WorldWideScience

Sample records for enteritidis experimental infection

  1. Salmonella Enteritidis experimental infection in chickens: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... challenge dose of Salmonella Enteritidis on detection of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) ... Two groups of specific-pathogen-free chickens were infected ... Since chickens may be exposed to variable quantities ... A second group of 8 hens was orally .... where presence of serum antibodies by most birds that.

  2. Diagnosis of Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Broiler Chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosis of Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Broiler Chickens Using Elisa. ES Soliman, E Taha, WS Abdella, C KilPatrick, AN Wise, MAA Sobieh, PG Reddy. Abstract. The program for the eradication of Salmonella Enteritidis from chickens was based on bacteriological examination of breeding flocks. There is a great need ...

  3. Saccharomyces boulardii prevention of the hepatic injury induced by Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Daichao; Teng, Da; Wang, Xiumin; Dai, Changsong; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-10-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is the predominant cause of serovar-associated food-borne outbreaks in many countries and causes significant clinical symptoms of liver injury, enteritis, and diarrheal diseases. Saccharomyces boulardii is used in clinical application for prophylaxis and the treatment of a variety of diseases caused by bacterial infection. We used a mouse model of Salmonella Enteritidis infection, which included pretreatment with S. boulardii, to reveal the protection mechanisms of S. boulardii against Salmonella Enteritidis infection, including the translocation of Salmonella Enteritidis to the liver 10 days after Salmonella Enteritidis challenge, and the colonisation of Salmonella Enteritidis and the formation of hepatic tissue lesions in mice after Salmonella Enteritidis challenge on the 10th day. Compared with Salmonella Enteritidis infection in mice, S. boulardii decreased Salmonella Enteritidis translocation to the liver by 96%, and 99% of Salmonella Enteritidis colonised the cecum on the 10th day. Saccharomyces boulardii also abated hepatic tissue injury caused by the infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes, lymphocytes, and plasmocytes by decreasing the translocation of Salmonella to the liver. These findings demonstrated that S. boulardii is an effective agent in the prevention of the hepatic injury induced by Salmonella Enteritidis infection in a mouse model.

  4. The serologic response to Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in experimentally infected chickens, followed by an indirect lipopolysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and bacteriologic examinations through a one-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M.N.; Feld, Niels Christian; Carstensen, B.

    2002-01-01

    Three groups of 100 individually marked salmonella-free chickens were followed for a period of 53 wk. The chickens were infected as day olds by crop instillation of 101 colony-forming units: one group with Salmonella enteritidis and a second group with Salmonella typhimurium. A third group was kept...... in surveillance programs, in particular to detect flocks in early stages of infection before a measurable serologic response has been raised....

  5. Immunological changes at point-of-lay increase susceptibility to Salmonella enterica Serovar enteritidis infection in vaccinated chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E Johnston

    Full Text Available Chicken eggs are the main source of human Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection. S. Enteritidis infects the oviduct and ovary of the chicken leading to infection of developing eggs. Therefore, control in poultry production is a major public health priority. Vaccination of hens has proved successful in control strategies in United Kingdom leading to a 70% drop in human cases since introduced. However, as hens reach sexual maturity they become immunosuppressed and it has been postulated this leads to increased susceptibility to Salmonella infection. In this study we define the changes to the systemic and reproductive tract-associated immune system of hens throughout sexual development by flow cytometry and histology and determine changes in susceptibility to experimental S. Enteritidis challenge in naive and vaccinated hens. Changes to both systemic and local immune systems occur in chickens at sexual development around 140 days of age. The population of several leukocyte classes drop, with the greatest fall in CD4+ lymphocyte numbers. Within the developing reproductive tract there an organised structure of lymphocytic aggregates with γδ-T lymphocytes associated with the mucosa. At point-of-lay, this organised structure disappears and only scattered lymphocytes remain. Protection against Salmonella challenge is significantly reduced in vaccinated birds at point-of-lay, coinciding with the drop in CD4+ lymphocytes. Susceptibility to reproductive tract infection by Salmonella increased in vaccinated and naïve animals at 140 and 148 days of age. We hypothesise that the drop in γδ-T lymphocytes in the tract leads to decreased innate protection of the mucosa to infection. These findings indicate that systemic and local changes to the immune system increase the susceptibility of hens to S. Enteritidis infection. The loss of protective immunity in vaccinated birds demonstrates that Salmonella control should not rely on vaccination alone

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis Strains Implicated in Infections of Avian and Human Hosts

    KAUST Repository

    An, Ran; Lin, Pengpeng; Bougouffa, Salim; Essack, Magbubah; Boxrud, David; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Vidovic, Sinisa

    2018-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is a wide-host-range pathogen. Occasionally, it is involved in invasive infections, leading to a high mortality rate. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of four S Enteritidis strains obtained from human and avian hosts that had been involved in bacteremia, gastroenteritis, and primary infections.

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis Strains Implicated in Infections of Avian and Human Hosts

    KAUST Repository

    An, Ran

    2018-01-24

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is a wide-host-range pathogen. Occasionally, it is involved in invasive infections, leading to a high mortality rate. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of four S Enteritidis strains obtained from human and avian hosts that had been involved in bacteremia, gastroenteritis, and primary infections.

  8. Diagnosis of Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Broiler Chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The program for the eradication of Salmonella Enteritidis from chickens was based on bacteriological examination of breeding flocks. There is a great need for a specific and sensitive serological screening test. For that purpose, four different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed. These included ...

  9. Curcuma and Scutellaria plant extracts protect chickens against inflammation and Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmuzova, Karolina; Matulova, Marta Elsheimer; Gerzova, Lenka; Cejkova, Darina; Gardan-Salmon, Delphine; Panhéleux, Marina; Robert, Fabrice; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Rychlik, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    After a ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in farm animals in the European Union in 2006, an interest in alternative products with antibacterial or anti-inflammatory properties has increased. In this study, we therefore tested the effects of extracts from Curcuma longa and Scutellaria baicalensis used as feed additives against cecal inflammation induced by heat stress or Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) infection in chickens. Curcuma extract alone was not enough to decrease gut inflammation induced by heat stress. However, a mixture of Curcuma and Scutellaria extracts used as feed additives decreased gut inflammation induced by heat or S. Enteritidis, decreased S. Enteritidis counts in the cecum but was of no negative effect on BW or humoral immune response. Using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA we found out that supplementation of feed with the 2 plant extracts had no effect on microbiota diversity. However, if the plant extract supplementation was provided to the chickens infected with S. Enteritidis, Faecalibacterium, and Lactobacillus, both bacterial genera with known positive effects on gut health were positively selected. The supplementation of chicken feed with extracts from Curcuma and Scutelleria thus may be used in poultry production to effectively decrease gut inflammation and increase chicken performance. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Occurrence of purulent arthritis broilers vertically infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J-Y; Kang, M-S; An, B-K; Song, E-A; Kwon, J-H; Kwon, Y-K

    2010-10-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) has been associated with morbidity and mortality in broiler chickens worldwide. The present study described purulent arthritis of broilers infected with Salmonella Enteritidis and investigated antibiograms and genetic characteristics of Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from epidemiologically related properties such as a hatchery and breeder farm in an attempt to elucidate the source of contamination. Clinical disease and mortality were observed in the affected broiler flock. Mortality was 5.8% until 12 d of age. The birds typically showed lameness with moderately swollen hock joints and footpads. The most prevalent lesions were severely purulent arthritis with polyserositis. Histopathology revealed moderate to severe inflammation in the synovial membrane of leg joints and visceral organs. When the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed against 7 isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis from broilers, and relevant hatchery and breeder farms by the disk diffusion method using 18 antimicrobial agents, isolates from broiler and breeder farms had the same antibiogram characterized by multiple drug resistance to ampicillin, ceftiofur, cephalothin, gentamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline, whereas isolates from the hatchery were differently resistant to only nalidixic acid. Through the genetic analysis with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using the restriction enzyme XbaI, Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from both broiler and breeder farms also showed the same PFGE pattern compared with the hatchery isolates resistant to nalidixic acid. As a result, the same PFGE profiles and antibiogram patterns among isolates from broilers and breeder farms provided direct evidence of vertical Salmonella Enteritidis transmission from the contaminated breeder farm to commercial broiler.

  11. Changes in population of S. enterica serotype Enteritidis in experimentally contaminated milk depending on temperature and acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajić-Savić Nataša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella bacteria are among the most frequent causes of food poisoning, and milk and milk products are food items through which these bacteria can be transmitted. More recent data indicate that the infective dose of Salmonella is very small - up to 101/g/ml food. The preservation of Salmonella in milk depends on the acidity, temperature and the duration of storage. The objective of the work was to examine the survival of Salmonella in milk depending on the changes of the total number of bacteria, pH and temperature. In the study, 0.1 ml of 24-hour bouillon culture of S. enteritidis was inoculated in raw collective milk (104 cfu/ml and in marketed pasteurized milk (102 cfu/ml each. The examined milk samples were maintained at room temperature and at a temperature of 7oC. At the beginning of the examinations, after 24h, 48h, 72h, after 7, 14 and 21 days, decimal solutions were made from the milk, and, following incubation, the number of S. enteritidis was determined (Rambach agar, the total number of bacteria (base for total number of bacteria by multiplying the number of grown colonies and the corresponding solution, and the milk pH was measured. There was a bigger reduction of S. enteritidis at room temperature because the pH value dropped more swiftly. The lowest pH at which S. enteritidis was isolated from experimentally contaminated milk was 3.88. The results of the examinations show that Salmonella can adapt to biochemical processes during milk acid fermentation of soft cheeses. No Salmonella bacteria were isolated from experimentally contaminated pasterurized milk at both maintenance temperatures after seven days of investigations.

  12. Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis infection alters the indigenous microbiota diversity in young layer chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Khine Zar Mon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Avian gastrointestinal tracts are highly populated with a diverse array of microorganisms that share a symbiotic relationship with their hosts and contribute to the overall health and disease state of the intestinal tract. The microbiome of the young chick is easily prone to alteration in its composition by both exogenous and endogenous factors especially during the early post-hatch period. The genetic background of the host and exposure to pathogens can impact the diversity of the microbial profile that consequently contributes to the disease progression in the host. The objective of this study was to profile the composition and structure of the gut microbiota in young chickens from two genetically distinct highly inbred lines. Furthermore, the effect of the Salmonella Enteritidis infection on altering the composition makeup of the chicken microbiome was evaluated through the 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. One-day-old layer chicks were challenged with S. Enteritidis and the host cecal microbiota profile as well as the degree of susceptibility to Salmonella infection was examined at 2 and 7 days post-infection. Our result indicated that host genotype had a limited effect on resistance to S. Enteritidis infection. Alpha diversity, beta diversity, and overall microbiota composition were analyzed for four factors: host genotype, age, treatment, and post-infection time-points. S. Enteritidis infection in young chicks was found to significantly reduce the overall diversity of the microbiota population with expansion of Enterobacteriaceae family. These changes indicated that Salmonella colonization in the gastrointestinal tract of the chickens has a direct effect on altering the natural development of the gastrointestinal microbiota. The impact of S. Enteritidis infection on microbial communities was also more substantial in late stage of infection. Significant inverse correlation between Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae family in both non-infected

  13. Emergence of new Salmonella Enteritidis phage types in Europe? Surveillance of infections in returning travellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Yvonne

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among human Salmonella Enteritidis infections, phage type 4 has been the dominant phage type in most countries in Western Europe during the last years. This is reflected in Salmonella infections among Swedish travellers returning from abroad. However, there are differences in phage type distribution between the countries, and this has also changed over time. Methods We used data from the Swedish infectious disease register and the national reference laboratory to describe phage type distribution of Salmonella Enteritidis infections in Swedish travellers from 1997 to 2002, and have compared this with national studies conducted in the countries visited. Results Infections among Swedish travellers correlate well with national studies conducted in the countries visited. In 2001 a change in phage type distribution in S. Enteritidis infections among Swedish travellers returning from some countries in southern Europe was observed, and a previously rare phage type (PT 14b became one of the most commonly diagnosed that year, continuing into 2002 and 2003. Conclusions Surveillance of infections among returning travellers can be helpful in detecting emerging infections and outbreaks in tourist destinations. The information needs to be communicated rapidly to all affected countries in order to expedite the implementation of appropriate investigations and preventive measures.

  14. Efeitos da Salmonella Enteritidis experimentalmente inoculada na saúde gastrintestinal de perus Effects of experimentally inoculated Salmonella Enteritidis on the gastrointestinal health of turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Yoko Tanikawa de Andrade

    2012-03-01

    assessment, biometrics and histomorphometry. On days one, 15 and 28, samples of meconium/excreta were collected from all birds. The intestinal colonization increased during the initial phase when Salmonella was inoculated via eggshell. The intestine showed greater weight on the first, tenth and 28th days when Salmonella was present, with no differences regarding the intestine length. Salmonella Enteritidis was able to colonize the intestinal tract, establish infection, reduce bird performance and modify the cellular structures of the intestine. Contamination of the eggshell before hatching generated birds susceptible to infection at birth and the frequency of isolation of Salmonella Enteritidis persisted until 28 days of age. Salmonella inoculation by drinking water generated infected birds, but with less recovery of the pathogen with age increase. Inoculated birds showed inferior performance, confirming the potential damage to poultry production.

  15. Characterization of chicken spleen transcriptome after infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Matulova

    Full Text Available In this study we were interested in identification of new markers of chicken response to Salmonella Enteritidis infection. To reach this aim, gene expression in the spleens of naive chickens and those intravenously infected with S. Enteritidis with or without previous oral vaccination was determined by 454 pyrosequencing of splenic mRNA/cDNA. Forty genes with increased expression at the level of transcription were identified. The most inducible genes encoded avidin (AVD, extracellular fatty acid binding protein (EXFABP, immune responsive gene 1 (IRG1, chemokine ah221 (AH221, trappin-6-like protein (TRAP6 and serum amyloid A (SAA. Using cDNA from sorted splenic B-lymphocytes, macrophages, CD4, CD8 and γδ T-lymphocytes, we found that the above mentioned genes were preferentially expressed in macrophages. AVD, EXFABP, IRG1, AH221, TRAP6 and SAA were induced also in the cecum of chickens orally infected with S. Enteritidis on day 1 of life or day 42 of life. Unusual results were obtained for the immunoglobulin encoding transcripts. Prior to the infection, transcripts coding for the constant parts of IgM, IgY, IgA and Ig light chain were detected in B-lymphocytes. However, after the infection, immunoglobulin encoding transcripts were expressed also by T-lymphocytes and macrophages. Expression of AVD, EXFABP, IRG1, AH221, TRAP6, SAA and all immunoglobulin genes can be therefore used for the characterization of the course of S. Enteritidis infection in chickens.

  16. Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis causing mixed infections in febrile children in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García V

    2018-01-01

    multidrug-resistant isolates of S. Enteritidis. Nearly half of the children were coinfected with both serovars, a fact expected to aggravate the disease and hamper the treatment. However, particularly poor outcomes were not observed for the coinfected patients. Conclusion: Mixed Salmonella infections could frequently occur in febrile children in Mozambique. Additional studies are required to determine their actual impact and consequences, not only in this country, but also in other African countries. Keywords: invasive nontyphoidal salmonellosis, bloodstream infection, multidrug resistance, virulence-resistance plasmid, ST313, ST1479

  17. Four linked outbreaks of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 infection--the continuing egg threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejidokun, O O; Killalea, D; Cooper, M; Holmyard, S; Cross, A; Kemp, C

    2000-06-01

    Four outbreaks of Salmonella enteritidis phage type (PT) 4 occurred among guests at functions for which a single commercial caterer supplied food. Retrospective cohort studies were used to describe the epidemiology of three of these outbreaks and identify the vehicle(s) responsible. Of 172 guests at these three events, 47 fitted the clinical case definition for illness and 24 cases were confirmed to have S. enteritidis PT4 infection. Food containing raw egg was identified epidemiologically as the likely vehicle of infection in two of the three outbreaks (odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals 9.1 (2.2-39.9) and 6.9 (1.2-46.4)). Logistic regression analysis yielded OR = 10.7 (p = 0.0022) and OR = 9.3 (p = 0.015) for egg consumption in two of the outbreaks. These outbreaks highlighted the continuing need to remind the public and commercial caterers of the potential high risks of contracting salmonella from shell eggs. Education of caterers includes advice to obtain eggs and other products from reputable and identifiable suppliers.

  18. Effect of Enterococcus faecium EF 55 on morphometry and proliferative activity of intestinal mucosa in broilers infected with Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševčíková Zuzana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Enterococcus faecium EF55 on chickens, as well as its influence on proliferative activity of epithelial intestinal cells after infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 (SE PT4. Moreover, the length and area of duodenal and jejunal villi of the birds were examined.

  19. Immune Response of Chicken Gut to Natural Colonization by Gut Microflora and to Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Crhanova, Magdalena; Hradecka, Helena; Faldynova, Marcela; Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    In commercial poultry production, there is a lack of natural flora providers since chickens are hatched in the clean environment of a hatchery. Events occurring soon after hatching are therefore of particular importance, and that is why we were interested in the development of the gut microbial community, the immune response to natural microbial colonization, and the response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection as a function of chicken age. The complexity of chicken gut micro...

  20. Immune response of chicken gut to natural colonization by gut microflora and to Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crhanova, Magdalena; Hradecka, Helena; Faldynova, Marcela; Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

    2011-07-01

    In commercial poultry production, there is a lack of natural flora providers since chickens are hatched in the clean environment of a hatchery. Events occurring soon after hatching are therefore of particular importance, and that is why we were interested in the development of the gut microbial community, the immune response to natural microbial colonization, and the response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection as a function of chicken age. The complexity of chicken gut microbiota gradually increased from day 1 to day 19 of life and consisted of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. For the first 3 days of life, chicken cecum was protected by increased expression of chicken β-defensins (i.e., gallinacins 1, 2, 4, and 6), expression of which dropped from day 4 of life. On the other hand, a transient increase in interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-17 expression could be observed in chicken cecum on day 4 of life, indicating physiological inflammation and maturation of the gut immune system. In agreement, the response of chickens infected with S. Enteritidis on days 1, 4, and 16 of life shifted from Th1 (characterized mainly by induction of gamma interferon [IFN-γ] and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]), observed in younger chickens, to Th17, observed in 16-day-old chickens (characterized mainly by IL-17 induction). Active modification of chicken gut microbiota in the future may accelerate or potentiate the maturation of the gut immune system and increase its resistance to infection with different pathogens.

  1. Immune Response of Chicken Gut to Natural Colonization by Gut Microflora and to Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crhanova, Magdalena; Hradecka, Helena; Faldynova, Marcela; Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    In commercial poultry production, there is a lack of natural flora providers since chickens are hatched in the clean environment of a hatchery. Events occurring soon after hatching are therefore of particular importance, and that is why we were interested in the development of the gut microbial community, the immune response to natural microbial colonization, and the response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection as a function of chicken age. The complexity of chicken gut microbiota gradually increased from day 1 to day 19 of life and consisted of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. For the first 3 days of life, chicken cecum was protected by increased expression of chicken β-defensins (i.e., gallinacins 1, 2, 4, and 6), expression of which dropped from day 4 of life. On the other hand, a transient increase in interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-17 expression could be observed in chicken cecum on day 4 of life, indicating physiological inflammation and maturation of the gut immune system. In agreement, the response of chickens infected with S. Enteritidis on days 1, 4, and 16 of life shifted from Th1 (characterized mainly by induction of gamma interferon [IFN-γ] and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]), observed in younger chickens, to Th17, observed in 16-day-old chickens (characterized mainly by IL-17 induction). Active modification of chicken gut microbiota in the future may accelerate or potentiate the maturation of the gut immune system and increase its resistance to infection with different pathogens. PMID:21555397

  2. CLINICAL AND ANATOMOHISTOPATOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF TWO BROILER ORIGINATED FROM EXPERIMENTALLY INOCULATED EGGS WITH Salmonella Enteritidis FAGOTIPO 4 ASPECTOS CLÍNICOS E ANATOMOHISTOPATOLÓGICOS DE PINTOS DE CORTE ORIUNDOS DE OVOS INOCULADOS EXPERIMENTALMENTE COM Salmonella Enteritidis FAGOTIPO 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Andrade

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to evaluate the invasive capacity of Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis phagotipe 4 of avian origin, in two broiler lines, two experiments were carried out. The experiment 1 was done with Ross line (fast growing rate and experiment 2 was done with ISA Label (slow growing rate. In two experiments the same 1.5 X 102 UFC/0,1mL de Salmonella Enteritidis phagotipe 4 was inoculated in egg through the eggshell or albume at the incubation to averiguate the clinical signs, the macro and microscopical lesions and mortality rate until three weeks of age. The Salmonella Enteritidis invaded and colonizated the gastrointestinal tract of the two lines tested general clinical signs allied to intestinal disfunction were more pronounced in Ross broilers. The mortality observed was 25.0% (15/60 in Ross and just 1.7% (1/60 ISA Label broilers during three weeks. Onphalitis, enteritis, pericarditis, perihepatitis constituted the main macroscopic lesions in Ross. At histological exam, inflamatory process observed with infiltrates of mononuclear cells with predominance of macrophage and lymphocytes in heart, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ceca and liver. It is possible to conclude the gastrointestinal tract, invaded organs of both genetic lines, but ISA Label was resistant to infection compared to Ross lines.

    KEY WORDS: Chickens, colonization, infection, invasion, genetic resistance, organs.

    Desenvolveram-se dois experimentos para avaliar a capacidade invasiva e os efeitos da Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis fagotipo 4 de origem aviária, inoculada in ovo de linhagens de frango de corte. O experimento 1 foi realizado com a linhagem Ross (crescimento rápido e o experimento 2 com a

  3. Salmonella enteritidis infections associated with foods purchased from mobile lunch trucks--Alberta, Canada, October 2010-February 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    During October 2010-February 2011, an outbreak of 91 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Alberta, Canada, was investigated by a local public health department (Alberta Health Services, Calgary Zone). Index cases initially were linked through a common history of consumption of food purchased from mobile food-vending vehicles (lunch trucks) operating at worksites in Alberta. Further investigation implicated one catering company that supplied items for the lunch trucks and other vendors. In 85 cases, patients reported consumption of food prepared by the catering company in the 7 days before illness. Six patients were employees of the catering company, and two food samples collected from the catering company were positive for SE. Foods likely were contaminated directly or indirectly through the use of illegally sourced, SE-contaminated eggs at the implicated catering facility and by catering employees who were infected with SE. Public health interventions put into place to control the outbreak included screening employees for Salmonella, excluding those infected from food-handling duties, and training employees in safe food-handling procedures. No further outbreak cases were identified after full implementation of the interventions. This investigation highlights the potential for lunch trucks to be a source of foodborne illness and the need for robust regulatory compliance monitoring of lunch trucks and their food suppliers.

  4. A Mexican restaurant-associated outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis type 34 infections traced to a contaminated egg farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, M M; Sweat, L B; Carter, S L; Watson, C B; Holloway, J T; Manning, R; Altekruse, S F; Blake, P A

    1999-04-01

    In May 1996, the Georgia Division of Public Health was notified about a cluster of persons with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Waycross, Georgia. A matched pair case-control study to determine risk factors for illness found a statistically significant association of SE infection with a history of having eaten at Restaurant A during the 5 days before onset of illness (relative risk = 13 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 3-62, P 1.46, P = 0.034) was found to be significantly associated with SE infection. An environmental investigation found evidence of suboptimal food storage and cooking temperatures at Restaurant A; cross contamination of foods may have contributed to the low attributable risk identified for chile rellenos. Five of 37 Restaurant A food and environment specimens yielded SE strains. All five positive specimens were from chiles rellenos. Of the seven outbreak-associated strains (six patient isolates and one food isolate from Restaurant A) for which phage typing was conducted, all were phage type 34. A FDA traceback investigation through Restaurant A's single-egg supplier identified the potential source as three interrelated farms in South Carolina. Environmental culture from one of these farms yielded SE phage type 34. As a result of this outbreak, FDA helped institute a statewide egg quality-assurance programme in South Carolina to minimize SE contamination of eggs.

  5. Transcriptional profiling avian beta-defensins in chicken oviduct epithelial cells before and after infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey R Hartford

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE colonizes the ovary and oviduct of chickens without causing overt clinical signs which can lead to SE-contamination of the content and membrane of shell-eggs as well as hatchery eggs. The organism utilizes the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-2 encoded type III secretion system (T3SS-2 to promote persistence in the oviduct of laying hens. In this study, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was carried out to determine the expression profiles of 14 known avian beta defensins (AvBDs in primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells (COEC before and after infections with a wild type SE strain and T3SS mutant SE strains carrying an inactivated sipA or pipB gene. Results Based on the expression levels in uninfected COEC, AvBDs can be loosely grouped into three categories with AvBD4-5 and AvBD9-12 being constitutively expressed at high levels; AvBD1, AvBD3, and AvBD13-14 at moderate levels; and AvBD2 and AvBD6-8 at minimal levels. Infection with the wild type SE strain temporarily repressed certain highly expressed AvBDs and induced the expression of minimally expressed AvBDs. The pipB mutant, compared to the wild type strain, had reduced suppressive effect on the expression of highly expressed AvBDs. Moreover, the pipB mutant elicited significantly higher levels of the minimally expressed AvBDs than the wild type SE or the sipA mutant did. Conclusion Chicken oviduct epithelial cells express most of the known AvBD genes in response to SE infection. PipB, a T3SS-2 effector protein, plays a role in dampening the β-defensin arm of innate immunity during SE invasion of chicken oviduct epithelium.

  6. Transcriptional profiling avian beta-defensins in chicken oviduct epithelial cells before and after infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebers, Katie L; Zhang, C Yan; Zhang, M Zhenyu; Bailey, R Hartford; Zhang, Shuping

    2009-07-30

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) colonizes the ovary and oviduct of chickens without causing overt clinical signs which can lead to SE-contamination of the content and membrane of shell-eggs as well as hatchery eggs. The organism utilizes the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-2 encoded type III secretion system (T3SS-2) to promote persistence in the oviduct of laying hens. In this study, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out to determine the expression profiles of 14 known avian beta defensins (AvBDs) in primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells (COEC) before and after infections with a wild type SE strain and T3SS mutant SE strains carrying an inactivated sipA or pipB gene. Based on the expression levels in uninfected COEC, AvBDs can be loosely grouped into three categories with AvBD4-5 and AvBD9-12 being constitutively expressed at high levels; AvBD1, AvBD3, and AvBD13-14 at moderate levels; and AvBD2 and AvBD6-8 at minimal levels. Infection with the wild type SE strain temporarily repressed certain highly expressed AvBDs and induced the expression of minimally expressed AvBDs. The pipB mutant, compared to the wild type strain, had reduced suppressive effect on the expression of highly expressed AvBDs. Moreover, the pipB mutant elicited significantly higher levels of the minimally expressed AvBDs than the wild type SE or the sipA mutant did. Chicken oviduct epithelial cells express most of the known AvBD genes in response to SE infection. PipB, a T3SS-2 effector protein, plays a role in dampening the beta-defensin arm of innate immunity during SE invasion of chicken oviduct epithelium.

  7. An outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 34a infection associated with a Chinese restaurant in Suffolk, United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahgoub Hamid

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On 30th July 2002, the Suffolk Communicable Disease Control Team received notifications of gastrointestinal illness due to Salmonella Enteritidis in subjects who had eaten food from a Chinese restaurant on 27th July. An Outbreak Control Team was formed resulting in extensive epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations. Methods Attempts were made to contact everybody who ate food from the restaurant on 27th July and a standard case definition was adopted. Using a pre-designed proforma information was gathered from both sick and well subjects. Food specific attack rates were calculated and two-tailed Fisher's exact test was used to test the difference between type of food consumed and the health status. Using a retrospective cohort design univariate Relative Risks and 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated for specific food items. Results Data was gathered on 52 people of whom 38 developed gastrointestinal symptoms; 16 male and 22 female. The mean age was 27 years. The mean incubation period was 30 hours with a range of 6 to 90 hours. Food attack rates were significantly higher for egg, special and chicken fried rice. Relative risk and the Confidence interval for these food items were 1.97 (1.11–3.48, 1.56 (1.23–1.97 and 1.48 (1.20–1.83 respectively. Interviews with the chef revealed that many eggs were used in the preparation of egg-fried rice, which was left at room temperature for seven hours and was used in the preparation of the other two rice dishes. Of the 31 submitted stool specimens 28 tested positive for S Enteritidis phage type 34a and one for S Enteritidis phage type 4. Conclusion In the absence of left over food available for microbiological examination, epidemiological investigation strongly suggested the eggs used in the preparation of the egg-fried rice as the vehicle for this outbreak. This investigation highlights the importance of safe practices in cooking and handling of eggs in

  8. Heat transfer models for predicting Salmonella enteritidis in shell eggs through supply chain distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, S; Simpson, R; Teixeira, A

    2007-11-01

    Egg and egg preparations are important vehicles for Salmonella enteritidis infections. The influence of time-temperature becomes important when the presence of this organism is found in commercial shell eggs. A computer-aided mathematical model was validated to estimate surface and interior temperature of shell eggs under variable ambient and refrigerated storage temperature. A risk assessment of S. enteritidis based on the use of this model, coupled with S. enteritidis kinetics, has already been reported in a companion paper published earlier in JFS. The model considered the actual geometry and composition of shell eggs and was solved by numerical techniques (finite differences and finite elements). Parameters of interest such as local (h) and global (U) heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity, and apparent volumetric specific heat were estimated by an inverse procedure from experimental temperature measurement. In order to assess the error in predicting microbial population growth, theoretical and experimental temperatures were applied to a S. enteritidis growth model taken from the literature. Errors between values of microbial population growth calculated from model predicted compared with experimentally measured temperatures were satisfactorily low: 1.1% and 0.8% for the finite difference and finite element model, respectively.

  9. Evaluating risk factors for endemic human Salmonella Enteritidis infections with different phage types in Ontario, Canada using multinomial logistic regression and a case-case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Csaba

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying risk factors for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE infections in Ontario will assist public health authorities to design effective control and prevention programs to reduce the burden of SE infections. Our research objective was to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various phage types (PT in Ontario, Canada. We hypothesized that certain PTs (e.g., PT8 and PT13a have specific risk factors for infection. Methods Our study included endemic SE cases with various PTs whose isolates were submitted to the Public Health Laboratory-Toronto from January 20th to August 12th, 2011. Cases were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire that included questions pertaining to demographics, travel history, clinical symptoms, contact with animals, and food exposures. A multinomial logistic regression method using the Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model procedure and a case-case study design were used to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various PTs in Ontario, Canada. In the multinomial logistic regression model, the outcome variable had three categories representing human infections caused by SE PT8, PT13a, and all other SE PTs (i.e., non-PT8/non-PT13a as a referent category to which the other two categories were compared. Results In the multivariable model, SE PT8 was positively associated with contact with dogs (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.01-4.68 and negatively associated with pepper consumption (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.13-0.94, after adjusting for age categories and gender, and using exposure periods and health regions as random effects to account for clustering. Conclusions Our study findings offer interesting hypotheses about the role of phage type-specific risk factors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis and the case-case study approach are novel methodologies to evaluate associations among SE infections with different PTs and various risk factors.

  10. Energy partitioning and thyroid hormone levels during Salmonella enteritidis infections in pullets with high or low residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eerden, E; Van Den Brand, H; Heetkamp, M J W; Decuypere, E; Kemp, B

    2006-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate whether feed efficiency, as measured by residual feed intake as a phenotypic trait, affects energy partitioning in pullets that have received Salmonella inoculation as an immune challenge. In each of 8 trials, energy partitioning was measured during 5 wk in 15-wk-old efficient (R-) and nonefficient (R+) pullets, which were housed per efficiency group in 2 identical climate respiration chambers. After 1 wk of adaptation, the pullets in 4 trials were orally inoculated with 10(8) cfu of Salmonella enteritidis; pullets in the remaining trials were not inoculated and served as controls. Heat production was calculated from continuous recordings of O(2) consumption and CO(2) production. Energy and N partitioning were recorded on a weekly basis. Blood samples for analyses on thyroid hormones were taken at 16, 17, and 19 wk of age. There were no interactions between efficiency type and Salmonella treatment or Salmonella treatment effects in energy partitioning, except for a short-term increase in heat production in inoculated pullets. Nonefficient pullets had higher gross energy and ME intake, higher estimated ME for maintenance, lower ME:gross energy ratio, and higher total heat production and nonactivity-related heat production compared with R- pullets. Triiodothyronine levels in R+ pullets were higher at 16 and 17 wk but were lower at 19 wk of age compared with R- pullets. Thyroxine levels were higher in R- at 16 wk and showed interactions between efficiency type and Salmonella treatment at 17 and 19 wk of age. Body weights and spleen weights did not differ between efficiency groups. Nonefficient pullets had higher heart, liver, and ovary weights and more large yellow follicles than R- pullets. There were no Salmonella effects on body and organ weights. We conclude that R+ pullets have a faster running energy metabolism and that they put more resources into organ development than R- pullets. Inoculation with Salmonella has a

  11. Controle da infecção por Salmonella Enteritidis em frangos de corte com ácidos orgânicos e mananoligossacarídeo Control of the infection caused by Salmonella Enteritidis with organic acids and mannanoligosaccharide in broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Darc Lopes Bassan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ação de dois ácidos orgânicos (ácido fórmico e ácido propiônico e de um mananoligossacarídeo (MOS adicionados à dieta no controle da infecção intestinal por Salmonella Enteritidis (SE em frangos de corte. Neste estudo de 39 dias, foram utilizadas 150 aves, de um dia de idade, da linhagem Cobb, lote misto, livre de SE, divididas em seis tratamentos (T com 25 animais cada, em que: T1 (ausência de infecção, T2 (ácidos orgânicos e ausência de infecção, T3 (ácidos orgânicos + MOS e ausência de infecção, T4 (ácidos orgânicos e infecção com SE, T5 (ácidos orgânicos + MOS e infecção com SE e T6 (infecção com SE. No 4° dia após o alojamento, a cama foi instilada com SE e a cada sete dias cinco aves por grupo foram submetidas à eutanásia por deslocamento cervical e necropsiadas. Depois foram realizados exames bacteriológicos para SE nesses animais, utilizando fezes coletadas sobre a cama de maravalha dos grupos e das tonsilas cecais dos animais necropsiados. No 18° dia, somente 60% das aves estavam infectadas nos tratamentos T4 e T5; no 25° dia, 40% das aves no T4 e 20% no T5 estavam infectadas; no 32° dia 100% das amostras testadas foram negativas em ambos os tratamentos (T4 e T5. Constatou-se que o T6 foi 100% positivo até o 32° dia e no 39° dia reduziu em 20% o número de animais infectados. Dentro dos parâmetros de avaliação deste experimento, os ácidos orgânicos e o mananoligossacarídeo adicionados à dieta contribuíram para o controle da infecção por SE.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two organic acids (formic acid and propionic acid and of one mannanoligosaccharide added to the diet to control the intestinal infection caused by Salmonella Enteritidis (SE in broilers. In this study of 39 days 150 birds were used, with one day of age, of the Cobb lineage, both sexes and free of SE. They were divided in 6 different treatments (T with

  12. Breast abscess in a man due to Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brncic, Nada; Gorup, Lari; Strcic, Miroslav; Abram, Maja; Mustac, Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Nontyphoidal salmonellae can cause breast infection only exceptionally. A case of breast abscess in a 70-year-old man due to Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is reported. The infection was successfully treated with a combination of surgical and antibiotic treatment.

  13. SALMONELLA ENTERICA SUBSPECIES ENTERICA SEROVAR ENTERITIDIS – ACTUALITIES AND IMPORTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Stojanović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis has been recently recognized as a prevalent cause of alimentary toxi-infection worldwide. Its widespread presence could be explained by intensification and globalization of traffic, global trade, and the rest of socioeconomic processes. However, no matter to global spreading of S. Enteritidis, there is unequal distribution of certain phage types (PT where PT 4 and 8 are predominant. Salmonella is considered as a cause of various diseases from acute enterocolitis to typhoid fever. All bacteria from this species have numerous virulence factors such as: adhesins, toxins, virulence plasmids, and cell wall lipopolysaccharides (LPS. Similar to other salmonella serotypes, S. Enteritidis has a virulence plasmid. It allows a bacterium to persist inside the reticuloendothelial cells, while strains without it are eliminated quickly. In the last few years several virulent S. Enteritidis strains of PT 4 were described and considered to be of the same origin. The domination of PT 4 is probably subjected to the resistance of certain strains to nitrofurantoin which is used in poultry rising. The increased significance of S. Enteritidis refers not only to its association with pandemic problems but to frequent reports about extraintestinal infectious processes caused by this bacterium. Taking into consideration that eggs are very important source of infection besides poultry meat, the advised efficient preventive measures, among others, should be some changes in poultry meat preparation, investigation of outbreak-related flocks and devastation of infected ones, as well as egg pasteurization.

  14. Vectorial competence of larvae and adults of Alphitobius diaperinus in the transmission of Salmonella enteritidis in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffer, Andreia M; Kuttel, Javier; Martins, Lidiane M; Pedroso, Antonio Carlos; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S; Ferreira, Fernando; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino

    2010-06-01

    The ingestion of food products originating from poultry infected with Salmonella spp. is one of the major causes of food poisoning in humans. The control of poultry salmonellosis is particularly difficult since birds are asymptomatic and numerous factors may expedite the maintenance of bacteria in poultry production facilities. The aim of the study was to determine the vectorial capacity of adults and larvae of Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in the experimental transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 to 1-day-old specific pathogen-free White Leghorn chicks. Adult insects and larvae were starved for 1 day, fed for 24 h or 7 days on sterile ration that had been treated with Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4, and the levels of bacterial infection were determined. Infected adult insects and larvae were fed to groups of day-old chicks, after which bacteria were recovered from cecum, liver, and spleen samples over a 7-day period. Infected larvae were more efficient than adult insects in transmitting Salmonella Enteritidis to chicks. Higher concentrations of bacteria could be reisolated from the cecum, liver, and spleen of chicks that had ingested infected larvae compared with those that had ingested infected adults. The control of A. diaperinus, and particularly of the larvae, represents a critical factor in the reduction of Salmonella spp. in poultry farms.

  15. Experimental rhinovirus infection in volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardin, P G; Sanderson, G; Robinson, B S; Holgate, S T; Tyrrell, D A

    1996-11-01

    Experimental viral disease studies in volunteers have clarified many aspects of the pathogenesis of human viral disease. Recently, interest has focused on rhinovirus-associated asthma exacerbations, and new volunteer studies have suggested that airway responsiveness (AR) is enhanced during a cold. For scientific, ethical and safety reasons, it is important to use validated methods for the preparation of a virus inoculum and that the particular virological characteristics and host responses should not be altered. We have prepared a new human rhinovirus (HRV) inoculum using recent guidelines and assessed whether disease characteristics (for example, severity of colds or changes in AR) were retained. Studies were conducted in 25 clinically healthy volunteers using a validated HRV inoculum in the first 17 and a new inoculum in the subsequent eight subjects. Severity of cold symptoms, nasal wash albumin levels and airway responsiveness were measured, and the new inoculum was prepared from nasal washes obtained during the cold. The new inoculum was tested using standard virological and serological techniques, as well as a polymerase chain reaction for Mycoplasma pneumoniae. No contaminating viruses or organisms were detected and the methods suggested were workable. Good clinical colds developed in 20 of the 25 subjects and median symptom scores were similar in the validated and new inoculum groups (18 and 17.5, respectively; p=0.19). All subjects shed virus, and there were no differences noted in viral culture scores, nasal wash albumin and rates of seroconversion in the two groups. Although airway responsiveness increased in both groups (p=0.02 and p=0.05), the degree of change was similar. We have performed experimental rhinovirus infection studies and demonstrated similar clinical disease in two inoculum groups. Amplified airway responsiveness was induced; continuing studies will define the mechanisms and suggest modes of treatment.

  16. Evaluation of a Solid Dispersion of Curcumin With Polyvinylpyrrolidone and Boric Acid Against Salmonella Enteritidis Infection and Intestinal Permeability in Broiler Chickens: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hernandez-Patlan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, in vitro assays were conducted to evaluate the solubility of curcumin (CUR alone or with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP at different pH, as well as its permeability in Caco-2 cells. Results confirmed that the solid dispersion of CUR with PVP (CUR/PVP at a 1:9 ratio, significantly increased (P < 0.05 solubility and permeability compared to CUR alone. Then, the antimicrobial activity of CUR/PVP, boric acid (BA, and a combination of 0.5% CUR/PVP and 0.5% BA (CUR/PVP-BA against Salmonella Enteritidis (SE was determined using an in vitro digestion model that simulates crop, proventriculus, and intestine. The results revealed that in the proventriculus and intestinal compartments significant reductions of SE were observed in all the experimental treatments, but 1% BA eliminated SE in the intestinal compartment and CUR/PVP-BA showed a synergistic effect on antimicrobial activity against SE. To complement these findings, two independent in vivo trials were conducted to determine the effect of 0.1% CUR/PVP; 0.1% BA; or the combination of 0.05% CUR/PVP (1:9 ratio and 0.05% BA (CUR/PVP-BA on the antimicrobial activity against SE, intestinal permeability and inflammatory responses in broiler chickens. BA at 0.1% had no significant in vivo effects against SE. However, the combination of 0.05% BA and 0.05% CUR/PVP and 0.05% BA was sufficient to reduce crop and intestinal SE colonization in broiler chickens in two independent trials, confirming the synergic effect between them. A similar antimicrobial impact against SE intestinal colonization was observed in chickens treated with 0.1% CUR/PVP at a 1:9 ratio, which could be due to the increase in solubility of CUR by PVP. Furthermore, 0.1% CUR/PVP reduced the intestinal permeability of FITC-d and total intestinal IgA, as well as increase the activity of SOD when compared to control, while, CUR/PVP-BA only decreased SOD activity. Further studies to confirm and expand the in vivo results obtained

  17. Blood biochemistry responses of chickens experimentally infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the blood biochemistry responses of cockerels experimentally infected with a velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain, KUDU 113. One hundred Isa white cockerels were used for the study. The cockerels were obtained at day-old and randomly divided into groups A- vaccinated and infected, ...

  18. Efeito protetor da microbiota cecal congelada e liofilizada sobre a infecção experimental de frangos de corte por Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis

    OpenAIRE

    Andreatti Filho R.L.; Crocci A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Estudaram-se os efeitos do tratamento de frangos de corte com microbiota cecal anaeróbia liofilizada (MCL) e congelada (MCC) sobre a infecção do trato digestivo das aves por Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis. Foi usada microbiota intestinal sem prévia identificação bacteriana. A infecção foi persistente, em ordem, no ceco, inglúvio e duodeno. A infecção também foi autolimitante nos grupos tratados e no controle. Não ocorreu diferença entre o grupo-controle positivo e os tratados com MCL...

  19. Efeito protetor da microbiota cecal congelada e liofilizada sobre a infecção experimental de frangos de corte por Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreatti Filho R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos do tratamento de frangos de corte com microbiota cecal anaeróbia liofilizada (MCL e congelada (MCC sobre a infecção do trato digestivo das aves por Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis. Foi usada microbiota intestinal sem prévia identificação bacteriana. A infecção foi persistente, em ordem, no ceco, inglúvio e duodeno. A infecção também foi autolimitante nos grupos tratados e no controle. Não ocorreu diferença entre o grupo-controle positivo e os tratados com MCL ou MCC. Houve redução da colonização do ceco no período de 12 dias após o desafio nos grupos tratados com MCL e MCC, o que não ocorreu no grupo-controle positivo. Não houve variação entre os tratamentos com MCL e MCC quanto às características pesquisadas. A S. Enteritidis reduziu o ganho de peso médio nas aves inoculadas. Os tratamentos com MCL e MCC minimizaram a redução de peso nos grupos infectados.

  20. Reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis in the spleens of hens by bacterins that vary in fimbrial protein SefD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene sefD is part of operon sefABCD, and it is required for production of the SEF14 fimbria by Salmonella Enteritidis. We compared strains that varied in SefD content for their ability to reduce recovery of Salmonella Enteritidis from the spleens of hens infected by parenteral challenge. The two bac...

  1. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1989-01-01

    The course of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was studied in three groups of inbred LEW rats: homozygous +/+, athymic rnu/rnu and isogeneic thymus-grafted rnu/rnu rats. In the first experiment the animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) bacteria and all animals...... became severely septicemic and died within a week of inoculation, irrespective of presence or absence of thymus. In the second experiment the animals were inoculated with 10(6) bacteria, and both euthymic and thymus-grafted animals responded with high titres of anti bacterial antibodies while these were...... very low in the athymic nude animals. Polyclonal antibody production was only observed in the euthymic animals and only regarding IgG. Athymic rats were not able to clear the infection, while the thymus-grafted animals reacted like euthymic rats: Very few animals housed the bacteria four weeks after...

  2. Feed Supplementation with Red Seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, Reduce Salmonella Enteritidis in Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Rathgeber, Bruce; MacIsaac, Janice; Boulianne, Martine; Brigitte, Lehoux; Stratton, Glenn; Thomas, Nikhil A.; Critchley, Alan T.; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is vertically transmitted to eggs from laying hens through infected ovaries and oviducts. S. Enteritidis can also penetrate the eggshell from contaminated feces. Reducing S. Enteritidis in laying hens is vital to provide safer eggs and minimize the spread of salmonellosis to humans. Antibiotics have been widely used to control bacterial diseases in broilers and laying hens. However, there is a major concern that the use of antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistance and adverse effects on microbiota of the treated birds. Thus, there is an interest in developing alternatives to antibiotics, such as dietary prebiotics. In the present study, feed supplemented with the red seaweeds: Chondrus crispus (CC) or Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG), was offered to laying hens late in production to control S. Enteritidis. Diets contained one of the following; 2% or 4% Chondrus crispus (CC2, and CC4, respectively) or Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG2 and SG4, respectively). Chlortetracycline was used in the positive control diet. During week-4, 48 birds were orally challenged with 2 × 109 CFU/mL of S. Enteritidis. Eggs and fecal samples were collected 1, 3, 5, and 7 days’ post inoculation. Birds were euthanized and organs (ceca, ovary, liver, and spleen) were sampled and analyzed for the presence of S. Enteritidis, 7 days’ post inoculation. Results showed that seaweed reduced the negative effect on body weight and egg production in S. Enteritidis-challenged laying hens. Analysis of fecal samples showed that the antibiotic (CTC) reduced S. Enteritidis in the intestinal tract and fecal samples, 3 days’ post inoculation. Fecal samples from Chlortetracycline and CC4 supplemented birds tested negative for S. Enteritidis on days 5 and 7 post inoculation (lowest detection limit = 10-1). S. Enteritidis colonization in the ceca was also significantly reduced in birds fed CC (4%) and Chlortetracycline. Blood serum profiles revealed that there

  3. Feed Supplementation with Red Seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, Reduce Salmonella Enteritidis in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Rathgeber, Bruce; MacIsaac, Janice; Boulianne, Martine; Brigitte, Lehoux; Stratton, Glenn; Thomas, Nikhil A; Critchley, Alan T; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is vertically transmitted to eggs from laying hens through infected ovaries and oviducts. S. Enteritidis can also penetrate the eggshell from contaminated feces. Reducing S. Enteritidis in laying hens is vital to provide safer eggs and minimize the spread of salmonellosis to humans. Antibiotics have been widely used to control bacterial diseases in broilers and laying hens. However, there is a major concern that the use of antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistance and adverse effects on microbiota of the treated birds. Thus, there is an interest in developing alternatives to antibiotics, such as dietary prebiotics. In the present study, feed supplemented with the red seaweeds: Chondrus crispus (CC) or Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG), was offered to laying hens late in production to control S. Enteritidis. Diets contained one of the following; 2% or 4% Chondrus crispus (CC2, and CC4, respectively) or Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG2 and SG4, respectively). Chlortetracycline was used in the positive control diet. During week-4, 48 birds were orally challenged with 2 × 10 9 CFU/mL of S. Enteritidis. Eggs and fecal samples were collected 1, 3, 5, and 7 days' post inoculation. Birds were euthanized and organs (ceca, ovary, liver, and spleen) were sampled and analyzed for the presence of S. Enteritidis, 7 days' post inoculation. Results showed that seaweed reduced the negative effect on body weight and egg production in S. Enteritidis-challenged laying hens. Analysis of fecal samples showed that the antibiotic (CTC) reduced S. Enteritidis in the intestinal tract and fecal samples, 3 days' post inoculation. Fecal samples from Chlortetracycline and CC4 supplemented birds tested negative for S. Enteritidis on days 5 and 7 post inoculation (lowest detection limit = 10 -1 ). S. Enteritidis colonization in the ceca was also significantly reduced in birds fed CC (4%) and Chlortetracycline. Blood serum profiles revealed that there were

  4. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment of Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Maike; Wiacek, Claudia; Koethe, Martin; Braun, Peggy G

    2017-03-20

    Contamination of eggshells with Salmonella Enteritidis remains a food safety concern. In many cases human salmonellosis within the EU can be traced back to raw or undercooked eggs and egg products. Atmospheric pressure plasma is a novel decontamination method that can reduce a wide range of pathogens. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using an effective short time cold plasma treatment to inactivate Salmonella Enteritidis on the eggshell. Therefore, artificially contaminated eggshells were treated with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet under different experimental settings with various exposure times (15-300s), distances from the plasma jet nozzle to the eggshell surface (5, 8 or 12mm), feed gas compositions (Ar, Ar with 0.2, 0.5 or 1.0% O 2 ), gas flow rates (5 and 7slm) and different inoculations of Salmonella Enteritidis (10 1 -10 6 CFU/cm 2 ). Atmospheric pressure plasma could reduce Salmonella Enteritidis on eggshells significantly. Reduction factors ranged between 0.22 and 2.27 log CFU (colony-forming units). Exposure time and, particularly at 10 4 CFU/cm 2 inoculation, feed gas had a major impact on Salmonella reduction. Precisely, longer exposure times led to higher reductions and Ar as feed gas was more effective than ArO 2 mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Parotid abscess due to salmonella enteritidis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Cesar V; Jensen, JoAnne D

    2006-01-01

    Salmonella infection of the parotid gland is rare. An instance in a 50-year-old man of Salmonella enteritidis parotiditis initially recognized by microbial culture of a fine needle aspiration cytology material is described. The identified predisposing factor was chronic alcoholic abuse. For the infection source, a carrier state of salmonella parotitis was postulated, which progressed to focal abscess and was subsequently complicated by bacteremia and hematogenous spread to the liver, spleen and lungs. Salmonella should be included in the differential consideration of head and neck abscesses in immunocompromised individuals and treated aggressively.

  6. Acid and low temperature treatments on Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated in pork and its subsequent survival in simulated gastric fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Quintão Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the acid resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis in stored pork and in simulated gastric fluid (SGF. A culture of S. Enteritidis was subjected to acid treatment prior to inoculation into pork, stored under refrigeration at frozen temperatures and exposed to SGF. The S. Enteritidis CCS3 and ATCC 13076 strains previously subjected to acid treatment (at pH 4.0-5.0 were inoculated in pork and stored at 4°C and -18°C. Storage at 4ºC did not affect the populations of both S. Enteritidis strains. After 84 days at -18°C, the mean population of both CCS3 and ATCC strains were reduced by 0.8 and 1.5 log cycles, respectively. Prior acid treatment did not enhance the survival of both strains at low temperatures. After acid treatment and low temperature storage, S. Enteritidis ATCC 13076 lost culturability after being exposed to SGF for 10 minutes. In contrast, S. Enteritidis CCS3 was tolerant until three hours of SGF exposure. S. Enteritidis CCS3 submitted to pH 4.0 was more tolerant to SGF exposure than when submitted to pH 4.5, 5.0 and without acid treatment. Therefore, this study indicates that exposure to an acidic and cold environment during processing enhanced the ability of S. Enteritidis to survive in the gastric environment of the human stomach, possibly increasing the risk of a Salmonella infection after consumption of pork.

  7. Resistance of Salmonella enteritidis variety typhimurium to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norberg, A.N.; Maliska, C.

    1988-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiations to kill microrganisms responsible for food deterioration, and toxinfections is an example of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Food toxinfections are, amongus, produced mostly by Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium. Due to the pauncity of information on the resistance to gamma radiation of Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium this paper has the aim to define the 60-Cobalt gamma radiation lethal dose to these bacteria, in experimentally contaminated milk by samples recovered from our geographycal area. One hundred nineteen samples of milk containing about 150.000 bacteria per ml were irradiated with doses ranging from 100 to 1.100 Gy. Two samples of surving bacteria were again irradiated by doses up to 2.500 Gy. The bacteria not previously irradiated were killed by doses of 1.100 Gy. It was concluded that the 60-Cobalt gamma radiation minimal lethal dose to Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium is 1.200 Gy. The surviving strains to smaller doses than 1.200 Gy when re-irradiated prompt the forthcoming of more radio-resistant germs. (author) [pt

  8. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis enterocolitis during late stages of gestation induces an adverse pregnancy outcome in the murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariángeles Noto Llana

    Full Text Available Foodborne diseases caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis are a significant health problem. Pregnancy, state of immunological tolerance, is a predisposing condition for the development of infections with intracellular pathogens. Salmonella species can cause pregnancy complications such as chorioamnionitis, transplacental fetal infection, pre term labor, abortions, neonatal and maternal septicemia. However, the specific mechanisms by which Salmonella infections trigger these alterations are not clear. In the present work, using a self-limiting enterocolitis murine model, we show that the ingestion of a low dose of S. Enteritidis at late stages of pregnancy (day 15 of gestation is sufficient to induce massive maternal infection. We found that Salmonella infection leads to 40% of pre term delivery, 33% of abortion and fetal growth restriction. Placental dysfunction during S. Enteritidis enterocolitis was confirmed through cellular infiltration and hypoxia markers (MPO activity and COX-1 and COX-2 expression, respectively. Apoptosis in placental tissue due to Salmonella infection was also evident at day 18 of gestation when investigated by morphometric procedure, DNA fragmentation and Fas/FasL expression. Also, the expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17 and IL-10 was up regulated in response to Salmonella not only in placenta, but also in amniotic fluid and maternal serum. Altogether, our results demonstrate that S. Enteritidis enterocolitis during late stages of gestation causes detrimental effect on pregnancy outcome.

  9. Emergence of Salmonella enteritidis outbreaks in broiler chickens in the Lebanon: epidemiological markers and competitive exclusion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, E K; Jurdi, L H; Talhouk, R; Qatanani, M; Eid, A; Sakr, W; Bouljihad, M; Spasojevic, R

    1999-12-01

    This study investigates the first emergence of Salmonella Enteritidis outbreaks among chickens in the Lebanon and identifies the epidemiological markers of selected recovered Enteritidis strains. In addition, the authors evaluate a competitive exclusion approach to control infection in broiler chickens by Enteritidis organisms which possess the prevalent identified markers. The basic procedure in this investigation involved recording signs and lesions in eleven broiler chicken flocks on eleven farms, and culturing livers, spleens, and caeca of ten randomly selected birds per flock for Salmonella isolation and serotyping. Furthermore, culturing for Salmonella and serotyping was attempted from the livers, spleens, caeca and oviduct swabs of ten hens in four broiler breeder flocks which provided hatching eggs for the broilers under study. The identification of epidemiological markers in recovered S. Enteritidis included the determination of drug-resistance patterns and plasmid profiling. The competitive exclusion was evaluated by spraying the microflora on day-old broilers in the hatchery, followed by a controlled oral challenge at three days of age, with 2.85 x 10(5) colony-forming units of S. Enteritidis organisms per bird. Exclusion was evaluated by culturing for S. Enteritidis in anal swabs, spleens, livers, and caeca of individual challenged birds treated with the microflora and in untreated challenged birds. A total of 112 invasive S. Enteritidis strains were recovered on eleven farms from individual organs of broiler chickens with typical signs and lesions of salmonellosis. The prevalent resistance to drugs in such strains was to furaltadone and gentamycin, a marker identified in 93 strains (83%), recovered from nine out of eleven farms. The same resistance pattern was present in S. Enteritidis strains recovered from breeders on one out of four farms. The prevalent plasmid profile in nine S. Enteritidis organisms selected randomly from a pool of 93 strains (one

  10. Virulence and metabolic characteristics of Salmonella Enteritidis sefD variants in hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is one of a few pathogenic Salmonella enterica serotypes that have SEF14 fimbriae encoded by the sef operon, which consists of 4 co-transcribed genes sefABCD that are regulated by sefR. To explore the function of sefD within the infection pathway resulting in egg contamination...

  11. Comparative haematological changes in experimentally infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... However, disease such as animal trypanosomiasis possess a great risk to their ... The severity of the infection is influenced by a number of factors .... agrees with a similar work in which a significant fall in packed cell volume ... Heat production, body temperature and body posture in West. African dwarf goats ...

  12. Infections in orthopaedic surgery : clinical and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogely, Henri Charles

    2000-01-01

    The diagnostic difficulties, variability in outcome and the heterogeinity of the problem of orthopaedic infections stimulated the author to a study of the literature, and several clinical and experimental studies. The diagnosis prosthesis-related infection can only be reached with an acceptable

  13. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures...... 3–5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed...... results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period....

  14. The influence of the cage system and colonisation of Salmonella Enteritidis on the microbial gut flora of laying hens studied by T-RFLP and 454 pyrosequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Mølbak, Lars; Bjerrum, Lotte Bjerrum

    2011-01-01

    is not known, and different microbiota may demonstrate different resistance towards colonization with Salmonella. To investigate this, ileal and caecal samples from two experimental studies where laying hens were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis and housed in different systems (conventional cage...

  15. Pathogenesis of natural and experimental Pseudorabies virus infections in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Letian; Zhong, Cheng; Wang, Jushi; Lu, Zijie; Liu, Lei; Yang, Wanlian; Lyu, Yanli

    2015-03-18

    Since late 2011, cases of suspected canine pseudorabies have increased in north China with the outbreak of swine pseudorabies in the same area, but the pathogenesis of canine Pseudorabies virus (PRV) infections in China is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the pathogenesis of canine pseudorabies. The pathological changes in 13 dogs that died of natural PRV infections (confirmed by pathogen detection) during 2011-2013 in Beijing were evaluated. An experimental study was also conducted in which healthy adult beagle dogs were administered PRV isolate BJ-YT by subcutaneous injection. The dog tissues were subjected to gross and microscopic examinations and immunohistochemical analysis and the dogs' serum cardiac troponin-I (cTn-I) was measured. Systemic hemorrhage and/or congestion were the most marked pathological changes in both the naturally and experimentally PRV-infected dogs. Macroscopically, the major lesions consisted of petechiae and ecchymoses in both the endocardium and epicardium, thrombi in the mitral valves, hemorrhage in the lungs and thymus, and incomplete contraction of the spleen. Microscopically, the major histopathological findings were systemic hemorrhage and congestion, nonsuppurative ganglioneuritis (in the experimentally infected dogs, unexamined in the naturally PRV-infected dogs), brainstem encephalitis (in the naturally infected dogs), necrosis or exudation in the myocardium, and lymphoid depletion in many lymphoid organs and tissues. Viral antigens were only detected in the brainstems and peripheral ganglia of the infected dogs. Serum cTn-I was significantly higher in the experimentally PRV-infected dogs with myocardial lesions than in the dogs without myocardial lesions. Based on these results, we conclude that virally induced systemic hemorrhage, peripheral nervous system pathology, and/or cardiac injury can individually or collectively cause death in PRV-infected dogs. The respiratory signs of the disease are attributed to

  16. Experimental porcine cysticercosis using infected beetles with Taenia solium eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2018-07-01

    Beetles are intermediate hosts for human and animal parasites, and several beetle species have been shown to carry Taenia eggs. An experimental porcine cysticercosis infection model was developed using beetles (Ammophorus rubripes) infected with Taenia solium eggs and then using these beetles for oral pig challenge. A total of 18 three months-old Landrace pigs were divided in four groups. Pigs from groups 1, 2, and 3 (n = 6 pigs per group) were challenged with one, three, and six beetles infected with T. solium eggs, containing approximately 52, 156 or 312 eggs respectively. Pigs were necropsied 12 weeks after infection to assess the presence of T. solium metacestode. Porcine cysticercosis by T. solium was produced in 17 out of 18 pigs (94.4%) challenged with infected beetles, all infected pigs had viable cysts. Only one pig from group 1 was negative to the presence of cysts. The median number of metacestodes per pig in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 2 (range 0-71), 26 (range 5-33) and 40 cysts (range 4-111), respectively. Experimental porcine cysticercosis infection is consistently obtained using beetles as mechanical vectors for T. solium eggs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Primary infection protects pigs against re-infection with Lawsonia intracellularis in experimental challenge studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Hvass, Henriette Cordes; Boutrup, Torsten Snogdal

    2011-01-01

    In two separate trials previous termpigsnext term were experimentally infected with previous termLawsonia intracellularisnext term at 5–6 weeks of age followed by antibiotic treatment and resolution of the previous termprimary infection and then renext term-inoculated at 12–13 weeks of age. A tre...

  18. Infectivity of Trichinella papuae for experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webster, P.; Malakauskas, A.; Kapel, C. M O

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate infectivity for carnivores as well as other biological characteristics of the newly described Trichinella papuae, eight red foxes were experimentally infected with the parasite. Five weeks after inoculation, T. papuae larvae were recovered from nine different muscle types. The larvae...

  19. Public health investigations of Salmonella Enteritidis in catering raw shell eggs, 2002-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C L; Surman-Lee, S; Greenwood, M; Bolton, F J; Elson, R; Mitchell, R T; Nichols, G N; Sagoo, S K; Threlfall, E J; Ward, L R; Gillespie, I A; O'Brien, S

    2007-06-01

    In response to a dramatic change in the epidemiology of Salmonella Enteritidis in England and Wales thought to be associated with raw shell eggs, the Health Protection Agency initiated public health investigations to establish the incidence of Salmonella contamination and origin of eggs used by catering premises implicated in outbreaks of Salm. Enteritidis. Between October 2002 and November 2004, 16 971 eggs were sampled and Salmonella were recovered from 3.4%. Salmonella was isolated from 5.5% and 6.3% of Spanish and eggs of unknown origin, respectively, used in catering premises linked to outbreaks, a level significantly higher than that (1.1%) found in nonLion Quality UK eggs sampled. The small sample of UK Lion Quality eggs tested (reflecting their lack of use in premises visited) did not contain Salmonella. Several phage types of Salm. Enteritidis other than phage type 4 (PT 4) were identified with nonUK eggs. Eggs from Spain were implicated as a major source of infection. Eggs were contaminated more frequently with Salmonella when shells were dirty and/or cracked, and stored at above 8 degrees C. The use of Spanish eggs by the catering sector has been identified as a consistent significant factor in many of the outbreaks caused by Salm. Enteritidis nonPT4 in England and Wales during 2002-2004. Advice to caterers and hospitals that raw shell eggs should not be used in food that will either not be cooked or only lightly cooked should be reinforced.

  20. Primary peak and chronic malaria infection levels are correlated in experimentally infected great reed warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Muhammad; Westerdahl, Helena; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Ilieva, Mihaela; Hasselquist, Dennis; Bensch, Staffan

    2012-09-01

    Malaria parasites often manage to maintain an infection for several months or years in their vertebrate hosts. In humans, rodents and birds, most of the fitness costs associated with malaria infections are in the short initial primary (high parasitaemia) phase of the infection, whereas the chronic phase (low parasitaemia) is more benign to the host. In wild birds, malaria parasites have mainly been studied during the chronic phase of the infection. This is because the initial primary phase of infection is short in duration and infected birds with severe disease symptoms tend to hide in sheltered places and are thus rarely caught and sampled. We therefore wanted to investigate the relationship between the parasitaemia during the primary and chronic phases of the infection using an experimental infection approach. We found a significant positive correlation between parasitaemia in the primary peak and the subsequent chronic phase of infection when we experimentally infected great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) with Plasmodium ashfordi. The reason for this association remains to be understood, but might arise from individual variation in exoerythrocytic parasite reservoirs in hosts, parasite antigenic diversity and/or host genetics. Our results suggest that the chronic phase parasitaemia can be used to qualitatively infer the parasitaemia of the preceding and more severe primary phase, which is a very important finding for studies of avian malaria in wild populations.

  1. Quantitative studies of the distribution pattern for Salmonella Enteritidis in the internal organs of chicken after oral challenge by a real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, G Z; Tian, W Y; Qian, N; Cheng, A C; Deng, S X

    2010-12-01

    This research was undertaken to identify and understand the regular distribution pattern for Salmonella Enteritidis (S. enteritidis) in the internal organs of chicken after oral challenge over a 3 wk period. We used a real-time, fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) to detect genomic DNA of S. enteritidis in the blood and the internal organs, including heart, liver, spleen, kidney, pancreas, and gallbladder, from chicken after oral challenge at different time points. The results showed that the spleen was positive at 12 h post inoculation (PI), and the blood was at 14 h PI. The organism was detected in the liver and heart at 16 h PI, pancrea was positive at 20 h PI, and the final organ to show a positive results were the kidney and gallbladder at 22 h PI. The copy number of S. enteritidis DNA in each tissue reached a peak at 24 h-36 h PI, with the liver and spleen containing high concentrations of S. enteritidis, whereas the blood, heart, kidney, pancreas, and gallbladder had low concentrations. S. enteritidis populations began to decrease and were not detectable at 3 d PI, but were still present up to 12 d PI in the gallbladder, 2 wk for the liver, and 3 wk for the spleen without causing apparent symptoms. The results showed that the liver and spleen may be the primary sites for S. enteritidis setting itself up as a commensa over a long time after oral challenge. Interestingly, it may be the first time reported that the gallbladder is a site of carriage for S. enteritidis over a 12 d period. This study will help to understand the mechanisms of action of S. enteritidis infection in vivo.

  2. Experimental reproduction of an Enterococcus cecorum infection in Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Arne; Metzner, Martin; Köhler-Repp, Dagmar; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2013-12-01

    Enterococcus cecorum (EC) was thus far only known as a pathogen for broilers and broiler breeders. Recently there was evidence of EC field outbreaks in Pekin duck flocks in Germany. In this study we experimentally reproduced an EC infection in Pekin ducks. At 12 days post hatch, groups of Pekin ducks were infected orally, via the thoracic air sac or intravenously with 1.5 × 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU) of EC per bird or via the air sac with 8.5 × 10(5) or 8.5 × 10(7) CFU per bird. Ducks of the intravenously infected group showed 100% mortality after 2 days post infection. The air sac inoculated high-dose group exhibited a mortality rate of 67%. Birds that were infected with 8.5 × 10(5) and 8.5 × 10(7) CFU showed 6.7% mortality after 7 days post infection. Dead birds displayed pneumonia, airsacculitis, pericarditis and splenitis and EC was re-isolated from these organs. Surviving birds of all groups apart from the orally infected ducks demonstrated clinical signs such as huddling, reduced mobility and diarrhoea. Furthermore, they showed gross pathological lesions including airsacculitis and splenitis and lower bodyweights than the control group at necropsy on days 7, 14 and 21 post infection. The present study clearly confirms that EC is pathogenic for Pekin ducks after experimental infection via the intravenous route or the respiratory tract. EC therefore has to be considered as an emerging avian pathogen not only in broilers but also in Pekin ducks.

  3. Cardiac complication after experimental human malaria infection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druilhe Pierre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 20 year-old healthy female volunteer participated in a clinical Phase I and IIa safety and efficacy trial with candidate malaria vaccine PfLSA-3-rec adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide. Eleven weeks after the third and last immunization she was experimentally infected by bites of Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes. When the thick blood smear became positive, at day 11, she was treated with artemether/lumefantrine according to protocol. On day 16 post-infection i.e. two days after completion of treatment, she woke up with retrosternal chest pain. She was diagnosed as acute coronary syndrome and treated accordingly. She recovered quickly and her follow-up was uneventful. Whether the event was related to the study procedures such as the preceding vaccinations, malaria infection or antimalarial drugs remains elusive. However, the relation in time with the experimental malaria infection and apparent absence of an underlying condition makes the infection the most probable trigger. This is in striking contrast, however, with the millions of malaria cases each year and the fact that such complication has never been reported in the literature. The rare occurrence of cardiac events with any of the preceding study procedures may even support a coincidental finding. Apart from acute coronary syndrome, myocarditis can be considered as a final diagnosis, but the true nature and patho-physiological explanation of the event remain unclear.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum) oil against Salmonella enteritidis in vitro and in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2010-01-01

    Nine essential oils were examined for antimicrobial activity against reference and clinical strains of Salmonella Enteritidis. Based on the size of the inhibition zone and the minimal inhibitory concentration, basil oil had the strongest antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria, and S. Enteritidis SE3 was the most sensitive strain to all the tested oils. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the major constituents of the oil were linalool (64.35%), 1,8-cineole (12.28%), eugenol (3.21%), germacrene D (2.07%), alpha-terpineol (1.64%), and rho-cymene (1.03%). When applied in nham, a fermented pork sausage, experimentally inoculated with S. Enteritidis SE3 and stored at 4 degrees C, basil oil inhibited the bacterium in a dose-dependent fashion. Basil oil at a concentration of 50 ppm reduced the number of bacteria in the food from 5 to 2log cfu/g after storage for 3 d. An unmeasurable level of the bacterium in the food was observed at days 2 and 3 of storage when 100 and 150 ppm of basil oil was used, respectively. Sensory evaluation suggested that the addition of 100 but not of 150 ppm to nham would be acceptable to consumers. The results from this study confirm the potential use of basil oil as an antimicrobial agent to control S. Enteritidis in food.

  5. 75 FR 18849 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production... ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation--Small... requiring shell egg producers to implement measures to prevent Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) from...

  6. Oxidative stress in rats experimentally infected by Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Verônica S P; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Thomé, Gustavo R; Wolkmer, Patrícia; Castro, Jorge L C; Costa, Márcio M; Graça, Dominguita L; Oliveira, Daniele C; Alves, Sydney H; Schetinger, Maria R C; Lopes, Sonia T A; Stefani, Lenita M; Azevedo, Maria I; Baldissera, Matheus D; Andrade, Cinthia M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether oxidative stress occurs in rats experimentally infected by Sporothrix schenckii, and its possible effect on disease pathogenesis. Thirty rats were divided into two groups: the group A (uninfected, n = 18) and the group B (infected by S. schenckii, n=21). Blood samples were collected on days 15, 30 and 40 post-infection (PI). At each sampling time, six rats of the group A, and seven of the group B were bled. TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) levels in serum samples were measured to evaluate lipid peroxidation. In addition, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, known as biomarkers of antioxidants levels, were verified in whole blood. Seric pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were measured (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6), which showed that these inflammatory mediators were at higher levels in the infected rats (P sporotrichosis showed significantly higher (p sporotrichosis is a likely mechanism for redox imbalance, and consequently cause the oxidative stress in experimentally infected rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multidrug-resistance and presence of class 1 integrons in clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis, circulating in Armenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedrakyan, Anahit M.; Arakelova, K. A.; Zakaryan, Magdalina K.

    2014-01-01

    a rapid and large-scale penetration of antibiotic resistance genes into populations of S. Enteritidis, which complicates infection control. More rigorous regulations should be imposed on antibiotic use, together with a vigilant epidemiological surveillance, to prevent the emergence and spread of MDR S...

  8. Emergence and clonal dissemination of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis causing salmonellosis in Mauritius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issack, Mohammad I.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Hyytiae-Trees, Eija

    2014-01-01

    or closely related to blood and exudate isolates, indicating that, besides gastroenteritis, the same strain caused invasive infections. Control of S. Enteritidis by poultry breeders would lower the financial burden associated with morbidity in humans caused by this organism in Mauritius....

  9. [Use of bacteriphages against Salmonella Enteritidis: a prevention tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Cristina; Marín, Clara; Catalá-Gregori, Pablo; Soriano, Jose Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Salmonellosis is a highly prevalent disease still searching for preventive tools to avoid contamination level priority public health. The in vitro effect of bacteriophages against Salmonella enteritidis was evaluated as a prevention tool. Two tests with three concentrations of bacteriophages were conducted against two strains of Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated in fresh faeces of laying hens. Each test had a positive control. Thus, four groups in each test were evaluated. Each experimental group included two replicates, and three plates were incubated per replicate. The concentrations tested were three: commercial solution (5 × 10(7) pfu/mL), and two dilutions (1/10 and 1/30). One of the strains tested was CECT 4300, a certified strain of Colección Española de Cultivo Tipo and the other a field isolated strain in a sacrificed hen farm. Both strains were inoculated at 1.3 × 10(5) cfu/g of faeces in each of the four groups. Isolation and identification of bacteria by ISO6579 was done at various times after inoculation: 1 minute, 24 hours and 7 days. In the first test, with certified strain, Salmonella was isolated in all groups at time 1 minute. After 24 hours, Salmonella was isolated in all groups except in one of the replicas treated with 1/10 dilution of bacteriophages, one of the other replica plate treated with 1/10 dilution, and two plates of the two replicas treated with the commercial solution. After 7 days, the bacteria were not isolated from any of the experimental groups. In the second test, with the field strain, Salmonella was isolated in all groups at time 1 minute. After 24 hours, Salmonella was isolated in all groups except in one of the replicas treated with 1/10 dilution of bacteriophages and the two replicas treated with the commercial solution. Salmonella was not isolated in any of the experimental groups at 7 days. The use of bacteriophages reduced Salmonella enteritidis isolates in faeces at 24 hours after the application, so it could be

  10. Monitoring Activity for Recognition of Illness in Experimentally Infected Weaned Piglets Using Received Signal Strength Indication ZigBee-based Wireless Acceleration Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Tabasum Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, we proposed and implemented a disease forecasting system using a received signal strength indication ZigBee-based wireless network with a 3-axis acceleration sensor to detect illness at an early stage by monitoring movement of experimentally infected weaned piglets. Twenty seven piglets were divided into control, Salmonella enteritidis (SE infection, and Escherichia coli (EC infection group, and their movements were monitored for five days using wireless sensor nodes on their backs. Data generated showed the 3-axis movement of piglets (X-axis: left and right direction, Y-axis: anteroposterior direction, and Z-axis: up and down direction at five different time periods. Piglets in both infected groups had lower weight gain and feed intake, as well as higher feed conversion ratios than the control group (p<0.05. Infection with SE and EC resulted in reduced body temperature of the piglets at day 2, 4, and 5 (p<0.05. The early morning X-axis movement did not differ between groups; however, the Y-axis movement was higher in the EC group (day 1 and 2, and the Z-axis movement was higher in the EC (day 1 and SE group (day 4 during different experimental periods (p<0.05. The morning X and Y-axis movement did not differ between treatment groups. However, the Z-axis movement was higher in both infected groups at day 1 and lower at day 4 compared to the control (p<0.05. The midday X-axis movement was significantly lower in both infected groups (day 4 and 5 compared to the control (p<0.05, whereas the Y-axis movement did not differ. The Z-axis movement was highest in the SE group at day 1 and 2 and lower at day 4 and 5 (p<0.05. Evening X-axis movement was highest in the control group throughout the experimental period. During day 1 and 2, the Z-axis movement was higher in both of the infected groups; whereas it was lower in the SE group during day 3 and 4 (p<0.05. During day 1 and 2, the night X-axis movement was lower and the Z

  11. Increasing quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K.; Gerner-Smidt, P.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2002-01-01

    Until recently, Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis has remained sensitive to most antibiotics. However, national surveillance data from Denmark show that quinolone resistance in S. Enteritidis has increased from 0.8% in 1995 to 8.5% in 2000. These data support concerns that the current use...... of quinolone in food animals leads to increasing resistance in S. Enteritidis and that action should be taken to limit such use....

  12. A comparison of transmission characteristics of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis between pair-housed and group-housed laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ekelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human cases of bacterial gastro-enteritis are often caused by the consumption of eggs contaminated with Salmonella species, mainly Salmonella enterica serovar Enteriditis (Salmonella Enteritidis. To reduce human exposure, in several countries worldwide surveillance programmes are implemented to detect colonized layer flocks. The sampling schemes are based on the within-flock prevalence, and, as this changes over time, knowledge of the within-flock dynamics of Salmonella Enteritidis is required. Transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis has been quantified in pairs of layers, but the question is whether the dynamics in pairs is comparable to transmission in large groups, which are more representative for commercial layer flocks. The aim of this study was to compare results of transmission experiments between pairs and groups of laying hens. Experimental groups of either 2 or 200 hens were housed at similar densities, and 1 or 4 hens were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, respectively. Excretion was monitored by regularly testing of fecal samples for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Using mathematical modeling, the group experiments were simulated with transmission parameter estimates from the pairwise experiments. Transmission of the bacteria did not differ significantly between pairs or groups. This finding suggests that the transmission parameter estimates from small-scale experiments might be extrapolated to the field situation.

  13. Differential Levels of Cecal Colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis in Chickens Triggers Distinct Immune Kinome Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L. Swaggerty

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause disease in numerous species. Salmonella-related infections originating from poultry and/or poultry products are a major cause of human foodborne illness with S. Enteritidis the leading cause worldwide. Despite the importance of Salmonella to human health and chickens being a reservoir, little is known of the response to infection within the chicken gastrointestinal tract. Using chicken-specific kinome immune peptide arrays we compared a detailed kinomic analysis of the chicken jejunal immune response in a single line of birds with high and low Salmonella loads. Four-day-old chicks were challenged with S. Enteritidis (105 cfu and cecal content and a section of jejunum collected at three times: early [4–7 days post-infection (dpi], middle (10–17 dpi, and late (24–37 dpi. Salmonella colonization was enumerated and birds with the highest (n = 4 and lowest (n = 4 loads at each time were selected for kinomic analyses. Key biological processes associated with lower loads of Salmonella clustered around immune responses, including cell surface receptor signaling pathway, positive regulation of cellular processes, defense response, innate immune response, regulation of immune response, immune system process, and regulation of signaling. Further evaluation showed specific pathways including chemokine, Jak–Stat, mitogen activated protein kinase, and T cell receptor signaling pathways were also associated with increased resistance. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that it is possible to identify key mechanisms and pathways that are associated with increased resistance against S. Enteritidis cecal colonization in chickens. Therefore, providing a foundation for future studies to identify specific proteins within these pathways that are associated with resistance, which could provide breeders additional biomarkers to identify birds naturally

  14. Expression of cytokines in chicken peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PMBCs exposed to probiotic strains and Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Husáková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mRNA expression of interleukin (IL-1β, LITAF, iNOS, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP1-ß, and K60 were examined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs. The PMBCs were isolated from the chicken blood and in vitro exposed to the probiotic strains E. faecium AL41, E. faecium H31, L. fermentum AD1, and infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE147. The PMBCs were evaluated for mRNA expression levels at 24 h and 48 h post infection (p.i. using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The level of expression of IL-1ß and MIP1-ß was upregulated (P S. Enteritidis + E. faecium AL41 group 48 h p.i. compared to 24 h p.i. Similarly, expression of LITAF was upregulated (P S. Enteritidis (SE group 48 h p.i. In PMBCs treated with E. faecium H31 and S. Enteritidis expression of IL-1ß (P P P E. faecium AL41 demonstrated the highest immunostimulatory effect on expression of selected cytokines by chicken PMBCs after Salmonella infection. It is supposed that the differences in cytokine induction within SE groups are related to lymphocytes isolated from different animals.

  15. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiosensitivity study of salmonella enteritidis in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gianotti, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    One of the applications of ionizing radiations in food is the inactivation of vegetative phatogenic bacteria (radicidation) such as Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Vibro and Listeria. These bacteria are associated with the diseases transmitted by food (ETA). Fresh and frozen farmyard fowls can be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms, between them Salmonella. In Argentine, between years 1987-1990, Salmonella enteritidis was the main cause of salmonellosis. In food irradiation, with the aim of improving and assuring its hygienic quality, it is important to know the radiosensitivity of microorganisms to be inactivated. Inactivation of a determined microorganism shall depend, between others factors, of the species, strain, number and of the irradiation conditions (temperature, media, etc.). D 10 value is a very useful data in order to compare radiosensitivities between the microorganisms and the influence of different factors in their sensitivities. In this paper, it was determined the sensitivity to the gamma radiation of Salmonella enteritidis in fresh and frozen chickens

  17. Humoral immune response and spreading of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in experimentally infected ponies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagnerová, Pavla; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Maršálek, M.; Langerová, I.; Kváč, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 197, 1-2 (2013), s. 1-6 ISSN 0304-4017 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ponies * Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype II * PCR * Antibodies * Experimental infection Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.545, year: 2013

  18. Sobrevivência de Salmonella enteritidis em Ovos Contaminados Artificialmente, Após Desinfecção e Armazenados em Diferentes Temperaturas Survival of Salmonella enteritidis in Eggs Artificially Contaminated, After Disinfection and Stored at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Barros

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a contaminação da casca e do conteúdo interno de ovos inoculados com Salmonella enterica sorovar enteritidis fagotipo 4, lavados com água de torneira (AT ou solução de amônia quaternária (AQ e armazenados a 8ºC e 25ºC. Duzentos e cinqüenta e dois ovos foram divididos em três grupos. Os tratamentos de cada grupo consistiram de imersão em AT, AQ a 25ºC e a 43ºC. Após a secagem natural, todos os grupos foram contaminados com solução de S. enteritidis. Seguindo-se a contaminação, cada grupo tratado foi estocado a 8ºC ou 25ºC, e a presença de S. enteritidis na casca e no conteúdo interno foi avaliada após zero, 24, 96 e 168 horas. A sanitização com AQ mostrou-se eficiente na redução de S. enteritidis nas cascas dos ovos. O armazenamento dos ovos a 8ºC demonstrou ser preponderante na redução e na ausência de S. enteritidis na casca. Nos ovos lavados com AT, o armazenamento a 25ºC permitiu a permanência da bactéria nas cascas até 168 horas. Não se detectou S. enteritidis no conteúdo interno dos ovos em nenhum dos grupos.The contamination of eggshell and internal content of eggs that were inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis phagetype 4, washed with tap water (TW or quaternary ammonium compound (QA and stored at 8ºC and 25ºC was evaluated. Two hundred and fifty two eggs were distributed in three groups. Each treatment of the different groups was constituted by the immersion in TW, QA at 25ºC and at 43ºC. After natural dry, all groups were infected by a S. enteritidis solution. Following the challenge, each group was stored at 8ºC or at 25ºC, and the presence of S. enteritidis in the eggshell and internal content was evaluated after zero, 24, 96 and 168 hours. The use of QA demonstrated efficiency in S. enteritidis reduction of eggshell. The eggs stored at 8ºC revealed preponderancy in the reduction and the absence of S. enteritidis at the eggshell. In the TW washed eggs, the

  19. Experimental Infections of Oryzomys couesi with Sympatric Arboviruses from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Forrester, Naomi L.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Coues rice rat (Oryzomys couesi), a species abundant throughout Central America, was evaluated experimentally for the ability to serve as an amplifying host for three arboviruses: Patois (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus), Nepuyo (Orthobunyavirus), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype ID (Togaviridae, Alphavirus). These three viruses have similar ecologies and are known to co-circulate in nature. Animals from all three cohorts survived infection and developed viremia with no apparent signs of illness and long-lasting antibodies. Thus, O. couesi may play a role in the general maintenance of these viruses in nature. PMID:20134016

  20. National surveillance of Salmonella Enteritidis in commercial eggs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaki, H; Shimura, K; Yamazaki, Y; Eguchi, M; Nakamura, M

    2013-05-01

    A total of 105 033 eggs were collected across Japan from June 2010 to January 2011 and tested for Salmonella Enteritidis to provide data for the risk profiling of S. Enteritidis in eggs by the Food Safety Commission of Japan. S. Enteritidis isolates were recovered from three samples (20 eggs/sample) and these samples were different in regard to sampling period, grading and packaging centre and farm. The prevalence of S. Enteritidis in commercial eggs in Japan is estimated at ~0.003% which was a tenfold decrease in prevalence compared to similar surveillance in the mid 1990s. The decrease in the contamination in commercial eggs is considered a contributory factor in the decrease of foodborne diseases associated with S. Enteritidis in this period.

  1. Improving Diagnosis and Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infections : Experimental Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van den Berg (Sanne)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections like furuncles and impetigo, to severe, lifethreatening infections including endocarditis, osteomyelitis and pneumonia. Invasive infections are

  2. Experimental infection of Rickettsia parkeri in the Rhipicephalus microplus tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Matheus Dias; de Azevedo Baêta, Bruna; Cepeda, Patricia Barizon; Teixeira, Rafaella Câmara; Ribeiro, Carla Carolina Dias Uzedo; de Almeida Valim, Jaqueline Rodrigues; Pinter, Adriano; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate, by means of artificial feeding, the interaction between a pathogenic rickettsia and the hard tick R. microplus. We used partially engorged females fed on calves free of Rickettsia spp. Group 1 (G1), containing 20 ticks, was fed bovine blood only. Group 2 (G2), containing 20 ticks, was fed blood containing uninfected VERO cells, and group 3 (G3), containing 40 ticks, was fed blood containing VERO cells infected with Rickettsia parkeri. Biological parameters of the non-parasitic phase and a possible bacterial transmission to the tick eggs and to guinea pigs were evaluated. At the end of oviposition, all G3 females were PCR-positive for genes specific for the genus Rickettsia. Although no guinea pigs were infected, the experimental infection of R. microplus by R. parkeri caused a deleterious effect on the oviposition and provided the first report of transovarian transmission of rickettsia in this tick. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate imaging of experimental infective endocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riba, A.L.; Downs, J.; Thakur, M.L.; Gottschalk, A.; Andriole, V.T.; Zaret, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    Technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PYP) cardiac scintigraphy was performed in 15 rabbits with experimental Streptococcus sanguis aortic-valve infective endocarditis. The animals were imaged five to seven days after the administration of bacteria, and in each case abnormal accumulation of the tracer was visualized in the region of the aortic valve. Three types of cardiac scintigraphic patterns were demonstrated: focal, multifocal, and extensive, each correlating well with the anatomical extent of the lesion as defined by gross pathology. Tissue distribution studies demonstrated a 30 +- 5.3 (mean +- SEM) fold excess of radionuclide uptake in the infective endocarditis lesion compared with that of normal myocardium. Imaging of excised hearts from four animals showed an excellent correlation with in vivo imaging as well as gross pathology. Five animals with nonbacterial thrombotic aortic valve endocarditis demonstrated similar scintigraphic and tissue distribution results. In contrast, four normal animals failed to demonstrate abnormal /sup 99m/Tc-PYP cardiac scintigrams or tissue uptake. This study demonstrates that /sup 99m/Tc-PYP cardiac scintigraphy is a sensitive technique to detect experimental aortic valve endocarditis

  4. An experimental model of mycobacterial infection under corneal flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B.D. Adan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop a new experimental animal model of infection with Mycobacterium chelonae in keratomileusis, we conducted a double-blind prospective study on 24 adult male New Zealand rabbits. One eye of each rabbit was submitted to automatic lamellar keratotomy with the automatic corneal shaper under general anesthesia. Eyes were immunosuppressed by a single local injection of methyl prednisolone. Twelve animals were inoculated into the keratomileusis interface with 1 µl of 10(6 heat-inactivated bacteria (heat-inactivated inoculum controls and 12 with 1 µl of 10(6 live bacteria. Trimethoprim drops (0.1%, w/v were used as prophylaxis for the surgical procedure every 4 h (50 µl, qid. Animals were examined by 2 observers under a slit lamp on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 11th, 16th, and 23rd postoperative days. Slit lamp photographs were taken to document clinical signs. Animals were sacrificed when corneal disease was detected and corneal samples were taken for microbiological analysis. Eleven of 12 experimental rabbits developed corneal disease, and M. chelonae could be isolated from nine rabbits. Eleven of the 12 controls receiving a heat-inactivated inoculum did not develop corneal disease. M. chelonae was not isolated from any of the control rabbits receiving a heat-inactivated inoculum, or from the healthy cornea of control rabbits. Corneal infection by M. chelonae was successfully induced in rabbits submitted to keratomileusis. To our knowledge, this is the first animal model of M. chelonae infection following corneal flaps for refractive surgery to be described in the literature and can be used for the analysis of therapeutic responses.

  5. The SPR detection of Salmonella enteritidis in food using aptamers as recongnition elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, W. T.; Du, X. W.; Pan, M. F.; Wang, J. P.

    2017-09-01

    In this experiment, a fast, accurate, non-destructive, unmarked and simple-operation detection method for Salmonella enteritidis in food was established by the BI-3000 plasma resonance biosensor (SPR). This article establishes a method of using nucleic acid aptamer as immune recognition element in SPR which can be employed to detect Salmonella enteritidis in food for the first time. The experimental conditions were screened and the experimental scheme was validated and applied. The best flow rate was 5μL/min, the best concentration of the aptamers was 180mM, and the best regenerating solution was the 20mM NaOH. This method had almost no cross-reactivity. Besides, we established a standard curve of Salmonella enteritidis and SPR signal, with the detection limit of 2 cfu/mL. Finally, we tested the samples of chicken, pork, shrimp and fish purchased from supermarkets. The method has the advantages of short time, low detection limit and easy operation, which can be used for a large number of food samples.

  6. Genetic and phenotypic evidence of the Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis human-animal interface in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio eRetamal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is a worldwide zoonotic agent that has been recognized as a very important food-borne bacterial pathogen, mainly associated with consumption of poultry products. The aim of this work was to determine genotypic and phenotypic evidence of S. Enteritidis transmission among seabirds, poultry and humans in Chile. Genotyping was performed using PCR-based virulotyping, pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST. Pathogenicity-associated phenotypes were determined with survival to free radicals, acidic pH, starvation, antimicrobial resistance, and survival within human dendritic cells. As result of PCR and PFGE assays, some isolates from the three hosts showed identical genotypic patterns, and through MLST it was determined that all of them belong to sequence type 11. Results of phenotypic assays showed diversity of survival capabilities among isolates. When results were analyzed according to bacterial host, statistical differences were identified in starvation and dendritic cells survival assays. In addition, isolates from seabirds showed the highest rates of resistance to gentamycin, tetracycline and ampicillin. Overall, the very close genetic and phenotypic traits shown by isolates from humans, poultry and seabirds suggest the inter-species transmission of S. Enteritidis bacteria between hosts, likely through anthropogenic environmental contamination that determines infection of seabirds with bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for other susceptible organism, including humans.

  7. Identification of a novel gene in ROD9 island of Salmonella Enteritidis involved in the alteration of virulence-associated genes expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Susmita; Ray, Shilpa; Ryan, Daniel; Sahu, Bikash; Suar, Mrutyunjay

    2018-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. I serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis), one of the causative agents for non-typhoidal gastrointestinal diseases in humans is an intracellular bacterium and mechanism for its invasion into host cells is critical to cause infection. The virulence of the pathogen is explained by the expression of genes located on its pathogenicity islands, mostly encoded under SPI-1 and SPI-2. However, S. Typhimurium SL1344, despite sharing ∼98% of its genome with S. Enteritidis P125109, lacks few regions of differences (ROD) that are hypothesized to impart virulence potential to S. Enteritidis. In this study, we created different mutants in the ROD9 island of S. Enteritidis, also referred as SPI-19 and identified a novel locus, SEN1005, encoding a hypothetical protein that is involved in its pathogenesis. ΔSEN1005 displayed significantly reduced entry into cultured epithelial cells as well as uptake by macrophages and failed to cause acute colitis in C57BL/6 mice at day 3 post-infection (p.i.). Additionally, the global transcriptome analysis revealed a highly repressed SPI-1 and other down-regulated genes responsible for flagellar assembly, chemotaxis and motility in the mutant which correlated with decreased invasion and abated inflammation as compared to the wild-type. Therefore, our findings revealed that ΔSEN1005 was attenuated in vitro as well as in vivo and we propose this hypothetical protein to play a role in altering the expression of genes involved in Salmonella virulence.

  8. Plasmid fingerprinting and virulence gene detection among indigenous strains of salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, S.U.; Schwarz, S.

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is an important frequently reported zoonotic pathogen and a common cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. The highly conserved Serospecific plasmids (SSPs) and Salmonella plasmid virulence (Spv) genes have been shown to mediate extra-intestinal colonization and systemic infection. The objective of current study was to document the presence of SSPs and SpvB/SpvC genes prevailing in the indigenous population of serovar Enteritidis. A total of 48 epidemiologically unrelated strains of Salmonella enteritidis were included in the study. Preparation of plasmids DNA suitable for endonuclease digestion and separation of respective fragments by agarose gel electrophoresis followed previously described protocols. The plasmids of Escherichia coli V517, 1-kbp ladder, and lambda DNA HindIII fragments served as DNA size standards. Transfer of DNA fragments from agarose gels to nitrocellulose membranes was achieved by capillary blot procedure. An ECL labeled 3.6 kbp HindIII fragment of plasmid PRQ 51 was used as probe for SpvB/SpvC gene detection. Plasmid DNA fingerprinting revealed the presence of two different profiles of approximately 55 kbp and 90 kbp and were identified as virulence plasmids by DNA hybridization. The SpvB/SpvC genes were located on HindIII fragments of 3.6 kbp in each of the two types of virulence plasmids. The study confirms the presence of SSPs and SpvB/SpvC genes in indigenous strains of S. enteritidis isolated from Northern Punjab area of Pakistan and substantiate the previous data on such findings from other parts of the world. (author)

  9. Protracted outbreak of S. Enteritidis PT 21c in a large Hamburg nursing home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domke Paul-Gerhard

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During August 2006, a protracted outbreak of Salmonella (S. Enteritidis infections in a large Hamburg nursing home was investigated. Methods A site visit of the home was conducted and food suppliers' premises tested for Salmonella. Among nursing home residents a cohort study was carried out focusing on foods consumed in the three days before the first part of the outbreak. Instead of relying on residents' memory, data from the home's patient food ordering system was used as exposure data. S. Enteritidis isolates from patients and suspected food vehicles were phage typed and compared. Results Within a population of 822 nursing home residents, 94 case patients among residents (1 fatality and 17 among staff members were counted 6 through 29 August. The outbreak peaked 7 through 9 August, two days after a spell of very warm summer weather. S. Enteritidis was consistently recovered from patients' stools throughout the outbreak. Among the food items served during 5 through 7 August, the cohort study pointed to afternoon cake on all three days as potential risk factors for disease. Investigation of the bakery supplying the cake yielded S. Enteritidis from cakes sampled 31 August. Comparison of the isolates by phage typing demonstrated both isolates from patients and the cake to be the exceedingly rare phage type 21c. Conclusion Cake (various types served on various days contaminated with S. Enteritidis were the likely vehicle of the outbreak in the nursing home. While the cakes were probably contaminated with low pathogen dose throughout the outbreak period, high ambient summer temperatures and failure to keep the cake refrigerated led to high pathogen dose in cake on some days and in some of the housing units. This would explain the initial peak of cases, but also the drawn out nature of the outbreak with cases until the end of August. Suggestions are made to nursing homes, aiding in outbreak prevention. Early outbreak detection is

  10. Tupaia belangeri as an experimental animal model for viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Kohara, Michinori

    2014-01-01

    Tupaias, or tree shrews, are small mammals that are similar in appearance to squirrels. The morphological and behavioral characteristics of the group have been extensively characterized, and despite previously being classified as primates, recent studies have placed the group in its own family, the Tupaiidae. Genomic analysis has revealed that the genus Tupaia is closer to humans than it is to rodents. In addition, tupaias are susceptible to hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. The only other experimental animal that has been demonstrated to be sensitive to both of these viruses is the chimpanzee, but restrictions on animal testing have meant that experiments using chimpanzees have become almost impossible. Consequently, the development of the tupaia for use as an animal infection model could become a powerful tool for hepatitis virus research and in preclinical studies on drug development.

  11. Immunohistochemical detection of Tritrichomonas foetus in experimentally infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteavaro Cristina Esther

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to intensify knowledge of the pathogenesis of bovine genital trichomoniasis (BGT led to the use of alternative animal models such as the mouse. Nevertheless, it is necessary to elucidate the dynamics of the infection in this animal species, evaluating different stages of the colonization and evolution of the pathological alterations. The immunohistochemistry (IHC offers advantages over the routine histopathological staining techniques for the detection of the protozoan in tissues, cellular detritus and inside the macrophages. The goal of the present study was to demonstrate the presence of Tritrichomonas foetus in the reproductive tract of infected mice using an IHC technique. Female BALB/c mice were infected with a suspension of T. foetus by intravaginal route, in the estrum phase, detected by exfoliative vaginal cytology. After 10 weeks, the animals were sacrificed; uterus and vagina were fixed and histologically processed. Some slides were stained with HE. The rest of the slides were processed for IHC. An immunoadsorbed polyclonal serum against T. foetus was used. The avidine-biotine technique (HistoMouse, Zymed[tm] was employed. The histopathological studies showed a dilation of the uterine glands, presence of macrophages in the lumen of the organ and inner part of the endometrial glands. No T. foetus was identified using this method. The IHQ allowed additionally the identification of the protozoan in the endometrium, endometrial glands, uterine lumen and inside neutrophils and macrophages. The cytological studies stained with IHC showed either isolated T. foetus adhered to epithelial cells or inside macrophages. This technique proves to be a useful tool for the study of the pathogenesis of bovine genital trichomoniasis (BGT in an experimental model.

  12. Modeling the effect of temperature on survival rate of Salmonella Enteritidis in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczawiński, J; Szczawińska, M E; Łobacz, A; Jackowska-Tracz, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the inactivation rates of Salmonella Enteritidis in commercially produced yogurt and to generate primary and secondary mathematical models to predict the behaviour of these bacteria during storage at different temperatures. The samples were inoculated with the mixture of three S. Enteritidis strains and stored at 5 degrees C, 10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C for 24 h. The number of salmonellae was determined every two hours. It was found that the number of bacteria decreased linearly with storage time in all samples. Storage temperature and pH of yogurt significantly influenced survival rate of S. Enteritidis (p bacteria was the most dynamic. The natural logarithm of mean inactivation rates of Salmonella calculated from primary model was fitted to two secondary models: linear and polynomial. Equations obtained from both secondary models can be applied as a tool for prediction of inactivation rate of Salmonella in yogurt stored under temperature range from 5 to 25 degrees C; however, polynomial model gave the better fit to the experimental data.

  13. Red Seaweeds Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii and Chondrus crispus down Regulate Virulence Factors of Salmonella Enteritidis and Induce Immune Responses in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Borza, Tudor; Rathgeber, Bruce; Stratton, Glenn S; Thomas, Nikhil A; Critchley, Alan; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Red seaweeds are a rich source of unique bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites that are known to improve human and animal health. S. Enteritidis is a broad range host pathogen, which contaminates chicken and poultry products that end into the human food chain. Worldwide, Salmonella outbreaks have become an important economic and public health concern. Moreover, the development of resistance in Salmonella serovars toward multiple drugs highlights the need for alternative control strategies. This study evaluated the antimicrobial property of red seaweeds extracts against Salmonella Enteritidis using the Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. Six red seaweed species were tested for their antimicrobial activity against S. Enteritidis and two, Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG) and Chondrus crispus (CC), were found to exhibit such properties. Spread plate assay revealed that SG and CC (1%, w/v) significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis. Seaweed water extracts (SWE) of SG and CC, at concentrations from 0.4 to 2 mg/ml, significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis (log CFU 4.5-5.3 and log 5.7-6.0, respectively). However, methanolic extracts of CC and SG did not affect the growth of S. Enteritidis. Addition of SWE (0.2 mg/ml, CC and SG) significantly decreased biofilm formation and reduced the motility of S. Enteritidis. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that SWE (CC and SG) suppressed the expression of quorum sensing gene sdiA and of Salmonella Pathogenesis Island-1 (SPI-1) associated genes sipA and invF, indicating that SWE might reduce the invasion of S. Enteritidis in the host by attenuating virulence factors. Furthermore, CC and SG water extracts significantly improved the survival of infected C. elegans by impairing the ability of S. Enteritidis to colonize the digestive tract of the nematode and by enhancing the expression of C. elegans immune responsive genes. As the innate immune response pathways of C. elegans and mammals show a high

  14. Red seaweeds Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii and Chondrus crispus down regulate virulence factors of Salmonella Enteritidis and induce immune responses in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima eKulshreshtha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Red seaweeds are a rich source of unique bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites that are known to improve human and animal health. S. Enteritidis is a broad range host pathogen, which contaminates chicken and poultry products that end into the human food chain. Worldwide, Salmonella outbreaks have become an important economic and public health concern. Moreover, the development of resistance in Salmonella serovars towards multiple drugs highlights the need for alternative control strategies. This study evaluated the antimicrobial property of red seaweeds extracts against Salmonella Enteritidis using the Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. Six red seaweed species were tested for their antimicrobial activity against S. Enteritidis. Spread plate assay revealed that Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG and Chondrus crispus (CC (1%, w/v significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis. Seaweed water extracts (SWE of SG and CC, at concentrations from 0.4 mg/ml to 2 mg/ml, significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis (log CFU 4.5-5.3 and log 5.7-6.0, respectively. However, methanolic extracts of CC and SG did not affect the growth of S. Enteritidis. Addition of SWE (0.2 mg/ml, CC and SG significantly decreased biofilm formation and reduced the motility of S. Enteritidis. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that SWE (CC and SG suppressed the expression of quorum sensing gene sdiA and of Salmonella Pathogenesis Island-1 (SPI-1 associated genes sipA and invF, indicating that SWE might reduce the invasion of S. Enteritidis in the host by attenuating virulence factors. Furthermore, CC and SG water extracts significantly improved the survival of infected C. elegans by impairing the ability of S. Enteritidis to colonize the digestive tract of the nematode and by enhancing the expression of C. elegans immune responsive genes. As the innate immune response pathways of C. elegans and mammals show a high degree of conservation, these results

  15. Experimental feline enteric coronavirus infection reveals an aberrant infection pattern and shedding of mutants with impaired infectivity in enterocyte cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarets, Lowiese M. B.; Vermeulen, Ben L.; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Conceição-Neto, Nádia; Zeller, Mark; Roukaerts, Inge D. M.; Acar, Delphine D.; Olyslaegers, Dominique A. J.; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Nauwynck, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) results from mutations in the viral genome during a common feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) infection. Since many virological and immunological data on FECV infections are lacking, the present study investigated these missing links during experimental infection of three SPF cats with FECV strain UCD. Two cats showed mild clinical signs, faecal shedding of infectious virus from 4 dpi, a cell-associated viraemia at inconsistent time points from 5 dpi, a highly neutralising antibody response from 9 dpi, and no major abnormalities in leukocyte numbers. Faecal shedding lasted for 28–56 days, but virus shed during this stage was less infectious in enterocyte cultures and affected by mutations. Remarkably, in the other cat neither clinical signs nor acute shedding were seen, but virus was detected in blood cells from 3 dpi, and shedding of non-enterotropic, mutated viruses suddenly occurred from 14 dpi onwards. Neutralising antibodies arose from 21 dpi. Leukocyte numbers were not different compared to the other cats, except for the CD8+ regulatory T cells. These data indicate that FECV can infect immune cells even in the absence of intestinal replication and raise the hypothesis that the gradual adaptation to these cells can allow non-enterotropic mutants to arise. PMID:26822958

  16. Lactobacillus salivarius CTC2197 Prevents Salmonella enteritidis Colonization in Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual, Mònica; Hugas, Marta; Badiola, Jose Ignacio; Monfort, Josep Maria; Garriga, Margarita

    1999-01-01

    A rifampin-resistant Lactobacillus salivarius strain, CTC2197, was assessed as a probiotic in poultry, by studying its ability to prevent Salmonella enteritidis C-114 colonization in chickens. When the probiotic strain was dosed by oral gavage together with S. enteritidis C-114 directly into the proventriculus in 1-day-old Leghorn chickens, the pathogen was completely removed from the birds after 21 days. The same results were obtained when the probiotic strain was also administered through t...

  17. Sepsis for Salmonella enteritidis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canas, Carlos Alberto; Ospina, Gustavo Adolfo; Ochoa, Maria Elena; Velez, Juan Diego

    2002-01-01

    We report a 28-year-old female with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), with multisystem involvement (central nervous system, kidney and hematological system), severe malnutrition, with therapy based in glucocorticoid. She developed sepsis by Salmonella enteritidis, organism isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage, blood and stools. She developed a pulmonary abscess and respiratory failure. She received ciprofloxacin with improving. Several weeks after, she died due to sepsis. We discuss about the relation of SLE and salmonella infections, the risk factors, and the association with morbidity and mortality

  18. Aspects of resistance to experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Viviane Liotti

    2010-01-01

    Chagas disease, a zoonosis caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, has a wide distribution in Latin America and extends from the southern part of the United States to Argentina. A number of 10 million of infected people is estimated and another 25 million exposed to the risk. Although discovered over a century, Chagas disease is still a serious infection that causes great socioeconomic impact, with no effective treatment at the chronic phase and in which, a lack of scientific knowledge can be observed. The main goal of this work was that obtaining and using consomic strain of mice, the resistance could be investigated. Consomic strains were produced by programmed mating, in which the animals were monitored with DNA polymorphic markers, and one of his chromosomes was replaced by his homologue from another strain. As parental, were used, the inbred strains C57BL/6/J Unib with resistant phenotype (donor) and as receiver, the A/JUnib strain, that has a susceptible phenotype. These models were used to produce five consomic strains: for the chromosomes 7 (CSs7), 11 (CSs11), 14 (CSs14), 17 (CSs17) and 19 (CSs19), described by Passos et al. (2003) as important in controlling infection caused by the Y strain of T. cruzi. In experimental testing, the consomics were inoculated intraperitoneally at doses of 10 1 , 10 2 , 10 3 and 10 4 using as control, animals from both parental lines. In all consomics, resistance was higher than that observed in the susceptible parental. In a second protocol, the consomics were mated with scheduled associations and the progenies were challenged with inocula employing increasing doses of trypomastigotes. The resistance observed in this group was also higher than that observed in the parental with susceptible phenotype. The observed results demonstrate that the use of the consomic strains that were produced order to assess the contribution of each chromosome in the resistance, as well as the effects of association between chromosomes are an

  19. Infectivity and temperature tolerance of non-encapsulating Trichinella zimbabwensis in experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurníková, Z.; Dubinský, P.; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2004-01-01

    The non-encapsulating Trichinella zimbabwensis was evaluated for infectivity in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the larval distribution and cold tolerance in fox muscle tissue. Six red foxes were experimentally infected with T. zimbabwensis larvae. Five weeks after inoculation, muscle larvae were...... recovered from 9 different muscle types using artificial digestion method. The establishment of infection in all infected red foxes demonstrated the ability of T. zimbabwensis to complete its life cycle in a carnivore mammal host. The larvae recovered from fox muscle tissue were infective to mice, they have...

  20. National outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 14b in England, September to December 2009: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janmohamed, K; Zenner, D; Little, C; Lane, C; Wain, J; Charlett, A; Adak, B; Morgan, D

    2011-04-14

    We conducted an unmatched retrospective case–control study to investigate an upsurge of non-travel-related sporadic cases of infection with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 14b with antimicrobial resistance to nalidixic acid and partial resistance to ciprofloxacin (S. Enteritidis PT 14b NxCp(L)) that was reported in England from 1 September to 31 December 2009. We analysed data from 63 cases and 108 controls to determine whether cases had the same sources of infection as those found through investigation of 16 concurrent local foodborne outbreaks in England and Wales. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for age and sex identified food consumption at restaurants serving Chinese or Thai cuisine (odds ratio (OR): 4.4; 95% CI: 1.3–14.8; p=0.02), egg consumed away from home (OR: 5.1; 95% CI: 1.3–21.2; p=0.02) and eating vegetarian foods away from home (OR: 14.6; 95% CI: 2.1–99; p=0.006) as significant risk factors for infection with S. Enteritidis PT 14b NxCp(L). These findings concurred with those from the investigation of the16 outbreaks, which identified the same Salmonella strain in eggs from a specified source outside the United Kingdom. The findings led to a prohibition of imports from this source, in order to control the outbreak.

  1. Effect of Experimental Coccidiosis Infections on Body Weight Gain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infections with E. tenella in broiler breeder males showed that body weight gains of the uninfected males were significantly greater (p< 0.05) at 5, 7 and 14 days post inoculation (dpi) than those of the infected groups. Sperm productions at 0, 5 and 7 dpi (0=day of inoculation with infected oocysts) for the uninfected controls ...

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the opossum Didelphis marsupialis: absence of neonatal transmission and protection by maternal antibodies in experimental infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Jansen

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available The high rate of natural Trypanosoma cruzi infection found in opossums does not always correlate with appreciable densities of local triatomid populations. One alternative method which might bypass the invertebrate vector is direct transmission from mother to offspring. This possibility was investigated in five T. cruzi infected females and their litters (24 young. The influence of maternal antibodies transferred via lactation, on the course of experimental infection, was also examined. Our results show that neonatal transmission is probably not responsible for the high rate of natural T. cruzi infection among opossums. In addition antibodies of maternal origin confer a partial protection to the young. This was demonstrated by the finding of a double prepatency period and 4,5 fold lower levels of circulating parasites, in experimentally infected pouch young from infected as compared to control uninfected mothes. On the other hand, the duration of patent parasitemia was twice as long as that observed in the control group.

  3. A hotel-based outbreak of Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) in the United Kingdom, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, N; Murphy, L; Smith, A; Copeland, D

    2007-03-01

    An outbreak of food-borne Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 occurred in Cumbria, in north-west England, in the summer of 2006. Fifteen people, all with positive stool samples, met the case definition; three of these were admitted to hospital, including one patient who died. Preliminary investigations suggested a link to a meal served at a local hotel. A case control study was implemented, together with microbiological and environmental investigations. Fifteen microbiologically confirmed cases and 27 unmatched controls were included in the study, controls being randomly selected from people who had eaten at the hotel on the same day. The epidemiological evidence indicated a very strong association between infection and consumption of tiramisu made with raw shell eggs, although none were available for microbiological investigation. These results are in line with other salmonellosis outbreaks that have been associated with the use of raw shell eggs in food manufacturing and production. This paper highlights the continuing need for a greater awareness by those who work in the food industry of the health risks associated with the consumption of raw shell eggs.

  4. Experimental infection in Cavia porcellus by infected Amblyomma ovale nymphs with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustolin, Joice Magali; da Silva Krawczak, Felipe; Alves, Marta Elena Machado; Weiller, Maria Amélia; de Souza, Camila Lopes; Rosa, Fábio Brum; Cadore, Gustavo Cauduro; Dos Anjos Lopes, Sônia Terezinha; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Sangioni, Luís Antônio

    2018-03-01

    This study describes experimental infection of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) infested with naturally infected Amblyomma ovale nymphs with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain), and the capacity of A. ovale nymphs to transmit this bacterium. Twenty-six guinea pigs were divided into the following groups: G1, 10 animals infested with uninfected A. ovale nymphs; G2, 10 animals infested with nymphs infected with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain); and G3, 6 animals without tick infestation. Blood samples were taken 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-infestation for serological and hematological tests. For histopathological analysis and rickettsial DNA detection, fragments of the spleen, lung, brain, and liver were harvested after euthanasia. The average feeding period for nymphs was 6.6 days for G1 and 6 days for G2. Hemolymph and PCR assays, performed to detect the causative agent in ticks, indicated that in G1, all ticks were negative, and in G2, all nymphs were positive by PCR and 80% (8/10) was positive by hemolymph tests. The only clinical change was skin scarring at the tick attachment site. Hematological parameters indicated leukopenia and total plasma protein (TPP) increased with decreased platelets in G1. In G2, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, monocytosis, an increase in platelets, and reduced TPP were observed. Only G2 guinea pigs were seroconverted (80%; 8/10). Histopathology tests indicated mild, diffuse hemosiderosis and mild, multifocal, follicular hyperplasia in the spleen. Molecular analysis did not detect Rickettsia sp. DNA in C. porcellus tissues. We demonstrated the capacity of A. ovale nymphs to transmit Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain) to guinea pigs.

  5. Critical role of glycogen synthase kinase-3β in regulating the avian heterophil response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eKogut

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A microarray-assisted gene expression screen of chicken heterophils revealed glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β, a multifunctional Ser/Thr kinase, to be consistently up-regulated 30-180 min following stimulation with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis. The present study was designed to delineate the role of GSK-3β in regulating the innate function of chicken heterophils in response to S. Enteritidis exposure. Using a specific GSK-3β ELISA assay, 30 min after infection with S. Enteritidis, heterophils had a significant decrease in total GSK-3β, but a significant increase in phosphorylated GSK-3 (Ser9. By 60 min post-infection, there was no difference in the amount of phosphorylated GSK-3β (Ser9 in either the uninfected and infected heterophils. S. Enteritidis interaction with heterophils alters GSK-3 activity by stimulating phosphorylation at Ser9 and that peaks by 30 min post-infection. Further, inhibition of GSK3β with lithium chloride resulted in a significant decrease in NF-κB activation and expression of IL-6, but induces a significant increase in the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. Using a phospho-specific antibody array confirmed the phosphorylation of GSK-3β (Ser9 as well as the phosphorylation of the downstream cytokine-activated intracellular signaling pathway involved in stimulating immune responses, IκB, the IκB subunit IKK-β, and the NF-κB subunits p105, p65, and c-Rel. Our data revealed that the phosphorylation of GSK-3β (Ser9 is responsible for inducing and controlling an innate response to the bacteria. Our findings suggest that the repression of GSK-3 activity is beneficial to the host cell and may act as a target for treatment in controlling intestinal colonization in chickens. Further experiments will define the in vivo modulation of GSK-3 as a potential alternative to antibiotics in salmonella and other intestinal bacterial infections.

  6. Studies on the Leucocytic Response to Experimental Infection with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, neutrophil numbers declined significantly (P < 0.05) in red fronted gazelles infected either singly with Trypanosoma brucei or concurrently with both parasites while those infected singly with Haemonchus contortus experienced a significant (P <0.05) rise in neutrophil counts which became evident from day 30 post ...

  7. Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Amundson, Terry E.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The pecentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

  8. Comparative genomics identifies distinct lineages of S. Enteritidis from Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rikki M A; Hiley, Lester; Rathnayake, Irani U; Jennison, Amy V

    2018-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a major cause of gastroenteritis and foodborne illness in Australia where notification rates in the state of Queensland are the highest in the country. S. Enteritidis is among the five most common serotypes reported in Queensland and it is a priority for epidemiological surveillance due to concerns regarding its emergence in Australia. Using whole genome sequencing, we have analysed the genomic epidemiology of 217 S. Enteritidis isolates from Queensland, and observed that they fall into three distinct clades, which we have differentiated as Clades A, B and C. Phage types and MLST sequence types differed between the clades and comparative genomic analysis has shown that each has a unique profile of prophage and genomic islands. Several of the phage regions present in the S. Enteritidis reference strain P125109 were absent in Clades A and C, and these clades also had difference in the presence of pathogenicity islands, containing complete SPI-6 and SPI-19 regions, while P125109 does not. Antimicrobial resistance markers were found in 39 isolates, all but one of which belonged to Clade B. Phylogenetic analysis of the Queensland isolates in the context of 170 international strains showed that Queensland Clade B isolates group together with the previously identified global clade, while the other two clades are distinct and appear largely restricted to Australia. Locally sourced environmental isolates included in this analysis all belonged to Clades A and C, which is consistent with the theory that these clades are a source of locally acquired infection, while Clade B isolates are mostly travel related.

  9. Tipificación fágica de aislados de Salmonella enteritidis de muestras clínicas, alimentarias y avícolas en Chile Phage typing of Salmonella enteritidis isolates from clinical, food, and poultry samples in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Prat

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1994 Chile ha sido afectado por una extensa epidemia de infecciones por Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis. Para conocer la diversidad de fuentes infectantes, el posible origen de la epidemia y las relaciones epidemiológicas entre aislados clínicos, alimentarios y avícolas, se realizó la tipificación fágica de 310 muestras de S. enteritidis de origen clínico recolectadas entre los años 1975 y 1996 junto con 47 aislados alimentarios obtenidos durante brotes de S. enteritidis y 27 cepas aisladas en estudios de vigilancia de establecimientos de avicultura. En total, en las muestras clínicas se identificaron 13 fagotipos, dos aislados no pudieron tipificarse y uno se consideró atípico. Los tipos fágicos que se identificaron con mayor frecuencia fueron el 1 (56,8% y el 4 (31,3%, seguidos de los tipos 8 (4,8% y 28 (1,9%. La presencia regional y temporal de estos fagotipos indica que ha habido cambios importantes en su distribución: en los primeros años de recolección solo se registraron los fagotipos 8 y 28, que desaparecieron hacia 1980 para reaparecer de forma aislada en 1996. A partir de la expansión paulatina de S. enteritidis que se inició en 1988, se empezaron a aislar en las zonas central y sur del país fagos del tipo 4, que no se habían encontrado anteriormente en Chile. En 1991 emergió como predominante en la zona norte el fagotipo 1, tampoco registrado previamente. En los aislados alimentarios se identificaron solamente los tipos 1 y 4, que fueron también los más comunes en los aislados avícolas. La tipificación fágica de S. enteritidis es de utilidad para orientar el análisis epidemiológico de las infecciones por este agente patológico.Since 1994 an extensive epidemic of infections with Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis has affected Chile. In order to understand the diversity of infective sources, the possible origin of the epidemic, and the epidemiological relationships between clinical, food, and

  10. DNA immunization against experimental genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, N; Stanberry, L R; Bernstein, D I; Lew, D

    1996-04-01

    A nucleic acid vaccine, expressing the gene encoding herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 glycoprotein D (gD2) under control of the cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene promoter, was used to immunize guinea pigs against genital HSV-2 infection. The vaccine elicited humoral immune responses comparable to those seen after HSV-2 infection. Immunized animals exhibited protection from primary genital HSV-2 disease with little or no development of vesicular skin lesions and significantly reduced HSV-2 replication in the genital tract. After recovery from primary infection, immunized guinea pigs experienced significantly fewer recurrences and had significantly less HSV-2 genomic DNA detected in the sacral dorsal root ganglia compared with control animals. Thus, immunization reduced the burden of latent infection resulting from intravaginal HSV-2 challenge, and a nucleic acid vaccine expressing the HSV-2 gD2 antigen protected guinea pigs against genital herpes, limiting primary infection and reducing the magnitude of latent infection and the frequency of recurrent disease.

  11. FECAL EXCRETION OF Salmonella Enteritidis IN BROILER LINES ROSS AND ISA LABEL EXCREÇÃO FECAL de Salmonella Enteritidis EM DUAS LINHAGENS DE FRANGOS DE CORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adson Santa Cruz Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The invasive capacity and persistence of this pathogen, crop and ceca in apparently healthy birds of two broiler lines raised without growth promoter antibiotics in ration and originated from eggs inoculated eggshell and in allantoidal cavity with Salmonella Enteritidis. Histological and bacteriological exams from cecal and crop were performed with one, seven, 14 and 21 days of age after hatch in broilers of fast and slow growing rate. Bacterio-logical exams were performed fecal excretion with one, eigth, 22 and 35 days. The Salmonella Enteritidis invaded and colonizated the gastrointestinal tract of the two lines tested, but the the infection reduced with age, and was more persistant in Ross broilers. The results were different for two lines. The pathogen was excreted from just one chick of ISA Label at 22 days of age and four Ross chicks until 35 days of age. In order, Salmonella was detected in 87.5% (14/16 and 38,1% (5/16 of ceca; in 81.2% (13/16 and 12.5% (2/16 of crops; in fast and slow growing rate lines, respectively. In apparent healthy organs, excepted the crop, an inflammatory process with predominance of macrophage and lymphocytes. The slow growing rate line was effective to eliminate bacteria in the organism.

    Key-words: Ceca, crop, fecal excretion, inflammation.

    Avaliaram-se, neste estudo, a capacidade inva-siva, a persistência e a freqüência de excreção fecal da Salmonella Enteritidis em aves aparentemente saudáveis de duas linhagens de frango de corte, criadas sem antibióticos promotores de crescimento na ração e oriundas de ovos inoculados na casca ou na cavidade alantóide com Salmonella Enteritidis fagotipo 4. Realizaram-se exames bacteriológicos das excretas com um, oito, 22 e 35 dias, e histológicos e bacteriológicos do inglúvio e ceco, com um, sete, quatorze e 21 dias pós-eclosão em frangos de crescimento rápido e lento. Salmonella

  12. Inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis on raw poultry using microwave heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda B. Pucciarelli

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of microwave heating on Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated on fresh chicken was investigated using a microwave oven (800 w to determine the destruction of Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from chicken carcasses, in relation to the time of heating at two power settings: high (power level 10 and medium (power level 6; The relationship between heating time and temperature was also been studied. The destruction was 6.4 log cycles at time 95 sec for the high power level, and 5 log cycles at time 140 sec for medium power setting. After 110 sec for higher power level, no survival of Salmonella Enteritidis was detected in samples (100g, but at 140 sec for medium power level, these food pathogens were still present.Foi investigado o efeito do aquecimento por microondas sobre Salmonella Enteritidis inoculada em frangos frescos usando um forno de microondas doméstico (800 W para determinar a destruição da Salmonella Enteritidis isolada a partir de carcaças de frangos, em relação com o tempo de aquecimento a dois níveis de potência: alta (nível 10 e média ( nível 6; a relação entre tempo de aquecimento e temperatura também foi estudada. A destruição foi de 6 log em 95 s de tempo para o nível alto e 5 log em 140 s de tempo para o nível médio de potência. Depois de 110 s no nível de potência alta, não foi detectada sobrevivência de Salmonella Enteritidis em amostras de 100g de peso, porém, depois de 140 s a potência média, esse patôgeno nos alimentos ainda permanecia.

  13. Lassa virus infection in experimentally infected marmosets: liver pathology and immunophenotypic alterations in target tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Ricardo; Brasky, Kathleen; Mansfield, Keith; Johnson, Curtis; Gonzales, Monica; Ticer, Anysha; Lukashevich, Igor; Tardif, Suzette; Patterson, Jean

    2007-06-01

    Lassa virus causes thousands of deaths annually in western Africa and is considered a potential biological weapon. In an attempt to develop a small nonhuman primate model of Lassa fever, common marmosets were subcutaneously inoculated with Lassa virus strain Josiah. This inoculation resulted in a systemic disease with clinical and morphological features mirroring those in fatal human Lassa infection: fever, weight loss, high viremia and viral RNA load in tissues, elevated liver enzymes, and severe morbidity between days 15 and 20. The most prominent histopathology findings included multifocal hepatic necrosis with mild inflammation and hepatocyte proliferation, lymphoid depletion, and interstitial nephritis. Cellular aggregates in regions of hepatocellular necrosis were largely composed of HAM56-positive macrophages, devoid of CD3-positive and CD20-positive cells, and characterized by marked reductions in the intensity of HLA-DP, DQ, DR staining. A marked reduction in the major histocompatibility complex class II expression was also observed in the lymph nodes. Immunophenotypic alterations in spleen included reductions in overall numbers of CD20-positive and CD3-positive cells and the disruption of lymphoid follicular architecture. These findings identify the common marmoset as an appropriate model of human Lassa fever and present the first experimental evidence that replication of Lassa virus in tissues is associated with alterations that would be expected to impair adaptive immunity.

  14. An ultrasonic study of experimental infected hydronephrosis in rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ihn; Yu, Yun Jeong; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonography of rabbit kidney was performed after induction of infected hydronephrosis to evaluate the sequential sonographic changes in 15 rabbits. Infected hydronephrosis was induced by ligation of the distal ureter and ureteral inoculation of Escherichia coli. Ultrasonography was performed daily during the first two weeks and weekly during the following 4 weeks after induction of infected hydronephrosis. The results are as follows: 1. The earliest abnormal ultrasonographic findings was appearance of internal echoes in dependent portion of the pelvis, which appeared within 4 days after inoculation in all cases. 2. Degree of internal echoes within the pelvis increased progressively with lapse of time and the entire pelvis was filled with internal echoes within 2 weeks after inoculation in all cases. 3. Echogenecity of internal echoes within the pelvis was similar to that of renal parenchyma in the first week after inoculation, however was weaker than that of renal parenchyma 2 weeks after inoculation in all cases

  15. Thermal Inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis Inoculated to Cake and Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Dadalı

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, thermal inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated to the cake dough and a whole raw chicken was investigated. The cake dough was inoculated with 6.15 log-cfu/g S. Enteritidis then, thermal treatment was applied at 160°C top-bottom fan cooking mode. The initial count of S. Enteritidis showed reductions 1.49 log-cfu/g, 2.06 log-cfu/g and 4.29 log-cfu/g in the samples from the cold point location from the geometric center of the cake at 5, 7 and 10 minutes of thermal treatment, respectively. Although S. Enteritidis is not detected at the end of 15 minutes of heat treatment, the center of the cake temperature has reached 85.69°C and the cake sample is uncooked and its sensory properties are not acceptable. The cake that is safe and favorable with the sensory properties to the consumers was obtained by heat treatment for 30 minutes. After the cold point of a whole raw chicken was inoculated with 7.29 log-cfu/g S. Enteritidis, thermal treatment was applied at 220°C top-bottom fan cooking mode. The temperature at the cold point of 35 and 45 minutes heat-treated chickens reached 59.33 and 74.08°C, respectively, and 1.93 log-cfu/g and 5.33 log-cfu /g S. Enteritidis reduction caused in the samples respectively. S. Enteritidis cells were not detected in the whole chicken heat treated at 220°C for 60 minutes. The cakes, heat treated at 160°C top-bottom fan cooking mode for 30 minutes, were stored at two different storage temperatures as 4°C and 25°C for 72 hours. The whole chicken, heat treated at 220°C top-bottom fan cooking mode for 60 minutes, was stored at 4°C for 72 hours. S. Enteritidis cells were not detected in the cake and the whole chicken samples after the storage period.

  16. Myonecrosis in the leg caused by Salmonella enteritidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørring, S; Kolmos, H J; Klareskov, B

    1994-01-01

    Five weeks after an episode of gastroenteritis, a 65-year-old diabetic male developed an extensive myonecrosis, with gas production in the left leg caused by Salmonella enteritidis. The patient was treated with surgical revision and antibiotics. To our knowledge, this is the first case of myonecr......Five weeks after an episode of gastroenteritis, a 65-year-old diabetic male developed an extensive myonecrosis, with gas production in the left leg caused by Salmonella enteritidis. The patient was treated with surgical revision and antibiotics. To our knowledge, this is the first case...

  17. Effect of Exposure Dose on Ichthyophonus Prevalence and Infection Intensity in Experimentally Infected Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, Richard; LaPatra, Scott

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the effect of increasing exposure dose on Ichthyophonus prevalence and infection intensity in experimentally infected rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Specific-pathogen free trout were exposed per os to increasing numbers of Ichthyophonus schizonts obtained from naturally infected donor fish, then sampled after 30 and 60 days post-exposure. Both in vitro explant culture and histology revealed that as the number of schizonts per dose increased there was a proportionate increase in the number of infected fish, as well as an increase in the number of infected organs; parasite density in individual infected organs also increased with dose. Explant culture revealed that all fish exposed to the highest dose (≥2,080 schizonts) became infected, while only 67% of those exposed to the intermediate dose (1,040-1,153 schizonts) were Ichthyophonus-positive after 60 days; Ichthyophonus was not detected in fish exposed to the 2 lowest doses (≤280 schizonts). Histologic examination of individual infected organs also revealed increasing infection prevalence and parasite density in response to exposure to increasing numbers of Ichthyophonus schizonts.

  18. Lactobacillus paracasei feeding improves the control of secondary experimental meningococcal infection in flu-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkacem, Nouria; Bourdet-Sicard, Raphaëlle; Taha, Muhamed-Kkeir

    2018-04-10

    The use of probiotics to improve anti-microbial defence, such as for influenza infections, is increasingly recommended. However, no data are available on the effect of probiotics on flu-associated secondary bacterial infections. There is strong evidence of a spatiotemporal association between influenza virus infection and invasive Neisseria meningitidis. We thus investigated the effect of feeding mice Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1518 in a mouse model of sequential influenza-meningococcal infection. We intranasally infected BALB/c mice with a strain of influenza A virus (IAV) H3N2 that was first adapted to mice. Seven days later, a secondary bacterial infection was induced by intranasal administration of bioluminescent N. meningitidis. During the experiment, mice orally received either L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 or PBS as a control. The effect of L. paracasei administration on secondary bacterial infection by N. meningitidis was evaluated. Oral consumption of L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 reduced the weight loss of infected mice and lowered the bioluminescent signal of infecting meningococci. This improvement was associated with higher recruitment of inflammatory myeloid cells, such as interstitial monocytes and dendritic cells, to the lungs. Our data highlight the role of the gut-lung axis. L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 may boost the defence against IAV infection and secondary bacterial infection, which should be further studied and validated in clinical trials.

  19. Experimental pneumococcal meningitis in mice: a model of intranasal infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenburg, P. J.; van der Poll, T.; Florquin, S.; van Deventer, S. J.; Roord, J. J.; van Furth, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    Effective laboratory animal models of bacterial meningitis are needed to unravel the pathophysiology of this disease. Previous models have failed to simulate human meningitis by using a directly intracerebral route of infection. Hyaluronidase is a virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In

  20. Streptococcus agalactiae impairs cerebral bioenergetics in experimentally infected silver catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Parmeggiani, Belisa S; Santos, Roberto C V; Leipnitz, Guilhian; Moreira, Karen L S; da Rocha, Maria Izabel U M; da Veiga, Marcelo L; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2017-10-01

    It is becoming evident that bacterial infectious diseases affect brain energy metabolism, where alterations of enzymatic complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and creatine kinase (CK) lead to an impairment of cerebral bioenergetics which contribute to disease pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). Based on this evidence, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether alterations in the activity of complex IV of the respiratory chain and CK contribute to impairment of cerebral bioenergetics during Streptococcus agalactiae infection in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The activity of complex IV of the respiratory chain in brain increased, while the CK activity decreased in infected animals compared to uninfected animals. Brain histopathology revealed inflammatory demyelination, gliosis of the brain and intercellular edema in infected animals. Based on this evidence, S. agalactiae infection causes an impairment in cerebral bioenergetics through the augmentation of complex IV activity, which may be considered an adaptive response to maintain proper functioning of the electron respiratory chain, as well as to ensure ongoing electron flow through the electron transport chain. Moreover, inhibition of cerebral CK activity contributes to lower availability of ATP, contributing to impairment of cerebral energy homeostasis. In summary, these alterations contribute to disease pathogenesis linked to the CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental infection of Ethiopian highland sheep by different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adult worm population and the egg excretion positively and significantly correlated together, whereas they were .... Figure 1: Nematode egg excretion from sheep infected with different doses of H. contortus L3. Total worm burden .... further drop in haematological parameters until the end of the experiment. Eosinophils are ...

  2. Progression of experimental chronic Aleutian mink disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased ...

  3. Quantification of HTLV-I proviral load in experimentally infected rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindt Thomas J

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of proviral load in HTLV-1 infected patients correlate with clinical outcome and are reasonably prognostic. Adaptation of proviral load measurement techniques is examined here for use in an experimental rabbit model of HTLV-1 infection. Initial efforts sought to correlate proviral load with route and dose of inoculation and with clinical outcome in this model. These methods contribute to our continuing goal of using the model to test treatments that alleviate virus infection. Results A real-time PCR assay was used to measure proviral load in blood and tissue samples from a series of rabbits infected using HTLV-1 inocula prepared as either cell-free virus particles, infected cells or blood, or by naked DNA injection. Proviral loads from asymptomatically infected rabbits showed levels corresponding to those reported for human patients with clinically silent HTLV-1 infections. Proviral load was comparably increased in 50% of experimentally infected rabbits that developed either spontaneous benign or malignant tumors while infected. Similarly elevated provirus was found in organs of rabbits with experimentally induced acute leukemia/lymphoma-like disease. Levels of provirus in organs taken at necropsy varied widely suggesting that reservoirs of infections exist in non-lymphoid organs not traditionally thought to be targets for HTLV-1. Conclusion Proviral load measurement is a valuable enhancement to the rabbit model for HTLV-1 infection providing a metric to monitor clinical status of the infected animals as well as a means for the testing of treatment to combat infection. In some cases proviral load in blood did not reflect organ proviral levels, revealing a limitation of this method for monitoring health status of HTLV-1 infected individuals.

  4. Comparative analysis of core genome MLST and SNP typing within a European Salmonella serovar Enteritidis outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Madison E; Alikhan, Nabil-Fareed; Dallman, Timothy J; Zhou, Zhemin; Grant, Kathie; Maiden, Martin C J

    2018-06-02

    Multi-country outbreaks of foodborne bacterial disease present challenges in their detection, tracking, and notification. As food is increasingly distributed across borders, such outbreaks are becoming more common. This increases the need for high-resolution, accessible, and replicable isolate typing schemes. Here we evaluate a core genome multilocus typing (cgMLST) scheme for the high-resolution reproducible typing of Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) isolates, by its application to a large European outbreak of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. This outbreak had been extensively characterised using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based approaches. The cgMLST analysis was congruent with the original SNP-based analysis, the epidemiological data, and whole genome MLST (wgMLST) analysis. Combination of the cgMLST and epidemiological data confirmed that the genetic diversity among the isolates predated the outbreak, and was likely present at the infection source. There was consequently no link between country of isolation and genetic diversity, but the cgMLST clusters were congruent with date of isolation. Furthermore, comparison with publicly available Enteritidis isolate data demonstrated that the cgMLST scheme presented is highly scalable, enabling outbreaks to be contextualised within the Salmonella genus. The cgMLST scheme is therefore shown to be a standardised and scalable typing method, which allows Salmonella outbreaks to be analysed and compared across laboratories and jurisdictions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Metabolomic profiling in cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen De Buck

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of current diagnostics for Johne's disease, a slow, progressing enteritis in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP, is too low to reliably detect all infected animals in the subclinical stage. The objective was to identify individual metabolites or metabolite profiles that could be used as biomarkers of early MAP infection in ruminants. In a monthly follow-up for 17 months, calves infected at 2 weeks of age were compared with aged-matched controls. Sera from all animals were analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Spectra were acquired, processed, and quantified for analysis. The concentration of many metabolites changed over time in all calves, but some metabolites only changed over time in either infected or non-infected groups and the change in others was impacted by the infection. Hierarchical multivariate statistical analysis achieved best separation between groups between 300 and 400 days after infection. Therefore, a cross-sectional comparison between 1-year-old calves experimentally infected at various ages with either a high- or a low-dose and age-matched non-infected controls was performed. Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS DA yielded distinct separation of non-infected from infected cattle, regardless of dose and time (3, 6, 9 or 12 months after infection. Receiver Operating Curves demonstrated that constructed models were high quality. Increased isobutyrate in the infected cattle was the most important agreement between the longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis. In general, high- and low-dose cattle responded similarly to infection. Differences in acetone, citrate, glycerol and iso-butyrate concentrations indicated energy shortages and increased fat metabolism in infected cattle, whereas changes in urea and several amino acids (AA, including the branched chain AA, indicated increased protein turnover. In conclusion, metabolomics

  6. Immunoglobulin subclass in experimental murine Toxocara cati infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnoto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to detect specific immunoglobulin (Ig that could be used to determine monoclonal antibody in conjugate-making an effort for the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA diagnostic kit of toxocariasis in human. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted to assess the Ig profile, based on ELISA-isotyping, in mice infected with second stage larvae eggs of Toxocara cati. The optical density values of anti-T. cati mice serum IgG subclasses were analyzed by applying ANOVA factorial. Results: The specific IgG subclass in mice infected with T. cati mice was found to be IgG2β. Conclusion: Subclass of IgG, especially IgG2β, can provide leads about the use of the monoclonal antibody in conjugate making an effort for the indirect ELISA diagnostic kit.

  7. Brain infection following experimental Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Sepsis is a major problem in humans and both the incidence and mortality is increasing. Multiple microabcesses can be found in the brain of septic patients. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sepsis and brain abscesses. S. aureus is also a frequent cause...... of spontaneous porcine pyemia including endocarditis and associated brain lesions. We present a porcine model of haematogenous S. aureus induced brain infection. Materials and Methods: Twelve pigs received an intravenous injection of S. aureus of 108 CFU/kg body weight once at 0h or twice at 0h and 12h. Four...... pigs were kept as controls. The pigs were euthanized in groups of four at either 6, 12, 24 or 48 h post infection. The brain was collected from all the animals and examined histologically. Results: All the inoculated pigs developed sepsis and 7 out of 12 animals had microabscesses in the prosencephalon...

  8. Food additives and Hymenolepis nana infection: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nouby, Kholoud A; Hamouda, Hala E; Abd El Azeem, Mona A; El-Ebiary, Ahmad A

    2009-12-01

    The effect of sodium benzoate (SB) on the pathogenesis of Hymenolepis nana (H. nana) and its neurological manifestations was studied in the present work. One hundred and thirty five mice were classified into three groups. GI: received SB alone. GII: received SB before & after infection with H. nana and GIII: infected with H. nana. All groups were subjected to parasitological, histopathological, immunohistochemical and biochemical assays. The results revealed a significant decrease in IL-4 serum level with a significant increase in gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and decrease in zinc brain levels in GI, while GII showed non significant increase in IL-4 level that resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean number of cysticercoids and adult worms with delayed expulsion as compared to GIII. This was reflected on histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in the brain. Also, there was a highly significant increase in GABA and decrease in zinc brain levels in GII to the degree that induced behavioral changes. This emphasizes the possible synergistic effect of SB on the neurological manifestations of H. nana and could, in part, explain the increased incidence of behavioral changes in children exposed to high doses of SB and unfortunately have H. nana infection.

  9. Growth performance of broilers in experimental Reovirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar P. Awandkar

    Full Text Available Background: The avian reoviruses have emerged to induce various manifestations in chickens. They are associated with disease conditions including malabsorption syndrome, tenosynovitis etc. Reoviruses are an important cause of suboptimum performance in broilers, resulting in poor growth performance. Poultry industry in India is facing a catastrophe due to such infections which go unnoticed in field due to masking of the symptoms by secondary infections and commonly observed nutritional disorders. Aim: To investigate the effect of reovirus infection on overall performance of broiler birds. Material and Methods: The broiler birds were challenged with homologous strains of malabsorption syndrome and tenosynovitis syndrome of reovirus. The growth performance was recorded. Results and conclusion: The growth performance and immune response to NDV did not differ in the birds challenged with tenosynovitis syndrome strain of reo virus as compared to un challenged birds. However, poor live body weight, feed intake, FCR, PE and BPEI and better serum NDV titres were found in chicks challenged with malabsorption syndrome strain of reovirus as compared to the chicks from control group. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000: 685-689

  10. Alteration in the endogenous intestinal flora of swiss webster mice by experimental Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandack Nobre

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The association between worm infections and bacterial diseases has only recently been emphasized. This study examined the effect of experimental Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection on endogenous intestinal flora of Swiss Webster mice. Eight mice aging six weeks were selected for this experiment. Four were infected with A. costaricensis and the other four were used as controls. Twenty eight days after the worm infection, all mice in both groups were sacrificed and samples of the contents of the ileum and colon were obtained and cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. In the mice infected with A. costaricensis there was a significant increase in the number of bacteria of the endogenous intestinal flora, accompanied by a decrease in the number of Peptostreptococcus spp. This alteration in the intestinal flora of mice infected by the nematode may help to understand some bacterial infections described in humans.

  11. Method for the detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agron, Peter G.; Andersen, Gary L.; Walker, Richard L.

    2008-10-28

    Described herein is the identification of a novel Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis locus that serves as a marker for DNA-based identification of this bacterium. In addition, three primer pairs derived from this locus that may be used in a nucleotide detection method to detect the presence of the bacterium are also disclosed herein.

  12. [Experimental infection of the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) by Colombian isolates of Giardia duodenalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, Adriana; Duque, Sofía; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago

    2005-09-01

    Natural and experimental Giardia infections have been reported from bovines, equines, goats, canines, felines and rodents such as mice, rats and gerbils. The latter have provided successful animal models for Giardia duodenalis and Giardia muris experimental infections. The gerbil model was used to establish the pattern of infection of Colombian Giardia human isolates. Giardia cysts were obtained from stool specimens of symptomatic giardiasis patients by means of sucrose-percoll gradients. Animal inoculation was performed by gastric intubation and injection with 5 x 10(3) Giardia cysts. The course of infection was established by counting cysts every day and trophozoites weekly throughout a period of 30 days. The pattern of cyst excretion was found to be intermittent. Cysts were released during the second and third weeks of infection but not during the first or fourth weeks. The mean minimal number of cysts released per 2-hr collection period was 79 and the mean maximum number was 17,943. Colonization of the small intestine by trophozoites was observed with a mean number ranging from 15,000 to 6,577,778 trophozoites/ml. Gerbils inoculated with G. duodenalis isolates obtained from geographical areas outside Colombia resolved the infection between 86 and 114 days after infection, whereas gerbils infected with Colombian G. duodenalis isolates resolved the infection at 30 days. The gerbil proved to be a good animal model for experimental infection with Colombian isolates of G. duodenalis. Experimental Giardia infection of gerbils permit a sufficient yield of cysts and trophozoites to be used as antigens for the immunization of other animals and to obtain Giardia antibodies that could be used for Giardia antigen detection assays in stool specimens.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL-INFECTION IN MICE WITH BACILLUS-LICHENIFORMIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Jensen, H.E.; Jensen, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Bacillus licheniformis was assessed in normal and immunodepressed BALB/c mice. The animals were challenged intravenously with 4 x 10(7) colony forming units of B, licheniformis (ATCC 14580) and both normal and immunodepressed mice were susceptible. However, the infection...... was more severe in the immunosuppressed animals. In normal mice, lesions were restricted to the liver and kidneys, while lesions also occurred in other organs of immunodepressed mice. By crossed immunoelectrophoresis it was shown that antigens of B. licheniformis are potent immunogens, and the bacteria...

  14. Comparative Experimental Infection Study in Dogs with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys and A. phagocytophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Arathy D S; Cheng, Chuanmin; Ganta, Chanran K; Sanderson, Michael W; Alleman, Arthur R; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Ganta, Roman R

    2016-01-01

    Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as causing diseases in people. Despite the long history of tick-borne diseases in dogs, much remains to be defined pertaining to the clinical and pathological outcomes of infections with these pathogens. In the current study, we performed experimental infections in dogs with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. Animals were monitored for 42 days to evaluate infection-specific clinical, hematological and pathological differences. All four pathogens caused systemic persistent infections detectible throughout the 6 weeks of infection assessment. Fever was frequently detected in animals infected with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and A. platys, but not in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum. Hematological differences were evident in all four infected groups, although significant overlap existed between the groups. A marked reduction in packed cell volume that correlated with reduced erythrocytes and hemoglobin was observed only in E. canis infected animals. A decline in platelet numbers was common with E. canis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum infections. Histopathological lesions in lung, liver and spleen were observed in all four groups of infected dogs; infection with E. canis had the highest pathological scores, followed by E. chaffeensis, then A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. All four pathogens induced IgG responses starting on day 7 post infection, which was predominantly comprised of IgG2 subclass antibodies. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in dogs after inoculation with four pathogens belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. The study revealed a significant overlap in clinical, hematological and pathological changes resulting from the

  15. Genetic variability of Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from experimentally infected pigs and from naturally infected pigs using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, Mónica J; Eguiluz, María; Roncal, Elisa; Quiñones-García, Stefany; Clipman, Steven J; Calcina, Juan; Gavidia, Cesar M; Sheen, Patricia; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Zimic, Mirko

    2017-12-01

    The adult Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, usually lives as a single worm in the small intestine of humans, its only known definitive host. Mechanisms of genetic variation in T. solium are poorly understood. Using three microsatellite markers previously reported [1], this study explored the genetic variability of T. solium from cysts recovered from experimentally infected pigs. It then explored the genetic epidemiology and transmission in naturally infected pigs and adult tapeworms recovered from human carriers from an endemic rural community in Peru. In an initial study on experimental infection, two groups of three piglets were each infected with proglottids from one of two genetically different tapeworms for each of the microsatellites. After 7 weeks, pigs were slaughtered and necropsy performed. Thirty-six (92.3%) out of 39 cysts originated from one tapeworm, and 27 (100%) out of 27 cysts from the other had exactly the same genotype as the parental tapeworm. This suggests that the microsatellite markers may be a useful tool for studying the transmission of T. solium. In the second study, we analyzed the genetic variation of T. solium in cysts recovered from eight naturally infected pigs, and from adult tapeworms recovered from four human carriers; they showed genetic variability. Four pigs had cysts with only one genotype, and four pigs had cysts with two different genotypes, suggesting that multiple infections of genetically distinct parental tapeworms are possible. Six pigs harbored cysts with a genotype corresponding to one of the identified tapeworms from the human carriers. In the dendrogram, cysts appeared to cluster within the corresponding pigs as well as with the geographical origin, but this association was not statistically significant. We conclude that genotyping of microsatellite size polymorphisms is a potentially important tool to trace the spread of infection and pinpoint sources of infection as pigs spread cysts with a shared parental genotype.

  16. Genetic variability of Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from experimentally infected pigs and from naturally infected pigs using microsatellite markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica J Pajuelo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The adult Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, usually lives as a single worm in the small intestine of humans, its only known definitive host. Mechanisms of genetic variation in T. solium are poorly understood. Using three microsatellite markers previously reported [1], this study explored the genetic variability of T. solium from cysts recovered from experimentally infected pigs. It then explored the genetic epidemiology and transmission in naturally infected pigs and adult tapeworms recovered from human carriers from an endemic rural community in Peru. In an initial study on experimental infection, two groups of three piglets were each infected with proglottids from one of two genetically different tapeworms for each of the microsatellites. After 7 weeks, pigs were slaughtered and necropsy performed. Thirty-six (92.3% out of 39 cysts originated from one tapeworm, and 27 (100% out of 27 cysts from the other had exactly the same genotype as the parental tapeworm. This suggests that the microsatellite markers may be a useful tool for studying the transmission of T. solium. In the second study, we analyzed the genetic variation of T. solium in cysts recovered from eight naturally infected pigs, and from adult tapeworms recovered from four human carriers; they showed genetic variability. Four pigs had cysts with only one genotype, and four pigs had cysts with two different genotypes, suggesting that multiple infections of genetically distinct parental tapeworms are possible. Six pigs harbored cysts with a genotype corresponding to one of the identified tapeworms from the human carriers. In the dendrogram, cysts appeared to cluster within the corresponding pigs as well as with the geographical origin, but this association was not statistically significant. We conclude that genotyping of microsatellite size polymorphisms is a potentially important tool to trace the spread of infection and pinpoint sources of infection as pigs spread cysts with a shared

  17. Detection of toxoplasma gondii antigens in sera from experimentally infected mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojaee, S.; Keshavarz, H.; Rezaian, M.; Mohebali, M.

    2007-01-01

    Detection of Toxoplasma antigen in serum of mice by Immunoblotting. strain. IgG isolated from rabbits that were immunized with T. gondii Immunoblotting was performed to detect T. gondii antigens in sera of mice. Serum samples from mice experimentally infected with T. gondii RH strain. The value of Immunoblotting in diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in acute stage of infection. The antigen bands detected in serum sample of mice were experimentally infected with T. gondii tachyzoite in immunoblotting. Six bands demonstrated on seventh post infection day six bands were identified. Similarly on sixth day four bands, on day five three bands and on fourth post infection day two bands were identified. No band was detected in control group sera. Immunoblotting is a sensitive method for diagnosis of acute stage of toxoplasmosis. (author)

  18. Salmonella Enteritidis em Aves: Retrospectiva no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva EN

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis (SE emergiu como um grande problema avícola e de saúde pública no Brasil a partir de 1993. Os estudos epidemiológicos, incluindo a fagotipagem e sonda complementar de rRNA, sugerem a entrada de SE no Brasil via importação de material genético avícola contaminado, provavelmente no final da década de 80. As taxas de crescimento da avicultura brasileira na década de 90 criaram condições favoráveis para a manutenção e proliferação da SE nos plantéis avícolas. Além disso, o uso indiscriminado de antibióticos em aves, particularmente as quinolonas, encorajou a manutenção de lotes positivos para SE. As cepas de SE isoladas de aves têm mostrado alta sensibilidade aos antibióticos de uso comum em avicultura, incluindo as quinolonas. Entretanto, o aumento da resistência antimicrobiana e multirresistência tem sido observado em cepas de origem humana. Os últimos levantamentos realizados no ano de 2001 continuam a mostrar que a SE em materiais avícolas é o principal sorovar responsável pelas infecções humanas. Embora as carcaças de frangos apresentem altas taxas de contaminação por SE, são os ovos e seus derivados - principalmente a maionese caseira - os principais responsáveis pelos surtos humanos. O uso de vacinas específicas em poedeiras e reprodutoras tem se mostrado uma ferramenta auxiliar no controle de SE. O procedimento mais indicado para o controle de SE na avicultura está na aquisição e produção de lotes livres do agente. As rações e matérias primas de origem animal parecem não ser tão importantes na perpetuação do problema de SE, porém, os roedores parecem ser reservatórios ambientais importantes de SE em granjas contaminadas.

  19. Serum levels of cytokines in water buffaloes experimentally infected with Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fu-Kai; Guo, Ai-Jiang; Hou, Jun-Ling; Sun, Miao-Miao; Sheng, Zhao-An; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Huang, Wei-Yi; Elsheikha, Hany M; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2017-09-15

    Fasciola gigantica infection in water buffaloes causes significant economic losses especially in developing countries. Although modulation of the host immune response by cytokine neutralization or vaccination is a promising approach to control infection with this parasite, our understanding of cytokine's dynamic during F. gigantica infection is limited. To address this, we quantified the levels of serum cytokines produced in water buffaloes following experimental infection with F. gigantica. Five buffaloes were infected via oral gavage with 500 viable F. gigantica metacercariae and blood samples were collected from buffaloes one week before infection and for 13 consecutive weeks thereafter. The levels of 10 cytokines in serum samples were simultaneously determined using ELISA. F. gigantica failed to elicit the production of various pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, and IFN-γ. On the other hand, evidence of a Th2 type response was detected, but only early in the course of parasite colonization and included modest increase in the levels of IL-10 and IL-13. The results also revealed suppression of the immune responses as a feature of chronic F. gigantica infection in buffaloes. Taken together, F. gigantica seems to elicit a modest Th2 response at early stage of infection in order to downregulate harmful Th1- and Th17-type inflammatory responses in experimentally infected buffaloes. The full extent of anti-F. gigantica immune response and its relation to pathogenesis requires further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental toxoplasma gondii infection in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajadhar, A. A.; Measures, L.; Forbes, L. B.

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory-reared animals were used to assess the susceptibility of seals (Halichoerus grypus) to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Four seals were each orally inoculated with 100 or 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii (VEG strain), and another 4 seals served as negative controls. Occasionally, mild behavioral...... changes were observed in all inoculated seals but not in control animals. A modified agglutination test revealed the presence of antibodies to T. gondii in sera collected from inoculated seals and mice inoculated as controls. No evidence of the parasite was found on an extensive histological examination...... of seal tissues, and immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections from inoculated seals revealed a single tissue cyst in only 1 seal. Control mice inoculated with 10 oocysts from the same inoculum given to seals became serologically and histologically positive for T. gondii. Cats that were fed brain...

  1. Genetic Resistance to Scrapie Infection in Experimentally Challenged Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroux, Caroline; Perrin-Chauvineau, Cécile; Corbière, Fabien; Aron, Naima; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Torres, Juan Maria; Costes, Pierrette; Brémaud, Isabelle; Lugan, Séverine; Schelcher, François; Barillet, Francis

    2014-01-01

    In goats, several field studies have identified coding mutations of the gene encoding the prion protein (I/M142, N/D146, S/D146, R/Q211, and Q/K222) that are associated with a lower risk of developing classical scrapie. However, the data related to the levels of resistance to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of these different PRNP gene mutations are still considered insufficient for developing large-scale genetic selection against scrapie in this species. In this study, we inoculated wild-type (WT) PRNP (I142R154R211Q222) goats and homozygous and/or heterozygous I/M142, R/H154, R/Q211, and Q/K222 goats with a goat natural scrapie isolate by either the oral or the intracerebral (i.c.) route. Our results indicate that the I/M142 PRNP polymorphism does not provide substantial resistance to scrapie infection following intracerebral or oral inoculation. They also demonstrate that H154, Q211, and K222 PRNP allele carriers are all resistant to scrapie infection following oral exposure. However, in comparison to WT animals, the H154 and Q211 allele carriers displayed only moderate increases in the incubation period following i.c. challenge. After i.c. challenge, heterozygous K222 and a small proportion of homozygous K222 goats also developed the disease, but with incubation periods that were 4 to 5 times longer than those in WT animals. These results support the contention that the K222 goat prion protein variant provides a strong but not absolutely protective effect against classical scrapie. PMID:24284317

  2. HoBi-like pestivirus experimental infection in pregnant ewes: Reproductive disorders and generation of persistently infected lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Losurdo, Michele; Larocca, Vittorio; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Varello, Katia; Patruno, Giovanni; Camero, Michele; Sciarra, Marina; Occhiogrosso, Leonardo; Tempesta, Maria; Iulini, Barbara; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2015-08-05

    In order to evaluate sheep as experimental model to test the efficacy of HoBi-like pestivirus vaccines for cattle, 10 sheep at different stages of pregnancy (30 or 50 days) were experimentally infected with the Italian prototype isolate Italy-1/10-1. Irrespective of the stage of pregnancy, virus inoculation resulted in reproductive failures, consisting of abortion, stillbirths or birth of weak or persistently infected (PI) lambs. Aborted fetuses, stillborn and dead lambs displayed extensive histopathological changes, consisting of hemorrhages, congestion and mononuclear infiltration in major organs. Pestiviral antigens were detected by immunohistochemistry in most tissues with remarkable signals in lungs and kidneys. PI lambs were constantly viremic, shed the virus through the nasal secretions and feces and, in all cases but one, did not have detectable HoBi-like pestivirus antibodies before the assumption of colostrum. The single seropositive infected lamb showed low-titer viremia and viral shedding that ceased only several weeks after the 3-month observation period. The study proves that sheep are susceptible to the reproduction failures caused by HoBi-like pestivirus infection and can serve as a suitable model for the evaluation of the fetal protection induced by homologous experimental vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Histopathological study of experimental and natural infections by Trypanosoma cruzi in Didelphis marsupialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Araujo Carreira

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Didelphis marsupialis, the most important sylvatic reservoir of Trypanosoma cruzi, can also maintain in their anal scent glands the multiplicative forms only described in the intestinal tract of triatomine bugs. A study of 21 experimentally and 10 naturally infected opossums with T. cruzi was undertaken in order to establish the histopathological pattern under different conditions. Our results showed that the inflammation was predominantly lymphomacrophagic and more severe in the naturally infected animals but never as intense as those described in Chagas' disease or in other animal models. The parasitism in both groups was always mild with very scarce amastigote nests in the tissues. In the experimentally infected animals, the inflammation was directly related to the presence of amastigotes nests. Four 24 days-old animals, still in embryonic stage, showed multiple amastigotes nests and moderate inflammatory reactions, but even so they survived longer and presented less severe lesions than experimentally infected adult mice. Parasites were found in smooth, cardiac and/or predominantly striated muscles, as well as in nerve cells. Differing from the experimentally infected opossums parasitism in the naturally infected animals predominated in the heart, esophagus and stomach. Parasitism of the scent glands did not affect the histopathological pattern observed in extraglandular tissues.

  4. A questionnaire-based, retrospective field study of persistence of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in Danish broiler houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Rattenborg, Erik

    2003-01-01

    A questionnaire-based, retrospective field study was conducted in 78 Danish broiler houses (analytical units) on 42 farms. In spring 1997, all these broiler houses had been infected with Salmonella Enteritidis, phage type 8, and/or Salmonella Typhimurium, definitive-type 66, by day-old chicks del...... soap and water for washing hands in the anteroom, hygiene barriers when removing dead broilers, gravel alongside the broiler house, systematic checks of indoor rodent-bait depots, and combined surface and pulse-fogging disinfection....

  5. Isolation of Trichophyton mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes from naturally infected laboratory albino rats: experimental infection and treatment in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Issa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of dermatophytosis in naturally infected rats and from asymptomatic and from breeding boxes of white rats kept in animal housing of college of Veterinary Medicine, University of Dohuk, Iraq. The prevalence rate of infection was (28%, clinically infected rats characterized by appearance of scaly ovoid type lesions with crusty edge and patch of hair loss mostly seen on the back, neck and face of the infected rats, itching was reported in some rats. Only one species of the trichophyton, T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes was isolated with growth rate (85.71% of samples collected from clinically infected rats, and (28.57% from asymptomatic and from breeding cages, the growth was observed within the 21 days at 25ºC on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar. Lacto phenol cotton blue staining slides of T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes revealed both microconidia and macroconidia. Microconidia found in numerous numbers often in dense cluster which were hyaline, smooth walled and predominantly spherical to sub spherical in shape, varying numbers of chlamydoconidia. Spiral hyphae and smooth, thin walled clavate shaped multicelled macroconidia were also present. The study also dealt with experimental infection in rabbits with T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes and treated by two drugs, natural herbal preparation of acidic pomegranate (Punica granatum fruit and synthetic nystatine ointment. The complete recovery of lesions was recorded after 14 days and 21 days of topical application of a pomegranate and nystatine ointment for 5 successive days respectively.

  6. Therapeutic effect of cefozopran (SCE-2787), a new parenteral cephalosporin, against experimental infections in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizawa, Y; Okonogi, K; Hayashi, R; Iwahi, T; Yamazaki, T; Imada, A

    1993-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of cefozopran (SCE-2787), a new semisynthetic parenteral cephalosporin, against experimental infections in mice was examined. Cefozopran was more effective than cefpiramide and was as effective as ceftazidime and cefpirome against acute respiratory tract infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae DT-S. In the model of chronic respiratory tract infection caused by K. pneumoniae 27, cefozopran was as effective as ceftazidime. The therapeutic effect of cefozopran against urinary tract infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa P9 was superior to that of cefpirome and was equal to those of ceftazidime and cefclidin. In addition, cefozopran was more effective than ceftazidime and was as effective as flomoxef in a thigh muscle infection caused by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus 308A-1. Against thigh muscle infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus N133, cefozopran was the most effective agent. The potent therapeutic effect of cefozopran in those experimental infections in mice suggests that it would be effective against respiratory tract, urinary tract, and soft tissue infections caused by a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in humans. PMID:8431004

  7. Experimental Andes virus infection in deer mice: characteristics of infection and clearance in a heterologous rodent host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R Spengler

    Full Text Available New World hantaviruses can cause hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome with high mortality in humans. Distinct virus species are hosted by specific rodent reservoirs, which also serve as the vectors. Although regional spillover has been documented, it is unknown whether rodent reservoirs are competent for infection by hantaviruses that are geographically separated, and known to have related, but distinct rodent reservoir hosts. We show that Andes virus (ANDV of South America, carried by the long tailed pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, infects and replicates in vitro and in vivo in the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, the reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV, found in North America. In experimentally infected deer mice, viral RNA was detected in the blood, lung, heart and spleen, but virus was cleared by 56 days post inoculation (dpi. All of the inoculated deer mice mounted a humoral immune response by 14 dpi, and produced measurable amounts of neutralizing antibodies by 21 dpi. An up-regulation of Ccl3, Ccl4, Ccl5, and Tgfb, a strong CD4⁺ T-cell response, and down-regulation of Il17, Il21 and Il23 occurred during infection. Infection was transient with an absence of clinical signs or histopathological changes. This is the first evidence that ANDV asymptomatically infects, and is immunogenic in deer mice, a non-natural host species of ANDV. Comparing the immune response in this model to that of the immune response in the natural hosts upon infection with their co-adapted hantaviruses may help clarify the mechanisms governing persistent infection in the natural hosts of hantaviruses.

  8. Evaluation of potassium permanganate against an experimental subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Icatlurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as a prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare was demonstrated in experimentally infected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Catfish experimentally infected with F. columnare to mimic a subacute infec...

  9. Praziquantel treatment decreases Schistosoma mansoni genetic diversity in experimental infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Coeli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis has a considerable impact on public health in many tropical and subtropical areas. In the new world, schistosomiasis is caused by the digenetic trematode Schistosoma mansoni. Chemotherapy is the main measure for controlling schistosomiasis, and the current drug of choice for treatment is praziquantel (PZQ. Although PZQ is efficient and safe, its repetitive large-scale use in endemic areas may lead to the selection of resistant strains. Isolates less susceptible to PZQ have been found in the field and selected for in the laboratory. The impact of selecting strains with a decreased susceptibility phenotype on disease dynamics and parasite population genetics is not fully understood. This study addresses the impact of PZQ pressure on the genetics of a laboratory population by analyzing frequency variations of polymorphic genetic markers. METHODOLOGY: Infected mice were treated with increasing PZQ doses until the highest dose of 3 × 300 mg/Kg was reached. The effect of PZQ treatment on the parasite population was assessed using five polymorphic microsatellite markers. Parasitological and genetic data were compared with those of the untreated control. After six parasite generations submitted to treatment, it was possible to obtain a S. mansoni population with decreased susceptibility to PZQ. In our experiments we also observed that female worms were more susceptible to PZQ than male worms. CONCLUSIONS: The selective pressure exerted by PZQ led to decreased genetic variability in S. mansoni and increased endogamy. The understanding of how S. mansoni populations respond to successive drug pressure has important implications on the appearance and maintenance of a PZQ resistance phenotype in endemic regions.

  10. Efficacy of different instrumentation techniques on reducing Enterococcus faecalis infection in experimentally infected root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Özsezer Demiryürek

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: This study indicates that instruments with a greater taper play an important role in maximizing the effectiveness of mechanical preparation. However, since using mechanical instrumentation alone is insufficient to completely eliminate root canal infection, the use of complementary antibacterial compounds is necessary.

  11. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in experimentally infected adult mute swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalthoff, Donata; Breithaupt, Angele; Teifke, Jens P; Globig, Anja; Harder, Timm; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Beer, Martin

    2008-08-01

    Adult, healthy mute swans were experimentally infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Cygnus cygnus/Germany/R65/2006 subtype H5N1. Immunologically naive birds died, whereas animals with preexisting, naturally acquired avian influenza virus-specific antibodies became infected asymptomatically and shed virus. Adult mute swans are highly susceptible, excrete virus, and can be clinically protected by preexposure immunity.

  12. Evaluation of a simple Theileria annulata culture protocol from experimentally infected bovine whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharbi M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated a new simple technique using whole blood from experimentally infected cattle for the isolation and cultivation of Theileria annulata. The study was carried out on 20 Holstein-Frisian bovines that had been experimentally infected with a virulent lethal dose of Theileria annulata. This technique has been compared to the classical peripheral blood monocyte isolation with Ficoll carried out on 22 experimentally infected Holstein-Friesian calves. The effectiveness of the reference technique was estimated to 86.4%, whilst the effectiveness of the new technique was 100%. Moreover, this new technique leads to time and money saving estimated to € 3.06 per sample. It decreases the contamination risks by reducing the steps of sample manipulation.

  13. Hematologic profile of hematophagous Desmodus rotundus bats before and after experimental infection with rabies virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Fernandes de Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hematophagous Desmodus rotundus bats play an important role in the rabies lifecycle. This study describes the hematological profile of these bats before and after experimental infection with rabies virus. Methods Cells counts were performed in a Neubauer chamber. Results The average values of erythrocytes and leucocytes counts in blood before experimental infections were 9.97 × 106mm3 and 4.80 × 103mm3, respectively. Neutrophils represented 69.9% of white blood cells and the lymphocytes represented 26.9%. Following the experimental infections, the average numbers of erythrocytes and leucocytes was 9.43 × 106mm3 and 3.98 × 103mm3, respectively. Neutrophils represented 40% of white blood cells and the lymphocytes represented 59%. Conclusions The hematological profile given in this study can serve as reference values for D. rotundus bats.

  14. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Freitas Henriques

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rocio virus (ROCV is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC. ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  15. E-ADA activity in serum of lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Fausto, Guilherme C; Grando, Thirssa H; Cadore, Carlos A; Pimentel, Victor C; Jaques, Jeandre A; Schetinger, Maria R C; Monteiro, Silvia G; Leal, Marta L R

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate adenosine deaminase (E-ADA) activity in sera of lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. We used 12 lambs divided into 2 groups; Group A had 5 healthy, non-infected animals (control) and Group B had 7 healthy animals infected with H. contortus . Lambs were infected orally with 500 larvae (L3) per animal every 2 days, for a period of 20 days, and later the infection was confirmed by examination of feces (eggs per gram [EPG] via fecal egg count). Blood collection was performed at days 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 post-infection (PI) for analysis of E-ADA activity. Animals in Group A showed negative EPG throughout the experiment unlike those from Group B that had elevated EPG counts. E-ADA activity was reduced in the serum of animals infected with H. contortus when compared to non-infected controls at days 20, 40, 60, and 80 PI. Therefore, it is concluded that infection with H. contortus influences the E-ADA activity in lambs.

  16. Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rochelle Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM, affecting 0.5–1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both.

  17. Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S Rochelle; Ellison, Siobhan P; Dascanio, John J; Lindsay, David S; Gogal, Robert M; Werre, Stephen R; Surendran, Naveen; Breen, Meghan E; Heid, Bettina M; Andrews, Frank M; Buechner-Maxwell, Virginia A; Witonsky, Sharon G

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM), affecting 0.5-1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both.

  18. Antifungal activity of caspofungin in experimental infective endocarditis caused by Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorio, Gerardo Becerra; Bourdon, Lorena Michele Brennan; Benavides, Leonel García; Huerta-Olvera, Selene G; Plascencia, Arturo; Villanueva, José; Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Hernández-Cañaveral, Iván Isidro

    2017-05-01

    Infective endocarditis is a disease characterised by heart valve lesions, which exhibit extracellular matrix proteins that act as a physical barrier to prevent the passage of antimicrobial agents. The genus Candida has acquired clinical importance given that it is increasingly being isolated from cases of nosocomial infections. To evaluate the activity of caspofungin compared to that of liposomal amphotericin B against Candida albicans in experimental infective endocarditis. Wistar rats underwent surgical intervention and infection with strains of C. albicans to develop infective endocarditis. Three groups were formed: the first group was treated with caspofungin, the second with liposomal amphotericin B, and the third received a placebo. In vitro sensitivity was first determined to further evaluate the effect of these treatments on a rat experimental model of endocarditis by semiquantitative culture of fibrinous vegetations and histological analysis. Our semiquantitative culture of growing vegetation showed massive C. albicans colonisation in rats without treatment, whereas rats treated with caspofungin showed significantly reduced colonisation, which was similar to the results obtained with liposomal amphotericin B. The antifungal activity of caspofungin is similar to that of liposomal amphotericin B in an experimental model of infective endocarditis caused by C. albicans.

  19. Effect of some parasitic infection on neurotransmitters in the brain of experimentally infected mice before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Ghafar, A E; Elkowrany, S E; Salem, S A; Menaisy, A A; Fadel, W A; Awara, W M

    1996-08-01

    The effects of some parasitic infection (bilharziasis, toxocariasis and trichinosis) on the brain of experimentally infected mice were investigated. Eighty animals were classified into four groups, group I contained five non infected animals as a control group. The other groups each contained twenty-five mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni (group II), Toxocara canis (group III) and Trichinella spiralis (group IV). Each infected group was divided into two subgroups (a,b). Subgroup (a) left untreated and subgroups (b) treated by praziquantel (in group II) and mebendazole (in group III and IV). Histopathological and immunological examination using peroxidase antiperoxidase (PAP) technique and neurotransmitters estimation (nor-epinephrine, dopamine and serotonine) were carried. In the untreated animals, there were mild histopathological changes and mild antigenic deposition in subgroups (IIa and IIIa) and marked changes in subgroup (IVa). There were significant decrease in dopamine in subgroup (IIIa), not improved after treatment (subgroup IIIb) and significant decrease in nor-epinephrine and serotonine in subgroup (IVa) improved after treatment in subgroup (IVb). The neurotransmitters changes may explain the motor, behavioural and emotional changes that occurred with these parasites.

  20. Experimental infection of ponies with Sarcocystis fayeri and differentiation from Sarcocystis neurona infections in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, W J A; Dubey, J P; Oglesbee, M J; Sofaly, C D; Marsh, A E; Elitsur, E; Vianna, M C; Lindsay, D S; Reed, S M

    2004-12-01

    Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis fayeri infections are common in horses in the Americas. Their antemortem diagnosis is important because the former causes a neurological disorder in horses, whereas the latter is considered nonpathogenic. There is a concern that equine antibodies to S. fayeri might react with S. neurona antigens in diagnostic tests. In this study, 4 ponies without demonstrable serum antibodies to S. neurona by Western immunoblot were used. Three ponies were fed 1 x 10(5) to 1 x 10(7) sporocysts of S. fayeri obtained from dogs that were fed naturally infected horse muscles. All ponies remained asymptomatic until the termination of the experiment, day 79 postinoculation (PI). All serum samples collected were negative for antibodies to S. neurona using the Western blot at the initial screening, just before inoculation with S. fayeri (day 2) and weekly until day 79 PI. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from each pony were negative for S. neurona antibodies. Using the S. neurona agglutination test, antibodies to S. neurona were not detected in 1:25 dilution of sera from any samples, except that from pony no. 4 on day 28; this pony had received 1 X 10(7) sporocysts. Using indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests (IFATs), 7 serum samples were found to be positive for S. neurona antibodies from 1:25 to 1:400 dilutions. Sarcocystis fayeri sarcocysts were found in striated muscles of all inoculated ponies, with heaviest infections in the tongue. All sarcocysts examined histologically appeared to contain only microcytes. Ultrastructurally, S. fayeri sarcocysts could be differentiated from S. neurona sarcocysts by the microtubules (mt) in villar protrusions on sarcocyst walls; in S. fayeri the mt extended from the villar tips to the pellicle of zoites, whereas in S. neurona the mt were restricted to the middle of the cyst wall. Results indicate that horses with S. fayeri infections may be misdiagnosed as being S. neurona infected using IFAT, and further research

  1. PCR diagnostics underestimate the prevalence of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in experimentally-infected passerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, Susan I.; Schultz, Jeffrey J.; Atkinson, Carter T.

    2002-01-01

    Several polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods have recently been developed for diagnosing malarial infections in both birds and reptiles, but a critical evaluation of their sensitivity in experimentally-infected hosts has not been done. This study compares the sensitivity of several PCR-based methods for diagnosing avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in captive Hawaiian honeycreepers using microscopy and a recently developed immunoblotting technique. Sequential blood samples were collected over periods of up to 4.4 yr after experimental infection and rechallenge to determine both the duration and detectability of chronic infections. Two new nested PCR approaches for detecting circulating parasites based on P. relictum 18S rRNA genes and the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) gene are described. The blood smear and the PCR tests were less sensitive than serological methods for detecting chronic malarial infections. Individually, none of the diagnostic methods was 100% accurate in detecting subpatent infections, although serological methods were significantly more sensitive (97%) than either nested PCR (61–84%) or microscopy (27%). Circulating parasites in chronically infected birds either disappear completely from circulation or to drop to intensities below detectability by nested PCR. Thus, the use of PCR as a sole means of detection of circulating parasites may significantly underestimate true prevalence.

  2. Virological and clinico-pathological features of orf virus infection in experimentally infected rabbits and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnelutti, J F; Masuda, E K; Martins, M; Diel, D G; Rock, D L; Weiblen, R; Flores, E F

    2011-01-01

    Many aspects of the biology of orf virus (ORFV) infection remain poorly understood and attempts to establish animal models have yielded conflicting and non-reproducible results. We herein describe the characterization of ORFV infection and disease in rabbits and mice. A protocol of intradermal inoculation was employed to inoculate 10(8.5)TCID₅₀/mL of ORFV strain IA-82 in the skin of ears, of the back and labial commissures. All inoculated rabbits presented a clinical course characterized by erythema, macules, papules/vesicles or pustules that eventually dried originating scabs. Local signs started around days 3 and 4 post-inoculation (pi) and lasted 3-10 days. Virus was recovered from lesions between days 2 and 14pi. Histological examination of lesions revealed focal proliferative dermatitis with ballooning degeneration and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in keratinocytes, histological hallmarks of contagious ecthyma in sheep. A similar, albeit milder clinical course occurred in 5/10 inoculated mice; virus was recovered from lesions from three animals. Inoculated lambs - used as controls - developed severe lesions of contagious ecthyma. VN tests performed at day 28pi failed to detect neutralizing antibodies in all inoculated animals. In contrast, convalescent rabbit sera were positive by ELISA at dilutions from 100 to 400. These results show that rabbits are susceptible to ORFV infection and thus may be used to study selected aspects of ORFV biology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aspects of Toxoplasma Infection on the Reproductive System of Experimentally Infected Rams (Ovis Aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welber Daniel Zanetti Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight reproductive rams with no prior reproductive disease were distributed into three groups of infection with T. gondii: GI, 3 rams, 2.0×105 P strain oocysts; GII, 3 rams, 1.0×106 RH strain tachyzoites; GIII, 2 control rams. Clinical parameters were measured and serological evaluations (IIF were performed. Presence of the parasite in the semen was investigated by PCR and bioassay techniques. The rams presented clinical alterations (hyperthermia and apathy related to toxoplasmosis in both groups infected with Toxoplasma gondii. All the inoculated rams responded to antigenic stimulus, producing antibodies against T. gondii from postinoculation day 5 onwards. In ovine groups I and II, the greatest titers observed were 1 : 4096 and 1 : 8192, respectively. In semen samples collected from these two groups, the presence of T. gondii was detected by bioassay and PCR. This coccidian was isolated (bioassay and PCR in tissue pools (testicles, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and prostrate from two rams infected presenting oocysts and in one presenting tachyzoites.

  4. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Mukhin

    Full Text Available Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1 the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1, (2 the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3 the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1 the markedly reduced mobility and (2 the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1 influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better

  5. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhin, Andrey; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Platonova, Elena; Kobylkov, Dmitry; Vakoliuk, Irina; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium) are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1) the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1), (2) the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3) the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle) did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected) birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1) the markedly reduced mobility and (2) the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1) influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better understand the

  6. Potential Role of Carvedilol in the Cardiac Immune Response Induced by Experimental Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Luciano Horta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi causes a cardiac infection characterized by an inflammatory imbalance that could become the inciting factor of the illness. To this end, we evaluated the role of carvedilol, a beta-blocker with potential immunomodulatory properties, on the immune response in C57BL/6 mice infected with VL-10 strain of T. cruzi in the acute phase. Animals (n=40 were grouped: (i not infected, (ii infected, (iii infected + carvedilol, and (iv not infected + carvedilol. We analyzed parameters related to parasitemia, plasma levels of TNF, IL-10, and CCL2, and cardiac histopathology after the administration of carvedilol for 30 days. We did not observe differences in the maximum peaks of parasitemia in the day of their detection among the groups. The plasma TNF was elevated at 60 days of infection in mice treated or not with carvedilol. However, we observed a decreased CCL2 level and increased IL-10 levels in those infected animals treated with carvedilol, which impacted the reduction of the inflammatory infiltration in cardiac tissue. For this experimental model, carvedilol therapy was not able to alter the levels of circulating parasites but modulates the pattern of CCL2 and IL-10 mediators when the VL10 strain of T. cruzi was used in C57BL6 mice.

  7. Experimental infection of plants with an herbivore-associated bacterial endosymbiont influences herbivore host selection behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Seth Davis

    Full Text Available Although bacterial endosymbioses are common among phloeophagous herbivores, little is known regarding the effects of symbionts on herbivore host selection and population dynamics. We tested the hypothesis that plant selection and reproductive performance by a phloem-feeding herbivore (potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli is mediated by infection of plants with a bacterial endosymbiont. We controlled for the effects of herbivory and endosymbiont infection by exposing potato plants (Solanum tuberosum to psyllids infected with "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" or to uninfected psyllids. We used these treatments as a basis to experimentally test plant volatile emissions, herbivore settling and oviposition preferences, and herbivore population growth. Three important findings emerged: (1 plant volatile profiles differed with respect to both herbivory and herbivory plus endosymbiont infection when compared to undamaged control plants; (2 herbivores initially settled on plants exposed to endosymbiont-infected psyllids but later defected and oviposited primarily on plants exposed only to uninfected psyllids; and (3 plant infection status had little effect on herbivore reproduction, though plant flowering was associated with a 39% reduction in herbivore density on average. Our experiments support the hypothesis that plant infection with endosymbionts alters plant volatile profiles, and infected plants initially recruited herbivores but later repelled them. Also, our findings suggest that the endosymbiont may not place negative selection pressure on its host herbivore in this system, but plant flowering phenology appears correlated with psyllid population performance.

  8. Horses experimentally infected with Sarcocystis neurona develop altered immune responses in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witonsky, Sharon G; Ellison, Siobhan; Yang, Jibing; Gogal, Robert M; Lawler, Heather; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Sriranganathan, Namalwar; Andrews, Frank; Ward, Daniel; Lindsay, David S

    2008-10-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection is 1 of the most common neurologic diseases in horses in the United States. The mechanisms by which most horses resist disease, as well as the possible mechanisms by which the immune system may be suppressed in horses that develop EPM, are not known. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine whether horses experimentally infected with S. neurona developed suppressed immune responses. Thirteen horses that were negative for S. neurona antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were randomly assigned to control (n = 5) or infected (n = 8) treatment groups. Neurologic exams and cerebrospinal fluid analyses were performed prior to, and following, S. neurona infection. Prior to, and at multiple time points following infection, immune parameters were determined. All 8 S. neurona-infected horses developed clinical signs consistent with EPM, and had S. neurona antibodies in the serum and CSF. Both infected and control horses had increased percentages (P < 0.05) of B cells at 28 days postinfection. Infected horses had significantly decreased (P < 0.05) proliferation responses as measured by thymidine incorporation to nonspecific mitogens phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (I) as soon as 2 days postinfection.

  9. The pathogenesis of single experimental infections with Strongylus vulgaris in foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J L; Pirie, H M

    1975-01-01

    The clinical signs, pathology and clinical pathology associated with single experimental infections of Strongylus vulgaris in worm-free pony foals are described. The major clinical signs which became apparent in the infected foals during the first three weeks were pyrexia, anorexia, dullness and abdominal pain. Within the first two weeks of infection lesions were confined to the intestine and terminal branches of the intestinal arteries and consisted of mucosal, submucosal and serosal haemorrhage together with arteritis of submucosal and serosal arteries and also a marked inflammatory reaction. The main lesion seen three weeks after infection was gross thrombosis of the anterior mesenteric artery or one of its major branches. On section these affected arteries showed marked intimal thickening with infiltration of plasma cells, lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils. Between one and four months after infection the gross lesions were predominantly in the arteries and consisted of fibrous thickening of the arterial wall and thrombosis associated with the presence of developing fourth stage larvae. Four months after infection the arterial lesions were still prominent and microscopically there was fibrosis of the wall of the affected artery with wide-spread disruption of the intima. In the adventitia organised thrombi were apparent in the vasa vasorum and resulted in the obliteration of their lumina. The typical lesion associated with the return of fifth stage larvae to the intestine was nodule formation in close proximity to thrombosed terminal intestinal arteries and sections of parasites were seen in the intestinal wall surrounded by neutrophils and necrotic debris. By nine months after infection the arterial lesion had healed, but histologically there was fibrosis of the intima and macrophages containing haemosiderin were seen in the arterial wall. The most significant haematological findings during the experimental period were a marked polymorphonuclear

  10. Immunologic responses in corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neul, Annkatrin; Schrödl, Wieland; Marschang, Rachel E; Bjick, Tina; Truyen, Uwe; von Buttlar, Heiner; Pees, Michael

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To measure immunologic responses of snakes after experimentally induced infection with ferlaviruses. ANIMALS 42 adult corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) of both sexes. PROCEDURES Snakes were inoculated intratracheally with genogroup A (n = 12), B (12), or C (12) ferlavirus (infected groups) or cell-culture supernatant (6; control group) on day 0. Three snakes from each infected group were euthanized on days 4, 16, 28, and 49, and 3 snakes from the control group were euthanized on day 49. Blood samples were collected from live snakes on days -6 (baseline), 4, 16, 28, and 49. Hematologic tests were performed and humoral responses assessed via hemagglutination-inhibition assays and ELISAs. Following euthanasia, gross pathological and histologic evaluations and virus detection were performed. RESULTS Severity of clinical signs of and immunologic responses to ferlavirus infection differed among snake groups. Hematologic values, particularly WBC and monocyte counts, increased between days 4 and 16 after infection. A humoral response was identified between days 16 and 28. Serum IgM concentrations increased from baseline earlier than IgY concentrations, but the IgY relative increase was higher at the end of the study. The hemagglutination-inhibition assay revealed that the strongest reactions in all infected groups were against the strain with which they had been infected. Snakes infected with genogroup A ferlavirus had the strongest immune response, whereas those infected with genogroup B had the weakest responses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this experimental study suggested that the ferlavirus strain with the highest virulence induced the weakest immune response in snakes.

  11. Synthetic Peptides Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibit Antimicrobial Activity against E. coli ATCC 11775, S. maltophilia ATCC 13636 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly De Jesús Huertas Méndez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear, dimeric, tetrameric, and cyclic peptides derived from lactoferricin B–containing non-natural amino acids and the RWQWR motif were synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism. The antibacterial activity of peptides against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 13636, and Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076 was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. The synthetic bovine lactoferricin exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli ATCC 11775 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076. The dimeric peptide (RRWQWR2K-Ahx exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strain. The monomeric, cyclic, tetrameric, and palindromic peptides containing the RWQWR motif exhibited high and specific activity against E. coli ATCC 11775. The results suggest that short peptides derived from lactoferricin B could be considered as potential candidates for the development of antibacterial agents against infections caused by E. coli.

  12. Synthetic Peptides Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibit Antimicrobial Activity against E. coli ATCC 11775, S. maltophilia ATCC 13636 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas Méndez, Nataly De Jesús; Vargas Casanova, Yerly; Gómez Chimbi, Anyelith Katherine; Hernández, Edith; Leal Castro, Aura Lucia; Melo Diaz, Javier Mauricio; Rivera Monroy, Zuly Jenny; García Castañeda, Javier Eduardo

    2017-03-12

    Linear, dimeric, tetrameric, and cyclic peptides derived from lactoferricin B-containing non-natural amino acids and the RWQWR motif were synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism. The antibacterial activity of peptides against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 13636, and Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076 was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. The synthetic bovine lactoferricin exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli ATCC 11775 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076. The dimeric peptide (RRWQWR)₂K-Ahx exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strain. The monomeric, cyclic, tetrameric, and palindromic peptides containing the RWQWR motif exhibited high and specific activity against E. coli ATCC 11775. The results suggest that short peptides derived from lactoferricin B could be considered as potential candidates for the development of antibacterial agents against infections caused by E. coli .

  13. Experimental and natural infections in MyD88- and IRAK-4-deficient mice and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bernuth, Horst; Picard, Capucine; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Most Toll-like-receptors (TLRs) and interleukin-1 receptors (IL-1Rs) signal via myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4). The combined roles of these two receptor families in the course of experimental infections have been assessed in MyD88- and IRAK-4-deficient mice for almost fifteen years. These animals have been shown to be susceptible to 46 pathogens: 27 bacteria, 8 viruses, 7 parasites, and 4 fungi. Humans with inborn MyD88 or IRAK-4 deficiency were first identified in 2003. They suffer from naturally occurring life-threatening infections caused by a small number of bacterial species, although the incidence and severity of these infections decrease with age. Mouse TLR- and IL-1R-dependent immunity mediated by MyD88 and IRAK-4 seems to be vital to combat a wide array of experimentally administered pathogens at most ages. By contrast, human TLR- and IL-1R-dependent immunity mediated by MyD88 and IRAK-4 seems to be effective in the natural setting against only a few bacteria and is most important in infancy and early childhood. The roles of TLRs and IL-1Rs in protective immunity deduced from studies in mutant mice subjected to experimental infections should therefore be reconsidered in the light of findings for natural infections in humans carrying mutations as discussed in this review. PMID:23255009

  14. Suppression of inflammatory immune responses in celiac disease by experimental hookworm infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J McSorley

    Full Text Available We present immunological data from two clinical trials where the effect of experimental human hookworm (Necator americanus infection on the pathology of celiac disease was evaluated. We found that basal production of Interferon- (IFN-γ and Interleukin- (IL-17A from duodenal biopsy culture was suppressed in hookworm-infected participants compared to uninfected controls. Increased levels of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in the circulation and mucosa are associated with active celiac disease. We show that this accumulation also occurs during a short-term (1 week oral gluten challenge, and that hookworm infection suppressed the increase of circulating CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells during this challenge period. When duodenal biopsies from hookworm-infected participants were restimulated with the immunodominant gliadin peptide QE65, robust production of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-17A was detected, even prior to gluten challenge while participants were strictly adhering to a gluten-free diet. Intriguingly, IL-5 was produced only after hookworm infection in response to QE65. Thus we hypothesise that hookworm-induced TH2 and IL-10 cross-regulation of the TH1/TH17 inflammatory response may be responsible for the suppression of these responses during experimental hookworm infection.

  15. Experimental infection of Artibeus intermedius with a vampire bat rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón-Morales, Cirani; Aguilar-Setién, Álvaro; Perea Martínez, Leonardo; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Martínez-Martínez, Flor Olivia; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia

    2017-06-01

    Experimental infection of Artibeus intermedius, the great fruit-eating bat, was performed with vampire bat rabies isolates. Bats (n=35) were captured in the wild and quarantined prior to experimental infection. No rabies antibodies were detected by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) prior to infection. Three doses of rabies virus (RV) and three different routes of infection were used. One out of 35 bats died without showing any clinical signs at day 14 and was positive for rabies. None of the 34 other bats showed clinical signs for rabies, but high antibody titers were detected post-inoculation, suggesting either innate immune response to the vampire bat rabies virus or possible pre-exposure to RV and inoculation leading to a booster effect. Rabies virus was detected by hemi-nested RT-PCR (hnRT-PCR) in the brain (n=3), stomach (n=1) of bats that were negative by immunofluorescence and that survived rabies infection. The bat that died on day 14 was positive by hnRT-PCR on the brain, heart and liver. These results suggest that either previous non-lethal exposure to RV or natural low susceptibility to vampire bat viruses somehow protected Artibeus intermedius from clinical rabies infection leading to a marginal lethality effect on this bats species population in the wild. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental Infection of Taenia saginata eggs in Bali Cattle: Distribution and Density of Cysticercus bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to observe the development, distribution, and infection density ofTaenia saginata metacestodes in Bali cattle. Three Bali cattle were experimentally infected with T. saginataeggs which were collected from taeniasis patients. The experimental animal was inoculated with : i1000,00 T. saginata; ii 500,000 eggs; and iii 1,000,000 eggs, respectivelly 100,000 (cattle 1, 500,000(cattle 2, and 1,000,000 (cattle 3 T. saginata eggs, respectively. To observe the development of cysticerci,all cattle were slaughtered at 24 weeks post infection. To observe their distribution and density, slicingwas done to the cattle?s tissues. The study results showed that cysts were found distributed to all muscletissues and some visceral organs such as heart, diaphragm, lungs, and kidney of the cattle infected with100,000 and 500,000 T. saginata eggs. Density of the cyst was in the range of 11 to 95 cysts per 100 gramsof tissue. The highest density was noted in the heart (58/100 grams and in diaphragm (55/100 grams.This study has confirmed that T. saginata eggs derived from taeniasis patient in Bali, if infected to Balicattle can develop and spread to all muscle tissues and some visceral organs. From this study it wasconcluded that it is necessary to include the heart in the meat inspection at slaughter house for possibilityof T. saginata cyst infection.$?

  17. Fibrinogen and fibronectin binding cooperate for valve infection and invasion in Staphylococcus aureus experimental endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Que, Yok-Ai; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine; Piroth, Lionel; François, Patrice; Widmer, Eleonora; Entenza, José M; Sinha, Bhanu; Herrmann, Mathias; Francioli, Patrick; Vaudaux, Pierre; Moreillon, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    The expression of Staphylococcus aureus adhesins in Lactococcus lactis identified clumping factor A (ClfA) and fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA) as critical for valve colonization in rats with experimental endocarditis. This study further analyzed their role in disease evolution. Infected

  18. Analysis of experimental mink enteritis virus infection in mink: in situ hybridization, serology, and histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Larsen, S; Lund, E

    1990-01-01

    Strand-specific hybridization probes were used in in situ hybridization studies to localize cells containing mink enteritis virus (MEV) virion DNA or MEV replicative-form DNA and mRNA. Following the experimental MEV infection of 3-month-old unvaccinated mink, a significant increase in serum antib...

  19. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in sera samples of mice experimentally infected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Langoni

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii DNA in blood can help to diagnose the disease in its acute phase; however, it must be considered that hemoglobin, present in blood, can inhibit polymerase activity, making impracticable the detection of DNA in samples. Mice were experimentally infected via oral route with ME49 and BTU2 strains cysts and RH strain tachyzoites; polymerase chain reaction was used to detect T. gondii DNA in mice sera 18, 24, 48, 96, and 192 hours post infection (PI. Toxoplama gondii DNA was detected in only one animal infected with BTU2 strain, genotype III (isolated from a dog with neurological signs 18 hours PI. The agent's DNA was not detected in any sample of the other experimental groups. New studies must be carried out to verify the technique sensitivity in researches on this agent's genetic material using sera samples of acute-phase toxoplasmosis patients, especially in cases of immunosuppression.

  20. Experimental Maedi Visna Virus Infection in sheep: a morphological, immunohistochemical and PCR study after three years of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Preziuso

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A morphological, immunohistochemical and polymerase chain reaction (PCR study was performed on eight ewes experimentally infected with an Italian strain of Maedi-Visna Virus (MVV in order to evaluate the lesions and the viral distribution after three years of infection. At the moment of euthanasia, seven sheep were seropositive for MVV, while one sheep in poor body conditions was seronegative since one year. Lungs, pulmonary lymph nodes, udder, supramammary lymph nodes, carpal joints, the CNS, spleen and bone marrow of the eight infected sheep were collected for histology, for immunohistochemical detection of the MVV core protein p28 and for PCR amplification of a 218 bp viral DNA sequence of the pol region. The most common histological findings consisted of interstitial lymphoproliferative pneumonia and lymphoproliferative mastitis of different severity, while no lesions were observed in the CNS. MVV p28 antigen was immunohistochemically labelled in lungs, udder, pulmonary lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow but not in the CNS of all the eight infected sheep. A 218 bp sequence of MVV pol region was detected in lung of a seropositive and of the seroconverted negative sheep. The results suggest that (i MVV causes heterogeneous lesions in homogeneously reared ewes, (ii MVV p28 antigen is detectable not only in inflammed target organs, but also in pulmonary lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow, and (iii immunohistochemistry and PCR are useful methods for Maedi-Visna diagnosis in suspected cases, also when serological tests are negative.

  1. Experimental infection of one-day-old chicks with Salmonella Serotypes Previously isolated from poultry facilities, wild birds, and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E de Sousa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain the high production and export rates achieved by the Brazilian poultry industry, it is necessary to prevent and control certain disease agents, such as Salmonella spp. Using bacterial cultures, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in specimens collected from broiler facilities. Local wild birds were also sampled, as well as the feces of swine housed on the poultry farm. After sample collection, the isolated serotypes were subsequently inoculated into broiler chicks to determine their effects. Positive samples were collected from the following locations in the poultry facilities: poultry litter (S. serotype 4,5,12:R:-; S. Heidelberg; S. Infantis, broiler feces (S. Heidelberg; S. serotype 6,7:R:-; S. serotype 4,5,12:R:-; S. Tennessee, water (S. Glostrup; S. serotype 6,8:d:-;, and lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus found in the litter (S. Tennessee. Among the 36 wild birds captured, S. Heidelberg was isolated from one bird's organs and intestinal contents (Colaptes campestris, and S. Enteritidis was isolated from another bird's intestinal contents (Zenaida auriculata. Salmonella Panama and Salmonella Typhimurium were isolated from swine feces. One-day-old chicks (150 were divided into 10 groups of 15 animals each. Each group was orally inoculated with a previously isolated serotype of Salmonella. Soft stools were observed on the cage floor and around the birds' cloaca between 3 and 12 days post-infection (dpi. The different serotypes of Salmonella used to inoculate the chicks were re-isolated from the spleen, liver, and cecal content samples of the infected birds on 15 and 21 dpi.

  2. Experimental infection with the small intestinal trematode, Haplorchis pumilio, in young dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Sofie; Nguyen, Lan Anh Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2013-01-01

    included as uninfected controls. Faecal examination for eggs was performed twice weekly using a sieving and sedimentation technique. Body temperature and weight of the dogs were measured as was total white blood cells, blood eosinophils and packed cell volume. Subsets of dogs were examined post......Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. Recent studies on the role of domestic animals in the transmission of FZT in Northern Vietnam found that dogs, mainly infected with Haplorchis pumilio, contributed widely to the transmission of FZT. On this background, we...... conducted an experimental infection with H. pumilio to elucidate population dynamics and host reactions in dogs. Eight household-reared dogs (3-6 months old), were each orally infected with 500 H. pumilio metacercariae obtained by artificial digestion of naturally infected fish. Another eight dogs were...

  3. Early weight development of goats experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa N Malone

    Full Text Available Johne's disease is an infectious chronic inflammatory bowel disease in ruminants. The key factor for the management of this disease is an early positive diagnosis. Unfortunately, most diagnostics detect animals with Johne's disease in the clinical stage with positive serology and/or positive fecal cultures. However, for effective management of the disease within herds, it is important to detect infected animals as early as possible. This might only be possible with the help of parameters not specific for Johne's disease but that give an early indication for chronic infections such as weight development. Here we report our findings on the development of total body weight and weight gain during the first six months of goats experimentally infected to induce Johne's disease. Twenty dairy goat kids age 2 to 5 days were included in this study. Goats were divided into two groups: a negative control group and a positive infected group. The weight was obtained weekly throughout the study. Goats of the positive group were infected at the age of seven weeks. We detected significant changes in weight gain and total body weight as early as one week after infection. Differences are significant throughout the six month time period. Weight as a non-specific parameter should be used to monitor infection especially in studies on Johne's disease using the goat model. Our study suggests that goats with Johne's disease have a reduced weight gain and reduced weight when compared with healthy goats of the same age.

  4. Infectivity of DWV associated to flower pollen: experimental evidence of a horizontal transmission route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mazzei

    Full Text Available Deformed wing virus (DWV is a honeybee pathogen whose presence is generally associated with infestation of the colony by the mite Varroa destructor, leading to the onset of infections responsible for the collapse of the bee colony. DWV contaminates bee products such as royal jelly, bee-bread and honey stored within the infected hive. Outside the hive, DWV has been found in pollen loads collected directly from infected as well as uninfected forager bees. It has been shown that the introduction of virus-contaminated pollen into a DWV-free hive results in the production of virus-contaminated food, whose role in the development of infected bees from virus-free eggs has been experimentally demonstrated. The aim of this study was twofold: (i to ascertain the presence of DWV on pollen collected directly from flowers visited by honeybees and then quantify the viral load and (ii determine whether the virus associated with pollen is infective. The results of our investigation provide evidence that DWV is present on pollen sampled directly from visited flowers and that, following injection in individuals belonging to the pollinator species Apis mellifera, it is able to establish an active infection, as indicated by the presence of replicating virus in the head of the injected bees. We also provide the first indication that the pollinator species Osmia cornuta is susceptible to DWV infection.

  5. Whole Genome Sequence Analysis of Salmonella Enteritidis Isolated from Wild Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a foodborne pathogen of global concern because of the high frequency isolated from foods and patients. Draft genomes of 64 S. Enteritidis strains from intestines and spleens of mice were reported. The availability of these genomes provides useful information on genomic dive...

  6. Transcriptomic study of 39 ostreid herpesvirus 1 genes during an experimental infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Amélie; Faury, Nicole; Pépin, Jean-François; Renault, Tristan

    2014-06-01

    Massive mortality outbreaks have been reported in France since 2008 among Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, with the detection of a particular OsHV-1 variant called μVar. Virus infection can be induced in healthy spat in experimental conditions allowing to better understand the disease process, including viral gene expression. Although gene expression of other herpesviruses has been widely studied, we provide the first study following viral gene expression of OsHV-1 over time. In this context, an in vivo transcriptomic study targeting 39 OsHV-1 genes was carried out during an experimental infection of Pacific oyster spat. For the first time, several OsHV-1 mRNAs were detected by real-time PCR at 0 h, 2 h, 4 h, 18 h, 26 h and 42 h post-injection. Several transcripts were detected at 2h post-infection and at 18 h post-infection for all selected ORFs. Quantification of virus gene expression at different times of infection was also carried out using an oyster housekeeping gene, Elongation factor. Developing an OsHV-1-specific reverse transcriptase real time PCR targeting 39 viral gene appears a new tool in terms of diagnosis and can be used to complement viral DNA detection in order to monitor viral replication. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate in eliminating Theileria equi from experimentally infected horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grause, Juanita F; Ueti, Massaro W; Nelson, Jeffrey T; Knowles, Donald P; Kappmeyer, Lowell S; Bunn, Thomas O

    2013-06-01

    Theileria equi, one of the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis, is endemic in many regions of the world but is considered a 'foreign' animal disease in the USA. In an effort to prevent the importation of T. equi, stringent serological screening of horses is practiced prior to entry to the USA. Current regulatory options available where horses are found to be infected include permanent quarantine with or without chemotherapy, repatriation, or euthanasia. Chemotherapeutics that eliminate infection and subsequently transmission risk are critical in the management of infected horses. In this study, the efficacy of the drug imidocarb dipropionate against experimental T. equi infection was assessed. Of nine horses experimentally inoculated with T. equi isolated from an animal previously imported from Peru, six were treated with imidocarb dipropionate after the resolution of the acute phase of the disease. Elimination of the parasite was demonstrated in 5/6 by nested PCR, blood transfusions to naïve horses, and reversion to seronegative status. The findings support the use of this drug as a potential treatment option in controlling outbreaks of T. equi, and also suggest that 'combination testing' using both serological and PCR detection methods are necessary to demonstrate clearance of infection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Imaging experimental infective endocarditis with indium-111-labeled blood cellular components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riba, A.L.; Thakur, M.L.; Gottschalk, A.; Andriole, V.T.; Zaret, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    The capability of radionuclide imaging to detect experimental aortic valve infective endocarditis was assessed with indium-111 ( 111 In)-labeled blood cells. Sequential cardiac imaging and tissue distribution studies were obtained in 17 rabbits with infective endocarditis after administration of 111 In-platelets and in five after 111 In-polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Forty-eight to 72 hours after platelet administration, in vivo imaging demonstrated abnormal 111 In uptake in all animals in the region of the aortic valve in an anatomically distinct pattern. Images of the excised heart showed discrete cardiac uptake conforming to the in vivo image and gross pathological examination. 111 In-platelet uptake in vegetations from the 17 animals averaged 240 +- 41 times greater than that in normal myocardium and 99 +- 15 times greater uptake in blood. In contrast, 111 In-leukocyte cardiac imaging showed no abnormal aortic valve uptake 24 hours after tracer administration and the lesion myocardium activity ratio was only 5 +- 2 (3 +- 1 for lesion/blood activity). Four normal rabbits demonstrated neither positive 111 In-platelet scintigraphs nor abnormal cardiac tissue uptake. Likewise, noncellular 111 In was not concentrated to any significant extent in three animals with infective endocarditis. This study demonstrates that 111 In-platelet, but not leukocyte cardiac imaging, is a sensitive technique for detecting experimental infective endocarditis. The imaging data conform to the cellular pathology of the infective endocarditis vegetation

  9. Metabolomic profiling of faecal extracts from Cryptosporidium parvum infection in experimental mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine S Y Ng Hublin

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a gastrointestinal disease in humans and animals caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium. In healthy individuals, the disease manifests mainly as acute self-limiting diarrhoea, but may be chronic and life threatening for those with compromised immune systems. Control and treatment of the disease is challenged by the lack of sensitive diagnostic tools and broad-spectrum chemotherapy. Metabolomics, or metabolite profiling, is an emerging field of study, which enables characterisation of the end products of regulatory processes in a biological system. Analysis of changes in metabolite patterns reflects changes in biochemical regulation, production and control, and may contribute to understanding the effects of Cryptosporidium infection in the host environment. In the present study, metabolomic analysis of faecal samples from experimentally infected mice was carried out to assess metabolite profiles pertaining to the infection. Gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS carried out on faecal samples from a group of C. parvum infected mice and a group of uninfected control mice detected a mean total of 220 compounds. Multivariate analyses showed distinct differences between the profiles of C. parvum infected mice and uninfected control mice,identifying a total of 40 compounds, or metabolites that contributed most to the variance between the two groups. These metabolites consisted of amino acids (n = 17, carbohydrates (n = 8, lipids (n = 7, organic acids (n = 3 and other various metabolites (n = 5, which showed significant differences in levels of metabolite abundance between the infected and uninfected mice groups (p < 0.05. The metabolites detected in this study as well as the differences in abundance between the C. parvum infected and the uninfected control mice, highlights the effects of the infection on intestinal permeability and the fate of the metabolites as a result of nutrient scavenging by the

  10. Pathogenesis of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected raccoon dogs, foxes, and minks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianjun; Shi, Ning; Sun, Yangang; Martella, Vito; Nikolin, Veljko; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Hailing; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Yan, Xijun

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores and causes a highly contagious disease with severe immunosuppression. The disease severity markedly varies in different species. To investigate the pathogenesis of CDV in raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), fox (Vulpes vulpes) and mink (Neovison vison) species, three groups of CDV sero-negative animals were infected with CDV strain LN(10)1. This CDV strain belongs to the Asia-1 genotype, which is epidemiologically predominant in carnivores in China. CDV infection provoked marked differences in virulence in the three species that were studied. Raccoon dogs developed fever, severe conjunctivitis, and pathological lesions, with 100% (5/5) mortality and with high viral RNA loads in organs within 15 days post infection (dpi). In infected foxes, the onset of the disease was delayed, with 40% (2/5) mortality by 21 dpi. Infected minks developed only mild clinical signs and pathological lesions, and mortality was not observed. Raccoon dogs and foxes showed more severe immune suppression (lymphopenia, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, viremia and low-level virus neutralizing antibodies) than minks. We also observed a distinct pattern of cytokine mRNA transcripts at different times after infection. Decreased IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA responses were evident in the animals with fatal disease, while up-regulation of these cytokines was observed in the animals surviving the infection. Increased TNF-α response was detected in animals with mild or severe clinical signs. Based on the results, we could distinguish three different patterns of disease after experimental CDV infection, e.g. a mild form in minks, a moderate form in foxes and a severe disease in raccoon dogs. The observed differences in susceptibility to CDV could be related to distinct host cytokine profiles. Comparative evaluation of CDV pathogenesis in various animal species is pivotal to generate models suitable for the evaluation of CDV

  11. Cross-Species Infectivity of H3N8 Influenza Virus in an Experimental Infection in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano, Alicia; Foni, Emanuela; Córdoba, Lorena; Baratelli, Massimiliano; Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Bilato, Dania; Martín del Burgo, María Ángeles; Perlin, David S; Martínez, Jorge; Martínez-Orellana, Pamela; Fraile, Lorenzo; Chiapponi, Chiara; Amadori, Massimo; del Real, Gustavo; Montoya, María

    2015-11-01

    Avian influenza A viruses have gained increasing attention due to their ability to cross the species barrier and cause severe disease in humans and other mammal species as pigs. H3 and particularly H3N8 viruses, are highly adaptive since they are found in multiple avian and mammal hosts. H3N8 viruses have not been isolated yet from humans; however, a recent report showed that equine influenza A viruses (IAVs) can be isolated from pigs, although an established infection has not been observed thus far in this host. To gain insight into the possibility of H3N8 avian IAVs to cross the species barrier into pigs, in vitro experiments and an experimental infection in pigs with four H3N8 viruses from different origins (equine, canine, avian, and seal) were performed. As a positive control, an H3N2 swine influenza virus A was used. Although equine and canine viruses hardly replicated in the respiratory systems of pigs, avian and seal viruses replicated substantially and caused detectable lesions in inoculated pigs without previous adaptation. Interestingly, antibodies against hemagglutinin could not be detected after infection by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) test with avian and seal viruses. This phenomenon was observed not only in pigs but also in mice immunized with the same virus strains. Our data indicated that H3N8 IAVs from wild aquatic birds have the potential to cross the species barrier and establish successful infections in pigs that might spread unnoticed using the HAI test as diagnostic tool. Although natural infection of humans with an avian H3N8 influenza A virus has not yet been reported, this influenza A virus subtype has already crossed the species barrier. Therefore, we have examined the potential of H3N8 from canine, equine, avian, and seal origin to productively infect pigs. Our results demonstrated that avian and seal viruses replicated substantially and caused detectable lesions in inoculated pigs without previous adaptation. Surprisingly, we

  12. Phenotypic characterisation of cell populations in the brains of horses experimentally infected with West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcambre, G H; Liu, J; Streit, W J; Shaw, G P J; Vallario, K; Herrington, J; Wenzlow, N; Barr, K L; Long, M T

    2017-11-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito borne member of the Flaviviridae, is one of the most commonly diagnosed agents of viral encephalitis in horses and people worldwide. A cassette of markers for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and an archive of tissues from experimental infections in the horse were used to investigate the equine neuroimmune response to WNV meningoencephalomyelitis to phenotype the early response to WNV infection in the horse. Quantitative analysis using archived tissue from experimentally infected horses. The thalamus and hindbrain from 2 groups of 6 horses were compared and consisted of a culture positive tissues from WNV experimentally horses, in the other, normal horses. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from the thalamus and hindbrain were immunolabeled for microglia, astrocytes, B cells, macrophages/neutrophils, CD3 + T cells. Fresh frozen tissues were immunolabeled for CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocyte cell markers. Cell counts were obtained using a computer software program. Differences, after meeting assumptions of abnormality, were computed using a general linear model with a Tukey test (Phorses, Iba-1 + microglia, CD3 + T lymphocyte and MAC387 + macrophage staining were significantly increased. The T cell response for the WNV-challenged horses was mixed, composed of CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes. A limited astrocyte response was also observed in WNV-challenged horses, and MAC387 + and B cells were the least abundant cell populations. The results of this study were limited by a single collection time post-infection. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of cellular phenotypes is needed for naturally infected horses. Unfortunately, in clinical horses, there is high variability of sampling in terms of days post-infection and tissue handling. The data show that WNV-challenged horses recruit a mixed T cell population at the onset of neurologic disease. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  13. Experimental Infection of Snakes with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola Causes Pathological Changes That Typify Snake Fungal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Lankton, Julia; Werner, Katrien; Falendysz, Elizabeth A; McCurley, Kevin; Blehert, David S

    2015-11-17

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging skin infection of wild snakes in eastern North America. The fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola is frequently associated with the skin lesions that are characteristic of SFD, but a causal relationship between the fungus and the disease has not been established. We experimentally infected captive-bred corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the laboratory with pure cultures of O. ophiodiicola. All snakes in the infected group (n = 8) developed gross and microscopic lesions identical to those observed in wild snakes with SFD; snakes in the control group (n = 7) did not develop skin infections. Furthermore, the same strain of O. ophiodiicola used to inoculate snakes was recovered from lesions of all animals in the infected group, but no fungi were isolated from individuals in the control group. Monitoring progression of lesions throughout the experiment captured a range of presentations of SFD that have been described in wild snakes. The host response to the infection included marked recruitment of granulocytes to sites of fungal invasion, increased frequency of molting, and abnormal behaviors, such as anorexia and resting in conspicuous areas of enclosures. While these responses may help snakes to fight infection, they could also impact host fitness and may contribute to mortality in wild snakes with chronic O. ophiodiicola infection. This work provides a basis for understanding the pathogenicity of O. ophiodiicola and the ecology of SFD by using a model system that incorporates a host species that is easy to procure and maintain in the laboratory. Skin infections in snakes, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), have been reported with increasing frequency in wild snakes in the eastern United States. While most of these infections are associated with the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, there has been no conclusive evidence to implicate this fungus as a primary pathogen. Furthermore, it is not understood why the

  14. Experimental infection of serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus) with European bat lyssavirus type 1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuling, C; Vos, A; Johnson, N; Kaipf, I; Denzinger, A; Neubert, L; Mansfield, K; Hicks, D; Nuñez, A; Tordo, N; Rupprecht, C E; Fooks, A R; Müller, T

    2009-10-01

    The serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) accounts for the vast majority of bat rabies cases in Europe and is considered the main reservoir for European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1, genotype 5). However, so far the disease has not been investigated in its native host under experimental conditions. To assess viral virulence, dissemination and probable means of transmission, captive bats were infected experimentally with an EBLV-1a virus isolated from a naturally infected conspecific from Germany. Twenty-nine wild caught bats were divided into five groups and inoculated by intracranial (i.c.), intramuscular (i.m.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) injection or by intranasal (i.n.) inoculation to mimic the various potential routes of infection. One group of bats was maintained as uninfected controls. Mortality was highest in the i.c.-infected animals, followed by the s.c. and i.m. groups. Incubation periods varied from 7 to 26 days depending on the route of infection. Rabies did not develop in the i.n. group or in the negative-control group. None of the infected bats seroconverted. Viral antigen was detected in more than 50% of the taste buds of an i.c.-infected animal. Shedding of viable virus was measured by virus isolation in cell culture for one bat from the s.c. group at 13 and 14 days post-inoculation, i.e. 7 days before death. In conclusion, it is postulated that s.c. inoculation, in nature caused by bites, may be an efficient way of transmitting EBLV-1 among free-living serotine bats.

  15. Ultrastructural identification of Ehrlich ia sp in an experimentally infected dog in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, N.; Martinez, M.; Arraga Alvarado, C.; Bretana, A.; Pacheco, I.; Comach, G.

    1999-01-01

    This study is the first report made in Venezuela concerning the ultrastructural characteristics of Ehrlich ia sp in mononuclear blood cells from an experimentally infected dog. The animal developed clinical manifestations characteristic of the infection, and typical intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were clearly seen in blood smears stained with modified Giemsa examined by light microscopy. Microorganisms were visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The cytoplasmic inclusions, consisted of membrane-lined vacuole-containing elementary bodies. The organisms were extremely pleomorphic. Elementary bodies were surrounded by two distinct membranes and each was constituted by electro-dense granules. These findings corresponded to the described electron microscopy morphology which characterizes the Ehrlich ia genus

  16. Intestinal colonization of broiler chickens by Campylobacter spp. in an experimental infection study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Vigre, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of poultry meat is considered as one of the main sources of human campylobacteriosis, and there is clearly a need for new surveillance and control measures based on quantitative data on Campylobacter spp. colonization dynamics in broiler chickens. We conducted four experimental...... infection trials, using four isolators during each infection trial to evaluate colonization of individual broiler chickens by Campylobacter jejuni over time. Individual and pooled faecal samples were obtained at days 4, 7 and 12 post-inoculation (p.i.) and caecal samples at day 12 p.i. There were large...

  17. Cranberry juice and combinations of its organic acids are effective against experimental urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Heidi Dorthe; Struve, Carsten; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2017-01-01

    The antibacterial effect of cranberry juice and the organic acids therein on infection by uro28 pathogenic Escherichia coli was studied in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection (UTI). Reduced bacterial counts were found in the bladder (P ... administered singly, did not have any effect in the UTI model. Apparently, the antibacterial effect of the organic acids from cranberry juice on UTI can be obtained by administering a combination of malic acid and either citric or quinic acid. This study show for the first time that cranberry juice reduce E...

  18. Small sarcocysts can be a feature of experimental infections with Sarcocystis neurona merozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Antoinette E; Chaney, Sarah B; Howe, Daniel K; Saville, William J; Reed, Stephen M

    2017-10-15

    Several reports indicate the presence of small tissue cysts associated with Sarcocystis neurona infections. Several failed attempts to develop tissue cysts in potential intermediate host using in vitro derived parasites originally isolated from horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis suggest that the experimental methods to achieve bradyzoites with those isolates was not possible. Those prior studies reported the lack of detectable sarcocysts based on histology and in vivo feeding trials. A recent report of successful production and detection of small sarcocysts triggered us to review archived tissues from earlier experimental infection studies. The retrospective review sought to determine if small sized sarcocysts were not detected due to their relatively smaller size and infrequency as compared to larger sized sarcocysts produced with other isolates in these experimental inoculation trials. Tissues from two prior in vivo inoculation studies, involving in vitro-produced parasites inoculated into laboratory-reared cats and raccoons, were re-examined by immunohistochemistry staining to more easily detect the tissue cysts. In the experimental cat study no small tissue cysts were seen, consistent with the original publication results. However, in the experimental raccoon study, one raccoon inoculated with an EPM-derived isolate, SN-UCD1, had small sarcocysts not reported in the original publication. This retrospective study suggests that much closer scrutiny of tissues, including the use of immunohistochemistry on tissue sections is required to detect the smaller S. neurona sarcocysts associated with the experimental inoculations of the isolates originally derived from horses with EPM. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Studies on vertical transmission of Trichinella spiralis in experimentally infected guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Eliana; Fiel, Cesar; Bernat, Gisele; Muchiut, Sebastián; Steffan, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    An experimental study to enhance knowledge on the capability of Trichenella spiralis to pass from guinea pigs to progeny at different periods of pregnancy or lactation was performed. For this purpose, 18 female adult guinea pigs were inoculated with 100 or 1000 T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML) during early, late gestation and during lactation period. The presence of T. spiralis (ML) in mothers and newborns was studied through enzymatic digestion from muscle samples. ML were observed in 9 of 42 newborn guinea pigs and levels of infection were significantly higher when infections of mothers were done during late gestation (p = 0.0046) with the high infective dose (p = 0.0043). T. spiralis ML were not recovered from any of the newborns from mothers infected in the lactation period. Ten out of 18 infected mothers presented larvae 1 in their mammary glands. Muscle samples from the tongue and the masseter showed the highest larval burdens. These observations confirm previous reports on that ML of T. spiralis are capable to pass through placental tissues to reach and encyst in striated muscle groups of newborn guinea pigs. This study may also reinforce the importance of preventive programs to control trichinellosis in those endemic areas where pregnant women would have high risk of infection.

  20. Experimental infections with Mycoplasma agalactiae identify key factors involved in host-colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Baranowski

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying pathogenic processes in mycoplasma infections are poorly understood, mainly because of limited sequence similarities with classical, bacterial virulence factors. Recently, large-scale transposon mutagenesis in the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae identified the NIF locus, including nifS and nifU, as essential for mycoplasma growth in cell culture, while dispensable in axenic media. To evaluate the importance of this locus in vivo, the infectivity of two knock-out mutants was tested upon experimental infection in the natural host. In this model, the parental PG2 strain was able to establish a systemic infection in lactating ewes, colonizing various body sites such as lymph nodes and the mammary gland, even when inoculated at low doses. In these PG2-infected ewes, we observed over the course of infection (i the development of a specific antibody response and (ii dynamic changes in expression of M. agalactiae surface variable proteins (Vpma, with multiple Vpma profiles co-existing in the same animal. In contrast and despite a sensitive model, none of the knock-out mutants were able to survive and colonize the host. The extreme avirulent phenotype of the two mutants was further supported by the absence of an IgG response in inoculated animals. The exact role of the NIF locus remains to be elucidated but these data demonstrate that it plays a key role in the infectious process of M. agalactiae and most likely of other pathogenic mycoplasma species as many carry closely related homologs.

  1. Experimental Infection and Clearance of Coccidian Parasites in Mercury-Exposed Zebra Finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebers Smith, Jessica H; Cristol, Daniel A; Swaddle, John P

    2018-01-01

    Mercury is a globally distributed, persistent environmental contaminant that affects the health of many taxa. It can suppress the immune system, which often plays a role in defense against parasites. However, there have been few investigations of whether mercury affects the abilities of animals to resist parasitic infection. Here, we exposed zebra finches to a lifetime dietary exposure of methylmercury (1.2 μg/g wet weight) and experimentally infected them with coccidian parasites to examine the effect of methylmercury exposure on parasitic infection. The mercury-exposed birds did not have an altered immune response (heterophil:lymphocyte ratio) nor a reduced ability to clear the infection. However, mercury-exposed birds tended to have higher parasite loads at the time when we expected the greatest immune response (2-3 weeks post-infection). Although mercury did not greatly influence the infection-course of this parasite in captivity, responses may be more accentuated in the wild where birds face additional immune challenges.

  2. Testing the sensitivity of Nested PCR method to detect Aspergillus fumigates in experimentally infected Sputum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.; Soukkaria, S.

    2013-01-01

    Fungal infections caused by Aspergillus species generally are occupying a second place among invasive fungal infections in the world, especially A. fumigatus, which is considered the main cause of invasive Aspergillosis (IA). Although IA rarely infects immunocompetent individuals, however, it can lead to death in immunocompromised patients. Therefore, it is necessary to diagnose the infection early in order to treat the disease efficiently. However, the conventional diagnostic tools, currently used to detect infections, has low sensitivity and reliability. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology distribution as a molecular and high sensitive technology has allowed us to make comparative study between sensitivity of traditional currently used diagnostic method and Nested-PCR, the result of the study of sputum samples that experimentally infected with different concentrations of A.fumigatus spores ramping from 10 to10 6 spore/ml, have high sensitivity and specificity of Nested-PCR in detecting the lower concentrations, comparing with traditional diagnostic method (culture on Sabouraud media) that were negative in all concetrations. (author)

  3. Evolution of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enteritidis (1972–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jermaine Khumalo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the extensive use of antibiotics in livestock production, surveillance revealed an increase in Salmonella resistance to the commonly used antimicrobials in veterinary and public health. This serious threat to health care is further exacerbated by the limited epidemiological information about the common zoonotic agent, Salmonella enteritidis, required to determine antibiotic therapy. The aim was to characterise the antimicrobial resistance patterns of S. enteritidis isolates across different timelines (1972–2005 with accompanying genetic changes being investigated. Thirty-seven stored S. enteritidis isolates were collected from the Central Veterinary Laboratory, Harare, with antimicrobial susceptibility determined against eight antibiotics. Plasmids were isolated to analyse any genetic variation. An overall significant increase in resistance (p < 0.05 to nalidixic acid (0% – 10%, ampicillin (14.3% – 50%, tetracycline (14.3% – 30% and erythromycin (71.4% – 100% was observed across the timeline. However, the highest rates of susceptibility were maintained for gentamicin, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim, kanamycin and chloramphenicol. We report an increase in multidrug resistance (MDR of 14.2% – 50% with an increase in resistotypes and plasmid profiles across the timeline. Eleven plasmid profiles were obtained in the 37 isolates studied with a minority of isolates (21.6%, 8/37 harbouring a 54 kb plasmid, commonly serovar-specific. A concerning increase in antimicrobial resistance to commonly administered drugs was observed across the timeline. The surge in MDR is of great concern and implies the need for consistent antimicrobial stewardship. No correlation was observed between the plasmid and antibiotic profiles.

  4. Experimental infection of snakes with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola causes pathological changes that typify snake fungal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Lankton, Julia S.; Werner, Katrien; Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; McCurley, Kevin; Blehert, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging skin infection of wild snakes in eastern North America. The fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola is frequently associated with the skin lesions that are characteristic of SFD, but a causal relationship between the fungus and the disease has not been established. We experimentally infected captive-bred corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the laboratory with pure cultures of O. ophiodiicola. All snakes in the infected group (n = 8) developed gross and microscopic lesions identical to those observed in wild snakes with SFD; snakes in the control group (n = 7) did not develop skin infections. Furthermore, the same strain of O. ophiodiicola used to inoculate snakes was recovered from lesions of all animals in the infected group, but no fungi were isolated from individuals in the control group. Monitoring progression of lesions throughout the experiment captured a range of presentations of SFD that have been described in wild snakes. The host response to the infection included marked recruitment of granulocytes to sites of fungal invasion, increased frequency of molting, and abnormal behaviors, such as anorexia and resting in conspicuous areas of enclosures. While these responses may help snakes to fight infection, they could also impact host fitness and may contribute to mortality in wild snakes with chronic O. ophiodiicola infection. This work provides a basis for understanding the pathogenicity of O. ophiodiicola and the ecology of SFD by using a model system that incorporates a host species that is easy to procure and maintain in the laboratory.

  5. Cytokine, antibody and proliferative cellular responses elicited by Taenia solium calreticulin upon experimental infection in hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fela Mendlovic

    Full Text Available Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis.

  6. Dose-response effects in an outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mintz, E. D.; Cartter, M. L.; Hadler, J. L.; Wassell, J. T.; Zingeser, J. A.; Tauxe, R. V.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of ingested Salmonella enteritidis (SE) dose on incubation period and on the severity and duration of illness were estimated in a cohort of 169 persons who developed gastroenteritis after eating hollandaise sauce made from grade-A shell eggs. The cohort was divided into three groups based on self-reported dose of sauce ingested. As dose increased, median incubation period decreased (37 h in the low exposure group v. 21 h in the medium exposure group v. 17.5 h in the high exposure ...

  7. Brote por Salmonella enteritidis en trabajadores de un hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez-de la Peña Ma. Eugenia; Higuera-Iglesias Anjarath L.; Huertas-Jiménez Martha A.; Báez-Martínez Rosa; Morales-de León Josefina; Arteaga-Cabello Fernando; Rangel-Frausto Sigfrido; Ponce de León-Rosales Samuel

    2001-01-01

    Objetivo. Describir y determinar las causas de un brote de enfermedad gastrointestinal por Salmonella enteritidis, ocurrido en junio de 1998, entre el personal trabajador de la salud (TS) que labora en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención, en la ciudad de México. Material y métodos. Se incluyó a todo aquel empleado que presentó diarrea o fiebre asociada a síntomas gastrointestinales, a partir del día 8 de junio de ese año, posterior a la ingestión de alimentos en el comedor del hospital (c...

  8. Septic arthritis of the ankle due to Salmonella enteritidis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dineen, Patrick F

    2011-06-01

    Salmonella septic arthritis in healthy, immunocompetent patients is extremely rare. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with a one-day history of painful swelling of his ankle from which was aspirated pus which subsequently grew Salmonella enteritidis. There was no history of trauma or symptoms consistent with Salmonella enterocolitis. Our patient recovered fully after two weeks on intravenous ceftriaxone and six weeks on oral ciprofloxacin. Salmonella is a notifiable disease in the European Union and the United States of America, and is associated with outbreaks as a result of food contamination. The nature of Salmonella arthritis and its appropriate management are outlined.

  9. Experimental infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramis , Antonio; van Amerongen , Geert; van de Bildt , Marco; Leijten , Loneke; Vanderstichel , Raphael; Osterhaus , Albert; Kuiken , Thijs

    2014-01-01

    Historically, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) rarely resulted in infection or clinical disease in wild birds. However, since 2002, disease and mortality from natural HPAIV H5N1 infection have been observed in wild birds including gulls. We performed an experimental HPAIV H5N1 infection of black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) to determine their susceptibility to infection and disease from this virus, pattern of viral shedding, clinical signs, pathological changes a...

  10. Therapy of the experimental infection by Strongyloides venezuelensis in rats with injectable ivermectin or levamizole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Campos

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available For the therapy of human strongyloidiasis, are necessary effective drugs to eliminate both larvae and adult worm parasitism, which may also be used by parenteral route, to obviate the particular conditions presented by many patients. A study based on the experimental infection by Strongyloides venezuelensis in rats was done, administering injectable ivermectin or levamizole. Both drugs were shown to be active, when used in single doses of 0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg of ivermectin, or 26 mg/kg for levamizole. Ivermectin was slightly more effective as far as larval stage of the infection is concerned, and the same happened for levamisole for the adult worm stage. Promising perspectives are visualized to improve the therapy of patients with serious disseminated infection by Strongyloides stercoralis.

  11. Coronative antibody tires in sera of healthy adults and experimentally infected volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradburne, A F; Somerset, B A

    1972-06-01

    Six coronaviruses isolated in the U.S.A. have been inoculated into volunteers and all produced colds. Between 10 and 20% of infected volunteers developed heterologous antibody responses after these and other experimental infections with coronaviruses. The haemagglutination-inhibition test with the OC43 virus strain was found to detect antibody rises after infection with a variety of strains.Studies on normal adult sera taken between 1965 and 1970 revealed a high frequency of neutralizing antibody to one strain (229 E) and a frequency of HI antibody to strain OC43 which fluctuated from year to year. Complement-fixing antibodies to these two viruses were also found, revealing an apparent increase in the activity of coronaviruses in the general population of the U.K., during the winter of 1968-9.

  12. Nutritional Status Driving Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi: Lessons from Experimental Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Malafaia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the scientific knowledge about protein-energy and micronutrient malnutrition in the context of Chagas disease, especially in experimental models. The search of articles was conducted using the electronic databases of SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online, PubMed and MEDLINE published between 1960 and March 2010. It was possible to verify that nutritional deficiencies (protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient malnutrition exert a direct effect on the infection by T. cruzi. However, little is known about the immunological mechanisms involved in the relationship “nutritional deficiencies and infection by T. cruzi”. A hundred years after the discovery of Chagas disease many aspects of this illness still require clarification, including the effects of nutritional deficiencies on immune and pathological mechanisms of T. cruzi infection.

  13. Electronic network for monitoring travellers' diarrhoea and detection of an outbreak caused by Salmonella enteritidis among overseas travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, K; Inouye, S; Okabe, N; Taniguchi, K; Izumiya, H; Watanabe, H; Matsumoto, Y; Yokota, T; Hashimoto, S; Sagara, H

    1999-12-01

    The Traveller's Diarrhoea Network, by which the Infectious Disease Surveillance Center is electronically connected with two major airport quarantine stations and three infectious disease hospitals, was launched in February 1988 in Japan. The data on travellers' diarrhoea detected is reported weekly by e-mail. Two clusters of infection among travellers returning from Italy were reported by two airport quarantine stations at the end of September 1998. A total of 12 salmonella isolates from 2 clusters were examined. All were identified as Salmonella enteritidis, phage type 4 and showed identical banding patterns on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A case-control study showed that the scrambled eggs served at the hotel restaurant in Rome were the likely source of this outbreak. This outbreak could not have been detected promptly and investigated easily without the e-mail network. International exchange of data on travellers' diarrhoea is important for preventing and controlling food-borne illnesses infected abroad.

  14. Excretion of [3H]prednisolone in clinically normal and experimentally infected bovine udders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geleta, J.N.; Shimoda, W.; Mercer, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    The excretion rate of [3H]prednisolone from clinically normal and experimentally infected udders of 10 lactating cows was studied. Each quarter of 6 cows was injected with a single dose of [3H]prednisolone mixed with non-radioactive prednisolone equivalent to 10 mg in 10 ml of peanut oil base. Each of the remaining 4 cows was given 40 mg of nonradioactive prednisolone and [3H]prednisolone in 60% ethanol IV. Control and postadministration samples of blood, milk, and urine were examined for radioactivity. The effects of [3H]prednisolone were evaluated in the same cows, first in clinically normal udders, then 2 weeks later in udders experimentally infected with Streptococcus agalactiae. Absorption and elimination of prednisolone were the same before and after induced infection. Within 3 hours after intramammary injection, 95% of the labeled prednisolone was absorbed systemically, less than 5% of this dose was recovered in milk, and 29% was excreted in urine. After IV injection of [3H]prednisolone, less than 0.2% of the total radioactivity was recovered in milk and less than 46% was excreted in urine. Clinical mastitis induced by S agalactiae was moderate. Circulating blood leukocytes and somatic cells in the milk of normal cows remained essentially unchanged. The leukocyte response to induced infection was rapid in blood and milk. Large numbers of leukocytes were noticed in the milk and a severe leukopenia occurred. Prednisolone treatment did not alter the number of somatic cells in milk or reduce the inflammatory response of experimentally infected cows

  15. Excretion of (3H)prednisolone in clinically normal and experimentally infected bovine udders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geleta, J.N.; Shimoda, W.; Mercer, H.D.

    1984-08-01

    The excretion rate of (3H)prednisolone from clinically normal and experimentally infected udders of 10 lactating cows was studied. Each quarter of 6 cows was injected with a single dose of (3H)prednisolone mixed with non-radioactive prednisolone equivalent to 10 mg in 10 ml of peanut oil base. Each of the remaining 4 cows was given 40 mg of nonradioactive prednisolone and (3H)prednisolone in 60% ethanol IV. Control and postadministration samples of blood, milk, and urine were examined for radioactivity. The effects of (3H)prednisolone were evaluated in the same cows, first in clinically normal udders, then 2 weeks later in udders experimentally infected with Streptococcus agalactiae. Absorption and elimination of prednisolone were the same before and after induced infection. Within 3 hours after intramammary injection, 95% of the labeled prednisolone was absorbed systemically, less than 5% of this dose was recovered in milk, and 29% was excreted in urine. After IV injection of (3H)prednisolone, less than 0.2% of the total radioactivity was recovered in milk and less than 46% was excreted in urine. Clinical mastitis induced by S agalactiae was moderate. Circulating blood leukocytes and somatic cells in the milk of normal cows remained essentially unchanged. The leukocyte response to induced infection was rapid in blood and milk. Large numbers of leukocytes were noticed in the milk and a severe leukopenia occurred. Prednisolone treatment did not alter the number of somatic cells in milk or reduce the inflammatory response of experimentally infected cows.

  16. Anatomopathological study in BALB/c mice brains experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gontijo da Silva

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important diseases of the nervous central system, leading to severe symptoms and, many times, irreversible sequelae. This work demonstrated the main anatomopathological lesions caused by Toxoplasma gondii in brains from experimentally infected BALB/c mice. We analyzed 51 cases of mice that developed toxoplasmosis after experimental infection by intraperitoneal inoculation of blood, amniotic liquid and cerebrospinal fluid from fetuses, newly born children and pregnant women with clinical and laboratory signals of toxoplasmosis. In all experiments where we detected the parasite in mice we also detected pathological lesions in the animal brains with great polymorphism between experiments. Edema was the most found lesion in all cases. Besides, it was possible to demonstrate the inflammatory process in 82.4% of cases and necrosis in 64.7% of cases, in agreement with the literature that describes severe neurological damage in its hosts.

  17. Pathogenesis of reproductive failure induced by Trypanosoma vivax in experimentally infected pregnant ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of experimental infection by Trypanosoma vivax in different stages of pregnancy, determining the pathogenesis of reproductive failure, and confirming transplacental transmission. We used 12 pregnant ewes distributed into four experimental groups: G1, was formed by three ewes infected with T. vivax in the first third of pregnancy (30 days); G2 comprised three infected ewes in the final third of pregnancy (100 days); G3 and G4 were composed of three non-infected ewes with the same gestational period, respectively. Each ewe of G1 and G2 was inoculated with 1.25 × 105 tripomastigotes. Clinical examination, determination of parasitemia, serum biochemistry (albumin, total protein, glucose, cholesterol, and urea), packed cell volume (PCV), serum progesterone, and pathological examination were performed. Placenta, amniotic fluid, blood and tissues from the fetuses and stillbirths were submitted to PCR. Two ewes of G1 (Ewe 1 and 3) presented severe infection and died in the 34th and 35th days post-infection (dpi), respectively; but both fetuses were recovered during necropsy. In G2, Ewe 5 aborted two fetuses on the 130th day (30 dpi) of pregnancy; and Ewe 6 aborted one fetus in the 140th day (40 dpi) of gestation. Ewes 2 and 4 delivered two weak lambs that died five days after birth. Factors possibly involved with the reproductive failure included high parasitemia, fever, low PCV, body score, serum glucose, total protein, cholesterol, and progesterone. Hepatitis, pericarditis, and encephalitis were observed in the aborted fetuses. The presence of T. vivax DNA in the placenta, amniotic fluid, blood, and tissues from the fetuses confirms the transplacental transmission of the parasite. Histological lesion in the fetuses and placenta also suggest the involvement of the parasite in the etiopathogenesis of reproductive failure in ewes. PMID:23289625

  18. Characterising the mucosal and systemic immune responses to experimental human hookworm infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Gaze

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal cytokine response of healthy humans to parasitic helminths has never been reported. We investigated the systemic and mucosal cytokine responses to hookworm infection in experimentally infected, previously hookworm naive individuals from non-endemic areas. We collected both peripheral blood and duodenal biopsies to assess the systemic immune response, as well as the response at the site of adult worm establishment. Our results show that experimental hookworm infection leads to a strong systemic and mucosal Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13 and regulatory (IL-10 and TGF-β response, with some evidence of a Th1 (IFN-γ and IL-2 response. Despite upregulation after patency of both IL-15 and ALDH1A2, a known Th17-inducing combination in inflammatory diseases, we saw no evidence of a Th17 (IL-17 response. Moreover, we observed strong suppression of mucosal IL-23 and upregulation of IL-22 during established hookworm infection, suggesting a potential mechanism by which Th17 responses are suppressed, and highlighting the potential that hookworms and their secreted proteins offer as therapeutics for human inflammatory diseases.

  19. Efficacy of albendazole against Taenia multiceps larvae in experimentally infected goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Sónia M S; Neves, Luis; Pondja, Alberto; Macuamule, Cristiano; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Arboix, Margarita; Cristòfol, Carles; Capece, Bettencourt P S

    2014-12-15

    A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of three therapeutics regimes of albendazole (ABZ) against Taenia multiceps larvae in experimental infected goats. Forty-nine goats experimentally infected with 3000 T. multiceps eggs were selected and randomly divided into treatment or control groups. Treatment with 10mg/kg for 3 days for group 1 (G1), 10mg/kg for group 2 (G2) and 20mg/kg/day for group 3 (G3) was applied 2 months after infection; group 4 (G4) served as a control group. A treatment with doses of 10mg/kg/day for 3 days on group 5 (G5) and group 6 (G6) was used as control, 5 months after the infection. The efficacy of ABZ was assessed as percentage of non-viable cysts which were determined by morphologic characteristics, movement and methyl blue staining technique. The efficacy of ABZ against 2 months old cysts was significantly different from the control and were 90.3% (28/31), 72.7% (8/11) and 73.9% (14/19) for G1, G2 and G3, respectively. No differences were observed in cyst viability between treated and control groups for 5-month old cysts. The results in this study indicate that ABZ is effective in goats against 2-month-old cysts of T. multiceps larva located in tissues outside the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Carbohydrate-rich high-molecular-mass antigens are strongly recognized during experimental Histoplasma capsulatum infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrine Sales Massafera Tristão

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: During histoplasmosis, Histoplasma capsulatum soluble antigens (CFAg can be naturally released by yeast cells. Because CFAg can be specifically targeted during infection, in the present study we investigated CFAg release in experimental murine histoplasmosis, and evaluated the host humoral immune response against high-molecular-mass antigens (hMMAg. >150 kDa, the more immunogenic CFAg fraction. METHODS: Mice were infected with 2.2x10(4 H. capsulatum IMT/HC128 yeast cells. The soluble CFAg, IgG anti-CFAg, IgG anti-hMMAg, and IgG-hMMAg circulating immune complexes (CIC levels were determined by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay, at days 0, 7, 14, and 28 post-infection. RESULTS: We observed a progressive increase in circulating levels of CFAg, IgG anti-CFAg, IgG anti-hMMAg, and IgG-hMMAg CIC after H. capsulatum infection. The hMMAg showed a high percentage of carbohydrates and at least two main immunogenic components. CONCLUSIONS: We verified for the first time that hMMAg from H. capsulatum IMT/HC128 strain induce humoral immune response and lead to CIC formation during experimental histoplasmosis.

  1. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Hall et al. (2012) Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750‐2659.2012.00358.x. Background  Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are l...

  2. Ketoconazole modulates the infectivity of Ichthyophonus sp. (Mesomycetozoa) in vivo in experimentally injected European sea bass

    OpenAIRE

    Hontoria, Francisco; González, Mª Ángeles; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Palenzuela, Oswaldo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro studies have confirmed the inhibitory effect of the azol-derivative ketoconazole (KZ) on the growth of Ichthyophonus, an important pathogen causing epizootics in wild and cultured fish. We evaluated the effect of KZ in vivo in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax experimentally infected with the same Ichthyophonus isolate. Liposomes were used to vehiculate different doses of KZ to increase the effect on Ichthyophonus and lower the toxicity of the drug, and KZ toxicity was assessed ...

  3. Sarcocystis neurona infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor): evidence for natural infection with sarcocysts, transmission of infection to opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and experimental induction of neurologic disease in raccoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Saville, W J; Stanek, J F; Lindsay, D S; Rosenthal, B M; Oglesbee, M J; Rosypal, A C; Njoku, C J; Stich, R W; Kwok, O C; Shen, S K; Hamir, A N; Reed, S M

    2001-10-24

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious neurologic disease of horses in the Americas and Sarcocystis neurona is the most common etiologic agent. The distribution of S. neurona infections follows the geographical distributions of its definitive hosts, opossums (Didelphis virginiana, Didelphis albiventris). Recently, cats and skunks were reported as experimental and armadillos as natural intermediate hosts of S. neurona. In the present report, raccoons (Procyon lotor) were identified as a natural intermediate host of S. neurona. Two laboratory-raised opossums were found to shed S. neurona-like sporocysts after ingesting tongues of naturally-infected raccoons. Interferon-gamma gene knockout (KO) mice fed raccoon-opossum-derived sporocysts developed neurologic signs. S. neurona was identified immunohistochemically in tissues of KO mice fed sporocysts and the parasite was isolated in cell cultures inoculated with infected KO mouse tissues. The DNA obtained from the tongue of a naturally-infected raccoon, brains of KO mice that had neurological signs, and from the organisms recovered in cell cultures inoculated with brains of neurologic KO mice, corresponded to that of S. neurona. Two raccoons fed mature S. neurona sarcocysts did not shed sporocysts in their feces, indicating raccoons are not likely to be its definitive host. Two raccoons fed sporocysts from opossum feces developed clinical illness and S. neurona-associated encephalomyelitis was found in raccoons killed 14 and 22 days after feeding sporocysts; schizonts and merozoites were seen in encephalitic lesions.

  4. Immunodiagnosis of systemic aspergillosis. I. Antigenemia detected by radioimmunoassay in experimental infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, M.H.; Coats-Stephen, M.

    1979-01-01

    Because systemic aspergillosis is difficult to diagnose ante mortem, a study to improve immunodiagnosis was undertaken in a rabbit model of disseminated infection. We found that the predominant humoral response of infected animals was directed against four Aspergillus antigens identified by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. One of these antigens, a cell-wall carbohydrate, was purified by gel-filtration chromatography and was used to develop a radiommunoassay. The sensitivity of this assay was increased by testing for serum-bound antigen as well as for free antigen. When the sensitivity of the RIA was evaluated in the animal model, antigenemia was detected in 78% of 51 rabbits with disseminated infection and ante mortem in 86% of 42 rabbits with lethal infection. By contrast, with immunoprecipitin analysis only eight of 51 rabbits were positive for antigen, and six of 51 rabbits were positive for Aspergillus antibody. The specificity of the RIA was also tested. Negative controls for antigen included sera from 76 normal rabbits and sera from 25 rabbits with systemic candidiasis. The Candida control group is pertinent because 48% of these rabbits had specific Candida antigenemia detected by a mannan RIA. This study demonstrates that Aspergillus antigenemia occurs during the course of experimental disseminated aspergillosis and illustrates the potential of an Aspergillus antigen RIA for sensitive, specific immunodiagnosis of human infections

  5. Experimental infection of cattle, sheep and pigs with 'Hobi'-like pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Lucente, Maria Stella; Sciarretta, Rossana; Moreno, Ana; Armenise, Carlo; Losurdo, Michele; Camero, Michele; Lorusso, Eleonora; Cordioli, Paolo; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-03-23

    To date, limited information is available on the ability of 'Hobi'-like pestiviruses (putative bovine viral diarrhoea 3) to infect and cause disease in animal species traditionally affected by pestiviruses. In order to obtain new insights into host range and pathogenic potential of this atypical pestivirus, BVDV-seronegative calves (n=5), lambs (n=5) and piglets (n=5) were experimentally infected with the European 'Hobi'-like strain Italy-1/10-1, whereas two animals per species served as uninfected controls. Appearance of clinical signs, leukopenia, viremia, viral shedding and seroconversion were monitored for 28 days post-infection. Calves and lambs were successfully infected, displaying respiratory signs (nasal discharge), moderate hyperthermia and leukopenia, viremia and viral shedding through the nasal and faecal routes. Antibody responses were observed in both animal species by ELISA and virus neutralisation assays. In contrast, inoculated piglets did not display any clinical signs nor leukopenia and viral RNA was not detected in any biological samples. Nevertheless, the presence of detectable antibodies by virus neutralisation accounted for a successful, albeit limited infection of these animals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental infection of two South American reservoirs with four distinct strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Dawn M.; McMillan, Katherine; Ellis, Angela E.; Vandeberg, John L.; Champagne, Donald E.; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc), the causative agent of Chagas disease, is a diverse species with 2 primary genotypes, TcI and TcII, with TcII further subdivided into 5 subtypes (IIa–e). This study evaluated infection dynamics of 4 genetically and geographically diverse T. cruzi strains in 2 South American reservoirs, degus (Octodon degus) and grey short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica). Based on prior suggestions of a genotype-host association, we hypothesized that degus (placental) would more readily become infected with TcII strains while short-tailed opossums (marsupial) would be a more competent reservoir for a TcI strain. Individuals (n = 3) of each species were intraperitoneally inoculated with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of TcIIa [North America (NA)-raccoon (Procyon lotor) origin], TcI [NA-Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana)], TcIIb [South America (SA)-human], TcIIe (SA-Triatoma infestans), or both TcI and TcIIa. Parasitaemias in experimentally infected degus peaked earlier (7–14 days post-inoculation (p.i.)) compared with short-tailed opossums (21–84 days p.i.). Additionally, peak parasitaemias were higher in degus; however, the duration of detectable parasitaemias for all strains, except TcIIa, was greater in short-tailed opossums. Infections established in both host species with all genotypes, except for TcIIa, which did not establish a detectable infection in short-tailed opossums. These results indicate that both South American reservoirs support infections with these isolates from North and South America; however, infection dynamics differed with host and parasite strain. PMID:20128943

  7. Plasma thromboxane B2 levels in horses experimentally infected with Strongylus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, H; Reynoldson, J A; Dunsmore, J D

    1989-06-01

    Plasma thromboxane B2 (TXB2) the stable inactive metabolite of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), was measured daily by specific radioimmunoassay in three groups of animals before and after experimental infection with Strongylus vulgaris. Infection of four 'parasite naive' foals produced a typical acute syndrome with intermittent but statistically insignificant rises in TXB2 levels. Interpretation of results was complicated by the presence of a non-septic peritonitis associated with implantation of the foals with electrodes for recording myoelectrical activity. In two foals of similar age, with some natural exposure to S. vulgaris, there was little or no clinical response to infection and increases in TXB2 were absent. Baseline levels were also much lower, indicating that the peritonitis may have affected the results obtained in the first group of foals. Severe mesenteric arteritis was confirmed at necropsy in all six foals. A third group of yearling horses, all with natural exposure to the parasite, were generally resistant to infection. One animal developed arteritis with clinical signs of diarrhoea and mild colic, and also showed intermittent increases in TXB2. The mean plasma TXB2 level after infection was significantly higher than in the control period, although absolute levels were lower than those recorded in the 'parasite naive' foals. Other animals in this group had low TXB2 levels and minimal arteritis was found at necropsy. These results indicate that although infection appears to have an effect on plasma TXB2, the changes are inconsistent and not reliable indicators of the presence of verminous arteritis. The results also confirm the difficulty in establishing infection and the variability of the response in animals with previous exposure.

  8. Experimental infection of duck origin virulent Newcastle disease virus strain in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yabin; Cheng, Xu; Liu, Mei; Shen, Xinyue; Li, Jianmei; Yu, Shengqing; Zou, Jianmin; Ding, Chan

    2014-07-17

    Newcastle disease (ND) caused by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an acute, highly contagious and fatal viral disease affecting most species of birds. Ducks are generally considered to be natural reservoirs or carriers of NDV while being resistant to NDV strains, even those most virulent for chickens; however, natural ND cases in ducks have been gradually increasing in recent years. In the present study, ducks of different breeds and ages were experimentally infected with duck origin virulent NDV strain duck/Jiangsu/JSD0812/2008 (JSD0812) by various routes to investigate the pathogenicity of NDV in ducks. Six breeds (mallard, Gaoyou, Shaoxing, Jinding, Shanma, and Pekin ducks) were infected intramuscularly (IM) with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50. Susceptibility to NDV infection among breeds varied, per morbidity and mortality. Mallard ducks were the most susceptible, and Pekin ducks the most resistant. Fifteen-, 30-, 45-, 60-, and 110-day-old Gaoyou ducks were infected with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50 either IM or intranasally (IN) and intraocularly (IO), and their disease development, viral shedding, and virus tissue distribution were determined. The susceptibility of ducks to NDV infection decreased with age. Most deaths occurred in 15- and 30-day-old ducklings infected IM. Ducks infected IN and IO sometimes exhibited clinical signs, but seldom died. Clinical signs were primarily neurologic. Infected ducks could excrete infectious virus from the pharynx and/or cloaca for a short period, which varied with bird age or inoculation route; the longest period was about 7 days. The rate of virus isolation in tissues from infected ducks was generally low, even in those from dead birds, and it appeared to be unrelated to bird age and infection route. The results confirmed that some of the naturally occurring NDV virulent strains can cause the disease in ducks, and that ducks play an important role in the epidemiology of ND. The

  9. An immunohistochemical study of Flexibacter psychrophilus infection in experimentally and naturally infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evensen, O.; Lorenzen, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    An immunohistochemical method is described for the detection of Flexibacter psychrophilus in formalin-fixed, parafiin-wax-embedded fry of rainbow trout. Rabbit antiserum as well as rainbow trout hyperimmune serum were used in the study. The distribution and tissue localization of the bacterium wa...... are typically found during the chronic stage of the disease....... and experimentally infected fry showed that there was a localization of bacteria in the monocyte-macrophage system, in skin lesions, and in the retina and the choroid gland of the eye. The dermal changes included superficial or deep ulcers extending to the subcutaneous tissue or the musculature accompanied...... by inflammatory cell infiltrates in which polymorphonuclear inflammatory cells were shown to contain the bacterium in the cytoplasm by immunostaining. The eye changes were likewise a common finding in chronic cases with severe inflammatory changes in the retina and with numerous bacteria in inflammatory (mainly...

  10. Experimental Infection with Sporulated Oocysts of Eimeria maxima (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in Broiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Luciana da S.; Pereira, Elder N.; da Silva, Augusta A.; Bentivóglio Costa Silva, Vinícius; Freitas, Fagner L. da C.

    2014-01-01

    Through this study we assessed the metabolic and pathological changes in broilers experimentally infected with oocysts of Eimeria maxima. To perform the experiment, we used 150 broiler strain cooB males, with ten days of age, were randomized according to weight and randomly assigned to two experimental groups: the control group was inoculated with 0.5 mL of distilled water; the infected group inoculated with 0.5 mL of solution containing 5 × 104 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima. The live performance was evaluated on day 0 (day of inoculation), 5°, 10°, 15°, 25°, and 35° dpi, being slaughtered by cervical dislocation, fifteen birds/group. Although the sum in meat production was higher in the control group, the weight of the heart and gizzard of the experimental animals showed no significant difference, while the liver had difference on day 5°, 15°, and 35° dpi. The pathologic evaluation showed congested mucosa and presence of large amounts of mucus at 6 dpi. Therefore, it is concluded that the dose of 5 × 104  E. maxima inoculated in the experimental group was enough to cause harm to the animal organism. PMID:26464925

  11. Molecular diagnosis of Eimeria stiedae in hepatic tissue of experimentally infected rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Khaled M; Arafa, Waleed M; Mousa, Waheed M; Shokier, Khaled A M; Shany, Salama A; Aboelhadid, Shawky M

    2016-10-01

    The early detection of Eimeria stiedae in the hepatic tissue of experimentally infected rabbits was investigated using molecular assay. Forty 6-week-old male New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups. Group A (30 animals) was infected with 2.5 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. stiedae per animal on Day 0 and Group B (10 animals) was used as the uninfected controls. Three animals from Group A and one from Group B were sacrificed at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24 and 27 days post infection (PI). Gross and microscopic post-mortem findings were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the E. stiedae internal transcribed spacer 1 genomic region was conducted on blood, liver tissue, and feces from the Group A experimentally infected animals. Macroscopically, the liver showed irregular yellowish white nodules pathognomonic to E. stiedae infection beginning on Day 15 PI. Hepatomegaly and ascites were obvious from Day 21-24 PI. The presence of different E. stiedae schizonts and gametocytes in the histopathological sections of the biliary epithelium were evident on Day 15 PI. The E. stiedae PCR was first positive in liver tissues on Day 12 and in fecal samples on Day 18 PI, but the blood samples were negative. In conclusion, the PCR can be used for early diagnosis and control of E. stiedae schizonts before shedding of the oocysts in feces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental cross-species infection of common marmosets by titi monkey adenovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixia Yu

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses are DNA viruses that infect a number of vertebrate hosts and are associated with both sporadic and epidemic disease in humans. We previously identified a novel adenovirus, titi monkey adenovirus (TMAdV, as the cause of a fulminant pneumonia outbreak in a colony of titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus at a national primate center in 2009. Serological evidence of infection by TMAdV was also found in a human researcher at the facility and household family member, raising concerns for potential cross-species transmission of the virus. Here we present experimental evidence of cross-species TMAdV infection in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus. Nasal inoculation of a cell cultured-adapted TMAdV strain into three marmosets produced an acute, mild respiratory illness characterized by low-grade fever, reduced activity, anorexia, and sneezing. An increase in virus-specific neutralization antibody titers accompanied the development of clinical signs. Although serially collected nasal swabs were positive for TMAdV for at least 8 days, all 3 infected marmosets spontaneously recovered by day 12 post-inoculation, and persistence of the virus in tissues could not be established. Thus, the pathogenesis of experimental inoculation of TMAdV in common marmosets resembled the mild, self-limiting respiratory infection typically seen in immunocompetent human hosts rather than the rapidly progressive, fatal pneumonia observed in 19 of 23 titi monkeys during the prior 2009 outbreak. These findings further establish the potential for adenovirus cross-species transmission and provide the basis for development of a monkey model useful for assessing the zoonotic potential of adenoviruses.

  13. Histological assessment of granulomas in natural and experimental Schistosoma mansoni infections using whole slide imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia B Amaral

    Full Text Available The pathology of schistosomiasis mansoni, a neglected tropical disease of great clinical and socioeconomic importance, results from the parasite eggs that become trapped in host tissues, particularly in the liver and intestines. Continuous antigenic stimulation from these eggs leads to recruitment of inflammatory cells to the sites of infection with formation of periovular granulomas. These complex structures have variable size and composition and are the most striking histopathological feature of schistosomiasis mansoni. However, evaluation of granulomas by conventional microscopy methods is time-consuming and limited, especially in large-scale studies. Here, we used high resolution Whole Slide Imaging (WSI, which allows fast scanning of entire histological slides, and multiple morphometric evaluations, to assess the granulomatous response elicited in target organs (liver, small and large intestines of two models of schistosomiasis mansoni. One of the advantages of WSI, also termed virtual microscopy, is that it generates images that simultaneously offer high resolution and a wide field of observation. By using a model of natural (Nectomys squamipes, a wild reservoir captured from endemic areas in Brazil and experimental (Swiss mouse infection with Schistosoma mansoni, we provided the first detailed WSI characterization of granulomas and other pathological aspects. WSI and quantitative analyses enabled a fast and reliable assessment of the number, evolutional types, frequency and areas of granulomas and inflammatory infiltrates and revealed that target organs are differentially impacted by inflammatory responses in the natural and experimental infections. Remarkably, high-resolution analysis of individual eosinophils, key cells elicited by this helminthic infection, showed a great difference in eosinophil numbers between the two infections. Moreover, features such as the intestinal egg path and confluent granulomas were uncovered. Thus, WSI may

  14. Toxoplasma gondii: infection natural congenital in cattle and an experimental inoculation of gestating cows with oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gustavo Henrique Nogueira; da Costa, Alvimar José; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; Esper, César Roberto; Santana, Aureo Evangelista

    2011-01-01

    Two studies, of a natural infection and an experimental infection, were performed in order to study congenital transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in cattle. In the first study, 50 fetuses were harvested from gestating cows that were eutanasied at a municipal slaughterhouse in Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, Brazil. In the second study, 11 gestating cows were divided into four groups for inoculation with T. gondii: GI consisted of three cows inoculated with 1.0 × 10(5) oocysts during their first trimester of gestation; GII consisted of three cows inoculated with 1.0 × 10(5) oocysts during their second trimester of gestation; GIII consisted of three cows inoculated with 1.0 × 10(5) oocysts during their last trimester of gestation; and GIV consisted of two control cows, one during its first and the other during its second trimester of gestation. In both studies, the presence of T. gondii was confirmed both indirectly by immunofluorescence assay (IFAT). In the natural infection experiment, 18% (9/50) of the gestating cows were confirmed to have specific antibodies (IFAT--1:64) against T. gondii. The bioassay was able to diagnose the presence of T. gondii in the tissue samples from three calves. In the second experiment, the nine cows from groups I, II and III presented with specific antibodies (IFAT) against T. gondii. In contrast, T. gondii could not be detected by IFAT, histopathological examination or the bioassay in any of the nine calves born to cows experimentally infected with T. gondii oocysts. Based on the results from both studies, we conclude that congenital infection of T. gondii in cattle, while infrequent, does occur naturally. The pathogenicity of the strain of T. gondii may influence the likelihood of this route of transmission. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection and quantification of pestivirus in experimentally infected pregnant ewes and their progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juste Ramón A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Border disease virus (BDV causes important reproductive losses, and eradication strategies focus on the identification and removal of persistently infected animals arising after in uterine infection. BDV infection dynamics were studied in 13 ewes experimentally infected with BDV-4 genotype at 3 phases of pregnancy [days 108 (group A, 76 (group B and 55 (group C] by quantification of viral RNA in blood collected on days -1 to parturition using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR. Viral RNA loads were also measured in blood/foetal fluid and tissue samples from their offspring at lambing (3 foetuses, 7 stillborns, 15 lambs. qRT-PCR results were compared with those obtained by conventional RT-PCR and used to predict persistent infections. Results Viral RNA was detected in the ewes between days 2-15 p.i. The viraemia reached its highest peak between days 6-7 p.i. with a second peak at days 11-12 p.i. qRT-PCR was significantly faster to perform (less than 1 h than conventional RT-PCR and detected BDV RNA in more ewes, being detection more continuous and prolonged in time. The virus was detected in peripheral blood in a higher percentage of lambs than in tissues, where differences in viral genome copies were more marked. Skin and cerebral cortex showed the highest viral RNA loads, and spleen and spinal cord the lowest. High viral RNA loads were observed in several animals in group B and all in group C, infected during middle and early foetal development, respectively, but also in one lamb from group A, infected during late foetal development. Serology and viral genome copy number estimates in blood and tissues were used to establish a quantitative cut-off threshold for transient viraemia. Conclusion Viral RNA quantification showed potential for the discrimination between persistent infections and transient viraemia using single-time point blood sampling and raised questions regarding foetal immune system development and the

  16. Humoral immunity through immunoglobulin M protects mice from an experimental actinomycetoma infection by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Pérez-Rivera, Isabel

    2004-10-01

    An experimental model of infection with Nocardia brasiliensis, used as an example of a facultative intracellular pathogen, was tested. N. brasiliensis was injected into the rear foot pads of BALB/c mice to establish an infection. Within 30 days, infected animals developed a chronic actinomycetoma infection. Batch cultures of N. brasiliensis were used to purify P61, P38, and P24 antigens; P61 is a catalase, and P38 is a protease with strong caseinolytic activity. Active and passive immunizations of BALB/c mice with these three purified soluble antigens were studied. Protection was demonstrated for actively immunized mice. However, immunity lasted only 30 days. Other groups of immunized mice were bled at different times, and their sera were passively transferred to naive recipients that were then infected with N. brasiliensis. Sera collected 5, 6, and 7 days after donor immunization conferred complete, long-lasting protection. The protective effect of passive immunity decreased when sera were collected 2 weeks after donor immunization. However, neither the early sera (1-, 2-, and 3-day sera) nor the later sera (30- or 45-day sera) prevented the infection. Hyperimmune sera with the highest levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to N. brasiliensis antigens did not protect at all. The antigens tested induced two IgM peaks. The first peak was present 3 days after immunization but was not antigen specific and did not transfer protection. The second peak was evident 7 days after immunization, was an IgM response, was antigen specific, and conferred protection. This results clearly demonstrate that IgM antibodies protect the host against a facultative intracellular bacterium.

  17. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia and chickens (Gallus gallus in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota, developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  18. Experimental models of acute infection and Toll-like receptor driven septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferstl, Ruth; Spiller, Stephan; Fichte, Sylvia; Dreher, Stefan; Kirschning, Carsten J

    2009-01-01

    Mainly Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections, but also other infections such as with fungal or viral pathogens, can cause the life-threatening clinical condition of septic shock. Transgression of the host immune response from a local level limited to the pathogen's place of entry to the systemic level is recognised as a major mode of action leading to sepsis. This view has been established upon demonstration of the capacity of specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to elicit symptoms of septic shock upon systemic administration. Immune stimulatory PAMPs are agonists of soluble, cytoplasmic, as well as/or cell membrane-anchored and/or -spanning pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). However, reflection of pathogen-host crosstalk triggering sepsis pathogenesis upon an infection by a host response to challenge with an isolated PAMP is incomplete. Therefore, an experimental model more reflective of pathogen-host interaction requires experimental host confrontation with a specific pathogen in its viable form resulting in a collective stimulation of a variety of specific PRRs. This chapter describes methods to analyse innate pathogen sensing by the host on both a cellular and systemic level.

  19. Fasciola hepatica: comparative metacercarial productions in experimentally-infected Galba truncatula and Pseudosuccinea columella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignoles Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As large numbers of metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica are necessary for research, experimental infections of Galba truncatula and Pseudosuccinea columella with this digenean were carried out to determine the better intermediate host for metacercarial production and, consequently, the most profitable snail for decreasing the cost price of these larvae. Pre-adult snails (4 mm in shell height originating from two populations per lymnaeid species were individually exposed to two or five miracidia, raised at 23 °C and followed for cercarial shedding up to their death. Compared to values noted in G. truncatula, the survival of P. columella on day 30 post-exposure was significantly greater, while the prevalence of F. hepatica infection was significantly lower. In the four P. columella groups, metacercarial production was significantly greater than that noted in the four groups of G. truncatula (347–453 per cercariae-shedding snail versus 163–275, respectively. Apart from one population of G. truncatula, the use of five miracidia per snail at exposure significantly increased the prevalence of F. hepatica in P. columella and the other population of G. truncatula, whereas it did not have any clear effect on the mean number of metacercariae. The use of P. columella for experimental infections with F. hepatica resulted in significantly higher metacercarial production than that noted with G. truncatula, in spite of a lower prevalence for the former lymnaeid. This finding allows for a significant decrease in the cost price of these larvae for commercial production.

  20. Pathology, clinical signs, and tissue distribution of Toxoplasma gondii in experimentally infected reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Émilie Bouchard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite found in vertebrates worldwide for which felids serve as definitive hosts. Despite low densities of felids in northern Canada, Inuit people in some regions show unexpectedly high levels of exposure, possibly through handling and consumption of Arctic wildlife. Free-ranging caribou (Rangifer tarandus are widely harvested for food across the Canadian North, show evidence of seroexposure to T. gondii, and are currently declining in numbers throughout the Arctic. We experimentally infected three captive reindeer (conspecific with caribou with 1000, 5000 or 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii via stomach intubation to assess clinical signs of infection, pathology, and tissue distribution. An unexposed reindeer served as a negative control. Signs of stress, aggression, and depression were noted for the first two weeks following infection. By 4 weeks post infection, all infected reindeer were positive on a modified agglutination test at the highest titer tested (1:200 for antibodies to T. gondii. At 20 weeks post infection, no gross abnormalities were observed on necropsy. Following histopathology and immunohistochemistry, tissue cysts were visualized in the reindeer given the highest and lowest dose of oocysts. Focal pleuritis and alveolitis were associated with respiratory problems in reindeer given the middle dose. DNA of T. gondii was detected following traditional DNA extraction and conventional PCR on 25 mg samples from 17/33 muscles and organs, and by magnetic capture DNA extraction from 100 g samples from all 26 tissues examined. This research demonstrated that reindeer/caribou can serve as intermediate hosts for T. gondii, and that the parasite may be associated with health effects in wildlife. The presence of T. gondii in all tissues tested, many of which are commonly consumed raw, smoked, or dried in northern communities, suggests that caribou may serve as a source of human exposure to T

  1. Experimental Infection and Detection of Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis Bacterium in the American Lobster Homarus americanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz A. Avila-Villa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHPB is an obligated intracellular bacteria causing severe hepatopancreatic damages and mass mortalities in penaeid shrimp. The worldwide distribution of penaeid shrimp as alien species threatens the life cycle of other crustacean species. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of experimentally infecting the American lobster (Homarus americanus with NHPB extracted from shrimp hepatopancreas. Homogenates from infected shrimp were fed by force to lobsters. Other group of lobsters was fed with homogenates of NHPB-free hepatopancreas. After the 15th day from initial inoculation, the presence of NHPB was detected by polymerase chain reaction in feces and hepatopancreas from lobsters inoculated with infected homogenates. Necrotized spots were observed in the surface of lobster hepatopancreas. In contrast, lobsters fed on NHPB-free homogenates resulted negative for NHPB. Evidence suggests the plasticity of NHPB which can infect crustacean from different species and inhabiting diverse latitudes. Considering the results, the American lobster could be a good candidate to maintain available NHPB in vivo.

  2. Experimental Infection and Detection of Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis Bacterium in the American Lobster Homarus americanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Villa, Luz A.; Gollas-Galván, Teresa; Martínez-Porchas, Marcel; Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Hernández-López, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHPB) is an obligated intracellular bacteria causing severe hepatopancreatic damages and mass mortalities in penaeid shrimp. The worldwide distribution of penaeid shrimp as alien species threatens the life cycle of other crustacean species. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of experimentally infecting the American lobster (Homarus americanus) with NHPB extracted from shrimp hepatopancreas. Homogenates from infected shrimp were fed by force to lobsters. Other group of lobsters was fed with homogenates of NHPB-free hepatopancreas. After the 15th day from initial inoculation, the presence of NHPB was detected by polymerase chain reaction in feces and hepatopancreas from lobsters inoculated with infected homogenates. Necrotized spots were observed in the surface of lobster hepatopancreas. In contrast, lobsters fed on NHPB-free homogenates resulted negative for NHPB. Evidence suggests the plasticity of NHPB which can infect crustacean from different species and inhabiting diverse latitudes. Considering the results, the American lobster could be a good candidate to maintain available NHPB in vivo. PMID:22645497

  3. Respiratory disease in ball pythons (Python regius) experimentally infected with ball python nidovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Layton, Marylee L; Ossiboff, Robert J; Parker, John S L; Dubovi, Edward J; Stenglein, Mark D

    2018-04-01

    Circumstantial evidence has linked a new group of nidoviruses with respiratory disease in pythons, lizards, and cattle. We conducted experimental infections in ball pythons (Python regius) to test the hypothesis that ball python nidovirus (BPNV) infection results in respiratory disease. Three ball pythons were inoculated orally and intratracheally with cell culture isolated BPNV and two were sham inoculated. Antemortem choanal, oroesophageal, and cloacal swabs and postmortem tissues of infected snakes were positive for viral RNA, protein, and infectious virus by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot and virus isolation. Clinical signs included oral mucosal reddening, abundant mucus secretions, open-mouthed breathing, and anorexia. Histologic lesions included chronic-active mucinous rhinitis, stomatitis, tracheitis, esophagitis and proliferative interstitial pneumonia. Control snakes remained negative and free of clinical signs throughout the experiment. Our findings establish a causal relationship between nidovirus infection and respiratory disease in ball pythons and shed light on disease progression and transmission. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of wide spectrum anti-helminthic drugs upon Schistosoma mansoni experimentally infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PANCERA Christiane Finardi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Mebendazole, albendazole, levamisole and thiabendazole are well known as active drugs against several nematode species, and against cestodes as well, when the first two drugs are considered. None of the drugs have proven activity, however, against trematodes. We tested the effect of these drugs on the fecal shedding of schistosome eggs and the recovering of adult schistosomes, after portal perfusion in Schistosoma mansoni experimentally infected mice. Balb/c mice infected with 80 S. mansoni cercariae were divided into three groups, each in turn subdivided into four other groups, for each tested drug. The first group was treated with each one of the studied drugs 25 days after S. mansoni infection; the second group was submitted to treatment with each one of the drugs 60 days after infection. Finally, the third group, considered as control, received no treatment. No effect upon fecal shedding of S. mansoni eggs and recovering of schistosomes after portal perfusion was observed when mice were treated with either mebendazole or albendazole. Mice treated with either levamisole or thiabendazole, on the other hand, showed a significant reduction in the recovering of adult schistosomes after portal perfusion, mainly when both drugs were given during the schistosomula evolution period, i.e., 25 days after cercariae penetration, probably due to unspecific immunomodulation

  5. Experimental study of European bat lyssavirus type-2 infection in Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Vos, Ad; Neubert, Larissa; Freuling, Conrad; Mansfield, Karen L; Kaipf, Ingrid; Denzinger, Annette; Hicks, Dan; Núñez, Alex; Franka, Richard; Rupprecht, Charles E; Müller, Thomas; Fooks, Anthony R

    2008-11-01

    European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) can be transmitted from Daubenton's bats to humans and cause rabies. EBLV-2 has been repeatedly isolated from Daubenton's bats in the UK but appears to be present at a low level within the native bat population. This has prompted us to investigate the disease in its natural host under experimental conditions, to assess its virulence, dissemination and likely means of transmission between insectivorous bats. With the exception of direct intracranial inoculation, only one of seven Daubenton's bats inoculated by subdermal inoculation became infected with EBLV-2. Both intramuscular and intranasal inoculation failed to infect the bats. No animal inoculated with EBLV-2 seroconverted during the study period. During infection, virus excretion in saliva (both viral RNA and live virus) was confirmed up to 3 days before the development of rabies. Disease was manifested as a gradual loss of weight prior to the development of paralysis and then death. The highest levels of virus were measured in the brain, with much lower levels of viral genomic RNA detected in the tongue, salivary glands, kidney, lung and heart. These observations are similar to those made in naturally infected Daubenton's bats and this is the first documented report of isolation of EBLV-2 in bat saliva. We conclude that EBLV-2 is most likely transmitted in saliva by a shallow bite.

  6. E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities in rats experimental infected by Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Ferreiro, Laerte; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Tonin, Alexandre A; Ruchel, Jader B; Rezer, João F P; França, Raqueli T; Zimmermann, Carine E P; Leal, Daniela B R; Duarte, Marta M M F; Lopes, Sonia T A; Flores, Mariana M; Fighera, Rafael; Santurio, Janio M

    2014-11-07

    Cryptococcus neoformans, the etiological agent of cryptococcosis, is an opportunistic fungal pathogen of immunocompromised individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activities of E-NTPDase and E-ADA in rats experimentally infected by C. neoformans var. grubii. Adult rats (35) were divided in two groups: 18 for the control group (uninfected) (A), and 17 for the infected group (B). Each group was separated into three sub-groups (A1, A2, A3-B1, B2, B3), and samples were collected on 10, 20, and 30 days post-infection (PI). Leukocyte counts, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IgM, IgG levels, and E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities were analyzed. It was possible to observe that IgG and IgM seric levels of infected rats were significantly elevated (PADA activity had a significant reduction (PADA activity in lymphocytes increased significantly (PADA), concomitantly with an inflammatory response (increased levels of cytokines and immunoglobulins) associated with inflammatory infiltrates and histological lesions in the lung. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Control of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in laying hens by inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines "Controle de Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis em poedeiras comerciais com a utilização de vacinas inativadas"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveiro Caetano de Freitas Neto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis is one of the agents that is responsible for outbreaks of human foodborne salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis and is generally associated with the consumption of poultry products. Inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis cell vaccine is one of the available methods to control Salmonella Enteritidis in breeders and laying hens, however results in terms of efficacy vary. This vaccine has never been tested in Brazil, therefore, the present work was carried out to assess three commercial inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines allowed in Brazil. Four hundred white light variety commercial laying hens were obtained at one-day-of age. At eight weeks old, the birds were divided into four groups with one hundred animals each. Birds from three groups (V1, V2 and V3 received different intramuscular vaccines, followed by a booster dose at 16 weeks of age. Birds from another group (CG were not vaccinated. When the laying hens were 20, 25 and 31 weeks old, 13 from each group were transferred to another room and were challenged by inoculating 2 mL neat culture of Salmonella Enteritidis. On the second day after each challenge, the caecal contents, spleen, liver and ovary of three birds from each group were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Twice a week a cloacal swab of each bird was taken and all eggs laid were examined for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. After four consecutive negative cloacal swabs in all the groups, the birds were sacrificed so as to examine the liver, caecal contents and ovaries. Overall, the inactivated vaccine used in group V3 reduced Salmonella Enteritidis in the feces and eggs. A very small amount of Salmonella was found in the spleen, liver, ovary and caeca of the birds in the four groups during the whole experiment. In general, inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines was able to decrease the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in the birds and in the eggs as well

  8. Experimental infection of South American camelids with bluetongue virus serotype 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Claudia; Eschbaumer, Michael; Rudolf, Miriam; König, Patricia; Keller, Markus; Bauer, Christian; Gauly, Matthias; Grevelding, Christoph G; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2012-01-27

    Bluetongue (BT) is an infectious, non-contagious disease of wild and domestic ruminants. It is caused by bluetongue virus (BTV) and transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. Since 1998, BT has been emerging throughout Europe, threatening not only the naïve ruminant population. Historically, South American camelids (SAC) were considered to be resistant to BT disease. However, recent fatalities related to BTV in captive SAC have raised questions about their role in BTV epidemiology. Data on the susceptibility of SAC to experimental infection with BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) were collected in an animal experiment. Three alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and three llamas (Lama glama) were experimentally infected with BTV-8. They displayed very mild clinical signs. Seroconversion was first measured 6-8 days after infection (dpi) by ELISA, and neutralising antibodies appeared 10-13 dpi. BTV-8 RNA levels in blood were very low, and quickly cleared after seroconversion. However, spleens collected post-mortem were still positive for BTV RNA, over 71 days after the last detection in blood samples. Virus isolation was only possible from blood samples of two alpacas by inoculation of highly sensitive interferon alpha/beta receptor-deficient (IFNAR(-/-)) mice. An in vitro experiment demonstrated that significantly lower amounts of BTV-8 adsorb to SAC blood cells than to bovine blood cells. Although this experiment showed that SAC are generally susceptible to a BTV-8 infection, it indicates that these species play a negligible role in BTV epidemiology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Aspects of resistance to experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi; Aspectos da resistencia a infecao experimental com Trypanosoma cruzi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Viviane Liotti

    2010-07-01

    Chagas disease, a zoonosis caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, has a wide distribution in Latin America and extends from the southern part of the United States to Argentina. A number of 10 million of infected people is estimated and another 25 million exposed to the risk. Although discovered over a century, Chagas disease is still a serious infection that causes great socioeconomic impact, with no effective treatment at the chronic phase and in which, a lack of scientific knowledge can be observed. The main goal of this work was that obtaining and using consomic strain of mice, the resistance could be investigated. Consomic strains were produced by programmed mating, in which the animals were monitored with DNA polymorphic markers, and one of his chromosomes was replaced by his homologue from another strain. As parental, were used, the inbred strains C57BL/6/J Unib with resistant phenotype (donor) and as receiver, the A/JUnib strain, that has a susceptible phenotype. These models were used to produce five consomic strains: for the chromosomes 7 (CSs7), 11 (CSs11), 14 (CSs14), 17 (CSs17) and 19 (CSs19), described by Passos et al. (2003) as important in controlling infection caused by the Y strain of T. cruzi. In experimental testing, the consomics were inoculated intraperitoneally at doses of 10{sup 1}, 10{sup 2}, 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 4} using as control, animals from both parental lines. In all consomics, resistance was higher than that observed in the susceptible parental. In a second protocol, the consomics were mated with scheduled associations and the progenies were challenged with inocula employing increasing doses of trypomastigotes. The resistance observed in this group was also higher than that observed in the parental with susceptible phenotype. The observed results demonstrate that the use of the consomic strains that were produced order to assess the contribution of each chromosome in the resistance, as well as the effects of association between

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation on resistance to experimental infection with Haemonchus contortus in Creole kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambou, J C; Archimède, H; Arquet, R; Mahieu, M; Alexandre, G; González-Garcia, E; Mandonnet, N

    2011-06-10

    The aim of the present study was to test the effect of dietary supplementation on resistance to experimental infection with Haemonchus contortus in Creole kids. One trial with three replicates involved a total of 154 female kids that were chosen from three successive cohorts of the Creole flock of INRA-Gardel in 2007. The kids were placed into four treatments according to the amount of concentrate they received: G0 (no concentrate and a quality Dichantium spp. hay ad libitum, HAY), G1 (HAY+100g commercial concentrate d(-1)), G2 (HAY+200 g commercial concentrate d(-1)), G3 (HAY+300 g commercial concentrate d(-1)). The G0-G3 groups were infected with a single dose of 10,000 H. contortus third stage larvae (L(3)) at Day 0 (D0). Each infected group was comprised of one half resistant and one half susceptible genetically indexed kids. The average breeding values on egg excretion at 11 months of age were distant of 0.70, 0.65, 0.61 and 0.61 genetic standard deviations in G0, G1, G2 and G3, respectively. The faecal egg count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), eosinophilia (EOSI) and dry matter intake (DMI) indices were monitored weekly until 42 days post-infection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was carried out on serum samples to determine the level of IgA anti-H. contortus L(3) crude extracts and adult excretion/secretion products (ESP). The 10,000 L(3) dose received by the kids induced a severe infection: 8000 eggs per gram at the FEC peak, a PCV less than 15% and mortality. Interestingly, the supplemented animals in G3 showed a higher level of EOSI but a lower level of IgA anti-L3 and IgA anti-ESP than non-supplemented animals (G0). Resistant and susceptible kids had significantly different FEC variations within the groups. Susceptible kids had a 1.6 times higher egg output than resistant kids in G0. This difference was not found in the supplemented groups. The results of this study showed that supplementary feeding improved resistance of Creole kids to H. contortus

  11. Experimental canine distemper infection as a means of demonstrating latent effects of subacute lead intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.J.; McLeod, S.

    1976-01-01

    Observations on the response of the body to experimental infection with distemper virus in dogs previously dosed subacutely with lead have demonstrated a latent effect of lead on several body systems. Effects which indicated a relationship to earlier treatment with lead included evidence for stimulation of haemoglobin synthesis, changes to red blood cells resulting in increased destruction, increased vulnerability of the parenchymatous cells of the liver to damage, reduction in the weight of the skeleton and thyroid, an increase in weight of the thymus and brain and histopathological changes in the thymus. 21 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  12. Brazilian avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B: experimental infection of broilers and evaluation of vaccine efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia B. dos Santos; Matheus C. Martini; Helena L. Ferreira; Luciana H.A. da Silva; Paulo A. Fellipe; Fernando R. Spilki; Clarice W. Arns

    2012-01-01

    Santos M.B., Martini M.C., Ferreira H.L., Silva L.H.A., Fellipe P.A., Spilki F.R. & Arns C.W. 2012. Brazilian avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B: experimental infection of broilers and evaluation of vaccine efficacy. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 32(12):1257-1262. Laboratorio de Virologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Rua Monteiro Lobato s/n, Cx. Postal 6109, Campinas, SP 13083-970, Brazil. E-mail: Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a respirator...

  13. Experimental Model of Tuberculosis in the Domestic Goat after Endobronchial Infection with Mycobacterium caprae ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de Val, Bernat; López-Soria, Sergio; Nofrarías, Miquel; Martín, Maite; Vordermeier, H. Martin; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Romera, Nadine; Escobar, Manel; Solanes, David; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Domingo, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Caprine tuberculosis (TB) has increased in recent years, highlighting the need to address the problem the infection poses in goats. Moreover, goats may represent a cheaper alternative for testing of prototype vaccines in large ruminants and humans. With this aim, a Mycobacterium caprae infection model has been developed in goats. Eleven 6-month-old goats were infected by the endobronchial route with 1.5 × 103 CFU, and two other goats were kept as noninfected controls. The animals were monitored for clinical and immunological parameters throughout the experiment. After 14 weeks, the goats were euthanized, and detailed postmortem analysis of lung lesions was performed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and direct observation. The respiratory lymph nodes were also evaluated and cultured for bacteriological analysis. All infected animals were positive in a single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test at 12 weeks postinfection (p.i.). Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) antigen-specific responses were detected from 4 weeks p.i. until the end of the experiment. The humoral response to MPB83 was especially strong at 14 weeks p.i. (13 days after SICCT boost). All infected animals presented severe TB lesions in the lungs and associated lymph nodes. M. caprae was recovered from pulmonary lymph nodes in all inoculated goats. MDCT allowed a precise quantitative measure of TB lesions. Lesions in goats induced by M. caprae appeared to be more severe than those induced in cattle by M. bovis over a similar period of time. The present work proposes a reliable new experimental animal model for a better understanding of caprine tuberculosis and future development of vaccine trials in this and other species. PMID:21880849

  14. Detection of arboviruses and other micro-organisms in experimentally infected mosquitoes using massively parallel sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Hall-Mendelin

    Full Text Available Human disease incidence attributed to arbovirus infection is increasing throughout the world, with effective control interventions limited by issues of sustainability, insecticide resistance and the lack of effective vaccines. Several promising control strategies are currently under development, such as the release of mosquitoes trans-infected with virus-blocking Wolbachia bacteria. Implementation of any control program is dependent on effective virus surveillance and a thorough understanding of virus-vector interactions. Massively parallel sequencing has enormous potential for providing comprehensive genomic information that can be used to assess many aspects of arbovirus ecology, as well as to evaluate novel control strategies. To demonstrate proof-of-principle, we analyzed Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus experimentally infected with dengue, yellow fever or chikungunya viruses. Random amplification was used to prepare sufficient template for sequencing on the Personal Genome Machine. Viral sequences were present in all infected mosquitoes. In addition, in most cases, we were also able to identify the mosquito species and mosquito micro-organisms, including the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia. Importantly, naturally occurring Wolbachia strains could be differentiated from strains that had been trans-infected into the mosquito. The method allowed us to assemble near full-length viral genomes and detect other micro-organisms without prior sequence knowledge, in a single reaction. This is a step toward the application of massively parallel sequencing as an arbovirus surveillance tool. It has the potential to provide insight into virus transmission dynamics, and has applicability to the post-release monitoring of Wolbachia in mosquito populations.

  15. Efficacy of a 60Co irradiated vaccine for experimentally infected calves with dictyocaulus viviparus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurita, Edgar; Paredes, Julio; Fernandez, Ardey

    1991-01-01

    Dictyocaulus viviparus larvae in non-infected stage (L.1) were cultured in vitro to their infective stage (L.3) and were irradiated with 40 Krad from 6 0 C o and used as a vaccine. The oral experimental vaccine dose was 1000 L.3/animal. Three groups were formed with 8 calves in each one: group No. 1 and group No. 2 were vaccinated at 10 weeks of age. Four weeks later group No. 1 was infected with non-irradiated 60 L.3/Kg. of animal weight 'challenge dose'. After four weeks of post-vaccination group No. 2 was revaccinated and 4 weeks later it was infected with the 'challenge dose' as the previous group. Eight calves constituted group No. 3, four in each group; they were infected with only the challenge dose respectively. Information data on respiratory and cardiac frequency, temperature, weight, and L.1 count/g. of feces were obtained from each animal three times a week. After five weeks of post-challenge all animals were slaughtered to observe anatomopathologic lessions in the heart and lungs; the number of adult Dictyocaulus viviparus present in the respiratory tract were search 't'. Student test was used for the statistical analysis. The weight increment difference between animals of group No. 1 related control group was 7Kg.; and 11.25 Kg/animal in group No. 2 respectively. The percentage of protection confered by the vaccine to the subjects in group No. 1 relative to the respectivecontrol group, was 83.2; that for the group No. 2 was 88.5 per cent. Post-morten examination revealed severe anatomopathologic lessions in the control groups; only few lessions were observed in group No. 1 and practically none in group No. 2

  16. Unveiling the oxidative metabolism of Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) experimentally infected to Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Garcia, Juberlan; Mota, Esther Maria; Castro, Rosane Nora; Pontes, Emerson Guedes; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2018-06-01

    For the first time, alterations in the oxidative metabolism of Achatina fulica experimentally infected with different parasite loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis were determined. For this, the hemolymph activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and hexokinase and the glucose concentrations in the hemolymph, as well as the polysaccharide reserves in the digestive gland and cephalopedal mass, were assessed. Additionally, the contents of some carboxylic acids in the hemolymph of infected and uninfected snails were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), permitting a better understanding of the alterations related to the host's oxidative metabolism. As the main results, activation of oxidative pathways, such as the glycolytic pathway, was demonstrated in response to the increase in the activity of hexokinase. This tendency was confirmed by the decrease in the contents of glucose in the hemolymph of parasitized snails, indicating that the infection by A. cantonensis alters the host's metabolism, and that these changes are strongly influenced by the parasite load. This metabolic scenario was accompanied by activation of the anaerobic fermentative metabolism, indicated not only by an increase in the activity of (LDH), but also by a reduction of the content of pyruvic acid and accumulation of lactic acid in the hemolymph of parasitized snails. In this circumstance, maintenance of the host's redox balance occurs through activation of the fermentative pathways, and LDH plays a central role in this process. Together, the results indicate that A. cantonensis infection induces activation of the anaerobic metabolism of A. fulica, characterized not only by the accumulation of lactic acid, but also by a reduction in the pyruvic acid and oxalic acid contents in the hemolymph of the infected snails.

  17. Experimental Infection of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae with Mycobacterium leprae Indicates Potential for Leprosy Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur da Silva Neumann

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae. In 2013 almost 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world. Since the first symptoms take from years to decades to appear, the total number of asymptomatic patients is impossible to predict. Although leprosy is one of the oldest records of human disease, the mechanisms involved with its transmission and epidemiology are still not completely understood. In the present work, we experimentally investigated the hypothesis that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus act as leprosy vectors. By means of real-time PCR quantification of M. leprae 16SrRNA, we found that M. leprae remained viable inside the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus for 20 days after oral infection. In contrast, in the gut of both mosquito species tested, we were not able to detect M. leprae RNA after a similar period of time. Inside the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus digestive tract, M. leprae was initially restricted to the anterior midgut, but gradually moved towards the hindgut, in a time course reminiscent of the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, a well-known pathogen transmitted by this insect. The maintenance of M. leprae infectivity inside the digestive tract of this kissing bug is further supported by successful mice footpad inoculation with feces collected 20 days after infection. We conclude that Rhodnius prolixus defecate infective M. leprae, justifying the evaluation of the presence of M. leprae among sylvatic and domestic kissing bugs in countries endemic for leprosy.

  18. Experimental Infection of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae) with Mycobacterium leprae Indicates Potential for Leprosy Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Arthur da Silva; Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Ferreira, Jéssica da Silva; Fontes, Amanda Nogueira Brum; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Macedo, Rafael Enrique; Oliveira, José Henrique; Teixeira, Raquel Lima de Figueiredo; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Suffys, Philip Noel; Oliveira, Pedro L; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique Ferreira; Lara, Flavio Alves

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae. In 2013 almost 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world. Since the first symptoms take from years to decades to appear, the total number of asymptomatic patients is impossible to predict. Although leprosy is one of the oldest records of human disease, the mechanisms involved with its transmission and epidemiology are still not completely understood. In the present work, we experimentally investigated the hypothesis that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus act as leprosy vectors. By means of real-time PCR quantification of M. leprae 16SrRNA, we found that M. leprae remained viable inside the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus for 20 days after oral infection. In contrast, in the gut of both mosquito species tested, we were not able to detect M. leprae RNA after a similar period of time. Inside the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus digestive tract, M. leprae was initially restricted to the anterior midgut, but gradually moved towards the hindgut, in a time course reminiscent of the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, a well-known pathogen transmitted by this insect. The maintenance of M. leprae infectivity inside the digestive tract of this kissing bug is further supported by successful mice footpad inoculation with feces collected 20 days after infection. We conclude that Rhodnius prolixus defecate infective M. leprae, justifying the evaluation of the presence of M. leprae among sylvatic and domestic kissing bugs in countries endemic for leprosy.

  19. Efficacy of one dose vaccination against experimental infection with two Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, Annelies; Arsenakis, Ioannis; Boyen, Filip; Krejci, Roman; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Maes, Dominiek

    2017-08-29

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is the primary agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs. Pigs are often infected with different M. hyopneumoniae strains. This study assessed the efficacy of vaccination against experimental infection with two genetically different M. hyopneumoniae strains in weaned piglets. At 33 days of age (D0), 45 M. hyopneumoniae-free piglets were randomly assigned to three different groups: 1) negative control group (NCG; n = 5): not vaccinated, not infected, 2) positive control group (PCG; n = 20): not vaccinated, infected, and 3) vaccination group (VG; n = 20): single vaccination with an inactivated whole-cell M. hyopneumoniae vaccine (Hyogen®, Ceva) (D1), infected. The PCG and VG were endotracheally inoculated with 7 × 10 7 CCU in 7 ml of the highly virulent M. hyopneumoniae strain F7.2C (D24) and 7 × 10 7 CCU in 7 ml low virulent strain F1.12A (D25). A respiratory disease score (RDS) was assessed from D24 until D53. At D53 (euthanasia), macroscopic lung lesions (MLL) were scored, log copies of M. hyopneumoniae DNA (qPCR) and IL-1 and IL-6-concentrations (ELISA) on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were determined. The RDS and MLL at euthanasia were respectively 0, 1.20 and 0.55 (P hyopneumoniae strain as the vaccinated pigs coughed significantly less, and showed significantly less lung lesions compared to the non-vaccinated challenged pigs: the vaccinated animals showed a 52.9% lower RDS and 91.0% lower MLL compared to the PCG. In the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected at the necropsy of the vaccinated pigs, a significantly lower amount of M. hyopneumoniae-DNA and a significantly lower IL-1 and IL-6 concentration was found compared to the pigs of the PCG.

  20. Experimental infection of Aphanomyces invadans and susceptibility in seven species of tropical fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh F. Afzali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS causes by aquatic oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans is a dangerous fish disease of a wide range of fresh and brackish water, wild and farmed fish throughout the world. The objective of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of a number of tropical fish species to the EUS and compare the severity of infection between experimental groups. Materials and Methods: Snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch, 1793; snakeskin gourami, Trichopodus pectoralis (Regan, 1910; koi carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758; broadhead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther, 1864; goldfish, Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758; climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792; and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 were challenged by intramuscular injection using zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans (NJM9701. The infected fish skins and muscles were examined for EUS histopathological characteristics, and the results on the severity of lesions and mortality were analyzed using SPSS program. Results: All zoospore-injected fish were shown to be susceptible to the EUS infection except Nile tilapia. Although, the general histopathological pattern was similar in the zoospore-injected group, but there were some variation in granulomatous reaction, that is the presence or absence of giant cells, and time of mortality were detected. The result of statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference between species, (c2=145.11 and p<0.01. Conclusion: Gourami, koi carp, and catfish were demonstrated to be highly susceptible while goldfish and climbing perch were found to be moderately susceptible to the EUS infection. These findings suggested that the cellular response of fish to mycotic infection and granulomatous reaction varied in different fish species, which could not be an indicator of susceptibility or resistant to the EUS itself, although it was shown that the granulation rate and the level of

  1. Age-dependent differences in cytokine and antibody responses after experimental RSV infection in a bovine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, S.N.; Riber, Ulla; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe respiratory disease in both infants and calves. As in humans, bovine RSV (BRSV) infections are most severe in the first 6 months of life. In this study, experimental infection with BRSV was performed in calves aged 1-5, 9-16 or 32-37 weeks. Compared...

  2. Experimental infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ramis (Antonio); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); R. Vanderstichel (R.); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractHistorically, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) rarely resulted in infection or clinical disease in wild birds. However, since 2002, disease and mortality from natural HPAIV H5N1 infection have been observed in wild birds including gulls. We performed an experimental

  3. Comparison of abortion and infection after experimental challenge of pregnant bison and cattle with Brucella abortus strain 2308

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative study was conducted using data from naive bison (n=45) and cattle (n=46) from 8 and 6 studies, respectively, in which a standardized Brucella abortus strain 2308 experimental challenge was administered. The incidence of abortion, fetal infection, uterine or mammary infection, or infec...

  4. Transplacental and oral transmission of wild-type bluetongue virus serotype 8 in cattle after experimental infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backx, A.; Heutink, C.G.; Rooij, van E.M.A.; Rijn, van P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Potential vertical transmission of wild-type bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in cattle was explored in this experiment. We demonstrated transplacental transmission of wild-type BTV-8 in one calf and oral infection with BTV-8 in another calf. Following the experimental BTV-8 infection of seven

  5. Experimental infection and transmission of Leishmania by Lutzomyia cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Aspects of the ecology of parasite-vector interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Falcão de Oliveira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several parameters should be addressed before incriminating a vector for Leishmania transmission. Those may include its ability to become infected by the same Leishmania species found in humans, the degree of attractiveness for reservoirs and humans and capacity to sustain parasite infection under laboratory conditions. This study evaluated the vectorial capacity of Lutzomyia cruzi for Leishmania infantum and gathered information on its ability to harbor L. amazonensis. Laboratory-reared Lu. cruzi were infected experimentally by feeding them on dogs infected naturally with L. infantum and hamsters infected with L. amazonensis. Sand fly attractiveness to dogs and humans was determined using wild caught insects. The expected daily survival of infected Lu. cruzi, the duration of the gonotrophic cycle, and the extrinsic incubation period were also investigated for both parasites. Vector competence was investigated for both Leishmania species. The mean proportion of female sand flies that fed on hosts was 0.40. For L. infantum and L. amazonensis, Lu. cruzi had experimental infection rates of 10.55% and 41.56%, respectively. The extrinsic incubation period was 3 days for both Leishmania species, regardless of the host. Survival expectancy of females infected with L. infantum and L. amazonensis after completing the gonotrophic cycle was 1.32 and 0.43, respectively. There was no association between L. infantum infection and sand fly longevity, but L. amazonensis-infected flies had significantly greater survival probabilities. Furthermore, egg-laying was significantly detrimental to survival. Lu. cruzi was found to be highly attracted to both dogs and humans. After a bloodmeal on experimentally infected hosts, both parasites were able to survive and develop late-stage infections in Lu. cruzi. However, transmission was demonstrated only for L. amazonensis-infected sand flies. In conclusion, Lu. cruzi fulfilled several of the requirements of vectorial

  6. Experimental infection and transmission of Leishmania by Lutzomyia cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae): Aspects of the ecology of parasite-vector interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão de Oliveira, Everton; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Fernandes, Wagner de Souza; Murat, Paula Guerra; Medeiros, Márcio José de; Souza, Alda Izabel; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2017-02-01

    Several parameters should be addressed before incriminating a vector for Leishmania transmission. Those may include its ability to become infected by the same Leishmania species found in humans, the degree of attractiveness for reservoirs and humans and capacity to sustain parasite infection under laboratory conditions. This study evaluated the vectorial capacity of Lutzomyia cruzi for Leishmania infantum and gathered information on its ability to harbor L. amazonensis. Laboratory-reared Lu. cruzi were infected experimentally by feeding them on dogs infected naturally with L. infantum and hamsters infected with L. amazonensis. Sand fly attractiveness to dogs and humans was determined using wild caught insects. The expected daily survival of infected Lu. cruzi, the duration of the gonotrophic cycle, and the extrinsic incubation period were also investigated for both parasites. Vector competence was investigated for both Leishmania species. The mean proportion of female sand flies that fed on hosts was 0.40. For L. infantum and L. amazonensis, Lu. cruzi had experimental infection rates of 10.55% and 41.56%, respectively. The extrinsic incubation period was 3 days for both Leishmania species, regardless of the host. Survival expectancy of females infected with L. infantum and L. amazonensis after completing the gonotrophic cycle was 1.32 and 0.43, respectively. There was no association between L. infantum infection and sand fly longevity, but L. amazonensis-infected flies had significantly greater survival probabilities. Furthermore, egg-laying was significantly detrimental to survival. Lu. cruzi was found to be highly attracted to both dogs and humans. After a bloodmeal on experimentally infected hosts, both parasites were able to survive and develop late-stage infections in Lu. cruzi. However, transmission was demonstrated only for L. amazonensis-infected sand flies. In conclusion, Lu. cruzi fulfilled several of the requirements of vectorial capacity for L. infantum

  7. The nutritional status affects the complete blood count of goats experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cériac, S; Jayles, C; Arquet, R; Feuillet, D; Félicité, Y; Archimède, H; Bambou, J-C

    2017-11-09

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) remains the most important pathogenic constraint of small ruminant production worldwide. The improvement of the host immune response against GIN though breeding for improved animal resistance, vaccination and nutritional supplementation appear as very promising methods. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of four nutritional status differing in protein and energy levels (Hay: 5.1 MJ/Kg of dry matter (DM) and 7.6% of crude protein (CP), Ban: 8.3 MJ/Kg of DM and 7.5% of CP, Soy: 7.6 MJ/Kg of DM and 17.3% of CP, BS: 12.7 MJ/Kg of DM and 7.4% of CP) on the haematological disturbances due to Haemonchus contortus infection in Creole kid goats. No significant effect of the nutritional status was observed for faecal egg count (FEC) but the experimental infection induced haematological disturbances whose intensity and lengthening were dependent on the nutritional status. A transient marked regenerative macrocytic hypochromic anaemia as revealed by a decrease of packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cells (RBC) and hemoglobin and an increase of reticulocytes was observed in all infected groups except Hay. In this latter, the anaemia settled until the end of the experiment. Furthermore, H. contortus induced a thrombocytopenia significantly more pronounced in the group under the lowest nutritional status in term of protein (Hay and Ban). A principal component analysis revealed that the variables that discriminated the nutritional status were the average daily gain (ADG) and the PCV, considered as measures of the level of resilience to H. contortus infection. Moreover, the variables that discriminated infected and non-infected animals were mostly related to the biology of RBC (i.e. size and hemoglobin content) and they were correlated with FEC. The severity and the lengthening of the regenerative anaemia and the thrombocytopenia induced by H. contortus have been affected by the nutritional status. The protein enriched

  8. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION BY Trypanosoma vivax IN GOATS INFECÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL EM CAPRINOS COM Trypanosoma vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco David Nascimento Sousa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Four goats were infected intravenously with 1.0 mL of cattle blood containing about 1.25 x 105 Trypanosoma vivax derived from spontaneous outbreak in cattle at Catolé do Rocha city, Paraíba, Brazil. Other four goats were used as controls. Parasitemia and body temperature were determined daily for 40 days. Animals were weighted each 7 days, and blood samples for blood cells counts were collected each 5 days. It was obtained a sample of liquor from each animal before death; cerebrospinal fluid samples were submitted to biochemical and cytological evaluations, density determination and parasite detection. A positive correlation was found between body temperature and parasitemia in infected animals. These animals presented anemia, leukopenia, hypoglycemia, decreased serum levels of total proteins and cholesterol, and nervous symptoms. Examination of cerebrospinal fluid resulted in decrease of glucose levels and increase in lactate dehydrogenase, cell counts and presence of the parasite. At necropsy it was found pale carcass, generalized infartation of lymphonodes, pulmonary edema, and liquid accumulation of pericardium. Histological changes were characterized by interstitial pneumonia, miocarditis, cardiac fibrosis, meningitis, and encephalitis. All observed changes confirm patogenicity of T. vivax.

    KEY WORDS: Experimental infection, trypanosomiasis, patogenicity.

    Quatro caprinos foram infectados experimentalmente por via intravenosa com 1,0 ml de sangue contendo aproximadamente 1,25 x 105 tripanossomas/ml, utilizando-se um isolado de Trypanosoma vivax de bovinos infectados naturalmente no município de Catolé do Rocha, Paraíba. A parasitemia e a temperatura foram determinadas diariamente durante quarenta dias. A cada cinco dias realizaram-se coletas de sangue para hemograma e análise bioquímica sérica. Antes do

  9. Food poisoning due to Salmonella Enteritidis--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Mamoru; Ago, Kazutoshi; Ago, Mihoko; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Takahito

    2009-04-01

    A male in his early seventies complained of abdominal pain and diarrhea at 7h after ingesting a small piece of gratin from a box lunch prepared by a caterer. He was admitted to a hospital, but died 37 h later. Dozens of people who had eaten the same box lunch also complained of diarrhea. All of them recovered after medical treatment. A later investigation demonstrated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in the gratin from the box lunch. An autopsy revealed very severe typhloenteritis with edema and submucosal hemorrhage. The digestive tract contained fluid contents without foodstuffs. Bacteriological examination revealed SE in the contents of the lower ileum and large intestine. Based on these findings, we concluded that the cause of death was food poisoning due to SE. In this case, ingesting only a small piece of contaminated food caused fatal food poisoning due to SE. These results emphasize the importance of prevention against food poisoning due to Salmonella, particularly SE.

  10. Efficacy of sulfonamides and Baycox(®) against Isospora suis in experimental infections of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Anja; Mundt, Hans-Christian

    2011-12-01

    Sulfonamide treatment of piglets against neonatal coccidiosis has frequently been suggested in the literature. In order to evaluate the efficacy of sulfonamides against experimental Isospora suis infections in suckling piglets (oral infection with 1,500 sporulated oocysts of I. suis per piglet on the fourth day of life), two trials were conducted. In trial I, oral sulfadimidine (group Sulfa-Oral) was applied in doses of 100 mg/kg of body weight (BW) 1 day before infection and 75 mg/kg BW daily for the following 5 days, and sulfamethoxypyrimidine (SMP) was applied parenterally in daily doses of 75 mg/kg BW for the same time period. In trial II, SMP was applied parenterally in doses of 75 mg/kg BW (a) from the day of infection daily for 7 days (SMP-Standard), (b) for 2 days starting on the day of infection (SMP-Early), (c) for 3 days starting 2 days post-infection (d.p.i.; SMP-Middle), (d) for 2 days starting 5 d.p.i. (SMP-Late), and (e) every other day from the day of infection until 6 d.p.i. (SMP-Alternating), as well as (f) orally in doses of 75 mg/kg BW from the day of infection for 7 days (SMP-Oral). The sulfonamide-treated groups were compared to a toltrazuril-treated group (single oral treatment with Baycox® 5% suspension, 20 mg/kg BW 2 d.p.i.) and to a water-treated Control group. Each group consisted of seven to nine piglets. The parameters evaluated were oocyst excretion and fecal consistency/diarrhea from 4 to 15 d.p.i. Sulfa-Oral, SMP-Early, and SMP-Late had no significant effect in reduction of oocyst excretion and diarrhea, whereas treatment for 3-7 days with SMP reduced both parasite shedding and diarrhea significantly. Oral treatment with SMP was comparable to parenteral application. Baycox® in a single application had the most pronounced effect and completely suppressed oocyst excretion and diarrhea during the examination period. It could be shown that repeated application of sulfonamides, provided that the appropriate time period after infection

  11. Dynamics of Pathological and Virological Findings During Experimental Calpox Virus Infection of Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schmitt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental intranasal infection of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus with calpox virus results in fatal disease. Route and dose used for viral inoculation of the test animals mimics the natural transmission of smallpox, thus representing a suitable model to study pathogenesis and to evaluate new vaccines against orthopoxvirus infection. However, the pathogenic mechanisms leading to death are still unclear. Therefore, our study aimed at investigating the kinetics of pathological alterations to clarify the pathogenesis in calpox virus infection. Following intranasal inoculation with two different viral doses, common marmosets were sacrificed on days 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 post inoculation. Collected tissue was screened using histopathology, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and virological assays. Our data suggest that primary replication took place in nasal and bronchial epithelia followed by secondary replication in submandibular lymph nodes and spleen. Parallel to viremia at day 7, virus was detectable in many organs, mainly located in epithelial cells and macrophages, as well as in endothelial cells. Based on the onset of clinical signs, the histological and ultrastructural lesions and the immunohistochemical distribution pattern of the virus, the incubation period was defined to last 11 days, which resembles human smallpox. In conclusion, the data indicate that the calpox model is highly suitable for studying orthopoxvirus-induced disease.

  12. Experimental infection of pigs with two East European variants of Type 1 PRRSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSV) have been divided into Type 1 (European) and Type 2 (North American) viruses. PRRSV are very diverse and Type 1 viruses have even been further divided into subtypes. While Type 1 viruses from Western Europe belong to subtype 1, viruses...... the subtype 1 strains. The aim of this project was to study the infection dynamics and clinical and pathological impact of two east European Type 1 strains. In an experimental trial, infection of pigs with the Russian subtype 2 strain “Ili6” and the Belarusian atypical isolate “Bor59” were compared...... to an early “Lelystad-like” Danish subtype 1 isolate “18794”. Groups of seven pigs of unique high sanitary status were infected with one of the three PRRSV isolates, and a fourth group served as sham-inoculated controls. The pigs were monitored for 24 days, and nasal swabs and blood samples were taken at 0, 3...

  13. Ivermectin: activity against larval Strongylus vulgaris and adult Trichostrongylus axei in experimental infections in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H; Tolliver, S C

    1982-08-01

    Activity of ivermectin, administered IM at the dosage rate of 200 micrograms/kg of body weight, was evaluated in controlled tests against migrating larvae of Strongylus vulgaris and adult Trichostrongylus axei in experimental infections in 6 ponies raised worm-free. Ponies were given 2,190 or 2,400 infective 3rd-stage larvae of S vulgaris at 7 days before treatment and 22,000 or 22,750 infective 3rd-stage larvae of T axei at 42 or 45 days before treatment. Three ponies were given ivermectin plus vehicle, and 3 ponies were given the vehicle only; the ponies were euthanatized 7 or 9 days after treatment. At necropsy, 4th-stage S vulgaris larvae were not recovered from visceral arteries of the 3 ivermectin plus vehicle-treated ponies, but 21 to 40 larvae were recovered from each of the 3 vehicle-treated ponies. Also at necropsy, adult T axei (140 specimens) were recovered from only 1 ot the 3 ivermectin plus vehicle-treated ponies, but 4,610 to 6,410 specimens were found in each of the 3 vehicle-treated ponies. Toxicosis was not observed after treatment.

  14. Vaccine-mediated immune responses to experimental pulmonary Cryptococcus gattii infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K Chaturvedi

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus gattii is a fungal pathogen that can cause life-threatening respiratory and disseminated infections in immune-competent and immune-suppressed individuals. Currently, there are no standardized vaccines against cryptococcosis in humans, underlying an urgent need for effective therapies and/or vaccines. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of intranasal immunization with C. gattii cell wall associated (CW and/or cytoplasmic (CP protein preparations to induce protection against experimental pulmonary C. gattii infection in mice. BALB/c mice immunized with C. gattii CW and/or CP protein preparations exhibited a significant reduction in pulmonary fungal burden and prolonged survival following pulmonary challenge with C. gattii. Protection was associated with significantly increased pro-inflammatory and Th1-type cytokine recall responses, in vitro and increased C. gattii-specific antibody production in immunized mice challenged with C. gattii. A number of immunodominant proteins were identified following immunoblot analysis of C. gattii CW and CP protein preparations using sera from immunized mice. Immunization with a combined CW and CP protein preparation resulted in an early increase in pulmonary T cell infiltrates following challenge with C. gattii. Overall, our studies show that C. gattii CW and CP protein preparations contain antigens that may be included in a subunit vaccine to induce prolonged protection against pulmonary C. gattii infection.

  15. Experimental Cowpox Virus (CPXV) Infections of Bank Voles: Exceptional Clinical Resistance and Variable Reservoir Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Annika; Ulrich, Rainer G; Weber, Saskia; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Keller, Markus; Hoffmann, Donata; Beer, Martin

    2017-12-19

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) is a zoonotic virus and endemic in wild rodent populations in Eurasia. Serological surveys in Europe have reported high prevalence in different vole and mouse species. Here, we report on experimental CPXV infections of bank voles ( Myodes glareolus ) from different evolutionary lineages with a spectrum of CPXV strains. All bank voles, independently of lineage, sex and age, were resistant to clinical signs following CPXV inoculation, and no virus shedding was detected in nasal or buccal swabs. In-contact control animals became only rarely infected. However, depending on the CPXV strain used, inoculated animals seroconverted and viral DNA could be detected preferentially in the upper respiratory tract. The highest antibody titers and virus DNA loads in the lungs were detected after inoculation with two strains from Britain and Finland. We conclude from our experiments that the role of bank voles as an efficient and exclusive CPXV reservoir seems questionable, and that CPXV may be maintained in most regions by other hosts, including other vole species. Further investigations are needed to identify factors that allow and modulate CPXV maintenance in bank voles and other potential reservoirs, which may also influence spill-over infections to accidental hosts.

  16. Experimental infection of Marmota monax with a novel hepatitis A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie-Mei; Li, Li-Li; Xie, Guang-Cheng; Zhang, Cui-Yuan; Ao, Yuan-Yun; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2018-05-01

    To establish an animal model for the newly identified Marmota Himalayana hepatovirus, MHHAV, so as to develop a better understanding of the infection of hepatitis A viruses. Five experimental woodchucks (Marmota monax) were inoculated intravenously with the purified MHHAV from wild woodchuck feces. One animal injected with PBS was defined as a control. Feces and blood were routinely collected. After the animals were subjected to necropsy, different tissues were collected. The presence of viral RNA and negative sense viral RNA was analyzed in all the samples and histopathological and in situ hybridization analysis was performed for the tissues. MHHAV infection caused fever but no severe symptoms or death. Virus was shed in feces beginning at 2 dpi, and MHHAV RNA persisted in feces for ~2 months, with a biphasic increase, and in blood for ~30 days. Viral RNA was detected in all the tissues, with high levels in the liver and spleen. Negative-strand viral RNA was detected only in the liver. Furthermore, the animals showed histological signs of hepatitis at 45 dpi. MHHAV can infect M. monax and is associated with hepatic disease. Therefore, this animal can be used as a model of HAV pathogenesis and to evaluate antiviral and anticancer therapeutics.

  17. Experimental intraocular infection of exotic cockerels with field strain of velogenic Newcastle disease virus in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaila Jonathan Badau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental intraocular (conjunctival infection of exotic cockerels with a new field strain of viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV was conducted to explore the concurrence of some pathological changes with humoral immune responses. After the NDV infection of 4-week-old cockerels, pathologic changes and antibody responses were observed. The clinical signs observed after the artificial inoculation included inappetence, depression, diarrhea, dyspnea, wing and leg paralysis, torticollis and weight loss. Morbidity due to the NDV was 100%, but mortality was 80% by day 18-21 post-infection. Early hyperthermia followed by terminal hypothermia, decreased packed cell volume (PCV, and 231.4 folds peak-antibody response were observed. Necrotic and/or inflammatory lesions were present in the proventriculus, intestine, liver, spleen, kidney and brain. Neurologic and digestive tract perturbations occurred in 10% and 85% of cases, respectively. The disease consistently caused stunted growth, decreased PCV, and necro-inflammatroy lesions concurrent with antibody response, suggesting probable involvement of immune-mediated mechanisms and cell membrane desialylation by viral neuraminidase in the pathogenesis.

  18. [Experimental model of activated Lamblia (Giardia) muris infection in albino mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irikov, O A; Kovalenko, F P

    2007-01-01

    Experimental L. muris infection was reproduced in 100% of the intact albino mice intragastrically given levomycin in an average total dose of 15.88-34.84 or 0.88-1.02 g/kg for 18-34 days. With levomycin administration, the intensity of giardiasis was 1121.6-8540.1 (mean 4830.9) thousand L. muris trophozoites per animal. The total number of trophozoites per animal decreased to 302.2-3481.4 (mean 1546.4) thousand and 28.1-324.0 (mean 109.4) thousand specimens 5-8 and 11-13 days after discontinuation of the antibiotic, respectively. The maximum number of L. muris trophozoites was observed in the proximal and middle portions of the murine small intestine during and after the administration oflevomycin. The highest isolation of cysts was seen 12-14 days after the initiation of administration of the antibiotic. Following 8-10 days of terminations of a course of levomycin therapy the native smear of animal feces showed no Lamblia cysts. In mice with activated infection, the isolation rate of Lamblia cysts was directly related to the intensity of intestinal infection with trophozoites of the parasite.

  19. Experimental Pseudomonas anguilliseptica infection in turbot Psetta maxima (L.: a histopathological and immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Romalde

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infection with Pseudomonas anguilliseptica was performed both by intraperitoneal (i.p. and bath route on juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima in order to evaluate the pathology induced. Turbot was found to be sensitive to i.p. challenge (1.7x106 CFU/fish but no to bath exposure. The i.p. challenge induced septicaemic infection and mortality. Externally, moribund fish showed distended abdomen and pale areas at day 9. The gross pathological internal signs present were abundant ascitic fluid in the peritoneal cavity, pale and enlarged spleen, pale and friable liver, and congestive and dilated gut with yellowish exudates. On histopathological examination, bacterial invasion was common in all the tissues studied but the most prominent pathological changes were observed in gut, spleen and kidney after 7 day with features of necrosis. The immunohistochemical findings support the widespread localization of the bacteria after the i.p. injection since the P. anguilliseptica was detected in spleen from day 1 post injection, in liver, kidney and gut from day 4, in muscle from day 7 and in brain from day 9. The difficulties in infecting healthy fish by bath challenge can be explained by the opportunistic nature of this pathogen.

  20. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Sharma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP, albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1 as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1 suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE.

  1. Is Salvage of Recently Infected Breast Implant After Breast Augmentation or Reconstruction Possible? An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castus, P; Heymans, O; Melin, P; Renwart, L; Henrist, C; Hayton, E; Mordon, S; Leclère, F M

    2018-04-01

    The reinsertion of an infected implant when peri-prosthetic infection occurs early after breast augmentation or breast reconstruction remains controversial. In this experimental study, the authors tried to remove bacteria, and their biofilm, from the colonized surface of breast prostheses, without damaging their integrity. A total of 112 shell samples of silicone breast prostheses, smooth (SPSS) and textured (TPSS), were colonized by S. epidermidis (SE) or S. aureus (SA) strains, all able to produce biofilms. After 15 days, all the samples were removed from the contaminated culture broth and constituted 4 groups of 20 contaminated samples: SPSS/SE (group I), SPSS/SA (group II), TPSS/SE (group III), TPSS/SE (group IV). In another group-group SEM-, 16 colonized samples were used for documentation with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The remaining 16 samples were used to test the limits of detection of the sterility test. All samples of groups I-IV and 8 samples of group SEM were « washed » with a smooth brush in a povidone-iodine bath and rinsed with saline solution. A subset of the washed samples was sent for SEM and the others were immersed in sterile broth and were incubated at 35 °C for 3 weeks (groups I-IV). Fifteen days after contamination, all the samples in groups I-IV were colonized. In the SEM group, SEM images attested to the presence of bacteria in biofilm attached to the shells. After cleaning, SEM did not reveal any bacteria and there was no visible alteration in the outer structure of the shell. Sterility tests performed after decontamination in groups I-IV remained negative for all the samples. Breast prostheses recently contaminated with Staphylococci, frequently involved in peri-prosthetic breast implant infection and capable of producing biofilms, can be efficiently decontaminated by the procedure used in this study. Our decontamination procedure did not alter the surface structure of the prostheses. This decontamination procedure

  2. Detection and distribution of ostreid herpesvirus 1 in experimentally infected Pacific oyster spat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Amélie; Baillon, Laury; Faury, Nicole; Tourbiez, Delphine; Renault, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    High mortality rates are reported in spat and larvae of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and associated with ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) detection in France. Although the viral infection has been experimentally reproduced in oyster larvae and spat, little knowledge is currently available concerning the viral entry and its distribution in organs and tissues. This study compares OsHV-1 DNA and RNA detection and localization in experimentally infected oysters using two virus doses: a low dose that did not induce any mortality and a high dose inducing high mortality. Real time PCR demonstrated significant differences in terms of viral DNA amounts between the two virus doses. RNA transcripts were detected in oysters receiving the highest dose of viral suspension whereas no transcript was observed in oysters injected with the low dose. This study also allowed observing kinetics of viral DNA and RNA detection in different tissues of oyster spat. Finally, viral detection was significantly different in function of tissues (p<0.005), time (p<0.005) with an interaction between tissues and time (p<0.005) for each probe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Tissue Tropism and Pathogenesis in Sheep and Goats following Experimental Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Thang; Boshra, Hani; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Nfon, Charles; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Kara, Pravesh; Chetty, Thireshni; Mather, Arshad; Wallace, David B.; Babiuk, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease which primarily affects small ruminants, causing significant economic losses for the livestock industry in developing countries. It is endemic in Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and the Indian sub-continent. The primary hosts for peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) are goats and sheep; however recent models studying the pathology, disease progression and viremia of PPRV have focused primarily on goat models. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of sheep and goats using a quantitative time-course study. Upon infection with a virulent strain of PPRV, both sheep and goats developed clinical signs and lesions typical of PPR, although sheep displayed milder clinical disease compared to goats. Tissue tropism of PPRV was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Lymph nodes, lymphoid tissue and digestive tract organs were the predominant sites of virus replication. The results presented in this study provide models for the comparative evaluation of PPRV pathogenesis and tissue tropism in both sheep and goats. These models are suitable for the establishment of experimental parameters necessary for the evaluation of vaccines, as well as further studies into PPRV-host interactions. PMID:24498032

  4. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL CHALLENGE STUDY OF FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTION IN PREVIOUSLY FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTED EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) TO ASSESS INFECTION AND SURVIVAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity.

  6. [INTESTINAL FAILURE AND YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS TRANSLOCATION IN THE DEVELOPMENTOF EXPERIMENTAL GENERALIZED INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicherin, I Yu; Pogorelky, I P; Lundovskikh, I A; Darmov, I V; Gorshkov, A S; Shabalina, M R

    2016-01-01

    To determine the value of intestinal failure and translocation of bacteria Y. pseudotuberculosis, and normal intestinal microbiota in the initiation and generalization of infection in experimental pseudotuberculosis in conventional white mice, as well as pathological manifestation of it as a response to the adhesion and colonization of the mucosus membrane by pathogenic bacteria Y. pseudotuberculosis. Experimental models of pseudotuberculosis in conventional white mice used the pathogenic Y. pseudotuberculosis 147 serotype I strain, containing a calcium-dependence plasmid with a molecular weight of 47 MDa. Cultivation of the pseudotuberculosis pathogen given its psychrophilic was performed on Hottinger agar at a temperature of (4-5) °C. The lactobacilli strain L plantarum 8P-A3 was isolated from a lyophilized commercial probiotic Lactobacterin (manufactured by "NPO Microgen", Russia) and used to obtain native culture supernatant fluid of lactobacilli, the composition of which was detected by gas-liquid chromatography with mass-selective detection. Gentamicin for parenteral administration was manufactured by JSC "Biochemist", Russia. Pathomorphological examination was performed on the 4-6th day of the experiment. Fragments of the small intestine, liver, kidneys, and lungs from dead animals were chosen for examination. Tissues were fixed in 10% neutral formalin, dehydrated in isopropanol and embedded in paraffin. Preparations were stained with Ehrlich hematoxylin and eosin, examined on the microscope "Mikmed-2" (JSC "LOMO", Russia) under magnification x 200-x1000. Statistical processing of the experimental results was carried out according to the method of Kerber in modification of I.P. Ashmarin and A.A. Vorobyov. The role of intestinal failure and translocation of bacteria Y. pseudotuberculosis, and normal intestinal microbiota in the initiation and generalization of infection in animals has been found. It has been proved that the oral administration of supernatant

  7. The nonstructural proteins of Nipah virus play a key role in pathogenicity in experimentally infected animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misako Yoneda

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV P gene encodes P protein and three accessory proteins (V, C and W. It has been reported that all four P gene products have IFN antagonist activity when the proteins were transiently expressed. However, the role of those accessory proteins in natural infection with NiV remains unknown. We generated recombinant NiVs lacking V, C or W protein, rNiV(V-, rNiV(C-, and rNiV(W-, respectively, to analyze the functions of these proteins in infected cells and the implications in in vivo pathogenicity. All the recombinants grew well in cell culture, although the maximum titers of rNiV(V- and rNiV(C- were lower than the other recombinants. The rNiV(V-, rNiV(C- and rNiV(W- suppressed the IFN response as well as the parental rNiV, thereby indicating that the lack of each accessory protein does not significantly affect the inhibition of IFN signaling in infected cells. In experimentally infected golden hamsters, rNiV(V- and rNiV(C- but not the rNiV(W- virus showed a significant reduction in virulence. These results suggest that V and C proteins play key roles in NiV pathogenicity, and the roles are independent of their IFN-antagonist activity. This is the first report that identifies the molecular determinants of NiV in pathogenicity in vivo.

  8. [Five steps to decreasing nosocomial infections in large immature premature infants: A quasi-experimental study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, Ana; Leante Castellanos, José Luis; Fuentes Gutiérrez, Carmen; Lloreda García, José María; Fernández Fructuoso, José Ramón; Gómez Santos, Elisabet; García González, Verónica

    2017-07-01

    An evaluation is made of the impact of a series of five interventions on the incidence of hospital-related infections in a level iii neonatal unit. Quasi-experimental, pre-post intervention study, which included preterm infants weighing 1,500g at birth or delivered at <32 weeks gestation, admitted in the 12 months before and after the measures were implemented (January 2014). The measures consisted of: optimising hand washing, following a protocol for insertion and handling of central intravenous catheters, encouraging breastfeeding; applying a protocol for rational antibiotic use, and establishing a surveillance system for multi-resistant bacteria. The primary endpoint was to assess the incidence of hospital-acquired infections before and after implementing the interventions. Thirty-three matched patients were included in each period. There was an incidence of 8.7 and 2.7 hospital-related infections/1,000 hospital stay days in the pre- and post-intervention periods, respectively (P<.05). Additionally, patients in the treatment group showed a statistically-significant decrease in days on mechanical ventilation, use of blood products, and vasoactive drugs. The strategy, based on implementing five specific measures in a unit with a high rate of hospital-related infections, proved effective in reducing their incidence. This reduction could contribute to lowering the use of mechanical ventilation, blood products, and vasoactive drugs. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Immune responsiveness associated with experimental Encephalitozoon intestinalis infection in immunocompetent rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omalu ICJ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Microsporidial infections have been recognized as an increasingly important infection in immuncompromised patients, particularly those infected with HIV/AIDS. This study was designed to study immune responses associated with experimental Encephalitozoon intestinalis infection in immunocompetent rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four Rats in 3 groups, A (Control, B (Intraperitoneal and C (Oral were given injections of 0.5 ml of 2 x 10 6 of purified spores of Encephalitotozoon intestinalis spores and were observed for serum specific IgG for 21 days using both direct and indirect ELISA. Results: In indirect ELISA, specific lgG were detected on days 7, 14 and 21 for the group B rats and on day 21 for group C and in direct ELISA method, specific lgG were detected in-group B rats on days 7 and 21, for group C rats on day 21 only, while in the control rats, specific lgG were not detected. There was no significant difference between the direct and indirect methods (df=1, X 2 , P>0.05. E. intestinalis was observed in stool samples of rats in 1/12 (08.33% on days 14 and 21 in group B, and in 4/10 (33.33%, 3/10 (25.00% and 2/10 (16.67% on days 7, 14 and 21 respectively in group C. In group A, which is the control rats, no microsporidia were observed on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. Conclusions: There were no changes in the T-lymphocyte counts of rats prior to and after inoculation with spores. Extensive lesions were observed along the intestinal walls especially on the middle and lower sections of group C rats only.

  10. Ketoconazole modulates the infectivity of Ichthyophonus sp. (Mesomycetozoa) in vivo in experimentally injected European sea bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontoria, Francisco; González, Ma Angeles; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Palenzuela, Oswaldo; Alvarez-Pellitero, Pilar

    2013-09-03

    In vitro studies have confirmed the inhibitory effect of the azol-derivative ketoconazole (KZ) on the growth of Ichthyophonus, an important pathogen causing epizootics in wild and cultured fish. We evaluated the effect of KZ in vivo in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax experimentally infected with the same Ichthyophonus isolate. Liposomes were used to vehiculate different doses of KZ to increase the effect on Ichthyophonus and lower the toxicity of the drug, and KZ toxicity was assessed in cultured sea bass juveniles. We also studied the effect of liposome-vehiculated KZ included in medicated food on ichthyophoniasis. KZ causes clear toxic effects in D. labrax juveniles at doses >80 mg kg-1, apparent in the reduced survival of fish and histological alterations to livers, kidneys and spleens. Fish injected with Ichthyophonus and treated with KZ dosages of ≤80 mg kg-1 d-1 presented lower ichthyophoniasis prevalence, fewer organs infected per fish, and fewer spores in the affected organs than the untreated fish. KZ seems to delay the onset of infection, but cannot stop further progression once established. However, this behaviour is not clearly reflected in the biometric and haematological data collected from these fish. We hypothesise that KZ's delaying effect would increase, if lower infective doses (more similar to natural situations) were used. The drug administration vehicle (liposomes vs. emulsions) did not affect the results. Our data confirm the potential utility of KZ in treating ichthyophoniasis and reveal its low toxicity for sea bass. Nevertheless, the optimal dose and appropriate application protocol remain to be determined.

  11. Experimental gonococcal infection in male volunteers: Cumulative experience with Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains FA1090 and MS11mkC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Metzgar Hobbs

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infection of male volunteers with Neisseria gonorrhoeae is safe and reproduces the clinical features of naturally acquired gonococcal urethritis. Human inoculation studies have helped define the natural history of experimental infection with two well-characterized strains of N. gonorrhoeae, FA1090 and MS11mkC. The human model has proved useful for testing the importance of putative gonococcal virulence factors for urethral infection in men. Studies with isogenic mutants have improved our understanding of the requirements for gonococcal LOS structures, pili, opacity proteins, IgA1 protease and the ability of infecting organisms to obtain iron from human transferrin and lactoferrin during uncomplicated urethritis. The model also presents opportunities to examine innate host immune responses that may be exploited or improved in development and testing of gonococcal vaccines. Here we review results to date with human experimental gonorrhea.

  12. Effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in experimental primary and secondary endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennert, Christian; Feldmann, Katharina; Haamann, Edwina; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Follo, Marie; Wrbas, Karl-Thomas; Hellwig, Elmar; Altenburger, Markus J

    2014-11-04

    To determine the antibacterial effect of photodynamic Therapy on Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilms in experimentally infected human root canals in primary infections and endodontic retreatments. One hundred and sixty single-rooted extracted teeth with one root canal were prepared using ProTaper instruments. Seventy specimens were left without root canal filling and autoclaved. The root canals of another 70 specimens were filled with Thermafil and AH Plus and the root canal fillings were removed after 24 hours using ProTaper D files and plasma sterilized. The specimens were infected with a clinical isolate of E. faecalis for 72 hours. Samples were taken using sterile paper points to determine the presence of E. faecalis in the root canals. The specimens were randomly divided into groups according to their treatment with 20 teeth each and a control. In the PDT group the teeth were treated using PDT, consisting of the photosensitizer toluidine blue and the PDT light source at 635 nm. In the NaOCl (sodium hypochlorite) group the root canals were rinsed with 10 mL of 3% NaOCl. In the NaOCl-PDT group the root canals were rinsed with 10 mL of 3% of sodium hypochlorite and then treated with PDT. Samples were taken after treatments using sterile paper points. Additionally, remaining root canal filling material was recovered from the root canal walls. Survival fractions of the samples were calculated by counting colony-forming units. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to the data to assess the effect of different treatment techniques. Antimicrobial treatment of root canals caused a significant reduction of bacterial load in all groups. NaOCl irrigation eliminated E. faecalis most effectively. PDT alone was less effective compared to NaOCl irrigation and the combination of NaOCl irrigation and PDT. CFU levels recovered from the filling material after NaOCl irrigation of the root canals were 10fold higher compared to PDT and the combination of Na

  13. Experimental infection with Escherichia coli 0149 : F4ac in weaned piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gerda M.; Frydendahl, Kai; Svendsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    adhesion test made after slaughter of piglets. However, in an experimental infection study with the purpose to obtain diarrhoeic piglets, it would be an advantage to test for susceptibility prior to experimentation. The Mucin 4 gene on porcine chromosome 13 has been proposed as a candidate gene...... for the production of the specific ETEC F4ab/ac receptor, and a DNA marker-based test has been developed to allow genotyping for ETEC F4ab/ac resistance/susceptibility [Jorgensen, C.B., Cirera, S., Archibald, A.L., Anderson, L., Fredholm, M., Edfors-Lilja, I., 2004. Porcine polymorphisms and methods for detecting...... them. International application published under the patent cooperation treaty (PCT). PCT/DK2003/000807 or WO2004/048606-A2]. The aim of this study was to test an experimental model for ETEC O149:F4ac-induced diarrhoea in piglets, selected for susceptibility towards ETEC O149:F4ac adhesion prior...

  14. Experimental Oral Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1 Co-infection in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meropi Aravantinou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2 similarly initiate infection in mucosal epithelia and establish lifelong neuronal latency. Anogenital HSV-2 infection augments the risk for sexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission and is associated with higher HIV viral loads. However, whether oral HSV-1 infection contributes to oral HIV susceptibility, viremia, or oral complications of HIV infection is unknown. Appropriate non-human primate (NHP models would facilitate this investigation, yet there are no published studies of HSV-1/SIV co-infection in NHPs. Thus, we performed a pilot study for an oral HSV-1 infection model in SIV-infected rhesus macaques to describe the feasibility of the modeling and resultant immunological changes. Three SIV-infected, clinically healthy macaques became HSV-1-infected by inoculation with 4 × 108 pfu HSV-1 McKrae on buccal, tongue, gingiva, and tonsils after gentle abrasion. HSV-1 DNA was shed in oral swabs for up to 21 days, and shedding recurred in association with intra-oral lesions after periods of no shedding during 56 days of follow up. HSV-1 DNA was detected in explant cultures of trigeminal ganglia collected at euthanasia on day 56. In the macaque with lowest baseline SIV viremia, SIV plasma RNA increased following HSV-1 infection. One macaque exhibited an acute pro-inflammatory response, and all three animals experienced T cell activation and mobilization in blood. However, T cell and antibody responses to HSV-1 were low and atypical. Through rigorous assessesments, this study finds that the virulent HSV-1 strain McKrae resulted in a low level HSV-1 infection that elicited modest immune responses and transiently modulated SIV infection.

  15. Genetic diversity of human isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakeri, S A; Yasin, R M; Koh, Y T; Puthucheary, S D; Thong, K L

    2003-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine clonal relationship and genetic diversity of the human strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolated from 1995 to 2002 from different parts of Malaysia. Antimicrobial susceptibility test, plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were applied to analyse 65 human isolates of S. Enteritidis obtained over an eight year period from different parts of Malaysia. Four nonhuman isolates were included for comparison. A total of 14 distinct XbaI-pulsed-field profiles (PFPs) were observed, although a single PFP X1 was predominant and this particular clone was found to be endemic in Malaysia. The incidence of drug resistant S. Enteritidis remained relatively low with only 37% of the strains analysed being resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. All except one resistant strain carried at least one plasmid ranging in size from 3.7 to 62 MDa giving nine plasmid profiles. The three isolates from raw milk and one from well-water had similar PFPs to that of the human isolates. Salmonella Enteritidis strains were more diverse than was previously thought. Fourteen subtypes were noted although one predominant clone persisted in Malaysia. The combination of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, plasmid profiling and antibiograms provided additional discrimination to the highly clonal strains of S. Enteritidis. This is the first report to assess the genotypes of the predominant clinical S. Enteritidis in different parts of the country. As S. Enteritidis is highly endemic in Malaysia, the data generated would be useful for tracing the source during outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the study area.

  16. Cholinesterase as inflammatory markers in a experimental infection by Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio M. Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of cholinesterases as an inflammatory marker in acute and chronic infection by Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits experimentally infected. Twelve adult female New Zealand rabbits were used and divided into two groups with 6 animals each: control group (rabbits 1-6 and infected group (rabbits 7-12. Infected group received intraperitoneally 0.5 mL of blood from a rat containing 108 parasites per animal. Blood samples used for cholinesterases evaluation were collected on days 0, 2, 7, 12, 27, 42, 57, 87, 102 and 118 days post-inoculation (PI. Increased activity (P0.05 was observed in the encephalic structures. The increased activities of AChE and BChE probably have a pro-inflammatory purpose, attempting to reduce the concentration of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter which has an anti-inflammatory property. Therefore, cholinesterase may be inflammatory markers in infection with T. evansi in rabbits.O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar o papel das colinesterases como marcadores inflamatórios nas fases aguda e crônica da infecção por T. evansi em coelhos infectados experimentalmente. Foram utilizados 12 coelhos adultos, fêmeas, da raça Nova Zelândia, divididos em dois grupos: um grupo controle, com seis animais (coelhos 1-6, e um grupo infectado, com seis animais (coelhos 7-12. Os animais pertencentes ao grupo infectados receberam, pela via intraperitoneal, 0,5 mL de sangue de rato contendo 108 tripanossomas por animal. Amostras do sangue utilizado para avaliação das colinesterases foram coletadas nos dias 0, 2, 7, 12, 27, 42, 57, 87, 102 e 118 pós-inoculação (PI. Aumento (P0,05 foi observada nas estruturas encefálicas. O aumento de atividade da AChE e BChE provavelmente tenha finalidade pró-inflamatória, a fim de reduzir as concentrações de acetilcolina, neurotransmissor que apresenta propriedade anti-inflamatória. Portanto, as colinesterases podem ser marcadores inflamatórios na infec

  17. The effect of fermentable carbohydrates on experimental swine dysentery and whip worm infections in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lisbeth E.; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2007-01-01

    ingredients were composed. Both diets were based on triticale and barley and supplemented with either rape seed cake (Diet 1) or dried chicory root and sweet lupins (Diet 2). The study had a three-factorial design, with eight groups of pigs receiving Diet I or Diet 2, +/- B. hyodysenteriae, and +/- T suis......An experiment was conducted to study the effect of diets with contrasting fermentability in the large intestine on experimental infections with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, and the whip worm, Trichuris suis, in pigs. Two diets with organically grown....... Pigs fed Diet 2 and challenged with B. hyodysenteriae did not develop swine dysentery and B. hyodysenteriae was not demonstrated in any of the pigs during the study. In contrast, 94% of the B. hyodysenteriae challenged pigs fed Diet I showed clinical symptoms of swine dysentery and all the pigs were...

  18. Evaluation of tulathromycin for the treatment of pneumonia following experimental infection of swine with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie, Jo; Morgan, Jeremy H; Nanjiani, Ian A; Sherington, John; Rowan, Tim G; Sunderland, Simon J

    2005-01-01

    Tulathromycin was evaluated in the treatment of pneumonia in weaned pigs inoculated intranasally with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Five days postchallenge, the pigs were randomized to treatment with a single IM administration of saline, a single IM administration of tulathromycin (2.5 mg/kg; day 0), or three IM administrations of enrofloxacin (5.0 mg/kg; days 0, 1, 2). Pigs were necropsied on day 12 or 13. Unchallenged controls remained healthy with no lung pathology. Compared with saline, coughing, mean lung lesion score, and proportional lung weight were significantly reduced and weight gain was significantly greater for tulathromycin-treated pigs (P pigs (P treatment of pneumonia following experimental infection with M. hyopneumoniae.

  19. Experimental infection of the bat tick Carios fonsecai (Acari: Ixodidae with the rabies virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Regina Favoretto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study assessed the viability of the rabies virus in the argasid tick Carios fonsecai following experimental infection. Methods The mouse inoculation test (MIT, fluorescent antibody test (FAT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were used. The rabies virus was administered to ticks via the intra-coelomic route, and the ticks were sacrificed at different time points. Results The inoculated ticks were negative for rabies according to the MIT. Ticks macerated with rabies virus were positive according to the MIT and FAT. All of the tick lots tested by PCR were positive. Conclusions The rabies virus became unviable shortly after its inoculation into tick bodies. Ticks are not likely to play an important role in the epidemiology of rabies.

  20. Laboratory experimental infection of sheep to Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum and its confirmation using post-mortem examination and histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gholamreza karimi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum from genus Ornithobilharzia genus and family Schistosomatidae is an important agent of parasitological infection in sheep. This parasite has been reported from Russia, China, Turkestan (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Turkey and Iran. Parasitological infection due to this agent could be one of the important factors of decreasing the production rate of livestock in Iran. The purpose of this study, was to experimentally infect sheep with this parasite and confirm the infection by post-mortem examination and Histopathology which was done successfully. Twenty five sheep were used in the study of which 10 sheep were experimentally infected by Ornithobilharzia turkestanikum using subcutaneous injection and 10 sheep by skin contact method and the other 5 sheep were kept as control. Result of post-mortem and Histopathology during a one year period confirmed that all of sheep were infected and adult worm, were seen in their mesentery. Mean number of cercaria used for inducing the infection was 6425 and 462 adult worms were collected post-mortem. There was no significant relationship between the number of cercaria and adult worms collected. Male sheep were more infected than female.

  1. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Tiamulin in an Experimental Intratracheal Infection Model of Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xia; Sun, Jian; Yang, Tao; Fang, Xi; Cheng, Jie; Xiong, Yan Q; Liu, Ya-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most important pathogen in poultry among four pathogenic Mycoplasma species. Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic that shows a great activity against M. gallisepticum and has been approved for use in veterinary medicine particularly for poultry. However, the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) profiles of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum are not well understood. Therefore, in the current studies, we investigated the in vivo PK/PD profiles of tiamulin using a well-established experimental intratracheal infection model of M. gallisepticum. The efficacy of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum was studied in 8-day-old chickens after intramuscular (i.m.) administration at 10 doses between 0-80 mg/kg. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to evaluate the PK parameters of tiamulin following i.m. administration at doses of 5, 40, and 80 mg/kg in Mycoplasma gallisepticum-infected neutropenic chickens. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used for quantitative detection of M. gallisepticum. The MIC of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum strain S6 was 0.03 μg/mL. The PK/PD index, AUC24h/MIC, correlated well with the in vivo antibacterial efficacy. The in vivo data suggest that animal dosage regimens should supply AUC24h/MIC of tiamulin of 382.68 h for 2 log10 ccu equivalents M. gallisepticum reduction. To attain that goal, the administered dose is expected to be 45 mg/kg b.w. for treatment of M. gallisepticum infection with an MIC90 of 0.03 μg/mL.

  2. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Tiamulin in an Experimental Intratracheal Infection Model of Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Xiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most important pathogen in poultry among four pathogenic Mycoplasma species. Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic that shows a great activity against M. gallisepticum and has been approved for use in veterinary medicine particularly for poultry. However, the Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamics (PK/PD profiles of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum are not well understood. Therefore, in the current studies, we investigated the in vivo PK/PD profiles of tiamulin using a well-established experimental intratracheal infection model of M. gallisepticum. The efficacy of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum was studied in 8-day-old chickens after intramuscular (i.m. administration at 10 doses between 0-80 mg/kg. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was used to evaluate the PK parameters of tiamulin following i.m. administration at doses of 5, 40 and 80 mg/kg in Mycoplasma gallisepticum infected neutropenic chickens. Real time PCR (RT-PCR was used for quantitative detection of M. gallisepticum. The MIC of tiamulin against M. gallisepticum strain S6 was 0.03 μg/mL. The PK/PD index, AUC24h/MIC, correlated well with the in vivo antibacterial efficacy. The in vivo data suggest that animal dosage regimens should supply AUC24h/MIC of tiamulin of 382.68 h for 2 log10 ccu equivalents M. gallisepticum reduction. To attain that goal, the administered dose is expected to be 45 mg/kg b.w. for treatment of M. gallisepticum infection with an MIC90 of 0.03 μg/mL.

  3. Experimental infection of Balb/c nude mice with Hepatitis E virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jianguo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several animal species can reportedly act as reservoirs for Hepatitis E virus (HEV, a zoonotic pathogen. HEV and antibody to the virus have been detected in a variety of animals including rodents. Pig and rat models for HEV have been established for HEV, but a nude mouse has not yet been developed. Methods Balb/c nude mice were inoculated with swine HEV, both orally and via intravenous injection to insure infection. Negative control and experimental contact-exposed groups of mice were also included in the study. The liver, spleen, kidney, jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon of each mouse from all three groups were collected for reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR detection, indirect immunofluorescence observation and histopathologic examination. The sera from nude mice were tested for anti-HEV IgG by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Activities of liver enzymes, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, as well as total bilirubin (TBIL were also measured in the sera of the nude mice. Results HEV antigens and HEV RNA were detected in liver, spleen, kidney, jejunum, ileum and colon both by indirect immunofluorescence and by RT-nPCR in all of the inoculated and in one of the contact-exposed nude mice. Histopathological changes were observed in the liver and spleen of these mice. Infected mice showed increased levels of AST, ALP, and anti-HEV IgG in sera. The livers of contact-exposed mice showed obvious histopathological damage. Conclusion Nude mice could be readily infected by HEV isolated from pigs. The nude mouse may therefore be a useful animal model for studying the pathogenesis of HEV.

  4. Human rhinovirus in experimental infection after peroral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG consumption, a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapiovaara, Laura; Kumpu, Minna; Mäkivuokko, Harri; Waris, Matti; Korpela, Riitta; Pitkäranta, Anne; Winther, Birgit

    2016-08-01

    Data has emerged on possible beneficial effects of probiotics in respiratory tract viral infections, but it is unclear if the promising positive effects evidenced are due to a reduced viral load during infections. The aims of this work were to investigate the effect of peroral probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC], Accession No. 53103) consumption on human rhinovirus (HRV) load in nasopharyngeal lavage samples in experimental HRV infection, and to correlate viral load to clinical symptoms. Intranasal HRV A39 inoculation was performed on 59 adults, who had consumed juice enriched with live or heat-inactivated L. rhamnosus GG or control juice for 3 weeks prior to inoculation in a randomized, controlled, pilot trial setting. Nasopharyngeal lavage samples and symptom data were analyzed on day 0 before inoculation, and on days 2 and 5. Samples were subjected to quantitative HRV detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Before inoculation 9 of 59 (15%) samples presented with another HRV strain than the studied A39. There was a tendency toward the lowest HRV loads in the L. rhamnosus GG groups and the highest in placebo group (log10 copies/mL, 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.20 [5.18 to 7.40] in live, 6.30 [4.91 to 7.08] in inactivated L. rhamnosus GG, and 7.25 [5.81 to 7.52] in placebo group, p = 0.57 in day 2) in the wild-type excluded population. The HRV load positively correlated with the symptom scores on days 2 and 5 (correlation coefficient 0.61 [p rhamnosus GG when compared to placebo. HRV load positively correlated with the total symptom scores. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  5. Avian metapneumovirus subtype B experimental infection and tissue distribution in chickens, sparrows, and pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, S; Shamoun, M

    2012-07-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a respiratory virus that infects a range of avian hosts, including chickens and turkeys. Migratory and local wild birds are implicated in aMPV spread among farms, countries, and seasonal outbreaks of the disease. A subtype B aMPV isolate from commercial chicken flocks suffering from respiratory disease was experimentally inoculated oculonasally into 7-week old chickens, young pigeons, and sparrows. Chickens showed minimal tracheal rales, whereas pigeons and sparrows were asymptomatic. Shedding of aMPV was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on homogenates from nasal turbinates. At 5 days postinfection, 5 of 5 chickens, 2 of 5 pigeons, and 1 of 5 sparrows were positive; at 10 or 15 days, none were positive. At 2 and 5 days, aMPV antigens were localized at the ciliated boarder of respiratory epithelium in nasal cavity and trachea of chickens, as well as to the conjunctival epithelium. Pigeons had detectable viral antigens in only the trachea at 2 and 5 days; sparrow tissues did not show any positive staining. At the end of the experiment, at 21 days postinfection, 14 of 15 inoculated chickens seroconverted against aMPV, but none of the inoculated pigeons or sparrows did. The authors believe that pigeons and sparrows have the ability to transmit the virus between chicken farms, although they do not consider pigeons and sparrows as natural hosts for aMPV, given that they failed to seroconvert. In conclusion, pigeons and sparrows are partially susceptible to aMPV infection, probably acting more as mechanical vectors because infection is only temporary and short-lived.

  6. Immunologic and hematologic responses in ponies with experimentally induced Strongylus vulgaris infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M; Martin, S C; Lloyd, S

    1989-08-01

    Immunologic and hematologic responses were examined in 4 ponies with experimentally induced Strongylus vulgaris infection and in 5 helminth-free ponies. Two ponies were inoculated with 200 larvae and 2 were inoculated with 700 larvae of S vulgaris and then were reinoculated with the same numbers of larvae 34 weeks later. Initial response of the ponies inoculated with S vulgaris was S vulgaris antigen-induced lymphocyte response that developed 1.5 to 3 weeks after inoculation and did not persist. Development of antigen-reactive lymphocytes was followed sequentially by a biphasic complement-fixing antibody response, then biphasic eosinophilia. Antibody titer to S vulgaris antigen was higher in ponies inoculated with 700 larvae, compared with that in ponies given 200 larvae of S vulgaris. Also, the second peak in antibody titer and in absolute number of eosinophils was observed earlier in ponies inoculated with 700 larvae, compared with ponies inoculated with 200 S vulgaris larvae, and subsided before or from about 24 weeks after inoculation. The prepatent period for S vulgaris infection was 24 to 25 weeks. After reinoculation with S vulgaris, a degree of increased lymphocyte responsiveness was apparent but, by 17 weeks after reinoculation, only the primary peak in the absolute number of eosinophils indicated an anamnestic response. Essentially, antibody was not detectable after reinoculation.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH Toxocara cati IN PIGS: MIGRATORY PATTERN AND PATHOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN EARLY PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Estela Sommerfelt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental inoculations of approximately 100,000 infective Toxocara cati larval eggs were done in twelve pigs. The T. cati eggs used for inoculation were collected from cat's feces. Another group of three pigs served as an uninfected control. Groups of infected pigs were euthanized at seven, 14, 21, and 28 days post-inoculation (dpi. Tissue samples were taken for digestion and histopathology changes in early phase. The number of larvae recovered from the lungs peaked at seven and 14 dpi and were also present at 21, and 28 dpi. Larvae of T. cati were present in the lymph nodes of the small and large intestine at seven, 14, and 28 dpi and at seven, 14, 21, and 28 dpi respectively. In other studied tissues, no larvae or less than one larva per gram was detected. The pathological response observed in the liver and lungs at seven and 14 dpi, showed white spots on the liver surface and areas of consolidation were observed in the lungs. The lungs showed an inflammatory reaction with larvae in center at 28 dpi. In the liver we observed periportal and perilobular hepatitis. The lymph nodes of the intestines displayed eosinophil lymphadenitis with reactive centers containing parasitic forms in some of them. The granulomatous reaction was not observed in any tissues. The role of the other examined tissues had less significance. The relevance of this parasite as an etiological agent that leads to disease in paratenic hosts is evident.

  8. Clinical and Histopathological Evaluation of Terbinafine Treatment in Cats Experimentally Infected with Microsporum canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kotnik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of terbinafine hydrochloride (Lamisil©, Novartis in the treatment of 27 M. canis infected cats was followed. Treatment was started on the 17th day post inoculation (p.i., when successful experimental infection was proved. Nine cats were treated with low-dose terbinafine 10-20 mg/kg QD (LD group, nine cats were treated with high-dose terbinafine 30-40 mg/kg QD (HD group and nine were left untreated as a control group (C group. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated using Wood's lamp examination, fungal culture and histopathology. All cats were positive 14 days p.i. Sixty days p.i. 8 cats from the LD group, 9 from the C group and 2 cats from the HD group had fungi in the tissue. Ninety days p.i. the HD group was free of fungi in the skin and other tests became negative on the 120th day p.i. Statistically significant differences were found between the HD group and both of the other groups (p M. canis yielded an inflammatory reaction of a mononuclear and neutrophil type in the cat skin. Hyperplastic interstitial dermatitis was a predominant tissue reaction although other types were also present during the study.

  9. The porcine acute phase protein response to acute clinical and subclinical experimental infection with Streptococcus suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Tegtmeier, C.; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    The pig acute phase protein (APP) response to experimental Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infection was mapped by the measurement of the positive APPs C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) and the negative APPs albumin...... and apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I. The aim was to elucidate the differences in the acute phase behaviour of the individual APPs during a typical bacterial septicaemic, infection. Pigs were inoculated subcutaneously with live S. suis serotype 2 and blood was sampled before and on various days post inoculation (p...... the experiment with maximum levels around 10 times the day 0-levels, and pig-MAP was elevated on days 1-12 p.i. with peak levels of around seven times the day 0-levels. Apo A-I was decreased from days 1 to 8 and showed minimum levels of about 40% of day 0-levels around 1-2 days p.i. No clear pattern of changes...

  10. Brote por Salmonella enteritidis en trabajadores de un hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chávez-de la Peña Ma. Eugenia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir y determinar las causas de un brote de enfermedad gastrointestinal por Salmonella enteritidis, ocurrido en junio de 1998, entre el personal trabajador de la salud (TS que labora en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención, en la ciudad de México. Material y métodos. Se incluyó a todo aquel empleado que presentó diarrea o fiebre asociada a síntomas gastrointestinales, a partir del día 8 de junio de ese año, posterior a la ingestión de alimentos en el comedor del hospital (caso, y en aquellos asintomáticos (controles que ingirieron alimentos durante el mismo periodo y en el mismo lugar. Se les aplicó un cuestionario para conocer los alimentos ingeridos, se realizó hemocultivo a sujetos con fiebre mayor de 38 °C y coprocultivo a todos, incluido el personal de la cocina. En el análisis estadístico se utilizó razón de momios (RM, intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%, ji cuadrada y valor de p= 0.05 para conocer la significancia estadística. Resultados: Desarrollaron síntomas 155 TS, y de éstos 129 completaron la encuesta; se encuestaron además 150 TS asintomáticos. Los síntomas más comunes fueron diarrea (85%, dolor abdominal (84%, cefalea (81.4%, náusea (78.3% y escalofríos (74.4%. Ocho hemocultivos fueron negativos; 59 casos (46% y seis controles (4% tuvieron coprocultivos positivos a Salmonella enteritidis. De los alimentos ingeridos, las tortas de carne capeadas con huevo (RM 19.39, IC 95% 9.09-41.4, la crema de mamey, así como el yogur fueron significativamente más frecuentes en casos que en controles. Los cultivos de los alimentos resultaron negativos. Conclusión. Muy probablemente este brote se debió a la ingestión de alimentos contaminados (tortas preparadas con huevo, papa y carne con insuficiente cocción. Este brote enfatiza la necesidad de mantener un programa de evaluación de la calidad de los alimentos en hospitales. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en

  11. Lipid and glucose metabolism of broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 oocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLC Freitas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipid and glucose metabolism of 76 ten-day-old Cobb male broilers, experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, was studied for 30 days. Birds were distributed in 2 groups: one infected with 1x10(6 E. acervulina sporulated oocysts, and the other inoculated with distilled water. Pathological e biochemical liver changes were assessed, as well as plasma glucose concentrations and total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, fatty-acid, and triglyceride levels in the serum. The infected broilers presented hypoglycemia associated with a reduction in liver glycogen. In addition, these birds developed fatty liver, and there were changes in all lipid classes in the serum. Lipid and glucose metabolism was dramatically changed in broilers experimentally infected with 1x10(6 E. acervulina oocysts.

  12. Time course of gene expression profiling in the liver of experimental mice infected with Echinococcus multilocularis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyong Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE is a severe chronic parasitic disease which behaves like a slow-growing liver cancer. Clinical observations suggest that the parasite, Echinococcus multilocularis (E. multilocularis influences liver homeostasis and hepatic cell metabolism. However, this has never been analyzed during the time course of infection in the common model of secondary echinococcosis in experimental mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene expression profiles were assessed using DNA microarray analysis, 1, 2, 3 and 6 months after injection of E. multilocularis metacestode in the liver of susceptible mice. Data were collected at different time points to monitor the dynamic behavior of gene expression. 557 differentially expressed genes were identified at one or more time points, including 351 up-regulated and 228 down-regulated genes. Time-course analysis indicated, at the initial stage of E. multilocularis infection (month 1-2, that most of up-regulated pathways were related to immune processes and cell trafficking such as chemokine-, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling, and down-regulated pathways were related to xenobiotic metabolism; at the middle stage (month 3, MAPK signaling pathway was maintained and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathway emerged; at the late stage (month 6, most of up-regulated pathways were related to PPAR signaling pathway, complement and coagulation cascades, while down-regulated pathways were related to metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of a random selection of 19 genes confirmed the reliability of the microarray data. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA was increased in the liver of E. multilocularis infected mice from 2 months to 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: E. multilocularis metacestode definitely exerts a deep influence on liver homeostasis, by modifying a number of gene

  13. Acute phase response in two consecutive experimentally induced E. coli intramammary infections in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saatsi Johanna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP have suggested to be suitable inflammatory markers for bovine mastitis. The aim of the study was to investigate acute phase markers along with clinical parameters in two consecutive intramammary challenges with Escherichia coli and to evaluate the possible carry-over effect when same animals are used in an experimental model. Methods Mastitis was induced with a dose of 1500 cfu of E. coli in one quarter of six cows and inoculation repeated in another quarter after an interval of 14 days. Concentrations of acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP were determined in serum and milk. Results In both challenges all cows became infected and developed clinical mastitis within 12 hours of inoculation. Clinical disease and acute phase response was generally milder in the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in milk started to increase 12 hours after inoculation and peaked at 60 hours after the first challenge and at 44 hours after the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in serum increased more slowly and peaked at the same times as in milk; concentrations in serum were about one third of those in milk. Hp started to increase in milk similarly and peaked at 36–44 hours. In serum, the concentration of Hp peaked at 60–68 hours and was twice as high as in milk. LBP concentrations in milk and serum started to increase after 12 hours and peaked at 36 hours, being higher in milk. The concentrations of acute phase proteins in serum and milk in the E. coli infection model were much higher than those recorded in experiments using Gram-positive pathogens, indicating the severe inflammation induced by E. coli. Conclusion Acute phase proteins would be useful parameters as mastitis indicators and to assess the severity of mastitis. If repeated experimental intramammary

  14. Infecções experimentaes na Leishmaniose visceral americana Experimental infections in american visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristides Marques da Cunha

    1938-01-01

    sôro-agglutinação, conforme mostramos em trabalho anterior, não permite a separação das especies do genero Leishmania, pois todas ellas, quando recentemente isoladas, possuem identica constituição antigenica, que se modifica depois, pela conservação longo tempo em cultura. É esse facto, que deu logar ás conclusões contradictorias a que chegaram os autores que se ocuparam do assumpto bem como os primeiros resultados que obtivemos. Deante de todos esses factos, nos julgamos autorizados a concluir como já fizemos anteriormente, que o agente da Leishmaniose visceral americana é identico á Leishmania infantum. Ao terminar, queremos deixar consignados nossos agradecimentos ao Dr. E. chagas, por ter posto a nossa disposição as culturas de Leishmania por elle isoladas, tornando possivel deste modo, a execução do presente trabalho.With cultures isolated from cases of american visceral leishmaniasis we succeeded in obtaining experimental infections in hamsters (Cricetus cricetus, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mullata and dogs. Hamsters were infected with strains obtained from man and dogs, the intraperitoneal way having been always employed. When cultures recently isolated are used, infection is obtained practically in 100% of the animals inoculated. The first negative results obtained by us may be explained by the use of cultures isolated some time before (about 7 months 0 and which had lost already their virulence. In some cases external lesions are observed represented by alterations of the skin and swelling of the paws. The skin lesions are observed on the ventral surface and consist in depilation, erythema and exudation. The skin thus affected shows to be extremely friable, rupturing at the movements of the animal when hold. On post-mortem examination, besides the lesions pointed out, the animals present enlargement of the spleen. The parasites are very numerous in the spleen, liver, bone marrow, etc. The changed skin shows considerable hypertrophy of the

  15. Infective larvae of five Onchocerca species from experimentally infected Simulium species in an area of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda M.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfilariae of five Onchocerca species, O. dewittei japonica (the causative agent of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Oita, Kyushu, Japan from wild boar (Sus scrofa, O. skrjabini and O. eberhardi from sika deer (Cervus nippon, O. lienalis from cattle, and an as yet unnamed Onchocerca sp. from wild boar, were injected intrathoracically into newly-emerged black flies of several species from Oita to search the potential vector(s of these parasites and identify their infective larvae. Development of O. dewittei japonica microfilariae to the infective larvae occurred in Simulium aokii, S. arakawae, S. bidentatum, S. japonicum, S. quinquestriatum, and S. rufibasis while development of infective larvae of O. skrjabini, O. eberhardi, and the unnamed Onchocerca sp. was observed in S. aokii, S. arakawae, and S. bidentatum. Development of O. lienalis microfilaria to infective larvae occurred in S. arakawae. Based on the morphology of infective larvae obtained, we proposed a key of identification of Onchocerca infective larvae found in Oita. We also reconsider the identification of three types of infective larvae previously recovered from Simulium species captured at cattle sheds: the large type I larvae that may be an undescribed species; the small type III identified as O. lienalis may include O. skrjabini too; the intermediary type II that may be O. gutturosa, or O. dewittei japonica, or the unnamed Onchocerca sp. of wild boar.

  16. Experimental study of action of autostrains Aerococcus viridans on the model Pseudomonas infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Stepanskyi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study of the action of Aerococcus autostrains on the model of a chronic blue pus infection. For the study of the action of Aerococcus autosymbiont strains on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, three of the most biochemically and antagonistically active isolates were selected: 1 5m2015 (isolated from mice; 2 3k2015 (isolated from rats; 3 3ch2015 (isolated from humans. Experiments were conducted on 84 white outbred mice weighing 16–17 g, 60 were used as the experimental, and 24 as the control group. In the experimental group of animals, infected wounds were treated by Aerococcus autosymbiont strains once daily (0.2 billion ml–1 till recovery. The drug was administered under the scab with a syringe. In the control animals the wound was treated by isotonic sodium chloride solution (concentration 0.9% with the same route of administration and for the same period of time. It was found that from the very first days of application of Aerococci autosymbiont strains, perifocal inflammation was less severe in most animals in the research group compared with the control group. Starting from the fourth day of usage of Aerococcus autosymbiont strains the number of pseudomonades, contained in secretions from wounds in the experimental group of mice was significantly lower than in the control animals. It was revealed that in case of application of Aerococcus strain (5m2015 isolated from mice, the animals had better indicators of recovery, dynamics of local clinical signs of inflammation and the number of pseudomonades contained in the wound in comparison with other Aerococcus autostrains isolated from rats and humans. The wounds purified from pus and covered with dry scab faster. For example, wounds completely healed with dry scab rejection by the 11th day of observation in 44 of 58 surviving mice (75.9%. In the control group a similar pattern was observed in only 3 of 17 mice (17.6% by that period. The number of Pseudomonas

  17. Pathogenesis and Immunohistochemical Studies of Caprine Pleuropneumonia in Experimentally Infected Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Sadique*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry1, Muhammad Younus Rana2, Aftab Ahmad Anjum3, Zahoor-Ul-Hassan, Abdul Sajid and Muhammad Mushtaq

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the pathogenesis of caprine pleuropneumonia (CPP in the experimentally inoculated goats with Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies Capri (Mmc. For this purpose, 12 goats (Group B were inoculated with bacterial isolates of Mmc while four goats were kept as untreated control (Group A. Clinical signs of the disease were recorded twice daily. Two goats from group B were sacrificed on weekly basis to demonstrate gross pathological lesions in different organs. Tissue samples from lungs, trachea, liver, heart, kidney, spleen, and small intestines were preserved for histopathological studies. The lungs and lymph nodes were preserved to demonstrate the antigen in tissue by using immuno- histochemical technique. The disease was successfully reproduced in all infected goats with severe manifestation. The clinical signs and gross lesions of the disease were mild at the beginning and became severe at the third and fourth weeks and then progressed to moderate and chronic forms. The histopathological lesions characteristic of CPP were found in all the organs. Antigen of Mmc was detected in tissue sections of lungs and lymph nodes. In conclusion, the disease was efficiently reproduced in experimental animals that showed acute septicemic form with lethal outcome.

  18. Colonization of marker and field strains of salmonella enteritidis and typhimurium in antibiotic treated and non-treated laying hen

    Science.gov (United States)

    In each of three trials, caged laying hens (76, 26, and 33 wk-of-age) were divided into 6 groups designated to receive either maker (nalidixic acid resistance) S. Enteritidis (SE-M), field S. Enteritidis (SE-F), or marker S. Typhimurium (ST-M), and half pretreated with vancomycin (VNC) (n=12). VNC t...

  19. Distribution patterns and predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in experimentally infected Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J. La Grange

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available No controlled studies have been conducted to determine the predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus or the influence of infection intensity on the distribution of the larvae in crocodiles. The distribution of larvae in muscles of naturally infected Nile crocodiles and experimentally infected caimans (Caiman crocodilus and varans (Varanus exanthematicus have been reported in literature. To determine the distribution patterns of T. zimbabwensis larvae and predilection muscles, 15 crocodiles were randomly divided into three cohorts of five animals each, representing high infection (642 larvae/kg of bodyweight average, medium infection (414 larvae/kg of bodyweight average and low infection (134 larvae/kg of bodyweight average cohorts. In the high infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were observed in the triceps muscles (26% and hind limb muscles (13%. In the medium infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were found in the triceps muscles (50%, sternomastoid (18% and hind limb muscles (13%. In the low infection cohort, larvae were mainly found in the intercostal muscles (36%, longissimus complex (27%, forelimb muscles (20% and hind limb muscles (10%. Predilection muscles in the high and medium infection cohorts were similar to those reported in naturally infected crocodiles despite changes in infection intensity. The high infection cohort had significantly higher numbers of larvae in the sternomastoid, triceps, intercostal, longissimus complex, external tibial flexor, longissimus caudalis and caudal femoral muscles (p < 0.05 compared with the medium infection cohort. In comparison with the low infection cohort, the high infection cohort harboured significantly higher numbers of larvae in all muscles (p < 0.05 except for the tongue. The high infection cohort harboured significantly higher numbers of larvae (p < 0.05 in the sternomastoid, triceps, intercostal, longissimus complex

  20. Factors affecting thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis ODA 99-30581-13 in shell egg contents and use of heat-ozone combinations for egg pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jennifer J; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2013-02-01

    Infection of laying hens with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis leads to deposition of the pathogen into the albumen or yolk of forming eggs. Heat treatment can inactivate internalized Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs, but factors such as the nature and location of contamination may influence the efficacy of thermal treatments. In the current research, natural contamination was mimicked by introducing small inocula of Salmonella Enteritidis into different locations of shell eggs and incubating inoculated eggs. These pathogen-containing eggs were heated at 57°C for 40 min, and temperature within eggs was monitored at the locations of inocula. Comparison of inactivation at equivalent internal temperatures revealed similar levels of lethality regardless of inoculum location. Refrigeration between incubation and heat treatment did not increase thermal resistance of cells in albumen but decreased cell inactivation in yolk. Sequential application of heat and gaseous ozone allows for the development of a process capable of decontaminating shell eggs with minimal thermal treatment and impact on egg quality. Inoculated eggs were subjected to (i) an immersion heating process similar to that used in commercial pasteurization or (ii) immersion heating, at reduced duration, followed by vacuum (50.8 kPa) and treatment with ozone gas (maximum 160 g/m(3)) under pressure (∼187.5 kPa). All treatments tested produced greater than 5-log inactivation, which is required for "pasteurization" processes. Differences were observed in the visual quality of eggs depending on treatment parameters. Application of ozone subsequent to heating allows for a significant reduction in heating time without decreasing process lethality.

  1. The potential of methylethylpiridinol in treatment of bacterial infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae (experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Brykhanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Investigated the activity of methylethylpiridinol (6-methyl-2-ethyl-pyridin-3-ol hydrochloride in the comprehensive treatment of the experimental bacterial infection caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae.Materials and methods. The study was conducted on clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. At the first stage of the study (in vitro studied the effect of methylethylpiridinol in concentrations 0,25–4 mM on the growth of the strain and the activity of the sublethal concentrations of antibiotics – gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, ceftazidime. In the second stage of the study (in vivo in rats Wistar simulated bacterial peritonitis by intraperitoneal injection of a suspension of Klebsiella pneumoniae and investigated the effect of methylethylpiridinol (80 mg/kg on the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy with gentamicin (30 mg/kg, ciprofloxacin (50 mg/kg, ceftazidime (120 mg/kg or tetracycline (80 mg/kg. The animal blood plasma was determined ceruloplasmin concentration (marker of the intensity of infectious-inflammatory process and thiobarbiturate-jet products, erythrocytes – the concentration of reduced glutathione, catalase and glutathione peroxidase.Results. It is found that a methylethylpiridinol inhibits the development of periodic bacterial cultures, but exhibits a pronounced antagonism with respect to gentamicin. Antioxidant slightly increases the activity of ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. The bacteriostatic effect of antioxidant reduces the action of ceftazidime in vitro. In conditions of chemotherapy by using of gentamicin and ciprofloxacin additional injection of methylethylpiridinol leads to the preservation of ceruloplasmin level to the level of non-treated animals without showing the antioxidant effect. Ceftazidime exhibits antioxidant effect, reduces the introduction of methylethylpiridinol. The antioxidant properties of methylethylpiridinol did not appear in the application of

  2. Efficiency of oxytetracycline treatment in rainbow trout experimentally infected with Flavobacterium psychrophilum strains having different in vitro antibiotic susceptibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2003-01-01

    The medication effect of oxytetracycline on groups of rainbow trout fry experimentally infected with three strains of Flavobacterium psychrophilum was investigated. The infection model was based on intraperitoneal injection of the pathogen and treatment was done using medicated feed resulting...... in 100 mg oxytetracycline/kg fish for 10 days. The three F. psychrophilum strains had different antimicrobial susceptibilities and successful treatment was only obtained in the trial using a strain with a MICOTC of 0.25 mug/ml. No effect of treatment was seen in the group infected with a strain having...

  3. Effects of Ichthyophonus hoferi on condition indices and blood chemistry of experimentally infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, T G; Cone, D K

    1990-07-01

    Body condition, hepatosomatic index and blood chemistry of Oncorhynchus mykiss experimentally infected with a tissue dwelling fish pathogenic fungus, Ichthyophonus hoferi, were monitored over a 6 wk period. This was to determine whether the infection constituted a stress manifest by changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary interrenal axis, and especially plasma cortisol levels. Infection caused anaemia and leucopenia but did not change the condition, hepatosomatic indices, or plasma chloride, cholesterol, cortisol, creatinine, glucose, osmolarity, potassium, total protein, sodium and T4. It is suggested that increased cortisol levels may not be a normal component of the stress response of fish to disease caused by invasive infectious agents.

  4. Experimental infection of Leishmania (L. chagasi in a cell line derived from Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera:Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felio J Bello

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the in vitro infection of a cell line Lulo, derived from Lutzomyia longipalpis embryonic tissue, by Leishmania chagasi promastigotes. This infection process is compared with a parallel one developed using the J774 cell line. The L. chagasi MH/CO/84/CI-044B strain was used for experimental infection in two cell lines. The cells were seeded on glass coverslips in 24-well plates to reach a final number of 2 x 10(5 cells/well. Parasites were added to the adhered Lulo and J774 cells in a 10:1 ratio and were incubated at 28 and 37ºC respectively. After 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 days post-infection, the cells were extensively washed with PBS, fixed with methanol, and stained with Giemsa. The number of internalized parasites was determined by counting at least 400 cultured cells on each coverslip. The results showed continuous interaction between L. chagasi promastigotes with the cell lines. Some ultrastructural characteristics of the amastigote forms were observed using transmission electron microscopy. The highest percentage of infection in Lulo cells was registered on day 6 post-infection (29.6% and on day 4 in the J774 cells (51%. This work shows similarities and differences in the L. chagasi experimental infection process in the two cell lines. However, Lulo cells emerge as a new model to study the life-cycle of this parasite.

  5. Dose-response effects in an outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, E D; Cartter, M L; Hadler, J L; Wassell, J T; Zingeser, J A; Tauxe, R V

    1994-02-01

    The effects of ingested Salmonella enteritidis (SE) dose on incubation period and on the severity and duration of illness were estimated in a cohort of 169 persons who developed gastroenteritis after eating hollandaise sauce made from grade-A shell eggs. The cohort was divided into three groups based on self-reported dose of sauce ingested. As dose increased, median incubation period decreased (37 h in the low exposure group v. 21 h in the medium exposure group v. 17.5 h in the high exposure group, P = 0.006) and greater proportions reported body aches (71 v. 85 v. 94%, P = 0.0009) and vomiting (21 v. 56 v. 57%, P = 0.002). Among 118 case-persons who completed a follow-up questionnaire, increased dose was associated with increases in median weight loss in kilograms (3.2 v. 4.5 v. 5.0, P = 0.0001), maximum daily number of stools (12.5 v. 15.0 v. 20.0, P = 0.02), subjective rating of illness severity (P = 0.0007), and the number of days of confinement to bed (3.0 v. 6.5 v. 6.5, P = 0.04). In this outbreak, ingested dose was an important determinant of the incubation period, symptoms and severity of acute salmonellosis.

  6. Behavioral and hormonal changes associated with the infective dose in experimental taeniasis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Roldan, Rosa; Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Sciutto, Edda; Hernández, Marisela; Aguirre-Flores, Virginio; García-Jiménez, Sara; Báez-Saldaña, Armida; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván

    2016-07-01

    It has been reported that behavioral changes relate to infection in different parasitoses. However, the relation between the extent of the behavioral changes and the magnitude of the infection has been scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between different doses of infection and the behavioral changes induced in the experimental Taenia pisiformis taeniasis in golden hamsters. Groups of nine hamsters were infected with three or six T. pisiformis metacestodes. The locomotor activity was quantified daily in an open field test during the 21 days after infection; anxiety test was performed in an elevated plus-maze with a dark/light area at 7, 14 and 21 days post-infection, and serum cortisol levels were determined by radioimmunoassay before infection and at day 22 after infection. The challenge itself induced modifications on behavior and cortisol levels in hamsters, with or without successful infection (taenia development). Animals challenged with three metacestodes induced a decrease in locomotor activity and an increase in anxiety in infected animals. A higher and earlier decrease in locomotor activity and increased anxiety levels were observed in hamsters challenged with six cysticerci, which were accompanied by higher levels of sera cortisol at the end of the experiment. At necropsy, 44-55% of hamster became infected with an efficiency of implantation of 22-26%, challenged with three or six cysticerci respectively. The challenge of hamsters with metacestodes, promote behavioral changes in an extent dependent on the magnitude of the challenge, disregarding the effectiveness of the infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pathogenesis of Riemerella anatipestifer in turkeys after experimental mono-infection via respiratory routes or dual infection together with the avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Ryll, Martin; Behr, Klaus-Peter; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2009-12-01

    Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) is the causative agent of septicaemic and exudative diseases in a variety of bird species. Despite numerous outbreaks, little is known about the pathogenicity of RA for turkeys. We investigated the development of RA-induced disease in commercial turkey poults following RA inoculation via different respiratory routes. Inoculation by aerosol or injection into the abdominal air sac led to systemic infection and mild gross lesions, including pericarditis, epicarditis and airsacculitis, which were less pronounced compared with field outbreaks. It was speculated, that viral pathogens, such as the avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), may exacerbate RA pathogenesis under field conditions. We inoculated turkey poults with virulent aMPV. Subsequently, aMPV-infected and virus-free birds were exposed 3 to 5 days later to a high dose of RA by aerosol (>10(10) colony-forming units/ml in 8 ml aerosol per 11 or 12 birds) or were inoculated 4 days later with a low RA dose (10(4.9) colony-forming units per bird) via the intranasal route. Intranasal RA inoculation with the low bacterial dose led to a respiratory and systemic RA infection in aMPV-infected birds, while virus-free birds remained RA-negative. Following exposure to a high RA dose by aerosol, aMPV-infected groups showed slightly enhanced incidences of gross lesions and RA re-isolation. The present study clearly confirms that RA is pathogenic for turkeys after experimental inoculation via respiratory routes, which are speculated to be the natural route of infection. However, experimental models in this study did not reproduce the severity of RA-related disease as observed under field conditions, which emphasizes the importance of other contributing factors. aMPV-induced respiratory lesions may serve as a predisposing factor for the establishment of RA infection, since they favour colonization of the bacterium.

  8. Gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis can predispose ewes to clinical mastitis after experimental mammary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogianni, V S; Papadopoulos, E; Gougoulis, D A; Gallidis, E; Ptochos, S; Fragkou, I A; Orfanou, D C; Fthenakis, G C

    2017-10-15

    Objective was to study, in an experimental model, the possible role of gastrointestinal nematode infection in predisposing ewes to mastitis during the lactation period. Twenty-four ewes (A or B [n=12]), free from nematode and trematode helminths, were used. Group A animals received 5000 third-stage larvae of a trichostrongylid helminth cocktail and group B ewes were unparasitised controls. Animals in group A developed gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis confirmed by >500epg in faecal samples; mean epg of group B ewes were Ewes were challenged by deposition of Mannheimia haemolytica into the teat duct. In group A, 7 ewes developed clinical and 5 subclinical mastitis; no ewe in group B developed clinical mastitis, but only subclinical (12 ewes) (P=0.002). M. haemolytica was isolated from 132/132 and 121/132 udder samples from group A or B, respectively (Pewes that developed clinical mastitis than in others which did not (0.709 and 0.162 versus 0.662 and 0.136, respectively; Pewes with subclinical mastitis (in group A or B), inducible-lymphoid-follicles were observed in the teat, which were not observed in ewes with clinical disease. Total pathology scores summed over all days were 127 and 73 for group A or B ewes, respectively (maximum possible 192; Pewes that developed clinical mastitis. It is concluded that, in view of bacterial challenge, gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis and particularly Teladorsagia infection, might lead to clinical mastitis, through various pathogenetic pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Antibody responses of cervids (Cervus elaphus) following experimental Mycobacterium bovis infection and the implications for immunodiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Noel P; Surujballi, Om P; Prescott, John F; Duncan, J Robert; Waters, W Ray; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Greenwald, Rena

    2008-11-01

    Captive and free-ranging wildlife animals are implicated in the maintenance and transmission of bovine tuberculosis and therefore pose a significant obstacle to eradication of the disease from domestic livestock. The current antemortem diagnostic method, the intradermal tuberculin skin test, is impractical for routine use with many wild animals. Antibody-based assays are particularly attractive because the animals are handled only once and immediate processing of the sample is not required. This report characterizes the antibody responses of red deer-elk hybrids (Cervus elaphus) against Mycobacterium bovis and subsequently evaluates the diagnostic performance of select antigens in a rapid-test format. Sequential serum samples were collected from 10 animals experimentally infected with M. bovis and 5 noninfected animals over a 7-month period postinfection (p.i.). Samples were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunoblot analyses, and multiantigen print immunoassays for seroreactivity to mycobacterial antigens. Although all infected animals produced antibodies to M. bovis protein antigens, there was significant animal-to-animal variation in the kinetics and magnitudes of responses and the antigens recognized. The most frequently recognized antigens included MPB83, ESAT-6, CFP10, and MPB70. Responses to some antigens, such as MPB83, were consistently detected as early as 4 weeks after inoculation, whereas other antigens were detected only much later (>140 days p.i.). Antibody responses were boosted by injection of tuberculin for intradermal tuberculin skin testing. Comparison of single-antigen (fluorescence polarization assay) with multiantigen (CervidTB STAT-PAK) rapid tests demonstrated that a highly sensitive and specific serodiagnostic test for tuberculosis in cervids will require multiple and carefully selected seroreactive antigens covering a broad spectrum of antibody specificities.

  10. Effects of Non-Susceptible Hosts on the Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi of the Vector Triatoma infestans: an Experimental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez Diego P

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested experimentally the effects of the presence of non-susceptible hosts on the infection with Trypanosoma cruzi of the vector Triatoma infestans. The experiment consisted in two treatments: with chickens, including two chickens (non-susceptible hosts and two infected guinea pigs (susceptible hosts, and without chickens, including only two infected guinea pigs. The hosts were held unrestrained in individual metal cages inside a closed tulle chamber. A total of 200 uninfected T. infestans third instar nymphs were liberated in each replica, collected on day 14, and examined for infection and blood meal sources on day 32-36. The additional presence of chickens relative to infected guinea pigs: (a significantly modified the spatial distribution of bugs; (b increased significantly the likelihoods of having a detectable blood meal on any host and molting to the next instar; (c did not affect the bugs' probability of death by predation; and (d decreased significantly the overall percentage of T. infestans infected with T. cruzi. The bugs collected from inside or close to the guinea pigs' cages showed a higher infection rate (71-88% than those collected from the chickens' cages (22-32%. Mixed blood meals on chickens and guinea pigs were detected in 12-21% of bugs. Although the presence of chickens would decrease the overall percentage of infected bugs in short term experiments, the high rate of host change of T. infestans would make this difference fade out if longer exposure times had been provided.

  11. Experimental infection of broiler chicks with Salmonella Typhimurium from pigeon (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Átilla Holanda de Albuquerque

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Several cases of animal and human salmonellosis caused by the Salmonella serotype Typhimurium have been reported. In animals, subclinical infection favors pathogen dissemination through feces. In this context, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia with an asymptomatic condition may play an important role in the transmission of salmonellosis, through the elimination of contaminated feces in commercial aviaries or in poultry feed facilities, causing economic losses to the poultry industry and presenting a risk to public health. This study aimed to evaluate the mortality, clinical signs and the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in the feces and organs of chicks previously inoculated with bacteria isolated from a pigeon. One-day-old chicks were distributed in two experimental groups (G1 and G2 of 32 birds each, and a control group of six birds. Two inocula of 0.4 and 0.7 mL with 105 and 106 colony forming units were used in G1 and G2 birds, respectively. At 1, 4, 7 and 14 days post-inoculation (dpi fecal samples were pooled from each cage and individual cloacal swabs were collected. At 14 dpi, all chicks were euthanized and samples were collected from the liver, spleen, lung, cecum and intestine for microbiological analysis. Mortality was only observed among G2 birds (6.25%. Most birds presented clinical signs of diarrhea at 4 dpi and no symptom as observed at 14 dpi. The results from cloacal swabs demonstrated bacterial elimination in 68.8% and 53.1% of G2 and G1 birds, respectively at 1 dpi. Additionally, fecal samples had elevated bacterial shedding in all four periods of observation , with a higher excretion at 4 dpi (62.5% for both groups. Among G2 birds, 74.2% were positive for the pathogen in the intestine; G1 birds presented the lowest rate of lung infection (29%, and both groups had more than 50% positivity for liver and caeca. The results revealed that infected chicks with a Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from pigeons may host the

  12. An outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis traced to cream cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Tai Goh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper describes the epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations conducted during an outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis in Singapore.Methods: A case-control study was undertaken to identify the vehicle of transmission. Microbiological testing was performed on faecal, food and environmental samples. Isolates of Salmonella were further characterized by phage typing and ribotyping.Results: There were 216 gastroenteritis cases reported from 20 November to 4 December 2007. The causative agent was identified as Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis for 14 out of 20 cases tested. The vehicle of transmission was traced to cream cakes produced by a bakery and sold at its retail outlets (P < 0.001, OR = 143.00, 95% Cl = 27.23–759.10. More than two-thirds of the 40 Salmonella strains isolated from hospitalized cases, food samples and asymptomatic food handlers were of phage type 1; the others reacted but did not conform to any phage type. The phage types correlated well with their unique antibiograms. The ribotype patterns of 22 selected isolates tested were highly similar, indicating genetic relatedness. The dendrogram of the strains from the outbreak showed distinct clustering and correlation compared to the non-outbreak strains, confirming a common source of infection.Discussion: The cream cakes were likely contaminated by one of the ingredients used in the icing. Cross-contamination down the production line and subsequent storage of cakes at ambient temperatures for a prolonged period before consumption could have resulted in the outbreak.

  13. Visualization of gold and platinum nanoparticles interacting with Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sawosz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ewa Sawosz1, André Chwalibog2, Jacek Szeliga3, Filip Sawosz2, Marta Grodzik1, Marlena Rupiewicz1, Tomasz Niemiec1, Katarzyna Kacprzyk11Division of Biotechnology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; 2Department of Basic Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Division of Microbiology of Analytical Centre, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, PolandPurpose: Rapid development of nanotechnology has recently brought significant attention to the extraordinary biological features of nanomaterials. The objective of the present ­investigation was to evaluate morphological characteristics of the assembles of gold and platinum nanoparticles (nano-Au and nano-Pt respectively, with Salmonella Enteritidis (Gram-negative and Listeria monocytogenes (Gram-positive, to reveal possibilities of constructing bacteria-nanoparticle vehicles.Methods: Hydrocolloids of nano-Au or nano-Pt were added to two bacteria suspensions in the following order: nano-Au + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Au + Listeria monocytogenes; nano-Pt + Salmonella Enteritidis; nano-Pt + Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were inspected by transmission electron microscope.Results: Visualization of morphological interaction between nano-Au and Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes, showed that nano-Au were aggregated within flagella or biofilm network and did not penetrate the bacterial cell. The analysis of morphological effects of interaction of nano-Pt with bacteria revealed that nano-Pt entered cells of Listeria monocytogenes and were removed from the cells. In the case of Salmonella Enteritidis, nano-Pt were seen inside bacteria cells, probably bound to DNA and partly left bacterial cells. After washing and centrifugation, some of the nano-Pt-DNA complexes were observed within Salmonella Enteritidis.Conclusion: The results indicate that the bacteria could be used as a vehicle to deliver nano

  14. Recurrent meningitis due to Salmonella enteritidis: A case report from Kashmir India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Fomda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent bacterial meningitis in children is potentially life-threatening and induces psychological trauma to the patients through repeated hospitalization. Here we report a case of recurrent meningitis in a one month old baby. The CSF and blood culture grew Salmonella enteritidis. Injection ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone were given for 3 weeks. Baby became symptomatically better and was afebrile at discharge. Twenty eight days after discharge baby got readmitted with complaints of fever and refusal of feeds. Blood and CSF culture again showed growth of Salmonella enteritidis. Physicians should be educated about the possibility of recurrence which may occur days or even weeks after apparent successful antibiotic treatment.

  15. An investigation on vertical transmission of Leishmania infantum in experimentally infected dogs and assessment of offspring's infectiousness potential by xenodiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Slimane, T; Chouihi, E; Ben Hadj Ahmed, S; Chelbi, I; Barhoumi, W; Cherni, S; Zoghlami, Z; Gharbi, M; Zhioua, E

    2014-12-15

    Dogs are the main reservoir host of Leishmania infantum, etiologic agent of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Transmission of L. infantum to humans and dogs is mainly through the bite of infected sand flies. In the Western Mediterranean basin, Phlebotomus perniciosus is the main vector of L. infantum. However, occasional vertical transmission of L. infantum has been reported. This study investigated L. infantum vertical transmission in offspring of experimentally infected dogs. Among 14 surviving puppies from three female beagle dogs that developed CVL following an experimental infection with L. infantum, one was tested positive by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test, by PCR and by xenodiagnosis with a high parasite burden in the spleen at 14 months old. None of the remaining puppies were tested positive for L. infantum. These findings strongly suggest that infected puppies following vertical transmission can sustain infection and contribute in infecting sand flies with L. infantum. Any strategy for controlling CVL should take into consideration the vertical transmission of L. infantum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical presentation, convalescence, and relapse of rocky mountain spotted fever in dogs experimentally infected via tick bite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Levin

    Full Text Available Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF is a tick-borne disease caused by R. rickettsii in North and South America. Domestic dogs are susceptible to infection and canine RMSF can be fatal without appropriate treatment. Although clinical signs of R. rickettsii infection in dogs have been described, published reports usually include descriptions of either advanced clinical cases or experimental infections caused by needle-inoculation of cultured pathogen rather than by tick bite. The natural progression of a tick-borne R. rickettsii infection has not been studied in sufficient detail. Here, we provide a detailed description of clinical, hematological, molecular, and serological dynamics of RMSF in domestic dogs from the day of experimental exposure to infected ticks through recovery. Presented data indicate that neither the height/duration of fever nor detection of rickettsial DNA in dogs' blood by PCR are good indicators for clinical prognosis. Only the apex and subsequent subsidence of neutrophilia seem to mark the beginning of recovery and allow predicting a favorable outcome in Rickettsia-infected dogs, even despite the continuing persistence of mucosal petechiae and skin rash. On the other hand the appropriate (doxycycline antibiotic therapy of sufficient duration is crucial in prevention of RMSF relapses in dogs.

  17. Clinical presentation, convalescence, and relapse of rocky mountain spotted fever in dogs experimentally infected via tick bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael L; Killmaster, Lindsay F; Zemtsova, Galina E; Ritter, Jana M; Langham, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a tick-borne disease caused by R. rickettsii in North and South America. Domestic dogs are susceptible to infection and canine RMSF can be fatal without appropriate treatment. Although clinical signs of R. rickettsii infection in dogs have been described, published reports usually include descriptions of either advanced clinical cases or experimental infections caused by needle-inoculation of cultured pathogen rather than by tick bite. The natural progression of a tick-borne R. rickettsii infection has not been studied in sufficient detail. Here, we provide a detailed description of clinical, hematological, molecular, and serological dynamics of RMSF in domestic dogs from the day of experimental exposure to infected ticks through recovery. Presented data indicate that neither the height/duration of fever nor detection of rickettsial DNA in dogs' blood by PCR are good indicators for clinical prognosis. Only the apex and subsequent subsidence of neutrophilia seem to mark the beginning of recovery and allow predicting a favorable outcome in Rickettsia-infected dogs, even despite the continuing persistence of mucosal petechiae and skin rash. On the other hand the appropriate (doxycycline) antibiotic therapy of sufficient duration is crucial in prevention of RMSF relapses in dogs.

  18. Experimental infection of Carrion crows (Corvus corone) with two European West Nile virus (WNV) strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, Maha; Vangeluwe, Didier; Lecollinet, Sylvie; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2013-07-26

    West Nile virus (WNV) has become a wide-spread arbovirus in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin countries. This emerging zoonotic disease disseminated 13 years ago in North America where its impact on animal and public health has been considerable. Although American corvids have been the most reliable avian sentinels for WN surveillance in the United States, there is so far no data available about the susceptibility of their Western European counterparts to WNV. Clinical follow-up and serum, oral swabs and feathers viral RNA load monitoring was herein performed on wild-caught Carrion crows (Corvus corone) experimentally inoculated with two WNV strains, Is98 that was isolated from a stork in Israel where it elicited high rates of avian deaths in 1998, and Fr2000 which was only associated to sporadic equine cases in Camargue, France in 2000. Inoculated crows were sensitive to both WNV infections and, as expected from the available epidemiological data, Is98 induced a higher mortality rate (100% vs. 33%) and a quicker fatal outcome, with higher viral RNA loads detected in the serum, oral swabs and feathers than in the Fr2000 group. Therefore, Carrion crows should also be a target species for WNV surveillance in Western Europe, where reporting for abnormal mortalities could be completed by viral detection in the herein described avian matrices. These experimental findings also emphasize the peculiarity of the European situation where a large spectrum of WNV genetic and pathotypic variants have been so far isolated despite limited WN disease reports in wild birds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A dual mechanism involved in membrane and nucleic acid disruption of AvBD103b, a new avian defensin from the king penguin, against Salmonella enteritidis CVCC3377.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Da; Wang, Xiumin; Xi, Di; Mao, Ruoyu; Zhang, Yong; Guan, Qingfeng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-10-01

    The food-borne bacterial gastrointestinal infection is a serious public health threat. Defensins are evolutionarily conserved innate immune components with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity that do not easily induce resistance. AvBD103b, an avian defensin with potent activity against Salmonella enteritidis, was isolated from the stomach contents of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus). To elucidate further the antibacterial mechanism of AvBD103b, its effect on the S. enteritidis CVCC3377 cell membrane and intracellular DNA was researched. The cell surface hydrophobicity and a N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine uptake assay demonstrated that AvBD103b treatment increased the cell surface hydrophobicity and outer membrane permeability. Atomic absorption spectrometry, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, flow cytometry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that AvBD103b treatment can lead to the release of the cellular contents and cell death through damage of the membrane. DNA gel retardation and circular dichroism analysis demonstrated that AvBD103b interacted with DNA and intercalated into the DNA base pairs. A cell cycle assay demonstrated that AvBD103b affected cellular functions, such as DNA synthesis. Our results confirmed that AvBD103b exerts its antibacterial activity by damaging the cell membrane and interfering with intracellular DNA, ultimately causing cell death, and suggested that AvBD103b may be a promising candidate as an alternative to antibiotics against S. enteritidis.

  20. Gag- and env-specific serum antibodies in cats after natural and experimental infection with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); H. Broos; G.A. Drost; K. Weijer (Kees); R. van Herwijnen (Rob); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn order to monitor the antibody response to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in cats, following experimental and natural infection, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed using recombinant env and gag proteins and p24-specific monoclonal antibodies. It was shown

  1. Lack of prion transmission by sexual or parental routes in experimentally infected hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rodrigo; Pritzkow, Sandra; Hu, Ping Ping; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Soto, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases are a group of neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans as well as captive and wild animals. The mechanisms and routes governing the natural spread of prions are not completely understood and several hypotheses have been proposed. In this study, we analyzed the effect of gender in prion incubation period, as well as the possibility of prion transmission by sexual and parental contact using 263K infected hamsters as a model. Our results show that males have significantly longer incubation periods compared with females when exposed to the same quantity of infectious material. Importantly, no evidence of sexual or parental prion transmission was found, even 500 d after sexual contact or birth, respectively. Western blotting and PMCA were unable to detect sub-clinical levels of PrP(Sc) in experimental subjects, suggesting a complete absence of prion transmission by these routes. Our results show that sexual and parental transmission of prions does not occur in this model. It remains to be studied whether this conclusion is valid also for other prion strains and species.

  2. Preclinical deposition of pathological prion protein in muscle of experimentally infected primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Krasemann

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are transmissible fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and animals. A central step in disease progression is the accumulation of a misfolded form (PrP(Sc of the host encoded prion protein (PrP(C in neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. The involvement of peripheral tissues in preclinical states increases the risk of accidental transmission. On the other hand, detection of PrP(Sc in non-neuronal easy-accessible compartments such as muscle may offer a novel diagnostic tool. Primate models have proven invaluable to investigate prion diseases. We have studied the deposition of PrP(Sc in muscle and central nervous system of rhesus monkeys challenged with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD, variant CJD (vCJD and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in preclinical and clinical stage using biochemical and morphological methods. Here, we show the preclinical presence of PrP(Sc in muscle and central nervous system of rhesus monkeys experimentally infected with vCJD.

  3. Experimental single and trickle infections of cattle with Taenia saginata: Studies of immunodiagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, H.O.; Grønvold, J.; Maeda, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Two groups of 12 calves were given either a single infection dose of 30,000 Taenia saginata eggs (group A) or trickle infected with 12 x 2500 T saginata eggs (group B). The calves were killed 16, 22 or 54 weeks after infection and the numbers of viable and dead parasites were counted by slicing...

  4. Immune gene expression in the spleen of chickens experimentally infected with Ascaridia galli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tina S.; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Norup, Liselotte R.

    2015-01-01

    Ascaridia galli is a gastrointestinal nematode infecting chickens. Chickens kept in alternative rearing systems or at free-range experience increased risk for infection with resulting high prevalences. A. gall infection causes reduced weight gain, decreased egg production and in severe cases incr...

  5. Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)1 or 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. ...

  6. Impact of the post-weaning parasitism history on an experimental Haemonchus contortus infection in Creole goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceï, W; Mahieu, M; Philibert, L; Arquet, R; Alexandre, G; Mandonnet, N; Bambou, J C

    2015-01-15

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections have an important negative impact on small ruminant production. The selection of genotypes resistant to these parasitic infections is a promising alternative control strategy. Thus, resistance against GIN is an important component of small ruminant breeding schemes, based on phenotypic measurements of resistance in immune mature infected animals. In this study we evaluated both the impact of the post-weaning parasitism history on the response to an experimental Haemonchus contortus infection of resistant and susceptible Creole kids chosen on the basis of their estimated breeding value, and the interaction with the kid's genetic status. During the post-weaning period (from 3 months until 7 months of age) Creole kids were reared at pasture according to four different levels of a mixed rotational stocking system with Creole cattle: 100% (control), 75% (GG75), 50% (GG50), and 25% (GG25) of the total stocking rate of the pasture. The level of infection of the kids decreased significantly at 50% and 25% of the total stocking rate. After the post-weaning period at pasture, at 11 months of age kids were experimentally infected with H. contortus. The faecal egg counts (FEC) were significantly lower in the groups showing the highest FEC at pasture. This result suggests that a degree of protection against an experimental H. contortus infection occurred during the post-weaning period and was dependant on the level of parasitism. Interestingly, no interaction was observed between this level of protection and the genetic status. In conclusion, the level of post-weaning natural parasitism history at pasture would not influence the genetic status evaluation. More generally our results suggest that it would be better to expose kids to a high level of gastrointestinal parasitism during the post-weaning period in order to increase the basal level of resistance thereafter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Vaccination with experimental feline immunodeficiency virus vaccines, based on autologous infected cells, elicits enhancement of homologous challenge infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Karlas (Jos); C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); M.A. Peer; W. Huisman (Willem); A.M. Cuisinier; G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractCats were vaccinated with fixed autologous feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cells in order to present viral proteins to the immune system of individual cats in an MHC-matched fashion. Upon vaccination, a humoral response against Gag was induced. Furthermore,

  8. Novel experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection model mimicking long-term host-pathogen interactions in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Claus; van Gennip, Maria; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Moser C, van Gennip M, Bjarnsholt T, Jensen PO, Lee B, Hougen HP, Calum H, Ciofu O, Givskov M, Molin S, Hoiby N. Novel experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection model mimicking long-term host-pathogen interactions in cystic fibrosis. APMIS 2009; 117: 95-107. The dominant cause of premature...... death in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) is chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The chronic lung infection often lasts for decades with just one clone. However, as a result of inflammation, antibiotic treatment and different niches in the lungs, the clone undergoes...... and 2003) of the chronic lung infection of one CF patient using the seaweed alginate embedment model. The results showed that the non-mucoid clones reduced their virulence over time, resulting in faster clearing of the bacteria from the lungs, improved pathology and reduced pulmonary production...

  9. Experimental infection of macaques with a wild water bird-derived highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Fujiyuki

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV continues to threaten human health. Non-human primate infection models of human influenza are desired. To establish an animal infection model with more natural transmission and to determine the pathogenicity of HPAIV isolated from a wild water bird in primates, we administered a Japanese isolate of HPAIV (A/whooper swan/Hokkaido/1/2008, H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1 to rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys, in droplet form, via the intratracheal route. Infection of the lower and upper respiratory tracts and viral shedding were observed in both macaques. Inoculation of rhesus monkeys with higher doses of the isolate resulted in stronger clinical symptoms of influenza. Our results demonstrate that HPAIV isolated from a water bird in Japan is pathogenic in monkeys by experimental inoculation, and provide a new method for HPAIV infection of non-human primate hosts, a good animal model for investigation of HPAIV pathogenicity.

  10. Detection and localization of rabbit hepatitis e virus and antigen in systemic tissues from experimentally intraperitoneally infected rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Mao

    Full Text Available Rabbit hepatitis E virus (HEV is a novel genotype of HEV, and is considered to pose a risk of zoonotic transmission. Research into the systemic distribution of rabbit HEV in rabbits during different periods of infection has rarely been reported. To better understand this virus, we infected rabbits with second-passage rabbit HEV via an intraperitoneal route. After inoculation, the infection showed two types, temporary and constant infection. The detection of HEV RNA in the feces varied with time, and serum antigen correlated with fecal HEV RNA. Viremia only appeared 72 days after inoculation. The rabbits remained antibody negative throughout the experimental period. When HEV was localized, several organs besides the liver were HEV RNA positive. Tissue antigen was observed immunohistochemically in the different cells of various organs, especially in parts of the small intestine and the characteristic rabbit gut-associated lymphoid tissue. These data provide valuable information for future research into the pathogenesis of HEV.

  11. Sympatric and allopatric experimental infections of the planorbid snail Gyraulus chinensis with miracidia of Euparyphium albuferensis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Antoli, C; Marín, A; Trelis, M; Toledo, R; Esteban, J-G

    2010-12-01

    An experimental infection with echinostomatid miracidia in sympatric or 'local' vs. allopatric or 'away' snail combinations, as a model to examine parasite compatibility, was carried out. We employed Euparyphium albuferensis miracidia to infect Gyraulus chinensis snails, from three different natural parks: Albufera (Valencia, Spain); the Ebro Delta (Tarragona, Spain) and Coto de Doñana (Huelva, Spain). Insignificant differences between the three snail strains were noted for the infection rate and the rhythm of daily cercarial production. However, a significantly higher total cercarial production per snail, patent period and life span were observed in local snails. The different infection characteristics in the three G. chinensis strains considered reveal that E. albuferensis miracidia demonstrate local adaptation.

  12. Highly (H5N1 and low (H7N2 pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in falcons via nasochoanal route and ingestion of experimentally infected prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateri Bertran

    Full Text Available An experimental infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI viruses was carried out on falcons in order to examine the effects of these viruses in terms of pathogenesis, viral distribution in tissues and viral shedding. The distribution pattern of influenza virus receptors was also assessed. Captive-reared gyr-saker (Falco rusticolus x Falco cherrug hybrid falcons were challenged with a HPAI H5N1 virus (A/Great crested grebe/Basque Country/06.03249/2006 or a LPAI H7N2 virus (A/Anas plathyrhynchos/Spain/1877/2009, both via the nasochoanal route and by ingestion of previously infected specific pathogen free chicks. Infected falcons exhibited similar infection dynamics despite the different routes of exposure, demonstrating the effectiveness of in vivo feeding route. H5N1 infected falcons died, or were euthanized, between 5-7 days post-infection (dpi after showing acute severe neurological signs. Presence of viral antigen in several tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and real time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR, which were generally associated with significant microscopical lesions, mostly in the brain. Neither clinical signs, nor histopathological findings were observed in any of the H7N2 LPAI infected falcons, although all of them had seroconverted by 11 dpi. Avian receptors were strongly present in the upper respiratory tract of the falcons, in accordance with the consistent oral viral shedding detected by RRT-PCR in both H5N1 HPAI and H7N2 LPAI infected falcons. The present study demonstrates that gyr-saker hybrid falcons are highly susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus infection, as previously observed, and that they may play a major role in the spreading of both HPAI and LPAI viruses. For the first time in raptors, natural infection by feeding on infected prey was successfully reproduced. The use of avian prey species in falconry husbandry and wildlife rehabilitation facilities could put valuable birds

  13. Highly (H5N1) and low (H7N2) pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in falcons via nasochoanal route and ingestion of experimentally infected prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Busquets, Núria; Abad, Francesc Xavier; García de la Fuente, Jorge; Solanes, David; Cordón, Iván; Costa, Taiana; Dolz, Roser; Majó, Natàlia

    2012-01-01

    An experimental infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses was carried out on falcons in order to examine the effects of these viruses in terms of pathogenesis, viral distribution in tissues and viral shedding. The distribution pattern of influenza virus receptors was also assessed. Captive-reared gyr-saker (Falco rusticolus x Falco cherrug) hybrid falcons were challenged with a HPAI H5N1 virus (A/Great crested grebe/Basque Country/06.03249/2006) or a LPAI H7N2 virus (A/Anas plathyrhynchos/Spain/1877/2009), both via the nasochoanal route and by ingestion of previously infected specific pathogen free chicks. Infected falcons exhibited similar infection dynamics despite the different routes of exposure, demonstrating the effectiveness of in vivo feeding route. H5N1 infected falcons died, or were euthanized, between 5-7 days post-infection (dpi) after showing acute severe neurological signs. Presence of viral antigen in several tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and real time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR), which were generally associated with significant microscopical lesions, mostly in the brain. Neither clinical signs, nor histopathological findings were observed in any of the H7N2 LPAI infected falcons, although all of them had seroconverted by 11 dpi. Avian receptors were strongly present in the upper respiratory tract of the falcons, in accordance with the consistent oral viral shedding detected by RRT-PCR in both H5N1 HPAI and H7N2 LPAI infected falcons. The present study demonstrates that gyr-saker hybrid falcons are highly susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus infection, as previously observed, and that they may play a major role in the spreading of both HPAI and LPAI viruses. For the first time in raptors, natural infection by feeding on infected prey was successfully reproduced. The use of avian prey species in falconry husbandry and wildlife rehabilitation facilities could put valuable birds of prey and

  14. Risks Involved in the Use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Heidelberg in Commercial Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Barrera, Eduardo; Calhoun, Nicole; Lobato-Tapia, Jose L.; Lucca, Vivian; Prado-Rebolledo, Omar; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Petrone-García, Victor M.; Latorre, Juan D.; Mahaffey, Brittany D.; Teague, Kyle D.; Graham, Lucas E.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Baxter, Mikayla F. A.; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) or Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) in commercial poultry and determine the effects of a probiotic as an antibiotic alternative. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for SE or SH in commercial poultry. Experiment 1 consisted of two trials. In each trial, chickens were assigned to one of three groups; control + SE challenged; Enrofloxacin 25 mg/kg + SE; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SE. Chickens received Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, all groups received fresh water without any treatment. All chickens were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/chick of SE at 7 days of age and euthanized on 8 days of age. In Experiment 2, turkey poults were assigned to one of the three groups; control + SH; probiotic + SH; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SH. Poults received probiotic or Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, poults received fresh water without any treatment. Poults were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/poult of SH at 7 days of age. Poults were weighed and humanely killed 24 h post-SH challenge to evaluate serum concentration of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran to evaluate intestinal permeability, metagenomics, and SH infection. In both trials of Experiment 1, chickens treated with Enrofloxacin were more susceptible to SE organ invasion and intestinal colonization when compared with control non-treated chickens (P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, poults treated with 50 mg/kg of Enrofloxacin showed an increase in body weight, however, this group also showed an increase in SH susceptibility, intestinal permeability, and lower proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but with control group had the highest proportion of Proteobacteria. By contrast, poults that received the probiotic had the highest

  15. Risks Involved in the Use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Heidelberg in Commercial Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Barrera, Eduardo; Calhoun, Nicole; Lobato-Tapia, Jose L; Lucca, Vivian; Prado-Rebolledo, Omar; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Petrone-García, Victor M; Latorre, Juan D; Mahaffey, Brittany D; Teague, Kyle D; Graham, Lucas E; Wolfenden, Amanda D; Baxter, Mikayla F A; Hargis, Billy M; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) or Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) in commercial poultry and determine the effects of a probiotic as an antibiotic alternative. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for SE or SH in commercial poultry. Experiment 1 consisted of two trials. In each trial, chickens were assigned to one of three groups; control + SE challenged; Enrofloxacin 25 mg/kg + SE; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SE. Chickens received Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, all groups received fresh water without any treatment. All chickens were orally gavaged with 10(7) cfu/chick of SE at 7 days of age and euthanized on 8 days of age. In Experiment 2, turkey poults were assigned to one of the three groups; control + SH; probiotic + SH; and Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SH. Poults received probiotic or Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, poults received fresh water without any treatment. Poults were orally gavaged with 10(7) cfu/poult of SH at 7 days of age. Poults were weighed and humanely killed 24 h post-SH challenge to evaluate serum concentration of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran to evaluate intestinal permeability, metagenomics, and SH infection. In both trials of Experiment 1, chickens treated with Enrofloxacin were more susceptible to SE organ invasion and intestinal colonization when compared with control non-treated chickens (P Enrofloxacin showed an increase in body weight, however, this group also showed an increase in SH susceptibility, intestinal permeability, and lower proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but with control group had the highest proportion of Proteobacteria. By contrast, poults that received the probiotic had the highest proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but lowest

  16. Experimental infection of octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797) with Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida. Immunohistochemical tracking of antigen and tissue responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulos, Vasileios; White, Daniella; Valsamidis, Michail-Aggelos; Vasilaki, Feli

    2017-03-01

    Adult common octopus individuals were intramuscularly infected with Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida in order to investigate if this species is sensitive to this common and important fish pathogen. The fate of the bacterial antigens and the tissue responses of Octopus vulgaris were studied employing immunohistochemical techniques. Strong reaction at the site of injection was evident from day 2 post-infection that continued until day 14. Great numbers of hemocytes that were attracted at the site of infection were involved in phagocytosis of bacteria. Very early in the infection, a transition of cells to fibroblasts and an effort to isolate the infection was observed. During the course of the study, very large necrotic cells were seen at the site of infection, whereas during the later stages hemocytes with phagocytosed bacteria were observed in well-defined pockets inside the muscle tissue. None of the internal organs tested for the presence of the bacterium were positive with the exception of the digestive gland where antigen staining was observed which was not associated with hemocyte infiltration. The high doses of bacterial cells used in this experimental infection and the lack of disease signs from Octopus vulgaris suggest that, under normal conditions, octopus is resistant to Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Intra-uterine experimental infection by Ureaplasma diversum induces TNF-α mediated womb inflammation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile R. Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ureaplasma diversum is an opportunistic pathogen associated with uterine inflammation, impaired embryo implantation, infertility, abortions, premature birth of calves and neonatal pneumonia in cattle. It has been suggested that the intra-uterine infection by Ureaplasma diversum can cause vascular changes that hinder the success of pregnancy. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of intrauterine site of A/J mice in estrus or proestrus phase inoculated with Ureaplasma diversum. The infection was monitored at 24, 48 and 72 hours by the PCR methodology to detect the Ureaplasma in the inoculation site and the profile of circulating blood cells. Morphological changes, intensity of inflammation and the production of cytokines were compared. The infected mice showed local inflammation through the production of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Ureaplasma diversum infections in the reproductive tract of studied mice seemed to be associated with the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in uterine parenchyma. The levels of TNF-α of infected mice were dependent on the bacterial load of inoculated Ureaplasma. Uterine experimental infections by Ureaplasma diversum have not been mentioned yet and herein we presented the first report of an intrauterine infection model in mice.

  18. Intra-uterine experimental infection by Ureaplasma diversum induces TNF-α mediated womb inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jamile R; Ferreira, Lício F A A; Oliveira, Percíllia V S; Nunes, Ivanéia V; Pereira, Ítalo S; Timenetsky, Jorge; Marques, Lucas M; Figueiredo, Tiana B; Silva, Robson A A

    2016-01-01

    Ureaplasma diversum is an opportunistic pathogen associated with uterine inflammation, impaired embryo implantation, infertility, abortions, premature birth of calves and neonatal pneumonia in cattle. It has been suggested that the intra-uterine infection by Ureaplasma diversum can cause vascular changes that hinder the success of pregnancy. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of intrauterine site of A/J mice in estrus or proestrus phase inoculated with Ureaplasma diversum. The infection was monitored at 24, 48 and 72 hours by the PCR methodology to detect the Ureaplasma in the inoculation site and the profile of circulating blood cells. Morphological changes, intensity of inflammation and the production of cytokines were compared. The infected mice showed local inflammation through the production of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Ureaplasma diversum infections in the reproductive tract of studied mice seemed to be associated with the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in uterine parenchyma. The levels of TNF-α of infected mice were dependent on the bacterial load of inoculated Ureaplasma. Uterine experimental infections by Ureaplasma diversum have not been mentioned yet and herein we presented the first report of an intrauterine infection model in mice.

  19. The effect of a fenbendazole treatment on cyst excretion and weight gain in calves experimentally infected with Giardia duodenalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Vandenhoute, Els; Pohle, Herbert; Casaert, Stijn; De Wilde, Nathalie; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

    2010-04-19

    A total of 28 Holstein-Friesian calves were experimentally infected with 10(5)Giardia duodenalis cysts. Eleven days later, all animals were allocated into two groups of 14 animals each, based on the average pre-treatment cyst counts. Treatment was randomly assigned to one of the two groups, and all animals in the treatment group received a daily oral dosage of 15mg fenbendazole per kg bodyweight during 3 consecutive days. The calves in the control group received a placebo (water). From 3 days after treatment onwards, cyst excretion was determined three times a week during 4 consecutive weeks. The faecal consistency and general health were recorded on a daily basis, and all animals were weighed prior to treatment and weekly thereafter. At the end of the experimental period, there was a significant (Pfenbendazole treated and untreated calves experimentally infected with G. duodenalis, although additional data need to confirm the need for treatment in natural conditions.

  20. Adaptation of Lymnaea fuscus and Radix balthica to Fasciola hepatica through the experimental infection of several successive snail generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection (>70%) was noted during several outbreaks before the 2000s in several French farms where Galba truncatula is lacking. Other lymnaeids such as Lymnaea fuscus, L. glabra and/or Radix balthica are living in meadows around these farms but only juvenile snails can sustain complete larval development of F. hepatica while older snails were resistant. The low prevalence of infection (<20%) and limited cercarial production (<50 cercariae per infected snail) noted with these juveniles could not explain the high values noted in these cattle herds. As paramphistomosis due to Calicophoron daubneyi was not still noted in these farms, the existence of another mode of infection was hypothesized. Experimental infection of several successive generations of L. glabra, originating from eggs laid by their parents already infected with this parasite resulted in a progressive increase in prevalence of snail infection and the number of shed cercariae. The aim of this paper was to determine if this mode of snail infection was specific to L. glabra, or it might occur in other lymnaeid species such as L. fuscus and R. balthica. Methods Five successive generations of L. fuscus and R. balthica were subjected to individual bimiracidial infections in the laboratory. Resulting rediae and cercariae in the first four generations were counted after snail dissection at day 50 p.e. (20°C), while the dynamics of cercarial shedding was followed in the F5 generation. Results In the first experiment, prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in snails progressively increased from the F1 (R. balthica) or F2 (L. fuscus) generation. In the second experiment, the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the number of shed cercariae were significantly lower in L. fuscus and R. balthica (without significant differences between both lymnaeids) than in G. truncatula. Conclusion The F. hepatica infection of several successive snail generations

  1. Putative biomarkers for evaluating antibiotic treatment: an experimental model of porcine Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, B.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Skaanild, M.T.

    2003-01-01

    Biomarkers of infection were screened for their possible role as evaluators of antibiotic treatment in an aerosol infection model of porcine pneumonia caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap). Following infection of 12 pigs, clinical signs of pneumonia developed within 20 h, whereafter...... antibiotic treatment of acute Ap-infection ill pigs. The present model provides a valuable tool in the evaluation of antibiotic treatments, offering the advantage of clinical and pathological examinations combined with the use of biochemical infection markers....... recovered clinically within 24h after treatment, whereas tiamulin-treated animals remained clinically ill until the end of the study, 48 h after treatment. A similar Picture was seen for the biomarkers of infection. During the infection period, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 and haptoglobin...

  2. Efficacy of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination before and at weaning against experimental challenge infection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenakis, Ioannis; Panzavolta, Luca; Michiels, Annelies; Del Pozo Sacristán, Rubén; Boyen, Filip; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Maes, Dominiek

    2016-03-29

    Commercial bacterins are widely used at weaning to control Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in pigs. However, it is not known whether the efficacy of vaccinating against M. hyopneumoniae can be influenced by the weaning process when vaccination is applied at the day of weaning. The present study assessed the efficacy of a single M. hyopneumoniae vaccination (Ingelvac MycoFLEX®) three days before weaning (V1) or at weaning (V2) against experimental challenge infection. Four weeks after vaccination, groups V1 and V2 (n = 20 pigs each) and a non-vaccinated, positive control group (PCG) (n = 20) were endotracheally inoculated with a virulent M. hyopneumoniae field strain. Five pigs were used as a negative control group. All pigs were euthanized 5 weeks after challenge. The main parameters investigated included macroscopic and histopathological lung lesions at necropsy, immunofluorescence (IF) staining and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) on broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid for quantifying M. hyopneumoniae. The average macroscopic lung lesion scores in groups V1, V2 and PCG were 0.54, 0.88 and 1.04, respectively (P > 0.05). The average lymphohistiocytic infiltration scores in groups V1, V2 and PCG were 2.95, 3.16 and 3.61, respectively (P 0.05), the qPCR values were: V1 = 10(2.94), V2 = 10(2.76) and PCG = 10(3.23) (P > 0.05). All pigs of the negative control group remained negative throughout the study. Both vaccinated groups had lower numbers of macroscopic and histopathological lung lesions, and lower numbers of M. hyopneumoniae organisms in the BAL fluid compared to the PCG. However, no firm conclusions could be made on whether weaning negatively influences the efficacy of M. hyopneumoniae vaccination, since significant differences between the treatment groups were only obtained for the histopathological lung lesions. This could be attributed to the fact that milder macroscopic lung lesions were produced in the inoculated pigs, when compared to previous

  3. Comparison of infectious hematopoietic necrosis in natural and experimental infections of spawning salmonids by infectivity and immunohistochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T.; Arakawa, C.K.; Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) continues to be a serious virus disease of salmonids with epizootics recorded in both wild and hatchery populations (Williams and Amend 1976; Carlisle et al 1979; Groberg and Fryer 1983; Saft and Pratt 1986; Traxler 1987; Follett et al 1987; Meyers et al 1988). While originally enzootic in western North America, the virus appears to be spreading further (Sano et al 1977; de Kinkelin et al 1987; Bovo et al 1987). In hatchery outbreaks occurring in regions where the virus is not enzootic, it is often possible to trace the virus to the importation of infected fingerlings or contaminated eggs. In regions where the virus is widespread among stocks of fish, the source of virus infection is more difficult to establish particularly in watersheds where there are anadromous salmonids. Although salmonid fish surviving infection as fry and returning from the ocean to spawn are considered to be parental carriers of IHNV, there is very little data to support this hypothesis. Amend (1975) in the study of rainbow trout reported that in a population surviving infection and assayed a few years later found that a few trout were carrying virus. This is the study often cited as evidence for the carrier status of returning salmonids. LaPatra et al (1987) presented data that indicated IHNV has been transmitted horizontally through water from adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to adult coho salmon (O. kisutch) at a hatchery in northern California. They suggested that horizontal transmission may be an important means for perpetuating IHN. However, the actual mechanisms for persistence and transmission of IHN among fish in a watershed is likely to be complex and involve multiple species and age groups as well as intermediate vectors and/or reservoirs.

  4. Experimental mixed infection of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Leishmania (L.) infantum in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Lima Celeste, Jordanna Luíza; Venuto Moura, Ana Paula; França-Silva, João Carlos; Matos DE Sousa, Gabriela; Oliveira Silva, Soraia; Norma Melo, Maria; Luiz Tafuri, Wagner; Carvalho Souza, Carolina; Monteiro DE Andrade, Hélida

    2017-08-01

    In South America, visceral leishmaniasis is frequently caused by Leishmania infantum and, at an unknown frequency, by Leishmania amazonensis. Therefore, mixed infections with these organisms are possible. Mixed infections might affect the clinical course, immune response, diagnosis, treatment and epidemiology of the disease. Here we describe the clinical course of mixed infections with L. amazonensis and L. infantum in a hamster model. We show that mixed infections are associated with more severe clinical disease than infection with L. amazonensis or L. infantum alone. In spleens with mixed infections, L. infantum outcompeted L. amazonensis in the tissue, but not in culture from tissue. We found increased levels of IgG in animals infected with L. infantum. Although more than 30 bands were revealed in a Western blot, the highest immunogenicity was observed with proteins having molecular masses of 95 and 90 kDa, whereas proteins with molecular masses of lower than 50 kDa were reactive frequently with serum from hamsters infected with L. amazonensis, and proteins with molecular masses of 80 and 70 kDa were reactive only with serum from hamsters infected with L. infantum. This finding has important implications regarding the biology of Leishmania and humoral immune responses to infections with these organisms.

  5. Evaluation of metaphylactic RNA interference to prevent equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in experimental herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Gillian A; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R; Pusterla, Nicola; Erb, Hollis N; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate metaphylactic RNA interference to prevent equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection in experimental herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in horses and to determine whether horses infected with a neuropathogenic strain of the virus that develop equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM) have differences in viremia. 13 seronegative horses. EHV-1 strain Ab4 was administered intranasally on day 0, and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs [EHV-1 specific siRNAs {n = 7} or an irrelevant siRNA {6}]) were administered intranasally 24 hours before and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after infection. Physical and neurologic examinations, nasal swab specimens, and blood samples were collected for virus isolation and quantitative PCR assay. Data from the study were combined with data from a previous study of 14 horses. No significant difference was detected in clinical variables, viremia, or detection of EHV-1 in nasal swab specimens of horses treated with the EHV-1 targeted siRNAs (sigB3-siOri2) versus controls. No significant differences in viremia were detected between horses that developed EHM and those that did not. Administration of siRNAs targeted against EHV-1 around the time of EHV-1 infection was not protective with this experimental design. Horses infected with the neuropathogenic EHV-1 strain Ab4 that developed EHM did not have a more pronounced viremia.

  6. Histopathological and parasitological investigations of ear healthy skin of dogs naturally and experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Maria Marta; Moura, Eliane Perlatto; Costa, Miriam Maria; Ribeiro, Vitor Marcio; Michalick, Marilene Suzan; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz

    2010-07-01

    Although 90% of clinical cases of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) occur in the northeastern region of Brazil, the incidence of cases in recent years has increased in southeastern states such as Minas Gerais (MG), where the disease has been reported in several cities, including Belo Horizonte, the state capital. Some studies have shown a strong correlation between the incidence of AVL and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Belo Horizonte. A study of 108 dogs with parasite Leishmania chagasi detected by immuno-histochemistry in healthy ear skin was obtained from two distinct geographical areas: 55 from a metropolitan area of the municipality (Santa Luzia, MG) and 53 dogs from a central area of Belo Horizonte. In parallel, a group of 10 beagles were experimentally infected with L. chagasi. Considering the clinical aspects of all naturally infected dogs, symptomatic dogs were more frequent than asymptomatic ones, especially animals from the metropolitan area compared with the central area (79.6% and 20.3%, respectively). A chronic exudate was observed in the ear of 51 out of 55 dogs naturally infected from the metropolitan area (92.7%) and 45 out of 53 dogs naturally infected from the central area (84.9%). Importantly, asymptomatic dogs from the central area harbor more parasites in the skin than the asymptomatic ones from the metropolitan area. In addition, a profound difference was noted in the intensity of the inflammatory reaction and parasite load in the skin of experimental infected dogs.

  7. A macro- and light microscopical study of the pathology of Calicophoron microbothrium infection in experimentally infected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mavenyengwa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Tuli weaner steers aged 1 year were randomly subdivided into three groups of four animals and infected with different doses of Calicophoron microbothrium metacercariae. Each animal in Group I received a low dose (LD of 5 000 metacercariae, Group II a medium dose (MD of 15 000 metacercariae, Group III a high dose (HD of 25 000 metacercariae and one additional animal was kept as an uninfected control (C. After infection, one animal from each group was slaughtered on Day 28, 42, 56 and 84 post infection (pi and samples from the ileum, jejunum, duodenum, abomasum and the rumen were collected for histopathological and cytological examination. On Day 28 pi, the gross pathological lesions observed in the duodenum of the LD and the MD animals were similar and comprised duodenal thickening, corrugation, hyperaemia, petechiation and ulceration. In the HD animal the duodenal lesions were similar but more severe. The abomasal folds were severely oedematous in the MD group and nearly occluded the abomasal lumen. Moderate oedema of the abomasal folds was also present in the LD and HD animals. The gross pathological lesions regressed in all the infected groups with increasing age of infection and had disappeared completely by Day 56 pi. On Day 28 pi the histopathological lesions in the duodenum and jejunum of the LD and MD groups were similar, comprising subtotal villous atrophy, hyperplasia of Brunner's glands and Peyer's patches and moderate infiltration of eosinophils, mast cells and a few globule leukocytes, basophils and lymphocytes in the lamina propria. The HD group had total villous atrophy, severe hyperplasia and cystic dilatation of Brunner's glands, which had expanded to cover the entire submucosa. On Day 42 pi the histopathological lesions were still present in the MD and the HD groups comprising subtotal villous atrophy and hyperplasia of Brunner's glands. Heavy infiltrations of eosinophils, moderate amounts of mast cells and a few

  8. Experimentally induced intravaginal Tritrichomonas foetus infection in a mouse model Infecção experimental intravaginal com Tritricho-monas foetus em modelo camundongo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Soto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest to develop research on the host-parasite relationship in bovine tritrichomonosis has accomplished the use of experimental models alternative to cattle. The BALB/c mouse became the most appropriate species susceptible to vaginal Tritrichomonas foetus infection requiring previous estrogenization. For the need of an experimental model without persistent estrogenization and with normal estrous cycles, the establishment and persistence of vaginal infection on BALB/c mouse with different concentrations of T. foetus in two experimental groups was evaluated. Group A was treated with 5mg of b-estradiol 3-benzoate to synchronize the estrous, 48 hours before the T. foetus vaginal inoculation, and Group B was inoculated in natural estrus. At 5-7 days after treatment, estrogenic effect decreased allowing all animals to cycle regularly during the experiment. From the first week post-infection, samples of vaginal mucus were taken from all animals during 34 weeks, in order to evaluate the course of infection and the stage of the estrus cycle. Group A showed 93.6% of infected animals, and Group B showed 38%. Different doses of T. foetus were assayed to establish the vaginal infection, with a persistence of 34 weeks. Although different behavior was observed in each subgroup belonging to either Group A or Group B, there were no significant differences among the infecting doses used. The b-estradiol 3-benzoate treatment had a favorable effect on the establishment of the infection (PA necessidade de esclarecer a relação agente-hospedeiro na tricomoníase bovina deu motivo para o uso de modelos experimentais alternativos ao bovino. O camundongo BALB/c resultou como espécie mais adequada para a infeção vaginal com Tritrichomonas foetus, requerendo uma estrogenização prévia. Visando a necessidade de um modelo experimental sem estrogenização persistente e com ciclos estrais normais, foi avaliada a instalação e persistência da infeção vaginal

  9. Studies on experimental infection of rabbits with irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola giganticas Cobbold, 1885

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, G.; Srivastava, V.K.; Verma, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Worm burden, gross pathology and serological response of rabbits infected with gamma irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica has been studied with a view to prepare a vaccine against the pathogen. Infection with metacercariae irradiated at 2 or 3 kr caused reduced worm burden and gross pathology and produced antibody titres comparable to the titres in rabbits infected with normal cysts. Infection with metacercariae irradiated at 4 kr resulted in total absence of worm burden and caused no rise of antibody titre in the sera of rabbits. In every case after infection, worm burden was progressively eliminated over long duration. The pathogenicity was comparatively severe in rabbits infected with normal cysts. (M.G.B.)

  10. Marked induction of IL-6, haptoglobin and IFN gamma following experimental BRSV infection in young calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Susanne Nedergaard; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2005-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) has been identified worldwide as an important pathogen associated with acute respiratory disease in calves. An infection model has been developed reflecting accurately the clinical course and die, development of pathological signs during a natural BRSV-infection....... In the experiments described in the present study, calves were infected at 13-21 weeks of age and reinfected 14 weeks later. Blood samples front the entire infection period were analysed for acute phase protein (haptoglobin) by ELISA and for expression (mRNA level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells...... to the first infection with BRSV The IFNgamma response was biphasic. with an early peak at day 1-3 post infection (p.i.) and a later increase between day 5 and 8 p.i. Reinfection also resulted in an induction of IFNgamma. but without induction of clinical signs, IL-6 and haptoglobin. These results indicate...

  11. Oxidative Stress in Wild Boars Naturally and Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gassó

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS-RNS are important defence substances involved in the immune response against pathogens. An excessive increase in ROS-RNS, however, can damage the organism causing oxidative stress (OS. The organism is able to neutralise OS by the production of antioxidant enzymes (AE; hence, tissue damage is the result of an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status. Though some work has been carried out in humans, there is a lack of information about the oxidant/antioxidant status in the presence of tuberculosis (TB in wild reservoirs. In the Mediterranean Basin, wild boar (Sus scrofa is the main reservoir of TB. Wild boar showing severe TB have an increased risk to Mycobacterium spp. shedding, leading to pathogen spreading and persistence. If OS is greater in these individuals, oxidant/antioxidant balance in TB-affected boars could be used as a biomarker of disease severity. The present work had a two-fold objective: i to study the effects of bovine TB on different OS biomarkers (namely superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalasa (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, glutathione reductase (GR and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in wild boar experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium bovis, and ii to explore the role of body weight, sex, population and season in explaining the observed variability of OS indicators in two populations of free-ranging wild boar where TB is common. For the first objective, a partial least squares regression (PLSR approach was used whereas, recursive partitioning with regression tree models (RTM were applied for the second. A negative relationship between antioxidant enzymes and bovine TB (the more severe lesions, the lower the concentration of antioxidant biomarkers was observed in experimentally infected animals. The final PLSR model retained the GPX, SOD and GR biomarkers and showed that 17.6% of the observed variability of antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated

  12. Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis based on Population Structure of Prevalent Lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Xiangyu; Desai, Prerak T.; den Bakker, Henk C.

    2014-01-01

    serotype Nitra strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were filtered to identify 4,887 reliable loci that distinguished all isolates from each other. Our whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism typing approach was robust for S. enterica Enteritidis subtyping with combined data for different strains...

  13. Efficacy of jatropha curcas plant extract against the survival of salmonella enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The use of plant-derived antimicrobials has shown to be effective at inhibiting microbial growth. Although Jatropha curcas is known to possess antimicrobial properties, its efficacy against Salmonella Enteritidis has not yet been investigated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was...

  14. Occurrence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates from poultry in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaderi, R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is recognized as one of the major food-borne pathogens with more than 2,500 serotypes worldwide. The present study addresses antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates in Iran. A collection of 151 Salmonella spp. isolates collected from poultry were serotyped to identify Salmonella Enteritidis. Sixty-one Salmonella Enteritidis were subsequently tested against 30 antimicrobials. A high frequency of antimicrobial resistance was observed against nitrofurantoin (n=55, 90.2% followed by nalidixic acid (n=41, 67.2%, and cephalexin (n=23, 37.7%. Multi-drug resistance were observed in 35 (57.4% out of 61 isolates. Twenty-six antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed among the 61 Salmonella Enteritidis. All isolates were susceptible to ofloxacin, imipenem, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins. In conclusion, our results revealed that implementing new policies toward overuse of antimicrobial drugs in Iranian poultry industry are of great importance.

  15. [Bacteremia associated with mycotic aneurysm of the transversal aortic arch and myocarditis caused by Salmonella enteritidis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, L; Mesa, E; Rodríguez, J E; Sánchez, M P; Ugarte, J; Algora Weber, A; Dámaso, D; Daza, R M; Mendaza, P

    1989-02-01

    A 60-year-old male with diabetes mellitus had Salmonella enteritidis bacteremia associated with mycotic aneurysm of the transverse aortic arc and myocarditis. Antibiotic therapy with ampicillin and chloramphenicol was ineffective despite the fact that the microorganism was sensitive in vitro to those antimicrobials, and the patient had a progressive clinical deterioration which culminated in death.

  16. Visualization of gold and platinum nanoparticles interacting with Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André; Szeliga, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    -Au and nano-Pt respectively), with Salmonella Enteritidis (Gram-negative) and Listeria monocytogenes (Gram-positive), to reveal possibilities of constructing bacteria-nanoparticle vehicles. Methods: Hydrocolloids of nano-Au or nano-Pt were added to two bacteria suspensions in the following order: nano...... as a vehicle to deliver nano-Pt to specific points in the body....

  17. 21 CFR 118.6 - Egg testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.6... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION PRODUCTION, STORAGE, AND TRANSPORTATION OF SHELL EGGS § 118.6 Egg... age required by § 118.4(a) is positive, you must divert eggs to treatment (defined in § 118.3) for the...

  18. Similarities between Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from humans and captive wild animals in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anthony M; Ismail, Husna; Henton, Maryke M; Keddy, Karen H

    2014-12-15

    Salmonella is well recognized as an aetiological agent of gastrointestinal and diarrhoeal disease. Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is one of the commonest serotypes associated with foodborne illness. In South Africa, we compared Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from humans with gastroenteritis and strains isolated from captive wild animals, between June 2011 and July 2012. Bacteria were phenotypically characterized using standard microbiological techniques. Genotypic relatedness of isolates was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. a diversity of 27 PFGE patterns amongst 196 human non-invasive isolates was shown; two PFGE patterns predominated and accounted for 74% of all human isolates. Human isolates showed a 12% prevalence rate for nalidixic acid resistance. Animal isolates from 5 different sources were investigated. With the exception of an isolate from a ground hornbill, all animal isolates (jaguar, crocodile, lion and poultry) showed PFGE pattern matches to a human isolate. Animal isolates showed susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents tested, with the exception of nalidixic acid resistance in isolates from the lion and poultry source. Our data showed similarities between Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from humans and captive wild animals, suggesting a probable common source for strains from humans and animals.

  19. Isolation and Evaluation Virulence Factors of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Shaigan nia

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: To our best knowledge the present study is the first prevalence report of Salmonella spp., Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in raw sheep and goat samples in Iran. Consumption of pasteurized milk and dairy products can reduce the risk of salmonellosis.

  20. Quasi-experimental Studies in the Fields of Infection Control and Antibiotic Resistance, Ten Years Later: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaggaf, Rotana; O'Hara, Lyndsay M; Stafford, Kristen A; Leekha, Surbhi; Harris, Anthony D

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE A systematic review of quasi-experimental studies in the field of infectious diseases was published in 2005. The aim of this study was to assess improvements in the design and reporting of quasi-experiments 10 years after the initial review. We also aimed to report the statistical methods used to analyze quasi-experimental data. DESIGN Systematic review of articles published from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2014, in 4 major infectious disease journals. METHODS Quasi-experimental studies focused on infection control and antibiotic resistance were identified and classified based on 4 criteria: (1) type of quasi-experimental design used, (2) justification of the use of the design, (3) use of correct nomenclature to describe the design, and (4) statistical methods used. RESULTS Of 2,600 articles, 173 (7%) featured a quasi-experimental design, compared to 73 of 2,320 articles (3%) in the previous review (Pquasi-experimental design; and 68 (39%) identified their design using the correct nomenclature. In addition, 2-group statistical tests were used in 75 studies (43%); 58 studies (34%) used standard regression analysis; 18 (10%) used segmented regression analysis; 7 (4%) used standard time-series analysis; 5 (3%) used segmented time-series analysis; and 10 (6%) did not utilize statistical methods for comparisons. CONCLUSIONS While some progress occurred over the decade, it is crucial to continue improving the design and reporting of quasi-experimental studies in the fields of infection control and antibiotic resistance to better evaluate the effectiveness of important interventions. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:170-176.

  1. Studies on Ancylostomiasis: 1.An Experimental Study on Hookworm Infection and Anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mun Ho; Kim, Dong Jip; Lee, Jang Kyu; Seo, Byong Sul; Lee, Soon Hyung

    1967-01-01

    In view of its prevalence in the Far East area, a more detailed knowledge on the hookworm infection is one of the very important medical problem. The present study was aimed to determine the infectivity of the artificially hatched ancylosotma duodenale larvae in man after its oral administration, evaluate the clinical symptomatology of such infection, determine the date of first appearance of ova in the stool, calculate the blood loss per worm per day, assess the relation-ships between the ova count, infectivity (worm load), blood loss and severity of anemia. An erythrokinetic study was also done to analyse the characteristics of hookworm anemia by means of 59 Fe and 51 Cr.

  2. Serological responses and immunity to superinfection with avian malaria in experimentally-infected Hawaii Amakihi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Dusek, Robert J.; Lease, Julie K.

    2001-01-01

    Six of seven Hawaii Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) with chronic malarial infections had no increases in peripheral parasitemia, declines in food consumption, or loss of body weight when rechallenged with the homologous isolate of Plasmodium relictum 61 to 62 days after initial infection. Five uninfected control amakihi exposed at the same time to infective mosquito bites developed acute infections with high parasitemias. Reductions in food consumption and loss of body weight occurred in all control birds and three of these individuals eventually died. When surviving birds were rechallenged >2 yr later with either the same parasite isolate or an isolate of P. relictum collected on the island of Kauai, all individuals were immune to superinfection. Chronically infected birds developed antibodies to a common suite of malarial antigens ranging in size from 22 to 170 kDa that were detectable as early as 8 days post infection on immunoblots of SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Antibodies to this suite of malarial antigens persisted as long as 1,248 days after initial infection and were consistently detectable at times when parasites were not easily found by microscopy on Giemsa-stained blood smears. The immunoblotting method that is described here appears to be an effective technique for identifying birds with chronic, low-intensity malarial infections when circulating parasites are not easily detectable by microscopy. Hawaiian honeycreepers that are capable of recovering from acute infections develop concomitant immunity to superinfection, making them functionally immune in areas where malaria transmission has become endemic.

  3. Aeromonas caviae alters the cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinase activities in experimentally infected silver catfish: Impairment on renal bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Júnior, Guerino B; Verdi, Camila Marina; Moreira, Karen L S; da Rocha, Maria Izabel U M; da Veiga, Marcelo L; Santos, Roberto C V; Vizzotto, Bruno S; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2017-09-01

    Cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinases (CK), through the creatine kinase-phosphocreatine (CK/PCr) system, provide a temporal and spatial energy buffer to maintain cellular energy homeostasis. However, the effects of bacterial infections on the kidney remain poorly understood and are limited only to histopathological analyses. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of cytosolic and mitochondrial CK activities in renal energetic homeostasis in silver catfish experimentally infected with Aeromonas caviae. Cytosolic CK activity decreased in infected animals, while mitochondrial CK activity increased compared to uninfected animals. Moreover, the activity of the sodium-potassium pump (Na + , K + -ATPase) decreased in infected animals compared to uninfected animals. Based on this evidence, it can be concluded that the inhibition of cytosolic CK activity by A. caviae causes an impairment on renal energy homeostasis through the depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. This contributes to the inhibition of Na + , K + -ATPase activity, although the mitochondrial CK activity acted in an attempt to restore the cytosolic ATP levels through a feedback mechanism. In summary, A. caviae infection causes a severe energetic imbalance in infected silver catfish, which may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of tiamulin and lincomycin for the treatment of broiler breeders experimentally infected with the intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira pilosicoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, C P; Hampson, D J

    2002-06-01

    Brachyspira pilosicoli strain CPSp1 isolated from a chicken in a broiler breeder flock in Queensland was used to experimentally infect 30 individually caged 22-week-old Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens. Another 10 birds were sham-inoculated with sterile broth. All birds failed to become colonized. At 29 weeks of age, all birds were transferred to a diet containing 50 parts/10(6) zinc bacitracin (ZnB) and were re-challenged with the same B. pilosicoli strain at 32 weeks of age, weekly for 5 weeks. The majority of the inoculated birds then became colonized, confirming previous findings that ZnB can increase susceptibility to colonization with B. pilosicoli. The control group remained uninfected. Infected groups tended to have an increased faecal water content and faecal staining of eggshells. Ten birds were then treated by crop tube with 25 mg/kg body weight tiamulin for 5 days, and 10 birds with 20 mg/kg body weight lincomycin for 5 days. Both treatments removed the infection, while untreated birds remained infected. The results support previous observations that ZnB at 50 parts/10(6) in the diet increases the susceptibility of birds to B. pilosicoli infection, and demonstrated the usefulness of both tiamulin and lincomycin for treatment of infection with B. pilosicoli in adult birds.

  5. Assessment of experimental infection for dogs usingGallus gallus chorioallantoic membranes inoculated withNeospora caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Dias Munhoz

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate parasitism kinetics and tissue lesions in the first week of infection by Neospora caninum in dogs fed Gallus gallus chorioallantoic membranes (CMs previously infected in ovo. Five two-month-old pups were used. Each dog was given five CMs that were previously infected with N. caninum via the oral route. Four animals were euthanized in the first week of infection. All four dogs had their stools examined one week prior to and up to the day they were euthanized. The stools of the uneuthanized dog were collected for 30 days. After euthanasia, organ sections were utilized for histopathology, immunohistochemistry, indirect immunofluorescent tissue reactions, PCR and real-time PCR to detect parasites. Necropsy revealed that the small and large intestines, spleen, and lungs were affected. No oocysts orN. caninum DNA were identified in the stool samples. Real-time PCR was the most sensitive technique used to detect the protozoa in tissues, which were identified in 41% of the analyzed samples. Our results indicate that an experimental model using previously infected CMs appears to be a useful model for the study of the host-parasite relationship during the infection's acute phase.

  6. Risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Heidelberg in commercial poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Morales-Barrera

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE or Salmonella Heidelberg (SH in commercial poultry and determine the effects of a probiotic as an antibiotic alternative. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the risks involved in the use of Enrofloxacin for SE or SH in commercial poultry. Exp 1 consisted of 2 trials. In each trial, chickens were assigned to one of three groups; control + SE challenged; Enrofloxacin 25 mg/kg + SE; Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SE. Chickens received Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, all groups received fresh water without any treatment. All chickens were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/chick of SE at 7 days of age and euthanized on 8 days of age. In Exp 2, turkey poults were assigned to one of the three groups; control + SH; probiotic + SH; Enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg + SH. Poults received probiotic or Enrofloxacin in the drinking water from days 1 to 5 of age. On day 6, poults received fresh water without any treatment. Poults were orally gavaged with 107 cfu/poult of SH at 7 days of age. Poults were weighted and humanely killed 24 h post-SH challenge to evaluate serum concentration of FITC-D to evaluate intestinal permeability, metagenomics and SH infection. In both trials of Exp 1, chickens treated with Enrofloxacin were more susceptible to SE organ invasion and intestinal colonization when compared with control non-treated chickens (P < 0.05. In Exp 2, poults treated with 50 mg/kg of Enrofloxacin showed an increase in body weight, however, this group also showed an increase in SH susceptibility, intestinal permeability and lower proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but with control group had the highest proportion of Proteobacteria. In contrast, poults that received the probiotic had the highest proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, but lowest Proteobacteria. The results of the present study

  7. The epidemiology of travel-related Salmonella Enteritidis in Ontario, Canada, 2010–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tighe Mary-Kathryn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increases in the number of salmonellosis cases due to Salmonella Enteritidis (SE in 2010 and 2011 prompted a public health investigation in Ontario, Canada. In this report, we describe the current epidemiology of travel-related (TR SE, compare demographics, symptoms and phage types (PTs of TR and domestically-acquired (DA cases, and estimate the odds of acquiring SE by region of the world visited. Methods All incident cases of culture confirmed SE in Ontario obtained from isolates and specimens submitted to public health laboratories were included in this study. Demographic and illness characteristics of TR and DA cases were compared. A national travel survey was used to provide estimates for the number of travellers to various destinations to approximate rates of SE in travellers. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of acquiring SE when travelling to various world regions. Results Overall, 51.9% of SE cases were TR during the study period. This ranged from 35.7% TR cases in the summer travel period to 65.1% TR cases in the winter travel period. Compared to DA cases, TR cases were older and were less likely to seek hospital care. For Ontario travellers, the adjusted odds of acquiring SE was the highest for the Caribbean (OR 37.29, 95% CI 17.87-77.82 when compared to Europe. Certain PTs were more commonly associated with travel (e.g., 1, 4, 5b, 7a, Atypical than with domestic infection. Of the TR cases, 88.9% were associated with travel to the Caribbean and Mexico region, of whom 90.1% reported staying on a resort. Within this region, there were distinct associations between PTs and countries. Conclusions There is a large burden of TR illness from SE in Ontario. Accurate classification of cases by travel history is important to better understand the source of infections. The findings emphasize the need to make travellers, especially to the Caribbean, and health professionals who provide advice to

  8. Neural Damage in Experimental Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Infection: The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Tesoriero

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei (T. b. gambiense is the parasite subspecies responsible for most reported cases of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness. This severe infection leads to characteristic disruption of the sleep-wake cycle, recalling attention on the circadian timing system. Most animal models of the disease have been hitherto based on infection of laboratory rodents with the T. b. brucei subspecies, which is not infectious to humans. In these animal models, functional, rather than structural, alterations of the master circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, have been reported. Information on the SCN after infection with the human pathogenic T. b. gambiense is instead lacking. The present study was aimed at the examination of the SCN after T. b. gambiense infection of a susceptible rodent, the multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis, compared with T. b. brucei infection of the same host species. The animals were examined at 4 and 8 weeks post-infection, when parasites (T. b. gambiense or T. b. brucei were detected in the brain parenchyma, indicating that the disease was in the encephalitic stage. Neuron and astrocyte changes were examined with Nissl staining, immunophenotyping and quantitative analyses. Interestingly, significant neuronal loss (about 30% reduction was documented in the SCN during the progression of T. b. gambiense infection. No significant neuronal density changes were found in the SCN of T. b. brucei-infected animals. Neuronal cell counts in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of T. b. gambiense-infected M. natalensis did not point out significant changes, indicating that no widespread neuron loss had occurred in the brain. Marked activation of astrocytes was detected in the SCN after both T. b. gambiense and T. b. brucei infections. Altogether the findings reveal that neurons of the biological clock are highly susceptible to the infection caused by human pathogenic African trypanosomes

  9. Preliminary Transcriptome Analysis of Mature Biofilm and Planktonic Cells of Salmonella Enteritidis Exposure to Acid Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Jia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella has emerged as a well-recognized food-borne pathogen, with many strains able to form biofilms and thus cause cross-contamination in food processing environments where acid-based disinfectants are widely encountered. In the present study, RNA sequencing was employed to establish complete transcriptome profiles of Salmonella Enteritidis in the forms of planktonic and biofilm-associated cells cultured in Tryptic Soytone Broth (TSB and acidic TSB (aTSB. The gene expression patterns of S. Enteritidis significantly differed between biofilm-associated and planktonic cells cultivated under the same conditions. The assembled transcriptome of S. Enteritidis in this study contained 5,442 assembled transcripts, including 3,877 differentially expressed genes (DEGs identified in biofilm and planktonic cells. These DEGs were enriched in terms such as regulation of biological process, metabolic process, macromolecular complex, binding and transferase activity, which may play crucial roles in the biofilm formation of S. Enteritidis cultivated in aTSB. Three significant pathways were observed to be enriched under acidic conditions: bacterial chemotaxis, porphyrin-chlorophyll metabolism and sulfur metabolism. In addition, 15 differentially expressed novel non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs were identified, and only one was found to be up-regulated in mature biofilms. This preliminary study of the S. Enteritidis transcriptome serves as a basis for future investigations examining the complex network systems that regulate Salmonella biofilm in acidic environments, which provide information on biofilm formation and acid stress interaction that may facilitate the development of novel disinfection procedures in the food processing industry.

  10. Molecular analysis of Salmonella enteritidis isolates from the Caribbean by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Adesiyun

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, between 1987 and 1996 we analyzed Salmonella enteritidis isolates from gastroenteritis cases in four Caribbean countries: Barbados, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Trinidad and Tobago. We also determined the resistance of the isolates to 12 antimicrobial agents. Of the 129 isolates of S. enteritidis available for testing, DNA digested by XbaI revealed 13 distinctive PFGE patterns. The most prevalent XbaI PFGE patterns were group 1 (88 of 129 isolates, 68.2% and group 2 (26 of 129, 20.2%. The patterns found among S. enteritidis isolates correlated with the geographical origin of the isolates. Of the 28 isolates from Barbados, 20 of them (71.4% belonged to XbaI PFGE group 2, and of the 93 isolates from Trinidad and Tobago, 78 of them (83.9% belonged to group 1. SpeI digestion of S. enteritidis genome was not as discriminatory as XbaI. Overall, of the 129 isolates, 67 of them (51.9% exhibited resistance to one or more of the 12 antimicrobial agents that we tested. The prevalence of resistance was 53.8% for the S. enteritidis isolates tested from Trinidad and Tobago, 50.0% for those from Barbados, 28.6% for those from Saint Lucia, and 100.0% for one isolate from the island of Saint Kitts. Resistance was highest to triple sulfur (59 of 129 isolates, 45.7%, followed by furadantoin (10 of 129, 7.8%, ampicillin (7 of 129, 5.4%, and carbamycin (5 of 129, 3.9%.

  11. Molecular analysis of Salmonella enteritidis isolates from the Caribbean by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesiyun, A; Carson, A; McAdoo, K; Bailey, C

    2000-11-01

    Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), between 1987 and 1996 we analyzed Salmonella enteritidis isolates from gastroenteritis cases in four Caribbean countries: Barbados, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Trinidad and Tobago. We also determined the resistance of the isolates to 12 antimicrobial agents. Of the 129 isolates of S. enteritidis available for testing, DNA digested by XbaI revealed 13 distinctive PFGE patterns. The most prevalent XbaI PFGE patterns were group 1 (88 of 129 isolates, 68.2%) and group 2 (26 of 129, 20.2%). The patterns found among S. enteritidis isolates correlated with the geographical origin of the isolates. Of the 28 isolates from Barbados, 20 of them (71.4%) belonged to XbaI PFGE group 2, and of the 93 isolates from Trinidad and Tobago, 78 of them (83.9%) belonged to group 1. SpeI digestion of S. enteritidis genome was not as discriminatory as XbaI. Overall, of the 129 isolates, 67 of them (51.9%) exhibited resistance to one or more of the 12 antimicrobial agents that we tested. The prevalence of resistance was 53.8% for the S. enteritidis isolates tested from Trinidad and Tobago, 50.0% for those from Barbados, 28.6% for those from Saint Lucia, and 100.0% for one isolate from the island of Saint Kitts. Resistance was highest to triple sulfur (59 of 129 isolates, 45.7%), followed by furadantoin (10 of 129, 7.8%), ampicillin (7 of 129, 5.4%), and carbamycin (5 of 129, 3.9%).

  12. Molecular analysis of Salmonella enteritidis isolates from the Caribbean by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesiyun Abiodun

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, between 1987 and 1996 we analyzed Salmonella enteritidis isolates from gastroenteritis cases in four Caribbean countries: Barbados, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Trinidad and Tobago. We also determined the resistance of the isolates to 12 antimicrobial agents. Of the 129 isolates of S. enteritidis available for testing, DNA digested by XbaI revealed 13 distinctive PFGE patterns. The most prevalent XbaI PFGE patterns were group 1 (88 of 129 isolates, 68.2% and group 2 (26 of 129, 20.2%. The patterns found among S. enteritidis isolates correlated with the geographical origin of the isolates. Of the 28 isolates from Barbados, 20 of them (71.4% belonged to XbaI PFGE group 2, and of the 93 isolates from Trinidad and Tobago, 78 of them (83.9% belonged to group 1. SpeI digestion of S. enteritidis genome was not as discriminatory as XbaI. Overall, of the 129 isolates, 67 of them (51.9% exhibited resistance to one or more of the 12 antimicrobial agents that we tested. The prevalence of resistance was 53.8% for the S. enteritidis isolates tested from Trinidad and Tobago, 50.0% for those from Barbados, 28.6% for those from Saint Lucia, and 100.0% for one isolate from the island of Saint Kitts. Resistance was highest to triple sulfur (59 of 129 isolates, 45.7%, followed by furadantoin (10 of 129, 7.8%, ampicillin (7 of 129, 5.4%, and carbamycin (5 of 129, 3.9%.

  13. The challenge of using experimental infectivity data in risk assessment for Ebola virus: why ecology may be important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P; Simons, R R L; Horigan, V; Snary, E L; Fooks, A R; Drew, T W

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of published data shows that experimental passaging of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) in guinea pigs changes the risk of infection per plaque-forming unit (PFU), increasing infectivity to some species while decreasing infectivity to others. Thus, a PFU of monkey-adapted EBOV is 10(7) -fold more lethal to mice than a PFU adapted to guinea pigs. The first conclusion is that the infectivity of EBOV to humans may depend on the identity of the donor species itself and, on the basis of limited epidemiological data, the question is raised as to whether bat-adapted EBOV is less infectious to humans than nonhuman primate (NHP)-adapted EBOV. Wildlife species such as bats, duikers and NHPs are naturally infected by EBOV through different species giving rise to EBOV with different wildlife species-passage histories (heritages). Based on the ecology of these wildlife species, three broad 'types' of EBOV-infected bushmeat are postulated reflecting differences in the number of passages within a given species, and hence the degree of adaptation of the EBOV present. The second conclusion is that the prior species-transmission chain may affect the infectivity to humans per PFU for EBOV from individuals of the same species. This is supported by the finding that the related Marburg marburgvirus requires ten passages in mice to fully adapt. It is even possible that the evolutionary trajectory of EBOV could vary in individuals of the same species giving rise to variants which are more or less virulent to humans and that the probability of a given trajectory is related to the heritage. Overall the ecology of the donor species (e.g. dog or bushmeat species) at the level of the individual animal itself may determine the risk of infection per PFU to humans reflecting the heritage of the virus and may contribute to the sporadic nature of EBOV outbreaks. © 2015 Crown copyright. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. The Leishmania HSP20 Is Antigenic during Natural Infections, but, as DNA Vaccine, It does not Protect BALB/c Mice against Experimental L. amazonensis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Montalvo-Álvarez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Protozoa of the genus Leishmania are causative agents of leishmaniasis, an important health problem in both human and veterinary medicine. Here, we describe a new heat shock protein (HSP in Leishmania, belonging to the small HSP (sHSP family in kinetoplastids. The protein is highly conserved in different Leishmania species, showing instead significant divergence with sHSP's from other organisms. The humoral response elicited against this protein during Leishmania infection has been investigated in natural infected humans and dogs, and in experimentally infected hamsters. Leishmania HSP20 is a prominent antigen for canine hosts; on the contrary, the protein seems to be a poor antigen for human immune system. Time-course analysis of appearance of anti-HSP20 antibodies in golden hamsters indicated that these antibodies are produced at late stages of the infection, when clinical symptoms of disease are patent. Finally, the protective efficacy of HSP20 was assessed in mice using a DNA vaccine approach prior to challenge with Leishmania amazonensis.

  15. No evidence of horizontal infection in horses kept in close contact with dogs experimentally infected with canine influenza A virus (H3N8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamanaka Takashi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since equine influenza A virus (H3N8 was transmitted to dogs in the United States in 2004, the causative virus, which is called canine influenza A virus (CIV, has become widespread in dogs. To date, it has remained unclear whether or not CIV-infected dogs could transmit CIV to horses. To address this, we tested whether or not close contact between horses and dogs experimentally infected with CIV would result in its interspecies transmission. Methods Three pairs of animals consisting of a dog inoculated with CIV (108.3 egg infectious dose50/dog and a healthy horse were kept together in individual stalls for 15 consecutive days. During the study, all the dogs and horses were clinically observed. Virus titres in nasal swab extracts and serological responses were also evaluated. In addition, all the animals were subjected to a gross pathological examination after euthanasia. Results All three dogs inoculated with CIV exhibited clinical signs including, pyrexia, cough, nasal discharge, virus shedding and seroconversion. Gross pathology revealed lung consolidations in all the dogs, and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated from the lesions. Meanwhile, none of the paired horses showed any clinical signs, virus shedding or seroconversion. Moreover, gross pathology revealed no lesions in the respiratory tracts including the lungs of the horses. Conclusions These findings may indicate that a single dog infected with CIV is not sufficient to constitute a source of CIV infection in horses.

  16. Comparison of humoral response in sheep to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica experimental infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang W.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Humoral response of sheep to F. gigantica was compared with the well known humoral response to F. hepatica, in order to explain the difference of susceptibility of sheep to these two parasites. In this work, a lesser susceptibility of sheep to F. gigantica than to F. hepatica infection was confirmed. Humoral response to F. hepatica infection is similar to that previously described by several authors. IgG level of F. gigantica infected sheep increased from week 2 post-infection (2WPI and displayed a peak at 13WPI. F. gigantica excretory-secretory products (FgESP analyzed by SDS-PAGE showed at least 31 bands from 12.0 to 127.6 kDa in FgESP. Western blot indicated that F. gigantica infected sheep sera recognized, in FgESP, at least 30 antigens from 7.8 to 119.2 kDa of which 12 major bands recognized after OWPI. In FhESP and FgESP, F. hepatica infected sheep serum reacted only with the lower molecular mass antigens, while F. gigantica infected sheep serum reacted with the lower and the higher molecular mass antigens. These differences of antigenic recognition might be associated with the difference of susceptibility of sheep. Further investigation must be done to study the mechanism of resistance between the sheep infected with F. hepatica or F. gigantica.

  17. Experimental Infection of the Mayan Cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus with the Oomycete Aphanomyces invadans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Ayala, Daniel; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor Manuel

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the susceptibility of the Mayan cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus to infection with the fungus Aphanomyces invadans (also known as epizootic ulcerative syndrome [EUS]). A total of 27 C. urophthalmus were exposed to the original A. Invadans 2006/86/EC strain by intramuscularly injecting the fish with 25,000 zoospores/ml or exposing the fish to a suspension of 25,000 zoospores/ml in 6-L aquaria for 30 days. To assess the infectious capacity of A. invadans, 3 golden barbs (Puntius semifasciolatus) were infected intramuscularly with 200,000 zoospores/ml. A second experiment using 100 C. urophthalmus was performed for 60 days with 50 fish in each treatment group. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic method was used; muscle and gills were the target tissues. In the first experiment, none of the exposed C. urophthalmus developed skin lesions related to A. invadans infection. However, PCR analysis revealed that infection had occurred. For the intramuscular treatment, there were significant differences between the controls and the muscle samples (Fisher's exact test; P 0.05). All golden barbs became infected, as indicated by PCR, and developed skin lesions typical of A. invadans infection. We concluded that C. urophthalmus was infected with A. invadans but was an asymptomatic carrier because skin lesions did not develop. In the second experiment, all fish were negative, suggesting that the fish had cleared the infection by the end of the experiment.

  18. Anorexia in rats infected with the nematode, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis: experimental manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, J G; Mitchell, P I; Moar, K M; Bissett, A; Geissler, S; Bruce, K; Chappell, L H

    2000-06-01

    Nippostrongylus brasiliensis induces a biphasic anorexia in laboratory rats, the first phase coincident with lung invasion (ca day 2) and the second when the worms mature in the intestine (ca day 8). Using the anthelminthic, mebendazole (MBZ), N. brasiliensis infections of the rat were eliminated between the first and second anorexic episodes. This intervention prevented the expression of the second phase of anorexia. Rats exposed to a second infection with N. brasiliensis, 3 weeks after the primary infection, exhibited only a first phase anorexic response which was not influenced by MBZ termination of the primary infection. The lower cumulative food intake and weight gain of all infected rats after 8 days of infection were accompanied by elevated plasma insulin and, in some individuals, by elevated plasma leptin, compared with uninfected controls and previously-infected MBZ-treated rats. Messenger RNA levels for neuropeptide Y were higher in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of 8-day infected rats than in recovering MBZ-treated animals. Inoculation of rats with heat-killed N. brasiliensis larvae failed to induce anorexia and did not alter the severity of biphasic anorexia on subsequent injection of viable larvae. The first anorexic episode is therefore dependent upon viable migrating larvae. The second phase of anorexia clearly requires the continuing presence of the parasite beyond the lung phase. Viable migrating larvae are also required to confer 'resistance' to reinfection.

  19. Inferring biomarkers for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and disease progression using experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Available diagnostic assays for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) have poor sensitivities and cannot detect early stages of the infection, therefore, there is need to find new diagnostic markers for early infection detection and disease stages. We analyzed longitudinal IFN- gamma, ELI...

  20. Assessment of the Duration of Protection in Campylobacter jejuni Experimental Infection in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    of inoculum delivery was based on evidence obtained with a human Shigella infection model, which showed that 11/12 (92%) nai’ve subjects developed...M. Reyes, M. Salazar, R. Mezn, C. K. l’orter, and S. E. Walz. 2006. Ncw World monkey Aotus nmrc:ymat: as a model for Campyloba,·ter jejuni infection

  1. Population dynamics of the minute intestinal trematode Haplorchis pumilio following experimental infection of young dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Sofie; Nguyen, Lan Anh; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2011-01-01

    technique, temperature and weight of the dogs were measured as was total white blood cells, eosinophils and microhaemotocrit values. Subsets of dogs were examined post-mortem for presence of adult FZT at three different time points post infection. Patent infections established in all eight infected dogs......Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. Recent studies on domestic animal’s role in the transmission of FZT in Northern Vietnam found that the most prevalent FZT was Haplorchis pumilio. The importance of dogs, cats and pigs was assessed, and dogs were found...... to have the highest intensity of infection and contribute the most to the contamination of the environment with FZT eggs in the Nam Dinh province - a highly endemic area for FZTs. Given the free roaming and fish-eating behaviour of many dogs in rural Vietnam controlling the infection in dogs represents...

  2. Angiostrongylus costaricensis and experimental infection of Sarasinula marginata II: elimination routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendonça Cristiane Lafeta Gomes Furtado

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus costaricensis intermediate hosts are terrestrial mollusks mostly belonging to the Veronicellidae family. In the present investigation we focused on the mechanisms of larval expulsion from Sarasinula marginata infected with A. costaricensis. Twenty-five mollusks were individually infected with 5000 L1 and sacrificed at 30 min and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h post-infection and at days 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 20, 21, 22, 25, 26, 28, and 30 post-infection; the mollusks were then fixed and stained. Diverse organs involved throughout the course of the migratory routes of larvae from oral penetration on were specified and the mechanisms of larval access to the fibromuscular layer through the kidney, rectum, and vascular system were defined. The elimination of L3, derived from oral and/or cutaneous infections, appears to depend on granulomas located close to the excretory ducts of mucous cells.

  3. Influence of experimental distemper infection on the distribution of lead in dogs previously subacutely intoxicated with lead carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.J.; Marshall, A.J.; McLeod, S.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of experimental canine distemper infection to mobilize body lead deposits has been studied in Beagle dogs previously subacutely intoxicated with lead carbonate. For comparative purposes dogs were included which had either received lead only or distemper only or remained undosed. It was found that in dogs predosed with lead, distemper infection resulted in a significant increase in lead levels in blood and urine; this coincided with the peak body temperatures reached on the third day post infection. It was also found that the lead content of the liver and bone of these dogs was considerably higher than that of dogs receiving lead alone; at the same time bone phosphorus showed a marked decrease while bone calcium values remained similar to undosed controls.

  4. In situ hybridization for the detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in sections of trachea from experimentally infected chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Handberg, Kurt; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    1998-01-01

    An in situ hybridization procedure for the detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in experimentally infected chickens is described. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of trachea, taken from chickens on days 3-10 post-inoculation (p.i.) with ILTV were hybridized with a mixt......An in situ hybridization procedure for the detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in experimentally infected chickens is described. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of trachea, taken from chickens on days 3-10 post-inoculation (p.i.) with ILTV were hybridized...... on day 5 p.i. No hybridization was observed in 3 out of 3 chickens examined on day 10 p.i. ILTV nucleic acid was detected in nuclei of degenerated tracheal epithelial cells and in intranuclear inclusion bodies of syncytia....

  5. Aeromonas caviae inhibits hepatic enzymes of the phosphotransfer network in experimentally infected silver catfish: Impairment on bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, M D; Souza, C F; Verdi, C M; Dos Santos, K L M; Da Veiga, M L; da Rocha, M I U M; Santos, R C V; Vizzotto, B S; Baldisserotto, B

    2018-03-01

    Several studies have been demonstrated that phosphotransfer network, through the adenylate kinase (AK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) activities, allows for new perspectives leading to understanding of disease conditions associated with disturbances in energy metabolism, metabolic monitoring and signalling. In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether experimental infection by Aeromonas caviae alters hepatic AK and PK activities of silver catfish Rhamdia quelen. Hepatic AK and PK activities decreased in infected animals compared to uninfected animals, as well as the hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. Also, a severe hepatic damage was observed in the infected animals due to the presence of dilation and congestion of vessels, degeneration of hepatocytes and loss of liver parenchyma architecture and sinusoidal structure. Therefore, we have demonstrated, for the first time, that experimental infection by A. caviae inhibits key enzymes linked to the communication between sites of ATP generation and ATP utilization. Moreover, the absence of a reciprocal compensatory mechanism between these enzymes contributes directly to hepatic damage and for a severe energetic imbalance, which may contribute to disease pathophysiology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Experimental infection of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas spat by ostreid herpesvirus 1: demonstration of oyster spat susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schikorski David

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2008 and 2009, acute mortalities occurred in France among Pacific cupped oyster, Crassostrea gigas, spat. Different hypothesis including the implication of environmental factors, toxic algae and/or pathogens have been explored. Diagnostic tests indicated that OsHV-1 including a particular genotype, termed OsHV-1 μVar, was detected in most of samples and especially in moribund oysters with the highlighting of virus particles looking like herpes viruses by TEM examination. In this study, an experimental protocol to reproduce OsHV-1 infection in laboratory conditions was developed. This protocol was based on the intramuscular injection of filtered (0.22 μm tissue homogenates prepared from naturally OsHV-1 infected spat collected on French coasts during mortality outbreaks in 2008. Results of the experimental trials showed that mortalities were induced after injection. Moreover, filtered tissue homogenates induced mortalities whereas the same tissue homogenates exposed to an ultraviolet (UV treatment did not induce any mortality suggesting that oyster spat mortalities require the presence of a UV sensitive agent. Furthermore, analysis of injected oyster spat revealed the detection of high amounts of OsHV-1 DNA by real-time quantitative PCR. Finally, TEM analysis demonstrated the presence of herpes virus particles. The developed protocol allowed to maintain sources of infective virus which can be useful for the development of further studies concerning the transmission and the development of OsHV-1 infection.

  7. [Experimental study of the effects of impulse-electric discharge on chemotaxis and cytoadhesion of urinary infection pathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuderinov, S K; Azizov, I S; Turgunov, E M; Shambilova, N A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the experimental study was to evaluate effects of impulse-electric discharge in liquid on chemotaxis and cytoadhesion of urinary infection pathogens. Chemotaxis was determined in respect to the lung, liver, spleen, kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra of white mice by S. Likholetov's modified method. Cytoadhesion was assessed by V. Brilis. The experiments show that the impulse-electric discharge holds promise for urological practice.

  8. Pathogenicity, serological responses, and diagnosis of experimental and natural malarial infections in native Hawaiian thrushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C.T.; Lease, J.K.; Drake, B.M.; Shema, N.P.

    2001-01-01

    Omao (Myadestes obscurus) from the Hawaiian Islands typically have very low prevalences of infection with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and it is not clear whether they share the same high susceptibility to this parasite that has been documented in native Hawaiian honeycreepers. We exposed four captive Omao to single infective mosquito bites and measured parasitemia, serological responses, and mortality over time. All four birds experienced transient infections with low parasitemias and were immune when rechallenged with multiple infective mosquito bites. By contrast, three of four honeycreepers (Maui Alauahio, Paroreomyza montana) that were exposed to the same dose and parasite isolate succumbed to infection. All four Omao developed antibodies to a common suite of malarial antigens that were detectable on immunoblots of a crude red blood cell extract of P. relictum. We used this technique to screen plasma samples from wild Omao and endangered Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri) that were captured at elevations between 900 and 1300 m on the islands of Hawaii and Kauai. We found that the true prevalence of infection at elevations where active malaria transmission occurs is much higher than estimates based on blood smears alone. Hawaiian thrushes appear to have a high tolerance for malaria, with most individuals developing chronic, low-level infections after exposure that cannot be diagnosed accurately by blood smears.

  9. Ultrastructural study on experimental infection of rotavirus in a murine heterologous model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Majerowicz

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Viral replication, histopathological and ultrastructural changes were observed for a period of nine days in the small intestine of suckling mice infected with a simian rotavirus (SA11. Samples taken from duodenum, jejunun and ileum were prepared for light microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy analysis. Histopathologic effect could be detected within 8 hr post-infection, when only a few altered cells were observed. Damage was extensive after 16 hr post-infection, showing swollen enterocytes and reduced and irregularly oriented microvilli at intestinal villi tips. Virus particles were detected at 16 and 48 hr post-infection, budding from the viroplasm into the rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae in ileum enterocytes. Clear evidence of viral replication, observed by electron microscopy was not described before in heterologous murine models. Regeneration of the intestinal villi began at the third day post-infection. Despite some differences observed in clinical symptoms and microscopic analysis of homologous and heterologous rotavirus infections, we concluded that mechanisms of heterologous rotavirus infection in mice follow similar patterns to those observed in the homologous models.

  10. Neural Damage in Experimental Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Infection: Hypothalamic Peptidergic Sleep and Wake-Regulatory Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Laperchia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuron populations of the lateral hypothalamus which synthesize the orexin (OX/hypocretin or melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH peptides play crucial, reciprocal roles in regulating wake stability and sleep. The disease human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, also called sleeping sickness, caused by extracellular Trypanosoma brucei (T. b. parasites, leads to characteristic sleep-wake cycle disruption and narcoleptic-like alterations of the sleep structure. Previous studies have revealed damage of OX and MCH neurons during systemic infection of laboratory rodents with the non-human pathogenic T. b. brucei subspecies. No information is available, however, on these peptidergic neurons after systemic infection with T. b. gambiense, the etiological agent of 97% of HAT cases. The present study was aimed at the investigation of immunohistochemically characterized OX and MCH neurons after T. b. gambiense or T. b. brucei infection of a susceptible rodent, the multimammate mouse, Mastomysnatalensis. Cell counts and evaluation of OX fiber density were performed at 4 and 8 weeks post-infection, when parasites had entered the brain parenchyma from the periphery. A significant decrease of OX neurons (about 44% reduction and MCH neurons (about 54% reduction was found in the lateral hypothalamus and perifornical area at 8 weeks in T. b. gambiense-infected M. natalensis. A moderate decrease (21% and 24% reduction, respectively, which did not reach statistical significance, was found after T. b. brucei infection. In two key targets of diencephalic orexinergic innervation, the peri-suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN region and the thalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVT, densitometric analyses showed a significant progressive decrease in the density of orexinergic fibers in both infection paradigms, and especially during T. b. gambiense infection. Altogether the findings provide novel information showing that OX and MCH neurons are highly vulnerable to chronic

  11. Antimicrobial effect of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) extracts against the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the antimicrobial effects of berry extracts obtained from four cultivars (Elliott, Darrow, Bluecrop and Duke) of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal conc...

  12. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken meat at retail markets in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thung, T Y; Mahyudin, N A; Basri, D F; Wan Mohamed Radzi, C W J; Nakaguchi, Y; Nishibuchi, M; Radu, S

    2016-08-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the major food-borne diseases in many countries. This study was carried out to determine the occurrence of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken meat from wet markets and hypermarkets in Selangor, as well as to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. The most probable number (MPN) in combination with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) method was used to quantify the Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium in the samples. The occurrence of Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium in 120 chicken meat samples were 20.80%, 6.70%, and 2.50%, respectively with estimated quantity varying from retail chicken meat could be a source of multiple antimicrobial-resistance Salmonella and may constitute a public health concern in Malaysia. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Investigation of an outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis gastroenteritis associated with consumption of eggs in a restaurant chain in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, F Y; Morris, J G; Trump, D; Tilghman, D; Wood, P K; Jackman, N; Israel, E; Libonati, J P

    1988-10-01

    Salmonella enteritidis ser. enteritidis was isolated from patrons and employees of three restaurants in a restaurant chain in Maryland during August and September 1985. Isolates from all three restaurants had identical plasmid profiles; this profile was present in 13 of 40 randomly selected S. enteritidis isolates received by the Maryland state health department laboratory during a comparable time period. The outbreak in one restaurant resulted in at least 71 illnesses, with 17 persons known to have been hospitalized. Scrambled eggs served on a "breakfast bar" were implicated as the vehicle of transmission in this restaurant, with eggs a possible vehicle in another of the three restaurants. The data point out the risks associated with improper handling of eggs in food service establishments, provide further evidence for the observed association between S. enteritidis and eggs in the northeastern United States, and demonstrate the utility of plasmid analysis in investigation of outbreaks involving common Salmonella serotypes.

  14. Role of IL-1β in experimental cystic fibrosis upon P. aeruginosa infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Palomo

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis is associated with increased inflammatory responses to pathogen challenge. Here we revisited the role of IL-1β in lung pathology using the experimental F508del-CFTR murine model on C57BL/6 genetic background (Cftr(tm1eur or d/d, on double deficient for d/d and type 1 interleukin-1 receptor (d/d X IL-1R1-/-, and antibody neutralization. At steady state, young adult d/d mice did not show any signs of spontaneous lung inflammation. However, IL-1R1 deficiency conferred partial protection to repeated P. aeruginosa endotoxins/LPS lung instillation in d/d mice, as 50% of d/d mice succumbed to inflammation, whereas all d/d x IL-1R1-/- double mutants survived with lower initial weight loss and less pulmonary collagen and mucus production, suggesting that the absence of IL-1R1 signaling is protective in d/d mice in LPS-induced lung damage. Using P. aeruginosa acute lung infection we found heightened neutrophil recruitment in d/d mice with higher epithelial damage, increased bacterial load in BALF, and augmented IL-1β and TNF-α in parenchyma as compared to WT mice. Thus, F508del-CFTR mice show enhanced IL-1β signaling in response to P. aeruginosa. IL-1β antibody neutralization had no effect on lung homeostasis in either d/d or WT mice, however P. aeruginosa induced lung inflammation and bacterial load were diminished by IL-1β antibody neutralization. In conclusion, enhanced susceptibility to P. aeruginosa in d/d mice correlates with an excessive inflammation and with increased IL-1β production and reduced bacterial clearance. Further, we show that neutralization of IL-1β in d/d mice through the double mutation d/d x IL-1R1-/- and in WT via antibody neutralization attenuates inflammation. This supports the notion that intervention in the IL-1R1/IL-1β pathway may be detrimental in CF patients.

  15. The Limitations of In Vitro Experimentation in Understanding Biofilms and Chronic Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Aled E. L.; Kragh, Kasper N.; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    a systematic review of the most widely used in vitro biofilm systems, and we discuss why they are not always representative of the in vivo biofilms found in chronic infections. We present examples of methods that will help us to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo biofilm work so that we can ultimately......We have become increasingly aware that, during infection, pathogenic bacteria often grow in multicellular biofilms that are often highly resistant to antibacterial strategies. In order to understand how biofilms form and contribute to infection, many research groups around the world have heavily...

  16. Reproducible methods for experimental infection with Flavobacterium psychrophilum in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1999-01-01

    , and this method was tested using isolates with different elastin- degrading profiles and representing different serotypes. Injecting trout, average weight 1 g, with 10(4) CFU (colony- forming units) per fish caused cumulative mortalities around 60 to 70%. The virulent strains belonged to certain serotypes...... and degraded elastin. The intraperitoneal injection challenge method could be used on larger fish, but the infection dose was 10(7) CFU per fish before mortalities occurred. Bath infection and bath infection in combination with formalin treatment (stress) seemed to be reproducible methods that could be used...

  17. Experimental investigation of the susceptibility of Italian Culex pipiens mosquitoes to Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccolini, Daniela; Toma, Luciano; Di Luca, Marco; Severini, Francesco; Romi, R; Remoli, Maria Elena; Sabbatucci, Michela; Venturi, Giulietta; Rezza, Giovanni; Fortuna, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the susceptibility of an Italian population of Culex pipiens mosquitoes to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, tested in parallel with Aedes aegypti, as a positive control. We analysed mosquitoes at 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 20 and 24 days after an infectious blood meal. Viral RNA was detected in the body of Cx. pipiens up to three days post-infection, but not at later time points. Our results indicate that Cx. pipiens is not susceptible to ZIKV infection. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  18. Influence of infection by Toxoplasma gondii on purine levels and E-ADA activity in the brain of mice experimentally infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Casali, Emerson A; Silveira, Stephanie S; Moritz, Cesar E J; Camillo, Giovana; Flores, Mariana M; Fighera, Rafael; Thomé, Gustavo R; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Rue, Mario De La; Vogel, Fernanda S F; Lopes, Sonia T A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the purine levels and E-ADA activity in the brain of mice (BALB/c) experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii. In experiment I (n=24) the mice were infected with RH strain of T. gondii, while in experiment II (n=36) they were infected with strain ME-49 of T. gondii. Our results showed that, for RH strain (acute phase), an increase in both periods in the levels of ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine (only on day 6 PI) and uric acid (only on day 6 PI). By the other hand, the RH strain led, on days 4 and 6 PI, to a reduction in the concentration of inosine. ME-49, a cystogenic strain, showed some differences in acute and chronic phase, since on day 6 PI the levels of ATP and ADP were increased, while on day 30 these same nucleotides were reduced. On day 60 PI, ME-49 induced a reduction in the levels of ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine, inosine and xanthine, while uric acid was increased. A decrease of E-ADA activity was observed in brain on days 4 and 6 PI (RH), and 30 PI (ME-49); however on day 60 PI E-ADA activity was increased for infection by ME-49 strain. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that infection with T. gondii changes the purine levels and the activity of E-ADA in brain, which may be associated with neurological signs commonly observed in this disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in blood sugar levels of rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate and diminazene aceturate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwoha Rosemary Ijeoma Ogechi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei on blood sugar level of infected rats. Methods: The experiment was done with 42 albino rats grouped into 3 groups of 14 members each. Group A was uninfected (control group, Group B was infected with T. brucei and treated with diminazene aceturate, and Group C was infected with T. brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate. Blood samples were collected from the media canthus of the experimental rats on Days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 for the assessment of change in blood sugar levels. The blood sugar levels were determined with a glucometer (Accu-chek active serial No. GN: 10023338. Results: By 4 to 5 days post infection, there was a significant increase (P 0.05 was observed in the groups when compared with the control group till Day 12 of the experiment. Conclusions: T. brucei caused a significant increase in blood sugar of infected rats.

  20. Immunodiagnosis of systemic aspergillosis. I. Antigenemia detected by radioimmunoassay in experimental infection. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, M.H.; Coats-Stephen, M.

    1979-01-01

    Because systemic aspergillosis is difficult to diagnose ante mortem, a study to improve immunodiagnosis was undertaken in a rabbit model of disseminated infection. We found that the predominant humoral response of infected animals was directed against four Aspergillus antigens identified by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. One of these antigens, a cell-wall carbohydrate, was purified by gel-filtration chromatography and was used to develop a radiommunoassay. The sensitivity of this assay was increased by testing for serum-bound antigen as well as for free antigen. When the sensitivity of the RIA was evaluated in the animal model, antigenemia was detected in 78% of 51 rabbits with disseminated infection and ante mortem in 86% of 42 rabbits with lethal infection. By contrast, with immunoprecipitin analysis only eight of 51 rabbits were positive for antigen, and six of 51 rabbits were positive for Aspergillus antibody. The specificity of the RIA was also tested. Negative controls for antigen included sera from 76 normal rabbits and sera from 25 rabbits with systemic candidiasis. The Candida control group is pertinent because 48% of these rabbits had specific Candida antigenemia detected by a mannan RIA. This study demonstrates that Aspergillus antigenemia occurs during the course of experimental disseminated aspergillosis and illustrates the potential of an Aspergillus antigen RIA for sensitive, specific immunodiagnosis of human infections.

  1. Temporal dynamics of 'HoBi'-like pestivirus quasispecies in persistently infected calves generated under experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Matheus N; Bauermann, Fernando V; Canal, Cláudio W; Bayles, Darrell O; Neill, John D; Ridpath, Julia F

    2017-01-02

    'HoBi'-like virus is an atypical group within the Pestivirus genus that is implicated in economic losses for cattle producers due to both acute and persistent infections. Pestivirus strains exist as quasispecies (swarms of individual viruses) in infected animals and the viral populations making up the quasispecies differ widely in size and diversity in each animal. In the present study the viral quasispecies circulating in persistently infected (PI) calves, generated and maintained under experimental conditions using two different 'HoBi'-like strains, was observed over time. An increase in genetic variability and the development of certain mutations was observed over time. Mutations observed included the loss of a putative N-linked glycosylation site in the E2 region and the change of specific residues in E1/E2. It is hypothesized that these changes may be the results on continued adaption of the pestivirus to individual hosts. This is the first study characterizing variation in the viral swarms of animals persistently infected with HoBi-like viruses over time. Studies of the shifts in PI viral swarms will contribute to our understanding of the host and viral mechanisms that function in the maintenance of pestivirus persistent infections. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Dexamethasone treatment induces susceptibility of outbred Webster mice to experimental infection with Besnoitia darlingi isolated from opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Mansfield, Linda S

    2005-04-01

    The Sarcocystidae comprise a diverse, monophyletic apicomplexan parasite family, most of whose members form intracellular cysts in their intermediate hosts. The extent of pathology associated with such cyst formation can range widely. We currently lack experimental animal models for many of these infections. Here we explored dexamethasone treatment as a means to render outbred mice susceptible to Besnoitia darlingi infection and demonstrated that this approach allows viable parasites to be subsequently isolated from these mice and maintained in tissue culture. Besnoitia bradyzoites recovered from crushed cysts derived from naturally infected opossums (Didelphis virginiana) replicated and reproduced the development of besnoitiosis in mice treated with dexamethasone (0.5 mg/ml drinking water) daily for 12 days post infection (DPI). Isolates recovered from the peritoneal exudates of these mice were viable and were maintained in long-term tissue cultures. In contrast, control mice given saline without dexamethasone and challenged with similar bradyzoites remained clinically normal for up to 70 DPI. An additional group of mice challenged with the same inoculum of bradyzoites and given dexamethasone at the same concentration and treated with sulfadiazine (1 mg/ml drinking water) daily for 12 DPI also remained normal for up to 70 DPI. Severe disease developed more rapidly in dexamethasone-treated mice inoculated with culture-derived B. darlingi tachyzoites than in those inoculated with cyst-derived bradyzoites. B. darlingi tachyzoite-infected, untreated control mice developed signs of illness at 18 DPI. In contrast, mice treated with sulfadiazine showed no clinical signs up to 50 DPI. Although dexamethasone treatment was required to establish B. darlingi infection in outbred mice inoculated with opossum-derived B. darlingi bradyzoites, no such treatment was required for mice inoculated with culture-derived B. darlingi tachyzoites. Finally, sulfadiazine was highly

  3. Freeze-tolerance of Trichinella muscle larvae in experimentally infected wild boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacour, Sandrine A.; Heckmann, Aurelie; Mace, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    served as negative controls. All wild boars were sacrificed 24 wpi. Muscle samples of 70 g were stored at -21 degrees C for 19,30 and 56h, and for 1-8 weeks. Larvae were recovered by artificial digestion. Their mobilities were recorded using Saisam (R) image analysis software and their infectivities were......Freeze-tolerance of encapsulated Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) is mainly determined by Trichinella species, but is also influenced by host species, the age of the infection and the storage time and temperature of the infected meat. Moreover, the freeze-tolerance of the encapsulated species appears...... to be correlated to the development of thick capsule walls which increases with age. An extended infection period and the muscle composition in some hosts (e.g. herbivores) may provide freeze-avoiding matrices due to high carbohydrate contents. The present experiment compares freeze-tolerance of Trichinella...

  4. Cell-mediated immune response to Leishmania chagasi experimental infection of BALB/c immunosuppressed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JG Machado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, presents a significant impact on immunosupressed patients. This study aimed to evaluate Leishmania chagasi infection in BALB/c mice immunosuppressed with dexamethasone. Spleen cells stimulated or not with L. chagasi were cultured for cytokine quantification (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 by sandwich ELISA. Parasite loads in the spleen and liver were determined by means of culture microtitration. Immunosuppressed groups showed statistically lower spleen weight and CD4-cell percentage in blood on the day of infection and produced Th1 and Th2 cytokines on other days of the study. The other infected groups, weather immunosupressed or not, also produced Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Parasite loads in the spleen and liver were not statistically different among the groups. It was concluded that L. chagasi infection was not affected by dexamethasone-induced immunosuppression, probably due the reversible effect of the treatment.

  5. The Induction of Protective Immunity against Experimental Eimeria tenella Infection using Serum Exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian coccidiosis is caused by Eimeria, a unicellular, apicomplexan protist which primarily infects intestinal epithelia resulting in nutrition malabsorption and reduced growth of commercial poultry. Vaccination of chickens with exosomes isolated from antigen presenting cells and containing parasit...

  6. Altered vector competence in an experimental mosquito-mouse transmission model of Zika infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Uraki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Few animal models of Zika virus (ZIKV infection have incorporated arthropod-borne transmission. Here, we establish an Aedes aegypti mosquito model of ZIKV infection of mice, and demonstrate altered vector competency among three strains, (Orlando, ORL, Ho Chi Minh, HCM, and Patilas, PAT. All strains acquired ZIKV in their midguts after a blood meal from infected mice, but ZIKV transmission only occurred in mice fed upon by HCM, and to a lesser extent PAT, but not ORL, mosquitoes. This defect in transmission from ORL or PAT mosquitoes was overcome by intrathoracic injection of ZIKV into mosquito. Genetic analysis revealed significant diversity among these strains, suggesting a genetic basis for differences in ability for mosquito strains to transmit ZIKV. The intrathoracic injection mosquito-mouse transmission model is critical to understanding the influence of mosquitoes on ZIKV transmission, infectivity and pathogenesis in the vertebrate host, and represents a natural transmission route for testing vaccines and therapeutics.

  7. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette

    2009-01-01

    The acute phase protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other...... parts of innate host defence reactions remain somewhat elusive. In order to gain new insight into this early host defence response in the context of bacterial infection we studied gene expression changes in peripheral lymphoid tissues as compared to hepatic expression changes, 14-18 h after lung...... with measurements of interleukin-6 and selected acute phase proteins in serum. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A were clearly induced 14-18 h after infection. Extrahepatic expression of acute phase proteins was found to be dramatically altered as a result of the lung infection with an extrahepatic acute phase...

  8. Comparative experimental infection of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii in bovine trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Cláudia E; Mol, Juliana P S; Garcia, Luize N N; Costa, Luciana F; Santos, Renato L; Paixão, Tatiane A

    2017-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, facultative intracellular and invasive bacterium that has tropism to the placenta, and causes fetal morbidity and mortality in several mammalian species. While infection with L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii are known as important causes of abortion and reproductive failure in cattle, the pathogenesis of maternal-fetal listeriosis in this species is poorly known. This study used the bovine chorioallantoic membrane explant model to investigate the kinetics of L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii, and L. innocua infections in bovine trophoblastic cells for up to 8 h post infection. L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii were able to invade and multiply in trophoblastic cells without causing cell death or inducing expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Although L. innocua was unable to multiply in bovine trophoblastic cells, it induced transcription of the pro-inflammatory mediator CXCL6. This study demonstrated for the first time the susceptibility of bovine trophoblastic cells to L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii infection.

  9. Effects of experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection on pregnancy in Yankasa ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyeye, A A; Ate, I U; Lawal, A I; Adamu, S

    2016-03-15

    Twenty pregnant Yankasa ewes were assigned to three groups to determine the effect of Trypanosoma evansi infection on pregnancy. Groups A and B comprising seven ewes each were infected with approximately 1.0 × 10(6) cells of T evansi per ewe through venepuncture at the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. Group C comprising six ewes served as uninfected control. There was slight pyrexia in the infected groups (groups A and B) but was absent in group C. The mean body weight, glucose concentration, and packed cell volume of ewes in group A were not significantly different from those in group C throughout the study. There was also no significant difference in mean glucose concentration between groups B and C. However, in group B, mean body weight was significantly (P ewes in group A was significantly (P ewes in group B decreased significantly (P ewes in the infected groups (groups A and B) compared with those in group C. However, there were significant (P ewes in group B compared with ewes in groups A and C. Mice inoculation with blood from infected ewes postpartum was parasitemic 18 to 25 days pi, for ewes in group B, whereas none of the mice in groups A and C were parasitemic. Lambs born from the infected groups (groups A and B) were also aparasitemic for 40 days postpartum. It was therefore concluded that the T evansi isolate used caused mild trypanosomosis when infected at third trimester, whereas ewes infected at second trimester were resistant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Different infective forms trigger distinct immune response in experimental Chagas disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Melo de Abreu Vieira

    Full Text Available Although metacyclic and blood trypomastigotes are completely functional in relation to parasite-host interaction and/or target cell invasion, they differ in the molecules present on the surface. Thus, aspects related to the variability that the forms of T. cruzi interacts with host cells may lead to fundamental implications on the immune response against this parasite and, consequently, the clinical evolution of Chagas disease. We have shown that BT infected mice presented higher levels of parasitemia during all the acute phase of infection. Moreover, the infection with either MT or BT forms resulted in increased levels of total leukocytes, monocytes and lymphocytes, specifically later for MT and earlier for BT. The infection with BT forms presented earlier production of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and later of IFN-γ by both T cells subpopulations. This event was accompanied by an early cardiac inflammation with an exacerbation of this process at the end of the acute phase. On the other hand, infection with MT forms result in an early production of IFN-γ, with subsequent control in the production of this cytokine by IL-10, which provided to these animals an immunomodulatory profile in the end of the acute phase. These results are in agreement with what was found for cardiac inflammation where animals infected with MT forms showed intense cardiac inflammation later at infection, with a decrease in the same at the end of this phase. In summary, our findings emphasize the importance of taking into account the inoculums source of T. cruzi, since vectorial or transfusional routes of T. cruzi infection may trigger distinct parasite-host interactions during the acute phase that may influence relevant biological aspects of chronic Chagas disease.

  11. Humoral immune responses of experimentally Eimeria ninakholyakimovae-infected goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Lorena; Muñoz, María Del Carmen; Molina, José Manuel; Ferrer, Otilia; Rodríguez, Francisco; Pérez, Davinia; López, Adassa María; Martín, Sergio; Hermosilla, Carlos; Taubert, Anja; Ruiz, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Although cellular immune reactions seem to be crucial for protective immune responses in Eimeria spp. infections, there are also evidences on an active involvement of the humoral counterpart. In the present study, we have analyzed the humoral response of goat kids subjected to primary and challenge infections with Eimeria ninakholyakimovae. Specific levels of IgG and IgM in serum samples and IgA in the ileal mucus were estimated. In infected kids, significantly increased levels of IgG were observed from 3 weeks post infection onwards in addition to an enhancement of specific IgM and secretory IgA levels. A wide range of peptides of sporulated oocyst antigen (SOA) was recognized by specific IgG as determined by immunoblotting. However, no correlations were found between immunoglobulin levels and OPG counts after challenge infection. Overall, these data indicate a significant specific humoral response of E. ninakohlyakimovae-infected goat kids that does not seem to convey immunoprotection. Further studies should be addressed to clarify if the lack of correlation might be associated to the type of antigen used for the immunoenzimatic assays, the age of the animals or other factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of thermosonication on the fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis in mango juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, W-S; Bhat, R; Rosma, A; Cheng, L-H

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the effects of thermosonication and thermal treatment on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis in mango juice were investigated at 50 and 60°C. Besides, nonlethal injury of Salm. Enteritidis after both treatments was also examined. The highest inactivation was attained with thermosonication at 60°C. The inactivation rate was different for both pathogens, and Salm. Enteritidis was found to be more sensitive to thermosonication than E. coli O157:H7. Salmonella Enteritidis was recovered in all treated samples, except those subjected to more than 5-min thermosonication at 60°C. It was found that the introduction of high-intensity ultrasound enhanced the inactivation of pathogens compared to thermal treatment alone. On the other hand, Salm. Enteritidis was detected in a number of samples following incubation in universal pre-enrichment broth, but no growth was detected after incubation in mango juice. Fruit juices are commonly heat treated to inactivate micro-organisms and enzymes. However, excessive heat treatments may result in undesirable changes in juice quality. Treatment by power ultrasound, a nonthermal technology, may be an alternative processing technique to pasteurize fruit juices. This study highlights the effectiveness of thermosonication in inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis in mango juice. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Assessment of Domestic Goats as Models for Experimental and Natural Infection with the North American Isolate of Rickettsia slovaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukovsky-Akhsanov, Nicole; Keating, M Kelly; Spivey, Pamela; Lathrop, George W; Powell, Nathaniel; Levin, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL). Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen. Recently, a rickettsial pathogen identical to R. slovaca was identified in, and isolated from, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. In previous experimental studies, this organism was found infectious to guinea pigs and transovarially transmissible in ticks. In this study, domestic goats (Capra hircus) were experimentally inoculated with the North American isolate of this R. slovaca-like agent to assess their reservoir competence-the ability to acquire the pathogens and maintain transmission between infected and uninfected ticks. Goats were susceptible to infection as demonstrated by detection of the pathogen in skin biopsies and multiple internal tissues, but the only clinical sign of illness was transient fever noted in three out of four goats, and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. On average, less than 5% of uninfected ticks acquired the pathogen while feeding upon infected goats. Although domestic goats are susceptible to the newly described North American isolate of R. slovaca, they are likely to play a minor role in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. Our results suggest that goats do not propagate the North American isolate of R. slovaca in peridomestic environments and clinical diagnosis of infection could be difficult due to the brevity and mildness of clinical signs. Further research is needed to elucidate the natural transmission cycle of R. slovaca both in Europe and North America, as well as to identify a

  14. Molecular identification of Heterakis spumosa obtained from brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Japan and its infectivity in experimental mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šnábel, Viliam; Utsuki, Daisuke; Kato, Takehiro; Sunaga, Fujiko; Ooi, Hong-Kean; Gambetta, Barbara; Taira, Kensuke

    2014-09-01

    Heterakis spumosa is a nematode of invasive rodents, mainly affiliated with Rattus spp. of Asian origin. Despite the ecological importance and cosmopolitan distribution, little information is available on the genetic characteristics and infectivity to experimental animals of this roundworm. Heterakis isolates obtained from naturally infected brown rats caught in 2007 in the city of Sagamihara, east central Honshu, Japan, and maintained by laboratory passages were subjected to mitochondrial sequence analysis and experimental infection in mice. Sequencing of the cox1 gene revealed that nucleotides of H. spumosa and previously examined Heterakis isolonche isolates from gallinaceous birds in Japan differed by 11.2-12.2% that conforms to the range expected for interspecific differences. The two H. spumosa isolates differed by a single 138T/C non-synonymous substitution in the 393-bp mt sequence. In a dendrogram, the H. spumosa samples formed a subcluster with members of the nematode superfamily Heterakoidea, H. isolonche and Ascaridia galli. In an experimental infection study, ICR, AKR, B10.BR and C57BL/6 mice strains were inoculated with 200 H. spumosa eggs/head and necropsied at 14 and 90 days post-inoculation (DPI) when the number of worms was recorded. Eggs were initially detected in faeces from 32-35 DPI in ICR, AKR and B10.BR mice and the highest mean number of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) was 4,800 at 38 DPI, 2,200 at 58 DPI and 800 at 44 and 72 DPI in ICR, AKR and B10.BR mice, respectively. No eggs were observed in faeces of the C57BL/6 mouse strain during the experiment. A similar number of juvenile worms were isolated from all mouse strains at 14 DPI, whereas no adult worms were detected in C57BL/6 mice at 90 DPI.

  15. An experimental in-vivo canine model for adult shunt infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procop Gary

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detailed human studies of the mechanisms and development of shunt infection in real time are not possible, and we have developed a canine hydrocephalus model to overcome this. The intention of this pilot study was to show that the canine hydrocephalus model could be shunted using conventional "human" shunts, and that a shunt infection could be established so that further studies could then be planned. Methods Hydrocephalus was induced in seven dogs (Canis familiaris by fourth ventricle obstruction. Four weeks later they were shunted using a Hakim Precision valve. Four of the dogs received shunts whose ventricular catheter had been inoculated with Staphylococcus epidermidis, and three were uninoculated controls. Four weeks after shunting the dogs were sacrificed and necropsy was performed. Removed shunts and tissue samples were examined microbiologically and isolates were subjected to detailed identification and genomic comparison. Results All the dogs remained well after shunting. Examination of removed shunt components revealed S. epidermidis in the brain and throughout the shunt system in the four inoculated animals, but in two of these Staphylococcus intermedius was also found. S. intermedius was also isolated from all three "negative" controls. There were slight differences between S. intermedius strains suggesting endogenous infection rather than cross- infection from a point source. Conclusion Shunt infection was established in the canine model, and had the experiment been extended beyond four weeks the typical microbiological, pathological and clinical features might have appeared. The occurrence of unplanned shunt infections in control animals due to canine normal skin flora reflects human clinical experience and underlines the usual source of bacteria causing shunt infection.

  16. Differential Disease Susceptibilities in Experimentally Reptarenavirus-Infected Boa Constrictors and Ball Pythons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Garcia, Valentina E.; Layton, Marylee L.; Hoon-Hanks, Laura L.; Boback, Scott M.; Keel, M. Kevin; Drazenovich, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inclusion body disease (IBD) is an infectious disease originally described in captive snakes. It has traditionally been diagnosed by the presence of large eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions and is associated with neurological, gastrointestinal, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Previously, we identified and established a culture system for a novel lineage of arenaviruses isolated from boa constrictors diagnosed with IBD. Although ample circumstantial evidence suggested that these viruses, now known as reptarenaviruses, cause IBD, there has been no formal demonstration of disease causality since their discovery. We therefore conducted a long-term challenge experiment to test the hypothesis that reptarenaviruses cause IBD. We infected boa constrictors and ball pythons by cardiac injection of purified virus. We monitored the progression of viral growth in tissues, blood, and environmental samples. Infection produced dramatically different disease outcomes in snakes of the two species. Ball pythons infected with Golden Gate virus (GoGV) and with another reptarenavirus displayed severe neurological signs within 2 months, and viral replication was detected only in central nervous system tissues. In contrast, GoGV-infected boa constrictors remained free of clinical signs for 2 years, despite high viral loads and the accumulation of large intracellular inclusions in multiple tissues, including the brain. Inflammation was associated with infection in ball pythons but not in boa constrictors. Thus, reptarenavirus infection produces inclusions and inclusion body disease, although inclusions per se are neither necessarily associated with nor required for disease. Although the natural distribution of reptarenaviruses has yet to be described, the different outcomes of infection may reflect differences in geographical origin. IMPORTANCE New DNA sequencing technologies have made it easier than ever to identify the sequences of microorganisms in diseased tissues, i

  17. Protective immune responses during prepatency in goat kids experimentally infected with Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, L; Muñoz, M C; Molina, J M; Rodríguez, F; Perez, D; Lopez, A; Ferrer, O; Hermosilla, C; Taubert, A; Ruiz, A

    2017-08-15

    During the first schizogony, the goat coccidia Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae develops macroschizonts in lacteal duct endothelial cells, whose rupture leads to severe ileal damage and clinical signs during the prepatent period. The immune response elicited against early stages of the parasite development still requires to be investigated. In the present study we have evaluated immune reactions in goat kids primary- and challenged-infected with Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae, and sacrificed during prepatency (7days after challenge). The oocyst output during the primary infection, body weight and clinical condition of all the animals were examined and, at the end of the experiment, all the goat kids were euthanized and subjected to necropsy. Samples were taken from different sections of the ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of primary- and challenged E. ninakohlyakimovae-infected animals. Intestinal leukocyte subpopulations were characterized in E. ninakohlyakimovae-infected mucosa and counts of lymphocytes, eosinophils, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), globular leukocytes and mast cells were recorded. Additionally, gene expression of caprine IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and INFγ of ileal, colonic and MLN tissues were performed, as well as the immunohistochemical characterization of immune cells. The E. ninakohlyakimovae primary infection resulted in moderate to severe enteritis with different degrees of diarrhoea and was accompanied by high OPG counts and an increase of most immune cells analyzed when compared to uninfected control animals. Furthermore, eosinophil-, lymphocyte-, globular leukocyte- and mast cell-counts were significantly higher in the challenge group compared to the primary infected animals, whilst the opposite was true for PMN counts. The challenge infection was also associated with moderate increased levels of local mucosal IgA. Interestingly, the number of immature schizonts found at the ileal mucosa was statistically higher in the challenge infected

  18. Highly diluted medication reduces parasitemia and improves experimental infection evolution by Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleixo Denise

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no published information about the use of different protocols to administer a highly diluted medication. Evaluate the effect of different protocols for treatment with biotherapic T. cruzi 17 dH (BIOTTc17dH on clinical/parasitological evolution of mice infected with T. cruzi-Y strain. Methods A blind, randomized controlled trial was performed twice, using 60 28-day-old male Swiss mice infected with T. cruzi-Y strain, in five treatment groups: CI - treated with a 7% ethanol-water solution, diluted in water (10 μL/mL ad libitum; BIOTPI - treated with BIOTTc17dH in water (10 μL/mL ad libitum during a period that started on the day of infection; BIOT4DI - treated with BIOTTc17dH in water (10 μL/mL ad libitum beginning on the 4th day of infection; BIOT4-5–6 - treated with BIOTTc17dH by gavage (0.2 mL/ animal/day on the 4th, 5th and 6th days after infection; BIOT7-8–9 - treated with BIOTTc17dH by gavage (0.2 mL/ animal/day on the 7th, 8th and 9th days after infection. We evaluated: parasitemia; total parasitemia (Ptotal; maximum peak of parasites; prepatent period (PPP - time from infection to detection of the parasite in blood; patent period (PP - period when the parasitemia can be detected in blood; clinical aspects; and mortality. Results Parasitological parameters in the BIOTPI and mainly in the BIOT4PI group showed better evolution of the infection compared to the control group (CI, with lower Ptotal, lower maximum peak of parasites, higher PPP, lower PP and longer survival times. These animals showed stable body temperature and higher weight gain and water consumption, with more animals having normal-appearing fur for longer periods. In contrast, groups BIOT4-5–6 and BIOT7-8–9 showed worse evolution of the infection compared to the control group, considering both parasitological and clinical parameters. The correlation analysis combined with the other data from this study indicated that the prepatent

  19. Susceptibility and pathological consequences of catla, Catla catla (Hamilton experimentally infected with Edwardsiella tarda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Thongam Bidya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested the susceptibility and pathological changes of catla, Catla catla (Hamilton infected with Edwardsiella tarda (ET-PG-29. The bacterium was isolated from the kidney of a diseased pangas catfish. To determine the median lethal dose (LD50, C. catla were challenged with this bacterium (108-103 CFU ml-1, and the LD50 was calculated as 105.5 CFU ml-1. Another set of healthy C. catla were injected intraperitoneally with the LD50 dose to induce edwardsiellosis. The clinical signs of the infected C. catla were observed and recorded. Tissues such as kidney, liver, intestine, heart, and gill from the infected fish with clinical signs of edwardsiellosis were used for histopathology. The clinical and gross signs were first visible at 1 d post-injection, and the infected fish showed typical signs of hemorrhagic septicemia. The most striking histopathological features were found in the kidney which showed multi-focal necrosis with the formation of granuloma indicating an inflammatory response against the pathogen. The intestine displayed goblet cell hyperplasia, the liver showed hydropic degeneration with hyperemic central veins, and there was inflammation of gill lamellae and cardiac myositis associated with leucocyte infiltration. Collectively, the results confirmed the susceptibility of C. catla to E. tarda infection and that this bacterium is a threat to C. catla in aquaculture practices.

  20. Effects of experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection on sperm morphology in Yankasa rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluyinka O. Okubanjo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effect of T. congolense on the sperm morphology of Yankasa rams (YKR. Nine YKR aged 24-30 months-old were assigned into two groups of 6 infected and 3 uninfected control and were monitored for 7 weeks. The infected group of YKR was each inoculated with 1 x 106 T. congolense through the jugular vein, while the control group remained uninfected. The entire infected group developed trypanosomosis post infection (pi characterized by sperm morphological abnormalities in the semen. There were significant (P<0.001 increases in the mean percentage of acrosomal, head, middle piece and tail abnormalities. Proximal and distal droplets as well detached heads were also significantly (P<0.001 increased post infection (pi. Acrosomal abnormalities, distal droplet and tail abnormalities increased from week 1 pi till the end of the study, while head abnormalities and detached heads increased from week 2 pi. Middle piece abnormalities and proximal droplets increased from week 3 and 4 pi till the end of the study respectively. The high incidence of morphological defects caused by T. congolense is capable of causing infertility from the first week pi thereby making the rams unfit for breeding at the end of the study.

  1. Understanding Experimental LCMV Infection of Mice: The Role of Mathematical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Bocharov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virus infections represent complex biological systems governed by multiple-level regulatory processes of virus replication and host immune responses. Understanding of the infection means an ability to predict the systems behaviour under various conditions. Such predictions can only rely upon quantitative mathematical models. The model formulations should be tightly linked to a fundamental step called “coordinatization” (Hermann Weyl, that is, the definition of observables, parameters, and structures that enable the link with a biological phenotype. In this review, we analyse the mathematical modelling approaches to LCMV infection in mice that resulted in quantification of some fundamental parameters of the CTL-mediated virus control including the rates of T cell turnover, infected target cell elimination, and precursor frequencies. We show how the modelling approaches can be implemented to address diverse aspects of immune system functioning under normal conditions and in response to LCMV and, importantly, make quantitative predictions of the outcomes of immune system perturbations. This may highlight the notion that data-driven applications of meaningful mathematical models in infection biology remain a challenge.

  2. [Genotyping and evaluation of infection dynamics in a Colombian isolate of Leptospira santarosai in hamster as an experimental model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Flórez, Piedad; Durango, Harold; Aranzazu, Diego; Rodas, Juan David; Travi, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Is necessary to develop models for the study of leptospirosis. To genotype a Colombian strain of Leptospira isolated from a human with Weil´s syndrome and to evaluate its infection dynamics in the hamster experimental model. Genotyping was performed by amplification and sequence analysis of the rrs 16S and lipL32 genes. The median lethal dose was determined in intraperitoneally inoculated hamsters. The patterns of clinical chemistry, the duration of leptospiremia, leptospiruria and pathological findings were studied and compared in the same animal model infected with L. interrogans (Fiocruz L1-130). Molecular typing revealed that the isolate corresponded to the pathogenic species L. santarosai, which was recovered from hamsters´ kidneys and lungs and detected by lipL32 PCR from day 3 post-infection in these organs. There was a marked increase of C-reactive protein in animals at day 5 post-infection (3.25 mg/dl; normal value: 0.3 mg/dl) with decreases by day 18 (2.60 mg/dl: normal value: 0.8 mg/dl). Biomarkers of urea showed changes consistent with possible renal acute failure (day 5 post-infection: 49.01 mg/dl and day 18 post-infection: 53.71 mg/dl). Histopathological changes included interstitial pneumonia with varying degrees of hemorrhage and interstitial nephritis. The pathogenic species L. santarosai was identified in Colombia. Its pathogenicity as determined by tropism to lung and kidney was comparable to that of L. interrogans Fiocruz L1-130, well known for its virulence and pulmonar tropism. The biological aspects studied here had never before been evaluated in an autochthonous isolate.

  3. Influence of Multiple Infection and Relatedness on Virulence: Disease Dynamics in an Experimental Plant Population and Its Castrating Parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Lorenza; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Shykoff, Jacqui A.; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    The level of parasite virulence, i.e., the decrease in host's fitness due to a pathogen, is expected to depend on several parameters, such as the type of the disease (e.g., castrating or host-killing) and the prevalence of multiple infections. Although these parameters have been extensively studied theoretically, few empirical data are available to validate theoretical predictions. Using the anther smut castrating disease on Silene latifolia caused by Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, we studied the dynamics of multiple infections and of different components of virulence (host death, non-recovery and percentage of castrated stems) during the entire lifespan of the host in an experimental population. We monitored the number of fungal genotypes within plants and their relatedness across five years, using microsatellite markers, as well as the rates of recovery and host death in the population. The mean relatedness among genotypes within plants remained at a high level throughout the entire host lifespan despite the dynamics of the disease, with recurrent new infections. Recovery was lower for plants with multiple infections compared to plants infected by a single genotype. As expected for castrating parasites, M. lychnidis-dioicae did not increase host mortality. Mortality varied across years but was generally lower for plants that had been diseased the preceding year. This is one of the few studies to have empirically verified theoretical expectations for castrating parasites, and to show particularly i) that castrated hosts live longer, suggesting that parasites can redirect resources normally used in reproduction to increase host lifespan, lengthening their transmission phase, and ii) that multiple infections increase virulence, here in terms of non-recovery and host castration. PMID:24892951

  4. Pathogenesis and immune response in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr experimentally infected with salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desvignes, L; Quentel, C; Lamour, F; le, Ven A

    2002-01-01

    Atlantic salmon parr were injected intraperitoneally with salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV) grown on CHSE-214 cells. The viraemia, the histopathological changes in target organs and some immune parameters were taken at intervals up to 30 days post-infection (dpi). The earliest kind of lesion was necrosis of exocrine pancreas, appearing as soon as 2 dpi. It progressed towards complete tissue breakdown at 9 dpi before resolving gradually. Concurrent to this necrosis, a strong inflammatory response was in evidence from 9 dpi in the pancreatic area for a majority of fish. A necrosis of the myocardial cells of the ventricle occurred in infected fish mainly at 16 dpi and it faded thereafter. The monitoring of the plasma viral load showed a rapid haematogenous spreading of SPDV, peaking at 4 dpi, but also the absence of a secondary viraemia. No interferon (IFN) was detected following the infection of parr with SPDV, probably owing to an IFN activity in Atlantic salmon below the detection level of the technique. Neutralising antibodies against SPDV were in evidence from 16 dpi and they showed a time-related increasing titre and prevalence. The phagocytic activity in head-kidney leucocytes was always significantly higher in the infected fish than in the control fish, being particularly high by 9 dpi. Lysozyme and complement levels were both increased and they peaked significantly in the infected fish at 9 and 16 dpi respectively. These results demonstrated that an experimental infection of Atlantic salmon parr with SPDV provoked a stimulation of both specific and non-specific immunity with regards to the viraemia and the histopathology.

  5. Sperm Morphological Features Associated with Chronic Chagas Disease in the Semen of Experimentally Infected Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia; Pedro-Martínez, Elvia; Hernández-Pichardo, José Ernesto; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo; Aranda-Fraustro, Alberto; Graullera-Rivera, Verónica; Arce-Fonseca, Minerva

    2014-01-01

    The presence of trypanosomatids in the reproductive systems of different mammals (causing genital lesions in the acute stage of the disease) may predispose the animals to low semen quality. However, there are no studies examining the alterations in the sperm morphological features in the chronic stage of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Knowledge of these aspects is important to understand the other ways of transmission of the Chagas disease. Progressive motility, mass motility, concentration, and sperm morphology of 84 ejaculates of dogs that were chronically infected with T. cruzi were evaluated. Most of the findings were consistent with the reference values and with those obtained from healthy control dogs. The scrotal circumference was not correlated with spermatozoa concentration in the infected animals. In conclusion, the T. cruzi Ninoa (MHOM/MX/1994/Ninoa) strain does not cause significant alterations in the semen quality of dogs experiencing chronic Chagas disease (at concentrations of 5 × 104 to 1 × 106 parasites per animal). PMID:25114010

  6. Experimental infection of Contracaecum multipapillatum (Nematoda: Anisakinae) from Mexico in the domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Martínez, V M; Osorio-Sarabia, D; Overstreet, R M

    1994-08-01

    Juveniles of Contracaecum multipapillatum infected the Mayan cichlid (Cichlasoma urophthalmus) and adults infected the olivaceous cormorant (Phalacrocorax olivaceus) and the great egret (Casmerodius albus) in the coastal lagoon at Celestun, State of Yucatan, Mexico. All are new host records, and, even though the geographic locality record of Mexico for the species has not been published, unidentified but presumably conspecific specimens have been reported from there. When juveniles of C. multipapillatum were fed to a kitten, but not rats, ducks, or chickens, they developed into adults. Measurements and morphological data are provided on the specimens from the kitten. Development of an avian ascaridoid in the intestine of a mammal increases the potential of this widespread species to infect other mammals, including humans.

  7. Experimental early pathogenesis of Streptococcus agalactiae infection in red tilapia Oreochromis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iregui, C A; Comas, J; Vásquez, G M; Verján, N

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae causes a severe systemic disease in fish, and the routes of entry are still ill-defined. To address this issue, two groups of 33 red tilapia Oreochromis spp. each of 10 g were orally infected with S. agalactiae (n = 30), and by immersion (n = 30), six individuals were control-uninfected fish. Three tilapias were killed at each time point from 30 min to 96 h post-inoculation (pi); controls were killed at 96 h. Samples from most tissues were examined by haematoxylin-eosin (H&E), indirect immunoperoxidase (IPI) and periodic acid-Schiff; only intestine from fish infected by gavage was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. The results of both experiments suggest that the main entry site of S. agalactiae in tilapia is the gastrointestinal epithelium; mucus seems to play an important defensive role, and environmental conditions may be an important predisposing factor for the infection. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Trypanosoma cruzi in the anal glands of urban opossums: I- isolation and experimental infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Urdaneta-Morales

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Opossums (Didelphis marsupialis captured in intensely urbanized areas of the city of Caracas, Venezuela, were found infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The developmental cycle of trypomastigote-epimastigote-metacyclic infective trypomastigote, usually occurring in the intestine of the triatomine vector, was taking place in the anal odoriferous glands of the opossums. Material from the glands, inoculated in young, healthy opossums and white mice by different routes, subcutaneously, intraperitoneally, orally, and into the eye, induced T. cruzi infections in all animals. Parasitemia, invasion of cardiac and skeletal muscle, and intracellular multiplication of amastigotes were observed. Inoculation of metacyclics from anal glands, cultured in LIT medium, gave equivalent results. All opossums survived; all mice died. Excreta of opossums may thus transmit Chagas' disease by contamination, even in urban areas where insect vectors are not present.

  9. Aberrant chlamydial developmental forms in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs spontaneously and experimentally infected with Chlamydia suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospischil, Andreas; Borel, Nicole; Chowdhury, Emdad H; Guscetti, Franco

    2009-03-16

    The phenomenon of persistence is well known from in vitro studies, where it is associated with the production of aberrant bodies, but its occurrence in vivo is less well documented. The objective of this study was to search for aberrant bodies in intestinal tissues from pigs, describe their ultrastructure, and investigate the suitability of immunohistochemical staining for chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (cHSP60) to detect such forms. Intestinal tissues derived from pigs naturally and experimentally infected with Chlamydia (C.) suis were examined by immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy. The chlamydial species involved in the natural infection were determined using an Array Tube Microarray to C. suis and Chlamydophila abortus. Ultrastructurally, aberrant bodies were detected in the gut of both naturally and experimentally infected pigs. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that the aberrant bodies were labeled less strongly than the normal forms by antibodies against LPS and cHSP60 respectively. It was concluded that aberrant bodies occur in vivo in pigs and that the gnotobiotic pig model might be suitable for the study of chlamydial persistence in vivo. The antibody against cHSP60 does not appear to be suitable to specifically detect such forms.

  10. The Haemophilus ducreyi trimeric autotransporter adhesin DsrA protects against an experimental infection in the swine model of chancroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, William G; Choudhary, Neelima R; Routh, Patty A; Ventevogel, Melissa S; Smith, Valerie A; Koch, Gary G; Almond, Glen W; Orndorff, Paul E; Sempowski, Gregory D; Leduc, Isabelle

    2014-06-24

    Adherence of pathogens to cellular targets is required to initiate most infections. Defining strategies that interfere with adhesion is therefore important for the development of preventative measures against infectious diseases. As an adhesin to host extracellular matrix proteins and human keratinocytes, the trimeric autotransporter adhesin DsrA, a proven virulence factor of the Gram-negative bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi, is a potential target for vaccine development. A recombinant form of the N-terminal passenger domain of DsrA from H. ducreyi class I strain 35000HP, termed rNT-DsrAI, was tested as a vaccine immunogen in the experimental swine model of H. ducreyi infection. Viable homologous H. ducreyi was not recovered from any animal receiving four doses of rNT-DsrAI administered with Freund's adjuvant at two-week intervals. Control pigs receiving adjuvant only were all infected. All animals receiving the rNT-DsrAI vaccine developed antibody endpoint titers between 3.5 and 5 logs. All rNT-DsrAI antisera bound the surface of the two H. ducreyi strains used to challenge immunized pigs. Purified anti-rNT-DsrAI IgG partially blocked binding of fibrinogen at the surface of viable H. ducreyi. Overall, immunization with the passenger domain of the trimeric autotransporter adhesin DsrA accelerated clearance of H. ducreyi in experimental lesions, possibly by interfering with fibrinogen binding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment for infections complications of experimental acute radiation sickness with sulacillin, a combined antibiotic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, K.S.; Revskaya, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    The therapeutic efficiency of sulacillin (combination of ampicillin antibiotic with beta-lactamase sulbactam inhibitor) used for prevention and treatment of infections complications of the acute radiation disease (ARD) is considered. It is shown that sulacillin antiinfections effect essentially exceeds the activity of ampicillin by treatment of irradiated mice infected with a beta-lactamase-producing strain of Kl pneumoniae. Inclusion of the sulacillin as a principal antibiotic into the ARD therapeutic scheme provides for the 66.6 % survival of dogs at LD 90/45 [ru

  12. IL-18 potentiated whole blood IFN-γ assay can identify cell-mediated immune responses towards Lawsonia intracellularis in experimentally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Jakobsen, Jeanne Toft; Hvass, Henriette Cordes

    Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacteria causing proliferative enteropathy (PE) in pigs. The infection causes diarrhoea, retarded growth and sudden death in pigs and is one of the most economically important diseases in the swine industry worldwide. The infection is one...... indications that cell-mediated immune responses (CMI) are important for the protection against infections with L. intracellularis and in mice models IFN-γ has been shown to play a key role in the host defence against experimental infections . In L. intracellularis infected pigs, IFN-γ is only sparsely...

  13. Corneal Opacity in Domestic Ducks Experimentally Infected With H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y; Nakamura, K; Yamada, M; Mase, M

    2016-01-01

    Domestic ducks can be a key factor in the regional spread of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus in Asia. The authors performed experimental infections to examine the relationship between corneal opacity and H5N1 HPAI virus infection in domestic ducks (Anas platyrhyncha var domestica). A total of 99 domestic ducks, including 3 control birds, were used in the study. In experiment 1, when domestic ducks were inoculated intranasally with 2 H5N1 HPAI viruses, corneal opacity appeared more frequently than neurologic signs and mortality. Corneal ulceration and exophthalmos were rare findings. Histopathologic examinations of the eyes of domestic ducks in experiment 2 revealed that corneal opacity was due to the loss of corneal endothelial cells and subsequent keratitis with edema. Influenza viral antigen was detected in corneal endothelial cells and some other ocular cells by immunohistochemistry. Results suggest that corneal opacity is a characteristic and frequent finding in domestic ducks infected with the H5N1 HPAI virus. Confirming this ocular change may improve the detection rate of infected domestic ducks in the field. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Involvement of cholinergic and adenosinergic systems on the branchial immune response of experimentally infected silver catfish with Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, M D; Souza, C F; Doleski, P H; Moreira, K L S; da Veiga, M L; da Rocha, M I U M; Santos, R C V; Baldisserotto, B

    2018-01-01

    It has been recognized that the cholinergic and adenosinergic systems have an essential role in immune and inflammatory responses during bacterial fish pathogens, such as the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and adenosine deaminase (ADA), which are responsible for catalysis of the anti-inflammatory molecules acetylcholine (ACh) and adenosine (Ado) respectively. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the cholinergic and adenosinergic systems on the immune response and inflammatory process in gills of experimentally infected Rhamdia quelen with Streptococcus agalactiae. Acetylcholinesterase activity decreased, while ACh levels increased in gills of infected animals compared to uninfected animals. On the other hand, a significant increase in ADA activity with a concomitant decrease in Ado levels was observed in infected animals compared to uninfected animals. Based on this evidence, we concluded that infection by S. agalactiae in silver catfish alters the cholinergic and adenosinergic systems, suggesting the involvement of AChE and ADA activities on immune and inflammatory responses, regulating the ACh and Ado levels. In summary, the downregulation of AChE activity exerts an anti-inflammatory profile in an attempt to reduce or prevent the tissue damage, while the upregulation of ADA activity exerts a pro-inflammatory profile, contributing to disease pathophysiology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. IL-6 is Upregulated in Late-Stage Disease in Monkeys Experimentally Infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Nyawira Maranga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is constrained by lack of simple-to-use diagnostic, staging, and treatment tools. The search for novel biomarkers is, therefore, essential in the fight against HAT. The current study aimed at investigating the potential of IL-6 as an adjunct parameter for HAT stage determination in vervet monkey model. Four adult vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops were experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and treated subcuratively at 28 days after infection (dpi to induce late stage disease. Three noninfected monkeys formed the control group. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and blood samples were obtained at weekly intervals and assessed for various biological parameters. A typical HAT-like infection was observed. The late stage was characterized by significant (P<0.05 elevation of CSF IL-6, white blood cell count, and total protein starting 35 dpi with peak levels of these parameters coinciding with relapse parasitaemia. Brain immunohistochemical staining revealed an increase in brain glial fibrillary acidic protein expression indicative of reactive astrogliosis in infected animals which were euthanized in late-stage disease. The elevation of IL-6 in CSF which accompanied other HAT biomarkers indicates onset of parasite neuroinvasion and show potential for use as an adjunct late-stage disease biomarker in the Rhodesian sleeping sickness.

  16. Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-16

    characteristic in severe gram-negative sepsis. Hypertriglyceridemia results from an increase in hepatic synthesis in combination with diminished activity of...induced stress, and tissue repair (1). The magnitude and type of nutritional losses caused by an infection reflect both the severity and duration of an... several functional forms of nutrient loss must be anticipated. Functional losses are defined as the within-body losses of nutrients due to infection

  17. Validation of cooking methods using shell eggs inoculated with Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis and Heidelberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A L; Curtis, P A; Conner, D E; McKee, S R; Kerth, L K

    2008-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis has long been associated with eggs, and more recently, Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg has also become associated with eggs. This study was undertaken to determine whether Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Heidelberg are effectively eliminated from eggs by various cooking methods. Seven cooking methods were chosen--hard and soft cooked, scrambled, over easy, sunny-side up, poached, and free poached--and a pan insert and the free-flowing method were used. Shell eggs, purchased from a grocery store, were inoculated with Salmonella and cooked. The cooked eggs were analyzed by USDA-approved methods for Salmonella recovery. Findings indicated that existing cooking methods for the hard-cooked, soft-cooked, and poaching methods were safe. However, the same was not true for the current sunny-side-up, over-easy, and scrambled egg cooking methods.

  18. SUSCEPTIBILIDADE ANTIMICROBIANA DE AMOSTRAS DE Salmonella Enteritidis ISOLADAS DE DIFERENTES FONTES ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF Salmonella Enteritidis STRAINS FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda A. Nunes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de Salmonella Enteritidis é descrita em amostras isoladas de galinhas saudáveis e doentes, casos esporádicos de gastrenterite humana relacionadas ao consumo de produtos contendo ovos, carne de frango, ovos bicados, farinha de carne/ambiente de avicultura, fezes de suínos e alimentos. No período de 1995 a 1997 foi observado que 72,2% foram sensíveis, enquanto que 9,2% e 17,8% foram resistentes e intermediárias, respectivamente. Constatou-se resistência em 6,2% das isoladas do homem, 5,0% de carnes de frangos, 36,4% de alimentos, 4,2% de galinhas, 23,7% de ovos bicados, 5,7% de farinha de carne/ambiente de avicultura e 13,3% de suínos. Os resultados obtidos revelaram elevada proporção de amostras com sensibilidade intermediária (18,1% do total e 100% de sensibilidade a seis princípios. Considerando as amostras resistentes, quinze (57,7% apresentaram resistência única a nove antimicrobianos. Quatro (15,4% (galinhas e ovos bicados apresentaram resistência dupla; resistência tripla foi detectada em uma amostra (3,8%, enquanto que seis (23,1% apresentaram seis perfis de multirresistência, frente a 4-9 drogas, identificados em amostras do homem, alimentos, galinhas e ovos bicados. Embora o índice de resistência aqui descrito possa ser considerado baixo, deve ser destacada a alta frequência de sensibilidade intermediária à tetraciclina, particularmente em amostras associadas a aves.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Alimentos, galinhas, gastrenterite humana, multirresistência a antibióticos.
    Enteritidisin the period from 1995 to 1997 is described in strains isolated from healthy and ill chickens, human sporadic gastrenteritis outbreaks related to egg products consumption, poultry meats, broiler chicken pipped embryos, meat meal/aviculture environment, swine feces and foods (cheese, mayonnaise, cake mass, cake cover and bacon. It was observed that 72.2% were sensitive, whereas 9.2% and 17.8% were

  19. Haemophilus parainfluenzae Strain ATCC 33392 Forms Biofilms In Vitro and during Experimental Otitis Media Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bing; Swords, W Edward

    2017-09-01

    Haemophilus parainfluenzae is a nutritionally fastidious, Gram-negative bacterium with an oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal carriage niche that is associated with a range of opportunistic infections, including infectious endocarditis and otitis media (OM). These infections are often chronic/recurrent in nature and typically involve bacterial persistence within biofilm communities that are highly resistant to host clearance. This study addresses the primary hypothesis that H. parainfluenzae forms biofilm communities that are important determinants of persistence in vivo The results from in vitro biofilm studies confirmed that H. parainfluenzae formed biofilm communities within which the polymeric matrix was mainly composed of extracellular DNA and proteins. Using a chinchilla OM infection model, we demonstrated that H. parainfluenzae formed surface-associated biofilm communities containing bacterial and host components that included neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) structures and that the bacteria mainly persisted in these biofilm communities. We also used this model to examine the possible interaction between H. parainfluenzae and its close relative Haemophilus influenzae , which is also commonly carried within the same host environments and can cause OM. The results showed that coinfection with H. influenzae promoted clearance of H. parainfluenzae from biofilm communities during OM infection. The underlying mechanisms for bacterial persistence and biofilm formation by H. parainfluenzae and knowledge about the survival defects of H. parainfluenzae during coinfection with H. influenzae are topics for future work. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Antiplasmodial Effect of Anthocleista vogelii on Albino Mice Experimentally Infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei (NK 65

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebari Barine Gboeloh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiplasmodial effect of the ethanolic stem bark extract of Anthocleista vogelii at different doses in albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei (NK 65. Thirty-six mice were divided into six groups of six mice each. Five groups (B1–B3, D, and G were infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei parasitized red blood cells. Groups D, H, and G served as the controls. Six days after infection, mice in groups B1, B2, and B3 were treated orally with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight of Anthocleista vogelii, respectively, for six executive days. Group D was treated with 5 mg/kg body weight of chloroquine while Group G was given distilled water. Group H was not infected and was not treated. It served as the normal control. The extracts exhibited significant (P<0.05 dose-dependent chemosuppression of P. berghei. The extract exhibited average chemosuppressive effects of 48.5%, 78.5%, and 86.6% at dose levels of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Phytochemical screening of the plant extract revealed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, and steroid. The acute toxicity (LD50 of the plant was estimated to be 3162 mg/kg body weight. It showed that the stem bark of A. vogelii possesses antiplasmodial property.

  1. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  2. Identification of toxocara canis antigens by Western blot in experimentally infected rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORALES Olga Lucía

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a frequent helminthiasis that can cause visceral and ocular damage in humans specially in children. The identification of specific antigens of Toxocara canis is important in order to develop better diagnostic techniques. Ten rabbits were infected orally with a dose of 5000 Toxocara canis embryonated eggs. Rabbits were bled periodically and an ELISA assay was performed to determine levels of specific Toxocara IgG antibodies. ELISA detected antibodies at day 15 after infection. Western blot (WB assay was performed using excretory/secretory antigens (E/S of T. canis second stage larvae. Different antigen concentrations were evaluated: 150, 200, 250 and 300 µg/mL. The concentration of 250 µg/mL was retained for analysis. Rabbit sera were diluted 1:100. Secondary antibody was used at a dilution of 1:1000. Results of WB indicated that in the first month after infection specific antibodies against the 200 KDa, 116 KDa, 92 KDa and 35 KDa antigens were detected; antibodies against the 92 KDa, 80 KDa, 66 KDa, 45 KDa, 31 KDa and 28 KDa antigens appeared later. All positive sera in the ELISA test were also positive in WB. Two antigen bands, 92 KDa and 35 KDa, were identified since the beginning and throughout the course of infection. These antigens merit further evaluation as candidates for use in diagnosis.

  3. Effects of Mirazid Treatment and Vaccination with Irradiated Cercariae in Experimentally Schistosoma mansoni Infected Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayad, M.E.; Moawad, M.A.; Abd El-Fattah, N.Se.

    2006-01-01

    Schistosomiasis Tops all the endemic parasitic diseases particularly in Egypt. This study was performed on 4 groups of mice, each group formed of 25 mice. Group 1 (control group) infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, group 2 (vaccinated group) vaccinated with irradiated cercariae, group 3 (treated group) infected with living cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni, then treated with Mirazid in the day post infection and group 4 (vaccinated and treated group) vaccinated with irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni then challenged and treated with Mirazid in the day post infection. By comparing the results of group 4 (vaccinated and treated group) with respective control there was a highly significant difference in all parameters. The worm burden reduction was 100 % and the percentage reduction of the eggs in the liver was 96.6 % and in the intestine was 89.76 %. Also, there were marked reduction in the size and number of granulomas with preservation of the liver architecture and absence of areas of degeneration and necrosis. So, this study shown that resistance to schistosomiasis can be consistently induced in mice by combining drug therapy with vaccination

  4. Phosphorus kinetics in calves experimentally submitted to a trickle infection with Cooperia punctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louvandini, H; Rodrigues, R R; Gennari, S M; McManus, C M; Vitti, D M S S

    2009-07-07

    Ten male Holstein calves (74.3+/-3.2 kg LW) were used for a trial with trickle infection with Cooperia punctata to evaluate phosphorus (P) kinetics. Five calves were inoculated with 10,000 L(3) stage larvae per week during 35 days, while the other group of five calves was kept as a control. On the 29th day each calf was intravenously injected with 29.6 MBq of a (32)P solution. Blood samples were taken at 24 h periods for 7 days, after which all calves were slaughtered and wor