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Sample records for enteroctopus megalocyathus gould

  1. Uso del microhábitat por el protozoo parásito Aggregata patagonica Sardella, Ré & Timi, 2000 (Apicomplexa: Aggregatidae en su hospedador definitivo, el pulpo Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Gould, 1852 (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae en el sur de Chile Microhabitat use by the protozoan parasite Aggregata patagonica Sardella, Ré & Timi, 2000 (Apicomplexa: Aggregatidae in his definitive host Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Gould, 1852 (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTIAN M. IBÁÑEZ

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Los protozoos de la familia Aggregatidae requieren de dos hospedadores para completar su ciclo biológico: un crustáceo y un cefalópodo. En este estudio se busca evidenciar si existe un uso diferencial de microhábitats de las infrapoblaciones de Aggregata patagonica entre dos zonas del tracto digestivo de su hospedador definitivo, el pulpo Enteroctopus megalocyathus. Para ello, se examinaron 40 ejemplares de Ancud y 37 de Quellón, provenientes de las capturas artesanales de la Isla de Chiloé. El tamaño y la densidad de los ooquistes se cuantificaron en el ciego y el intestino del hospedador. Además, se efectuaron observaciones histológicas para determinar cuantitativamente la ocurrencia de los distintos estados de desarrollo del parásito. En Ancud el 80 % de los pulpos estaban parasitados en el ciego y el intestino, mientras que en Quellón era el 100 %. Se determinaron cuatro estados de desarrollo (microgametos, cigotos, esporoquistes inmaduros y maduros. Los ooquistes de A. patagonica fueron más pequeños y abundantes en el ciego, pero la cobertura fue mayor en el intestino. Además, la densidad y cobertura aumenta en pocos meses entre una muestra y otra. Al parecer, A. patagonica no usaría a los dos microhábitats como lugares de preferencia para pasar los diferentes estados de desarrollo, sino más bien, y según las condiciones del microhábitat, en el intestino crecerían más los ooquistes pero en menos cantidad, ocupando una mayor superficie del microhábitat, contrario a lo que ocurre en el ciego. Por esto se sugiere que A. patagonica hace un uso diferencial del microhábitat, mediante dos estrategias distintas de historia de vidaThe protozoan parasites of the family Aggregatidae, require two hosts to complete their life cycle, a crustacean and a cephalopod. This research looks for evidence of differential microhabitat use of Aggregata patagonica infrapopulations between two zones of the digestive tract of his definitive host

  2. Interacciones macho-hembra del pulpo rojo patagónico Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae durante el comportamiento de apareamiento Male-female interactions of Patagonian red octopus Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae during mating behavior

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    Ranferi Gutiérrez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúa, en condiciones de laboratorio, el comportamiento de apareamiento de ocho parejas de Enteroctopus megalocyathus mediante videograbaciones durante 24 h. El comportamiento precopulatorio (CP se caracterizó por presentar tres eventos (natación, exhibición y contacto y el comportamiento copulatorio (CC se caracterizó por mostrar un solo evento (cópula. Del tiempo total de interacción de las parejas, el 34,4% correspondió al CP y el 65,6% correspondió al CC. Entre los tiempos de machos y hembras no hubo diferencias significativas por evento. Al compararse todos los eventos entre sí en relación al tiempo de duración, se presentó el siguiente orden: cópula > contacto > exhibición > natación. Se observó una tendencia a periodos de apareamiento más largos donde el peso de la hembra fue superior al macho, sugiriendo que el peso de la hembra es un factor determinante en la duración de los encuentros de apareamiento.The mating behavior of eight couples of Enteroctopus megalocyathus was evaluated under laboratory conditions by videotaping for 24 h. The precopulatory behavior (CP was characterized by three patterns (swimming, exhibition and contact and copulatory behavior (CC was characterized by display of a single pattern (copulation. Of the total interaction time between octopuses, 34.4% corresponds to CP and 65.6% corresponds to CC. Between times of males and females were not significantly different by pattern. In all events, compared to each other for the duration, presented the following order: copulation > contact > exhibition > swimming. There was a trend towards longer periods of mating where the female weight was higher than the male, suggesting that female weight is a determining factor in the duration of mating encounters.

  3. RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW OF MORTALITY IN GIANT PACIFIC OCTOPUS (ENTEROCTOPUS DOFLEINI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Kathryn E; Clayton, Leigh A; Hadfield, Catherine A; Muth, Dillon; Mankowski, Joseph L; Kelly, Kathleen M

    2016-03-01

    The giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) is a popular exhibit species in public display aquaria, but information on health and disease is limited. This retrospective review evaluates time in collection and describes antemortem clinical signs and pathology of giant Pacific octopuses in an aquarium setting. Between March 2004 and December 2013, there were 19 mortalities: eight males, 10 females, and one individual whose sex was not recorded. Average time spent in collection for all octopuses was 375 ± 173 days (males 351 ± 148 days, females 410 ± 196 days). Ten (52.6%) of the octopuses were sexually mature at the time of death, six (31.6%) were not sexually mature, and reproductive status could not be determined in three octopuses (15.8%). Minimal changes were noted on gross necropsy but branchitis was histologically evident in 14 octopuses, often in conjunction with amoeboid or flagellate parasites. Senescence, parasitism, and husbandry were all important contributors to mortality and should be considered when caring for captive octopuses.

  4. Microsatellite marker isolation and development for the giant Pacific Octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Rebecca K.; Sage, G. Kevin; Talbot, Sandra L.; Scheel, David

    2012-01-01

    We isolated and developed 18 novel microsatellite markers for the giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) and examined them for 31 individuals from Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. These loci displayed moderate levels of allelic diversity (averaging 11 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity (averaging 65%). Seven loci deviated from Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) due to heterozygote deficiency for the PWS population, although deviations were not observed for all these loci in other populations, suggesting the PWS population is not in mutation-drift equilibrium. These novel microsatellite loci yielded sufficient genetic diversity for potential use in population genetics, individual identification, and parentage studies.

  5. Adaptionism-30 years after Gould and Lewontin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    Gould and Lewontin's 30-year-old critique of adaptionism fundamentally changed the discourse of evolutionary biology. However, with the influx of new ideas and scientific traditions from genomics into evolutionary biology, the old adaptionist controversies are being recycled in a new context...

  6. Malleability and Machines: Glenn Gould and the Technological Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Imhotep, Edward

    2016-04-01

    The Pianist Glenn Gould has often been portrayed as a musical idealist who embraced mundane recording media as a way of escaping the anxiety of the concert hall. In pursuing his musical ideals, however, Gould obsessed over material objects-the qualities of a chair, the action of piano keys, the placement of splices in magnetic tape. This paper argues that for him, the detailed properties of machines and electronic media were crucial, not just as tools for pursuing disembodied aesthetic aims, but as instruments and material sites for a moral project. Locating Gould's concerns among the techniques and technologies that inspired him, the concert hall he despised, and the jazz and chance music he tolerated, the paper explores how Gould's famed philosophy of technology was rooted in a "technological self" that tied morality and aesthetics, and intimacy and isolation, to concrete ideals for the kinds of people we ought to be.

  7. Research Ship Laurence M. Gould Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Laurence M. Gould Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  8. Gould on species, metaphysics and macroevolution: A critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Sandy C

    2017-04-01

    Stephen Jay Gould's views on the ontology of species were an important plank of his revisionist program in evolutionary theory. In this paper I cast a critical eye over those views. I focus on three central aspects of Gould's views on species: the relation between the Darwinian and the metaphysical notions of individuality, the relation between the ontology of species and macroevolution, and the issue of contextualism and conventionalism about the metaphysics of species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE GOULD BELT

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    Dunham, Michael M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Allen, Lori E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Evans II, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul M. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Cieza, Lucas A. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Di Francesco, James; Johnstone, Doug; Matthews, Brenda C. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics Programs, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Gutermuth, Robert A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Hatchell, Jennifer [Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Heiderman, Amanda [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Huard, Tracy L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Kirk, Jason M. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Miller, Jennifer F. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Peterson, Dawn E. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Young, Kaisa E., E-mail: mdunham@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physical Sciences, Nicholls State University, P.O. Box 2022, Thibodaux, LA 70310 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    We present the full catalog of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) identified in the 18 molecular clouds surveyed by the Spitzer Space Telescope “cores to disks” (c2d) and “Gould Belt” (GB) Legacy surveys. Using standard techniques developed by the c2d project, we identify 3239 candidate YSOs in the 18 clouds, 2966 of which survive visual inspection and form our final catalog of YSOs in the GB. We compile extinction corrected spectral energy distributions for all 2966 YSOs and calculate and tabulate the infrared spectral index, bolometric luminosity, and bolometric temperature for each object. We find that 326 (11%), 210 (7%), 1248 (42%), and 1182 (40%) are classified as Class 0 + I, Flat-spectrum, Class II, and Class III, respectively, and show that the Class III sample suffers from an overall contamination rate by background Asymptotic Giant Branch stars between 25% and 90%. Adopting standard assumptions, we derive durations of 0.40–0.78 Myr for Class 0 + I YSOs and 0.26–0.50 Myr for Flat-spectrum YSOs, where the ranges encompass uncertainties in the adopted assumptions. Including information from (sub)millimeter wavelengths, one-third of the Class 0 + I sample is classified as Class 0, leading to durations of 0.13–0.26 Myr (Class 0) and 0.27–0.52 Myr (Class I). We revisit infrared color–color diagrams used in the literature to classify YSOs and propose minor revisions to classification boundaries in these diagrams. Finally, we show that the bolometric temperature is a poor discriminator between Class II and Class III YSOs.

  10. YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE GOULD BELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, Michael M.; Allen, Lori E.; Evans II, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul M.; Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Cieza, Lucas A.; Di Francesco, James; Johnstone, Doug; Matthews, Brenda C.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Hatchell, Jennifer; Heiderman, Amanda; Huard, Tracy L.; Kirk, Jason M.; Miller, Jennifer F.; Peterson, Dawn E.; Young, Kaisa E.

    2015-01-01

    We present the full catalog of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) identified in the 18 molecular clouds surveyed by the Spitzer Space Telescope “cores to disks” (c2d) and “Gould Belt” (GB) Legacy surveys. Using standard techniques developed by the c2d project, we identify 3239 candidate YSOs in the 18 clouds, 2966 of which survive visual inspection and form our final catalog of YSOs in the GB. We compile extinction corrected spectral energy distributions for all 2966 YSOs and calculate and tabulate the infrared spectral index, bolometric luminosity, and bolometric temperature for each object. We find that 326 (11%), 210 (7%), 1248 (42%), and 1182 (40%) are classified as Class 0 + I, Flat-spectrum, Class II, and Class III, respectively, and show that the Class III sample suffers from an overall contamination rate by background Asymptotic Giant Branch stars between 25% and 90%. Adopting standard assumptions, we derive durations of 0.40–0.78 Myr for Class 0 + I YSOs and 0.26–0.50 Myr for Flat-spectrum YSOs, where the ranges encompass uncertainties in the adopted assumptions. Including information from (sub)millimeter wavelengths, one-third of the Class 0 + I sample is classified as Class 0, leading to durations of 0.13–0.26 Myr (Class 0) and 0.27–0.52 Myr (Class I). We revisit infrared color–color diagrams used in the literature to classify YSOs and propose minor revisions to classification boundaries in these diagrams. Finally, we show that the bolometric temperature is a poor discriminator between Class II and Class III YSOs

  11. Planck intermediate results. XII: Diffuse Galactic components in the Gould Belt System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    We perform an analysis of the diffuse low-frequency Galactic components in the Southern part of the Gould Belt system (130^\\circ\\leq l\\leq 230^\\circ and -50^\\circ\\leq b\\leq -10^\\circ). Strong ultra-violet (UV) flux coming from the Gould Belt super-association is responsible for bright diffuse...

  12. Science and the Humanities: Stephen Jay Gould's Quest to Join the High Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Stephen Jay Gould was a scientist, a paleobiologist, who was also a professional-level historian of science. This essay explores Gould's work, showing how he used the history of science to further his agenda as a working scientist.

  13. Multiple Paternity and Preliminary Population Genetics of Giant Pacific Octopuses, Enteroctopus dofleini, in Oregon, Washington and the Southeast Coast of Vancouver Island, BC

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    Shawn Larson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 77 giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini, tissue samples were collected from the Oregon Coast (OR, Neah Bay Washington (NB, Puget Sound Washington (PS and the southeast coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada (BC for genetic analyses. A suite of eight variable microsatellite markers developed from giant Pacific octopuses were amplified in these samples to determine population diversity, structure, relatedness and paternity. The majority of loci met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations within each population. We found moderate genetic diversity (average observed heterozygosity = 0.445, range = 0.307–0.515 and average expected heterozygosity = 0.567, range = 0.506–0.696 and moderate population structuring with distinct separation of groups (FST values ranged from 0.101 between BC and PS to 0.237 between BC and NB. Several egg strings from the BC population were collected from three female octopus dens for relatedness and paternity analyses. Results suggest strong support for multiple paternity within one egg clutch with progeny sired by between two to four males.

  14. The Green Bank Ammonia Survey of the Gould Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Rachel; Pineda, Jaime; GAS Team

    2018-01-01

    The past several years have seen a tremendous advancement in our ability to characterize the structure of nearby molecular clouds traced by large-scale continuum surveys. Critical, comparable data on the dense gas kinematics and temperatures are needed to understand the history and future fate of star-forming material. Filling this gap is the Green Bank Ammonia Survey (GAS), an ambitious legacy survey for the Green Bank Telescope to observe key molecular tracers of dense gas within all Gould Belt clouds visible from the northern hemisphere. I will present the latest science from GAS, whose goals are to 1) evaluate the stability of dense gas structures as a function of scale, 2) track the dissipation of turbulence and evolution of angular momentum in filaments and cores, and 3) quantitatively test predictions of models of core and filament formation via mass flows and accretion.

  15. Combinatorial identities for Stirling numbers the unpublished notes of H. W. Gould

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    Quaintance, Jocelyn

    2016-01-01

    This book is a unique work which provides an in-depth exploration into the mathematical expertise, philosophy, and knowledge of H W Gould. It is written in a style that is accessible to the reader with basic mathematical knowledge, and yet contains material that will be of interest to the specialist in enumerative combinatorics. This book begins with exposition on the combinatorial and algebraic techniques that Professor Gould uses for proving binomial identities. These techniques are then applied to develop formulas which relate Stirling numbers of the second kind to Stirling numbers of the first kind. Professor Gould's techniques also provide connections between both types of Stirling numbers and Bernoulli numbers. Professor Gould believes his research success comes from his intuition on how to discover combinatorial identities.This book will appeal to a wide audience and may be used either as lecture notes for a beginning graduate level combinatorics class, or as a research supplement for the specialist in...

  16. Time Restored - The Harrison Timekeepers and R.T. Gould, the Man Who Knew (Almost) Everything

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Jonathan

    2006-09-01

    This is the story of Rupert T. Gould (1890-1948), the polymath and horologist. A remarkable man, Lt Cmdr Gould made important contributions in an extraordinary range of subject areas throughout his relatively short and dramatically troubled life. From antique clocks to scientific mysteries, from typewriters to the first systematic study of the Loch Ness Monster, Gould studied and published on them all. With the title The Stargazer, Gould was an early broadcaster on the BBC's Children's Hour when, with his encyclopaedic knowledge, he became known as The Man Who Knew Everything. Not surprisingly, he was also part of that elite group on BBC radio who formed The Brains Trust, giving on-the-spot answers to all manner of wide ranging and difficult questions. With his wide learning and photographic memory, Gould awed a national audience, becoming one of the era's radio celebrities. During the 1920s Gould restored the complex and highly significant marine timekeepers constructed by John Harrison (1693-1776), and wrote the unsurpassed classic, The Marine Chronometer, its History and Development . Today he is virtually unknown, his horological contributions scarcely mentioned in Dava Sobel's bestseller Longitude. The TV version of Longitude, in which Jeremy Irons played Rupert Gould, did at least introduce Gould's name to a wider public. Gould suffered terrible bouts of depression, resulting in a number of nervous breakdowns. These, coupled with his obsessive and pedantic nature, led to a scandalously-reported separation from his wife and cost him his family, his home, his job, and his closest friends. In this first-ever biography of Rupert Gould, Jonathan Betts, the Royal Observatory Greenwich's Senior Horologist, has given us a compelling account of a talented but flawed individual. Using hitherto unknown personal journals, the family's extensive collection of photographs, and the polymath's surviving records and notes, Betts tells the story of how Gould's early life, his

  17. CULTIVO EXPERIMENTAL DE OCTOPUS MIMUS, GOULD 1852 EN EL PERÚ

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    Paul Baltazar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Octopus mimus Gould, 1852 es un recurso bentónico muy importante en la pesquería artesanal peruana y de gran demanda en el mercado internacional. Actualmente no existen antecedentes sobre el cultivo de esta especie en el Pacifico Sudeste, salvo los realizados por Zuñiga (1995,1996 a, b y Baltazar et al. (1999. Las experiencias de cultivo se realizaron en las instalaciones del Centro de Acuicultura La Arena, Casma, Perú, empleándose tanques de fibra de vidrio y long-line en el mar. La alimentación fue a base de peces, crustáceos y moluscos, se ensayó con pienso húmedo que fue aceptado tras un periodo de inanición. La cópula se realizó con ejemplares mayores a 1,5 kg. Se observó diferencias en el crecimiento, en los tanques (185 y 369 g/mes fue mayor que en las líneas de cultivo (120,6 g/mes. Se obtuvieron paralarvas con una supervivencia máxima de 17 días a temperaturas de 21 a 22 oC, las que fueron alimentadas con nauplios de artemia (camarón de salmuera.

  18. Before hierarchy: the rise and fall of Stephen Jay Gould's first macroevolutionary synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresow, Max W

    2017-06-01

    Few of Stephen Jay Gould's accomplishments in evolutionary biology have received more attention than his hierarchical theory of evolution, which postulates a causal discontinuity between micro- and macroevolutionary events. But Gould's hierarchical theory was his second attempt to supply a theoretical framework for macroevolutionary studies-and one he did not inaugurate until the mid-1970s. In this paper, I examine Gould's first attempt: a proposed fusion of theoretical morphology, multivariate biometry and the experimental study of adaptation in fossils. This early "macroevolutionary synthesis" was predicated on the notion that parallelism and convergence dominate the history of higher taxa, and moreover, that they can be explained in terms of adaptation leading to mechanical improvement. In this paper, I explore the origins and contents of Gould's first macroevolutionary synthesis, as well as the reasons for its downfall. In addition, I consider how various developments during the mid-1970s led Gould to identify hierarchy and constraint as the leading themes of macroevolutionary studies-and adaptation as a macroevolutionary red herring.

  19. Claiming Darwin: Stephen Jay Gould in contests over evolutionary orthodoxy and public perception, 1977-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Myrna Perez

    2014-03-01

    This article analyzes the impact of the resurgence of American creationism in the early 1980s on debates within post-synthesis evolutionary biology. During this period, many evolutionists criticized Harvard biologist Stephen Jay Gould for publicizing his revisions to traditional Darwinian theory and opening evolution to criticism by creationists. Gould's theory of punctuated equilibrium was a significant source of contention in these disputes. Both he and his critics, including Richard Dawkins, claimed to be carrying the mantle of Darwinian evolution. By the end of the 1990s, the debate over which evolutionary thinkers were the rightful heirs to Darwin's evolutionary theory was also a conversation over whether Darwinism could be defended against creationists in the broader cultural context. Gould and others' claims to Darwin shaped the contours of a political, religious and scientific controversy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. This view of science: Stephen Jay Gould as historian of science and scientific historian, popular scientist and scientific popularizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermer, Michael B

    2002-08-01

    Science historian Ronald Numbers once remarked that the two most influential historians of science of the 20th century were Thomas Kuhn and Stephen Jay Gould. All historians are deeply familiar with Kuhn's work and influence, and most know of the remarkable impact Gould has had on evolutionary theory through both his professional and popular works. But little attention has been paid to the depth, scope, and importance of Gould's rôle as historian and philosopher of science, and his use of popular science exposition to reinforce old knowledge and generate new. This paper presents the results of an extensive quantitative content analysis of Gould's 22 books, 101 book reviews, 479 scientific papers, and 300 Natural History essays, in terms of their subject matter (Evolutionary Theory, History and Philosophy of Science, Natural History, Paleontology/Geology, Social Science/Commentary), and thematic dichotomies (Theory-Data, Time's Arrow-Time's Cycle, Adaptationism- Nonadaptationalism, Punctuationism-Gradualism, Contingency-Necessity). Special emphasis is placed on the interaction between the subjects and themata, how Gould has used the history of science to reinforce his evolutionary theory (and vice versa), and how his philosophy of science has influenced both his evolutionary theory and his historiography. That philosophy can best be summed up in a quotation from Charles Darwin, frequently cited by Gould: 'All observation must be for or against some view if it is to be of any service'. Gould followed Darwin's advice throughout his career, including his extensive writings on the history and philosophy of science.

  1. Stephen Jay Gould and the Value of Neutrality of Science During the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Myrna

    2016-12-01

    Stephen Jay Gould was a paleontologist and scientific celebrity at the close of the twentieth century, most famous for his popular writings on evolution and his role in the American creationist controversies of that era. In the early 1980s, Gould was drawn into the "nuclear winter" episode through his friendship with Carl Sagan, an astronomer and popular science celebrity. Sagan helped develop the theory of nuclear winter and subsequently used the theory as evidence to petition the United States government to scale back its nuclear armament. The theory of nuclear winter claimed that even a small nuclear exchange could result in a atmospheric blackening akin to the extinction event of the late Cretaceous. Gould was not a climate scientist but he testified before the U.S. House of Representatives as an expert on historical extinction events. Gould's insistence on the value-neutrality of nuclear winter reveals much about the moral politics of science in late Cold War America. Coming at the heels of leftist scientific activism of the 1980s, the nuclear winter episode demonstrates how value-neutrality emerged the salient feature of scientific involvement in American politics in this period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Resisting Biopolitics through “Diaphanous Wonder”: Richard Flanagan's Gould's Book of Fish

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    Wiese, Doro|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304842699

    2014-01-01

    In Gould's Book of Fish (2003), author Richard Flanagan manages to invent a format in which content and style account for historical events on Sarah Island, Tasmania in the 1820s, yet he does so in a manner that is not in the least objective, disinterested or fact-orientated. The perspective of

  3. "Replaying Life's Tape": Simulations, metaphors, and historicity in Stephen Jay Gould's view of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepkoski, David

    2016-08-01

    In a famous thought experiment, Stephen Jay Gould asked whether, if one could somehow rewind the history of life back to its initial starting point, the same results would obtain when the "tape" was run forward again. This hypothetical experiment is generally understood as a metaphor supporting Gould's philosophy of evolutionary contingency, which he developed and promoted from the late 1980s until his death in 2002. However, there was a very literal, non-metaphorical inspiration for Gould's thought experiment: since the early 1970s, Gould, along with a group of other paleontologists, was actively engaged in attempts to model and reconstruct the history of life using computer simulations and database analysis. These simulation projects not only demonstrate the impact that computers had on data analysis in paleontology, but also shed light on the close relationship between models and empirical data in data-oriented science. In a sense, I will argue, the models developed by paleontologists through simulation and quantitative analysis of the empirical fossil record in the 1970s and beyond were literal attempts to "replay life's tape" by reconstructing the history of life as data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Goulds Belt, Interstellar Clouds, and the Eocene-Oligocene Helium-3 Spike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2015-01-01

    Drag from hydrogen in the interstellar cloud which formed Gould's Belt may have sent small meteoroids with embedded helium to the Earth, perhaps explaining part or all of the (sup 3) He spike seen in the sedimentary record at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Assuming the Solar System passed through part of the cloud, meteoroids in the asteroid belt up to centimeter size may have been dragged to the resonances, where their orbital eccentricities were pumped up into Earth-crossing orbits.

  5. Goulds Belt, Interstellar Clouds, and the Eocene Oligocene Helium-3 Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2015-01-01

    Drag from hydrogen in the interstellar cloud which formed Gould's Belt may have sent interplanetary dust particle (IDPs) and small meteoroids with embedded helium to the Earth, perhaps explaining part the helium-3 flux increase seen in the sedimentary record near the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Assuming the Solar System passed through part of the cloud, IDPs in the inner Solar System may have been dragged to Earth, while dust and small meteoroids in the asteroid belt up to centimeter size may have been dragged to the resonances, where their orbital eccentricities were pumped up into Earth-crossing orbits; however, this hypotheses does not explain the Popigai and Chesapeake Bay impacts.

  6. Taxonomic revision of the Elephant Pupinid snail genus Pollicaria Gould, 1856 (Prosobranchia, Pupinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangon Kongim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The status of species currently assigned to the Southeast Asian Elephant Pupinid snail genus Pollicaria Gould, 1856 is reassessed. Shell, radular and reproductive morphology are investigated and analysed with reference to karyotype patterns previously reported and to distribution patterns among the species. Six previously described species are recognised: P. gravida (Benson, 1856, P. myersii (Haines, 1855, P. mouhoti (Pfeiffer, 1862, P. elephas (Morgan, 1885, P. crossei (Dautzenberg & d’Hamonville, 1887 and P. rochebruni (Mabille, 1887. A new subspecies, P. mouhoti monochroma ssp. n., is proposed and a dichotomous key to species is provided.

  7. Phylogeny mandalas of birds using the lithographs of John Gould's folio bird books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Masami; Kuroda, Sayako

    2017-12-01

    The phylogeny mandala, which is a circular phylogeny with photos or drawings of species, is a suitable way to show visually how the biodiversity has developed in the course of evolution as clarified by the molecular phylogenetics. In this article, in order to demonstrate the recent progress of avian molecular phylogenetics, six phylogeny mandalas of various taxonomic groups of birds are presented with the lithographs of John Gould's folio bird books; i.e., (1) whole Aves, (2) Passeriformes, (3) Paradisaeidae in Corvoidea (Passeriformes), (4) Meliphagoidea (Passeriformes), (5) Trochili in Apodiformes, and (6) Galliformes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Gould's Belt very large array survey. III. The Orion region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kounkel, Marina; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Loinard, Laurent; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L. [Centro de Radiostronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Morelia 58089 (Mexico); Mioduszewski, Amy J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dzib, Sergio A. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Torres, Rosa M. [Instituto de Astronomía y Meteorología, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Vallarta No. 2602, Col. Arcos Vallarta, CP 44130, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Boden, Andrew F. [Division of Physics, Math and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Briceño, Cesar [Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Tobin, John [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    We present results from a high-sensitivity (60 μJy), large-scale (2.26 deg{sup 2}) survey obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array as part of the Gould's Belt Survey program. We detected 374 and 354 sources at 4.5 and 7.5 GHz, respectively. Of these, 148 are associated with previously known young stellar objects (YSOs). Another 86 sources previously unclassified at either optical or infrared wavelengths exhibit radio properties that are consistent with those of young stars. The overall properties of our sources at radio wavelengths such as their variability and radio to X-ray luminosity relation are consistent with previous results from the Gould's Belt Survey. Our detections provide target lists for follow-up Very Long Baseline Array radio observations to determine their distances as YSOs are located in regions of high nebulosity and extinction, making it difficult to measure optical parallaxes.

  9. Science, Intelligence, and Educational Policy: The Mismeasure of Frankenstein (with Apologies to Mary Shelley and Stephen Jay Gould).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappardino, Pamela

    Stephen Jay Gould points out in "The Mismeasure of Man" (1981), "Science, since people must do it, is a socially embedded activity. It progresses by hunch, vision, and intuition." The legacy of the traditional construct of intelligence and its measurement through intelligence quotient (IQ) tests has not been educational improvement. Its legacy in…

  10. THE JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEY: DENSE CORE CLUSTERS IN ORION A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, J.; Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Mairs, S.; Francesco, J. Di [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Sadavoy, S. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Hatchell, J. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Berry, D. S. [East Asian Observatory, 660 N. A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, Hawaii 96720 (United States); Jenness, T. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 N. A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, Hawaii 96720 (United States); Hogerheijde, M. R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ward-Thompson, D. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Collaboration: JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2016-12-10

    The Orion A molecular cloud is one of the most well-studied nearby star-forming regions, and includes regions of both highly clustered and more dispersed star formation across its full extent. Here, we analyze dense, star-forming cores identified in the 850 and 450 μ m SCUBA-2 maps from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify dense cores in a uniform manner across the Orion A cloud and analyze their clustering properties. Using two independent lines of analysis, we find evidence that clusters of dense cores tend to be mass segregated, suggesting that stellar clusters may have some amount of primordial mass segregation already imprinted in them at an early stage. We also demonstrate that the dense core clusters have a tendency to be elongated, perhaps indicating a formation mechanism linked to the filamentary structure within molecular clouds.

  11. Pessimism Towards Gender Deconstruction in X: A Fabulous Child’s Story by Louis Gould

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Ayuningtyas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Research focuses on Lois Gould’s complex position in feminism movements as displayed by the pessimistic tone in one of her works. The primary data for this research were taken from the short story X: A Fabulous Child’s Story, published in 1972. The research used qualitative method that lies on library research, and to help analyze the topic, books, websites, and scientific journals were used. Kate Millet’s concept of an androgyny was also applied in order to study further about the character of X. The result of the discussion shows that even though considered progressive for its era for its effort to deconstruct rigid gender divisions, this short story also comes with an irony with its ending. The ending demonstrates that human beings cannot be free from sex and gender barriers. This result supports the idea that Gould is trapped between the feminist and the antifeminist movement. 

  12. THE JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEY: DENSE CORE CLUSTERS IN ORION A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, J.; Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Mairs, S.; Francesco, J. Di; Sadavoy, S.; Hatchell, J.; Berry, D. S.; Jenness, T.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.

    2016-01-01

    The Orion A molecular cloud is one of the most well-studied nearby star-forming regions, and includes regions of both highly clustered and more dispersed star formation across its full extent. Here, we analyze dense, star-forming cores identified in the 850 and 450 μ m SCUBA-2 maps from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify dense cores in a uniform manner across the Orion A cloud and analyze their clustering properties. Using two independent lines of analysis, we find evidence that clusters of dense cores tend to be mass segregated, suggesting that stellar clusters may have some amount of primordial mass segregation already imprinted in them at an early stage. We also demonstrate that the dense core clusters have a tendency to be elongated, perhaps indicating a formation mechanism linked to the filamentary structure within molecular clouds.

  13. Underway pCO2 Measurements in Surface Waters and the Atmosphere During the R/V Laurence M. Gould 2016 Expeditions (NCEI Accession 0166525)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0166525 includes Surface underway data collected from R/V Laurence M. Gould in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from...

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Uranometria Argentina catalog of bright southern stars (Gould, 1879)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, B. G.

    2010-07-01

    In 1879 Benjamin Apthorp Gould published in Buenos Aires, Argentina, the Uranometria Argentina catalog of 7756 stars south of declination +10 degrees. This included all those stars he considered magnitude 7 or brighter and some fainter stars which are close companions to brighter stars or to each other and have combined magnitude 7 or brighter. Star positions are in 1875 coordinates, and constellation boundaries also in 1875 coordinates were defined within the aforementioned declination range. With only a few small changes these were incorporated into the boundaries adopted by the IAU in 1930 and subsequently universally accepted. In terms of accurate photoelectric magnitude measurements the Uranometria Argentina is nearly complete to magnitude 6.5 in its declination range. In each constellation the individual stars considered to be magnitude 7 and brighter were numbered in sequence of increasing right ascension in 1875 coordinates, except that in a few cases this sequence was somewhat adjusted so that stars close together could be listed on adjacent lines of text. The numbering system is analogous to that in the Flamsteed Catalogus Brittanicus and now widely used. Star numbers from the Uranometria Argentina rarely appear in the 21st century despite the potential utility of their use. They were included in the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac until 1978, and in the FK5 catalog until 1999, always with the letter G following the number in the Uranometria Argentina catalog. This serves to distinguish Flamsteed numbers with no following letters from Gould numbers, and is utilized in this presentation and recommended for general use. The file catalog.dat includes every star in the original Uranometria Argentina. In the original the constellations were presented in sequence of increasing distance from the south pole and numbered accordingly. For the convenience of 21st century astronomers the constellations are presented here by alphabetical sequence in

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Southern Orion A (Mairs+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairs, S.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Graves, S.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Salji, C.; di, Francesco J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2017-11-01

    The observations presented throughout this paper were performed using the SCUBA-2 instrument (Holland et al., 2013MNRAS.430.2513H) as part of the JCMT Gould Belt Survey (Ward-Thompson et al., 2007PASP..119..855W). This instrument has provided continuum coverage at both 850um and 450um simultaneously at effective beam sizes of 14.1-arcsec and 9.6-arcsec, respectively (Dempsey et al., 2013MNRAS.430.2534D). In this work, we present Southern Orion A in both wavelengths, but focus mainly on the 850um data for analysis. All of the observations were taken in the PONG1800 mapping mode, yielding circular maps ('PONGs') of 0.5° in diameter. There are 17 0.5° subregions across the Orion A Molecular Cloud, 13 of which cover Southern Orion A. These locations were individually observed four to six times throughout 2012 February to 2015 January, and were then co-added (once co-added, these structures are referred to as 'tiles') and mosaicked to form the final map. (3 data files).

  16. First characterization of three cyclophilin family proteins in the oyster, Crassostrea ariakensis Gould.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Xie, Jiasong; Yang, Shoubao; Ye, Shigen; Luo, Ming; Wu, Xinzhong

    2016-08-01

    Cyclophilins (CyPs) are a family of proteins that bind the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A (CsA) with high-affinity and belong to one of the three superfamilies of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIase). In this report, three cyclophilin genes (Ca-CyPs), including Ca-CyPA, Ca-CyPB and Ca-PPIL3, were identified from oyster, Crassostrea ariakensis Gould in which Ca-CyPA encodes a protein with 165 amino acid sequences, Ca-CyPB encodes a protein with 217 amino acid sequences and Ca-PPIL3 encodes a protein with 162 amino acid sequences. All of the three Ca-CyPs genes contain a typical CyP-PPIase domain with its signature sequences and Ca-CyPB contains an N-signal peptide sequences. Tissue distribution study revealed that Ca-CyPs were ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues and the highest levels were observed in hemocytes. RLO incubation upregulated the mRNA expression levels of Ca-CyPs, indicating that three Ca-CyPs might be involved in oyster immune response against RLO infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early functional outcome of a modified Brostrom-Gould surgery using bioabsorbable suture anchor for chronic lateral ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrulazua, A; Ariff Sukimin, M S; Tengku Muzaffar, T M; Yusof, M I

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early functional outcome following the use of a bioabsorbable suture anchor to simplify the repair of injured lateral ankle structures as a variation of an established technique known as the Brostrom-Gould procedure. This was a prospective study of 30 ankles with chronic lateral instability that underwent a modified Brostrom-Gould surgery using a bioabsorbable suture anchor, performed by a single surgeon. A total of 29 patients, aged 15 to 52 (mean is 33) years, were enrolled in the study. The follow-up period ranged from three to six (mean is four) months. The function of the patients' ankles was scored using the Kaikkonen Functional Scale, both preoperatively and postoperatively. Preoperatively, all ankles had poor scores (less than 50). Postoperatively, 28 ankles showed excellent scores and two ankles showed good scores, while none obtained a fair or poor score. The difference in the overall means between the postoperative and preoperative scores was statistically significant (p-value is 0.001). Post surgery, 24 ankles had no symptoms, while six had only mild ankle tightness with extreme inversion movement at the last review. All patients were able to walk normally, and 29 ankles regained their normal running capability. There was marked improvement in the ability to descend stairs, to rise on heels and toes, to perform a single-limb stance, and in range of motions of the ankle dorsiflexion as well as in ankle laxity. The modified Brostrom-Gould procedure using a bioabsorbable suture anchor allowed for early ankle rehabilitation and offered a reproducible and excellent early functional outcome with minimal complications.

  18. THE JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEY: A FIRST LOOK AT DENSE CORES IN ORION B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, H.; Francesco, J. Di; Johnstone, D. [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Rd, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Duarte-Cabral, A.; Hatchell, J. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Sadavoy, S.; Mottram, J. C. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Buckle, J.; Salji, C. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Berry, D. S.; Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 N. A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, Hawaii 96720 (United States); Broekhoven-Fiene, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 1A1 (Canada); Fich, M.; Tisi, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Nutter, D.; Quinn, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Pattle, K. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Pineda, J. E. [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Garching (Germany); Hogerheijde, M. R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); and others

    2016-02-01

    We present a first look at the SCUBA-2 observations of three sub-regions of the Orion B molecular cloud: LDN 1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify 29, 564, and 322 dense cores in L1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071 respectively, using the SCUBA-2 850 μm map, and present their basic properties, including their peak fluxes, total fluxes, and sizes, and an estimate of the corresponding 450 μm peak fluxes and total fluxes, using the FellWalker source extraction algorithm. Assuming a constant temperature of 20 K, the starless dense cores have a mass function similar to that found in previous dense core analyses, with a Salpeter-like slope at the high-mass end. The majority of cores appear stable to gravitational collapse when considering only thermal pressure; indeed, most of the cores which have masses above the thermal Jeans mass are already associated with at least one protostar. At higher cloud column densities, above 1–2 × 10{sup 23} cm{sup −2}, most of the mass is found within dense cores, while at lower cloud column densities, below 1 × 10{sup 23} cm{sup −2}, this fraction drops to 10% or lower. Overall, the fraction of dense cores associated with a protostar is quite small (<8%), but becomes larger for the densest and most centrally concentrated cores. NGC 2023/2024 and NGC 2068/2071 appear to be on the path to forming a significant number of stars in the future, while L1622 has little additional mass in dense cores to form many new stars.

  19. THE JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEY: A FIRST LOOK AT DENSE CORES IN ORION B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, H.; Francesco, J. Di; Johnstone, D.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Hatchell, J.; Sadavoy, S.; Mottram, J. C.; Buckle, J.; Salji, C.; Berry, D. S.; Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Fich, M.; Tisi, S.; Nutter, D.; Quinn, C.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Hogerheijde, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a first look at the SCUBA-2 observations of three sub-regions of the Orion B molecular cloud: LDN 1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify 29, 564, and 322 dense cores in L1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071 respectively, using the SCUBA-2 850 μm map, and present their basic properties, including their peak fluxes, total fluxes, and sizes, and an estimate of the corresponding 450 μm peak fluxes and total fluxes, using the FellWalker source extraction algorithm. Assuming a constant temperature of 20 K, the starless dense cores have a mass function similar to that found in previous dense core analyses, with a Salpeter-like slope at the high-mass end. The majority of cores appear stable to gravitational collapse when considering only thermal pressure; indeed, most of the cores which have masses above the thermal Jeans mass are already associated with at least one protostar. At higher cloud column densities, above 1–2 × 10 23 cm −2 , most of the mass is found within dense cores, while at lower cloud column densities, below 1 × 10 23 cm −2 , this fraction drops to 10% or lower. Overall, the fraction of dense cores associated with a protostar is quite small (<8%), but becomes larger for the densest and most centrally concentrated cores. NGC 2023/2024 and NGC 2068/2071 appear to be on the path to forming a significant number of stars in the future, while L1622 has little additional mass in dense cores to form many new stars

  20. New records of early life-stages of cephalopods in the Chiloé Interior Sea Nuevos registros de estadios de vida tempranos de cefalópodos en el mar interior de Chiloé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Carrasco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Early life stages of cephalopods were sampled with zooplankton nets in southern Chile (41°-43°S during the CIMAR 11 Fiordos cruise, November 2005. A total of 52 individuals were collected, comprising three families (Octopodidae, Sepiolidae, Onychoteuthidae and four species (Robsonella fontaniana, Enteroctopus megalocyathus, Semirossia patagonica, an undetermined Onychoteuthidae species. Paralarvae of Octopodidae have been previously recorded in northern and southern Chile; however, for Sepiolidae and Onychoteuthidae, this is the first record of early life stages in Chilean waters.Estadios tempranos de cefalópodos fueron obtenidos con redes de zooplancton en el sur de Chile (41°-43°S durante el crucero CIMAR 11 Fiordos en noviembre de 2005. Un total de cincuenta y dos individuos fueron recolectados, comprendiendo tres familias (Octopodidae, Sepiolidae and Onychoteuthidae y cuatro especies (Robsonella fontaniana, Enteroctopus megalocyathus, Semirossia patagonica, y una especie indeterminada de Onychoteuthidae. Si bien existen descripciones previas de paralarvas de Octopodidae para el norte y sur de Chile, este trabajo provee el primer registro de estadios tempranos de vida de Sepiolidae y Onychoteuthidae para aguas chilenas.

  1. Música y medios de comunicación: en torno a Glenn Gould (1932-1982 Música y medios de comunicación: en torno a Glenn Gould (1932-1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Dufour

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Glenn Gould (Toronto,1932-82 fue una de las figuras artísticas más importantes de Canadá en el siglo XX. A 25 años de su muerte se conmemora no sólo a un gran virtuoso del piano; también a un actor social relevante, que contribuyó a la redefinición de la experiencia musical culta a partir del poder de las nuevas tecnologías en la sociedad contemporánea. Su vida y obra crítica guarda una estrecha relación –implícita o explícita– con otros importantes pensadores de su tiempo, como Marshall McLuhan, Theodor W. Adorno, Max Horkheimer y Walter Benjamin. Todos ellos involucrados en reflexionar sobre el devenir de la obra de arte en la era de la reproducción industrial y de la cultura de masa.Glenn Gould (Toronto,1932-82 has been one of the most important artistic personality of Canada in the twentieth century. Twenty five years after his death, we commemorate not only a great virtuoso of the piano but also an outstanding social actor who contributed to redefine the musical experience considering the power of mass medias in the contemporary society. His life and critical writings keep a link –implicit or explicitly– with others important thinkers of his time like Marshall McLuhan, Theodor W. Adorno, Max Horkheimer and Walter Benjamin, all of them involucrate in the process of redefinition of the work of art in the industrial reproduction era and mass culture.

  2. Arthroscopic Broström repair with Gould augmentation via an accessory anterolateral port for lateral instability of the ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Kentaro; Takao, Masato; Miyamoto, Wataru; Innami, Ken; Matsushita, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    Although several arthroscopic surgical techniques for the treatment of lateral instability of the ankle have been introduced recently, some concern remains over their procedural complexity, complications, and unclear clinical outcomes. We have simplified the arthroscopic technique of Broström repair with Gould augmentation. This technique requires only two small skin incisions for two ports (medial midline and accessory anterolateral ports), without needing a percutaneous procedure or extension of the skin incisions. The anterior talofibular ligament is reattached to its anatomical footprint on the fibula with suture anchor, under arthroscopic view. The inferior extensor retinaculum is directly visualized through the accessory anterolateral port and is attached to the fibula with another suture anchor under arthroscopic view via the anterolateral port. The use of two small ports offers a procedure that is simple to perform and less morbid for patients.

  3. The Green Bank Ammonia Survey: First Results of NH3 Mapping of the Gould Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Rachel K.; Pineda, Jaime E.; co-PIs; Rosolowsky, Erik; Alves, Felipe; Chacón-Tanarro, Ana; How-Huan Chen, Hope; Chun-Yuan Chen, Michael; Di Francesco, James; Keown, Jared; Kirk, Helen; Punanova, Anna; Seo, Youngmin; Shirley, Yancy; Ginsburg, Adam; Hall, Christine; Offner, Stella S. R.; Singh, Ayushi; Arce, Héctor G.; Caselli, Paola; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Martin, Peter G.; Matzner, Christopher; Myers, Philip C.; Redaelli, Elena; The GAS Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    We present an overview of the first data release (DR1) and first-look science from the Green Bank Ammonia Survey (GAS). GAS is a Large Program at the Green Bank Telescope to map all Gould Belt star-forming regions with {A}{{V}}≳ 7 mag visible from the northern hemisphere in emission from NH3 and other key molecular tracers. This first release includes the data for four regions in the Gould Belt clouds: B18 in Taurus, NGC 1333 in Perseus, L1688 in Ophiuchus, and Orion A North in Orion. We compare the NH3 emission to dust continuum emission from Herschel and find that the two tracers correspond closely. We find that NH3 is present in over 60% of the lines of sight with {A}{{V}}≳ 7 mag in three of the four DR1 regions, in agreement with expectations from previous observations. The sole exception is B18, where NH3 is detected toward ∼40% of the lines of sight with {A}{{V}}≳ 7 mag. Moreover, we find that the NH3 emission is generally extended beyond the typical 0.1 pc length scales of dense cores. We produce maps of the gas kinematics, temperature, and NH3 column densities through forward modeling of the hyperfine structure of the NH3 (1, 1) and (2, 2) lines. We show that the NH3 velocity dispersion, {σ }v, and gas kinetic temperature, T K, vary systematically between the regions included in this release, with an increase in both the mean value and the spread of {σ }v and T K with increasing star formation activity. The data presented in this paper are publicly available (https://dataverse.harvard.edu/dataverse/GAS_DR1).

  4. Bacteria Biomass and Chlorophyll-a depth profiles from bottle casts off the western Antarctic Peninsula from the R/V LAURENCE M. GOULD from 23 April 2001 to 01 September 2001 (NODC Accession 0000820)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteria and Chlorophyll data were collected from bottle cast of the western Antarctic peninsula from the R/V Laurence M. Gould. Data were collected by the...

  5. Biomechanical comparison of an all-soft suture anchor with a modified Broström-Gould suture repair for lateral ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher A; Hurwit, Daniel; Behn, Anthony; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2014-02-01

    Anatomic repair is indicated for patients who have recurrent lateral ankle instability despite nonoperative measures. There is no difference in repair stiffness, failure torque, or failure angle between specimens repaired with all-soft suture anchors versus the modified Broström-Gould technique with sutures only. Controlled laboratory study. In 10 matched pairs of human cadaveric ankles, the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) was incised from its origin on the fibula. After randomization, 1 ankle was repaired to its anatomic insertion using two 1.4-mm JuggerKnot all-soft suture anchors; the other ankle was repaired with a modified Broström-Gould technique using 2-0 FiberWire. All were augmented using the inferior extensor retinaculum. All ankles were mounted to the testing machine in 20° of plantar flexion and 15° of internal rotation and loaded to failure after the repair. Stiffness, failure torque, and failure angle were recorded and compared using a paired Student t test with a significance level set at P anchors pulled out of bone. The primary mode of failure was pulling through the ATFL tissue. There was no statistical difference in strength or stiffness between a 1.4-mm all-soft suture anchor and a modified Broström-Gould repair with 2-0 FiberWire. The primary mode of failure was at the tissue level rather than knot failure or anchor pullout. The particular implant choice (suture only, tunnel, anchor) in repairing the lateral ligament complex may not be as important as the time to biological healing. The suture-only construct as described in the Broström-Gould repair was as strong as all-soft suture anchors, and the majority of the ankles failed at the tissue level. For those surgeons whose preference is to use anchor repair, this novel all-soft suture anchor may be an alternative to other larger anchors, as none failed by pullout.

  6. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-01-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  7. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-02-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  8. Characterizing interstellar filaments as revealed by the Herschel Gould Belt survey: Insights into the initial conditions for star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzoumanian, Doris

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aims to characterize the physical properties of interstellar filaments imaged in nearby molecular clouds with the Herschel Space Observatory as part of the Herschel Gould Belt survey. In order to get insight into the formation and evolution of interstellar filaments I analyzed, during my PhD work, a large sample of filaments detected in various nearby clouds. The observed density profiles of the filaments show a power law behavior at large radii and their dust temperature profiles show a drop towards the center. The filaments are characterized by a narrow distribution of de-convolved inner widths, centered around a typical value of ∼ 0.1 pc, while they span more than three orders of magnitude in central column density. This typical filament width corresponds to the sonic scale below which interstellar turbulence becomes subsonic in diffuse gas, which may suggest that the filaments form as a result of the dissipation of large-scale turbulence. While the turbulent fragmentation picture provides a plausible mechanism for forming interstellar filaments, the fact that pre-stellar cores tend to form in dense, gravitationally unstable filaments suggests that gravity is a major driver in the subsequent evolution of the dense supercritical filaments. The latter hypothesis is supported by molecular line observations with the IRAM 30 m telescope, which show an increase in the non-thermal velocity dispersion of supercritical filaments as a function of their central column density, suggesting that self gravitating filaments grow in mass per unit length by accretion of background material while at the same time fragmenting into star-forming cores. (author) [fr

  9. Test series 1: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E Gould NCX-2250 battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Hente, D.B.; Kukreti, B.M.; Schendel, J.S.; Tulk, J.D.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.D.; Aucoin, B.D.

    1984-09-01

    The seismic-fragility response of naturally-aged, nuclear station, safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and thresholds; and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the end-of-life of a battery, given a seismic event. This report covers the first test series of an extensive program using 12-year old, lead-calcium, Gould NCX-2250 cells, from the James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Station operated by the New York Power Authority. Seismic tests with three cell configurations were performed using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; multi-cell (three) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack; and single-cell tests specifically aimed towards examining propagation of pre-existing case cracks. In general the test philosophy was to monitor the electrical properties including discharge capacity of cells through a graduated series of g-level step increases until either the shake-table limits were reached or until electrical failure of the cells occurred. Of nine electrically active cells, six failed during seismic testing over a range of imposed g-level loads in excess of a 1-g ZPA. Post-test examination revealed a common failure mode, the cracking at the abnormally brittle, positive lead bus-bar/post interface; further examination showed that the failure zone was extremely coarse grained and extensively corroded. Presently accepted accelerated-aging methods for qualifying batteries, per IEEE Std. 535-1979, are based on plate growth, but these naturally-aged 12-year old cells showed no significant plate growth

  10. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS IN THE GOULD BELT. IV. LUPUS V AND VI OBSERVED WITH IRAC AND MIPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spezzi, Loredana; Vernazza, Pierre; Merin, Bruno; Allen, Lori E.; Evans, Neal J. II; Harvey, Paul M.; Joergensen, Jes K.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Peterson, Dawn; Cieza, Lucas A.; Dunham, Michael M.; Huard, Tracy L.; Tothill, Nick F. H.

    2011-01-01

    We present Gould's Belt (GB) Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations of the Lupus V and VI clouds and discuss them in combination with near-infrared (2MASS) data. Our observations complement those obtained for other Lupus clouds within the frame of the Spitzer C ore to Disk(c2d) Legacy Survey. We found 43 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in Lupus V and 45 in Lupus VI, including two transition disks, using the standard c2d/GB selection method. None of these sources was classified as a pre-main-sequence star from previous optical, near-IR, and X-ray surveys. A large majority of these YSO candidates appear to be surrounded by thin disks (Class III; ∼79% in Lupus V and ∼87% in Lupus VI). These Class III abundances differ significantly from those observed for the other Lupus clouds and c2d/GB surveyed star-forming regions, where objects with optically thick disks (Class II) dominate the young population. We investigate various scenarios that can explain this discrepancy. In particular, we show that disk photoevaporation due to nearby OB stars is not responsible for the high fraction of Class III objects. The gas surface densities measured for Lupus V and VI lie below the star formation threshold (A V ∼ 8.6 mag), while this is not the case for other Lupus clouds. Thus, few Myr older age for the YSOs in Lupus V and VI with respect to other Lupus clouds is the most likely explanation of the high fraction of Class III objects in these clouds, while a higher characteristic stellar mass might be a contributing factor. Better constraints on the age and binary fraction of the Lupus clouds might solve the puzzle but require further observations.

  11. ITER Plasma at Electron Cyclotron Frequency Domain: Stimulated Raman Scattering off Gould-Trivelpiece Modes and Generation of Suprathermal Electrons and Energetic Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering in the electron cyclotron frequency range of the X-Mode and O-Mode driver with the ITER plasma leads to the ``tail heating'' via the generation of suprathermal electrons and energetic ions. The scattering off Trivelpiece-Gould (T-G) modes is studied for the gyrotron frequency of 170GHz; X-Mode and O-Mode power of 24 MW CW; on-axis B-field of 10T. The synergy between the two-plasmon decay and Raman scattering is analyzed in reference to the bulk plasma heating. Supported in part by Nikola TESLA Labs, La Jolla, CA

  12. THE HERSCHEL AND JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEYS: CONSTRAINING DUST PROPERTIES IN THE PERSEUS B1 CLUMP WITH PACS, SPIRE, AND SCUBA-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadavoy, S. I.; Di Francesco, J.; Johnstone, D.; Fallscheer, C.; Matthews, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 355, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 N. A' ohoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Drabek, E.; Hatchell, J. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Nutter, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Andre, Ph.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Koenyves, V. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d' Astrophysique, Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Arzoumanian, D. [IAS, CNRS (UMR 8617), Universite Paris-Sud 11, Batiment 121, F-91400 Orsay (France); Benedettini, M. [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bernard, J.-P. [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Duarte-Cabral, A. [Universite de Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac (France); Friesen, R. [Dunlap Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Greaves, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Collaboration: JCMT and Herschel Gould Belt Survey teams; and others

    2013-04-20

    We present Herschel observations from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey and SCUBA-2 science verification observations from the JCMT Gould Belt Survey of the B1 clump in the Perseus molecular cloud. We determined the dust emissivity index using four different techniques to combine the Herschel PACS+SPIRE data at 160-500 {mu}m with the SCUBA-2 data at 450 {mu}m and 850 {mu}m. Of our four techniques, we found that the most robust method was filtering out the large-scale emission in the Herschel bands to match the spatial scales recovered by the SCUBA-2 reduction pipeline. Using this method, we find {beta} Almost-Equal-To 2 toward the filament region and moderately dense material and lower {beta} values ({beta} {approx}> 1.6) toward the dense protostellar cores, possibly due to dust grain growth. We find that {beta} and temperature are more robust with the inclusion of the SCUBA-2 data, improving estimates from Herschel data alone by factors of {approx}2 for {beta} and by {approx}40% for temperature. Furthermore, we find core mass differences of {approx}< 30% compared to Herschel-only estimates with an adopted {beta} = 2, highlighting the necessity of long-wavelength submillimeter data for deriving accurate masses of prestellar and protostellar cores.

  13. The Spitzer survey of interstellar clouds in the gould belt. VI. The Auriga-California molecular cloud observed with IRAC and MIPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Harvey, Paul M.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Huard, Tracy L.; Miller, Jennifer F.; Tothill, Nicholas F. H.; Nutter, David; Bourke, Tyler L.; DiFrancesco, James; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Allen, Lori E.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Dunham, Michael M.; Merín, Bruno; Terebey, Susan; Peterson, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud (AMC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70, and 160 μm observed with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey. The total mapped areas are 2.5 deg 2 with IRAC and 10.47 deg 2 with MIPS. This giant molecular cloud is one of two in the nearby Gould Belt of star-forming regions, the other being the Orion A Molecular Cloud (OMC). We compare source counts, colors, and magnitudes in our observed region to a subset of the SWIRE data that was processed through our pipeline. Using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we find evidence for a substantial population of 166 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud, many of which were previously unknown. Most of this population is concentrated around the LkHα 101 cluster and the filament extending from it. We present a quantitative description of the degree of clustering and discuss the relative fraction of YSOs in earlier (Class I and F) and later (Class II) classes compared to other clouds. We perform simple SED modeling of the YSOs with disks to compare the mid-IR properties to disks in other clouds and identify 14 classical transition disk candidates. Although the AMC is similar in mass, size, and distance to the OMC, it is forming about 15-20 times fewer stars.

  14. The Spitzer Survey of Interstellar Clouds in the Gould Belt. VI. The Auriga-California Molecular Cloud Observed with IRAC and MIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Harvey, Paul M.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Huard, Tracy L.; Tothill, Nicholas F. H.; Nutter, David; Bourke, Tyler L.; DiFrancesco, James; Jorgensen, Jes K.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud (AMC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70 and 160 micrometers observed with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey. The total mapped areas are 2.5 deg(exp 2) with IRAC and 10.47 deg2 with MIPS. This giant molecular cloud is one of two in the nearby Gould Belt of star-forming regions, the other being the Orion A Molecular Cloud (OMC). We compare source counts, colors and magnitudes in our observed region to a subset of the SWIRE data that was processed through our pipeline. Using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we find evidence for a substantial population of 166 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud, many of which were previously unknown. Most of this population is concentrated around the LkH(alpha) 101 cluster and the filament extending from it. We present a quantitative description of the degree of clustering and discuss the fraction of YSOs in the region with disks relative to an estimate of the diskless YSO population. Although the AMC is similar in mass, size and distance to the OMC, it is forming about 15 - 20 times fewer stars.

  15. The Spitzer survey of interstellar clouds in the gould belt. VI. The Auriga-California molecular cloud observed with IRAC and MIPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Harvey, Paul M. [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Gutermuth, Robert A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Huard, Tracy L.; Miller, Jennifer F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Tothill, Nicholas F. H. [School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751 (Australia); Nutter, David [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bourke, Tyler L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); DiFrancesco, James [National Research Council Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Jørgensen, Jes K. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø. (Denmark); Allen, Lori E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Chapman, Nicholas L. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Dunham, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Merín, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, ESAC-ESA, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Terebey, Susan [Department of Physics and Astronomy PS315, 5151 State University Drive, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Peterson, Dawn E. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    We present observations of the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud (AMC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70, and 160 μm observed with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey. The total mapped areas are 2.5 deg{sup 2} with IRAC and 10.47 deg{sup 2} with MIPS. This giant molecular cloud is one of two in the nearby Gould Belt of star-forming regions, the other being the Orion A Molecular Cloud (OMC). We compare source counts, colors, and magnitudes in our observed region to a subset of the SWIRE data that was processed through our pipeline. Using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we find evidence for a substantial population of 166 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud, many of which were previously unknown. Most of this population is concentrated around the LkHα 101 cluster and the filament extending from it. We present a quantitative description of the degree of clustering and discuss the relative fraction of YSOs in earlier (Class I and F) and later (Class II) classes compared to other clouds. We perform simple SED modeling of the YSOs with disks to compare the mid-IR properties to disks in other clouds and identify 14 classical transition disk candidates. Although the AMC is similar in mass, size, and distance to the OMC, it is forming about 15-20 times fewer stars.

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-12-30 to 2005-11-20 (NCEI Accession 0148772)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148772 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-03-21 to 2006-04-04 (NODC Accession 0108070)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108070 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2009-09-16 to 2009-10-09 (NODC Accession 0112845)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0112845 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees...

  19. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Gulf of Guinea, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-03-23 to 2010-11-02 (NCEI Accession 0144979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144979 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Gulf of Guinea, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2008-12-31 to 2009-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0144533)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144533 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2004-01-01 to 2004-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0144538)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144538 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2009-12-29 to 2010-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0156926)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0156926 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2016-02-21 to 2016-08-04 (NCEI Accession 0160570)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160570 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean and...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-12-31 to 2005-12-26 (NCEI Accession 0144531)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144531 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2008-12-31 to 2009-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0148771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148771 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2012-12-31 to 2013-12-19 (NCEI Accession 0163187)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163187 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2004-01-02 to 2004-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0148768)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148768 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific...

  8. NRC Information Notice No. 92-27: Thermally induced accelerated aging and failure of ITE/Gould a.c. relays used in safety-related applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    On November 23, 1991, while performing an eighteen month engineered safety features operability test, the licensee for the Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 3, noted that control power was interrupted to three safety-related motor operated valves (MOVs). The valves were located in the charging, component cooling water, and steam generator atmospheric dump systems. The licensee inspected the valves' control power circuitry and determined that three normally energized auxiliary relays had failed. These relays provided control power alarms and thermal overload protection for the MOVs. The relay failures rendered each valve inoperable. The relays, which had been in service for about seven years, were class J10 relays with J20M magnet block assemblies and standard G10JA126, 120V, 60 cycle coil assemblies manufactured by the ITE/Gould Manufacturing Company. Inspection of the relays revealed that the movable plastic armature carrier, which surrounds the core and coil, and the retainer for the magnet yoke assembly were discolored, brittle and severely cracked. Insulation degradation was severe, allowing electrical shorts to develop within the coils. The licensee concluded that the failures resulted from the thermal aging of the coil assemblies and plastic parts near the coil assemblies

  9. The culture of pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata (Gould, 1850 in Phuket with temperature shock method and survival rates on various feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rativat, V.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine pearl farming at Phuket Island has exploited natural pearl oysters. In order to obtain sufficient pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata (Gould, 1850, the oyster cultivation was carried out to determine appropriate kinds of food and types of spat collectors. The male and female oysters were stimulated to spawn with this temperature shock method (treated with 32ºC and then with 26ºC. The fertilized eggs developed into the stages of polar body, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, trochophore and then D-shape larvae. At the ageof 19-26 hrs. the larvae were fed with three kinds of food: Isochrysis galbana, Chaetoceros calcitrans and the mixture of 1:1 I. galbana and C. calcitrans. Upon the first 30 days, shell lengths of the spats fed with I. Galbana, C. calcitrans and the mixture were 422.00±59.32, 221.33±12.46 and 347.33±67.98 μg, respectively. The 26-29th day spat stage settled to the collectors: saran net, plastic plates and wavy tile. Number of spats settling to saran net was the highest. But after being moved into the sea for 30 days, the survival rate was89.06% which was lower than for those settling to plastic plates (93.29% and wavy tile (93.99%.

  10. Excitation of short-scale fluctuations by parametric decay of helicon waves into ion-sound and Trivelpiece-Gould waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, B; Kraemer, M; Selenin, V L; Aliev, Yu M

    2005-01-01

    The helicon wave field and the excitation of short-scale electrostatic fluctuations in a helicon-produced plasma are closely related as both the helicon wave damping and the fluctuation level are shown to increase with the launched rf power. Correlation methods using electrostatic probes as well as microwave back-scattering at the upper-hybrid resonance are applied to obtain the dispersion relations of the fluctuations in the low-frequency and high-frequency ranges. The frequency and wavenumber spectra measured for all components of the wave vector allow us to identify the fluctuations as ion-sound and Trivelpiece-Gould waves that originate from parametric decay of the helicon pump wave. The growth rates and thresholds inferred from the evolution of the fluctuations in a wide range of helicon plasma parameters are in good agreement with predictions for the parametric decay instability that takes into account realistic damping rates for the decay waves as well as non-vanishing parallel wavenumber of the helicon pump

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-01-02 to 2007-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0148773)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148773 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-12-30 to 2012-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0148774)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148774 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-31 to 2008-10-27 (NCEI Accession 0148763)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148763 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-01-02 to 2011-12-18 (NCEI Accession 0148767)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148767 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-01-01 to 2006-12-27 (NCEI Accession 0144535)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144535 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2014-12-30 to 2015-07-01 (NCEI Accession 0144343)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144343 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2014-12-30 to 2015-12-27 (NCEI Accession 0148769)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148769 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-01-02 to 2011-12-19 (NCEI Accession 0144354)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144354 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-30 to 2008-10-28 (NCEI Accession 0144348)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144348 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-01-02 to 2007-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0144528)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144528 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2002-03-07 to 2002-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0144356)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144356 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-12-30 to 2012-12-24 (NCEI Accession 0144349)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144349 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2013-12-31 to 2014-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0144532)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144532 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2002-03-07 to 2012-11-24 (NODC Accession 0083196)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0083196 includes chemical, physical and underway - surface data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean, South...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-01-02 to 2006-12-26 (NCEI Accession 0148764)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148764 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2002-12-29 to 2003-11-30 (NCEI Accession 0144351)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144351 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2012-12-31 to 2013-11-15 (NCEI Accession 0144529)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144529 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2002-03-23 to 2002-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0148766)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148766 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2014-01-01 to 2014-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0145200)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0145200 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2003-01-01 to 2003-12-29 (NCEI Accession 0148770)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148770 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2010-01-01 to 2011-12-19 (NCEI Accession 0148765)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148765 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  12. Ecological effects of the harvest phase of geoduck clam (Panopea generosa Gould, 1850) aquaculture on infaunal communities in southern Puget Sound, Washington USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBlaricom, Glenn R.; Eccles, Jennifer L.; Olden, Julian D.; Mcdonald, P. Sean

    2015-01-01

    Intertidal aquaculture for geoducks (Panopea generosa Gould, 1850) is expanding in southern Puget Sound, Washington, where gently sloping sandy beaches are used for field culture. Geoduck aquaculture contributes significantly to the regional economy, but has become controversial because of a range of unresolved questions involving potential biological impacts on marine ecosystems. From 2008 through 2012, the authors used a “before-after-control-impact” experimental design, emphasizing spatial scales comparable with those used by geoduck culturists to evaluate the effects of harvesting market-ready geoducks on associated benthic infaunal communities. Infauna were sampled at three different study locations in southern Puget Sound at monthly intervals before, during, and after harvests of clams, and along extralimital transects extending away from the edges of cultured plots to assess the effects of harvest activities in adjacent uncultured habitat. Using multivariate statistical approaches, strong seasonal and spatial signals in patterns of abundance were found, but there was scant evidence of effects on the community structure associated with geoduck harvest disturbances within cultured plots. Likewise, no indications of significant “spillover” effects of harvest on uncultured habitat adjacent to cultured plots were noted. Complementary univariate approaches revealed little evidence of harvest effects on infaunal biodiversity and indications of modest effects on populations of individual infaunal taxa. Of 10 common taxa analyzed, only three showed evidence of reduced densities, although minor, after harvests whereas the remaining seven taxa indicated either neutral responses to harvest disturbances or increased abundance either during or in the months after harvest events. It is suggested that a relatively active natural disturbance regime, including both small-scale and large-scale events that occur with comparable intensity but more frequently than

  13. Annual gametogenesis and reproductive effort of the limpet Cellana grata (Gould, 1859) (Gastropoda: Nacellidae) in a rocky intertidal beach at Ulleungdo Island off the east coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun-Sung; Kang, Do-Hyung; Park, Heung-Sik; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2017-12-01

    Widely distributed from the northern coast of Vietnam to the northern Japan, the limpet Cellana grata (Gould, 1859) occurs commonly on the south and east coasts of Korea. Despite their wide distribution range, few studies have investigated the annual gametogenesis and reproductive effort of C. grata. In an attempt to understand the reproductive physiology of the limpet, we investigated the annual gametogenesis and reproductive effort of C. grata from Ulleungdo Island off the east coast of Korea. Histology revealed that the gonial mitosis commenced in January, as the female exhibited small oogonia (10-40 μm) in the follicle. From March to June, the oocyte size increased dramatically, and fully mature eggs (110-170 μm in diameter) appeared in early summer. First spawning males and females were observed in July, as the surface seawater temperature (SST) reached 22.1°C. The spawning male and females could be observed until the end of December. Gonad somatic index (GSI), a ratio of gonad mass to the total tissue weight, of the male ranged from 0.6 (April) to 17.9 (July), while the female GSI varied from 1.0 (February) to 18.3 (July). GSI of male and female declined rapidly from July to August, suggesting that the major purse of the spawning at the study site was between July and August. Our study suggested that the commercial catch of C. grata during July and August must be suspended at Ulleungdo Island, in order to protect the spawning limpets, which enhances C. grata recruitment and the population.

  14. HMGB in mollusk Crassostrea ariakensis Gould: structure, pro-inflammatory cytokine function characterization and anti-infection role of its antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crassostrea ariakensis Gould is a representative bivalve species and an economically important oyster in China, but suffers severe mortalities in recent years that are caused by rickettsia-like organism (RLO. Prevention and control of this disease is a priority for the development of oyster aquaculture. It has been proven that mammalian HMGB (high mobility group box can be released extracellularly and acts as an important pro-inflammatory cytokine and late mediator of inflammatory reactions. In vertebrates, HMGB's antibody (anti-HMGB has been shown to confer significant protection against certain local and systemic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated the functions of Ca-HMGB (oyster HMGB and anti-CaHMGB (Ca-HMGB's antibody in oyster RLO/LPS (RLO or LPS-induced disease or inflammation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sequencing analysis revealed Ca-HMGB shares conserved structures with mammalians. Tissue-specific expression indicates that Ca-HMGB has higher relative expression in hemocytes. Significant continuous up-regulation of Ca-HMGB was detected when the hemocytes were stimulated with RLO/LPS. Recombinant Ca-HMGB protein significantly up-regulated the expression levels of some cytokines. Indirect immunofluorescence study revealed that Ca-HMGB localized both in the hemocyte nucleus and cytoplasm before RLO challenge, but mainly in the cytoplasm 12 h after challenge. Western blot analysis demonstrated Ca-HMGB was released extracellularly 4-12 h after RLO challenge. Anti-CaHMGB was added to the RLO/LPS-challenged hemocyte monolayer and real-time RT-PCR showed that administration of anti-CaHMGB dramatically reduced the rate of RLO/LPS-induced up-regulation of LITAF at 4-12 h after treatment. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that administration of anti-CaHMGB reduced RLO/LPS-induced hemocyte apoptosis and necrosis rates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ca-HMGB can be released extracellularly and its subcellular localization

  15. Toroidal Trivelpiece-Gould modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoessel, F.P.

    1979-01-01

    Electron plasma waves are treated in quasi-electrostatic approximation in a toroidal cavity of rectangular cross-section in an infinitely strong azimuthal magnetic field. The differential equation for the electrostatic potential, derived from fluid equations, can be separated using cylindrical coordinates. The eigenvalue problem for the radial dependence is solved numerically by a shooting method. Eigenvalues are given for different aspect ratios. Comparison with appropriate modes of the straight geometry shows that the toroidal frequencies generally lie some percent above those for the straight case. Plots of the eigenfunctions demonstrate clearly the influence of toroidicity. The deviation from symmetry (which should appear for straight geometry) depends not only on the aspect ratio but also strongly on the mode numbers. (author)

  16. Neutral hydrogen related to Gould's belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeppel, W G; Olano, C A

    1981-12-01

    Lindblad (1967) has performed a Gaussian analysis of 21-cm line profiles, taking into account the direction of the galactic anticenter. One of the features considered had an unusually small velocity dispersion of 2.5 km/s and a very wide latitude distribution. Lindblad could explain the entire velocity curve with the aid of a single model. He suggested that this feature, called feature A, constitutes a local expanding cloud with an expansion age of some 60 million years. The present investigation is concerned with results regarding three regions. Region I contains the Lupus Loop SNR and parts of the Upper Centaurus-Lupus Association. The rest of this association, as well as parts of the Lower Centaurus-Crux Association, are within region II. Region III includes parts of the Upper Scorpius Association, as well as parts of S27, the remarkable H II region surrounding Zeta Oph. Gas motions were studied by conducting a Gaussian analysis of the H I profiles.

  17. Identification of expressed genes in cDNA library of hemocytes from the RLO-challenged oyster, Crassostrea ariakensis Gould with special functional implication of three complement-related fragments (CaC1q1, CaC1q2 and CaC3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Xie, Jiasong; Li, Jianming; Luo, Ming; Ye, Shigen; Wu, Xinzhong

    2012-06-01

    A SMARTer™ cDNA library of hemocyte from Rickettsia-like organism (RLO) challenged oyster, Crassostrea ariakensis Gould was constructed. Random clones (400) were selected and single-pass sequenced, resulted in 200 unique sequences containing 96 known genes and 104 unknown genes. The 96 known genes were categorized into 11 groups based on their biological process. Furthermore, we identified and characterized three complement-related fragments (CaC1q1, CaC1q2 and CaC3). Tissue distribution analysis revealed that all of three fragments were ubiquitously expressed in all tissues studied including hemocyte, gills, mantle, digestive glands, gonads and adductor muscle, while the highest level was seen in the hemocyte. Temporal expression profile in the hemocyte monolayers reveled that the mRNA expression levels of three fragments presented huge increase after the RLO incubation at 3 h and 6 h in post-challenge, respectively. And the maximal expression levels at 3 h in post-challenge are about 256, 104 and 64 times higher than the values detected in the control of CaC1q1, CaC1q2 and CaC3, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 'STARLESS' SUPER-JEANS CORES IN FOUR GOULD BELT CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadavoy, Sarah I.; Di Francesco, James; Johnstone, Doug

    2010-01-01

    From a survey of 729 cores based on JCMT/SCUBA data, we present an analysis of 17 candidate starless cores with masses that exceed their stable Jeans masses. We re-examine the classification of these super-Jeans cores using Spitzer maps and find that 3 are re-classified as protostellar, 11 have ambiguous emission near the core positions, and 3 appear to be genuinely starless. We suggest that the 3 starless and 11 undetermined super-Jeans cores represent excellent targets for future observational and computational study to understand the evolution of dense cores and the process of star formation.

  19. On the record: Professor Rachel Jewkes | Gould | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Crime Quarterly. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 43 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  20. Larval biology of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould): a synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forward, Richard B

    2009-06-01

    This synthesis reviews the physiological ecology and behavior of larvae of the benthic crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii, which occurs in low-salinity areas of estuaries. Larvae are released rhythmically around the time of high tide in tidal estuaries and in the 2-h interval after sunset in nontidal estuaries. As in most subtidal crustaceans, the timing of larval release is controlled by the developing embryos, which release peptide pheromones that stimulate larval release behavior by the female to synchronize the time of egg hatching. Larvae pass through four zoeal stages and a postlarval or megalopal stage that are planktonic before metamorphosis. They are retained near the adult population by means of an endogenous tidal rhythm in vertical migration. Larvae have several safeguards against predation: they undergo nocturnal diel vertical migration (DVM) and have a shadow response to avoid encountering predators, and they bear long spines as a deterrent. Photoresponses during DVM and the shadow response are enhanced by exposure to chemical cues from the mucus of predator fishes and ctenophores. The primary visual pigment has a spectral sensitivity maximum at about 500 nm, which is typical for zooplankton and matches the ambient spectrum at twilight. Larvae can detect vertical gradients in temperature, salinity, and hydrostatic pressure, which are used for depth regulation and avoidance of adverse environmental conditions. Characteristics that are related to the larval habitat and are common to other crab larval species are considered.

  1. Gould's belt and beyond, comparing models with observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 276, - (2001), s. 359-365 ISSN 0004-640X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1003601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : stars * formation * kinematics * galaxy Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.274, year: 2001

  2. First Results from BISTRO: A SCUBA-2 Polarimeter Survey of the Gould Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward-Thompson, Derek; Pattle, Kate; Kirk, Jason M. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Bastien, Pierre; Coudé, Simon [Centre de recherche en astrophysique du Québec and département de physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Furuya, Ray S. [Tokushima University, Minami Jousanajima-machi 1-1, Tokushima 770-8502 (Japan); Kwon, Woojin; Choi, Minho; Hoang, Thiem [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Lai, Shih-Ping [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Qiu, Keping [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023 (China); Berry, David; Friberg, Per; Graves, Sarah F. [East Asian Observatory, 660 N. A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Francesco, James Di; Johnstone, Doug [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Franzmann, Erica [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T2N2 (Canada); Greaves, Jane S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Houde, Martin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London N6A 3K7 (Canada); Koch, Patrick M., E-mail: dward-thompson@uclan.ac.uk, E-mail: kmpattle@uclan.ac.uk, E-mail: jmkirk@uclan.ac.uk, E-mail: spseyres@uclan.ac.uk [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); and others

    2017-06-10

    We present the first results from the B-fields In STar-forming Region Observations (BISTRO) survey, using the Sub-millimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 camera, with its associated polarimeter (POL-2), on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii. We discuss the survey’s aims and objectives. We describe the rationale behind the survey, and the questions that the survey will aim to answer. The most important of these is the role of magnetic fields in the star formation process on the scale of individual filaments and cores in dense regions. We describe the data acquisition and reduction processes for POL-2, demonstrating both repeatability and consistency with previous data. We present a first-look analysis of the first results from the BISTRO survey in the OMC 1 region. We see that the magnetic field lies approximately perpendicular to the famous “integral filament” in the densest regions of that filament. Furthermore, we see an “hourglass” magnetic field morphology extending beyond the densest region of the integral filament into the less-dense surrounding material, and discuss possible causes for this. We also discuss the more complex morphology seen along the Orion Bar region. We examine the morphology of the field along the lower-density northeastern filament. We find consistency with previous theoretical models that predict magnetic fields lying parallel to low-density, non-self-gravitating filaments, and perpendicular to higher-density, self-gravitating filaments.

  3. THE GOULD'S BELT VERY LARGE ARRAY SURVEY. IV. THE TAURUS-AURIGA COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzib, Sergio A. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Mioduszewski, Amy J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Domenici Science Operations Center, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kounkel, Marina A.; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Torres, Rosa M. [Instituto de Astronomía y Meteorología, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Vallarta No. 2602, Col. Arcos Vallarta, CP 44130 Guadalajara, Jalisco, México (Mexico); Boden, Andrew F. [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans II, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Briceño, Cesar [Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Tobin, John, E-mail: sdzib@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-03-10

    We present a multi-epoch radio study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming complex made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at frequencies of 4.5 GHz and 7.5 GHz. We detect a total of 610 sources, 59 of which are related to young stellar objects (YSOs) and 18 to field stars. The properties of 56% of the young stars are compatible with non-thermal radio emission. We also show that the radio emission of more evolved YSOs tends to be more non-thermal in origin and, in general, that their radio properties are compatible with those found in other star-forming regions. By comparing our results with previously reported X-ray observations, we notice that YSOs in Taurus-Auriga follow a Güdel-Benz relation with κ = 0.03, as we previously suggested for other regions of star formation. In general, YSOs in Taurus-Auriga and in all the previous studied regions seem to follow this relation with a dispersion of ∼1 dex. Finally, we propose that most of the remaining sources are related with extragalactic objects but provide a list of 46 unidentified radio sources whose radio properties are compatible with a YSO nature.

  4. THE JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEY: EVIDENCE FOR DUST GRAIN EVOLUTION IN PERSEUS STAR-FORMING CLUMPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Michael Chun-Yuan; Francesco, J. Di; Johnstone, D.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 1A1 (Canada); Sadavoy, S. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Hatchell, J. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Mottram, J. C.; Hogerheijde, M. R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Kirk, H. [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Buckle, J.; Salji, C. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Berry, D. S.; Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, HI-96720 (United States); Fich, M.; Tisi, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Nutter, D.; Quinn, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Pattle, K. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Pineda, J. E. [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Garching (Germany); and others

    2016-07-20

    The dust emissivity spectral index, β , is a critical parameter for deriving the mass and temperature of star-forming structures and, consequently, their gravitational stability. The β value is dependent on various dust grain properties, such as size, porosity, and surface composition, and is expected to vary as dust grains evolve. Here we present β , dust temperature, and optical depth maps of the star-forming clumps in the Perseus Molecular Cloud determined from fitting spectral energy distributions to combined Herschel and JCMT observations in the 160, 250, 350, 500, and 850 μ m bands. Most of the derived β and dust temperature values fall within the ranges of 1.0–2.7 and 8–20 K, respectively. In Perseus, we find the β distribution differs significantly from clump to clump, indicative of grain growth. Furthermore, we also see significant localized β variations within individual clumps and find low- β regions correlate with local temperature peaks, hinting at the possible origins of low- β grains. Throughout Perseus, we also see indications of heating from B stars and embedded protostars, as well evidence of outflows shaping the local landscape.

  5. THE GOULD'S BELT VERY LARGE ARRAY SURVEY. IV. THE TAURUS-AURIGA COMPLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Kounkel, Marina A.; Hartmann, Lee; Torres, Rosa M.; Boden, Andrew F.; Evans II, Neal J.; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John

    2015-01-01

    We present a multi-epoch radio study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming complex made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at frequencies of 4.5 GHz and 7.5 GHz. We detect a total of 610 sources, 59 of which are related to young stellar objects (YSOs) and 18 to field stars. The properties of 56% of the young stars are compatible with non-thermal radio emission. We also show that the radio emission of more evolved YSOs tends to be more non-thermal in origin and, in general, that their radio properties are compatible with those found in other star-forming regions. By comparing our results with previously reported X-ray observations, we notice that YSOs in Taurus-Auriga follow a Güdel-Benz relation with κ = 0.03, as we previously suggested for other regions of star formation. In general, YSOs in Taurus-Auriga and in all the previous studied regions seem to follow this relation with a dispersion of ∼1 dex. Finally, we propose that most of the remaining sources are related with extragalactic objects but provide a list of 46 unidentified radio sources whose radio properties are compatible with a YSO nature

  6. THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF STARLESS AND PROTOSTELLAR CORES IN GOULD BELT CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadavoy, Sarah I.; Di Francesco, James; Bontemps, Sylvain; Megeath, S. Thomas; Allgaier, Erin; Rebull, Luisa M.; Carey, Sean; McCabe, Caer-Eve; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Padgett, Deborah; Gutermuth, Robert; Hora, Joe; Huard, Tracy; Muzerolle, James; Terebey, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the SCUBA Legacy Catalogue (850 μm) and Spitzer Space Telescope (3.6-70 μm), we explore dense cores in the Ophiuchus, Taurus, Perseus, Serpens, and Orion molecular clouds. We develop a new method to discriminate submillimeter cores found by Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) as starless or protostellar, using point source photometry from Spitzer wide field surveys. First, we identify infrared sources with red colors associated with embedded young stellar objects (YSOs). Second, we compare the positions of these YSO candidates to our submillimeter cores. With these identifications, we construct new, self-consistent starless and protostellar core mass functions (CMFs) for the five clouds. We find best-fit slopes to the high-mass end of the CMFs of -1.26 ± 0.20, -1.22 ± 0.06, -0.95 ± 0.20, and -1.67 ± 0.72 for Ophiuchus, Taurus, Perseus, and Orion, respectively. Broadly, these slopes are each consistent with the -1.35 power-law slope of the Salpeter initial mass function at higher masses, but suggest some differences. We examine a variety of trends between these CMF shapes and their parent cloud properties, potentially finding a correlation between the high-mass slope and core temperature. We also find a trend between core mass and effective size, but we are very limited by sensitivity. We make similar comparisons between core mass and size with visual extinction (for A V ≥ 3) and find no obvious trends. We also predict the numbers and mass distributions of cores that future surveys with SCUBA-2 may detect in each of these clouds.

  7. THE LUMINOSITIES OF PROTOSTARS IN THE SPITZER c2d AND GOULD BELT LEGACY CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, Michael M.; Arce, Héctor G.; Allen, Lori E.; Evans II, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul M.; Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Cieza, Lucas A.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Hatchell, Jennifer; Huard, Tracy L.; Miller, Jennifer F.; Kirk, Jason M.; Merín, Bruno; Peterson, Dawn E.; Spezzi, Loredana

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the long-standing 'luminosity problem' in low-mass star formation whereby protostars are underluminous compared to theoretical expectations, we identify 230 protostars in 18 molecular clouds observed by two Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy surveys of nearby star-forming regions. We compile complete spectral energy distributions, calculate L bol for each source, and study the protostellar luminosity distribution. This distribution extends over three orders of magnitude, from 0.01 L ☉ to 69 L ☉ , and has a mean and median of 4.3 L ☉ and 1.3 L ☉ , respectively. The distributions are very similar for Class 0 and Class I sources except for an excess of low luminosity (L bol ∼ ☉ ) Class I sources compared to Class 0. 100 out of the 230 protostars (43%) lack any available data in the far-infrared and submillimeter (70 μm bol underestimated by factors of 2.5 on average, and up to factors of 8-10 in extreme cases. Correcting these underestimates for each source individually once additional data becomes available will likely increase both the mean and median of the sample by 35%-40%. We discuss and compare our results to several recent theoretical studies of protostellar luminosities and show that our new results do not invalidate the conclusions of any of these studies. As these studies demonstrate that there is more than one plausible accretion scenario that can match observations, future attention is clearly needed. The better statistics provided by our increased data set should aid such future work.

  8. THE GOULD's BELT VERY LARGE ARRAY SURVEY. I. THE OPHIUCHUS COMPLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Torres, Rosa M.; Boden, Andrew F.; Hartmann, Lee; Evans, Neal J. II; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John

    2013-01-01

    We present large-scale (∼2000 arcmin 2 ), deep (∼20 μJy), high-resolution (∼1'') radio observations of the Ophiuchus star-forming complex obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at λ = 4 and 6 cm. In total, 189 sources were detected, 56 of them associated with known young stellar sources, and 4 with known extragalactic objects; the other 129 remain unclassified, but most of them are most probably background quasars. The vast majority of the young stars detected at radio wavelengths have spectral types K or M, although we also detect four objects of A/F/B types and two brown dwarf candidates. At least half of these young stars are non-thermal (gyrosynchrotron) sources, with active coronas characterized by high levels of variability, negative spectral indices, and (in some cases) significant circular polarization. As expected, there is a clear tendency for the fraction of non-thermal sources to increase from the younger (Class 0/I or flat spectrum) to the more evolved (Class III or weak line T Tauri) stars. The young stars detected both in X-rays and at radio wavelengths broadly follow a Güdel-Benz relation, but with a different normalization than the most radioactive types of stars. Finally, we detect a ∼70 mJy compact extragalactic source near the center of the Ophiuchus core, which should be used as gain calibrator for any future radio observations of this region

  9. THE LUMINOSITIES OF PROTOSTARS IN THE SPITZER c2d AND GOULD BELT LEGACY CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, Michael M.; Arce, Hector G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Allen, Lori E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Evans II, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C. [Herzberg Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 W. Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Chapman, Nicholas L. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Department of Physics and Astronomy, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Cieza, Lucas A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Gutermuth, Robert A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Hatchell, Jennifer [Astrophysics Group, Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Huard, Tracy L.; Miller, Jennifer F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Kirk, Jason M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Merin, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, ESAC-ESA, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Peterson, Dawn E. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Spezzi, Loredana, E-mail: michael.dunham@yale.edu [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Motivated by the long-standing 'luminosity problem' in low-mass star formation whereby protostars are underluminous compared to theoretical expectations, we identify 230 protostars in 18 molecular clouds observed by two Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy surveys of nearby star-forming regions. We compile complete spectral energy distributions, calculate L{sub bol} for each source, and study the protostellar luminosity distribution. This distribution extends over three orders of magnitude, from 0.01 L{sub Sun} to 69 L{sub Sun }, and has a mean and median of 4.3 L{sub Sun} and 1.3 L{sub Sun }, respectively. The distributions are very similar for Class 0 and Class I sources except for an excess of low luminosity (L{sub bol} {approx}< 0.5 L{sub Sun }) Class I sources compared to Class 0. 100 out of the 230 protostars (43%) lack any available data in the far-infrared and submillimeter (70 {mu}m <{lambda} < 850 {mu}m) and have L{sub bol} underestimated by factors of 2.5 on average, and up to factors of 8-10 in extreme cases. Correcting these underestimates for each source individually once additional data becomes available will likely increase both the mean and median of the sample by 35%-40%. We discuss and compare our results to several recent theoretical studies of protostellar luminosities and show that our new results do not invalidate the conclusions of any of these studies. As these studies demonstrate that there is more than one plausible accretion scenario that can match observations, future attention is clearly needed. The better statistics provided by our increased data set should aid such future work.

  10. THE GOULD's BELT VERY LARGE ARRAY SURVEY. I. THE OPHIUCHUS COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Mioduszewski, Amy J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Domenici Science Operations Center, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Torres, Rosa M. [Paul Harris 9065, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Boden, Andrew F. [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Briceño, Cesar [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Tobin, John, E-mail: s.dzib@crya.unam.mx [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We present large-scale (∼2000 arcmin{sup 2}), deep (∼20 μJy), high-resolution (∼1'') radio observations of the Ophiuchus star-forming complex obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at λ = 4 and 6 cm. In total, 189 sources were detected, 56 of them associated with known young stellar sources, and 4 with known extragalactic objects; the other 129 remain unclassified, but most of them are most probably background quasars. The vast majority of the young stars detected at radio wavelengths have spectral types K or M, although we also detect four objects of A/F/B types and two brown dwarf candidates. At least half of these young stars are non-thermal (gyrosynchrotron) sources, with active coronas characterized by high levels of variability, negative spectral indices, and (in some cases) significant circular polarization. As expected, there is a clear tendency for the fraction of non-thermal sources to increase from the younger (Class 0/I or flat spectrum) to the more evolved (Class III or weak line T Tauri) stars. The young stars detected both in X-rays and at radio wavelengths broadly follow a Güdel-Benz relation, but with a different normalization than the most radioactive types of stars. Finally, we detect a ∼70 mJy compact extragalactic source near the center of the Ophiuchus core, which should be used as gain calibrator for any future radio observations of this region.

  11. AFSC NPRB Conrath Conners Octopus Studies 2009-2011 Kodiak Alaska Life History and Habitat Pot Gear

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data collected during 2010-2011 field studies of giant Pacific octopus Enteroctopus dofleini for NPRB. Includes data on habitat pot gear study: fishing locations,...

  12. Morphology of the megalopa of the mud crab, Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould, 1841) (Decapoda, Brachyura, Panopeidae), identified by DNA barcode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Herrero, Elena; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Cuesta, José A.

    2014-06-01

    The morphology of the megalopa stage of the panopeid Rhithropanopeus harrisii is redescribed and illustrated in detail from plankton specimens identified by DNA barcode (16S mtDNA) as previous descriptions do not meet the current standard of brachyuran larval description. Several morphological characters vary widely from those of other panopeid species which could cast some doubt on the species' placement in the same family. Besides, some anomalous megalopae of R. harrisii were found among specimens reared at the laboratory from zoeae collected in the plankton. These anomalous morphological features are discussed in terms of problems associated with laboratory rearing conditions.

  13. Possible implications of Rabbit Calicivirus Disease for malleefowl Leipoa ocellata Gould in the north-west of Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandell, P.

    1999-01-01

    Parks Victoria and the Department of Natural Resources & Environment (NRE) are collaborating with agencies from the other States and the Commonwealth of Australia in a national program of detailed monitoring and surveillance of the effects of Rabbit Calicivirus Disease (RCD). A component of the

  14. Genetic, Ecological and Morphological Distinctness of the Blue Mussels Mytilus trossulus Gould and M. edulis L. in the White Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Katolikova

    Full Text Available Two blue mussel lineages of Pliocene origin, Mytilus edulis (ME and M. trossulus (MT, co-occur and hybridize in several regions on the shores of the North Atlantic. The two species were distinguished from each other by molecular methods in the 1980s, and a large amount of comparative data on them has been accumulated since that time. However, while ME and MT are now routinely distinguished by various genetic markers, they tend to be overlooked in ecological studies since morphological characters for taxonomic identification have been lacking, and no consistent habitat differences between lineages have been reported. Surveying a recently discovered area of ME and MT co-occurrence in the White Sea and employing a set of allozyme markers for identification, we address the issue whether ME and MT are true biological species with distinct ecological characteristics or just virtual genetic entities with no matching morphological and ecological identities. We find that: (1 in the White Sea, the occurrence of MT is largely concentrated in harbors, in line with observations from other subarctic regions of Europe; (2 mixed populations of ME and MT are always dominated by purebred individuals, animals classified as hybrids constituting only ca. 18%; (3 in terms of shell morphology, 80% of MT bear a distinct uninterrupted dark prismatic strip under the ligament while 97% of ME lack this character; (4 at sites of sympatry MT is more common on algal substrates while ME mostly lives directly on the bottom. This segregation by the substrate may contribute to maintaining reproductive isolation and decreasing competition between taxa. We conclude that while ME and MT are not fully reproductively isolated, they do represent clearly distinguishable biological, ecological and morphological entities in the White Sea. It remains to be documented whether the observed morphological and ecological differences are of a local character, or whether they have simply been overlooked in other contact zones.

  15. The Gould's Belt Distances Survey (GOBELINS). IV. Distance, Depth, and Kinematics of the Taurus Star-forming Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Phillip A. B.; Loinard, Laurent; Ortiz-Léon, Gisela N.; Kounkel, Marina; Dzib, Sergio A.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Hartmann, Lee; Teixeira, Ramachrisna; Torres, Rosa M.; Rivera, Juana L.; Boden, Andrew F.; Evans, Neal J., II; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John J.; Heyer, Mark

    2018-05-01

    We present new trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of young stellar objects in the Taurus molecular cloud complex from observations collected with the Very Long Baseline Array as part of the Gould’s Belt Distances Survey. We detected 26 young stellar objects and derived trigonometric parallaxes for 18 stars with an accuracy of 0.3% to a few percent. We modeled the orbits of six binaries and determined the dynamical masses of the individual components in four of these systems (V1023 Tau, T Tau S, V807 Tau, and V1000 Tau). Our results are consistent with the first trigonometric parallaxes delivered by the Gaia satellite and reveal the existence of significant depth effects. We find that the central portion of the dark cloud Lynds 1495 is located at d =129.5 ± 0.3 pc, while the B216 clump in the filamentary structure connected to it is at d = 158.1 ± 1.2 pc. The closest and remotest stars in our sample are located at d = 126.6 ± 1.7 pc and d = 162.7 ± 0.8 pc, yielding a distance difference of about 36 pc. We also provide a new distance estimate for HL Tau that was recently imaged. Finally, we compute the spatial velocity of the stars with published radial velocity and investigate the kinematic properties of the various clouds and gas structures in this region.

  16. Differential expression of genes encoding anti-oxidant enzymes in Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata (Gould) selected for disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Timothy J; Dixon, Tom J; Devic, Emilie; Adlard, Robert D; Barnes, Andrew C

    2009-05-01

    Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) selectively bred for disease resistance (R) and wild-caught control oysters (W) were exposed to a field infection of disseminating neoplasia. Cumulative mortality of W oysters (31.7%) was significantly greater than R oysters (0.0%) over the 118 days of the experiment. In an attempt to understand the biochemical and molecular pathways involved in disease resistance, differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) between R and W S. glomerata hemocytes were identified using the PCR technique, suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH). Sequencing of 300 clones from two SSH libraries revealed 183 distinct sequences of which 113 shared high similarity to sequences in the public databases. Putative function could be assigned to 64 of the sequences. Expression of nine ESTs homologous to genes previously shown to be involved in bivalve immunity was further studied using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). The base-line expression of an extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) and a small heat shock protein (sHsP) were significantly increased, whilst peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6) and interferon inhibiting cytokine factor (IK) were significantly decreased in R oysters. From these results it was hypothesised that R oysters would be able to generate the anti-parasitic compound, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) faster and to higher concentrations during respiratory burst due to the differential expression of genes for the two anti-oxidant enzymes of ecSOD and Prx6. To investigate this hypothesis, protein extracts from hemolymph were analysed for oxidative burst enzyme activity. Analysis of the cell free hemolymph proteins separated by native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) failed to detect true superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity by assaying dismutation of superoxide anion in zymograms. However, the ecSOD enzyme appears to generate hydrogen peroxide, presumably via another process, which is yet to be elucidated. This corroborates our hypothesis, whilst phylogenetic analysis of the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the S. glomerata ecSOD gene is supportive of the atypical nature of the ecSOD enzyme. Results obtained from this work further the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in resistance to disease in this economically important bivalve, and shed further light on the anomalous oxidative processes involved.

  17. The W40 region in the gould belt: An embedded cluster and H II region at the junction of filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Kumar, M. S. N. [Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 s/n Porto (Portugal); Bachiller, Rafael [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (IGN), Alfonso XII 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Samal, M. R. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille), UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Pirogov, L., E-mail: kshitiz@tifr.res.in [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Uljanov str., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-20

    We present a multiwavelength study of the W40 star-forming region using infrared (IR) observations in the UKIRT JHK bands, Spitzer Infrared Array Camera bands, and Herschel PACS bands, 2.12 μm H{sub 2} narrowband imaging, and radio continuum observations from GMRT (610 and 1280 MHz), in a field of view (FoV) of ∼34' × 40'. Archival Spitzer observations in conjunction with near-IR observations are used to identify 1162 Class II/III and 40 Class I sources in the FoV. The nearest-neighbor stellar surface density analysis shows that the majority of these young stellar objects (YSOs) constitute the embedded cluster centered on the high-mass source IRS 1A South. Some YSOs, predominantly the younger population, are distributed along and trace the filamentary structures at lower stellar surface density. The cluster radius is measured to be 0.44 pc—matching well with the extent of radio emission—with a peak density of 650 pc{sup –2}. The JHK data are used to map the extinction in the region, which is subsequently used to compute the cloud mass—126 M {sub ☉} and 71 M {sub ☉} for the central cluster and the northern IRS 5 region, respectively. H{sub 2} narrowband imaging shows significant emission, which prominently resembles fluorescent emission arising at the borders of dense regions. Radio continuum analysis shows that this region has a blister morphology, with the radio peak coinciding with a protostellar source. Free-free emission spectral energy distribution analysis is used to obtain physical parameters of the overall photoionized region and the IRS 5 sub-region. This multiwavelength scenario is suggestive of star formation having resulted from the merging of multiple filaments to form a hub. Star formation seems to have taken place in two successive epochs, with the first epoch traced by the central cluster and the high-mass star(s)—followed by a second epoch that is spreading into the filaments as uncovered by the Class I sources and even younger protostellar sources along the filaments. The IRS 5 H II region displays indications of swept-up material that has possibly led to the formation of protostars.

  18. Registro de la perdiz veracruzana o Chivizcoyo (Dendrortyx barbatus Gould en la sierra norte de Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio H. Aguilar-Rodríguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el primer registro de la Perdiz Veracruzana o Chivizcoyo (Dendrortyx barbatus en la Sierra Norte de Oaxaca. Los métodos usados para obtener su registro así como la vegetación del área son descritos. Se menciona el conocimiento local autóctono de ave y su importancia económica, pese a no haber sido anteriormente registrada por ornitólogos. Se discuten evidencias que agregan certeza al registro y se menciona la importancia de éste para la ampliación de su rango de distribución.

  19. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS IN THE GOULD BELT. III. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH VIEW OF CORONA AUSTRALIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Dawn E.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Forbrich, Jan; Patten, Brian M.; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Joergensen, Jes K.; Allen, Lori E.; Dunham, Michael M.; Harvey, Paul M.; Evans, Neal J.; MerIn, Bruno; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Cieza, Lucas A.; Huard, Tracy L.; Knez, Claudia; Prager, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC and MIPS observations of a 0.85 deg 2 field including the Corona Australis (CrA) star-forming region. At a distance of 130 pc, CrA is one of the closest regions known to be actively forming stars, particularly within its embedded association, the Coronet. Using the Spitzer data, we identify 51 young stellar objects (YSOs) in CrA which include sources in the well-studied Coronet cluster as well as sources distributed throughout the molecular cloud. Twelve of the YSOs discussed are new candidates, one of which is located in the Coronet. Known YSOs retrieved from the literature are also added to the list, and a total of 116 candidate YSOs in CrA are compiled. Based on these YSO candidates, the star formation rate is computed to be 12 M sun Myr -1 , similar to that of the Lupus clouds. A clustering analysis was also performed, finding that the main cluster core, consisting of 68 members, is elongated (having an aspect ratio of 2.36), with a circular radius of 0.59 pc and mean surface density of 150 pc -2 . In addition, we analyze outflows and jets in CrA by means of new CO and H 2 data. We present 1.3 mm interferometric continuum observations made with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) covering R CrA, IRS 5, IRS 7, and IRAS 18595-3712 (IRAS 32). We also present multi-epoch H 2 maps and detect jets and outflows, study their proper motions, and identify exciting sources. The Spitzer and ISAAC/VLT observations of IRAS 32 show a bipolar precessing jet, which drives a CO(2-1) outflow detected in the SMA observations. There is also clear evidence for a parsec-scale precessing outflow, which is east-west oriented and originates in the SMA 2 region and likely driven by SMA 2 or IRS 7A.

  20. Morphological and molecular characterization of Eimeria paludosa coccidian parasite (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) in a dusky moorhen (Gallinula tenebrosa, Gould, 1846) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elloit, Aileen; Lee, Elvina; Ryan, Una

    2014-12-01

    An Eimeria species is described from a dusky moorhen (Gallinula tenebrosa). Sporulated oocysts (n = 40) are ovoid, with a pitted single-layered oocyst wall in young oocysts and a relatively smooth wall in the mature oocysts. Oocyst wall was 1.0 µm thick, oocysts measured 17.3 × 13.3 (16.3-17.9 × 12.7-13.9) µm, oocyst length/width (L/W) ratio, 1.3. Oocyst residuum was absent. A large polar granule was always observed in the centre of the micropyle and many small polar granules were observed when the focus was on the wall. Sporocysts are elongate-ovoid, 8.4 × 5.1 (8.0-8.9 × 4.9-5.5) µm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 1.6 (1.5-1.8), sporocyst residuum was present, composed of numerous granules in a spherical or ovoid mass. Each sporocyst contained 2 elongate sporozoites, 7.7 × 2.6 (7-10 × 2.2-3) µm. A spherical-ellipsoid posterior refractile body was found in the sporozoites. A nucleus is located immediately anterior to the posterior refractile body. When the oocyst measurements and features were compared with valid Eimeria species from hosts in the Rallidae family, this Eimeria species was identified as E. paludosa. This is the first report of E. paludosa in Australia and the dusky moorhen (Gallinula tenebrosa) in a new host for this species. Molecular analysis was conducted at three loci; the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (COI). At the 18 S locus, E. paludosa shared 97.3% genetic similarity with Eimeria gruis (GenBank accession number: AB544336). It also shared 99.2% genetic similarity with Eimeria crecis (GenBank accession numbers: HE653904 and HE653905) and 98.5% similarity with Eimeria nenei (GenBank accession numbers: HE653906), both of which were identified from a corncrake (Crex crex) in the United Kingdom. At the 28S locus, E. paludosa shared 91.4% similarity with E. papillata from a chicken (Gallus gallus) in the USA. At COI locus, E. paludosa was in a clade by itself and shared 87.2% similarity with E. irresidua, from a European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from the Czech Republic. This is the first molecular characterization of E. paludosa. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gene capture from across the grass family in the allohexaploid Elymus repens (L.) Gould (Poaceae, Triticeae) as evidenced by ITS, GBSSI, and molecular cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahelka, Václav; Kopecký, David

    2010-06-01

    Four accessions of hexaploid Elymus repens from its native Central European distribution area were analyzed using sequencing of multicopy (internal transcribed spacer, ITS) and single-copy (granule-bound starch synthase I, GBSSI) DNA in concert with genomic and fluorescent in situ hybridization (GISH and FISH) to disentangle its allopolyploid origin. Despite extensive ITS homogenization, nrDNA in E. repens allowed us to identify at least four distinct lineages. Apart from Pseudoroegneria and Hordeum, representing the major genome constituents, the presence of further unexpected alien genetic material, originating from species outside the Triticeae and close to Panicum (Paniceae) and Bromus (Bromeae), was revealed. GBSSI sequences provided information complementary to the ITS. Apart from Pseudoroegneria and Hordeum, two additional gene variants from within the Triticeae were discovered: One was Taeniatherum-like, but the other did not have a close relationship with any of the diploids sampled. GISH results were largely congruent with the sequence-based markers. GISH clearly confirmed Pseudoroegneria and Hordeum as major genome constituents and further showed the presence of a small chromosome segment corresponding to Panicum. It resided in the Hordeum subgenome and probably represents an old acquisition of a Hordeum progenitor. Spotty hybridization signals across all chromosomes after GISH with Taeniatherum and Bromus probes suggested that gene acquisition from these species is more likely due to common ancestry of the grasses or early introgression than to recent hybridization or allopolyploid origin of E. repens. Physical mapping of rDNA loci using FISH revealed that all rDNA loci except one minor were located on Pseudoroegneria-derived chromosomes, which suggests the loss of all Hordeum-derived loci but one. Because homogenization mechanisms seem to operate effectively among Pseudoroegneria-like copies in this species, incomplete ITS homogenization in our samples is probably due to an interstitial position of an individual minor rDNA locus located within the Hordeum-derived subgenome.

  2. Non-native crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould, 1984 - a new component of the benthic communities in the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Hegele-Drywa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence, spatial distribution and abundance pattern of the Harris mud crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii in the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea. Between 2006 and 2010, this species was found at 69 out of 129 sampling stations, at depths from 0 to 20 m. Two main aggregations of the Harris mud crab were established: (1 in Puck Bay (max. density 19 indiv. 100 m-2 and (2 in the Gdynia and Sopot area (max. density 5 indiv. 100 m-2. 920 specimens were collected during the whole sampling period: 150 juveniles, 370 females and 400 males. The minimum measured carapace width was 1.96 mm, the maximum 21.40 mm (mean 9.03 ±4.11 mm.

  3. VARIATION IN GROWTH, LIPID CLASS AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF THE MUD CRAB, RHITHROPANOPEUS HARRISII (GOULD) DURING LARVAL DEVELOPMENT FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO AN INSECT JUVENILE HORMONE ANALOG (FENOXYCARB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examines the effects of fenoxycarb?, an insect juvenile hormone analog, on larval growth, and lipid class and fatty acid composition in first crabs of the mud crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii reared through total larval development in nominal water concentrations from 1 ...

  4. Determinación de la actividad antimicrobiana de la melanina purificada, a partir de la tinta de Octopus mimus Gould, 1852(Cephalopoda: Octopodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Vega Petkovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Los cefalópodos, constituyen importantes modelos biomédicos orientados a vertebrados, con potencial farmacológico. Estos animales poseen una glándula de tinta, que produce un líquido marrón o negro (tinta, con una elevada concentración de melanina, a la cual se le han atribuido propiedades antibacterianas. Con esta información, se busca determinar el efecto protector de la melanina de Octopus mimus, mediante la extracción y purificación de la tinta y posterior evaluación de su actividad antimicrobiana frente a dos cepas (Staphylococcus aureus y Escherichia coli. Los resultados indican una actividad antimicrobiana moderada, en comparación con el antibiótico comercial (ampicilina 0,05 mg mL-1, y una concentración inhibitoria mínima diferencial entre ambas cepas bacterianas.

  5. Gene Capture from Across the Grass Family in the Allohexaploid Elymus repens (L.) Gould (Poaceae, Triticeae) as Evidenced by ITS, GBSSI, and Molecular Cytogenetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahelka, Václav; Kopecký, David

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 6 (2010), s. 1370-1390 ISSN 0737-4038 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/09/P312; GA ČR GA206/09/1126 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Elymus repens * hybridization * Triticeae Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.510, year: 2010

  6. The Spitzer survey of interstellar clouds in the Gould Belt. III. A multi-wavelength view of Corona Australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Dawn E.; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Bourke, Tyler L.

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC and MIPS observations of a 0.85 deg2 field including the Corona Australis (CrA) star-forming region. At a distance of 130 pc, CrA is one of the closest regions known to be actively forming stars, particularly within its embedded association, the Coronet. Us...

  7. 77 FR 74868 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ...) 545-2221, or Rae Gould, Repatriation Coordinator, telephone (413) 545-2702, University of..., telephone (413) 545-2221, or Rae Gould, Repatriation Coordinator, telephone (413) 545-2702, University of...

  8. TERMSPEED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieman, J.

    1986-12-01

    This manual describes the program Termspeed v4.gt. This program allows for using the Commodore 8096 as terminal of a Gould and for transporting data files from the Commodore floppy disk to the Gould and vice versa. (Auth.)

  9. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    shells), changing surface-to-volume ratios as body size increases during ... study of hierarchy, of the evolutionary behaviour of clades, and mass ... Strongly held views Gould surely had, but in my experience Gould welcomed rational dis-.

  10. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    models had more difficulty with the “equilibrium” aspect. Why is ... fundamentalists” (Gould 1997) but that style of thought is losing force as extensive discordances between genetic ... Gould S J 1977b The return of hopeful monsters; Nat. Hist.

  11. Preliminary note on the utitization of alkaline hydrogen peroxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Kerley, Fahey, Berger, Merchen & Gould, 1986). Gould. (1984) and Kerley, Fahey, Berger, Gould & Baker (1985) recently found that .... Lewis et al. (1987) also suggested improvements in the in vivo digestibility of AHP-treated wheat straw in compari- son with untreated wheat straw. A further enhancement of 8,0% (P::::'::0 ...

  12. Nuclear and mitochondrial markers reveal evidence for genetically segregated cryptic speciation in giant Pacific octopuses from Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Rebecca K.; Scheel, David; Sage, G.K.; Talbot, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple species of large octopus are known from the north Pacific waters around Japan, however only one large species is known in the Gulf of Alaska (the giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini). Current taxonomy of E. dofleini is based on geographic and morphological characteristics, although with advances in genetic technology that is changing. Here, we used two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I), three nuclear genes (rhodopsin, octopine dehydrogenase, and paired-box 6), and 18 microsatellite loci for phylogeographic and phylogenetic analyses of octopuses collected from across southcentral and the eastern Aleutian Islands (Dutch Harbor), Alaska. Our results suggest the presence of a cryptic Enteroctopus species that is allied to, but distinguished from E. dofleini in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Existence of an undescribed and previously unrecognized taxon raises important questions about the taxonomy of octopus in southcentral Alaska waters.

  13. Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business and market researchers Christina Goulding Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business and market researchers Sage Publications No of pages: 186 £18.99 0761966838 0761966838 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Leslie

    2003-10-01

    Much has been written about the grounded theory approach to qualitative research, however the number of books devoted solely to this methodology remains relatively few. Therefore, any new book dedicated to the subject is always likely to attract attention - especially given the increasing popularity of grounded theory in healthcare research.

  14. The War Within: Preventing Suicide in the U.S. Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    estimates that approximately 4 percent of those with depression will die by suicide (Goldsmith et al., 2002), and, though the same figure is not yet...evidence of suicide clusters primarily among teens (Gould, 1990; Gould, Wallenstein, and Kleinman, 1990; Gould, Wallenstein, Kleinman, et al., 1990...discuss the relationship of each with suicide . Depression . Depression is a mood disorder characterized by feeling sad and blue for a period lasting more

  15. Workshop on the Destruction of Bacterial Spores Held in Brussels, Belgium on May 1-3, 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-03

    Food Research - Bristol Laboratory Langford 4 Bristol BS18 7DY Prof. Grahame Gould, Dr. Derrick Kilsby Unilever Research Laboratory Colworth House...Introduction: Spores & military G. Silverman rations (US Army Labs, Natick, USA) 2. Introduction: Broad review of heat G.W. Gould ( Unilever Research...Cambridge Univ. UK) , and unique chemistry 5. Bacterial spores: chemical/ G.W. Gould ( Unilever Research, biochemical basis of heat resistance Colworth

  16. Time frames: the rethinking of Darwinian evolution and the theory of punctuated equilibria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eldredge, Niles

    1985-01-01

    .... Two eminent scientists, Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould, startled the world by challenging Darwin's cherished beliefs - proposing instead that once a species has evolved it rarely undergoes...

  17. Cross-Validation of AFOQT Form S for Cyberspace Operations - Cyberspace Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    TECHNICIAN, ACADEMIC, VERBAL, and QUANTITATIVE. Thompson, Skinner , Gould, Alley, & Shore (2010) provided a full description of the subtest and the...Strategic Research and Assessment Branch. Thompson, N., Skinner , J., Gould, R. B., Alley, W., & Shore, W. (2010). Development of the Air Force

  18. Brain Vulnerability to Repeated Blast Overpressure and Polytrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Gould , 1994; Yu et al ., 2004; Montaron et al ., 2006); with males showing...ety, and depression (Gentilini et al ., 1985; Schoenhuber and Gentilini, 1988 ; Ponsford et al ., 1995). Blast induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI...into neuronal circuits (Kempermann, 2002a; Kozorovitskiy and Gould , 2003; Abrous et al ., 2005; Hagg, 2005; Ming and Song, 2005; Zhao et al .,

  19. A Kantorovich Type of Szasz Operators Including Brenke-Type Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Taşdelen

    2012-01-01

    convergence properties of these operators by using Korovkin's theorem. We also present the order of convergence with the help of a classical approach, the second modulus of continuity, and Peetre's -functional. Furthermore, an example of Kantorovich type of the operators including Gould-Hopper polynomials is presented and Voronovskaya-type result is given for these operators including Gould-Hopper polynomials.

  20. Biological dataset collected from bottle casts from the R/V LAURENCE M. GOULD and the R/V NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Southern Drake Passage and Scotia Sea in support of National Science Foundation projects OPP 03-30443 and ANT 04-44134 from 15 February 2004 to 09 August 2006 (NODC Accession 0049902)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean biology data were collected in Southern Drake Passage and Scotia Sea during two research cruises supported by NSF awards. These two cruises, namely LMG0402 and...

  1. The Oxford book of modern science writing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dawkins, Richard

    2008-01-01

    ..." to "the terror and vastness of the universe." Edited by renowned scientist Richard Dawkins, this collection brings together pieces by a who's who of scientists and science writers, including Stephen Pinker, Stephen Jay Gould, Martin Gardner...

  2. Safe Food

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    A healthy diet is important, but if food is mishandled or improperly prepared, a wholesome meal can result in a severe illness. In this podcast, Dr. Hannah Gould discusses ways to avoid foodborne illnesses.

  3. DVD. Alar Niineväli hoiatab. "Hüppaja" / Alar Niineväli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niineväli, Alar

    2008-01-01

    Ulmeline seiklusfilm "Hüppaja" ("Jumper") Steven Gould'i teoste põhjal : stsenaristid David Goyer, Simon Kinberg, Jim Uhls : režissöör Doug Liman : peaosas Hayden Christensen : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008

  4. On alles hüpe! / Laurence Lumiere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lumiere, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Ulmeline seiklusfilm "Hüppaja" ("Jumper") Steven Gould'i teoste põhjal : stsenaristid David Goyer, Simon Kinberg, Jim Uhls : režissöör Doug Liman : peaosas Hayden Christensen : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008

  5. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    You want to write a check for twenty dollars, but now anyone who wants ... political process to decide about the uses of science, Gould pursued a .... evolutionary biology had been well on its way towards a pluralist conception of evolution.

  6. A Compilation Catalog in the Direction of the Galactic Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-18

    and Argelander 1890) 3) Catalogo de Zonas Estrellas (GA; Gould 1884a, b) 4) Catalogue of 12441 Stars for the Epoch 1880 (Cp 80; Stone 1881) 2 5...Catalogo General Argentino (Gou; Gould 1886) 6) Catalogo de 15200 Estrellas (Cord B; Perrine 1914) 7) Albany Zone Catalogue of 8276 Stars Between -200 and...Astrografico (AC: Perrine 1927a, b, 1928, 1931, 1932, 1933) 10) Catalogo de 6429 Estrellas de Repere (G; Guerin 1934) 11) Cape Photographic Catalogue

  7. Novel Therapeutic Targets to Treat Social Behavior Deficits in Autism and Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    studies and statistical consultation and other intellectual contributions as needed. W81XWH-12-1-0506 (Gould, PI) 09/30/12 – 09/29/2015 Gould et al., 13...report shall include negative as well as positive findings. Include problems in accomplishing any of the tasks. Statistical tests of significance...Release. DO NOT USE THE WORD " WHEN MARKING DOCUMENTS. DELINQUENT REPORTS If the recipient is delinquent on reporting requirements for other USAMRAA

  8. Study on the physiological activities of gamma-irradiated seafood cooking drips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Eu Ri; Kim, Yeon Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Sung, Nak Yun; Jung, Pil Moon; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Yoon, Yo Han; Lee, Ju Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Yeoun [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    Cooking drips which were obtained as by-product after seafood processing in the food industries, still contain lost of proteins, carbohydrates, and other functional materials. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the biological activities of seafood cooking drips. When the cooking drips of Hizikia fusiformis, Enteroctopus dofleini and Thunnus thynnus were irradiated, the antioxidant activities, whitening effect, and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibition activity of the ethanol extract from seafood cooking drips were all increased by gamma irradiation. This was because of the increased extraction efficiency of available compounds by irradiation. These results suggested that the seafood cooking drips, wasted as by-products, can be used as functional compounds with gamma irradiation treatment.

  9. Study on the physiological activities of gamma-irradiated seafood cooking drips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Eu Ri; Kim, Yeon Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Sung, Nak Yun; Jung, Pil Moon; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Yoon, Yo Han; Lee, Ju Woon; Lee, Ju Yeoun

    2010-01-01

    Cooking drips which were obtained as by-product after seafood processing in the food industries, still contain lost of proteins, carbohydrates, and other functional materials. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the biological activities of seafood cooking drips. When the cooking drips of Hizikia fusiformis, Enteroctopus dofleini and Thunnus thynnus were irradiated, the antioxidant activities, whitening effect, and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibition activity of the ethanol extract from seafood cooking drips were all increased by gamma irradiation. This was because of the increased extraction efficiency of available compounds by irradiation. These results suggested that the seafood cooking drips, wasted as by-products, can be used as functional compounds with gamma irradiation treatment

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on the amino acid contents of seafood cooking drips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Yeon Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Yun Joo; Kim, Jae Hun; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung Woo; Kwon, Joong Ho; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Chun, Byung Soo

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the effects of gamma irradiation on the change of structural and free amino acids contents of cooking drips from Hizikia fusiformis (HF) and Enteroctopus dofleini (ED) were investigated. The main structural amino acids were glutamic acid in HF cooking drip, and glutamic acid, glycine, arginine and aspartic acid in ED cooking drip, respectively. The concentrations of structural amino acids in both cooking drip extracts were decreased by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 kGy. Especially, the sulfur-containing amino acids were severely degraded by the irradiation. In free amino acid, ED cooking drip extract was contained the larger amount of free amino acid than that of HF cooking drip affecting its rich flavor. The free amino acid concentrations of cooking drips extracts from HF and ED were both increased by irradiation, and it explained the higher protein content by the irradiation

  11. Genotoxicological safety of the ethanol extract from seafood cooking drips by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Hee Sub; Kim, Jae Hun; Byun, Myung Woo; Chun, Byung Soo; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Kee Hyuk

    2008-01-01

    Although seafood cooking drips were the byproducts from the fishery industry it was known that the cooking drips had many nutrients and could be used as functional materials. Previously, the physiological properties of cooking drips were shown to be increased by a gamma irradiation. But, there was no report on the safe for the genotoxicity on the irradiation. In this study, the genotoxicity of the cooking drips from Hizikia fusiformis, Enteroctopus dofleni and Thunnus thynnus was evaluated by the Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay) and the SOS chromotest. The results from all samples were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100. No mutagenicity was detected in the assay, both with and without metabolic activation. The SOS chromotest also indicated that the gamma-irradiated seafood cooking drips did not show any mutagenicity. Therefore, this study indicated that gamma irradiation could be used for the hygiene, functional properties and processibility of seafood cooking drips

  12. Study on the changes in phyicochemical properties of seafood cooking drips by gamma ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Yeon Joo; Kim, Jae Hun; Yoon, Yo Han; Song, Beom Seok; Lee, Ju Woon; Chun, Byung Soo; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Lee, Ju Yeoun

    2010-01-01

    Cooking drips which were obtained as by-product after seafood processing in the food industries, still contain lots of proteins, carbohydrates, and other functional materials. But, the seafood cooking drips are easily contaminated because of its rich nutrients, and their color are very dark. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the quality of seafood cooking drips including Hizikia fusiformis, Enteroctopus dofleini, and Thunnus thynnus. The Hunter's color values (L, Brightness) of H. fusiformis, and T.thynnus, were increased with increasing irradiation doses, showing becoming bright. The crude protein content and crude lipid content were increased by gamma irradiation. These results indicated that gamma irradiation increased extraction efficiency of available compounds in cooking drips

  13. Petal–like modes in Porro prism resonators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available , and then proposed in 1962 by Gould et al [1] as a means to overcome misalignment problems in optical resonators employing Fabry–Perot cavities by replacing the end face mirrors with crossed roof prisms. Lasers based on this principle have been developed over... of America OCIS codes: (140.4780) Optical resonators; (260.0260) Physical optics; (140.3410) Laser resonators; (230.5480) Prisms; (140.0140) Lasers and laser optics References and links 1. G. Gould, S. Jacobs, P. Rabinowitz and T. Shultz, “Crossed Roof...

  14. Analysis of transverse field distributions in Porro prism resonators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available in 1962 by Gould et al1 as a means to overcome misalignment problems in optical resonators employing Fabry-Perot cavities, by replacing the end face mirrors with crossed roof prisms. Lasers based on this principle have been developed over the years2... Optronics for the use of their laser and for making experimental data available to us. We would also like to thank Dr Dieter Preussler and Mr Daniel Esser for useful discussions. REFERENCES 1. G. Gould, S. Jacobs, P. Rabinowitz and T. Shultz...

  15. On Some Extensions of Szasz Operators Including Boas-Buck-Type Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin Sucu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a new sequence of linear positive operators which generalize Szasz operators including Boas-Buck-type polynomials. We establish a convergence theorem for these operators and give the quantitative estimation of the approximation process by using a classical approach and the second modulus of continuity. Some explicit examples of our operators involving Laguerre polynomials, Charlier polynomials, and Gould-Hopper polynomials are given. Moreover, a Voronovskaya-type result is obtained for the operators containing Gould-Hopper polynomials.

  16. Control panel handling of a nuclear simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Polo, F.; Jimenez Fraustro, L.A.; Banuelos Galindo, A.; Diamant Rubinstein, A.

    1985-01-01

    The handling of the control panels for a Nuclear Simulator for operating training is described. The control panels are handled by a set of intelligent controllers, each with at least two processors (8035 - Communications Controller and a 8085 - Master processor). The Controllers are connected to the main computers (Two dual processor Gould concept 32/6780 and a single processor Gould concept 32/6705) via serial asynchronous channels in a multidrop, star-like architecture. The controllers transmit to the main computers only the changes detected and receive the whole set of output variables as computed by the mathematical models of the Nuclear Plant

  17. Y: The Sources of Islamic Revolutionary Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Emile Durkheim once called “altruistic suicide.” The men and women who regularly blow themselves up, at the direction of the vanguard and in support of...at Western infidels wherever they exist.428 As Durkheim described them, they are individuals who “are almost completely absorbed in the group”; who...429Emile Durkheim quoted in Gould, “Suicide as a Weapon of Mass Destruction. 430Emile Durkheim quoted in Gould, “Suicide as a Weapon of Mass Destruction

  18. Testing gradual and speciational models of evolution in extant taxa: the example of ratites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurin, M.; Gussekloo, S.W.S.; Marjanovic, D.; Legendre, L.; Cubo, J.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since Eldredge and Gould proposed their model of punctuated equilibria, evolutionary biologists have debated how often this model is the best description of nature and how important it is compared to the more gradual models of evolution expected from natural selection and the neo-Darwinian

  19. 50 CFR 32.29 - Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... at the refuge dock prior to setting up camp. We require personal identification at check-in. 5... Road, or Gould's Cemetery. 6. We require personal identification at check-in. 7. To hunt during the... sign-in and out. iii. You must remove tree stands daily (see § 27.93 of this chapter). iv. We prohibit...

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 183 ... Vanessa Barolsky, Chandré Gould. Vol 59 (2017), Editorial: More data mean better tools for South Africa, Abstract PDF. Andrew Faull ... Vol 39 (2012), Feeling the Hawks: Why an anti-corruption agency should not be in the SAPS, Abstract PDF. I Kinnes, G Newham. Vol 44 (2013), Fighting for Respect: ...

  1. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island. (j) An east-west line from the southernmost extremity of Sea Island across Goulds Inlet to St... Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little Tybee Island south of the entrance to... shoreline across Cabretta Inlet. (g) A north-south line (longitude 81°16.9′ W.) drawn from the south...

  2. Corruption and the Body Politic in Post-Colonial Ghana: A Re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption has been an important subject of analysis by social scientists for many years (Bayley 1966; Huntington 1968, 1990; Gould 1980, 1989; Ali 1985; Crowder 1987; Kimenyi 1987; Alam 1989; Mbaku 1991; Couch et. al. 1992 etc.). In the 1960s, however, two major events rekindled interest in the study of corruption, ...

  3. Interaction between Electron Holes in a Strongly Magnetized Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans

    1980-01-01

    The interaction between electron holes in a strongly magnetized, plasma-filled waveguide is investigated by means of computer simulation. Two holes may or may not coalesce, depending on their amplitudes and velocities. The interaction between holes and Trivelpiece-Gould solitons is demonstrated...

  4. An altered Pseudomonas diversity is recovered from soil by using nutrient-poor Pseudomonas-selective soil extract media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagot, N.; Nybroe, O.; Nielsen, P.

    2001-01-01

    We designed five Pseudomonas-selective soil extract NAA media containing the selective properties of trimethoprim and sodium lauroyl sarcosine and 0 to 100% of the amount of Casamino Acids used in the classical Pseudomonas-selective Gould's S1 medium. All of the isolates were confirmed to be Pseu......We designed five Pseudomonas-selective soil extract NAA media containing the selective properties of trimethoprim and sodium lauroyl sarcosine and 0 to 100% of the amount of Casamino Acids used in the classical Pseudomonas-selective Gould's S1 medium. All of the isolates were confirmed....... Several of these analyses showed that the amount of Casamino Acids significantly influenced the diversity of the recovered Pseudomonas isolates. Furthermore, the data suggested that specific Pseudomonas subpopulations were represented on the nutrient-poor media. The NAA 1:100 medium, containing ca. 15 mg...... of organic carbon per liter, consistently gave significantly higher Pseudomonas CFU counts than Gould's S1 when tested on four Danish soils. NAA 1:100 may, therefore, be a better medium than Gould's S1 for enumeration and isolation of Pseudomonas from the low-nutrient soil environment....

  5. Life's Little Joke

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stephen Jay Gould wrote extensively and ... I). gun is formidable enough against an obsidian blade, but ... Several times during this history, different branches migrated to Europe, where ... the eminent paleontologist Othniel C Marsh. ... captures pictorially the most common of all misconceptions about the shape and pattern.

  6. Self-Management as a Class-Wide Intervention: An Evaluation of the "Self & Match" System Embedded within a Dependent Group Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education (2015) indicated that about 95% of students with special education eligibility receive some form of education in the general education setting. Students with disabilities tend to engage in more disruptive behaviors than their non-disabled peers (e.g., Murphy, Beadle-Brown, Wing, Gould, Shah, & Homes, 2005). If…

  7. Malleefowl conservation in New South Wales: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priddel, D.; Wheeler, R.

    1999-01-01

    Together with land clearance, grazing by stock and inappropriate fire regimes, predation by the introduced European red fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758) has decimated populations of malleefowl Leipoa ocellata Gould, 1840. The decline of the malleefowl has been most pronounced in New South Wales,

  8. Birds of Golden Pride Project area, Nzega District, central Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ols 2003; Nichols & Grant 2007; Gould 2011). In some instances ... C. Werema, K.M. Howell, C.A. Msuya, J. Sinclair, A. Macha. 27 .... We thank David Moyer and two anonymous reviewers for constructive comments that greatly ... StevenSOn, t.

  9. Alexander von Humboldt and Coenraad Jacob Temminck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raat, A.J.P.

    1976-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In the archives of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie in Leiden there is a map with three letters written by Alexander von Humboldt (17691859) to the first director of the Museum, Coenraad Jacob Temminck (1778-1858). The map, the hard cover of John Gould's "Synopsis of the birds

  10. Cyclic AMP response element binding protein and brain-derived ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    learning tasks and memory (Bramham and Messaoudi 2005). Thus, BDNF is involved in structural remodeling, neuronal .... in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory (Tyler et al 2002; Mizuno and Giese 2005) may play a ..... neurons in the olfactory bulb; J. Neurosci. 25 10105–10118. Gould E and Tanapat P 1999 ...

  11. Photosynthesis and photoprotective systems of plants in response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-12-27

    Dec 27, 2010 ... al., 2008), photoprotective systems (Xiao et al., 2003a;. Chen et al., 2005a; Ali et al., .... et al., 1988) and soybean (Ying and Liu, 2005) and unaffected in beech ...... Goulding KW, Vitousek PM, Zhang FS (2010). Significant.

  12. Kevlar Vest Protection against Blast Overpressure Brain Injury: Systemic Contributions to Injury Etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    et al ., 1973; Saivin and Houin, 1988 ). Similar to its tetracycline analogs, the side...neuroinflammation and elevated CORT levels are known inhibitors of hippocampal de novo neurogen- esis (Cameron and Gould , 1994; Yu et al ., 2004; Montaron et al ...memory problems, increased anxi- ety, and depression (Gentilini et al ., 1985; Schoenhuber and Gentilini, 1988 ; Ponsford et al ., 1995). Blast

  13. Culture conditions for the production of a tannase of Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... hydrogen bonds in solutions (Spencer et al., 1988) resulting in the ... death at higher levels of intake (Garg et al., 1992; Makkar and Becker ..... Spencer CM, Cai Y, Martin R, Gaffney SH, Goulding PN, Magnolato D,. Lilley TH ...

  14. BKR 27(2) pp. 63-67 (Ejike et al)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi J. Olorunniji

    2015-06-30

    Jun 30, 2015 ... (Ejike and Ezeanyika, 2008; Bastien et al., 2014). The body mass index (BMI) is the .... Mei Z, Grummer-Strawm LM, Pietrobelli A, Goulding A,. Goran MI, Dietz WH. ... Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Am J Clin Nutr;.

  15. Influence of postnatal glucocorticoids on hippocampal-dependent learning varies with elevation patterns and administration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-22

    et al ., 1988 ; Bender et al ., 1991; Mrakotsky et al ., 2013), and there is evidence that effects can persist (Hitzert et al ., 2014; Lajic et al ...most frequently been observed in adults to correlate with changes in cognitive performance ( Gould et al ., 1999; Leuner et al ., 2006). As described... et al ., 1988 ) and Cavalieri methods (Gundersen et al ., 1988b) with

  16. Polymorphism in TNP-1 gene of Murrah buffalo bulls

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    different types of anomalies (Yadav et al., 1990), how- ever as ... processes of modification in mammals (Lewis et al,. 2003). ... (Dadoune et al., 1988, Hofmann et al., 1990). ..... Cho C, Jung-Ha H, Willis WD, Goulding EH, Stein P, Xu Z, Schultz.

  17. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Editorial. Biman Nath, Associate Editor. Everyone has embarrassing tales to hide. One of my most embarrassing stories is that I missed a lecture by Stephen Jay Gould in New Delhi when. I was a physics undergraduate student. My knowledge of biology was. (and still is) abysmal and I didn't care much about evolution. That.

  18. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | News

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 11. Issue front cover thumbnail Issue back cover thumbnail. Volume 7, Issue 11. November 2002, pages 1-102. pp 1-1 Editorial. Editorial · Biman Nath · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 2-5 Article-in-a-Box. Stephen Jay Gould: A View of Life.

  19. Renee M Borges

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renee M Borges · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 7 Issue 11 November 2002 pp 2-5 Article-in-a-Box. Stephen Jay Gould: A View of Life · Renee M Borges · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 10 Issue 7 July 2005 pp 21-33 General Article. Polemics and Synthesis: Ernst Mayr and Evolutionary Biology · Renee M Borges.

  20. Prey-predator dynamics in communities of culturable soil bacteria and protozoa: differential effects of mercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtze, M. S.; Ekelund, F.; Rasmussen, Lasse Dam

    2003-01-01

    CFUs on the general medium 1/100 tryptic soy agar (TSA) were significantly decreased when the soil had been amended with Hg. In contrast, no effect was seen on the number of CFUs on the Pseudomonas-specific medium Gould's S1 agar. Protozoan numbers estimated by the most probable number (MPN) method...

  1. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    After a doctorate in Paleontology (1967) at Columbia University, S J Gould went to Harvard where he spent the rest of his career, becoming the Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology in 1982. As a paleontologist, he was a specialist of gastropod molluscs from West Indies. But he soon became involved in broader and ...

  2. Safe Food (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-14

    A healthy diet is important, but if food is mishandled or improperly prepared, a wholesome meal can result in a severe illness. In this podcast, Dr. Hannah Gould discusses ways to avoid foodborne illnesses.  Created: 2/14/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 2/14/2013.

  3. Role of PTEN in the Tumor Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    themselves, as well as the matrix that holds these cells together. Because the entire system is so complex, we plan to study how the Pten gene behaves as...Rev. 17, 501-519 8. Gould HJ, Sutton BJ. (2008). IgE in allergy and asthma today. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 8, 205-217. 9. Granucci F, Petralia F, Urbano M

  4. Transgenic Rat Models for Breast Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    colleagues, Dr. Henry Pitot , an expert in hepatocarcinogenesis, and Dr. Michael Gould, an expert in breast cancer. Through our initial attempts at...974-978. 29. Dragan, Y.P. and H.C. Pitot . 1992. The role of the stages of initiation and promotion in phenotypic diversity during hepatocarcinogenesis

  5. Urban and rural land use in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez; Maya Quinones; Michael E. Jimenez

    2008-01-01

    We have developed three land use regions for Puerto Rico: Urban, Suburban, and Rural (Gould et al. 2008; Martinuzzi et al. 2007). These three regions can also be considered urban, densely-populated rural, and sparsely-populated rural or as urban and wildland with a wildland-urban interface. The suburban use is the most dynamic in terms of population growth and land...

  6. A Kantorovich-Stancu Type Generalization of Szasz Operators including Brenke Type Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Aktaş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a Kantorovich-Stancu type modification of a generalization of Szasz operators defined by means of the Brenke type polynomials and obtain approximation properties of these operators. Also, we give a Voronovskaya type theorem for Kantorovich-Stancu type operators including Gould-Hopper polynomials.

  7. Assessment of Reservoir Storage in a Semi-Arid Environment Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    For instance, the drainage patterns and hydrology of the Kano River had been ... also applied the Gould method to catchments in Botswana for estimating the .... up” up to 13 times to obtain the steady state solution given by the table 3 below.

  8. Uso de terreno urbano y rural en Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez; Maya Quinones; Michael E. Jimenez

    2008-01-01

    El Proyecto de Analisis de Gap de Puerto Rico (PRGAP) (Gould et al. 2008) desarrollo tres usos de terrenos para Puerto Rico: Urbano, Suburbano, y Rural (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). Estas regiones tambien pueden ser consideradas como urbano, densamente-poblado rural, y escasamente-poblado rural, o como urbano y area silvestre con una interfase de area silvestre-urbana. La...

  9. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    will roll along a surface by making incremental changes in its position of contact. ... no causal means for accounting for the macroevolutionary phenomena that ... Gould S J 1999c Dorothy, it's really Oz. A pro-creationist decision in Kansas is ...

  10. Spatial analysis of Puerto Rico's terrestrial protected areas [1:240 000

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Quinones; W.A. Gould; J. Castro-Prieto; S. Martinuzzi

    2013-01-01

    This research map describes Puerto Rico's terrestrial protected areas based on natural and anthropogenic elements of the landscape. We used geospatial data, i.e., land cover (Gould et al. 2007); urban, suburban, and rural settlements (Martinuzzi et al. 2008); and physiography to illustrate landscape elements and analyze what and how much is protected in Puerto...

  11. Darwin's Revolution in Thought: An Illustrated Lecture. Teaching Guide and Videotape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Stephen Jay

    "Darwin's Revolution in Thought" is Stephen Jay Gould's definitive treatise on Charles Darwin. This 50-minute classroom edition videotaped lecture is structured in the form of a paradox and three riddles about Darwin's life. Each is designed to shed light on one of the key features of the theory of natural selection, its philosophical…

  12. 76 FR 16434 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... C. Gould, Commandant (CG-5221), Attention MERPAC, U.S. Coast Guard, 2100 Second St., SW., STOP 7126.... merchant marine, including but not limited to training, qualifications, certification, documentation, and... Qualified Members of the Engine Department; and (4) one Pilot who represents the viewpoint of merchant...

  13. Campus and Capitol: Higher Education and the State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, W. John, Ed.

    Seven papers and an extensive annotated bibliography deal with the relationship of State and Federal government to higher education. The authors and titles of the papers are (1) Samuel B. Gould, "The University and State Government: Fears and Realities," (2) Daniel G. Aldrich, Jr., "Maintaining Institutional Identity and Autonomy in Coordinated…

  14. Where Death and Glory Meet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duncan, Russell

    Robert Gould Shaw was one of the most celebrated heroes of the American Civil War because of his position as Colonel of the North's first African-American regiment, his abolitionist family, his death on the parapets of Fort Wagner, and the monuments and poems praising his dedication to the equality...

  15. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 11. Stephen Jay Gould: A View of Life. Renee M Borges. Article-in-a-Box Volume 7 Issue 11 November 2002 pp 2-5. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/11/0002-0005 ...

  16. Chorisochismus dentex (Pisces: Gobiesocidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fish fauna, utilize more than the occasional small limpet, adult C. dentex may be the major fish predator on an other- wise seldom utilized food resource of the South African intertidal zone. Gould (1965) reported the presence of excretory capsules in the emerald clingfish, Acyrtops beryllinus (Hildebrand &. Ginsberg).

  17. Chemistry and Physics of Weakly Ionized Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    342 (Dec 2005). 96. Recent developments in the measurement of static electric dipole polarizabilities H. Gould and T. M. Miller Adv. At. Mol. Opt...119. Argon cluster-mediated isolation and vibrational spectra of peroxy and nominally D3h isomers of CO3ˉ and NO3ˉ R. Relph, J. C. Bopp, M. A

  18. Theoretical Analyses of the Functional Regions of the Heavy Chain of Botulinum Neurotoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    SE. Schulz GM. liallctt M. Effects of hb)tulinum toxin injections on speech in adductor spasmodic dysphonia . Neurology 1988,38:1220-1225. 3. Jankovic...hemifacial spasm. Mov Disord 1987:4:237-254. 5. Brin MF. Blitzer A, Fahn S, Gould W. Lovelace RE. Adductor laryngeal dystonia (spastic dysphonia ): treatment

  19. Analisis espacial de las areas protegidas terrestres de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Quinones; W.A. Gould; J. Castro-Prieto; S. Martinuzzi

    2013-01-01

    En este mapa de investigacion describimos las areas protegidas terrestres de Puerto Rico basado en elementos naturales y antropogenicos del paisaje. Utilizamos datos geoespaciales para calcular la extension y representatividad de elementos del paisaje dentro de las areas protegidas de Puerto Rico, i.e., cobertura del terreno (Gould et al. 2007), asentamientos urbanos...

  20. The mystery of the Gouldian birds: an ornithological detective story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güntert, M.; Steinheimer, F.D.; Gessner, S.

    2005-01-01

    While compiling a computer database of the avian specimens of the E.A. Goeldi collection a considerable number of skins with original labels from John Gould were discovered. In an earlier inventory they had been registered as part of the Goeldi collection, but as there was no apparent connection

  1. South African Crime Quarterly - Vol 32 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of Nigerians, albinos, satanists and anecdotes: A critical review of the HSRC report on human trafficking · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C Gould, M Richter, I Palmery, 37-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2413-3108/2010/v0i32a883 ...

  2. From Eden to Agora: The E-Learning Trading Zone | Sturm | Critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E-learning is not just a learning and teaching innovation; it also signals a shift in human cognition and communication. The lexicon of e-learning borrows from the barren lexicon of information science: of users, usage and usability (Gould and Lewis, 1985), or of information-seeking and affordances (Pirolli and Card, 1999).

  3. Biophysics of Water: A Working Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-15

    R.J.W. Hefford Royal Free Hospital Unilever Research London, England Port Sunlight, England C. Gabriel H.C. Hempling Queens College Med. Univ. of...Goodfellow J.F. Holzwarth Birkbeck College F. Haber Inst. Berlin London, England Berlin, W. Germany G.W. Gould E. Hagelberg Unilever Research Univ. of

  4. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 19. Type material from Japan in The Natural History Museum, Tring, U.K.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickinson, E.C.; Morioka, H.; Walters, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Natural History Museum, Tring, holds type material from Japan upon which names were based by Gould, Gurney, Hargitt, Ingram, Mathews, Oates, Seebohm, Sharpe, Swinhoe, Tristram and Vigors. In most cases selected types, which are not necessarily lectotypes, have been listed by Warren (1966) or

  5. Computational modeling and experimental studies on NO{sub x} reduction under pulverized coal combustion conditions. Third quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpaty, S.K.; Subramanian, K.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental plan outlining the first year`s activity was sent to Dr. Lori Gould, Project Officer/Contracting Officer`s Technical Representative on April 24, 1995. An approval was received with some questions on June 15, 1995. However, with some foresight of the director of the in-house combustion group of the PETC, Dr. Ekmann, a tentative hold-off on the purchase of the equipment was requested by the project officer on June 29, 1995. Enclosed with that request were some of Dr. Ekmann`s concerns. The research team spent the month of July in study of pertinent literature as well as in the preparation of the responses to Dr. Gould`s comments and Dr. Ekmann`s concerns. These responses included the choice of the reactor, reactor design, rate of gas heating, detailed test matrix and answers to host of other comments. Upon review of the above information submitted on July 24, 1995 by the Rust research team, the project officer called for a conference call on September 6, 1995 which involved the PI (Dr. Kumpaty), the research consultant (Mr. Subramanian), Dr. Gould and Dr. Ekmann. Dr. Ekmann insisted that further calculations be made on the rate of gas heating without taking radiation into account. Accordingly, calculations pertaining to the rate of gas heating based on convection were performed and submitted to Dr. Ekmann on September 13, 1995. This report contains the information emerged through the dialogue between the Rust College research team and the PETC represented by Dr. Gould and Dr. Ekmann during this quarter.

  6. Rearing and growth of the Octopus Robsonella fontaniana (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) from planktonic hatchlings to benthic juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte, Iker; Hernández, Jorge; Dörner, Jessica; Paschke, Kurt; Farías, Ana; Crovetto, Enzo; Rosas, Carlos

    2010-04-01

    Globally, octopus larviculture is one of the challenges faced in the attempt to diversify aquaculture and achieve cephalopod farming. Currently, only juveniles of Octopus vulgaris, Octopus joubini, and Enteroctopus dofleini have been obtained at an experimental level. This is the first study to look at the characteristics of planktonic and benthic Robsonella fontaniana juveniles in an effort to analyze the morphometric changes occurring during their planktonic and benthic phases and to explore the feasibility of obtaining settlement under controlled conditions. The morphometric measurements varied exponentially over time and did not show different tendencies before and after settlement. Mantle growth in relation to total length fit a logarithmic regression, whereas arm length and eye diameter increased linearly with respect to total length throughout the entire paralarval and juvenile periods. This suggests that the size of the mantle decreases with age in proportion to the total octopus length, whereas the organs more directly involved in catching prey tend to increase in direct proportion to the total length. The present study shows that R. fontaniana can be reared from hatching through the final paralarval stage on a diet of Lithodes santolla (king crab) zoeae; after settlement, the juveniles can be reared on a diet of crab such as Petrolisthes.

  7. S.J. Goulda koncepcja rozłącznych magisteriów nauki i wiary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Herda

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many different approaches to the problem of the relation between science and religion. It is often claimed that there exists a conflict between those two domains. However, S. J. Gould cannot see neither how the two enterprises can stay in any conflict nor how they can be reconciled or unified. He developed a concept of two Non-Overlapping Magisteria (NOMA. Gould claims that science and religion are characterized by completely different areas of investigation. The two magisteria ask different questions and provide different explanations. Science investigates the factual character of the natural world while religion explores the world of values, meanings and purposes of human life. One could say that this is a reasonable point of view, but at a closer glance it does not seem to be a satisfactory solution.

  8. Birds, Lower Sangay National Park, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara, E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sangay National Park is located at the mid-eastern Andean foothills of the Cordillera Oriental ofEcuador. We present a preliminary avifauna inventory corresponding to the lower zone of the Sangay NationalPark (SNP. One-hundred and twenty-seven bird species belonging to 39 families were recorded, includingnoteworthy records that represent range extensions for four species, Phaetornis hispidus (Gould 1846 (WhitebeardedHermit, Ramphastos ambiguus Swainson 1823 (Black-mandibled Toucan, Phylloscartes orbitalis(Cabanis 1873 (Spectacled Bristle Tyrant, and Microcerculus bambla (Boddaert 1783 (Wing-banded Wren.We also obtained information on threatened species such as Aburria aburri (Lesson 1828 (Wattled Guan,Phlogophilus hemileucurus Gould 1860 (Ecuadorian Piedtail, and Dendroica cerulea (Wilson 1810 (CeruleanWarbler and reproductive data on one species, Patagioenas speciosa (Gmelin 1789 (Scaled Pigeon. To ourknowledge this is a first ornithological survey carried out at this specific site of the SNP.

  9. Le contenu de l’indexical chez Heidegger et Wittgenstein

    OpenAIRE

    Gauvry, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Introduction « Celle-ci est exceptionnelle », commente un disquaire en désignant l’interprétation de 1955 des Variations Goldberg de Bach par Glenn Gould. « Elle est très différente de celle-là », poursuit-il, en désignant l’interprétation de 1981 des mêmes Variations par le même Glenn Gould. La détermination et la distinction de ces deux différents indexicaux, « celle-ci » et « celle-là », sont parfaitement efficaces si ces indexicaux s’adressent à un mélomane confirmé. Même s’il s’agit du m...

  10. The affective dimension of alliance in transactional analysis psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Johnsson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study describes an investigation of the significance of the affective dimension of the therapeutic alliance (Bordin 1979, in a psychodynamic form of transactional analysis therapy after the style of “Redecision therapy” (Goulding & Goulding, 1979. We explored the client’s pattern of affective relationships by use of CCRT (the Core Conflictual Relationship method, Luborsky & Crits-Christoph, 1990, 1998 and examined how the therapist responds to the client’s affective messages (“tests” by use of the Plan Diagnosis method (Weiss & Sampson, 1986. We found that “emotional” aspects play a more decisive role than has been envisioned in the TA redecision method and similar approaches of TA psychotherapy that emphasise contracts, tasks of therapy and a rational approach.

  11. SOLAR STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR ENVIRONMENT. I. LOCATION IN THE GALAXY AND CATALOGUES

    OpenAIRE

    Захожай, В. А.; Харьковский национальный университет им. В.Н.Каразина; Бабенко, М. А.; Херсонский государственный университет

    2016-01-01

    Structure of the solar neighborhoods (ten parsecs space, Local stellar system andthe Gould Belt), their place in the Galaxy and the distance from its center are analyzed. For the region within 10 pcfrom the Sun, except the stellar component, the contents of extrasolar planets and protoplanetary disks are presented.The catalogues of closest to Sun stars and substars that are compiled based on the results of ground-based and cosmic(HIPPARCOS) missions in the optical and infrared wavelengths ran...

  12. Insecticide susceptibility status of human biting mosquitoes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Matowo Pc

    91.5% (n=483) and An. funestus group was 8.5% (n=45). ..... Chitnis, N., Churcher, T., Donnelly, M.J., Ghani, A.C., Godfray, H.C.J., Gould, F., Hastings, ... Efficacy, persistence and vector susceptibility to pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic® 300CS) insecticide ... Macoris, M.L., Andrighetti, M.T.M., Wanderley, D.M.V. & Ribolla, P.E.M. ...

  13. Traps in Zirconium Alloys Oxide Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmar Frank

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxide films long-time grown on tubes of three types of zirconium alloys in water and in steam were investigated, by analysing I-V characteristic measured at constant voltages with various temperatures. Using theoretical concepts of Rose [3] and Gould [5], ZryNbSn(Fe proved to have an exponential distribution of trapping centers below the conduction band edge, wheras Zr1Nb and IMP Zry-4 proved to have single energy trap levels.

  14. Cooper Lake and Channels, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-01

    wintergrass (Gould, 1975). Much of the area, however, has been brought under cultivation and/or converted to tame pasture. (2) Forest trends. The total...bottomlands such as the shrew , and species primarily adapted to stream environments such as the bea- ver, mink, and river otter. The mink will continue to...DEVELOPED FOR PREPARATION OF THE EIS. ADDITIONAL iNFORMATION AVAILABLE AT US ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT, POST OFFICE BOX 60267, NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA

  15. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 20, Number 3, Issue 67, October 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    National Security and Resource Strategy Dr. Keith Snider Naval Postgraduate School Dr. John Snoderly Defense Acquisition University Dr. David M. Tate... David M. Van Buren on our Research Advisory Board. Second, Mr. Jerry Vandewiele has replaced Dr. Don McKeon as the DAU Midwest representative on our...planning in particular—and has proven its value (Barzelay & Campbell, 2003; Berman & West, 1998; Berry & Wechsler , 1995; Boyne & Gould-Williams

  16. Influence of environmental settings on the prevalence of Trichodesmium spp. in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hegde, S.; Anil, A.C.; Patil, J.S.; Mitbavkar, S.; Venkat, K.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.

    ) Influence of physical pro- cesses and freshwater discharge on the seasonality of phytoplankton regime in the Bay of Bengal. Cont Shelf Res 20:313–330 Gordon AL (2001) Interocean exchange. In: Sidler G, Church J, Gould J (eds) Ocean circulation and climate...: acanil@nio.org Influence of environmental settings on the prevalence of Trichodesmium spp. in the Bay of Bengal Sahana Hegde, Arga Chandrashekar Anil*, Jagadish S. Patil, Smita Mitbavkar, Venkat Krishnamurthy, Vissa V. Gopalakrishna National Institute...

  17. Differences among Myopes, Emmetropes, and Hyperopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    parasympathetic activity (see Wenger & Cullen, 1965). The second index, Cw, is a coherence statistic (a normalized function with values ranging between zero...farther distances. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The literature search and the statistical analyses presented in this report were conducted at New Mexico State...in infant and child. New York: Paul B. Hoeber, 1949. Gould, G. M. Diagnosis, diseases and therapeutics of ametropia . British Journal of Ophthalmology

  18. On Pecuniary Resiliency, Early Warning, and Market Imitation under Unrestricted Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    combatants, and civilians. The term was first used by American analysts in 1989 as Lind et . al . [37] to describe the return of warfare to a decentralized...Century. New York: Free, 1988 . Print. [22] Gould , Stephen, and Eldredge Niles. “Punctuated Equilibria: The Tempo and Mode of Evolution Reconsidered...able to take a punch.” He specifically argues that Al Qaeda and other terrorist organizations have limited resources to plan and carry out attacks and

  19. Characterization and Detection of Vector-borne Diseases in Endemic Transmission Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-18

    Achee NL, Gould F, Perkins TA, Reiner RC, Jr., Morrison AC, et al . 2015. A critical assessment of vector control for dengue prevention. PLoS Negl Trop...Beier JC, Perkins PV, Onyango F, et al . 1988 . Identification of malaria species by ELISA in sporozoite and oocyst infected Anopheles from western...for the detection of low-level parasitemias of a single malaria parasite species, Demas et al . demonstrated that alternative gene targets may be more

  20. Antarctica: intellectual Armistice Since 1961

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    www.uscg.mil/hq/cg5/cg552/images/20140626%20Major%20Icebreaker%20Chart.pdf. 99 Ibid. 100 K. Zacny et al ., “Lunar Vader,” Journal of Aerospace...Data Center (NSIDC) have documented the impacts of climate change since 1988 and 1982 respectively...the 1961 Antarctic Treaty ratification hearings. Dr. Laurence Gould , a leading US geologist who accompanied Admiral Byrd on his 1957 Antarctic

  1. The Air Force Fitness Test: Creating New Fitness Assessment Charts Using Waist to Height Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    Cureton et al ., 1979; Jette et al ., 1990; Vogel and Friedl, Chapter 6; Jones, Bovee, and Knapick, 1992). Jones, Bovee, and Knapick found in a study...research report, No. 2654-74, Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell AFB AL , May 1974. Taylor, R. W., Jones, I. E., Williams, S. M., & Goulding , A...from AFFMS (Callendar, 2004; Knapik, Ang, Reynolds, and Jones, 1993; Knapik, Sharp, Canham-Chervak, Hauret, Patton, Jones, 2001; Mello and Murphy, 1988

  2. Again and Again and Again. Music as site, situation and repetition

    OpenAIRE

    Buene, Eivind

    2018-01-01

    Contents. - Introduction. - Excavation, Exhumation, Autopsy. The Symphony Orchestra as Site. - Body and Site. Reading Kwon, thinking of Gould. - Brief Note on Repetition. - Critical Music? A spanner in the works. - Brief Note on Infinite Endings. - Delirious Brahms. Investigating the music chamber. - Brief note on Hacktivism. - Posthumous Passions. A different perspective. - Brief Note on Transcription. - ‘Smart critiques. Stupid creates’, Part 1. - ‘Smart critiques. Stupid creates’, Part 2. ...

  3. Chloroplast genes are expressed during intracellular symbiotic association of Vaucheria litorea plastids with the sea slug Elysia chlorotica.

    OpenAIRE

    Mujer, C V; Andrews, D L; Manhart, J R; Pierce, S K; Rumpho, M E

    1996-01-01

    The marine slug Elysia chlorotica (Gould) forms an intracellular symbiosis with photosynthetically active chloroplasts from the chromophytic alga Vaucheria litorea (C. Agardh). This symbiotic association was characterized over a period of 8 months during which E. chlorotica was deprived of V. litorea but provided with light and CO2. The fine structure of the symbiotic chloroplasts remained intact in E. chlorotica even after 8 months of starvation as revealed by electron microscopy. Southern b...

  4. Mercury affects the distribution of culturable species of Pseudomonas in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtze, Maria Sommer; Nielsen, Preben; Ekelund, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    Pseudomonas bacteria isolated during 52 days on Gould's S1 agar from soil spiked with 0, 3.5 and 15 mg Hg(II) kg soil(-1) were characterised to reveal whether mercury affected them differently. Isolates from the treatments with 0 and 15 mg Hg kg(-1) were characterised using FT-IR characterisation...... was almost exclusively restricted to P. frederiksbergensis and P. migulae groups. We conclude that Hg caused a shift in the dominating species of culturable Pseudomonas....

  5. Thermal conduction by dark matter with velocity and momentum-dependent cross-sections

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Aaron C.; Scott, Pat

    2013-01-01

    We use the formalism of Gould and Raffelt to compute the dimensionless thermal conduction coefficients for scattering of dark matter particles with standard model nucleons via cross-sections that depend on the relative velocity or momentum exchanged between particles. Motivated by models invoked to reconcile various recent results in direct detection, we explicitly compute the conduction coefficients $\\alpha$ and $\\kappa$ for cross-sections that go as $v_{\\rm rel}^2$, $v_{\\rm rel}^4$, $v_{\\rm...

  6. Proceedings of the Air Force Forum for Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Science Air Force Summer Study on Fault Isolation in Air Force Weapons and Support Systems. He is an expert in simulation-oriented computer-based...Tutoring (Collins, 1976.) Reprinted with permission of Lawrence Erlbauni Assoc., Inc., Publishers, ( 1976. It should be clear that understanding natural...Grignetti, M., Hausman , C., & Gould, L. (1975). An intelligent on-line assistant and tutor: NLS-Scholar. In Proceedings of the National Computer

  7. SGLIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.; Murphy, J.; Frank, K.

    1987-01-01

    The Scientific Graphics Library (SGLIB) is the most commonly used graphics library at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). It is derived from the PLOT-10/Advanced Graphing library purchased from Tektronix, Inc, for the 40xx class of terminals. SGLIB is available on the PPPL VAX cluster, the microVAXes, and the Gould/SEL system. This paper describes the version used on the VAXes, including the microVAXes

  8. Astrophysical Applications of Gravitational Lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Muñoz, Jose A.; Garzón, Francisco; Mahoney, Terence J.

    2016-10-01

    Contributors; Participants; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Lensing basics Sherry H. Suyu; 2. Exoplanet microlensing Andrew Gould; 3. Case studies of microlensing Veronica Motta and Emilio Falco; 4. Microlensing of quasars and AGN Joachim Wambsganss; 5. DM in clusters and large-scale structure Peter Schneider; 6. The future of strong lensing Chris Fassnacht; 7. Methods for strong lens modelling Charles Keeton; 8. Tutorial on inverse ray shooting Jorge Jimenez-Vicente.

  9. Birds, Lower Sangay National Park, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara, E.; Santander, T.; Guevara, J. E.; Gualotuña, R.; Ortiz, V.

    2010-01-01

    Sangay National Park is located at the mid-eastern Andean foothills of the Cordillera Oriental of Ecuador. We present a preliminary avifauna inventory corresponding to the lower zone of the Sangay National Park (SNP). One-hundred and twenty-seven bird species belonging to 39 families were recorded, including noteworthy records that represent range extensions for four species, Phaetornis hispidus (Gould 1846) (White-bearded Hermit), Ramphastos ambiguus Swainson 1823 (Black-mandibled Toucan), P...

  10. Common Proper Motion Companions to Nearby Stars: Ages and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    supplying the stars with NIR magnitudes from 2MASS . This allowed Gould & Chaname (2004) to estimate, for the first time, trigonometric parallaxes of...sup- plemented by BVR optical photometry, mainly from USNO-B, and JHK near-IR photometry from 2MASS . This catalog covers the entire magnitude range...for the Schmidt plate data used in the USNO-B catalog, with possible local offsets up to about 300 mas. Systematic errors in UCAC2 and 2MASS are much

  11. Tunable Optical Delay in Doppler-Broadened Cesium Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    REFERENCE: 36 % [1] J. M. Amini and H. Gould 37 % High Precision Measurement of the Static Dipole Polarizability of Cs 38 % Phys. Rev. Lett., American... polarizability of cesium. Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (15), 153001. Andalkar, A. and R. B. Warrington (2002, Feb). High-resolution measurement of the pressure...Physics Publishing. Morgus, L., T. Morgus, T. Drake, and J. Huennekens (2008). Hyperfine state- changing collisions of Cs (6p1/2) atoms with argon

  12. Correlation of Soot Formation in Turbojet Engines and in Laboratory Flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    TURBOJET ENGINES AND IN LABORATORY FLAMES o. . LSO[ lVEl . 7 R. K. GOULD !i~0 B ~. OLSON AERH. EM R"&OESERHLBRTREIC P.O. BOX 12 PRINCETON, NJ 08540 DT I C...than one variable is a true impro.,nent or simply a mathematical artifact. Such an examination is not -iic luded, but it seems likely that only in the

  13. Application of the EDYS Model to Evaluate Control Methods for Invasive Plants at Fort Carson, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    increase fire frequency, reduce recreational opportunities, and can poison domestic animals. It is imperative to find economical , ecologically sound...Technology 15:257-269. Childress, W. Michael, Terry McLendon, and David L. Price. 1999a. A Multiscale Ecological Model for Allocation of Training...of some ecologically distinct plant species to nitrate and to ammonium nitrogen. Journal of Ecology 60: 93-102. Gould, Frank W. 1975. The Grasses

  14. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Novel Substituted Ethyl 2-(Quinolin-4-yl-propanoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Substituted 4-hydroxyquinolines were synthesized from anilines and diethyl 2-(ethoxymethylenemalonate by the Gould-Jacobs reaction via cyclization of the intermediate anilinomethylenemalonate followed by hydrolysis and decarboxylation. The 4-hydroxyquinolines reacted with phosphorous oxychloride to form 4-chloroquinolines, which reacted on heating with diethyl sodiomethylmalonate in DMF to yield moderate yields of substituted ethyl 2-(quinolin-4-ylpropanoates, many of which showed potent antimicrobial activity against Helicobacter pylori.

  15. Ethical Behavior and Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior Applied to the Decision to Obtain Professional Credentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    D.R. Forsyth in 1980, the questionnaire measures individual moral philosophy, broken down into two dimensions: idealism and relativism . Individual...person’s IMP provides guidelines for moral judgments and prescribes actions in ethical dilemmas. Idealism and 19 relativism are two primary constructs...Gould, 2008). While Relativism refers to the extent to which individuals reject universal moral rules (e.g., ‘never lie or cheat’, ‘abide

  16. Exaptation in human evolution: how to test adaptive vs exaptive evolutionary hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pievani, Telmo; Serrelli, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    Palaeontologists, Stephen J. Gould and Elisabeth Vrba, introduced the term "ex-aptation" with the aim of improving and enlarging the scientific language available to researchers studying the evolution of any useful character, instead of calling it an "adaptation" by default, coming up with what Gould named an "extended taxonomy of fitness". With the extension to functional co-optations from non-adaptive structures ("spandrels"), the notion of exaptation expanded and revised the neo-Darwinian concept of "pre-adaptation" (which was misleading, for Gould and Vrba, suggesting foreordination). Exaptation is neither a "saltationist" nor an "anti-Darwinian" concept and, since 1982, has been adopted by many researchers in evolutionary and molecular biology, and particularly in human evolution. Exaptation has also been contested. Objections include the "non-operationality objection".We analyze the possible operationalization of this concept in two recent studies, and identify six directions of empirical research, which are necessary to test "adaptive vs. exaptive" evolutionary hypotheses. We then comment on a comprehensive survey of literature (available online), and on the basis of this we make a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the adoption of the term among scientists who study human evolution. We discuss the epistemic conditions that may have influenced the adoption and appropriate use of exaptation, and comment on the benefits of an "extended taxonomy of fitness" in present and future studies concerning human evolution.

  17. Individual prey choices of octopuses: Are they generalist or specialist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. MATHER, Tatiana S. LEITE, Allan T. BATISTA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Prey choice is often evaluated at the species or population level. Here, we analyzed the diet of octopuses of different populations with the aim to assess the importance of individual feeding habits as a factor affecting prey choice. Two methods were used, an assessment of the extent to which an individual octopus made choices of species representative of those population (PSi and IS and 25% cutoff values for number of choices and percentage intake of individual on their prey. In one population of Octopus cf vulgaris in Bermuda individuals were generalist by IS=0.77, but most chose many prey of the same species, and were specialists on it by >75% intake. Another population had a wider prey selection, still generalist with PSi=0.66, but two individuals specialized by choices. In Bonaire, there was a wide range of prey species chosen, and the population was specialists by IS= 0.42. Individual choices revealed seven specialists and four generalists. A population of Octopus cyanea in Hawaii all had similar choices of crustaceans, so the population was generalist by IS with 0.74. But by individual choices, three were considered a specialist. A population of Enteroctopus dofleini from Puget Sound had a wide range of preferences, in which seven were also specialists, IS=0.53. By individual choices, thirteen were also specialists. Given the octopus specialty of learning during foraging, we hypothesize that both localized prey availability and individual personality differences could influence the exploration for prey and this translates into different prey choices across individuals and populations showed in this study [Current Zoology 58 (4: 597-603, 2012].

  18. Beam--plasma instabilities and the beam--plasma discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, P.J.; Boswell, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Using a new electron gun, a number of measurements bearing on the generation of beam--plasma discharge (BPD) in WOMBAT (waves on magnetized beams and turbulence) [R. W. Boswell and P. J. Kellogg, Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 565 (1983)] have been made. A beam--plasma discharge is an rf discharge in which the rf fields are provided by instabilities [W. D. Getty and L. D. Smullin, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3421 (1963)]. The new gun has a narrower divergence angle than the old, and comparison of the BPD thresholds for the two guns verifies that the BPD ignition current is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the plasma. The high-frequency instabilities, precursors to the BPD, are identified with the two Trivelpiece--Gould modes [A. W. Trivelpiece and R. W. Gould, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 1784 (1959)]. Which frequency appears depends on the neutral pressure. The measured frequencies are not consistent with the simple interpretation of the lower frequency as a Cerenkov resonance with the low-Trivelpiece--Gould mode; it must be a cyclotron resonance. As is generally true in such beam--plasma interaction experiments, strong low-frequency waves appear at currents far below those necessary for BPD ignition. These low-frequency waves are shown to control the onset of the high-frequency precursors to the BPD. A mechanism for this control is suggested, which involves the conversion of a convective instability to an absolute one by trapping of the unstable waves in the density perturbations of the low-frequency waves. This process greatly reduces the current necessary for BPD ignition

  19. Modes in a nonneutral plasma column of finite length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasband, S. Neil; Spencer, Ross L.

    2002-01-01

    A Galerkin, finite-element, nonuniform mesh computation of the mode equation for waves in a non-neutral plasma of finite length in a Cold-Fluid model gives an accurate calculation of the mode eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions. We report on studies of the following: (1) finite-length Trivelpiece-Gould modes with flat-top and realistic density profiles, (2) finite-length diocotron modes with flat density profiles. We compare with the frequency equation of Fine and Driscoll [Phys Plasmas 5, 601 (1998)

  20. ORIGINE E FUNZIONI DELLA TECNOLOGIA CORPOREA DEL LINGUAGGIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennisi Antonino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis of this paper is the need of a new formulation of the question of the origin of human verbal language starting from the concept of “technology”. The paper has a regard for the possible definition of human language as “species-specific” body technology applied to particular needs. So, not only the language but the whole body results a technology: thus the author reads the question of Exaptation by Gould and Vrba. So, the human verbal language represents a “speech-making technology” just like the “tool-making technology”, and both evolved for the same social tasks.

  1. The Frenkel Kontorova Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floría, L. M.; Baesens, C.; Gómez-Gardeñes, J.

    In the preface to his monograph on the structure of Evolutionary Theory [1], the late professor Stephen Jay Gould attributes to the philosopher Immanuel Kant the following aphorism in Science Philosophy: "Percepts without concepts are blind; concepts without percepts are empty". Using with a bit of freedom these Kantian terms, one would say that a scientific model is a framework (or network) of interrelated concepts and percepts where experts build up scientific consistent explanations of a given set of observations. Good models are those which are both, conceptually simple and universal in their perceptions. Let us illustrate with examples the meaning of this statement.

  2. Radial and axial compression of pure electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.; Soga, Y.; Mihara, Y.; Takeda, M.; Kamada, K.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies are carried out on compression of the density distribution of a pure electron plasma confined in a Malmberg-Penning Trap in Kanazawa University. More than six times increase of the on-axis density is observed under application of an external rotating electric field that couples to low-order Trivelpiece-Gould modes. Axial compression of the density distribution with the axial length of a factor of two is achieved by controlling the confining potential at both ends of the plasma. Substantial increase of the axial kinetic energy is observed during the axial compression. (author)

  3. The Ecology of the Cambrian Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Derek E. G.

    The Cambrian radiation is one of the most exciting and controversial events in the fossil record. It was marked by a sudden abundance of shells, the first steep rise in plots of diversity through time, and the appearance of the fabulous soft-bodied fossils of the Burgess Shale in British Columbia and elsewhere in the world. The Cambrian radiation was also the subject of Steve Gould's Wonderful Life and Simon Conway Morris's Crucible of Creation.. The Ecology of the Cambrian Radiation is a long-awaited compilation that tackles one of the more impenetrable parts of the story. Interpretations of ecology are, after all, characteristically equivocal in rocks of this age.

  4. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    This is the first annual report describing progress in the 33-month cooperative program between Argonne National Laboratory and Gould Inc.'s Nickel-Zinc/Electric Vehicle Project. The purpose of the program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of the nickel-zinc battery for electric vehicle propulsion. The successful completion of the program will qualify the nickel-zinc battery for use in the Department of Energy's demonstration program under the auspices of Public Law 94-413.

  5. Adaptación e implementación de un programa de intervención en la escuela a través de la educación física: el programa de responsabilidad personal y social

    OpenAIRE

    Marín Suelves, Diana

    2011-01-01

    En las últimas décadas ha aumentado en los padres y educadores la preocupación por el fracaso escolar y la violencia (DeBusk y Hellison, 1989; Fraser- Thomas, Côté y Deakin, 2005; Hawkins, Catalano, Kosterman, Abbot y Hill, 1999). Por ello han surgido programas para mejorar las competencias personales y sociales de sus participantes (Brustad y Parker, 2005; Gould y Carson, 2008) mediante la actividad física y el deporte (Martinek y Hellison, 1997; Petitpas, Cornelius, Van Raalt...

  6. Management and the Executive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    8217RDUCTION TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR. 2nd ed. New York, NY: fk; Graw -Hill, 1982. 590 p. HD 31 .M478 1982 (182) Mitroff, Ian I. STAKEHOIDERS OF THE...ROPES TO KNOW: STUDIES IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR. 2nd ed. Columbus, OH: Grid Pub., 1982. 290 p. HD 58.7 .R57 1982 (216) Robbins, Stephen ...34 Stephen J. Carroll and Dennis J. Gillen. W-ADEMY OF MANAGT REVIEN 12:38-51, January 1987 (290) 1 ( "Axe You Firing Talented nagers?" Richard Gould

  7. Modeling laser brightness from cross porro prism resonators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available , independent of the angle of incidence. Thus an initial planar wavefront remains planar after reflection. This property was initially exploited in Michelson interferometers to relax the tolerances on mis-alignment, and then proposed in 1962 by Gould et al1... 20 25 30 35 0 20 40 60 80 100 Prism Angle (Degrees) Nu mb er o f P et als divisions. These relationships lead to the following equation for the allowed angles of rotation of the prism edges relative to one another for repeatability...

  8. The Production and Study of Cold Antiprotons and Antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-03

    Grafström, R. Hagel- berg, G. Kessler, and et al ., Phys. Lett. B 237, 303 (1990). [8] C. Zimmermann and T. Hänsch, Hyperfine Interact. 76, 47 (1993). [9...C. Parthey, A. Matveev, J. Alnis, B. Bernhardt, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, A. Maistrou, R. Pohl, K. Pre- dehl, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, et al ...D. Lett, R. N. Watts, C. I. Westbrook, W. D. Phillips, P. L. Gould , and H. J. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 169 ( 1988 ). [15] J. Walz and T. Hänsch

  9. Russian Compliance with the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-27

    February 25, 2014. See also, Rubio et al ., S.Con.Res. 34, letters cited in H.R. 1960, §1055, para 7. 8 U.S. House, Committee on Armed Services. Letter...New York Times, October 19, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/20/world/europe/russia-missiles-inf-treaty.html. 6 Joe Gould , “U.S. Lawmakers Urge...National Security Strategy of the United States, White House, January 1988 , p. 16. 13 Article V states, “The Parties agree that an armed attack

  10. SCI-Clone/32 - a distributed real time simulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilks, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    Advances in engineering and in particular digital computers has enabled the simulation manufacturers to deliver a realism of a kind undreamt of a decade ago. 32-bit computers ranging in processor power from several hundred thousand instructions per second to many millions are at the heart of each simulator. Gould has pioneered digital computers in simulation with real time systems using shared memory, parallel processors, 64KByte cache, and shadow memory. The market is planning for higher iteration rates, lower life cycle costs, and the development of part task products. These can be met by distributing the tasks amongst nodal computers having a unique architecture for sharing data variables with minimal contention. (Auth.)

  11. A review of selected candidate endophenotypes for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Brandon L; Klein, Daniel N

    2014-07-01

    Endophenotypes are proposed to occupy an intermediate position in the pathway between genotype and phenotype in genetically complex disorders such as depression. To be considered an endophenotype, a construct must meet a set of criteria proposed by Gottesman and Gould (2003). In this qualitative review, we summarize evidence for each criterion for several putative endophenotypes for depression: neuroticism, morning cortisol, frontal asymmetry of cortical electrical activity, reward learning, and biases of attention and memory. Our review indicates that while there is strong support for some depression endophenotypes, other putative endophenotypes lack data or have inconsistent findings for core criteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Declan FAHY (2015), The New Celebrity Scientists. Out of the Lab and into the Limelight

    OpenAIRE

    Fines-Neuschild, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    The New Celebrity Scientists est le premier ouvrage de Declan Fahy. Il y fait le portrait de huit scientifiques en suivant leur parcours jusqu’à la célébrité et présente l’influence de leurs propos sur les politiques publiques. De ces huit scientifiques, trois sont physiciens : Stephen Hawking, Brian Greene et Neil de Grasse Tyson. Sont aussi présentés Richard Dawkins, biologiste, Steven Pinker, psychologue cognitiviste, Stephen Jay Gould, paléontologue, Susan Greenfield, pharmacologue, et Ja...

  13. The Green Bank Ammonia Survey: Dense Cores under Pressure in Orion A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Helen; Di Francesco, James [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Rd, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Friesen, Rachel K. [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada); Pineda, Jaime E.; Caselli, Paola; Alves, Felipe O.; Chacón-Tanarro, Ana; Punanova, Anna [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Offner, Stella S. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Matzner, Christopher D.; Singh, Ayushi [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Myers, Philip C.; Chen, How-Huan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chen, Michael Chun-Yuan; Keown, Jared [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Rd., Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2 (Canada); Seo, Young Min [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Shirley, Yancy [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ginsburg, Adam [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Hall, Christine [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); and others

    2017-09-10

    We use data on gas temperature and velocity dispersion from the Green Bank Ammonia Survey and core masses and sizes from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Gould Belt Survey to estimate the virial states of dense cores within the Orion A molecular cloud. Surprisingly, we find that almost none of the dense cores are sufficiently massive to be bound when considering only the balance between self-gravity and the thermal and non-thermal motions present in the dense gas. Including the additional pressure binding imposed by the weight of the ambient molecular cloud material and additional smaller pressure terms, however, suggests that most of the dense cores are pressure-confined.

  14. A new species of Nassarius (Gastropoda, Nassariidae from Canopus Bank, off Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Abbate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nassarius levis sp. nov. is described from Canopus Bank, off Ceará, Northeast Brazil, based on shell morphology. It differs from other Brazilian species of the genus in having a more elongate shell, with a weakly developed parietal shield and a notably smooth surface. This last trait has not yet been described among the Western Atlantic Nassarius, but it is common to other congeners from the Eastern Atlantic, such as Nassarius elatus (Gould, 1845 and the Indo-Pacific, such as Nassarius excellens (Kuroda & Habe, 1961.

  15. The Green Bank Ammonia Survey: Dense Cores under Pressure in Orion A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, Helen; Di Francesco, James; Friesen, Rachel K.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Caselli, Paola; Alves, Felipe O.; Chacón-Tanarro, Ana; Punanova, Anna; Rosolowsky, Erik; Offner, Stella S. R.; Matzner, Christopher D.; Singh, Ayushi; Myers, Philip C.; Chen, How-Huan; Chen, Michael Chun-Yuan; Keown, Jared; Seo, Young Min; Shirley, Yancy; Ginsburg, Adam; Hall, Christine

    2017-01-01

    We use data on gas temperature and velocity dispersion from the Green Bank Ammonia Survey and core masses and sizes from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Gould Belt Survey to estimate the virial states of dense cores within the Orion A molecular cloud. Surprisingly, we find that almost none of the dense cores are sufficiently massive to be bound when considering only the balance between self-gravity and the thermal and non-thermal motions present in the dense gas. Including the additional pressure binding imposed by the weight of the ambient molecular cloud material and additional smaller pressure terms, however, suggests that most of the dense cores are pressure-confined.

  16. Brief Survey of Operational Decision Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    Crosn Salps -KxtocnaI (T,i-l!ltiTcr>. (T.C.D) Sales DoductLotis (T,C,r)) Net Sains (T,(J,D) Cost of Good;! Sold <T,C,D) Cross...plan. The data displays stimulated officer insights on zone accessibility, neighborhood characteristics, travel time, and personnel and equipment...at AIRMICS, or ten days. Travel will be as follows: Q) One trip to Ft. l.ee, VA of 1-2 days duration:€)0ne trip to Gould Corp. Chicago, (2> One

  17. Development of a Distributed Nutrient Sub-Model (NSM Version 1.0) for Watersheds - Kinetic Process Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Broad Crested Weir 0.70 to 0.90 Sharp Crested Weir with Straight Slope Face 1.05 Sharp Crested Weir with Vertical Face 0.80 Sluice Gates with...Reaeration by turbulent flow over a dam Reaeration will occur when water falls over a dam, weir , or other structure in the stream. The amount of reaeration...Goulding. 1995. Phosphorus leaching from soils containing different phosphorus concentrations in the Broad - balk experiment. J. Environ. Qual. 24:904–910

  18. Medical Entomology Studies - IX. The Subgenus Christophersiomyia of the Genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 14, Number 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    22-VI-1975, Peyton and Huang), 3d, 3$ terminalia. THAILAND. Chiang Mai . Chiang Mai (25-V-1952, D. C. and E. B. Thurman), Id, ld terminalia; Doi...the labels with pinned adults from Cambodia read “repos sous bois” and “cascade, for& ” Adults also have been taken at light traps in Chiang Mai , Thailand...Lahore District (1962, D. J. Gould), 17?. THAILAND. Chiang Mai . Hoad, Huay Mae Lon (8-X-1963, Neely, Oonruan and Sahem), 6d, 6d terminalia, 5?, 3

  19. IAA : Información y actualidad astronómica (29)

    OpenAIRE

    Toro, José Carlos del; López de Lacalle, Silbia; Claret dos Santos, Antonio; García, Emilio José; Alberdi, Antxón; Garrido, Rafael; Gorosabel, Javier; Márquez, Isabel; Jaramillo, José Luis; Santos Sanz, Pablo; Osorio, Mayra

    2009-01-01

    Sumario : Sunrise, una aventura polar.-- Nuestra tormentosa estrella.-- ¿Son válidos los modelos de atmósferas estelares?.-- ¿Viajaremos más rápido que la luz?.-- HISTORIAS DE ASTRONOMÍA. Últimas tardes con Hipatia.-- DECONSTRUCCIÓN Y otros ENSAYOS. Edwin Hubble.-- EL “MOBY DICK” DE... Antxon Alberdi (IAA-CSIC).-- ACTUALIDAD.-- Betelgeuse en ebullición.-- ¿Qué supone el hallazgo de glicina en el cometa 81P/Wild?.-- ¿Existe el cinturón de Gould?.-- Cosmología d...

  20. Universe in creation a new understanding of the Big Bang and the emergence of life

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Roy G

    2018-01-01

    We know the universe has a history, but does it also have a story of self-creation to tell? Yes, in Roy R. Gould's account. He offers a compelling narrative of how the universe with no instruction other than its own laws evolved into billions of galaxies and gave rise to life, including humans who have been trying for millennia to comprehend it. Far from being a random accident, the universe is hard at work, extracting order from chaos. Making use of the best current science, Gould turns what many assume to be true about the universe on its head. The cosmos expands inward, not outward. Gravity can drive things apart, not merely together. And the universe seems to defy entropy as it becomes more ordered, rather than the other way around. Strangest of all, the universe is exquisitely hospitable to life, despite its being constructed from undistinguished atoms and a few unexceptional rules of behavior. Universe in Creation explores whether the emergence of life, rather than being a mere cosmic afterthought, may...

  1. Two new species of Brueelia Kéler, 1936 (Ischnocera, Philopteridae parasitic on Neotropical trogons (Aves, Trogoniformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Valim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Brueelia are described and illustrated. These new species and their type hosts are: Brueelia sueta ex Pharomachrus pavoninus (Spix, 1824, the Pavonine Quetzal and Brueelia cicchinoi ex Trogon viridis Linnaeus, the White-tailed Trogon. Both new species differ from the only Brueelia described on Trogon mexicanus by many morphological features, including those present in the male genitalia and female vulvar margin. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene for these two new species differ from one another by 13.6% uncorrected p-distance. Whereas B. cicchinoi is only 0.3% divergent from previously published COI sequences identified as Brueelia sp. from the Mexican T. melanocephalus Gould, 1936 and T. massena Gould, 1938. We also found B. cicchinoi on T. melanurus, T. collaris and Pharomachrus pavoninus. Thus B. cicchinoi is found on multiple trogoniform hosts across an extremely large geographic distribution and has one of the largest number of host associations among Brueelia species.

  2. Two new species of Brueelia Kéler, 1936 (Ischnocera, Philopteridae) parasitic on Neotropical trogons (Aves, Trogoniformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Michel P; Weckstein, Jason D

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of Brueelia are described and illustrated. These new species and their type hosts are: Brueelia sueta ex Pharomachrus pavoninus (Spix, 1824), the Pavonine Quetzal and Brueelia cicchinoi ex Trogon viridis Linnaeus, the White-tailed Trogon. Both new species differ from the only Brueelia described on Trogon mexicanus by many morphological features, including those present in the male genitalia and female vulvar margin. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene for these two new species differ from one another by 13.6% uncorrected p-distance. Whereas Brueelia cicchinoi is only 0.3% divergent from previously published COI sequences identified as Brueelia sp. from the Mexican Trogon melanocephalus Gould, 1936 and Trogon massena Gould, 1938. We also found Brueelia cicchinoi on Trogon melanurus, Trogon collaris and Pharomachrus pavoninus. Thus Brueelia cicchinoi is found on multiple trogoniform hosts across an extremely large geographic distribution and has one of the largest number of host associations among Brueelia species.

  3. TFTR CAMAC instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Gatto, H.J.; Bradish, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The TFTR Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) system makes extensive use of CAMAC equipment. The system consists of eight CAMAC highways operating from eight Gould 75/32 computers. Links up to 3.5 miles in length with more than fifty CAMAC crates have been implemented and are currently in use. Data transfer along the highway is implemented in bit serial format. The link speed is run at 5MHz. The length and complexity of the link requires the reformatting of the NRZ input/output format of the L-2 crate controller. U-Port adapter modules are used to interface the modified serial highway to the L-2 controllers. The modified serial highway uses a transmission technique that requires the distribution of both Bi-Phase encoded data and a 5MHz clock. The Serial Driver interfaces to the GOULD computer through use of a High Speed Data (HSD) interface board which attaches to the computers internal bus. All transfers to and from the computer are accomplished by direct memory access (DMA). In addition to the standard CAMAC link the system also includes a Block Transfer (BT) system. This system provides an alternate path for transferring data between the computers and the CAMAC modules. The BT system is interfaced to the host computers through HSD boards and to the CAMAC crates through use of an auxiliary crate controllers

  4. Recycling abandoned lead battery sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    In the past, automobile batteries were recycled principally for their lead content. The waste generated at battery wrecking facilities consisted of spent acid, crushed casings (ebonite and plastic), and where secondary smelting was involved, matte, slag, and carbon from the smelting process. These waste products were generally disposed in an on-site in a landfill or stored in piles. If the facility shut down because further commercial operations were not financially viable, the waste piles remained to be addressed at a later date through remedial action or reclamation programs. There are many of these facilities in the US. Nationally, about 28 sites have been discovered by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Superfund program and are under investigation or administrative orders for remedial action. A major remediation effort is now underway at the Gould Superfund Site in Portland, Oregon, which was operated as a secondary smelting facility between 1949 and 1981. This paper describes the nature of the contamination at the Gould site and the work conducted by Canonie Environmental Services Corp. (Canonie) to develop a process which would treat the waste from battery wrecking operations and produce revenue generating recyclable products while removing the source contamination (lead) from the site. The full-scale commercial plant is now operating and is expected to achieve a throughput rate of between 200 and 250 tons per day in the coming weeks

  5. Brokering the Research-Practice Gap: A typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Neal, Zachary P; Kornbluh, Mariah; Mills, Kristen J; Lawlor, Jennifer A

    2015-12-01

    Despite widespread recognition of a research-practice gap in multiple service sectors, less is known about how pre-existing communication channels facilitate the flow of information between researchers and practitioners. In the current study, we applied an existing typology of brokerage developed by Gould and Fernandez (Sociol Methodol 19:89-126, 1989) to examine what types of brokerage facilitate information spread between researchers and educational practitioners. Specifically, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 19 school administrators and staff in two public school districts regarding their experiences searching for information about instructional, health, and social skills programs. Using deductive content analysis, we found evidence of all five types of brokerage identified by Gould and Fernandez (1989). However, only three types of brokerage-gatekeepers, representatives, and liaisons-were involved in the flow of information between school administrators and researchers. Moreover, information transfer often occurred in longer chains that involved multiple, distinct types of brokerage. We conclude with the broad implications of our findings for narrowing the research-practice gap by improving researchers' dissemination efforts and practitioners' search for information.

  6. Paleontology at the "high table"? Popularization and disciplinary status in recent paleontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepkoski, David

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines the way in which paleontologists used "popular books" to call for a broader "expanded synthesis" of evolutionary biology. Beginning in the 1970s, a group of influential paleontologists, including Stephen Jay Gould, Niles Eldredge, David Raup, Steven Stanley, and others, aggressively promoted a new theoretical, evolutionary approach to the fossil record as an important revision of the existing synthetic view of Darwinism. This work had a transformative effect within the discipline of paleontology. However, by the 1980s, paleontologists began making their case to a wider audience, both within evolutionary biology, and to the general public. Many of their books-for example, Eldredge's provocatively-titled Unfinished Synthesis-explicitly argued that the received synthetic view of Darwinian evolution was incomplete, and that paleontological contributions such as punctuated equilibria, the hierarchical model of macroevolution, and the study of mass extinction dynamics offered a substantial corrective to evolutionary theory. This paper argues that books-far from being "mere popularizations" of scientific ideas-played an important role in disciplinary debates surrounding evolutionary theory during the 1980s, and in particular that paleontologists like Gould and Eldredge self-consciously adopted the book format because of the importance of that genre in the history of evolutionary biology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Convergent evolution as natural experiment: the tape of life reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Russell; Mariscal, Carlos

    2015-12-06

    Stephen Jay Gould argued that replaying the 'tape of life' would result in radically different evolutionary outcomes. Recently, biologists and philosophers of science have paid increasing attention to the theoretical importance of convergent evolution-the independent origination of similar biological forms and functions-which many interpret as evidence against Gould's thesis. In this paper, we examine the evidentiary relevance of convergent evolution for the radical contingency debate. We show that under the right conditions, episodes of convergent evolution can constitute valid natural experiments that support inferences regarding the deep counterfactual stability of macroevolutionary outcomes. However, we argue that proponents of convergence have problematically lumped causally heterogeneous phenomena into a single evidentiary basket, in effect treating all convergent events as if they are of equivalent theoretical import. As a result, the 'critique from convergent evolution' fails to engage with key claims of the radical contingency thesis. To remedy this, we develop ways to break down the heterogeneous set of convergent events based on the nature of the generalizations they support. Adopting this more nuanced approach to convergent evolution allows us to differentiate iterated evolutionary outcomes that are probably common among alternative evolutionary histories and subject to law-like generalizations, from those that do little to undermine and may even support, the Gouldian view of life.

  8. Adaptationism--how to carry out an exaptationist program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Paul W; Gangestad, Steven W; Matthews, Dan

    2002-08-01

    Adaptationism is a research strategy that seeks to identify adaptations and the specific selective forces that drove their evolution in past environments. Since the mid-1970s, paleontologist Stephen J. Gould and geneticist Richard Lewontin have been critical of adaptationism, especially as applied toward understanding human behavior and cognition. Perhaps the most prominent criticism they made was that adaptationist explanations were analogous to Rudyard Kipling's Just So Stories (outlandish explanations for questions such as how the elephant got its trunk). Since storytelling (through the generation of hypotheses and the making of inferences) is an inherent part of science, the criticism refers to the acceptance of stories without sufficient empirical evidence. In particular, Gould, Lewontin, and their colleagues argue that adaptationists often use inappropriate evidentiary standards for identifying adaptations and their functions, and that they often fail to consider alternative hypotheses to adaptation. Playing prominently in both of these criticisms are the concepts of constraint, spandrel, and exaptation. In this article we discuss the standards of evidence that could be used to identify adaptations and when and how they may be appropriately used. Moreover, building an empirical case that certain features of a trait are best explained by exaptation, spandrel, or constraint requires demonstrating that the trait's features cannot be better accounted for by adaptationist hypotheses. Thus, we argue that the testing of alternatives requires the consideration, testing, and systematic rejection of adaptationist hypotheses. Where possible, we illustrate our points with examples taken from human behavior and cognition.

  9. Radionuclide concentrations in benthic invertebrates from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutian Chain, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jewett, Stephen C

    2007-05-01

    Concentrations of 13 radionuclides (137Cs, 129I, 60Co, 152Eu, 90Sr, 99Tc, 241Am, 238Pu, 239,249Pu, 234U, 235U, 236U, 238U) were examined in seven species of invertebrates from Amchitka and Kiska Islands, in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska, using gamma spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, and alpha spectroscopy. Amchitka Island was the site of three underground nuclear test (1965-1971), and we tested the null hypotheses that there were no differences in radionuclide concentrations between Amchitka and the reference site (Kiska) and there were no differences among species. The only radionuclides where composite samples were above the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) were 137Cs, 241Am, 239,249Pu, 234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U. Green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus polyacanthus), giant chiton (Cryptochiton stelleri), plate limpets (Tectura scutum) and giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) were only tested for 137Cs; octopus was the only species with detectable levels of 137Cs (0.262 +/- 0.029 Bq/kg, wet weight). Only rock jingle (Pododesmus macroschisma), blue mussel (Mytilus trossulus) and horse mussel (Modiolus modiolus) were analyzed for the actinides. There were no interspecific differences in 241Am and 239,240Pu, and almost no samples above the MDA for 238Pu and 236U. Horse mussels had significantly higher concentrations of 234U (0.844 +/- 0.804 Bq/kg) and 238U (0.730 +/- 0.646) than the other species (both isotopes are naturally occurring). There were no differences in actinide concentrations between Amchitka and Kiska. In general, radionuclides in invertebrates from Amchitka were similar to those from uncontaminated sites in the Northern Hemisphere, and below those from the contaminated Irish Sea. There is a clear research need for authors to report the concentrations of radionuclides by species, rather than simply as 'shellfish', for comparative purposes in determining geographical patterns, understanding possible effects, and for

  10. Studies on zinc nodules electrodeposited from acid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Rolfe [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tobias, Charles W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1984-12-01

    The development of morphology of electrodeposited zinc was investigated by studying the initial stages of deposition. Zinc was deposited galvanostatically from 1.0 M ZnCl2 electrolyte (0.7 < pH < 4.6) on rotating disc electrodes at current densities from 5 to 130 ma/cm2. Pine glassy carbon, Union Carbide pyrolytic graphite, Gould pyrolytic graphite, Exxon graphite loaded polymer, and platinum substrates were used. The number densities of nodules (diameter greater than 1 μm), typically encountered during incipient morphological development, were measured using scanning electron microscopy and image analysis. Nodule densities up to 7 x 104 nodules/mm2 were measured.

  11. Digital remote viewing system for coronary care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, P.S.; Tillisch, J.; Huang, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    A digital remote viewing system developed for the coronary care unit at the UCLA Medical Center has been in clinical operation since March 1, 1987. The present system consists of three 512-line monitors, VAX 11/750, Gould IP8500 image processor and a broad-band communication system. The patients' images are acquired with a computed radiography system and are transmitted to the coronary care unit, which is five floors above the radiology department. This exhibit presents the architecture and the performance characteristics of the system. Also, the second-generation system, which consists of an intelligent local work station with three 1,024-line monitors and a fast digital communication network, will be introduced

  12. A Joint Route Choice Model for Electric and Conventional Car Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Fjendbo; Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    Introduction Worldwide, governments have committed to reducing air pollution and carbon emissions. With a higher share of renewable sources in the electricity production, battery electric cars (EVs) could play a significant role in maintaining these commitments. Growing literature shows...... an increasing interest in EVs and their market, but current EV travel demand studies are usually based on data collected from users of conventional gasoline or diesel engine cars (CVs) (see e.g. (Golob and Gould 1998; Pearre et al. 2011; Greaves et al. 2014). EVs are however different from CVs in a number...... effects, such as effects on the electricity network and the transport network. The objective of this study is to use revealed preferences (RP) data to investigate differences in route choice behaviour between CV and EV users. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a state-of-the-art route choice...

  13. Factors Contributing to the Subjective Career Success among Islamic Educators in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesnan Supa`ad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A very limited research has been done in the field of career development among Islamic education teachers. Most of the previous researches showed an improvement in terms of grades, positions, and responsibilities of their previous routines as an indicator of their career advancement. However, this conceptual (concept paper discusses how personality factors, career planning, and career strategy can provide significant contribution to the success of Islamic education teachers’ career. Based on the Five Factor Model, Gould Planning Model, and the support of previous researches, this paper discusses how these three factors can contribute to the success of Islamic education teachers’ career. This paper also discusses its impact towards Islamic education teachers in Malaysia, schools management, District Education Office, Ministry of Education, and teachers education institutions.

  14. The utility experience of implementing the emergency operating procedure tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, W.C.; Cheng, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the experience of a project sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Taiwan Power Company (TPC) and supported by the Nuclear Software Service (NSS), General Electric Company (GE) and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) to implement the Emergency Operating Procedure Tracking System (EOPTS) in Kuosheng Nuclear Power Station Simulator. Before implement the EOPTS in Kuosheng Simulator, the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) of the Energency Response Facility Technical Data System (ERFTDS) shall be simulated, the hardware and software linkage between the simulator and ERFTDS shall be established, that include installation of a VAX-8200 computer, Gould - Vax computer hardware linkage, ERFTDS software installation, simulator source variables selection and linkage it to the ERFTDS database

  15. Neurological problems of famous musicians: the classical genre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, Jonathan

    2009-08-01

    Neurological histories of great musicians allow for a unique perspective on music physiology. Bedrich Smetana's autobiographical string quartet ends with the musical equivalent of tinnitus in the fourth movement, rendering the youthful and passionate themes of earlier movements moot as the piece ends depicting his ultimately fatal disease, neurosyphilis. Dmitri Shostakovich survived the censorship of Joseph Stalin's apparatchiks but suffered a prolonged form of paralysis attributable to slowly progressive motor neuron disease, although the viola sonata he wrote on his deathbed has become standard repertoire. Glenn Gould was a hypochondriacal pianist with obsessive-compulsive disorder and suspected Asperger syndrome. Vissarion Shebalin and (Ira) Randall Thompson had strokes followed by aphasia without amusia. Domenico Scarlatti provides an example of how even great composers must alter their technical expectations depending upon the skills and body habitus of their chief patrons. The focal dystonia afflicting Leon Fleisher and Gary Graffman catalyzed the discipline of performing arts medicine.

  16. Is the bulk mode conversion important in high density helicon plasma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isayama, Shogo; Hada, Tohru [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-Kohen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Shinohara, Shunjiro [Institute of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16, Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Tanikawa, Takao [Research Institute of Science and Technology, Tokai University 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    In a high-density helicon plasma production process, a contribution of Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) wave for surface power deposition is widely accepted. The TG wave can be excited either due to an abrupt density gradient near the plasma edge (surface conversion) or due to linear mode conversion from the helicon wave in a density gradient in the bulk region (bulk mode conversion). By numerically solving the boundary value problem of linear coupling between the helicon and the TG waves in a background with density gradient, we show that the efficiency of the bulk mode conversion strongly depends on the dissipation included in the plasma, and the bulk mode conversion is important when the dissipation is small. Also, by performing FDTD simulation, we show the time evolution of energy flux associated with the helicon and the TG waves.

  17. The Use of a Microcomputer in Collecting Data from Cardiovascular Experiments on Muscle Relaxants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thut, Paul D.; Polansky, Gregg; Pruzansky, Elysa

    1983-01-01

    The possible association of cardiovascular side-effects from potentially, clinically useful non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs has been studied with the aid of a micro- computer. The maximal changes in heart rate, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure were recorded in the onset, maximal effect and recovery phase of relaxant activity in dogs anesthetized with isoflurane. The data collection system employed a Gould 2800S polygraph, an Apple II Plus microcomputer, a Cyborg Corp. ‘Issac’ 12 bit analog to digital converter, two 5 1/4″ floppy disk drives, a ‘Videoterm’ 80 column display board and a 12″ green phosphor monitor. Prior to development of the computer system, direct analysis of polygraph records required more than three times more time than the actual experiment. With the aid of the computer, analysis of data, tabular and graphic presentation and narrative reports were completed within 15 minutes after the end of the experiment.

  18. Power conditioning accessories. Construction of a delayed drop-out relay and test of constant voltage transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keroe, E.; Kaufmann, H.; Koeck, J.; Scarpatetti, R.; Vuister, P.

    1983-10-01

    A delayed drop-out relay aimed to protect electronic measuring equipment during voltage fluctuations and power failures and transients is described. The results of a test on the performance of three resonant voltage transformers (GOULD GT 3000, CVT Isoreg 15-025 and Philips 1412/00) coupled with this relay, are presented. It is found that with this set-up, instrument malfunction and breakdown can be effectively prevented under the normal power conditions met in European countries or the USA. Under more severe conditions, usually met in the developing countries, a more careful selection has to be made; the test recommends the Philips transformer. It is also recommended that for best results the constant voltage transformers should be used at 75-80% of their rated power

  19. The Ascent of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Brian L.

    2000-04-01

    From the revolutionary discoveries of Galileo and Newton to the mind-bending theories of Einstein and Heisenberg, from plate tectonics to particle physics, from the origin of life to universal entropy, and from biology to cosmology, here is a sweeping, readable, and dynamic account of the whole of Western science.In the approachable manner and method of Stephen Jay Gould and Carl Sagan, the late Brian L. Silver translates our most important, and often most obscure, scientific developments into a vernacular that is not only accessible and illuminating but also enjoyable. Silver makes his comprehensive case with much clarity and insight; his book aptly locates science as the apex of human reason, and reason as our best path to the truth. For all readers curious about--or else perhaps intimidated by--what Silver calls "the scientific campaign up to now", The Ascent of Science will be fresh, vivid, and fascinating reading.

  20. From Alexander von Humboldt to Frederic Edwin Church: Voyages of Scientific Exploration and Artistic Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Baron

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Article in English, Abstracts in Spanish, German and English.Stephen Jay Gould wrote recently that “when Church began to paint his great canvases, Alexander von Humboldt may well have been the world’s most famous and influential intellectual.” Humboldt’s influence in the case of the landscape artist Church is especially interesting. If we examine the precise relationship between the German explorer and his American admirer, we gain an insight into how Humboldt transformed Church’s life and signaled a new phase in the career of the artist. Church retraced Humboldt’s travels in Ecuador and in Mexico. If we compare the texts available to Church and the comparison of Church’s paintings and the texts and images of Humboldt’s works we can arrive at new perspectives on Humboldt’s extraordinary influence on American landscape painting in the nineteenth century.

  1. Ultra-high-resolution photoelectronic digital radiographic imaging system for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, B.R.; Nudelman, S.; Quimette, D.R.; Ovitt, T.W.; Reisken, A.B.; Spackman, T.J.; Zaccheo, T.S.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report the development of a new type of digital radiographic imaging system for medicine. Unlike previous digital radiographic systems that could not match the spatial resolution of film-screen systems, this system has higher spatial resolution and wider dynamic range than film-screen-based systems. There are three components to the system: a microfocal spot x-ray tube, a camera consisting of a Tektronix TK-2048M 2048 x 2048 CCD image sensor in direct contact with a Kodak Min-R intensifying screen, and a Gould IP-9000 with 2048 x 2048 processing and display capabilities. The CCD image sensor is a large-area integrated circuit and is 55.3 mm x 55.3 mm. It has a linear dynamic range of 12 bits or 4,096 gray levels

  2. Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotypes from Different Animal Hosts and Different Geographic Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zidaric, V.; Janezic, S.; Indra, A.

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic sporogenic bacterium traditionally associated with human nosocomial infections, and animals have been recognized as an important potential reservoir for human infections (Rodriguez-Palacios et al., 2013). Ribotype 078 is often reported in animals but according...... was to establish an international C. difficile animal collection with one PCR ribotype per species per country/laboratory and to compare PCR ribotypes across animal hosts and countries....... to recent studies the overlap between PCR ribotypes found in humans and animals seems to be increasing (Bakker et al., 2010; Gould and Limbago, 2010; Janezic et al., 2012; Keel et al., 2007; Koene et al., 2011). However, genetic diversity among animal strains remains poorly understood. The aim of our work...

  3. Pursuing the quest for better understanding the taxonomic distribution of the system of doubly uniparental inheritance of mtDNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Gusman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is only one exception to strict maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in the animal kingdom: a system named doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI, which is found in several bivalve species. Why and how such a radically different system of mitochondrial transmission evolved in bivalve remains obscure. Obtaining a more complete taxonomic distribution of DUI in the Bivalvia may help to better understand its origin and function. In this study we provide evidence for the presence of sex-linked heteroplasmy (thus the possible presence of DUI in two bivalve species, i.e., the nuculanoid Yoldia hyperborea(Gould, 1841and the veneroid Scrobicularia plana(Da Costa,1778, increasing the number of families in which DUI has been found by two. An update on the taxonomic distribution of DUI in the Bivalvia is also presented.

  4. The role of growth stop as a morphogenetic factor in Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia: Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadda, Carlo; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated growth patterns under three different environmental conditions in a single population of the rodent Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia, Muridae) in Morogoro, Tanzania. The study aimed to test whether and how post-weaning ontogenetic processes are affected by different...... environmental conditions. Morogoro is characterized by a bimodal rainfall pattern, with unreliable peaks occurring in November/December of some years and reliable ones in February to May. We recognized three different generation types. In the first one, the alpha generation, growth occurred during the dry...... there was a continuity between both rainfall peaks. Analyses of size and shape following both Huxley-Jolicoeur and Gould-Mosimann approaches revealed that the three groups differ significantly both in size and shape. In both cases, the importance of the environment in assessing growth trajectories during post...

  5. Measurement of the Lamb shift in heliumlike uranium (U90+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, H.; Munger, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    The production in 1983 of a beam of bare U 92+ at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac, the Bevatron and Super-HILAC operating in tandem, demonstrated the feasibility of experiments using few-electron uranium. In 1984 x rays from radiative electron capture into the K shell of uranium was observed by Anholt et. al., and in the same year x rays from n = 2 → n = 1 transitions in hydrogenlike uranium (U 91+ ) and heliumlike uranium (U 90+ ) were observed by Munger and Gould. In this article the authors discuss their recent measurement of the Lamb shift in heliumlike uranium. Their value of 70.4 (8.1) eV for the one-electron Lamb shift in uranium is in agreement with the theoretical value of 75.3 (0.4) eV. 20 refs.; 5 figs

  6. Counterfactuals and history: Contingency and convergence in histories of science and life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Ian

    2016-08-01

    This article examines a series of recent histories of science that have attempted to consider how science may have developed in slightly altered historical realities. These works have, moreover, been influenced by debates in evolutionary science about the opposing forces of contingency and convergence in regard to Stephen Jay Gould's notion of "replaying life's tape." The article argues that while the historians under analysis seem to embrace contingency in order to present their counterfactual narratives, for the sake of historical plausibility they are forced to accept a fairly weak role for contingency in shaping the development of science. It is therefore argued that Simon Conway Morris's theory of evolutionary convergence comes closer to describing the restrained counterfactual worlds imagined by these historians of science than does contingency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. From Eden to Agora: The E-Learning Trading Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Sturm

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available E-learning is not just a learning and teaching innovation; it also signals a shift in human cognition and communication. The lexicon of e-learning borrows from the barren lexicon of information science: of users, usage and usability (Gould and Lewis, 1985, or of information-seeking and affordances (Pirolli and Card, 1999. Deep e-learning requires a more fecund idiom, a new myth: of the digital agora, an e-learning ‘trading zone’ (Mills and Huber, 1995. Here we reflect on the process of shaping an electronic version of our generic doctoral skills sessions, during which it occurred to us that, to match the benefits of interactivity in face-to-face teaching and learning and to be transformative of academic subjectivity, e-learning must be truly performative, rather than merely informative; e-learners (and e-teachers too must enact the skills they hope to learn (or teach.

  8. Experiments and simulation of split Hopkinson Bar tests on sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, P D; Gould, P J; Wood, A D; Tyas, A

    2014-01-01

    Static triaxial cell data and Split Hopkinson Bar data has been generated for well controlled dry and wet sand under confined and unconfined conditions. This has demonstrated that the dry sand is rate independent in its behaviour, whereas the wet sand exhibits a strain rate dependency in its behaviour. Simulations have been performed with the Lagrangian hydrocode DYNA using a Porter-Gould equation of state (EOS) and Johnson-Holmquist type constitutive model. Comparison with the raw strain gauge data is qualitatively reasonable, although some of the details of the trace are not reproduced. Sensitivity studies have also been performed, which has demonstrated some deficiencies in the constitutive model, relating to wave-speed and definition of moduli in a granular material. This has given some insights into how the constitutive model should be improved and which future experimental tests will be required.

  9. The use of automation with the new pneumatic irradiation facility of the ORNL HFIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, F.F.; Robinson, L.; Emery, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has two pneumatic irradiation systems: PT-1 installed in 1970 and PT-2 installed in 1987, which are used for neutron activation analysis. Both systems have been described in the literature. By means of a Gould programmable controller, considerable progress has been made in a cost-effective manner to operate and automate the features of the new facility. A neutron counter is an integral part of the new pneumatic tube, and all of the hardware is present to enable automated delayed neutron counting. Some automation of the old system has also been accomplished by the use of a Zymark general purpose programmable robot. This paper describes the automated features of both systems. The reactor has been shut down for safety evaluation since November 1986, so that no irradiations have been made in the new pneumatic tube

  10. NRC Information No. 89-86: Type HK circuit breakers missing close latch anti-shock springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    During the recent refueling outage at Fermi Unit 2, the licensee inspected both safety-related and non-safety-related Type HK circuit breakers. The close latch anti-shock springs were observed to be missing in approximately 40 safety-related Type HK circuit breakers that had been manufactured outside of the previously identified timeframes. (The identified circuit breakers were manufactured in 1974.) Thus, the timeframes previously identified by the manufacturer (prior to 1973 and from June 1975 to June 1977) may not be totally inclusive. In addition, because of changes in corporate name, mergers, etc., Type HK circuit breakers may indicate manufacture by ITE, ITE Imperial, Gould, Brown Boveri, or a combination thereof. The current name of the manufacturer is ASEA Brown Boveri. Recipients may need to be cognizant of this when determining whether they utilize potentially affected equipment

  11. A Debate on Pharyngolaryngeal Histopathologic Examination of the Cadaver Suspected of Pressure on Vital Elements of Neck: Death Cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fares Najari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pressure on the neck is one of the oldest and controversial types of death. However, the only hypoxia as the cause of speed death is not always correct. Many victims die immediately without classic symptoms of respiratory failure (Shirzad & Gharedaghi, 2007. Most of the deaths which occur in less than one to three minutes are falls in this category. Pressure on the neck leads to airway obstruction, neck veins obstruction, blocking the carotid arteries, and affect the nerves. A variety of causes is associated with fatal pressure on the neck, including strangulation by hand, strangulation with a ligature, and hanging. Hanging is the method used maximally in suicide as compared to other methods of suicide (Graham et al., 2000; Gould & Kramer, 2001. Including Iran, it is the most common method adopted for suicide in Asian countries (Morovatdar et al., 2013; Shojaei et al., 2014, especially adopted by men, older and especially illeterate people (Pridmore & Walter, 2013.

  12. A low-latitude southern atlas of galactic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeppel, W G.L. [Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomia, Villa Elisa, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Olano, C A [Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade Federal, Porto Alegre, Brazil

    1979-01-01

    An atlas of 21 cm line profiles is described, which was made using a 30 m radio telescope with angular resolution of 0.5 deg, to study the properties of the low latitude H I gas excluding the complexity of the galactic plane. The results of the atlas itself are presented in two sets of diagrams: average profiles for each point, and contour maps. Analyses of the data have centered on an anomalous velocity cloud near galactic longitude (1) equals 349 deg, and latitude (b) equals plus 3 deg, strong kinematic asymmetries of the interstellar gas in the region of 1 between 348 and 12 deg and b between plus 3 and plus 17 deg, with positive radial velocities predominant, caused by a very intense source seemingly identical to Lindblad's (1967) feature A, and a comparative study of optical and radioastronomical data of the section of Gould's belt from 1 equals 300 to 12 deg.

  13. Design and use of the ORNL HFIR [High Flux Isotope Reactor] pneumatic tube irradiation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, F.F.; Emery, J.F.; Robinson, L.; Teasley, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    A second pneumatic tube that was recently installed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor for neutron activation analysis is described. Although not yet tested, the system is expected to have a thermal neutron flux of about 1.5 x 10 14 cm -2 s -1 . A delayed neutron counter is an integral part of the pneumatic tube, and all of the hardware is present to enable automated use of the counter. The system is operated with a Gould programmable controller that is programmed with an IBM personal computer. Automation of any mode of operation, including the delayed neutron counter, will only require a nominal amount of software development. Except for the lack of a hot cell, the irradiation facility has all of the advantageous features of an older pneumatic tube that has been in operation for 17 years. The design of the system and some applications and methods of operation are described

  14. Solitary electron density waves in a magnetized, plasma-loaded waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynov, J.-P.

    1980-08-01

    Investigations of two different types of nonlinear, solitary electron density waves in a magnetized, plasma-loaded waveguide are presented. One of the wavetypes is a localized, compressional pulse identified as a Trivelpiece-Gould soliton. The modification of this soliton by the resonant electrons is studied theoretically, by direct numerical solution of the model equation, experimentally, and by numerical simulation of the experiment. The other wave is a localized, rarefactive pulse called an electron hole. It is a positive pulse consisting of a large number of trapped electrons and is a purely kinetic phenomenon. A simple waterbag model for the electron hole is derived and compared with the results from the experiment and the numerical simulation. Finally, interactions between the solitary waves are investigated. (Auth.)

  15. Evolution Is Linear: Debunking Life's Little Joke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Ronald A

    2018-01-01

    Linear depictions of the evolutionary process are ubiquitous in popular culture, but linear evolutionary imagery is strongly rejected by scientists who argue that evolution branches. This point is frequently illustrated by saying that we didn't evolve from monkeys, but that we are related to them as collateral relatives. Yet, we did evolve from monkeys, but our monkey ancestors are extinct, not extant. Influential voices, such as the late Stephen Jay Gould, have misled audiences for decades by falsely portraying the linear and branching aspects of evolution to be in conflict, and by failing to distinguish between the legitimate linearity of evolutionary descent, and the branching relationships among collateral relatives that result when lineages of ancestors diverge. The purpose of this article is to correct the widespread misplaced rejection of linear evolutionary imagery, and to re-emphasize the basic truth that the evolutionary process is fundamentally linear. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Seleção de modelos polinomiais para representar o perfil e volume do fuste de Tectona grandis L.f. Selection of polynomial models to represent the profile and volume of the bole of Tectona grandisL.f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Orfanó Figueiredo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A precisão do volume de um povoamento florestal torna-se importante à medida que as empresas florestais integram verticalmente suas atividades e o resíduo da elaboração de um produto torna-se matéria-prima para outros. Os estudos realizados objetivaram avaliar a acurácia dos modelos polinomiais propostos por Schöepfer (1966, Hradetzky (1976 e Goulding & Murray (1976, na estimativa dos diâmetros e volumes ao longo do fuste de Tectona grandis L.f. de quatro povoamentos localizados na microrregião do Baixo Rio Acre e, ainda, testar a identidade do melhor modelo polinomial, avaliando-se a adequação de manter as áreas agrupadas ou segregá-las em grupos menores ou individualmente. A base de dados foi constituída de 159 árvores cubadas rigorosamente. Na avaliação da acurácia dos modelos foram empregadas estatísticas de desvio médio, desvio padrão das diferenças, soma dos quadrados dos resíduos relativos e resíduos percentuais. O modelo Goulding & Murray (1976 gerou as melhores estimativas de diâmetros e volumes ao longo do fuste, seguido pelos modelos Hradetzky (1976 e Schöepfer (1966. O teste de identidade de modelo mostrou ser mais adequado realizar ajustes independentes para as áreas 1 e 4 e para o subgrupo 2 e 3.The precise estimate of the volume of a forest stand become important as forest enterprises integrate vertically their activities and the residue of the manufacture of a product becomes the raw material for the manufacture of other. The accomplished studies aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the polynomial models proposed by Schöepfer (1966, Hradetzky (1976 and Goulding & Murray (1976 in the estimate of the diameters and volumes along the bole of Tectona grandis L.f from four stands situated in the Baixo Rio Acre micro region and further, to test the identity of the best polynomial model by evaluating the adequacy of maintaining the grouped areas or segregate them into smaller groups or singly. The data base was

  17. Rolling motions in an inner spiral arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, F.M.; Poeppel, W.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen line observations made at low galactic latitudes for l=318degree, 326degree, 334degree, and 337degree show the presence of velocity gradients in latitude in the nearest inner spiral arm, similar to those found by other observations in different regions. Maximum velocity change is about 10 km s -1 for l=337degree. By generating synthetic line profiles constructed from a model spiral arm, several possible causes of these ''rolling motions'' were studied, such as a vertical displacement or a tilt of the arm (which failed to account for the observations) and rotation or shearing in the arm. It was futher shown that a typical arm can maintain such a motion (approx. =75 km s -1 kpc -1 ) with its own gravitational potential. The results are used to study the origin and tilt of Gould's Belt

  18. Charge transfer excitations from exact and approximate ensemble Kohn-Sham theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Tim; Kronik, Leeor; Pittalis, Stefano

    2018-05-01

    By studying the lowest excitations of an exactly solvable one-dimensional soft-Coulomb molecular model, we show that components of Kohn-Sham ensembles can be used to describe charge transfer processes. Furthermore, we compute the approximate excitation energies obtained by using the exact ensemble densities in the recently formulated ensemble Hartree-exchange theory [T. Gould and S. Pittalis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 243001 (2017)]. Remarkably, our results show that triplet excitations are accurately reproduced across a dissociation curve in all cases tested, even in systems where ground state energies are poor due to strong static correlations. Singlet excitations exhibit larger deviations from exact results but are still reproduced semi-quantitatively.

  19. Interstellar matter near the Pleiades. IV - The wake of the Pleiades through the interstellar medium in Taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard E.; Bally, John

    1993-01-01

    A large emission 'cavity' whose bright rims extend about 5 deg eastward from the Pleiades, and is pressurized by the soft-UV radiation of the cluster, has been revealed by a mosaic of IRAS images; the emission cavity delineates the wake of the Pleiades as it moves supersonically through the ISM. Photoelectric heating is identified as the most likely agent of the cluster-cloud interaction generating a shock wave, and prompts the hypothesis that transverse expansion of heated gas near the cluster plays a crucial role in driving the shock. The cloud trajectory can be traced back to an origin in Gould's Belt some 15 Myr ago, in a blowout of gas into the Galactic halo.

  20. As International as They Would Let Us Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, V.

    2015-08-01

    Astronomy has always crossed borders, continents, and oceans. AAVSO itself has roughly half its membership residing outside the USA. In this excessively long paper, I look briefly at ancient and medieval beginnings and more extensively at the 18th and 19th centuries, plunge into the tragedies associated with World War I, and then try to say something relatively cheerful about subsequent events. Most of the people mentioned here you will have heard of before (Eratosthenes, Copernicus, Kepler, Olbers, Lockyer, Eddington…) others, just as important, perhaps not (von Zach, Gould, Argelander, Freundlich…). Division into heroes and villains is neither necessary nor possible, though some of the stories are tragic. In the end, all one can really say about astronomers' efforts to keep open channels of communication that others wanted to choke off is, "the best we can do is the best we can do."

  1. Coping skills: role of trait sport confidence and trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Scott; Hodge, Ken

    2004-04-01

    The current research assesses relationships among coping skills, trait sport confidence, and trait anxiety. Two samples (n=47 and n=77) of international competitors from surf life saving (M=23.7 yr.) and touch rugby (M=26.2 yr.) completed the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory, Trait Sport Confidence Inventory, and Sport Anxiety Scale. Analysis yielded significant correlations amongst trait anxiety, sport confidence, and coping. Specifically confidence scores were positively associated with coping with adversity scores and anxiety scores were negatively associated. These findings support the inclusion of the personality characteristics of confidence and anxiety within the coping model presented by Hardy, Jones, and Gould, Researchers should be aware that confidence and anxiety may influence the coping processes of athletes.

  2. Galactic dust and extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyngaa, G.

    1979-01-01

    The ratio R between visual extinction and colour excess, is slightly larger than 3 and does not vary much throughout our part of the Galaxy. The distribution of dust in the galactic plane shows, on the large scale, a gradient with higher colour excesses towards l=50 0 than towards l=230 0 . On the smaller scale, much of the dust responsible for extinction is situated in clouds which tend to group together. The correlation between positions of interstellar dust clouds and positions of spiral tracers seems rather poor in our Galaxy. However, concentrated dark clouds as well as extended regions of dust show an inclined distribution similar to the Gould belt of bright stars. (Auth.)

  3. La insustancia de la voz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Morin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La voz es el punto primitivo deinserción del deseo del Otro. Apartir de este dato fundamentalIsabelle Morin intenta respondera la pregunta planteada por Lacanrespecto a lo que ocurre con la pulsiónal final del análisis. La autorapropone que, al final del análisis, elanalizante se encuentra, así sea porun momento, con una extraccióndel a minúscula del objeto, su sustanciagozante para dejar el objetovoz al desnudo. Esta insustancia delobjeto es interrogada a partir detestimonios de los músicos GlennGould y Pascal Dusapin, quieneshan buscado extraer el sonido de lamúsica para reducirla a la letra.Palabras clave: voz, sonido, insustancia,extracción de goce, objeto a.

  4. In the Beginning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Physical Review was founded at Cornell University in 1893, by two professors, Edward L. Nichols and Ernest Merritt. Both were educated in Germany, and were familiar with the differences in publications abroad. They were enthusiastic about the idea of an American publication devoted entirely to physics. They fortunately had the full support of the then President of Cornell, J. Gould Shurman, who arranged for an initial grant of 500, and eventually, for a first year total of 2500. The founding editors were soon joined by Frederick Bedell, who remained an Editor into the 1920's. This talk will follow the progress (and otherwise) of the journal through the formation of the American Physical Society in 1899 and the transfer of its operation from Cornell to the APS in 1913.

  5. The Honeymoon project: Australia's first in situ leach uranium project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackland, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Honeymoon uranium deposit is one of several roll front uranium deposits in South Australia. It was discovered in 1971, the project developed in the 1970's, and was ready for demonstration of the In Situ Leaching (ISL) production techniques by January 1983, when the project was stopped, despite it having met the environmental approvals to proceed, due to the Australian Labour Party's 'three mines policy'. From 1983 until March 1996 the project was mothballed. In late 1996 Southern Cross Resources Inc. (SCRI) reached agreement with Mount Isa Mining (MIM) to purchase its uranium interests in Honeymoon, Goulds Dam and EL 2310 whilst simultaneously acquiring Sedimentary Holdings NL's interests in EL 2310. By April 1997 these interests were consolidated in SCRI's wholly owned subsidiary, Southern Cross Resources Australia Ply Ltd which is the operating company. Activities are presently underway to rehabilitate the existing treatment plant and continue the program that was outlined in the approved 1981 Honeymoon Environmental Impact Statement

  6. The Block-Elmegreen conference

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce; Block, David; Woolway, Matthew

    2015-01-01

     Our understanding of galaxy formation comes mostly from two sources: sensitive observations at high angular resolution of the high-redshift Universe, where galaxies are observed to be forming, and detailed observations of individual stars and clouds in the Local Group, where telltale remnants from its formative time remain and similar processes operate at a low level today. The current conference focusses on key aspects of the Local Group, composed of the Milky Way, Andromeda and Triangulum Spiral Galaxies, the Large and Small Magellanic Cloud galaxies, numerous dwarf and irregular galaxies, and intergalactic gas. Topics include the halo and thick disk of the Milky Way with its first stars and stellar streams; the Milky Way bar, bulge and outer edge; interstellar dust and turbulence; star formation processes and stellar scattering in spiral arms; views through the infrared Eyes of the Spitzer Space Telescope; globular clusters; the Local Gould Belt; stellar metallicities and elemental abundances; the enviro...

  7. Conservación de material histórico sobre papel en el Observatorio Astronómico de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguzzi, N.; Tonini, A.; Andreoli, G.; Goldes, G.; Paolantonio, S.; Cequeira, F.; Landi, L.; Alba, J.

    At the recently created Astronomical Museum ``Pte. Sarmiento - Dr. Benjamin Gould", the task of preventive conservation of historic documents has been faced. These materials include: 1) letters exchanged between national authorities and the directors of the Observatory, during the first decades (1870-1880-1890); b) original observation logs from these very first times, containing astrometrical and photometrical data; c) a variety of ancient books and papers; d) administrative documents. The state of conservation of this patrimony was varied: since well-conserved books and letters, to highly degraded logs. The observation logs written by B. Gould and the astronomers who followed him had been stocked in a safe with a permanent humidity of about 70 %, without any ventilation and exposed to the attack of insects of the family ``dermestidae." These conditions could not be worse for the conservation of paper. In order to stop the proccess of degradation and create a healthy environment for written-paper conservation, a team was formed with personnel belonging to the Cultural Area of the Municipality. The tasks being performed on the observation logs are: 1) an initial, mechanical cleaning, performed once the material is extracted from the contaminated safe: by these means, adult insects and pupas are removed 2) a stage of about two weeks of duration, in which the logs are mantained in a vacuum chamber, in orden to completely eliminate the adult, pupa and egg stage insects by anoxia 3) the final mechanical cleaning 4) storage in a clean location. In order to perform these tasks, we work in collaboration with the Environmental Observatory of the City, and the group of Material-Science Research of Fa.M.A.F. Regarding the letters, a mechanical cleaning was performed. After that, the letters were digitized by means of a scanner, inventoried, put inside acid-free polipropylene envelops and filed for conservation, protected from intense light and external sources of

  8. IN MY OPINION: Is Physics debatable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ken

    2000-01-01

    Stephen Jay Gould is, unfortunately, a palaeontologist. I write unfortunately because if he were a physicist we would all have benefited from his innumerable entertaining and informative essays [1]. His steady theme involves an obscure subject like palaeontology and why the subject links so strongly with the human condition. The key, of course, is evolution, and the light it sheds on what it means to be human. The new National Curriculum for England (and probably Wales) requires that pupils be taught: * how scientific controversies can arise from different ways of interpreting empirical evidence and models based on this evidence, and * ways in which scientific ideas may be affected by the context in which they develop, e.g. social, historical, moral and spiritual , and how these contexts may affect whether or not the ideas are accepted. Stephen Jay Gould produces an essay a month (in the US Natural History magazine) and so seems to have few problems in finding topics to write about that would fit well into one or both of the National Curriculum requirements. Good for biologists, but it doesn't seem to be so easy in physics. Admittedly Gould has to have recourse to a great number of historical cases - but he usually manages to link these with up-to-date issues. After all, he comes from a country where several states put `creation science' on a par with the Darwinian model of Earth history, so he has not only scope but need for encouraging some humane rationality. Can the history of physics provide such relevance? Does physics provide nice meaty controversies that might tempt the adolescent to think? We might be able to tell some stories with some level of drama, but it is hard for teachers to produce much enthusiasm in ordinary students at age 14 to 16 for controversies between Newton and Hooke, or Newton and Leibnitz (or Newton and most of his contemporaries, to be honest). They might be made to sympathize with Thomas Young, agonize over Boltzmann, celebrate with

  9. Geology of the Honeymoon Uranium Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bampton, K.F.; Haines, J.B.; Randell, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    The Honeymoon Uranium Project comprises the Honeymoon Deposit, Goulds Dam Deposit and Yarramba Prospect in the Southern Lake Frome region, South Australia. Both the Yarramba Prospect and Honeymoon Deposit (which includes Honeymoon and East Kalkaroo orebodies) are located in the Yarramba Palaeovalley. The Goulds Dam Deposit is about 75 km north west of Honeymoon, in the Billeroo Palaeovalley. Exploration for sediment-hosted uranium began in the area in the late 1960s, culminating in the discovery of Honeymoon and Goulds Dam in the early 1970s. In 1982, a 25 L/s demonstration plant was built at Honeymoon to confirm suitability for in situ leaching. The project was put on hold in 1983 due to changes in government policy. Southern Cross Resources Australia Pty Ltd acquired the project in mid 1997. Roll-front deposits form from a migrating geochemical cell, an advancing reduction-oxidation interface between oxygenated uranium-bearing groundwater and its reduced aquifer host. The source of metal is uranium-anomalous granites, which were eroded from surrounding ranges. The weathered granites and resultant sediments are stripped of uranium by oxidised groundwaters, to form solutions carrying uranyl carbonate complexes. The solutions percolate down-slope through permeable sand zones until contacting a reduced environment where uranium precipitates. Uranium mineralisation occurs interstitially between and as thin coatings on sand grains, usually in the form of uraninite or coffinite. The palaeovalleys (previously termed palaeochannels) are incised into underlying Cambrian/Precambrian basement rocks and filled with semi-consolidated, largely un-cemented, Tertiary sediments of the Eyre Formation. The late Palaeocene to middle Eocene Eyre Formation is the basal unit of the Tertiary succession in the Callabonna Sub-basin of the Lake Eyre Basin. Further to the north, the Lake Eyre Basin overlies the Jurassic-Cretaceous Eromanga Basin, which comprises much of the Great Australian

  10. Erratum: ``Stellar Halo Parameters from 4588 Subdwarfs'' (ApJ, 583, 765 [2003])

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Andrew

    2004-06-01

    An error has been discovered in the computer program that determined the stellar halo parameters using ~4500 halo stars drawn from the revised New Luyten Two-Tenths catalog. None of the major scientific conclusions of that paper are qualitatively altered. In particular, five of the nine velocity-ellipsoid parameters remain consistent with zero within their small errors. However, many individual parameters have changed their values by 1 or 2 σ and a few by more. I explain the nature of the error and give corrected values for the parameters. The ~4500 halo stars analyzed were selected from the revised New Luyten Two-Tenths catalog (A. Gould & S. Salim, ApJ, 583, 765 [2003]; S. Salim & A. Gould, ApJ, 583, 765 [2003]) by demanding that the reduced proper motion (RPM) discriminator,η≡V-5log(μ)-3.1(V-J)-1.47|sinb|-2.73,(1)lie within the secure halo range, 1expressed by a break at a virtually unchanged Vbreak=18.27, but with the completeness at this break point rising to 50%+/-6%. In particular, the motion of the local standard of rest (LSR) relative to the halo isV1=1.5+/-2.2kms-1,V3=0.3+/-2.4kms-1.(3)Hence, as originally claimed, all five velocity-ellipsoid parameters in equations (2) and (3) are consistent with zero. Thus, χ2=3.43 for 5 degrees of freedom, slightly less than the previous value (3.97). This implies that the limits on stellar-halo granularity derived in a subsequent paper from this statistic remain essentially unaltered, being about 2% tighter (see eq. [9] of A. Gould, ApJ, 583, 765 [2003]). Four of the 27 parameters do change by more than 2 σ. Both (c11+Δc11)1/2 and (c22+Δc22)1/2 increase by 4 σ. However, because the Δcii are poorly constrained, these parameter-combination measurements did not give any useful information about the halo, and this remains so with the new determinations. The LF bins at MV=10 and MV=11 each decline by 3 σ, which leaves a somewhat lower but still pronounced peak in the LF at these magnitudes (see Fig. 2). It

  11. Los coleópteros y heterópteros acuáticos del Parque Nacional Calilegua (Provincia de Jujuy, Argentina Aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera from Calilegua National Park (Jujuy Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L. M. Torres

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se expone una lista de las especies de Coleoptera y Heteroptera presentes en los cuerpos de agua del Parque Nacional Calilegua. Se registraron 51 especies de Coleoptera incluidas en 28 géneros y cinco familias, y 37 especies de Heteroptera distribuidas en 22 géneros y 10 familias; sólo cuatro especies de Coleoptera y cinco de Heteroptera fueron citadas previamente del parque. Se mencionan por primera vez para la Argentina dos especies de Veliidae (Heteroptera: Rhagovelia trista Gould y Platyvelia brachialis (Stål, así como una especie y un género de Dytiscidae (Coleoptera: Desmopachria chei K. B. Miller y Bidessonotus Régimbart. Además, es la primera ocasión en que se mencionan para la provincia de Jujuy 24 especies y 11 géneros de Coleoptera (Leuronectes Sharp, Bidessonotus, Hypodessus Guignot, Desmopachria Babington, Celina Aubé, Gyrinus Linné, Haliplus Latreille, Hydrocanthus Say, Suphis Aubé, Anacaena Thomson, Derallus Sharp y 19 especies y 12 géneros de Heteroptera (Mesovelia Mulsant & Rey, Hebrus Curtis, Merragata White, Microvelia Westwood, Rhagovelia Mayr, Platyvelia J. T. Polhemus & D. A. Polhemus, Limnogonus Stål, Curicta Stål, Ranatra Fabricius, Centrocorisa Lundblad, Pelocoris Stål, Neoplea Esaki & China.A list of the species of aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera occurring in Calilegua National Park is presented. Fifty-one species of Coleoptera included in 28 genera and five families, and 37 species of Heteroptera belonging to 22 genera and 10 families were recorded. Only four species of Coleoptera and five of Heteroptera had been previously cited from the park. Two species of Veliidae (Heteroptera (Rhagovelia trista Gould, Platyvelia brachialis (Stål, along with one species and one genus of Dytiscidae (Coleoptera (Desmopachria chei K. B. Miller, Bidessonotus Régimbart are new records for Argentina. Twenty-four species and 11 genera of Coleoptera (Leuronectes Sharp, Bidessonotus, Hypodessus Guignot, Desmopachria

  12. Reasons for dropout in youth soccer: a comparison with other team sports Motivos de abandono en el fútbol juvenil: comparación con otros deportes colectivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Molinero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of our study was to identify the main reasons for dropout in young soccer players and to compare withdrawal motives to those rated important by participants in other team sports. Dropouts (150 males and 159 females, ranging in age from 14 to 18 years were administered the Questionnaire of Reasons for Attrition by Gould, Feltz, Horn and Weiss (1982. Represented were youth who participated in the sport of soccer (n=127, basketball (n=122, and volleyball (n=60. The most important reasons for attrition from the different team sports were having other things to do, dislike of the coach, and lack of team spirit. Reasons related to the team work were also given high ratings. Less important reasons concerned old age, rewards and competition. Although discriminant analysis revealed some differences between sports, the finding remains that both conflict of interests and aspects of the sports environment are major motives for withdrawal from team sports.
    Key Words: Dropout, team sport, soccer.

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar las razones para el abandono en jóvenes jugadores de fútbol y comparar los motivos de abandono con los descritos en practicantes de otros deportes colectivos. Los sujetos (150 varones y 159 mujeres, con edades comprendidas entre los 14 y los 18 años respondieron la versión española del Questionnaire of Reasons for Attrition de Gould, Feltz, Horn y Weiss (1982. La muestra estaba constituida por practicantes de fútbol (n=127, baloncesto (n=122, y voleibol (n=60. Las razones consideradas como más importantes para el abandono fueron el tener otras cosas que hacer, las malas relaciones con el entrenador y la falta de espíritu de equipo. También alcanzaron puntuaciones elevadas los motivos relacionados con el trabajo de equipo. Las razones a las que se otorgaba menos importancia se relacionaban con edad excesiva, recompensas y

  13. A propósito de um texto de Habermas: a herança brasileira de um dilema da civilização ocidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R. Cruz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available HABERMAS, em um texto recente sobre os acontecimentos de 2001, colocou novamente em questão as relações entre fé e saber na modernidade. A visão moderna que a religião deve ser excluída da esfera pública encontra resistências, que sugerem um outro cenário para um mundo pós-secular. Habermas fala do diálogo entre os dois "pilares do tempo" (Gould apenas para o plano moral, mas o argumento do presente trabalho destaca as razões para se valorizar o aspecto cognitivo da religião. Estudos recentes, principalmente no âmbito das ciências cognitivas, revelam a origem natural comum da ciência e da religião. No âmbito da história e da filosofia, sugerem-se hoje outros elementos comuns para a "fé" e o "saber". No caso brasileiro, enfatiza-se a necessidade de um esforço comum em face de ameaças como o criacionismo, e em prol de uma educação que desenvolva a cidadania e o conhecimento são.HABERMAS, in a recent paper on 9/11, questions again the relationship between faith and knowledge in modernity. The modern outlook, excluding religion in the public realm, faces resistance that suggests another scenario for a post-secular world. He speaks about the dialogue between the two "rocks of ages" (Gould only at the moral level, but the argument of the present paper highlights the reasons to give more weight to the cognitive role of religion. Recent studies, mainly in the realm of cognitive sciences, reveal the natural origin both of science and religion. In the realm of history and philosophy, other elements are suggested today for "faith" and "knowledge". In the Brazilian case, we emphasize the need for a common effort in face of threats such as creationism, and in favor of educational patterns that foster citizenship and sound knowledge.

  14. Jouer du piano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fériel Kaddour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La réflexion s’appuie dans un premier temps sur une opposition entre deux attitudes de pianistes  à l’égard du travail à l’instrument : Gould, qui revendique une séparation d’avec le clavier pour ne privilégier que la lecture; Arrau, dont la technique au contraire vise à « faire corps » avec son piano. L’étude de ces deux démarches d’interprètes conduit à une conclusion croisée : l’abstraction gouldienne n’est rien d’autre qu’un déplacement du jeu vers d’autres instruments (ceux qui servent à la prise de son et au montage de ses enregistrements ; le « faire-corps » hérité de la culture pianistique romantique est plus dialectique que fusionnel, et en cela implique une capacité de mise à distance. A partir de cette double conclusion, on tâche enfin de repenser la place du jeu à l’instrument dans la mise en œuvre d’une interprétation, en interrogeant le dialogue qui s’instaure entre la partition telle qu’elle s’écrit et le geste tel qu’il se joue.Our study leans on an opposition between two pianists' attitudes about their work with the instrument. Gould claims a necessary separation from the keyboard in order to prioritize reading. Arrau, on the contrary, relies on a technique which consists in “being one” with his piano. The analysis of these two interprets’ behaviours leads to a crossed conclusion: the gouldian abstraction is nothing else than a displacement of the playing towards another kind of instruments, the ones he uses in sound recording and cut up; Arrau’s “being one” is more dialectic than at first sight, and it therefore implies a real distancing from the piano. This constatation leads to rethink the place of the piano playing in the setting of an interpretation, and to highlight the real dialogue which develops itself between the score as it has been written and the gesture as it is played.

  15. Upgrade of Daya Bay full scope simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Daya Bay full scope simulator was manufactured by French THOMSON Company in earlier 1990s. It was put into operation in August 1992, one year before the plant's unit-1 was commissioned. During nearly 10 years, the Daya Bay simulator was used to train the control room operators. As many as 220 operators obtained their operator licenses or senior operators licenses. The Daya Bay simulator made a great contribution to the plant's operation. 2) Owing to the limitation of simulation technology and computer capacity in that age, Daya Bay simulator had its deficiencies from the beginning, making maintenance difficult, gradually bringing more and more impact on operator training. - Bad performance: The main computer was the Gould CONCEPT 32/67. Its calculation speed is quite low and memory very limited. Even in the normal operation mode, the average CPU load was up to 80%. The simulation fidelity and scope were not sufficient, which could not meet the deep level of training demand. Many special plant scenarios were not simulated; therefore it was not possible to undertake the verification exercises for the corresponding plant operations. - Poor maintainability: - In hardware aspect, due to that Gould CONCEPT 32/67 is with multi-board architecture. Thousands of tiny connection pins between boards and chasses was the weak link, after many times board plug in-out repair the connection became worse and worse. In addition, the spare parts are difficult to order. Computer crashes happened very often. Each time, the failures each took a few hours, even a few days to fix. - In software aspect, simulation modules suspension, OUT OF TIME error and software breakdown were often occurring. To restart the system took over half an hour each time, which seriously interrupted normal training. - In software maintenance aspect, most modules are manually coded and the development tools are difficult to use. Less than 10% of modifications related to the plant upgrade could be implemented on

  16. Performance of a permanent-magnet helicon source at 27 and 13 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Francis F. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    A small helicon source is used to create dense plasma and inject it into a large chamber. A permanent magnet is used for the dc magnetic field (B-field), making the system very simple and compact. Though theory predicts that better antenna coupling will occur at 27.12 MHz, it was found that 13.56 MHz surprisingly gives even higher density due to practical effects not included in theory. Complete density n and electron temperature T{sub e} profiles are measured at three distances below the source. The plasma inside the source is also measured with a special probe, even under the antenna. The density there is lower than expected because the plasma created is immediately ejected, filling the experimental chamber. The advantage of helicons over inductively coupled plasmas (with no B-field) increases with RF power. At high B-fields, edge ionization by the Trivelpiece-Gould mode can be seen. These results are useful for design of multiple-tube, large-area helicon sources for plasma etching and deposition because problems are encountered which cannot be foreseen by theory alone.

  17. Multi-loop PWR modeling and hardware-in-the-loop testing using ACSL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.M.; Heibel, M.D.; Catullo, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Westinghouse has developed an Advanced Digital Feedwater Control System (ADFCS) which is aimed at reducing feedwater related reactor trips through improved control performance for pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants. To support control system setpoint studies and functional design efforts for the ADFCS, an ACSL based model of the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a Westinghouse (PWR) was generated. Use of this plant model has been extended from system design to system testing through integration of the model into a Hardware-in-Loop test environment for the ADFCS. This integration includes appropriate interfacing between a Gould SEL 32/87 computer, upon which the plant model executes in real time, and the Westinghouse Distributed Processing family (WDPF) test hardware. A development program has been undertaken to expand the existing ACSL model to include capability to explicitly model multiple plant loops, steam generators, and corresponding feedwater systems. Furthermore, the program expands the ADFCS Hardware-in-Loop testing to include the multi-loop plant model. This paper provides an overview of the testing approach utilized for the ADFCS with focus on the role of Hardware-in-Loop testing. Background on the plant model, methodology and test environment is also provided. Finally, an overview is presented of the program to expand the model and associated Hardware-in-Loop test environment to handle multiple loops

  18. El “Estudio del Rechazo”: mujeres a las que no se les permite abortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Turnaway Study

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reseña la investigación que realizó un grupo de investigadoras de ANSIRH (Adelantando Nuevos Estándares en Investigación en Salud de la Universidad de California en San Francisco (UCSF. Este estudio fue aprobado por el Comité de Investigación Humanas de UCSF y fue financiado por la Fundación David and Lucille Packard, por la Fundación Wallace Alexander Gerbode y otros donantes privados. Biografía del Autor The Turnaway Study, Universidad de California en San Francisco El Turnaway Study fue realizado por la Dra. Diana Greene Foster, Ph. D., Investigadora Principal, y la Directora del Proyecto Rana Barar, con la colaboración, entre otras personas, de Tracy Weitz, PhD, MPA, y Heather Gould, MPH, Coordinadora de Investigaciones, y Elisette Weisz, Coordinadora el Proyecto. Traducción por: Gabriela Castellanos

  19. Construction and biological characterization of artificial recombinants between a wild type flavivirus (Kunjin) and a live chimeric flavivirus vaccine (ChimeriVax-JE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugachev, Konstantin V; Schwaiger, Julia; Brown, Nathan; Zhang, Zhen-xi; Catalan, John; Mitchell, Frederick S; Ocran, Simeon W; Rumyantsev, Alexander A; Khromykh, Alexander A; Monath, Thomas P; Guirakhoo, Farshad

    2007-09-17

    Although the theoretical concern of genetic recombination has been raised related to the use of live attenuated flavivirus vaccines [Seligman, Gould, Lancet 2004;363:2073-5], it has little foundation [e.g., Monath TP, Kanesa-Thasan N, Guirakhoo F, Pugachev K, Almond J, Lang J, et al. Vaccine 2005;23:2956-8]. To investigate biological effects of recombination between a chimeric yellow fever (YF) 17D/Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine virus (ChimeriVax-JE) and a wild-type flavivirus Kunjin (KUN-cDNA), the prM-E envelope protein genes were swapped between the two viruses, resulting in new YF 17D/KUN(prM-E) and KUN/JE(prM-E) chimeras. The prM-E genes are easily exchangeable between flavivirues, and thus the exchange was expected to yield the most replication-competent chimeras, while other rationally designed recombinants would be more likely to be crippled or non-viable. The new chimeras proved highly attenuated in comparison with the KUN-cDNA parent, as judged by plaque size and growth kinetics in cell culture, low viremia in hamsters, and reduced neurovirulence/neuroinvasiveness in mice. These data provide strong experimental evidence that the potential of recombinants, should they ever emerge, to cause disease or spread (compete in nature with wild-type flaviviruses) would be indeed extremely low.

  20. The Argus+ Project: Wide-field, high-resolution 3mm molecular imaging with the Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockman, Felix J.

    2018-06-01

    Argus+ is a large format radio camera system for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) that will carry out high-fidelity spectroscopic mapping in the molecule-rich 3mm band. The project builds on the success of the prototype 16-pixel Argus 3mm receiver. Argus+ will be nine copies of Argus in a single dewer, with lower noise amplifiers, for an increase of a factor of ten in mapping speed. The Argus+ project includes a dedicated spectrometer and improvements to the GBT metrology that will more than double the amount of useful observing time at 3mm. With a footprint of 6'x6’, 144 pixels, an angular resolution of 6″ to 8″, and the sensitivity of a filled aperture, Argus+ will map fundamental transitions of important species over hundreds of square arc-min with a spatial dynamic range of 104 to 105. The Argus+ project includes two legacy surveys: a survey of molecules in the Gould Belt molecular clouds, and a survey of dense gas in nearby galaxies. These will be carried out by the scientific community and will be defined through a series of workshops. The Project has a strong educational component and will involve undergraduates at every stage. It will be incorporated into new and existing outreach programs, and will produce materials for the Green Bank Science Center. Argus+ will be operated as an open skies facility of the Green Bank Observatory, with the majority of its use being allocated through the normal proposal review process.

  1. The Honeymoon project: Australia`s first in situ leach uranium project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackland, M.C. [Southern Cross Resources Inc. Toowond, QLD (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    The Honeymoon uranium deposit is one of several roll front uranium deposits in South Australia. It was discovered in 1971, the project developed in the 1970`s, and was ready for demonstration of the In Situ Leaching (ISL) production techniques by January 1983, when the project was stopped, despite it having met the environmental approvals to proceed, due to the Australian Labour Party`s `three mines policy`. From 1983 until March 1996 the project was mothballed. In late 1996 Southern Cross Resources Inc. (SCRI) reached agreement with Mount Isa Mining (MIM) to purchase its uranium interests in Honeymoon, Goulds Dam and EL 2310 whilst simultaneously acquiring Sedimentary Holdings NL`s interests in EL 2310. By April 1997 these interests were consolidated in SCRI`s wholly owned subsidiary, Southern Cross Resources Australia Ply Ltd which is the operating company. Activities are presently underway to rehabilitate the existing treatment plant and continue the program that was outlined in the approved 1981 Honeymoon Environmental Impact Statement. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  2. Views of adolescent female youth on physical activity during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yungblut, Hope E; Schinke, Robert J; McGannon, Kerry R

    2012-01-01

    Early adolescence is a time when a transition away from sport and physical activity participation is at its highest level among female youth (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004). This has led to the identification of barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation for adolescent females. Consequently there have been calls to overcome barriers and augment facilitators via the creation of gender-relevant programming. Despite these calls and efforts, a gender disparity remains, and a detailed understanding of how girls experience and interpret physical activity within the context of their lives is still lacking. The current project aimed to gain further insight into the foregoing using tenets of Interpretive Phenomenology to further understand the lived physical activity experiences of females during early adolescence, delineating their barriers to participation and the factors enabling participation. Five themes were identified and made into vignettes to facilitate understanding from adolescent females' perspectives: friends or don't know anyone, good or not good enough, fun or not fun; good feeling or gross; and peer support or peer pressure. The physical activity promotion implications for female youth are discussed within the context of these themes.

  3. VIEWS OF ADOLESCENT FEMALE YOUTH ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DURING EARLY ADOLESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope E. Yungblut

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Early adolescence is a time when a transition away from sport and physical activity participation is at its highest level among female youth (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004. This has led to the identification of barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation for adolescent females. Consequently there have been calls to overcome barriers and augment facilitators via the creation of gender-relevant programming. Despite these calls and efforts, a gender disparity remains, and a detailed understanding of how girls experience and interpret physical activity within the context of their lives is still lacking. The current project aimed to gain further insight into the foregoing using tenets of Interpretive Phenomenology to further understand the lived physical activity experiences of females during early adolescence, delineating their barriers to participation and the factors enabling participation. Five themes were identified and made into vignettes to facilitate understanding from adolescent females' perspectives: friends or don't know anyone, good or not good enough, fun or not fun; good feeling or gross; and peer support or peer pressure. The physical activity promotion implications for female youth are discussed within the context of these themes.

  4. Economical Feasibility of Utilizing Photovoltaics for Water Pumping in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Z. Sahin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy and water are the two major need of the globe which need to be addressed for the sustenance of the human beings on this planet. All the nations, no matter most populous, developed and developing need to diversify the means and ways of producing energy and at the same time guarding the environment. This study aims at techno economical feasibility of producing energy using PV solar panels and utilizing it to pump-water at Dhahran, Riyadh, Jeddah, Guriat, and Nejran regions in Saudi Arabia. The solar radiation data from these stations was used to generate electricity using PV panels of 9.99 kW total capacity. Nejran region was found to be most economical in terms of minimal payback period and cost of energy and maximum internal rate of return whereas PV power production was concerned. Water-pumping capacity of the solar PV energy system was calculated at five locations based on the PV power production and Goulds model 45J series of pumps. Monthly total and annual total water pumping capacities were determined. Considering the capital cost of combined solar PV energy system and the pump unit a cost analysis of water pumping for a well of 50 m total dynamic head (TDH was carried out. The cost of water pumping was found to vary between 2 and 3 /m3.

  5. The diversity of weed species occurring in living mulch in an apple orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Licznar-Małańczuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In a study conducted at the Research Station of the Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, weed occurrence in living mulches maintained in apple tree rows of ‘Pinova’ cv. was assessed during the first seven years after sowing. The trees were planted in spring 2004 (3.5 × 1.2 m. In the same year, living mulches: colonial bent grass, white clover and French marigold, were sown into 1 m wide tree rows. Blue fescue, the only perennial cover crop with herbicide application against dicot weeds once in the second year after sowing, was introduced in the second year after planting the trees to replace dwarf nasturtium which was sown in the year of orchard establishment. In the inter-row spaces, perennial grass was maintained. During the first seven years, variation in weeds was observed depending on living mulch. Multi-species weed infestation persisted throughout the study period only in the case of annually resown French marigold. Perennial living mulches were significantly suppressed the annual weeds. Significant suppression of Taraxacum officinale Web. was found where the soil surface was covered by perennial grass sod in more than ¾. The maintenance of blue fescue resulted in significantly lower average soil coverage by Elymus repens (L. Gould; the growth of this weed significantly contributed to the reduction of white clover sod and French marigold plants.

  6. Data and performance profiles applying an adaptive truncation criterion, within linesearch-based truncated Newton methods, in large scale nonconvex optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caliciotti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report data and experiments related to the research article entitled “An adaptive truncation criterion, for linesearch-based truncated Newton methods in large scale nonconvex optimization” by Caliciotti et al. [1]. In particular, in Caliciotti et al. [1], large scale unconstrained optimization problems are considered by applying linesearch-based truncated Newton methods. In this framework, a key point is the reduction of the number of inner iterations needed, at each outer iteration, to approximately solving the Newton equation. A novel adaptive truncation criterion is introduced in Caliciotti et al. [1] to this aim. Here, we report the details concerning numerical experiences over a commonly used test set, namely CUTEst (Gould et al., 2015 [2]. Moreover, comparisons are reported in terms of performance profiles (Dolan and Moré, 2002 [3], adopting different parameters settings. Finally, our linesearch-based scheme is compared with a renowned trust region method, namely TRON (Lin and Moré, 1999 [4].

  7. Medical data sheet in safe havens - A tri-layer cryptic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveenkumar, Padmapriya; Amirtharajan, Rengarajan; Thenmozhi, K; Balaguru Rayappan, John Bosco

    2015-07-01

    Secured sharing of the diagnostic reports and scan images of patients among doctors with complementary expertise for collaborative treatment will help to provide maximum care through faster and decisive decisions. In this context, a tri-layer cryptic solution has been proposed and implemented on Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images to establish a secured communication for effective referrals among peers without compromising the privacy of patients. In this approach, a blend of three cryptic schemes, namely Latin square image cipher (LSIC), discrete Gould transform (DGT) and Rubik׳s encryption, has been adopted. Among them, LSIC provides better substitution, confusion and shuffling of the image blocks; DGT incorporates tamper proofing with authentication; and Rubik renders a permutation of DICOM image pixels. The developed algorithm has been successfully implemented and tested in both the software (MATLAB 7) and hardware Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) environments. Specifically, the encrypted data were tested by transmitting them through an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel model. Furthermore, the sternness of the implemented algorithm was validated by employing standard metrics such as the unified average changing intensity (UACI), number of pixels change rate (NPCR), correlation values and histograms. The estimated metrics have also been compared with the existing methods and dominate in terms of large key space to defy brute force attack, cropping attack, strong key sensitivity and uniform pixel value distribution on encryption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Measuring the Microlensing Parallax from Various Space Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelet, E.; Hinse, T. C.; Street, R.

    2018-05-01

    A few observational methods allow the measurement of the mass and distance of the lens-star for a microlensing event. A first estimate can be obtained by measuring the microlensing parallax effect produced by either the motion of the Earth (annual parallax) or the contemporaneous observation of the lensing event from two (or more) observatories (space or terrestrial parallax) sufficiently separated from each other. Further developing ideas originally outlined by Gould as well as Mogavero & Beaulieu, we review the possibility of measuring systematically the microlensing parallax using a telescope based on the Moon surface and other space-based observing platforms, including the upcoming WFIRST space-telescope. We first generalize the Fisher matrix formulation and present results demonstrating the advantage for each observing scenario. We conclude by outlining the limitation of the Fisher matrix analysis when submitted to a practical data modeling process. By considering a lunar-based parallax observation, we find that parameter correlations introduce a significant loss in detection efficiency of the probed lunar parallax effect.

  9. Integrated interpretation of overlapping AEM datasets achieved through standardisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Camilla C.; Munday, Tim; Heinson, Graham

    2015-12-01

    Numerous airborne electromagnetic surveys have been acquired in Australia using a variety of systems. It is not uncommon to find two or more surveys covering the same ground, but acquired using different systems and at different times. Being able to combine overlapping datasets and get a spatially coherent resistivity-depth image of the ground can assist geological interpretation, particularly when more subtle geophysical responses are important. Combining resistivity-depth models obtained from the inversion of airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data can be challenging, given differences in system configuration, geometry, flying height and preservation or monitoring of system acquisition parameters such as waveform. In this study, we define and apply an approach to overlapping AEM surveys, acquired by fixed wing and helicopter time domain electromagnetic (EM) systems flown in the vicinity of the Goulds Dam uranium deposit in the Frome Embayment, South Australia, with the aim of mapping the basement geometry and the extent of the Billeroo palaeovalley. Ground EM soundings were used to standardise the AEM data, although results indicated that only data from the REPTEM system needed to be corrected to bring the two surveys into agreement and to achieve coherent spatial resistivity-depth intervals.

  10. NRC Information No. 87-41: Failures of certain Brown Boveri Electric circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    On April 20, 1987, Duquesne Light Company, the Beaver Valley Unit 2 licensee, notified the NRC of the failure of a BBE Type 5HK Class IE 4-KV circuit breaker. When the circuit breaker was racked onto the bus and 125-V DC control power was applied to the breaker's control circuit, the closing spring charged and the circuit breaker immediately closed and opened several times before the control power could be turned off. The licensee determined by field testing that the closing coil was not being energized. Another problem with BBE circuit breakers occurred at River Bend and was reported March 6, 1987. On February 6, 1987, with the unit at full power, the Division I diesel generator 4.16-KV output circuit breaker (Gould-Brown Boveri Type 5HK) failed to close during a weekly surveillance test. The licensee's inspection of the output circuit breaker revealed that a mounting bolt had fallen out of the closing spring charging motor, rendering the motor inoperable. Further investigation revealed several other circuit breakers that contained loose or missing charging motor mounting bolts. The licensee also stated that the River Bend circuit breaker preventive maintenance program, which the licensee believes to be in accordance with the vendor's recommendations, did not detect this problem. The licensee believes the root cause of the problem to be insufficient torquing of the charging motor mounting bolts by the vendor

  11. Actual preferences for EV households in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Fjendbo; Haustein, Sonja; Cherchi, Elisabetta

    , as the EV market is still quite immature in most countries, lack of data on EV users is a common problem for researchers. Data on EV purchase and use have thus often been collected by means of data from intentional statements (see e.g. Bühler et al. 2014), stated preferences (see e.g. Bunch et al. 1993......; Hidrue et al. 2011; Jensen et al. 2014) and EV vehicle trials (Golob & Gould 1998; Franke & Krems 2013; Jensen et al. 2014). While such studies have provided important insight into various areas of the EV market, the fact that the results are not based on actual behaviour means that they are subject...... to a high degree of uncertainty. Being the global EV market forerunner, Norway has a better foundation for studying the EV market based on actual EV owners. On these grounds, Klöckner et al. (2013), studied differences in car use between EV and conventional vehicle (CV) users. Also in Norway, Mersky et al...

  12. Ripensare Darwin? Di ex‐aptations e neotenie. E di Topolino, Pippo e simpatiche salamandre messicane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMODIO, PAOLO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rethinking Darwin? About Ex‐aptations and Neotenies. Concerning Mickey Mouse, Goofy and likeable mexican Salamanders The theory of evolution by natural selection of Charles Darwin, whose first general exposure dates back to 1859, with the publication of the Origin of Species, is still a matter of intense debate among natural sciences’ scholars and philosophers. After the merger of Darwinian evolutionary research program with the theory of heredity of Gregor Mendel, the mathematical form of population genetics and the analysis of paleontological data (Modern Synthesis and the the important contributions of post-Darwinian authors such as S.J. Gould and N. Eldredge we are entering a new era of great discoveries and news. On the one hand, new data from genetics and paleoanthropology, on the other hand the impetuous development of some fields of applied science such as nanobiotechnology, genetic engineering and synthetic biology put us into the need and the urgency to underline, once again, the relevance and the extraordinary heuristic power of Darwinian research program, an even greater urgency since some authors have announced that we would be at a time to access a post-Darwinian and post-evolutionary era in which man as we actually know it is about to disappear.

  13. Review on resonance cone fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro.

    1980-02-01

    Resonance cone fields and lower hybrid heating are reviewed in this report. The resonance cone fields were reported by Fisher and Gould, and they proposed the use of the measurement of resonance cones and structure as a diagnostic tool to determine the plasma density and electron temperature in magnetoplasma. After the resonance cone, a wave-like disturbance persists. Ohnuma et al. have measured bending, reflection and ducting of resonance cones in detail. The thermal modes in inhomogeneous magnetoplasma were seen. The reflection of thermal mode near an electron plasma frequency layer and an insulating plate has been observed. The non-linear effects of resonance cones is reported. Monochromatic electron beam produces the noise of broad band whistler mode. Lower hybrid waves have been the subject of propagation from the edge of plasma to the lower hybrid layer. Linear lower hybrid waves were studied. The lower hybrid and ion acoustic waves radiated from a point source were observed. The parametric decay of finite-extent, cold electron plasma waves was studied. The lower hybrid cone radiated from a point source going along magnetic field lines was observed. Several experimental data on the lower hybrid heating in tokamak devices have been reported. The theories on resonance cones and lower hybrid waves are introduced in this report. (Kato, T.)

  14. Carleton College Geology Department: Seventy Years of Planning for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, M. E.; Davidson, C.

    2003-12-01

    On the back of a fire door leading to the Carleton geology lounge and classroom, students have painted a geologic time scale representing the history of the geology department from its establishment in 1933 to its present configuration. Along the way, Laurence McKinley Gould, George Gibson, Duncan Stewart VII, Leonard Wilson, Eiler Henrickson, Ed Buchwald, Shelby Boardman, Mary Savina, David Bice, Clem Shearer, Bereket Haileab, Clint Cowan, Cam Davidson, Jenn Macalady and a host of other faculty have contributed to an excellent undergraduate program. Features that have maintained the strength of the program over the years include: Outstanding support staff (Betty Bray and Tim Vick); Weekly department meetings that include discussion of department goals and pedagogy, including attention to giving students the tools to complete the major and capstone project; Regular department retreats that allow more comprehensive discussion; Encouraging different teaching styles among the faculty; A curriculum that emphasizes active learning from day one in introductory geology through the senior capstone experience; Involving students in the department, from planning field trips to hiring to TAs; Increasing student role models by having sophomore, junior and senior majors in most courses; Emphasizing the liberal arts character of geology, rather than pre-professional; Bringing alumni back to campus on a regular basis; Publishing an annual alumni newsletter and maintaining a department web site; Creating a social and intellectual space within the department for students and faculty; Making a particular effort to be welcoming and affirming to people of all colors, ethnicities, affectional orientations and gender identities;

  15. Magnetic tension and instabilities in the Orion A integral-shaped filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Stutz, Amelia

    2018-03-01

    The Orion nebula is a prime example of a massive star-forming region in our galaxy. Observations have shown that gravitational and magnetic energy are comparable in its integral-shaped filament on a scale of ˜1 pc, and that the population of pre-main sequence stars appears dynamically heated compared to the protostars. These results have been attributed to a slingshot mechanism resulting from the oscillation of the filament by Stutz & Gould. In this paper, we show that radially contracting filaments naturally evolve towards a state where gravitational, magnetic, and rotational energy are comparable. While the contraction of the filament will preferentially amplify the axial component of the magnetic field, the presence of rotation leads to a helical field structure. We show how magnetic tension can give rise to a filament oscillation, and estimate a typical time-scale of 0.7 Myr for the motion of the filament to the position of maximum displacement, consistent with the characteristic time-scale of the ejected stars. Furthermore, the presence of helical magnetic fields is expected to give rise to magneto-hydrodynamical instabilities. We show here that the presence of a magnetic field significantly enhances the overall instability, which operates on a characteristic scale of about 1 pc. We expect the physics discussed here to be generally relevant in massive star-forming regions, and encourage further investigations in the future.

  16. Leachate migration from a solid waste disposal facility near Biscayne National Park, South Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, B.G.; Labowski, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Leachate from the Dade County Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) is migrating to the east (seaward) and to the south from the currently active disposal cell. Water levels and ground-water flow directions are strongly influenced by water-management practices, especially in the Black Creek Canal and structure S-21 to the north of the SWDF. Ground-water flow is initially to the south, from Black Creek Canal, and then to the east through the disposal area. The SWDF is constructed over the salt-intruded part of the highly transmissive Biscayne aquifer and because of this, chloride ion concentrations and specific conductance levels could not be used as indicators of leachate concentrations. Water-quality indicators used to identify leachate migration were primarily ammonium, organic nitrogen, phenols, and chemical oxygen demand with cadmium, chromium, and lead used as auxiliary indicator constituents. Leachate was detected in multi-depth wells located 75 meters to the south and 20 meters to the east of the active cell. Concentrations of water-quality indicators had mean concentrations generally 2 to 10 times higher than baseline conditions. Leachate was not detected in any of the other ground-water, canal water, or Biscayne Bay sampling sites. Primary controls over leachate movement in the SWDF are water-management practices in the Black Creek and Gould Canals, configuration and integrity of the liner beneath the active cell, and low hydraulic gradients in the landfill area

  17. Música e Tecnologia, do Vinil ao MP3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAIVA, Eduardo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The many technologies related to the processes of sound recording came to be understood, since the 60s, as “expressive means” that enable the appearance of new languages and procedures linked to the musical creation. By abandoning its supporting role, technology, mainly since the digital systems in the 90s, raises a large number of questions about the creation, recording and duplication processes of a musical work, where several concepts must be rethought and reconfigured. And, with the popularity of the Web from the late 90s on and consequently the movement of the sound work detached from any relationship with the physical media, we have today a new industry, new creation processes and a whole new approach of the issues linked to the relationship between music and technology. Finally, technology is an important element in the building of a sound singularity, something essential in popular music and even in some specific cases of classical music, as we can see in the recordings of Glenn Gould. Therefore, it is necessary to have a clear view of these processes (starting with vinyl records until the digital possibilities of today as well as to understand technology as one of the most important “expressive means” of sound creation.

  18. EGRET observations of diffuse gamma-ray emission in taurus and perseus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digel, Seth W.; Grenier, Isabelle A.

    2001-01-01

    We present an analysis of the interstellar gamma-ray emission observed toward the extensive molecular cloud complexes in Taurus and Perseus by the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET). The region's large size (more than 300 square degrees) and location below the plane in the anticenter are advantageous for straightforward interpretation of the interstellar emission. The complex of clouds in Taurus has a distance of ∼140 pc and is near the center of the Gould Belt. The complex in Perseus, adjacent to Taurus on the sky, is near the rim of the Belt at a distance of ∼300 pc. The findings for the cosmic-ray density and the molecular mass-calibrating ratio N(H 2 )/W CO in Taurus and Perseus are compared with results for other nearby cloud complexes resolved by EGRET. The local clouds that now have been studied in gamma rays can be used to trace the distribution of high-energy cosmic rays within 1 kpc of the sun

  19. Open Interactivity: A Model for Audience Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Gould

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Artists have increasingly acknowledged the role of the audience as collaborators both in the construction of meaning (Bathes, 1977, through subjective experience (Dewey, 1934 and in contributing to the creative act by externalising the work. (Duchamp Lucy Lippard identifies 1966-72 as a period where artists turned increasingly towards the audience, representing a "dematerialization of the art object" (Lippard, 1997 through "Happenings" and "Fluxus" movements. Digital media has facilitated this trajectory, implicit in the interactive computer interface (Manovich, 2005, but interactivity per se may offer no more than a series of choices put forward by the artist (Daniels, 2011. Interactivity represents interplay between artist and audience (Dinka, 1996 and is potentially a process of audience empowerment to offer agency, defined as real and creative choice (Browning, 1964. Public screen installation "Peoples Screen" Guangzhou, linking China to Perth Australia (Sermon & Gould, 2015 offered a partnership between artist and audience to co-create content though playful narratives and active engagement in a drama that unfolds using improvisation and play. Initially visitors enjoy observing the self on the screen but audiences quickly start to interact with the environment and other participants. Immersed in play they lose a sense of the self (Callois, 2011 and enter a virtual third space where possibilities for creativity and direction of play are limitless. The self becomes an avatar where the audience can inhabit "the other" thereby exploring alternative realities through ludic play, promoting tolerance and empathy and developing collective memory.

  20. Emotions in social movilization: the bulgarian protests of 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Popkovacheva-Terzieva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Las emociones juegan un papel principal en los ciclos de los movimientos sociales. Sin embargo, definir el término “emoción” es sujeto de calientes debates escolares porque las emociones varían mucho según su naturaleza y manifestación. Sin embargo, una reseña de la literatura empírica y teórica escolar perece demostrar que las emociones pueden ser entendidas de la mejor manera a través de dos instrumentos - los mecanismos de Jon Elster’s y los habitus emocionales de Deborah Gould. El objetivo de este artículo es hablar de los dos instrumentos y combinarlos con la paradigmática teoría sobre el papel de las emociones en la movilización social de James M. Jasper y Jeff Goodwin, para marcar las conclusiones sobre lo que las emociones pueden ofrecer al entendimiento de los movimientos sociales. Como caso de estudio se van a revisar las olas de las protestas búlgaras del junio del 2013.  Normal 0 21 false false false RU JA X-NONE

  1. Mild myelin disruption elicits early alteration in behavior and proliferation in the subventricular zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Elizabeth A; Busquet, Nicolas; Shepherd, Douglas; Dietz, Robert M; Herson, Paco S; Simoes de Souza, Fabio M; Li, Anan; George, Nicholas M; Restrepo, Diego; Macklin, Wendy B

    2018-02-13

    Myelin, the insulating sheath around axons, supports axon function. An important question is the impact of mild myelin disruption. In the absence of the myelin protein proteolipid protein (PLP1), myelin is generated but with age, axonal function/maintenance is disrupted. Axon disruption occurs in Plp1 -null mice as early as 2 months in cortical projection neurons. High-volume cellular quantification techniques revealed a region-specific increase in oligodendrocyte density in the olfactory bulb and rostral corpus callosum that increased during adulthood. A distinct proliferative response of progenitor cells was observed in the subventricular zone (SVZ), while the number and proliferation of parenchymal oligodendrocyte progenitor cells was unchanged. This SVZ proliferative response occurred prior to evidence of axonal disruption. Thus, a novel SVZ response contributes to the region-specific increase in oligodendrocytes in Plp1 -null mice. Young adult Plp1- null mice exhibited subtle but substantial behavioral alterations, indicative of an early impact of mild myelin disruption. © 2018, Gould et al.

  2. CLASS 0 PROTOSTARS IN THE PERSEUS MOLECULAR CLOUD: A CORRELATION BETWEEN THE YOUNGEST PROTOSTARS AND THE DENSE GAS DISTRIBUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadavoy, S. I.; Di Francesco, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 355, STN CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); André, Ph.; Maury, A.; Men' shchikov, A.; Motte, F.; Hennemann, M.; Könyves, V.; Louvet, F.; Roy, A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service dAstrophysique, Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pezzuto, S.; Benedettini, M.; Elia, D. [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bernard, J.-P. [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Nguyên-Lu' o' ng, Q. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8 (Canada); Schneider, N.; Bontemps, S. [Université de Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac (France); Arzoumanian, D. [IAS, CNRS (UMR 8617), Université Paris-Sud 11, Bâtiment 121, F-91400 Orsay (France); Hill, T. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura 763-0355, Santiago (Chile); Peretto, N., E-mail: sadavoy@mpia.de [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-06-01

    We use PACS and SPIRE continuum data at 160 μm, 250 μm, 350 μm, and 500 μm from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey to sample seven clumps in Perseus: B1, B1-E, B5, IC 348, L1448, L1455, and NGC 1333. Additionally, we identify and characterize the embedded Class 0 protostars using detections of compact Herschel sources at 70 μm as well as archival Spitzer catalogs and SCUBA 850 μm photometric data. We identify 28 candidate Class 0 protostars, four of which are newly discovered sources not identified with Spitzer. We find that the star formation efficiency of clumps, as traced by Class 0 protostars, correlates strongly with the flatness of their respective column density distributions at high values. This correlation suggests that the fraction of high column density material in a clump reflects only its youngest protostellar population rather than its entire source population. We propose that feedback from either the formation or evolution of protostars changes the local density structure of clumps.

  3. Características biológicas de una población de Pteria sterna(Bivalvia: Pteriidae en Zorritos, Tumbes, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmer Ordinola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre abril y noviembre de 2011 se analizó una población de Pteria sterna (Gould, 1851 que se encontraba adherida a una red de cerco hundida en Zorritos, Tumbes, Perú (3º40’30.7”S - 80º40’20.8”W. Los individuos presentaron tallas de 5 a 94 mm de altura valvar. La talla promedio se incrementó hacia finales del periodo evaluado. La estructura de tallas mostró la presencia de reclutas en la mayoría de meses evaluados, con máximos en abril y agosto. Se registraron cinco grupos de edad. La proporción sexual fue 1:1. Los desoves fueron continuos, a excepción de junio, con un máximo en noviembre. La relación altura valvar-peso total no mostró diferencias por sexos. El crecimiento de esta especie fue alométrico negativo. Las demás relaciones (potencial: peso del cuerpo-peso total, y lineales: peso del cuerpo-peso total y peso del talo – peso total presentaron elevadas correlaciones. El rendimiento del músculo (talo representó el 6.3% del peso total.

  4. High-performance batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage. Progress report, October 1977--September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P.A.; Barney, D.L.; Steunenberg, R.K.

    1978-11-01

    The research, development, and management activities of the programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at industrial subcontractors' laboratories on high-temperature batteries during the period October 1977--September 1978 are reported. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary-energy-storage applications. The present cells, which operate at 400 to 500/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing electrodes of lithium--aluminum alloy, and molten LiCl--KCl electrolyte. During this fiscal year, cell and battery development work continued at ANL, Eagle--Picher Industries, Inc., the Energy Systems Group of Rockwell International, and Gould Inc. Related work was also in progress at the Carborundum Co., General Motors Research Laboratories, and various other organizations. A major event was the initiation of a subcontract with Eagle--Picher Industries to develop, design, and fabricate a 40-kWh battery (Mark IA) for testing in an electric van. Conceptual design studies on a 100-MWh stationary-energy-storage module were conducted as a joint effort between ANL and Rockwell International. A significant technical advance was the development of multiplate cells, which are capable of higher performance than bicells. 89 figures, 57 tables.

  5. Arthroscopic repair of chronic lateral ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte-Real, Nuno M; Moreira, Rodrigo M

    2009-03-01

    The current "gold standard'' for treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability is the Broström-Gould procedure. Most authors recommend this type of operation even after an arthroscopic inspection of the joint. We review our results with an arthroscopic method of lateral ankle ligament repair. A method of arthroscopic lateral ligament repair with an anchor placed in the fibula is described. We used this technique on 31 consecutive patients (28 were available for followup). Twenty-one patients had work or traffic accidents, four suffered casual falls. and three had sport-related lesions. The patients were evaluated after 24.5 month average followup. The average postoperative AOFAS score was 85.3 (82.3 in the workers-compensation group and 94.4 in the others) and average satisfaction was 3.8 (3.5 to workers-compensation and 4.6 for the others). Complications occurred in nine patients (29%), but only three cases had ongoing problems. We had two recurrences (another sprain without instability on the stress radiograph). Three patients had some wound healing problems and three had injuries of the superficial peroneal nerve, one of which is persistent. One patient developed a deep venous thrombosis postoperatively. With this method, we achieved good clinical results. We had several complications but most of them were minor. It was a simple procedure with less morbidity to most patients. We believe it produced an anatomical repair of the lateral ligament with clinical and functional results similar to other techniques.

  6. Atypical Chronic Ankle Instability in a Pediatric Population Secondary to Distal Fibula Avulsion Fracture Nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ashry, Saad R; El Gamal, Tarek A; Platt, Simon R

    Chronic ankle instability is a disabling condition, often occurring as a result of traumatic ankle injury. A paucity of published data is available documenting chronic ankle instability in the pediatric population. Much of the data has been confined to the adult population. We present 2 cases of chronic ankle instability, 1 in a 12-year-old and 1 in a 9-year-old patient. Unlike the typical adult etiology, the cause of instability was a dysfunctional lateral ligamentous complex as a consequence of bony avulsion of the tip of the fibula. Both patients had sustained a twisting injury to the ankle. The fractures failed to unite. The nonunion resulted in dysfunction of the anterior talofibular ligament with consequent chronic ankle instability. At the initial clinical assessment, magnetic resonance imaging was requested for both patients. In patient 1 (12 years old), the fracture was fixed with 2 headless screws and was immobilized in a plaster cast for 6 weeks. In patient 2 (9 years old), because of the small size of the avulsed fragment, fixation was not possible. A modified Gould-Broström procedure was undertaken, facilitating repair of the avulsed fragment using anchor sutures. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gamma-ray astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtel, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    The most striking feature of the celestial sphere when viewed in the frequency range of γ-rays is the emission from the galactic plane, which is particularly intense in the galactic longitudinal region from 300 0 to 50 0 . The longitudinal and latitudinal distributions are generally correlated with galactic structural features and when studied in detail suggest a non-uniform distribution of cosmic rays in the galaxy. Several point γ-ray sources have now been observed, including four radio pulsars. This last result is particularly striking since only one radio pulsar has been seen at either optical or X-ray frequencies. Nuclear γ-ray lines have been seen from the Sun during a large solar flare and future satellite experiments are planned to search for γ-ray lines from supernovae and their remnants. A general apparently diffuse flux of γ-rays has also been seen whose energy spectrum has interesting implications; however, in view of the possible contribution of point sources and the observation of galactic features such as Gould's belt, its interpretation must await γ-ray experiments with finer spatial and energy resolution, as well as greater sensitivity. (Auth.)

  8. Mapping young stellar populations towards Orion with Gaia DR1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zari, Eleonora; Brown, Anthony G. A.

    2018-04-01

    OB associations are prime sites for the study of star formation processes and of the interaction between young massive stars with the interstellar medium. Furthermore, the kinematics and structure of the nearest OB associations provide detailed insight into the properties and origin of the Gould Belt. In this context, the Orion complex has been extensively studied. However, the spatial distribution of the stellar population is still uncertain: in particular, the distances and ages of the various sub-groups composing the Orion OB association, and their connection to the surrounding interstellar medium, are not well determined. We used the first Gaia data release to characterize the stellar population in Orion, with the goal to obtain new distance and age estimates of the numerous stellar groups composing the Orion OB association. We found evidence of the existence of a young and rich population spread over the entire region, loosely clustered around some known groups. This newly discovered population of young stars provides a fresh view of the star formation history of the Orion region.

  9. Degenerate mixing of plasma waves on cold, magnetized single-species plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. W.; O'Neil, T. M.; Dubin, D. H. E.; Gould, R. W.

    2011-10-01

    In the cold-fluid dispersion relation ω =ωp/[1+(k⊥/kz)2]1/2 for Trivelpiece-Gould waves on an infinitely long magnetized plasma cylinder, the transverse and axial wavenumbers appear only in the combination k⊥/kz. As a result, for any frequency ω plasma column, these degenerate waves reflect into one another at the ends; thus, each standing-wave normal mode of the bounded plasma is a mixture of many degenerate waves, not a single standing wave as is often assumed. A striking feature of the many-wave modes is that the short-wavelength waves often add constructively along resonance cones given by dz /dr=±(ωp2/ω2-1)1/2. Also, the presence of short wavelengths in the admixture for a predominantly long-wavelength mode enhances the viscous damping beyond what the single-wave approximation would predict. Here, numerical solutions are obtained for modes of a cylindrical plasma column with rounded ends. Exploiting the fact that the modes of a spheroidal plasma are known analytically (the Dubin modes), a perturbation analysis is used to investigate the mixing of low-order, nearly degenerate Dubin modes caused by small deformations of a plasma spheroid.

  10. Damping Measurements of Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, F.; Affolter, M.; Driscoll, C. F.

    2010-11-01

    For azimuthally symmetric plasma modes in a magnesium ion plasma, confined in a 3 Tesla Penning-Malmberg trap with a density of n ˜10^7cm-3, we measure a damping rate of 2s-1plasma column, alters the frequency of the mode from 16 KHz to 192 KHz. The oscillatory fluid displacement is small compared to the wavelength of the mode; in contrast, the fluid velocity, δvf, can be large compared to v. The real part of the frequency satisfies a linear dispersion relation. In long thin plasmas (α> 10) these modes are Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) modes, and for smaller values of α they are Dubin spheroidal modes. However the damping appears to be non-linear; initially large waves have weaker exponential damping, which is not yet understood. Recent theoryootnotetextM.W. Anderson and T.M. O'Neil, Phys. Plasmas 14, 112110 (2007). calculates the damping of TG modes expected from viscosity due to ion-ion collisions; but the measured damping, while having a similar temperature and density dependence, is about 40 times larger than calculated. This discrepancy might be due to an external damping mechanism.

  11. Degenerate mixing of plasma waves on cold, magnetized single-species plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M. W.; O'Neil, T. M.; Dubin, D. H. E.; Gould, R. W.

    2011-01-01

    In the cold-fluid dispersion relation ω=ω p /[1+(k perpendicular /k z ) 2 ] 1/2 for Trivelpiece-Gould waves on an infinitely long magnetized plasma cylinder, the transverse and axial wavenumbers appear only in the combination k perpendicular /k z . As a result, for any frequency ω p , there are infinitely many degenerate waves, all having the same value of k perpendicular /k z . On a cold finite-length plasma column, these degenerate waves reflect into one another at the ends; thus, each standing-wave normal mode of the bounded plasma is a mixture of many degenerate waves, not a single standing wave as is often assumed. A striking feature of the many-wave modes is that the short-wavelength waves often add constructively along resonance cones given by dz/dr=±(ω p 2 /ω 2 -1) 1/2 . Also, the presence of short wavelengths in the admixture for a predominantly long-wavelength mode enhances the viscous damping beyond what the single-wave approximation would predict. Here, numerical solutions are obtained for modes of a cylindrical plasma column with rounded ends. Exploiting the fact that the modes of a spheroidal plasma are known analytically (the Dubin modes), a perturbation analysis is used to investigate the mixing of low-order, nearly degenerate Dubin modes caused by small deformations of a plasma spheroid.

  12. The Creativity of Natural Selection? Part I: Darwin, Darwinism, and the Mutationists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, John

    2016-12-01

    This is the first of a two-part essay on the history of debates concerning the creativity of natural selection, from Darwin through the evolutionary synthesis and up to the present. Here I focus on the mid-late nineteenth century to the early twentieth, with special emphasis on early Darwinism and its critics, the self-styled "mutationists." The second part focuses on the evolutionary synthesis and some of its critics, especially the "neutralists" and "neo-mutationists." Like Stephen Gould, I consider the creativity of natural selection to be a key component of what has traditionally counted as "Darwinism." I argue that the creativity of natural selection is best understood in terms of (1) selection initiating evolutionary change, and (2) selection being responsible for the presence of the variation it acts upon, for example by directing the course of variation. I consider the respects in which both of these claims sound non-Darwinian, even though they have long been understood by supporters and critics alike to be virtually constitutive of Darwinism.

  13. Modernization of the PF and L Seabrook NPP simulator - Assembly code to C++

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, T.C.; Ashy, O.

    2006-01-01

    Starting in 1997 FP and L Seabrook commenced a modernization program to update the Seabrook NPP Simulator delivered in 1982 to a modern simulator platform capable of supporting the operator training requirements, improve system maintenance as well as add new capabilities such as classroom training. The initial simulator was delivered on ENCORE Gould computers which had become obsolete. The modernization of the simulator was performed in multiple phases that reduced down time requirements and ultimately provided the user with a flexible environment to maintain and upgrade the simulator for years to come. FP and L Seabrook which at that time was owned by NAESCO contracted WSC through a prime contract with DS and S in 1998 to provide its' 3KEY MASTER Simulation Environment and modeling tools for this upgrade effort. As part of this contract WSC supplied the a new real-time executive platform, a modern instructor station and modeling tools allowing for the phased upgrade of the process modeling to a modern object oriented design. This paper outlines the phases of modernization which Seabrook and WSC undertook and the resulting value to the plant. (author)

  14. Overview of the Orion Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Orion star formation complex is the nearest region of on-going star formation that continues to produce both low and high mass stars. Orion is discussed in the larger context of star formation in the Solar vicinity over the last 100 Myr. The Orion complex is located on the far side of the Gould's Belt system of clouds and young stars through which our Solar system is drifting. A review is given of the overall structure and properties of the Orion star forming complex, the best studied OB association. Over the last 12 Myr, Orion has given birth to at least ten thousand stars contained in a half dozen sub-groups and short-lived clusters. The Orion OB association has been the source of several massive, high-velocity run-away stars, including μ Columbae and AE Aurigae. Some of Orion's most massive members died in supernova explosions that created the 300 pc diameter Orion / Eridanus super-bubble whose near wall may be as close as 180 pc. The combined effects of UV radiation, stellar winds, and supernovae have impacted surviving molecular clouds in Orion. The large Orion A, IC 2118 molecular clouds and dozens of smaller clouds strewn throughout the interior of the superbubble have cometary shapes pointing back towards the center of the Orion OB association. Most are forming stars in the compressed layers facing the bubble interior.

  15. Improving health consciousness and life skills in young people through peer-leadership in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerachote, C; Kessomboon, P; Rattanasiri, A; Koju, R

    2013-01-01

    Peer leadership is widely recognized as an effective approach to health promotion and empowerment among people of similar ages, especially the youth. Such programs build peer leaders who in turn help empower the youths in their groups to improve their health and life skills related to health. Most previous studies have focused on the effectiveness of such activities in target groups but have neglected to effectively address and explore the transformations in peer leaders themselves. This descriptive study aimed to investigate the level of social change and health consciousness among student peer leaders in three Youth health promotion programs in Thailand: Friend's Corner, Smart Consumer and Volunteer Minded Young Dentists, and to compare them with the general students. The study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire, which was developed based on Tyree's Social Change Model of leadership, Gould's concept and Dutta-Bergman's concept. The study population comprised of 11th grade students (N=660) from Kalasin Province in Thailand, 320 of whom were peer leaders. The findings revealed that the peer leaders scored higher than non peer leaders in all domains. Among the peer leaders, it was found that Volunteer Minded Young Dentists group had the highest scores in "controversy with civility", "social change agent" characteristics, "holistic health perceptions" and "responsibility for one's own health" regarding health consciousness. The results of this study confirmed that the peer leadership approach can help young people to develop life skills through social transformation and increase health consciousness for better status of health in the community.

  16. Overview of the land analysis system (LAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Bruce K.; Olseson, Lyndon R.

    1987-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is a fully integrated digital analysis system designed to support remote sensing, image processing, and geographic information systems research. LAS is being developed through a cooperative effort between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center and the U. S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center. LAS has over 275 analysis modules capable to performing input and output, radiometric correction, geometric registration, signal processing, logical operations, data transformation, classification, spatial analysis, nominal filtering, conversion between raster and vector data types, and display manipulation of image and ancillary data. LAS is currently implant using the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE). While TAE was designed primarily to be transportable, it still provides the necessary components for a standard user interface, terminal handling, input and output services, display management, and intersystem communications. With TAE the analyst uses the same interface to the processing modules regardless of the host computer or operating system. LAS was originally implemented at EROS on a Digital Equipment Corporation computer system under the Virtual Memorial System operating system with DeAnza displays and is presently being converted to run on a Gould Power Node and Sun workstation under the Berkeley System Distribution UNIX operating system.

  17. Modes in a non-neutral plasma of finite length, m=0,1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasband, S. Neil; Spencer, Ross L.

    2003-01-01

    For realistic, cold equilibria of finite length representing a pure electron plasma confined in a cylindrical Malmberg-Penning trap, the mode spectrum for Trivelpiece-Gould, m=0, and for diocotron, m=1, modes is calculated numerically. A novel method involving finite elements is used to successfully compute eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions for plasma equilibria shaped like pancakes, cigars, long cylinders, and all things in between. Mostly sharp-boundary density configurations are considered but also included in this study are diffuse density profiles including ones with peaks off axis leading to instabilities. In all cases the focus has been on elucidating the role of finite length in determining mode frequencies and shapes. For m=0 accurate eigenfrequencies are tabulated and their dependence on mode number and aspect ratio is computed. For m=1 it is found that the eigenfrequencies are 2% to 3% higher than given by the Fine-Driscoll formula [Phys. Plasmas 5, 601 (1998)]. The 'new modes' of Hilsabeck and O'Neil [Phys. Plasmas 8, 407 (2001)] are identified as Dubin modes. For hollow profiles finite length in cold-fluid can account for up to ∼70% of the theoretical instability growth rate

  18. Process Management Development for Quality Monitoring on Resistance Weldment of Nuclear Fuel Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Tae Hyung; Yang, Kyung Hwan; Kim, In Kyu [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The current, welding force, and displacement are displayed on the indicator during welding. However, real-time quality control is not performed. Due to the importance of fuel rod weldment, many studies on welding procedures have been conducted. However, there are not enough studies regarding weldment quality evaluation. On the other hand, there are continuous studies on the monitoring and control of welding phenomena. In resistance welding, which is performed in a very short time, it is important to find the process parameters that well represent the weld zone formation and the welding process. In his study, Gould attempted to analyze melt zone formation using the finite difference method. Using the artificial neural network, Javed and Sanders, Messler Jr et al., Cho and Rhee, Li and Gong et al. estimated the size of the melt zone by mapping a nonlinear functional relation between the weldment and the electrode head movement, which is a typical welding process parameter. Applications of the artificial intelligence method include fuzzy control using electrode displacement, fuzzy control using the optimal power curve, neural network control using the dynamic resistance curve, fuzzy adaptive control using the optimal electrode curve, etc. Therefore, this study induced quality factors for the real-time quality control of nuclear fuel rod end plug weldment using instantaneous dynamic resistance (IDR), which incorporates the instantaneous value of secondary current and voltage of the transformer, and using instantaneous dynamic force (IDF), obtained real-time during welding.

  19. Authoritative Images. The Kiwi and the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadelli, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The first exemplar of a kiwi, the wingless bird of New Zealand, arrived in the form of a lifeless specimen in Europe in 1812. A debate was sparked over the appearance and nature of this strange creature and indeed whether it actually existed. In 1833 the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London entered the debate and the illustrations published in this journal contributed greatly to the acceptance and further study of the kiwi. Some of the most eminent British zoologists and anatomists of the time were involved, from William Yarrell to Richard Owen, and from John Gould to Abraham Dee Bartlett. This crucial period in the discussion, which would extend over two decades and would only be brought to a close with the arrival of the first living specimen in the London Zoological Garden in 1851, will be analyzed based on a detailed examination of the reports published in the Transactions and other journals. This essay will show how images of the bird were produced and used by zoologists during different stages in the early research on the bird and how these figures circulated inside and outside the zoologists' community.

  20. Structure and age of the local association (Pleiades group)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggen, O.J.

    1975-01-01

    The available photometric and motion parameters for some 500 early-type stars brighter than M/sub V/ = -1/sup m/ are used to compute space-motion vectors. It is concluded that (a) about one-third of the stars are members of the local association (Pleiades group) which are easily isolated from the other interarm stars because V = -25 km sec -1 ; (b) some 50 stars with aberrant velocity vectors, and often referred to as ''runaway stars'', may actually be members of the old-disk, or even the halo, population; (c) perhaps the local association (or Gould Belt) stars cannot be separated from other interarm objects on the basis of positional criteria alone; and (d) the age spread in the local association ranges from that of the cluster NGC 2287 to pre-main-sequence stars in several star-producing regions within the association including the large Taurus Aurigae dark cloud and isolated small clouds, such as that near HR 5999/6000. (19 figures, 11 tables, 47 references) (U.S.)

  1. Dynamic Confinement of ITER Plasma by O-Mode Driver at Electron Cyclotron Frequency Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2009-05-01

    A low B-field side launched electron cyclotron O-Mode driver leads to the dynamic rf confinement, in addition to rf turbulent heating, of ITER plasma. The scaling law for the local energy confinement time τE is evaluated (τE ˜ 3neTe/2Q, where (3/2) neTe is the local plasma thermal energy density and Q is the local rf turbulent heating rate). The dynamics of unstable dissipative trapped particle modes (DTPM) strongly coupled to Trivelpiece-Gould (T-G) modes is studied for gyrotron frequency 170GHz; power˜24 MW CW; and on-axis B-field ˜ 10T. In the case of dynamic stabilization of DTPM turbulence and for the heavily damped T-G modes, the energy confinement time scales as τE˜(I0)-2, whereby I0(W/m^2) is the O-Mode driver irradiance. R. Prater et. al., Nucl. Fusion 48, No 3 (March 2008). E. P. Velikhov, History of the Russian Tokamak and the Tokamak Thermonuclear Fusion Research Worldwide That Led to ITER (Documentary movie; Stefan Studios Int'l, La Jolla, CA, 2008; E. P. Velikhov, V. Stefan.) M N Rosenbluth, Phys. Scr. T2A 104-109 1982 B. B. Kadomtsev and O. P. Pogutse, Nucl. Fusion 11, 67 (1971).

  2. Social Science Energy Review: a quarterly publication. Vol. 1, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, L C [ed.

    1978-01-01

    The Yale University Institution for Social and Policy Studies Mapping Project on Energy and the Social Sciences brings together an interdisciplinary group of Yale and visiting faculty, ISPS staff, and Yale graduate students meeting weekly to discuss topics in energy and the social sciences and to study and evaluate the importance for social policy of existing and potential social science energy research projects. The primary purposes of the project are: (1) to encourage timely social science investigations into important energy-related social issues, (2) to explore the present and potential roles for academic social science research in energy decision-making, and (3) to advise DOE and other government personnel in the planning of social science energy research. In addition to an overview of the Mapping Project, this report contains the following: (1) Social Science Research on ''The Energy Boomtown,'' by Leroy C. Gould--contains literature survey (66 references) and conveys Mapping Project's suggestions as to priorities on future social science research on ''energy boomtowns.'' (2) Men and Coal in Appalachia: a Survey of the Academic Literature, by Peter B. Allison (bibliography cites 7 journals, 3 government documents, and 70 books and articles). (3) Energy Research in Psychology, by John Sweeney (reprint of review of current status of energy research in psychology that appeared in December, 1977 issue of APA Monitor under the title, ''Boosting Energy Research'').

  3. Synthetic biology: a challenge to mechanical explanations in biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morange, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In their plans to modify organisms, synthetic biologists have contrasted engineering and tinkering. By drawing this contrast between their endeavors and what has happened during the evolution of organisms by natural selection, they underline the novelty of their projects and justify their ambitions. Synthetic biologists are at odds with a long tradition that has considered organisms as "perfect machines." This tradition had already been questioned by Stephen Jay Gould in the 1970s and received a major blow with the comparison made by François Jacob between organisms and the results of "bricolage" (tinkering). These contrasts between engineering and tinkering, synthetic biology and evolution, have no raison d'être. Machines built by humans are increasingly inspired by observations made on organisms. This is not a simple reversal of the previous trend-the mechanical conception of organisms-in which the characteristics of the latter were explained by comparison with human-built machines. Relations between organisms and machines have always been complex and ambiguous.

  4. Electric-dipole-moment enhancement factor for the thallium atom, and a new upper limit on the electric dipole moment of the electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandars, P.G.H.; Sternheimer, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    Some time ago, an accurate upper limit on a possible permanent electric dipole moment of the thallium atom in the 6 2 P 1 / 2 ground state was obtained by Gould. The result was D/sub Tl/ = [(1.3 +- 2.4) x 10 -21 cm]e. In connection with this value, a calculation of the electric dipole enhancement factor R/sub Tl/, which is defined as the ratio D/sub Tl//D/sub e/, where D/sub e/is the corresponding upper limit on a possible electric dipole moment of the (valence) electron was carried out. A value R/subTl/ = 700 was obtained, which leads to an upper limit D/sub e/ = [(1.9 +- 3.4) x 10 -24 cm]e. This result is comparable with the value D/sub e/ -24 cm)e previously obtained by Weisskopf et al. from measurements on the cesium atom, and with the result of Player and Sandars of [(0.7 +- 2.2) x 10 -24 cm]e obtained from the search for an electric dipole moment in the 3 P 2 metastable state of xenon. All three results set a stringent upper limit on the amount of a possible violation of T and P invariance in electromagnetic interactions. (U.S.)

  5. Impact of Consumers’ Self-Image and Demographics on Preference for Healthy Labeled Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Hanspal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are becoming more health conscious. Increasingly, products that are labeled “healthy” are being marketed as new retailers and new brands vie for the consumers’ share of wallet. This research identifies the self-image factors that constitute a health conscious image of the self and examines how self-image impacts consumer buying of foods that are labeled healthy. It also makes an effort to find out whether specific self-image factors are significantly associated with demographics. This study employs a scale consisting of 15 statements that included four statements from the Health Consciousness scale developed by Gould. The psychometric properties of the scale used in the study are reported. The study uses factor analysis to identify five factors of consumer self-image as they relate to health consciousness. Furthermore, the study explores the relationship between demographics such as age, gender, education, and relationship status with the self-image factors and reports results for consumer preferences for choosing healthy foods when hungry. This research has important implications for marketers in the health food industry and for such other companies that might use consumer health consciousness as a basis for market segmentation and strategy design.

  6. Soul and body: Transcending the dialectical intellectual legacy of the West with an integral biblical view?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danie Strauss

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Greek philosophy informed the Medieval dualistic understanding of ‘body’ and ‘soul’, which continued to influence modern Humanism and Christian views during and after the Middle Ages. These fluctuating conceptions express the directing role of dialectical basic motives. It was mainly the Greek motive of matter and form which directed the thought of Plato and Aristotle, resulting in a dualistic view of the relationship between a so-called material body and rational soul. At the Council of Vienne (1312, the Aristotelian-Thomistic doctrine of the soul as the substantial form of the body was adopted. Within Protestant circles, the‘two-substances’ view caused a distinction between a (temporal material body and an (eternal rational soul (see article 7 of the Swiss Confessio Helvetica Posterior and the Westminster Confession Chapter 4, paragraph 2. Dooyeweerd shows how modern philosophy has received its deepest motivation from the dialectical motive of nature and freedom, which informed the development from Descartes up to Gould and Jaspers. Finally, in the last sections, the main contours of a biblically informed view are articulated with reference to the centrality of the human I-ness, to the theory of enkaptic interlacements and to the problem of supra-temporality. Siel en liggaam: Is dit moontlik om die dialektiese intellektuele erfenis van die Westevanuit ‘n integrale bybelse siening te bowe te kom? Die Griekse filosofie vorm die agtergrond van die Middeleeuse dualistiese verstaan van ‘liggaam’ en ‘siel’ wat op sy beurt die moderne Humanisme en latere Christelike opvattinge beïnvloed het – almal in die greep van dialektiese grondmotiewe. Dit was hoofsaaklik die Griekse basiese vorm-materie-motief wat die dualistiese siening van ’n materie-liggaam en ’n redelike siel tot gevolg gehad het, soos dit in die denke van Plato en Aristoteles beslag gekry het. By die Konsilie van Wenen (1312 is die Aristotelies

  7. Detectability of rotation-powered pulsars in future hard X-ray surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei

    2009-01-01

    Recent INTEGRAL/IBIS hard X-ray surveys have detected about 10 young pulsars. We show hard X-ray properties of these 10 young pulsars, which have a luminosity of 10 33 -10 37 erg s -1 and a photon index of 1.6-2.1 in the energy range of 20-100 keV. The correlation between X-ray luminosity and spin-down power of L X ∝ L sd 1.31 suggests that the hard X-ray emission in rotation-powered pulsars is dominated by the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) component. Assuming spectral properties are similar in 20-100 keV and 2-10 keV for both the pulsar and PWN components, the hard X-ray luminosity and flux of 39 known young X-ray pulsars and 8 millisecond pulsars are obtained, and a correlation of L X ∝ L sd 1.5 is derived. About 20 known young X-ray pulsars and 1 millisecond pulsars could be detected with future INTEGRAL and HXMT surveys. We also carry out Monte Carlo simulations of hard X-ray pulsars in the Galaxy and the Gould Belt, assuming values for the pulsar birth rate, initial position, proper motion velocity, period, and magnetic field distribution and evolution based on observational statistics and the L X - L sd relations: L X ∝ L sd 1.31 and L X ∝ L sd 1.5 . More than 40 young pulsars (mostly in the Galactic plane) could be detected after ten years of INTEGRAL surveys and the launch of HXMT. So, the young pulsars would be a significant part of the hard X-ray source population in the sky, and will contribute to unidentified hard X-ray sources in present and future hard X-ray surveys by INTEGRAL and HXMT.

  8. Interspecific differences and commonalities in maternity roosting by tree cavity-roosting bats over a maternity season in a timber production landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Brad; Goldingay, Ross

    2018-01-01

    Understanding maternity roost requirements is fundamental to guide timber production forest management given such roosts are vital to sustain bat populations. We tracked lactating females of three tree cavity-roosting species: Gould's long-eared bat (Nyctophilus gouldi) (n = 7), eastern broad-nosed bat (Scotorepens orion) (n = 6) and little forest bat (Vespadelus vulturnus) (n = 25), over five weeks in young (predominately trees were located. Bats displayed a degree of maternity roost selection plasticity, however, interspecific differences were found. Nyctophilus gouldi roosted selectively in retained riparian buffers, in trees of high senescence and switched roosts every day. Vespadelus vulturnus roosted in logged areas and displayed high roost site fidelity, with one roost used for 33 consecutive days. Scotorepens orion selected large live trees of low senescence. The preliminary data for this species suggests that females roost most days in ‘primary’ roosts but display a roost switching behaviour conforming to the fission-fusion model. Dead trees were identified to be important for both N. gouldi and V. vulturnus. Historical and recent logging at our study area drastically reduced cavity-bearing tree density to 1.4 trees per hectare in the logging zones (outside of exclusion areas), potentially limiting local populations of tree cavity-roosting bats and other cavity-dependent wildlife. Our data demonstrate that forest management must consider a range of maternity roost requirements to accommodate differences among species and highlight the importance of exclusion areas for roost habitat. We propose that an expanded ‘retention forestry’ approach should be implemented in logged areas that includes in-perpetuity forest patch retention to increase habitat complexity and continuity. PMID:29543883

  9. DNA extraction from wings as a suitable approach for queen bees genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Facchini

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In livestock, genomics has been used since a decade in combination with phenotypic information for the estimation of breeding values. In honey bees (Apis mellifera, the advantage for including genomics in selective breeding programmes is represented by the possibility to reduce the generation interval and increase the accuracies of estimated breeding values resulting in higher genetic gain (Brascamp et al., 2018. The limit for this application is DNA extraction. Extraction methods for small animals such as insects often rely upon destructive approaches. The challenge is to develop tissue sampling methods that permit the survival of the animal while providing adequate quality DNA for genotyping. Along with previous reports of DNA extraction from several matrices, this study aims to contribute in developing suitable methodologies for genotyping honey bees queens using DNA extracted from wing cuttings (Chaline et al., 2004; Gregory and Rinderer, 2004; Gould et al., 2011. The clipping of the queen wings in beekeeping is a common practice and it ensures the survival and normal activities of the animal (Forster, 1971. A total of 57 queens with known pedigree were enrolled for this study. Wings from each queen were cut and stored at -20°C until processed (Fig. 1. Extractions were carried out using a modified protocol provided by Qiagen (DNeasy® Blood & Tissue. The modification consists in an initial incubation of the samples with proteinase K for 20 minutes, further steps are carried out following the manufacturer’s instructions. To test the suitability of the extracted DNA for genotyping, PCR was performed on Esterase FE4 like gene. Although quantification with NanoDrop™ resulted in <20 ng/μL of DNA in solution, the extracted material was sufficient for PCR amplification of candidate genes for sequencing and genotyping. Our results show that it is possible to extract DNA from wings’ cuttings permitting to implement genomic approaches in honey

  10. Investigation of the effect of water exposed to nonequilibrium contact plasma onto saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mykolenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Additional treatment of water by nonequilibrium contact plasma allows improving consumer characteristics of bakery goods considerably. Determination of the effect of plasma-chemically activated water on morphological, cultural and physiological properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast is important from the technological point of view. Materials and Methods. Experimental investigations were carried out in the conditions of bacteriological laboratory by seeding the culture of yeasts of ТМ “Lvivski” and “Kryvorizki” on Sabouraud dense liquid nutrient media. The quantity of viable cells of microorganisms was determined by the method of Gould sector seeds. Morphology of the yeast was investigated by phase-contrast microscopy. Biotechnological properties of yeasts were determined on Giss media. Results. The paper establishes the effect of water exposed to nonequilibrium contact plasma on the sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and shows absence of suppressive action of treated water with regard to cultural properties of microorganisms. The experiments prove that with the use of plasma-chemically activated water morphological characteristics and biochemical properties of bakery yeasts produced by Lviv and Kryvyi Rig yeast plants are preserved. Culturing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on the nutrient media prepared with the use of water exposed to nonequilibrium contact plasm resulted in 6,5–15 times’ increase in quantity of viable microorganisms compared with the control on the mains drinking water. Conclusions. Physiological properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast improved owing to use water exposed to nonequilibrium contact plasma. Results of investigations are recommended for using in yeast production and bread making.

  11. Interspecific differences and commonalities in maternity roosting by tree cavity-roosting bats over a maternity season in a timber production landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueegger, Niels; Law, Brad; Goldingay, Ross

    2018-01-01

    Understanding maternity roost requirements is fundamental to guide timber production forest management given such roosts are vital to sustain bat populations. We tracked lactating females of three tree cavity-roosting species: Gould's long-eared bat (Nyctophilus gouldi) (n = 7), eastern broad-nosed bat (Scotorepens orion) (n = 6) and little forest bat (Vespadelus vulturnus) (n = 25), over five weeks in young (predominately maternity roost selection in a regenerating landscape and by doing so, increase our understanding of the three species' roost ecology. Sixteen V. vulturnus, 15 N. gouldi and six S. orion unique maternity roost trees were located. Bats displayed a degree of maternity roost selection plasticity, however, interspecific differences were found. Nyctophilus gouldi roosted selectively in retained riparian buffers, in trees of high senescence and switched roosts every day. Vespadelus vulturnus roosted in logged areas and displayed high roost site fidelity, with one roost used for 33 consecutive days. Scotorepens orion selected large live trees of low senescence. The preliminary data for this species suggests that females roost most days in 'primary' roosts but display a roost switching behaviour conforming to the fission-fusion model. Dead trees were identified to be important for both N. gouldi and V. vulturnus. Historical and recent logging at our study area drastically reduced cavity-bearing tree density to 1.4 trees per hectare in the logging zones (outside of exclusion areas), potentially limiting local populations of tree cavity-roosting bats and other cavity-dependent wildlife. Our data demonstrate that forest management must consider a range of maternity roost requirements to accommodate differences among species and highlight the importance of exclusion areas for roost habitat. We propose that an expanded 'retention forestry' approach should be implemented in logged areas that includes in-perpetuity forest patch retention to increase habitat

  12. Antigenic variants of yellow fever virus with an altered neurovirulence phenotype in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryman, K D; Xie, H; Ledger, T N; Campbell, G A; Barrett, A D

    1997-04-14

    The live-attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccine virus, strain 17D-204, has long been known to consist of a heterologous population of virions. Gould et al. (J. Gen. Virol. 70, 1889-1894 (1989)) previously demonstrated that variant viruses exhibiting a YF wild-type-specific envelope (E) protein epitope are present at low frequency in the vaccine pool and were able to isolate representative virus variants with and without this epitope, designated 17D(+wt) and 17D(-wt), respectively. These variants were employed here in an investigation of YF virus pathogenesis in the mouse model. Both the 17D-204 parent and the 17D(+wt) variant viruses were lethal for adult outbred mice by the intracerebral route of inoculation. However, the 17D(-wt) variant was significantly attenuated (18% mortality rate) and replicated to much lower titer in the brains of infected mice. A single amino acid substitution in the envelope (E) protein at E-240 (Ala-->Val) was identified as responsible for the restricted replication of the 17D(-wt) variant in vivo. The 17D(+wt) variant has an additional second-site mutation, believed to encode a reversion to the neurovirulence phenotype of the 17D-204 parent virus. The amino acid substitution in the E protein at E-173 (Thr-->Ile) of the 17D(+wt) variant which results in the appearance of the wild-type-specific epitope or nucleotide changes in the 5' and 3' noncoding regions of the virus are proposed as a candidates.

  13. Large scale filaments associated with Milky Way spiral arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Testi, Leonardo; Ginsburg, Adam; Walmsley, Malcolm; Molinari, Sergio; Schisano, Eugenio

    2015-08-01

    The ubiquity of filamentary structure at various scales through out the Galaxy has triggered a renewed interest in their formation, evolution, and role in star formation. The largest filaments can reach up to Galactic scale as part of the spiral arm structure. However, such large scale filaments are hard to identify systematically due to limitations in identifying methodology (i.e., as extinction features). We present a new approach to directly search for the largest, coldest, and densest filaments in the Galaxy, making use of sensitive Herschel Hi-GAL data complemented by spectral line cubes. We present a sample of the 9 most prominent Herschel filaments from a pilot search field. These filaments measure 37-99 pc long and 0.6-3.0 pc wide with masses (0.5-8.3)×104 Msun, and beam-averaged (28", or 0.4-0.7 pc) peak H2 column densities of (1.7-9.3)x1022 cm-2. The bulk of the filaments are relatively cold (17-21 K), while some local clumps have a dust temperature up to 25-47 K due to local star formation activities. All the filaments are located within spiral arm model incorporating the latest parallax measurements, we find that 7/9 of them reside within arms, but most are close to arm edges. These filaments are comparable in length to the Galactic scale height and therefore are not simply part of a grander turbulent cascade. These giant filaments, which often contain regularly spaced pc-scale clumps, are much larger than the filaments found in the Herschel Gould's Belt Survey, and they form the upper ends in the filamentary hierarchy. Full operational ALMA and NOEMA will be able to resolve and characterize similar filaments in nearby spiral galaxies, allowing us to compare the star formation in a uniform context of spiral arms.

  14. Geomagnetic polarity reversals as a mechanism for the punctuated equilibrium model of biological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, J.S.; Welsh, A.L.; Welsh, W.F.

    2003-01-01

    In contrast to what is predicted by classical Darwinian theory (phyletic gradualism), the fossil record typically displays a pattern of relatively sudden, dramatic changes as detailed by Eldregde and Gould's model of punctuated equilibrium. Evolutionary biologists have been at a loss to explain the ultimate source of the new mutations that drive evolution. One hypothesis holds that the abrupt speciation seen in the punctuated equilibrium model is secondary to an increased mutation rate resulting from periodically increased levels of ionizing radiation on the Earth's surface. Sporadic geomagnetic pole reversals, occurring every few million years on the average, are accompanied by alterations in the strength of the Earth's magnetic field and magnetosphere. This diminution may allow charged cosmic radiation to bombard Earth with less attenuation, thereby resulting in increased mutation rates. This episodic fluctuation in the magnetosphere is an attractive mechanism for the observed fossil record. Selected periods and epochs of geologic history for which data was available were reviewed for both geomagnetic pole reversal history and fossil record. Anomalies in either were scrutinized in greater depth and correlations were made. A 35 million year span (118-83 Ma) was identified during the Early/Middle Cretaceous period that was devoid of geomagnetic polarity reversals(the Cretaceous normal superchron). Examination of the fossil record (including several invertebrate and vertebrate taxons) during the Cretaceous normal superchron does not reveal any significant gap or slowing of speciation. Although increased terrestrial radiation exposure due to a diminution of the Earth's magnetosphere caused by a reversal of geomagnetic polarity is an attractive explanation for the mechanism of punctuated equilibrium, our investigation suggests that such polarity reversals cannot fully provide the driving force behind biological evolution. Further research is required to determine if

  15. "Word of Discovery": A Planetary Example from Volume I of the Astronomical Journal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockey, T.

    1998-09-01

    In 1850, William Lassell (1799-1880) discovered a series of bright white spots, in the south temperate latitudes of Jupiter, unlike any that that been seen before. Lassell's note on these STZ features is a useful example of how astronomical discoveries of the day were communicated among astronomers. Word of Lassell's Spots spread quickly by nineteenth-century standards. This was due, in part, to the recent appearance of journals devoted exclusively to astronomy. The transition from letters as a means of conveying scientific information to journals is reflected in the propagation of Lassell's announcement: a report of Lassell's description of the white spots to the Royal Astronomical Society appeared in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society along with a woodblock print of one of his drawings. This report reappeared shortly thereafter in German translation. It was part of a letter to the editor of the Astronomische Nachrichten, Heinrich Schumacher (1780-1850), from an English correspondent of his, the Reverend Richard Sheepshanks (1974-1855). (Sheepshanks was himself editor of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.) It then made its way across the Atlantic as a letter from Schumacher to Benjamin Gould (1824-1896), who published it in the first volume of his upstart Astronomical Journal. There it appears in English, again, as Schumacher quoting Sheepshanks quoting Lassell! The observations by Lassell and William Dawes (1799-1868) of this phenomenon also were the first major planetary discovery made using a silvered-glass reflecting telescope. Lassell's Spots have remained in the "astronomical news" of the last 150 years: Most recently, they appeared worldwide in images showing the Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 impact sites.

  16. Treatment of fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS and related neurological problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi J Hagerman

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Randi J Hagerman1,2, Deborah A Hall3, Sarah Coffey1,2, Maureen Leehey3, James Bourgeois4, John Gould5, Lin Zhang6, Andreea Seritan4, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis7–9, John Olichney6, Joshua W Miller10, Amy L Fong11, Randall Carpenter12, Cathy Bodine13, Louise W Gane1,2, Edgar Rainin1, Hillary Hagerman1, Paul J Hagerman141M.I.N.D. Institute, 2Department of Pediatrics, 4Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, 5Department of Urology, 6Department of Neurology, 10Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 14Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA, USA; 3Department of Neurology, University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA; 7Department of Pediatrics, Neurology, and Biochemistry, 8Department of Neurological Sciences, 9Department of Biochemistry, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; 11Physical Edge, Inc., Davis, CA, USA; 12Seaside Therapeutics, Cambridge, MA, USA; 13Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO, USAAbstract: Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS is a progressive neurological disorder that affects older adult carriers, predominantly males, of premutation alleles (55 to 200 CGG repeats of the fragile X (FMR1 gene. Principal features of FXTAS are intention tremor, ataxia, parkinsonism, cognitive decline, and peripheral neuropathy; ancillary features include, autonomic dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms of anxiety, depression, and disinhibition. Although controlled trials have not been carried out in individuals with FXTAS, there is a significant amount of anecdotal information regarding various treatment modalities. Moreover, there exists a great deal of evidence regarding the efficacy of various medications for treatment of other disorders (eg, Alzheimer disease that have substantial phenotypic overlap with FXTAS. The current review summarizes what is currently

  17. Goethe's phenomenology of nature: a juvenilization of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaftnesmo, Trond

    2009-01-01

    Empirical science is not a mere collection of facts. It builds theories and frames hypotheses within those theories. Empirical theories are stated as plausible answers to questions we pose to nature. According to the Galilean-Baconian tradition within science, these questions should basically explore the causes of observed phenomena, and further be restricted to the measurable and quantitative realm. Thus, the answers are generally expected to explain the effective causes behind the actual phenomena. By framing falsifiable hypotheses, the theories are tested against the empirical foundation on which they rest. In this way we try to relieve science from false theories. Thus, we have two epistemological levels: First, the theoretical level; the scientific theory explaining the phenomena, and second, the empirical level; the phenomena or facts verifying or falsifying those theories. According to the poet and multi-scientist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), there is however another way of science, namely an approach where these two levels fuse and become one. Goethe intended this approach to be a complementation of the Galilean-Baconian method, more than an alternative. He considered his "hypothesis-free method" to be a more comprehensive and secure way to understand nature. Whereas the Galilean-Baconian method aimed at explaining the effective causes of natural phenomena, in order to control and exploit nature for technical and industrial purposes, Goethe aimed at an exposition of the inherent meaning of the phenomena.We will explore, exemplify and discuss this approach with reference to the inherently Goethean phenomenology of evolution credited to the Dutch anatomist Louis Bolk (1866-1930), later commented and complemented by Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002) and Jos Verhulst (1949 ). In the course of this presentation we will outline the Goethean approach as a method representing a juvenilization or in Bolk's terms, a fetalization of science.

  18. Towards a Universal Biology: Is the Origin and Evolution of Life Predictable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2017-01-01

    The origin and evolution of life seems an unpredictable oddity, based on the quirks of contingency. Celebrated by the late Stephen Jay Gould in several books, "evolution by contingency" has all the adventure of a thriller, but lacks the predictive power of the physical sciences. Not necessarily so, replied Simon Conway Morris, for convergence reassures us that certain evolutionary responses are replicable. The outcome of this debate is critical to Astrobiology. How can we understand where we came from on Earth without prophesy? Further, we cannot design a rational strategy for the search for life elsewhere - or to understand what the future will hold for life on Earth and beyond - without extrapolating from pre-biotic chemistry and evolution. There are several indirect approaches to understanding, and thus describing, what life must be. These include philosophical approaches to defining life (is there even a satisfactory definition of life?), using what we know of physics, chemistry and life to imagine alternate scenarios, using different approaches that life takes as pseudoreplicates (e.g., ribosomal vs non-ribosomal protein synthesis), and experimental approaches to understand the art of the possible. Given that: (1) Life is a process based on physical components rather than simply an object; (2). Life is likely based on organic carbon and needs a solvent for chemistry, most likely water, and (3) Looking for convergence in terrestrial evolution we can predict certain tendencies, if not quite "laws", that provide predictive power. Biological history must obey the laws of physics and chemistry, the principles of natural selection, the constraints of an evolutionary past, genetics, and developmental biology. This amalgam creates a surprising amount of predictive power in the broad outline. Critical is the apparent prevalence of organic chemistry, and uniformity in the universe of the laws of chemistry and physics. Instructive is the widespread occurrence of

  19. Psicología de los juegos olímpicos: la percepción de los entrenadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sid\\u00F3nio Serpa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudios recientes (Gould, 2001a,b, Greenleaf et al, 2001 consideran a la competición Olímpica con características específicas que implican una adaptación psicológica especial por parte de los deportistas. Por otro lado, se entiende generalmente como esencial la relación entrenador-deportista para la optimización del potencial deportivo de los participantes, teniendo el entrenador un papel muy importante en todo el proceso de preparación psicológica. El objetivo general de la investigación fue estudiar la percepción de los entrenadores sobre las necesidades y obligaciones específicas de los Juegos Olímpicos y sobre la adaptación psicológica de los atletas. En el estudio participaron nueve entrenadores portugueses que acompañaron técnicamente a sus deportistas en los Juegos Olímpicos de Sidney, de los que cinco alcanzaron o excedieron sus expectativas, y no lo hicieron los restantes. La recogida de datos se realizó mediante una entrevista estructurada y el análisis de datos siguió los procedimientos recomendados por Miles y Huberman (1984. La conclusión fue que los entrenadores percibieron aspectos específicos de los Juegos Olímpicos que los distinguen de otras competiciones internacionales y provocaron en los atletas reacciones diferenciadas con respecto a otros grandes eventos que fueron o bien favorables o bien perjudiciales desde el punto de vista del rendimiento. Otra observación fue que los deportistas que obtuvieron tanto mejores como peores rendimientos reaccionaron de forma diferente a las distintas dificultades específicas de unos Juegos Olímpicos.

  20. A comparison of stable caesium uptake by six grass species of contrasting growth strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willey, N.J.; Martin, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    Six plants in the family Gramineae were used to investigate the relationship between Cs uptake, nutrient regime and plant growth strategy sensu Grime (1979: Plant Growth Strategies and Vegetation Processes, John Wiley). The roots of 66 day old Elymus repens (L.) Gould., Bromus sterilis L., Agrostis stolonifera L., Anthoxanthum odoratum L., Festuca ovina L. and Nardus stricta L. plants grown in acid-washed sand at high and low nutrient levels were exposed to a 96 h pulse of stable Cs at 0.05 mM, 0.15 mM, 0.3 mM, 1.0 mM and 3.0 mM concentrations. Different nutrient regimes induced large differences in dry wt in E. repens, B. sterilis and A. stolonifera plants but only small differences in N. stricta and F. ovina plants. At high nutrient concentrations, A. stolonifera, A. odoratum, F. ovina and N. stricta shoots showed significantly greater increases in internal Cs concentration with rising external Cs concentrations than did E. repens and B. sterilis shoots. The relationship between increases in shoot and external Cs concentrations was statistically indistinguishable between species in plants grown at the low nutrient concentration. These patterns of Cs uptake ensured that with long-term high K concentrations the more competitive plants (E. repens and B. sterilis) accumulated higher concentrations of Cs from low external concentrations than did non-competitive plants or competitive plants grown at low nutrient levels. It is suggested that the relationship between plant growth strategy sensu Grime (1979) and Cs accumulation patterns may help to explain the different concentrations to which species accumulate radiocaesium from the soil. (author)

  1. Extensive Holocene ice sheet grounding line retreat and uplift-driven readvance in West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingslake, J.; Scherer, R. P.; Albrecht, T.; Coenen, J. J.; Powell, R. D.; Reese, R.; Stansell, N.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Whitehouse, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) reached its Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) extent 29-14 kyr before present. Numerical models used to project future ice-sheet contributions to sea-level rise exploit reconstructions of post-LGM ice mass loss to tune model parameterizations. Ice-sheet reconstructions are poorly constrained in areas where floating ice shelves or a lack of exposed geology obstruct conventional glacial-geological techniques. In the Weddell and Ross Sea sectors, ice-sheet reconstructions have traditionally assumed progressive grounding line (GL) retreat throughout the Holocene. Contrasting this view, using three distinct lines of evidence, we show that the GL retreated hundreds of kilometers inland of its present position, before glacial isostatic rebound during the Mid to Late Holocene caused the GL to readvance to its current position. Evidence for retreat and readvance during the last glacial termination includes (1) widespread radiocarbon in sediment cores recovered from beneath ice streams along the Siple and Gould Coasts, indicating marine exposure at least 200 km inland of the current GL, (2) ice-penetrating radar observations of relic crevasses and other englacial structures preserved in slow-moving grounded ice, indicating ice-shelf grounding and (3) an ensemble of new ice-sheet simulations showing widespread post-LGM retreat of the GL inland of its current location and later readvance. The model indicates that GL readvance across low slope ice-stream troughs requires uplift-driven grounding of the ice shelf on topographic highs (ice rises). Our findings highlight ice-shelf pinning points and lithospheric response to unloading as drivers of major ice-sheet fluctuations. Full WAIS collapse likely requires GL retreat well beyond its current position in the Ronne and Ross Sectors and linkage via Amundsen Sea sector glaciers.

  2. Summer Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galison, P.; Greene, B.; Mishkin, A.; Thompson, N.

    2004-04-01

    "Send Me a Cable" This isan excerpt from the author Peter Galison's book titled Einstein's Clocks, Poincare's Maps: Empires of Time. Galison is a professor in the History of Science and of Physics at Harvard University. In the early days, astronomer-surveyors struggled with measuring longitude. The best way was to observe an astronomical event, such as an eclipse, note the time it occurred in two different places, and figure the time difference. This was done easily enough in Europe, but not from Europe to America. Galison's 2003 book chronicles the difficulty and ultimate success of Benjamin Gould and George Dean to lay a trans-Atlantic electrical telegraph cable to obtain a reliable measurement of time. "Dead Stars Tell Tales" is an excerpt from the book The Fabric of the Cosmos by Brian Greene, a professor of physics and mathematics at Columbia University. Among other topics, the book describes astronomers' efforts to measure the deceleration of the universe using type Ia supernovae as "standard candles." Surprisingly, the measurements suggest that the expansion of the universe is not decelerating, but is actually accelerating. "Don't Roll Over, Rover" is an excerpt from Andrew Mishkin's book Sojourner: An Insider's View of the Mars Pathfinder Mission. Mishkin is a senior systems engineer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. He coordinated the development of various robotic vehicles and their sub-systems for more that 15 years. His book chronicles his participation in the rover operations team during the exploration of Mars. "Fairway to Heaven" is an excerpt from Neal Thompson's book of the same name, which documents the events of the Apollo 14 lunar mission in 1971. On that mission Ed Mitchell, Stuart Roosa, and Alan Shepard carried out experiments using the first two-wheeled cart called a MET (modularized equipment transport). Featured in the reprint is a description of Alan Shepard's famous golfing expedition in the Fra Mauro crater.

  3. Transport modeling of convection dominated helicon discharges in Proto-MPEX with the B2.5-Eirene code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, L. W.; Rapp, J.; Canik, J.; Lore, J. D.

    2017-11-01

    Data-constrained interpretative analyses of plasma transport in convection dominated helicon discharges in the Proto-MPEX linear device, and predictive calculations with additional Electron Cyclotron Heating/Electron Bernstein Wave (ECH/EBW) heating, are reported. The B2.5-Eirene code, in which the multi-fluid plasma code B2.5 is coupled to the kinetic Monte Carlo neutrals code Eirene, is used to fit double Langmuir probe measurements and fast camera data in front of a stainless-steel target. The absorbed helicon and ECH power (11 kW) and spatially constant anomalous transport coefficients that are deduced from fitting of the probe and optical data are additionally used for predictive simulations of complete axial distributions of the densities, temperatures, plasma flow velocities, particle and energy fluxes, and possible effects of alternate fueling and pumping scenarios. The somewhat hollow electron density and temperature radial profiles from the probe data suggest that Trivelpiece-Gould wave absorption is the dominant helicon electron heating source in the discharges analyzed here. There is no external ion heating, but the corresponding calculated ion temperature radial profile is not hollow. Rather it reflects ion heating by the electron-ion equilibration terms in the energy balance equations and ion radial transport resulting from the hollow density profile. With the absorbed power and the transport model deduced from fitting the sheath limited discharge data, calculated conduction limited higher recycling conditions were produced by reducing the pumping and increasing the gas fueling rate, resulting in an approximate doubling of the target ion flux and reduction of the target heat flux.

  4. Effects of drugs of abuse on hippocampal plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning and memory: contributions to development and maintenance of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-10-01

    It has long been hypothesized that conditioning mechanisms play major roles in addiction. Specifically, the associations between rewarding properties of drugs of abuse and the drug context can contribute to future use and facilitate the transition from initial drug use into drug dependency. On the other hand, the self-medication hypothesis of drug abuse suggests that negative consequences of drug withdrawal result in relapse to drug use as an attempt to alleviate the negative symptoms. In this review, we explored these hypotheses and the involvement of the hippocampus in the development and maintenance of addiction to widely abused drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine, nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and cannabis. Studies suggest that initial exposure to stimulants (i.e., cocaine, nicotine, and amphetamine) and alcohol may enhance hippocampal function and, therefore, the formation of augmented drug-context associations that contribute to the development of addiction. In line with the self-medication hypothesis, withdrawal from stimulants, ethanol, and cannabis results in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory deficits, which suggest that an attempt to alleviate these deficits may contribute to relapse to drug use and maintenance of addiction. Interestingly, opiate withdrawal leads to enhancement of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Given that a conditioned aversion to drug context develops during opiate withdrawal, the cognitive enhancement in this case may result in the formation of an augmented association between withdrawal-induced aversion and withdrawal context. Therefore, individuals with opiate addiction may return to opiate use to avoid aversive symptoms triggered by the withdrawal context. Overall, the systematic examination of the role of the hippocampus in drug addiction may help to formulate a better understanding of addiction and underlying neural substrates. © 2016 Kutlu and Gould; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. High-performance batteries for stationary energy storage and electric-vehicle propulsion. Progress report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    Research, development, and management activities of the program on lithium--aluminum/metal sulfide batteries during April--June 1977 are described. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage. The present cells, which operate at 400--450/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with a central positive electrode of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, two facing negative electrodes of lithium--aluminum alloy, and an electrolyte of molten LiCl--KCl. Testing and evaluation of industrially fabricated cells is continuing. Li--Al/FeS and Li--Al/FeS/sub 2/ cells from Eagle--Picher Industries and from Gould Inc. were tested. These tests provided information on the effects of design modifications and alternative materials for cells. Improved electrode and cell designs are being developed and tested, and the more promising designs are incorporated into the industrially fabricated cells. Among the concepts receiving major attention are carbon-bonded positive electrodes, scaled-up designs of stationary energy storage cells, additives to extend electrode lifetime, alternative electrode separators, and pellet-grid electrodes. Materials development efforts included the development of a lightweight electrical feedthrough; studies of various current-collector designs; investigation of powder separators; wettability and corrosion tests of materials for cell components; and postoperative examinations of cells. Cell chemistry studies were concerned with discharge mechanisms of FeS electrodes and with other transition-metal sulfides as positive electrode materials. Voltammetric studies were conducted to investigate the reversibility of the FeS/sub 2/ electrode. The use of calcium and magnesium alloys for the negative electrode in advanced battery systems were investigated. 8 figures, 12 tables.

  6. CT attenuation in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.S.; Pearlson, G.D.; Goldfinger, A.D.; Tune, L.E.; Heyler, G.

    1986-01-01

    113 screened normal volunteers aged 18-85 and 50 elderly demented individuals meeting NINCDS/ADRDA criteria for probable senile dementia of the Alzheimer type, (SDAT), received a non-contrast x-CT head scan on a single 512x512 matrix Siemens Somatom DR3 Scanner. Scanning parameters (KV,MA) were kept constant, and the authors used a specially designed head holder to ensure a uniform scanning angle. Standard 8mm thick cuts, at zero degrees to the supra-orbito-meatal line, were taken through the entire brain. A ''phantom'' consisting of plastics of several different attenuation values was scanned before each patient as a reference to correct for any numerical drift in the scanner. Both patients and controls were scanned during the same sessions to eliminate possible systematic bias, and a single CT technologist carried out all scanning. Numerical CT data were collected on magnetic tape for analysis on a specially designed image processing system. Software was used to read CT density data from the 512x512 matrix scanner output tapes and to transfer the resulting image in standardized format to hard disk on the processing system. This system consists of a PDP-11-34 computer, linked to a Gould DeAnza IP-5000 image processors, hard disk system and tape drive. Once transferred to disk, images were rated blindly to subject identity or diagnosis by another 2 separate raters using a computer-linked cursor, and digitizer tablet. These numerical attenuation data from various anatomically defined regions of interest, (ROI's), were then corrected for head size using a regression model

  7. Supergalactic studies. I. Supergalactic distribution of the nearest galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Vaucouleurs, G.

    1975-01-01

    The supergalactic distribution of the nearest galaxies is investigated to test the nature of the Local Supercluster and to determine whether the Local Group is inside or outside its boundaries. Objectively selected samples of galaxies generally nearer than 10 Mpc are defined by members of the Local Group, the largest and/or brightest galaxies (mag 10', with V 0 -1 ), low-velocity galaxies (V 0 -1 ), the DDO dwarfs. The great majority of these objects are distributed in a broad belt well populated in both hemispheres and inclined 14degree to the supergalactic equator. This belt, including the Local Group, the Sculptor ring, the Centaurus chain, the M51, M81, M101, and IC 342 groups, and several others as well as isolated, nearby field galaxies, is a supergalactic analog to the Gould belt in galactic structure. Its north pole is at L=172degree, B=+76degree, and there is a small dip of about -4degree indicating that the Galaxy is approx.0.3 Mpc to the north of the equatorial plane of this Local Cloud of galaxies. The nearby intergalactic H i clouds, and in particular the Magellanic Stream, are also close to the same plane. The probability that the observed distributions could arise by chance if nearby groups and galaxies were randomly distributed is in the range P -3 to P -5 for the varous classes of objects. It is concluded that the Local Supercluster is a disklike physical and dynamical system, and the Local Group is well within the borders of the system. The alternative hypothesis that it is an appearance resulting from a random clumping accident has negligibly small probability

  8. Slingshot mechanism for clusters: Gas density regulates star density in the Orion Nebula Cluster (M42)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, Amelia M.

    2018-02-01

    We characterize the stellar and gas volume density, potential, and gravitational field profiles in the central ∼0.5 pc of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), the nearest embedded star cluster (or rather, protocluster) hosting massive star formation available for detailed observational scrutiny. We find that the stellar volume density is well characterized by a Plummer profile ρstars(r) = 5755 M⊙ pc- 3 (1 + (r/a)2)- 5/2, where a = 0.36 pc. The gas density follows a cylindrical power law ρgas(R) = 25.9 M⊙ pc- 3 (R/pc)- 1.775. The stellar density profile dominates over the gas density profile inside r ∼ 1 pc. The gravitational field is gas-dominated at all radii, but the contribution to the total field by the stars is nearly equal to that of the gas at r ∼ a. This fact alone demonstrates that the protocluster cannot be considered a gas-free system or a virialized system dominated by its own gravity. The stellar protocluster core is dynamically young, with an age of ∼2-3 Myr, a 1D velocity dispersion of σobs = 2.6 km s-1, and a crossing time of ∼0.55 Myr. This time-scale is almost identical to the gas filament oscillation time-scale estimated recently by Stutz & Gould. This provides strong evidence that the protocluster structure is regulated by the gas filament. The protocluster structure may be set by tidal forces due to the oscillating filamentary gas potential. Such forces could naturally suppress low density stellar structures on scales ≳ a. The analysis presented here leads to a new suggestion that clusters form by an analogue of the 'slingshot mechanism' previously proposed for stars.

  9. From Edwardian Selfie to Telepresent Comic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sermon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the media archaeology accounts of "Illusions in Motion" by Erkki Huhtamo (2013, this paper will compare and discuss audience participation in three specific self-view artworks involving interacting public audiences captured and presented in live telepresent film and video performances since 1900. This comparative study will draw out an underlying cultural fixation and amusement with the self-image, analogous to Henri Bergson's understanding of laughter in meaning of the comic (1900. These case studies will include my own artistic practice that focuses on telematic encounters and shared visual dialogues between public audiences linked via Internet videoconferencing in "Peoples Screen", in collaboration with Charlotte Gould for the Guangzhou Light Festival in 2015. The seminal live satellite public performance "Hole-in-Space" by Kit Galloway and Sherrie Rabinowitz in 1980, providing the passing public in New York and Los Angeles with opportunity to converse, co-create and play in the first live public connection of its kind. Lastly, they include Mitchell and Kenyon's historic films of Edwardian public crowds in the 1900s, allowing audiences the opportunity to play and perform in front of the film camera in the knowledge they could watch their spectacle in its screening at the local traveling fairground. In all these cultural events the audiences become both performers and viewers by creating an improvised response to the camera and screen. The striking similarity with the way audiences react and perform comical narratives from these early self-view film screenings to telematic performances possess all the unique traits of telepresent interaction and the selfie phenomenon.

  10. Intra-individual response variability assessed by ex-gaussian analysis may be a new endophenotype for Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Patricia Henríquez-Henríquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra-individual variability of Response Times (RTisv is considered as potential endophenotype for Attentional Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Traditional methods for estimating RTisv lose information regarding Response Times (RTs distribution along the task, with eventual effects on statistical power. Ex-Gaussian analysis captures the dynamic nature of RTisv, estimating normal and exponential components for RT distribution, with specific phenomenological correlates. Here, we applied ex-Gaussian analysis to explore whether intra-individual variability of RTs agrees with criteria proposed by Gottesman and Gould for endophenotypes. Specifically, we evaluated if Normal and/or exponential components of RTs may a Present the stair-like distribution expected for endophenotypes (ADHD>Siblings>Typically Developing children (TD without familiar history of ADHD and b Represent a phenotypic correlate for previously described genetic risk variants. This is a pilot study including 55 subjects (20 ADHD-discordant sibling-pairs and 15 TD children, all aged between 8 and 13 years. Participants resolved a visual Go/Nogo with 10% Nogo probability. Ex-Gaussian distributions were fitted to individual RT data and compared among the three samples. In order to test whether intra-individual variability may represent a correlate for previously described genetic risk variants, VNTRs at DRD4 and SLC6A3 were identified in all sibling pairs following standard protocols. Groups were compared adjusting independent general linear models for the exponential and normal components from the ex-gaussian analysis. Identified trends were confirmed by the non-parametric Jonckheere-Terpstra test. Stair-like distributions were observed for μ (p=0.036 and σ (p=0.009. An additional DRD4-genotype X clinical status interaction was present for τ (p=0,014 reflecting a possible severity factor. Thus, Normal and exponential RTisv components are suitable as ADHD endophenotypes.

  11. Dinosaurs, Chameleons, Humans, and Evo-Devo Path: Linking Étienne Geoffroy's Teratology, Waddington's Homeorhesis, Alberch's Logic of "Monsters," and Goldschmidt Hopeful "Monsters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Guinard, Geoffrey; Diaz, Raul E

    2017-05-01

    Since the rise of evo-devo (evolutionary developmental biology) in the 1980s, few authors have attempted to combine the increasing knowledge obtained from the study of model organisms and human medicine with data from comparative anatomy and evolutionary biology in order to investigate the links between development, pathology, and macroevolution. Fortunately, this situation is slowly changing, with a renewed interest in evolutionary developmental pathology (evo-devo-path) in the past decades, as evidenced by the idea to publish this special, and very timely, issue on "Developmental Evolution in Biomedical Research." As all of us have recently been involved, independently, in works related in some way or another with evolution and developmental anomalies, we decided to join our different perspectives and backgrounds in the present contribution for this special issue. Specifically, we provide a brief historical account on the study of the links between evolution, development, and pathologies, followed by a review of the recent work done by each of us, and then by a general discussion on the broader developmental and macroevolutionary implications of our studies and works recently done by other authors. Our primary aims are to highlight the strength of studying developmental anomalies within an evolutionary framework to understand morphological diversity and disease by connecting the recent work done by us and others with the research done and broader ideas proposed by authors such as Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Waddington, Goldschmidt, Gould, and Per Alberch, among many others to pave the way for further and much needed work regarding abnormal development and macroevolution. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Development of a flocculation sub-model for a 3-D CFD model based on rectangular settling tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, M; Xanthos, S; Ramalingam, K; Fillos, J; Beckmann, K; Deur, A; McCorquodale, J A

    2011-01-01

    To assess performance and evaluate alternatives to improve the efficiency of rectangular Gould II type final settling tanks (FSTs), New York City Department of Environmental Protection and City College of NY developed a 3D computer model depicting the actual structural configuration of the tanks and the current and proposed hydraulic and solids loading rates. Fluent 6.3.26™ was the base platform for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, for which sub-models of the SS settling characteristics, turbulence, flocculation and rheology were incorporated. This was supplemented by field and bench scale experiments to quantify the coefficients integral to the sub-models. The 3D model developed can be used to consider different baffle arrangements, sludge withdrawal mechanisms and loading alternatives to the FSTs. Flocculation in the front half of the rectangular tank especially in the region before and after the inlet baffle is one of the vital parameters that influences the capture efficiency of SS. Flocculation could be further improved by capturing medium and small size particles by creating an additional zone with an in-tank baffle. This was one of the methods that was adopted in optimizing the performance of the tank where the CCNY 3D CFD model was used to locate the in-tank baffle position. This paper describes the development of the flocculation sub-model and the relationship of the flocculation coefficients in the known Parker equation to the initial mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration X0. A new modified equation is proposed removing the dependency of the breakup coefficient to the initial value of X0 based on preliminary data using normal and low concentration mixed liquor suspended solids values in flocculation experiments performed.

  13. Exploring the nature of science through courage and purpose: a case study of Charles Darwin's way of knowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel I

    2016-01-01

    In 1836, Charles Darwin returned to England with finches classified and seemingly showing little resemblance. However, subsequent examination by John Gould revealed 13 closely related species endemic to the Galápagos Islands. Despite initial confusion, and Darwin's overlooking to label these birds by island, some 100 years later they had become evolution's icon. The same could be said of Darwin's education and scientific pursuits, beginning in a rough, trial and error manner, lacking direction, but eventually benefitting from an unexpected opportunity that would lead to his theory of natural selection. This case study examines Darwin's way of learning and the reserve of courage and perseverance that he would need to see his treatise on evolution and natural selection published. To do this, themes from studying the "Nature of Science" are used to examine how Darwin's "way of knowing" advanced before and after his voyage upon HMS Beagle. Five themes from the "Nature of Science" were selected to illustrate Darwin's struggles and triumph: creating scientific knowledge is a human endeavor, such knowledge can explain an order and consistency in natural systems, knowledge comes from a scientist's way of knowing, is open to revision, and based on empirical evidence. The "Nature of Science" as applied to Charles Darwin is explored through the three above mentioned themes identified by the Next Generation Science Standards. Together, the themes help explain Darwin's way of knowing, from boyhood to manhood. This explanation helps humanize Darwin, allows students to see how he arrived at his theories, how the time taken to do so wore on his health and safety, and the risk Darwin had to weigh from their eventual publication. Each theme ends with a summary and related extension questions to draw students into the case, and facilitate inquiry. They relate Darwin's way of learning from the 1800s and his commitment to see his work published, to the learning environment of

  14. The Dark of the Covenant: Christian Imagery, Fundamentalism, and the Relationship between Science and Religion in the Halo Video Game Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C.J.M. (Jarell Paulissen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available What do a bionic supersoldier, space stations and religious fanaticism have in common? They are all vital elements of the plot in Halo, a series of first-person shooter games developed by Bungie and published by Microsoft Games. One of the interesting things about Halo is that the developers made use of quite a number of religious images and themes, especially from the Christian tradition. In modern Western society, science and religion are often portrayed as polar opposites, and Halo appears to reaffirm this narrative. Yet it might still be interesting to look at how exactly this animosity is portrayed, and to see whether there is more to it. This paper is an inquiry into the significance of religious imagery and themes in Halo, as well as an attempt to place the game in the broader context of the geopolitical situation of its time. In short, this article is going to be a case study of how the relationship between science and religion can be explored through the medium of video games. For an overview of the current debate on how science and religion relate to one another in academia, I am going to look at the works of American physicist and scholar of religion Ian Barbour, American paleontologist and historian of science Stephen Gould, and British ethologist and evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins. To justify the academic study of videogames I will be drawing from the writings of Dutch cultural theologian Frank Bosman. The analysis itself will consist of a summary of the game’s main story, its portrayal of religion on the one hand and its depiction of science on the other, and its representation of how these two fields relate to one another. In the conclusion, finally, I will connect the dots between the different parts of the analysis and provide an answer to the main question.

  15. DIFERENCIAS ENTRE JUGADORES DE BALONMANO DE CATEGORÍA DE ALTO RENDIMIENTO Y DE BASE EN VARIABLES MOTIVACIONALES Y ANSIEDAD PRECOMPETITIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Da Silva Batista

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Los deportistas en general, se exponen a diversas situaciones intensas en el entorno deportivo, en las que la ansiedad puede suponer que el deportista no afronte los objetivos de la manera más eficaz. Resulta importante analizar el término ansiedad, el cual, hace referencia a un estado emocional negativo que incluye sensaciones de nerviosismo, preocupación y aprensión, relacionadas con la activación o el arousal del organismo. Así pues, la ansiedad tiene un componente de pensamiento, por ejemplo, la preocupación y la aprensión, llamando ansiedad cognitiva, y un componente de ansiedad somática, o percepciones de los síntomas corporales (Weinberg y Gould, 1995. La autoconfianza hace referencia a la creencia que tiene una persona de poder hacer aquello que quiere hacer (Feltz, 1994.Así mismo, resulta relevante analizar la motivación que presenta el deportista, para ello emplearemos la Teoría de la Autodeterminación (TAD, cuyas últimas aportaciones a la teoría (Vansteenkiste, Niemiec, y Soenens, 2010, se decantan más por una agrupación formada por la motivación autónoma (compuesta por la motivación intrínseca y la regulación identificada, motivación controlada (formada por las regulaciones introyectada y externa y la desmotivación. La TAD se basa en que el comportamiento humano es motivado fundamentalmente por tres necesidades psicológicas básicas (NPB: autonomía, competencia, y relaciones sociales (Deci y Ryan, 2000.Objetivo: Determinar las diferencias existentes en jugadores de Balonmano de alto rendimiento y de categorías base, en cuanto a los tipos de motivación, necesidades psicológicas básicas, y ansiedad precompetitiva.

  16. THE X-RAY COUNTERPART OF THE HIGH-B PULSAR PSR J0726–2612

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speagle, J. S.; Kaplan, D. L.; Van Kerkwijk, M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Middle-aged, cooling neutron stars are observed both as relatively rapidly spinning radio pulsars and as more slowly spinning, strongly magnetized isolated neutron stars (INSs), which stand out by their thermal X-ray spectra. The difference between the two classes may be that the INSs initially had much stronger magnetic fields, which decayed. To test this, we used the Chandra X-ray Observatory to observe 1RXS J072559.8–261229, a possible X-ray counterpart to PSR J0726–2612, which, with its 3.44 s period and 3 × 10 13 G inferred magnetic field strength, is the nearest and least extincted among the possible slowly spinning, strong-field INS progenitors (it likely is in the Gould Belt, at ∼1 kpc). We confirm the identification and find that the pulsar has a spectrum consistent with being purely thermal, with blackbody temperature kT = 87 ± 5 eV and radius R = 5.7 +2.6 –1.3 km at a distance of 1 kpc. We detect sinusoidal pulsations at twice the radio period with a semi-amplitude of 27% ± 5%. The properties of PSR J0726–2612 strongly resemble those of the INSs, except for its much shorter characteristic age of 200 kyr (instead of several Myr). We conclude that PSR J0726–2612 is indeed an example of a young INS, one that started with a magnetic field strength on the low end of those inferred for the INSs, and that, therefore, decayed by a relatively small amount. Our results suggest that the long-period, strong-field pulsars and the INSs are members of the same class, and open up new opportunities to understand the puzzling X-ray and optical emission of the INSs through radio observations of PSR J0726–2612.

  17. THE X-RAY COUNTERPART OF THE HIGH-B PULSAR PSR J0726-2612

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speagle, J. S.; Kaplan, D. L. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Van Kerkwijk, M. H., E-mail: kaplan@uwm.edu, E-mail: joshuaspeagle@college.harvard.edu, E-mail: mhvk@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2011-12-20

    Middle-aged, cooling neutron stars are observed both as relatively rapidly spinning radio pulsars and as more slowly spinning, strongly magnetized isolated neutron stars (INSs), which stand out by their thermal X-ray spectra. The difference between the two classes may be that the INSs initially had much stronger magnetic fields, which decayed. To test this, we used the Chandra X-ray Observatory to observe 1RXS J072559.8-261229, a possible X-ray counterpart to PSR J0726-2612, which, with its 3.44 s period and 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} G inferred magnetic field strength, is the nearest and least extincted among the possible slowly spinning, strong-field INS progenitors (it likely is in the Gould Belt, at {approx}1 kpc). We confirm the identification and find that the pulsar has a spectrum consistent with being purely thermal, with blackbody temperature kT = 87 {+-} 5 eV and radius R = 5.7{sup +2.6}{sub -1.3} km at a distance of 1 kpc. We detect sinusoidal pulsations at twice the radio period with a semi-amplitude of 27% {+-} 5%. The properties of PSR J0726-2612 strongly resemble those of the INSs, except for its much shorter characteristic age of 200 kyr (instead of several Myr). We conclude that PSR J0726-2612 is indeed an example of a young INS, one that started with a magnetic field strength on the low end of those inferred for the INSs, and that, therefore, decayed by a relatively small amount. Our results suggest that the long-period, strong-field pulsars and the INSs are members of the same class, and open up new opportunities to understand the puzzling X-ray and optical emission of the INSs through radio observations of PSR J0726-2612.

  18. Critical appraisal of extended-release hydrocodone for chronic pain: patient considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gould HJ III

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Harry J Gould III,1,3–7 Dennis Paul1–8 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 4Department of Anesthesiology, 5Neuroscience Center of Excellence, 6Center of Excellence for Oral and Craniofacial Biology, 7Pain Mastery Center of Louisiana, 8Alcohol and Drug Abuse Center of Excellence, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: Opioid analgesics are currently the most effective pharmacologic option for the management of both acute and chronic forms of moderate-to-severe pain. Although the “as-needed” use of immediate-release formulations is considered optimum for treating acute, painful episodes of limited duration, the scheduled dosing of extended-release formulations with immediate-release supplementation for breakthrough pain is regarded to be most effective for managing chronic conditions requiring around-the-clock treatment. The recent introduction of extended-release formulations of the opioid analgesic hydrocodone potentially broadened the possibility of providing pain relief for individuals for whom current formulations are either ineffective or not tolerated. However, reaction to the approval of the new formulations has fueled controversy over the general safety and need for opioid medications, in light of their potential for misuse, abuse, diversion, and addiction. Here, we discuss how the approval of extended-release formulations of hydrocodone and the emotionally charged controversy over their release may affect physician prescribing and the care available to patients in need of chronic opioid therapy for the management of pain. Keywords: opioid analgesics, patient risks, patient benefits, misuse, addiction

  19. Planck intermediate results: XXXV. Probing the role of the magnetic field in the formation of structure in molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Arnaud, M.; Arzoumanian, D.

    2016-01-01

    Within ten nearby (d < 450 pc) Gould belt molecular clouds we evaluate in this paper statistically the relative orientation between the magnetic field projected on the plane of sky, inferred from the polarized thermal emission of Galactic dust observed by Planck at 353 GHz, and the gas column density structures, quantified by the gradient of the column density, N_H. The selected regions, covering several degrees in size, are analysed at an effective angular resolution of 10' FWHM, thus sampling physical scales from 0.4 to 40 pc in the nearest cloud. The column densities in the selected regions range from N_H≈ 10"2"1 to10"2"3 cm"-"2, and hence they correspond to the bulk of the molecular clouds. The relative orientation is evaluated pixel by pixel and analysed in bins of column density using the novel statistical tool called “histogram of relative orientations”. Throughout this study, we assume that the polarized emission observed by Planck at 353 GHz is representative of the projected morphology of the magnetic field in each region, i.e., we assume a constant dust grain alignment efficiency, independent of the local environment. Within most clouds we find that the relative orientation changes progressively with increasing N_H, from mostly parallel or having no preferred orientation to mostly perpendicular. In simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in molecular clouds this trend in relative orientation is a signature of Alfvénic or sub-Alfvénic turbulence, implying that the magnetic field is significant for the gas dynamics at the scales probed by Planck. Finally, we compare the deduced magnetic field strength with estimates we obtain from other methods and discuss the implications of the Planck observations for the general picture of molecular cloud formation and evolution.

  20. Distinguished Lectureship Award on the Applications of Physics: Illuminating My Career - From Flash Gordon to Laser Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, James

    2015-03-01

    As a child, I was fascinated by television programs about Flash Gordon. His partner in conquering the universe was Dr. Alexis Zarkov, a physicist, who had invented, among other things, a death ray gun. My personal ``death ray'' was a magnifying glass, focusing sunlight on unsuspecting insects, like crawling ants. I also practiced sneaking up on resting, flying, stinging insects and burning their wings before they could take off and attack me. So I understood something about the power of sunlight. In my senior year of high school, I had a fabulous physics teacher, Lewis E. Love, and I knew after one week that I wanted to be a physicist, not a medical doctor, which is the career my parents wanted me to pursue. It turns out that the first laser functioned on May 16, 1960, just one month before I graduated from high school, and it was inevitable that I would pursue a career working with lasers. My first job as a physicist, during the summer of 1963, was working with lasers at TRG, Inc. a small company whose guru was Gordon Gould, now recognized as the inventor of the laser. After three summers at TRG, I spent three years working on nonlinear optics for my PhD thesis, under the guidance of Prof. Nicolaas Bloembergen, who later won the Nobel Prize in Physics for codifying nonlinear optics. Following completion of my PhD research in 1969, I joined IBM Research, where I have worked ever since. Upon joining the Quantum Electronics group in the Physical Sciences Dept. of the T.J. Watson Research Center, my management told me to ``do something great'' with lasers. After working on atomic spectroscopy with dye lasers through the 1970s, I had the inspiration to acquire an excimer laser for the Laser Physics and Chemistry group. Using this laser, my colleagues and I discovered excimer laser surgery, capable of removing human and animal tissue with great precision, while leaving the underlying and adjacent tissue free of collateral damage. This discovery laid the foundation for

  1. SU-C-18C-06: Radiation Dose Reduction in Body Interventional Radiology: Clinical Results Utilizing a New Imaging Acquisition and Processing Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlbrenner, R; Kolli, KP; Taylor, A; Kohi, M; Fidelman, N; LaBerge, J; Kerlan, R; Gould, R [University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Kolli and Robert G. Gould for time devoted to the study. Data acquisition and analysis was performed by the authors independent of the funding source.

  2. SU-C-18C-06: Radiation Dose Reduction in Body Interventional Radiology: Clinical Results Utilizing a New Imaging Acquisition and Processing Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlbrenner, R; Kolli, KP; Taylor, A; Kohi, M; Fidelman, N; LaBerge, J; Kerlan, R; Gould, R

    2014-01-01

    Kolli and Robert G. Gould for time devoted to the study. Data acquisition and analysis was performed by the authors independent of the funding source

  3. Mental health research in the criminal justice system: The need for common approaches and international perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, R; Ogloff, J R; Eaves, D

    1995-01-01

    mentally ill offenders to date has focused primarily upon psychological and psychiatric questions--questions that are, as Hodgins (1995) indicates, epidemiological in nature. More attention must be paid to that research by policy makers and others who work with mentally ill offenders in the criminal justice system. As Hoyer et al. (1995) and Gould (1995) make clear, a number of unique policy questions arise when considering mentally ill offenders in the legal system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  4. Resveratrol Protects Against Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Rats via Activation of Silent Information Regulator 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: The polyphenol resveratrol (Rev has been found to exhibit various beneficial effects including prevention of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. The present study was designed to investigate the action and potential mechanism of Rev on PAH, focusing on the role of SIRT1 (Silent Information Regulator 1 in apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs. Methods: PAH rats were established by exposure to hypoxia for 21 days. Rev and SRT1720 (a selective SIRT1 activator were used to reverse PAH by gavaging rats. PASMCs were confronted with hypoxia for 24 h or 48 h and were then treated with Rev or SRT1720 in vitro. Western blot was performed to detect the protein expression of SIRT1. CCK-8 and scratch wound experiments were carried out to verify cell proliferation. In addition, the TUNEL positive assay and flow cytometry assay were used to measure PASMC apoptosis. Mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT was identified by confocal microscopy. Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP was determined with a Gould pressure transducer, and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH was determined by weighing the cardiac muscle. Results: We demonstrated that Rev could reverse the remodelling of the pulmonary vasculature, thus contributing to alleviating the severity of PAH. Down-regulation of SIRT1 was observed in PAH, but administration of Rev had no obvious effect on the protein expression of SIRT1. In addition, Rev could induce mitochondrial swelling and nuclear pyknosis, leading to small, dense, and dysmorphic mitochondria in rats exposed to hypoxia alone. Rev treatment inhibited PASMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Incubation with SRT1720, a specific activator of SIRT1, significantly retarded PASMC proliferation and promoted PASMC apoptosis in vitro. The mechanism could be associated with inducing mPT damage in PASMCs. Rev and SRT1720 treatment mitigated RVSP and reduced RVH. Conclusion: Rev produced

  5. United theory of biological evolution: Disaster-forced evolution through Supernova, radioactive ash fall-outs, genome instability, and mass extinctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikazu Ebisuzaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the disaster-forced biological evolution model as a general framework that includes Darwinian “phylogenic gradualism”, Eldredge-Gould's “punctuated equilibrium”, mass extinctions, and allopatric, parapatric, and sympatric speciation. It describes how reproductive isolation of organisms is established through global disasters due to supernova encounters and local disasters due to radioactive volcanic ash fall-outs by continental alkaline volcanism. Our new evolution model uniquely highlights three major factors of disaster-forced speciation: enhanced mutation rate by higher natural radiation level, smaller population size, and shrunken habitat size (i.e., isolation among the individual populations. We developed a mathematical model describing speciation of a half-isolated group from a parental group, taking into account the population size (Ne, immigration rate (m, and mutation rate (μ. The model gives a quantitative estimate of the speciation, which is consistent with the observations of speciation speed. For example, the speciation takes at least 105 generations, if mutation rate is less than 10−3 per generation per individual. This result is consistent with the previous studies, in which μ is assumed to be 10−3–10−5. On the other hand, the speciation is much faster (less than 105 generations for the case that μ is as large as 0.1 in parapatric conditions (m < μ. Even a sympatric (m ~ 1 speciation can occur within 103 generations, if mutation rate is very high (μ ~ 1 mutation per individual per generation, and if Ne < 20–30. Such a high mutation rate is possible during global disasters due to supernova encounters and local disasters due to radioactive ash fall-outs. They raise natural radiation level by a factor of 100–1000. Such rapid speciation events can also contribute to macro-evolution during mass extinction events, such as observed during the Cambrian explosion of biodiversity. A

  6. Risk factors for failure in small businesses in the footwear and textile industry of Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleke Worku

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was based on the 5-yearlong study (2007 to 2012 of Small, Micro and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMMEs that conduct business in Gauteng Province, South Africa conducted by Marivate (2014 from 2007 to 2012. The sample consisted of 187 businesses (36.52% that utilized financial services routinely provided by the South African Small Enterprises Development Agency (SEDA, and 325 businesses (63.48% that utilized non-financial services provided by SEDA. Out of the 187 businesses that utilized financial services, 85.42% of them were viable, whereas 14.58% of them were not viable. Out of the 325 businesses that utilized non-financial services, 43.25% of them were viable, whereas 56.75% of them were not viable. The degree of entrepreneurial skills in each of the 512 businesses that were selected for the study was measured by using a composite index defined by Le Brasseur, Zannibbi & Zinger (2013. The multilevel logistic regression model (Hosmer and Lemeshow was used for identifying and quantifying predictors of utilization of financial and non-financial services provided by SEDA to SMMEs. Predictors of long-term survival were estimated by using the Cox Proportional Hazards Model (Cleves, Gould & Gutierrez, 2004. The results showed that the 187 businesses that utilized financial services (36.52% were relatively more viable in comparison with businesses that utilized non-financial services (63.48%. Results obtained from the Cox Proportional Hazards Model showed that long-term viability in the 512 businesses that were selected for the study was significantly influenced by utilization of financial services, degree of entrepreneurial skills, and the ability to order large volumes of stock in bulk, in a decreasing order of strength. The top 3 predictors of utilization of financial services in the 187 businesses that utilized financial services were degree of entrepreneurial skills, the ability to order large volumes of stock in bulk, and access to

  7. Chloroplast genes are expressed during intracellular symbiotic association of Vaucheria litorea plastids with the sea slug Elysia chlorotica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujer, C V; Andrews, D L; Manhart, J R; Pierce, S K; Rumpho, M E

    1996-10-29

    The marine slug Elysia chlorotica (Gould) forms an intracellular symbiosis with photosynthetically active chloroplasts from the chromophytic alga Vaucheria litorea (C. Agardh). This symbiotic association was characterized over a period of 8 months during which E. chlorotica was deprived of V. litorea but provided with light and CO2. The fine structure of the symbiotic chloroplasts remained intact in E. chlorotica even after 8 months of starvation as revealed by electron microscopy. Southern blot analysis of total DNA from E. chlorotica indicated that algal genes, i.e., rbcL, rbcS, psaB, psbA, and 16S rRNA are present in the animal. These genes are typically localized to the plastid genome in higher plants and algae except rbcS, which is nuclear-encoded in higher plants and green (chlorophyll a/b) algae. Our analysis suggests, however, that similar to the few other chromophytes (chlorophyll a/c) examined, rbcS is chloroplast encoded in V. litorea. Levels of psbA transcripts remained constant in E. chlorotica starved for 2 and 3 months and then gradually declined over the next 5 months corresponding with senescence of the animal in culture and in nature. The RNA synthesis inhibitor 6-methylpurine reduced the accumulation of psbA transcripts confirming active transcription. In contrast to psbA, levels of 16S rRNA transcripts remained constant throughout the starvation period. The levels of the photosystem II proteins, D1 and CP43, were high at 2 and 4 months of starvation and remained constant at a lower steady-state level after 6 months. In contrast, D2 protein levels, although high at 2 and 4 months, were very low at all other periods of starvation. At 8 months, de novo synthesis of several thylakoid membrane-enriched proteins, including D1, still occurred. To our knowledge, these results represent the first molecular evidence for active transcription and translation of algal chloroplast genes in an animal host and are discussed in relation to the endosymbiotic

  8. The US Food and Drug Administration’s drug safety recommendations and long-acting beta2-agonist dispensing pattern changes in adult asthma patients: 2003–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou EH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Esther H Zhou,1 Sally Seymour,2 Margie R Goulding,1 Elizabeth M Kang,1 Jacqueline M Major,1 Solomon Iyasu1 1Division of Epidemiology, Office of Surveillance and Epidemiology, 2Office of New Drugs, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA Background: Emerging safety issues associated with long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA have led to multiple regulatory activities by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA since 2003, including Drug Safety Communications (DSCs in 2010. These DSCs had three specific recommendations for the safe use of LABA products in adult asthma treatment. Methods: We examined the initiation of LABA-containing products for adult asthma treatment using an intermittent time series approach in a claims database from 2003 to 2012. We assessed the alignment of dispensing patterns with the following 2010 FDA recommendations: 1 contraindicated use of single-ingredient (SI-LABA without an asthma controller medication (ACM; 2 a LABA should only be used when asthma is not adequately controlled on inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs or ACM; and 3 step-down asthma therapy (e.g., discontinue LABA when asthma control is achieved. Results: There were 477,922 adults (18–64 years old dispensed a new LABA during 2003–2012. Among LABA initiators, patients who initiated an SI-LABA and who did “not” have an ACM dispensed on the same date decreased from >9% in 2003 (the initial labeling change to <2% post 2010 DSCs (p-value <0.0001 in the segmented regression model. The proportion of asthma patients dispensed an ICS in 6 months prior to initiating LABA treatment did not increase. The proportion of patients with longer than 4 months of continuous treatment did not decrease over the study period. Conclusion: Although the decrease in SI-LABA initiation is consistent with FDA’s recommendations, low ICS dispensing before initiating a LABA and LABA continuation practices require further efforts

  9. A Biomechanical Comparison of 3 Different Arthroscopic Lateral Ankle Stabilization Techniques in 36 Cadaveric Ankles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottom, James M; Baker, Joseph S; Richardson, Phillip E; Maker, Jared M

    Arthroscopic lateral ankle stabilization has become an increasingly popular option among foot and ankle surgeons to address lateral ankle instability, because it combines a modified Broström-Gould procedure with the ability to address any intra-articular pathologic findings at the same session. The present study evaluated 3 different constructs in a cadaveric model. Thirty-six fresh frozen cadaver limbs were used, and the anterior talofibular ligament was identified and sectioned. The specimens were then placed into 1 of 3 groups. Group 1 received a repair with a single-row, 2-suture anchor construct; group 2 received repair with a novel, double-row, 4-anchor knotless construct; and group 3 received repair with a double-row, 3-anchor construct. Specimens were then tested for stiffness and load to ultimate failure using a customized jig. Stiffness was measured in each of the groups and was 12.10 ± 5.43 (range 5.50 to 22.24) N/mm for group 1, 13.40 ± 7.98 (range 6.71 to 36.28) N/mm for group 2, and 12.55 ± 4.00 (range 6.48 to 22.14) N/mm for group 3. No significant differences were found among the 3 groups in terms of stiffness (p = .939, 1-way analysis of variance, ɑ = 0.05). The groups were tested to failure, with observed force measurements of 156.43 ± 30.39 (range 83.69 to 192.00) N for group 1, 206.62 ± 55.62 (range 141.37 to 300.29) N for group 2, and 246.82 ± 82.37 (range 164.26 to 384.93) N for group 3. Statistically significant differences were noted between groups 1 and 3 (p = .006, 1-way analysis of variance, ɑ = 0.05). The results of the present study have shown that a previously reported arthroscopic lateral ankle stabilization procedure, when modified with an additional proximal suture anchor into the fibula, results in a statistically significant increase in strength in terms of the maximum load to failure. Additionally, we have described a previously unreported, knotless technique for arthroscopic lateral ankle

  10. Prospective study of the " Inside-Out" arthroscopic ankle ligament technique: Preliminary result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Caio; Fonseca, Lucas; Raduan, Fernando; Moreno, Marcus; Baumfeld, Daniel

    2017-03-22

    Lateral ankle ligament injury is among the most common orthopedic injuries. The objective of this study is to present the preliminary prospective results of treatment using the "Inside-Out" variant of the fully arthroscopic Broström-Gould technique. Twenty six patients were included: 20 male and 6 female, aged 19-60 years, mean 41 years. All patients had positive "anterior drawer" and "talar tilt" tests. When necessary, cartilage injuries were treated with microfracture and arthroscopic resection for anterior impingement; three patients had hindfoot varus, on whom Dwyer osteotomy was performed; one patient had peroneal tendinopathy and was treated with tendoscopic debridement and another one had partial injury of the deltoid ligament, which was treated by direct repair. Two arthroscopic surgery portals were used; the anteromedial and anterolateral. After careful inspection of the joint, the anterior surface of the fibula was cleaned to resect the remains of the anterior talo-fibular ligament. An anchor with two sutures was placed on the anterior aspect of the fibula, 1cm from the distal apex of the malleolus. The sutures were passed through the remnant of the anterior talo-fibular ligament as well as the extensor retinaculum using special curved needles. Duncan knots were used to tie the ligament and the inferior extensor retinaculum while the ankle was kept in a neutral position. Patients were kept immobilized non-weight bearing for 2 weeks and were then allowed to start weight bearing in a removable protective boot for 4 weeks. The patients were able to return to sporting activities 6 months after surgery. After a mean follow-up of 27 months (range 21-36 months), patients were functionally evaluated using the American Orthopedics Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle score. The mean preoperative value was 58 points, while the mean postoperative value increased to 90 points. One patient had paresthesia in the superficial fibular nerve area, which resolved

  11. The HYDROMED model and its application to semi-arid Mediterranean catchments with hill reservoirs 3: Reservoir storage capacity and probability of failure model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ragab

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of "what reservoir storage capacity is required to maintain a yield with a given probability of failure?". It is an important issue in terms of construction and cost. HYDROMED offers a solution based on the modified Gould probability matrix method. This method has the advantage of sampling all years data without reference to the sequence and is therefore particularly suitable for catchments with patchy data. In the HYDROMED model, the probability of failure is calculated on a monthly basis. The model has been applied to the El-Gouazine catchment in Tunisia using a long rainfall record from Kairouan together with the estimated Hortonian runoff, class A pan evaporation data and estimated abstraction data. Generally, the probability of failure differed from winter to summer. Generally, the probability of failure approaches zero when the reservoir capacity is 500,000 m3. The 25% probability of failure (75% success is achieved with a reservoir capacity of 58,000 m3 in June and 95,000 m3 in January. The probability of failure for a 240,000 m3 capacity reservoir (closer to storage capacity of El-Gouazine 233,000 m3, is approximately 5% in November, December and January, 3% in March, and 1.1% in May and June. Consequently there is no high risk of El-Gouazine being unable to meet its requirements at a capacity of 233,000 m3. Subsequently the benefit, in terms of probability of failure, by increasing the reservoir volume of El-Gouazine to greater than the 250,000 m3 is not high. This is important for the design engineers and the funding organizations. However, the analysis is based on the existing water abstraction policy, absence of siltation rate data and on the assumption that the present climate will prevail during the lifetime of the reservoir. Should these conditions change, a new analysis should be carried out. Keywords: HYDROMED, reservoir, storage capacity, probability of failure, Mediterranean

  12. An ethnobotany of the Lukomir Highlanders of Bosnia & Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Jonathan; Saciragic, Lana; Trakić, Sabina; Chen, Eric C H; Gendron, Rachelle L; Cuerrier, Alain; Balick, Michael J; Redžić, Sulejman; Alikadić, Emira; Arnason, John T

    2015-11-25

    This aim of this study is to report upon traditional knowledge and use of wild medicinal plants by the Highlanders of Lukomir, Bjelašnica, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). The Highlanders are an indigenous community of approximately 60 transhumant pastoralist families who speak Bosnian (Bosanski) and inhabit a highly biodiverse region of Europe. This paper adds to the growing record of traditional use of wild plants within isolated communities in the Balkans. An ethnobotanical study using consensus methodology was conducted in Lukomir in Bjelašnica's mountains and canyons. Field work involved individual semi-structured interviews during which informants described plants, natural product remedies, and preparation methods on field trips, garden tours, while shepherding, or in settings of their choice. Plant use categories were ranked with informant consensus factor and incorporated into a phylogenetic tree. Plants cited were compared to other ethnobotanical surveys of the country. Twenty five people were interviewed, resulting in identification of 58 species (including two subspecies) from 35 families, which were cited in 307 medicinal, 40 food, and seven material use reports. Individual plant uses had an average consensus of five and a maximum consensus of 15 out of 25. There were a number of rare and endangered species used as poisons or medicine that are endemic to Flora Europaea and found in Lukomir. Ten species (including subspecies) cited in our research have not previously been reported in the systematic ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plant use in B&H: (Elymus repens (L.) Gould, Euphorbia myrsinites L., Jovibarba hirta (L.) Opiz, Lilium bosniacum (Beck) Fritsch, Matricaria matricarioides (Less.) Porter ex Britton, Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newman, Rubus saxatilis L., Silene uniflora Roth ssp. glareosa (Jord.) Chater & Walters, Silene uniflora Roth ssp. prostrata (Gaudin) Chater & Walters, Smyrnium perfoliatum L.). New uses not reported in any of the

  13. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Maximilian C. Forte; Ruins of Absence, Presence of Caribs: (PostColonial Representations of Aboriginality in Trinidad and Tobago (Neil L. Whitehead Nick Nesbitt; Voicing Memory: History and Subjectivity in French Caribbean Literature (H. Adlai Murdoch Camilla Stevens; Family and Identity in Contemporary Cuban and Puerto Rican Drama (Lydia Platón Jonathan Goldberg; Tempest in the Caribbean (Jerry Brotton Michael Chanan; Cuban Cinema (Tamara L. Falicov Gemma Tang Nain, Barbara Bailey (eds.; Gender Equality in the Caribbean: Reality or Illusion (A. Lynn Bolles Ernesto Sagás, Sintia E. Molina (eds.; Dominican Migration: Transnational Perspectives (Rosemary Polanco Christine M. Du Bois; Images of West Indian Immigrants in Mass Media: The Struggle for a Positive Ethnic Reputation (Dwaine Plaza Luis Raúl Cámara Fuertes; The Phenomenon of Puerto Rican Voting (Annabelle Conroy Philip Gould; Barbaric Traffic: Commerce and Antislavery in the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic World (William A. Pettigrew Laurent Dubois; Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution (Yvonne Fabella Sibylle Fischer; Modernity Disavowed: Haiti and the Cultures of Slavery in the Age of Revolution (Ashli White Philip D. Morgan, Sean Hawkins (eds.; Black Experience and the British Empire (James Walvin Richard Smith; Jamaican Volunteers in the First World War: Race, Masculinity and the Development of National Consciousness (Linden Lewis Muriel McAvoy; Sugar Baron: Manuel Rionda and the Fortunes of Pre-Castro Cuba (Richard Sicotte Ned Sublette; Cuba and Its Music: From the First Drums to the Mambo (Pedro Pérez Sarduy Frances Negrón-Muntaner; Boricua Pop: Puerto Ricans and the Latinization of American Culture (Halbert Barton Gordon Rohlehr; A Scuffling of Islands: Essays on Calypso (Stephen Stuempfle Shannon Dudley; Carnival Music in Trinidad: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture (Donald R. Hill Jean

  14. Stability of Non-Neutral Plasma Cylinder Consisting of Magnetized Cold Electrons and of Small Density Fraction of Ions Born at Rest: Non-Local Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeliseyev, Y. N.

    2009-01-01

    The non-local stability problem of the plasma cylinder, filled with 'cold' magnetized rigidly rotating electrons, and a small density fraction of ions, is solved. The ions are supposed to be born at rest by ionization of background gas. The study is based on the kinetic description of ions. The equilibrium distribution function, taking into account the peculiarity of ions birth, is used. The radial electric field is caused by space charge of non-neutral plasma. The dispersion equation for plasma eigen frequencies is obtained analytically. It is valid within the total admissible range of values of electric and magnetic fields. Normalized eigen frequencies ω'/Ω i are calculated for the basic azimuth mode m = 1(ω' ω-mω i + , ω + = (-ω ci +Ω i )/2, Ω i (ω ci 2 -4eE r /m i r) 1/2 is called the 'modified' ion cyclotron (MIC) frequency), for the density fraction of ions of atomic nitrogen f N i /n e = 0,01 and are presented in graphic form versus parameter 2ω pe 2 /ω ce 2 . The spectra of oscillations ω'/Ω i consist of the family of electron Trivel-piece--Gould (TG) modes and of the families of MIC modes. The frequencies of MIC modes are located in a small vicinity of harmonics of the MIC frequency Ω i above and below the harmonic. The TG modes in non-neutral plasma fall in the region of MIC frequencies Ω i and interact strongly with MIC modes. The slow TG modes become unstable near the crossings with non-negative harmonics of MIC frequencies. The instabilities have a resonant character. The lowest radial TG mode has a maximum growth rate at crossing with a zero harmonic of Ω i ((Im ω'/Ω i ) max ≅0,074). The growth rates of MIC modes are much lower ((Im ω'/Ω i ) max pe 2 /ω ce 2 , corresponding to strong radial electric fields (ω ci 2 r /m i r|), in which the ions are unmagnetized. The oscillations of small amplitude are seen on some frequency dependencies of MIC modes. They are similar to oscillations on dispersion curves of electron waves in

  15. Filamentary structure and magnetic field orientation in Musca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.; Arzoumanian, D.; André, Ph.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Prusti, T.; Men'shchikov, A.; Royer, P.; Kóspál, Á.; Palmeirim, P.; Ribas, A.; Könyves, V.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Schneider, N.; Bontemps, S.; Merin, B.; Vavrek, R.; Alves de Oliveira, C.; Didelon, P.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Waelkens, C.

    2016-05-01

    Herschel has shown that filamentary structures are ubiquitous in star-forming regions, in particular in nearby molecular clouds associated with Gould's Belt. High dynamic range far-infrared imaging of the Musca cloud with SPIRE and PACS reveals at least two types of filamentary structures: (1) the main ~10-pc scale high column-density linear filament; and (2) low column-density striations in close proximity to the main filament. In addition, we find features with intermediate column densities (hair-like strands) that appear physically connected to the main filament. We present an analysis of this filamentary network traced by Herschel and explore its connection with the local magnetic field. We find that both the faint dust emission striations and the plane-of-the-sky (POS) magnetic field are locally oriented close to perpendicular to the high-density main filament (position angle ~25-35°). The low-density striations and strands are oriented parallel to the POS magnetic field lines, which are derived previously from optical polarization measurements of background stars and more recently from Planck observations of dust polarized emission. The position angles are 97 ± 25°, 105 ± 7°, and 105 ± 5°. From these observations, we propose a scenario in which local interstellar material in this cloud has condensed into a gravitationally-unstable filament (with "supercritical" mass per unit length) that is accreting background matter along field lines through the striations. We also compare the filamentary structure in Musca with what is seen in similar Herschel observations of the Taurus B211/3 filament system and find that there is significantly less substructure in the Musca main filament than in the B211/3 filament. We suggest that the Musca cloud may represent an earlier evolutionary stage in which the main filament has not yet accreted sufficient mass and energy to develop a multiple system of intertwined filamentary components. Herschel is an ESA space

  16. Switching patients from other inhaled corticosteroid devices to the Easyhaler®: historical, matched-cohort study of real-life asthma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price D

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available David Price,1,2 Vicky Thomas,2 Julie von Ziegenweidt,2 Shuna Gould,2 Catherine Hutton,2 Christine King2 1Academic Centre of Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; 2Research in Real Life, Oakington, Cambridge, UK Purpose: To investigate the clinical and cost effectiveness of switching real-life asthma patients from other types of inhalers to the Easyhaler® (EH for the administration of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS. Patients and methods: Historical, matched-cohort study of 1,958 asthma patients (children and adults treated in UK primary-care practices, using data obtained from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database and Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Other inhalers (OH included pressurized metered-dose inhalers, breath-actuated inhalers, and dry-powder inhalers, delivering beclomethasone, budesonide, fluticasone, or ciclesonide. Patients remaining on OH unchanged (same drug, dosage, and device; n=979 were matched 1:1 with those switched to the EH (beclomethasone or budesonide at the same or lower ICS dosage (n=979, based on age, sex, year of index patient review/switch, most recent ICS drug, dosage, and device, and the number of severe exacerbations and average daily short-acting β2 agonist (SABA dosage in the preceding year. Clinical outcomes and health care costs were compared between groups for 12 months before and after the switch. Co-primary clinical outcomes were: 1 risk domain asthma control (RDAC – no asthma-related hospitalization, acute oral steroid use, or lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI; 2 exacerbation rate (American Thoracic Society [ATS] definition – where exacerbation is asthma-related hospitalization or acute oral steroid use; 3 exacerbation rate (clinical definition – where exacerbation is ATS exacerbation or LRTI; and 4 overall asthma control (OAC – RDAC plus average salbutamol-equivalent SABA dosage ≤200 μg/day. Non-inferiority (at least equivalence of EH was tested against OH for the

  17. A new method for the reconstruction of very-high-energy gamma-ray spectra and application to galatic cosmic-ray accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Milton Virgilio

    2014-09-15

    previously reported, but unidentified extended TeV γ-ray source HESSJ1614-518. Unpublished H.E.S.S. data and archival multi-wavelength (MWL) data (radio, X-ray, and He data) as well various astrophysical objects in the FoV were investigated in search of a counterpart. The energy-dependent TeV morphology (with at least two source regions) can hardly be reconciled with the MWL data. A SC-wind scenario appears unlikely and the FoV lacks plausible counterpart, but a relic pulsar wind nebula could explain the lack of prominent X-ray emission. The VHE γ-ray source remains unidentified. The analysis of unpublished H.E.S.S. data on the SFR the Gould Belt (GB) did not provide any firm evidence of VHE γ-ray emission, and upper limits on the flux and the cosmic-ray enhancement were derived. The analysis of current IACTs. Towards Orion A, a possible discovery of extended VHE γ rays with flux of 10.8 % of the Crab Nebula is found with TBS, but cannot be confirmed and could be an artifact od the analysis of this region. Observations with the H.E.S.S. telescope system motivate that SCs and SFRs can accelerate GCRs. However, further H.E.S.S. observations are needed for further morphological and spectral studies. Also, more X-ray observations (in the case of HESSJ1614-518) and further studies on the background-estimation methods and their systematics (in the case of the GB) are required.

  18. Mobile Phone-Based Measures of Activity, Step Count, and Gait Speed: Results From a Study of Older Ambulatory Adults in a Naturalistic Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye Hanton, Cassia; Kwon, Yong-Jun; Aung, Thawda; Whittington, Jackie; High, Robin R; Goulding, Evan H; Schenk, A Katrin; Bonasera, Stephen J

    2017-10-03

    over a 24-hour period occurring within 1 week of the initial assessment. We identified statistically significant differences between functionally intact and frail participants in mobile phone-derived measures of percent activity (P=.002, t test), active versus inactive status (P=.02, t test), average step counts (Pphone metrics assessed aspects of functional status independent (Bland-Altman and correlation analysis) of both survey- and/or performance battery-based functional measures. In contrast, in frail individuals, the above mobile phone metrics correlated with submeasures of both SAFFE and PROMIS-GH. Continuous mobile phone-based measures of participant community activity and mobility strongly differentiate between persons with intact functional status and persons with a frailty phenotype. These measures assess dimensions of functional status independent of those measured using current validated questionnaires and physical performance assessments to identify functional compromise. Mobile phone-based gait measures may provide a more readily accessible and less-time consuming measure of gait, while further providing clinicians with longitudinal gait measures that are currently difficult to obtain. ©Cassia Rye Hanton, Yong-Jun Kwon, Thawda Aung, Jackie Whittington, Robin R High, Evan H Goulding, A Katrin Schenk, Stephen J Bonasera. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 03.10.2017.

  19. Viscosity Measurement: A Virtual Experiment - Abstract of Issues 9907W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, N.; Pitta, A. T.; Markopoulos, N.; Limniou, M.; Lemos, M. A. N. D. A.; Lemos, F.; Freire, F. G.

    1999-11-01

    experiments at hand and not on learning how to use the program. It communicates its ideas visually with pictures and diagrams relegating on-screen text to the minimum required for the student to understand the presentation. A full presentation of viscosity is reserved for the textbook, which the computer cannot replace. It is well established (2) that people read text on a computer screen more slowly and with greater strain than they do text in a book. Moreover, relatively open-ended exploration does not appear to be a successful method of practice, because practice devised by the learner tends, not to be well conceived and well integrated in the students' learning path (3). For every virtual experiment we suggest a set of coherent exercises that highlight what we want students to know before they enter the real laboratory. Acknowledgment The Greek Ministry of Education and the European Community provided financial help to create the New Educational Technologies for the Teaching of Chemistry course that made development of the viscosity simulator possible. Literature Cited Bensebasat, I.; Todd, P. Int. J. Man-Machine Studies 1993, 38, 369-402. Gould, J. D.; Alfato, L.; Finn, R.; Haupt, B.; Minununo, A. Human Factors 1987, 26, 497-515. Wiedenbeck, S.; Zila, P. L. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 1997, 4, 169-196. Please refer to PDF for better views of the Ostwald viscometer.

  20. Caracterización de sitios de percha del guajolote silvestre (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana en Sierra Fría, Aguascalientes, México Roost sites characteristics of wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana in Sierra Fria, Aguascalientes, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Márquez-Olivas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre octubre y noviembre del año 2001 y mayo de 2002 se localizaron 16 sitios de percha de guajolote silvestre (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana en la Sierra Fría de Aguascalientes. El 87.5% de los sitios se encontraron en bosques de pino-encino (en rodales de pinos, en altitudes de 2500 a 2650 m. En la parte alta (2/3 de la cuesta se localizaron 8 de los sitios y 7 sobre laderas de exposición noreste, en una pendiente promedio de 38.9 ± 12.6%. El 62.5% de los sitios se usaron durante todo el periodo de estudio y el resto, de manera ocasional. La mayoría de los dormideros se encontraron cerca de comederos o cebaderos y de parcelas agrícolas. Se contabilizaron de 1 a 23 árboles de percha utilizados por sitio, distribuidos a una distancia promedio de 24.4 ± 17.8 metros. El 81.2% de los árboles (n=170 fueron pinos (Pinus teocote, P. durangensis, P. leiophylla y P. michoacana, 17.6% encinos (Quercus laurina, Q. grisea y Q. eduardii y 1.2% madroños (Arbutus arizonica. La altura promedio de los árboles fue de 16.6 ± 4.4 m y el diámetro 43.2 ± 11.5 cm. La preferencia del guajolote silvestre por utilizar pinos como dormideros en lugar de otras especies arbóreas, se debe posiblemente a que son árboles de mayor porte o a la conformación de su dosel; sin embargo, se ha observado que en lugares donde hay pocos pinos, los guajolotes utilizan para dormir otros árboles de características semejantes, como encinos, madroños o sicomoros.Sixteen roosting sites of Gould's wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo mexicana were found between October and November of 2001 and May of 2002 in Sierra Fría, Aguascalientes. A large percentage (87.5% of the roost sites was located in oak-pine forest (in pine stands, at an elevation range of 2500 to 2650 meters. Eight roost sites were on the upper portion (2/3 of the ridge, and 7 at northeast exposures with an average slope of 38.9 ± 12.6%. Most (81.2% of the roost trees (n =170 were pines (Pinus teocote, P

  1. Le mythe du microcèbe primitif The myth of the primitive mouse lemur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Génin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Les microcèbes (genre Microcebus, famille Cheirogaleidés sont de très petits lémuriens nocturnes endémiques de Madagascar, souvent vus comme les plus archaïques de tous les primates. Dans cette contribution, nous critiquons cette vue, véritable mythe des origines, qui n’est supportée ni par le registre fossile ni par les phylogénies les plus récentes. Nous proposons l’alternative d’une réduction de taille corporelle ou nanisme, un phénomène particulièrement fréquent sur les îles et dans les régions géographiquement isolées et soumises à des sécheresses imprévisibles provoquées par le phénomène El Niño. Nous confirmons le modèle de progénèse de Gould, qui explique le nanisme par des conditions hypervariables entrainant une accélération de l’histoire de vie. Les Cheirogaleidés apparaissent comme des nains paedomorphes comparés à leur groupe frère les Lépilémuridés (Lepilemur. Ils ont probablement subi au moins 3 évènements indépendants de nanisme, qui ont conduit à des changements parallèles des proportions de la tête et des membres (allométrie. Le premier (nanisme a conduit à une diminution de la taille du corps et des membres, sans changement significatif de la forme du crâne (à l’exception des dents chez les plus grandes formes de Cheirogaleidés (Phaner, Mirza, et les grandes formes du genre Cheirogaleus. Le second (hyper-nanisme a conduit à des changements parallèles de la forme du crâne chez les plus petites formes (Allocebus, Microcebus et les petites formes du genre Cheirogaleus, associés à des traits paedomorphiques typiques (grands yeux et petit museau pointu. Cette nouvelle hypothèse explique de nombreuses caractéristiques uniques de ce groupe de lémuriens, en particulier leurs histoires de vie rapides.Mouse lemurs (genus Microcebus, family Cheirogaleidae are small, nocturnal lemurs endemic to Madagascar, often viewed as the most archaic primates. In this contribution, we

  2. Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of corn stover: effects of biomass, peroxide, and enzyme loading and composition on yields of glucose and xylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Pretreatment is a critical step in the conversion of lignocellulose to fermentable sugars. Although many pretreatment processes are currently under investigation, none of them are entirely satisfactory in regard to effectiveness, cost, or environmental impact. The use of hydrogen peroxide at pH 11.5 (alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP)) was shown by Gould and coworkers to be an effective pretreatment of grass stovers and other plant materials in the context of animal nutrition and ethanol production. Our earlier experiments indicated that AHP performed well when compared against two other alkaline pretreatments. Here, we explored several key parameters to test the potential of AHP for further improvement relevant to lignocellulosic ethanol production. Results The effects of biomass loading, hydrogen peroxide loading, residence time, and pH control were tested in combination with subsequent digestion with a commercial enzyme preparation, optimized mixtures of four commercial enzymes, or optimized synthetic mixtures of pure enzymes. AHP pretreatment was performed at room temperature (23°C) and atmospheric pressure, and after AHP pretreatment the biomass was neutralized with HCl but not washed before enzyme digestion. Standard enzyme digestion conditions were 0.2% glucan loading, 15 mg protein/g glucan, and 48 h digestion at 50°C. Higher pretreatment biomass loadings (10% to 20%) gave higher monomeric glucose (Glc) and xylose (Xyl) yields than the 2% loading used in earlier studies. An H2O2 loading of 0.25 g/g biomass was almost as effective as 0.5 g/g, but 0.125 g/g was significantly less effective. Optimized mixtures of four commercial enzymes substantially increased post-AHP-pretreatment enzymatic hydrolysis yields at all H2O2 concentrations compared to any single commercial enzyme. At a pretreatment biomass loading of 10% and an H2O2 loading of 0.5 g/g biomass, an optimized commercial mixture at total protein loadings of 8 or 15 mg/g glucan gave

  3. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ileana Rodríguez; Transatlantic Topographies: Islands, Highlands, Jungles (Stuart McLean Eliga H. Gould, Peter S. Onuf (eds.; Empire and Nation: The American Revolution in the Atlantic World (Peter A. Coclanis Michael A. Gomez; Reversing Sail: A History of the African Diaspora (James H. Sweet Brian L. Moore, Michele A. Johnson; Neither Led Nor Driven: Contesting British Cultural Imperialism in Jamaica, 1865-1920 (Gad Heuman Erna Brodber; The Second Generation of Freemen in Jamaica, 1907-1944 (Michaeline A. Crichlow Steeve O. Buckridge; The Language of Dress: Resistance and Accommodation in Jamaica, 1760- 1890 (Jean Besson Deborah A. Thomas; Modern Blackness: Nationalism, Globalization, and the Politics of Culture in Jamaica (Charles V. Carnegie Carolyn Cooper; Sound Clash: Jamaican Dancehall Culture at Large (John D. Galuska Noel Leo Erskine; From Garvey to Marley: Rastafari Theology (Richard Salter Hilary McD Beckles; Great House Rules: Landless Emancipation and Workers’ Protest in Barbados, 1838?1938 (O. Nigel Bolland Woodville K. Marshall (ed.; I Speak for the People: The Memoirs of Wynter Crawford (Douglas Midgett Nathalie Dessens; Myths of the Plantation Society: Slavery in the American South and the West Indies (Lomarsh Roopnarine Michelle M. Terrell; The Jewish Community of Early Colonial Nevis: A Historical Archaeological Study (Mark Kostro Laurie A. Wilkie, Paul Farnsworth; Sampling Many Pots: An Archaeology of Memory and Tradition at a Bahamian Plantation (Grace Turner David Beriss; Black Skins, French Voices: Caribbean ethnicity and Activism in Urban France (Nadine Lefaucheur Karen E. Richman; Migration and Vodou (Natacha Giafferi Jean Moomou; Le monde des marrons du Maroni en Guyane (1772-1860: La naissance d’un peuple: Les Boni (Kenneth Bilby Jean Chapuis, Hervé Rivière; Wayana eitoponpë: (Une histoire (orale des Indiens Wayana (Dominique Tilkin Gallois Jesús Fuentes

  4. A new method for the reconstruction of very-high-energy gamma-ray spectra and application to galatic cosmic-ray accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Milton Virgilio

    2014-09-01

    previously reported, but unidentified extended TeV γ-ray source HESSJ1614-518. Unpublished H.E.S.S. data and archival multi-wavelength (MWL) data (radio, X-ray, and He data) as well various astrophysical objects in the FoV were investigated in search of a counterpart. The energy-dependent TeV morphology (with at least two source regions) can hardly be reconciled with the MWL data. A SC-wind scenario appears unlikely and the FoV lacks plausible counterpart, but a relic pulsar wind nebula could explain the lack of prominent X-ray emission. The VHE γ-ray source remains unidentified. The analysis of unpublished H.E.S.S. data on the SFR the Gould Belt (GB) did not provide any firm evidence of VHE γ-ray emission, and upper limits on the flux and the cosmic-ray enhancement were derived. The analysis of current IACTs. Towards Orion A, a possible discovery of extended VHE γ rays with flux of 10.8 % of the Crab Nebula is found with TBS, but cannot be confirmed and could be an artifact od the analysis of this region. Observations with the H.E.S.S. telescope system motivate that SCs and SFRs can accelerate GCRs. However, further H.E.S.S. observations are needed for further morphological and spectral studies. Also, more X-ray observations (in the case of HESSJ1614-518) and further studies on the background-estimation methods and their systematics (in the case of the GB) are required.

  5. Is There Really A North American Plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, A.

    2011-12-01

    elsewhere, such as S.J. Shand (1933), E.B. Bailey (1939), and Arthur Holmes (1944), presented continental drift as a working hypothesis that could elegantly solve important geological problems. Americans were preconditioned to dislike continental drift theory, ever since James Dwight Dana taught in his Manual of Geology (1863...1895) that North America was the type continent of the world, and that it had stood alone since earliest time. Such beliefs sometimes trump geologic evidence. As noted by Stephen Jay Gould (1999) Sigmund Freud had much insight into the psychology of scientific revolutions: they involve a scientific development that shows humans to have lesser status than previously perceived. In the Copernican revolution (geocentrism vs. heliocentrism) humans no longer inhabited the center of the universe. In the Darwinian revolution (creationism vs. evolutionism) humans were no longer uniquely created. In the Wegenerian revolution (fixism vs. mobilism) North America was no longer uniquely created; it was just other fragment from Pangaea. North American geologists were pleased when Press & Siever gave them their own lithospheric plate. Being a global-tectonic killjoy, I would like to take away that small consolation as well. Or at least pose the question: Is there really a North American Plate?

  6. Ontogenetic study of the skull in modern humans and the common chimpanzees: neotenic hypothesis reconsidered with a tridimensional Procrustes analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penin, Xavier; Berge, Christine; Baylac, Michel

    2002-05-01

    Heterochronic studies compare ontogenetic trajectories of an organ in different species: here, the skulls of common chimpanzees and modern humans. A growth trajectory requires three parameters: size, shape, and ontogenetic age. One of the great advantages of the Procrustes method is the precise definition of size and shape for whole organs such as the skull. The estimated ontogenetic age (dental stages) is added to the plot to give a graphical representation to compare growth trajectories. We used the skulls of 41 Homo sapiens and 50 Pan troglodytes at various stages of growth. The Procrustes superimposition of all specimens was completed by statistical procedures (principal component analysis, multivariate regression, and discriminant function) to calculate separately size-related shape changes (allometry common to chimpanzees and humans), and interspecific shape differences (discriminant function). The results confirm the neotenic theory of the human skull (sensu Gould [1977] Ontogeny and Phylogeny, Cambridge: Harvard University Press; Alberch et al. [1979] Paleobiology 5:296-317), but modify it slightly. Human growth is clearly retarded in terms of both the magnitude of changes (size-shape covariation) and shape alone (size-shape dissociation) with respect to the chimpanzees. At the end of growth, the adult skull in humans reaches an allometric shape (size-related shape) which is equivalent to that of juvenile chimpanzees with no permanent teeth, and a size which is equivalent to that of adult chimpanzees. Our results show that human neoteny involves not only shape retardation (paedomorphosis), but also changes in relative growth velocity. Before the eruption of the first molar, human growth is accelerated, and then strongly decelerated, relative to the growth of the chimpanzee as a reference. This entails a complex process, which explains why these species reach the same overall (i.e., brain + face) size in adult stage. The neotenic traits seem to concern

  7. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Map of the Palmer Land Area, Antarctica: 1947-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Cook, Alison J.; Mathie, Amy M.; Williams, Richard S.; Swithinbank, Charles; Foley, Kevin M.; Fox, Adrian J.; Thomson, Janet W.; Sievers, Jorn

    2009-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of the two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting rise in sea level could severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Antarctica is Earth's largest reservoir of glacial ice. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet would cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m), and the potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). The mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is highly complex, responding differently to different climatic and other conditions in each region (Vaughan, 2005). In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although it is known to be thickening in the west, it is thinning in the north. The mass balance of the East Antarctic ice sheet is thought by Davis and others (2005) to be positive on the basis of the change in satellite-altimetry measurements made between 1992 and 2003. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Programs. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The availability of this information provided the impetus for carrying

  8. Cariotipos de los caracoles de tinte Plicopurpura pansa y Plicopurpura columellaris (Gastropoda: Muricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin Arias-Rodriguez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El cariotipo de Plicopurpura pansa y P. columellaris fue determinado a partir de 17 y 13 especímenes adultos respectivamente. Adicionalmente, se utilizaron ocho cápsulas de P. pansa. Contamos 186 campos mitóticos en P. pansa: 59 en los adultos y 127 en los embriones; y 118 campos en P. columellaris. En ambas especies se observaron números cromosómicos desde 30 hasta 42. Las variaciones en número cromosómico fueron identificadas en cada individuo, no habiendo ninguna relación con los tejidos (branquias, músculo y estómago empleados. El número modal diploide típico fue de 2n=36 cromosomas en ambas especies. En los especímenes adultos seleccionamos cinco de las mejores dispersiones cromosómicas para armar el cariotipo. Calculamos los estadísticos citogenéticos clásicos, longitudes relativas, proporción de brazos, índice centromérico y la diferencia entre brazos. Identificamos en ambas especies tres pares de cromosomas metacéntricos y quince pares de cromosomas telocéntricos. Esta clasificación no fue suficientemente robusta, por lo que dividimos el complemento cromosómico de cada especie en cuatro grupos ("a", "b", "c" y "d" utilizando como criterio las longitudes relativas (p+q. Hubo diferencias significativas entre grupos cromosómicos por especie y entre especies, los tres primeros pares de cromosomas (grupo "a" birrámeos y los dos últimos pares (grupo "d" monorrámeos menores (análisis de varianza de dos vías, pKaryotypes of the purple snails Plicopurpura pansa and Plicopurpura columellaris (Gastropoda: Muricidae. The karyotypes of the purple snails Plicopurpura pansa (Gould, 1853 and P. columellaris (Lamarck, 1816 were established from 17 and 13 adults, respectively; and from eight capsules with embryos of P. pansa. In P. pansa were counted 59 mitotic fields in the adults and 127 in embryos; and 118 fields in P. columellaris. Chromosome numbers from 30 to 42 were observed in both species. Such a variation was

  9. Francophone conjunctures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bongie

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Decolonizing the Text: Glissantian Readings in Caribbean and African-American Literatures. DEBRA L. ANDERSON. New York: Peter Lang, 1995. 118 pp. (Cloth US$46.95 L'Eau: Source d'une ecriture dans les litteratures feminines francophones. YOLANDE HELM (ed.. New York: Peter Lang, 1995. x + 295 pp. (Cloth US$ 65.95 Postcolonial Subjects: Francophone Women Writers. MARY JEAN GREEN, KAREN GOULD, MICHELINE RICE-MAXIMIN, KEITH L. WALKER & JACK A. YEAGER (eds.. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996. xxii + 359 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Statue cou coupe. ANNIE LE BRUN. Paris: Jean-Michel Place, 1996. 177 pp. (Paper FF 85.00 Although best remembered as a founding father of the Negritude movement along with Aime Cesaire, Leopold Senghor was from the very outset of his career equally committed - as both a poet and a politician - to what he felt were the inseparable concepts of la francophonie and metissage. Senghor's has been an unabashedly paradoxical vision, consistently addressing the unanswerable question of how one can be essentially a "black African" and at the same time (in Homi Bhabha's words "something else besides" (1994:28. In his "Eloge du metissage," written in 1950, Senghor ably described the contradictions involved in assuming the hybrid identity of a metis (an identity that offers none of the comforting biological and/or cultural certainties - about "rhythm," "intuition," and such like - upon which the project of Negritude was founded: "too assimilated and yet not assimilated enough? Such is exactly our destiny as cultural metis. It's an unattractive role, difficult to take hold of; it's a necessary role if the conjuncture of the 'Union francaise' is to have any meaning. In the face of nationalisms, racisms, academicisms, it's the struggle for the freedom of the Soul - the freedom of Man" (1964:103. At first glance, this definition of the metis appears as dated as the crude essentialism with which Senghor

  10. Mercury emission and distribution: Potential environmental risks at a small-scale gold mining operation, Phichit Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataranawat, Poranee; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Delaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2007-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination was assessed in environment near an amalgamation gold recovery operation located at a small scale mining operation (Phanom Pha) in Phichit Province, Thailand. Total mercury (THg) concentrations was determined in water, sediment, bivalves in the aquatic environment and as dry deposition or atmospheric fallout on surface soil and leaves of Neem tree (Azadirachta indica Juss. var. siamensis Valeton) near the mining operation. THg in surface soil, Neem flowers (edible part) and rice grain in surrounding terrestrial habitat and with distance from the mining area were also evaluated for possible contamination. Potential environmental risks were evaluated using the hazard quotient equation. Hg analyses conducted in the aquatic habitat showed that THg in water, sediment and bivalves (Scabies cripata Gould) ranged from 0.4 to 4 microg L(-1), 96 to 402 microg kg(-1)dry weight (dw) and 15 to 584 microg kg(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively. High concentrations of THg in water, sediment and bivalves were observed in the receiving stream near the mining operation which was located near the Khao Chet Luk Reservoir. Whereas the THg concentration in water, sediment and bivalves from monitoring stations outside the gold mining operation (upstream and downstream), were considerably lower with the values of 0.4-0.8 microg L(-1), 96-140 microg kg(-1) dw and 88-658 microg kg(-1) dw, respectively. The elevated concentration of Hg found in the sediment near the mining operation was consistent with Hg accumulation measured in bivalves. The elevated Hg levels found in living bivalves collected from highly contaminated sites suggested that the sediment bound Hg was bioavailable. THg in surface soils, brown rice grain (Jasmine rice #105) and Neem flowers of terrestrial habitats were in the range of 16 to 180 microg kg(-1) dw, 190 to 300 microg kg(-1) dw, and 622 to 2150 microg kg(-1) dw, respectively. Elevated concentrations of mercury were found in Neem flowers

  11. Stability of Non-Neutral Plasma Cylinder Consisting of Magnetized Cold Electrons and of Small Density Fraction of Ions Born at Rest: Non-Local Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeliseyev, Y. N.

    2009-03-01

    The non-local stability problem of the plasma cylinder, filled with "cold" magnetized rigidly rotating electrons, and a small density fraction of ions, is solved. The ions are supposed to be born at rest by ionization of background gas. The study is based on the kinetic description of ions. The equilibrium distribution function, taking into account the peculiarity of ions birth, is used. The radial electric field is caused by space charge of non-neutral plasma. The dispersion equation for plasma eigen frequencies is obtained analytically. It is valid within the total admissible range of values of electric and magnetic fields. Normalized eigen frequencies ω'/Ωi are calculated for the basic azimuth mode m = 1 (ω' = ω-mωi+, ω+ = (-ωci+Ωi)/2, Ωi = (ωci2-4eEr/mir)1/2 is called the "modified" ion cyclotron (MIC) frequency), for the density fraction of ions of atomic nitrogen f = Ni/ne = 0,01 and are presented in graphic form versus parameter 2ωpe2/ωce2. The spectra of oscillations ω'/Ωi consist of the family of electron Trivel-piece—Gould (TG) modes and of the families of MIC modes. The frequencies of MIC modes are located in a small vicinity of harmonics of the MIC frequency Ωi above and below the harmonic. The TG modes in non-neutral plasma fall in the region of MIC frequencies Ωi and interact strongly with MIC modes. The slow TG modes become unstable near the crossings with non-negative harmonics of MIC frequencies. The instabilities have a resonant character. The lowest radial TG mode has a maximum growth rate at crossing with a zero harmonic of Ωi ((Im ω'/Ωi)max≈0,074). The growth rates of MIC modes are much lower ((Im ω'/Ωi)max≲0,002). Their instability has a threshold character. The instabilities of TG and MIC modes take place mainly at the values of parameter 2ωpe2/ωce2, corresponding to strong radial electric fields (ωci2≪|eEr/mir|), in which the ions are unmagnetized. The oscillations of small amplitude are seen on some frequency

  12. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Ronne Ice Shelf area, Antarctica, 1974-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, K.M.; Swithinbank, C.; Williams, R.S.; Dalide, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    (MSS) images of Ant-arctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The availability of this information provided the impetus for carrying out a comprehensive analysis of the glaciological features of the coastal regions and changes in ice fronts of Antarctica (Swithinbank, 1988; Williams and Ferrigno, 1988). The project was later modified to include Landsat 4 and 5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) (and in some areas Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+)), RADARSAT images, and other data where available, to compare changes during a 20- to 25- or 30-year time interval (or longer where data were available, as in the Antarctic Peninsula). The results of the analysis are being used to produce a digital database and a series of USGS Geologic Investigations Series Maps (I-2600) consisting of 23 maps at 1:1,000,000 scale and 1 map at 1:5,000,000 scale, in both paper and digital format (Williams and others, 1995; Williams and Ferrigno, 1998; Ferrigno and others, 2002) (available online at http://www.glaciers.er.usgs.gov).

  13. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Trinity Peninsula area and south Shetland Islands, Antarctica: 1843-2001: Chapter A in Coastal-change and glaciological maps of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Cook, Alison J.; Foley, Kevin M.; Williams, Richard S.; Swithinbank, Charles; Fox, Adrian J.; Thomson, Janet W.; Sievers, Jorn

    2006-01-01

    Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Programs. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The availability of this information provided the impetus for carrying out a comprehensive analysis of the glaciological features of the coastal regions and changes in ice fronts of Antarctica (Swithinbank, 1988; Williams and Ferrigno, 1988). The project was later modified to include Landsat 4 and 5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) [and in some areas Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+)], RADARSAT images, and other data where available, to compare changes that occurred during a 20- to 25- or 30-year time interval (or longer where data were available, as in the Antarctic Peninsula). The results of the analysis are being used to produce a digital database and a series of USGS Geologic Investigations Series Maps (I–2600) consisting of 23 maps at 1:1,000,000 scale and 1 map at 1:5,000,000 scale, in both paper and digital format (Williams and others, 1995; Williams and Ferrigno, 1998; Ferrigno and others, 2002).

  14. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Eights Coast area, Antarctica, 1972-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Rosanova, Christine E.; Dailide, Lina M.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in the area and volume of polar ice sheets are intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting changes in sea level may severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet could cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m). The potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). In spite of its importance, the mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is poorly known; it is not known for certain whether the ice sheet is growing or shrinking. In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic part of the Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although the western part is thickening, the northern part is thinning. Joughin and Tulaczyk (2002), based on analysis of ice-flow velocities derived from synthetic aperture radar, concluded that most of the Ross ice streams (ice streams on the east side of the Ross Ice Shelf) have a positive mass balance. The mass balance of the East Antarctic is unknown, but thought to be in near equilibrium. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Programs. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The

  15. Coastal-change and glaciological maps of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in the area and volume of polar ice sheets are intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting changes in sea level may severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet could cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m). The potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). In spite of its importance, the mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is poorly known; it is not known for certain whether the ice sheet is growing or shrinking. In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic part of the Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although the western part is thickening, the northern part is thinning. Joughin and Tulaczyk (2002), based on analysis of ice-flow velocities derived from synthetic aperture radar, concluded that most of the Ross ice streams (ice streams on the east side of the Ross Ice Shelf) have a positive mass balance. The mass balance of the East Antarctic is unknown, but thought to be in near equilibrium. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science Foundation's (1990) Division of Polar Programs. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The

  16. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Saunders Coast area, Antarctica; 1972-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Hallam, Cheryl A.; Rosanova, Christine E.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in the area and volume of polar ice sheets are intricately linked to changes in global climate, and the resulting changes in sea level may severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. Melting of the West Antarctic part alone of the Antarctic ice sheet could cause a sea-level rise of approximately 6 meters (m). The potential sea-level rise after melting of the entire Antarctic ice sheet is estimated to be 65 m (Lythe and others, 2001) to 73 m (Williams and Hall, 1993). In spite of its importance, the mass balance (the net volumetric gain or loss) of the Antarctic ice sheet is poorly known; it is not known for certain whether the ice sheet is growing or shrinking. In a review paper, Rignot and Thomas (2002) concluded that the West Antarctic part of the Antarctic ice sheet is probably becoming thinner overall; although the western part is thickening, the northern part is thinning. Joughin and Tulaczyk (2002), based on analysis of ice-flow velocities derived from synthetic aperture radar, concluded that most of the Ross ice streams (ice streams on the east side of the Ross Ice Shelf) have a positive mass balance. The mass balance of the East Antarctic is unknown, but thought to be in near equilibrium. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council (1986), in subsequent recommendations by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) (1989, 1993), and by the National Science Foundation?s (1990) Division of Polar Programs. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The

  17. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Map of the Northern Ross Ice Shelf Area, Antarctica: 1962-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    Programs. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) decided that the archive of early 1970s Landsat 1, 2, and 3 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of Antarctica and the subsequent repeat coverage made possible with Landsat and other satellite images provided an excellent means of documenting changes in the coastline of Antarctica (Ferrigno and Gould, 1987). The availability of this information provided the impetus for carrying out a comprehensive analysis of the glaciological features of the coastal regions and changes in ice fronts of Antarctica (Swithinbank, 1988; Williams and Ferrigno, 1988). The project was later modified to include Landsat 4 and 5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) images (and in some areas Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus [ETM+] images), RADARSAT images, and other data where available, in order to compare changes that occurred during a 20- to 25- or 30-year time interval (or longer where data were available, as in the Antarctic Peninsula). The results of the analysis are being used to produce a digital database and a series of USGS Geologic Investigations Series Maps (I?2600) (Williams and others, 1995; Williams and Ferrigno, 1998; Ferrigno and others, 2002) (available online at http://www.glaciers.er.usgs.gov).

  18. Testing the universality of the star-formation efficiency in dense molecular gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimajiri, Y.; André, Ph.; Braine, J.; Könyves, V.; Schneider, N.; Bontemps, S.; Ladjelate, B.; Roy, A.; Gao, Y.; Chen, H.

    2017-08-01

    Context. Recent studies with, for example, Spitzer and Herschel have suggested that star formation in dense molecular gas may be governed by essentially the same "law" in Galactic clouds and external galaxies. This conclusion remains controversial, however, in large part because different tracers have been used to probe the mass of dense molecular gas in Galactic and extragalactic studies. Aims: We aimed to calibrate the HCN and HCO+ lines commonly used as dense gas tracers in extragalactic studies and to test the possible universality of the star-formation efficiency in dense gas (≳104 cm-3), SFEdense. Methods: We conducted wide-field mapping of the Aquila, Ophiuchus, and Orion B clouds at 0.04 pc resolution in the J = 1 - 0 transition of HCN, HCO+, and their isotopomers. For each cloud, we derived a reference estimate of the dense gas mass MHerschelAV > 8, as well as the strength of the local far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation field, using Herschel Gould Belt survey data products, and estimated the star-formation rate from direct counting of the number of Spitzer young stellar objects. Results: The H13CO+(1-0) and H13CN(1-0) lines were observed to be good tracers of the dense star-forming filaments detected with Herschel. Comparing the luminosities LHCN and LHCO+ measured in the HCN and HCO+ lines with the reference masses MHerschelAV > 8, the empirical conversion factors αHerschel - HCN (=MHerschelAV > 8/LHCN) and αHerschel - HCO+ (=MHerschelAV > 8/LHCO+) were found to be significantly anti-correlated with the local FUV strength. In agreement with a recent independent study of Orion B by Pety et al., the HCN and HCO+ lines were found to trace gas down to AV ≳ 2. As a result, published extragalactic HCN studies must be tracing all of the moderate density gas down to nH2 ≲ 103 cm-3. Estimating the contribution of this moderate density gas from the typical column density probability distribution functions in nearby clouds, we obtained the following G0

  19. Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of corn stover: effects of biomass, peroxide, and enzyme loading and composition on yields of glucose and xylose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodge David B

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment is a critical step in the conversion of lignocellulose to fermentable sugars. Although many pretreatment processes are currently under investigation, none of them are entirely satisfactory in regard to effectiveness, cost, or environmental impact. The use of hydrogen peroxide at pH 11.5 (alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP was shown by Gould and coworkers to be an effective pretreatment of grass stovers and other plant materials in the context of animal nutrition and ethanol production. Our earlier experiments indicated that AHP performed well when compared against two other alkaline pretreatments. Here, we explored several key parameters to test the potential of AHP for further improvement relevant to lignocellulosic ethanol production. Results The effects of biomass loading, hydrogen peroxide loading, residence time, and pH control were tested in combination with subsequent digestion with a commercial enzyme preparation, optimized mixtures of four commercial enzymes, or optimized synthetic mixtures of pure enzymes. AHP pretreatment was performed at room temperature (23°C and atmospheric pressure, and after AHP pretreatment the biomass was neutralized with HCl but not washed before enzyme digestion. Standard enzyme digestion conditions were 0.2% glucan loading, 15 mg protein/g glucan, and 48 h digestion at 50°C. Higher pretreatment biomass loadings (10% to 20% gave higher monomeric glucose (Glc and xylose (Xyl yields than the 2% loading used in earlier studies. An H2O2 loading of 0.25 g/g biomass was almost as effective as 0.5 g/g, but 0.125 g/g was significantly less effective. Optimized mixtures of four commercial enzymes substantially increased post-AHP-pretreatment enzymatic hydrolysis yields at all H2O2 concentrations compared to any single commercial enzyme. At a pretreatment biomass loading of 10% and an H2O2 loading of 0.5 g/g biomass, an optimized commercial mixture at total protein loadings of 8 or 15 mg

  20. El progreso biológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barahona, Ana

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.La idea de progreso en Biología está ligada al concepto de scala naturae o la gran cadena del ser que se puede trazar hasta Aristóteles. Esta noción de que los organismos vivientes pueden clasificarse en una jerarquía de inferior a superior tomó formas nuevas en los siglos XVII y XVIII. En el siglo XVIII, naturalistas como Buffon, Bonnet y Robinet se habían preguntado si podíamos hablar de un patrón definido de desarrollo. En el siglo XIX, Lamarck postula la idea de que existe una progresión de los organismos menos avanzados a los organismos más avanzados. Posteriormente, la teoría de la evolución añade la dimensión temporal y de continuidad genética o histórica a la clasificación jerárquica de los seres vivos. Darwin pensaba que la selección natural traía como resultado el perfeccionamiento y que éste inevitablemente conduciría al progreso gradual de la organización. Herbert Spencer se convirtió en uno de los darwinistas más radicales del siglo XIX y principios del XX. Para Spencer la idea de progreso se aplicaba no solo al mundo biológico sino que era parte de una ley general, que dirigía lo simple hacia lo complejo, lo homogéneo a lo heterogéneo. Posteriormente, Julian Huxley, Theodosius Dobzhansky, Ernst Mayr, George Gaylord Simpson y Ledyard Stebbins —conocidos como los arquitectos de la Sintesis Moderna— comparten una visión progresionista de la evolución biológica. La noción de progreso evolutivo, en la actualidad, es sumamente controvertida, y se pueden distinguir básicamente tres diferentes perspectivas. La primera, defendida por Michael Ruse y David Hull entre otros, sostiene que no existe evidencia científica que nos lleve a aceptar cierta «direccionalidad» en la evolución biológica. Una segunda visión, defendida por Stephen J. Gould, sostiene que, en la medida en que reemplacemos el término de progreso (ya que éste es antropocéntrico por el de «noción operacional de

  1. EDITORIAL: Opposites attract: nanomagnetism in theory and practice Opposites attract: nanomagnetism in theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-09-01

    authors describe the system in terms of a magnetic monopole—a notorious theoretical element yet to make the transition to experimental observations. Yet the description works well and as the authors claim, 'The magnetic resolution comes remarkably close to the maximum reported value and can still be improved by choosing iron-filled carbon nanotubes with optimized dimensions'. Artificial atoms, or superatoms, were used in the 1970s as theoretical constructs to investigate molecular structures [6]. Later studies of fullerenes [7, 8] and then other semiconductor artificial atom systems [9] rooted the concept firmly in experimental physics. The electronic behavior in these systems has inspired some fascinating technological developments [10]. Artificial atom quantum dots are small enough to be considered zero-dimensional, giving rise to quantum confinement effects: electrons added to quantum dots occupy discrete quantum levels, and spin-paired electrons can produce spin-zero electron states. The systems have demonstrated great promise for potential qubits for quantum computers. Silicon has a number of advantages for these applications including scalability and long spin coherence times. However, progress has been hindered in practice by difficulties in creating devices with sufficiently low disorder particularly at the Si/SiO2 interface. Researchers at the University of New South Wales in Australia have overcome these fabrication challenges and demonstrated a low-disorder silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dot where the number of electrons can be tuned between 0 and 27 [11]. In this issue R-G Dengel, A Frey, K Brunner, C Gould and L W Molenkamp from Universität Würzburg in Germany create magnetic artificial atoms by replacing the traditionally used GaAs-based heterostructure with a ZnSe-based system where doping the quantum well with Mn gives it magnetic properties [1]. As they point out, 'From the fabrication point of view, three technical issues make this

  2. Examining the plankton acoustic response with a vessel mounted ADCP across oceanic fronts located in the Drake Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Blanc

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available On December 2001 and January 2006, during the LMG01-9 and LMG06-1 cruises to Antarctic Peninsula, at-sea oceanographic and acoustic measurements were conducted onboard the R/V L. M. Gould icebreaker along two transects located between (55.15 °S, 65 ºW and (64.65 °S, 65 ºW and between (55.15 ºS, 64.91 ºW and (62.7 ºS, 62.21 ºW, respectively. The scientific crew consisted of researchers from two US institutes, and a scientific observer from the Argentinean Naval Service of Research & Development under the frame of the US National Science Foundation Antarctic Program. The present work accomplishes an alternative application for a vesselmounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP with an operating frequency of 153.6 kHz. Volume Acoustic Backscattering Strengths, S V, were computed from the recorded ADCP's voltages. The obtained values fell in a range of -92 dB to -62 dB, for the layer of the water column comprised between 26 m - 300 m on 2001 and in the range of -93 dB to -58 dB for the water column between 22 m - 300 m on 2006. Depth-averaged, S V, for the upper water column (about the first 150 m on experiment transects were computed as well as S V values averaged in depth and latitude. Data processing revealed interesting features about the upper ocean acoustic behaviour. On December 2001, a significant non-uniform scattering response in the ensonified water column with quite high values of S V, associated with the diel vertical migration, was obtained. Additionally, a remarkable increment in the scattering response was observed at the estimated location of the Antarctic Divergence (AD. This feature was also observed on January 2006 in addition to remarkable high values of S V, in coastal waters of the Antarctic Peninsula. Plotting and exhaustive analyses of S V (z profiles enabled the visualisation of three distinct types of qualitative patterns, namely, curves with: (I two observable maxima, (II only one maximum, (III a depth

  3. Approximating uncertainty of annual runoff and reservoir yield using stochastic replicates of global climate model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, M. C.; Srikanthan, R.; McMahon, T. A.; Karoly, D. J.

    2015-04-01

    CMIP3 for use in this paper. Here we present within- and between-GCM uncertainty results in mean annual precipitation (MAP), mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual runoff (MAR), the standard deviation of annual precipitation (SDP), standard deviation of runoff (SDR) and reservoir yield for five CMIP3 GCMs at 17 worldwide catchments. Based on 100 stochastic replicates of each GCM run at each catchment, within-GCM uncertainty was assessed in relative form as the standard deviation expressed as a percentage of the mean of the 100 replicate values of each variable. The average relative within-GCM uncertainties from the 17 catchments and 5 GCMs for 2015-2044 (A1B) were MAP 4.2%, SDP 14.2%, MAT 0.7%, MAR 10.1% and SDR 17.6%. The Gould-Dincer Gamma (G-DG) procedure was applied to each annual runoff time series for hypothetical reservoir capacities of 1 × MAR and 3 × MAR and the average uncertainties in reservoir yield due to within-GCM uncertainty from the 17 catchments and 5 GCMs were 25.1% (1 × MAR) and 11.9% (3 × MAR). Our approximation of within-GCM uncertainty is expected to be an underestimate due to not replicating the GCM trend. However, our results indicate that within-GCM uncertainty is important when interpreting climate change impact assessments. Approximately 95% of values of MAP, SDP, MAT, MAR, SDR and reservoir yield from 1 × MAR or 3 × MAR capacity reservoirs are expected to fall within twice their respective relative uncertainty (standard deviation/mean). Within-GCM uncertainty has significant implications for interpreting climate change impact assessments that report future changes within our range of uncertainty for a given variable - these projected changes may be due solely to within-GCM uncertainty. Since within-GCM variability is amplified from precipitation to runoff and then to reservoir yield, climate change impact assessments that do not take into account within-GCM uncertainty risk providing water resources management decision makers with

  4. Mustiscaling Analysis applied to field Water Content through Distributed Fiber Optic Temperature sensing measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez Buelga, Javier; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Sanchez, Raul; Gil, Maria; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    signal variation, or to see at which scales signals are most correlated. This can give us an insight into the dominant processes An alternative to both of the above methods has been described recently. Relative entropy and increments in relative entropy has been applied in soil images (Bird et al., 2006) and in soil transect data (Tarquis et al., 2008) to study scale effects localized in scale and provide the information that is complementary to the information about scale dependencies found across a range of scales. We will use them in this work to describe the spatial scaling properties of a set of field water content data measured in an extension of a corn field, in a plot of 500 m2 and an spatial resolution of 25 cm. These measurements are based on an optics cable (BruggSteal) buried on a ziz-zag deployment at 30cm depth. References Bird, N., M.C. Díaz, A. Saa, and A.M. Tarquis. 2006. A review of fractal and multifractal analysis of soil pore-scale images. J. Hydrol. 322:211-219. Kravchenko, A.N., R. Omonode, G.A. Bollero, and D.G. Bullock. 2002. Quantitative mapping of soil drainage classes using topographical data and soil electrical conductivity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66:235-243. Lark, R.M., A.E. Milne, T.M. Addiscott, K.W.T. Goulding, C.P. Webster, and S. O'Flaherty. 2004. Scale- and location-dependent correlation of nitrous oxide emissions with soil properties: An analysis using wavelets. Eur. J. Soil Sci. 55:611-627. Lark, R.M., S.R. Kaffka, and D.L. Corwin. 2003. Multiresolution analysis of data on electrical conductivity of soil using wavelets. J. Hydrol. 272:276-290. Lark, R. M. and Webster, R. 1999. Analysis and elucidation of soil variation using wavelets. European J. of Soil Science, 50(2): 185-206. Mandelbrot, B.B. 1982. The fractal geometry of nature. W.H. Freeman, New York. Percival, D.B., and A.T. Walden. 2000. Wavelet methods for time series analysis. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK. Tarquis, A.M., N.R. Bird, A.P. Whitmore, M.C. Cartagena, and

  5. User-driven generation of standard data services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Laura; Granell, Carlos; Gould, Michael; Huerta, Joaquín.

    2010-05-01

    (3), 271-294. Bernard, L, U Einspanier, M Lutz & C Portele. Interoperability in GI Service Chains The Way Forward. In: M. Gould, R. Laurini & S. Coulondre (Eds.). 6th AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science 2003, Lyon: 179-188. INSPIRE. Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2007 establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community. (2007) Masser, I. GIS Worlds: Creating Spatial Data Infrastructures. Redlands, California. ESRI Press. (2005) Masser, I., Rajabifard, A., Williamson, I. 2008. Spatially enabling governments through SDI implementation. International Journal of Geographical Information Science. Vol. 22, No. 1, (2008) 5-20 Rajabifard, A., Feeney, M-E. F., Williamson, I. P. 2002. Future directions for SDI development. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 4 (2002) 11-22

  6. VICAR - VIDEO IMAGE COMMUNICATION AND RETRIEVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    I/O, label I/O, parameter I/O, etc.) to facilitate image processing and provide the fastest I/O possible while maintaining a wide variety of capabilities. The run-time library also includes the Virtual Raster Display Interface (VRDI) which allows display oriented applications programs to be written for a variety of display devices using a set of common routines. (A display device can be any frame-buffer type device which is attached to the host computer and has memory planes for the display and manipulation of images. A display device may have any number of separate 8-bit image memory planes (IMPs), a graphics overlay plane, pseudo-color capabilities, hardware zoom and pan, and other features). The VRDI supports the following display devices: VICOM (Gould/Deanza) IP8500, RAMTEK RM-9465, ADAGE (Ikonas) IK3000 and the International Imaging Systems IVAS. VRDI's purpose is to provide a uniform operating environment not only for an application programmer, but for the user as well. The programmer is able to write programs without being concerned with the specifics of the device for which the application is intended. The VICAR Interactive Display Subsystem (VIDS) is a collection of utilities for easy interactive display and manipulation of images on a display device. VIDS has characteristics of both the executive and an application program, and offers a wide menu of image manipulation options. VIDS uses the VRDI to communicate with display devices. The first step in using VIDS to analyze and enhance an image (one simple example of VICAR's numerous capabilities) is to examine the histogram of the image. The histogram is a plot of frequency of occurrence for each pixel value (0 - 255) loaded in the image plane. If, for example, the histogram shows that there are no pixel values below 64 or above 192, the histogram can be "stretched" so that the value of 64 is mapped to zero and 192 is mapped to 255. Now the user can use the full dynamic range of the display device to display

  7. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2004-10-01

    ,Indonesian electoral behaviour; A statistical perspective. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2004, xli + 429 pp. [Indonesia's Population Series 2.], Evi Nurvida Arifin, Leo Suryadinata (eds -Hans Hägerdal, Arnaud Leveau, Le destin des fils du dragon; L'influence de la communauté chinoise au Viêt Nam et en Thaïlande. Paris: L'Harmattan, Bangkok: Institut de Recherche sur l'Asie de Sud Est Contemporaine, 2003, xii + 88 pp. -Han Bing Siong, A.W.H. Massier, Van recht naar hukum; Indonesische juristen en hun taal, 1915-2000. (Privately published, 2003, xiii + 234 pp. [PhD thesis, Leiden University.] -David Hicks, Andrew Berry, Infinite tropics; An Albert Russel Wallace anthology, with a preface by Stephen Jay Gould. London: Verso, 2002, xviii + 430 pp. -Carool Kersten, J. van Goor, Indische avonturen; Opmerkelijke ontmoetingen met een andere wereld. Den Haag: Sdu Uitgevers, 2000, 294 pp. -Lisa Migo, Robert Martin Dumas, 'Teater Abdulmuluk' in Zuid-Sumatra; Op de drempel van een nieuwe tijdperk. Leiden: Onderzoekschool CNWS, School voor Aziatische, Afrikaanse en Amerindische Studies, 2000, 345 pp. -John N. Miksic, Claude Guillot ,Historie de Barus, Sumatra; Le site de Lobu Tua; II; Étude archéologique et documents. Paris: Association Archipel, 2003, 339 pp. [Cahier d'Archipel 30.], Marie-France Dupoizat, Daniel Perret (eds -Sandra Niessen, Traude Gavin, Iban ritual textiles. Leiden: KITLV Press, 2003, xi + 356 pp. [Verhandelingen 205.] -Frank Okker, Jan Lechner, Uit de verte; Een jeugd in Indië 1927-1946. Met een nawoord van Gerard Termorshuizen. Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 2004, 151 pp. [Boekerij 'Oost en West'.] -Angela Pashia, William D. Wilder, Journeys of the soul; Anthropological studies of death, burial and reburial practices in Borneo. Phillips ME: Borneo Research Council, 2003, vix + 366 pp. [Borneo Research Council Monograph Series 7.] -Jonathan H. Ping, Huub de Jonge ,Transcending borders; Arabs, politics, trade and Islam in Southeast Asia. Leiden

  8. Obituary: Edwin E. Salpeter (1924-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia; Terzian, Yervant

    2009-12-01

    shared Ed's moral disapproval. His 21 year term as the astrophysics member of the editorial board of Reviews of Modern Physics (1971-92) remains a record and arose from a combination of extremely good judgment and patience with authors, referees, and other editors. His experience as a member of the National Science Board (1978-84) was a less happy one, and he felt he had not been an effective one when the NSF decided to back out of supporting a national-facility large millimeter dish, leaving that territory to individual university groups and the Europeans. How many students did Ed Salpeter have? Well, lots. He was advisor or committee chair for students in computer and geological sciences as well as in physics and astronomy, and was sometimes part of teams he called "two chiefs and one Indian" for additional students. No complete list seems to exist, but the incomplete lists add up to at least 55. Of those, you are likely to have heard of or know (because we do!): Hubert Reeves (who has great-grandstudents of his own!), George Helou, Vahe Petrosian, Bill Newman, Nathan Krumm, Bruce Tarter, Jonathan Katz, Lars Bildsten, Allen Boozer, Bruce Draine, Robert Gould, Nicolas Krall, Richard Lovelace, David Stevenson, Hugh Van Horn, Lyle Hoffman, and Edvige Corbelli. Thus he lived to achieve that mark of maturity, being invited to retirement parties for ones students. Former students, collaborators, and all spoke uniformly of his generosity, quick understanding, and willingness to discuss science on any and all occasions. Among the honors Ed Salpeter received were four honorary D.Sc.'s, five academy memberships, and major prizes from the Royal Astronomical Society, the American Astronomical Society, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, the American Physical Society, the Royal Swedish Academy, and the Astronomische Gesellschaft (AG). The text of his AG lecture was published in English, but he told one of us that he felt he no longer had a native language, because he couldn

  9. MODEL PENELITIAN HUBUNGAN POLA PERMUKIMAN DAN KONFLIK ANTAR ETNIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilya Kalsum

    2015-01-01

    . Rineka Cipta. Doxiadis. 1974. “Action For A Better Scientific Approach To The Subject Of Human Settlements" The Journal of Ekistics. Volume 38. No. 229. Desember 1974. Drever, James. 1986. Kamus Psikologi. Jakarta: Bina Aksara. Ellen, Ingrid Gould. 2000. "Race-Based Neighborhood Projection: A Pro-posed Framework for Understanding New Data On Racial Integration”., Urban Studies. Vol. 37, No. 9. p. 1513 – 1533. Friedrichs, Jurgen. 1998. "Ethic Segregation In Cologne, Germany, 1984-94". Urban Studies. Vol. 35 No. 10. p.1745 – 1763. Hardjosudarmo, Soedigdo. 1965. Kebijak-sanaan Transmigrasi Dalam Rangka Pembangunan Masyarakat Desa Indonesia. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor. Haryadi & B. Setiawan. 1995. Arsitektur Lingkungan dan Perilaku, Suatu Pengantar Ke Teori, Metodologi dan Aplikasi. Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. Heeren, H.H. 1979. Transmigrasi di Indonesia. Jakarta: Gramedia. Indonesia, Depnakertrans, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan. 1978. Laporan Penelitian Bentuk-bentuk Interaksi Sosial Antar Kelompok Etnik di Daerah Transmigrasi 1977/1978. Jakarta. Kartono, Kartini dan Gulo, Dali. 1987. Kamus Psikologi. Bandung: Pionir Jaya. Kempen, R. Van dan Ozuekren, Sule. 1998. "Ethnic Segregation In Cities: New Forms And Explanation In A Dynamic World". Urban Studies. University of Glasgow. Vol. 35. No. 10. Koetjaraningrat. 1974. Manusia dan Kebudayaan di Indonesia. Jakarta: Jambatan. Minnery, J.R. 1986. "Urban Planners And Role Conflicts". Journal Of Urban Policy And Research. Murdie, Robert A. & Borgegard, Lars-Erik. 1998. “Immigration Spatial Segrega-tion and Housing Segmentation Of Immigrants In Metropolitan Stockholm, 1960-95". Urban Studies, Vol. 35, No. 10, p. 1869 – 1888. Owusu, Thomas Y. 1999. “Residential Patterns and Housing Choices of Ghanaian Immigrants in Toronto, Canada”. Housing Studies. Vol. 14, No. 1. 1999. Pattiselanno, J.Th.F. 1999. “Tradisi Uli, Pela dan Gandong pada Masyarakat Seram, Ambon dan Uliase

  10. HAVE YOU READ THIS?: Life, the universe(s) and everything

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-09-01

    philosophical for some (see the review by B Carr in Physics World 10 December 1997, p 39) but don't be put off by his adoration of Leibnitz compared, say, with Newton. He is strongly critical of a `mechanical' world view, and a major strand in the book is that physics may be more like biology than most of us might like to think. Smolin's key idea is that universes are created in black holes, a basis on which he builds a cosmology in which relationships are more important than abstract concepts like space and time. When a new universe forms from a black hole the laws and constants are changed: G, e, h and the critical things like the fine-structure constant that cosmic anthropicists put forward as evidence for a purposive universe get changed. Sometimes they change a lot, sometimes in ways too small to have much effect. A kind of Darwinian survival effect takes over: successful universes are good at producing black holes and mature stars that can build up the heavy elements which allow life to develop. So our values of G, e, h etc have evolved. The more black holes they produce, the more likely it is that some of the baby universes are reasonably successful. So our universe is not unique, but just one of a set that has cosmological and physical properties that allow people like us to develop. The improbably anthropic universe we live in is as improbable as an eye or a peacock's tail. Just as Stephen Jay Gould teaches us that life as we know it is not designed but the result of more or less simple rules applied in an accidental, contingent history, so Smolin considers the universe(s). Galaxies have ecologies: `... our life is situated inside a nested hierarchy of self-organized systems that begin with our local ecologies and extend upwards at least to the galaxy.' Our universe is really very young - not much older than a typical star. The theory has testable predictions, to do with the formation of spiral arms in galaxies, supernovae and the rate of production of black holes

  11. Rechtsgeschichte – Geschichte der Evolution eines sozialen Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Theres Fögen

    2002-01-01

    could be no talk of "necessary" selection. What Dionysius describes is open contingency. By describing selection in terms of non-selection, he underlines the problem inherent in all selection as soon as it becomes clear that there are multiple possibilities. And to ensure that it does not continue anew, the gruesome example is made: things remain as they are - at least for a while (which, in the case of Rome, was quite a long time. Reflecting not only on Mommsen's interpretation and reading, but also on our own, and recognising the inherent circularity, should be an acknowledged duty - albeit one that should not block our reading. 17. Texts instead of facts One particular reading block should be dismantled: the habit adopted by many historians of discriminating texts in terms of "facts" on the one hand and stories, legends and myths on the other hand. If we want to find out whether and how (self-descriptions identity and alterity explain the existence and respective state of a system, whether they distinguish between evolutionary mechanisms, whether they construct causalities or permit coincidences, then we cannot simply dismiss a large proportion of the texts. If we do so, irrespective of whether we are researching Antiquity or own era, all that is left is a new and slender myth of facts. "Reality is not concrete reality, but what lies between things" is the first lesson in quantum mechanics. "Between things" lies communication. Bibliography Amstutz, M., Evolutorisches Wirtschaftsrecht, 2002. Baecker, D., "Das Gedächtnis der Wirtschaft" in Theorie als Passion. Niklas Luhmann zum 60.Geburtstag, Frankfurt am Main 1987, 519-546. Campbell, D.T., "Variation and Selective Retention in Socio-Cultural Evolution" in Social Change in Developing Areas, Cambridge MA 1965, 19-49. Eldredge, N. and Gould, S. J., "Punctuated Equilibria: An Alternative to Phyletic Gradualism" in T.J.M.Schopf (ed., Models in Paleobiology, San Francisco 1972, 82-115. Fögen, M.Th., R

  12. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cold and Ultracold Molecules FOCUS ON COLD AND ULTRACOLD MOLECULES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Lincoln D.; Ye, Jun

    2009-05-01

    öhlich, A Griesmaier, T Pfau, H Saito, Y Kawaguchi and M Ueda High-energy-resolution molecular beams for cold collision studies L P Parazzoli, N Fitch, D S Lobser and H J Lewandowski Collisional effects in the formation of cold guided beams of polar molecules M Motsch, C Sommer, M Zeppenfeld, L D van Buuren, P W H Pinkse and G Rempe Towards sympathetic cooling of large molecules: cold collisions between benzene and rare gas atoms P Barletta, J Tennyson and P F Barker Efficient formation of ground-state ultracold molecules via STIRAP from the continuum at a Feshbach resonance Elena Kuznetsova, Marko Gacesa, Philippe Pellegrini, Susanne F Yelin and Robin Côté Emergent timescales in entangled quantum dynamics of ultracold molecules in optical lattices M L Wall and L D Carr Rotational state resolved photodissociation spectroscopy of translationally and vibrationally cold MgH+ ions: toward rotational cooling of molecular ions K Højbjerre, A K Hansen, P S Skyt, P F Staanum and M Drewsen Collective transverse cavity cooling of a dense molecular beam Thomas Salzburger and Helmut Ritsch A Stark decelerator on a chip Samuel A Meek, Horst Conrad and Gerard Meijer Deceleration of molecules by dipole force potential: a numerical simulation Susumu Kuma and Takamasa Momose Ultracold molecules: vehicles to scalable quantum information processing Kathy-Anne Brickman Soderberg, Nathan Gemelke and Cheng Chin Magnetic field modification of ultracold molecule-molecule collisions T V Tscherbul, Yu V Suleimanov, V Aquilanti and R V Krems Spectroscopy of 39K85Rb triplet excited states using ultracold a 3Σ+ state molecules formed by photoassociation J T Kim, D Wang, E E Eyler, P L Gould and W C Stwalley Pumping vortex into a Bose-Einstein condensate of heteronuclear molecules Z F Xu, R Q Wang and L You Intense atomic and molecular beams via neon buffer-gas cooling David Patterson, Julia Rasmussen and John M Doyle Dynamical properties of dipolar Fermi gases T Sogo, L He, T Miyakawa, S Yi, H Lu

  13. EDITORIAL: Focus on Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors FOCUS ON DILUTE MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Scott A.; Gallagher, Bryan

    2008-05-01

    Chisholm, J D Budai and D P Norton Role of charge carriers for ferromagnetism in cobalt-doped rutile TiO2 T Fukumura, H Toyosaki, K Ueno, M Nakano and M Kawasaki Ab-initio study of exchange constants and electronic structure in diluted magnetic group-IV semiconductors Silvia Picozzi and Marjana Ležaić Phase coherent transport in (Ga,Mn)As D Neumaier, K Wagner, U Wurstbauer, M Reinwald, W Wegscheider and D Weiss Hydrogen interstitials-mediated ferromagnetism in MnxGe1-x magnetic semiconductors Xin-Xin Yao, Shi-Shen Yan, Shu-Jun Hu, Xue-Ling Lin, Chong Han, Yan-Xue Chen, Guo-Lei Liu and Liang-Mo Mei Electronic structures of magnetic semiconductors FeCr2Se4 and Fe0.5Cu0.5Cr2Se4 B I Min, Seung Su Baik, H C Choi, S K Kwon and J-S Kang Investigation of pure and Co2+-doped ZnO quantum dot electronic structures using the density functional theory: choosing the right functional Ekaterina Badaeva, Yong Feng, Daniel R Gamelin and Xiaosong Li Magnetic properties of sol-gel-derived doped ZnO as a potential ferromagnetic semiconductor: a synchrotron-based study N R S Farley, K W Edmonds, A A Freeman, G van der Laan, C R Staddon, D H Gregory and B L Gallagher Local electronic structure of Cr in the II-VI diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Zn1-xCrxTe M Kobayashi, Y Ishida, J I Hwang, G S Song, A Fujimori, C S Yang, L Lee, H-J Lin, D J Huang, C T Chen, Y Takeda, K Terai, S-I Fujimori, T Okane, Y Saitoh, H Yamagami, K Kobayashi, A Tanaka, H Saito and K Ando Lack of ferromagnetism in n-type cobalt-doped ZnO epitaxial thin films T C Kaspar, T Droubay, S M Heald, P Nachimuthu, C M Wang, V Shutthanandan, C A Johnson, D R Gamelin and S A Chambers XMCD studies on Co and Li doped ZnO magnetic semiconductors Thomas Tietze, Milan Gacic, Gisela Schütz, Gerhard Jakob, Sebastian Brück and Eberhard Goering Ferromagnetic semiconductors and the role of disorder B W Wessels An extensive comparison of anisotropies in MBE grown (Ga,Mn)As material C Gould, S Mark, K Pappert, R G Dengel, J Wenisch, R P

  14. Obituary: Philip Morrison, 1915-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2005-12-01

    2002. Emily had been a collaborator on a few magazine articles and so forth. Phylis became a full partner on several of his books and television programs, and, most charmingly, on an annual set of Christmas reviews of books for children. Morrison the educator appears first as co-author with Hans Bethe of the text Elementary Nuclear Physics in 1952. A subset of other achievements in this territory include: (a) co-authorship of the Physical Sciences Study Committee text for high school physics in 1962 (prepublication versions existed in 1960); (b) the film, Powers of Ten, produced by Charles and Ray Eames in 1979, narrated by Phil, and seen by a large fraction of all the students in "astronomy for poets" classes since; (c) television programs including Whisper from Space (Nova, 1977, on the microwave background) and the six-part series Ring of Truth (PBS, 1987, on scientific method); and (d) literally hundreds of book reviews written for Scientific American from 1965 into the late 1990s, in every one of which you can hear his voice, in contrast to frequent Scientific American editorial practice. He produced a few late reviews and commentaries for American Scientist, but was not entirely pleased with the relationship. Among his graduate students who remained in cosmic-ray and astrophysics were Howard Laster, Kenneth Brecher, James Felten, Robert Gould, Leo Sartori, Alberto Sadun, and Minas Kafatos. Several of them describe Phil as a very "hands off" advisor, who would suggest a project and leave them to get on with it, which was rather different from the Oppenheimer style. A 1959 paper by Guiseppe Cocconi and Morrison was the first suggestion that one might communicate with extraterrestrial civilizations using radio waves close to the 1421 GHz (21 cm) frequency of neutral hydrogen, though he had thought even earlier about gamma rays for this purpose. Phil was a SETI optimist from the beginning, writing and participating in conferences on the subject for many years

  15. Metalliferous deposits of the greater Helena mining region, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, Joseph Thomas; Schrader, F.C.

    1933-01-01

    out to the neighboring wide intermontane valleys. The area is underlain mostly by shale, sandstone, and limestone of the upper part of the Belt series. Beds of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age occur south of the Belt area and extend from Helena west and northwest. The igneous rocks of the area include diorite and gabbro sills and dikes of probable Cretaceous age, extrusive andesite that is probably Oligocene or Miocene, and stocks of quartz monzonite, granodiorite, and quartz diorite, probably of Oligocene or Miocene age. The ore deposits of the northern districts are chiefly lodes that are valuable for gold and silver but contain some lead and copper. In the Ophir district bodies of gold and silver ore occur mainly in limestone near a body of quartz monzonite. In the Scratchgravel Hills and Grass Valley districts veins of gold quartz and veins containing lead-silver ore occur in quartz monzonite and in the adjoining metamorphic rocks. In the Austin district lodes containing gold; silver, lead, and copper are found in limestone near intrusive quartz monzonite. An unusual mineral in one of these lodes is corkite, a hydrous sulphate of lead containing arsenic. A small stock of quartz diorite in the Marysville district has invaded and domed Belt rocks. Marginal and radial fractures formed during the cooling and contraction of the igneous body became the receptacles of gold and silver veins, one of which, the Drumlummon, has produced $16,000,000. The veins filled open fractures and are characterized by a gangue of platy calcite and quartz. Lodes in Towsley Gulch in the western part of the district contain lead in addition to gold. In the Gould district a small stock of the granodiorite has invaded the Belt rocks and caused the deposition of veins similar to those near Marysville. In the Heddleston district lodes valuable for gold, silver, lead, and copper occur in Belt sedimentary rocks and diorite, some of them associated with porphyry dikes. In the Wolf Creek district veins

  16. Long-term water repellency in organic olive orchards in the Cànyoles River watershed. The impact of land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Neris, Jonay

    2015-04-01

    ., Kirchner, J. W., Neal, M., Rowland, P., Wright, D. 2011. Three decades of water quality measurements from the Upper Severn experimental catchments at Plynlimon, Wales: an openly accessible data resource for research, modelling, environmental management and education. Hydrological Processes, 25(24), 3818-3830. Roper, M. M., Ward, P. R., Keulen, A. F., Hill, J. R. (2013). Under no-tillage and stubble retention, soil water content and crop growth are poorly related to soil water repellency. Soil and Tillage Research, 126, 143-150. Santos, J. M., Verheijen, F. G., Tavares Wahren, F., Wahren, A., Feger, K. H., Bernard-Jannin, L., Nunes, J. P. (2015). Soil water repellency dynamics in pine and eucalupt plantation in Portugal - a high- resolution series. Land Degradation & Development. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2251 Spohn, M., Rillig, M. C. 2012. Temperature-and moisture-dependent soil water repellency induced by the basidiomycete Agaricus bisporus. Pedobiologia, 55(1), 59-61. Stoof, C. R., Moore, D., Ritsema, C. J., Dekker, L. W. 2011. Natural and fire-induced soil water repellency in a Portuguese shrubland. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 75(6), 2283-2295. Taguas, E. V., Carpintero, E., and Ayuso, J. L. 2013. Assessing land degradation risk through the long-term analysis of erosivity: a case study in Southern Spain. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 179- 187. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1119 Whelan, A., Kechavarzi, C., Coulon, F., Doerr, S. H. 2014. Experimental characterization of the impact of temperature and humidity on the breakdown of soil water repellency in sandy soils and composts. Hydrological Processes. Young, I. M., Feeney, D. S., O'Donnell, A. G., Goulding, K. W. 2012. Fungi in century old managed soils could hold key to the development of soil water repellency. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 45, 125-127. Zhao, G., Mu, X., Wen, Z., Wang, F., and Gao, P. 2013. Soil erosion, conservation, and Eco-environment changes in the Loess Plateau of China. Land Degradation & Development