with flexible tools to address specific questions concerning evolution and development, but all frameworks are logically compatible with each other and therefore unlikely to yield contradictory results.

  15. Varus Deformity of the Distal Tibia From Physeal Growth Arrest Treated Using a Titanium Metal Porous Wedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgforth, Andrew B; Burrus, M Tyrrell; Park, Joseph S

    2016-10-01

    During a cheerleading event, a 14-year-old female sustained a right ankle physeal fracture that was treated nonoperatively with casting. She developed a distal medial tibial physeal arrest, and as the onset of menses was at age 16, she subsequently developed a varus distal tibial deformity. At the age of 19, she was no longer able to participate in collegiate cheerleading due to lateral ankle pain, ankle instability, and peroneal subluxation. After failing conservative treatment, she underwent an ankle arthroscopy, Broström-Gould procedure, peroneal retinacular repair with peroneal tenolysis, and a distal tibial medial opening wedge osteotomy using a porous titanium metal wedge and a one-third tubular plate. At 6-month follow-up, her osteotomy site showed abundant callus formation, and her lateral ankle pain had almost completely resolved. At 22-month follow-up, there were no residual ankle instability or pain complaints, and she had returned to collegiate cheerleading. This case report highlights a very useful, previously not described, application of porous titanium metal wedges for medial supramalleolar opening wedge osteotomies of the tibia. Such wedges are familiar to many foot and ankle orthopaedic surgeons and continue to have expanding indications. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case report. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Spectroscopic Analysis of the a and 3 ^1Σ^+ States of 39K85Rb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Tae; Lee, Yonghoon; Kim, Bongsoo; Wang, Dajun; Gould, Phillip L.; Eyler, Edward E.; Stwalley, William C.

    2012-06-01

    The vibrational levels of the mutually strongly perturbed 1 ^1π - 2 ^3Σ^+ - b ^3π states of 39K85Rb were previously assigned by using a combination of molecular beam and ultracold molecule (UM) excitation spectra, the latter generated from levels of the a ^3Σ^+ state formed following photoassociation to a level of the 3(0^-) state. In a follow-on study using the same techniques, we have now successfully assigned high vibrational levels of the A and 3 ^1Σ^+ states from the excitation spectra of UMs formed by PA to both 3(0^+) and 3(0^-) levels. The ^1Σ^+ states are absent in the UM spectra for levels formed by the 3(0^-) PA level. This absence has been explained by considering Hund's case (c) selection rules and the transition dipole moment calculations by Kotochigova et al. between the upper excited A ^1Σ^+(2(0^+)) state and the three Ω components at the ground state dissociation limit. This work is supported by NRF in Korea (Grant 2009-0085319 at Chosun and Grants 2011-0001335 and 2011-0020419 at KAIST) and by NSF (Grant PHY-0855613) and AFOSR (Grant MURI FA9550-09-1-588) in the US. J. T. Kim, Y. Lee, B. Kim, D. Wang, W. C. Stwalley, P. L. Gould, and E. E. Eyler, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 18755 (2011). S. Kotochigova, E. Tiesinga, and P. S. Julienne, Phys. Rev. A 68, 022501 (2003).

  17. A Model for Protostellar Cluster Luminosities and the Impact on the CO–H2 Conversion Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaches, Brandt A. L.; Offner, Stella S. R.

    2018-02-01

    We construct a semianalytic model to study the effect of far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation on gas chemistry from embedded protostars. We use the protostellar luminosity function (PLF) formalism of Offner & McKee to calculate the total, FUV, and ionizing cluster luminosity for various protostellar accretion histories and cluster sizes. We2 compare the model predictions with surveys of Gould Belt star-forming regions and find that the tapered turbulent core model matches best the mean luminosities and the spread in the data. We combine the cluster model with the photodissociation region astrochemistry code, 3D-PDR, to compute the impact of the FUV luminosity from embedded protostars on the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, X CO, as a function of cluster size, gas mass, and star formation efficiency. We find that X CO has a weak dependence on the FUV radiation from embedded sources for large clusters owing to high cloud optical depths. In smaller and more efficient clusters the embedded FUV increases X CO to levels consistent with the average Milky Way values. The internal physical and chemical structures of the cloud are significantly altered, and X CO depends strongly on the protostellar cluster mass for small efficient clouds.

  18. Música e Tecnologia, do Vinil ao MP3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAIVA, Eduardo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The many technologies related to the processes of sound recording came to be understood, since the 60s, as “expressive means” that enable the appearance of new languages and procedures linked to the musical creation. By abandoning its supporting role, technology, mainly since the digital systems in the 90s, raises a large number of questions about the creation, recording and duplication processes of a musical work, where several concepts must be rethought and reconfigured. And, with the popularity of the Web from the late 90s on and consequently the movement of the sound work detached from any relationship with the physical media, we have today a new industry, new creation processes and a whole new approach of the issues linked to the relationship between music and technology. Finally, technology is an important element in the building of a sound singularity, something essential in popular music and even in some specific cases of classical music, as we can see in the recordings of Glenn Gould. Therefore, it is necessary to have a clear view of these processes (starting with vinyl records until the digital possibilities of today as well as to understand technology as one of the most important “expressive means” of sound creation.

  19. Bremsstrahlung component of the diffuse galactic gamma-ray emission at MeV energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacher, W.; Schoenfelder, V.

    1984-04-15

    Recently the galactic plane has been resolved at low and medium ..gamma..-ray energies in the directions toward the center and anticenter. Spectral measurements are now available at those energies, where the contribution of ..pi../sup 0/-decay from nuclear reactions of cosmic-ray protons (and heavier nuclei) with interstellar matter can be neglected. Under the assumption that most of the observed ..gamma..-ray flux below 30 MeV is produced by electron bremsstrahlung, restrictions on the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons in interstellar space below 100 MeV are derived. The most accurate bremsstrahlung production cross sections of Koch and Motz and of Blumental and Gould are used in order to derive the bremsstrahlung production spectrum in interstellar space down to 10 keV-photon energies. If the low-energy ..gamma..-ray emission, as seen by most observers, is indeed produced by electron bremsstrahlung, then a high interstellar electron flux at MeV energy results, which-at higher energies-connects to the upper limit derived by Cummings, Stone, and Vogt. Such a high low-energy electron flux would be able to explain the ionization rate of 1 x 10/sup -15/ ion pairs (H-atom/sup -1/ s/sup -1/) in H I regions. Because of uncertainties in the low-energy ..gamma..-ray measurements, however, no definite conclusion is possible yet.

  20. Análise do Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia de FCC sob a Ótica das Teorias de Aprendizagem Organizacional e Dinâmica da Inovação

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    Adelaide M. de Souza Antunes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado o histórico do desenvolvimento da tecnologia de Craqueamento Catalítico Fluido pela Petrobras, cuja trajetória de construção de conhecimento compreendeu quatro fases: aprendizado, aquisição, consolidação e domínio. As primeiras etapas da trajetória tecnológica, que compreendem as fases de aprendizado e aquisição, são analisadas segundo Modelos de Aprendizagem Organizacional consagrados, tais como os de Nevis, DiBella e Gould; Huber; e Senge, sendo verificado para qual desses modelos há uma aderência maior da trajetória de aprendizado da Petrobras. As etapas finais do processo, fase de consolidação e domínio, são analisadas sob a ótica dos Modelos de Dinâmica da Inovação. É feito um levantamento dos distintos modelos descritos na literatura: modelos lineares – ofertista e linear reverso; modelos complexos – terceira, quarta e quinta geração do processo de inovação, Kline e Rosenberg; Utterback; Kim; e Nonaka e Takeuchi. É analisada também a trajetória de evolução tecnológica de países em desenvolvimento, da operação à inovação, e verificado a qual modelo a trajetória de inovação tecnológica da Petrobras mostrou melhor adequação. São realçadas também algumas estratégias que contribuíram para o sucesso do desenvolvimento dessa tecnologia.The technological background of Petrobras in Fluid Catalytic Cracking area is shown, as well as its building knowledge pathway, which encompasses four phases: operational learning; acquisition; consolidation; and mastery. The first stages of this technological evolution route, the operational learning and the acquisition phases, were analyzed according to well known Organizational Learning Models, such as those of Nevis, DiBella and Gould; Huber; and Senge, being checked to which model the company learning pathway fits better. The final stages of the evolution process, the consolidation and the mastery phases, are analyzed from the point of

  1. Soul and body: Transcending the dialectical intellectual legacy of the West with an integral biblical view?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danie Strauss

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Greek philosophy informed the Medieval dualistic understanding of ‘body’ and ‘soul’, which continued to influence modern Humanism and Christian views during and after the Middle Ages. These fluctuating conceptions express the directing role of dialectical basic motives. It was mainly the Greek motive of matter and form which directed the thought of Plato and Aristotle, resulting in a dualistic view of the relationship between a so-called material body and rational soul. At the Council of Vienne (1312, the Aristotelian-Thomistic doctrine of the soul as the substantial form of the body was adopted. Within Protestant circles, the‘two-substances’ view caused a distinction between a (temporal material body and an (eternal rational soul (see article 7 of the Swiss Confessio Helvetica Posterior and the Westminster Confession Chapter 4, paragraph 2. Dooyeweerd shows how modern philosophy has received its deepest motivation from the dialectical motive of nature and freedom, which informed the development from Descartes up to Gould and Jaspers. Finally, in the last sections, the main contours of a biblically informed view are articulated with reference to the centrality of the human I-ness, to the theory of enkaptic interlacements and to the problem of supra-temporality. Siel en liggaam: Is dit moontlik om die dialektiese intellektuele erfenis van die Westevanuit ‘n integrale bybelse siening te bowe te kom? Die Griekse filosofie vorm die agtergrond van die Middeleeuse dualistiese verstaan van ‘liggaam’ en ‘siel’ wat op sy beurt die moderne Humanisme en latere Christelike opvattinge beïnvloed het – almal in die greep van dialektiese grondmotiewe. Dit was hoofsaaklik die Griekse basiese vorm-materie-motief wat die dualistiese siening van ’n materie-liggaam en ’n redelike siel tot gevolg gehad het, soos dit in die denke van Plato en Aristoteles beslag gekry het. By die Konsilie van Wenen (1312 is die Aristotelies

  2. Star formation in the Auriga-California Giant Molecular Cloud and its circumstellar disk population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah

    2016-05-01

    This thesis presents a multiwavelength analysis, from the infrared to the microwave, of the young, forming stars in the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud and a first look at the disks they host and their potential for forming planetary systems. At the beginning of this thesis, Auriga-Cal had only recently been identified as one contiguous cloud with its distance placing it within the Gould Belt of nearby star-forming regions (Lada et al. 2009). This thesis presents the largest body of work to date on Auriga-Cal's star formation and disk population. Auriga-Cal is one of two nearby giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the Gould Belt, the other being the Orion A molecular cloud. These two GMCs have similar mass ( 10^5 Msolar), spatial scale ( 80 pc), distance ( 450 pc), and filamentary morphology, yet the two clouds present very different star formation qualities and quantities. Namely, Auriga-Cal is forming far fewer stars and does not exhibit the high-mass star formation seen in Orion A. In this thesis, I present a census of the star forming objects in the infrared with the Spitzer Space Telescope showing that Auriga-Cal contains at least 166 young stellar objects (YSOs), 15-20x fewer stars than Orion A, the majority of which are located in the cluster around LkHalpha 101, NGC 1529, and the filament extending from it. I find the submillimetre census with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, sensitive to the youngest objects, arrives at a similar result showing the disparity between the two clouds observed in the infrared continues to the submillimetre. Therefore the relative star formation rate between the two clouds has remained constant in recent times. The final chapter introduces the first study targeted at the disk population to measure the formation potential of planetary systems around the young stars in Auriga-Cal. The dust thermal emission at cm wavelengths is observed to measure the relative amounts of cm-sized grains, indicative of the grain growth processes

  3. An attempt at a molecular prediction of metastasis in patients with primary cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschaider, Melanie; Neumann, Friederike; Peters, Bettina; Lenz, Florian; Cibena, Michael; Goiser, Malgorzata; Wolf, Ingrid; Wenzel, Jörg; Mauch, Cornelia; Schreiner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Stephan N

    2012-01-01

    Current prognostic clinical and morphological parameters are insufficient to accurately predict metastasis in individual melanoma patients. Several studies have described gene expression signatures to predict survival or metastasis of primary melanoma patients, however the reproducibility among these studies is disappointingly low. We followed extended REMARK/Gould Rothberg criteria to identify gene sets predictive for metastasis in patients with primary cutaneous melanoma. For class comparison, gene expression data from 116 patients with clinical stage I/II (no metastasis) and 72 with III/IV primary melanoma (with metastasis) at time of first diagnosis were used. Significance analysis of microarrays identified the top 50 differentially expressed genes. In an independent data set from a second cohort of 28 primary melanoma patients, these genes were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression analysis and leave-one-out cross validation for association with development of metastatic disease. In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, expression of the genes Ena/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein-like (EVL) and CD24 antigen gave the best predictive value (p = 0.001; p = 0.017, respectively). A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model revealed these genes as a potential independent predictor, which may possibly add (both p = 0.01) to the predictive value of the most important morphological indicator, Breslow depth. Combination of molecular with morphological information may potentially enable an improved prediction of metastasis in primary melanoma patients. A strength of the gene expression set is the small number of genes, which should allow easy reevaluation in independent data sets and adequately designed clinical trials.

  4. Surficial geology and distribution of post-impoundment sediment of the western part of Lake Mead based on a sidescan sonar and high-resolution seismic-reflection survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, David C.; Cross, VeeAnn A.; Rudin, Mark J.; Parolski, Kenneth F.

    1999-01-01

    Sidescan sonar imagery and high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles were collected in Las Vegas Bay and Boulder Basin of Lake Mead to determine the surficial geology as well as the distribution and thickness of sediment that has accumulated in these areas of the lake since the completion of Hoover Dam in 1935 (Gould, 1951). Results indicate that the accumulation of post-impoundment sediment is restricted to the original Colorado River bed which runs down the axis of Boulder Basin from Boulder Canyon to Hoover Dam, and the old Las Vegas Creek bed that bisects Las Vegas Bay. The sediment cover along the original Colorado River bed is continuous and is typically greater than 10-m thick throughout much of its length with the thickness in some areas exceeding 35 meters. The flat-lying nature of the deposits suggests that they are the result of turbidity currents that flow the length of the lake. The sediment cover in Las Vegas Bay is much thinner (rarely exceeding 2 m in thickness) and more discontinuous. The source for these sediments presumably is Las Vegas Wash and a series of other ephemeral washes that empty into this part of the lake. The presence of sediments along the entire length of the Las Vegas Creek bed suggests that turbidity currents probably are active here as well, and that sediment has been transported from these streams at least 10 km down the axis of this valley to where it enters Boulder Basin. Alluvial deposits and rock outcrops are still exposed on large parts of the lake floor.

  5. WHAT DETERMINES THE DENSITY STRUCTURE OF MOLECULAR CLOUDS? A CASE STUDY OF ORION B WITH HERSCHEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, N.; Andre, Ph.; Koenyves, V.; Motte, F.; Arzoumanian, D.; Didelon, P.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Palmeirim, P.; Peretto, N.; Roy, A. [IRFU/SAp CEA/DSM, Laboratoire AIM CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bontemps, S. [OASU/LAB-UMR5804, CNRS, Universite Bordeaux 1, F-33270 Floirac (France); Federrath, C. [MoCA, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Ward-Thompson, D. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, UCLAN, Preston, Lancashire PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Benedettini, M.; Pezzuto, S.; Rygl, K. L. J. [IAPS-INAF, Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Bressert, E. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Epping (Australia); Di Francesco, J. [NRCC, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, University of Victoria (Canada); Griffin, M. [University School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-04-01

    A key parameter to the description of all star formation processes is the density structure of the gas. In this Letter, we make use of probability distribution functions (PDFs) of Herschel column density maps of Orion B, Aquila, and Polaris, obtained with the Herschel Gould Belt survey (HGBS). We aim to understand which physical processes influence the PDF shape, and with which signatures. The PDFs of Orion B (Aquila) show a lognormal distribution for low column densities until A{sub V} {approx} 3 (6), and a power-law tail for high column densities, consistent with a {rho}{proportional_to}r {sup -2} profile for the equivalent spherical density distribution. The PDF of Orion B is broadened by external compression due to the nearby OB stellar aggregates. The PDF of a quiescent subregion of the non-star-forming Polaris cloud is nearly lognormal, indicating that supersonic turbulence governs the density distribution. But we also observe a deviation from the lognormal shape at A{sub V} > 1 for a subregion in Polaris that includes a prominent filament. We conclude that (1) the point where the PDF deviates from the lognormal form does not trace a universal A{sub V} -threshold for star formation, (2) statistical density fluctuations, intermittency, and magnetic fields can cause excess from the lognormal PDF at an early cloud formation stage, (3) core formation and/or global collapse of filaments and a non-isothermal gas distribution lead to a power-law tail, and (4) external compression broadens the column density PDF, consistent with numerical simulations.

  6. Characterizing interstellar filaments with Herschel in nearby molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoumanian, D.; André, P.; Peretto, N.; Könyves, V.; Schneider, N.; Didelon, P.; Palmeirim, P.

    2012-03-01

    Herschel observations of molecular clouds reveal the presence of complex filamentary structures which are shown to be the main sites of core and protostar formation (André et al. 2010). Understanding the properties of these filaments is a first step toward establishing a broader scenario of star formation in the Galaxy. Thanks to their unprecedented spatial dynamic range in the submillimeter regime, the Herschel images provide detailed quantitative information on these filaments, making it possible to characterize their properties in a statistical manner (Arzoumanian et al. 2011). I will discuss the properties of filaments seen by Herschel in 5 regions from the Gould Belt survey (IC5146, Aquila, Pipe, Taurus, Polaris), located at distances from 150 pc to 460 pc and having different star formation activities (filaments with column densities from ˜ 1020 cm-2 in Polaris to >1023 cm-2 in Aquila). The radial density profiles of the filaments show a power-law behavior at large radii of r-2 (shallower than the hydrostatic isothermal Ostriker model described by ρ ˜ r-4 ) with a flat inner part, which is remarkably uniform (˜ 0.1 pc ) for all filaments in our sample (˜ 150 filaments) regardless of column density. The observed filaments are not strictly isothermal, their dust temperature profiles show a slight (˜ 3K) but significant decrease in temperature toward the center. I will complement the analysis based on Herschel with preliminary line-width measurements with the IRAM 30m telescope. We find evidence of an increase in non-thermal velocity dispersion with column density, denser filaments being more turbulent than more diffuse ones (Arzoumanian et al. in prep.).

  7. Mapping the holes: 3D ISM maps and diffuse X-ray background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallement, R.; Vergely, J.-L.; Puspitarini, L.; Snowden, S.; Galeazzi, M.; Koutroumpa, D.

    3D maps of Galactic interstellar dust and gas reveal empty regions, including cavities carved by stellar winds and supernovae. Such cavities are often filled with hot gas and are sources of soft X-ray background emission. We discuss the combined analysis of the diffuse soft (0.25 keV) X-ray background and the 3D distribution of nearby (shadows cast by nearby clouds in the background. This analysis benefits from recent progress in the estimate of the foreground X-ray emission from the heliosphere. New and past X-ray data are found to be consistent with the maps if the ≃ 100-150 pc wide Local Bubble surrounding the Sun is filled with 106K gas with a pressure 2nT ≃ 10,000 K cm-3. On the other hand, the giant cavity found in the 3rd Galactic quadrant has a weaker volume emission than the LB and is very likely filled to a large extent with warm ionized gas. Its geometry suggests a link with the tilted Gould belt, and a potential mechanism for the formation of the whole structure has been recently proposed. According to it, the local inclination of gas and stars, the velocity pattern and enhanced star formation could have been initiated 60-70 Myr ago when a massive globular cluster crossed the Galactic Plane in the vicinity of the Sun. The destabilization of stellar orbits around the Sun may have generated enhanced asteroid falls of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) extinction events. Additionally, a short gamma ray burst may have occurred in the cluster during the crossing, producing intense ionization and subsequent shock waves leading to the star formations seen today in the form of the giant ionized region and OB associations at its periphery. Gaia measurements of nearby stars and clusters should help shedding light on the local history.

  8. [The Roots of Idiographic Paleontology: Karl Alfred von Zittel's Methodology and Conception of the Fossil Record].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Marco

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines Karl Alfred von Zittel’s practice in order to uncover the roots of so-called idiographic paleontology.The great American paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould (1941–2002) defined the discipline of idiographic paleontology as illustration and description of the morphological features of extinct species. However, this approach does not investigate macroevolutionary patterns and processes. On the contrary, the paleobiological revolution of the 1970s implemented an epistemic methodology that illustrates macrovelutionary patterns and laws by combining idiographic data with a nomothetic form of explanation. This article elucidates the features of the idiographic data as well as the acquired knowledge coupled with this approach. First of all, Heinrich G. Bronn’s (1800–1862) statistical method is analyzed. Zittel’s practice arose as a reaction against the approximate conclusions reached by Bronn’s quantitative approach. Second, the details of Zittel’s methodology are described in order to bring out its peculiarities.The microscope played a pivotal role in creating and forming Zittel’s morphological data. This analysis sheds new light on the reasons behind the so-called ideographic paleontology, thus revising Gould’s historical reconstruction, as well as on the notion of paleontological data. However, even though Zittel aimed at reaching precise and stable conclusions,his data cannot be used for elucidating evolutionary mechanisms: they are scientific in a purely descriptive sense, but completely useless for biological investigations. Finally, this paper examines how Zittel’s methodology affects the contemporary paleobiological enterprise and thereby reflects upon the notion of natural history.

  9. DIFERENCIAS ENTRE JUGADORES DE BALONMANO DE CATEGORÍA DE ALTO RENDIMIENTO Y DE BASE EN VARIABLES MOTIVACIONALES Y ANSIEDAD PRECOMPETITIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Da Silva Batista

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Los deportistas en general, se exponen a diversas situaciones intensas en el entorno deportivo, en las que la ansiedad puede suponer que el deportista no afronte los objetivos de la manera más eficaz. Resulta importante analizar el término ansiedad, el cual, hace referencia a un estado emocional negativo que incluye sensaciones de nerviosismo, preocupación y aprensión, relacionadas con la activación o el arousal del organismo. Así pues, la ansiedad tiene un componente de pensamiento, por ejemplo, la preocupación y la aprensión, llamando ansiedad cognitiva, y un componente de ansiedad somática, o percepciones de los síntomas corporales (Weinberg y Gould, 1995. La autoconfianza hace referencia a la creencia que tiene una persona de poder hacer aquello que quiere hacer (Feltz, 1994.Así mismo, resulta relevante analizar la motivación que presenta el deportista, para ello emplearemos la Teoría de la Autodeterminación (TAD, cuyas últimas aportaciones a la teoría (Vansteenkiste, Niemiec, y Soenens, 2010, se decantan más por una agrupación formada por la motivación autónoma (compuesta por la motivación intrínseca y la regulación identificada, motivación controlada (formada por las regulaciones introyectada y externa y la desmotivación. La TAD se basa en que el comportamiento humano es motivado fundamentalmente por tres necesidades psicológicas básicas (NPB: autonomía, competencia, y relaciones sociales (Deci y Ryan, 2000.Objetivo: Determinar las diferencias existentes en jugadores de Balonmano de alto rendimiento y de categorías base, en cuanto a los tipos de motivación, necesidades psicológicas básicas, y ansiedad precompetitiva.

  10. Critical appraisal of extended-release hydrocodone for chronic pain: patient considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gould HJ III

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Harry J Gould III,1,3–7 Dennis Paul1–8 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 4Department of Anesthesiology, 5Neuroscience Center of Excellence, 6Center of Excellence for Oral and Craniofacial Biology, 7Pain Mastery Center of Louisiana, 8Alcohol and Drug Abuse Center of Excellence, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: Opioid analgesics are currently the most effective pharmacologic option for the management of both acute and chronic forms of moderate-to-severe pain. Although the “as-needed” use of immediate-release formulations is considered optimum for treating acute, painful episodes of limited duration, the scheduled dosing of extended-release formulations with immediate-release supplementation for breakthrough pain is regarded to be most effective for managing chronic conditions requiring around-the-clock treatment. The recent introduction of extended-release formulations of the opioid analgesic hydrocodone potentially broadened the possibility of providing pain relief for individuals for whom current formulations are either ineffective or not tolerated. However, reaction to the approval of the new formulations has fueled controversy over the general safety and need for opioid medications, in light of their potential for misuse, abuse, diversion, and addiction. Here, we discuss how the approval of extended-release formulations of hydrocodone and the emotionally charged controversy over their release may affect physician prescribing and the care available to patients in need of chronic opioid therapy for the management of pain. Keywords: opioid analgesics, patient risks, patient benefits, misuse, addiction

  11. Functional Morphology in Paleobiology: Origins of the Method of 'Paradigms'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudwick, Martin J S

    2018-03-01

    From the early nineteenth century, the successful use of fossils in stratigraphy oriented paleontology (and particularly the study of fossil invertebrates) towards geology. The consequent marginalising of biological objectives was countered in the twentieth century by the rise of 'Paläobiologie', first in the German cultural area and only later, as 'paleobiology', in the anglophone world. Several kinds of paleobiological research flourished internationally after the Second World War, among them the novel field of 'paleoecology'. Within this field there were attempts to apply functional morphology to the problematical cases of fossil organisms, for which functions cannot be observed directly. This article describes the origins of the kind of functional inference for fossils that I proposed in 1961 as the method of 'paradigms' (a year before Thomas Kuhn made that word more widely familiar with a quite different meaning). Here I summarize some of my 'worked exemplars', which were intended to show the paradigm method in action. These case-studies were all taken from the paleontologically important phylum of the Brachiopoda, but the method was claimed to have much wider implications for the interpretation of the fossil record in terms of adaptive evolution. This article takes the history of the paradigm method as far as the late 1960s. I hope to trace, in a sequel, its ambivalent fate during the 1970s and beyond, when for example Gould's critique of 'the adaptationist programme' and the rise of computer-based quantitative methods for the evolutionary interpretation of the fossil record led to the relative eclipse of functional morphology in paleontology.

  12. Planck intermediate results. XXXV. Probing the role of the magnetic field in the formation of structure in molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Arnaud, M.; Arzoumanian, D.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bracco, A.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falceta-Gonçalves, D.; Falgarone, E.; Ferrière, K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Guillet, V.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hennebelle, P.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Netterfield, C. B.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oppermann, N.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Soler, J. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Ysard, N.; Yvon, D.; Zonca, A.

    2016-02-01

    Within ten nearby (d < 450 pc) Gould belt molecular clouds we evaluate statistically the relative orientation between the magnetic field projected on the plane of sky, inferred from the polarized thermal emission of Galactic dust observed by Planck at 353 GHz, and the gas column density structures, quantified by the gradient of the column density, NH. The selected regions, covering several degrees in size, are analysed at an effective angular resolution of 10' FWHM, thus sampling physical scales from 0.4 to 40 pc in the nearest cloud. The column densities in the selected regions range from NH≈ 1021 to1023 cm-2, and hence they correspond to the bulk of the molecular clouds. The relative orientation is evaluated pixel by pixel and analysed in bins of column density using the novel statistical tool called "histogram of relative orientations". Throughout this study, we assume that the polarized emission observed by Planck at 353 GHz is representative of the projected morphology of the magnetic field in each region, I.e., we assume a constant dust grain alignment efficiency, independent of the local environment. Within most clouds we find that the relative orientation changes progressively with increasing NH, from mostly parallel or having no preferred orientation to mostly perpendicular. In simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in molecular clouds this trend in relative orientation is a signature of Alfvénic or sub-Alfvénic turbulence, implying that the magnetic field is significant for the gas dynamics at the scales probed by Planck. We compare the deduced magnetic field strength with estimates we obtain from other methods and discuss the implications of the Planck observations for the general picture of molecular cloud formation and evolution.

  13. Towards a Universal Biology: Is the Origin and Evolution of Life Predictable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2017-01-01

    The origin and evolution of life seems an unpredictable oddity, based on the quirks of contingency. Celebrated by the late Stephen Jay Gould in several books, "evolution by contingency" has all the adventure of a thriller, but lacks the predictive power of the physical sciences. Not necessarily so, replied Simon Conway Morris, for convergence reassures us that certain evolutionary responses are replicable. The outcome of this debate is critical to Astrobiology. How can we understand where we came from on Earth without prophesy? Further, we cannot design a rational strategy for the search for life elsewhere - or to understand what the future will hold for life on Earth and beyond - without extrapolating from pre-biotic chemistry and evolution. There are several indirect approaches to understanding, and thus describing, what life must be. These include philosophical approaches to defining life (is there even a satisfactory definition of life?), using what we know of physics, chemistry and life to imagine alternate scenarios, using different approaches that life takes as pseudoreplicates (e.g., ribosomal vs non-ribosomal protein synthesis), and experimental approaches to understand the art of the possible. Given that: (1) Life is a process based on physical components rather than simply an object; (2). Life is likely based on organic carbon and needs a solvent for chemistry, most likely water, and (3) Looking for convergence in terrestrial evolution we can predict certain tendencies, if not quite "laws", that provide predictive power. Biological history must obey the laws of physics and chemistry, the principles of natural selection, the constraints of an evolutionary past, genetics, and developmental biology. This amalgam creates a surprising amount of predictive power in the broad outline. Critical is the apparent prevalence of organic chemistry, and uniformity in the universe of the laws of chemistry and physics. Instructive is the widespread occurrence of

  14. What Determines the Density Structure of Molecular Clouds? A Case Study of Orion B with Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, N.; André, Ph.; Könyves, V.; Bontemps, S.; Motte, F.; Federrath, C.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Arzoumanian, D.; Benedettini, M.; Bressert, E.; Didelon, P.; Di Francesco, J.; Griffin, M.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Palmeirim, P.; Pezzuto, S.; Peretto, N.; Roy, A.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Spinoglio, L.; White, G.

    2013-04-01

    A key parameter to the description of all star formation processes is the density structure of the gas. In this Letter, we make use of probability distribution functions (PDFs) of Herschel column density maps of Orion B, Aquila, and Polaris, obtained with the Herschel Gould Belt survey (HGBS). We aim to understand which physical processes influence the PDF shape, and with which signatures. The PDFs of Orion B (Aquila) show a lognormal distribution for low column densities until A V ~ 3 (6), and a power-law tail for high column densities, consistent with a ρvpropr -2 profile for the equivalent spherical density distribution. The PDF of Orion B is broadened by external compression due to the nearby OB stellar aggregates. The PDF of a quiescent subregion of the non-star-forming Polaris cloud is nearly lognormal, indicating that supersonic turbulence governs the density distribution. But we also observe a deviation from the lognormal shape at A V > 1 for a subregion in Polaris that includes a prominent filament. We conclude that (1) the point where the PDF deviates from the lognormal form does not trace a universal A V -threshold for star formation, (2) statistical density fluctuations, intermittency, and magnetic fields can cause excess from the lognormal PDF at an early cloud formation stage, (3) core formation and/or global collapse of filaments and a non-isothermal gas distribution lead to a power-law tail, and (4) external compression broadens the column density PDF, consistent with numerical simulations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  15. Saving the spandrels? Adaptive genomic variation in conservation and fisheries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, D E

    2016-12-01

    As highlighted by many of the papers in this issue, research on the genomic basis of adaptive phenotypic variation in natural populations has made spectacular progress in the past few years, largely due to the advances in sequencing technology and analysis. Without question, the resulting genomic data will improve the understanding of regions of the genome under selection and extend knowledge of the genetic basis of adaptive evolution. What is far less clear, but has been the focus of active discussion, is how such information can or should transfer into conservation practice to complement more typical conservation applications of genetic data. Before such applications can be realized, the evolutionary importance of specific targets of selection relative to the genome-wide diversity of the species as a whole must be evaluated. The key issues for the incorporation of adaptive genomic variation in conservation and management are discussed here, using published examples of adaptive genomic variation associated with specific phenotypes in salmonids and other taxa to highlight practical considerations for incorporating such information into conservation programmes. Scenarios are described in which adaptive genomic data could be used in conservation or restoration, constraints on its utility and the importance of validating inferences drawn from new genomic data before applying them in conservation practice. Finally, it is argued that an excessive focus on preserving the adaptive variation that can be measured, while ignoring the vast unknown majority that cannot, is a modern twist on the adaptationist programme that Gould and Lewontin critiqued almost 40 years ago. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Psicología de los juegos olímpicos: la percepción de los entrenadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sid\\u00F3nio Serpa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudios recientes (Gould, 2001a,b, Greenleaf et al, 2001 consideran a la competición Olímpica con características específicas que implican una adaptación psicológica especial por parte de los deportistas. Por otro lado, se entiende generalmente como esencial la relación entrenador-deportista para la optimización del potencial deportivo de los participantes, teniendo el entrenador un papel muy importante en todo el proceso de preparación psicológica. El objetivo general de la investigación fue estudiar la percepción de los entrenadores sobre las necesidades y obligaciones específicas de los Juegos Olímpicos y sobre la adaptación psicológica de los atletas. En el estudio participaron nueve entrenadores portugueses que acompañaron técnicamente a sus deportistas en los Juegos Olímpicos de Sidney, de los que cinco alcanzaron o excedieron sus expectativas, y no lo hicieron los restantes. La recogida de datos se realizó mediante una entrevista estructurada y el análisis de datos siguió los procedimientos recomendados por Miles y Huberman (1984. La conclusión fue que los entrenadores percibieron aspectos específicos de los Juegos Olímpicos que los distinguen de otras competiciones internacionales y provocaron en los atletas reacciones diferenciadas con respecto a otros grandes eventos que fueron o bien favorables o bien perjudiciales desde el punto de vista del rendimiento. Otra observación fue que los deportistas que obtuvieron tanto mejores como peores rendimientos reaccionaron de forma diferente a las distintas dificultades específicas de unos Juegos Olímpicos.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Very Low-Luminosity Objects (VeLLOs) from 1.25-850um (Kim+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.-R.; Lee, C. W.; Dunham, M. M.; Evans, N. J., II; Kim, G.; Allen, L. E.

    2016-10-01

    The Spitzer Gould Belt Survey (GBS) is a project to survey about 21 square degrees of 11 nearby molecular clouds at 3.6-160um to provide a census of star formation in nearby large clouds (P.I. L. Allen). Spitzer has mapped a total of 11 molecular clouds, CMC, Chamaeleon I, Chamaeleon III, Musca, Lupus V, Lupus VI, Ophiuchus North, Aquila, CrA, Cepheus, and IC 5146 with the IRAC and MIPS between 2004 March and 2008 October. We utilized the data provided by the c2d/GBS projects (Evans et al. 2009, J/ApJS/181/321; Dunham et al. 2015, J/ApJS/220/11). There are two cloud complexes which were not listed in the c2d/GBS projects, but observed by other projects, the Taurus molecular clouds and the Orion molecular clouds. The Taurus molecular clouds have been observed over an area of ~44 square degrees by one of the GTO programs (P.I. D. Padgett) with the IRAC and the MIPS instruments. The Orion molecular clouds have been surveyed in ~9°2 area by Spitzer (P.I. T. Megeath). See section 2.1 for further details. Complementary archive infrared data were retrieved from 2MASS and Herschel PACS and SPIRE and JCMT SCUBA-2; see section 2.2. We observed our sources with the N2H+(1-0) line with the Korean Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (KVN) 21m radio telescopes from 2011 October to 2016 May for the northern hemisphere sources, and the Mopra 22m telescope in 2012 April for the southern hemisphere sources. See section 2.3 for further explanations. (8 data files).

  18. High-performance batteries for stationary energy storage and electric-vehicle propulsion. Progress report, October--December 1976. [Li--Al/LiCl--KCl/FeS or FeS/sub 2/, operate at 400 to 450 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P.A.; Yao, N.P.; Steunenberg, R.K.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Gay, E.C.; Battles, J.E.; Hornstra, F.; Miller, W.E.; Roche, M.F.; Shimotake, H.

    1977-04-01

    These batteries are being developed for electric vehicle propulsion and for stationary energy storage applications. The present battery cells, which operate at 400 to 450/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with a central positive electrode of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, two facing negative electrodes of lithium--aluminum alloy, and an electrolyte of molten LiCl--KCl. Testing and evaluation of industrially fabricated cells is continuing. During this period, Li--Al/FeS and Li--Al/FeS/sub 2/ cells from Eagle-Picher Industries were tested, and tests of Li--Al/FeS cells from Gould Inc. were initiated. The cells are tested individually and in parallel and series battery configurations. These tests provide information on the effects of cell design modifications and alternative materials. Improved electrode and cell designs are being developed and tested at ANL, and the more promising designs are incorporated in the industrially fabricated cells. Among the concepts receiving major attention are carbon-bonded positive electrodes, scaled-up stationary energy storage cell designs, additives to extend electrode lifetime, and alternative electrode separators. The materials development efforts include the development of a new lightweight electrical feedthrough; investigations of new separator materials (e.g.,Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ powder, Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ felt, and porous, rigid ceramics); corrosion tests of materials for cell components; and postoperative examinations of cells. The cell chemistry studies were directed to discharge mechanisms of FeS electrodes, emf measurements of the LiAl/FeS/sub 2/ couple at various states of discharge, and studies of other transition-metal sulfides as positive-electrode materials. The advanced battery effort mainly concerned the use of calcium alloys for negative electrode and transition metal sulfides or oxides for the positive electrode. 13 figures, 18 tables.

  19. Evolution of aerosol and CCN properties on the Antarctic Peninsula and Southern Ocean during the spring and summer seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, C.; Roberts, G.; Grant, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern Ocean has been identified as one of the key regions that need aerosol measurements to improve our models of global climate change. The Portable AERosol Observing System (PAEROS) was deployed in an extended field campaign to measure CCN and aerosols in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean from October 2013 to mid-March 2014. PAEROS is a lightweight, man-portable instrument package developed at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography for the purpose of collecting autonomous measurements of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties in remote and challenging environments. The initial phase involved the PAEROS package sampling onboard the R/V Gould during the five-day transit of the Drake Passage between Punta Arenas, Chile and Palmer Station on the Antarctic Peninsula. Upon arrival at Palmer Station, PAEROS was transferred to land and installed on top of a hill about 500 m from the main buildings. For five months, aerosol and CCN number concentrations, size distributions, black carbon concentrations, solar fluxes, and meteorological parameters were continuously measured at Palmer Station. The experiment covered most of an austral spring and summer cycle, during which time the sea ice retreated and biological activity flourished along the Antarctic Peninsula. While crossing the Drake Passage, a distinct gradient in aerosol concentrations was observed with increasing distance from South America. At Palmer Station, the total aerosol concentrations showed a seasonal cycle with lowest concentration in air masses originating from the Antarctic continent and highest number concentrations coming from the ocean during the peak of biological activity. Chlorophyll concentrations are routinely measured at Palmer Station and showed peak activity in the month of January 2014. Total aerosol and CCN concentrations increased in late spring (November) as the sea ice recedes from Palmer Station, probably a result of being closer to sea spray and biological activity

  20. Exploring the nature of science through courage and purpose: a case study of Charles Darwin's way of knowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel I

    2016-01-01

    In 1836, Charles Darwin returned to England with finches classified and seemingly showing little resemblance. However, subsequent examination by John Gould revealed 13 closely related species endemic to the Galápagos Islands. Despite initial confusion, and Darwin's overlooking to label these birds by island, some 100 years later they had become evolution's icon. The same could be said of Darwin's education and scientific pursuits, beginning in a rough, trial and error manner, lacking direction, but eventually benefitting from an unexpected opportunity that would lead to his theory of natural selection. This case study examines Darwin's way of learning and the reserve of courage and perseverance that he would need to see his treatise on evolution and natural selection published. To do this, themes from studying the "Nature of Science" are used to examine how Darwin's "way of knowing" advanced before and after his voyage upon HMS Beagle. Five themes from the "Nature of Science" were selected to illustrate Darwin's struggles and triumph: creating scientific knowledge is a human endeavor, such knowledge can explain an order and consistency in natural systems, knowledge comes from a scientist's way of knowing, is open to revision, and based on empirical evidence. The "Nature of Science" as applied to Charles Darwin is explored through the three above mentioned themes identified by the Next Generation Science Standards. Together, the themes help explain Darwin's way of knowing, from boyhood to manhood. This explanation helps humanize Darwin, allows students to see how he arrived at his theories, how the time taken to do so wore on his health and safety, and the risk Darwin had to weigh from their eventual publication. Each theme ends with a summary and related extension questions to draw students into the case, and facilitate inquiry. They relate Darwin's way of learning from the 1800s and his commitment to see his work published, to the learning environment of

  1. Transport modeling of convection dominated helicon discharges in Proto-MPEX with the B2.5-Eirene code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, L. W.; Rapp, J.; Canik, J.; Lore, J. D.

    2017-11-01

    Data-constrained interpretative analyses of plasma transport in convection dominated helicon discharges in the Proto-MPEX linear device, and predictive calculations with additional Electron Cyclotron Heating/Electron Bernstein Wave (ECH/EBW) heating, are reported. The B2.5-Eirene code, in which the multi-fluid plasma code B2.5 is coupled to the kinetic Monte Carlo neutrals code Eirene, is used to fit double Langmuir probe measurements and fast camera data in front of a stainless-steel target. The absorbed helicon and ECH power (11 kW) and spatially constant anomalous transport coefficients that are deduced from fitting of the probe and optical data are additionally used for predictive simulations of complete axial distributions of the densities, temperatures, plasma flow velocities, particle and energy fluxes, and possible effects of alternate fueling and pumping scenarios. The somewhat hollow electron density and temperature radial profiles from the probe data suggest that Trivelpiece-Gould wave absorption is the dominant helicon electron heating source in the discharges analyzed here. There is no external ion heating, but the corresponding calculated ion temperature radial profile is not hollow. Rather it reflects ion heating by the electron-ion equilibration terms in the energy balance equations and ion radial transport resulting from the hollow density profile. With the absorbed power and the transport model deduced from fitting the sheath limited discharge data, calculated conduction limited higher recycling conditions were produced by reducing the pumping and increasing the gas fueling rate, resulting in an approximate doubling of the target ion flux and reduction of the target heat flux.

  2. High-performance batteries for stationary energy storage and electric-vehicle propulsion. Progress report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    Research, development, and management activities of the program on lithium--aluminum/metal sulfide batteries during April--June 1977 are described. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage. The present cells, which operate at 400--450/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with a central positive electrode of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, two facing negative electrodes of lithium--aluminum alloy, and an electrolyte of molten LiCl--KCl. Testing and evaluation of industrially fabricated cells is continuing. Li--Al/FeS and Li--Al/FeS/sub 2/ cells from Eagle--Picher Industries and from Gould Inc. were tested. These tests provided information on the effects of design modifications and alternative materials for cells. Improved electrode and cell designs are being developed and tested, and the more promising designs are incorporated into the industrially fabricated cells. Among the concepts receiving major attention are carbon-bonded positive electrodes, scaled-up designs of stationary energy storage cells, additives to extend electrode lifetime, alternative electrode separators, and pellet-grid electrodes. Materials development efforts included the development of a lightweight electrical feedthrough; studies of various current-collector designs; investigation of powder separators; wettability and corrosion tests of materials for cell components; and postoperative examinations of cells. Cell chemistry studies were concerned with discharge mechanisms of FeS electrodes and with other transition-metal sulfides as positive electrode materials. Voltammetric studies were conducted to investigate the reversibility of the FeS/sub 2/ electrode. The use of calcium and magnesium alloys for the negative electrode in advanced battery systems were investigated. 8 figures, 12 tables.

  3. Detectability of rotation-powered pulsars in future hard X-ray surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei

    2009-11-01

    Recent INTEGRAL/IBIS hard X-ray surveys have detected about 10 young pulsars. We show hard X-ray properties of these 10 young pulsars, which have a luminosity of 1033-1037 erg s-1 and a photon index of 1.6-2.1 in the energy range of 20-100 keV. The correlation between X-ray luminosity and spin-down power of LX propto Lsd1.31suggests that the hard X-ray emission in rotation-powered pulsars is dominated by the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) component. Assuming spectral properties are similar in 20-100 keV and 2-10 keV for both the pulsar and PWN components, the hard X-ray luminosity and flux of 39 known young X-ray pulsars and 8 millisecond pulsars are obtained, and a correlation of LX propto Lsd1.5 is derived. About 20 known young X-ray pulsars and 1 millisecond pulsars could be detected with future INTEGRAL and HXMT surveys. We also carry out Monte Carlo simulations of hard X-ray pulsars in the Galaxy and the Gould Belt, assuming values for the pulsar birth rate, initial position, proper motion velocity, period, and magnetic field distribution and evolution based on observational statistics and the LX - Lsd relations: LX propto Lsd1.31 and LX propto Lsd1.5. More than 40 young pulsars (mostly in the Galactic plane) could be detected after ten years of INTEGRAL surveys and the launch of HXMT. So, the young pulsars would be a significant part of the hard X-ray source population in the sky, and will contribute to unidentified hard X-ray sources in present and future hard X-ray surveys by INTEGRAL and HXMT.

  4. La jibarización del logos: cómo el reduccionismo médico puede matar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Emilio Sala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas se ha desencadenado una verdadera proliferación disciplinar y subdisciplinar tanto en el ámbito médico como en la ciencia en general. Esta tendencia podría ser parcialmente explicada por dos hechos diacrónicos e interconectados dialécticamente: la profundización de la división técnica, social e internacional del trabajo del mundo capitalista globalizado, y el triunfo del Programa Reduccionista, desarrollado principalmente por el empirismo lógico del Círculo de Viena. El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo ahondar el debate sobre los intrincados vínculos entre la medicina, la biología, la filosofía, el reduccionismo y el pensamiento complejo, a partir de la utilización de dos ejemplos: un informe de caso de la medicina actual y la situación experimentada por un afamado científico norteamericano, Stephen Jay Gould, a propósito de su primer cáncer, un mesotelioma abdominal. Hemos observado cómo los dos hechos históricos mencionados han venido operando como una súper estructura de “pinza”, descuartizando y comprimiendo al mismo tiempo al objeto a conocer, a las teorías que permiten su estudio y al propio sujeto que recibe el conocimiento. Esta jibarización del logos constituye un verdadero problema para la salud pública desde el momento en que impacta, omnipresente, en el modelo médico hegemónico actual, propiciando actitudes potencialmente peligrosas para los diversos integrantes de los sistemas de salud.

  5. Dinosaurs, Chameleons, Humans, and Evo-Devo Path: Linking Étienne Geoffroy's Teratology, Waddington's Homeorhesis, Alberch's Logic of "Monsters," and Goldschmidt Hopeful "Monsters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Guinard, Geoffrey; Diaz, Raul E

    2017-05-01

    Since the rise of evo-devo (evolutionary developmental biology) in the 1980s, few authors have attempted to combine the increasing knowledge obtained from the study of model organisms and human medicine with data from comparative anatomy and evolutionary biology in order to investigate the links between development, pathology, and macroevolution. Fortunately, this situation is slowly changing, with a renewed interest in evolutionary developmental pathology (evo-devo-path) in the past decades, as evidenced by the idea to publish this special, and very timely, issue on "Developmental Evolution in Biomedical Research." As all of us have recently been involved, independently, in works related in some way or another with evolution and developmental anomalies, we decided to join our different perspectives and backgrounds in the present contribution for this special issue. Specifically, we provide a brief historical account on the study of the links between evolution, development, and pathologies, followed by a review of the recent work done by each of us, and then by a general discussion on the broader developmental and macroevolutionary implications of our studies and works recently done by other authors. Our primary aims are to highlight the strength of studying developmental anomalies within an evolutionary framework to understand morphological diversity and disease by connecting the recent work done by us and others with the research done and broader ideas proposed by authors such as Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Waddington, Goldschmidt, Gould, and Per Alberch, among many others to pave the way for further and much needed work regarding abnormal development and macroevolution. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Thinking clearly about the endophenotype-intermediate phenotype-biomarker distinctions in developmental psychopathology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2013-11-01

    The endophenotype is central to modern developmental psychopathology studies. It is used in studies seeking to connect the genetic substrates of the panoply of major mental disorders with processes, tapped by laboratory and other assessment measures, in the genotype to a behavior/psychopathology pathway. Proposed originally by Gottesman and Shields (1972; Shields & Gottesman, 1973) 41 years ago, the endophenotype concept has gained widespread traction in psychopathology research since the Gottesman and Gould (2003) review. Other concepts broadly related to the endophenotype notion have also generated discussion in experimental and developmental psychopathology research. One is the intermediate phenotype, a concept proffered as a putative alternative formulation to the endophenotype. Another concept in this intellectual vein is biomarker. The terms endophenotype, intermediate phenotype, and biomarker have often been used interchangeably in the psychiatric literature, yielding conceptual confusion. However, these three terms are not fungible. The recent Research Domain Criteria proposal from the National Institute of Mental Health has emphasized selected underlying processes thought to be of developmental etiologic significance to psychopathology. These selected processes will be the focus of energetic future research efforts, many of which will make use of the endophenotype and biomarker research paradigms. In this context, the concepts of endophenotype, intermediate phenotype, and biomarker are examined critically and contrasted in terms of meaning, intention, clarity, and intellectual history. This analysis favors use of the endophenotype concept in genetically informed laboratory and neuroscience studies of psychopathology. The term intermediate phenotype is perhaps best restricted to its originally defined meaning in genetics. Biomarker is used to denote objectively measured biological antecedents or consequences of normal or pathogenic processes or a

  7. Investigation of the effect of water exposed to nonequilibrium contact plasma onto saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mykolenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Additional treatment of water by nonequilibrium contact plasma allows improving consumer characteristics of bakery goods considerably. Determination of the effect of plasma-chemically activated water on morphological, cultural and physiological properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast is important from the technological point of view. Materials and Methods. Experimental investigations were carried out in the conditions of bacteriological laboratory by seeding the culture of yeasts of ТМ “Lvivski” and “Kryvorizki” on Sabouraud dense liquid nutrient media. The quantity of viable cells of microorganisms was determined by the method of Gould sector seeds. Morphology of the yeast was investigated by phase-contrast microscopy. Biotechnological properties of yeasts were determined on Giss media. Results. The paper establishes the effect of water exposed to nonequilibrium contact plasma on the sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and shows absence of suppressive action of treated water with regard to cultural properties of microorganisms. The experiments prove that with the use of plasma-chemically activated water morphological characteristics and biochemical properties of bakery yeasts produced by Lviv and Kryvyi Rig yeast plants are preserved. Culturing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on the nutrient media prepared with the use of water exposed to nonequilibrium contact plasm resulted in 6,5–15 times’ increase in quantity of viable microorganisms compared with the control on the mains drinking water. Conclusions. Physiological properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast improved owing to use water exposed to nonequilibrium contact plasma. Results of investigations are recommended for using in yeast production and bread making.

  8. Navicular tenosuspension with anterior tibialis tendon (Young procedure) associated to calcaneo-stop for the treatment of paediatric flexible flatfoot: clinical and ultrasound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaila, Elena; Bonetti, Ingrid; Bruno, Costanza; Argentini, Emanuele; Magnan, Bruno

    2016-04-15

    Flexible flatfoot is one of the most common deformities in pediatric orthopaedics. Arthroeresis procedures are designed to correct this deformity. Among them, calcaneo-stop is a procedure with both biomechanical and proprioceptive properties. There could be other surgical procedure combined, such as a percutaneous Achilles tendon lengthening and the Gould tibialis posterior retension or Young tibialis anterior navicular tenosuspension. This study analyzed the clinical and sonographic results of 36 patients following flexible flatfoot surgical treatment with a calcaneo-stop arthroeresis combined with Achilles lengthening and a Young procedure. From March 2001 to August 2014, 36 patients (54 feet) were treated with calcaneo-stop arthroeresis, percutaneous Achilles tendon lengthening and Young's tenosuspension. The clinical assessment and a sonography of the anterior tibialis tendon (ATT) were performed in all patients. The average follow-up was 7.4 years (range 8 months-14 years) with a satisfactory outcome in 51 feet (94.5%). No major and minor complications were observed. In four cases the calcaneo-stop was removed for pain and low tolerance of the patient. The AOFAS score and the talocalcaneal angle did not have statistically significant in case of ATT was or not still inserted in the navicular at the follow-up. The calcaneo-stop procedure is a simple, reliable and minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of pediatric flexible flatfoot. Although the indications for the Young tenosuspension as an isolated procedure is very narrow, it can still be an effective procedure when combined to calcaneo-stop. The key to appropriate utilization is a thorough understanding of the biomechanics of the foot function and a specific appreciation of the function of the ATT.

  9. Intra-individual response variability assessed by ex-gaussian analysis may be a new endophenotype for Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Marcela Patricia Henríquez-Henríquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra-individual variability of Response Times (RTisv is considered as potential endophenotype for Attentional Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Traditional methods for estimating RTisv lose information regarding Response Times (RTs distribution along the task, with eventual effects on statistical power. Ex-Gaussian analysis captures the dynamic nature of RTisv, estimating normal and exponential components for RT distribution, with specific phenomenological correlates. Here, we applied ex-Gaussian analysis to explore whether intra-individual variability of RTs agrees with criteria proposed by Gottesman and Gould for endophenotypes. Specifically, we evaluated if Normal and/or exponential components of RTs may a Present the stair-like distribution expected for endophenotypes (ADHD>Siblings>Typically Developing children (TD without familiar history of ADHD and b Represent a phenotypic correlate for previously described genetic risk variants. This is a pilot study including 55 subjects (20 ADHD-discordant sibling-pairs and 15 TD children, all aged between 8 and 13 years. Participants resolved a visual Go/Nogo with 10% Nogo probability. Ex-Gaussian distributions were fitted to individual RT data and compared among the three samples. In order to test whether intra-individual variability may represent a correlate for previously described genetic risk variants, VNTRs at DRD4 and SLC6A3 were identified in all sibling pairs following standard protocols. Groups were compared adjusting independent general linear models for the exponential and normal components from the ex-gaussian analysis. Identified trends were confirmed by the non-parametric Jonckheere-Terpstra test. Stair-like distributions were observed for μ (p=0.036 and σ (p=0.009. An additional DRD4-genotype X clinical status interaction was present for τ (p=0,014 reflecting a possible severity factor. Thus, Normal and exponential RTisv components are suitable as ADHD endophenotypes.

  10. The US Food and Drug Administration’s drug safety recommendations and long-acting beta2-agonist dispensing pattern changes in adult asthma patients: 2003–2012

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    Zhou EH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Esther H Zhou,1 Sally Seymour,2 Margie R Goulding,1 Elizabeth M Kang,1 Jacqueline M Major,1 Solomon Iyasu1 1Division of Epidemiology, Office of Surveillance and Epidemiology, 2Office of New Drugs, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA Background: Emerging safety issues associated with long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA have led to multiple regulatory activities by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA since 2003, including Drug Safety Communications (DSCs in 2010. These DSCs had three specific recommendations for the safe use of LABA products in adult asthma treatment. Methods: We examined the initiation of LABA-containing products for adult asthma treatment using an intermittent time series approach in a claims database from 2003 to 2012. We assessed the alignment of dispensing patterns with the following 2010 FDA recommendations: 1 contraindicated use of single-ingredient (SI-LABA without an asthma controller medication (ACM; 2 a LABA should only be used when asthma is not adequately controlled on inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs or ACM; and 3 step-down asthma therapy (e.g., discontinue LABA when asthma control is achieved. Results: There were 477,922 adults (18–64 years old dispensed a new LABA during 2003–2012. Among LABA initiators, patients who initiated an SI-LABA and who did “not” have an ACM dispensed on the same date decreased from >9% in 2003 (the initial labeling change to <2% post 2010 DSCs (p-value <0.0001 in the segmented regression model. The proportion of asthma patients dispensed an ICS in 6 months prior to initiating LABA treatment did not increase. The proportion of patients with longer than 4 months of continuous treatment did not decrease over the study period. Conclusion: Although the decrease in SI-LABA initiation is consistent with FDA’s recommendations, low ICS dispensing before initiating a LABA and LABA continuation practices require further efforts

  11. Determination of factors related to the abandonment of the practice of swimming by former costa rican swimmers

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    Fabián Víquez Ulate

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the importance of different dimensions as the possible causes for the abandonment of the practice of swimming by former Costa Rican swimmers.  Subjects: 51 former swimmers participated, including 17 men (22 ±3.4 years of age and 34 women (22.5 ±3.4 years of age from different Costa Rican swimming teams.  The Questionnaire of Reasons for Attrition in the Practice of Sports (Gould et al, 1982; cited by Salguero, Tuero, and Márquez, 2003 was used.  Results:  A positive relationship was noted between perceptions of low skill and low performance (r: 0.372, while negative relationships were noted between years of practice and low skill (r:-0.337, years of practice and influence from others (r:-0.286, and years of practice and starting age for swimming (r:-0.622.  A significant interaction was found in the dimensions gender of participants (F: 2.952; p0.05.  There were also significant differences in the years of practice; that is, subjects who started before the age of 10 had a higher average of years of practice than those who started later (F: 21.465; p0.05 according to weekly hours of training when subjects were actively swimming. Conclusions: Possible reasons for dropping out were lack of enjoyment and poor physical condition for men and perception of lack of team spirit for women.  The group that started after the age of ten gives similar importance to all the dimensions as possible reasons for dropping out, while the group that began swimming before the age of ten sees lack of team spirit, lack of enjoyment, and poor physical condition as the key reasons for dropping out.  The most important dimensions that represented the reasons for abandonment in subjects who wanted to swim again were lack of team spirit, poor physical condition and low skill, while lack of enjoyment was the most important reason for subjects who do not want to swim again.  In the group of subjects who would swim less

  12. Words of wisdom – patient perspectives to guide recovery for older adults after hip fracture: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiller C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Claire Schiller,1,2,* Thea Franke,1,* Jessica Belle,2 Joanie Sims-Gould,1,2 Joanna Sale,3,4 Maureen C Ashe1,2 1Centre for Hip Health and Mobility, Robert H N Ho Research Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Musculoskeletal Health and Outcomes Research, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada; 4Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Recovery after hip fracture is complex involving many transitions along the care continuum. The recovery process, and these transitions, often present significant challenges for older adults and their families and caregivers. There is an identified need for more targeted information to support older adults and their families throughout the recovery process.Therefore, our goal was to understand the recovery phase after hip fracture from the patient perspective, and identify specific messages that could be integrated into future educational material for clinical practice to support patients during recovery. Using a qualitative description design guided by a strengths-based focus, we invited men and women 60+ years with previous hip fracture and their family members/caregivers to participate in interviews. We used purposive criterion sampling within the community setting to recruit participants. We followed a semi-structured guide to conduct the interviews, either in person or over the telephone, and focused questions on experiences with hip fracture and factors that enabled recovery. Two investigators coded and analyzed interview transcripts to identify key messages. We interviewed a total of 19 participants: eleven older adults who sustained a hip fracture and eight family member/caregivers. Participants described three main messages that enabled recovery: 1 seek support; 2 move more

  13. CHANGES OF DUST OPACITY WITH DENSITY IN THE ORION A MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Arabindo; Martin, Peter G.; Nguyen-Luong, Quang [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Polychroni, Danae [INAF-IFSI, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Bontemps, Sylvain; Schneider, Nicola [Universite de Bordeaux, LAB, UMR5804, F-33270 Floirac (France); Abergel, Alain; Konyves, Vera [IAS, CNRS (UMR 8617), Universite Paris-Sud 11, Batiment 121, F-91400 Orsay (France); Andre, Philippe; Arzoumanian, Doris; Hill, Tracey [Laboratoire AIM, C.E.A. Saclay, F-90091 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Di Francesco, James [National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Pezzuto, Stefano [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali IAPS, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica INAF, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Testi, Leonardo [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); White, Glenn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-20

    We have studied the opacity of dust grains at submillimeter wavelengths by estimating the optical depth from imaging at 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey and comparing this to a column density obtained from the Two Micron All Sky Survey derived color excess E(J - K {sub s}). Our main goal was to investigate the spatial variations of the opacity due to 'big' grains over a variety of environmental conditions and thereby quantify how emission properties of the dust change with column (and volume) density. The central and southern areas of the Orion A molecular cloud examined here, with N {sub H} ranging from 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} to 50 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}, are well suited to this approach. We fit the multi-frequency Herschel spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of each pixel with a modified blackbody to obtain the temperature, T, and optical depth, {tau}{sub 1200}, at a fiducial frequency of 1200 GHz (250 {mu}m). Using a calibration of N {sub H}/E(J - K{sub s} ) for the interstellar medium (ISM) we obtained the opacity (dust emission cross-section per H nucleon), {sigma}{sub e}(1200), for every pixel. From a value {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -25} cm{sup 2} H{sup -1} at the lowest column densities that is typical of the high-latitude diffuse ISM, {sigma}{sub e}(1200) increases as N {sup 0.28} {sub H} over the range studied. This is suggestive of grain evolution. Integrating the SEDs over frequency, we also calculated the specific power P (emission power per H) for the big grains. In low column density regions where dust clouds are optically thin to the interstellar radiation field (ISRF), P is typically 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -31} W H{sup -1}, again close to that in the high-latitude diffuse ISM. However, we find evidence for a decrease of P in high column density regions, which would be a natural outcome of attenuation of the ISRF that heats the grains, and for

  14. Dealing with the Elephant in the Corner; or, You Can't Avoid Religion If You Want to Teach the History of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.

    2001-05-01

    Public expressions of the science and religion relationship are often that of conflict. In contrast many, if not most, Americans today privately hold that science and religion are, to use Stephen Jay Gould's phrase, "Non-overlapping Magisteria (NOMA);" that is, both may be valuable but they occupy fully separate and autonomous spheres of influence. This private view has contributed to the fact that efforts to guard public science education from the encroachment of anti-evolution interests have been argued largely on constitutional or "separation of church and state" grounds. As a consequence support within the religious communities for teaching the sciences of the history of nature has had little to do with those sciences themselves and instead has been based on political, namely first amendment, principles. In the past century historical studies of the science and religion relationship in Western culture indicate that the two have a much richer and more complex form of interaction than is recognized in the separatist or NOMA idea. It appears that the relationship is such that the scientific and the religious can not be effectively isolated (or insulated) from one another without both being distorted in some manner. This presentation will discuss how the development of the "Intelligent Design" movement represents a more profound challenge to public science education precisely because of its appeal to folk in religious communities that value both science and religion, and have an intuition of their more complex relationship. These are folk who are not religious "fundamentalists" or "biblical literalists," they do not expect that science must conform to religious doctrine. But they are open to so-called "scientific findings" that have apparent positive implications for their religious convictions. It will be argued that an effective response to the ID challenge in public science education will not be based primarily on a "separation of church and state" argument. It

  15. Distinguished Lectureship Award on the Applications of Physics: Illuminating My Career - From Flash Gordon to Laser Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, James

    2015-03-01

    As a child, I was fascinated by television programs about Flash Gordon. His partner in conquering the universe was Dr. Alexis Zarkov, a physicist, who had invented, among other things, a death ray gun. My personal ``death ray'' was a magnifying glass, focusing sunlight on unsuspecting insects, like crawling ants. I also practiced sneaking up on resting, flying, stinging insects and burning their wings before they could take off and attack me. So I understood something about the power of sunlight. In my senior year of high school, I had a fabulous physics teacher, Lewis E. Love, and I knew after one week that I wanted to be a physicist, not a medical doctor, which is the career my parents wanted me to pursue. It turns out that the first laser functioned on May 16, 1960, just one month before I graduated from high school, and it was inevitable that I would pursue a career working with lasers. My first job as a physicist, during the summer of 1963, was working with lasers at TRG, Inc. a small company whose guru was Gordon Gould, now recognized as the inventor of the laser. After three summers at TRG, I spent three years working on nonlinear optics for my PhD thesis, under the guidance of Prof. Nicolaas Bloembergen, who later won the Nobel Prize in Physics for codifying nonlinear optics. Following completion of my PhD research in 1969, I joined IBM Research, where I have worked ever since. Upon joining the Quantum Electronics group in the Physical Sciences Dept. of the T.J. Watson Research Center, my management told me to ``do something great'' with lasers. After working on atomic spectroscopy with dye lasers through the 1970s, I had the inspiration to acquire an excimer laser for the Laser Physics and Chemistry group. Using this laser, my colleagues and I discovered excimer laser surgery, capable of removing human and animal tissue with great precision, while leaving the underlying and adjacent tissue free of collateral damage. This discovery laid the foundation for

  16. A perspective on (neo-Darwinism (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.M. Strauss

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A perspective on (neo-Darwinism first of all has to account for those assumptions derived from the humanities, causing neo-Darwinism not to be a purely special scientific or natural scientific theory. A discussion of the many-sidedness of living entities highlights the difficulties surrounding a definition of biology. Attention is briefly given to the physicalism of Darwin’s 1859 work before the quest for origins is discussed. These considerations pave the way for an assessment of striking shortcomings in the thought of Darwin and his followers. In particular, modern nominalism is identified as an important source for neo-Darwinism, especially manifest in the idea that organisms are not types and do not have types (Simpson. Darwin’s idea of incremental (continuous change both in respect of the genesis of a complex organ (or the origination of the first living entity and of successive fossil forms contradict the current state of affairs – and the same applies to his own radical idea that “injurious” variations will be eliminated immediately by natural selection, for it cannot be reconciled to the role of mutations in neo-Darwinian theory. In addition neo-Darwinian paleontologists pointed out that evolution requires intermediate forms and paleontology does not provide them (Kitts and explicitly confessed that they have paid lip-service to the idea of change while they knew all the time that it was not true (Eldredge: the dominant theme of the paleontological record is stasis, constancy – a type appears and remains constant for millions of years before it disappears (Gould. The supposition of incremental continuity received a further blow from the “Cambrian explosion”, the “nasty fact” that most “major animal groups appeared simultaneously” about 530 million years ago. A few aspects of the uniqueness of humankind are treated as well as the confused picture found in an attempt to synthesise neo-Darwinism and Christianity. In

  17. United theory of biological evolution: Disaster-forced evolution through Supernova, radioactive ash fall-outs, genome instability, and mass extinctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikazu Ebisuzaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the disaster-forced biological evolution model as a general framework that includes Darwinian “phylogenic gradualism”, Eldredge-Gould's “punctuated equilibrium”, mass extinctions, and allopatric, parapatric, and sympatric speciation. It describes how reproductive isolation of organisms is established through global disasters due to supernova encounters and local disasters due to radioactive volcanic ash fall-outs by continental alkaline volcanism. Our new evolution model uniquely highlights three major factors of disaster-forced speciation: enhanced mutation rate by higher natural radiation level, smaller population size, and shrunken habitat size (i.e., isolation among the individual populations. We developed a mathematical model describing speciation of a half-isolated group from a parental group, taking into account the population size (Ne, immigration rate (m, and mutation rate (μ. The model gives a quantitative estimate of the speciation, which is consistent with the observations of speciation speed. For example, the speciation takes at least 105 generations, if mutation rate is less than 10−3 per generation per individual. This result is consistent with the previous studies, in which μ is assumed to be 10−3–10−5. On the other hand, the speciation is much faster (less than 105 generations for the case that μ is as large as 0.1 in parapatric conditions (m < μ. Even a sympatric (m ~ 1 speciation can occur within 103 generations, if mutation rate is very high (μ ~ 1 mutation per individual per generation, and if Ne < 20–30. Such a high mutation rate is possible during global disasters due to supernova encounters and local disasters due to radioactive ash fall-outs. They raise natural radiation level by a factor of 100–1000. Such rapid speciation events can also contribute to macro-evolution during mass extinction events, such as observed during the Cambrian explosion of biodiversity. A

  18. The VISTA Orion mini-survey: star formation in the Lynds 1630 North cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spezzi, L.; Petr-Gotzens, M. G.; Alcalá, J. M.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Stanke, T.; Lombardi, M.; Alves, J. F.

    2015-09-01

    The Orion cloud complex presents a variety of star formation mechanisms and properties and is still one of the most intriguing targets for star formation studies. We present VISTA/VIRCAM near-infrared observations of the L1630N star-forming region, including the stellar clusters NGC 2068 and NGC 2071 in the Orion molecular cloud B, and discuss them in combination with Spitzer data. We select 186 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in the region on the basis of multi-color criteria, confirm the YSO nature of the majority of them using published spectroscopy from the literature, and use this sample to investigate the overall star formation properties in L1630N. The K-band luminosity function of L1630N is remarkably similar to that of the Trapezium cluster, i.e., it presents a broad peak in the range 0.3-0.7 M⊙ and a fraction of substellar objects of ~20%. The fraction of YSOs still surrounded by disk/envelopes is very high (~85%) compared to other star-forming regions of similar age (1-2 Myr), but includes some uncertain corrections for diskless YSOs. Yet, a possibly high disk fraction, together with the fact that 1/3 of the cloud mass has a gas surface density above the threshold for star formation (~129 M⊙ pc-2), points toward a still ongoing star formation activity in L1630N. The star formation efficiency (SFE), star formation rate (SFR), and density of star formation of L1630N are within the ranges estimated for Galactic star-forming regions by the Spitzer core to disk and Gould's Belt surveys. However, the SFE and SFR are lower than the average value measured in the Orion A cloud and, in particular, lower than that in the southern regions of L1630. This might suggest different star formation mechanisms within the L1630 cloud complex. Based on observations collected at the ESO La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 060.A-9285(B).Tables A.1 and A.2 are are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130

  19. The effects of a winter cover crop on Diabrotica virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) populations and beneficial arthropod communities in no-till maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Jonathan G; Fergen, Janet K

    2010-12-01

    The effects of an autumn-planted, spring-killed, grass cover crop (Elymus trachycaulus [Link] Gould ex Shinners) on populations of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte and its predator community were evaluated in South Dakota maize fields over two seasons. Abundance and size of D. virgifera larvae and adults and sex ratio of adults were measured in maize produced under two treatments (i.e., a winter cover crop or bare soil), as were maize root damage and the abundance and diversity of the predator communities collected on the soil surface and in the soil column. First and second instars and adults of D. virgifera were similarly abundant in the two treatments, but third instars were significantly fewer in maize planted after a winter cover crop. Larvae developed at different rates in the two treatments, and second instars were significantly smaller (head capsule width and body length) in the maize planted after a cover crop. First and third instars and adults were of similar size in the two treatments, and adult sex ratios were also similar. Although initially similar, predator populations increased steadily in the cover-cropped maize, which led to a significantly greater predator population by the time D. virgifera pupated. There was significantly less root damage in the cover-cropped maize. Predator communities were similarly diverse in both treatments. Predator abundance per plot was significantly and negatively correlated with the abundance of third instars per plot. Clearly, winter cover crops reduce D. virgifera performance and their damage to the crop, and we suspect that this reduction is caused by both environmental effects of the treatment on D. virgifera size and development, and of increased predation on the third instars of the pest. Additional data on the impact of cover crops on actual predation levels, grain yield and quality, and farmer profitability, and correlations among pest performance, crop characteristics, and predator populations and

  20. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Maximilian C. Forte; Ruins of Absence, Presence of Caribs: (PostColonial Representations of Aboriginality in Trinidad and Tobago (Neil L. Whitehead Nick Nesbitt; Voicing Memory: History and Subjectivity in French Caribbean Literature (H. Adlai Murdoch Camilla Stevens; Family and Identity in Contemporary Cuban and Puerto Rican Drama (Lydia Platón Jonathan Goldberg; Tempest in the Caribbean (Jerry Brotton Michael Chanan; Cuban Cinema (Tamara L. Falicov Gemma Tang Nain, Barbara Bailey (eds.; Gender Equality in the Caribbean: Reality or Illusion (A. Lynn Bolles Ernesto Sagás, Sintia E. Molina (eds.; Dominican Migration: Transnational Perspectives (Rosemary Polanco Christine M. Du Bois; Images of West Indian Immigrants in Mass Media: The Struggle for a Positive Ethnic Reputation (Dwaine Plaza Luis Raúl Cámara Fuertes; The Phenomenon of Puerto Rican Voting (Annabelle Conroy Philip Gould; Barbaric Traffic: Commerce and Antislavery in the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic World (William A. Pettigrew Laurent Dubois; Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution (Yvonne Fabella Sibylle Fischer; Modernity Disavowed: Haiti and the Cultures of Slavery in the Age of Revolution (Ashli White Philip D. Morgan, Sean Hawkins (eds.; Black Experience and the British Empire (James Walvin Richard Smith; Jamaican Volunteers in the First World War: Race, Masculinity and the Development of National Consciousness (Linden Lewis Muriel McAvoy; Sugar Baron: Manuel Rionda and the Fortunes of Pre-Castro Cuba (Richard Sicotte Ned Sublette; Cuba and Its Music: From the First Drums to the Mambo (Pedro Pérez Sarduy Frances Negrón-Muntaner; Boricua Pop: Puerto Ricans and the Latinization of American Culture (Halbert Barton Gordon Rohlehr; A Scuffling of Islands: Essays on Calypso (Stephen Stuempfle Shannon Dudley; Carnival Music in Trinidad: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture (Donald R. Hill Jean

  1. Resveratrol Protects Against Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Rats via Activation of Silent Information Regulator 1

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    Lei Yu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: The polyphenol resveratrol (Rev has been found to exhibit various beneficial effects including prevention of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. The present study was designed to investigate the action and potential mechanism of Rev on PAH, focusing on the role of SIRT1 (Silent Information Regulator 1 in apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs. Methods: PAH rats were established by exposure to hypoxia for 21 days. Rev and SRT1720 (a selective SIRT1 activator were used to reverse PAH by gavaging rats. PASMCs were confronted with hypoxia for 24 h or 48 h and were then treated with Rev or SRT1720 in vitro. Western blot was performed to detect the protein expression of SIRT1. CCK-8 and scratch wound experiments were carried out to verify cell proliferation. In addition, the TUNEL positive assay and flow cytometry assay were used to measure PASMC apoptosis. Mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT was identified by confocal microscopy. Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP was determined with a Gould pressure transducer, and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH was determined by weighing the cardiac muscle. Results: We demonstrated that Rev could reverse the remodelling of the pulmonary vasculature, thus contributing to alleviating the severity of PAH. Down-regulation of SIRT1 was observed in PAH, but administration of Rev had no obvious effect on the protein expression of SIRT1. In addition, Rev could induce mitochondrial swelling and nuclear pyknosis, leading to small, dense, and dysmorphic mitochondria in rats exposed to hypoxia alone. Rev treatment inhibited PASMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Incubation with SRT1720, a specific activator of SIRT1, significantly retarded PASMC proliferation and promoted PASMC apoptosis in vitro. The mechanism could be associated with inducing mPT damage in PASMCs. Rev and SRT1720 treatment mitigated RVSP and reduced RVH. Conclusion: Rev produced

  2. Does environmental stability stimulate species renovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellato, C.; Erba, E.

    2009-04-01

    The Tithonian-Berriasian time interval is characterized by a major calcareous nannoplankton speciation episode: several coccolith and nannolith genera and species first appear and rapidly evolve, reaching a high diversity, abundance, and calcification degree. The history of calcareous nannoplankton indicates that times of accelerated rates of radiations (or extinctions) generally correlate with global changes in the geosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere suggesting that evolutionary patterns are intimately linked to environmental modifications (Roth, 1989; Bown et al., 2004; Erba, 2006). Nevertheless, the Tithonian-Berriasian interval provides examples of intra- and intergeneric accelerated evolutionary rates (an origination event) during a time period of general environmental stability, in absence of coeval environmental change evidence. The Tithonian - Early Berriasian can be regarded as a "quiet" interval as far as the C cycle is concerned; the _13C curve shows a gradual minor decline after the Oxfordian anomalies and prior to the Valanginian event. The Tithonian-Berriasian speciation episode provides an excellent opportunity to study modo and tempo of calcareous nannoplankton evolution relative to absent environmental change, which is believed to be instrumental for driving biological evolution. Nannofossils have been investigated in sections from the Tethys and Atlantic oceans in order to discriminate among local, regional or global causes, and to verify possible diachroneity in calcareous phytoplankton evolution and/or in response to global changes. Calcareous nannofossil species richness, first and last occurrences and relative abundance were achieved. Different evolution modes have been proposed since Darwin's Evolutionary Theory: Phyletic Gradualism (Darwin, 1859), Punctuated Equilibrium (Gould & Eldredge, 1977) and Punctuated Gradualism (Malmgren et al., 1984). Phyletic gradualism holds that new species arise from slow, steady transformation of populations

  3. Water quality and bed sediment quality in the Albemarle Sound, North Carolina, 2012–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Michelle C.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; Gurley, Laura N.; Rhoni-Aref, Ahmed; Loftin, Keith A.

    2017-01-23

    , 12 metals in surficial bed sediments were detected at levels above a published sediment-quality threshold. These metals included chromium, mercury, copper, lead, arsenic, nickel, and cadmium. Sites with several metal concentrations above the respective thresholds had relatively high concentrations of organic carbon or fine sediment (silt plus clay), or both and were predominantly located in the western and northwestern parts of the Albemarle Sound.Results from the second phase were generally similar to those of the first in that relatively few constituents exceeded a water-quality threshold, both pH and chlorophyll a were detected above the respective water-quality thresholds, and many of these elevated concentrations occurred in the northern embayments and in Currituck Sound. In contrast to the results from phase one, the cyanotoxin, microcystin was detected at more than 10 times the water-quality threshold during a phytoplankton bloom on the Chowan River at Mount Gould, North Carolina in August of 2013. This was the only cyanotoxin concentration measured during the entire study that exceeded a respective water-quality threshold.The information presented in this report can be used to improve understanding of water-quality conditions in the Albemarle Sound, particularly when evaluating causal and response variables that are indicators of eutrophication. In particular, this information can be used by State agencies to help develop water-quality criteria for nutrients, and to understand factors like cyanotoxins that may affect fisheries and recreation in the Albemarle Sound region.

  4. Probing changes of dust properties along a chain of solar-type prestellar and protostellar cores in Taurus with NIKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, A.; Palmeirim, P.; André, Ph.; Adam, R.; Ade, P.; Bacmann, A.; Beelen, A.; Benoît, A.; Bideaud, A.; Billot, N.; Bourrion, O.; Calvo, M.; Catalano, A.; Coiffard, G.; Comis, B.; D'Addabbo, A.; Désert, F.-X.; Didelon, P.; Doyle, S.; Goupy, J.; Könyves, V.; Kramer, C.; Lagache, G.; Leclercq, S.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maury, A.; Mauskopf, P.; Mayet, F.; Monfardini, A.; Motte, F.; Pajot, F.; Pascale, E.; Peretto, N.; Perotto, L.; Pisano, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Revéret, V.; Rigby, A.; Ritacco, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Romero, C.; Roy, A.; Ruppin, F.; Schuster, K.; Sievers, A.; Triqueneaux, S.; Tucker, C.; Zylka, R.

    2017-08-01

    The characterization of dust properties in the interstellar medium is key for understanding the physics and chemistry of star formation. Mass estimates are crucial to determine gravitational collapse conditions for the birth of new stellar objects in molecular clouds. However, most of these estimates rely on dust models that need further observational constraints to capture the relevant parameter variations depending on the local environment: from clouds to prestellar and protostellar cores. We present results of a new study of dust emissivity changes based on millimeter continuum data obtained with the NIKA camera at the IRAM-30 m telescope. Observing dust emission at 1.15 mm and 2 mm allows us to constrain the dust emissivity index, β, in the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the dust spectral energy distribution far from its peak emission, where the contribution of other parameters (I.e. dust temperature) is more important. Focusing on the Taurus molecular cloud, one of the most famous low-mass star-forming regions in the Gould Belt, we analyze the emission properties of several distinct objects in the B213 filament. This subparsec-sized region is of particular interest since it is characterized by a collection ofevolutionary stages of early star formation: three prestellar cores, two Class 0/I protostellar cores and one Class II object. We are therefore able to compare dust properties among a sequence of sources that likely derive from the same parent filament. By means of the ratio of the two NIKA channel maps, we show that in the Rayleigh-Jeans approximation, βRJ varies among the objects: it decreases from prestellar cores (βRJ 2) to protostellar cores (βRJ 1) and the Class II object (βRJ 0). For one prestellar and two protostellar cores, we produce a robust study using available Herschel data to constrain the dust temperature of the sources. By using the Abel transform inversion technique we derive accurate radial temperature profiles that allow us to obtain

  5. A Radiocarbon Chronology of Hunter-Gatherer Occupation from Bodega Bay, California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, M A; Russell, A D; Guilderson, T P

    2005-04-27

    The evolution of hunter-gatherer maritime adaptations in western North America has been a prominent topic of discussion among archaeologists in recent years (e.g. Arnold 1992; Erlandson and Colten 1991; Erlandson and Glassow 1997; Lightfoot 1993). Although vast coastal regions of the northeastern Pacific (for example, southern California) have been investigated in detail, our understanding of hunter-gatherer developments along the coast of northern California is limited. Previous research indicates that humans have exploited marine mammals, fish and shellfish along the northern California shoreline since the early Holocene (Schwaderer 1992). By the end of the late Holocene, some groups remained year-round on the coast subsisting primarily on marine resources (e.g. Gould 1975; Hildebrandt and Levulett 2002). However, a paucity of well-dated cultural deposits has hindered our understanding of these developments, particularly during the early and middle Holocene. The lack of a long and reliable chronological sequence has restricted our interpretations of behavioral change, including the adaptive strategies (such as foraging, mobility and settlement) used by human foragers to colonize and inhabit the coastal areas of this region. These shortcomings have also hindered comparative interpretations with other coastal and inland regions in western North America. Here we present a Holocene radiocarbon chronology of hunter-gatherer occupation based on contemporaneous samples of charcoal and Mytilus californianus (California sea mussel) shell recovered from seven archaeological sites near Bodega Bay, California. A series of 127 {sup 14}C ages reveal a chronological sequence that spans from ca. 8940-110 cal BP (1{sigma}) (7890-160 {sup 14}C yr BP = charcoal; 8934-101 {sup 14}C yr BP = shell). As part of this sequence, we report new {sup 14}C dates from the stratified cave and open-air midden deposits at Duncan's Landing (CA-SON-348/H). In addition, we present {sup 14}C

  6. BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

    2009-04-01

    greenhouse gases and pollutants by decreasing OH budgets. Global models predicting atmospheric changes and bottom-up estimates from the tropics must be constrained by direct measurements such as presented here, taking separate account of these major contributions from oil palm plantations and tropical rainforests. References: Guenther, A., C.N. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T.E. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W.A. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor and P. Zimmerman, 1995: A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research 100, 8873-8892. Guenther, A., T. Karl, P. Harley, C. Wiedinmyer, P. I. Palmer, and C. Geron, 2006: Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature). Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 6, 107-173. Karl, T., A. Guenther, R. J. Yokelson, J. Greenberg, M. Potosnak, D. R. Blake, and P. Artaxo, 2007: The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: Emission, chemistry, and transport of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the lower atmosphere over Amazonia. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D18302. Wilkinson, M. J., S. M. Owen, M. Possell, J. Hartwell, P. Gould, A. Hall, C. Vickers, and C. N. Hewitt, 2006: Circadian control of isoprene emissions from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Plant Journal 47, 960-968.

  7. Is There Really A North American Plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, A.

    2011-12-01

    elsewhere, such as S.J. Shand (1933), E.B. Bailey (1939), and Arthur Holmes (1944), presented continental drift as a working hypothesis that could elegantly solve important geological problems. Americans were preconditioned to dislike continental drift theory, ever since James Dwight Dana taught in his Manual of Geology (1863...1895) that North America was the type continent of the world, and that it had stood alone since earliest time. Such beliefs sometimes trump geologic evidence. As noted by Stephen Jay Gould (1999) Sigmund Freud had much insight into the psychology of scientific revolutions: they involve a scientific development that shows humans to have lesser status than previously perceived. In the Copernican revolution (geocentrism vs. heliocentrism) humans no longer inhabited the center of the universe. In the Darwinian revolution (creationism vs. evolutionism) humans were no longer uniquely created. In the Wegenerian revolution (fixism vs. mobilism) North America was no longer uniquely created; it was just other fragment from Pangaea. North American geologists were pleased when Press & Siever gave them their own lithospheric plate. Being a global-tectonic killjoy, I would like to take away that small consolation as well. Or at least pose the question: Is there really a North American Plate?

  8. HUMAN PULMONARY DISTOMIASIS CAUSED BY PARAGONIMUS WESTERMANNI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, K

    1917-09-01

    1. The morbidity of pulmonary distomiasis among the school children in the plains of the Prefecture of Shinchiku is 4.3 per cent, while in the mountainous regions among the savages it reaches in some districts 50 per cent. 2. Seventeen species of cercariae were discovered in fresh water mollusks in the Prefecture of Shinchiku, Formosa. But it was impossible to ascertain from morphological characteristics alone which of them developed into the pulmonary fluke. Consequently, the eggs of the pulmonary fluke after hatching into miracidia were allowed to come into contact with several species of fresh water mollusks, of which they infected two. But as it was difficult to keep the two spedes alive in the aquarium long enough to get cercariae, the second intermediate hosts of the pulmonary distomas were looked for in the severely infected villages of the savage tribes. 3. The miracidia of the pulmonary distomas leave the egg about 4 weeks after they are first set free in the water, and if they do not reach mollusks they soon die. 4. Three species of fresh water mollusks were found to act as the first intermediate host of the pulmonary distomas; viz., Melania libertina Gould, Melania tuberculata Mueller, and Melania obliquegranosa Smith. 5. The cercariae of the pulmonary distoma may be identified by their small size and a spine in the oral sucker. They develop in the liver of the three spedes of Melania mentioned above. 6. The second intermediate hosts of the pulmonary distoma,detected in the Prefecture of Shinchiku, are the following three species of fresh water crabs: Potamon (Geothelphusa) obtusipes Stimpson (native name, red crab), Potamon (Geothelphusa) dehaanii White (native name, dung crab), and Eriocheir japonicus De Haan (native name, hairy crab). In addition it was discovered that the following two species might act as intermediate hosts: Sesarma dehaanii Milne-Edwards and Potamon (Parathelphusa) sinensis Milne-Edwards. In Formosa four of the five species are the

  9. Francophone conjunctures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bongie

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Decolonizing the Text: Glissantian Readings in Caribbean and African-American Literatures. DEBRA L. ANDERSON. New York: Peter Lang, 1995. 118 pp. (Cloth US$46.95 L'Eau: Source d'une ecriture dans les litteratures feminines francophones. YOLANDE HELM (ed.. New York: Peter Lang, 1995. x + 295 pp. (Cloth US$ 65.95 Postcolonial Subjects: Francophone Women Writers. MARY JEAN GREEN, KAREN GOULD, MICHELINE RICE-MAXIMIN, KEITH L. WALKER & JACK A. YEAGER (eds.. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996. xxii + 359 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Statue cou coupe. ANNIE LE BRUN. Paris: Jean-Michel Place, 1996. 177 pp. (Paper FF 85.00 Although best remembered as a founding father of the Negritude movement along with Aime Cesaire, Leopold Senghor was from the very outset of his career equally committed - as both a poet and a politician - to what he felt were the inseparable concepts of la francophonie and metissage. Senghor's has been an unabashedly paradoxical vision, consistently addressing the unanswerable question of how one can be essentially a "black African" and at the same time (in Homi Bhabha's words "something else besides" (1994:28. In his "Eloge du metissage," written in 1950, Senghor ably described the contradictions involved in assuming the hybrid identity of a metis (an identity that offers none of the comforting biological and/or cultural certainties - about "rhythm," "intuition," and such like - upon which the project of Negritude was founded: "too assimilated and yet not assimilated enough? Such is exactly our destiny as cultural metis. It's an unattractive role, difficult to take hold of; it's a necessary role if the conjuncture of the 'Union francaise' is to have any meaning. In the face of nationalisms, racisms, academicisms, it's the struggle for the freedom of the Soul - the freedom of Man" (1964:103. At first glance, this definition of the metis appears as dated as the crude essentialism with which Senghor

  10. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ileana Rodríguez; Transatlantic Topographies: Islands, Highlands, Jungles (Stuart McLean Eliga H. Gould, Peter S. Onuf (eds.; Empire and Nation: The American Revolution in the Atlantic World (Peter A. Coclanis Michael A. Gomez; Reversing Sail: A History of the African Diaspora (James H. Sweet Brian L. Moore, Michele A. Johnson; Neither Led Nor Driven: Contesting British Cultural Imperialism in Jamaica, 1865-1920 (Gad Heuman Erna Brodber; The Second Generation of Freemen in Jamaica, 1907-1944 (Michaeline A. Crichlow Steeve O. Buckridge; The Language of Dress: Resistance and Accommodation in Jamaica, 1760- 1890 (Jean Besson Deborah A. Thomas; Modern Blackness: Nationalism, Globalization, and the Politics of Culture in Jamaica (Charles V. Carnegie Carolyn Cooper; Sound Clash: Jamaican Dancehall Culture at Large (John D. Galuska Noel Leo Erskine; From Garvey to Marley: Rastafari Theology (Richard Salter Hilary McD Beckles; Great House Rules: Landless Emancipation and Workers’ Protest in Barbados, 1838?1938 (O. Nigel Bolland Woodville K. Marshall (ed.; I Speak for the People: The Memoirs of Wynter Crawford (Douglas Midgett Nathalie Dessens; Myths of the Plantation Society: Slavery in the American South and the West Indies (Lomarsh Roopnarine Michelle M. Terrell; The Jewish Community of Early Colonial Nevis: A Historical Archaeological Study (Mark Kostro Laurie A. Wilkie, Paul Farnsworth; Sampling Many Pots: An Archaeology of Memory and Tradition at a Bahamian Plantation (Grace Turner David Beriss; Black Skins, French Voices: Caribbean ethnicity and Activism in Urban France (Nadine Lefaucheur Karen E. Richman; Migration and Vodou (Natacha Giafferi Jean Moomou; Le monde des marrons du Maroni en Guyane (1772-1860: La naissance d’un peuple: Les Boni (Kenneth Bilby Jean Chapuis, Hervé Rivière; Wayana eitoponpë: (Une histoire (orale des Indiens Wayana (Dominique Tilkin Gallois Jesús Fuentes

  11. Outflows, infall and evolution of a sample of embedded low-mass protostars. The William Herschel Line Legacy (WILL) survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, J. C.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L. E.; Karska, A.; San José-García, I.; Khanna, S.; Herczeg, G. J.; André, Ph.; Bontemps, S.; Cabrit, S.; Carney, M. T.; Drozdovskaya, M. N.; Dunham, M. M.; Evans, N. J.; Fedele, D.; Green, J. D.; Harsono, D.; Johnstone, D.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Könyves, V.; Nisini, B.; Persson, M. V.; Tafalla, M.; Visser, R.; Yıldız, U. A.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Herschel observations of water and highly excited CO (J > 9) have allowed the physical and chemical conditions in the more active parts of protostellar outflows to be quantified in detail for the first time. However, to date, the studied samples of Class 0/I protostars in nearby star-forming regions have been selected from bright, well-known sources and have not been large enough for statistically significant trends to be firmly established. Aims: We aim to explore the relationships between the outflow, envelope and physical properties of a flux-limited sample of embedded low-mass Class 0/I protostars. Methods: We present spectroscopic observations in H2O, CO and related species with Herschel HIFI and PACS, as well as ground-based follow-up with the JCMT and APEX in CO, HCO+ and isotopologues, of a sample of 49 nearby (d < 500 pc) candidate protostars selected from Spitzer and Herschel photometric surveys of the Gould Belt. This more than doubles the sample of sources observed by the WISH and DIGIT surveys. These data are used to study the outflow and envelope properties of these sources. We also compile their continuum spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from the near-IR to mm wavelengths in order to constrain their physical properties (e.g. Lbol, Tbol and Menv). Results: Water emission is dominated by shocks associated with the outflow, rather than the cooler, slower entrained outflowing gas probed by ground-based CO observations. These shocks become less energetic as sources evolve from Class 0 to Class I. Outflow force, measured from low-J CO, also decreases with source evolutionary stage, while the fraction of mass in the outflow relative to the total envelope (I.e. Mout/Menv) remains broadly constant between Class 0 and I. The median value of 1% is consistent with a core to star formation efficiency on the order of 50% and an outflow duty cycle on the order of 5%. Entrainment efficiency, as probed by FCO/Ṁacc, is also invariant with source

  12. At Home in the Universe - The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Stuart

    1995-09-01

    basic insight of "order for free" to illuminate a staggering range of phenomena. We see how a single-celled embryo can grow to a highly complex organism with over two hundred different cell types. We learn how the science of complexity extends Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection: that self-organization, selection, and chance are the engines of the biosphere. And we gain insights into biotechnology, the stunning magic of the new frontier of genetic engineering--generating trillions of novel molecules to find new drugs, vaccines, enzymes, biosensors, and more. Indeed, Kauffman shows that ecosystems, economic systems, and even cultural systems may all evolve according to similar general laws, that tissues and terra cotta evolve in similar ways. And finally, there is a profoundly spiritual element to Kauffman's thought. If, as he argues, life were bound to arise, not as an incalculably improbable accident, but as an expected fulfillment of the natural order, then we truly are at home in the universe. Kauffman's earlier volume, The Origins of Order , written for specialists, received lavish praise. Stephen Jay Gould called it "a landmark and a classic." And Nobel Laureate Philip Anderson wrote that "there are few people in this world who ever ask the right questions of science, and they are the ones who affect its future most profoundly. Stuart Kauffman is one of these." In At Home in the Universe , this visionary thinker takes you along as he explores new insights into the nature of life.

  13. Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of corn stover: effects of biomass, peroxide, and enzyme loading and composition on yields of glucose and xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Goutami; Car, Suzana; Scott-Craig, John S; Hodge, David B; Walton, Jonathan D

    2011-06-09

    Pretreatment is a critical step in the conversion of lignocellulose to fermentable sugars. Although many pretreatment processes are currently under investigation, none of them are entirely satisfactory in regard to effectiveness, cost, or environmental impact. The use of hydrogen peroxide at pH 11.5 (alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP)) was shown by Gould and coworkers to be an effective pretreatment of grass stovers and other plant materials in the context of animal nutrition and ethanol production. Our earlier experiments indicated that AHP performed well when compared against two other alkaline pretreatments. Here, we explored several key parameters to test the potential of AHP for further improvement relevant to lignocellulosic ethanol production. The effects of biomass loading, hydrogen peroxide loading, residence time, and pH control were tested in combination with subsequent digestion with a commercial enzyme preparation, optimized mixtures of four commercial enzymes, or optimized synthetic mixtures of pure enzymes. AHP pretreatment was performed at room temperature (23°C) and atmospheric pressure, and after AHP pretreatment the biomass was neutralized with HCl but not washed before enzyme digestion. Standard enzyme digestion conditions were 0.2% glucan loading, 15 mg protein/g glucan, and 48 h digestion at 50°C. Higher pretreatment biomass loadings (10% to 20%) gave higher monomeric glucose (Glc) and xylose (Xyl) yields than the 2% loading used in earlier studies. An H2O2 loading of 0.25 g/g biomass was almost as effective as 0.5 g/g, but 0.125 g/g was significantly less effective. Optimized mixtures of four commercial enzymes substantially increased post-AHP-pretreatment enzymatic hydrolysis yields at all H2O2 concentrations compared to any single commercial enzyme. At a pretreatment biomass loading of 10% and an H2O2 loading of 0.5 g/g biomass, an optimized commercial mixture at total protein loadings of 8 or 15 mg/g glucan gave monomeric Glc yields of 83

  14. Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of corn stover: effects of biomass, peroxide, and enzyme loading and composition on yields of glucose and xylose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodge David B

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment is a critical step in the conversion of lignocellulose to fermentable sugars. Although many pretreatment processes are currently under investigation, none of them are entirely satisfactory in regard to effectiveness, cost, or environmental impact. The use of hydrogen peroxide at pH 11.5 (alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP was shown by Gould and coworkers to be an effective pretreatment of grass stovers and other plant materials in the context of animal nutrition and ethanol production. Our earlier experiments indicated that AHP performed well when compared against two other alkaline pretreatments. Here, we explored several key parameters to test the potential of AHP for further improvement relevant to lignocellulosic ethanol production. Results The effects of biomass loading, hydrogen peroxide loading, residence time, and pH control were tested in combination with subsequent digestion with a commercial enzyme preparation, optimized mixtures of four commercial enzymes, or optimized synthetic mixtures of pure enzymes. AHP pretreatment was performed at room temperature (23°C and atmospheric pressure, and after AHP pretreatment the biomass was neutralized with HCl but not washed before enzyme digestion. Standard enzyme digestion conditions were 0.2% glucan loading, 15 mg protein/g glucan, and 48 h digestion at 50°C. Higher pretreatment biomass loadings (10% to 20% gave higher monomeric glucose (Glc and xylose (Xyl yields than the 2% loading used in earlier studies. An H2O2 loading of 0.25 g/g biomass was almost as effective as 0.5 g/g, but 0.125 g/g was significantly less effective. Optimized mixtures of four commercial enzymes substantially increased post-AHP-pretreatment enzymatic hydrolysis yields at all H2O2 concentrations compared to any single commercial enzyme. At a pretreatment biomass loading of 10% and an H2O2 loading of 0.5 g/g biomass, an optimized commercial mixture at total protein loadings of 8 or 15 mg

  15. DETERMINACIÓN DE FACTORES RELACIONADOS CON EL ABANDONO DE LA PRÁCTICA DEPORTIVA EN EX NADADORES COSTARRICENSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Víquez Ulate

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue determinar la importancia de distintas dimensiones, como posibles causas que permiten explicar el abandono de la práctica deportiva de la natación, en ex nadadores costarricenses. Sujetos: participaron 51 ex nadadores, 17 hombres (22 ±3.4 años y 34 mujeres (22,5 ±3.4 años, de distintos equipos de natación de Costa Rica. Se les aplicó el Cuestionario de Causas de Abandono de la Práctica Deportiva (Gould et al, 1982; citado por Salguero, Tuero y Márquez, 2003. Resultados: se obtuvo una relación positiva entre las percepciones de escasa habilidad y de bajo rendimiento (r: 0,372, y las relaciones negativas entre años de práctica y escasa habilidad (r:-0,337, también entre años de práctica e influencia de otros (r:-0,286, y entre años de práctica y edad de comienzo en la natación (r:-0,622. Hubo interacción significativa de las dimensiones por género de los participantes (F: 2,952; p0,05. También diferencias significativas en los años de práctica, donde los sujetos que iniciaron antes de los 10 años de edad, tuvieron un promedio de años de práctica más alto que los sujetos que empezaron después de los 10 años de edad (F: 21,465; p0,05, según la cantidad de horas de entrenamiento semanal que tenían los sujetos siento nadadores activos. Conclusiones: como posibles causas de abandono, para hombres, fueron la falta de diversión y la baja forma; en mujeres fue la escasa atmósfera de equipo. En el grupo que inició después de los 10 años de edad valoran con una importancia similar las dimensiones como posibles causas de retiro, mientras que el grupo que inició la natación antes de los 10 años de edad, la escasa atmósfera de equipo, la baja forma y la falta de diversión, son las posibles causas de abandono, más importantes. En los sujetos que sí deseaban volver a nadar, se mostró que la escasa atmósfera de equipo, la baja forma y la escasa habilidad fueron las dimensiones m

  16. El progreso biológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barahona, Ana

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.La idea de progreso en Biología está ligada al concepto de scala naturae o la gran cadena del ser que se puede trazar hasta Aristóteles. Esta noción de que los organismos vivientes pueden clasificarse en una jerarquía de inferior a superior tomó formas nuevas en los siglos XVII y XVIII. En el siglo XVIII, naturalistas como Buffon, Bonnet y Robinet se habían preguntado si podíamos hablar de un patrón definido de desarrollo. En el siglo XIX, Lamarck postula la idea de que existe una progresión de los organismos menos avanzados a los organismos más avanzados. Posteriormente, la teoría de la evolución añade la dimensión temporal y de continuidad genética o histórica a la clasificación jerárquica de los seres vivos. Darwin pensaba que la selección natural traía como resultado el perfeccionamiento y que éste inevitablemente conduciría al progreso gradual de la organización. Herbert Spencer se convirtió en uno de los darwinistas más radicales del siglo XIX y principios del XX. Para Spencer la idea de progreso se aplicaba no solo al mundo biológico sino que era parte de una ley general, que dirigía lo simple hacia lo complejo, lo homogéneo a lo heterogéneo. Posteriormente, Julian Huxley, Theodosius Dobzhansky, Ernst Mayr, George Gaylord Simpson y Ledyard Stebbins —conocidos como los arquitectos de la Sintesis Moderna— comparten una visión progresionista de la evolución biológica. La noción de progreso evolutivo, en la actualidad, es sumamente controvertida, y se pueden distinguir básicamente tres diferentes perspectivas. La primera, defendida por Michael Ruse y David Hull entre otros, sostiene que no existe evidencia científica que nos lleve a aceptar cierta «direccionalidad» en la evolución biológica. Una segunda visión, defendida por Stephen J. Gould, sostiene que, en la medida en que reemplacemos el término de progreso (ya que éste es antropocéntrico por el de «noción operacional de

  17. Mercury emission and distribution: Potential environmental risks at a small-scale gold mining operation, Phichit Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataranawat, Poranee; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Delaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2007-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination was assessed in environment near an amalgamation gold recovery operation located at a small scale mining operation (Phanom Pha) in Phichit Province, Thailand. Total mercury (THg) concentrations was determined in water, sediment, bivalves in the aquatic environment and as dry deposition or atmospheric fallout on surface soil and leaves of Neem tree (Azadirachta indica Juss. var. siamensis Valeton) near the mining operation. THg in surface soil, Neem flowers (edible part) and rice grain in surrounding terrestrial habitat and with distance from the mining area were also evaluated for possible contamination. Potential environmental risks were evaluated using the hazard quotient equation. Hg analyses conducted in the aquatic habitat showed that THg in water, sediment and bivalves (Scabies cripata Gould) ranged from 0.4 to 4 microg L(-1), 96 to 402 microg kg(-1)dry weight (dw) and 15 to 584 microg kg(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively. High concentrations of THg in water, sediment and bivalves were observed in the receiving stream near the mining operation which was located near the Khao Chet Luk Reservoir. Whereas the THg concentration in water, sediment and bivalves from monitoring stations outside the gold mining operation (upstream and downstream), were considerably lower with the values of 0.4-0.8 microg L(-1), 96-140 microg kg(-1) dw and 88-658 microg kg(-1) dw, respectively. The elevated concentration of Hg found in the sediment near the mining operation was consistent with Hg accumulation measured in bivalves. The elevated Hg levels found in living bivalves collected from highly contaminated sites suggested that the sediment bound Hg was bioavailable. THg in surface soils, brown rice grain (Jasmine rice #105) and Neem flowers of terrestrial habitats were in the range of 16 to 180 microg kg(-1) dw, 190 to 300 microg kg(-1) dw, and 622 to 2150 microg kg(-1) dw, respectively. Elevated concentrations of mercury were found in Neem flowers

  18. Ontogenetic study of the skull in modern humans and the common chimpanzees: neotenic hypothesis reconsidered with a tridimensional Procrustes analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penin, Xavier; Berge, Christine; Baylac, Michel

    2002-05-01

    Heterochronic studies compare ontogenetic trajectories of an organ in different species: here, the skulls of common chimpanzees and modern humans. A growth trajectory requires three parameters: size, shape, and ontogenetic age. One of the great advantages of the Procrustes method is the precise definition of size and shape for whole organs such as the skull. The estimated ontogenetic age (dental stages) is added to the plot to give a graphical representation to compare growth trajectories. We used the skulls of 41 Homo sapiens and 50 Pan troglodytes at various stages of growth. The Procrustes superimposition of all specimens was completed by statistical procedures (principal component analysis, multivariate regression, and discriminant function) to calculate separately size-related shape changes (allometry common to chimpanzees and humans), and interspecific shape differences (discriminant function). The results confirm the neotenic theory of the human skull (sensu Gould [1977] Ontogeny and Phylogeny, Cambridge: Harvard University Press; Alberch et al. [1979] Paleobiology 5:296-317), but modify it slightly. Human growth is clearly retarded in terms of both the magnitude of changes (size-shape covariation) and shape alone (size-shape dissociation) with respect to the chimpanzees. At the end of growth, the adult skull in humans reaches an allometric shape (size-related shape) which is equivalent to that of juvenile chimpanzees with no permanent teeth, and a size which is equivalent to that of adult chimpanzees. Our results show that human neoteny involves not only shape retardation (paedomorphosis), but also changes in relative growth velocity. Before the eruption of the first molar, human growth is accelerated, and then strongly decelerated, relative to the growth of the chimpanzee as a reference. This entails a complex process, which explains why these species reach the same overall (i.e., brain + face) size in adult stage. The neotenic traits seem to concern

  19. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Map of the Larsen Ice Shelf Area, Antarctica, 1940-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Cook, Alison J.; Mathie, Amy M.; Williams, Richard S.; Swithinbank, Charles; Foley, Kevin M.; Fox, Adrian J.; Thomson, Janet W.; Sievers, Jorn

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the area and volume of polar ice sheets are intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting changes in sea level could severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Antarctica is Earth's largest reservoir of glacial ice. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet would cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m), and the potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). The mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is highly complex, responding differently to different climatic and other conditions in each region (Vaughan, 2005). In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although it is known to be thickening in the west, it is thinning in the north. The mass balance of the East Antarctic ice sheet is thought by Davis and others (2005) to be positive on the basis of the change in satellite-altimetry measurements made between 1992 and 2003. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Programs. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The availability of this information provided the impetus for carrying out a

  20. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Map of the Palmer Land Area, Antarctica: 1947-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Cook, Alison J.; Mathie, Amy M.; Williams, Richard S.; Swithinbank, Charles; Foley, Kevin M.; Fox, Adrian J.; Thomson, Janet W.; Sievers, Jorn

    2009-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of the two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting rise in sea level could severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Antarctica is Earth's largest reservoir of glacial ice. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet would cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m), and the potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). The mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is highly complex, responding differently to different climatic and other conditions in each region (Vaughan, 2005). In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although it is known to be thickening in the west, it is thinning in the north. The mass balance of the East Antarctic ice sheet is thought by Davis and others (2005) to be positive on the basis of the change in satellite-altimetry measurements made between 1992 and 2003. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Programs. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The availability of this information provided the impetus for carrying

  1. Le mythe du microcèbe primitif The myth of the primitive mouse lemur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Génin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Les microcèbes (genre Microcebus, famille Cheirogaleidés sont de très petits lémuriens nocturnes endémiques de Madagascar, souvent vus comme les plus archaïques de tous les primates. Dans cette contribution, nous critiquons cette vue, véritable mythe des origines, qui n’est supportée ni par le registre fossile ni par les phylogénies les plus récentes. Nous proposons l’alternative d’une réduction de taille corporelle ou nanisme, un phénomène particulièrement fréquent sur les îles et dans les régions géographiquement isolées et soumises à des sécheresses imprévisibles provoquées par le phénomène El Niño. Nous confirmons le modèle de progénèse de Gould, qui explique le nanisme par des conditions hypervariables entrainant une accélération de l’histoire de vie. Les Cheirogaleidés apparaissent comme des nains paedomorphes comparés à leur groupe frère les Lépilémuridés (Lepilemur. Ils ont probablement subi au moins 3 évènements indépendants de nanisme, qui ont conduit à des changements parallèles des proportions de la tête et des membres (allométrie. Le premier (nanisme a conduit à une diminution de la taille du corps et des membres, sans changement significatif de la forme du crâne (à l’exception des dents chez les plus grandes formes de Cheirogaleidés (Phaner, Mirza, et les grandes formes du genre Cheirogaleus. Le second (hyper-nanisme a conduit à des changements parallèles de la forme du crâne chez les plus petites formes (Allocebus, Microcebus et les petites formes du genre Cheirogaleus, associés à des traits paedomorphiques typiques (grands yeux et petit museau pointu. Cette nouvelle hypothèse explique de nombreuses caractéristiques uniques de ce groupe de lémuriens, en particulier leurs histoires de vie rapides.Mouse lemurs (genus Microcebus, family Cheirogaleidae are small, nocturnal lemurs endemic to Madagascar, often viewed as the most archaic primates. In this contribution, we

  2. Damage Proxy Map from InSAR Coherence Applied to February 2011 M6.3 Christchurch Earthquake, 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-oki Earthquake, and 2011 Kirishima Volcano Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S.; Agram, P. S.; Fielding, E. J.; Simons, M.; Webb, F.; Tanaka, A.; Lundgren, P.; Owen, S. E.; Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.

    2011-12-01

    Under ARIA (Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis) project at JPL and Caltech, we developed a prototype algorithm to detect surface property change caused by natural or man-made damage using InSAR coherence change. The algorithm was tested on building demolition and construction sites in downtown Pasadena, California. The developed algorithm performed significantly better, producing 150 % higher signal-to-noise ratio, than a standard coherence change detection method. We applied the algorithm to February 2011 M6.3 Christchurch earthquake in New Zealand, 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake in Japan, and 2011 Kirishima volcano eruption in Kyushu, Japan, using ALOS PALSAR data. In Christchurch area we detected three different types of damage: liquefaction, building collapse, and landslide. The detected liquefaction damage is extensive in the eastern suburbs of Christchurch, showing Bexley as one of the most significantly affected areas as was reported in the media. Some places show sharp boundaries of liquefaction damage, indicating different type of ground materials that might have been formed by the meandering Avon River in the past. Well reported damaged buildings such as Christchurch Cathedral, Canterbury TV building, Pyne Gould building, and Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament were detected by the algorithm. A landslide in Redcliffs was also clearly detected. These detected damage sites were confirmed with Google earth images provided by GeoEye. Larger-scale damage pattern also agrees well with the ground truth damage assessment map indicated with polygonal zones of 3 different damage levels, compiled by the government of New Zealand. The damage proxy map of Sendai area in Japan shows man-made structure damage due to the tsunami caused by the M9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake. Long temporal baseline (~2.7 years) and volume scattering caused significant decorrelation in the farmlands and bush forest along the coastline. The 2011 Kirishima volcano eruption caused a lot of ash

  3. Switching patients from other inhaled corticosteroid devices to the Easyhaler®: historical, matched-cohort study of real-life asthma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price D

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available David Price,1,2 Vicky Thomas,2 Julie von Ziegenweidt,2 Shuna Gould,2 Catherine Hutton,2 Christine King2 1Academic Centre of Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; 2Research in Real Life, Oakington, Cambridge, UK Purpose: To investigate the clinical and cost effectiveness of switching real-life asthma patients from other types of inhalers to the Easyhaler® (EH for the administration of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS. Patients and methods: Historical, matched-cohort study of 1,958 asthma patients (children and adults treated in UK primary-care practices, using data obtained from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database and Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Other inhalers (OH included pressurized metered-dose inhalers, breath-actuated inhalers, and dry-powder inhalers, delivering beclomethasone, budesonide, fluticasone, or ciclesonide. Patients remaining on OH unchanged (same drug, dosage, and device; n=979 were matched 1:1 with those switched to the EH (beclomethasone or budesonide at the same or lower ICS dosage (n=979, based on age, sex, year of index patient review/switch, most recent ICS drug, dosage, and device, and the number of severe exacerbations and average daily short-acting β2 agonist (SABA dosage in the preceding year. Clinical outcomes and health care costs were compared between groups for 12 months before and after the switch. Co-primary clinical outcomes were: 1 risk domain asthma control (RDAC – no asthma-related hospitalization, acute oral steroid use, or lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI; 2 exacerbation rate (American Thoracic Society [ATS] definition – where exacerbation is asthma-related hospitalization or acute oral steroid use; 3 exacerbation rate (clinical definition – where exacerbation is ATS exacerbation or LRTI; and 4 overall asthma control (OAC – RDAC plus average salbutamol-equivalent SABA dosage ≤200 μg/day. Non-inferiority (at least equivalence of EH was tested against OH for the

  4. Caracterización de sitios de percha del guajolote silvestre (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana en Sierra Fría, Aguascalientes, México Roost sites characteristics of wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana in Sierra Fria, Aguascalientes, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Márquez-Olivas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre octubre y noviembre del año 2001 y mayo de 2002 se localizaron 16 sitios de percha de guajolote silvestre (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana en la Sierra Fría de Aguascalientes. El 87.5% de los sitios se encontraron en bosques de pino-encino (en rodales de pinos, en altitudes de 2500 a 2650 m. En la parte alta (2/3 de la cuesta se localizaron 8 de los sitios y 7 sobre laderas de exposición noreste, en una pendiente promedio de 38.9 ± 12.6%. El 62.5% de los sitios se usaron durante todo el periodo de estudio y el resto, de manera ocasional. La mayoría de los dormideros se encontraron cerca de comederos o cebaderos y de parcelas agrícolas. Se contabilizaron de 1 a 23 árboles de percha utilizados por sitio, distribuidos a una distancia promedio de 24.4 ± 17.8 metros. El 81.2% de los árboles (n=170 fueron pinos (Pinus teocote, P. durangensis, P. leiophylla y P. michoacana, 17.6% encinos (Quercus laurina, Q. grisea y Q. eduardii y 1.2% madroños (Arbutus arizonica. La altura promedio de los árboles fue de 16.6 ± 4.4 m y el diámetro 43.2 ± 11.5 cm. La preferencia del guajolote silvestre por utilizar pinos como dormideros en lugar de otras especies arbóreas, se debe posiblemente a que son árboles de mayor porte o a la conformación de su dosel; sin embargo, se ha observado que en lugares donde hay pocos pinos, los guajolotes utilizan para dormir otros árboles de características semejantes, como encinos, madroños o sicomoros.Sixteen roosting sites of Gould's wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana were found between October and November of 2001 and May of 2002 in Sierra Fría, Aguascalientes. A large percentage (87.5% of the roost sites was located in oak-pine forest (in pine stands, at an elevation range of 2500 to 2650 meters. Eight roost sites were on the upper portion (2/3 of the ridge, and 7 at northeast exposures with an average slope of 38.9 ± 12.6%. Most (81.2% of the roost trees (n =170 were pines (Pinus teocote, P

  5. EDITORIAL: Opposites attract: nanomagnetism in theory and practice Opposites attract: nanomagnetism in theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-09-01

    authors describe the system in terms of a magnetic monopole—a notorious theoretical element yet to make the transition to experimental observations. Yet the description works well and as the authors claim, 'The magnetic resolution comes remarkably close to the maximum reported value and can still be improved by choosing iron-filled carbon nanotubes with optimized dimensions'. Artificial atoms, or superatoms, were used in the 1970s as theoretical constructs to investigate molecular structures [6]. Later studies of fullerenes [7, 8] and then other semiconductor artificial atom systems [9] rooted the concept firmly in experimental physics. The electronic behavior in these systems has inspired some fascinating technological developments [10]. Artificial atom quantum dots are small enough to be considered zero-dimensional, giving rise to quantum confinement effects: electrons added to quantum dots occupy discrete quantum levels, and spin-paired electrons can produce spin-zero electron states. The systems have demonstrated great promise for potential qubits for quantum computers. Silicon has a number of advantages for these applications including scalability and long spin coherence times. However, progress has been hindered in practice by difficulties in creating devices with sufficiently low disorder particularly at the Si/SiO2 interface. Researchers at the University of New South Wales in Australia have overcome these fabrication challenges and demonstrated a low-disorder silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dot where the number of electrons can be tuned between 0 and 27 [11]. In this issue R-G Dengel, A Frey, K Brunner, C Gould and L W Molenkamp from Universität Würzburg in Germany create magnetic artificial atoms by replacing the traditionally used GaAs-based heterostructure with a ZnSe-based system where doping the quantum well with Mn gives it magnetic properties [1]. As they point out, 'From the fabrication point of view, three technical issues make this

  6. Examining the plankton acoustic response with a vessel mounted ADCP across oceanic fronts located in the Drake Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Blanc

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available On December 2001 and January 2006, during the LMG01-9 and LMG06-1 cruises to Antarctic Peninsula, at-sea oceanographic and acoustic measurements were conducted onboard the R/V L. M. Gould icebreaker along two transects located between (55.15 °S, 65 ºW and (64.65 °S, 65 ºW and between (55.15 ºS, 64.91 ºW and (62.7 ºS, 62.21 ºW, respectively. The scientific crew consisted of researchers from two US institutes, and a scientific observer from the Argentinean Naval Service of Research & Development under the frame of the US National Science Foundation Antarctic Program. The present work accomplishes an alternative application for a vesselmounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP with an operating frequency of 153.6 kHz. Volume Acoustic Backscattering Strengths, S V, were computed from the recorded ADCP's voltages. The obtained values fell in a range of -92 dB to -62 dB, for the layer of the water column comprised between 26 m - 300 m on 2001 and in the range of -93 dB to -58 dB for the water column between 22 m - 300 m on 2006. Depth-averaged, S V, for the upper water column (about the first 150 m on experiment transects were computed as well as S V values averaged in depth and latitude. Data processing revealed interesting features about the upper ocean acoustic behaviour. On December 2001, a significant non-uniform scattering response in the ensonified water column with quite high values of S V, associated with the diel vertical migration, was obtained. Additionally, a remarkable increment in the scattering response was observed at the estimated location of the Antarctic Divergence (AD. This feature was also observed on January 2006 in addition to remarkable high values of S V, in coastal waters of the Antarctic Peninsula. Plotting and exhaustive analyses of S V (z profiles enabled the visualisation of three distinct types of qualitative patterns, namely, curves with: (I two observable maxima, (II only one maximum, (III a depth

  7. VICAR - VIDEO IMAGE COMMUNICATION AND RETRIEVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    I/O, label I/O, parameter I/O, etc.) to facilitate image processing and provide the fastest I/O possible while maintaining a wide variety of capabilities. The run-time library also includes the Virtual Raster Display Interface (VRDI) which allows display oriented applications programs to be written for a variety of display devices using a set of common routines. (A display device can be any frame-buffer type device which is attached to the host computer and has memory planes for the display and manipulation of images. A display device may have any number of separate 8-bit image memory planes (IMPs), a graphics overlay plane, pseudo-color capabilities, hardware zoom and pan, and other features). The VRDI supports the following display devices: VICOM (Gould/Deanza) IP8500, RAMTEK RM-9465, ADAGE (Ikonas) IK3000 and the International Imaging Systems IVAS. VRDI's purpose is to provide a uniform operating environment not only for an application programmer, but for the user as well. The programmer is able to write programs without being concerned with the specifics of the device for which the application is intended. The VICAR Interactive Display Subsystem (VIDS) is a collection of utilities for easy interactive display and manipulation of images on a display device. VIDS has characteristics of both the executive and an application program, and offers a wide menu of image manipulation options. VIDS uses the VRDI to communicate with display devices. The first step in using VIDS to analyze and enhance an image (one simple example of VICAR's numerous capabilities) is to examine the histogram of the image. The histogram is a plot of frequency of occurrence for each pixel value (0 - 255) loaded in the image plane. If, for example, the histogram shows that there are no pixel values below 64 or above 192, the histogram can be "stretched" so that the value of 64 is mapped to zero and 192 is mapped to 255. Now the user can use the full dynamic range of the display device to display

  8. Approximating uncertainty of annual runoff and reservoir yield using stochastic replicates of global climate model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, M. C.; Srikanthan, R.; McMahon, T. A.; Karoly, D. J.

    2015-04-01

    CMIP3 for use in this paper. Here we present within- and between-GCM uncertainty results in mean annual precipitation (MAP), mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual runoff (MAR), the standard deviation of annual precipitation (SDP), standard deviation of runoff (SDR) and reservoir yield for five CMIP3 GCMs at 17 worldwide catchments. Based on 100 stochastic replicates of each GCM run at each catchment, within-GCM uncertainty was assessed in relative form as the standard deviation expressed as a percentage of the mean of the 100 replicate values of each variable. The average relative within-GCM uncertainties from the 17 catchments and 5 GCMs for 2015-2044 (A1B) were MAP 4.2%, SDP 14.2%, MAT 0.7%, MAR 10.1% and SDR 17.6%. The Gould-Dincer Gamma (G-DG) procedure was applied to each annual runoff time series for hypothetical reservoir capacities of 1 × MAR and 3 × MAR and the average uncertainties in reservoir yield due to within-GCM uncertainty from the 17 catchments and 5 GCMs were 25.1% (1 × MAR) and 11.9% (3 × MAR). Our approximation of within-GCM uncertainty is expected to be an underestimate due to not replicating the GCM trend. However, our results indicate that within-GCM uncertainty is important when interpreting climate change impact assessments. Approximately 95% of values of MAP, SDP, MAT, MAR, SDR and reservoir yield from 1 × MAR or 3 × MAR capacity reservoirs are expected to fall within twice their respective relative uncertainty (standard deviation/mean). Within-GCM uncertainty has significant implications for interpreting climate change impact assessments that report future changes within our range of uncertainty for a given variable - these projected changes may be due solely to within-GCM uncertainty. Since within-GCM variability is amplified from precipitation to runoff and then to reservoir yield, climate change impact assessments that do not take into account within-GCM uncertainty risk providing water resources management decision makers with

  9. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2004-10-01

    ,Indonesian electoral behaviour; A statistical perspective. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2004, xli + 429 pp. [Indonesia's Population Series 2.], Evi Nurvida Arifin, Leo Suryadinata (eds -Hans Hägerdal, Arnaud Leveau, Le destin des fils du dragon; L'influence de la communauté chinoise au Viêt Nam et en Thaïlande. Paris: L'Harmattan, Bangkok: Institut de Recherche sur l'Asie de Sud Est Contemporaine, 2003, xii + 88 pp. -Han Bing Siong, A.W.H. Massier, Van recht naar hukum; Indonesische juristen en hun taal, 1915-2000. (Privately published, 2003, xiii + 234 pp. [PhD thesis, Leiden University.] -David Hicks, Andrew Berry, Infinite tropics; An Albert Russel Wallace anthology, with a preface by Stephen Jay Gould. London: Verso, 2002, xviii + 430 pp. -Carool Kersten, J. van Goor, Indische avonturen; Opmerkelijke ontmoetingen met een andere wereld. Den Haag: Sdu Uitgevers, 2000, 294 pp. -Lisa Migo, Robert Martin Dumas, 'Teater Abdulmuluk' in Zuid-Sumatra; Op de drempel van een nieuwe tijdperk. Leiden: Onderzoekschool CNWS, School voor Aziatische, Afrikaanse en Amerindische Studies, 2000, 345 pp. -John N. Miksic, Claude Guillot ,Historie de Barus, Sumatra; Le site de Lobu Tua; II; Étude archéologique et documents. Paris: Association Archipel, 2003, 339 pp. [Cahier d'Archipel 30.], Marie-France Dupoizat, Daniel Perret (eds -Sandra Niessen, Traude Gavin, Iban ritual textiles. Leiden: KITLV Press, 2003, xi + 356 pp. [Verhandelingen 205.] -Frank Okker, Jan Lechner, Uit de verte; Een jeugd in Indië 1927-1946. Met een nawoord van Gerard Termorshuizen. Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 2004, 151 pp. [Boekerij 'Oost en West'.] -Angela Pashia, William D. Wilder, Journeys of the soul; Anthropological studies of death, burial and reburial practices in Borneo. Phillips ME: Borneo Research Council, 2003, vix + 366 pp. [Borneo Research Council Monograph Series 7.] -Jonathan H. Ping, Huub de Jonge ,Transcending borders; Arabs, politics, trade and Islam in Southeast Asia. Leiden

  10. User-driven generation of standard data services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Laura; Granell, Carlos; Gould, Michael; Huerta, Joaquín.

    2010-05-01

    (3), 271-294. Bernard, L, U Einspanier, M Lutz & C Portele. Interoperability in GI Service Chains The Way Forward. In: M. Gould, R. Laurini & S. Coulondre (Eds.). 6th AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science 2003, Lyon: 179-188. INSPIRE. Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2007 establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community. (2007) Masser, I. GIS Worlds: Creating Spatial Data Infrastructures. Redlands, California. ESRI Press. (2005) Masser, I., Rajabifard, A., Williamson, I. 2008. Spatially enabling governments through SDI implementation. International Journal of Geographical Information Science. Vol. 22, No. 1, (2008) 5-20 Rajabifard, A., Feeney, M-E. F., Williamson, I. P. 2002. Future directions for SDI development. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 4 (2002) 11-22

  11. Mustiscaling Analysis applied to field Water Content through Distributed Fiber Optic Temperature sensing measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez Buelga, Javier; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Sanchez, Raul; Gil, Maria; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    signal variation, or to see at which scales signals are most correlated. This can give us an insight into the dominant processes An alternative to both of the above methods has been described recently. Relative entropy and increments in relative entropy has been applied in soil images (Bird et al., 2006) and in soil transect data (Tarquis et al., 2008) to study scale effects localized in scale and provide the information that is complementary to the information about scale dependencies found across a range of scales. We will use them in this work to describe the spatial scaling properties of a set of field water content data measured in an extension of a corn field, in a plot of 500 m2 and an spatial resolution of 25 cm. These measurements are based on an optics cable (BruggSteal) buried on a ziz-zag deployment at 30cm depth. References Bird, N., M.C. Díaz, A. Saa, and A.M. Tarquis. 2006. A review of fractal and multifractal analysis of soil pore-scale images. J. Hydrol. 322:211-219. Kravchenko, A.N., R. Omonode, G.A. Bollero, and D.G. Bullock. 2002. Quantitative mapping of soil drainage classes using topographical data and soil electrical conductivity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66:235-243. Lark, R.M., A.E. Milne, T.M. Addiscott, K.W.T. Goulding, C.P. Webster, and S. O'Flaherty. 2004. Scale- and location-dependent correlation of nitrous oxide emissions with soil properties: An analysis using wavelets. Eur. J. Soil Sci. 55:611-627. Lark, R.M., S.R. Kaffka, and D.L. Corwin. 2003. Multiresolution analysis of data on electrical conductivity of soil using wavelets. J. Hydrol. 272:276-290. Lark, R. M. and Webster, R. 1999. Analysis and elucidation of soil variation using wavelets. European J. of Soil Science, 50(2): 185-206. Mandelbrot, B.B. 1982. The fractal geometry of nature. W.H. Freeman, New York. Percival, D.B., and A.T. Walden. 2000. Wavelet methods for time series analysis. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK. Tarquis, A.M., N.R. Bird, A.P. Whitmore, M.C. Cartagena, and

  12. EDITORIAL: Scanning probe microscopy: a visionary development Scanning probe microscopy: a visionary development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-07-01

    amplitude modulated KPFM measurements compared with the frequency modulated mode. Rohrer and Binnig shared the Nobel Prize for Physics 'for their design of the scanning tunnelling microscope' [11]. They are widely recognized among the founding fathers of nanoscience. In an interview in 2005 Rohrer once commented on the benefits of changing fields even if it leaves you feeling a little 'lost and lonely' at first. In fact he attributed his ability to contribute his Nobel Prize winning work to science at a comparatively senior age to the fact that he had changed fields. 'You cannot be the star from the beginning, but I think what is important is that you might bring in a different way of thinking. You have a certain lightness to approach something that is the expert opinion' [2]. In nanotechnology where such a formidable range of disciplines seem to feed into the research such words may be particularly encouraging. Rohrer passed away on 16 May 2013, but the awesome legacy of his life's work continues. With the scanning tunnelling microscope the lofty eccentricities of quantum mechanical theory literally came into view, quite an inspiration. References [1] Binning G, Rohrer H, Gerber Ch and Weibel E 1982 Surface studies by scanning tunneling microscopy Phys. Rev. Lett. 49 57-61 [2] Weiss P S 2007 A conversation with Dr. Heinrich Rohrer: STM Co-inventor and one of the founding fathers of nanoscience ACS Nano 1 3-5 [3] Binnig G, Quate C F and Gerber Ch 1986 Atomic force microscope Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 930-3 [4] Maivald P, Butt H J, Gould S A C, Prater C B, Drake B, Gurley J A, Elings V B and Hansma P K 1991 Using force modulation to image surface elasticities with the atomic force microscope Nanotechnology 2 103-6 [5] Ando T 2012 High-speed atomic force microscopy coming of age Nanotechnology 23 062001 [6] Betzig E, Isaacson M, Barshatzky H, Lewis A and Lin K 1988 Super-resolution imaging with near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) Ultramicroscopy 25 155-63 [7] Thio T

  13. HAVE YOU READ THIS?: Life, the universe(s) and everything

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-09-01

    philosophical for some (see the review by B Carr in Physics World 10 December 1997, p 39) but don't be put off by his adoration of Leibnitz compared, say, with Newton. He is strongly critical of a `mechanical' world view, and a major strand in the book is that physics may be more like biology than most of us might like to think. Smolin's key idea is that universes are created in black holes, a basis on which he builds a cosmology in which relationships are more important than abstract concepts like space and time. When a new universe forms from a black hole the laws and constants are changed: G, e, h and the critical things like the fine-structure constant that cosmic anthropicists put forward as evidence for a purposive universe get changed. Sometimes they change a lot, sometimes in ways too small to have much effect. A kind of Darwinian survival effect takes over: successful universes are good at producing black holes and mature stars that can build up the heavy elements which allow life to develop. So our values of G, e, h etc have evolved. The more black holes they produce, the more likely it is that some of the baby universes are reasonably successful. So our universe is not unique, but just one of a set that has cosmological and physical properties that allow people like us to develop. The improbably anthropic universe we live in is as improbable as an eye or a peacock's tail. Just as Stephen Jay Gould teaches us that life as we know it is not designed but the result of more or less simple rules applied in an accidental, contingent history, so Smolin considers the universe(s). Galaxies have ecologies: `... our life is situated inside a nested hierarchy of self-organized systems that begin with our local ecologies and extend upwards at least to the galaxy.' Our universe is really very young - not much older than a typical star. The theory has testable predictions, to do with the formation of spiral arms in galaxies, supernovae and the rate of production of black holes

  14. MODEL PENELITIAN HUBUNGAN POLA PERMUKIMAN DAN KONFLIK ANTAR ETNIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilya Kalsum

    2015-01-01

    . Rineka Cipta. Doxiadis. 1974. “Action For A Better Scientific Approach To The Subject Of Human Settlements" The Journal of Ekistics. Volume 38. No. 229. Desember 1974. Drever, James. 1986. Kamus Psikologi. Jakarta: Bina Aksara. Ellen, Ingrid Gould. 2000. "Race-Based Neighborhood Projection: A Pro-posed Framework for Understanding New Data On Racial Integration”., Urban Studies. Vol. 37, No. 9. p. 1513 – 1533. Friedrichs, Jurgen. 1998. "Ethic Segregation In Cologne, Germany, 1984-94". Urban Studies. Vol. 35 No. 10. p.1745 – 1763. Hardjosudarmo, Soedigdo. 1965. Kebijak-sanaan Transmigrasi Dalam Rangka Pembangunan Masyarakat Desa Indonesia. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor. Haryadi & B. Setiawan. 1995. Arsitektur Lingkungan dan Perilaku, Suatu Pengantar Ke Teori, Metodologi dan Aplikasi. Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. Heeren, H.H. 1979. Transmigrasi di Indonesia. Jakarta: Gramedia. Indonesia, Depnakertrans, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan. 1978. Laporan Penelitian Bentuk-bentuk Interaksi Sosial Antar Kelompok Etnik di Daerah Transmigrasi 1977/1978. Jakarta. Kartono, Kartini dan Gulo, Dali. 1987. Kamus Psikologi. Bandung: Pionir Jaya. Kempen, R. Van dan Ozuekren, Sule. 1998. "Ethnic Segregation In Cities: New Forms And Explanation In A Dynamic World". Urban Studies. University of Glasgow. Vol. 35. No. 10. Koetjaraningrat. 1974. Manusia dan Kebudayaan di Indonesia. Jakarta: Jambatan. Minnery, J.R. 1986. "Urban Planners And Role Conflicts". Journal Of Urban Policy And Research. Murdie, Robert A. & Borgegard, Lars-Erik. 1998. “Immigration Spatial Segrega-tion and Housing Segmentation Of Immigrants In Metropolitan Stockholm, 1960-95". Urban Studies, Vol. 35, No. 10, p. 1869 – 1888. Owusu, Thomas Y. 1999. “Residential Patterns and Housing Choices of Ghanaian Immigrants in Toronto, Canada”. Housing Studies. Vol. 14, No. 1. 1999. Pattiselanno, J.Th.F. 1999. “Tradisi Uli, Pela dan Gandong pada Masyarakat Seram, Ambon dan Uliase

  15. Obituary: Edwin E. Salpeter (1924-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia; Terzian, Yervant

    2009-12-01

    shared Ed's moral disapproval. His 21 year term as the astrophysics member of the editorial board of Reviews of Modern Physics (1971-92) remains a record and arose from a combination of extremely good judgment and patience with authors, referees, and other editors. His experience as a member of the National Science Board (1978-84) was a less happy one, and he felt he had not been an effective one when the NSF decided to back out of supporting a national-facility large millimeter dish, leaving that territory to individual university groups and the Europeans. How many students did Ed Salpeter have? Well, lots. He was advisor or committee chair for students in computer and geological sciences as well as in physics and astronomy, and was sometimes part of teams he called "two chiefs and one Indian" for additional students. No complete list seems to exist, but the incomplete lists add up to at least 55. Of those, you are likely to have heard of or know (because we do!): Hubert Reeves (who has great-grandstudents of his own!), George Helou, Vahe Petrosian, Bill Newman, Nathan Krumm, Bruce Tarter, Jonathan Katz, Lars Bildsten, Allen Boozer, Bruce Draine, Robert Gould, Nicolas Krall, Richard Lovelace, David Stevenson, Hugh Van Horn, Lyle Hoffman, and Edvige Corbelli. Thus he lived to achieve that mark of maturity, being invited to retirement parties for ones students. Former students, collaborators, and all spoke uniformly of his generosity, quick understanding, and willingness to discuss science on any and all occasions. Among the honors Ed Salpeter received were four honorary D.Sc.'s, five academy memberships, and major prizes from the Royal Astronomical Society, the American Astronomical Society, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, the American Physical Society, the Royal Swedish Academy, and the Astronomische Gesellschaft (AG). The text of his AG lecture was published in English, but he told one of us that he felt he no longer had a native language, because he couldn

  16. EDITORIAL: Focus on Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors FOCUS ON DILUTE MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Scott A.; Gallagher, Bryan

    2008-05-01

    Chisholm, J D Budai and D P Norton Role of charge carriers for ferromagnetism in cobalt-doped rutile TiO2 T Fukumura, H Toyosaki, K Ueno, M Nakano and M Kawasaki Ab-initio study of exchange constants and electronic structure in diluted magnetic group-IV semiconductors Silvia Picozzi and Marjana Ležaić Phase coherent transport in (Ga,Mn)As D Neumaier, K Wagner, U Wurstbauer, M Reinwald, W Wegscheider and D Weiss Hydrogen interstitials-mediated ferromagnetism in MnxGe1-x magnetic semiconductors Xin-Xin Yao, Shi-Shen Yan, Shu-Jun Hu, Xue-Ling Lin, Chong Han, Yan-Xue Chen, Guo-Lei Liu and Liang-Mo Mei Electronic structures of magnetic semiconductors FeCr2Se4 and Fe0.5Cu0.5Cr2Se4 B I Min, Seung Su Baik, H C Choi, S K Kwon and J-S Kang Investigation of pure and Co2+-doped ZnO quantum dot electronic structures using the density functional theory: choosing the right functional Ekaterina Badaeva, Yong Feng, Daniel R Gamelin and Xiaosong Li Magnetic properties of sol-gel-derived doped ZnO as a potential ferromagnetic semiconductor: a synchrotron-based study N R S Farley, K W Edmonds, A A Freeman, G van der Laan, C R Staddon, D H Gregory and B L Gallagher Local electronic structure of Cr in the II-VI diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Zn1-xCrxTe M Kobayashi, Y Ishida, J I Hwang, G S Song, A Fujimori, C S Yang, L Lee, H-J Lin, D J Huang, C T Chen, Y Takeda, K Terai, S-I Fujimori, T Okane, Y Saitoh, H Yamagami, K Kobayashi, A Tanaka, H Saito and K Ando Lack of ferromagnetism in n-type cobalt-doped ZnO epitaxial thin films T C Kaspar, T Droubay, S M Heald, P Nachimuthu, C M Wang, V Shutthanandan, C A Johnson, D R Gamelin and S A Chambers XMCD studies on Co and Li doped ZnO magnetic semiconductors Thomas Tietze, Milan Gacic, Gisela Schütz, Gerhard Jakob, Sebastian Brück and Eberhard Goering Ferromagnetic semiconductors and the role of disorder B W Wessels An extensive comparison of anisotropies in MBE grown (Ga,Mn)As material C Gould, S Mark, K Pappert, R G Dengel, J Wenisch, R P

  17. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cold and Ultracold Molecules FOCUS ON COLD AND ULTRACOLD MOLECULES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Lincoln D.; Ye, Jun

    2009-05-01

    öhlich, A Griesmaier, T Pfau, H Saito, Y Kawaguchi and M Ueda High-energy-resolution molecular beams for cold collision studies L P Parazzoli, N Fitch, D S Lobser and H J Lewandowski Collisional effects in the formation of cold guided beams of polar molecules M Motsch, C Sommer, M Zeppenfeld, L D van Buuren, P W H Pinkse and G Rempe Towards sympathetic cooling of large molecules: cold collisions between benzene and rare gas atoms P Barletta, J Tennyson and P F Barker Efficient formation of ground-state ultracold molecules via STIRAP from the continuum at a Feshbach resonance Elena Kuznetsova, Marko Gacesa, Philippe Pellegrini, Susanne F Yelin and Robin Côté Emergent timescales in entangled quantum dynamics of ultracold molecules in optical lattices M L Wall and L D Carr Rotational state resolved photodissociation spectroscopy of translationally and vibrationally cold MgH+ ions: toward rotational cooling of molecular ions K Højbjerre, A K Hansen, P S Skyt, P F Staanum and M Drewsen Collective transverse cavity cooling of a dense molecular beam Thomas Salzburger and Helmut Ritsch A Stark decelerator on a chip Samuel A Meek, Horst Conrad and Gerard Meijer Deceleration of molecules by dipole force potential: a numerical simulation Susumu Kuma and Takamasa Momose Ultracold molecules: vehicles to scalable quantum information processing Kathy-Anne Brickman Soderberg, Nathan Gemelke and Cheng Chin Magnetic field modification of ultracold molecule-molecule collisions T V Tscherbul, Yu V Suleimanov, V Aquilanti and R V Krems Spectroscopy of 39K85Rb triplet excited states using ultracold a 3Σ+ state molecules formed by photoassociation J T Kim, D Wang, E E Eyler, P L Gould and W C Stwalley Pumping vortex into a Bose-Einstein condensate of heteronuclear molecules Z F Xu, R Q Wang and L You Intense atomic and molecular beams via neon buffer-gas cooling David Patterson, Julia Rasmussen and John M Doyle Dynamical properties of dipolar Fermi gases T Sogo, L He, T Miyakawa, S Yi, H Lu

  18. Obituary: Philip Morrison, 1915-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2005-12-01

    2002. Emily had been a collaborator on a few magazine articles and so forth. Phylis became a full partner on several of his books and television programs, and, most charmingly, on an annual set of Christmas reviews of books for children. Morrison the educator appears first as co-author with Hans Bethe of the text Elementary Nuclear Physics in 1952. A subset of other achievements in this territory include: (a) co-authorship of the Physical Sciences Study Committee text for high school physics in 1962 (prepublication versions existed in 1960); (b) the film, Powers of Ten, produced by Charles and Ray Eames in 1979, narrated by Phil, and seen by a large fraction of all the students in "astronomy for poets" classes since; (c) television programs including Whisper from Space (Nova, 1977, on the microwave background) and the six-part series Ring of Truth (PBS, 1987, on scientific method); and (d) literally hundreds of book reviews written for Scientific American from 1965 into the late 1990s, in every one of which you can hear his voice, in contrast to frequent Scientific American editorial practice. He produced a few late reviews and commentaries for American Scientist, but was not entirely pleased with the relationship. Among his graduate students who remained in cosmic-ray and astrophysics were Howard Laster, Kenneth Brecher, James Felten, Robert Gould, Leo Sartori, Alberto Sadun, and Minas Kafatos. Several of them describe Phil as a very "hands off" advisor, who would suggest a project and leave them to get on with it, which was rather different from the Oppenheimer style. A 1959 paper by Guiseppe Cocconi and Morrison was the first suggestion that one might communicate with extraterrestrial civilizations using radio waves close to the 1421 GHz (21 cm) frequency of neutral hydrogen, though he had thought even earlier about gamma rays for this purpose. Phil was a SETI optimist from the beginning, writing and participating in conferences on the subject for many years

  19. Metalliferous deposits of the greater Helena mining region, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, Joseph Thomas; Schrader, F.C.

    1933-01-01

    out to the neighboring wide intermontane valleys. The area is underlain mostly by shale, sandstone, and limestone of the upper part of the Belt series. Beds of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age occur south of the Belt area and extend from Helena west and northwest. The igneous rocks of the area include diorite and gabbro sills and dikes of probable Cretaceous age, extrusive andesite that is probably Oligocene or Miocene, and stocks of quartz monzonite, granodiorite, and quartz diorite, probably of Oligocene or Miocene age. The ore deposits of the northern districts are chiefly lodes that are valuable for gold and silver but contain some lead and copper. In the Ophir district bodies of gold and silver ore occur mainly in limestone near a body of quartz monzonite. In the Scratchgravel Hills and Grass Valley districts veins of gold quartz and veins containing lead-silver ore occur in quartz monzonite and in the adjoining metamorphic rocks. In the Austin district lodes containing gold; silver, lead, and copper are found in limestone near intrusive quartz monzonite. An unusual mineral in one of these lodes is corkite, a hydrous sulphate of lead containing arsenic. A small stock of quartz diorite in the Marysville district has invaded and domed Belt rocks. Marginal and radial fractures formed during the cooling and contraction of the igneous body became the receptacles of gold and silver veins, one of which, the Drumlummon, has produced $16,000,000. The veins filled open fractures and are characterized by a gangue of platy calcite and quartz. Lodes in Towsley Gulch in the western part of the district contain lead in addition to gold. In the Gould district a small stock of the granodiorite has invaded the Belt rocks and caused the deposition of veins similar to those near Marysville. In the Heddleston district lodes valuable for gold, silver, lead, and copper occur in Belt sedimentary rocks and diorite, some of them associated with porphyry dikes. In the Wolf Creek district veins

  20. Long-term water repellency in organic olive orchards in the Cànyoles River watershed. The impact of land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Neris, Jonay

    2015-04-01

    ., Kirchner, J. W., Neal, M., Rowland, P., Wright, D. 2011. Three decades of water quality measurements from the Upper Severn experimental catchments at Plynlimon, Wales: an openly accessible data resource for research, modelling, environmental management and education. Hydrological Processes, 25(24), 3818-3830. Roper, M. M., Ward, P. R., Keulen, A. F., Hill, J. R. (2013). Under no-tillage and stubble retention, soil water content and crop growth are poorly related to soil water repellency. Soil and Tillage Research, 126, 143-150. Santos, J. M., Verheijen, F. G., Tavares Wahren, F., Wahren, A., Feger, K. H., Bernard-Jannin, L., Nunes, J. P. (2015). Soil water repellency dynamics in pine and eucalupt plantation in Portugal - a high- resolution series. Land Degradation & Development. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2251 Spohn, M., Rillig, M. C. 2012. Temperature-and moisture-dependent soil water repellency induced by the basidiomycete Agaricus bisporus. Pedobiologia, 55(1), 59-61. Stoof, C. R., Moore, D., Ritsema, C. J., Dekker, L. W. 2011. Natural and fire-induced soil water repellency in a Portuguese shrubland. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 75(6), 2283-2295. Taguas, E. V., Carpintero, E., and Ayuso, J. L. 2013. Assessing land degradation risk through the long-term analysis of erosivity: a case study in Southern Spain. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 179- 187. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1119 Whelan, A., Kechavarzi, C., Coulon, F., Doerr, S. H. 2014. Experimental characterization of the impact of temperature and humidity on the breakdown of soil water repellency in sandy soils and composts. Hydrological Processes. Young, I. M., Feeney, D. S., O'Donnell, A. G., Goulding, K. W. 2012. Fungi in century old managed soils could hold key to the development of soil water repellency. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 45, 125-127. Zhao, G., Mu, X., Wen, Z., Wang, F., and Gao, P. 2013. Soil erosion, conservation, and Eco-environment changes in the Loess Plateau of China. Land Degradation & Development