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Sample records for enteric virus recovery

  1. Sampling methods for recovery of human enteric viruses from environmental surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnage, Nicole L; Gibson, Kristen E

    2017-10-01

    Acute gastroenteritis causes the second highest infectious disease burden worldwide. Human enteric viruses have been identified as leading causative agents of acute gastroenteritis as well as foodborne illnesses in the U.S. and are generally transmitted by fecal-oral contamination. There is growing evidence of transmission occurring via contaminated fomite including food contact surfaces. Additionally, human enteric viruses have been shown to remain infectious on fomites over prolonged periods of time. To better understand viral persistence, there is a need for more studies to investigate this phenomenon. Therefore, optimization of surface sampling methods is essential to aid in understanding environmental contamination to ensure proper preventative measures are being applied. In general, surface sampling studies are limited and highly variable among recovery efficiencies and research parameters used (e.g., virus type/density, surface type, elution buffers, tools). This review aims to discuss the various factors impacting surface sampling of viruses from fomites and to explore how researchers could move towards a more sensitive and standard sampling method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A single method for recovery and concentration of enteric viruses and bacteria from fresh-cut vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, G; Elizaquível, P; Aznar, R

    2012-01-03

    Fresh-cut vegetables are prone to be contaminated with foodborne pathogens during growth, harvest, transport and further processing and handling. As most of these products are generally eaten raw or mildly treated, there is an increase in the number of outbreaks caused by viruses and bacteria associated with fresh vegetables. Foodborne pathogens are usually present at very low levels and have to be concentrated (i.e. viruses) or enriched (i.e. bacteria) to enhance their detection. With this aim, a rapid concentration method has been developed for the simultaneous recovery of hepatitis A virus (HAV), norovirus (NV), murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate for NV, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica. Initial experiments focused on evaluating the elution conditions suitable for virus release from vegetables. Finally, elution with buffered peptone water (BPW), using a Pulsifier, and concentration by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation were the methods selected for the elution and concentration of both, enteric viruses and bacteria, from three different types of fresh-cut vegetables by quantitative PCR (qPCR) using specific primers. The average recoveries from inoculated parsley, spinach and salad, were ca. 9.2%, 43.5%, and 20.7% for NV, MNV, and HAV, respectively. Detection limits were 132 RT-PCR units (PCRU), 1.5 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID₅₀), and 6.6 TCID₅₀ for NV, MNV, and HAV, respectively. This protocol resulted in average recoveries of 57.4%, 64.5% and 64.6% in three vegetables for E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes and Salmonella with corresponding detection limits of 10³, 10² and 10³ CFU/g, respectively. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the procedure herein is suitable to recover, detect and quantify enteric viruses and foodborne pathogenic bacteria within 5 h and can be applied for the simultaneous detection of both types of foodborne pathogens in fresh-cut vegetables. Copyright

  3. Concentration of enteric virus indicator from seawater using granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Jiemin; Gutierrez, Miguel; Goodridge, Lawrence; Janes, Marlene

    2014-02-01

    Fecal contamination of shellfish growing seawater with enteric viruses is often associated with human outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Male specific bacteriophage MS2 is correlated with those of enteric viruses in a wide range of water environments and has been used widely as a surrogate for pathogenic waterborne viruses. Since viruses in contaminated water are usually at low levels, the development of methods to concentrate viruses from water is crucial for detection purposes. In the present study, granular activated carbon was evaluated for concentration of MS2 from artificial seawater, and different parameters of the seawater were also compared. Recovery of MS2 from warm seawater (37°C) was found to be significantly greater than from cold seawater (4 and 20°C), and even greater than from fresh water (4, 20 and 37°C); the difference between seawater and fresh water became less profound when the temperatures of both were below 37°C. Although not of statistical significance, recovery of MS2 from low salinity seawater (10 and 20 parts per thousand, ppt) was greater than from high salinity seawater (30 and 40ppt). One gram of granular activated carbon was able to extract 6-log plaque forming units (PFU) of MS2 from 500ml seawater at 37°C. This study demonstrated that granular activated carbon can concentrate an enteric virus indicator from shellfish growing seawater effectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermal inactivation of enteric viruses and bioaccumulation of enteric foodborne viruses in live oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human enteric viruses are one of the main causative agents of shellfish associated outbreaks. In this study, the kinetics of viral bioaccumulation in live oysters and the heat stability of the most predominant enteric viruses were determined in both tissue culture and in oyster tissues. A human nor...

  5. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine...

  6. Detection methods for human enteric viruses in representative foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggitt, P R; Jaykus, L A

    2000-12-01

    Although viral foodborne disease is a significant problem, foods are rarely tested for viral contamination, and when done, testing is limited to shellfish commodities. In this work, we report a method to extract and detect human enteric viruses from alternative food commodities using an elution-concentration approach followed by detection using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Fifty-gram lettuce or hamburger samples were artificially inoculated with poliovirus type 1 (PV1), hepatitis A virus (HAV), or the Norwalk virus and processed by the sequential steps of homogenization, filtration, Freon extraction (hamburger), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation. To reduce volumes further and remove RT-PCR inhibitors, a secondary PEG precipitation was necessary, resulting in an overall 10- to 20-fold sample size reduction from 50 g to 3 to 5 ml. Virus recoveries in secondary PEG concentrates ranged from 10 to 70% for PV1 and 2 to 4% for HAV as evaluated by mammalian cell culture infectivity assay. Total RNA from PEG concentrates was extracted to a small volume (30 to 40 microl) and subjected to RT-PCR amplification of viral RNA sequences. Detection limit studies indicated that viral RNA was consistently detected by RT-PCR at initial inoculum levels > or =102 PFU/50-g food sample for PV1 and > or =10(3) PFU/50-g food sample for HAV. In similar studies with the Norwalk virus, detection at inoculum levels > or =1.5 X 10(3) PCR-amplifiable units/50-g sample for both food products was possible. All RT-PCR amplicons were confirmed by subsequent Southern hybridization. The procedure reported represents progress toward the development of methods to detect human enteric viral contamination in foods other than shellfish.

  7. Persistence of enteric viruses within oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well known that water-borne enteric viruses are concentrated by bivalves. Why these viruses are selectively retained and remain infectious within shellfish tissues for extended periods is unknown. Our current hypothesis is that phagocytic hemocytes (blood cells) are a site of virus persiste...

  8. Tracing enteric viruses in the European berry fruit supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maunula, L.; Kaupke, A.; Vasickova, P.; Soderberg, K.; Kozyra, I.; Lazic, S.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Bouwknegt, M.; Rutjes, S.; Willems, K.A.; Moloney, R.; Agostino, D' M.; Husman, A.M.D.; Bonsdorff, C.H.; Rzezutka, A.; Pavlik, I.; Petrovic, T.; Cook, N.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous foodborne outbreaks due to consumption of berry fruit contaminated by human enteric viruses have been reported. This European multinational study investigated possible contamination routes by monitoring the entire food chain for a panel of human and animal enteric viruses.

  9. Comparison of canine parvovirus with mink enteritis virus by restriction site mapping.

    OpenAIRE

    McMaster, G K; Tratschin, J D; Siegl, G

    1981-01-01

    The genomes of canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus were compared by restriction enzyme analysis of their replicative-form DNAs. Of 79 mapped sites, 68, or 86%, were found to be common for both types of DNA, indicating that canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus are closely related viruses. Whether they evolved from a common precursor or whether canine parvovirus is derived from mink enteritis virus, however, cannot be deduced from our present data.

  10. Enteric and indicator virus removal by surface flow wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmadi, Andri T; Kitajima, Masaaki; Pepper, Ian L; Gerba, Charles P

    2016-01-15

    We investigated the occurrence and attenuation of several human enteric viruses (i.e., norovirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus 1, polyomaviruses, and enterovirus) as well as a plant virus, pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), at two surface flow wetlands in Arizona. The retention time in one of the wetlands was seven days, whereas in the other wetland it could not be defined. Water samples were collected at the inlet and outlet from the wetlands over nine months, and concentration of viral genomes was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Of the human enteric viruses tested, adenovirus and Aichi virus 1 were found in the greatest prevalence in treated wastewater (i.e., inlet of the wetlands). Reduction efficiencies of enteric viruses by the wetlands ranged from 1 to 3 log10. Polyomaviruses were generally removed to below detection limit, indicating at least 2 to 4 log10 removal. PMMoV was detected in a greater concentration in the inlet of both wetlands for all the viruses tested (10(4) to 10(7) genome copies/L), but exhibited little or no removal (1 log10 or less). To determine the factors associated with virus genome attenuation (as determined by qPCR), the persistence of PMMoV and poliovirus type 1 (an enterovirus) was studied in autoclaved and natural wetland water, and deionized water incubated under three different temperatures for 21 days. A combination of elevated water temperature and biological activities reduced poliovirus by 1 to 4 log10, while PMMoV was not significantly reduced during this time period. Overall, PMMoV showed much greater persistence than human viruses in the wetland treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Enteric virus removal inactivation by coal-based media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A.; Chaudhuri, M. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-02-01

    Four coal-based media, viz. alum-pretreated or ferric hydroxide-impregnated Giridih bituminous coal and lignite (alum-GBC, Fe-GBC; alum-lignite and Fe-Lignite) were laboratory tested to assess their potential in removing/inactivating enteric viruses in water. Batch-sorption screening tests, employing a poliovirus-spiked canal water, indicated high poliovirus sorption by Fe-GBC and alum-GBC in a short contact time of 5 min. Based on the results of further batch-sorption tests, using silver incorporated media (alum/Ag-GBC, alum-GBC-Ag and Fe-GBC-Ag), as well as aesthetic water quality consideration and previous findings on removal of coliforms and turbidity, alum/Ag-GBC, alum-GBC and alum-GBC-AG were included in downflow column studies employing poliovirus-spiked canal water. All three media showed potential in removing/inactivating enteric viruses. In a separate column study employing a joint challenge of poliovirus and rotavirus, alum/Ag-GBC removed 59.3-86.5% of the viruses along with more than 99% reduction in indigenous heterotrophic bacteria. Alum/silver-pretreated bituminous coal medium appears promising for use in household water filters in rural areas of the developing world. However, improved medium preparation to further enhance its efficiency is needed; also, its efficacy in removing/inactivating indigenous enteric bacteria, viruses and protozoa has to be ensured and practicalities or economics of application need to be considered.

  12. OCCURRENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN SURFACE WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human enteric viruses cause a number of diseases when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking & recreational waters. Vaccination against poliovirus has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis from the planet. Other members of enterovirus group cause numerous diseases. Hepatit...

  13. Enteric Viruses in Raw Vegetables and Groundwater Used for Irrigation in South Korea▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Sooryun; Lee, Cheonghoon; Song, Sung Won; Choi, Weon Cheon; Lee, Chan Hee; Kim, Sang-Jong

    2009-01-01

    Raw vegetables irrigated with groundwater that may contain enteric viruses can be associated with food-borne viral disease outbreaks. In this study, we performed reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and cell culture-PCR to monitor the occurrence of enteric viruses in groundwater samples and in raw vegetables that were cultivated using that groundwater in South Korea. Samples were collected 10 times from three farms located in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. RT-PCR and cell culture-PCR were performed to detect adenoviruses (AdVs), enteroviruses (EVs), noroviruses (NoVs), and rotaviruses, followed by sequence analyses of the detected strains. Of the 29 groundwater samples and the 30 vegetable samples, five (17%) and three (10%) were positive for enteric viruses, respectively. AdVs were the most frequently detected viruses in four groundwater and three vegetable samples. EVs and NoVs were detected in only one groundwater sample and one spinach sample, respectively. The occurrence of enteric viruses in groundwater and vegetable samples was not correlated with the water temperature and the levels of indicator bacteria, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most of the detected AdVs were temporally distributed, irrespective of sample type. Our results indicate that raw vegetables may be contaminated with a broad range of enteric viruses, which may originate from virus-infected farmers and virus-contaminated irrigation water, and these vegetables may act as a potential vector of food-borne viral transmission. PMID:19854919

  14. Bacteriophages as indicators of faecal pollution and enteric virus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMinn, B R; Ashbolt, N J; Korajkic, A

    2017-07-01

    Bacteriophages are an attractive alternative to faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), particularly as surrogates of enteric virus fate and transport, due to their closer morphological and biological properties. Based on a review of published data, we summarize densities of coliphages (F+ and somatic), Bacteroides spp. and enterococci bacteriophages (phages) in individual human waste, raw wastewater, ambient fresh and marine waters and removal through wastewater treatment processes utilizing traditional treatments. We also provide comparisons with FIB and enteric viruses whenever possible. Lastly, we examine fate and transport characteristics in the aquatic environment and provide an overview of the environmental factors affecting their survival. In summary, concentrations of bacteriophages in various sources were consistently lower than FIB, but more reflective of infectious enteric virus levels. Overall, our investigation indicates that bacteriophages may be adequate viral surrogates, especially in built systems, such as wastewater treatment plants. Bacteriophage are alternative fecal indicators that may be better surrogates for viral pathogens than fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). This report offers a summary of the existing literature concerning the utility of bacteriophage as indicators of viral presence (fecal sources and surface waters) and persistence (in built infrastructure and aquatic environments). Our findings indicate that bacteriophage levels in all matrices examined are consistently lower than FIB, but similar to viral pathogens. Furthermore, in built infrastructure (e.g. wastewater treatment systems) bacteriophage closely mimic viral pathogen persistence suggesting they may be adequate sentinels of enteric virus removal. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Evaluation of the suitability of a plant virus, pepper mild mottle virus, as a surrogate of human enteric viruses for assessment of the efficacy of coagulation-rapid sand filtration to remove those viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, N; Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y; Yamashita, R

    2018-02-01

    Here, we evaluated the removal of three representative human enteric viruses - adenovirus (AdV) type 40, coxsackievirus (CV) B5, and hepatitis A virus (HAV) IB - and one surrogate of human caliciviruses - murine norovirus (MNV) type 1 - by coagulation-rapid sand filtration, using water samples from eight water sources for drinking water treatment plants in Japan. The removal ratios of a plant virus (pepper mild mottle virus; PMMoV) and two bacteriophages (MS2 and φX174) were compared with the removal ratios of human enteric viruses to assess the suitability of PMMoV, MS2, and φX174 as surrogates for human enteric viruses. The removal ratios of AdV, CV, HAV, and MNV, evaluated via the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, were 0.8-2.5-log 10 when commercially available polyaluminum chloride (PACl, basicity 1.5) and virgin silica sand were used as the coagulant and filter medium, respectively. The type of coagulant affected the virus removal efficiency, but the age of silica sand used in the rapid sand filtration did not. Coagulation-rapid sand filtration with non-sulfated, high-basicity PACls (basicity 2.1 or 2.5) removed viruses more efficiently than the other aluminum-based coagulants. The removal ratios of MS2 were sometimes higher than those of the three human enteric viruses and MNV, whereas the removal ratios of φX174 tended to be smaller than those of the three human enteric viruses and MNV. In contrast, the removal ratios of PMMoV were similar to and strongly correlated with those of the three human enteric viruses and MNV. Thus, PMMoV appears to be a suitable surrogate for human enteric viruses for the assessment of the efficacy of coagulation-rapid sand filtration to remove viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential MS2 Interaction with Food Contact Surfaces Determined by Atomic Force Microscopy and Virus Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, J; Stewart, D S; Nikolov, A D; Wasan, D T; Wang, R; Yan, R; Shieh, Y C

    2017-12-15

    Enteric viruses are recognized as major etiologies of U.S. foodborne infections. These viruses are easily transmitted via food contact surfaces. Understanding virus interactions with surfaces may facilitate the development of improved means for their removal, thus reducing transmission. Using MS2 coliphage as a virus surrogate, the strength of virus adhesion to common food processing and preparation surfaces of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and glass was assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and virus recovery assays. The interaction forces of MS2 with various surfaces were measured from adhesion peaks in force-distance curves registered using a spherical bead probe preconjugated with MS2 particles. MS2 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) demonstrated approximately 5 times less adhesion force to glass (0.54 nN) than to PVC (2.87 nN) ( P force for PVC (∼0 nN) and consistently increased virus recovery by 19%. With direct and indirect evidence of virus adhesion, this study illustrated a two-way assessment of virus adhesion for the initial evaluation of potential means to mitigate virus adhesion to food contact surfaces. IMPORTANCE The spread of foodborne viruses is likely associated with their adhesive nature. Virus attachment on food contact surfaces has been evaluated by quantitating virus recoveries from inoculated surfaces. This study aimed to evaluate the microenvironment in which nanometer-sized viruses interact with food contact surfaces and to compare the virus adhesion differences using AFM. The virus surrogate MS2 demonstrated less adhesion force to glass than to PVC via AFM, with the force-contributing factors including the intrinsic nature and the topography of the contact surfaces. This adhesion finding is consistent with the virus recoveries, which were determined indirectly. Greater numbers of viruses were recovered from glass than from PVC, after application at the same levels. The stronger MS2 adhesion onto PVC could be interrupted by incorporating a

  17. Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

    1988-12-31

    Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

  18. The survival and inactivation of enteric viruses on soft surfaces: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeargin, Thomas; Buckley, David; Fraser, Angela; Jiang, Xiuping

    2016-11-01

    Worldwide, enteric viruses are the main cause of acute gastroenteritis. In humans, these viruses spread via person-to-person contact, food, water, and/or the environment. Their survival and inactivation on hard surfaces have been extensively studied; however, nonlaunderable soft surfaces, such as upholstery and carpet, have received little attention. The aim of this systematic review was to determine factors that influence the survival and inactivation of enteric viruses on nonlaunderable soft surfaces. EBSCO and Web of Science were searched for experimental studies published between 1965 and 2015 using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses methods. Titles and abstracts were screened using 3 eligibility criteria. The quality of all study methods was also assessed. Our search yielded 12 articles. Viruses survived between 0 hours and 140 days depending on surface and environment conditions. Virus survival was influenced by temperature, relative humidity, organic content, and deposition method. A variety of chemistries were tested across studies and were shown to have a varied effect on enteric viruses. Chlorine, glutaraldehyde, vaporous ozone, and hydrogen peroxide were the most efficacious against enteric viruses (> 3-log reduction). Environmental factors, such as temperature and relative humidity, can influence survival of enteric viruses on nonlaunderable soft surfaces. The efficacy of liquid and vaporous chemistries are associated with surface and virus type. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacteria Facilitate Enteric Virus Co-infection of Mammalian Cells and Promote Genetic Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Andrea K; Jesudhasan, Palmy R; Mayer, Melinda J; Narbad, Arjan; Winter, Sebastian E; Pfeiffer, Julie K

    2018-01-10

    RNA viruses exist in genetically diverse populations due to high levels of mutations, many of which reduce viral fitness. Interestingly, intestinal bacteria can promote infection of several mammalian enteric RNA viruses, but the mechanisms and consequences are unclear. We screened a panel of 41 bacterial strains as a platform to determine how different bacteria impact infection of poliovirus, a model enteric virus. Most bacterial strains, including those extracted from cecal contents of mice, bound poliovirus, with each bacterium binding multiple virions. Certain bacterial strains increased viral co-infection of mammalian cells even at a low virus-to-host cell ratio. Bacteria-mediated viral co-infection correlated with bacterial adherence to cells. Importantly, bacterial strains that induced viral co-infection facilitated genetic recombination between two different viruses, thereby removing deleterious mutations and restoring viral fitness. Thus, bacteria-virus interactions may increase viral fitness through viral recombination at initial sites of infection, potentially limiting abortive infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Grape seed extract for control of human enteric viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2011-06-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is reported to have many pharmacological benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antimicrobial properties. However, the effect of this inexpensive rich source of natural phenolic compounds on human enteric viruses has not been well documented. In the present study, the effect of commercial GSE, Gravinol-S, on the infectivity of human enteric virus surrogates (feline calicivirus, FCV-F9; murine norovirus, MNV-1; and bacteriophage MS2) and hepatitis A virus (HAV; strain HM175) was evaluated. GSE at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml was individually mixed with equal volumes of each virus at titers of ∼7 log(10) PFU/ml or ∼5 log(10) PFU/ml and incubated for 2 h at room temperature or 37°C. The infectivity of the recovered viruses after triplicate treatments was evaluated by standardized plaque assays. At high titers (∼7 log(10) PFU/ml), FCV-F9 was significantly reduced by 3.64, 4.10, and 4.61 log(10) PFU/ml; MNV-1 by 0.82, 1.35, and 1.73 log(10) PFU/ml; MS2 by 1.13, 1.43, and 1.60 log(10) PFU/ml; and HAV by 1.81, 2.66, and 3.20 log(10) PFU/ml after treatment at 37°C with 0.25, 0.50, and 1 mg/ml GSE, respectively (P PFU/ml) at 37°C also showed viral reductions. Room-temperature treatments with GSE caused significant reduction of the four viruses, with higher reduction for low-titer FCV-F9, MNV-1, and HAV compared to high titers. Our results indicate that GSE shows promise for application in the food industry as an inexpensive novel natural alternative to reduce viral contamination and enhance food safety.

  1. Evidence for natural recombination between mink enteritis virus and canine parvovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jianke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A virus was isolated from mink showing clinical and pathological signs of enteritis in China. This virus, designated MEV/LN-10, was identified as mink enteritis virus (MEV based on its cytopathic effect in the feline F81 cell line, the hemagglutination (HA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, electron microscopy (EM and animal infection experiments. The complete viral genome was cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses on the complete MEV/LN-10 genome showed evidence of recombination between MEV and canine parvovirus (CPV. The genome was composed of the NS1 gene originating from CPV while the VP1 gene was of MEV origin. This is the first demonstration of recombination between a CPV and MEV in nature. Our findings not only provide valuable evidence indicating that recombination is an important genetic mechanism contributing to the variation and evolution of MEV, but also that heterogeneous recombination can occur in the feline parvovirus subspecies.

  2. Diversity in the enteric viruses detected in outbreaks of gastroenteritis from Mumbai, Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitambar, Shobha; Gopalkrishna, Varanasi; Chhabra, Preeti; Patil, Pooja; Verma, Harsha; Lahon, Anismrita; Arora, Ritu; Tatte, Vaishali; Ranshing, Sujata; Dhale, Ganesh; Kolhapure, Rajendra; Tikute, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Jagannath; Bhardwaj, Renu; Akarte, Sulbha; Pawar, Sashikant

    2012-03-01

    Faecal specimens collected from two outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis that occurred in southern Mumbai, India in March and October, 2006 were tested for seven different enteric viruses. Among the 218 specimens tested, 95 (43.6%) were positive, 73 (76.8%) for a single virus and 22 (23.2%) for multiple viruses. Single viral infections in both, March and October showed predominance of enterovirus (EV, 33.3% and 40%) and rotavirus A (RVA, 33.3% and 25%). The other viruses detected in these months were norovirus (NoV, 12.1% and 10%), rotavirus B (RVB, 12.1% and 10%), enteric adenovirus (AdV, 6.1% and 7.5%), Aichivirus (AiV, 3% and 7.5%) and human astrovirus (HAstV, 3% and 0%). Mixed viral infections were largely represented by two viruses (84.6% and 88.9%), a small proportion showed presence of three (7.7% and 11%) and four (7.7% and 0%) viruses in the two outbreaks. Genotyping of the viruses revealed predominance of RVA G2P[4], RVB G2 (Indian Bangladeshi lineage), NoV GII.4, AdV-40, HAstV-8 and AiV B types. VP1/2A junction region based genotyping showed presence of 11 different serotypes of EVs. Although no virus was detected in the tested water samples, examination of both water and sewage pipelines in gastroenteritis affected localities indicated leakages and possibility of contamination of drinking water with sewage water. Coexistence of multiple enteric viruses during the two outbreaks of gastroenteritis emphasizes the need to expand such investigations to other parts of India.

  3. Prevalence of human pathogenic enteric viruses in bivalve molluscan shellfish and cultured shrimp in south west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesha, Kanasinakatte R; Bhavani, Naniah C; Venugopal, Moleyur N; Karunasagar, Indrani; Krohne, Georg; Karunasagar, Iddya

    2008-03-20

    The prevalence of human enteric viruses in bivalve molluscan shellfish and shrimp collected off the south west coast of India was studied to assess the extent of fecal pollution of coastal environment. Out of 194 samples analyzed, 37% of oyster, 46% of clam and 15% of shrimp samples were positive for enteroviruses (EV). Adenoviruses (ADV) were detected in 17% of oyster and 27% of clam samples. However, other enteric viruses such as noroviruses (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) were not detected in any of the samples. High prevalence of EV and ADV was noticed between May to December. Thirty four percent of oyster and 49% of clam samples showed fecal coliform values higher than the limit. MS-2 phage was detected in 57% of oyster and 73% of clam samples. The presence of MS-2 phage and human enteric viruses showed association while fecal coliforms and enteric viruses showed no association. However, 17 samples, which were positive for enteric viruses (EV and ADV), were negative for MS-2 phage.

  4. Diversity in the Enteric Viruses Detected in Outbreaks of Gastroenteritis from Mumbai, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Bhardwaj

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Faecal specimens collected from two outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis that occurred in southern Mumbai, India in March and October, 2006 were tested for seven different enteric viruses. Among the 218 specimens tested, 95 (43.6% were positive, 73 (76.8% for a single virus and 22 (23.2% for multiple viruses. Single viral infections in both, March and October showed predominance of enterovirus (EV, 33.3% and 40% and rotavirus A (RVA, 33.3% and 25%. The other viruses detected in these months were norovirus (NoV, 12.1% and 10%, rotavirus B (RVB, 12.1% and 10%, enteric adenovirus (AdV, 6.1% and 7.5%, Aichivirus (AiV, 3% and 7.5% and human astrovirus (HAstV, 3% and 0%. Mixed viral infections were largely represented by two viruses (84.6% and 88.9%, a small proportion showed presence of three (7.7% and 11% and four (7.7% and 0% viruses in the two outbreaks. Genotyping of the viruses revealed predominance of RVA G2P[4], RVB G2 (Indian Bangladeshi lineage, NoV GII.4, AdV-40, HAstV-8 and AiV B types. VP1/2A junction region based genotyping showed presence of 11 different serotypes of EVs. Although no virus was detected in the tested water samples, examination of both water and sewage pipelines in gastroenteritis affected localities indicated leakages and possibility of contamination of drinking water with sewage water. Coexistence of multiple enteric viruses during the two outbreaks of gastroenteritis emphasizes the need to expand such investigations to other parts of India.

  5. Evaluation of Human Enteric Viruses in Surface Water and Drinking Water Resources in Southern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Kristen E.; Opryszko, Melissa C.; Schissler, James T.; Guo, Yayi; Schwab, Kellogg J.

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 884 million people worldwide do not have access to an improved drinking water source, and the microbial quality of these sources is often unknown. In this study, a combined tangential flow, hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF), and real-time PCR method was applied to large volume (100 L) groundwater (N = 4), surface water (N = 9), and finished (i.e., receiving treatment) drinking water (N = 6) samples for the evaluation of human enteric viruses and bacterial indicators. Human enteric viruses including norovirus GI and GII, adenovirus, and polyomavirus were detected in five different samples including one groundwater, three surface water, and one drinking water sample. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli assessed for each sample before and after UF revealed a lack of correlation between bacterial indicators and the presence of human enteric viruses. PMID:21212196

  6. Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus: Emerging and Re-Emerging Enterically Transmitted Hepatitis Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Stanley M; Walker, Christopher M

    2018-05-07

    Over the past two decades, progress in understanding human infections with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been eclipsed by the priority of combating persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. During that time, the global burden of liver disease caused by enteric hepatitis viruses has not abated. Because of vaccines, hepatitis A has become increasingly a disease of adults instead of early childhood in many regions of the world, resulting in an age-related shift toward more severe disease. HEV has remained endemic in many developing countries, and in well-developed, economically advanced countries it is now recognized as a cause of chronic, progressive liver disease in individuals with compromised immunity. The goal of this collection of articles is to review recent progress and to shine a bright light on gaps in our understanding of how these viruses replicate, cause disease, interact with the liver and host immune system, and are transmitted, along with prospects for improved control in human populations. Renewed efforts to study and compare HAV and HEV biology in humans and animal models have high potential to enhance our understanding of host-pathogen balance in the liver, and may contribute ultimately to the control of other infectious diseases of the liver. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  7. [The growth of attenuated strains of canine parvovirus, mink enteritis virus, feline panleukopenia virus, and rabies virus on various types of cell cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuffa, T

    1987-10-01

    The growth characteristics were studied in the attenuated strains of canine parvovirus CPVA-BN 80/82, mink enteritis virus MEVA-BN 63/82 and feline panleucopenia virus FPVA-BN 110/83 on the stable feline kidney cell line FE, and in the attenuated canine distemper virus CDV-F-BN 10/83 on chicken embryo cell cultures (KEB) and cultures of the stable cell line VERO. When the FE cultures were infected with different parvoviruses in cell suspension at MOI 2-4 TKID50 per cell, the first multiplication of the intracellular virus was recorded 20 hours p. i. In the canine parvovirus, the content of intracellular and extracellular virus continued increasing parallelly until the fourth day; then, from the fourth to the sixth day, the content of extracellular virus still increased whereas that of intracellular virus fell rapidly. In the case of the mink enteritis virus the release of the virus into the culture medium continued parallelly with the production of the cellular virus until the sixth day. In the case of the feline panleucopenia virus the values concerning free virus and virus bound to cells were lower, starting from the second day p. i. When KEB or VERO cultures were infected in cell suspension with the canine distemper virus at MOI about 0.004 per 1 cell, the replicated intracellular virus was first recorded in the KEB cultures five hours after infection but in the VERO cultures only 20 hours after infection, with a timely release of the virus into the culture medium in both kinds of tissue. In the KEB and VERO cultures the highest values of infection titres were recorded on the fourth day p. i., the course of virus multiplication on the cells being parallel with its release into the culture medium.

  8. Interaction of Human Enteric Viruses with Microbial Compounds: Implication for Virus Persistence and Disinfection Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Prunelle; Meseguer, Alba; Lucas, Françoise; Moulin, Laurent; Wurtzer, Sébastien

    2017-12-05

    Although the interaction between phages and bacteria has already been well described, it only recently emerged that human viruses also interact with bacteria in the mammalian gut. We studied whether this interaction could occur in tap water and thus confer enteric viruses protection against temperature and the classical disinfection treatments used in drinking water production. We demonstrated that the addition of lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan of bacterial origin to enterovirus provides thermal protection through stabilization of the viral capsid. This interaction plays a role when viruses are exposed to disinfection that targets the capsid, but less so when the virus genome is directly targeted. The interaction seems to be serotype-specific, suggesting that the capsid protein sequence could be important. The protection is linked to a direct association between viral particles and bacterial compounds as observed by microscopy. These results show that bacterial compounds present in the environment can affect virus inactivation.

  9. A paradox of transcriptional and functional innate interferon responses of human intestinal enteroids to enteric virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Kapil; Simon, Lukas M.; Zeng, Xi-Lei; Blutt, Sarah E.; Crawford, Sue E.; Sastri, Narayan P.; Karandikar, Umesh C.; Ajami, Nadim J.; Zachos, Nicholas C.; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Donowitz, Mark; Conner, Margaret E.; Shaw, Chad A.; Estes, Mary K.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding host?enteric virus interactions has been limited by the inability to culture nontransformed small intestinal epithelial cells and to infect animal models with human viruses. We report epithelial responses in human small intestinal enteroid cultures from different individuals following infection with human rotavirus (HRV), a model enteric pathogen. RNA-sequencing and functional assays revealed type III IFN as the dominant transcriptional response that activates interferon-stimula...

  10. Multiplex Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification for Simultaneous Detection of Several Enteric Viruses in Model Ready-To-Eat Foods†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Julie; D'Souza, Doris H.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2004-01-01

    Human enteric viruses are currently recognized as one of the most important causes of food-borne disease. Implication of enteric viruses in food-borne outbreaks can be difficult to confirm due to the inadequacy of the detection methods available. In this study, a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) method was developed in a multiplex format for the specific, simultaneous, and rapid detection of epidemiologically relevant human enteric viruses. Three previously reported primer sets were used in a single reaction for the amplification of RNA target fragments of 474, 371, and 165 nucleotides for the detection of hepatitis A virus and genogroup I and genogroup II noroviruses, respectively. Amplicons were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed by electrochemiluminescence and Northern hybridization. Endpoint detection sensitivity for the multiplex NASBA assay was approximately 10−1 reverse transcription-PCR-detectable units (or PFU, as appropriate) per reaction. When representative ready-to-eat foods (deli sliced turkey and lettuce) were inoculated with various concentrations of each virus and processed for virus detection with the multiplex NASBA method, all three human enteric viruses were simultaneously detected at initial inoculum levels of 100 to 102 reverse transcription-PCR-detectable units (or PFU)/9 cm2 in both food commodities. The multiplex NASBA system provides rapid and simultaneous detection of clinically relevant food-borne viruses in a single reaction tube and may be a promising alternative to reverse transcription-PCR for the detection of viral contamination of foods. PMID:15528524

  11. Multiplex nucleic acid sequence-based amplification for simultaneous detection of several enteric viruses in model ready-to-eat foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Julie; D'Souza, Doris H; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2004-11-01

    Human enteric viruses are currently recognized as one of the most important causes of food-borne disease. Implication of enteric viruses in food-borne outbreaks can be difficult to confirm due to the inadequacy of the detection methods available. In this study, a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) method was developed in a multiplex format for the specific, simultaneous, and rapid detection of epidemiologically relevant human enteric viruses. Three previously reported primer sets were used in a single reaction for the amplification of RNA target fragments of 474, 371, and 165 nucleotides for the detection of hepatitis A virus and genogroup I and genogroup II noroviruses, respectively. Amplicons were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed by electrochemiluminescence and Northern hybridization. Endpoint detection sensitivity for the multiplex NASBA assay was approximately 10(-1) reverse transcription-PCR-detectable units (or PFU, as appropriate) per reaction. When representative ready-to-eat foods (deli sliced turkey and lettuce) were inoculated with various concentrations of each virus and processed for virus detection with the multiplex NASBA method, all three human enteric viruses were simultaneously detected at initial inoculum levels of 10(0) to 10(2) reverse transcription-PCR-detectable units (or PFU)/9 cm2 in both food commodities. The multiplex NASBA system provides rapid and simultaneous detection of clinically relevant food-borne viruses in a single reaction tube and may be a promising alternative to reverse transcription-PCR for the detection of viral contamination of foods.

  12. Groundwater sampling methods using glass wool filtration to trace human enteric viruses in Madison, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human enteric viruses have been detected in the Madison, Wisconsin deep municipal well system. Earlier projects by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) have used glass wool filters to sample groundwater for these viruses directly from the deep municipal wells. Polymerase chain...

  13. Enteric virus removal from water by coal-based sorbents: development of low-cost water filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, M.; Sattar, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Using poliovirus type 1 (Sabin) and dechlorinated tap water, several coal-based sorbents were tested for their capacity to remove viruses from water. The sorbents included bituminous coal from Giridih, India, pretreated/impregnated with either alum, ferric hydroxide, lime or manganese dioxide. Filtrasorb-400, commercially available active carbon, was used as a reference. In batch tests, with input virus concentration of 2.34-2.83x10/sup 6/ PFU/1 and sorbent concentration of 10 g/l, alum pretreated coal removed about 96% of the virus when pH of the water was between 6.3 and 8.9. Virus sorption was rapid and a plateau was reached in 30 min. Compared with the active carbon, alum pretreated coal exhibited greater sorption energy and about one log higher limiting poliovirus sorption capacity. Downflow column study indicated the potential of alum pretreated coal as a filter media for removing enteric viruses from water. A previous study showed this sorbent to be capable of removing enteric bacteria as well. Water filters prepared from such low-cost material may prove useful for domestic use in rural areas of India and other developing countries. 19 refs.

  14. Preparation of MS2 phage-like particles and their use as potential process control viruses for detection and quantification of enteric RNA viruses in different matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Mikel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The detection and quantification of enteric RNA viruses is based on isolation of viral RNA from the sample followed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. To control the whole process of analysis and in order to guarantee the validity and reliability of results, process control viruses (PCV are used. The present article describes the process of preparation and use of such PCV– MS2 phage-like particles (MS2 PLP – in RT-qPCR detection and quantification of enteric RNA viruses. The MS2 PLP were derived from bacteriophage MS2 carrying a unique and specific de novo-constructed RNA target sequence originating from the DNA of two extinct species. The amount of prepared MS2 particles was quantified using four independent methods - UV spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and a specifically developed duplex RT-qPCR. To evaluate the usefulness of MS2 PLP in routine diagnostics different matrices known to harbor enteric RNA viruses (swab samples, liver tissue, serum, feces, and vegetables were artificially contaminated with specific amounts of MS2 PLP. The extraction efficiencies were calculated for each individual matrix. The prepared particles fulfill all requirements for PCV – they are very stable, non-infectious, and are genetically distinct from the target RNA viruses. Due to these properties they represent a good morphological and physiochemical model. The use of MS2 PLP as a PCV in detection and quantification of enteric RNA viruses was evaluated in different types of matrices.

  15. The efficiency of concentration methods used to detect enteric viruses in anaerobically digested sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Prado

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of enteric viruses in biosolids can be underestimated due to the inefficient methods (mainly molecular methods used to recover the viruses from these matrices. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the different methods used to recover adenoviruses (AdV, rotavirus species A (RVA, norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII and the hepatitis A virus (HAV from biosolid samples at a large urban wastewater treatment plant in Brazil after they had been treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used for spiking experiments to compare the detection limits of feasible methods, such as beef extract elution and ultracentrifugation. Tests were performed to detect the inhibition levels and the bacteriophage PP7 was used as an internal control. The results showed that the inhibitors affected the efficiency of the PCR reaction and that beef extract elution is a suitable method for detecting enteric viruses, mainly AdV from biosolid samples. All of the viral groups were detected in the biosolid samples: AdV (90%, RVA, NoV GII (45% and HAV (18%, indicating the viruses' resistance to the anaerobic treatment process. This is the first study in Brazil to detect the presence of RVA, AdV, NoV GII and HAV in anaerobically digested sludge, highlighting the importance of adequate waste management.

  16. Round-robin comparison of methods for the detection of human enteric viruses in lettuce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guyader, Francoise S.; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Haugarreau, Larissa

    2004-01-01

    Five methods that detect human enteric virus contamination in lettuce were compared. To mimic multiple contaminations as observed after sewage contamination, artificial contamination was with human calicivirus and poliovirus and animal calicivirus strains at different concentrations. Nucleic acid...

  17. Intervention methods to control the transmission of noroviruses and other enteric and respiratory viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Intervention methods to control the transmission of noroviruses and other enteric and respiratory viruses

    Era Tuladhar

    Abstract

    Human noroviruses are the leading cause of acute and outbreak associated gastroenteritis worldwide. The outbreaks

  18. Comparative study of enteric viruses, coliphages and indicator bacteria for evaluating water quality in a tropical high-altitude system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Ana C; Arias, Carlos F; Sánchez-Colón, Salvador; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa

    2009-10-27

    Bacteria used as indicators for pathogenic microorganisms in water are not considered adequate as enteric virus indicators. Surface water from a tropical high-altitude system located in Mexico City that receives rainwater, treated and non-treated wastewater used for irrigation, and groundwater used for drinking, was studied. The presence of enterovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, coliphage, coliform bacteria, and enterococci was determined during annual cycles in 2001 and 2002. Enteric viruses in concentrated water samples were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Coliphages were detected using the double agar layer method. Bacteria analyses of the water samples were carried out by membrane filtration. The presence of viruses and bacteria in the water used for irrigation showed no relationship between current bacterial indicator detection and viral presence. Coliphages showed strong association with indicator bacteria and enterovirus, but weak association with other enteric viruses. Enterovirus and rotavirus showed significant seasonal differences in water used for irrigation, although this was not clear for astrovirus. Coliphages proved to be adequate faecal pollution indicators for the irrigation water studied. Viral presence in this tropical high-altitude system showed a similar trend to data previously reported for temperate zones.

  19. Human enteric bacteria and viruses in five wastewater treatment plants in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka Osuolale

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring effluents from wastewater treatment plants is important to preventing both environmental contamination and the spread of disease. We evaluated the occurrence of human enteric bacteria (faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli and viruses (rotavirus and enterovirus in the final effluents of five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. Human viruses were recovered from the effluent samples with the adsorption–elution method and detected with singleplex real-time RT–PCR assays. Rotavirus was detected in several effluents samples, but no enterovirus was detected. At WWTP-C, rotavirus titre up to 105 genome copies/L was observed and present in 41.7% of the samples. At WWTP-B, the virus was detected in 41.7% of samples, with viral titres up to 103 genome copies/L. The virus was detected once at WWTP-E, in 9% of the samples analysed. The viral titres at WWTP-A were below the detection limit in all 25% of the 1.25 L samples in which the virus was detected. Rotavirus was not observed at WWTP-D. Faecal coliform bacteria and E. coli were detected in all the WWTPs, but no correlation was established between the enteric bacteria and viruses studied. The occurrence of rotavirus in effluent samples discharged into surface waters highlights the importance of assessing viral contamination in the water sources used for domestic water use. Keywords: Rotavirus, Enterovirus, Wastewater, Eastern Cape, Effluent, Faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli

  20. A paradox of transcriptional and functional innate interferon responses of human intestinal enteroids to enteric virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Kapil; Simon, Lukas M.; Zeng, Xi-Lei; Blutt, Sarah E.; Crawford, Sue E.; Sastri, Narayan P.; Karandikar, Umesh C.; Ajami, Nadim J.; Zachos, Nicholas C.; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Donowitz, Mark; Conner, Margaret E.; Shaw, Chad A.; Estes, Mary K.

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium can limit enteric pathogens by producing antiviral cytokines, such as IFNs. Type I IFN (IFN-α/β) and type III IFN (IFN-λ) function at the epithelial level, and their respective efficacies depend on the specific pathogen and site of infection. However, the roles of type I and type III IFN in restricting human enteric viruses are poorly characterized as a result of the difficulties in cultivating these viruses in vitro and directly obtaining control and infected small intestinal human tissue. We infected nontransformed human intestinal enteroid cultures from multiple individuals with human rotavirus (HRV) and assessed the host epithelial response by using RNA-sequencing and functional assays. The dominant transcriptional pathway induced by HRV infection is a type III IFN-regulated response. Early after HRV infection, low levels of type III IFN protein activate IFN-stimulated genes. However, this endogenous response does not restrict HRV replication because replication-competent HRV antagonizes the type III IFN response at pre- and posttranscriptional levels. In contrast, exogenous IFN treatment restricts HRV replication, with type I IFN being more potent than type III IFN, suggesting that extraepithelial sources of type I IFN may be the critical IFN for limiting enteric virus replication in the human intestine. PMID:28069942

  1. Comparative study of enteric viruses, coliphages and indicator bacteria for evaluating water quality in a tropical high-altitude system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazari-Hiriart Marisa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria used as indicators for pathogenic microorganisms in water are not considered adequate as enteric virus indicators. Surface water from a tropical high-altitude system located in Mexico City that receives rainwater, treated and non-treated wastewater used for irrigation, and groundwater used for drinking, was studied. Methods The presence of enterovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, coliphage, coliform bacteria, and enterococci was determined during annual cycles in 2001 and 2002. Enteric viruses in concentrated water samples were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Coliphages were detected using the double agar layer method. Bacteria analyses of the water samples were carried out by membrane filtration. Results The presence of viruses and bacteria in the water used for irrigation showed no relationship between current bacterial indicator detection and viral presence. Coliphages showed strong association with indicator bacteria and enterovirus, but weak association with other enteric viruses. Enterovirus and rotavirus showed significant seasonal differences in water used for irrigation, although this was not clear for astrovirus. Conclusion Coliphages proved to be adequate faecal pollution indicators for the irrigation water studied. Viral presence in this tropical high-altitude system showed a similar trend to data previously reported for temperate zones.

  2. Analysis of experimental mink enteritis virus infection in mink: in situ hybridization, serology, and histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Larsen, S; Lund, E

    1990-01-01

    Strand-specific hybridization probes were used in in situ hybridization studies to localize cells containing mink enteritis virus (MEV) virion DNA or MEV replicative-form DNA and mRNA. Following the experimental MEV infection of 3-month-old unvaccinated mink, a significant increase in serum antib...

  3. Human enteric viruses in groundwater indicate offshore transport of human sewage to coral reefs of the Upper Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futch, J. Carrie; Griffin, Dale W.; Lipp, Erin K.

    2010-01-01

    To address the issue of human sewage reaching corals along the main reef of the Florida Keys, samples were collected from surface water, groundwater and coral [surface mucopolysaccharide layers (SML)] along a 10 km transect near Key Largo, FL. Samples were collected semi-annually between July 2003 and September 2005 and processed for faecal indicator bacteria (faecal coliform bacteria, enterococci and Clostridium perfringens) and human-specific enteric viruses (enterovirus RNA and adenovirus DNA) by (RT)-nested polymerase chain reaction. Faecal indicator bacteria concentrations were generally higher nearshore and in the coral SML. Enteric viruses were evenly distributed across the transect stations. Adenoviruses were detected in 37 of 75 samples collected (49.3%) whereas enteroviruses were only found in 8 of 75 samples (10.7%). Both viruses were detected twice as frequently in coral compared with surface water or groundwater. Offshore, viruses were most likely to be found in groundwater, especially during the wet summer season. These data suggest that polluted groundwater may be moving to the outer reef environment in the Florida Keys.

  4. Herpes simplex virus type 2 latency in the footpad of mice: effect of acycloguanosine on the recovery of virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saadi, S A; Gross, P; Wildy, P

    1988-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 has been reactivated from the latent state in the footpad and dorsal root ganglia of acycloguanosine-treated BALB/c mice. Virus was also recovered from the footpad tissue but not from the ganglia of denervated, latently infected mice. Treatment in vitro of explanted footpad cultures with acycloguanosine or phosphonoacetic acid did not affect the rate of virus reactivation. In all the isolates examined the virus was found to be acycloguanosine-sensitive. Recovery of virus from footpad tissue of mice after a long period of acycloguanosine treatment supports the theory that virus had been truly latent in the footpad and not in a state of persistent infection.

  5. Early enteral immune nutrition support after radical operation for gastric cancer on promoting the recovery of gastrointestinal function and immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of early enteral immune nutrition support after radical operation for gastric cancer on the recovery of gastrointestinal function and immune function. Methods: A total of 106 cases of patients received radical operation for gastric cancer in our hospital were selected as research subjects, and according to different ways of postoperative nutrition intervention, all patients were divided into observation group (n=50 and control group (n=56. Control group received conventional enteral nutrition intervention, observation group received postoperative early enteral immune nutrition support, and then differences in postoperative intestinal mucosa barrier function, gastrointestinal hormone levels, immune function levels and nutrition-related indicator values were compared between two groups. Results: After observation group received enteral immune nutrition intervention, serum DAO, PS and D-lactate levels as well as urine L/M ratio were lower than those of control group; serum GAS, CCK, MTL and SP values of observation group after intervention were higher than those of control group, and GLU, VIP, GIP and SS values were lower than those of control group; CD4, IgG, NK cell, C3, C4, CH50 and S-IgA levels of observation group after intervention were higher than those of control group; serum ALB, PRE, TRF and RBP levels of observation group after intervention were higher than those of control group. Conclusion: Early enteral immune nutrition support after radical operation for gastric cancer is conducive to the recovery of gastrointestinal function and the promotion of immune state, eventually promotes patients’ postoperative overall recovery and has active clinical significance.

  6. Immediate preoperative enteral nutrition (preoperative enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lađević Nebojša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional support of surgical patients is a necessary part of the treatment. It alone cannot cure the disease but it significantly affects the recovery of patients and supports surgical interventions. Patients in malnutrition have shown to have significantly more postoperative infectious and non-infectious complications. This significantly prolongs treatment time and increases costs. However, there is one fact that cannot be expressed in money, which is the patient's impression of the surgical intervention. Adequate preoperative patient support, based on the intake of liquid nutritive solutions, reduces preoperative stress and deflects the metabolic response. Now, it is recommended for adults and children older than one year to drink clear liquid up to 2 hours before induction in anesthesia. Appropriate enteral nutrition has a significant place in the postoperative recovery of patients. Enteral nutrition is reducing complications, mainly infectious complications because the function of the digestive system as one large immune system is preserved. Perioperative enteral nutrition is a necessary part of the modern treatment of surgical patients. In addition to the significant effect on the occurrence of postoperative complications, it is also important that this type of diet improves the psychological status of patients.

  7. Evaluation of a rapid method for recovery of norovirus and hepatitis A virus from oysters and blue mussels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrbrand, Katrine; Myrmel, Mette; Maunula, Leena

    2010-01-01

    Foodborne outbreaks caused by noroviruses (NoVs) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are often linked to consumption of contaminated shellfish. The objective of this study was to identify an appropriate virus recovery method for real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR detection and subsequently to evalu......Foodborne outbreaks caused by noroviruses (NoVs) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are often linked to consumption of contaminated shellfish. The objective of this study was to identify an appropriate virus recovery method for real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR detection and subsequently...

  8. Identification and molecular characterization of a naturally occurring RNA virus mutant defective in the initiation of host recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Hongwu; Ding Shouwei

    2003-01-01

    The host recovery response is characterized by the disappearance of disease symptoms and activation of the RNA silencing virus resistance in the new growth following an initial symptomatic infection. However, it is not clear what triggers the initiation of recovery, which occurs naturally only in some virus-host interactions. Here we report the identification and characterization of a spontaneous mutant of Tobacco streak virus (TSV) that became defective in triggering recovery in tobacco plants. Infectious full-length cDNA clones corresponding to the tripartite RNA genome were constructed from both the wild-type and the nonrecovery mutant of TSV (TSVnr), the first sets of infectious cDNA clones from an Ilarvirus. Genetic and molecular analyses identified an A → G mutation in the TSVnr genome that was sufficient to confer nonrecovery when introduced into TSV. The mutation was located in the intergenic region of RNA 3 upstream of the mapped transcriptional start site of the coat protein mRNA. Intriguingly, induction of recovery by TSV was not accompanied by virus clearance and TSV consistently accumulated to significantly higher levels than TSVnr did even though TSVnr-infected plants displayed severe symptoms throughout the course of infection. Thus, our findings indicate that recovery of host can be initiated by minimal genetic changes in a viral genome and may occur in the absence of virus clearance. Mechanisms possibly involved in the initiation of host recovery are discussed

  9. Frequency of hepatitis E virus, rotavirus and porcine enteric calicivirus at various stages of pork carcass processing in two pork processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tineke H; Muehlhauser, Victoria

    2017-10-16

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), rotavirus (RV), and porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC) infections are common in swine and raises concerns about the potential for zoonotic transmission through undercooked meat products. Enteric viruses can potentially contaminate carcasses during meat processing operations. There is a lack of information on the prevalence and control of enteric viruses in the pork processing chain. This study compared the incidence and levels of contamination of hog carcasses with HEV, RV and PEC at different stages of the dressing process. A total of 1000 swabs were collected from 2 pork processing plants on 10 separate occasions over the span of a year. The samples were obtained from random sites on hog carcasses at 4 dressing stages (plant A: bleeding, dehairing, pasteurization, and evisceration; plant B: bleeding, skinning, evisceration, and washing) and from meat cuts. Numbers of genome copies (gc) of HEV, RV and PEC were determined by RT-qPCR. RV and PEC were detected in 100%, and 18% of samples, respectively, after bleeding for plant A and in 98%, and 36% of samples, respectively, after bleeding for plant B. After evisceration, RV and PEC were detected in 21% and 3% of samples, respectively, for plant A and in 1%, and 0% of samples, respectively for plant B. RV and PEC were detected on 1%, and 5% of pork cuts, respectively, for plant A and on 0%, and 0% of pork cuts, respectively, for plant B. HEV was not detected in any pork carcass or retail pork samples from plants A or B. The frequency of PEC and RV on pork is progressively reduced along the pork processing chain but the viruses were not completely eliminated. The findings suggest that consumers could be at risk when consuming undercooked meat contaminated with pathogenic enteric viruses. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Propidium Monoazide Coupled with PCR Predicts Infectivity of Enteric Viruses in Swine Manure and Biofertilized Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, Gislaine; Hernández, Marta; García-González, María Cruz; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2016-03-01

    The use of propidium monoazide (PMA) coupled with real-time PCR (RT-qPCR or qPCR for RNA or DNA viruses, respectively) was assessed to discriminate infectious enteric viruses in swine raw manure, swine effluent from anaerobic biodigester (AB) and biofertilized soils. Those samples were spiked either with infectious and heat-inactivated human adenovirus-2 (HAdV-2) or mengovirus (vMC0), and PMA-qPCR/RT-qPCR allowed discriminating inactivated viruses from the infective particles, with significant reductions (>99.9%). Then, the procedure was further assayed to evaluate the presence and stability of two non-cultivable viruses (porcine adenovirus and rotavirus A) in natural samples (swine raw manure, swine effluent from AB and biofertilized soils); it demonstrated viral inactivation during the storage period at 23 °C. As a result, the combination of PMA coupled to real-time PCR can be a promising alternative for prediction of viral infectivity in comparison to more labour-intensive and costly techniques such as animal or tissue-culture infectivity methods, and for those viruses that do not have currently available cell culture techniques.

  11. High occurrence of hepatitis E virus in samples from wastewater treatment plants in Switzerland and comparison with other enteric viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Masclaux, Frédéric G.; Hotz, Philipp; Friedli, Drita; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Oppliger, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for many enterically transmitted viral hepatitides around the world. It is currently one of the waterborne diseases of global concern. In industrialized countries, HEV appears to be more common than previously thought, even if it is rarely virulent. In Switzerland, seroprevalence studies revealed that HEV is endemic, but no information was available on its environmental spread. The aim of this study was to investigate -using qPCR- the occurrence and conc...

  12. Travel-related acquisition of diarrhoeagenic bacteria, enteral viruses and parasites in a prospective cohort of 98 Dutch travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hattem, Jarne M; Arcilla, Maris S; Grobusch, Martin P; Bart, Aldert; Bootsma, Martin C; van Genderen, Perry J; van Gool, Tom; Goorhuis, Abraham; van Hellemond, Jaap J; Molenkamp, Richard; Molhoek, Nicky; Oude Lashof, Astrid M; Stobberingh, Ellen E; de Wever, Bob; Verbrugh, Henri A; Melles, Damian C; Penders, John; Schultsz, Constance; de Jong, Menno D

    2017-09-01

    Limited prospective data are available on the acquisition of viral, bacterial and parasitic diarrhoeagenic agents by healthy individuals during travel. To determine the frequency of travel associated acquisition of 19 pathogens in 98 intercontinental travellers, qPCR was used to detect 8 viral pathogens, 6 bacterial enteric pathogens and 5 parasite species in faecal samples collected immediately before and after travel. We found high pre-travel carriage rates of Blastocystis spp. and Dientamoeba fragilis of 32% and 19% respectively. Pre-travel prevalences of all other tested pathogens were below 3%. Blastocystis spp. (10%), Plesiomonas shigelloides (7%), D. fragilis (6%) and Shigella spp. (5%) were the most frequently acquired pathogens and acquisition of enteral viruses and hepatitis E virus in this relatively small group of travellers was rare or non-existent. Our findings suggest that the role of viruses as the cause of persisting traveller's diarrhoea is limited and bacterial pathogens are more likely as a cause of traveller's diarrhoea. The substantial proportion of travellers carrying Blastocystis spp. and D. fragilis before travel warrants cautious interpretation of positive samples in returning travellers with gastrointestinal complaints. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Construction of a full-length infectious bacterial artificial chromosome clone of duck enteritis virus vaccine strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Duck enteritis virus (DEV) is the causative agent of duck viral enteritis, which causes an acute, contagious and lethal disease of many species of waterfowl within the order Anseriformes. In recent years, two laboratories have reported on the successful construction of DEV infectious clones in viral vectors to express exogenous genes. The clones obtained were either created with deletion of viral genes and based on highly virulent strains or were constructed using a traditional overlapping fosmid DNA system. Here, we report the construction of a full-length infectious clone of DEV vaccine strain that was cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). Methods A mini-F vector as a BAC that allows the maintenance of large circular DNA in E. coli was introduced into the intergenic region between UL15B and UL18 of a DEV vaccine strain by homologous recombination in chicken embryoblasts (CEFs). Then, the full-length DEV clone pDEV-vac was obtained by electroporating circular viral replication intermediates containing the mini-F sequence into E. coli DH10B and identified by enzyme digestion and sequencing. The infectivity of the pDEV-vac was validated by DEV reconstitution from CEFs transfected with pDEV-vac. The reconstructed virus without mini-F vector sequence was also rescued by co-transfecting the Cre recombinase expression plasmid pCAGGS-NLS/Cre and pDEV-vac into CEF cultures. Finally, the in vitro growth properties and immunoprotection capacity in ducks of the reconstructed viruses were also determined and compared with the parental virus. Results The full genome of the DEV vaccine strain was successfully cloned into the BAC, and this BAC clone was infectious. The in vitro growth properties of these reconstructions were very similar to parental DEV, and ducks immunized with these viruses acquired protection against virulent DEV challenge. Conclusions DEV vaccine virus was cloned as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome maintaining full

  14. Report on waterborne diseases: The polymerase chain reaction for the identification of enteric viruses in water; Rapporto sulle malattie infettive di origine idricamerizzazione a catena per l`identificazione dei virus enterici nell`acqua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscillo, M; La Rosa, G [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1995-12-01

    A variety of human infectious diseases are associated with the pollution of water by enteric viruses. The epidemiological data on cases associated with drinking and recreational water show Norwalk, hepatitis A and E viruses, rotavirus and enteroviruses as the etiological agents. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is certainly the most reliable technique available for the rapid identification of these viruses in water samples.

  15. One-year Surveillance of Human Enteric Viruses in Raw and Treated Wastewaters, Downstream River Waters, and Drinking Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaconelli, M; Muscillo, M; Della Libera, S; Fratini, M; Meucci, L; De Ceglia, M; Giacosa, D; La Rosa, G

    2017-03-01

    Human enteric viruses are a major cause of waterborne diseases, and can be transmitted by contaminated water of all kinds, including drinking and recreational water. The objectives of the present study were to assess the occurrence of enteric viruses (enterovirus, norovirus, adenovirus, hepatitis A and E virus) in raw and treated wastewaters, in rivers receiving wastewater discharges, and in drinking waters. Wastewater treatment plants' (WWTP) pathogen removal efficiencies by adenovirus quantitative real-time PCR and the presence of infectious enterovirus, by cell culture assays, in treated wastewaters and in surface waters were also evaluated. A total of 90 water samples were collected: raw and treated wastewaters (treated effluents and ultrafiltered water reused for industrial purposes), water from two rivers receiving treated discharges, and drinking water. Nested PCR assays were used for the identification of viral DNA/RNA, followed by direct amplicon sequencing. All raw sewage samples (21/21), 61.9 % of treated wastewater samples (13/21), and 25 % of ultrafiltered water samples (3/12) were contaminated with at least one viral family. Multiple virus families and genera were frequently detected. Mean positive PCRs per sample decreased significantly from raw to treated sewage and to ultrafiltered waters. Moreover, quantitative adenovirus data showed a reduction in excess of 99 % in viral genome copies following wastewater treatment. In surface waters, 78.6 % (22/28) of samples tested positive for one or more viruses by molecular methods, but enterovirus-specific infectivity assays did not reveal infectious particles in these samples. All drinking water samples tested negative for all viruses, demonstrating the effectiveness of treatment in removing viral pathogens from drinking water. Integrated strategies to manage water from all sources are crucial to ensure water quality.

  16. The Drosophila Nora virus is an enteric virus, transmitted via feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habayeb, Mazen S; Cantera, Rafael; Casanova, Gabriela; Ekström, Jens-Ola; Albright, Shannon; Hultmark, Dan

    2009-04-01

    The biology of the Drosophila viruses has not been intensely investigated. Here we have investigated the biology of the Nora virus, a persistent Drosophila virus. We find that injected Nora virus is able to replicate in the files, reaching a high titer that is maintained in the next generation. There is a remarkable variation in the viral loads of individual flies in persistently infected stocks; the titers can differ by three orders of magnitude. The Nora virus is mainly found in the intestine of infected flies, and the histology of these infected intestines show increased vacuolization. The virus is excreted in the feces and is horizontally transmitted. The Nora virus infection has a very mild effect on the longevity of the flies, and no significant effect on the number of eggs laid and the percent of eggs that develop to adults.

  17. Efficient Strategy to Generate a Vectored Duck Enteritis Virus Delivering Envelope of Duck Tembusu Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV is a recently emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has resulted in a huge economic loss in the duck industry. However, no vaccine is currently available to control this pathogen. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against this pathogen should be determined. In this study, duck enteritis virus (DEV was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the envelope (E of DTMUV. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the SORF3 and US2 gene junctions of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE. The envelope (E gene of DTMUV was inserted into the C-KCE genome through the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC strategy, resulting in the recombinant vector, pBAC-C-KCE-E. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-E was generated by eliminating the BAC backbone. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis results indicated that the E proteins were vigorously expressed in C-KCE-E-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs. Duck experiments demonstrated that the insertion of the E gene did not alter the protective efficacy of C-KCE. Moreover, C-KCE-E-immunized ducks induced neutralization antibodies against DTMUV. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant C-KCE-E can serve as a potential bivalent vaccine against DEV and DTMUV.

  18. Myxoma and vaccinia viruses exploit different mechanisms to enter and infect human cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, Nancy Y.; Bartee, Eric; Mohamed, Mohamed R.; Rahman, Masmudur M.; Barrett, John W.; McFadden, Grant

    2010-01-01

    Myxoma (MYXV) and vaccinia (VACV) viruses have recently emerged as potential oncolytic agents that can infect and kill different human cancer cells. Although both are structurally similar, it is unknown whether the pathway(s) used by these poxviruses to enter and cause oncolysis in cancer cells are mechanistically similar. Here, we compared the entry of MYXV and VACV-WR into various human cancer cells and observed significant differences: 1 - low-pH treatment accelerates fusion-mediated entry of VACV but not MYXV, 2 - the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein inhibits entry of VACV, but not MYXV, 3 - knockdown of PAK1 revealed that it is required for a late stage event downstream of MYXV entry into cancer cells, whereas PAK1 is required for VACV entry into the same target cells. These results suggest that VACV and MYXV exploit different mechanisms to enter into human cancer cells, thus providing some rationale for their divergent cancer cell tropisms.

  19. Enteric Virome Sensing—Its Role in Intestinal Homeostasis and Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca N. Metzger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs sensing commensal microorganisms in the intestine induce tightly controlled tonic signaling in the intestinal mucosa, which is required to maintain intestinal barrier integrity and immune homeostasis. At the same time, PRR signaling pathways rapidly trigger the innate immune defense against invasive pathogens in the intestine. Intestinal epithelial cells and mononuclear phagocytes in the intestine and the gut-associated lymphoid tissues are critically involved in sensing components of the microbiome and regulating immune responses in the intestine to sustain immune tolerance against harmless antigens and to prevent inflammation. These processes have been mostly investigated in the context of the bacterial components of the microbiome so far. The impact of viruses residing in the intestine and the virus sensors, which are activated by these enteric viruses, on intestinal homeostasis and inflammation is just beginning to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent findings indicating an important role of the enteric virome for intestinal homeostasis as well as pathology when the immune system fails to control the enteric virome. We will provide an overview of the virus sensors and signaling pathways, operative in the intestine and the mononuclear phagocyte subsets, which can sense viruses and shape the intestinal immune response. We will discuss how these might interact with resident enteric viruses directly or in context with the bacterial microbiome to affect intestinal homeostasis.

  20. Enteric Virome Sensing-Its Role in Intestinal Homeostasis and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Rebecca N; Krug, Anne B; Eisenächer, Katharina

    2018-03-23

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) sensing commensal microorganisms in the intestine induce tightly controlled tonic signaling in the intestinal mucosa, which is required to maintain intestinal barrier integrity and immune homeostasis. At the same time, PRR signaling pathways rapidly trigger the innate immune defense against invasive pathogens in the intestine. Intestinal epithelial cells and mononuclear phagocytes in the intestine and the gut-associated lymphoid tissues are critically involved in sensing components of the microbiome and regulating immune responses in the intestine to sustain immune tolerance against harmless antigens and to prevent inflammation. These processes have been mostly investigated in the context of the bacterial components of the microbiome so far. The impact of viruses residing in the intestine and the virus sensors, which are activated by these enteric viruses, on intestinal homeostasis and inflammation is just beginning to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent findings indicating an important role of the enteric virome for intestinal homeostasis as well as pathology when the immune system fails to control the enteric virome. We will provide an overview of the virus sensors and signaling pathways, operative in the intestine and the mononuclear phagocyte subsets, which can sense viruses and shape the intestinal immune response. We will discuss how these might interact with resident enteric viruses directly or in context with the bacterial microbiome to affect intestinal homeostasis.

  1. Late engagement of CD86 after influenza virus clearance promotes recovery in a FoxP3+ regulatory T cell dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K Moser

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV infection in the respiratory tract triggers robust innate and adaptive immune responses, resulting in both virus clearance and lung inflammation and injury. After virus clearance, resolution of ongoing inflammation and tissue repair occur during a distinct recovery period. B7 family co-stimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86 have important roles in modulating T cell activity during the initiation and effector stages of the host response to IAV infection, but their potential role during recovery and resolution of inflammation is unknown. We found that antibody-mediated CD86 blockade in vivo after virus clearance led to a delay in recovery, characterized by increased numbers of lung neutrophils and inflammatory cytokines in airways and lung interstitium, but no change in conventional IAV-specific T cell responses. However, CD86 blockade led to decreased numbers of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs, and adoptive transfer of Tregs into αCD86 treated mice rescued the effect of the blockade, supporting a role for Tregs in promoting recovery after virus clearance. Specific depletion of Tregs late after infection mimicked the CD86 blockade phenotype, confirming a role for Tregs during recovery after virus clearance. Furthermore, we identified neutrophils as a target of Treg suppression since neutrophil depletion in Treg-depleted mice reduced excess inflammatory cytokines in the airways. These results demonstrate that Tregs, in a CD86 dependent mechanism, contribute to the resolution of disease after IAV infection, in part by suppressing neutrophil-driven cytokine release into the airways.

  2. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infects Enteric Neurons and Triggers Gut Dysfunction via Macrophage Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Paola; Qesari, Marsela; Marconi, Peggy C; Kotsafti, Andromachi; Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; Schwendener, Reto A; Scarpa, Marco; Giron, Maria C; Palù, Giorgio; Calistri, Arianna; Castagliuolo, Ignazio

    2018-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1), a neurotropic pathogen widespread in human population, infects the enteric nervous system (ENS) in humans and rodents and causes intestinal neuromuscular dysfunction in rats. Although infiltration of inflammatory cells in the myenteric plexus and neurodegeneration of enteric nerves are common features of patients suffering from functional intestinal disorders, the proof of a pathogenic link with HSV-1 is still unsettled mainly because the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study we demonstrated that following intragastrical administration HSV-1 infects neurons within the myenteric plexus resulting in functional and structural alterations of the ENS. By infecting mice with HSV-1 replication-defective strain we revealed that gastrointestinal neuromuscular anomalies were however independent of viral replication. Indeed, enteric neurons exposed to UV-inactivated HSV-1 produced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) to recruit activated macrophages in the longitudinal muscle myenteric plexus. Infiltrating macrophages produced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and directly harmed enteric neurons resulting in gastrointestinal dysmotility. In HSV-1 infected mice intestinal neuromuscular dysfunctions were ameliorated by in vivo administration of (i) liposomes containing dichloromethylene bisphosphonic acid (clodronate) to deplete tissue macrophages, (ii) CCR2 chemokine receptor antagonist RS504393 to block the CCL2/CCR2 pathway, (iii) Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) and AR-C 102222 to quench production of nitrogen reactive species produced via iNOS. Overall these data demonstrate that HSV-1 infection makes enteric neurons recruit macrophages via production of a specific chemoattractant factor. The resulting inflammatory reaction is mandatory for intestinal dysmotility. These findings provide insights into the neuro-immune communication that occurs in the ENS following HSV-1 infection

  3. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infects Enteric Neurons and Triggers Gut Dysfunction via Macrophage Recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Brun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1, a neurotropic pathogen widespread in human population, infects the enteric nervous system (ENS in humans and rodents and causes intestinal neuromuscular dysfunction in rats. Although infiltration of inflammatory cells in the myenteric plexus and neurodegeneration of enteric nerves are common features of patients suffering from functional intestinal disorders, the proof of a pathogenic link with HSV-1 is still unsettled mainly because the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study we demonstrated that following intragastrical administration HSV-1 infects neurons within the myenteric plexus resulting in functional and structural alterations of the ENS. By infecting mice with HSV-1 replication-defective strain we revealed that gastrointestinal neuromuscular anomalies were however independent of viral replication. Indeed, enteric neurons exposed to UV-inactivated HSV-1 produced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2 to recruit activated macrophages in the longitudinal muscle myenteric plexus. Infiltrating macrophages produced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and directly harmed enteric neurons resulting in gastrointestinal dysmotility. In HSV-1 infected mice intestinal neuromuscular dysfunctions were ameliorated by in vivo administration of (i liposomes containing dichloromethylene bisphosphonic acid (clodronate to deplete tissue macrophages, (ii CCR2 chemokine receptor antagonist RS504393 to block the CCL2/CCR2 pathway, (iii Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME and AR-C 102222 to quench production of nitrogen reactive species produced via iNOS. Overall these data demonstrate that HSV-1 infection makes enteric neurons recruit macrophages via production of a specific chemoattractant factor. The resulting inflammatory reaction is mandatory for intestinal dysmotility. These findings provide insights into the neuro-immune communication that occurs in the ENS following HSV-1

  4. Full protection in mink against mink enteritis virus with new generation canine parvovirus vaccines based on synthetic peptide or recombinant protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeveld, J. P.; Kamstrup, Søren; Uttenthal, Åse

    1995-01-01

    Two recently developed vaccines—one based on synthetic peptide and one based on recombinant capsid protein—fully protected dogs against heavy experimental canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. The high sequence homology (>98%) and antigenic similarity between CPV and mink enteritis virus (MEV), feline...... on inactivated virus. Surprisingly, this protection was obtained after only a single injection. Furthermore, the vaccinal dose of 150 μg of conjugated peptide or 3 μg of recombinant VP2 particles per animal, are sufficiently low to be cost-effective and applicable on a large scale....

  5. Swine enteric coronavirus disease: A review of 4 years with porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus and porcine deltacoronavirus in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwerder, M C; Hesse, R A

    2018-06-01

    Swine enteric coronaviruses, including porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), have emerged and spread throughout the North American swine industry over the last four years. These diseases cause significant losses within the pork industry and within the first year after PEDV introduction, approximately 10% of the US herd died due to the disease. Similar to other enteric coronaviruses, such as transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), these emerging swine enteric coronavirus diseases (SECD) are age-dependent, with high morbidity and mortality in neonatal pigs. Since the introduction of SECD, research has focused on investigating viral pathogenesis through experimental inoculation, increasing maternal antibody for neonatal protection, understanding transmission risks through feed and transportation, and outlining the importance of biosecurity in preventing SECD introduction and spread. A survey of swine professionals conducted for this review revealed that the majority of respondents (75%) believe SECD can be eradicated and that most herds have been successful at long-term elimination of SECD after exposure (80%). However, unique properties of SECD, such as ineffective immunity through parenteral vaccination and a low oral infectious dose, play a major role in management of SECD. This review serves to describe the current knowledge of SECD and the characteristics of these viruses which provide both opportunities and challenges for long-term disease control and potential eradication from the US swine population. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. A case study of enteric virus removal and insights into the associated risk of water reuse for two wastewater treatment pond systems in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, E M; Verbyla, M E; Lukasik, J O; Kafle, R C; Breitbart, M; Mihelcic, J R

    2014-11-15

    Wastewater treatment ponds (WTP) are one of the most widespread treatment technologies in the world; however, the mechanisms and extent of enteric virus removal in these systems are poorly understood. Two WTP systems in Bolivia, with similar overall hydraulic retention times but different first stages of treatment, were analyzed for enteric virus removal. One system consisted of a facultative pond followed by two maturation ponds (three-pond system) and the other consisted of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by two maturation (polishing) ponds (UASB-pond system). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription (RT-qPCR) was used to measure concentrations of norovirus, rotavirus, and pepper mild mottle virus, while cell culture methods were used to measure concentrations of culturable enteroviruses (EV). Limited virus removal was observed with RT-qPCR in either system; however, the three-pond system removed culturable EV with greater efficiency than the UASB-pond system. The majority of viruses were not associated with particles and only a small proportion was associated with particles larger than 180 μm; thus, it is unlikely that sedimentation is a major mechanism of virus removal. High concentrations of viruses were associated with particles between 0.45 and 180 μm in the UASB reactor effluent, but not in the facultative pond effluent. The association of viruses with this size class of particles may explain why only minimal virus removal was observed in the UASB-pond system. Quantitative microbial risk assessment of the treated effluent for reuse for restricted irrigation indicated that the three-pond system effluent requires an additional 1- to 2-log10 reduction of viruses to achieve the WHO health target of <10(-4) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost per person per year; however, the UASB-pond system effluent may require an additional 2.5- to 4.5-log10 reduction of viruses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  7. Microbial enhanced oil recovery: Entering the log phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technology has advanced internationally since 1980 from a laboratory-based evaluation of microbial processes to field applications. In order to adequately support the decline in oil production in certain areas, research on cost-effective technologies such as microbial enhanced oil recovery processes must focus on both near-term and long-term applications. Many marginal wells are desperately in need of an inexpensive improved oil recovery technology today that can assist producers in order to prevent their abandonment. Microbial enhanced waterflooding technology has also been shown to be an economically feasible technology in the United States. Complementary environmental research and development will also be required to address any potential environmental impacts of microbial processes. In 1995 at this conference, the goal is to further document and promote microbial processes for improved oil recovery and related technology for solving environmental problems.

  8. Importance of nutritional status in recovery from acute cholecystitis: benefit from enteral nutrition supplementation including medium chain triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yukinobu; Inui, Kazuo; Yoshino, Junji; Wakabayashi, Takao; Okushima, Kazumu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Miyoshi, Hironao; Nakamura, Yuta

    2007-09-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify the importance of nutritional status in patients with acute cholecystitis, and also evaluate whether they benefited from enteral nutrition supplementation, including medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), during the convalescent stage. Patients with acute cholecystitis admitted to our hospital between April 1994 and March 2002 were classified into a poor nutrition group (n=40; total serum proteinnutrition group (n=71; >5.0 g/dl). Patients with poor nutrition were significantly more elderly than those with fair nutrition, and had significantly higher serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. The two groups did not differ significantly with respect to other laboratory data, gender distribution, or medical treatment. We supplemented ordinary meals with enteral nutrition including MCT in 16 patients during the convalescent stage (MCT group). We compared their length of hospital stay and days required to recovery to pre-admission functional status for activities of daily living (ADL) with the same intervals in 16 patients without supplementation (non-MCT group) selected to match for age, gender, and fair or poor nutritional status from among 111 patients. Hospitalizations were significantly longer in the poor nutrition group (43.0+/-2.2 days) than in the fair nutrition group (27.0+/-8.2 days). Significantly more days were required to recover ADL status in the poor nutrition group (12.0+/-7.2 days) than in the fair group (9.4+/-5.2 days). Hospitalizations were significantly shorter in the MCT group (20.1+/-15 days) than in the non-MCT group (35.4+/-12.8 days). Significantly fewer days were required to recover ADL status in the MCT group (10.9+/-7 days) than in the non-MCT group (13.1+/-6.8 days). Administration of enteral nutrition including MCT during convalescence from acute cholecystitis thus appears to promote functional recovery shorten hospital stay.

  9. Recovery of Epstein--Barr virus from nonproducer neonatal human lymphoid cell transformants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.; Miller, G.

    1979-01-01

    Lymphoid cell lines (LCL) were established by infection of two batches of human umbilical cord lymphocytes with low multiplicities of the B95-8 strain of Epstein--Barr virus. Three of the 17 lines released minute mounts of transforming virus. The rest did not, nor did they make capsid antigen. However virus could be regularly recovered by lethal x-irradiation of transformed cells followed by cocultivation with primary human umbilical cord leukocytes. By this technique transforming activity could be identified in 15 of the 17 lines. These data indicate that these nonproducer human neonatal cell transformants established by EBV infection in vitro possess sufficient genetic information to code for production of biologically active mature virions. X rays alone failed to cause a detectable increase in the number of cells with capsid antigen or to enhance extracellular virus production. EBV-positive human serum blocked rescue if it was added during the first 2 to 4 hr after cocultivation, but not thereafter. Transforming virus could be recovered from x-rayed cells which were immediately thereafter lysed by freezing and thawing. These results suggest that recovery of virus following x-ray and cocultivation is not due to activation of the intracellular virus genome. Rather, it is likely that the method detects small numbers of virions which are cell associated. While transforming virus could regularly be rescued from lymphoblastoid cell lines resulting from in vitro transformation, attempts to rescue virus from Raji or EBV-converted BJAB cells were unsuccessful. This discrepancy suggests differences in genome complexity or in genome-cell interactions in different types of EBV-transformed cells

  10. Molecular assays for targeting human and bovine enteric viruses in coastal waters and their application for library-independent source tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, T.-T.; Griffin, Dale W.; Lipp, E.K.

    2005-01-01

    Rapid population growth and urban development along waterways and coastal areas have led to decreasing water quality. To examine the effects of upstream anthropogenic activities on microbiological water quality, methods for source-specific testing are required. In this study, molecular assays targeting human enteroviruses (HEV), bovine enteroviruses (BEV), and human adenoviruses (HAdV) were developed and used to identify major sources of fecal contamination in the lower Altamaha River, Georgia. Two-liter grab samples were collected monthly from five tidally influenced stations between July and December 2002. Samples were analyzed by reverse transcription- and nested-PCR. PCR results were confirmed by dot blot hybridization. Eleven and 17 of the 30 surface water samples tested positive for HAdV and HEV, respectively. Two-thirds of the samples tested positive for either HEV or HAdV, and the viruses occurred simultaneously in 26% of samples. BEV were detected in 11 of 30 surface water samples. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of both human and bovine enteric viruses was not significantly related to either fecal coliform or total coliform levels. The presence of these viruses was directly related to dissolved oxygen and streamflow but inversely related to water temperature, rainfall in the 30 days preceding sampling, and chlorophyll-?? concentrations. The stringent host specificity of enteric viruses makes them good library-independent indicators for identification of water pollution sources. Viral pathogen detection by PCR is a highly sensitive and easy-to-use tool for rapid assessment of water quality and fecal contamination when public health risk characterization is not necessary. Copyright ?? 2005, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Removal properties of human enteric viruses in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Takayuki; Okabe, Satoshi; Nakahara, Yoshihito; Sano, Daisuke

    2015-05-15

    In order to evaluate removal properties of human enteric viruses from wastewater by a membrane bioreactor (MBR), influent, anoxic and oxic mixed liquor, and membrane effluent samples were collected in a pilot-scale anoxic-oxic MBR process for 16 months, and concentrations of enteroviruses, norovirus GII, and sapoviruses were determined by real-time PCR using murine norovirus as a process control. Mixed liquor samples were separated into liquid and solid phases by centrifugation, and viruses in the bulk solution and those associated with mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) were quantified. Enteroviruses, norovirus GII, and sapoviruses were detected in the influent throughout the sampling period (geometrical mean, 4.0, 3.1, and 4.4 log copies/mL, respectively). Enterovirus concentrations in the solid phase of mixed liquor were generally lower than those in the liquid phase, and the mean log reduction value between influent and anoxic mixed liquor was 0.40 log units. In contrast, norovirus GII and sapovirus concentrations in the solid phase were equal to or higher than those in the liquid phase, and higher log reduction values (1.3 and 1.1 log units, respectively) were observed between influent and anoxic mixed liquor. This suggested that enteroviruses were less associated with MLSS than norovirus GII and sapoviruses, resulting in lower enterovirus removal in the activated sludge process. Enteroviruses and norovirus GII were detected in the MBR effluent but sapoviruses were not in any effluent samples. When MLSS concentration was reduced to 50-60% of a normal operation level, passages of enteroviruses and norovirus GII through a PVDF microfiltration membrane were observed. Since rejection of viruses by the membrane was not related to trans-membrane pressure which was monitored as a parameter of membrane fouling, the results indicated that adsorption to MLSS plays an important role in virus removal by an MBR, and removal properties vary by viruses reflecting different

  12. Cross-Comparison of Human Wastewater-Associated Molecular Markers in Relation to Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Enteric Viruses in Recreational Beach Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, B; Beale, D J; Dennis, P G; Cook, S; Ahmed, W

    2017-04-15

    Detection of human wastewater contamination in recreational waters is of critical importance to regulators due to the risks posed to public health. To identify such risks, human wastewater-associated microbial source tracking (MST) markers have been developed. At present, however, a greater understanding of the suitability of these markers for the detection of diluted human wastewater in environmental waters is necessary to predict risk. Here, we compared the process limit of detection (PLOD) and process limit of quantification (PLOQ) of six human wastewater-associated MST markers ( Bacteroides HF183 [HF183], Escherichia coli H8 [EC H8], Methanobrevibacter smithii nifH , human adenovirus [HAdV], human polyomavirus [HPyV], and pepper mild mottle virus [PMMoV]) in relation to a fecal indicator bacterium (FIB), Enterococcus sp. 23S rRNA (ENT 23S), and three enteric viruses (human adenovirus serotypes 40/41 [HAdV 40/41], human norovirus [HNoV], and human enterovirus [EV]) in beach water samples seeded with raw and secondary-treated wastewater. Among the six MST markers tested, HF183 was the most sensitive measure of human fecal pollution and was quantifiable up to dilutions of 10 -6 and 10 -4 for beach water samples seeded with raw and secondary-treated wastewater, respectively. Other markers and enteric viruses were detected at various dilutions (10 -1 to 10 -5 ). These MST markers, FIB, and enteric viruses were then quantified in beach water ( n = 12) and sand samples ( n = 12) from South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia, to estimate the levels of human fecal pollution. Of the 12 sites examined, beach water and sand samples from several sites had quantifiable concentrations of HF183 and PMMoV markers. Overall, our results indicate that while HF183 is the most sensitive measure of human fecal pollution, it should be used in conjunction with a conferring viral marker to avoid overestimating the risk of gastrointestinal illness. IMPORTANCE MST is an effective tool to

  13. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead ...

  14. High prevalence of enteric viruses in untreated individual drinking water sources and surface water in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyer, Andrej; Torkar, Karmen Godič; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja

    2011-09-01

    Waterborne infections have been shown to be important in outbreaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. Although improved sanitary conditions are being progressively applied, fecal contaminations remain an emerging problem also in developed countries. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of fecal contaminated water sources in Slovenia, including surface waters and groundwater sources throughout the country. In total, 152 water samples were investigated, of which 72 samples represents groundwater from individual wells, 17 samples from public collection supplies and 63 samples from surface stream waters. Two liters of untreated water samples were collected and concentrated by the adsorption/elution technique with positively charged filters followed by an additional ultracentrifugation step. Group A rotaviruses, noroviruses (genogroups I and II) and astroviruses were detected with real-time RT-PCR method in 69 (45.4%) out of 152 samples collected, of which 31/89 (34.8%) drinking water and 38/63 (60.3%) surface water samples were positive for at least one virus tested. In 30.3% of drinking water samples group A rotaviruses were detected (27/89), followed by noroviruses GI (2.2%; 2/89) and astroviruses (2.2%; 2/89). In drinking groundwater samples group A rotaviruses were detected in 27 out of 72 tested samples (37.5%), genogroup I noroviruses in two (2.8%), and human astroviruses in one (1.4%) samples. In surface water samples norovirus genogroup GII was the most frequently detected (41.3%; 26/63), followed by norovirus GI (33.3%; 21/63), human astrovirus (27.0%; 17/63) and group A rotavirus (17.5%; 11/63). Our study demonstrates relatively high percentage of groundwater contamination in Slovenia and, suggests that raw groundwater used as individual drinking water supply may constitute a possible source of enteric virus infections. In the future, testing for enteric viruses should be applied for drinking water sources in waterborne outbreaks

  15. Evidence of Ebola Virus Replication and High Concentration in Semen of a Patient During Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kayla G; Kindrachuk, Jason; Lin, Aaron E; Wohl, Shirlee; Qu, James; Tostenson, Samantha D; Dorman, William R; Busby, Michele; Siddle, Katherine J; Luo, Cynthia Y; Matranga, Christian B; Davey, Richard T; Sabeti, Pardis C; Chertow, Daniel S

    2017-10-15

    In one patient over time, we found that concentration of Ebola virus RNA in semen during recovery is remarkably higher than blood at peak illness. Virus in semen is replication-competent with no change in viral genome over time. Presence of sense RNA suggests replication in cells present in semen. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Recovery of infective virus particles in ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction monolith chromatography is influenced by particle charge and total-to-infective particle ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviben, Dora; Forcic, Dubravko; Ivancic-Jelecki, Jelena; Halassy, Beata; Brgles, Marija

    2017-06-01

    Viral particles are used in medical applications as vaccines or gene therapy vectors. In order to obtain product of high purity, potency and safety for medical use purification of virus particles is a prerequisite, and chromatography is gaining increased attention to meet this aim. Here, we report on the use of ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography on monolithic columns for purification of mumps virus (MuV) and measles virus (MeV). Efficiency of the process was monitored by quantification of infective virus particles (by 50% cell culture infective dose assay) and total virus particles, and monitoring of their size (by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis). Ion-exchange chromatography was shown to be inefficient for MuV and best results for MeV were obtained on QA column with recovery around 17%. Purification of MuV and MeV by hydrophobic interaction chromatography resulted in recoveries around 60%. Results showed that columns with small channels (d=1.4μm) are not suitable for MuV and MeV, although their size is below 400nm, whereas columns with large channels (6μm) showed to be efficient and recoveries independent on the flow rate up to 10mL/min. Heterogeneity of the virus suspension and its interday variability mostly regarding total-to-infective particle ratio was observed. Interestingly, a trend in recovery depending on the day of the harvest was also observed for both viruses, and it correlated with the total-to-infective particle ratio, indicating influence of the virus sample composition on the chromatography results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Recovery of Nicotiana benthamiana plants from a necrotic response induced by a nepovirus is associated with RNA silencing but not with reduced virus titer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovel, Juan; Walker, Melanie; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2007-11-01

    Recovery of plants from virus-induced symptoms is often described as a consequence of RNA silencing, an antiviral defense mechanism. For example, recovery of Nicotiana clevelandii from a nepovirus (tomato black ring virus) is associated with a decreased viral RNA concentration and sequence-specific resistance to further virus infection. In this study, we have characterized the interaction of another nepovirus, tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), with host defense responses during symptom induction and subsequent recovery. Early in infection, ToRSV induced a necrotic phenotype in Nicotiana benthamiana that showed characteristics typical of a hypersensitive response. RNA silencing was also activated during ToRSV infection, as evidenced by the presence of ToRSV-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that could direct degradation of ToRSV sequences introduced into sensor constructs. Surprisingly, disappearance of symptoms was not accompanied by a commensurate reduction in viral RNA levels. The stability of ToRSV RNA after recovery was also observed in N. clevelandii and Cucumis sativus and in N. benthamiana plants carrying a functional RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 ortholog from Medicago truncatula. In experiments with a reporter transgene (green fluorescent protein), ToRSV did not suppress the initiation or maintenance of transgene silencing, although the movement of the silencing signal was partially hindered. Our results demonstrate that although RNA silencing is active during recovery, reduction of virus titer is not required for the initiation of this phenotype. This scenario adds an unforeseen layer of complexity to the interaction of nepoviruses with the host RNA silencing machinery. The possibility that viral proteins, viral RNAs, and/or virus-derived siRNAs inactivate host defense responses is discussed.

  18. Enteric porcine viruses in farmed shellfish in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Larsen, Lars Erik; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    as causes of disease outbreaks caused by norovirus or hepatitis A virus. Other zoonotic pathogens such as hepatitis E virus (HEV), rotavirus (RV) and Salmonella from livestock may also be transmitted to shellfish via this route. In this study, 29 pooled samples from commercial Danish blue mussels were...

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF MULTIPLEX RT-PCR FOR THE DETECTION OF REOVIRUS, HEPATITIS A VIRUS, POLIOVIRUS, NORWALK VIRUS AND ROTAVIRUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water sources are often found to be contaminated by enteric viruses. This is a public health concern as food and waterborne outbreaks caused by enteric viruses such as noroviruses, rotaviruses, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enteroviruses are a common occurrence. All of these viru...

  20. Infection cycle of Artichoke Italian latent virus in tobacco plants: meristem invasion and recovery from disease symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Santovito

    Full Text Available Nepoviral infections induce recovery in fully expanded leaves but persist in shoot apical meristem (SAM by a largely unknown mechanism. The dynamics of infection of a grapevine isolate of Artichoke Italian latent virus (AILV-V, genus Nepovirus in tobacco plants, including colonization of SAM, symptom induction and subsequent recovery of mature leaves from symptoms, were characterized. AILV-V moved from the inoculated leaves systemically and invaded SAM in 7 days post-inoculation (dpi, remaining detectable in SAM at least up to 40 dpi. The new top leaves recovered from viral symptoms earliest at 21 dpi. Accumulation of viral RNA to a threshold level was required to trigger the overexpression of RDR6 and DCL4. Consequently, accumulation of viral RNA decreased in the systemically infected leaves, reaching the lowest concentration in the 3rd and 4th leaves at 23 dpi, which was concomitant with recovery of the younger, upper leaves from disease symptoms. No evidence of virus replication was found in the recovered leaves, but they contained infectious virus particles and were protected against re-inoculation with AILV-V. In this study we also showed that AILV-V did not suppress initiation or maintenance of RNA silencing in transgenic plants, but was able to interfere with the cell-to-cell movement of the RNA silencing signal. Our results suggest that AILV-V entrance in SAM and activation of RNA silencing may be distinct processes since the latter is triggered in fully expanded leaves by the accumulation of viral RNA above a threshold level rather than by virus entrance in SAM.

  1. Pathogenic characteristics of persistent feline enteric coronavirus infection in cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Liesbeth; Van der Lubben, Mariken; Te Lintelo, Eddie G.; Bekker, Cornelis P.J.; Geerts, Tamara; Schuijff, Leontine S.; Grinwis, Guy C.M.; Egberink, Herman F.; Rottier, Peter J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Feline coronaviruses (FCoV) comprise two biotypes: feline enteric coronaviruses (FECV) and feline infectious peritonitis viruses (FIPV). FECV is associated with asymptomatic persistent enteric infections, while FIPV causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a usually fatal systemic disease in domestic cats and some wild Felidae. FIPV arises from FECV by mutation. FCoV also occur in two serotypes, I and II, of which the serotype I viruses are by far the most prevalent in the field. Yet, most of our knowledge about FCoV infections relates to serotype II viruses, particularly about the FIPV, mainly because type I viruses grow poorly in cell culture. Hence, the aim of the present work was the detailed study of the epidemiologically most relevant viruses, the avirulent serotype I viruses. Kittens were inoculated oronasally with different doses of two independent FECV field strains, UCD and RM. Persistent infection could be reproducibly established. The patterns of clinical symptoms, faecal virus shedding and seroconversion were monitored for up to 10 weeks revealing subtle but reproducible differences between the two viruses. Faecal virus, i.e. genomic RNA, was detected during persistent FECV infection only in the large intestine, downstream of the appendix, and could occasionally be observed also in the blood. The implications of our results, particularly our insights into the persistently infected state, are discussed. PMID:20663472

  2. The failure of an inactivated mink enteritis virus vaccine in four preparations to provide protection to dogs against challenge with canine parvovirus-2.

    OpenAIRE

    Carman, S; Povey, C

    1982-01-01

    Four experimental vaccine preparations comprising a strain of mink enteritis virus inactivated by either formalin or beta-propiolactone, and either adjuvanted or nonadjuvanted, failed to stimulate a consistent serum antibody response in 20 vaccinated dogs and failed to protect all but one of these dogs against oral challenge with canine parvovirus-2.

  3. Progress and prospects: foamy virus vectors enter a new age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlwein, O; McClure, M O

    2010-12-01

    Foamy viruses, distantly related to the major subfamily of Retroviruses, Orthoretroviruses that include oncoviruses (for example, murine leukemia virus (MLV)) and lentiviruses (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)), are endemic in mammalian species, but not in human populations. Humans infected by accidental or occupational exposure remain well. The virus is not transmitted to others, nor is it associated with any disease. These features added to its broad host range, efficient transduction of progenitor cells and an integration profile less likely to induce insertional mutagenesis, make these viruses attractive as vectors. Long-term reversal of disease phenotype in dogs with the genetic defect, leukocyte adhesion deficiency, by foamy virus vector therapy strengthens the case for their clinical exploitation.

  4. Hepatitis C virus coinfection does not influence the CD4 cell recovery in HIV-1-infected patients with maximum virologic suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Lars; Mocroft, Amanda; Soriano, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conflicting data exist whether hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects the CD4 cell recovery in patients with HIV starting antiretroviral treatment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of HCV coinfection on the CD4 recovery in patients with maximum virologic suppression within the EuroSIDA...

  5. Improved inactivation of nonenveloped enteric viruses and their surrogates by a novel alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinga, David R; Sattar, Syed A; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Arbogast, James W

    2008-08-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of food-related illness in the United States, and contamination of ready-to-eat items by food handlers poses a high risk for disease. This study reports the in vitro (suspension test) and in vivo (fingerpad protocol) assessments of a new ethanol-based hand sanitizer containing a synergistic blend of polyquaternium polymer and organic acid, which is active against viruses of public health importance, including norovirus. When tested in suspension, the test product reduced the infectivity of the nonenveloped viruses human rotavirus (HRV), poliovirus type 1 (PV-1), and the human norovirus (HNV) surrogates feline calicivirus (FCV) F-9 and murine norovirus type 1 (MNV-1) by greater than 3 log(10) after a 30-s exposure. In contrast, a benchmark alcohol-based hand sanitizer reduced only HRV by greater than 3 log(10) and none of the additional viruses by greater than 1.2 log(10) after the same exposure. In fingerpad experiments, the test product produced a 2.48 log(10) reduction of MNV-1 after a 30-s exposure, whereas a 75% ethanol control produced a 0.91 log(10) reduction. Additionally, the test product reduced the infectivity titers of adenovirus type 5 (ADV-5) and HRV by > or =3.16 log(10) and > or =4.32 log(10), respectively, by the fingerpad assay within 15 s; and PV-1 was reduced by 2.98 log(10) in 30 s by the same method. Based on these results, we conclude that this new ethanol-based hand sanitizer is a promising option for reducing the transmission of enteric viruses, including norovirus, by food handlers and care providers.

  6. Bacillus subtilis and surfactin inhibit the transmissible gastroenteritis virus from entering the intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Hu, Weiwei; Zhu, Liqi; Yang, Qian

    2017-04-28

    Intestinal epithelial cells are the targets for transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus (TGEV) infection. It is urgent to develop a novel candidate against TGEV entry. Bacillus subtilis is a probiotic with excellent anti-microorganism properties and one of its secretions, surfactin, has been regarded as a versatile weapon for most plant pathogens, especially for the enveloped virus. We demonstrate for the first time that B. subtilis OKB105 and its surfactin can effectively inhibit one animal coronavirus, TGEV, entering the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2). Then, several different experiments were performed to seek the might mechanisms. The plaque assays showed that surfactant could reduce the plaque generation of TGEV in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, after incubation with TGEV for 1.5 h, B. subtilis could attach TGEV particles to their surface so that the number of virus to bind to the host cells was declined. Furthermore, our data showed that the inhibition of B. subtilis was closely related to the competition with TGEV for the viral entry receptors, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and aminopeptidase N (APN) protein. In addition, Western blotting and apoptosis analysis indicated that B. subtilis could enhance the resistance of IPEC-J2 cells by up-regulating the expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)-6 and reducing the percentage of apoptotic cells. Taken together, our results suggest that B. subtilis OKB105 and its surfactin can antagonize TGEV entry in vitro and may serve as promising new candidates for TGEV prevention. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. [Modular enteral nutrition in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Sanchís, S; Prenafeta Ferré, M T; Sempere Luque, M D

    1991-01-01

    Modular Enteral Nutrition may be a substitute for Parenteral Nutrition in children with different pathologies. Study of 4 children with different pathologies selected from a group of 40 admitted to the Maternal-Childrens Hospital "Valle de Hebrón" in Barcelona, who received modular enteral nutrition. They were monitored on a daily basis by the Dietician Service. Modular enteral nutrition consists of modules of proteins, peptides, lipids, glucids and mineral salts-vitamins. 1.--Craneo-encephalic traumatisms with loss of consciousness, Feeding with a combination of parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition for 7 days. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended and modular enteral nutrition alone used up to a total of 43 days. 2.--55% burns with 36 days of hyperproteic modular enteral nutrition together with normal feeding. A more rapid recovery was achieved with an increase in total proteins and albumin. 3.--Persistent diarrhoea with 31 days of modular enteral nutrition, 5 days on parenteral nutrition alone and 8 days on combined parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended. 4.--Mucoviscidosis with a total of 19 days on modular enteral nutrition, 12 of which were exclusively on modular enteral nutrition and 7 as a night supplement to normal feeding. We administered proteic intakes of up to 20% of the total calorific intake and in concentrations of up to 1.2 calories/ml of the final preparation, always with a good tolerance. Modular enteral nutrition can and should be used as a substitute for parenteral nutrition in children with different pathologies, thus preventing the complications inherent in parenteral nutrition.

  8. Distinct Effects of Type I and III Interferons on Enteric Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Ingle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferons (IFNs are key host cytokines in the innate immune response to viral infection, and recent work has identified unique roles for IFN subtypes in regulating different aspects of infection. Currently emerging is a common theme that type III IFNs are critical in localized control of infection at mucosal barrier sites, while type I IFNs are important for broad systemic control of infections. The intestine is a particular site of interest for exploring these effects, as in addition to being the port of entry for a multitude of pathogens, it is a complex tissue with a variety of cell types as well as the presence of the intestinal microbiota. Here we focus on the roles of type I and III IFNs in control of enteric viruses, discussing what is known about signaling downstream from these cytokines, including induction of specific IFN-stimulated genes. We review viral strategies to evade IFN responses, effects of IFNs on the intestine, interactions between IFNs and the microbiota, and briefly discuss the role of IFNs in controlling viral infections at other barrier sites. Enhanced understanding of the coordinate roles of IFNs in control of viral infections may facilitate development of antiviral therapeutic strategies; here we highlight potential avenues for future exploration.

  9. The enter-educate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrow, P T; Coleman, P L

    1992-03-01

    This article describes how the Population Communication Services (PCS) has seized on the "enter-educate" approach, the blending of popular entertainment with social messages, to change reproductive health behavior. The enter-educate approach spreads its message through songs, soap operas, variety shows, and other types of popular entertainment mediums. Because they entertain, enter-educate projects can capture the attention of an audience -- such as young people -- who would otherwise scorn social messages. And the use of population mediums makes it possible to reach a variety of audiences. Funded by USAID, PCS began its first enter-educate project in response to the increasing number of teenage pregnancies in Latin America. PCS developed 2 songs and videos, which featured popular teenage singers to serve as role models, to urge abstinence. The songs became instant hits. Since then, PCS has mounted more then 80 major projects in some 40 countries. Highlights of programs range from a successful multi-media family planning campaign in Turkey to humorous television ads in Brazil promoting vasectomy. Recently, PCS initiated projects to teach AIDS awareness. At the core of the enter-educate approach is the social learning theory which holds that much behavior is learned through the observation of role-models. Health professionals work alongside entertainers to produce works that have audience appeal and factual social messages. The enter-educate approach works because it is popular, pervasive, personal, persuasive, and profitable. PCS has found that enter-educate programs pay for themselves through cost sharing and cost recovery.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for cats testing positive for feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus infection in cats entering an animal shelter in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, M C; Vigeant, S; Dale, A

    2017-11-01

    AIMS To estimate the prevalence of cats testing positive for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) antigens in domestic cats entering a New Zealand animal shelter, based on a commercial point-of-care ELISA, to identify risk factors associated with cats testing positive, and to compare the results obtained from the ELISA with those obtained using PCR-based testing. METHOD A cross-sectional study was performed on 388 cats entering the Royal New Zealand Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals animal shelter in Auckland, New Zealand between 7 February 2014 and 30 May 2014. Whole blood samples were collected from each cat and tested for FIV antibody and FeLV antigen using a commercial point-of-care ELISA. Information on the signalment and health status of the cat at the time of entry was also recorded. Blood and saliva samples from a subset of cats were tested for FIV and FeLV proviral DNA using a real-time PCR assay. RESULTS Of the 388 cats in the study sample, 146 (37.6%) had been relinquished by owners, 237 (62.4%) were strays, and 5 (1.3%) were of unknown origin. Overall, 53/388 (13.7%) cats tested positive for FIV antibodies and 4/388 (1.0%) were positive for FeLV antigen. Stray cats had a higher FIV seroprevalence than relinquished cats (42/237 (17.8%) vs. 11/146 (7.5%); p=0.008). Of 53 cats that were FIV-seropositive, 51 (96%) tested positive for FIV proviral DNA using PCR testing of blood. Of these 51 cats, 28 (55%) were positive by PCR testing of saliva. Of the four cats that were FeLV antigen-positive by ELISA, two (50%) were positive for FeLV proviral DNA by PCR testing of blood. The odds of a cat being seropositive for FIV were greater for intact compared to desexed cats (OR=3.3; 95% CI=1.6-7.4) and for male compared to female cats (OR=6.5; 95% CI=3.2-14.0). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The seroprevalence for FIV was 14% among cats entering an animal shelter in Auckland, whereas the prevalence of

  11. Settling and survival profile of enteric pathogens in the swine effluent for water reuse purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, G; Kunz, A; Magri, M E; Schissi, C D; Viancelli, A; Philippi, L S; Barardi, C R M

    2016-11-01

    The present study evaluated the pathogens persistence and settling profile in swine effluent. We determined the enteric pathogens settling characteristics, their survival and inactivation profile in swine effluent (for water reuse purpose) and in sludge (generated after aerobic treatment - during secondary settling process). The study was performed in laboratorial-scale and in full-scale (manure treatment plant). Enteric viruses and enteric bacteria were used as biomarkers. Results showed that these enteric pathogens were significantly reduced from swine effluent during secondary settling process, and enteric viruses removal was correlated with the suspended solids decantation. The design of secondary settlers can be adapted to improve pathogens removal, by diminishing the solids loading rate per area and time, ending in higher hydraulic retention times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and processing of structural and intracellular proteins of two enteric coronaviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardinia, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis and processing of virus-specific proteins of two economically important enteric coronaviruses, bovine enteric coronavirus (BCV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), were studied at the molecular level. To determine the time of appearance of virus-specific proteins, virus-infected cells were labeled with 35 S-methionine at various times during infection, immunoprecipitated with specific hyperimmune ascitic fluid, and analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The peak of BCV protein synthesis was found to be at 12 hours postinfection (hpi). The appearance of all virus-specific protein was coordinated. In contrast, the peak of TGEV protein synthesis was at 8 hpi, but the nucleocapsid proteins was present as early as 4 hpi. Virus-infected cells were treated with tunicamycin to ascertain the types of glycosidic linkages of the glycoproteins. The peplomer proteins of both viruses were sensitive to inhibition by tunicamycin indicating that they possessed N-linked carbohydrates. The matrix protein of TGEV was similarly affected. The matrix protein of BCV, however, was resistant to tunicamycin treatment and, therefore, has O-linked carbohydrates. Only the nucleocapsid protein of both viruses is phosphorylated as detected by radiolabeling with 32 P-orthophosphate. Pulse-chase studies and comparison of intracellular and virion proteins were done to detect precursor-product relationships

  13. Improved Inactivation of Nonenveloped Enteric Viruses and Their Surrogates by a Novel Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinga, David R.; Sattar, Syed A.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Arbogast, James W.

    2008-01-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of food-related illness in the United States, and contamination of ready-to-eat items by food handlers poses a high risk for disease. This study reports the in vitro (suspension test) and in vivo (fingerpad protocol) assessments of a new ethanol-based hand sanitizer containing a synergistic blend of polyquaternium polymer and organic acid, which is active against viruses of public health importance, including norovirus. When tested in suspension, the test product reduced the infectivity of the nonenveloped viruses human rotavirus (HRV), poliovirus type 1 (PV-1), and the human norovirus (HNV) surrogates feline calicivirus (FCV) F-9 and murine norovirus type 1 (MNV-1) by greater than 3 log10 after a 30-s exposure. In contrast, a benchmark alcohol-based hand sanitizer reduced only HRV by greater than 3 log10 and none of the additional viruses by greater than 1.2 log10 after the same exposure. In fingerpad experiments, the test product produced a 2.48 log10 reduction of MNV-1 after a 30-s exposure, whereas a 75% ethanol control produced a 0.91 log10 reduction. Additionally, the test product reduced the infectivity titers of adenovirus type 5 (ADV-5) and HRV by ≥3.16 log10 and ≥4.32 log10, respectively, by the fingerpad assay within 15 s; and PV-1 was reduced by 2.98 log10 in 30 s by the same method. Based on these results, we conclude that this new ethanol-based hand sanitizer is a promising option for reducing the transmission of enteric viruses, including norovirus, by food handlers and care providers. PMID:18586970

  14. Development of a vaccine for the prevention of hemorrhagic enteritis in turkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurk, van den J.V.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Hemorrhagic enteritis (HE) in turkeys is an acute infectious disease characterized by depression, intestinal bleeding, and death. HE occurs worldwide affecting 6 to 12 week-old turkeys and lasting 4 to 6 days. This economically important disease is caused by hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), a

  15. Two parvoviruses that cause different diseases in mink have different transcription patterns: Transcription analysis of mink enteritis virus and Aleutian mink disease parvovirus the same cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, T.; Oleksiewicz, M.; Bloom, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    The two parvoviruses of mink cause very different diseases, Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is associated with rapid, high-level viral replication and acute disease, In contrast, infection with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is associated with persistent, low-level viral replication and chronic...

  16. Development of a method for bacteria and virus recovery from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, James E; Goyal, Sagar M; Kim, Seung Won; Kuehn, Thomas H; Raynor, Peter C; Ramakrishnan, M A; Anantharaman, Senthilvelan; Tang, Weihua

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the work presented here is to study the effectiveness of building air handling units (AHUs) in serving as high volume sampling devices for airborne bacteria and viruses. An HVAC test facility constructed according to ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999 was used for the controlled loading of HVAC filter media with aerosolized bacteria and virus. Nonpathogenic Bacillus subtilis var. niger was chosen as a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis. Three animal viruses; transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), avian pneumovirus (APV), and fowlpox virus were chosen as surrogates for three human viruses; SARS coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and smallpox virus; respectively. These bacteria and viruses were nebulized in separate tests and injected into the test duct of the test facility upstream of a MERV 14 filter. SKC Biosamplers upstream and downstream of the test filter served as reference samplers. The collection efficiency of the filter media was calculated to be 96.5 +/- 1.5% for B. subtilis, however no collection efficiency was measured for the viruses as no live virus was ever recovered from the downstream samplers. Filter samples were cut from the test filter and eluted by hand-shaking. An extraction efficiency of 105 +/- 19% was calculated for B. subtilis. The viruses were extracted at much lower efficiencies (0.7-20%). Our results indicate that the airborne concentration of spore-forming bacteria in building AHUs may be determined by analyzing the material collected on HVAC filter media, however culture-based analytical techniques are impractical for virus recovery. Molecular-based identification techniques such as PCR could be used.

  17. Duck enteritis virus glycoprotein D and B DNA vaccines induce immune responses and immunoprotection in Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Cao, Yongsheng; Cui, Lihong; Ma, Bo; Mu, Xiaoyu; Li, Yanwei; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Dan; Wei, Wei; Gao, Mingchun; Wang, Junwei

    2014-01-01

    DNA vaccine is a promising strategy for protection against virus infection. However, little is known on the efficacy of vaccination with two plasmids for expressing the glycoprotein D (gD) and glycoprotein B (gB) of duck enteritis virus (DEV) in inducing immune response and immunoprotection against virulent virus infection in Pekin ducks. In this study, two eukaryotic expressing plasmids of pcDNA3.1-gB and pcDNA3.1-gD were constructed. Following transfection, the gB and gD expressions in DF1 cells were detected. Groups of ducks were vaccinated with pcDNA3.1-gB and/or pcDNA3.1-gD, and boosted with the same vaccine on day 14 post primary vaccination. We found that intramuscular vaccinations with pcDNA3.1-gB and/or pcDNA3.1-gD, but not control plasmid, stimulated a high frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in Pekin ducks, particularly with both plasmids. Similarly, vaccination with these plasmids, particularly with both plasmids, promoted higher levels of neutralization antibodies against DEV in Pekin ducks. More importantly, vaccination with both plasmids significantly reduced the virulent DEV-induced mortality in Pekin ducks. Our data indicated that vaccination with plasmids for expressing both gB and gD induced potent cellular and humoral immunity against DEV in Pekin ducks. Therefore, this vaccination strategy may be used for the prevention of DEV infection in Pekin ducks.

  18. Laboratory Screening for Children Entering Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Mary V; Beal, Sarah J; Nause, Katie; Staat, Mary Allen; Dexheimer, Judith W; Scribano, Philip V

    2017-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of medical illness detected by laboratory screening in children entering foster care in a single, urban county. All children entering foster care in a single county in Ohio were seen at a consultation foster care clinic and had laboratory screening, including testing for infectious diseases such as HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, and tuberculosis as well as for hemoglobin and lead levels. Over a 3-year period (2012-2015), laboratory screening was performed on 1977 subjects entering foster care in a consultative foster care clinic. The prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, and tuberculosis were all found to be <1%. There were no cases of HIV. Seven percent of teenagers entering foster care tested positive for Chlamydia . A secondary finding was that 54% of subjects were hepatitis B surface antibody-negative, indicating an absence of detected immunity to the hepatitis B virus. Routine laboratory screening for children entering foster care resulted in a low yield. Targeted, rather than routine, laboratory screening may be a more clinically meaningful approach for children entering foster care. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. High occurrence of hepatitis E virus in samples from wastewater treatment plants in Switzerland and comparison with other enteric viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masclaux, Frédéric G; Hotz, Philipp; Friedli, Drita; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Oppliger, Anne

    2013-09-15

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for many enterically transmitted viral hepatitides around the world. It is currently one of the waterborne diseases of global concern. In industrialized countries, HEV appears to be more common than previously thought, even if it is rarely virulent. In Switzerland, seroprevalence studies revealed that HEV is endemic, but no information was available on its environmental spread. The aim of this study was to investigate -using qPCR- the occurrence and concentration of HEV and three other viruses (norovirus genogroup II, human adenovirus-40 and porcine adenovirus) in influents and effluents of 31 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Switzerland. Low concentrations of HEV were detected in 40 out of 124 WWTP influent samples, showing that HEV is commonly present in this region. The frequency of HEV occurrence was higher in summer than in winter. No HEV was detected in WWTP effluent samples, which indicates a low risk of environmental contamination. HEV occurrence and concentrations were lower than those of norovirus and adenovirus. The autochthonous HEV genotype 3 was found in all positive samples, but a strain of the non-endemic and highly pathogenic HEV genotype I was isolated in one sample, highlighting the possibility of environmental circulation of this genotype. A porcine fecal marker (porcine adenovirus) was not detected in HEV positive samples, indicating that swine are not the direct source of HEV present in wastewater. Further investigations will be necessary to determine the reservoirs and the routes of dissemination of HEV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inactivation of human enteric virus surrogates by high-intensity ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; Zivanovic, Svetlana; D'Souza, Doris H

    2010-09-01

    Foodborne viruses, especially human noroviruses, are recognized as leading causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Development of effective inactivation methods is of great importance to control their spread. In this study, the effect of high-intensity ultrasound (HIUS) on the infectivity of three foodborne virus surrogates was investigated. The three surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), and MS2 bacteriophage, were diluted in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or orange juice to a titer of approximately 6 log(10) PFU/mL or approximately 4 log(10) PFU/mL. The ultrasound treatment was performed in duplicate by immersing the HIUS probe in virus-containing solution that was cooled in ice-water and sonicated at 20 kHz for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min with 30 sec on and 30 sec off. The infectivity of the recovered viruses after each ultrasound treatment was evaluated in duplicate using standardized plaque assays and compared to untreated controls. The results show that HIUS effectiveness depended on the virus type, the initial titer of the viruses, and the virus suspension solution. At titers of approximately 4 log(10) PFU/mL in PBS, feline calicivirus (FCV)-F9, MS2, and murine norovirus (MNV)-1 required 5-, 10-, and 30-min treatment, respectively, for complete inactivation. At initial titers of approximately 4 log(10) PFU/mL in orange juice, FCV-F9 required a 15-min treatment for complete inactivation and only a 1.55 log(10) PFU/mL reduction was achieved for MNV-1 in orange juice after 30-min treatment. Thus, inactivation by HIUS in orange juice was much lower than in PBS. Experiments using titers of approximately 6 log(10) PFU/mL showed decreased effects compared to those using titers of approximately 4 log(10) PFU/mL. These results indicate that HIUS alone is not sufficient to inactivate virus in food. Hurdle technologies that combine HIUS with antimicrobials, heat, or pressure should be explored for viral inactivation.

  1. The role of gut bacteria in Schmallenberg virus transmission by Culicoides biting midges

    Science.gov (United States)

    When an arbo-virus enters a vector it will first enter the gut system of this insect before entering cells of the insect body. Once in the gut-system, arbo-viruses and gut microbiota can interact with each other. We wondered if different gut bacterial communities could influence virus infection of b...

  2. Exosomes Enter Vaccine Development: Strategies Meeting Global Challenges of Emerging Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, Alois

    2018-04-01

    New approaches for vaccination must be developed in order to meet the grand challenges for emerging infectious diseases. Exosomes now enter vaccine development and these are strategies are meeting these global challenges, as demonstrated by Anticoli et al., in this issue of Biotechnology Journal. Using exosome vaccines has been now been demonstrated in vivo for several viruses such as Ebola Virus VP24, VP40, and NP, Influenza Virus NP, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever NP, West Nile Virus NS3, and Hepatitis C Virus NS3. Now this technology must be tested in clinics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Emergence of a new lineage of dengue virus type 2 identified in travelers entering Western Australia from Indonesia, 2010-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV transmission is ubiquitous throughout the tropics. More than 70% of the current global dengue disease burden is borne by people who live in the Asia-Pacific region. We sequenced the E gene of DENV isolated from travellers entering Western Australia between 2010-2012, most of whom visited Indonesia, and identified a diverse array of DENV1-4, including multiple co-circulating viral lineages. Most viruses were closely related to lineages known to have circulated in Indonesia for some time, indicating that this geographic region serves as a major hub for dengue genetic diversity. Most notably, we identified a new lineage of DENV-2 (Cosmopolitan genotype that emerged in Bali in 2011-2012. The spread of this lineage should clearly be monitored. Surveillance of symptomatic returned travellers provides important and timely information on circulating DENV serotypes and genotypes, and can reveal the herald wave of dengue and other emerging infectious diseases.

  4. Emerging and potentially emerging viruses in water environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina La Rosa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Among microorganisms, viruses are best fit to become emerging pathogens since they are able to adapt not only by mutation but also through recombination and reassortment and can thus become able to infect new hosts and to adjust to new environments. Enteric viruses are among the commonest and most hazardous waterborne pathogens, causing both sporadic and outbreak-related illness. The main health effect associated with enteric viruses is gastrointestinal illness, but they can also cause respiratory symptoms, conjunctivitis, hepatitis, central nervous system infections, and chronic diseases. Non-enteric viruses, such as respiratory and epitheliotrophic viruses are not considered waterborne, as they are not readily transmitted to water sources from infected individuals. The present review will focus on viral pathogens shown to be transmitted through water. It will also provide an overview of viruses that had not been a concern for waterborne transmission in the past, but that may represent potentially emerging waterborne pathogens due to their occurrence and persistence in water environments.

  5. Recovery rates, enhanced oil recovery and technological limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggeridge, Ann; Cockin, Andrew; Webb, Kevin; Frampton, Harry; Collins, Ian; Moulds, Tim; Salino, Peter

    2014-01-13

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques can significantly extend global oil reserves once oil prices are high enough to make these techniques economic. Given a broad consensus that we have entered a period of supply constraints, operators can at last plan on the assumption that the oil price is likely to remain relatively high. This, coupled with the realization that new giant fields are becoming increasingly difficult to find, is creating the conditions for extensive deployment of EOR. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the nature, status and prospects for EOR technologies. It explains why the average oil recovery factor worldwide is only between 20% and 40%, describes the factors that contribute to these low recoveries and indicates which of those factors EOR techniques can affect. The paper then summarizes the breadth of EOR processes, the history of their application and their current status. It introduces two new EOR technologies that are beginning to be deployed and which look set to enter mainstream application. Examples of existing EOR projects in the mature oil province of the North Sea are discussed. It concludes by summarizing the future opportunities for the development and deployment of EOR.

  6. ICTV virus taxonomy profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purdy, Michael A.; Harrison, Tim J.; Jameel, S.; Meng, X.J.; Okamoto, H.; Poel, Van Der W.H.M.; Smith, Donald B.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Davison, Andrew J.; Siddell, Stuart G.; Simmonds, Peter; Adams, Michael J.; Smith, Donald B.; Orton, Richard J.; Knowles, Nick J.

    2017-01-01

    The family Hepeviridae includes enterically transmitted small non-enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses. It includes the genera Piscihepevirus, whose members infect fish, and Orthohepevirus, whose members infect mammals and birds. Members of the genus Orthohepevirus include hepatitis E virus, which

  7. Recovery of viral RNA and infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus from positive lateral-flow devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Veronica L; Bankowski, Bartlomiej M; Armson, Bryony; Di Nardo, Antonello; Valdazo-Gonzalez, Begoña; Reid, Scott M; Barnett, Paul V; Wadsworth, Jemma; Ferris, Nigel P; Mioulet, Valérie; King, Donald P

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease Virus (FMDV) is an economically important, highly contagious picornavirus that affects both wild and domesticated cloven hooved animals. In developing countries, the effective laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is often hindered by inadequate sample preservation due to difficulties in the transportation and storage of clinical material. These factors can compromise the ability to detect and characterise FMD virus in countries where the disease is endemic. Furthermore, the high cost of sending infectious virus material and the biosecurity risk it presents emphasises the need for a thermo-stable, non-infectious mode of transporting diagnostic samples. This paper investigates the potential of using FMDV lateral-flow devices (LFDs) for dry transportation of clinical samples for subsequent nucleic acid amplification, sequencing and recovery of infectious virus by electroporation. FMDV positive samples (epithelial suspensions and cell culture isolates) representing four FMDV serotypes were applied to antigen LFDs: after which it was possible to recover viral RNA that could be detected using real-time RT-PCR. Using this nucleic acid, it was also possible to recover VP1 sequences and also successfully utilise protocols for amplification of complete FMD virus genomes. It was not possible to recover infectious FMDV directly from the LFDs, however following electroporation into BHK-21 cells and subsequent cell passage, infectious virus could be recovered. Therefore, these results support the use of the antigen LFD for the dry, non-hazardous transportation of samples from FMD endemic countries to international reference laboratories.

  8. Comparison of the virucidal efficiency of peracetic acid, potassium monopersulfate and sodium hypochlorite on hepatitis A and enteric cytopathogenic bovine orphan virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, H; Soumet, C; Fresnel, R; Morin, T; Lamaudière, S; Le Sauvage, A L; Deleurme, K; Maris, P

    2013-10-01

    The virucidal activity of peroxy-products was evaluated and compared with sodium hypochlorite using the EN 14675 European suspension test and a surface test developed in our laboratory. The classical approach on infectivity of viruses was complemented with a prospective approach on virus genomes. Both infectivity tests were adapted and/or developed to determine the activity of disinfectants against reference bovine enterovirus type 1 [enteric cytopathogenic bovine orphan virus (ECBO)] and resistant hepatitis A virus (HAV) in conditions simulating practical use. Similar concentrations of active chlorine were virucidal against both viruses, either at 0·062% using the suspension test or at 0·50-1% using the surface test. However, for potassium monopersulfate and peracetic acid products, concentrations of approximately three times (3%) to 72 times (9%) higher were necessary against HAV than ECBO when determined with the suspension test. With the surface test, 4-8% peroxy-products were virucidal against HAV, either 16 times more peroxy-products concentrations than against ECBO. No significant impact on the targeted area of the viral genome measured by real-time RT-PCRs was obtained for ECBO and HAV suspensions treated with disinfectants, even with doses higher than the minimal virucidal concentrations. Sodium hypochlorite, but not peroxy-products, had similar activity against ECBO and HAV. No relation could be established between infectivity tests and genome destruction. This is the first comparative study that investigates with novel suspension and surface tests the reduction of infectivity and genome destruction of two resistant viruses by peroxy-compounds. The results and conclusions collected with European standards are discussed. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Epstein - Barr Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Štorkánová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus Bachelor thesis summarizes the findings of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), its general characteristics, transmission and spread of the virus, symptoms of disease and subsequent therapy and recovery. More specifically, it focuses on infectious mononucleosis, as well as more generally to other diseases, which the Epstein-Barr virus causes. It includes details of the vaccine against EB virus. There are the statistics on the incidence of infectious mononucleosis.

  10. Longitudinal field studies of avian metapneumovirus and turkey hemorrhagic enteritis virus in turkeys suffering from colibacillosis associated mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanardi, Davide; Lupini, Caterina; Pesente, Patrizia; Rossi, Giulia; Ortali, Giovanni; Catelli, Elena

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the exposure to Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and/or to Turkey hemorrhagic enteritis virus (THEV) was significant for the induction of episodes of colibacillosis in aMPV and THEV vaccinated turkeys. Colibacillosis-associated mortality was recorded and longitudinal virological studies performed in three consecutive turkey flocks reared in the same farm. aMPV and THEV diagnostic swabs and blood samples were made once a week up to 14 weeks of age. Swabs were processed by molecular techniques for viruses detection and antibody titres were evaluated. Field subtype B aMPVs were detected in all flocks at different ages of life always associated with respiratory signs and increase of colibacillosis-associated mortality. THEV has been consistently detected in all flocks since the 9th week of age. Vaccination with a single dose of the THEV commercial inactivated vaccine available in Italy seems does not protect the birds from the infection. Sequence comparison of the hexon protein of one of the THEV strains detected, and strains isolated worldwide, revealed high similarity between them. These results are consistent with the notion that the hexon protein, being the major antigenic component of the virus, is highly conserved between the strains. Results showed that field aMPV infection is directly correlated to colibacillosis-associated mortality. Less clear appears the role of THEV because the endemicity of aMPV makes difficult to evaluate its role in predisposing colibacillosis in absence of aMPV. It would be interesting to further investigate this issue through experimental trials in secure isolation conditions.

  11. The Application of NHEJ-CRISPR/Cas9 and Cre-Lox System in the Generation of Bivalent Duck Enteritis Virus Vaccine against Avian Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxiang Chang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Duck-targeted vaccines to protect against avian influenza are critically needed to aid in influenza disease control efforts in regions where ducks are endemic for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI. Duck enteritis virus (DEV is a promising candidate viral vector for development of vaccines targeting ducks, owing to its large genome and narrow host range. The clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9 system is a versatile gene-editing tool that has proven beneficial for gene modification and construction of recombinant DNA viral vectored vaccines. Currently, there are two commonly used methods for gene insertion: non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ and homology-directed repair (HDR. Owing to its advantages in efficiency and independence from molecular requirements of the homologous arms, we utilized NHEJ-dependent CRISPR/Cas9 to insert the influenza hemagglutinin (HA antigen expression cassette into the DEV genome. The insert was initially tagged with reporter green fluorescence protein (GFP, and a Cre-Lox system was later used to remove the GFP gene insert. Furthermore, a universal donor plasmid system was established by introducing double bait sequences that were independent of the viral genome. In summary, we provide proof of principle for generating recombinant DEV viral vectored vaccines against the influenza virus using an integrated NHEJ-CRISPR/Cas9 and Cre-Lox system.

  12. Immune evasion of porcine enteric coronaviruses and viral modulation of antiviral innate signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingzhan; Yoo, Dongwan

    2016-12-02

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) are emerged and reemerging viruses in pigs, and together with transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), pose significant economic concerns to the swine industry. These viruses infect epithelial cells of the small intestine and cause watery diarrhea, dehydration, and a high mortality in neonatal piglets. Type I interferons (IFN-α/β) are major antiviral cytokines forming host innate immunity, and in turn, these enteric coronaviruses have evolved to modulate the host innate immune signaling during infection. Accumulating evidence however suggests that IFN induction and signaling in the intestinal epithelial cells differ from other epithelial cells, largely due to distinct features of the gut epithelial mucosal surface and commensal microflora, and it appears that type III interferon (IFN-λ) plays a key role to maintain the antiviral state in the gut. This review describes the recent understanding on the immune evasion strategies of porcine enteric coronaviruses and the role of different types of IFNs for intestinal antiviral innate immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Recovery of viral RNA and infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus from positive lateral-flow devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica L Fowler

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease Virus (FMDV is an economically important, highly contagious picornavirus that affects both wild and domesticated cloven hooved animals. In developing countries, the effective laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is often hindered by inadequate sample preservation due to difficulties in the transportation and storage of clinical material. These factors can compromise the ability to detect and characterise FMD virus in countries where the disease is endemic. Furthermore, the high cost of sending infectious virus material and the biosecurity risk it presents emphasises the need for a thermo-stable, non-infectious mode of transporting diagnostic samples. This paper investigates the potential of using FMDV lateral-flow devices (LFDs for dry transportation of clinical samples for subsequent nucleic acid amplification, sequencing and recovery of infectious virus by electroporation. FMDV positive samples (epithelial suspensions and cell culture isolates representing four FMDV serotypes were applied to antigen LFDs: after which it was possible to recover viral RNA that could be detected using real-time RT-PCR. Using this nucleic acid, it was also possible to recover VP1 sequences and also successfully utilise protocols for amplification of complete FMD virus genomes. It was not possible to recover infectious FMDV directly from the LFDs, however following electroporation into BHK-21 cells and subsequent cell passage, infectious virus could be recovered. Therefore, these results support the use of the antigen LFD for the dry, non-hazardous transportation of samples from FMD endemic countries to international reference laboratories.

  14. A comprehensive study of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs entering a slaughterhouse in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspor Lainšček, Petra; Toplak, Ivan; Kirbiš, Andrej

    2017-12-01

    Hepatitis E is a zoonotic viral disease of pigs with increasing public health concern in industrialized countries. Presented broad study of hepatitis E virus (HEV) presence in pigs in Slovenia is the first attempt to overview the HEV situation in pigs entering a slaughterhouse and, further, to analyse the possibility of HEV entering into the food supply chain. 2433 samples from 811 clinically healthy pigs were collected at four slaughterhouses in Slovenia. Sampling covered three different age groups of pigs and three different types of samples (faeces, bile and liver) important for tracing HEV in a pig population. In addition, 63 swab samples were collected systematically from three different sites on the slaughter line, as well as 22 samples of minced meat and 30 bratwurst samples. All the samples were screened for the presence of HEV nucleic acids by specific real-time RT-PCR assay. In the group of three month old pigs 13.7% of faeces, 13.0% of bile and 2.1% of liver samples were HEV positive. In the group of six months old pigs only 0.25% of liver and 0.25% of bile samples were positive. In the category of sows, no positive samples were found. Two out of 63 swab samples collected on the slaughter line were HEV positive. All tested samples of minced meat and bratwurst were negative. The phylogenetic analysis of 50 HEV positive samples, with comparison of 366 nucleotides in ORF1 region, revealed high diversity of identified strains of HEV in pigs, belonging into subtypes 3a, 3b, 3c and 3e. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Duck viral enteritis in domestic muscovy ducks in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, S.; Converse, K.A.; Hamir, A.N.; Eckroade, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Duck viral enteritis (DVE) outbreaks occurred at two different locations in Pennsylvania in 1991 and 1992. In the first outbreak, four ducks died out of a group of 30 domestic ducks; in the second outbreak, 65 ducks died out of a group of 114 domestic ducks, and 15 domestic geese died as well. A variety of species of ducks were present on both premises, but only muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) died from the disease. On necropsy, gross lesions included hepatomegaly with petechial hemorrhages, petechial hemorrhages in the abdominal fat, petechial hemorrhages on the epicardial surface of the heart, and multifocal to coalescing areas of fibrinonecrotic material over the mucosal surface of the trachea, esophagus, intestine, and cloaca. Histologically, the liver had random multifocal areas of necrosis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes. DVE virus was isolated and identified using muscovy duck embryo fibroblast inoculation and virus neutralization. /// En dos sitios diferentes se presentaron brotes de enteritis viral de los patos en el estados de Pensilvania en los a??os 1991 y 1992. En el primer brote, cuatro de un lote de 30 patos murieron mientras que en el segundo brote murieron 65 patos de un lote de 114 patos y 15 gansos. En ambas localidades exist?-a una variedad de especies de patos, sin embargo, s??lamente los patos almizcleros (Cairina moschata) murieron. A la necropsia, las lesiones macrosc??picas incluyeron hepatomegalia con hemorragias petequiales, hemorragias petequiales en la grasa abdominal y en la superficie del epicardio, y ?!reas multifocales o coalescentes de material fibrinonecr??tico sobre la superficie de la mucosa de la tr?!quea, es??fago, intestino y cloaca. Histol??gicamente, el h?-gado mostraba ?!reas multifocales de necrosis y cuerpos de inclusi??n intranucleares eosinof?-licos en los hepatocitos. El virus de la enteritis viral de los patos fue aislado e identificado usando fibroblasto de embriones de pato almizclero

  16. [Hepatitis A and E enterically transmitted virus infections of the liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegl, G

    2004-08-01

    Hepatitis A virus (a picornavirus) and hepatitis E virus (so far unclassified) are small, non-enveloped and relatively stable RNA viruses with many similar, yet, not identical characteristics. Both viruses are transmitted preferentially by the fecal-oral route. Consequently, their spread is favoured by poor personal hygiene and inappropriate sanitary conditions. Infection can pass subclinically, take an acute and self limiting course, and can also manifest as fulminant hepatitis with liver failure. True chronic disease is unknown. Laboratory diagnosis is preferentially performed by serology, but can also be complemented by assay for viral RNA in stool or serum. Resolution of infection leads to immunity which, in the case of hepatitis A, is known to be fully protective and most likely lifelong. Available hepatitis A vaccines are able to induce a similar state of protection. Vaccines for hepatitis E are under development. Specific antiviral treatment is not yet available, neither for hepatitis A nor for hepatitis E.

  17. Temporal Analysis of Andes Virus and Sin Nombre Virus Infections of Syrian Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Microbiology . All Rights Reserved. Temporal Analysis of Andes Virus and Sin Nombre Virus Infections of Syrian Hamsters Victoria Wahl-Jensen,1 Jennifer...Ye, C., J. Prescott , R. Nofchissey, D. Goade, and B. Hjelle. 2004. Neutralizing antibodies and Sin Nombre virus RNA after recovery from hantavirus

  18. Prevalence of protective antibody titers for canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus in dogs entering a Florida animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Elizabeth S; Crawford, P Cynda; Levy, Julie K; Edinboro, Charlotte H; Dubovi, Edward J; Caligiuri, Randy

    2010-06-15

    To determine the proportion of dogs entering an animal shelter with protective antibody titers (PATs) for canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) and identify factors associated with having a PAT. Cross-sectional study. 431 dogs admitted to an open-admission municipal animal shelter in north central Florida with a history of infectious disease outbreaks. Blood was collected from dogs on the day of admission to the shelter. Antibody titers for CDV and CPV were measured by virus neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition, respectively. Age, sex, neuter status, address of origin, source (stray or previously owned), health status (healthy or not healthy), and outcome (adoption, euthanasia, or reclaimed by owner) data were also collected. Overall, 64.5% (278/431) of dogs had insufficient titers for antibodies against CDV, CPV, or both. A total of 153 (35.5%) dogs had PATs for both CDV and CPV, 33 (7.7%) had PATs for CDV but not CPV, 136 (31.5%) had PATs for CPV but not CDV, and 109 (25.3%) did not have PATs for either virus. Older dogs were more likely to have PATs for CDV and CPV. Neutered dogs were more likely to have PATs for CDV. Factors not associated with having a PAT included source, health status, and type of community from which the dog originated. Most dogs had insufficient antibody titers for CDV, CPV, or both at the time of admission to the animal shelter. Findings support current guidelines recommending vaccination of all dogs immediately upon admission to shelters, regardless of source or physical condition.

  19. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  20. Detection of enteric Adenoviruses in South-African waters using gene probes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene probes developed locally for both enteric Adenoviruses 40 and 41 were used to determine whether these viruses were present in both raw and treated waters. Approximately sixty water samples were concentrated by ultra filtration and analysed...

  1. Enteric porcine viruses in farmed shellfish in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krog, J S; Larsen, L E; Schultz, A C

    2014-09-01

    Bivalve shellfish are at constant risk of being exposed to pathogens as a consequence of contamination of the shellfish beds with human or animal waste originating from sewage treatment plants or slurry fertilized fields. Consumption of contaminated oysters and mussels are frequently reported as causes of disease outbreaks caused by norovirus or hepatitis A virus. Other zoonotic pathogens such as hepatitis E virus (HEV), rotavirus (RV) and Salmonella from livestock may also be transmitted to shellfish via this route. In this study, 29 pooled samples from commercial Danish blue mussels were tested for porcine pathogens and indicator bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli). All samples tested negative for HEV, RV and Salmonella, whereas E. coli and the highly stable porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were detected in eight and 12 samples, respectively. This is the first study to report the detection of PCV2 in commercial mussels. Based on the detection of PCV2 in clean areas with low prevalence of the normally applied fecal indicator E. coli, testing for PCV2 may be a more sensitive and robust specific porcine waste indicator in shellfish harvesting areas. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Qualitative release assessment to estimate the likelihood of henipavirus entering the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Snary

    Full Text Available The genus Henipavirus includes Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV, for which fruit bats (particularly those of the genus Pteropus are considered to be the wildlife reservoir. The recognition of henipaviruses occurring across a wider geographic and host range suggests the possibility of the virus entering the United Kingdom (UK. To estimate the likelihood of henipaviruses entering the UK, a qualitative release assessment was undertaken. To facilitate the release assessment, the world was divided into four zones according to location of outbreaks of henipaviruses, isolation of henipaviruses, proximity to other countries where incidents of henipaviruses have occurred and the distribution of Pteropus spp. fruit bats. From this release assessment, the key findings are that the importation of fruit from Zone 1 and 2 and bat bushmeat from Zone 1 each have a Low annual probability of release of henipaviruses into the UK. Similarly, the importation of bat meat from Zone 2, horses and companion animals from Zone 1 and people travelling from Zone 1 and entering the UK was estimated to pose a Very Low probability of release. The annual probability of release for all other release routes was assessed to be Negligible. It is recommended that the release assessment be periodically re-assessed to reflect changes in knowledge and circumstances over time.

  3. Torque teno virus: an improved indicator for viral pathogens in drinking waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jennifer S; Plummer, Jeanine D; Long, Sharon C

    2008-10-03

    Currently applied indicator organism systems, such as coliforms, are not fully protective of public health from enteric viruses in water sources. Waterborne disease outbreaks have occurred in systems that tested negative for coliforms, and positive coliform results do not necessarily correlate with viral risk. It is widely recognized that bacterial indicators do not co-occur exclusively with infectious viruses, nor do they respond in the same manner to environmental or engineered stressors. Thus, a more appropriate indicator of health risks from infectious enteric viruses is needed. Torque teno virus is a small, non-enveloped DNA virus that likely exhibits similar transport characteristics to pathogenic enteric viruses. Torque teno virus is unique among enteric viral pathogens in that it appears to be ubiquitous in humans, elicits seemingly innocuous infections, and does not exhibit seasonal fluctuations or epidemic spikes. Torque teno virus is transmitted primarily via the fecal-oral route and can be assayed using rapid molecular techniques. We hypothesize that Torque teno virus is a more appropriate indicator of viral pathogens in drinking waters than currently used indicator systems based solely on bacteria. To test the hypothesis, a multi-phased research approach is needed. First, a reliable Torque teno virus assay must be developed. A rapid, sensitive, and specific PCR method using established nested primer sets would be most appropriate for routine monitoring of waters. Because PCR detects both infectious and inactivated virus, an in vitro method to assess infectivity also is needed. The density and occurrence of Torque teno virus in feces, wastewater, and source waters must be established to define spatial and temporal stability of this potential indicator. Finally, Torque teno virus behavior through drinking water treatment plants must be determined with co-assessment of traditional indicators and enteric viral pathogens to assess whether correlations exist

  4. Nonhuman Primate Models of Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanford, Robert E; Walker, Christopher M; Lemon, Stanley M

    2018-04-23

    Although phylogenetically unrelated, human hepatitis viruses share an exclusive or near exclusive tropism for replication in differentiated hepatocytes. This narrow tissue tropism may contribute to the restriction of the host ranges of these viruses to relatively few host species, mostly nonhuman primates. Nonhuman primate models thus figure prominently in our current understanding of the replication and pathogenesis of these viruses, including the enterically transmitted hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV), and have also played major roles in vaccine development. This review draws comparisons of HAV and HEV infection from studies conducted in nonhuman primates, and describes how such studies have contributed to our current understanding of the biology of these viruses. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  5. Effect of minimal enteral feeding on recovery in a methotrexate-induced gastrointestinal mucositis rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, Nicoline S. S.; Rings, Edmond H. H. M.; Havinga, Rick; Groen, Albert K.; Tissing, Wim J. E.

    Patients suffering from gastrointestinal mucositis often receive parenteral nutrition as nutritional support. However, the absence of enteral nutrition might not be beneficial for the intestine. We aimed to determine the feasibility of minimal enteral feeding (MEF) administration in a methotrexate

  6. Hyperthermophilic Archaeal Viruses as Novel Nanoplatforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldahl, Kristine Buch

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on earth, and with an estimated 1031 virus-like particles in the biosphere, viruses are virtually everywhere. Traditionally, the study of viruses has focused on their roles as infectious agents. However, over the last decades with the development...... presents an in depth investigation of the hyperthermophilic archaeal virus SMV. Decisive steps in the viral life-cycle are studied with focus on the early stages of infection. TEM observations suggest that SMV1 virions enter into host cells via a fusion entry mechanism, involving three distinct stages...

  7. Restabelecimento ("recovery" em plantas de fumo atacadas pelo virus de "vira-cabeça"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Forster

    1942-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations were made with tobacco plants which, after being naturally infected in the field by the virus of "vira-cabeça", a disease identical to spotted wilt (3, not only resisted to it, but exhibited complete recovery. Several trials were carried out in order to ascertain the following points : 1 whether the recovery means a greater degree of individual constitutional resistance ; 2 whether it represents an acquired immunity or ; 3 whether it is just of pure accidental nature. Plants showing recovery were selfed and seeds collected from them sown in separate rows. The same procedure was always applied with the new recovered plants. Thus, strains of plants were obtained representing several succeeding generations of recovered plants. In 1940-41 recovery progenies were planted at two different transplanting periods. During the next season 1941-42 these progenies, which represented already one more generation in comparison with those of 1940-41, were planted in two districts where the average occurrence of "vira-cabeça" was different. The percentages of "vira-cabeça", observed in all trials, were submitted to statistical analysis, comparing the errors obtained for difference of districts, transplanting time, varieties and progenies representing several generations of recovered plants. Comparing the calculated errors it was found that the greatest effect in the occurrence of ' Vira-cabeça" observed should be attributed to different transplanting times or different districts. The selection of recovered plants showed no influence in lowering the incidence of * vira-cabeça" : hence the impossibility of getting types of tobacco resistant to "vira-cabeça" through selection of recovered plants. Plants were observed in the field that after the first recovery exhibited symptoms of the disease, and then completely recovered from it again. This is in accordance with the results of Smith (11 in the reinoculation of tobacco plants after recovery from

  8. RNASEK is required for internalization of diverse acid-dependent viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Brent A; Yasunaga, Ari; Panda, Debasis; Tartell, Michael A; Hopkins, Kaycie C; Hensley, Scott E; Cherry, Sara

    2015-06-23

    Viruses must gain entry into cells to establish infection. In general, viruses enter either at the plasma membrane or from intracellular endosomal compartments. Viruses that use endosomal pathways are dependent on the cellular factors that control this process; however, these genes have proven to be essential for endogenous cargo uptake, and thus are of limited value for therapeutic intervention. The identification of genes that are selectively required for viral uptake would make appealing drug targets, as their inhibition would block an early step in the life cycle of diverse viruses. At this time, we lack pan-antiviral therapeutics, in part because of our lack of knowledge of such cellular factors. RNAi screening has begun to reveal previously unknown genes that play roles in viral infection. We identified dRNASEK in two genome-wide RNAi screens performed in Drosophila cells against West Nile and Rift Valley Fever viruses. Here we found that ribonuclease kappa (RNASEK) is essential for the infection of human cells by divergent and unrelated positive- and negative-strand-enveloped viruses from the Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, Bunyaviridae, and Orthomyxoviridae families that all enter cells from endosomal compartments. In contrast, RNASEK was dispensable for viruses, including parainfluenza virus 5 and Coxsackie B virus, that enter at the plasma membrane. RNASEK is dispensable for attachment but is required for uptake of these acid-dependent viruses. Furthermore, this requirement appears specific, as general endocytic uptake of transferrin is unaffected in RNASEK-depleted cells. Therefore, RNASEK is a potential host cell Achilles' heel for viral infection.

  9. Vaccines against enteric infections for the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerkinsky, Cecil; Holmgren, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Since the first licensure of the Sabin oral polio vaccine more than 50 years ago, only eight enteric vaccines have been licensed for four disease indications, and all are given orally. While mucosal vaccines offer programmatically attractive tools for facilitating vaccine deployment, their development remains hampered by several factors: —limited knowledge regarding the properties of the gut immune system during early life;—lack of mucosal adjuvants, limiting mucosal vaccine development to live-attenuated or killed whole virus and bacterial vaccines;—lack of correlates/surrogates of mucosal immune protection; and—limited knowledge of the factors contributing to oral vaccine underperformance in children from developing countries.There are now reasons to believe that the development of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants and of programmatically sound intervention strategies could enhance the efficacy of current and next-generation enteric vaccines, especially in lesser developed countries which are often co-endemic for enteric infections and malnutrition. These vaccines must be safe and affordable for the world's poorest, confer long-term protection and herd immunity, and must be able to contain epidemics. PMID:25964464

  10. Production, purification and characterization of polyclonal antibody against the truncated gK of the duck enteritis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shunchuan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Duck virus enteritis (DVE is an acute, contagious herpesvirus infection of ducks, geese, and swans, which has produced significant economic losses in domestic and wild waterfowl. With the purpose of decreasing economic losses in the commercial duck industry, studying the unknown glycoprotein K (gK of DEV may be a new method for preferably preventing and curing this disease. So this is the first time to product and purify the rabbit anti-tgK polyclonal antibody. Through the western blot and ELISA assay, the truncated glycoprotein K (tgK has good antigenicity, also the antibody possesses high specificity and affinity. Meanwhile the rabbit anti-tgK polyclonal antibody has the potential to produce subunit vaccines and the functions of neutralizing DEV and anti-DEV infection because of its neutralization titer. Indirect immunofluorescent microscopy using the purified rabbit anti-tgK polyclonal antibody as diagnostic antibody was susceptive to detect a small quantity of antigen in tissues or cells. This approach also provides effective experimental technology for epidemiological investigation and retrospective diagnose of the preservative paraffin blocks.

  11. Early postoperative enteral nutrition is useful for recovering gastrointestinal motility and maintaining the nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Naruo; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakayoshi, Tomoko; Hanyu, Nobuyoshi; Nakao, Masatoshi; Takeda, Akihiro; Furukawa, Yoshiyuki; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of enteral nutrition in postoperative nutritional management is known, but the effects on gastrointestinal motility and nutrition have not yet been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of enteral and parenteral nutrition soon after open abdominal surgery on gastrointestinal motility and nutritional status. A partial resection of rectum models was prepared to compare two types of nutrient administration: enteral nutrition and total parenteral nutrition. The differences between the effects of nutrition types in terms of gastrointestinal motility and nutritional status were investigated. Enteral nutrition contributed to recovery of gastrointestinal motility and maintenance of nutritional status. Enteral nutrition should therefore be initiated soon after surgery if the gastrointestinal tract is available.

  12. Het Guillain-Barré-syndroom na een Campylobacter jejuni-enteritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenen, L. F.; Scholten, H. G.

    1990-01-01

    A 7-year-old boy nine days before onset of a Guillain-Barré-syndrome had had enteritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni. The clinical signs were restricted to minor motor and sensory deficits in the limbs; 5 weeks after the onset of the syndrome, recovery was complete. So far, 16 cases of

  13. Recovery of avirulent, thermostable Newcastle disease virus strain NDV4-C from cloned cDNA and stable expression of an inserted foreign gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Liu, H.; Liu, P.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Zhao, C.; Kong, X.

    2013-01-01

    A reverse genetics system for thermostable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is not currently available. In this study, we developed a reverse genetics system for the avirulent and thermostable NDV4-C strain. Successful recovery of NDV4-C was achieved by using either T7 RNA polymerase or cellular RNA

  14. Expression and characterization of UL16 gene from duck enteritis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Mingshu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have indicated that the UL16 protein and its homologs from herpesvirus were conserved and played similar roles in viral DNA packaging, virion assembly, budding, and egress. However, there was no report on the UL16 gene product of duck enteritis virus (DEV. In this study, we analyzed the amino acid sequence of UL16 using bioinformatics tools and expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3 induced by isopropy1-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG. The recombinant protein was produced, purified using a Ni-NTA column and used to generate the polyclonal antibody against UL16. The intracellular distribution of the DEV UL16 product was carried out using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Results In our study, UL16 gene of DEV was composed of 1089 nucleotides, which encoded 362 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignment suggested that the UL16 gene was highly conserved in herpesvirus family. The UL16 gene was cloned into a pET prokaryotic expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli Rossetta (DE3 induced by IPTG. A 60kDa fusion protein band corresponding to the predicted size was produced on the SDS-PAGE, purified using a Ni-NTA column. Anti-UL16 polyclonal sera was prepared by immunizing rabbits, and reacted with a band in the IPTG induced cell lysates with an apparent molecular mass of 60 kDa. In vivo expression of the UL16 protein in DEV infected duck embryo fibroblast cells (DEFs was localized mostly around perinuclear cytoplasmic area and in cytosol using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Conclusions The UL16 gene of DEV was successfully cloned, expressed and detected in DEV infected DEFs for the first time. The UL16 protein localized mostly around perinuclear cytoplasmic area and in cytosol in DEV infected DEFs. DEV UL16 shared high similarity with UL16 family members, indicating that DEV UL16 many has similar function with its homologs. All these results may provide some insight for further research about

  15. Enteric glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühl, A; Nasser, Y; Sharkey, K A

    2004-04-01

    The enteric nervous system is composed of both enteric neurones and enteric glia. Enteric glial cells were first described by Dogiel and are now known to outnumber neurones approximately 4 : 1. In the past, these cells were assumed to subserve a largely supportive role; however, recent evidence indicates that enteric glial cells may play a more active role in the control of gut function. In transgenic mouse models, where enteric glial cells are selectively ablated, the loss of glia results in intestinal inflammation and disruption of the epithelial barrier. Enteric glia are activated specifically by inflammatory insults and may contribute actively to inflammatory pathology via antigen presentation and cytokine synthesis. Enteric glia also express receptors for neurotransmitters and so may serve as intermediaries in enteric neurotransmission. Thus, enteric glia may serve as a link between the nervous and immune systems of the gut and may also have an important role in maintaining the integrity of the mucosal barrier and in other aspects of intestinal homeostasis.

  16. Harmonised investigation of the occurrence of human enteric viruses in the leafy green vegetable supply chain in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, P; Kozyra, I; Lazic, S; Bouwknegt, M; Rutjes, S; Willems, K; Moloney, R; de Roda Husman, A M; Kaupke, A; Legaki, E; D'Agostino, M; Cook, N; Rzeżutka, A; Petrovic, T; Vantarakis, A

    2012-12-01

    Numerous outbreaks have been attributed to the consumption of raw or minimally processed leafy green vegetables contaminated with enteric viral pathogens. The aim of the present study was an integrated virological monitoring of the salad vegetables supply chain in Europe, from production, processing and point-of-sale. Samples were collected and analysed in Greece, Serbia and Poland, from 'general' and 'ad hoc' sampling points, which were perceived as critical points for virus contamination. General sampling points were identified through the analysis of background information questionnaires based on HACCP audit principles, and they were sampled during each sampling occasion where as-ad hoc sampling points were identified during food safety fact-finding visits and samples were only collected during the fact-finding visits. Human (hAdV) and porcine (pAdV) adenovirus, hepatitis A (HAV) and E (HEV) virus, norovirus GI and GII (NoV) and bovine polyomavirus (bPyV) were detected by means of real-time (RT-) PCR-based protocols. General samples were positive for hAdV, pAdV, HAV, HEV, NoV GI, NoV GII and bPyV at 20.09 % (134/667), 5.53 % (13/235), 1.32 % (4/304), 3.42 % (5/146), 2 % (6/299), 2.95 % (8/271) and 0.82 % (2/245), respectively. Ad hoc samples were positive for hAdV, pAdV, bPyV and NoV GI at 9 % (3/33), 9 % (2/22), 4.54 % (1/22) and 7.14 % (1/14), respectively. These results demonstrate the existence of viral contamination routes from human and animal sources to the salad vegetable supply chain and more specifically indicate the potential for public health risks due to the virus contamination of leafy green vegetables at primary production.

  17. VHS virus - present situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    of the worldwide distribution of the disease will be given. Virus evolution: Recent studies indicate that only a few amino acid changes in the structural proteins of VHSV can change the virulence patterns significantly, thereby coming closer to assessing the risk of none to low virulent viruses becoming high...... virulent. Virulence factors both depend on the ability of VHSV to enter a cell and on the speed and efficiencyof virus replication in the cells. Apparently the viral nucleocapsid protein plays a very important role for the later and seems to be the target for determination of a virulence marker....

  18. Vaccines against enteric infections for the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerkinsky, Cecil; Holmgren, Jan

    2015-06-19

    Since the first licensure of the Sabin oral polio vaccine more than 50 years ago, only eight enteric vaccines have been licensed for four disease indications, and all are given orally. While mucosal vaccines offer programmatically attractive tools for facilitating vaccine deployment, their development remains hampered by several factors: -limited knowledge regarding the properties of the gut immune system during early life; -lack of mucosal adjuvants, limiting mucosal vaccine development to live-attenuated or killed whole virus and bacterial vaccines; -lack of correlates/surrogates of mucosal immune protection; and -limited knowledge of the factors contributing to oral vaccine underperformance in children from developing countries. There are now reasons to believe that the development of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants and of programmatically sound intervention strategies could enhance the efficacy of current and next-generation enteric vaccines, especially in lesser developed countries which are often co-endemic for enteric infections and malnutrition. These vaccines must be safe and affordable for the world's poorest, confer long-term protection and herd immunity, and must be able to contain epidemics. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Recovery Based Nanowire Field-Effect Transistor Detection of Pathogenic Avian Influenza DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Heng; Chu, Chia-Jung; Teng, Kang-Ning; Su, Yi-Jr; Chen, Chii-Dong; Tsai, Li-Chu; Yang, Yuh-Shyong

    2012-02-01

    Fast and accurate diagnosis is critical in infectious disease surveillance and management. We proposed a DNA recovery system that can easily be adapted to DNA chip or DNA biosensor for fast identification and confirmation of target DNA. This method was based on the re-hybridization of DNA target with a recovery DNA to free the DNA probe. Functionalized silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW FET) was demonstrated to monitor such specific DNA-DNA interaction using high pathogenic strain virus hemagglutinin 1 (H1) DNA of avian influenza (AI) as target. Specific electric changes were observed in real-time for AI virus DNA sensing and device recovery when nanowire surface of SiNW FET was modified with complementary captured DNA probe. The recovery based SiNW FET biosensor can be further developed for fast identification and further confirmation of a variety of influenza virus strains and other infectious diseases.

  20. Survival analysis, long-term outcomes, and percentage of recovery up to 8 years post-infection among the Houston West Nile virus cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy O Murray

    Full Text Available In 2012, we witnessed a resurgence of West Nile virus (WNV in the United States, with the largest outbreak of human cases reported since 2003. WNV is now endemic and will continue to produce epidemics over time, therefore defining the long-term consequences of WNV infection is critical. Over a period of eight years, we prospectively followed a cohort of 157 WNV-infected subjects in the Houston metropolitan area to observe recovery over time and define the long-term clinical outcomes. We used survival analysis techniques to determine percentage of recovery over time and the effects of demographic and co-morbid conditions on recovery. We found that 40% of study participants continued to experience symptoms related to their WNV infection up to 8 years later. Having a clinical presentation of encephalitis and being over age 50 were significantly associated with prolonged or poor recovery over time. Since the health and economic impact as a result of prolonged recovery, continued morbidity, and related disability is likely substantial in those infected with WNV, future research should be aimed at developing effective vaccines to prevent illness and novel therapeutics to minimize morbidity, mortality, and long-term complications from infection.

  1. Characterization of Chemokine Receptor Utilization of Viruses in the Latent Reservoir for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Theodore; Hoffman, Trevor L.; Blankson, Joel; Finzi, Diana; Chadwick, Karen; Margolick, Joseph B.; Buck, Christopher; Siliciano, Janet D.; Doms, Robert W.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2000-01-01

    Latently infected resting CD4+ T cells provide a long-term reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and are likely to represent the major barrier to virus eradication in patients on combination antiretroviral therapy. The mechanisms by which viruses enter the latent reservoir and the nature of the chemokine receptors involved have not been determined. To evaluate the phenotype of the virus in this compartment with respect to chemokine receptor utilization, full-length HIV-1 env genes were cloned from latently infected cells and assayed functionally. We demonstrate that the majority of the viruses in the latent reservoir utilize CCR5 during entry, although utilization of several other receptors, including CXCR4, was observed. No alternative coreceptors were shown to be involved in a systematic fashion. Although R5 viruses are present in the latent reservoir, CCR5 was not expressed at high levels on resting CD4+ T cells. To understand the mechanism by which R5 viruses enter latent reservoir, the ability of an R5 virus, HIV-1 Ba-L, to infect highly purified resting CD4+ T lymphocytes from uninfected donors was evaluated. Entry of Ba-L could be observed when virus was applied at a multiplicity approaching 1. However, infection was limited to a subset of cells expressing low levels of CCR5 and markers of immunologic memory. Naive cells could not be infected by an R5 virus even when challenged with a large inoculum. Direct cell fractionation studies showed that latent virus is present predominantly in resting memory cells but also at lower levels in resting naive cells. Taken together, these findings provide support for the hypothesis that the direct infection of naive T cells is not the major mechanism by which the latent infection of resting T cells is established. PMID:10933689

  2. Poliovirus surveillance by examining sewage specimens. Quantitative recovery of virus after introduction into sewerage at remote upstream location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovi, T; Stenvik, M; Partanen, H; Kangas, A

    2001-08-01

    In order to assess the feasibility of environmental poliovirus surveillance, known amounts of poliovirus type 1, strain Sabin, were flushed into the sewage network of Helsinki. Grab specimens collected at a remote downstream location and concentrated about a 100-fold revealed infectious poliovirus on four successive days in all three separate experiments. As for concentration, a simple two-phase separation method was found to be at least as useful as a several-fold more resource-demanding polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation method. Recovery of the introduced virus was remarkably high (more than 10%). Using the current system, it might be possible to detect poliovirus circulation in a population of 700,000 people by examining a single 400 ml sewage specimen, if 1 out of 10,000 inhabitants were excreting the virus. It is concluded that environmental surveillance is a sensitive approach to monitor silent poliovirus circulation in populations served by a sewage network.

  3. Enteric virus with segmented double-stranded RNA genome in broiler chicken: Rotavirus, Reovirus and Picobirnavirus / Virus entéricos RNA fita dupla, segmentado, em aves: Rotavírus, Reovírus e Picobirnavírus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Alcindo Alfieri

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Enteric infections account for considerable economic losses to the poultry industry through weight loss, low food conversion, direct and indirect expenses with treatments and increased death rates. Poultry intestinal pathologies, either with local or general manifestations, can be caused by bacteria, protozoa or virus, acting alone or in association. Regarding viral etiology, several genera have been isolated from poultry with enteric disease. However, two genera from the Reoviridae family, the rotavirus and the reovirus are found more frequently in broiler chicken and/or laying hen feces. These viruses have been associated with clinical signs of enteritis in most epidemiological research. This revision aims to present some topics on the etiological agents (rotavirus, reovirus and picobirnavirus, the clinical disease and the diagnostic and control methods and prophylaxis of the infection.As infecções entéricas são responsáveis por consideráveis prejuízos econômicos à indústria avícola representados por perda de peso, baixa conversão alimentar, custos diretos e indiretos com tratamentos e por aumento na taxa de mortalidade. As patologias intestinais em aves, tanto com manifestação local quanto geral, podem ser determinadas por bactérias, protozoários e vírus, atuando de forma isolada ou em associação. Com relação a etiologia virai, vários gêneros têm sido isolados a partir de aves com enteropatias. Porém, dois gêneros na família Reoviridae, o rotavírus e o reovírus são encontrados com maior freqüência em fezes de frangos de corte e/ou galinhas poedeiras. Na maioria dos inquéritos epidemiológicos esses vírus estão associados a sinais clínicos de enterite. Esta revisão tem por objetivo apresentar alguns tópicos relativos aos agentes etiológicos (Rotavírus, Reovírus e Picobirnavírus, à doença clínica e aos métodos de diagnóstico, controle e profilaxia da infecção.

  4. Assessment of virus removal by managed aquifer recharge at three full-scale operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Walter Q; Kitajima, Masaaki; Wing, Alexandre D; Regnery, Julia; Drewes, Jörg E; Pepper, Ian L; Gerba, Charles P

    2014-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems such as riverbank filtration and soil-aquifer treatment all involve the use of natural subsurface systems to improve the quality of recharged water (i.e. surface water, stormwater, reclaimed water) before reuse. During MAR, water is either infiltrated via basins, subsurface injected or abstracted from wells adjacent to rivers. The goal of this study was to assess the removal of selected enteric viruses and a potential surrogate for virus removal at three full-scale MAR systems located in different regions of the United States (Arizona, Colorado, and California). Samples of source water (i.e., river water receiving treated wastewater and reclaimed water) before recharge and recovered groundwater at all three sites were tested for adenoviruses, enteroviruses, Aichi viruses and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Samples of groundwater positive for any virus were also tested for the presence of infectious virus by cell culture. PMMoV was the most commonly detected virus in the groundwater samples. Infectious enteric viruses (reovirus) were only detected in one groundwater sample with a subsurface residence time of 5 days. The results suggested that in groundwater with a residence time of greater than 14 days all of the viruses are removed below detection indicating a 1 to greater than 5 log removal depending upon the type of virus. Given its behavior, PMMoV may be suitable to serve as a conservative tracer of enteric virus removal in managed aquifer treatment systems.

  5. Hemocytes are sites of persistence for virus-contaminated oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like fecal bacteria, waterborne enteric viruses are readily bioconcentrated by bivalve shellfish. However while many bacteria decline rapidly when bivalves are placed in uncontaminated water, viruses tend to be retained within shellfish. In this study, we offer evidence that phagocytic blood cells...

  6. Single virus genomics: a new tool for virus discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Zeigler Allen

    Full Text Available Whole genome amplification and sequencing of single microbial cells has significantly influenced genomics and microbial ecology by facilitating direct recovery of reference genome data. However, viral genomics continues to suffer due to difficulties related to the isolation and characterization of uncultivated viruses. We report here on a new approach called 'Single Virus Genomics', which enabled the isolation and complete genome sequencing of the first single virus particle. A mixed assemblage comprised of two known viruses; E. coli bacteriophages lambda and T4, were sorted using flow cytometric methods and subsequently immobilized in an agarose matrix. Genome amplification was then achieved in situ via multiple displacement amplification (MDA. The complete lambda phage genome was recovered with an average depth of coverage of approximately 437X. The isolation and genome sequencing of uncultivated viruses using Single Virus Genomics approaches will enable researchers to address questions about viral diversity, evolution, adaptation and ecology that were previously unattainable.

  7. Comparative inactivation of enteric adenoviruses, poliovirus and coliphages by ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Q.S.; Gerba, C.P.

    1996-01-01

    The inactivation of enteric adenoviruses 40 and 41 by ultraviolet (UV) radiation was investigated and compared with poliovirus type 1 (strain LSc-2ab) and coliphages MS-2 and PRD-1. Purified stocks of the viruses were exposed to collimated ultraviolet radiation in a stirred reactor for a total dose of up to 140 mW s/cm 2 . The doses of UV to achieve a 90% inactivation of adenovirus 40, adenovirus 41, coliphages MS-2 and PRD-1 and poliovirus type 1 were 30, 23.6, 14, 8.7 and 4.1 mW s/cm 2 , respectively. Adenovirus 40 was significantly more resistant than coliphage MS-2 to UV irradiation (P < 0.01). Adenovirus 41 appeared slightly more sensitive than adenovirus 40, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). The resistance of PRD-1 was less than MS-2 (P < 0.01), but greater than poliovirus type 1 (P < 0.01). Adenoviruses 40 and 41 were more resistant than Bacillus subtilis spores, often suggested as an indicator of UV light performance. The double-stranded DNA adenoviruses appear to be the most resistant of all potentially water-borne enteric viruses to UV light disinfection. (author)

  8. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Hepeviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Michael A; Harrison, Tim J; Jameel, S; Meng, X-J; Okamoto, H; Van der Poel, W H M; Smith, Donald B; Ictv Report Consortium

    2017-11-01

    The family Hepeviridae includes enterically transmitted small non-enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses. It includes the genera Piscihepevirus, whose members infect fish, and Orthohepevirus, whose members infect mammals and birds. Members of the genus Orthohepevirus include hepatitis E virus, which is responsible for self-limiting acute hepatitis in humans and several mammalian species; the infection may become chronic in immunocompromised individuals. Extrahepatic manifestations of Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy, glomerulonephritis and pancreatitis have been described in humans. Avian hepatitis E virus causes hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Hepeviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/hepeviridae.

  9. Detection of entero viruses and hepatitis A in treated wastewater and Correlation between viral and bacterial contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dridi, Soumaya

    2010-01-01

    The main human viruses likely to contaminate waste water are Non-enveloped viruses able to resist in the environment, so essentially the viruses presenting an enteric cycle of multiplication. Many of these viruses, namely entero virus, hepatitis Avirus are excreted in the saddles of patients or of carriers and meet in waste water. To fight against the viral risk it is necessary to have a methodology allowing the control and the surveillance of virological and Hydric contamination. For the revealing of enteric virus, the reference technique remains the isolation on cellular culture. However, the disadvantage of this technique is the fact that it is difficult for certain viruses. Thus, the rise of molecular biology allowed the focusing of reliable and significant methods for detection of the enteric viruses in the environmental takings. The aim of this work was to detect hepatitis A virus and entero virus in waste water. A total of 20 samples were concentrated then precipitated by Polyethylene glycol 6000 according to the method of EPA. Extraction and purification of the viral ARN are made by the Kit QIAmp Viral RNA (Qiagen). The analysis of nucleic acids extracted by RT-PCR allowed to detect Entero virus with a 15 pour cent frequency (3/20) and 10 pour cent (2/20) for the hepatitis A virus.

  10. From Lab to Lake - Evaluation of Current Molecular Methods for the Detection of Infectious Enteric Viruses in Complex Water Matrices in an Urban Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Leifels

    Full Text Available Quantitative PCR methods are commonly used to monitor enteric viruses in the aquatic environment because of their high sensitivity, short reaction times and relatively low operational cost. However, conclusions for public health drawn from results of such molecular techniques are limited due to their inability to determine viral infectivity. Ethidium monoazide (EMA and propidium monoazide (PMA are capable to penetrate the damaged or compromised capsid of the inactivated viruses and bind to the viral nucleic acids. We assessed whether dye treatment is a suitable approach to improve the ability of qPCR to distinguish between infectious and non-infectious human adenovirus, enterovirus and rotavirus A in surface water of an urban river and sewage before and after UV disinfection. Like the gold standard of cell culture assays, pretreatment EMA-/PMA-qPCR succeeded in removing false positive results which would lead to an overestimation of the viral load if only qPCR of the environmental samples was considered. A dye pretreatment could therefore provide a rapid and relatively inexpensive tool to improve the efficacy of molecular quantification methods in regards to viral infectivity.

  11. Identification of a spliced gene from duck enteritis virus encoding a protein homologous to UL15 of herpes simplex virus 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In herpesviruses, UL15 homologue is a subunit of terminase complex responsible for cleavage and packaging of the viral genome into pre-assembled capsids. However, for duck enteritis virus (DEV, the causative agent of duck viral enteritis (DVE, the genomic sequence was not completely determined until most recently. There is limited information of this putative spliced gene and its encoding protein. Results DEV UL15 consists of two exons with a 3.5 kilobases (kb inron and transcribes into two transcripts: the full-length UL15 and an N-terminally truncated UL15.5. The 2.9 kb UL15 transcript encodes a protein of 739 amino acids with an approximate molecular mass of 82 kiloDaltons (kDa, whereas the UL15.5 transcript is 1.3 kb in length, containing a putative 888 base pairs (bp ORF that encodes a 32 kDa product. We also demonstrated that UL15 gene belonged to the late kinetic class as its expression was sensitive to cycloheximide and phosphonoacetic acid. UL15 is highly conserved within the Herpesviridae, and contains Walker A and B motifs homologous to the catalytic subunit of the bacteriophage terminase as revealed by sequence analysis. Phylogenetic tree constructed with the amino acid sequences of 23 herpesvirus UL15 homologues suggests a close relationship of DEV to the Mardivirus genus within the Alphaherpesvirinae. Further, the UL15 and UL15.5 proteins can be detected in the infected cell lysate but not in the sucrose density gradient-purified virion when reacting with the antiserum against UL15. Within the CEF cells, the UL15 and/or UL15.5 localize(s in the cytoplasm at 6 h post infection (h p. i. and mainly in the nucleus at 12 h p. i. and at 24 h p. i., while accumulate(s in the cytoplasm in the absence of any other viral protein. Conclusions DEV UL15 is a spliced gene that encodes two products encoded by 2.9 and 1.3 kb transcripts respectively. The UL15 is expressed late during infection. The coding sequences of DEV UL15

  12. Identification of a spliced gene from duck enteritis virus encoding a protein homologous to UL15 of herpes simplex virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongwei; Li, Huixin; Han, Zongxi; Shao, Yuhao; Wang, Yu; Kong, Xiangang

    2011-04-06

    In herpesviruses, UL15 homologue is a subunit of terminase complex responsible for cleavage and packaging of the viral genome into pre-assembled capsids. However, for duck enteritis virus (DEV), the causative agent of duck viral enteritis (DVE), the genomic sequence was not completely determined until most recently. There is limited information of this putative spliced gene and its encoding protein. DEV UL15 consists of two exons with a 3.5 kilobases (kb) inron and transcribes into two transcripts: the full-length UL15 and an N-terminally truncated UL15.5. The 2.9 kb UL15 transcript encodes a protein of 739 amino acids with an approximate molecular mass of 82 kiloDaltons (kDa), whereas the UL15.5 transcript is 1.3 kb in length, containing a putative 888 base pairs (bp) ORF that encodes a 32 kDa product. We also demonstrated that UL15 gene belonged to the late kinetic class as its expression was sensitive to cycloheximide and phosphonoacetic acid. UL15 is highly conserved within the Herpesviridae, and contains Walker A and B motifs homologous to the catalytic subunit of the bacteriophage terminase as revealed by sequence analysis. Phylogenetic tree constructed with the amino acid sequences of 23 herpesvirus UL15 homologues suggests a close relationship of DEV to the Mardivirus genus within the Alphaherpesvirinae. Further, the UL15 and UL15.5 proteins can be detected in the infected cell lysate but not in the sucrose density gradient-purified virion when reacting with the antiserum against UL15. Within the CEF cells, the UL15 and/or UL15.5 localize(s) in the cytoplasm at 6 h post infection (h p. i.) and mainly in the nucleus at 12 h p. i. and at 24 h p. i., while accumulate(s) in the cytoplasm in the absence of any other viral protein. DEV UL15 is a spliced gene that encodes two products encoded by 2.9 and 1.3 kb transcripts respectively. The UL15 is expressed late during infection. The coding sequences of DEV UL15 are very similar to those of alphaherpesviruses and

  13. Enteric Diseases of Poultry with Special Attention to Clostridium perfringens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez Mohamed Hafez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The enteric heath of growing poultry is imperative to success of the production. The basic role of poultry production is turning feed stuffs into meat. Any changes in this turning process, due to mechanical, chemical or biological disturbance of digestive system (enteric disorders is mostly accompanied with high economic losses due to poor performance, increased mortality rates and increased medication costs. The severity of clinical signs and course of the disorders are influenced several factors such as management, nutrition and the involved agent(s. Several pathogens (viruses, bacteria and parasites are incriminated as possible cause of enteric disorders either alone (mono-causal, in synergy with other micro-organisms (multi-causal, or with non-infectious causes such as feed and /or management related factors. In addition, excessive levels of mycotoxins and biogenic amines in feed lead to enteric disorders. Also factors such as high stocking density, poor litter conditions, poor hygiene and high ammonia level and other stressful situation may reduce the resistance of the birds and increases their susceptibility to infections. Under field conditions, however, under filed conditions it is difficult to determine whether the true cause of enteric disorders, is of infectious or non-infectious origin. In recent years and since the ban of use of antimicrobial growth promoters in several countries the incidence of intestinal disorders especially those caused by clostridial infection was drastically increased. The present review described in general the several factors involved in enteric disorders and summarized the available literatures about Clostridium perfringens infection in poultry.

  14. Development of nested polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis of duck enteritis virus and detection of DNA polymerase gene from non-descriptive duck breeds of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Sarathi Mandal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to detect the clinical signs, postmortem lesions of embryonated duck plague (DP infected eggs, and histopathological changes of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM in non-descriptive ducks of West Bengal with special reference to standardize nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods: After postmortem of suspected carcasses, samples were collected for virus isolation and identification through specific pathogen free (Khaki Campbell embryonated duck eggs. PCR was also done as confirmatory test after doing postmortem of duck embryos. DP specific nested PCR was standardized for better confirmation of the disease. Sensitivity of nested primers was also tested for DP virus. Results: Gross, postmortem and histopathological changes were prominent in dead embryos. First set of primer was able to detect 602 bp fragments of DNA polymerase gene of duck enteritis virus from infected CAM. Subsequently, a DP specific nested PCR which was very much sensitive for very small amount of viral genome was successfully standardized. After NCBI blast nucleotide sequence of nested PCR product (Accession No. HG425076 showed homology with the sequences data available in GenBank. Conclusion: The study concludes that PCR assay is very much helpful to diagnose DP disease and developed nested PCR is a double confirmatory diagnostic tool for DP.

  15. Manure treatment and natural inactivation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The outbreak of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) in North America has substantially impacted U.S. swine production in recent years. The virus it is easily transmitted among pigs and causes nearly 100% mortality in pre-weaned piglets. Because PEDv is an enteric virus spread via fecal-oral conta...

  16. Development of a PCR-RFLP assay for the detection and differentiation of canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanmei; Yu, Yongle; Yang, Haiyan; Li, Guimei; Yu, Zekun; Zhang, Hongliang; Shan, Hu

    2014-12-15

    A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay has been developed to detect and differentiate between canine parvovirus (CPV) and mink enteritis virus (MEV). Eight CPV and three MEV epidemic strains isolated from 28 pathological samples from dogs and minks suspected of being infected with parvovirus were amplified by PCR using a pair of specific primers designed based on the CPV-N strain (M19296). PCR amplified a fragment of 1016bp from the genomic DNA of both MEV and CPV. The MEV-derived fragment could be digested with the restriction enzyme BSP1407I into three fragments of 102bp, 312bp and 602bp, while the fragment amplified from the CPV genomic DNA was digested into only two fragments of 414bp and 602bp. The lowest DNA concentration of CPV and MEV that could be detected using this assay was 0.004μg/ml and 0.03μg/ml, respectively. The PCR-RFLP assay developed in the present study can, therefore, be used to detect and differentiate MEV from CPV with high specificity and sensitivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Simple method for clonal selection of hepatitis A virus based on recovery of virus from radioimmunofocus overlays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemon, S M; Jansen, R W

    1985-06-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV), has been quantitated in cell culture by autoradiographic detection of foci of viral replication developing beneath an agarose overlay following fixation and 'staining' of the cell sheet with radiolabelled antibody (radioimmunofocus assay). Using a modification of this basic technique, a clonal variant of HM-175 strain HAV was isolated from agarose overlying individual radioimmunofoci. Virus recovered from the agarose was amplified in small volume cultures of BS-C-1 cells and identified in supernatant culture fluids by cDNA-RNA hybridizaton. No virus was recovered from agarose which did not overlie a focus of viral replication. This method offers a simple, yet relatively rapid and certain means of selecting clonal variants of non-plaquing viruses such as hepatitis A virus.

  18. Clinical Efficacy and Residue Depletion of 10% Enrofloxacin Enteric-Coated Granules in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhixin; Liu, Qianying; Yang, Bing; Xiong, Jincheng; Li, Kun; Ahmed, Saeed; Hong, Liping; Chen, Pin; He, Qigai; Cao, Jiyue

    2017-01-01

    A new, more palatable formulation of 10% enrofloxacin enteric-coated granules was investigated to evaluate the pharmacokinetic effect in plasma, the residue elimination in tissues and the clinical efficacy against Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia (APP) and Mycoplasam suis (MS) in pigs. In this study, the enrofloxacin concentrations in plasma and tissues were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography with phosphate buffer (pH = 3) and acetonitrile. The pharmacokinetics and elimination of enrofloxacin enteric-coated granules were performed after oral administration at a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (bw) and 5 mg/kg twice per day for 5 consecutive days, respectively. The in vivo antibacterial efficacy and clinical effectiveness of enrofloxacin enteric-coated granules against APP and MS were assayed at 2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg, compared with tiamulin (8 mg/kg) based on establishment of APP and MS infection models. 56 APP strains were selected and tested for in vitro antibacterial activity of enrofloxacin enteric-coated granules. The main parameters of elimination half-life (t 1/2β ), T max , and area under the curve (AUC) were 14.99 ± 4.19, 3.99 ± 0.10, and 38.93 ± 1.52 μg h/ml, respectively, revealing that the enrofloxacin concentration remained high and with a sustainable distribution in plasma. Moreover, the analysis on the evaluation of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in muscle, fat, liver and kidney showed that the recovery were more than 84% recovery in accordance with the veterinary drug residue guidelines of United States pharmacopeia, and the withdrawal periods were 4.28, 3.81, 4.84, and 3.51 days, respectively, suggesting that the withdrawal period was 5 d after oral administration of 5 mg/kg twice per day. The optimal dosage of enrofloxacin enteric-coated granules against APP and MS was 5 mg/kg, with over 90% efficacy, which was significantly different ( p enrofloxacin enteric-coated granules had significant potential for treating APP and MS

  19. Effects of Different Animal Waste Treatment Technologies on Detection and Viability of Porcine Enteric Viruses▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Verónica P.; Azevedo, Ana C.; Li, Xin; Williams, Mike C.; Michel, Frederick C.; Saif, Linda J.

    2007-01-01

    Enteric pathogens in animal waste that is not properly processed can contaminate the environment and food. The persistence of pathogens in animal waste depends upon the waste treatment technology, but little is known about persistence of porcine viruses. Our objectives were to characterize the porcine enteric viruses (porcine noroviruses [PoNoVs], porcine sapoviruses [PoSaVs], rotavirus A [RV-A], RV-B, and RV-C) in fresh feces or manure and to evaluate the effects of different candidate environmentally superior technologies (ESTs) for animal waste treatment on the detection of these viruses. Untreated manure and samples collected at different stages during and after treatment were obtained from swine farms that used conventional waste management (CWM) and five different candidate ESTs. The RNA from porcine enteric viruses was detected by reverse transcription-PCR and/or seminested PCR; PoSaV and RV-A were also detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell culture immunofluorescence (CCIF) and experimental inoculation of gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs were used to determine RV-A/C infectivity in posttreatment samples. The PoSaV and RV-A were detected in pretreatment samples from each farm, whereas PoNoV and RV-C were detected in pretreatment feces from three of five and four of five farms using the candidate ESTs, respectively. After treatment, PoSaV RNA was detected only in the samples from the farm using CWM and not from the farms using the candidate ESTs. RV-A and RV-C RNAs were detected in four of five and three of four candidate ESTs, respectively, after treatment, but infectious particles were not detected by CCIF, nor were clinical signs or seroconversion detected in inoculated Gn pigs. These results indicate that only RV-A/C RNA, but no viral infectivity, was detected after treatment. Our findings address a public health concern regarding environmental quality surrounding swine production units. PMID:17601821

  20. A clinical pathway to accelerate recovery after colonic resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, L; Hjort Jakobsen, D; Billesbølle, P

    2000-01-01

    -induced organ dysfunction, paralytic ileus, pain, and fatigue. It has been hypothesized that an accelerated multimodal rehabilitation program with optimal pain relief, stress reduction with regional anesthesia, early enteral nutrition, and early mobilization may enhance recovery and reduce the complication rate......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of a 48-hour postoperative stay program after colonic resection. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Postoperative hospital stay after colonic resection is usually 6 to 12 days, with a complication rate of 10% to 20%. Limiting factors for early recovery include stress....... METHODS: Sixty consecutive patients undergoing elective colonic resection were prospectively studied using a well-defined postoperative care program including continuous thoracic epidural analgesia and enforced early mobilization and enteral nutrition, and a planned 48-hour postoperative hospital stay...

  1. Study on the relationship between infant rotavirus enteritis and breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanping; Liu Hui; Sun Xuerong; Wei Tao; Wang Bin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between infant rotavirus enteritis and breast feeding, with emphasis on early immuno-protection provided by breast feeding as well as later possible hazards with rotavirus carrier mothers. Methods: Stool specimens from 520 infants with diarrhea were screened for rotavirus with colloid gold method. Positive specimens were confirmed with RT-PCR. Results: In local (Qingdao) infants with enteritis, the over-all incidence of rotavirus infection was 31.2%. Positive rate in breast-feeding infants was only 26.8%, being significantly lower than that in bottle-feeding ones (45.2%). The virus infectivity rate in both groups of breast- feeding infants (below 6 months and 7-12 months) was lower than the corresponding rate in the bottle feeding group. However, infant fed from rotavirus carriers had significantly higher fecal positive rate of rotavirus than that in infants fed from non-carriers. Conclusion: (1) At beginning, especially below 6 months, breast-feeding provided important protection again rotavirus enteritis in the infants. (2) certain infections could be transmitted through breast feedings, which deserved closer observation. (authors)

  2. Viruses of foodborne origin: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd EC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ewen CD Todd,1,2 Judy D Greig3 1Ewen Todd Consulting LLC, Okemos, MI, USA; 2Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Division of Public Health Risk Sciences, Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Public Health Agency of Canada, Guelph, ON, Canada Abstract: Enteric viruses are major contributors to foodborne disease, and include adenovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, hepatitis A and E viruses, and norovirus. From a foodborne transmission perspective, norovirus is the most important; however, hepatitis A is associated with more serious illness. Foodborne viruses are transmitted through contaminated food, but also in combination with person-to-person contact or through environmental contamination. These viruses survive well in the environment, are excreted in abundance in feces, and have a low infectious dose, all of which facilitate spread within a community. Many colonized individuals experience mild gastroenteritis lasting a few days or are asymptomatic, although viral excretion may continue over days or weeks. Severe illness tends to be restricted to the very young and elderly, especially in closed communities such as schools and homes for the aged. In the USA, norovirus is considered to be responsible for two thirds of all foodborne illnesses occurring in a wide range of institutional settings, including schools, colleges, child care centers, cruise ships, prisons, and soldiers on campaign. Norovirus outbreaks also occur at one-time events, such as banquets, wedding receptions, birthday parties, and potluck meals, and are most often introduced by infected food workers producing, preparing, or serving food, or through self-service buffets. Often the infections are introduced from the community into institutions where they can infect the majority of residents unless quickly controlled. In countries where economic assessments have been completed

  3. Detection of Caliciviruses in young pheasants (Phasianus colchicus with enteritis in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Capua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During June 2004 a severe enteritis was reported in a farm of 21-28 day old pheasants reared in intensive conditions in North-Eastern Italy. Mortality in the flock had reached 25%. Virological investigations on cell culture of the gut content yielded reoviruses while electron microscopy examination revealed viral particles morphologically related to calicivirus in association with parvovirus-like and rod shaped virus-like particles.

  4. Presence of enteric viruses, bioaccumulation and stability in Anomalocardia brasiliana clams (Gmelin, 1791).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Doris Sobral Marques; Dominot, Ana Ferreira Ávila; Moresco, Vanessa; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte

    2018-02-02

    Bivalve mollusks are filter feeders and may accumulate human pathogens in their tissues. Many studies demonstrated human diseases associated with bivalve consumption, especially oysters. Anomalocardia brasiliana clams are distributed along the Brazilian coastal area and are an exotic ingredient for some typical dishes in Brazil. Even though there are several reports describing the contamination of oysters and mussels with human pathogens, there is a lack of studies reporting contamination of A. brasiliana with human pathogens. An evaluation of natural microbiological contamination in A. brasiliana samples over a period of 18months (November 2014 to April 2016) showed that the bacteria indices were in accordance with Brazilian regulations (E. colitime period. NoV GI was the most adsorbed virus after 24h. HAV concentration was time, reaching its highest values after 24h (times (0, 1, 1.5, 3 and 5mins), viral infectivity was evaluated using ICC-et-RT-qPCR. The temperature inside the DT remained time and after 5min of cooking the HAdV reached a decay of 90% (1 log 10 ). The results showed a real warn to the consumers that can be exposed to infectious human viruses if they eat these clams improperly cooked. HAV was the most detected virus in these animals, which may lead to outbreaks. A. brasiliana exhibited distinct behavior in NoV GI bioaccumulation and persistence, pointing to the need for further studies about the cellular ligands used by these viruses to become attached to these clams. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. EPA METHODS FOR VIRUS DETECTION IN WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of different types of human enteric viruses cause waterborne outbreaks when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking and recreational waters. Members of the enterovirus group cause numerous diseases, including gastroenteritis, encephalitis, meningitis, myocard...

  6. A simple method for clonal selection of hepatitis A virus based on recovery of virus from radioimmunofocus overlays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemon, S.M.; Jansen, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV), has been quantitated in cell culture by autoradiographic detection of foci of viral replication developing beneath an agarose overlay following fixation and 'staining' of the cell sheet with radiolabelled antibody (radioimmunofocus assay). Using a modification of this basic technique, a clonal variant of HM-175 strain HAV was isolated from agarose overlying individual radioimmunofoci. Virus recovered from the agarose was amplified in small volume cultures of BS-C-1 cells and identified in supernatant culture fluids by cDNA-RNA hybridizaton. No virus was recovered from agarose which did not overlie a focus of viral replication. This method offers a simple, yet relatively rapid and certain means of selecting clonal variants of non-plaquing viruses such as hepatitis A virus. (Auth.)

  7. Herpes virus and viral DNA synthesis in ultraviolet light-irradiated cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppey, J; Nocentini, S [Institut du Radium, 75 - Paris (France). Lab. Curie

    1976-07-01

    The rate of virus DNA synthesis and the production of infectious virus are impaired in stationary monkey kidney CV-I cells irradiated with u.v. before infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). The inhibition of HSV multiplication is due to u.v.-induced damage in cell DNA. CV-I cells recover their capacity to support HSV growth during the 40 to 48 h after irradiation, and the final virus yield is enhanced by factor of 10. The time course of the recovery is similar to that of the excision repair process occurring in u.v.-irradiated mammalian cells. Caffeine, hydroxyurea and cycloheximide inhibit the recovery. Fluorodeoxyuridine is without effect. A small but significant amount of labelled dThd coming from irradiated cell DNA is incorporated into virus DNA. HSV specified thymidine kinase seems to be more effective for virus DNA synthesis in irradiated than in control cells.

  8. Safe Control for Spiral Recovery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jian Ru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs widely used in both military and civilian fields, many events affecting their safe flying have emerged. That UAV’s entering into the spiral is such a typical safety issue. To solve this safety problem, a novel recovery control approach is proposed. First, the factors of spiral are analyzed. Then, based on control scheduling of state variables and nonlinear dynamic inversion control laws, the spiral recovery controller is designed to accomplish guidance and control of spiral recovery. Finally, the simulation results have illustrated that the proposed control method can ensure the UAV autonomous recovery from spiral effectively.

  9. Development of methods to measure virus inactivation in fresh waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, R L; Winston, P E

    1985-01-01

    This study concerns the identification and correction of deficiencies in methods used to measure inactivation rates of enteric viruses seeded into environmental waters. It was found that viable microorganisms in an environmental water sample increased greatly after addition of small amounts of nutrients normally present in the unpurified seed virus preparation. This burst of microbial growth was not observed after seeding the water with purified virus. The use of radioactively labeled poliovi...

  10. Balancing extensive ambition and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands: A grounded theory on stress and recovery among highly educated working young women entering male-dominated occupational areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Löve

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Several factors underline the issue of stress-related health among young highly educated women. Major societal changes might provide more new challenges with considerably changed and expanded roles than were expected by earlier generations, especially among women. The quantity of young women with higher education has also increased threefold in Sweden in less than two decades and there are a growing number of young women that hereby break with traditional gender positions and enter new occupational areas traditionally dominated by men. The research questions in the present study were: “What is the main concern, regarding stress and recovery, among young highly educated working women breaking with traditional gender positions and entering male-dominated occupational areas?” and “How do they handle this concern?” We conducted open-ended interviews with 20 informants, aged 23–29 years. The results showed that the synergy between highly ambitious individuals and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands ended up in the informants’ constantly striving to find a balance in daily life (main concern. This concern refers to the respondents experiencing a constant overload of ambiguity and that they easily became entangled in a loop of stress and dysfunctional coping behavior, threatening the balance between stress and sufficient recovery. In order to handle this concern, the respondents used different strategies in balancing extensive ambition and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands (core category. This preliminary theoretical model deepens our understanding of how the increasing numbers of highly educated young women face complex living conditions endangering their possibility of maintaining health and work ability.

  11. Pulmonary immunization of chickens using non-adjuvanted spray-freeze dried whole inactivated virus vaccine completely protects against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Ben; Tonnis, Wouter F.; Murugappan, Senthil; Rottier, Peter; Koch, Guus; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Huckriede, Anke; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus is a major threat to public health as well as to the global poultry industry. Most fatal human infections are caused by contact with infected poultry. Therefore, preventing the virus from entering the poultry population is a priority. This is,

  12. High prevalence of turkey parvovirus in turkey flocks from Hungary experiencing enteric disease syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palade, Elena Alina; Demeter, Zoltán; Hornyák, Akos; Nemes, Csaba; Kisary, János; Rusvai, Miklós

    2011-09-01

    Samples collected in 2008 and 2009, from 49 turkey flocks of 6 to 43 days in age and presenting clinical signs of enteric disease and high mortality, were tested by polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the presence of viruses currently associated with enteric disease (ED) syndromes: astrovirus, reovirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus. Turkey astroviruses were found in 83.67% of the cases and turkey astrovirus 2 (TAst-2) in 26.53%. The investigations directly demonstrated the high prevalence of turkey parvovirus (TuPV) in 23 flocks (46.9%) experiencing signs of ED, making this pathogen the second most identified after astroviruses. Phylogenetic analysis on a 527 base pair-long region from the NS1 gene revealed two main clusters, a chicken parvovirus (ChPV) and a TuPV group, but also the presence of a divergent branch of tentatively named "TuPV-like ChPV" strains. The 23 Hungarian TuPV strains were separately positioned in two groups from the American origin sequences in the TuPV cluster. An Avail-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay has also been developed for the quick differentiation of TuPV, ChPV, and divergent TuPV-like ChPV strains. As most detected enteric viruses have been directly demonstrated in healthy turkey flocks as well, the epidemiology of this disease complex remains unclear, suggesting that a certain combination of pathogens, environmental factors, or both are necessary for the development of clinical signs.

  13. Common virus infections in cats, before and after being placed in shelters, with emphasis on feline enteric coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, N C; Sato, R; Foley, J E; Poland, A M

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the origin and subsequent spread of feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus (FHV), and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) in cats relinquished to shelters. FCV was isolated from the oral fauces of 11% of healthy cats upon entry, and isolation rates were highest for kittens (33%). FHV shedding was very low (4%) at the time of entry and occurred mainly in juveniles. FECV shedding was also common among newly relinquished cats (33%), especially older kittens and juveniles (90%). The subsequent spread of all three viruses was rapid and efficient in the shelter environment. Fifteen percent of cats were shedding FCV, 52% FHV, and 60% FECV after 1 week. More detailed studies were done with FECV shedding, which could be accurately quantitated. The amounts of FECV shed by infected cats ranged from 10(2)to 10(16)particles/swab of feces. FECV shedding was several logs higher in young kittens with primary infection than adult cats with primary infections. The mean levels of FECV shedding among adults were the same for primary and chronic infections. Although shelters were not the primary source of these viruses for many relinquished cats, factors intrinsic to the shelter environment were critical in amplifying shedding and spread to susceptible individuals. Extrinsic factors were especially important for the spread of FHV and FECV. FHV shedding rates increased from 4% to 50% in 1 week's time. The speed and magnitude of the increase in FHV shedding suggested that there was reactivation of latent infections as well as acquisition of new infections. FECV shedding increased 10 to 1,000,000 fold in 1 week among cats that were already infected at entry, and more than one-half of initially negative cats were shedding FECV a week later. Feline calicivirus infection was the least likely to spread in the shelter. The infection rate only increased from 11 to 15% in 1 week.

  14. Ebola Virus RNA in Semen from an HIV-Positive Survivor of Ebola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, Lawrence J; Rogers, Emerson; Baller, April; White, Stephen; Soka, Moses; Choi, Mary J; Mahmoud, Nuha; Wasunna, Christine; Massaquoi, Moses; Kollie, Jomah; Dweh, Straker; Bemah, Philip; Ladele, Victor; Kpaka, Jonathan; Jawara, Mary; Mugisha, Margaret; Subah, Onyekachi; Faikai, Mylene; Bailey, Jeff A; Rollin, Pierre; Marston, Barbara; Nyenswah, Tolbert; Gasasira, Alex; Knust, Barbara; Nichol, Stuart; Williams, Desmond

    2017-04-01

    Ebola virus is known to persist in semen of male survivors of Ebola virus disease (EVD). However, maximum duration of, or risk factors for, virus persistence are unknown. We report an EVD survivor with preexisting HIV infection, whose semen was positive for Ebola virus RNA 565 days after recovery from EVD.

  15. Effect Of Oligomeric Enteral Nutrition On Symptoms Of Acute Radiation Enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinsky, P.

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy of abdominal and pelvic tumours is frequently associated with acute radiation enteritis. Predominant symptoms include diarrhea, watery stools, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. There are very few effective interventions available for this condition. Enteral oligomeric nutrition has been used in bowel diseases with functional failure similar to radiation enteritis. The aim of presented work was to observe occurrence of symptoms of radiation enteritis in patients undergoing abdominal or pelvic radiotherapy. Apart from diet and pharmacological therapy, oral oligomeric enteral nutrition (Peptisorb Powder Nutricia) at the dose of 1000 - 2000 ml per day was administered for minimum of 4 days. Planned period of administration was 14 days and longer. Symptoms of radiation enteritis were evaluated at the beginning and in the end of administration. Prevalence of all evaluated symptoms of radiation enteritis was decreased and difference was statistically significant for diarrhea, watery stools, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. The use of evaluated oligomeric nutritional support might, in conjunction with pharmacotherapy and diet, alleviate symptoms of acute radiation enteritis and maintain nutritional status of patients. (author)

  16. Clinical Efficacy and Residue Depletion of 10% Enrofloxacin Enteric-Coated Granules in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Lei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A new, more palatable formulation of 10% enrofloxacin enteric-coated granules was investigated to evaluate the pharmacokinetic effect in plasma, the residue elimination in tissues and the clinical efficacy against Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia (APP and Mycoplasam suis (MS in pigs. In this study, the enrofloxacin concentrations in plasma and tissues were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography with phosphate buffer (pH = 3 and acetonitrile. The pharmacokinetics and elimination of enrofloxacin enteric-coated granules were performed after oral administration at a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (bw and 5 mg/kg twice per day for 5 consecutive days, respectively. The in vivo antibacterial efficacy and clinical effectiveness of enrofloxacin enteric-coated granules against APP and MS were assayed at 2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg, compared with tiamulin (8 mg/kg based on establishment of APP and MS infection models. 56 APP strains were selected and tested for in vitro antibacterial activity of enrofloxacin enteric-coated granules. The main parameters of elimination half-life (t1/2β, Tmax, and area under the curve (AUC were 14.99 ± 4.19, 3.99 ± 0.10, and 38.93 ± 1.52 μg h/ml, respectively, revealing that the enrofloxacin concentration remained high and with a sustainable distribution in plasma. Moreover, the analysis on the evaluation of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in muscle, fat, liver and kidney showed that the recovery were more than 84% recovery in accordance with the veterinary drug residue guidelines of United States pharmacopeia, and the withdrawal periods were 4.28, 3.81, 4.84, and 3.51 days, respectively, suggesting that the withdrawal period was 5 d after oral administration of 5 mg/kg twice per day. The optimal dosage of enrofloxacin enteric-coated granules against APP and MS was 5 mg/kg, with over 90% efficacy, which was significantly different (p < 0.05 to the 2.5 mg/kg group, but not to the 10 mg/kg group or the positive

  17. Specific interaction of capsid protein and importin-α/β influences West Nile virus production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuvanakantham, Raghavan; Chong, Mun-Keat; Ng, Mah-Lee

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) capsid (C) protein has been shown to enter the nucleus of infected cells. However, the mechanism by which C protein enters the nucleus is unknown. In this study, we have unveiled for the first time that nuclear transport of WNV and Dengue virus C protein is mediated by their direct association with importin-α. This interplay is mediated by the consensus sequences of bipartite nuclear localization signal located between amino acid residues 85-101 together with amino acid residues 42 and 43 of C protein. Elucidation of biological significance of importin-α/C protein interaction demonstrated that the binding efficiency of this association influenced the nuclear entry of C protein and virus production. Collectively, this study illustrated the molecular mechanism by which the C protein of arthropod-borne flavivirus enters the nucleus and showed the importance of importin-α/C protein interaction in the context of flavivirus life-cycle.

  18. Specific interaction of capsid protein and importin-{alpha}/{beta} influences West Nile virus production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuvanakantham, Raghavan; Chong, Mun-Keat [Flavivirology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, 5 Science Drive 2, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597 (Singapore); Ng, Mah-Lee, E-mail: micngml@nus.edu.sg [Flavivirology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, 5 Science Drive 2, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597 (Singapore)

    2009-11-06

    West Nile virus (WNV) capsid (C) protein has been shown to enter the nucleus of infected cells. However, the mechanism by which C protein enters the nucleus is unknown. In this study, we have unveiled for the first time that nuclear transport of WNV and Dengue virus C protein is mediated by their direct association with importin-{alpha}. This interplay is mediated by the consensus sequences of bipartite nuclear localization signal located between amino acid residues 85-101 together with amino acid residues 42 and 43 of C protein. Elucidation of biological significance of importin-{alpha}/C protein interaction demonstrated that the binding efficiency of this association influenced the nuclear entry of C protein and virus production. Collectively, this study illustrated the molecular mechanism by which the C protein of arthropod-borne flavivirus enters the nucleus and showed the importance of importin-{alpha}/C protein interaction in the context of flavivirus life-cycle.

  19. Production of mink enteritis parvovirus empty capsids by expression in a baculovirus vector system: a recombinant vaccine for mink enteritis parvovirus in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J; Alexandersen, Søren; Bloch, B.

    1994-01-01

    The VP-2 gene of mink enteritis parvovirus (MEV) was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction using MEV DNA isolated from the faeces of a naturally infected mink. Subsequently the VP-2 gene was cloned into a baculovirus expression vector. Recombinant baculo-viruses were isolated and the MEV VP-2...... protein was able to form parvovirus-like particles, which had haemagglutinating properties comparable with the wild-type MEV. The cloned VP-2 gene was sequenced and only five nucleotide differences were found after alignment with the known sequences of the MEV type 1 and type 2 isolates. Surprisingly...

  20. Molecular Diagnosis Of Human Boca virus Gastroenteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, N.N.; Kamel, E.M.; Ismail, G.A.; Emam, E.K.; Saber, S.M.; EL Ashry, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that human boca virus (HBoV) infection possibly plays a role in gastroenteritis has been suggested because of the frequent manifestation of gastrointestinal symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of HBoV In children with gastroenteritis. We studied the etiologic agents in 100 fecal samples in children suffered from acute gastroenteritis. Bacterial etiological agents were dtected by conventional bacteriological culture, and viral etiologic agents were detected by rotavirus latex agglutination and conventional PCR for HBoV and enteric adenovirus. Enteropathogenic E-Coli (EPEC) was detected in 4% of cases. Rotatavirus, enteric adenovirus and co infection between rotavirus and adenovirus were detected in 14%, 6% and 2% respectively. Human boca virus was detected in 1% of cases without associated respiratory symptoms or co infection with other pathogen which suggests its role in children gastroenteritis

  1. Ebola virus host cell entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuteru

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is an enveloped virus with filamentous structure and causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. Host cell entry is the first essential step in the viral life cycle, which has been extensively studied as one of the therapeutic targets. A virus factor of cell entry is a surface glycoprotein (GP), which is an only essential viral protein in the step, as well as the unique particle structure. The virus also interacts with a lot of host factors to successfully enter host cells. Ebola virus at first binds to cell surface proteins and internalizes into cells, followed by trafficking through endosomal vesicles to intracellular acidic compartments. There, host proteases process GPs, which can interact with an intracellular receptor. Then, under an appropriate circumstance, viral and endosomal membranes are fused, which is enhanced by major structural changes of GPs, to complete host cell entry. Recently the basic research of Ebola virus infection mechanism has markedly progressed, largely contributed by identification of host factors and detailed structural analyses of GPs. This article highlights the mechanism of Ebola virus host cell entry, including recent findings.

  2. Development and evaluation of an immunochromatographic strip test based on the recombinant UL51 protein for detecting antibody against duck enteritis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Tao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duck enteritis virus (DEV infection causes substantial economic losses to the worldwide duck-producing areas. The monitoring of DEV-specific antibodies is a key to evaluate the effect of DEV vaccine and develop rational immunization programs. Thus, in this study, an immunochromatographic strip (ICS test was developed for detecting DEV serum antibodies. Results The ICS test is based on membrane chromatography, and uses both the purified recombinant UL51 protein conjugated with colloidal gold and goat anti-rabbit IgG conjugated with colloidal gold as tracers, the purified recombinant UL51 protein as the capture reagent at the test line, and rabbit IgG as the capture reagent at the control line. The specificity of the ICS was evaluated by sera against DEV, Duck hepatitis virus (DHV, Riemerella anatipestifer (RA, Duck E. coli, Muscovy duck parvovirus (MPV, or Duck Influenza viruses (DIV. Only sera against DEV showed the strong positive results. In order to determine the sensitivity of the ICS, anti-DEV serum diluted serially was tested, and the minimum detection limit of 1:128 was obtained. The ICS components, which are provided in a sealed package, require no refrigeration and are stable for 12 months. To evaluate the effect of the ICS, 110 duck serum samples collected from several non-immune duck flocks were simultaneously tested by the ICS test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and neutralization test (NT. The results showed that the sensitivity of the ICS test was almost consistent with ELISA and much higher than NT, has low cost, and is rapid (15 min and easy to perform with no requirement of specialized equipment, reagent or technicians. Conclusions In this work, we successfully developed a simple and rapid ICS test for detecting DEV serum antibodies for the first time. The ICS test was high specific and sensitive for the rapid detection of anti-DEV antibodies, and has great potential to be used for the serological

  3. Global Stability of an Epidemic Model of Computer Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid popularization of the Internet, computers can enter or leave the Internet increasingly frequently. In fact, no antivirus software can detect and remove all sorts of computer viruses. This implies that viruses would persist on the Internet. To better understand the spread of computer viruses in these situations, a new propagation model is established and analyzed. The unique equilibrium of the model is globally asymptotically stable, in accordance with the reality. A parameter analysis of the equilibrium is also conducted.

  4. West Nile virus: North American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  5. Wipes coated with a singlet-oxygen-producing photosensitizer are effective against human influenza virus but not against norovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaelen, Katharina; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Rutjes, Saskia; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Duizer, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of enteric and respiratory viruses, including human norovirus (hNoV) and human influenza virus, may involve surfaces. In food preparation and health care settings, surfaces are cleaned with wipes; however, wiping may not efficiently reduce contamination or may even spread viruses,

  6. Identification of a novel linear B-cell epitope in the UL26 and UL26.5 proteins of Duck Enteritis Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Xiangang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Unique Long 26 (UL26 and UL26.5 proteins of herpes simplex virus are known to function during the assembly of the viruses. However, for duck enteritis virus (DEV, which is an unassigned member of the family Herpesviridae, little information is available about the function of the two proteins. In this study, the C-terminus of DEV UL26 protein (designated UL26c, which contains the whole of UL26.5, was expressed, and the recombinant UL26c protein was used to immunize BALB/c mice to generate monoclonal antibodies (mAb. The mAb 1C8 was generated against DEV UL26 and UL26.5 proteins and used subsequently to map the epitope in this region. Both the mAb and its defined epitope will provide potential tools for further study of DEV. Results A mAb (designated 1C8 was generated against the DEV UL26c protein, and a series of 17 partially overlapping fragments that spanned the DEV UL26c were expressed with GST tags. These peptides were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and western blotting analysis using mAb 1C8 to identify the epitope. A linear motif, 520IYYPGE525, which was located at the C-terminus of the DEV UL26 and UL26.5 proteins, was identified by mAb 1C8. The result of the ELISA showed that this epitope could be recognized by DEV-positive serum from mice. The 520IYYPGE525 motif was the minimal requirement for reactivity, as demonstrated by analysis of the reactivity of 1C8 with several truncated peptides derived from the motif. Alignment and comparison of the 1C8-defined epitope sequence with those of other alphaherpesviruses indicated that the motif 521YYPGE525 in the epitope sequence was conserved among the alphaherpesviruses. Conclusion A mAb, 1C8, was generated against DEV UL26c and the epitope-defined minimal sequence obtained using mAb 1C8 was 520IYYPGE525. The mAb and the identified epitope may be useful for further study of the design of diagnostic reagents for DEV.

  7. Virus contamination from operation and maintenance practices in small drinking water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested the association of common events in drinking water distribution systems with contamination of household tap water with human enteric viruses. Viruses were enumerated by qPCR in the tap water of 14 municipal systems that use non-disinfected groundwater. Ultra-violet disinfection was install...

  8. New models of hepatitis E virus replication in human and porcine hepatocyte cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute, enterically-transmitted hepatitis. It is associated with large epidemics in tropical and subtropical regions where it is endemic or with sporadic cases in non-endemic regions. Unlike other hepatitis viruses, HEV has several animal reservoirs. Phylogenetic studie...

  9. The molecular basis of herpes simplex virus latency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Michael P; Proença, João T; Efstathiou, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is a neurotropic herpesvirus that establishes latency within sensory neurones. Following primary infection, the virus replicates productively within mucosal epithelial cells and enters sensory neurones via nerve termini. The virus is then transported to neuronal cell bodies where latency can be established. Periodically, the virus can reactivate to resume its normal lytic cycle gene expression programme and result in the generation of new virus progeny that are transported axonally back to the periphery. The ability to establish lifelong latency within the host and to periodically reactivate to facilitate dissemination is central to the survival strategy of this virus. Although incompletely understood, this review will focus on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of latency that centre on the functions of the virus-encoded latency-associated transcripts (LATs), epigenetic regulation of the latent virus genome and the molecular events that precipitate reactivation. This review considers current knowledge and hypotheses relating to the mechanisms involved in the establishment, maintenance and reactivation herpes simplex virus latency. PMID:22150699

  10. Cloning and Characterization of the Mouse Hepatitis Virus Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-11

    cause inapparent enteric infection, infantile 24 diarrhea, hepatitis, respiratory infection, and acute and chronic demyelinating neurological...antigen family in malignant and nonmalignant human tissues." Cancer Res. 48: 3153- 3157. Craighead, J. E. and M. F. McLane. (1968). " Diabetes Mellitus...virus." J Biochem (Tokyo . 82: 1103-1108. 195 Yoon, J. W.. P. R. McClintock, T. Onodera and A. L Notkins. (1980). "Virus- induced diabetes mellitus

  11. Comparative Risk Analysis of Two Culicoides-Borne Diseases in Horses: Equine Encephalosis More Likely to Enter France than African Horse Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faverjon, C; Leblond, A; Lecollinet, S; Bødker, R; de Koeijer, A A; Fischer, E A J

    2017-12-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) and equine encephalosis (EE) are Culicoides-borne viral diseases that could have the potential to spread across Europe if introduced, thus being potential threats for the European equine industry. Both share similar epidemiology, transmission patterns and geographical distribution. Using stochastic spatiotemporal models of virus entry, we assessed and compared the probabilities of both viruses entering France via two pathways: importation of live-infected animals or importation of infected vectors. Analyses were performed for three consecutive years (2010-2012). Seasonal and regional differences in virus entry probabilities were the same for both diseases. However, the probability of EE entry was much higher than the probability of AHS entry. Interestingly, the most likely entry route differed between AHS and EE: AHS has a higher probability to enter through an infected vector and EE has a higher probability to enter through an infectious host. Consequently, different effective protective measures were identified by 'what-if' scenarios for the two diseases. The implementation of vector protection on all animals (equine and bovine) coming from low-risk regions before their importation was the most effective in reducing the probability of AHS entry. On the other hand, the most significant reduction in the probability of EE entry was obtained by the implementation of quarantine before import for horses coming from both EU and non-EU countries. The developed models can be useful to implement risk-based surveillance. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Malnutrition risk predicts recovery of full oral intake among older adult stroke patients undergoing enteral nutrition: Secondary analysis of a multicentre survey (the APPLE study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Shinta; Okamoto, Takatsugu; Takayama, Masako; Urushihara, Maki; Watanabe, Misuzu; Kiriya, Yumiko; Shintani, Keiko; Nakagomi, Hiromi; Kageyama, Noriko

    2017-08-01

    Whether malnutrition risk correlates with recovery of swallowing function of convalescent stroke patients is unknown. This study was conducted to clarify whether malnutrition risks predict achievement of full oral intake in convalescent stroke patients undergoing enteral nutrition. We conducted a secondary analysis of 466 convalescent stroke patients, aged 65 years or over, who were undergoing enteral nutrition. Patients were extracted from the "Algorithm for Post-stroke Patients to improve oral intake Level; APPLE" study database compiled at the Kaifukuki (convalescent) rehabilitation wards. Malnutrition risk was determined by the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index as follows: severe (malnutrition risks (≥98). Swallowing function was assessed by Fujishima's swallowing grade (FSG) on admission and discharge. The primary outcome was achievement of full oral intake, indicated by FSG ≥ 7. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictive factors, including malnutrition risk, for achieving full oral intake. Estimated hazard risk was computed by Cox's hazard model. Of the 466 individuals, 264 were ultimately included in this study. Participants with severe malnutrition risk showed a significantly lower proportion of achievement of full oral intake than lower severity groups (P = 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, binary logistic regression analysis showed that patients with severe malnutrition risk were less likely to achieve full oral intake (adjusted odds ratio: 0.232, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.047-1.141). Cox's proportional hazard model revealed that severe malnutrition risk was an independent predictor of full oral intake (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.374, 95% CI: 0.166-0.842). Compared to patients who did not achieve full oral intake, patients who achieved full oral intake had significantly higher energy intake, but there was no difference in protein intake and weight change. Severe malnutrition risk independently

  13. Quantifying viruses and bacteria in wastewater—Results, interpretation methods, and quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Mailot, Brian E.; Spencer, Susan K.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Elber, Ashley G.; Riddell, Kimberly R.; Gellner, Terry M.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR), used for wastewater treatment in Ohio and elsewhere in the United States, have pore sizes small enough to theoretically reduce concentrations of protozoa and bacteria, but not viruses. Sampling for viruses in wastewater is seldom done and not required. Instead, the bacterial indicators Escherichia coli (E. coli) and fecal coliforms are the required microbial measures of effluents for wastewater-discharge permits. Information is needed on the effectiveness of MBRs in removing human enteric viruses from wastewaters, particularly as compared to conventional wastewater treatment before and after disinfection. A total of 73 regular and 28 quality-control (QC) samples were collected at three MBR and two conventional wastewater plants in Ohio during 23 regular and 3 QC sampling trips in 2008-10. Samples were collected at various stages in the treatment processes and analyzed for bacterial indicators E. coli, fecal coliforms, and enterococci by membrane filtration; somatic and F-specific coliphage by the single agar layer (SAL) method; adenovirus, enterovirus, norovirus GI and GII, rotavirus, and hepatitis A virus by molecular methods; and viruses by cell culture. While addressing the main objective of the study-comparing removal of viruses and bacterial indicators in MBR and conventional plants-it was realized that work was needed to identify data analysis and quantification methods for interpreting enteric virus and QC data. Therefore, methods for quantifying viruses, qualifying results, and applying QC data to interpretations are described in this report. During each regular sampling trip, samples were collected (1) before conventional or MBR treatment (post-preliminary), (2) after secondary or MBR treatment (post-secondary or post-MBR), (3) after tertiary treatment (one conventional plant only), and (4) after disinfection (post-disinfection). Glass-wool fiber filtration was used to concentrate enteric viruses from large volumes, and small

  14. Global patterns of drought recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Anderegg, William R. L.; Michalak, Anna M.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Biondi, Franco; Koch, George; Litvak, Marcy; Ogle, Kiona; Shaw, John D.; Wolf, Adam; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Schaefer, Kevin; Cook, Robert; Wei, Yaxing; Fang, Yuanyuan; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; Jain, Atul; Tian, Hanqin

    2017-08-09

    Drought is a recurring multi-factor phenomenon with major impacts on natural and human systems1-3. Drought is especially important for land carbon sink variability, influencing climate regulation of the terrestrial biosphere4. While 20th Century trends in drought regime are ambiguous, “more extreme extremes” as well as more frequent and severe droughts3,7 are expected in the 21st Century. Recovery time, the length of time an ecosystem requires to revert to its pre-drought functional state, is a critical metric of drought impact. Yet the spatiotemporal patterning and controls of drought recovery are largely unknown. Here we use three distinct global datasets of gross primary productivity to show that across diverse terrestrial ecosystems drought recovery times are driven by biological productivity and biodiversity, with drought length and severity of secondary importance. Recovery time, especially for extreme droughts, and the areal extent of ecosystems in recovery from drought generally increase over the 20th Century, supporting an increase globally in drought impact8. Our results indicate that if future Anthropocene droughts become more widespread as expected, that droughts will become more frequent relative to recovery time. This increases the risk of entering a new regime where vegetation never recovers to its original state and widespread degradation of the land carbon sink ensues.

  15. Lingual nerve injury II. Observations on sensory recovery after micro-neurosurgical reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, S; Stoltze, Kaj

    2007-01-01

    /dull discrimination, warm, cold, location of touch, and brush stroke direction, pain perception and two-point discrimination. The rate of recovery was highest during the first 6 months. Females were more often affected than males, but recovery was not influenced by gender. The distribution of neurogenic discomfort......The aim of this study was to report on neurosensory recovery after micro-surgical lingual nerve repair, and to evaluate the effect on recovery of age, delay in repair and gender of the patient. Seventy-four patients entered the study. The micro-surgical repair performed was direct nerve suture (n...

  16. Molecular and serological surveillance of canine enteric viruses in stray dogs from Vila do Maio, Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Pedro; Duarte, Ana; Gil, Solange; Cartaxeiro, Clara; Malta, Manuel; Vieira, Sara; Tavares, Luis

    2014-04-23

    Infections caused by canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in dogs worldwide. Prior to this study, no information was available concerning the incidence and prevalence of these viruses in Cape Verde archipelago. To provide information regarding the health status of the canine population in Vila do Maio, Maio Island, Cape Verde, 53 rectal swabs were collected from 53 stray dogs during 2010 and 93 rectal swabs and 88 blood samples were collected from 125 stray dogs in 2011. All rectal swabs (2010 n = 53; 2011 n = 93) were analysed for the presence of canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus nucleic acids by quantitative PCR methods. Specific antibodies against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus were also assessed (2011 n = 88).From the 2010 sampling, 43.3% (23/53) were positive for canine parvovirus DNA, 11.3% (6/53) for canine distemper virus RNA and 1.9% (1/53) for canine coronavirus RNA. In 2011, the prevalence values for canine parvovirus and canine coronavirus were quite similar to those from the previous year, respectively 44.1% (41/93), and 1.1% (1/93), but canine distemper virus was not detected in any of the samples analysed (0%, 0/93). Antibodies against canine parvovirus were detected in 71.6% (63/88) blood samples and the seroprevalence found for canine distemper virus was 51.1% (45/88). This study discloses the data obtained in a molecular and serological epidemiological surveillance carried out in urban populations of stray and domestic animals. Virus transmission and spreading occurs easily in large dog populations leading to high mortality rates particularly in unvaccinated susceptible animals. In addition, these animals can act as disease reservoirs for wild animal populations by occasional contact. Identification of susceptible wildlife of Maio Island is of upmost importance to evaluate the risk of pathogen spill over from

  17. Metodología para la implementación del soporte nutricional enteral personalizado como alternativa de la nutrición enteral domiciliaria Methodology for implementation of personalized enteral nutritional support as an alternative for enteral nutrition at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Jiménez García

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la nutrición enteral domiciliaria se realiza en la casa del paciente, y permite que disminuyan los costos hospitalarios como consecuencia de largas estadías para lograr la recuperación o mejorar el estado nutricional y su reingreso al medio familiar. Objetivo: mostrar una metodología para la implementación del soporte nutricional enteral personalizado en el hogar con recursos centralizados, como una alternativa para la nutrición domiciliaria en pediatría. Métodos: a partir del diseño de la metodología para las Unidades de Nutrición Enteral Pediátrica con objetivos de actuación de los Grupos de Apoyo Nutricional Hospitalarios, se diseñó una metodología, que, a través de acciones concretas, logra la integración entre los niveles clínico-facultativos y gerenciales. Resultados: la metodología diseñada está basada en la integración de la atención primaria de salud con la secundaria, en una relación de carácter recíproco (desde y hacia, en la que el control centralizado de los recursos permite, no solo economizarlos, sino, a la vez, su registro para organizar la demanda por la estructura administrativa. El diseño metodológico crea, a su vez, un espacio para las funciones educativas de los padres y el control sistemático del soporte, lo cual, a su vez, le da una connotación preventiva acorde con los objetivos de la medicina comunitaria. Conclusiones: la metodología propuesta por nuestro grupo de trabajo constituye una alternativa en pediatría para el desarrollo de la nutrición enteral domiciliaria, como prestación de los servicios nutricionales, con una mayor integración entre los niveles primario y secundario de salud.Introduction: home enteral nutrition is provided at the patient's house and allows reducing the hospital costs derived from long lengths of stay at hospital to attain the recovery or the improvement of the nutritional status of the patient and his/her return to the family environment

  18. A Rapid and Improved Method to Generate Recombinant Dengue Virus Vaccine Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Guan, Liming; Meschino, Steven; Fridman, Arthur; Bagchi, Ansu; Pak, Irene; ter Meulen, Jan; Casimiro, Danilo R; Bett, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most important mosquito-borne infections accounting for severe morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, the tetravalent chimeric live attenuated Dengue vaccine Dengvaxia® was approved for use in several dengue endemic countries. In general, live attenuated vaccines (LAV) are very efficacious and offer long-lasting immunity against virus-induced disease. Rationally designed LAVs can be generated through reverse genetics technology, a method of generating infectious recombinant viruses from full length cDNA contained in bacterial plasmids. In vitro transcribed (IVT) viral RNA from these infectious clones is transfected into susceptible cells to generate recombinant virus. However, the generation of full-length dengue virus cDNA clones can be difficult due to the genetic instability of viral sequences in bacterial plasmids. To circumvent the need for a single plasmid containing a full length cDNA, in vitro ligation of two or three cDNA fragments contained in separate plasmids can be used to generate a full-length dengue viral cDNA template. However, in vitro ligation of multiple fragments often yields low quality template for IVT reactions, resulting in inconsistent low yield RNA. These technical difficulties make recombinant virus recovery less efficient. In this study, we describe a simple, rapid and efficient method of using LONG-PCR to recover recombinant chimeric Yellow fever dengue (CYD) viruses as potential dengue vaccine candidates. Using this method, we were able to efficiently generate several viable recombinant viruses without introducing any artificial mutations into the viral genomes. We believe that the techniques reported here will enable rapid and efficient recovery of recombinant flaviviruses for evaluation as vaccine candidates and, be applicable to the recovery of other RNA viruses.

  19. Giants among larges: how gigantism impacts giant virus entry into amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rodrigo Araújo Lima; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2016-06-01

    The proposed order Megavirales comprises the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV), infecting a wide range of hosts. Over time, they co-evolved with different host cells, developing various strategies to penetrate them. Mimiviruses and other giant viruses enter cells through phagocytosis, while Marseillevirus and other large viruses explore endocytosis and macropinocytosis. These differing strategies might reflect the evolution of those viruses. Various scenarios have been proposed for the origin and evolution of these viruses, presenting one of the most enigmatic issues to surround these microorganisms. In this context, we believe that giant viruses evolved independently by massive gene/size gain, exploring the phagocytic pathway of entry into amoebas. In response to gigantism, hosts developed mechanisms to evade these parasites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Enteric Duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeziorczak, Paul M; Warner, Brad W

    2018-03-01

    Enteric duplications have been described throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract. The usual perinatal presentation is an abdominal mass. Duplications associated with the foregut have associated respiratory symptoms, whereas duplications in the midgut and hindgut can present with obstructive symptoms, perforation, nausea, emesis, hemorrhage, or be asymptomatic, and identified as an incidental finding. These are differentiated from other cystic lesions by the presence of a normal gastrointestinal mucosal epithelium. Enteric duplications are located on the mesenteric side of the native structures and are often singular with tubular or cystic characteristics. Management of enteric duplications often requires operative intervention with preservation of the native blood supply and intestine. These procedures are usually very well tolerated with low morbidity.

  1. Further Characterization of the UL37 Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and its Interaction with ICP8, the Major DNA-Binding Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Baringer, J.R. 1974. Recovery of herpes simplex virus from human sacral ganglions. N. Eng!. J. Med. 291:828-830. Baringer, J.R. 1976. The biology of herpes ...UL37 Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and its Interaction with [CPS, the Major DNA~Binding Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus" beyond brief...Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and its Interaction with [CPS, the Major DNA-Binding Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus Allen G. Albright Doctor of

  2. Fluorescent protein-tagged Vpr dissociates from HIV-1 core after viral fusion and rapidly enters the cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Tanay M; Marin, Mariana; Sood, Chetan; Shi, Jiong; Nawaz, Fatima; Aiken, Christopher; Melikyan, Gregory B

    2015-10-29

    HIV-1 Vpr is recruited into virions during assembly and appears to remain associated with the viral core after the reverse transcription and uncoating steps of entry. This feature has prompted the use of fluorescently labeled Vpr to visualize viral particles and to follow trafficking of post-fusion HIV-1 cores in the cytoplasm. Here, we tracked single pseudovirus entry and fusion and observed that fluorescently tagged Vpr gradually dissociates from post-fusion viral cores over the course of several minutes and accumulates in the nucleus. Kinetics measurements showed that fluorescent Vpr released from the cores very rapidly entered the cell nucleus. More than 10,000 Vpr molecules can be delivered into the cell nucleus within 45 min of infection by HIV-1 particles pseudotyped with the avian sarcoma and leukosis virus envelope glycoprotein. The fraction of Vpr from cell-bound viruses that accumulated in the nucleus was proportional to the extent of virus-cell fusion and was fully blocked by viral fusion inhibitors. Entry of virus-derived Vpr into the nucleus occurred independently of envelope glycoproteins or target cells. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy revealed two forms of nuclear Vpr-monomers and very large complexes, likely involving host factors. The kinetics of viral Vpr entering the nucleus after fusion was not affected by point mutations in the capsid protein that alter the stability of the viral core. The independence of Vpr shedding of capsid stability and its relatively rapid dissociation from post-fusion cores suggest that this process may precede capsid uncoating, which appears to occur on a slower time scale. Our results thus demonstrate that a bulk of fluorescently labeled Vpr incorporated into HIV-1 particles is released shortly after fusion. Future studies will address the question whether the quick and efficient nuclear delivery of Vpr derived from incoming viruses can regulate subsequent steps of HIV-1 infection.

  3. Enteral nutrition in surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucha, R.; Lichvarova, I.; Duchon, R.; Dolnik, J.; Pindak, D.

    2011-01-01

    Enteral feeding provides physiologic, metabolic, safety, and cost benefits over parenteral nutrition. There are various ways enteral nutritional is administered and scheduled. The method of administration must be individualized to each patient's specific needs. Enteral nutrition is not only the supply of exogenous substrates and to prevent depletion of endogenous sources. Today the enteral nutrition becomes part of a therapeutic strategy to influence the severity of the disease to affect the function of GIT, and to modulate immune responses of the gut and the whole organism. Early enteral nutrition in the postoperative period reduces the risk of infectious complications. (author)

  4. EARLY ENTERAL FEEDING AND DELAYED ENTERAL FEEDING- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Muthiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome-  In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery.  In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer

  5. Is Early Enteral Nutrition Better for Postoperative Course in Esophageal Cancer Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshifumi Wakai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We retrospectively examined esophageal cancer patients who received enteral nutrition (EN to clarify the validity of early EN compared with delayed EN. A total of 103 patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with three-field lymphadenectomy for esophageal cancer were entered. Patients were divided into two groups; Group E received EN within postoperative day 3, and Group L received EN after postoperative day 3. The clinical factors such as days for first fecal passage, the dose of postoperative albumin infusion, differences of serum albumin value between pre- and postoperation, duration of systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, incidence of postoperative infectious complication, and use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN were compared between the groups. The statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney U test and Chi square test. The statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Group E showed fewer days for the first fecal passage (p < 0.01, lesser dose of postoperative albumin infusion (p < 0.01, less use of TPN (p < 0.01, and shorter duration of SIRS (p < 0.01. However, there was no significant difference in postoperative complications between the two groups. Early EN started within 3 days after esophagectomy. It is safe and valid for reduction of albumin infusion and TPN, for promoting early recovery of intestinal movement, and for early recovery from systemic inflammation.

  6. Is Early Enteral Nutrition Better for Postoperative Course in Esophageal Cancer Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuaki; Koyama, Yu; Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Ishikawa, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kaoru; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    We retrospectively examined esophageal cancer patients who received enteral nutrition (EN) to clarify the validity of early EN compared with delayed EN. A total of 103 patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with three-field lymphadenectomy for esophageal cancer were entered. Patients were divided into two groups; Group E received EN within postoperative day 3, and Group L received EN after postoperative day 3. The clinical factors such as days for first fecal passage, the dose of postoperative albumin infusion, differences of serum albumin value between pre- and postoperation, duration of systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), incidence of postoperative infectious complication, and use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were compared between the groups. The statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney U test and Chi square test. The statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Group E showed fewer days for the first fecal passage (p < 0.01), lesser dose of postoperative albumin infusion (p < 0.01), less use of TPN (p < 0.01), and shorter duration of SIRS (p < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in postoperative complications between the two groups. Early EN started within 3 days after esophagectomy. It is safe and valid for reduction of albumin infusion and TPN, for promoting early recovery of intestinal movement, and for early recovery from systemic inflammation. PMID:24067386

  7. Current Methods for Extraction and Concentration of Enteric Viruses from Fresh Fruit and Vegetables: Towards International Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croci, L.; Dubois, E.; Cook, N.

    2008-01-01

    Virus-contaminated soft fruits or vegetables are increasingly identified as causes of foodborne viral illness. Noroviruses and hepatitis A virus are the most common pathogens in viral infections transmitted by these kinds of foods. To improve microbiological detection and monitoring and to increa...

  8. Laboratory support during and after the Ebola virus endgame: Towards a sustained laboratory infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Goodfellow; C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa is on the brink of entering a second phase in which the (inter)national efforts to slow down virus transmission will be engaged to end the epidemic. The response community must consider the longevity of their current laboratory support, as it is

  9. Recovery of rat lens epithelial cells after total or partial x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.C.; Riley, E.F.

    1987-01-01

    Irradiation of whole lenses interferes with the normal mitogenic response of lens cells to stimulation by mechanical wounding. Radiation exposure causes a delay and partial suppression of cells entering the S phase of the cell cycle. When cells are irradiated 1 day before wounding, DNA synthesis begins 20 hr after wounding and peaks 10 hr later. The return to a normal wound response is gradual when the time interval between irradiation and wounding is lengthened. By 28 days, essentially complete recovery of the wound response occurs. Mitosis shows a similar pattern of recovery. When half of the lens is irradiated 1 day before wounding, delay and suppression of the wound response in the irradiated half of the lens epithelium is observed. However, if 4 days elapse between irradiation and mechanical wounding, complete recovery of cells responding to the mitogenic stimulus occurs. Cells of the shielded half of the lens appear to compensate for the reduced number of irradiated cells entering S phase so that peak labelling of shielded cells is 70% compared with 50% for control lens cells. An evaluation of mitotic figures confirms faster recovery of the entire lens when only half the lens is irradiated. Complete recovery of the cellular response of partially irradiated lenses occurs in 4 days in contrast to almost 28 days for wholly irradiated lenses. (author)

  10. Photoreactivation of DNA-containing cauliflower mosaic virus and tobacco mosaic virus RNA on Datura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towill, L.; Huang, C.W.; Gordon, M.P.

    1977-01-01

    Datura stramonium L. is a local lesion host for TMV-RNA and DNA-containing cauliflower mosaic virus (CAMV). Datura can photorepair UV-damaged TMV-RNA and CAMV, giving photoreactivation sectors of 0.40 and 0.33, respectively. Dose response curves for photoreactivation of TMV-RNA and CAMV showed that 45 to 60 min of cool white light (15 W.m -2 ) was required for maximum photoreactivation. Blue light and near UV were equally effective in photoreactivating UV-irradiated TMV-RNA, whereas near UV was initially more effective than blue light for the photorepair of UV-inactivated CAMV. Higher doses of near UV apparently inactivated the CAMV photorepair system. In the case of CAMV, photoreactivating light had to be applied immediately after inoculation with the virus. Two to three hours of incubation in the dark after inoculation resulted in complete loss of response to photoreactivating irradiation. In contrast, limited photoreactivation of TMV-RNA occurred even after 4 h of dark incubation after inoculation, although photoreactivating irradiation was most effective when applied immediately after inoculation. Light was required for the maintenance of photoreactivation for both TMV-RNA and CAMV. Daturas placed in the dark for six days lost their ability to photoreactivate. Recovery of the TMV-RNA photorepair system was rapid; complete recovery attained with 90 or more min of white light (15 W.m -2 ). Recovery of CAMV photorepair system was slow; 90% recovery attained after only 20 h of light. However, full recovery could be induced by as little as 6 h of light when CAMV was inoculated 24 h after the onset of illumination. These results suggest two photorepair systems are present in Datura. (author)

  11. Top 10 plant viruses in molecular plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholthof, Karen-Beth G; Adkins, Scott; Czosnek, Henryk; Palukaitis, Peter; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Hohn, Thomas; Hohn, Barbara; Saunders, Keith; Candresse, Thierry; Ahlquist, Paul; Hemenway, Cynthia; Foster, Gary D

    2011-12-01

    Many scientists, if not all, feel that their particular plant virus should appear in any list of the most important plant viruses. However, to our knowledge, no such list exists. The aim of this review was to survey all plant virologists with an association with Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which plant viruses they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated more than 250 votes from the international community, and allowed the generation of a Top 10 plant virus list for Molecular Plant Pathology. The Top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) Tobacco mosaic virus, (2) Tomato spotted wilt virus, (3) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, (4) Cucumber mosaic virus, (5) Potato virus Y, (6) Cauliflower mosaic virus, (7) African cassava mosaic virus, (8) Plum pox virus, (9) Brome mosaic virus and (10) Potato virus X, with honourable mentions for viruses just missing out on the Top 10, including Citrus tristeza virus, Barley yellow dwarf virus, Potato leafroll virus and Tomato bushy stunt virus. This review article presents a short review on each virus of the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intent of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant virology community, as well as laying down a benchmark, as it will be interesting to see in future years how perceptions change and which viruses enter and leave the Top 10. © 2011 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. A Rapid and Improved Method to Generate Recombinant Dengue Virus Vaccine Candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanasekaran Govindarajan

    Full Text Available Dengue is one of the most important mosquito-borne infections accounting for severe morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, the tetravalent chimeric live attenuated Dengue vaccine Dengvaxia® was approved for use in several dengue endemic countries. In general, live attenuated vaccines (LAV are very efficacious and offer long-lasting immunity against virus-induced disease. Rationally designed LAVs can be generated through reverse genetics technology, a method of generating infectious recombinant viruses from full length cDNA contained in bacterial plasmids. In vitro transcribed (IVT viral RNA from these infectious clones is transfected into susceptible cells to generate recombinant virus. However, the generation of full-length dengue virus cDNA clones can be difficult due to the genetic instability of viral sequences in bacterial plasmids. To circumvent the need for a single plasmid containing a full length cDNA, in vitro ligation of two or three cDNA fragments contained in separate plasmids can be used to generate a full-length dengue viral cDNA template. However, in vitro ligation of multiple fragments often yields low quality template for IVT reactions, resulting in inconsistent low yield RNA. These technical difficulties make recombinant virus recovery less efficient. In this study, we describe a simple, rapid and efficient method of using LONG-PCR to recover recombinant chimeric Yellow fever dengue (CYD viruses as potential dengue vaccine candidates. Using this method, we were able to efficiently generate several viable recombinant viruses without introducing any artificial mutations into the viral genomes. We believe that the techniques reported here will enable rapid and efficient recovery of recombinant flaviviruses for evaluation as vaccine candidates and, be applicable to the recovery of other RNA viruses.

  13. Epidemiology and Transmission of Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Infections in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Megan G; Foster, Monique A; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2018-04-30

    There are many similarities in the epidemiology and transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype (gt)3 infections in the United States. Both viruses are enterically transmitted, although specific routes of transmission are more clearly established for HAV than for HEV: HAV is restricted to humans and primarily spread through the fecal-oral route, while HEV is zoonotic with poorly understood modes of transmission in the United States. New cases of HAV infection have decreased dramatically in the United States since infant vaccination was recommended in 1996. In recent years, however, outbreaks have occurred among an increasingly susceptible adult population. Although HEV is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries, it is rarely diagnosed in the United States. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  14. Norwalk virus gastroenteritis following raw oyster consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, R A; Janowski, H T; Lieb, S; Prather, E C; Greenberg, H B

    1982-03-01

    In January, 1980, six out of 13 persons (46%) attending a party in a small northwest Florida town near the Gulf of Mexico became ill with Norwalk virus gastroenteritis after eating raw oysters. Symptoms experienced by the ill persons were principally nausea (100%), vomiting (83%) and diarrhea (50%) and were of brief duration. The symptom complex and epidemiology of Norwalk virus infection closely resemble the gastrointestinal illness commonly referred to as the 24-hour intestinal flu or "stomach flu." Norwalk virus infection was identified in this outbreak by application of a recently developed sensitive and specific serologic radioimmunoassay. Oysters from the incriminated batch had fecal coliform levels above recommended standards; however, recent studies of oyster-harvesting waters have shown only a weak correlation between fecal coliforms and the presence of enteric viruses. Further studies are needed to determine whether modifications of monitoring modalities for oyster-harvesting waters are needed.

  15. Measuring personal recovery - psychometric properties of the Swedish Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery (QPR-Swe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentzell, Elisabeth; Hultqvist, Jenny; Neil, Sandra; Eklund, Mona

    2017-10-01

    Personal recovery, defined as an individual process towards meaning, is an important target within mental health services. Measuring recovery hence requires reliable and valid measures. The Process of Recovery Questionnaire (QPR) was developed for that purpose. The aim was to develop a Swedish version of the QPR (QPR-Swe) and explore its psychometric properties in terms of factor structure, internal consistency, construct validity and sensitivity to change. A total of 226 participants entered the study. The factor structure was investigated by Principal Component Analysis and Scree plot. Construct validity was addressed in terms of convergent validity against indicators of self-mastery, self-esteem, quality of life and self-rated health. A one-factor solution of QPR-Swe received better support than a two-factor solution. Good internal consistency was indicated, α = 0.92, and construct validity was satisfactory. The QPR-Swe showed preliminary sensitivity to change. The QPR-Swe showed promising initial psychometric properties in terms of internal consistency, convergent validity and sensitivity to change. The QPR-Swe is recommended for use in research and clinical contexts to assess personal recovery among people with mental illness.

  16. Quantification of Protozoa and Viruses from Small Water Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alfredo Bonilla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Large sample volumes are traditionally required for the analysis of waterborne pathogens. The need for large volumes greatly limits the number of samples that can be processed. The aims of this study were to compare extraction and detection procedures for quantifying protozoan parasites and viruses from small volumes of marine water. The intent was to evaluate a logistically simpler method of sample collection and processing that would facilitate direct pathogen measures as part of routine monitoring programs. Samples were collected simultaneously using a bilayer device with protozoa capture by size (top filter and viruses capture by charge (bottom filter. Protozoan detection technologies utilized for recovery of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. were qPCR and the more traditional immunomagnetic separation—IFA-microscopy, while virus (poliovirus detection was based upon qPCR versus plaque assay. Filters were eluted using reagents consistent with the downstream detection technologies. Results showed higher mean recoveries using traditional detection methods over qPCR for Cryptosporidium (91% vs. 45% and poliovirus (67% vs. 55% whereas for Giardia the qPCR-based methods were characterized by higher mean recoveries (41% vs. 28%. Overall mean recoveries are considered high for all detection technologies. Results suggest that simultaneous filtration may be suitable for isolating different classes of pathogens from small marine water volumes. More research is needed to evaluate the suitability of this method for detecting pathogens at low ambient concentration levels.

  17. Viral Agents Associated with Poult Enteritis in Croatian Commercial Turkey Flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Lojkić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From 2003 to 2006, samples of intestinal content and spleens from 10-day-old to 6-week-old fattening turkeys showing clinical signs of enteritis were analyzed by specific PCR and RT-PCRs for detection of haemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV, avian reovirus (ARV, turkey astrovirus-2 (TastV-2, and turkey coronavirus (TCV. A total of 23 flocks from 6 farms were included in the study. Specific sequence for HEV hexon gene was present in 6 samples from turkeys younger than and in one turkey at 6 weeks of age. A product of TastV-2 capsid gene was detected in 17/23 intestinal content samples. A 626-bp band of sigma A (S2 encoding gene segment from avian reovirus was present in three samples, all from the same farm. Sequence analysis of 450 bp fragment of avian reovirus sigma A encoding gene sequence showed that our strain had the identity of 91.3% with the strains 138, 2408, 1733, 919, T6, and Os161. No TCV specific PCR band was found in any sample. Four flocks were positive simultaneously for HEV and TastV-2, and three flocks on TastV-2 and ARV. Severity of poult enteritis described in our study is caused by immunosuppressive TastV-2 in combination with HEV or ARV.

  18. Detection of Pathogenic Viruses in Sewage Provided Early Warnings of Hepatitis A Virus and Norovirus Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmér, Maria; Paxéus, Nicklas; Magnius, Lars; Enache, Lucica; Arnholm, Birgitta; Johansson, Annette; Bergström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Most persons infected with enterically transmitted viruses shed large amounts of virus in feces for days or weeks, both before and after onset of symptoms. Therefore, viruses causing gastroenteritis may be detected in wastewater, even if only a few persons are infected. In this study, the presence of eight pathogenic viruses (norovirus, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus) was investigated in sewage to explore whether their identification could be used as an early warning of outbreaks. Samples of the untreated sewage were collected in proportion to flow at Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden. Daily samples collected during every second week between January and May 2013 were pooled and analyzed for detection of viruses by concentration through adsorption to milk proteins and PCR. The largest amount of noroviruses was detected in sewage 2 to 3 weeks before most patients were diagnosed with this infection in Gothenburg. The other viruses were detected at lower levels. HAV was detected between weeks 5 and 13, and partial sequencing of the structural VP1protein identified three different strains. Two strains were involved in an ongoing outbreak in Scandinavia and were also identified in samples from patients with acute hepatitis A in Gothenburg during spring of 2013. The third strain was unique and was not detected in any patient sample. The method used may thus be a tool to detect incipient outbreaks of these viruses and provide early warning before the causative pathogens have been recognized in health care. PMID:25172863

  19. Plant RNA binding proteins for control of RNA virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Un eHuh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant RNA viruses have effective strategies to infect host plants through either direct or indirect interactions with various host proteins, thus suppressing the host immune system. When plant RNA viruses enter host cells exposed RNAs of viruses are recognized by the host immune system through processes such as siRNA-dependent silencing. Interestingly, some host RNA binding proteins have been involved in the inhibition of RNA virus replication, movement, and translation through RNA-specific binding. Host plants intensively use RNA binding proteins for defense against viral infections in nature. In this mini review, we will summarize the function of some host RNA binding proteins which act in a sequence-specific binding manner to the infecting virus RNA. It is important to understand how plants effectively suppresses RNA virus infections via RNA binding proteins, and this defense system can be potentially developed as a synthetic virus defense strategy for use in crop engineering.

  20. Intestinal recovery in pigs irradiated at high doses. Enzymological, histological and functional data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daburon, F.; Remy, J.; Villiers, P.-A.; Gregond, J.-C.; Tricaud, Y.; Sevignac, M.; Haag, J.

    1975-01-01

    The kinetics of appearance and possible recovery of intestinal injuries were studied in pigs following 60 Co γ exposure of the hind part, in the dose range between 800 and 1,250rd; histological, enzymological and functional aspects were investigated successively. Following 800-950rd exposure, good recovery occured within less than a month as to histology and enzymology of the intestinal mucosa, but malabsorption of lipids and calcium was long lasting. Following 1,250rd exposure, incipient recovery led to permanently atrophic and non-functional mucosa impairing enteral nutrition [fr

  1. Immune recovery among HIV-infected patients in northwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with significant and sustained decrease in the viral RNA levels that allows the immune system to recover. The extent of this immune recovery depends on the baseline CD4 count. Evidence on the ...

  2. Collaborative validation of a rapid method for efficient virus concentration in bottled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Perelle, Sylvie; Di Pasquale, Simona

    2011-01-01

    . Three newly developed methods, A, B and C, for virus concentration in bottled water were compared against the reference method D: (A) Convective Interaction Media (CIM) monolithic chromatography; filtration of viruses followed by (B) direct lysis of viruses on membrane; (C) concentration of viruses......Enteric viruses, including norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), have emerged as a major cause of waterborne outbreaks worldwide. Due to their low infectious doses and low concentrations in water samples, an efficient and rapid virus concentration method is required for routine control...... by ultracentrifugation; and (D) concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration, for each methods' (A, B and C) efficacy to recover 10-fold dilutions of HAV and feline calicivirus (FCV) spiked in bottles of 1.5L of mineral water. Within the tested characteristics, all the new methods showed better performance than method D...

  3. Cellular Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein Is an Important Dengue Virus Restriction Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannoni, Federico; Damonte, Elsa B.; Garc?a, Cybele C.

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic antiviral defense is based on cellular restriction factors that are constitutively expressed and, thus, active even before a pathogen enters the cell. The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) are discrete nuclear foci that contain several cellular proteins involved in intrinsic antiviral responses against a number of viruses. Accumulating reports have shown the importance of PML as a DNA virus restriction factor and how these pathogens evade this antiviral activity....

  4. Exploiting Herpes Simplex Virus Entry for Novel Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Shukla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Herpes Simplex virus (HSV is associated with a variety of diseases such as genital herpes and numerous ocular diseases. At the global level, high prevalence of individuals who are seropositive for HSV, combined with its inconspicuous infection, remains a cause for major concern. At the molecular level, HSV entry into a host cell involves multiple steps, primarily the interaction of viral glycoproteins with various cell surface receptors, many of which have alternate substitutes. The molecular complexity of the virus to enter a cell is also enhanced by the existence of different modes of viral entry. The availability of many entry receptors, along with a variety of entry mechanisms, has resulted in a virus that is capable of infecting virtually all cell types. While HSV uses a wide repertoire of viral and host factors in establishing infection, current therapeutics aimed against the virus are not as diversified. In this particular review, we will focus on the initial entry of the virus into the cell, while highlighting potential novel therapeutics that can control this process. Virus entry is a decisive step and effective therapeutics can translate to less virus replication, reduced cell death, and detrimental symptoms.

  5. The dengue virus type 2 envelope protein fusion peptide is essential for membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Butrapet, Siritorn; Moss, Kelly J.; Childers, Thomas; Erb, Steven M.; Calvert, Amanda E.; Silengo, Shawn J.; Kinney, Richard M.; Blair, Carol D.; Roehrig, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The flaviviral envelope (E) protein directs virus-mediated membrane fusion. To investigate membrane fusion as a requirement for virus growth, we introduced 27 unique mutations into the fusion peptide of an infectious cDNA clone of dengue 2 virus and recovered seven stable mutant viruses. The fusion efficiency of the mutants was impaired, demonstrating for the first time the requirement for specific FP AAs in optimal fusion. Mutant viruses exhibited different growth kinetics and/or genetic stabilities in different cell types and adult mosquitoes. Virus particles could be recovered following RNA transfection of cells with four lethal mutants; however, recovered viruses could not re-infect cells. These viruses could enter cells, but internalized virus appeared to be retained in endosomal compartments of infected cells, thus suggesting a fusion blockade. Mutations of the FP also resulted in reduced virus reactivity with flavivirus group-reactive antibodies, confirming earlier reports using virus-like particles.

  6. Surge recovery techniques for the Tevatron cold compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.; Klebaner, A.L.; Makara, J.N.; Theilacker, J.C.; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, made by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high-energy operations [1]. The compressor is designed to pump 60 g/s of 3.6 K saturated helium vapor at a pressure ratio of 2.8, with an off-design range of 40 to 70 g/s and operating speeds between 40 and 95 krpm. Since initial commissioning in 1993, Tevatron transient conditions such as quench recovery have led to multiple-location machine trips as a result of the cold compressors entering the surge regime. Historically, compressors operating at lower inlet pressures and higher speeds have been especially susceptible to these machine trips and it was not uncommon to have multiple compressor trips during large multiple-house quenches. In order to cope with these events and limit accelerator down time, surge recovery techniques have been implemented in an attempt to prevent the compressors from tripping once the machine entered this surge regime. This paper discusses the different methods of surge recovery that have been employed. Data from tests performed at the Cryogenic Test Facility at Fermilab as well as actual Tevatron operational data were utilized. In order to aid in the determination of the surge region, a full mapping study was undertaken to characterize the entire pressure field of the cold compressor. These techniques were then implemented and tested at several locations in the Tevatron with some success

  7. The use of non-human primates as animal models for the study of hepatitis viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. Vitral

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis viruses belong to different families and have in common a striking hepatotropism and restrictions for propagation in cell culture. The transmissibility of hepatitis is in great part limited to non-human primates. Enterically transmitted hepatitis viruses (hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus can induce hepatitis in a number of Old World and New World monkey species, while the host range of non-human primates susceptible to hepatitis viruses transmitted by the parenteral route (hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis delta virus is restricted to few species of Old World monkeys, especially the chimpanzee. Experimental studies on non-human primates have provided an invaluable source of information regarding the biology and pathogenesis of these viruses, and represent a still indispensable tool for vaccine and drug testing.

  8. Mechanism of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus entry into cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrow, P; Oldstone, M B

    1994-01-01

    The path that the arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) uses to enter rodent fibroblastic cell lines was dissected by infectivity and inhibition studies and immunoelectron microscopy. Lysosomotropic weak bases (chloroquine and ammonium chloride) and carboxylic ionophores (monensin and nigericin) inhibited virus entry, assessed as virus nucleoprotein expression at early times post-infection, indicating that the entry process involved a pH-dependent fusion step in intracellular vesicles. That entry occurred in vesicles rather than by direct fusion of virions with the plasma membrane was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. The vesicles involved were large (150-300 nm diameter), smooth-walled, and not associated with clathrin. Unlike classical phagocytosis, virus uptake in these vesicles was a microfilament-independent process, as it was not blocked by cytochalasins. LCMV entry into rodent fibroblast cell lines thus involves viropexis in large smooth-walled vesicles, followed by a pH-dependent fusion event inside the cell.

  9. Establishment of feline intestinal epithelial cell cultures for the propagation and study of feline enteric coronaviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is the most feared infectious cause of death in cats, induced by feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). This coronavirus is a virulent mutant of the harmless, ubiquitous feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). To date, feline coronavirus (FCoV) research has been hampered by the lack of susceptible cell lines for the propagation of serotype I FCoVs. In this study, long-term feline intestinal epithelial cell cultures were established from primary ileocytes and colonocytes by simian virus 40 (SV40) T-antigen- and human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT)-induced immortalization. Subsequently, these cultures were evaluated for their usability in FCoV research. Firstly, the replication capacity of the serotype II strains WSU 79–1683 and WSU 79–1146 was studied in the continuous cultures as was done for the primary cultures. In accordance with the results obtained in primary cultures, FCoV WSU 79–1683 still replicated significantly more efficient compared to FCoV WSU 79–1146 in both continuous cultures. In addition, the cultures were inoculated with faecal suspensions from healthy cats and with faecal or tissue suspensions from FIP cats. The cultures were susceptible to infection with different serotype I enteric strains and two of these strains were further propagated. No infection was seen in cultures inoculated with FIPV tissue homogenates. In conclusion, a new reliable model for FCoV investigation and growth of enteric field strains was established. In contrast to FIPV strains, FECVs showed a clear tropism for intestinal epithelial cells, giving an explanation for the observation that FECV is the main pathotype circulating among cats. PMID:23964891

  10. Identification and Characterization of the UL37 Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Demonstration that it Interacts with ICP8, the Major DNA Binding Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-20

    R . 1974 . Recovery of herpes simplex virus from human sacral gangl ions. N. Engl. J. Med. 291 :828-830. Baringer, J.R . 1975. Herpes simplex virus...AII’I fORCE MEDICAL C(NTEIt Title of Dissertation : "Ideatification and Characterization of the UL37 Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and...Demonstration that It Interacts with reps. the Major DNA Binding Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus" Name of Candidate: Lisa Shelton Doctor of

  11. Real-time dynamic imaging of virus distribution in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean E Hofherr

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of viruses and gene therapy vectors is difficult to assess in a living organism. For instance, trafficking in murine models can usually only be assessed after sacrificing the animal for tissue sectioning or extraction. These assays are laborious requiring whole animal sectioning to ascertain tissue localization. They also obviate the ability to perform longitudinal or kinetic studies in one animal. To track viruses after systemic infection, we have labeled adenoviruses with a near-infrared (NIR fluorophore and imaged these after intravenous injection in mice. Imaging was able to track and quantitate virus particles entering the jugular vein simultaneous with injection, appearing in the heart within 500 milliseconds, distributing in the bloodstream and throughout the animal within 7 seconds, and that the bulk of virus distribution was essentially complete within 3 minutes. These data provide the first in vivo real-time tracking of the rapid initial events of systemic virus infection.

  12. Occurrence of water-borne enteric viruses in two settlements based in Eastern Chad: analysis of hepatitis E virus, hepatitis A virus and human adenovirus in water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Latorre, Laura; Carratala, Anna; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Calgua, Byron; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Girones, Rosina

    2011-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of water-borne acute hepatitis in areas with poor sanitation. In 2004 an outbreak of HEV infection affected around 2,000 people in Eastern Chad (Dar Sila). This paper describes the decrease in the incidence of acute jaundice syndrome (AJS) from 2004 until 2009 when a mean incidence of 0.48 cases/1,000 people/year was recorded in the region. Outbreaks of AJS were identified in some of the camps in 2007 and 2008. Moreover, water samples from drinking water sources were screened for human adenoviruses considered as viral indicators and for hepatitis A virus and HEV. Screening of faecal samples from donkeys for HEV gave negative results. Some of the samples were also analysed for faecal coliforms showing values before disinfection treatment between 3 and >50 colony forming units per 100 mL. All water samples tested were negative for HEV and HAV; however, the presence of low levels of human adenoviruses in 4 out of 16 samples analysed indicates possible human faecal contamination of groundwater. Consequently, breakdowns in the treatment of drinking water and/or increased excretion of hepatitis viruses, which could be related to the arrival of a new population, could spread future outbreaks through drinking water.

  13. Different Behavior of Enteric Bacteria and Viruses in Clay and Sandy Soils after Biofertilization with Swine Digestate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, Gislaine; García-González, María C.; Hernández, Marta; Kunz, Airton; Barardi, Célia R. M.; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2017-01-01

    Enteric pathogens from biofertilizer can accumulate in the soil, subsequently contaminating water and crops. We evaluated the survival, percolation and leaching of model enteric pathogens in clay and sandy soils after biofertilization with swine digestate: PhiX-174, mengovirus (vMC0), Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were used as biomarkers. The survival of vMC0 and PhiX-174 in clay soil was significantly lower than in sandy soil (iT90 values of 10.520 ± 0.600 vs. 21.270 ± 1.100 and 12.040 ± 0.010 vs. 43.470 ± 1.300, respectively) and PhiX-174 showed faster percolation and leaching in sandy soil than clay soil (iT90 values of 0.46 and 2.43, respectively). S. enterica Typhimurium was percolated and inactivated more slowly than E. coli O157:H7 (iT90 values of 9.340 ± 0.200 vs. 6.620 ± 0.500 and 11.900 ± 0.900 vs. 10.750 ± 0.900 in clay and sandy soils, respectively), such that E. coli O157:H7 was transferred more quickly to the deeper layers of both soils evaluated (percolation). Our findings suggest that E. coli O157:H7 may serve as a useful microbial biomarker of depth contamination and leaching in clay and sandy soil and that bacteriophage could be used as an indicator of enteric pathogen persistence. Our study contributes to development of predictive models for enteric pathogen behavior in soils, and for potential water and food contamination associated with biofertilization, useful for risk management and mitigation in swine digestate recycling. PMID:28197137

  14. [Virus adsorption from batch experiments as influenced by air-water interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Bing-zi; Zhang, Jia-bao; Zhang, Cong-zhi; Wang, Qiu-ying; Chen, Ji

    2007-12-01

    The presence of air-water interface in batch sorption experiments may result in inaccurate estimation of virus adsorption onto various soils. A batch sorption experiment was conducted to compare the adsorption results of MS2 in different soils under presence/absence of air-water interface. Soils with sterilization/nonterilization treatment were used. Virus recovery efficiency in a blank experiment (no soil) was also evaluated as affected by different amount of air-water interface. The presence of air-water interface altered the results of virus adsorption in different soils with different extent, with Sandy fluvo-aquic soil being the most considerably affected, followed by Red loam soil, and the least being Red clay soil, probably because of different soil properties associated with virus adsorption/inactivation. Soil sterilization resulted in more significant difference of virus adsorption onto the Sandy fluvo-aquic soil between the presence and absence of air-water interface, while a reduced difference was observed in the Red loam soil. The presence of air-water interface significantly decreased virus recovery efficiency, with the values being decreased with increase in the amount of air-water interface. Soil particles likely prohibit viruses from reaching the air-water interface or alter the forces at the solid-water-air interface so that the results from the blank experiment did not truly represent results from control blank, which probably resulted in adsorption difference between presence and absence of the air-water interface.

  15. Combined enteral and parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernerman, Jan

    2012-03-01

    To review and discuss the evidence and arguments to combine enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition in the ICU, in particular with reference to the Early Parenteral Nutrition Completing Enteral Nutrition in Adult Critically Ill Patients (EPaNIC) study. The EPaNIC study shows an advantage in terms of discharges alive from the ICU when parenteral nutrition is delayed to day 8 as compared with combining enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition from day 3 of ICU stay. The difference between the guidelines from the European Society of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition in Europe and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition/Society of Critical Care Medicine in North America concerning the combination of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition during the initial week of ICU stay was reviewed. The EPaNIC study clearly demonstrates that early parenteral nutrition in the ICU is not in the best interests of most patients. Exactly at what time point the combination of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition should be considered is still an open question.

  16. Perioperative lipid-enriched enteral nutrition versus standard care in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery (SANICS II): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Emmeline G.; Smeets, Boudewijn J. J.; Nors, Jesper; Back, Christian M.; Funder, Jonas A.; Sommer, Thorbjørn; Laurberg, Søren; Løve, Uffe S.; Leclercq, Wouter K. G.; Slooter, Gerrit D.; de Vries Reilingh, Tammo S.; Wegdam, Johannes A.; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A. P.; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Buise, Marc P.; Buurman, Willem A.; de Jonge, Wouter J.; Rutten, Harm J. T.; Luyer, Misha D. P.

    2018-01-01

    Postoperative ileus and anastomotic leakage severely impair recovery after colorectal resection. We investigated the effect of perioperative lipid-enriched enteral nutrition versus standard care on the risk of postoperative ileus, anastomotic leakage, and other clinical outcomes. We did an

  17. Studies evaluating the applicability of utilizing the same concentration techniques for the detection of protozoan parasites and viruses in water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kfir, R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available sample volume to about 101. This study shows that concentration techniques utilised for the isolation of enteric viruses can also be applied for the detection of protozoan parasites from water. This procedure allows for co-analysis of both viruses...

  18. Application of FTA technology for sampling, recovery and molecular characterization of viral pathogens and virus-derived transgenes from plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunguru, Joseph; Taylor, Nigel J; Yadav, Jitender; Aly, Haytham; Legg, James P; Aveling, Terry; Thompson, Graham; Fauquet, Claude M

    2005-01-01

    Background Plant viral diseases present major constraints to crop production. Effective sampling of the viruses infecting plants is required to facilitate their molecular study and is essential for the development of crop protection and improvement programs. Retaining integrity of viral pathogens within sampled plant tissues is often a limiting factor in this process, most especially when sample sizes are large and when operating in developing counties and regions remote from laboratory facilities. FTA is a paper-based system designed to fix and store nucleic acids directly from fresh tissues pressed into the treated paper. We report here the use of FTA as an effective technology for sampling and retrieval of DNA and RNA viruses from plant tissues and their subsequent molecular analysis. Results DNA and RNA viruses were successfully recovered from leaf tissues of maize, cassava, tomato and tobacco pressed into FTA® Classic Cards. Viral nucleic acids eluted from FTA cards were found to be suitable for diagnostic molecular analysis by PCR-based techniques and restriction analysis, and for cloning and nucleotide sequencing in a manner equivalent to that offered by tradition isolation methods. Efficacy of the technology was demonstrated both from sampled greenhouse-grown plants and from leaf presses taken from crop plants growing in farmer's fields in East Africa. In addition, FTA technology was shown to be suitable for recovery of viral-derived transgene sequences integrated into the plant genome. Conclusion Results demonstrate that FTA is a practical, economical and sensitive method for sampling, storage and retrieval of viral pathogens and plant genomic sequences, when working under controlled conditions and in the field. Application of this technology has the potential to significantly increase ability to bring modern analytical techniques to bear on the viral pathogens infecting crop plants. PMID:15904535

  19. Application of FTA technology for sampling, recovery and molecular characterization of viral pathogens and virus-derived transgenes from plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunguru, Joseph; Taylor, Nigel J; Yadav, Jitender; Aly, Haytham; Legg, James P; Aveling, Terry; Thompson, Graham; Fauquet, Claude M

    2005-05-18

    Plant viral diseases present major constraints to crop production. Effective sampling of the viruses infecting plants is required to facilitate their molecular study and is essential for the development of crop protection and improvement programs. Retaining integrity of viral pathogens within sampled plant tissues is often a limiting factor in this process, most especially when sample sizes are large and when operating in developing counties and regions remote from laboratory facilities. FTA is a paper-based system designed to fix and store nucleic acids directly from fresh tissues pressed into the treated paper. We report here the use of FTA as an effective technology for sampling and retrieval of DNA and RNA viruses from plant tissues and their subsequent molecular analysis. DNA and RNA viruses were successfully recovered from leaf tissues of maize, cassava, tomato and tobacco pressed into FTA Classic Cards. Viral nucleic acids eluted from FTA cards were found to be suitable for diagnostic molecular analysis by PCR-based techniques and restriction analysis, and for cloning and nucleotide sequencing in a manner equivalent to that offered by tradition isolation methods. Efficacy of the technology was demonstrated both from sampled greenhouse-grown plants and from leaf presses taken from crop plants growing in farmer's fields in East Africa. In addition, FTA technology was shown to be suitable for recovery of viral-derived transgene sequences integrated into the plant genome. Results demonstrate that FTA is a practical, economical and sensitive method for sampling, storage and retrieval of viral pathogens and plant genomic sequences, when working under controlled conditions and in the field. Application of this technology has the potential to significantly increase ability to bring modern analytical techniques to bear on the viral pathogens infecting crop plants.

  20. Application of FTA technology for sampling, recovery and molecular characterization of viral pathogens and virus-derived transgenes from plant tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveling Terry

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant viral diseases present major constraints to crop production. Effective sampling of the viruses infecting plants is required to facilitate their molecular study and is essential for the development of crop protection and improvement programs. Retaining integrity of viral pathogens within sampled plant tissues is often a limiting factor in this process, most especially when sample sizes are large and when operating in developing counties and regions remote from laboratory facilities. FTA is a paper-based system designed to fix and store nucleic acids directly from fresh tissues pressed into the treated paper. We report here the use of FTA as an effective technology for sampling and retrieval of DNA and RNA viruses from plant tissues and their subsequent molecular analysis. Results DNA and RNA viruses were successfully recovered from leaf tissues of maize, cassava, tomato and tobacco pressed into FTA® Classic Cards. Viral nucleic acids eluted from FTA cards were found to be suitable for diagnostic molecular analysis by PCR-based techniques and restriction analysis, and for cloning and nucleotide sequencing in a manner equivalent to that offered by tradition isolation methods. Efficacy of the technology was demonstrated both from sampled greenhouse-grown plants and from leaf presses taken from crop plants growing in farmer's fields in East Africa. In addition, FTA technology was shown to be suitable for recovery of viral-derived transgene sequences integrated into the plant genome. Conclusion Results demonstrate that FTA is a practical, economical and sensitive method for sampling, storage and retrieval of viral pathogens and plant genomic sequences, when working under controlled conditions and in the field. Application of this technology has the potential to significantly increase ability to bring modern analytical techniques to bear on the viral pathogens infecting crop plants.

  1. Recovery of infectious type Asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus from suckling mice directly inoculated with an RNA polymerase I/II-driven unidirectional transcription plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Kaiqi; Yang, Fan; Zhu, Zixiang; Cao, Weijun; Jin, Ye; Li, Dan; Zhang, Keshan; Guo, Jianhong; Zheng, Haixue; Liu, Xiangtao

    2015-10-02

    We developed an RNA polymerase (pol) I- and II-driven plasmid-based reverse genetics system to rescue infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from cloned cDNA. In this plasmid-based transfection, the full-length viral cDNA was flanked by hammerhead ribozyme (HamRz) and hepatitis delta ribozyme (HdvRz) sequences, which were arranged downstream of the two promoters (cytomegalovirus (CMV) and pol I promoter) and upstream of the terminators and polyadenylation signal, respectively. The utility of this method was demonstrated by the recovery of FMDV Asia1 HN/CHA/06 in BHK-21 cells transfected with cDNA plasmids. Furthermore, infectious FMDV Asia1 HN/CHA/06 could be rescued from suckling mice directly inoculated with cDNA plasmids. Thus, this reverse genetics system can be applied to fundamental research and vaccine studies, most notably to rescue those viruses for which there is currently an absence of a suitable cell culture system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Esophagitis and enteritis caused by herpesvirus in pigeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egobol, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The pigeon squabs, aged 5-26 day-old, showed clinical signs of dullness, anorexia, indigestion, reten-tion of feed in crop, progressive emaciation then died. The morbidity rate and mortality rate were 7.14% (50/700. The adult pigeons did not show any signs of disease. From pathological finding, pharyngitis, esophagitis were found with diphtheritic membrane covering necrotic ulcers on the mucosa of pharynx, esophagus and crop. From histopathological findings, esophagitis with epithelial hyperplasia and sloughed, lamina propria mucosa edema with lymphoid cells infiltration were found in duodenum and jejunum. The intranuclear inclusion body, Cowdry type A, was found in epithelial mucosa of esophagus, enterocyte of jejunum and lymphoid cells in spleen. FA test to duck virus enteritis and inoculation to ducklings showed negative results. Electron microscopic study revealed electron dense core sized 146-167 nm., which was identified as herpesvirus.

  3. The Place of Social Recovery in Mental Health and Related Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, Shulamit

    2018-05-23

    This article looks at the place of social recovery in mental health and social care services, alongside personal recovery. Despite its conceptual and practice centrality to the new meaning of recovery, social recovery has remained a relatively neglected dimension. This article attempts to provide an updated critical commentary based on findings from fifty nine studies, including a variety of research methodologies and methods. Definitions of social recovery within the new meaning of recovery are looked at. This is followed by outlining the development and significance of this dimension as reflected in the key areas of shared decision making, co-production and active citizenship, re-entering employment after experiencing mental ill health, being in employment, poverty and coping with poverty, the economic and the scientific cases for social recovery. The article highlights the connections between service users' experiencing mental health and social care systems, and the implications of ideologies and policies reflecting positions on social recovery. The complexity of social recovery is indicated in each of these areas; the related conceptual and methodological frameworks developed to research this dimension, and key achievements and barriers concerning everyday practice application of social recovery. The summary indicates potential future development perspectives of this dimension.

  4. Prevalence of lapine rotavirus, astrovirus, and hepatitis E virus in Canadian domestic rabbit populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, XiaoTing; Bil, Joanna; Shantz, Emily; Hammermueller, Jutta; Nagy, Eva; Turner, Patricia V

    2017-09-01

    Lapine rotavirus and astrovirus have been associated with disease in rabbits, and there is strong evidence of zoonotic transmission of lapine hepatitis E virus (HEV). Outbreaks of enteritis are common on commercial meat farms, resulting in poor welfare, high rabbit mortality, and significant financial losses for rabbit producers. Currently, none of these viruses are routinely tested by diagnostic laboratories. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of rotavirus, astrovirus, and HEV RNA in 205 pooled and individual fecal samples from healthy Canadian laboratory, companion, shelter and commercial meat rabbit populations. Viral RNA were extracted and amplified via RT-PCR using virus-specific primers. Positive samples from the first cohort of samples tested were sequenced and aligned to previously identified viruses to confirm the products. Almost 45% (13/29) of the surveyed commercial rabbit farms were astrovirus-positive. Three commercial meat rabbit samples were positive for rotavirus, and either astrovirus or HEV RNA was also detected. Three companion rabbit samples also tested positive for lapine HEV. Samples from specific pathogen-free laboratory animals were negative for all viruses. Sequencing results showed highest identity to rotavirus A strain 30-96, lapine astrovirus strain 2208 and lapine HEV strain CMC-1. These results permit a better understanding of the prevalence of rotavirus, astrovirus, and hepatitis E virus in Canadian domestic rabbit populations, and continued screening for viruses may help to reduce risk of zoonotic agent transmission as well as providing a better understanding of potential causative agents of rabbit enteritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular requirement for sterols in herpes simplex virus entry and infectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) required cholesterol for virion-induced membrane fusion. HSV successfully entered DHCR24-/-cells, which lack a desmosterol-to-cholesterol conversion enzyme, indicating entry can occur independently of cholesterol. Depletion of desmosterol from these cells resulted in d...

  6. Principles for supplying virus-tested material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varveri, Christina; Maliogka, Varvara I; Kapari-Isaia, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    Production of virus-tested material of vegetatively propagated crops through national certification schemes has been implemented in many developed countries for more than 60 years and its importance for being the best virus control means is well acknowledged by growers worldwide. The two most important elements of certification schemes are the use of sensitive, reliable, and rapid detection techniques to check the health status of the material produced and effective and simple sanitation procedures for the elimination of viruses if present in candidate material before it enters the scheme. New technologies such as next-generation sequencing platforms are expected to further enhance the efficiency of certification and production of virus-tested material, through the clarification of the unknown etiology of several graft-transmissible diseases. The successful production of virus-tested material is a demanding procedure relying on the close collaboration of researchers, official services, and the private sector. Moreover, considerable efforts have been made by regional plant protection organizations such as the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO), the North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO), and the European Union and the USA to harmonize procedures, methodologies, and techniques in order to assure the quality, safety, and movement of the vegetatively propagated material produced around the world. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tailoring nutrition therapy to illness and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischmeyer, Paul E

    2017-12-28

    Without doubt, in medicine as in life, one size does not fit all. We do not administer the same drug or dose to every patient at all times, so why then would we live under the illusion that we should give the same nutrition at all times in the continuum of critical illness? We have long lived under the assumption that critical illness and trauma lead to a consistent early increase in metabolic/caloric need, the so-called "hypermetabolism" of critical illness. What if this is incorrect? Recent data indicate that early underfeeding of calories (trophic feeding) may have benefits and may require consideration in well-nourished patients. However, we must confront the reality that currently ICU nutrition delivery worldwide is actually leading to "starvation" of our patients and is likely a major contributor to poor long-term quality of life outcomes. To begin to ascertain the actual calorie and protein delivery required for optimal ICU recovery, an understanding of "starvation" and recovery from starvation and lean body mass (LBM) loss is needed. To begin to answer this question, we must look to the landmark Minnesota Starvation Study from 1945. This trial defines much of the world's knowledge about starvation, and most importantly what is required for recovery from starvation and massive LBM loss as occurs in the ICU. Recent and historic data indicate that critical illness is characterized by early massive catabolism, LBM loss, and escalating hypermetabolism that can persist for months or years. Early enteral nutrition during the acute phase should attempt to correct micronutrient/vitamin deficiencies, deliver adequate protein, and moderate nonprotein calories in well-nourished patients, as in the acute phase they are capable of generating significant endogenous energy. Post resuscitation, increasing protein (1.5-2.0 g/kg/day) and calories are needed to attenuate LBM loss and promote recovery. Malnutrition screening is essential and parenteral nutrition can be safely

  8. Prevalence of rotavirus, adenovirus, hepatitis A virus and enterovirus in water samples collected from different region of Peshawar, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tahir; Arshad, Najma; Adnan, Fazal; Sadaf Zaidi, Najam-Us-Sahar; Shahid, Muhammad Talha; Zahoor, Usman; Afzal, Muhammad S; Anjum, Sadia

    2016-12-23

    Viral gastroenteritis and other water-borne diseases are the most neglected areas of research in Pakistan. To determine the quality of water, 4 enteric viruses were studied from different localities of Peshawar, Pakistan. The study validates the viral detection method for Rotavirus (RV), Human adenovirus (HAdV), Enterovirus (EV) and Hepatitis A virus (HAV), directly from water sources of rural areas of Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan. Overall, 95 five water samples were tested; among them, 9.47% were positive for RV, 38.94% for HAdV, 48.42% for EV and 12.63% for HAV. The presence of these viruses in water was directly correlated with meteorological data. High prevalence of EV and HAdV was detected frequently in the wet season from May - September, which can be the potential cause of spreading of gastroenteritis in the population. Environmental surveillance is an additional tool to evaluate the epidemiology of enteric viruses circulating in a given community.

  9. A Clinical Review of Zika Virus (ZIKAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hashim Raza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKAV is a flavi-virus, first isolated in 1947 in the Zika Forest of Uganda. ZIKAV is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus. ZIKAV is made up of two noncoding regions (5′ and 3′ that verge an open reading frame, which put into code a polyprotein smote into the capsid, precursor of membrane, envelope, and 7 nonstructural proteins. Inoculation of a human host is by Mosquito. After cellular en¬try, the virus enters skin cells through cellular receptors, enabling migration to the lymph nodes and blood circulation. ZIKAV may also enter to skin fibroblasts, keratino¬cytes, and immature dendritic cells. Several entry and adhesion factors enable infection, and cellular autophagy, needed for flaviviral replication. Transmission is by infected mosquito dur¬ing a blood meal. After endorsement, the virus replicates and is pass on to a reservoir animal at the next blood mealtime. ZIKAV is also transmitted via congenital, perinatal, and sexual, possible transmission by blood transfusion, ani¬mal bite and intrauterine transmission. Trans-mission via breast-feeding has not been reported. Incubation period from mosquito bite to symptom commencement is 3–12 days. Infection is likely subclinical in 80% of cases. Symptoms, which last for almost two to seven days include fever, conjunctivitis, arthralgia, myalgia, and pervasive rash, which may be itchy. Headache, retro-orbital pain, peripheral oedema, and gastrointestinal fracas have also been witnessed. Diagnosis is directed by history and consideration. The symptoms and clinical signs do not have adequate positive or negative prognostic value, and therefore laboratory testing is needed for dependable diagnosis. Laboratory testing includes polymerase chain reaction (PCR of ZIKAV RNA. There is formerly no vaccine against ZIKAV, nor definite antiviral for the management of ZIKAV. Treatment is suggestive. Vector control by insecticides and removal of small pools of still water, the breeding

  10. High-protein enteral nutrition enriched with immune-modulating nutrients vs standard high-protein enteral nutrition and nosocomial infections in the ICU: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, Arthur R H; Sztark, François; Kaisers, Udo X; Zielmann, Siegfried; Felbinger, Thomas W; Sablotzki, Armin R; De Waele, Jan J; Timsit, Jean-François; Honing, Marina L H; Keh, Didier; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Zazzo, Jean-Fabien; Fijn, Harvey B M; Petit, Laurent; Preiser, Jean-Charles; van Horssen, Peter J; Hofman, Zandrie

    2014-08-06

    Enteral administration of immune-modulating nutrients (eg, glutamine, omega-3 fatty acids, selenium, and antioxidants) has been suggested to reduce infections and improve recovery from critical illness. However, controversy exists on the use of immune-modulating enteral nutrition, reflected by lack of consensus in guidelines. To determine whether high-protein enteral nutrition enriched with immune-modulating nutrients (IMHP) reduces the incidence of infections compared with standard high-protein enteral nutrition (HP) in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. The MetaPlus study, a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial, was conducted from February 2010 through April 2012 including a 6-month follow-up period in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in the Netherlands, Germany, France, and Belgium. A total of 301 adult patients who were expected to be ventilated for more than 72 hours and to require enteral nutrition for more than 72 hours were randomized to the IMHP (n = 152) or HP (n = 149) group and included in an intention-to-treat analysis, performed for the total population as well as predefined medical, surgical, and trauma subpopulations. High-protein enteral nutrition enriched with immune-modulating nutrients vs standard high-protein enteral nutrition, initiated within 48 hours of ICU admission and continued during the ICU stay for a maximum of 28 days. The primary outcome measure was incidence of new infections according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definitions. Secondary end points included mortality, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores, mechanical ventilation duration, ICU and hospital lengths of stay, and subtypes of infections according CDC definitions. There were no statistically significant differences in incidence of new infections between the groups: 53% (95% CI, 44%-61%) in the IMHP group vs 52% (95% CI, 44%-61%) in the HP group (P = .96). No statistically significant differences were

  11. A case of perforative peritonitis due to radiation enteritis 33 years after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaya, Yoshihiro; Yasaka, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Shinsuke [Kamigotou Hospital, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    We report a case of perforative peritonitis due to radiation enteritis. An 88-year-old woman who had undergone pelvic irradiation for a gynecological malignancy was referred to our hospital due to hematomesis and epigastralgia with fever. We determined that she had perforative peritonitis, based on intraabdominal extrabowel gases in abdominal computed tomography. We conducted emergency operation to resect the damaged bowel, such as necrotic intestine combound with a damaged bladder in ''frozen pelvis'' and reconstruct jejuno-ascending colostomy. Pathological findings for resected specimens were compatible with radiation enteritis, such as excessive collagen deposition within the bowel wall, vasculitis, and intramural edema. The woman had a jejuno-subcutaneous fistula and suffered recurrent urinary infection or jaundice due to chronic hepatitis C after the surgical procedure. But eight months later, recovery enabled a successful second laparotomy to reconstruct the residual intestine. Even long after irradiation for malignant disease, radioactive damage to the body as a whole should always be considered. (author)

  12. Oncolytic Viruses: Therapeutics With an Identity Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline J. Breitbach

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses (OV are replicating viral therapeutics for the treatment of cancer and have been in laboratory development for about twenty years. Recently, the FDA approved Imlygic, a herpes virus based therapeutic for the treatment of melanoma and thus OVs have entered a new era where they are a weapon in the armament of the oncologist. OVs are unique therapeutics with multiple mechanisms of therapeutic activity. The exact path for their development and eventual uptake by pharmaceutical companies is somewhat clouded by an uncertain identity. Are they vaccines, tumour lysing therapeutics, inducers of innate immunity, gene therapy vectors, anti-vascular agents or all of the above? Should they be developed as stand-alone loco-regional therapeutics, systemically delivered tumour hunters or immune modulators best tested as combination therapeutics? We summarize data here supporting the idea, depending upon the virus, that OVs can be any or all of these things. Pursuing a “one-size fits all” approach is counter-productive to their clinical development and instead as a field we should build on the strengths of individual virus platforms.

  13. Impact of early postoperative enteral nutrition on clinical outcomes in patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Liu, H Y; Guo, S H; Sun, P; Gong, F M; Jia, B Q

    2015-06-29

    The impact of early enteral nutrition (EEN) on clinical outcomes of gastric cancer patients was investigated. Three hundred pa-tients undergoing gastric cancer surgery from July 2010 to May 2014 were randomly divided into experimental and control groups (n = 150/group). Experimental group patients received enteral nutrition in water during the early postoperative period. Control group patients received conventional perioperative treatment. Patients' clinical outcomes, post-operative immune function, and nutritional statuses were compared, which revealed that the postoperative fever duration (80.2 ± 6.0 vs 88.1 ± 8.1 h, P 0.05]. At postoperative days 3 and 7, the CD3(+), CD4(+), natural killer cell, albumin, and prealbumin levels and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ra-tio were significantly higher in the experimental group than the control group (all P nutritional status and immune function and promote early recovery of intestinal function in patients with gastric cancer.

  14. Combination treatment with hepatitis C virus protease and NS5A inhibitors is effective against recombinant genotype 1a, 2a, and 3a viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottwein, Judith M; Jensen, Sanne B; Li, Yi-Ping

    2013-01-01

    With the development of directly acting antivirals, hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy entered a new era. However, rapid selection of resistance mutations necessitates combination therapy. To study combination therapy in infectious culture systems, we aimed at developing HCV semi-full-length (semi...... to single-drug treatment, combination treatment with relatively low concentrations of asunaprevir and daclatasvir suppressed infection with all five recombinants. Escaped viruses primarily had substitutions at amino acids in the NS3 protease and NS5A domain I reported to be genotype 1 resistance mutations...

  15. Molecular characterization of viruses associated with gastrointestinal infection in HIV-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel C Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients worldwide. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the frequency of viral gastrointestinal infections among Brazilian HIV-infected patients with diarrhea. METHODS: A collection of 90 fecal specimens from HIV-infected individuals with diarrhea, previously tested for the presence of bacteria and parasite was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis for the presence of enteric viruses such as astrovirus, norovirus, rotavirus groups A, B and C, adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and human bocavirus. RESULTS: Twenty patients (22.2%; n = 90 were infected with parasites (11 single infections and nine coinfected with virus. Enteropathogenic bacteria were not found. Virus infections were detected in 28.9% (26/90 of the specimens. Cytomegalovirus was the most common virus detected (24.4%; 22/90. Coinfections with viruses and/or parasite were observed in 10 (11.1% samples. CONCLUSION: Gastrointestinal virus infections were more frequent than parasitic or bacterial infections in this patient population.

  16. Promoting recovery via an integrated model of care to deliver a bed-based, mental health prevention and recovery centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart J; Collister, Laura; Stafrace, Simon; Crowther, Elizabeth; Kroschel, Jon; Kulkarni, Jayashri

    2014-10-01

    This research was conducted in order to explore the experience of care and outcomes for people entering a bed-based step-up/step-down Prevention and Recovery Centre (PARC). An audit of files for PARC participants in 2010 collected demographic (age, gender, and marital, housing, employment and education/training status) and clinical measures (length of stay, entry and exit outcome measures, psychiatric hospital use). Participants were also invited to a feedback group to discuss their PARC experience. In 2010, 118 people entered PARC. Most were single and unemployed and 35% were in temporary housing or homeless. In the six months following PARC exit, participants spent significantly less time in psychiatric hospital than in the six months prior to entry (precovery for people with mental illness through promoting independence and illness self-management. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  17. Role of Virus-Encoded microRNAs in Avian Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiu Yao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With total dependence on the host cell, several viruses have adopted strategies to modulate the host cellular environment, including the modulation of microRNA (miRNA pathway through virus-encoded miRNAs. Several avian viruses, mostly herpesviruses, have been shown to encode a number of novel miRNAs. These include the highly oncogenic Marek’s disease virus-1 (26 miRNAs, avirulent Marek’s disease virus-2 (36 miRNAs, herpesvirus of turkeys (28 miRNAs, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (10 miRNAs, duck enteritis virus (33 miRNAs and avian leukosis virus (2 miRNAs. Despite the closer antigenic and phylogenetic relationship among some of the herpesviruses, miRNAs encoded by different viruses showed no sequence conservation, although locations of some of the miRNAs were conserved within the repeat regions of the genomes. However, some of the virus-encoded miRNAs showed significant sequence homology with host miRNAs demonstrating their ability to serve as functional orthologs. For example, mdv1-miR-M4-5p, a functional ortholog of gga-miR-155, is critical for the oncogenicity of Marek’s disease virus. Additionally, we also describe the potential association of the recently described avian leukosis virus subgroup J encoded E (XSR miRNA in the induction of myeloid tumors in certain genetically-distinct chicken lines. In this review, we describe the advances in our understanding on the role of virus-encoded miRNAs in avian diseases.

  18. Review of Research On Guidance for Recovery from Pitch Axis Upsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Stephanie J.

    2016-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to identify past efforts in providing control guidance for aircraft upset recovery including stall recovery. Because guidance is integrally linked to the intended function of aircraft attitude awareness and upset recognition, it is difficult, if not impossible, to consider these issues separately. This literature review covered the aspects of instrumentation and display symbologies for attitude awareness, aircraft upset recognition, upset and stall alerting, and control guidance. Many different forms of symbology have been investigated including, but not limited to, pitch scale depictions, attitude indicator icons, horizon symbology, attitude recovery arrows, and pitch trim indicators. Past research on different visual and alerting strategies that provide advisories, cautions, and warnings to pilots before entering an unusual attitude (UA) are also discussed. Finally, potential control guidance for recovery from upset or unusual attitudes, including approach-to-stall and stall conditions, are reviewed. Recommendations for future research are made.

  19. Acute rhabdomyolysis and delayed pericardial effusion in an Italian patient with Ebola virus disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastri, Emanuele; Brucato, Antonio; Petrosillo, Nicola; Biava, Gianluigi; Uyeki, Timothy M; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2017-08-30

    During the 2013-2016 West Africa Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic, some EVD patients, mostly health care workers, were evacuated to Europe and the USA. In May 2015, a 37-year old male nurse contracted Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone. After Ebola virus detection in plasma, he was medically-evacuated to Italy. At admission, rhabdomyolysis was clinically and laboratory-diagnosed and was treated with aggressive hydration, oral favipiravir and intravenous investigational monoclonal antibodies against Ebola virus. The recovery clinical phase was complicated by a febrile thrombocytopenic syndrome with pericardial effusion treated with corticosteroids for 10 days and indomethacin for 2 months. No evidence of recurrence is reported. A febrile thrombocytopenic syndrome with pericardial effusion during the recovery phase of EVD appears to be uncommon. Clinical improvement with corticosteroid treatment suggests that an immune-mediated mechanism contributed to the pericardial effusion.

  20. Construction of recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the S1 protein of Turkey enteric coronavirus for use as a bivalent vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkey enteric coronavirus (TCoV) causes a contagious form of enteritis in turkeys, generally recognized in the field by outward signs including diarrhea and decreased weight gain, resulting in severe economic losses for the poultry industry in the US. To date there is no commercial vaccine availab...

  1. A novel single virus infection system reveals that influenza virus preferentially infects cells in g1 phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Ueda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza virus attaches to sialic acid residues on the surface of host cells via the hemagglutinin (HA, a glycoprotein expressed on the viral envelope, and enters into the cytoplasm by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The viral genome is released and transported in to the nucleus, where transcription and replication take place. However, cellular factors affecting the influenza virus infection such as the cell cycle remain uncharacterized. METHODS/RESULTS: To resolve the influence of cell cycle on influenza virus infection, we performed a single-virus infection analysis using optical tweezers. Using this newly developed single-virus infection system, the fluorescence-labeled influenza virus was trapped on a microchip using a laser (1064 nm at 0.6 W, transported, and released onto individual H292 human lung epithelial cells. Interestingly, the influenza virus attached selectively to cells in the G1-phase. To clarify the molecular differences between cells in G1- and S/G2/M-phase, we performed several physical and chemical assays. Results indicated that: 1 the membranes of cells in G1-phase contained greater amounts of sialic acids (glycoproteins than the membranes of cells in S/G2/M-phase; 2 the membrane stiffness of cells in S/G2/M-phase is more rigid than those in G1-phase by measurement using optical tweezers; and 3 S/G2/M-phase cells contained higher content of Gb3, Gb4 and GlcCer than G1-phase cells by an assay for lipid composition. CONCLUSIONS: A novel single-virus infection system was developed to characterize the difference in influenza virus susceptibility between G1- and S/G2/M-phase cells. Differences in virus binding specificity were associated with alterations in the lipid composition, sialic acid content, and membrane stiffness. This single-virus infection system will be useful for studying the infection mechanisms of other viruses.

  2. Lack of evidence for the presence of emerging HoBi-like viruses in North American fetal bovine serum lots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The detection of HoBi-like virus in fetal bovine serum (FBS) labeled as United States of America (USA) origin, but packaged in Europe, raised concerns that HoBi-like virus may have entered the USA. In this study, 90 lots of FBS originating in North America (NA) were screened for pestivirus antigen ...

  3. Sphingolipids activate membrane fusion of Semliki Forest virus in a stereospecific manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Corver, J; Erukulla, R K

    1995-01-01

    The alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Subsequently, triggered by the acid pH in endosomes, the viral envelope fuses with the endosomal membrane. Membrane fusion of SFV has been shown previously to be dependent on the presence of cholesterol ...

  4. Old foes, new understandings: nuclear entry of small non-enveloped DNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Nikta; Panté, Nelly

    2015-06-01

    The nuclear import of viral genomes is an important step of the infectious cycle for viruses that replicate in the nucleus of their host cells. Although most viruses use the cellular nuclear import machinery or some components of this machinery, others have developed sophisticated ways to reach the nucleus. Some of these have been known for some time; however, recent studies have changed our understanding of how some non-enveloped DNA viruses access the nucleus. For example, parvoviruses enter the nucleus through small disruptions of the nuclear membranes and nuclear lamina, and adenovirus tugs at the nuclear pore complex, using kinesin-1, to disassemble their capsids and deliver viral proteins and genomes into the nucleus. Here we review recent findings of the nuclear import strategies of three small non-enveloped DNA viruses, including adenovirus, parvovirus, and the polyomavirus simian virus 40. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Titration of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus by a tissue microculture assay: some applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloncik, S; Chagnon, A

    1980-01-01

    A simple tissue microculture technique was developed for the titration of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV) from Euxoa scandens. The procedure was similar to the 50% tissue culture infectious dose assay, but a single infected cell, detected by the presence of cytoplasmic polyhedra, was scored rather than the degeneration of cell monolayers. The filtration of CPV suspensions resulted in decreased virus titers under certain conditions. This microculture assay was used to determine the effect of cell disruption methods on virus yields. Sonication of infected cells was more efficient than freeze-thawing for the recovery of nonoccluded virus.

  6. Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Abrogates Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infectivity by Affecting Viral Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestman-Smith, Julie; Piret, Jocelyne; Désormeaux, André; Tremblay, Michel J.; Omar, Rabeea F.; Bergeron, Michel G.

    2001-01-01

    The microbicidal activity of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was studied in cultured cells. Pretreatment of HIV-1NL4-3 with SLS decreased, in a concentration-dependent manner, its infectivity when using 1G5 as target cells. In the absence of a viral pretreatment period or when 1G5 cells were pretreated with SLS, the surfactant-induced inactivation of viral infectivity was less pronounced, especially at concentrations between 375 and 550 μM. SLS had no effect on HIV-1 when the virus was adsorbed to 1G5 cells by a 2-h incubation period. SLS almost completely inhibited the fusion process by decreasing the attachment of HIV-1 to target cells. SLS also inhibited the infectivity of HIV-1-based luciferase reporter viruses pseudotyped with the amphotropic murine leukemia virus envelope (which enters cells in a CD4-, CCR5-, and CXCR4-independent manner), indicating that SLS may inactivate other envelope viruses. In contrast, no effect was seen with vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoprotein G (which enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis) pretreated with up to 700 μM SLS. SLS also decreased, in a dose-dependent manner, the HIV-1-dependent syncytium formation between 1G5 and J1.1 cells after a 24-h incubation. The reduction of luciferase activity was more pronounced when J1.1 cells (which express HIV-1 proteins on their surface) were pretreated with SLS rather than 1G5 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that SLS could represent a candidate of choice for use in vaginal microbicides to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV and possibly other pathogens causing sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:11451679

  7. Detection of hepatitis A virus and Enterovirus In the output water purification stations and charguia Jdeida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallous Chaowki

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is looking for two enteric viruses (enteroviruses and hepatitis A) in the treated wastewater from two sewage treatment plants, Jdeida and charguia. The detection of these viruses is performed by RT-PCR. The detection limit of this technique is estimated at 10PFU/ml. The molecular study showed that HAV found in 10 pour cent of wastewater analyse samples.Enteroviruses were detected in 15 pour cent of tested samples. The presence of these viruses in treated water showed a lack of purification function of these stations on virology terms.

  8. Alexander the Great and West Nile virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, John S; Calisher, Charles H

    2003-12-01

    Alexander the Great died in Babylon in 323 BC. His death at age 32 followed a 2-week febrile illness. Speculated causes of death have included poisoning; assassination, and a number of infectious diseases. One incident, mentioned by Plutarch but not considered by previous investigators, may shed light on the cause of Alexander's death. The incident, which occurred as he entered Babylon, involved a flock of ravens exhibiting unusual behavior and subsequently dying at his feet. The inexplicable behavior of ravens is reminiscent of avian illness and death weeks before the first human cases of West Nile virus infection were identified in the United States. We posit that Alexander may have died of West Nile virus encephalitis.

  9. A novel method for concentrating hepatitis A virus and caliciviruses from bottled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovač, K; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, I; Banjac, M

    2009-01-01

    Human enteric viruses are detected frequently in various types of environmental water samples, such as irrigation water, wastewater, recreational water, ground or subsurface water and even drinking water, constituting a primary source of gastroenteritis or hepatitis outbreaks. Only a few, but still...

  10. Oncotargeting by Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV: Advances in Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Bishnoi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern oncotherapy approaches are based on inducing controlled apoptosis in tumor cells. Although a number of apoptosis-induction approaches are available, site-specific delivery of therapeutic agents still remain the biggest hurdle in achieving the desired cancer treatment benefit. Additionally, systemic treatment-induced toxicity remains a major limiting factor in chemotherapy. To specifically address drug-accessibility and chemotherapy side effects, oncolytic virotherapy (OV has emerged as a novel cancer treatment alternative. In OV, recombinant viruses with higher replication capacity and stronger lytic properties are being considered for tumor cell-targeting and subsequent cell lysing. Successful application of OVs lies in achieving strict tumor-specific tropism called oncotropism, which is contingent upon the biophysical interactions of tumor cell surface receptors with viral receptors and subsequent replication of oncolytic viruses in cancer cells. In this direction, few viral vector platforms have been developed and some of these have entered pre-clinical/clinical trials. Among these, the Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-based platform shows high promise, as it is not pathogenic to humans. Further, modern molecular biology techniques such as reverse genetics tools have favorably advanced this field by creating efficient recombinant VSVs for OV; some have entered into clinical trials. In this review, we discuss the current status of VSV based oncotherapy, challenges, and future perspectives regarding its therapeutic applications in the cancer treatment.

  11. Oncotargeting by Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV): Advances in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishnoi, Suman; Tiwari, Ritudhwaj; Gupta, Sharad; Byrareddy, Siddappa N; Nayak, Debasis

    2018-02-23

    Modern oncotherapy approaches are based on inducing controlled apoptosis in tumor cells. Although a number of apoptosis-induction approaches are available, site-specific delivery of therapeutic agents still remain the biggest hurdle in achieving the desired cancer treatment benefit. Additionally, systemic treatment-induced toxicity remains a major limiting factor in chemotherapy. To specifically address drug-accessibility and chemotherapy side effects, oncolytic virotherapy (OV) has emerged as a novel cancer treatment alternative. In OV, recombinant viruses with higher replication capacity and stronger lytic properties are being considered for tumor cell-targeting and subsequent cell lysing. Successful application of OVs lies in achieving strict tumor-specific tropism called oncotropism, which is contingent upon the biophysical interactions of tumor cell surface receptors with viral receptors and subsequent replication of oncolytic viruses in cancer cells. In this direction, few viral vector platforms have been developed and some of these have entered pre-clinical/clinical trials. Among these, the Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based platform shows high promise, as it is not pathogenic to humans. Further, modern molecular biology techniques such as reverse genetics tools have favorably advanced this field by creating efficient recombinant VSVs for OV; some have entered into clinical trials. In this review, we discuss the current status of VSV based oncotherapy, challenges, and future perspectives regarding its therapeutic applications in the cancer treatment.

  12. Enteric virus status of turkey flocks over time: molecular diagnostic studies beginning on the day of placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultry enteric disease is often associated with numerous viral and/or bacterial infections, including avian reoviruses, rotaviruses, astroviruses, parvoviruses, and Escherichia coli. These potential etiologic agents are often present in combination in a flock or individual birds, but in general it ...

  13. Development of methods to measure virus inactivation in fresh waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R L; Winston, P E

    1985-11-01

    This study concerns the identification and correction of deficiencies in methods used to measure inactivation rates of enteric viruses seeded into environmental waters. It was found that viable microorganisms in an environmental water sample increased greatly after addition of small amounts of nutrients normally present in the unpurified seed virus preparation. This burst of microbial growth was not observed after seeding the water with purified virus. The use of radioactively labeled poliovirus revealed that high percentages of virus particles, sometimes greater than 99%, were lost through adherence to containers, especially in less turbid waters. This effect was partially overcome by the use of polypropylene containers and by the absence of movement during incubation. Adherence to containers clearly demonstrated the need for labeled viruses to monitor losses in this type of study. Loss of viral infectivity in samples found to occur during freezing was avoided by addition of broth. Finally, microbial contamination of the cell cultures during infectivity assays was overcome by the use of gentamicin and increased concentrations of penicillin, streptomycin, and amphotericin B.

  14. Binding and transepithelial transport of immunoglobulins by intestinal M cells: demonstration using monoclonal IgA antibodies against enteric viral proteins

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    M cells of intestinal epithelia overlying lymphoid follicles endocytose luminal macromolecules and microorganisms and deliver them to underlying lymphoid tissue. The effect of luminal secretory IgA antibodies on adherence and transepithelial transport of antigens and microorganisms by M cells is unknown. We have studied the interaction of monoclonal IgA antibodies directed against specific enteric viruses, or the hapten trinitrophenyl (TNP), with M cells. To produce monospecific IgA antibodie...

  15. Surveillance and identification of influenza A viruses in wild aquatic birds in the Crimea, Ukraine (2006-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulak, M V; Ilinykh, F A; Zaykovskaya, A V; Epanchinzeva, A V; Evstaphiev, I L; Tovtunec, N N; Sharshov, K A; Durimanov, A G; Penkovskaya, N A; Shestopalov, A M; Lerman, A I; Drozdov, I G; Swayne, D E

    2010-09-01

    The ecology of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild aquatic birds of Asia is poorly understood, especially for the H5N1 high pathogenicity AI (HPAI) viruses. From March 2006 through November 2008, 20 AI viruses were isolated in the Crimea region of Ukraine with an overall frequency of virus recovery of 3.3%. All the viruses were isolated from three species of dabbling ducks: mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), wigeon (Anas penelope), and garganey (Anas querquedula), making the frequency of virus recovery for dabbling ducks 6.3%. The viruses were predominantly isolated during the fall sampling period. All viruses were genetically and antigenically characterized. No H5N1 HPAI viruses were isolated, but other HA and NA subtypes were identified including H3N1 (2), H3N6 (3), H3N8 (4), H4N6 (6), H5N2 (3), H7N8 (1), and H10N6 (1) subtypes. All isolates were of low pathogenicity, as determined by the intravenous pathogenicity index of 0.00. For H5N2 and H7N8 isolates, the HA gene was sequenced and the phylogenetic analysis revealed possible ecologic connections of the Crimea region with AI viruses from Siberia and Europe. No influenza A isolates were recovered from other Anseriformes (diving ducks [two species of pochards] and graylag geese), Columbiformes (collared doves), Gruiformes (coot), and Galliformes (gray partridges).

  16. Meat-based enteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevitskay, O. K.; Dydykin, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Enteral nutrition is widely used in hospitals as a means of nutritional support and therapy for different diseases. Enteral nutrition must fulfil the energy needs of the body, be balanced by the nutrient composition and meet patient’s nutritional needs. Meat is a source of full-value animal protein, vitamins and minerals. On the basis of this research, recipes and technology for a meat-based enteral nutrition product were developed. The product is a ready-to-eat sterilised mixture in the form of a liquid homogeneous mass, which is of full value in terms of composition and enriched with vitamins and minerals, consists of particles with a size of not more than 0.3 mm and has the modified fat composition and rheological characteristics that are necessary for passage through enteral feeding tubes. The study presents experimental data on the content of the main macro- and micro-nutrients in the developed product. The new product is characterised by a balanced fatty acid composition, which plays an important role in correction of lipid metabolism disorders and protein-energy deficiency, and it is capable of satisfying patients’ daily requirements for vitamins and the main macro- and microelements when consuming 1500-2000 ml. Meat-based enteral nutrition can be used in diets as a standard mixture for effective correction of the energy and anabolic requirements of the body and support of the nutritional status of patients, including those with operated stomach syndrome.

  17. New molecular methods for the detection of hepatitis A and Norwalk viruses in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romalde, J L

    1996-12-01

    Outbreaks of viral enteric diseases after consumption of shellfish are a major health risk. Methodological problems (such as toxicity for cell cultures and low viral concentrations) and the unculturability of some strains (i.e. hepatitis A virus, Norwalk virus) have made it difficult to study those viruses in the environmental samples. Currently, the analysis of the hygienic quality of marketable shellfish is determined by the use of fecal indicator bacteria, but their reliability in determining viral pollution of shellfish is very low. Recent biotechnology developments are providing available rapid, sensitive, and specific tools for detecting food-borne viruses in shellfish and in shellfish-growing waters. In this paper, a review of these new molecular methods is carried out, discussing their advantages and possible applications.

  18. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  19. A neonatal murine model for evaluation of enterovirus E HY12 virus infection and pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Gai

    Full Text Available HY12 viruses are enteroviruses recently isolated from cattle characterized by severe respiratory and digestive disease with high morbidity and mortality in China. While the viruses exhibit unique biological and molecular characters distinct from known enterovirus E, the pathogenicity and viral pathogenesis remains largely unknown.Neonatal mice of Balb/C, ICR, and Kunming strain are infected with HY12 to determine the susceptible mouse strain. The minimal infection dose, the virus infection routes, the pathogenicity and tissue tropism for HY12 were determined by infecting susceptible mice with HY12 viruses, and confirmed by different approaches including virus isolation and recovery, virus detection, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry.A murine model for HY12 infection was successfully established and employed to investigate the pathogenicity of HY12 viruses. ICR mouse strain is the most susceptible strain for HY12 infection with a minimal infective dose as 2×106TCID50/mouse. HY12 viruses have the capability of infecting ICR suckling mice via all infection routes including intranasal administration, oral administration, intraperitoneal injection, subcutaneous injection, and intramuscular injection, which are confirmed by the isolation and recovery of viruses from HY12-infected mice; detection of viruses by RT-PCR; observations of pathological lesions and inflammatory cell infiltrations in the intestine, lung, liver, and brain; uncovering of HY12 virus antigens in majority of tissues, especially in intestine, lung, and infected brain of mice by immunohistochemistry assay.A neonatal murine model for HY12 infection is successfully established for determining the susceptible mouse strain, the minimal infective dose, the infection route, the viral pathogenicity and the tropism of HY12, thus providing an invaluable model system for elucidating the pathogenesis of HY12 viruses and the elicited immunity.

  20. Presage of oncolytic virotherapy for oral cancer with herpes simplex virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Yura

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A virus is a pathogenic organism that causes a number of infectious diseases in humans. The oral cavity is the site at which viruses enter and are excreted from the human body. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 produces the primary infectious disease, gingivostomatitis, and recurrent disease, labial herpes. HSV-1 is one of the most extensively investigated viruses used for cancer therapy. In principle, HSV-1 infects epithelial cells and neuronal cells and exhibits cytotoxicity due to its cytopathic effects on these cells. If the replication of the virus occurs in tumor cells, but not normal cells, the virus may be used as an antitumor agent. Therefore, HSV-1 genes have been modified by genetic engineering, and in vitro and in vivo studies with the oncolytic virus have demonstrated its efficiency against head and neck cancer including oral cancer. The oncolytic abilities of other viruses such as adenovirus and reovirus have also been demonstrated. In clinical trials, HSV-1 is the top runner and is now available for the treatment of patients with advanced melanoma. Thus, melanoma in the oral cavity is the target of oncolytic HSV-1. Oncolytic virotherapy is a hopeful and realistic modality for the treatment of oral cancer.

  1. Radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochsner, S.F.; Head, L.H.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive review of radiation enteritis is presented. Experience in clinical radiation therapy has indicated that the small bowel is the segment of the alimentary tract that is most susceptible to radiation damage. (U.S.)

  2. Enteric Methane Emission from Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    per kg meat produced is increased (Fernández et al. 1983; Lekule et al. 1990). The present chapter will summarise our current knowledge concerning dietary and enteric fermentation that may influence the methane (CH4) emission in pigs. Enteric fermentation is the digestive process by which.......3 % of the worlds pig population. The main number of pigs is in Asia (59.6 %) where the main pig population stay in China (47.8 % of the worlds pig population). The objective of the chapter is therefore: To obtain a general overview of the pigs’ contribution to methane emission. Where is the pigs’ enteric gas...... produced and how is it measured. The variation in methane emission and factors affecting the emission. Possibility for reducing the enteric methane emission and the consequences....

  3. Late-onset Epstein-Barr virus-related disease in acute leukemia patients after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is associated with impaired early recovery of T and B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangying; Yan, Chenhua; Zhang, Chunli; Xu, Lanping; Liu, Yanrong; Huang, Xiaojun

    2015-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-related disease (EBVD) is a serious clinical complication in patients who have undergone haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haploHSCT). Some recipients develop EBVD relatively late after haploHSCT, and most of these patients suffer a poor outcome. This retrospective cohort study characterized the early adaptive immune recovery of patients with acute leukemia presenting with EBVD more than 100 d after haploHSCT. Patients with acute leukemia who received haploHSCT and developed EBVD 100 d later (n = 8) were compared with a matched control group without EBVD (n = 24) with regard to peripheral WBC, lymphocytes, and neutrophils (at 30, 60, and 90 d) and recoveries of B and T lymphocytes (at 30 and 90 d, via immunophenotyping/flow cytometry). Ninety days after haploHSCT, the median values of WBCs and lymphocytes, and the recoveries of CD19(+) B cells and CD4(+) , CD8(+) , and CD4(+) CD45RO(+) T cells, were significantly lower in patients who developed EBVD, relative to the control group. These results suggest a significant association between deficient early recovery of B and T lymphocytes and the development of late-onset EBVD after haploHSCT. Our observation could facilitate clinical intervention and the improvement of overall survival of patients undergoing haploHSCT. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A One Year Study on the Concentrations of Norovirus and Enteric Adenoviruses in Wastewater and A Surface Drinking Water Source in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøndahl-Rosado, Ricardo C; Yarovitsyna, Ekaterina; Trettenes, Elin; Myrmel, Mette; Robertson, Lucy J

    2014-12-01

    Enteric viruses transmitted via the faecal-oral route occur in high concentrations in wastewater and may contaminate drinking water sources and cause disease. In order to quantify enteric adenovirus and norovirus genotypes I and II (GI and GII) impacting a drinking source in Norway, samples of surface water (52), wastewater inlet (64) and outlet (59) were collected between January 2011 and April 2012. Samples were concentrated in two steps, using an electropositive disc filter and polyethylene glycol precipitation, followed by nucleic acid extraction and analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Virus was detected in 47/52 (90.4%) of surface water, 59/64 (92%) of wastewater inlet and 55/59 (93%) of wastewater outlet samples. Norovirus GI occurred in the highest concentrations in surface water (2.51e + 04) and adenovirus in wastewater (2.15e + 07). While adenovirus was the most frequently detected in all matrices, norovirus GI was more frequently detected in surface water and norovirus GII in wastewater. This study is the first in Norway to monitor both sewage and a drinking water source in parallel, and confirms the year-round presence of norovirus and adenovirus in a Norwegian drinking water source.

  5. Estimating virus occurrence using Bayesian modeling in multiple drinking water systems of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment plants rely on purification of contaminated source waters to provide communities with potable water. One group of possible contaminants are enteric viruses. Measurement of viral quantities in environmental water systems are often performed using polymeras...

  6. Medium-chain triglyceride-rich enteral nutrition is more effective than low-fat enteral nutrition in rat colitis, but is equal in enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, T; Ohta, N; Nakamura, T; Yasuoka, T; Satoh, J; Fukunaga, T; Itohi, A; Uda, K; Ihara, T; Andoh, A; Sasaki, M; Fujiyama, Y; Bamba, T

    2001-10-01

    Although enteral nutrition (EN) therapy for Crohn's disease has been confirmed to be as effective as steroid therapy, the precise mechanism responsible for the effects of EN remains unclear, although some of the therapeutic effects of EN are believed to be due to a low dietary fat content. In order to elucidate the influence of fat in EN, it is important to investigate not only the quantity of fat, but also the source of the fat. We compared two enteral nutritional formulae: Elental (Ajinomoto) (elemental diet; ED), which contains only 1.5% fat, provided as long-chain triglycerides (LCT), versus Twinline (Snow Brand Milk Products) (TL), which contains a high percentage of fat (20.4%), provided mainly as medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). These formulae were tested on rat enteritis and rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Both ED and TL reduced the manifestations of enteritis. TL had a stronger anti-inflammatory effect than ED for colitis. TL also had nutritional advantages as compared with ED, as shown by the total serum protein in the TL group being significantly higher than that in the ED group. The results indicate that intraluminal MCT is suitable as a fat energy source during intestinal inflammation in rats. We suggest that Twinline may be more useful to improve nutritional status and to reduce the mucosal inflammation in rat colitis, but that Twinline is equal in effect to Elental for rat enteritis.

  7. Reverse genetics with animal viruses. NSV reverse genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mebatsion, T.

    2005-01-01

    New strategies to genetically manipulate the genomes of several important animal pathogens have been established in recent years. This article focuses on the reverse genetics techniques, which enables genetic manipulation of the genomes of non-segmented negative-sense RNA viruses. Recovery of a negative-sense RNA virus entirely from cDNA was first achieved for rabies virus in 1994. Since then, reverse genetic systems have been established for several pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Based on the reverse genetics technique, it is now possible to design safe and more effective live attenuated vaccines against important viral agents. In addition, genetically tagged recombinant viruses can be designed to facilitate serological differentiation of vaccinated animals from infected animals. The approach of delivering protective immunogens of different pathogens using a single vector was made possible with the introduction of the reverse genetics system, and these novel broad-spectrum vaccine vectors have potential applications in improving animal health in developing countries. (author)

  8. Prevalence of Human Parainfluenza Viruses and Noroviruses Genomes on Office Fomites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobnicka, Agata; Gołofit-Szymczak, Małgorzata; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Korczyńska-Smolec, Joanna; Górny, Rafał L

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of office fomites in respiratory (human parainfluenza virus 1-HPIV1, human parainfluenza virus 3-HPIV3) and enteric (norovirus GI-NoV GI, norovirus GII-NoV GII) viruses transmission by assessing the occurrence of these viruses on surfaces in office buildings. Between 2016 and 2017, a total of 130 surfaces from open-space and non-open-space rooms in office buildings located in one city were evaluated for HPIV1, HPIV3, NoV GI, and NoV GII viral RNA presence. Detection of viruses was performed by RT-qPCR method. Study revealed 27 positive samples, among them 59.3% were HPIV3-positive, 25.9% HPIV1-positive, and 14.8% NoV GII-positive. All tested surfaces were NoV GI-negative. Statistical analysis of obtained data showed that the surfaces of office equipment including computer keyboards and mice, telephones, and desktops were significantly more contaminated with respiratory viruses than the surfaces of building equipment elements such as door handles, light switches, or ventilation tracts (χ 2 p = 0.006; Fisher's Exact p = 0.004). All examined surfaces were significantly more contaminated with HPIVs than NoVs (χ 2 p = 0.002; Fisher's Exact p = 0.003). Office fomites in open-space rooms were more often contaminated with HPIVs than with NoVs (χ 2 p = 0.016; Fisher's Exact p = 0.013). The highest average concentration of HPIVs RNA copies was observed on telephones (1.66 × 10 2 copies/100 cm 2 ), while NoVs on the light switches (1.40 × 10 2 copies/100 cm 2 ). However, the Kruskal-Wallis test did not show statistically significant differences in concentration levels of viral RNA copies on surfaces between the all tested samples. This study unequivocally showed that individuals in office environment may have contact with both respiratory and enteric viral particles present on frequently touched surfaces.

  9. Viral (hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, HIV) persistence and immune homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Zhang, Ying; Moorman, Jonathan P; Yao, Zhi Q; Jia, Zhan S

    2014-01-01

    Immune homeostasis is a host characteristic that maintains biological balance within a host. Humans have evolved many host defence mechanisms that ensure the survival of individuals upon encountering a pathogenic infection, with recovery or persistence from a viral infection being determined by both viral factors and host immunity. Chronic viral infections, such as hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and HIV, often result in chronic fluctuating viraemia in the face of host cellular and humoral immune responses, which are dysregulated by multi-faceted mechanisms that are incompletely understood. This review attempts to illuminate the mechanisms involved in this process, focusing on immune homeostasis in the setting of persistent viral infection from the aspects of host defence mechanism, including interferon-stimulated genes, apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3 (APOBEC3), autophagy and interactions of various immune cells, cytokines and regulatory molecules. PMID:24965611

  10. Effect of herbal medicine daikenchuto on oral and enteral caloric intake after liver transplantation: A multicenter, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaido, Toshimi; Shinoda, Masahiro; Inomata, Yukihiro; Yagi, Takahito; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Takada, Yasutsugu; Ohdan, Hideki; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Eguchi, Susumu; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Ogata, Satoshi; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Ikegami, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Michio; Morita, Satoshi; Uemoto, Shinji

    2018-03-20

    Postoperative early oral or enteral intake is a crucial element of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol. However, normal food intake or enteral feeding cannot be started early in the presence of coexisting bowel dysfunction in patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT). The aim of this multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to determine the enhancement effects of the Japanese herbal medicine Daikenchuto (DKT) on oral/enteral caloric intake in patients undergoing LT. A total of 112 adult patients undergoing LT at 14 Japanese centers were enrolled. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either DKT or placebo from postoperative day (POD) 1 to 14. The primary endpoints were total oral/enteral caloric intake, abdominal distension, and pain on POD 7. The secondary endpoints included sequential changes in total oral/enteral caloric intake after LT, and portal venous flow volume and velocity in the graft. A total of 104 patients (DKT, n = 55; placebo, n = 49) were included in the analyses. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of primary endpoints. However, postoperative total oral/enteral caloric intake was significantly accelerated in the DKT group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.023). Moreover, portal venous flow volume (POD 10, 14) and velocity (POD 14) were significantly higher in the DKT group than in the placebo group (P = 0.047, P = 0.025, P = 0.014, respectively). Postoperative administration of DKT may enhance total oral/enteral caloric intake and portal venous flow volume and velocity after LT and favorably contribute to the performance of the ERAS protocol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  12. African Swine Fever Virus Biology and Vaccine Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla, Yolanda; Pérez-Núñez, Daniel; Richt, Juergen A

    2018-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an acute and often fatal disease affecting domestic pigs and wild boar, with severe economic consequences for affected countries. ASF is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and the island of Sardinia, Italy. Since 2007, the virus emerged in the republic of Georgia, and since then spread throughout the Caucasus region and Russia. Outbreaks have also been reported in Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Romania, Moldova, Czech Republic, and Poland, threatening neighboring West European countries. The causative agent, the African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a large, enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus that enters the cell by macropinocytosis and a clathrin-dependent mechanism. African Swine Fever Virus is able to interfere with various cellular signaling pathways resulting in immunomodulation, thus making the development of an efficacious vaccine very challenging. Inactivated preparations of African Swine Fever Virus do not confer protection, and the role of antibodies in protection remains unclear. The use of live-attenuated vaccines, although rendering suitable levels of protection, presents difficulties due to safety and side effects in the vaccinated animals. Several African Swine Fever Virus proteins have been reported to induce neutralizing antibodies in immunized pigs, and vaccination strategies based on DNA vaccines and recombinant proteins have also been explored, however, without being very successful. The complexity of the virus particle and the ability of the virus to modulate host immune responses are most likely the reason for this failure. Furthermore, no permanent cell lines able to sustain productive virus infection by both virulent and naturally attenuated African Swine Fever Virus strains exist so far, thus impairing basic research and the commercial production of attenuated vaccine candidates. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bank Solutions Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity: A Case Study for Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Steve; Crossler, Robert; Midha, Vishal; Wallace, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity (DR/BC) planning is an issue that students will likely come in contact with as they enter industry. Many different fields require this knowledge, whether employees are advising a company implementing a new DR/BC program, auditing a company's existing program, or implementing and/or serving as a key…

  14. Longitudinal peripheral blood transcriptional analysis of a patient with severe Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, John C; Walters, Kathie-Anne; Kindrachuk, Jason; Baxter, David; Scherler, Kelsey; Janosko, Krisztina B; Adams, Rick D; Herbert, Andrew S; James, Rebekah M; Stonier, Spencer W; Memoli, Matthew J; Dye, John M; Davey, Richard T; Chertow, Daniel S; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2017-04-12

    The 2013-2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone was unprecedented in the number of documented cases, but there have been few published reports on immune responses in clinical cases and their relationships with the course of illness and severity of Ebola virus disease. Symptoms of Ebola virus disease can include severe headache, myalgia, asthenia, fever, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and hemorrhage. Although experimental treatments are in development, there are no current U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapies. We report a detailed study of host gene expression as measured by microarray in daily peripheral blood samples collected from a patient with severe Ebola virus disease. This individual was provided with supportive care without experimental therapies at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center from before onset of critical illness to recovery. Pearson analysis of daily gene expression signatures revealed marked gene expression changes in peripheral blood leukocytes that correlated with changes in serum and peripheral blood leukocytes, viral load, antibody responses, coagulopathy, multiple organ dysfunction, and then recovery. This study revealed marked shifts in immune and antiviral responses that preceded changes in medical condition, indicating that clearance of replicating Ebola virus from peripheral blood leukocytes is likely important for systemic viral clearance. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Avian Influenza virus glycoproteins restrict virus replication and spread through human airway epithelium at temperatures of the proximal airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A Scull

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of avian influenza viruses from bird to human is a rare event even though avian influenza viruses infect the ciliated epithelium of human airways in vitro and ex vivo. Using an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium (HAE, we demonstrate that while human and avian influenza viruses efficiently infect at temperatures of the human distal airways (37 degrees C, avian, but not human, influenza viruses are restricted for infection at the cooler temperatures of the human proximal airways (32 degrees C. These data support the hypothesis that avian influenza viruses, ordinarily adapted to the temperature of the avian enteric tract (40 degrees C, rarely infect humans, in part due to differences in host airway regional temperatures. Previously, a critical residue at position 627 in the avian influenza virus polymerase subunit, PB2, was identified as conferring temperature-dependency in mammalian cells. Here, we use reverse genetics to show that avianization of residue 627 attenuates a human virus, but does not account for the different infection between 32 degrees C and 37 degrees C. To determine the mechanism of temperature restriction of avian influenza viruses in HAE at 32 degrees C, we generated recombinant human influenza viruses in either the A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2 or A/PR/8/34 (H1N1 genetic background that contained avian or avian-like glycoproteins. Two of these viruses, A/Victoria/3/75 with L226Q and S228G mutations in hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA from A/Chick/Italy/1347/99 and A/PR/8/34 containing the H7 and N1 from A/Chick/Italy/1347/99, exhibited temperature restriction approaching that of wholly avian influenza viruses. These data suggest that influenza viruses bearing avian or avian-like surface glycoproteins have a reduced capacity to establish productive infection at the temperature of the human proximal airways. This temperature restriction may limit zoonotic transmission of avian influenza viruses and

  16. Detection of enteroviruses and hepatitis a virus in water by consensus primer multiplex RT-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Wen; Wang, Xin-Wei; Yuan, Chang-Qing; Zheng, Jin-Lai; Jin, Min; Song, Nong; Shi, Xiu-Quan; Chao, Fu-Huan

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To develop a rapid detection method of enteroviruses and Hepatitis A virus (HAV). METHODS: A one-step, single-tube consensus primers multiplex RT-PCR was developed to simultaneously detect Poliovirus, Coxsackie virus, Echovirus and HAV. A general upstream primer and a HAV primer and four different sets of primers (5 primers) specific for Poliovirus, Coxsacki evirus, Echovirus and HAV cDNA were mixed in the PCR mixture to reverse transcript and amplify the target DNA. Four distinct amplified DNA segments representing Poliovirus, Coxsackie virus, Echovirus and HAV were identified by gel electrophoresis as 589-, 671-, 1084-, and 1128 bp sequences, respectively. Semi-nested PCR was used to confirm the amplified products for each enterovirus and HAV. RESULTS: All four kinds of viral genome RNA were detected, and producing four bands which could be differentiated by the band size on the gel. To confirm the specificity of the multiplex PCR products, semi-nested PCR was performed. For all the four strains tested gave positive results. The detection sensitivity of multiplex PCR was similar to that of monoplex RT-PCR which was 24 PFU for Poliovrus, 21 PFU for Coxsackie virus, 60 PFU for Echovirus and 105 TCID50 for HAV. The minimum amount of enteric viral RNA detected by semi-nested PCR was equivalent to 2.4 PFU for Poliovrus, 2.1 PFU for Coxsackie virus, 6.0 PFU for Echovirus and 10.5 TCID50 for HAV. CONCLUSION: The consensus primers multiplex RT-PCR has more advantages over monoplex RT-PCR for enteric viruses detection, namely, the rapid turnaround time and cost effectiveness. PMID:12174381

  17. Respiratory immune responses in the chicken; Towards development of mucosal avian influenza virus vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, E.D.

    2012-01-01

    Several important poultry pathogens, including avian influenza virus (AIV), enter the host through the mucosae of the respiratory tract (RT) and subsequently disseminate towards other organs in the body. Therefore, animal health significantly depends on the control of infection in the lung tissue by

  18. Rapid detection of hepatitis A virus and murine norovirus in hemocytes of contaminated oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human enteric pathogens, hepatitis A virus and human norovirus, have been shown to contaminate molluscan shellfish and cause foodborne disease in consumers. Rapid viral extraction methods are needed to replace current time consuming methods, which use whole oysters or dissected tissues. In our ...

  19. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...

  20. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J.L.; Taat, C.W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Becker, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were quantified by counting their number per unit length of muscularis mucosa. Results in radiation enteritis were compared with matched control specimens by using Student's t test. Chromogranin immunostaining showed a statistically significant increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis specimens compared with controls both in small and large intestine (ileum, 67.5 +/- 23.5 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 17.0 +/- 6.1 in controls; colon, 40.9 +/- 13.7 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 9.5 +/- 4.1 in controls--p less than 0.005 in both instances). Increase of endocrine cells was demonstrated also by Grimelius' staining; however, without reaching statistical significance. It is not clear whether or not the increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis reported in this study is caused by a hyperplastic response or by a sparing phenomenon. We should consider that increased endocrine cells, when abnormally secreting their products, may be involved in some of the clinical features of radiation enteropathy. In addition, as intestinal endocrine cells produce trophic substances to the intestine, their increase could be responsible for the raised risk of developing carcinoma of the intestine in long standing radiation enteritis

  1. Fate of recovery boiler smelt nitrogen in the recovery cycle; Soodakattilan sulan typpiyhdisteitten kaeyttaeytyminen talteenottoprosessissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Forssen, M.; Backman, R.; Ek, P.; Hulden, S.G.; Kilpinen, P.; Kymaelaeinen, M.; Malm, H. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to study the fate of the nitrogen bound in the inorganic smelt after it enters the dissolving tank. Of special interest is to find in what form this nitrogen can be found further down in the recovery process and especially in what form it can be removed from the process. The aim is to clarify if the nitrogen can be a potential problem in the process or if it can become a potential emission. The work is divided into choosing methods for the analysis of different nitrogen species, collection and analysis of mill samples, laboratory studies and theoretical studies on nitrogen chemistry in alkaline solutions and reporting

  2. Diarrhea in enterally fed patients: blame the diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sue-Joan; Huang, Hsiu-Hua

    2013-09-01

    Diarrhea has great impact on enteral nutrition. The purpose of this review is to identify the factors leading to diarrhea during enteral nutrition and to provide the published updates on diarrhea prevention through nutritional intervention. Diarrhea in enteral fed patients is attributed to multiple factors, including medications (major contributor), infections, bacterial contamination, underlying disease, and enteral feeding. Diet management can alleviate diarrhea in enteral feeding. High content of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in enteral formula is postulated to induce diarrhea and lower FODMAPs formula may reduce the likelihood of diarrhea in enterally fed patients. Fiber-enriched formula can reduce the incidence of diarrhea and produce short-chain fatty acids for colonocytes. Ingesting prebiotics, nonviable probiotics or probiotic derivatives, and human lactoferrin may provide alternatives for reducing/preventing diarrhea. Enteral feeding is not generally considered the primary cause of diarrhea, which is frequently linked to prescribed medications. When diarrhea is apparent, healthcare members should evaluate the possible risk factors and systematically attempt to eliminate the underlying causes of diarrhea before reducing or suspending enteral feeding. Lower FODMAPs formula, prebiotics, probiotic derivatives, and lactoferrin may be used to manage enteral feeding-related diarrhea.

  3. Perioperative solutions for rapid recovery joint arthroplasty: get ahead and stay ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculco, Peter K; Pagnano, Mark W

    2015-04-01

    Rapid recovery after total joint arthroplasty requires patients to get ahead and stay ahead or the four impediments to early rehabilitation and discharge: volume depletion, blood loss, pain, and nausea. Adequate volume resuscitation starts before entering the operating room and focuses on intravenous fluids rather than red blood cell transfusion. Tranexamic acid limits blood loss and reduces the need for most other blood management systems. Rapid recovery pain management focuses on minimizing parenteral opioids. A short-acting spinal with a peri-articular local anesthetic injection is reliable, reproducible, and safe. Patients at risk for post-operative nausea are treated with anti-emetic medications and perioperative dexamethasone. These interventions reflect a transition from the sick-patient model to the well-patient model and make rapid recovery joint arthroplasty a reality in 2015. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Do enteric neurons make hypocretin? ☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Christian R.; Clark, Erika L.; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Hecht, Jonathan L.; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Hypocretins (orexins) are wake-promoting neuropeptides produced by hypothalamic neurons. These hypocretin-producing cells are lost in people with narcolepsy, possibly due to an autoimmune attack. Prior studies described hypocretin neurons in the enteric nervous system, and these cells could be an additional target of an autoimmune process. We sought to determine whether enteric hypocretin neurons are lost in narcoleptic subjects. Even though we tried several methods (including whole mounts, sectioned tissue, pre-treatment of mice with colchicine, and the use of various primary antisera), we could not identify hypocretin-producing cells in enteric nervous tissue collected from mice or normal human subjects. These results raise doubts about whether enteric neurons produce hypocretin. PMID:18191238

  5. The Ebola virus glycoprotein mediates entry via a non-classical dynamin-dependent macropinocytic pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulherkar, Nirupama; Raaben, Matthijs; Torre, Juan Carlos de la; Whelan, Sean P.; Chandran, Kartik

    2011-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) has been reported to enter cultured cell lines via a dynamin-2-independent macropinocytic pathway or clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The route(s) of productive EBOV internalization into physiologically relevant cell types remain unexplored, and viral-host requirements for this process are incompletely understood. Here, we use electron microscopy and complementary chemical and genetic approaches to demonstrate that the viral glycoprotein, GP, induces macropinocytic uptake of viral particles into cells. GP's highly-glycosylated mucin domain is dispensable for virus-induced macropinocytosis, arguing that interactions between other sequences in GP and the host cell surface are responsible. Unexpectedly, we also found a requirement for the large GTPase dynamin-2, which is proposed to be dispensable for several types of macropinocytosis. Our results provide evidence that EBOV uses an atypical dynamin-dependent macropinocytosis-like entry pathway to enter Vero cells, adherent human peripheral blood-derived monocytes, and a mouse dendritic cell line.

  6. Melaleuca alternifolia Concentrate Inhibits in Vitro Entry of Influenza Virus into Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Jiang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus causes high morbidity among the infected population annually and occasionally the spread of pandemics. Melaleuca alternifolia Concentrate (MAC is an essential oil derived from a native Australian tea tree. Our aim was to investigate whether MAC has any in vitro inhibitory effect on influenza virus infection and what mechanism does the MAC use to fight the virus infection. In this study, the antiviral activity of MAC was examined by its inhibition of cytopathic effects. In silico prediction was performed to evaluate the interaction between MAC and the viral haemagglutinin. We found that when the influenza virus was incubated with 0.010% MAC for one hour, no cytopathic effect on MDCK cells was found after the virus infection and no immunofluorescence signal was detected in the host cells. Electron microscopy showed that the virus treated with MAC retained its structural integrity. By computational simulations, we found that terpinen-4-ol, which is the major bioactive component of MAC, could combine with the membrane fusion site of haemagglutinin. Thus, we proved that MAC could prevent influenza virus from entering the host cells by disturbing the normal viral membrane fusion procedure.

  7. Molecular testing for viral and bacterial enteric pathogens: gold standard for viruses, but don't let culture go just yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Maxim G; Balm, Michelle N D; Blackmore, Timothy K

    2015-04-01

    Contemporary diagnostic microbiology is increasingly adopting molecular methods as front line tests for a variety of samples. This trend holds true for detection of enteric pathogens (EP), where nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) for viruses are well established as the gold standard, and an increasing number of commercial multi-target assays are now available for bacteria and parasites. NAAT have significant sensitivity and turnaround time advantages over traditional methods, potentially returning same-day results. Multiplex panels offer an attractive 'one-stop shop' that may provide workflow and cost advantages to laboratories processing large sample volumes. However, there are a number of issues which need consideration. Reflex culture is required for antibiotic susceptibility testing and strain typing when needed for food safety and other epidemiological investigations. Surveillance systems will need to allow for differences in disease incidence due to the enhanced sensitivity of NAAT. Laboratories should be mindful of local epidemiology when selecting which pathogens to include in multiplex panels, and be thoughtful regarding which pathogens will not be detected. Multiplex panels may not be appropriate in certain situations, such as hospital-onset diarrhoea, where Clostridium difficile testing might be all that is required, and laboratories may wish to retain the flexibility to run single tests in such situations. The clinical impact of rapid results is also likely to be relatively minor, as infective diarrhoea is a self-limiting illness in the majority of cases. Laboratories will require strategies to assist users in the interpretation of the results produced by NAAT, particularly where pathogens are detected at low levels with uncertain clinical significance. These caveats aside, faecal NAAT are increasingly being used and introduce a new era of diagnosis of gastrointestinal infection.

  8. Enteral nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassull, M A; Abad, A; Cabré, E; González-Huix, F; Giné, J J; Dolz, C

    1986-01-01

    To assess the effect of the addition of enteral tube feeding with polymeric diets to the standard treatment of acute attacks of inflammatory bowel disease a total of 43 patients admitted to hospital (23 with Crohn's disease and 20 with ulcerative colitis) were studied retrospectively. Total enteral nutrition was given to 26 as the sole nutritional supply and to 17 in conjunction with a normal ward diet, when appropriate, according to the severity of attack (control group). Nutritional state was assessed and classified in all patients at admission and at the end of the study, by measuring the triceps skinfold thickness, mid arm muscle circumference, and serum albumin concentration as representative of body fat, muscle protein, and visceral protein, respectively. At admission the three nutritional variables were not statistically different between the groups. There was a significantly positive effect on mid arm muscle circumference in patients on total enteral nutrition compared with the control group, but there was no effect on either triceps skinfold thickness or serum albumin concentration. The percentage of subjects requiring intravenous albumin infusion, however, was significantly less in the group fed enterally than in the control group. In addition, fewer patients in the group fed enterally required surgical treatment compared with the control group, despite the fact that one of the criteria for starting enteral nutritional support was the expectancy that surgery would be needed. Total enteral nutrition was well tolerated and no major side effects arose during its use in patients with acute exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:3098646

  9. Impact of the use of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer in the home on reduction in probability of infection by respiratory and enteric viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, A H; Maxwell, S; Edmonds, S L; Gerba, C P

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the reduction in risk of infection by viruses with the use of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, used in addition to routine hand washing, in family members in households. A quantitative microbial risk model was used to determine the probability of infection from the concentration of virus on the hands. The model incorporated variation in hand size, frequency of touching orifices (nose, mouth, eyes), and percent transfer to the site of infection, as well as, dose-response for each virus. Data on the occurrence of virus on household members' hands from an intervention study using MS-2 coliphage was used to determine the reduction of viruses on the hands pre- and post-intervention. It was found that the risk of rhinovirus, rotavirus or norovirus infection after the intervention was reduced by 47-98% depending upon the initial concentration of virus on the hands.

  10. Experimental feline enteric coronavirus infection reveals an aberrant infection pattern and shedding of mutants with impaired infectivity in enterocyte cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarets, Lowiese M. B.; Vermeulen, Ben L.; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Conceição-Neto, Nádia; Zeller, Mark; Roukaerts, Inge D. M.; Acar, Delphine D.; Olyslaegers, Dominique A. J.; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Nauwynck, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) results from mutations in the viral genome during a common feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) infection. Since many virological and immunological data on FECV infections are lacking, the present study investigated these missing links during experimental infection of three SPF cats with FECV strain UCD. Two cats showed mild clinical signs, faecal shedding of infectious virus from 4 dpi, a cell-associated viraemia at inconsistent time points from 5 dpi, a highly neutralising antibody response from 9 dpi, and no major abnormalities in leukocyte numbers. Faecal shedding lasted for 28–56 days, but virus shed during this stage was less infectious in enterocyte cultures and affected by mutations. Remarkably, in the other cat neither clinical signs nor acute shedding were seen, but virus was detected in blood cells from 3 dpi, and shedding of non-enterotropic, mutated viruses suddenly occurred from 14 dpi onwards. Neutralising antibodies arose from 21 dpi. Leukocyte numbers were not different compared to the other cats, except for the CD8+ regulatory T cells. These data indicate that FECV can infect immune cells even in the absence of intestinal replication and raise the hypothesis that the gradual adaptation to these cells can allow non-enterotropic mutants to arise. PMID:26822958

  11. [Enteral nutrition in burn patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J L; Garrido, M; Gómez-Cía, T; Serrera, J L; Franco, A; Pumar, A; Relimpio, F; Astorga, R; García-Luna, P P

    1992-01-01

    Nutritional support plays an important role in the treatment of patients with burns. Due to the severe hypercatabolism that develops in these patients, oral support is insufficient in most cases, and this makes it essential to initiate artificial nutritional support (either enteral or parenteral). Enteral nutrition is more physiological than parenteral, and data exist which show that in patients with burns, enteral nutrition exercises a protective effect on the intestine and may even reduce the hypermetabolic response in these patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of enteral nutritional support with a hypercaloric, hyperproteic diet with a high content of branched amino acids in the nutritional support of patients suffering from burns. The study included 12 patients (8 males and 4 females), admitted to the Burns Unit. Average age was 35 +/- 17 years (range: 21-85 years). The percentage of body surface affected by the burns was 10% in two cases, between 10-30% in three cases, between 30-50% in five cases and over 50% in two cases. Initiation of the enteral nutrition was between twenty-four hours and seven days after the burn. The patients were kept in the unit until they were discharged, and the average time spent in the unit was 31.5 days (range: 17-63 days). Total energetic requirements were calculated based on Harris-Benedict, with a variable aggression factor depending on the body surface burned, which varied from 2,000 and 4,000 cal day. Nitrogenous balance was determined on a daily basis, and plasmatic levels of total proteins, albumin and prealbumin on a weekly basis. There was a significant difference between the prealbumin values at the initiation and finalization of the enteral nutrition (9.6 +/- 2.24 mg/dl compared with 19.75 +/- 5.48 mg/dl; p diet was very good, and only mild complications such as diarrhoea developed in two patients. Enteral nutrition is a suitable nutritional support method for patients with

  12. Two Contrasting Failure Modes of Enteric Coated Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Galen H; Dong, Xia; Lytle, Michelle; Kemp, Craig A J; Behme, Robert J; Hinds, Jeremy; Xiao, Zhicheng

    2018-04-09

    This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms and kinetics of coating failure for enteric coated beads exposed to high-humidity conditions at different storage temperatures. Enteric coated beads were placed on high-humidity conditions (75 to 98% relative humidity (RH)) in the temperature range of 5 to 40°C. These stability samples of beads were tested for acid dissolution and water activity and also analyzed with SEM, X-ray CT, and DMA. Exposure of enteric coated beads to high humidity led to increased gastric release of drug which eventually failed the dissolution specification. SEM showed visible cracks on the surface of beads exposed to 5°C/high humidity and fusion of enteric beads into agglomerates at 40°C/high humidity. In a non-destructive time elapse study, X-ray CT demonstrated swelling of microcrystalline cellulose cores, crack initiation, and propagation through the API layer within days under 5°C/98% RH storage conditions and ultimately fracture through the enteric coating. DMA data showed a marked reduction in T g of the enteric coating materials after exposure to humidity. At 5°C/high humidity, the hygroscopic microcrystalline cellulose core absorbed moisture leading to core swelling and consequent fracture through the brittle API and enteric layers. At 40°C (high humidity) which is above the T g of the enteric polymer, enteric coated beads coalesced into agglomerates due to melt flow of the enteric coating. We believe it is the first report on two distinct failure models of enteric coated dosage forms.

  13. Group 2 innate lymphoid cell production of IL-5 is regulated by NKT cells during influenza virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Ann Gorski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory virus infections, such as influenza, typically induce a robust type I (pro-inflammatory cytokine immune response, however, the production of type 2 cytokines has been observed. Type 2 cytokine production during respiratory virus infection is linked to asthma exacerbation; however, type 2 cytokines may also be tissue protective. Interleukin (IL-5 is a prototypical type 2 cytokine that is essential for eosinophil maturation and egress out of the bone marrow. However, little is known about the cellular source and underlying cellular and molecular basis for the regulation of IL-5 production during respiratory virus infection. Using a mouse model of influenza virus infection, we found a robust transient release of IL-5 into infected airways along with a significant and progressive accumulation of eosinophils into the lungs, particularly during the recovery phase of infection, i.e. following virus clearance. The cellular source of the IL-5 was group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 infiltrating the infected lungs. Interestingly, the progressive accumulation of eosinophils following virus clearance is reflected in the rapid expansion of c-kit⁺ IL-5 producing ILC2. We further demonstrate that the enhanced capacity for IL-5 production by ILC2 during recovery is concomitant with the enhanced expression of the IL-33 receptor subunit, ST2, by ILC2. Lastly, we show that NKT cells, as well as alveolar macrophages (AM, are endogenous sources of IL-33 that enhance IL-5 production from ILC2. Collectively, these results reveal that c-kit⁺ ILC2 interaction with IL-33 producing NKT and AM leads to abundant production of IL-5 by ILC2 and accounts for the accumulation of eosinophils observed during the recovery phase of influenza infection.

  14. Recovery of infectious pariacoto virus from cDNA clones and identification of susceptible cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K N; Ball, L A

    2001-12-01

    Pariacoto virus (PaV) is a nodavirus that was recently isolated in Peru from the Southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania. Virus particles are non enveloped and about 30 nm in diameter and have T=3 icosahedral symmetry. The 3.0-A crystal structure shows that about 35% of the genomic RNA is icosahedrally ordered, with the RNA forming a dodecahedral cage of 25-nucleotide (nt) duplexes that underlie the inner surface of the capsid. The PaV genome comprises two single-stranded, positive-sense RNAs: RNA1 (3,011 nt), which encodes the 108-kDa catalytic subunit of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and RNA2 (1,311 nt), which encodes the 43-kDa capsid protein precursor alpha. In order to apply molecular genetics to the structure and assembly of PaV, we identified susceptible cell lines and developed a reverse genetic system for this virus. Cell lines that were susceptible to infection by PaV included those from Spodoptera exigua, Helicoverpa zea and Aedes albopictus, whereas cells from Drosophila melanogaster and Spodoptera frugiperda were refractory to infection. To recover virus from molecular clones, full-length cDNAs of PaV RNAs 1 and 2 were cotranscribed by T7 RNA polymerase in baby hamster kidney cells that expressed T7 RNA polymerase. Lysates of these cells were infectious both for cultured cells from Helicoverpa zea (corn earworm) and for larvae of Galleria mellonella (greater wax moth). The combination of infectious cDNA clones, cell culture infectivity, and the ability to produce milligram amounts of virus allows the application of DNA-based genetic methods to the study of PaV structure and assembly.

  15. Study on spoilage capability and VBNC state formation and recovery of Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyan; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Peters, Brian M; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the capability of L. plantarum strain BM-LP14723 to enter into and recover from the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state and to cause beer spoilage. VBNC state was induced by incubating in beer with subculturing or low temperature treatment. Culturable, total, and viable cells numbers were assessed by MRS agar plate counting, acridine orange direct counting, and Live/Dead BacLight bacterial viability kit, respectively. Organic acids concentrations were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. VBNC L. plantarum cells were detected after 189 ± 1.9 days low temperature treatment or 29 ± 0.7 subcultures in beer. The VBNC L. plantarum retained spoilage capability. Addition of catalase is an effective method for the recovery of the VBNC L. plantarum cells. L. plantarum strain BM-LP14723 is capable of entering into and recovery from the VBNC state and maintained spoilage capability. The current study presented that beer-spoilage L. plantarum can hide both in breweries and during transporting and marketing process and thus lead to beer-spoilage incidents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impaired recovery and mutagenic SOS-like responses in ataxia telangiectasia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilgers, G. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium) Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands)); Abrahams, P.J. (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands)); Chen, Y.Q. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)); Schouten, R. (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands)); Cornelis, J.J. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium) Institut Pasteur, 75 - Paris (France)); Lowe, J.E. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK)); Eb, A.J. van der (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands)); Rommelaere, J. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium) Institut Pasteur, 75 - Paris (France))

    1989-01-01

    Radiosensitive fibroblasts from patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT) were studied for their proficiency in two putative eukaryotic SOS-like responses, namely the enhanced reactivation (ER) and enhanced mutagenesis of damaged viruses infecting pre-irradiated versus mock-treated cells. A previous report indicated that, unlike normal human cells, a line of AT fibroblasts (AT5BIVA) could not be induced to express ER of damaged parvovirus H-1, a single-stranded DNA virus, by UV- or X-irradiation. In the present study, AT5BIVA fibroblasts were also distinguished from normal cells by the inability of the former to achieve enhanced mutagenesis of damaged H-1 virus upon cell UV-irradiation. In contrast, dose-response and time-course experiments revealed normal levels of ER of Herpes simplex virus 1, a double-stranded DNA virus, in X- or UV-irradiated AT5BIVA cells. Taken together, these data point to a possible deficiency of AT cells in a conditioned mutagenic process that contributes to a greater extent to the recovery of damaged single-stranded than double-stranded DNA. Such a defect may concern the replication of damaged DNA or the generation of signals promoting the latter process and may be related to the lack of radiation-induced delay that is typical of AT cell DNA synthesis. (author).

  17. Impaired recovery and mutagenic SOS-like responses in ataxia telangiectasia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilgers, G.; Abrahams, P.J.; Chen, Y.Q.; Schouten, R.; Cornelis, J.J.; Lowe, J.E.; Eb, A.J. van der; Rommelaere, J.

    1989-01-01

    Radiosensitive fibroblasts from patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT) were studied for their proficiency in two putative eukaryotic SOS-like responses, namely the enhanced reactivation (ER) and enhanced mutagenesis of damaged viruses infecting pre-irradiated versus mock-treated cells. A previous report indicated that, unlike normal human cells, a line of AT fibroblasts (AT5BIVA) could not be induced to express ER of damaged parvovirus H-1, a single-stranded DNA virus, by UV- or X-irradiation. In the present study, AT5BIVA fibroblasts were also distinguished from normal cells by the inability of the former to achieve enhanced mutagenesis of damaged H-1 virus upon cell UV-irradiation. In contrast, dose-response and time-course experiments revealed normal levels of ER of Herpes simplex virus 1, a double-stranded DNA virus, in X- or UV-irradiated AT5BIVA cells. Taken together, these data point to a possible deficiency of AT cells in a conditioned mutagenic process that contributes to a greater extent to the recovery of damaged single-stranded than double-stranded DNA. Such a defect may concern the replication of damaged DNA or the generation of signals promoting the latter process and may be related to the lack of radiation-induced delay that is typical of AT cell DNA synthesis. (author)

  18. VP3 is crucial for the stability of Nora virus virions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadanandan, Sajna Anand; Ekström, Jens-Ola; Jonna, Venkateswara Rao; Hofer, Anders; Hultmark, Dan

    2016-09-02

    Nora virus is an enteric virus that causes persistent, non-pathological infection in Drosophila melanogaster. It replicates in the fly gut and is transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Nora virus has a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome, which is translated in four open reading frames. Reading frame three encodes the VP3 protein, the structure and function of which we have investigated in this work. We have shown that VP3 is a trimer that has an α-helical secondary structure, with a functionally important coiled-coil domain. In order to identify the role of VP3 in the Nora virus life cycle, we constructed VP3-mutants using the cDNA clone of the virus. Our results show that VP3 does not have a role in the actual assembly of the virus particles, but virions that lack VP3 or harbor VP3 with a disrupted coiled coil domain are incapable of transmission via the fecal-oral route. Removing the region downstream of the putative coiled coil appears to have an effect on the fitness of the virus but does not hamper its replication or transmission. We also found that the VP3 protein and particularly the coiled coil domain are crucial for the stability of Nora virus virions when exposed to heat or proteases. Hence, we propose that VP3 is imperative to Nora virus virions as it confers stability to the viral capsid. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Collective decisions among bacterial viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Richard; Mileyko, Yuriy; Voit, Eberhard; Weitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    For many temperate bacteriophages, the decision of whether to kill hosts or enter a latent state depends on the multiplicity of infection. In this talk, I present a quantitative model of gene regulatory dynamics to describe how phages make collective decisions within host cells. Unlike most previous studies, the copy number of viral genomes is treated as a variable. In the absence of feedback loops, viral mRNA transcription is expected to be proportional to the viral copy number. However, when there are nonlinear feedback loops in viral gene regulation, our model shows that gene expression patterns are sensitive to changes in viral copy number and there can be a domain of copy number where the system becomes bistable. Hence, the viral copy number is a key control parameter determining host cell fates. This suggests that bacterial viruses can respond adaptively to changes in population dynamics, and can make alternative decisions as a bet-hedging strategy. Finally, I present a stochastic version of viral gene regulation and discuss speed-accuracy trade-offs in the context of cell fate determination by viruses.

  20. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Seres, David S.; Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

  1. Contributions of herpes simplex virus type 1 envelope proteins to entry by endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) proteins specifically required for endocytic entry but not direct penetration have not been identified. HSVs deleted of gE, gG, gI, gJ, gM, UL45, or Us9 entered cells via either pH-dependent or pH-independent endocytosis and were inactivated by mildly acidic pH. Thus, the ...

  2. Hepatitis C virus: A global view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amal Ahmed; Elbedewy, Tamer A; El-Serafy, Magdy; El-Toukhy, Naglaa; Ahmed, Wesam; Ali El Din, Zaniab

    2015-11-18

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global challenge; 130-175 million are chronically infected. Over 350000 die each year from HCV. Chronic HCV is the primary cause of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and end-stage liver disease. Management of chronic HCV is aimed at preventing cirrhosis, reducing the risk of HCC, and treating extra hepatic complications. New treatments for chronic HCV has been devoted based on direct-acting antivirals, as pegylated interferon (peginterferon) is responsible for many side effects and limits treatment access. Sofosbuvir is the first compound to enter the market with Peginterferon-free combination regimens.

  3. Recombinant adenovirus expressing the haemagglutinin of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) protects goats against challenge with pathogenic virus; a DIVA vaccine for PPR

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert , Rebecca; Baron , Jana; Batten , Carrie; Baron , Michael; Taylor , Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a morbillivirus that can cause severe disease in sheep and goats, characterised by pyrexia, pneumo-enteritis, and gastritis. The socio-economic burden of the disease is increasing in underdeveloped countries, with poor livestock keepers being affected the most. Current vaccines consist of cell-culture attenuated strains of PPRV, which induce a similar antibody profile to that induced by natural infection. Generation of a vacci...

  4. [Effects of Early Enteral Immunonutrition on Postoperative Immune Function and Rehabilitation of Patients with Gastric Cancer and Nutritional Risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chang-Bing; Li, Wen-Zhong; Xu, Rui; Zhuang, Wen

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effects of early enteral immunonutrition on postoperative immune function and rehabilitation of gastric cancer patients with nutritional risk. New hospitalized patients with gastric cancer were evaluated the nutrient status based on NRS 2002. The patients who scored between 3 to 5 points were randomized into two groups(30 cases for each group), and those in experimental group were given 7-d early postoperative enteral immune nutrition, those in control group were given normal nutrition. The immune indexes (CD3 + , CD4 + , CD8 + and CD4 + /CD8 + ) and nutritional indexes(transferrin, pre-albumin, albumin) were measured before operation and at the 3 rd and 7 th day postoperatively. In addition, the first flatus time, gastrointestinal adverse reactions and complications, length of hospital stays were compared between the two groups. The level of CD4 + /CD8 + and transferrin, pre-albumin, albumin in experimental group were significantly higher than those in control group at the third and seventh day postoperatively ( P 0.05). Early enteral immunonutrition can effectively promote the recovery of nutritional status and immune function in gastric cancer patients with nutrition risk.

  5. Intracellular Transport of Vaccinia Virus in HeLa Cells Requires WASH-VPEF/FAM21-Retromer Complexes and Recycling Molecules Rab11 and Rab22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Jye-Chian; Chu, Li-Wei; Lo, Yung-Tsun; Lee, Sue-Ping; Chen, Tzu-Jung; Huang, Cheng-Yen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccinia virus, the prototype of the Orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae, infects a wide range of cell lines and animals. Vaccinia mature virus particles of the WR strain reportedly enter HeLa cells through fluid-phase endocytosis. However, the intracellular trafficking process of the vaccinia mature virus between cellular uptake and membrane fusion remains unknown. We used live imaging of single virus particles with a combination of various cellular vesicle markers, to track fluorescent vaccinia mature virus particle movement in cells. Furthermore, we performed functional interference assays to perturb distinct vesicle trafficking processes in order to delineate the specific route undertaken by vaccinia mature virus prior to membrane fusion and virus core uncoating in cells. Our results showed that vaccinia virus traffics to early endosomes, where recycling endosome markers Rab11 and Rab22 are recruited to participate in subsequent virus trafficking prior to virus core uncoating in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we identified WASH-VPEF/FAM21-retromer complexes that mediate endosome fission and sorting of virus-containing vesicles prior to virus core uncoating in the cytoplasm. IMPORTANCE Vaccinia mature virions of the WR strain enter HeLa cells through fluid phase endocytosis. We previously demonstrated that virus-containing vesicles are internalized into phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate positive macropinosomes, which are then fused with Rab5-positive early endosomes. However, the subsequent process of sorting the virion-containing vesicles prior to membrane fusion remains unclear. We dissected the intracellular trafficking pathway of vaccinia mature virions in cells up to virus core uncoating in cytoplasm. We show that vaccinia mature virions first travel to early endosomes. Subsequent trafficking events require the important endosome-tethered protein VPEF/FAM21, which recruits WASH and retromer protein complexes to the endosome. There, the complex

  6. Empty Turnip yellow mosaic virus capsids as delivery vehicles to mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doyeong; Lee, Younghee; Dreher, Theo W; Cho, Tae-Ju

    2018-05-03

    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) was able to enter animal cells when the spherical plant virus was conjugated with Tat, a cell penetrating peptide (CPP). Tat was chemically attached to the surface lysine residues of TYMV using hydrazone chemistry. Baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells were incubated with either unmodified or Tat-conjugated TYMV and examined by flow cytometry and confocal microscopic analyses. Tat conjugation was shown to be more efficient than Lipofectamine in allowing TYMV to enter the mammalian cells. Tat-assisted-transfection was also associated with less loss of cell viability than lipofection. Among the CPPs tested (Tat, R8, Pep-1 and Pen), it was observed that R8 and Pen were also effective while Pep-1 was not. We also examined if the internal space of TYMV can be used to load fluorescein dye as a model cargo. When TYMV is treated by freezing and thawing, the virus is known to convert into a structure with a 6-8 nm hole and release viral RNA. When the resultant pot-like particles were reacted with fluorescein-5-maleimide using interior sulfhydryl groups as conjugation sites, about 145 fluorescein molecules were added per particle. The fluorescein-loaded TYMV particles were conjugated with Tat and introduced into BHK cells, again with higher transfection efficiency compared to lipofection. Our studies demonstrate the potential of modified TYMV as an efficient system for therapeutic cargo delivery to mammalian cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genome sequences of seven foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates collected from serial samples from one persistently infected carrier cow in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several FMDV carrier cattle were identified in Vietnam by recovery of infectious virus from oropharyngeal fluid. This report contains the first near-complete genome sequences of seven viruses isolated from a single carrier animal over the course of one year. Understanding within-host viral evolution...

  8. Experimental investigation of virus and clay particles cotransport in partially saturated columns packed with glass beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syngouna, Vasiliki I; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V

    2015-02-15

    Suspended clay particles in groundwater can play a significant role as carriers of viruses, because, depending on the physicochemical conditions, clay particles may facilitate or hinder the mobility of viruses. This experimental study examines the effects of clay colloids on the transport of viruses in variably saturated porous media. All cotransport experiments were conducted in both saturated and partially saturated columns packed with glass beads, using bacteriophages MS2 and ΦX174 as model viruses, and kaolinite (KGa-1b) and montmorillonite (STx-1b) as model clay colloids. The various experimental collision efficiencies were determined using the classical colloid filtration theory. The experimental data indicated that the mass recovery of viruses and clay colloids decreased as the water saturation decreased. Temporal moments of the various breakthrough concentrations collected, suggested that the presence of clays significantly influenced virus transport and irreversible deposition onto glass beads. The mass recovery of both viruses, based on total effluent virus concentrations, was shown to reduce in the presence of suspended clay particles. Furthermore, the transport of suspended virus and clay-virus particles was retarded, compared to the conservative tracer. Under unsaturated conditions both clay particles facilitated the transport of ΦX174, while hindered the transport of MS2. Moreover, the surface properties of viruses, clays and glass beads were employed for the construction of classical DLVO and capillary potential energy profiles, and the results suggested that capillary forces play a significant role on colloid retention. It was estimated that the capillary potential energy of MS2 is lower than that of ΦX174, and the capillary potential energy of KGa-1b is lower than that of STx-1b, assuming that the protrusion distance through the water film is the same for each pair of particles. Moreover, the capillary potential energy is several orders of

  9. Impact of enteral nutrition on postoperative immune function and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F; Hou, M X; Wu, X L; Bao, L D; Dong, P D

    2015-06-10

    We studied the effects of enteral nutrition (EN) support initiated 1 week before surgery on postoperative nutritional status, immune function, and inflammatory response in gastric cancer patients. A total of 200 gastric cancer patients were randomly divided into two groups: EN starting 1 week before surgery (study group) and EN starting early after surgery (control group). The two groups received EN support, following different therapeutic schedules, until the 9th day after operation. In the patients, body weight, skinfold thickness, upper-arm circumference, white blood cell count, albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein, peripheral immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, and IgM), T lymphocyte subsets, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured 10 days before and after surgery and on the first day after surgery. There was no statistically significant difference in the results of recovery time of passage of gas by anus, abdominal distension, stomachache, blood glucose, hepatic and renal functions, and electrolytes between the two groups of patients (P > 0. 05). Adverse reactions occurred to both groups at 1 and 2 days after operation. Such conditions was improved after the intravenous drip rate was adjusted. The albumin and prealbumin levels of the patients in both groups decreased at 1 day after operation (P gastric cancer patients can improve their postoperative nutritional status and immune function, can reduce inflammatory response, and is more conducive to the recovery of patients.

  10. Alimentación enteral temprana en el paciente quirúrgico en servicios de terapia intensiva polivalente pediátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Guzmán Rubín

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo y longitudinal de 23 pacientes quirúrgicos de Terapia Intensiva, de 3 hospitales pediátricos de Cuba, en los cuales la técnica quirúrgica incluía sutura gastrointestinal a cualquier nivel y se le iniciaba la alimentación enteral temprana, independientemente de la vía que se utilizaría, con alimentación enteral líquida, a goteo continuo, en cuanto se restableciera la dinámica intestinal, y se obtuvo disminución en la utilización de la alimentación parenteral, en la estadía, en las complicaciones de la alimentación parenteral, así como de las complicaciones infecciosas nosocomiales a punto de partida de la translocación bacteriana y de la inmunomodulación enteral. De esta manera se lograba acelerar la recuperación, mejorar la evolución del peso, la calidad de vida, disminuir las secuelas y la mortalidad, todo lo cual implicaba disminución de los costos.A prospective longitudinal study of 23 surgical patients from three Cuban Pediatric Hospitals’ Intensive Care Units was carried out. The operative surgery used in these patients was gastrointestinal suture at any level and they were enterally fed. As soon as the intestinal dynamics was re-established, they were given enteral liquid feeding by continuos drip. This led to a reduction in parenteral nutrition, stay at hospital, parenteral nutrition complications, nosocomial infection complications from bacterial translocation, and in enteral inmunomodulation. In this way, quick recovery, improved weight gain, better quality of life, lower sequelae and mortality were reached, all of which resulted in lower costs.

  11. National survey of foodborne viruses in Australian oysters at production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Valeria; Hodgson, Kate; McLeod, Catherine; Tan, Jessica; Malhi, Navreet; Turnbull, Alison

    2018-02-01

    Internationally human enteric viruses, such as norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), are frequently associated with shellfish related foodborne disease outbreaks, and it has been suggested that acceptable NoV limits based on end-point testing be established for this high risk food group. Currently, shellfish safety is generally managed through the use of indicators of faecal contamination. Between July 2014 and August 2015, a national prevalence survey for NoV and HAV was done in Australian oysters suitable for harvest. Two sampling rounds were undertaken to determine baseline levels of these viruses. Commercial Australian growing areas, represented by 33 oyster production regions in New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania and Queensland, were included in the survey. A total of 149 and 148 samples were collected during round one and two of sampling, respectively, and tested for NoV and HAV by quantitative RT-PCR. NoV and HAV were not detected in oysters collected in either sampling round, indicating an estimated prevalence for these viruses in Australian oysters of oysters was consistent with epidemiological evidence, with no oyster-related foodborne viral illness reported during the survey period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular surveillance of canine distemper virus in diarrhoetic puppies in northeast China from May 2014 to April 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunqiu; Guo, Donghua; Wu, Rui; Kong, Fanzhi; Zhai, Junjun; Yuan, Dongwei; Sun, Dongbo

    2018-04-24

    To trace the prevalence of canine distemper virus (CDV) in diarrhoetic dogs, a total of 201 stool samples were collected in the Heilongjiang province of northeastern China from May 2014 to April 2015. The 201 fecal samples were subjected to the detection of CDV by using RT-PCR targeting the partial N gene, phylogenetic analysis based on the complete H gene, and co-infection analysis. Results indicated that 24.88% (50/201) of the samples were positive for CDV. The fifty CDV samples exhibited an overall co-infection rate of 94% (47/50) with four enteric viruses (82%, 41/50) and five bacteria (72%, 36/50). The positivity rate of CDV exhibited differences among regions, seasons, ages, and immunization status. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete H genes (n=6) revealed that the CDV strains identified in our study belonged to the Asia-1 group, and showed genetic diversities. These data provide evidence that there are a number of genetically diverse CDV Asia-1 strains circulating in diarrhoetic dogs in northeastern China; the CDV-affected animals exhibit the high co-infection with other enteric viruses and bacteria.

  13. The enteral probe nutrition with Cosilat in complex therapy of patients with radiotherapeutic late effects of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloventantor, V.Yu.; Chmelevskij, Ya.M.; Bradycev, M.S.; Kurpeseva, A.K.; Artamonov, Yu.I.; Kaplan, M.A.; Sokol, N.I.; Vakulovskaja, E.G.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented applying an enteral nutrition by means of probes with Cosilat in complex therapy of patients with radiotherapeutic late effects of the colon. This nutrition was prescribed with the intention to gave the colon a functional recovery and to guarantee optimal conditions for repair of radiation injuries. Good results were seen in 27 of 28 patients (96.7%), the situation of one patient (3.3%) continued without any change. Cosilat has a high nutritive value, good organoleptic qualities and is well digested without any complications. (author)

  14. Differential virulence mechanisms of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) include host entry and virus replication kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaranda, M.M.D.; Purcell, M.K.; Kurath, G.

    2009-01-01

    Host specificity is a phenomenon exhibited by all viruses. For the fish rhabdovirus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), differential specificity of virus strains from the U and M genogroups has been established both in the field and in experimental challenges. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), M IHNV strains are consistently more prevalent and more virulent than U IHNV. The basis of the differential ability of these two IHNV genogroups to cause disease in rainbow trout was investigated in live infection challenges with representative U and M IHNV strains. When IHNV was delivered by intraperitoneal injection, the mortality caused by U IHNV increased, indicating that the low virulence of U IHNV is partly due to inefficiency in entering the trout host. Analyses of in vivo replication showed that U IHNV consistently had lower prevalence and lower viral load than M IHNV during the course of infection. In analyses of the host immune response, M IHNV-infected fish consistently had higher and longer expression of innate immune-related genes such as Mx-1. This suggests that the higher virulence of M IHNV is not due to suppression of the immune response in rainbow trout. Taken together, the results support a kinetics hypothesis wherein faster replication enables M IHNV to rapidly achieve a threshold level of virus necessary to override the strong host innate immune response. ?? 2009 SGM.

  15. Inhibition and recovery of the replication of depurinated parvovirus DNA in mouse fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, J.M.; Avalosse, B.; Su, Z.Z.; Rommelaere, J.

    1984-01-01

    Apurinic sites were introduced in the single-stranded DNA of parvovirus minute-virus-of-mice (MVM) and their effect on viral DNA synthesis was measured in mouse fibroblasts. Approximately one apurinic site per viral genome, is sufficient to block its replication in untreated cells. The exposure of host cells to a sublethal dose of UV-light 15 hours prior to virus infection, enhances their ability to support the replication of depurinated MVM. Cell preirradiation induces the apparent overcome of 10-15% of viral DNA replication blocks. These results indicate that apurinic sites prevent mammalian cells from replicating single-stranded DNA unless a recovery process is activated by cell UV-irradiation

  16. Enteral feeding pumps: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White H

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Helen White, Linsey King Nutrition and Dietetic Group, School of Health and Wellbeing, Faculty Health and Social Science, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, United Kingdom Abstract: Enteral feeding is a long established practice across pediatric and adult populations, to enhance nutritional intake and prevent malnutrition. Despite recognition of the importance of nutrition within the modern health agenda, evaluation of the efficacy of how such feeds are delivered is more limited. The accuracy, safety, and consistency with which enteral feed pump systems dispense nutritional formulae are important determinants of their use and acceptability. Enteral feed pump safety has received increased interest in recent years as enteral pumps are used across hospital and home settings. Four areas of enteral feed pump safety have emerged: the consistent and accurate delivery of formula; the minimization of errors associated with tube misconnection; the impact of continuous feed delivery itself (via an enteral feed pump; and the chemical composition of the casing used in enteral feed pump manufacture. The daily use of pumps in delivery of enteral feeds in a home setting predominantly falls to the hands of parents and caregivers. Their understanding of the use and function of their pump is necessary to ensure appropriate, safe, and accurate delivery of enteral nutrition; their experience with this is important in informing clinicians and manufacturers of the emerging needs and requirements of this diverse patient population. The review highlights current practice and areas of concern and establishes our current knowledge in this field. Keywords: nutrition, perceptions, experience

  17. Enzymatic and viability RT-qPCR assays for evaluation of enterovirus, hepatitis A virus and norovirus inactivation: Implications for public health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, S; Santos, R

    2018-04-01

    To assess the potential of a viability dye and an enzymatic reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) pretreatment to discriminate between infectious and noninfectious enteric viruses. Enterovirus (EntV), norovirus (NoV) GII.4 and hepatitis A virus (HAV) were inactivated at 95°C for 10 min, and four methods were used to compare the efficiency of inactivation: (i) cell culture plaque assay for HAV and EntV, (ii) RT-qPCR alone, (iii) RT-qPCR assay preceded by RNase treatment, and (iv) pretreatment with a viability dye (reagent D (RD)) followed by RT-qPCR. In addition, heat-inactivated NoV was treated with RD coupled with surfactants to increase the efficiency of the viability dye. No treatment was able to completely discriminate infectious from noninfectious viruses. RD-RT-qPCR reduced more efficiently the detection of noninfectious viruses with little to no removal observed with RNase. RD-RT-qPCR method was the closest to cell culture assay. The combination of surfactants and RD did not show relevant improvements on the removal of inactivated viruses signal compared with viability RT-qPCR, with the exception of Triton X-100. The use of surfactant/RD-RT-qPCR, although not being able to completely remove the signal from noninfectious viral particles, yielded a better estimation of viral infectivity. Surfactant/RD-RT-qPCR may be an advantageous tool for a better detection of infectious viruses with potential significant impact in the risk assessment of the presence of enteric viruses. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Coronavirus–associated enteritis in a quail farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Camarda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An enteric syndrome observed in semi-intensively reared quails is described. The affected birds showed depression, severe diarrhoea and dehydration. The mortality occurred particularly in young birds. At necropsy, the prominent lesion was catarrhal enteritis. Laboratory investigations demonstrated the presence of coronavirus in the gut of dead animals. No additional pathogens were detected. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence for the presence of CoVs in quail with enteritis.

  19. Transport and fate of viruses in sediment and stormwater from a managed aquifer recharge site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enteric viruses are one of the major concerns in water reclamation and reuse at managed aquifer recharge (MAR) sites. In this study, the transport and fate of bacteriophages MS2, PRD1, and FX174 were studied in sediment and stormwater (SW) collected from a MAR site in Parafield, Australia. Column ex...

  20. State of health of persons deprived of their liberty when entering the Uruguayan Penitentiary System between January and June 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimena Calero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Uruguay, there are no studies that keep a record of the state of health of persons deprived of their liberty (PDL when entering the prison system. We carried out a descriptive cross sectional study in a population of 1959 persons of male sex that entered the Diagnosis and Referral of Prosecuted Persons Center (CDDPP, for its Spanish acronym in the period comprising 1 January and 30 June 2016. The objective was to characterize said population according to the following variables: age, communicable diseases and prophylactic measures, substance abuse, homelessness, recidivism, chronic diseases and vaccination schedule. The methodology applied consisted of the analysis of data gathered by the health team of the CDDPP when PDL entered said institution. The studied population is mainly young: more than 90 % are younger than 45 years old. Homelessness accounts for 11.8 % and 34 % reentered the penitentiary system. Chronic carriers represent 9.6 % of said population and 63.3 % are smokers. The cases of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency virus, syphilis and tuberculosis (BK represent 1.32 %; 1.53 % and 0.66 % respectively; 65 % of PDL suffer from substance abuse (pasta base de cocaína -cocaine paste-, marijuana, cocaine, alcohol and others. Conclusions: there exist deficiencies in DPL´s heath when entering the penitentiary system. The healthcare system has the opportunity to act, improve and respect the right to health of this vulnerable population. Improving the health of this population would also benefit general population.

  1. Epizootiological Investigation of Getah Virus Infection among Racehorses in Japan in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Manabu; Ochi, Akihiro; Kikuchi, Takuya; Kobayashi, Minoru; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the factors causing an outbreak in 2014 of Getah virus infection among racehorses at the Miho training center, Japan, we isolated virus strains and performed an epizootiological investigation of affected horses and related horse populations. Three Getah virus isolates were recovered from clinical samples, and one of them (14-I-605) was used in a virus-neutralizing test. Of the affected horses (n = 33), 20 (60.6%) were 2-year-olds. We investigated the histories of Getah virus vaccination of the affected horses and the whole population at the Miho training center. Among the 2-year-old population, the prevalence of the disease in horses that had been vaccinated once was 14.1%. This was significantly higher than that in horses that had been vaccinated twice or more (1.3%; P < 0.01). Among horses that had entered the training center from farms in Ibaraki Prefecture surrounding the training center and from neighboring Chiba Prefecture, the rate of seropositivity for Getah virus was 13.0% in September 2014 and 42.9% in October 2014; that in the corresponding periods in 2010 and 2013 was 0%. In conclusion, we identified two possible causes of the outbreak of Getah virus infection in the training center in 2014: (i) the existence of susceptible horses that had received only one dose of vaccination before the outbreak and (ii) increased risk of exposure to the virus because of epizootic Getah virus infection among horses on surrounding farms in Ibaraki and Chiba prefectures. PMID:25972425

  2. Assessment of airborne virus contamination in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masclaux, Frédéric G; Hotz, Philipp; Gashi, Drita; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Oppliger, Anne

    2014-08-01

    Occupational exposure to bioaerosols in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and its consequence on workers' health are well documented. Most studies were devoted to enumerating and identifying cultivable bacteria and fungi, as well as measuring concentrations of airborne endotoxins, as these are the main health-related factors found in WWTP. Surprisingly, very few studies have investigated the presence and concentrations of airborne virus in WWTP. However, many enteric viruses are present in wastewater and, due to their small size, they should become aerosolized. Two in particular, the norovirus and the adenovirus, are extremely widespread and are the major causes of infectious gastrointestinal diseases reported around the world. The third one, hepatitis E virus, has an emerging status. This study׳s objectives were to detect and quantify the presence and concentrations of 3 different viruses (adenovirus, norovirus and the hepatitis E virus) in air samples from 31 WWTPs by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) during two different seasons and two consecutive years. Adenovirus was present in 100% of summer WWTP samples and 97% of winter samples. The highest airborne concentration measured was 2.27 × 10(6) genome equivalent/m(3) and, on average, these were higher in summer than in winter. Norovirus was detected in only 3 of the 123 air samples, and the hepatitis E virus was not detected. Concentrations of potentially pathogenic viral particles in WWTP air are non-negligible and could partly explain the work-related gastrointestinal symptoms often reported in employees in this sector. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of positive antibody test results for canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) and response to modified live vaccination against CPV and CDV in dogs entering animal shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litster, Annette; Nichols, Jamieson; Volpe, Allison

    2012-05-25

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are relatively common in animal shelters and are important population management issues since the immune status of incoming dogs is usually unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of positive antibody test results for CPV and CDV in incoming dogs aged ≥ 4 months and to measure antibody response over 2 weeks following vaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV). Dogs aged 4-24 months entering an adoption-guarantee shelter (Shelter 1, n=51) and aged ≥ 4 months entering a limited admission shelter (Shelter 2; n=51) were enrolled. Dogs from Shelter 1 had been vaccinated with MLV at a municipal shelter 5 days before enrollment, whereas dogs from Shelter 2 had no known history of vaccination at enrollment. Sera were obtained on day 1, immediately prior to CPV/CDV MLV, and tested using an in-clinic ELISA kit to detect CPV/CDV antibodies. Dogs negative for CPV and/or CDV were retested at day 6-8 and those dogs still negative at day 6-8 were retested at day 13-15. Prior to CPV/CDV MLV on day 1, more dogs tested positive for CPV (Shelter 1 - 68.6%; Shelter 2 - 84.3%) than for CDV (Shelter 1 - 37.3%; Shelter 2 - 41.2%). On day 1, prior to MLV, all spayed/neutered animals tested CPV antibody-positive (n=17/102) and CPV antibody-positive dogs were older than serologically negative dogs (Shelter 1, P=0.0029; Shelter 2, P=0.0042). By day 13-15, almost all dogs were CPV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 97.9%; Shelter 2 - 100.0%) and CDV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 93.8%; Shelter 2 - 97.8%). MLV induces protective antibody titers against CPV/CDV in almost all dogs after 13-15 days. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cellular entry of ebola virus involves uptake by a macropinocytosis-like mechanism and subsequent trafficking through early and late endosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad F Saeed

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV, a highly pathogenic zoonotic virus, poses serious public health, ecological and potential bioterrorism threats. Currently no specific therapy or vaccine is available. Virus entry is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. However, current knowledge of the ZEBOV entry mechanism is limited. While it is known that ZEBOV enters cells through endocytosis, which of the cellular endocytic mechanisms used remains unclear. Previous studies have produced differing outcomes, indicating potential involvement of multiple routes but many of these studies were performed using noninfectious surrogate systems such as pseudotyped retroviral particles, which may not accurately recapitulate the entry characteristics of the morphologically distinct wild type virus. Here we used replication-competent infectious ZEBOV as well as morphologically similar virus-like particles in specific infection and entry assays to demonstrate that in HEK293T and Vero cells internalization of ZEBOV is independent of clathrin, caveolae, and dynamin. Instead the uptake mechanism has features of macropinocytosis. The binding of virus to cells appears to directly stimulate fluid phase uptake as well as localized actin polymerization. Inhibition of key regulators of macropinocytosis including Pak1 and CtBP/BARS as well as treatment with the drug EIPA, which affects macropinosome formation, resulted in significant reduction in ZEBOV entry and infection. It is also shown that following internalization, the virus enters the endolysosomal pathway and is trafficked through early and late endosomes, but the exact site of membrane fusion and nucleocapsid penetration in the cytoplasm remains unclear. This study identifies the route for ZEBOV entry and identifies the key cellular factors required for the uptake of this filamentous virus. The findings greatly expand our understanding of the ZEBOV entry mechanism that can be applied to development of new

  5. Wastewater heat recovery method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  6. Reduction of solids and nutrient loss from agricultural land by tailwater recovery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, A.R.; Miranda, Leandro E.; Moore, M. T.; Krutz, L. J.; Prince Czarnecki, J. M.; Kröger, R.; Baker, B. H.; Hogue, J.; Allen, P. J.

    2018-01-01

    Best management practices are being implemented throughout the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley with the aim of alleviating pressures placed on downstream aquatic systems by sediment and nutrient losses from agricultural land; however, research evaluating the performance of tailwater recovery (TWR) systems, an increasingly important practice, is limited. This study evaluated the ability of TWR systems to retain sediment and nutrients draining from agricultural landscapes. Composite flow-based samples were collected during flow events (precipitation or irrigation) over a two-year period in six TWR systems. Performance was evaluated by comparing concentrations and loads in water entering TWR systems (i.e., runoff or influent) from agricultural fields to water overflow exiting TWR systems (effluent). Tailwater recovery systems did not reduce concentrations of solids and nutrients, but did reduce loads of solids, phosphorus (P), and nitrogen (N) by 43%, 32%, and 44%, respectively. Annual mean load reductions were 1,142 kg solids, 0.7 kg of P, and 3.8 kg of N. Performance of TWR systems was influenced by effluent volume, system fullness, time since the previous event, and capacity of the TWR system. Mechanistically, TWR systems retain runoff on the agricultural landscape, thereby reducing the amount of sediment and nutrients entering downstream waterbodies. System performance can be improved through manipulation of influential parameters.

  7. Live Attenuated Vaccine based on Duck Enteritis Virus against Duck Hepatitis A Virus Types 1 and 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As causative agents of duck viral hepatitis, duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1 and type 3 (DHAV-3 causes significant economic losses in the duck industry. However, a licensed commercial vaccine that simultaneously controls both pathogens is currently unavailable. Here, we generated DEV recombinants (rC-KCE-2VP1 containing both VP1 from DHAV-1 (VP1/DHAV-1 and VP1 from DHAV-3 (VP1/DHAV-3 between UL27 and UL26. A self-cleaving 2A-element of FMDV was inserted between the two different types of VP1, allowing production of both proteins from a single open reading frame. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis results demonstrated that both VP1 proteins were robustly expressed in rC-KCE-2VP1-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts. Ducks that received a single dose of rC-KCE-2VP1 showed potent humoral and cellular immune responses and were completely protected against challenges of both pathogenic DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 strains. The protection was rapid, achieved as early as three days after vaccination. Moreover, viral replication was fully blocked in vaccinated ducks as early as one week post-vaccination. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant rC-KCE-2VP1 is potential fast-acting vaccine against DHAV-1 and DHAV-3.

  8. Comparison of the EntericBio multiplex PCR system with routine culture for detection of bacterial enteric pathogens.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, James

    2009-11-01

    The EntericBio system uses a multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Escherichia coli O157 from feces. It combines overnight broth enrichment with PCR amplification and detection by hybridization. An evaluation of this system was conducted by comparing the results obtained with the system with those obtained by routine culture, supplemented with alternative PCR detection methods. In a study of 773 samples, routine culture and the EntericBio system yielded 94.6 and 92.4% negative results, respectively. Forty-two samples had positive results by culture, and all of these were positive with the EntericBio system. This system detected an additional 17 positive samples (Campylobacter spp., n = 12; Shigella spp., n = 1; E. coli O157, n = 4), but the results for 5 samples (Campylobacter spp., n = 2; Shigella spp., n = 1; E. coli O157, n = 2) could not be confirmed. The target for Shigella spp. detected by the EntericBio system is the ipaH gene, and the molecular indication of the presence of Shigella spp. was investigated by sequence analysis, which confirmed that the ipaH gene was present in a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from the patient. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 100%, 99.3%, 91.5%, and 100%, respectively. Turnaround times were significantly reduced with the EntericBio system, and a result was available between 24 and 32 h after receipt of the sample in the laboratory. In addition, the amount of laboratory waste was significantly reduced by use of this system. In summary, the EntericBio system proved convenient to use, more sensitive than the conventional culture used in this study, and highly specific; and it generated results significantly faster than routine culture for the pathogens tested.

  9. Natural and adoptive T-cell immunity against herpes family viruses after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Simone; Herr, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    Reactivated infections with herpes family-related cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and varicella zoster virus are serious and sometimes life-threatening complications for patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The pathogenesis of these infections critically involves the slow and inefficient recovery of antiviral T-cell immunity after transplantation. Although efficient drugs to decrease viral load during this vulnerable period have been developed, long-term control of herpes viruses and protection from associated diseases require the sufficient reconstitution of virus-specific memory T cells. To heal the deficiency by immunotherapeutic means, numerous research groups have developed antiviral vaccines and strategies based on the adoptive transfer of virus-specific T cells. This article summarizes the substantial progress made in this field during the past two decades and gives future perspectives about challenges that need to be addressed before antigen-specific immunotherapy against herpes family viruses can be implemented in general clinical practice.

  10. Effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from an acute manic episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Nakimuli-Mpungu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available E Nakimuli-Mpungu1,2,3, B Mutamba2,3, S Nshemerirwe2,3, MS Kiwuwa4, S Musisi21Mental Health Department, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Makerere College of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Kampala; 3Butabika National Referral Mental Hospital, Ministry of Health, Kampala; 4Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Makerere College of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Kampala, UgandaIntroduction: Understanding factors affecting the time to recovery from acute mania is critical in the management of manic syndromes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from acute mania.Methods: We performed a retrospective study in which medical charts of individuals who were treated for acute mania were reviewed. Survival analysis with Cox regression models were used to compare time to recovery from an acute manic episode between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individuals and HIV-negative individuals.Results: Median survival time was one week for HIV-positive individuals and more than four weeks for HIV-negative individuals (Χ2 = 18.4, P value = 0.000. HIV infection was the only marginally significant independent predictor of survival probability on the acute admission ward (hazards ratio 2.87, P = 0.06.Conclusion: Acute mania in HIV-infected persons responds faster to psychotropic drugs compared with that in HIV-negative persons.Keywords: HIV-related mania, bipolar disorder, HIV infection, Uganda, immunodeficiency virus

  11. Lymphatic recovery of exogenous oleic acid in rats on long chain or specific structured triacylglycerol diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    Specific structured triacylglycerols, MLM (M = medium-chain fatty acid, L = long-chain fatty acid), rapidly deliver energy and long-chain fatty acids to the body and are used for longer periods in human enteral feeding. In the present study rats were fed diets of 10 wt% MLM or LLL (L = oleic acid......% and 45%, respectively). However, the recovery of exogenous 18:1 n-9 was higher after a single bolus of MLM compared with a bolus of LLL in rats on the MLM diet (40% and 24%, respectively, P = 0.009). The recovery of lymphatic 18:1 n-9 of the LLL bolus tended to depend on the diet triacylglycerol...... structure and composition (P = 0.07). This study demonstrated that with a diet containing specific structured triacylglycerol, the lymphatic recovery of 18:1 n-9 after a single bolus of fat was dependent on the triacylglycerol structure of the bolus. This indicates that the lymphatic recovery of long...

  12. Inhibitory effect of Distamycin-A and a pyrazino-pyrazine derivative on tomato spotted wilt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fazio, G; Kudamatsu, M

    1983-08-01

    Distamycin-A hydrochloride, a synthetic antibiotic, and 2,3-dihydroxy-6-bromo-pyrazino (2,3-beta) pyrazine derivative, were used against tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in tobacco plants. The drugs were applied to the leaves at concentrations of 200 and 400 mg/l. The results showed that both drugs delayed virus spread within the plant, retarding the appearance of systemic symptoms. A virus recovery test, carried out on primary leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Manteiga, showed that TSWV replication was markedly inhibited by the pyrazino-pyrazine derivative at concentrations of 200 and 400 mg/l and, to a lower extent, by Dystamycin-A at 400 mg/l.

  13. Herpes virus production as a marker of repair in ultraviolet irradiated human skin cells of different origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppey, J; Nocentini, S [Institut du Radium, 75 - Paris (France); Moreno, G [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Hopital de Bicetre, 94 - le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    1978-01-01

    When confluent human skin cultures are ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated before infection with Herpes Simplex type 1 virus (HSV), their capacity to support virus growth is impaired. When the time interval between UV-exposure and infection is increased up to 36 hours, different recoveries of HSV production capacity are observed according to the origin of the host cells. 1) Two normal donors: the cells present a dose dependent recovery which is maximal for a dose (24 J/m/sup 2/) at which a plateau level of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) is reached. 2) A mother of two Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) children: in this line which exhibits a normal level of UDS, the extent of recovery is significantly decreased after exposures <=12 J/m/sup 2/. 3) An XP child: these cells have a normal level of UDS (XP variant) whereas they present a low extent of recovery as compared with that of the normal subjects. 4) Five XP children: in these excision deficient lines (UDS < 15%), HSV production capacity decreases with increasing time intervals after UV exposure for doses >=3 J/m/sup 2/. For doses < 3 J/m/sup 2/, a small recovery with an overshoot of viral production is observed 24 h after UV exposure in the lines (three) which present the highest UDS (10-15%) and not in the two lines which present a very low UDS (1-2%).

  14. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis A and E virus infections in Tehran, Iran: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi, Seyed Reza; Rostami Nejad, Mohammad; Tahaei, Seyed Mohammad Ebrahim; Pourhoseingholi, Mohammad Amin; Habibi, Manijeh; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Naghoosi, Hamed; Karayiannis, Peter; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2012-09-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are enteric hepatotropic viruses and their prevalence is related to the sanitary conditions of the region under investigation. There are only a few studies on the seroepidemiology of these two viruses in the general Iranian population. The purpose of this investigation was to measure the prevalence of hepatitis A and E infections in the general population. Between 2006 and 2007, a cross sectional study was performed in Tehran, Iran. Blood specimens were collected and questionnaires were filled in for 551 persons. Patient sera were tested by ELISA for anti-HEV and anti-HAV IgGs. The χ(2) test and independent t-test were used for statistical analysis and pviruses are endemic in this region. These findings are in accordance with results obtained from previous studies. We recommend that foreign travelers to Iran are vaccinated against HAV. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of rapid hemocyte-based extraction methods for detection of hepatitis A virus and murine norovirus in contaminated oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human enteric pathogens, hepatitis A virus and human norovirus, have been shown to contaminate molluscan shellfish and cause foodborne disease in consumers. Rapid viral extraction methods are needed to replace current time consuming methods, which use whole oysters or dissected tissues. In our ...

  16. Vector-virus mutualism accelerates population increase of an invasive whitefly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jiu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between plant viruses, their herbivore vectors and host plants can be beneficial, neutral, or antagonistic, depending on the species involved. This variation in relationships may affect the process of biological invasion and the displacement of indigenous species by invaders when the invasive and indigenous organisms occur with niche overlap but differ in the interactions. The notorious invasive B biotype of the whitefly complex Bemisia tabaci entered China in the late 1990s and is now the predominant or only biotype in many regions of the country. Tobacco curly shoot virus (TbCSV and Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV are two whitefly-transmitted begomoviruses that have become widespread recently in south China. We compared the performance of the invasive B and indigenous ZHJ1 whitefly biotypes on healthy, TbCSV-infected and TYLCCNV-infected tobacco plants. Compared to its performance on healthy plants, the invasive B biotype increased its fecundity and longevity by 12 and 6 fold when feeding on TbCSV-infected plants, and by 18 and 7 fold when feeding on TYLCCNV-infected plants. Population density of the B biotype on TbCSV- and TYLCCNV-infected plants reached 2 and 13 times that on healthy plants respectively in 56 days. In contrast, the indigenous ZHJ1 performed similarly on healthy and virus-infected plants. Virus-infection status of the whiteflies per se of both biotypes showed limited effects on performance of vectors on cotton, a nonhost plant of the viruses. The indirect mutualism between the B biotype whitefly and these viruses via their host plants, and the apparent lack of such mutualism for the indigenous whitefly, may contribute to the ability of the B whitefly biotype to invade, the displacement of indigenous whiteflies, and the disease pandemics of the viruses associated with this vector.

  17. An efficient plant viral expression system generating orally immunogenic Norwalk virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Luca; Batchelor, Lance; Huang, Zhong; Hjelm, Brooke; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Arntzen, Charles J; Chen, Qiang; Mason, Hugh S

    2008-03-28

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from enteric pathogens like Norwalk virus (NV) are well suited to study oral immunization. We previously described stable transgenic plants that accumulate recombinant NV-like particles (rNVs) that were orally immunogenic in mice and humans. The transgenic approach suffers from long generation time and modest level of antigen accumulation. We now overcome these constraints with an efficient tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-derived transient expression system using leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. We produced properly assembled rNV at 0.8 mg/g leaf 12 days post-infection (dpi). Oral immunization of CD1 mice with 100 or 250 microg/dose of partially purified rNV elicited systemic and mucosal immune responses. We conclude that the plant viral transient expression system provides a robust research tool to generate abundant quantities of rNV as enriched, concentrated VLP preparations that are orally immunogenic.

  18. Endocytic Pathways Used by Andes Virus to Enter Primary Human Lung Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Feng Chiang

    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV is the major cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS in South America. Despite a high fatality rate (up to 40%, no vaccines or antiviral therapies are approved to treat ANDV infection. To understand the role of endocytic pathways in ANDV infection, we used 3 complementary approaches to identify cellular factors required for ANDV entry into human lung microvascular endothelial cells. We screened an siRNA library targeting 140 genes involved in membrane trafficking, and identified 55 genes required for ANDV infection. These genes control the major endocytic pathways, endosomal transport, cell signaling, and cytoskeleton rearrangement. We then used infectious ANDV and retroviral pseudovirions to further characterize the possible involvement of 9 of these genes in the early steps of ANDV entry. In addition, we used markers of cellular endocytosis along with chemical inhibitors of known endocytic pathways to show that ANDV uses multiple routes of entry to infect target cells. These entry mechanisms are mainly clathrin-, dynamin-, and cholesterol-dependent, but can also occur via a clathrin-independent manner.

  19. Treatment of ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Paul E; Grabenstein, John D; Salim, Abdulbaset M; Rybak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, the largest Ebola outbreak in history exploded across West Africa. As of November 14, 2014, the World Health Organization has reported a total of 21,296 Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases, including 13,427 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases reported from the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone). As the outbreak of EVD has spread, clinical disease severity and national EVD case-fatality rates have remained high (21.2-60.8%). Prior to 2013, several EVD outbreaks were controlled by using routine public health interventions; however, the widespread nature of the current EVD outbreak as well as cultural practices in the affected countries have challenged even the most active case identification efforts. In addition, although treatment centers provide supportive care, no effective therapeutic agents are available for EVD-endemic countries. The ongoing EVD outbreak has stimulated investigation of several different therapeutic strategies that target specific viral structures and mechanisms of Ebola viruses. Six to eight putative pharmacotherapies or immunologically based treatments have demonstrated promising results in animal studies. In addition, agents composed of small interfering RNAs targeting specific proteins of Ebola viruses, traditional hyperimmune globulin isolated from Ebola animal models, monoclonal antibodies, and morpholino oligomers (small molecules used to block viral gene expression). A number of EVD therapeutic agents are now entering accelerated human trials in EVD-endemic countries. The goal of therapeutic agent development includes postexposure prevention and EVD cure. As knowledge of Ebola virus virology and pathogenesis grows, it is likely that new therapeutic tools will be developed. Deployment of novel Ebola therapies will require unprecedented cooperation as well as investment to ensure that therapeutic tools become available to populations at greatest risk for EVD and its complications. In this article, we

  20. Time spent in housework and leisure: links with parents' physiological recovery from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxbe, Darby E; Repetti, Rena L; Graesch, Anthony P

    2011-04-01

    Spouses' balancing of housework and leisure activities at home may affect their recovery from work. This paper reports on a study of everyday family life in which 30 dual-earner couples were tracked around their homes by researchers who recorded their locations and activities every 10 min. For women, the most frequently pursued activities at home were housework, communication, and leisure; husbands spent the most time in leisure activities, followed by communication and housework. Spouses differed in their total time at home and their proportion of time devoted to leisure and housework activities, with wives observed more often in housework and husbands observed more often in leisure activities. Both wives and husbands who devoted more time to housework had higher levels of evening cortisol and weaker afternoon-to-evening recovery. For wives, husbands' increased housework time also predicted stronger evening cortisol recovery. When both spouses' activities were entered in the same model, leisure predicted husbands' evening cortisol, such that husbands who apportioned more time to leisure, and whose wives apportioned less time to leisure, showed stronger after-work recovery. These results suggest that the division of labor within couples may have implications for physical health.

  1. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  2. Enteral Nutrition and Acute Pancreatitis: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanier, B. W. M.; Bruno, M. J.; Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. In patients with acute pancreatitis (AP), nutritional support is required if normal food cannot be tolerated within several days. Enteral nutrition is preferred over parenteral nutrition. We reviewed the literature about enteral nutrition in AP. Methods. A MEDLINE search of the English

  3. Radioactive and enzymatic cloned cDNA probes for bovine enteric coronavirus detection by molecular hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collomb, J.; Finance, C.; Alabouch, S.; Laporte, J.

    1992-01-01

    Genomic RNA of F15 strain bovine enteric coronavirus (BECV) was cloned in E. coli. Three clones (174, 160, PG 78), selected in the cDNA library, including a large portion of the nucleocapsid (N), matrix (M) and peplomeric (S) protein genes , were used as probes for a slot blot hybridization assay. Two probe labelling techniques were compared, radiolabelling with 32 P and enzymatic labelling through covalent linkage to peroxidase and chemiluminescence detection. The radioactive probe 174 detected as little as 1 to 3 pg of viral RNA, while the less sensitive enzymatic probe could not reveal more than 100 pg of RNA. No significant detection amplification was achieved when a mixture of the three probes was used. Probe 174 allowed specific identification for BECV. No hybridization was noticed either with rotaviruses or even with other antigenically unrelated members of the family Coronaviridae such as transmissible gastroenteritis virus. The test proved valid for detection of BECV in the supernatant of infected HRT-18 cells: genomic RNA could be detected after direct spotting of samples, but prior nucleic acid extraction after proteinase K treatment improved virus detection. BECV diagnosis in faecal samples using enzymatic probe was compared with conventional diagnostic methods. (authors)

  4. Radioactive and enzymatic cloned cDNA probes for bovine enteric coronavirus detection by molecular hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collomb, J; Finance, C; Alabouch, S [Lab. de Microbiologie Moleculaire, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Univ. de Nancy I, Nancy (France); Laporte, J [Station de Virologie et d' Immunologie Moleculaires, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas (France)

    1992-01-01

    Genomic RNA of F15 strain bovine enteric coronavirus (BECV) was cloned in E. coli. Three clones (174, 160, PG 78), selected in the cDNA library, including a large portion of the nucleocapsid (N), matrix (M) and peplomeric (S) protein genes , were used as probes for a slot blot hybridization assay. Two probe labelling techniques were compared, radiolabeled with [sup 32]P and enzymatic labeled through covalent linkage to peroxidase for chemiluminescence detection. The radioactive probe 174 detected as little as 1-3 pg of viral RNA, while the less sensitive enzymatic probe could not reveal more than 100 pg of RNA. No significant detection amplification was achieved when a mixture of the three probes was used. Probe 174 allowed specific identification for BECV. No hybridization was noticed either with rotaviruses or even with other antigenically unrelated members of the family Coronaviridae such as transmissible gastroenteritis virus. The test proved valid for detection of BECV in the supernatant of infected HRT-18 cells: genomic RNA could be detected after direct spotting of samples, but prior nucleic acid extraction after proteinase K treatment improved virus detection. BECV diagnosis in fecal samples using enzymatic probe was compared with conventional diagnostic methods. (authors).

  5. Oseltamivir Prophylaxis Reduces Inflammation and Facilitates Establishment of Cross-Strain Protective T Cell Memory to Influenza Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Nicola L.; Olson, Matthew R.; Hurt, Aeron C.; Oshansky, Christine M.; Oh, Ding Yuan; Reading, Patrick C.; Chua, Brendon Y.; Sun, Yilun; Tang, Li; Handel, Andreas; Jackson, David C.; Turner, Stephen J.; Thomas, Paul G.; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    CD8(+) T cells directed against conserved viral regions elicit broad immunity against distinct influenza viruses, promote rapid virus elimination and enhanced host recovery. The influenza neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir, is prescribed for therapy and prophylaxis, although it remains unclear how the drug impacts disease severity and establishment of effector and memory CD8(+) T cell immunity. We dissected the effects of oseltamivir on viral replication, inflammation, acute CD8(+) T cell r...

  6. Understanding and controlling the enteric nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    2002-01-01

    The enteric nervous system or the `Little Brain' of the gut controls gastrointestinal motility and secretion, and is involved in visceral sensation. In this chapter, new developments in understanding the function of the enteric nervous system are described. In particular, the interaction of this

  7. Purification of foot-and-mouth disease virus by heparin as ligand for certain strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ping; Sun, Shiqi; Dong, Jinjie; Zhi, Xiaoying; Chang, Yanyan; Teng, Zhidong; Guo, Huichen; Liu, Zaixin

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop an easily operable and scalable process for the recovery and purification of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from cell culture. Heparin resins HipTrap Heparin HP and AF-Heparin HC-650 were utilized to purify FMDV O/HN/CHA/93. Results showed that the purity of AF-Heparin HC-650 was ideal. Then, the O/HN/CHA/93, O/Tibet/CHA/99, Asia I/HN/06, and A/CHA/HB/2009 strains were purified by AF-Heparin HC-650. Their affinity/virus recoveries were approximately 51.2%/45.8%, 71.5%/70.9%, 96.4%/73.5, and 59.5%/42.1%, respectively. During a stepwise elution strategy, the viral particles were mainly eluted at 300mM ionic strength peaks. The heparin affinity chromatography process removed more than 94% of cellular and medium proteins. Anion exchange resin Capto Q captured four FMD virus particles; 40% of binding proteins and 80%-90% of viral particles were eluted at 450mM NaCl. Moreover, ionic strength varied from 30 to 450mM had no effect on the immunity to FMDV. The results revealed that heparin sulfate may be the main receptor for CHA/99 strain attachment-susceptible cells. Heparin affinity chromatography can reach perfect results, especially when used as a ligand of the virus. Anion exchange is useful only as previous step for further purification. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, M K; Kuhn, L; West, J; Semrau, K; Decker, D; Thea, D M; Aldrovandi, G M

    2003-06-01

    The distribution and stability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in breast milk (BM) components remain largely unknown. Inhibitory effects, if any, of BM on HIV RNA and DNA PCR amplification are poorly understood. We have addressed these issues by using virus-spiked BM samples from HIV-negative women. BM samples from HIV-negative women were spiked with HIV-1 virions or cells containing a single integrated copy of HIV DNA (8E5/LAV). After incubation under different experimental conditions, viral RNA was detected by the Roche Amplicor UltraSensitive assay in whole-milk, skim milk, and lipid fractions. We found excellent correlation between HIV-1 input copy and recovery in whole milk (r = 0.965, P milk (r = 0.972, P 0.982). The effects of incubation duration and temperature and repeated freeze-thaw cycles on HIV RNA recovery were analyzed. HIV RNA levels were remarkably stable in whole milk after three freeze-thaw cycles and for up to 30 h at room temperature. Our findings improve the understanding of the dynamics of HIV detection in BM and the conditions for BM sample collection, storage, and processing.

  9. Myxomatosis: passive immunity in the offspring of immune rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) infested with fleas (Spilopsyllus cuniculi Dale) and exposed to myxoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobey, W R; Conolly, D

    1975-02-01

    Kittens with maternal antibodies to myxoma virus, the offspring of rabbits which had recovered from myxomatosis, were exposed to fleas contaminated with myxoma virus and/or contact with infected rabbits from birth. All kittens died or became infected before 8 weeks of age. When compared with adult animals similarly infected the kittens showed no advantage in terms of survival time or recovery rate attributable to maternal antibodies. Flea transmission of virus was found more effective than contact transmissions.

  10. Late Ebola virus relapse causing meningoencephalitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Michael; Rodger, Alison; Bell, David J; Bhagani, Sanjay; Cropley, Ian; Filipe, Ana; Gifford, Robert J; Hopkins, Susan; Hughes, Joseph; Jabeen, Farrah; Johannessen, Ingolfur; Karageorgopoulos, Drosos; Lackenby, Angie; Lester, Rebecca; Liu, Rebecca S N; MacConnachie, Alisdair; Mahungu, Tabitha; Martin, Daniel; Marshall, Neal; Mepham, Stephen; Orton, Richard; Palmarini, Massimo; Patel, Monika; Perry, Colin; Peters, S Erica; Porter, Duncan; Ritchie, David; Ritchie, Neil D; Seaton, R Andrew; Sreenu, Vattipally B; Templeton, Kate; Warren, Simon; Wilkie, Gavin S; Zambon, Maria; Gopal, Robin; Thomson, Emma C

    2016-07-30

    There are thousands of survivors of the 2014 Ebola outbreak in west Africa. Ebola virus can persist in survivors for months in immune-privileged sites; however, viral relapse causing life-threatening and potentially transmissible disease has not been described. We report a case of late relapse in a patient who had been treated for severe Ebola virus disease with high viral load (peak cycle threshold value 13.2). A 39-year-old female nurse from Scotland, who had assisted the humanitarian effort in Sierra Leone, had received intensive supportive treatment and experimental antiviral therapies, and had been discharged with undetectable Ebola virus RNA in peripheral blood. The patient was readmitted to hospital 9 months after discharge with symptoms of acute meningitis, and was found to have Ebola virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). She was treated with supportive therapy and experimental antiviral drug GS-5734 (Gilead Sciences, San Francisco, Foster City, CA, USA). We monitored Ebola virus RNA in CSF and plasma, and sequenced the viral genome using an unbiased metagenomic approach. On admission, reverse transcriptase PCR identified Ebola virus RNA at a higher level in CSF (cycle threshold value 23.7) than plasma (31.3); infectious virus was only recovered from CSF. The patient developed progressive meningoencephalitis with cranial neuropathies and radiculopathy. Clinical recovery was associated with addition of high-dose corticosteroids during GS-5734 treatment. CSF Ebola virus RNA slowly declined and was undetectable following 14 days of treatment with GS-5734. Sequencing of plasma and CSF viral genome revealed only two non-coding changes compared with the original infecting virus. Our report shows that previously unanticipated, late, severe relapses of Ebola virus can occur, in this case in the CNS. This finding fundamentally redefines what is known about the natural history of Ebola virus infection. Vigilance should be maintained in the thousands of Ebola survivors

  11. Do enteric neurons make hypocretin? ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Christian R.; Clark, Erika L.; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Hecht, Jonathan L.; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    Hypocretins (orexins) are wake-promoting neuropeptides produced by hypothalamic neurons. These hypocretin-producing cells are lost in people with narcolepsy, possibly due to an autoimmune attack. Prior studies described hypocretin neurons in the enteric nervous system, and these cells could be an additional target of an autoimmune process. We sought to determine whether enteric hypocretin neurons are lost in narcoleptic subjects. Even though we tried several methods (including whole mounts, s...

  12. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus in surgical patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.A.; Shah, F.A.; Ahmed, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the current prevalence of Hepatitis B and C virus in our set up. All patients who were operated during the study period. The detailed information about each patient was entered on a pre-designed questionnaire, including age, sex, type of operation, HBV and HCV screening test results, and presence of risk factors like: history of drug addiction, blood transfusion, family history of hepatitis, tattooing, viral vaccination, hospitalization, previous surgery, haemodialysis, etc. Amongst the total 275 patients, 27 (9.8%) had the Hepatitis virus: HBV-10, HCV-14 and HBV and HCV-3. Infection was more common among male patients and those between the ages of 41-50 years. Knowledge about Hepatitis risk factors is deficient, hence there should be more emphasis on public mass education programmes. Besides HBV vaccination should be carried out to reduce Hepatitis transmission. (author)

  13. Modelling of carry-over in recovery furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, Reza [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Metallurgy

    2000-04-01

    Development of mathematical modelling of the combustion process in the furnace of recovery boilers is the subject of this work. This work as a continuation of many years of modelling efforts carried out at KTH/Vaerme- och Ugnsteknik focussed particularly on: char bed modelling; droplets-wall interaction modelling; and carry-over modelling. The char bed model has been studied. Droplets/parcels were considered as a single reactor working independently of the other droplets. The mass of the droplets was not distributed uniformly but induced in the landing place. The droplets hitting the char bed will stick to it and they are alive and part of the calculation. In this way the distribution of the mass on the char bed is only dependent on the parameters which effect flight history such as droplet/parcel diameter, boilers flow field, etc. The droplet- wall interaction model has been studied and found to be very important for obtaining the correct temperature distribution in the recovery furnace. The new approach is based on removal of droplets which hits the wall in the upper part of the recovery boiler from carryover calculation. This model has been proposed and implemented into the GRFM (General Recovery Furnace Model). The carryover modelling effort was based on mass balance in which the number and physical statistics of the droplets/parcel were estimated and the amount of unburned mass was calculated. All of the above listed models were tested together with all other models of heat and mass transfer processes in recovery furnaces using a GRFM. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the industrial recovery boiler (63 kg/s, 82 bar, 480 deg C) were performed. The number of grid was 232,000 and the number of air ports in this simulation was 178. The air entering the furnace by these ports has different flow rates. Flow and temperature fields as well as species distributions were calculated. The results show good agreement with previously published data and modelling

  14. Acute diarrhea in West African children: diverse enteric viruses and a novel parvovirus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung G; Vo, Nguyen P; Bonkoungou, Isidore J O; Kapoor, Amit; Barro, Nicolas; O'Ryan, Miguel; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunling; Delwart, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Parvoviruses cause a variety of mild to severe symptoms or asymptomatic infections in humans and animals. During a viral metagenomic analysis of feces from children with acute diarrhea in Burkina Faso, we identified in decreasing prevalence nucleic acids from anelloviruses, dependoviruses, sapoviruses, enteroviruses, bocaviruses, noroviruses, adenoviruses, parechoviruses, rotaviruses, cosavirus, astroviruses, and hepatitis B virus. Sequences from a highly divergent parvovirus, provisionally called bufavirus, were also detected whose NS1 and VP1 proteins showed parvoviruses. Four percent of the fecal samples were PCR positive for this new parvovirus, including a related bufavirus species showing only 72% identity in VP1. The high degree of genetic divergence of these related genomes from those of other parvoviruses indicates the presence of a proposed new Parvoviridae genus containing at least two species. Studies of the tropism and pathogenicity of these novel parvoviruses will be facilitated by the availability of their genome sequences.

  15. Epidemiology, Phylogeny, and Evolution of Emerging Enteric Picobirnaviruses of Animal Origin and Their Relationship to Human Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashpal S. Malik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Picobirnavirus (PBV which has been included in the list of viruses causing enteric infection in animals is highly versatile because of its broad host range and genetic diversity. PBVs are among the most recent and emerging small, nonenveloped viruses with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome, classified under a new family “Picobirnaviridae.” PBVs have also been detected from respiratory tract of pigs, but needs further close investigation for their inhabitant behavior. Though, accretion of genomic data of PBVs from different mammalian species resolved some of the ambiguity, quite a few questions and hypotheses regarding pathogenesis, persistence location, and evolution of PBVs remain unreciprocated. Evolutionary analysis reveals association of PBVs with partitiviruses especially fungi partitiviruses. Although, PBVs may have an ambiguous clinical implication, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans and control of PBVs mainly relies on nonvaccinal approach. Based upon the published data, from 1988 to date, generated from animal PBVs across the globe, this review provides information and discussion with respect to genetic analysis as well as evolution of PBVs of animal origin in relation to human strains.

  16. Noncommunicating Isolated Enteric Duplication Cyst in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noncommunicating isolated enteric duplications in the abdomen are an extremely rare variant of enteric duplications with their own blood supply. We report a case of a noncommunicating isolated ileal duplication in a 10-month-old boy. He was admitted because of severe abdominal distension and developed irritability ...

  17. Monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agranovski, Igor E.; Safatov, Alexander S.; Pyankov, Oleg V.; Sergeev, Alexander N.; Agafonov, Alexander P.; Ignatiev, Georgy M.; Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Borodulin, Alexander I.; Sergeev, Artemii A.; Doerr, Hans W.; Rabenau, Holger F.; Agranovski, Victoria

    Due to recent SARS related issues (Science 300 (5624) 1394; Nature 423 (2003) 240; Science 300 (5627) 1966), the development of reliable airborne virus monitoring procedures has become galvanized by an exceptional sense of urgency and is presently in a high demand (In: Cox, C.S., Wathers, C.M. (Eds.), Bioaerosols Handbook, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 1995, pp. 247-267). Based on engineering control method (Aerosol Science and Technology 31 (1999) 249; 35 (2001) 852), which was previously applied to the removal of particles from gas carriers, a new personal bioaerosol sampler has been developed. Contaminated air is bubbled through porous medium submerged into liquid and subsequently split into multitude of very small bubbles. The particulates are scavenged by these bubbles, and, thus, effectively removed. The current study explores its feasibility for monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus. It was found that the natural decay of such virus in the collection fluid was around 0.75 and 1.76 lg during 2 and 4 h of continuous operation, respectively. Theoretical microbial recovery rates of higher than 55 and 19% were calculated for 1 and 2 h of operation, respectively. Thus, the new sampling method of direct non-violent collection of viable airborne SARS virus into the appropriate liquid environment was found suitable for monitoring of such stress sensitive virus.

  18. A peptide that binds the pea aphid gut impedes entry of Pea enation mosaic virus into the aphid hemocoel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sijun; Sivakumar, S.; Sparks, Wendy O.; Miller, W. Allen; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2010-01-01

    Development of ways to block virus transmission by aphids could lead to novel and broad-spectrum means of controlling plant viruses. Viruses in the Luteoviridae enhanced are obligately transmitted by aphids in a persistent manner that requires virion accumulation in the aphid hemocoel. To enter the hemocoel, the virion must bind and traverse the aphid gut epithelium. By screening a phage display library, we identified a 12-residue gut binding peptide (GBP3.1) that binds to the midgut and hindgut of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Binding was confirmed by labeling the aphid gut with a GBP3.1-green fluorescent protein fusion. GBP3.1 reduced uptake of Pea enation mosaic virus (Luteoviridae) from the pea aphid gut into the hemocoel. GBP3.1 also bound to the gut epithelia of the green peach aphid and the soybean aphid. These results suggest a novel strategy for inhibiting plant virus transmission by at least three major aphid pest species.

  19. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever: Tick-Host-Virus Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Papa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV is transmitted to humans by bite of infected ticks or by direct contact with blood or tissues of viremic patients or animals. It causes to humans a severe disease with fatality up to 30%. The current knowledge about the vector-host-CCHFV interactions is very limited due to the high-level containment required for CCHFV studies. Among ticks, Hyalomma spp. are considered the most competent virus vectors. CCHFV evades the tick immune response, and following its replication in the lining of the tick's midgut, it is disseminated by the hemolymph in the salivary glands and reproductive organs. The introduction of salivary gland secretions into the host cells is the major route via which CCHFV enters the host. Following an initial amplification at the site of inoculation, the virus is spread to the target organs. Apoptosis is induced via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Genetic factors and immune status of the host may affect the release of cytokines which play a major role in disease progression and outcome. It is expected that the use of new technology of metabolomics, transcriptomics and proteomics will lead to improved understanding of CCHFV-host interactions and identify potential targets for blocking the CCHFV transmission.

  20. Hepatitis C virus expressing flag-tagged envelope protein 2 has unaltered infectivity and density, is specifically neutralized by flag antibodies and can be purified by affinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, Jannick Cornelius; Bukh, Jens

    2011-01-01

    to the original virus. Flag-tagged virus was susceptible to flag-specific antibody neutralization, and infected cells could be immuno-stained by anti-flag antibodies. Using affinity chromatography with anti-flag resin we repeatedly obtained ~30% recovery of infectious particles. The full viability and unaltered...

  1. Evaluation of virus removal efficiency of coagulation-sedimentation and rapid sand filtration processes in a drinking water treatment plant in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Tatsuya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Torrey, Jason Robert; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2016-09-15

    In order to properly assess and manage the risk of infection by enteric viruses in tap water, virus removal efficiency should be evaluated quantitatively for individual processes in actual drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs); however, there have been only a few studies due to technical difficulties in quantifying low virus concentration in water samples. In this study, the removal efficiency of indigenous viruses was evaluated for coagulation-sedimentation (CS) and rapid sand filtration (RSF) processes in a DWTP in Bangkok, Thailand by measuring the concentration of viruses before and after treatment processes using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Water samples were collected and concentrated from raw source water, after CS, and after RSF, and inhibitory substances in water samples were reduced by use of a hydrophobic resin (DAX-8). Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and JC polyomavirus (JC PyV) were found to be highly prevalent in raw waters, with concentrations of 10(2.88 ± 0.35) and 10(3.06 ± 0.42) copies/L (geometric mean ± S.D.), respectively. Step-wise removal efficiencies were calculated for individual processes, with some variation observed between wet and dry seasons. During the wet season, PMMoV was removed less by CS and more by RSF on average (0.40 log10 vs 1.26 log10, respectively), while the reverse was true for JC PyV (1.91 log10 vs 0.49 log10, respectively). Both viruses were removed similarly during the dry season, with CS removing the most virus (PMMoV, 1.61 log10 and 0.78 log10; JC PyV, 1.70 log10, and 0.59 log10; CS and RSF, respectively). These differences between seasons were potentially due to variations in raw water quality and the characteristics of the viruses themselves. These results suggest that PMMoV and JC PyV, which are more prevalent in environmental waters than the other enteric viruses evaluated in this study, could be useful in determining viral fate for the risk management of viruses in water treatment

  2. Pathology of whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) infected with H5N1 avian influenza virus in Akita, Japan, in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shuji; Yamamoto, Yu; Yamada, Manabu; Mase, Masaji; Nakamura, Kikuyasu

    2009-10-01

    Two (1 adult and 1 young bird) of 4 H5N1-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza (HPAI)-virus-infected whooper swans in Akita, Japan, in 2008 were investigated pathologically. Macroscopically, white spots with hemorrhages were scattered in the pancreas in the adult bird. Histologically, the adult bird had severe necrotizing pancreatitis and mild nonpurulent encephalitis. The young bird had severe nonpurulent encephalitis and nonpurulent enteric ganglionitis, and intestinal venous wall thickening. Virus antigens were detected in the lesions of pancreatitis in the adult bird and of encephalitis in adult and young birds. These findings suggest that the swans died or became moribund due to neurological disorders and necrotizing pancreatitis caused by H5N1 HPAI virus infection.

  3. Enteric pathogens in stored drinking water and on caregiver's hands in Tanzanian households with and without reported cases of child diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Catharine Mattioli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of mortality in young children. Diarrheal pathogens are transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and for children the majority of this transmission is thought to occur within the home. However, very few studies have documented enteric pathogens within households of low-income countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The presence of molecular markers for three enteric viruses (enterovirus, adenovirus, and rotavirus, seven Escherichia coli virulence genes (ECVG, and human-specific Bacteroidales was assessed in hand rinses and household stored drinking water in Bagamoyo, Tanzania. Using a matched case-control study design, we examined the relationship between contamination of hands and water with these markers and child diarrhea. We found that the presence of ECVG in household stored water was associated with a significant decrease in the odds of a child within the home having diarrhea (OR = 0.51; 95% confidence interval 0.27-0.93. We also evaluated water management and hygiene behaviors. Recent hand contact with water or food was positively associated with detection of enteric pathogen markers on hands, as was relatively lower volumes of water reportedly used for daily hand washing. Enteropathogen markers in stored drinking water were more likely found among households in which the markers were also detected on hands, as well as in households with unimproved water supply and sanitation infrastructure. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of enteric pathogen genes and the human-specific Bacteroidales fecal marker in stored water and on hands suggests extensive environmental contamination within homes both with and without reported child diarrhea. Better stored water quality among households with diarrhea indicates caregivers with sick children may be more likely to ensure safe drinking water in the home. Interventions to increase the quantity of water available for hand washing, and to improve food hygiene, may

  4. Genetics of enteric neuropathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosens, Erwin; Burns, Alan J.; Brooks, Alice S.; Matera, Ivana; Borrego, Salud; Ceccherini, Isabella; Tam, Paul K.; García-Barceló, Maria-Mercè; Thapar, Nikhil; Benninga, Marc A.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.; Alves, Maria M.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal development or disturbed functioning of the enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic innervation of the gastrointestinal tract, is associated with the development of neuropathic gastrointestinal motility disorders. Here, we review the underlying molecular basis of these disorders and

  5. 30 CFR 77.1502 - Auger holes; restriction against entering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger holes; restriction against entering. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1502 Auger holes; restriction against entering. No person shall be permitted to enter an auger hole except with the approval of the MSHA Coal Mine Safety and Health District...

  6. Dieta enteral prescrita versus dieta infundida Prescribed enteral diet versus infused diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aparecida Ribeiro Simões

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar o volume prescrito de dieta enteral versus o volume infundido, identificando as causas de interrupção da dieta e os gastos gerados por essas interrupções. Métodos: Estudo observacional, com pacientes adultos e idosos, recebendo nutrição enteral em um hospital particular de São Paulo. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de prontuário eletrônico. Resultados: O volume infundido foi significantemente menor que o volume prescrito, nos cinco dias de acompanhamento, em toda a amostra. A principal intercorrência na administração da dieta foi a diarreia. Os gastos com a não administração da dieta somam 41,4% do valor despendido para esse serviço. Conclusão: Este estudo contribui para a atuação e desempenho do nutricionista em conjunto com a Equipe Multidisciplinar em Terapia Nutricional visando a melhora do paciente.

  7. Development of a multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of human enteric viruses other than norovirus using samples collected from gastroenteritis patients in Fukui Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowada, Kazuaki; Takeuchi, Kenji; Hirano, Eiko; Toho, Miho; Sada, Kiyonao

    2018-01-01

    There are many varieties of gastroenteritis viruses, of which norovirus (NoV) accounts for over 90% of the viral food poisoning incidents in Japan. However, protocols for rapidly identifying other gastroenteritis viruses need to be established to investigate NoV-negative cases intensively. In this study, a multiplex real-time PCR assay targeting rotavirus A, rotavirus C, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, and enterovirus was developed using stool samples collected from gastroenteritis patients between 2010 and 2013 in Fukui Prefecture, Japan. Of the 126 samples collected sporadically from pediatric patients with suspected infectious gastroenteritis, 51 were positive for non-NoV target viruses, whereas 27 were positive for NoV, showing a high prevalence of non-NoV viruses in pediatric patients. In contrast, testing in 382 samples of 58 gastroenteritis outbreaks showed that non-NoV viruses were detected in 13 samples, with NoV in 267. Of the 267 NoV-positive patients, only two were co-infected with non-NoV target viruses, suggesting that testing for non-NoV gastroenteritis viruses in NoV-positive samples was mostly unnecessary in outbreak investigations. Given these results, multiplex real-time PCR testing for non-NoV gastroenteritis viruses, conducted separately from NoV testing, may be helpful to deal with two types of epidemiological investigations, regular surveillance of infectious gastroenteritis and urgent testing when gastroenteritis outbreaks occur. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Characterization of the efficiency and uncertainty of skimmed milk flocculation for the simultaneous concentration and quantification of water-borne viruses, bacteria and protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Cárdenas-Youngs, Yexenia; Calvo, Miquel; da Silva, Marcelle Figueira Marques; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Amorós, Inmaculada; Moreno, Yolanda; Moreno-Mesonero, Laura; Rosell, Rosa; Ganges, Llilianne; Araujo, Rosa; Girones, Rosina

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the use of skimmed milk flocculation (SMF) to simultaneously concentrate viruses, bacteria and protozoa was evaluated. We selected strains of faecal indicator bacteria and pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori. The viruses selected were adenovirus (HAdV 35), rotavirus (RoV SA-11), the bacteriophage MS2 and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The protozoa tested were Acanthamoeba, Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The mean recoveries with q(RT)PCR were 66% (HAdV 35), 24% (MS2), 28% (RoV SA-11), 15% (BVDV), 60% (E. coli), 30% (H. pylori) and 21% (Acanthamoeba castellanii). When testing the infectivity, the mean recoveries were 59% (HAdV 35), 12% (MS2), 26% (RoV SA-11) and 0.7% (BVDV). The protozoa Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum were studied by immunofluorescence with recoveries of 18% and 13%, respectively. Although q(RT)PCR consistently showed higher quantification values (as expected), q(RT)PCR and the infectivity assays showed similar recoveries for HAdV 35 and RoV SA-11. Additionally, we investigated modelling the variability and uncertainty of the recovery with this method to extrapolate the quantification obtained by q(RT)PCR and estimate the real concentration. The 95% prediction intervals of the real concentration of the microorganisms inoculated were calculated using a general non-parametric bootstrap procedure adapted in our context to estimate the technical error of the measurements. SMF shows recoveries with a low variability that permits the use of a mathematical approximation to predict the concentration of the pathogen and indicator with acceptable low intervals. The values of uncertainty may be used for a quantitative microbial risk analysis or diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cellular changes in the enteric nervous system during ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffrey, M Jill

    2013-10-01

    The intrinsic neurons of the gut, enteric neurons, have an essential role in gastrointestinal functions. The enteric nervous system is plastic and continues to undergo changes throughout life, as the gut grows and responds to dietary and other environmental changes. Detailed analysis of changes in the ENS during ageing suggests that enteric neurons are more vulnerable to age-related degeneration and cell death than neurons in other parts of the nervous system, although there is considerable variation in the extent and time course of age-related enteric neuronal loss reported in different studies. Specific neuronal subpopulations, particularly cholinergic myenteric neurons, may be more vulnerable than others to age-associated loss or damage. Enteric degeneration and other age-related neuronal changes may contribute to gastrointestinal dysfunction that is common in the elderly population. Evidence suggests that caloric restriction protects against age-associated loss of enteric neurons, but recent advances in the understanding of the effects of the microbiota and the complex interactions between enteric ganglion cells, mucosal immune system and intestinal epithelium indicate that other factors may well influence ageing of enteric neurons. Much remains to be understood about the mechanisms of neuronal loss and damage in the gut, although there is evidence that reactive oxygen species, neurotrophic factor dysregulation and/or activation of a senescence associated phenotype may be involved. To date, there is no evidence for ongoing neurogenesis that might replace dying neurons in the ageing gut, although small local sites of neurogenesis would be difficult to detect. Finally, despite the considerable evidence for enteric neurodegeneration during ageing, and evidence for some physiological changes in animal models, the ageing gut appears to maintain its function remarkably well in animals that exhibit major neuronal loss, indicating that the ENS has considerable

  10. Ecology and evolution of viruses infecting uncultivated SUP05 bacteria as revealed by single-cell- and meta-genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Simon; Hawley, Alyse K; Torres Beltran, Monica; Scofield, Melanie; Schwientek, Patrick; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Woyke, Tanja; Hallam, Steven J; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2014-08-29

    Viruses modulate microbial communities and alter ecosystem functions. However, due to cultivation bottlenecks, specific virus-host interaction dynamics remain cryptic. In this study, we examined 127 single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs) from uncultivated SUP05 bacteria isolated from a model marine oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) to identify 69 viral contigs representing five new genera within dsDNA Caudovirales and ssDNA Microviridae. Infection frequencies suggest that ∼1/3 of SUP05 bacteria is viral-infected, with higher infection frequency where oxygen-deficiency was most severe. Observed Microviridae clonality suggests recovery of bloom-terminating viruses, while systematic co-infection between dsDNA and ssDNA viruses posits previously unrecognized cooperation modes. Analyses of 186 microbial and viral metagenomes revealed that SUP05 viruses persisted for years, but remained endemic to the OMZ. Finally, identification of virus-encoded dissimilatory sulfite reductase suggests SUP05 viruses reprogram their host's energy metabolism. Together, these results demonstrate closely coupled SUP05 virus-host co-evolutionary dynamics with the potential to modulate biogeochemical cycling in climate-critical and expanding OMZs.

  11. Hypophosphatemia associated with enteral alimentation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, R B; Hohenhaus, A E

    1995-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia is uncommon in cats, but it has been reported in association with diabetes mellitus and hepatic lipidosis, where it can cause hemolysis, rhabdomyopathy, depression, seizures, and coma. The purpose of this article is to describe 9 cats that developed low serum phosphorus concentrations (alimentation. Serum biochemical analyses from more than 6,000 cats were reviewed. The medical records of all cats with hypophosphatemia were examined for history of enteral alimentation; diabetic cats were excluded from the study. Nine cats, ranging in age from 3 to 17 years, were identified. All cats had normal serum phosphorus concentrations before tube feeding began. Onset of hypophosphatemia occurred 12 to 72 hours after initiation of enteral alimentation, and the nadir for phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 mg/dL. Hemolysis occurred in 6 of the 9 cats. Hypophosphatemia secondary to enteral alimentation is an uncommon clinical finding in cats. Cats with high alanine aminotransferase activity, hyperbilirubinemia, and weight loss should be closely monitored for hypophosphatemia during the first 72 hours of enteral alimentation.

  12. Coronavirus and influenza virus proteolytic priming takes place in tetraspanin-enriched membrane microdomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, James T; Hantak, Michael P; Park, Jung-Eun; Gallagher, Tom

    2015-06-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) and low-pathogenicity influenza A viruses (LP IAVs) depend on target cell proteases to cleave their viral glycoproteins and prime them for virus-cell membrane fusion. Several proteases cluster into tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs), suggesting that TEMs are preferred virus entry portals. Here we found that several CoV receptors and virus-priming proteases were indeed present in TEMs. Isolated TEMs, when mixed with CoV and LP IAV pseudoparticles, cleaved viral fusion proteins to fusion-primed fragments and potentiated viral transductions. That entering viruses utilize TEMs as a protease source was further confirmed using tetraspanin antibodies and tetraspanin short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). Tetraspanin antibodies inhibited CoV and LP IAV infections, but their virus-blocking activities were overcome by expressing excess TEM-associated proteases. Similarly, cells with reduced levels of the tetraspanin CD9 resisted CoV pseudoparticle transductions but were made susceptible by overproducing TEM-associated proteases. These findings indicated that antibodies and CD9 depletions interfere with viral proteolytic priming in ways that are overcome by surplus proteases. TEMs appear to be exploited by some CoVs and LP IAVs for appropriate coengagement with cell receptors and proteases. Enveloped viruses use their surface glycoproteins to catalyze membrane fusion, an essential cell entry step. Host cell components prime these viral surface glycoproteins to catalyze membrane fusion at specific times and places during virus cell entry. Among these priming components are proteases, which cleave viral surface glycoproteins, unleashing them to refold in ways that catalyze virus-cell membrane fusions. For some enveloped viruses, these proteases are known to reside on target cell surfaces. This research focuses on coronavirus and influenza A virus cell entry and identifies TEMs as sites of viral proteolysis, thereby defining subcellular locations of virus

  13. Advances in research on Zika virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amjad Ali; Braira Wahid; Shazia Rafique; Muhammad Idrees

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is rapidly spreading across the America and its devastating outcomes for pregnant women and infants have driven this previously ignored pathogen into the limelight. Clinical manifestations are fever, joint pain or rash and conjunctivitis. Emergence of ZIKV started with a first outbreak in the Pacific area in 2007, a second large outbreak occurred in the Pacific in 2013/2014 and subsequently the virus spread in other Pacific islands. Threat of explosive global pandemic and severe clinical complications linked with the more immediate and recurrent epidemics necessitate the development of an effective vaccine. Several vaccine platforms such as DNA vaccine, recombinant subunit vaccine, ZIKV purified inactivated vaccine, and chimeric vaccines have shown potent efficacyin vitro andin vivo trials. Moreover, number of drugs such as Sofosbuvir, BCX4450, NITD008 and 7-DMA are ready to enter phase I clinical trial because of proven anti-ZIKV activity. Monoclonal based antibodies offer promise as an intervention effective for use in pregnant women. In this review, we describe the advances in research on ZIKV such as research strategies for the development of antiviral drugs & vaccines, molecular evolution, epidemiology emergence, neurological complications and other teratogenic outcomes as well as pathogenesis.

  14. [Indications and practice of enteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallay, Judit; Nagy, Dániel; Fülesdi, Béla

    2014-12-21

    Malnutrition in hospitalised patients has a significant and disadvantageous impact on treatment outcome. If possible, enteral nutrition with an energy/protein-balanced nutrient should be preferred depending on the patient's condition, type of illness and risk factors. The aim of the nutrition therapy is to increase the efficacy of treatment and shorten the length of hospital stay in order to ensure rapid rehabilitation. In the present review the authors summarize the most important clinical and practical aspects of enteral nutrition therapy.

  15. Nutrición enteral

    OpenAIRE

    Barrachina Bellés, Lidón; García Hernández, Misericordia; Oto Cavero, Isabel

    1984-01-01

    Este trabajo nos introduce en la administración de la nutrición enteral, haciendo una revisión de los aspectos a tener en cuenta tanto en sus indicaciones, vias, tipos, métodos, cuidados y complicaciones más importantes.

  16. Why do insects enter and recover from chill coma? Low temperature and high extracellular potassium compromises muscle function in Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Petersen, Asbjørn G

    2014-01-01

    When exposed to low temperatures, many insect species enter a reversible comatose state (chill coma), which is driven by a failure of neuromuscular function. Chill coma and chill coma recovery have been associated with a loss and recovery of ion-homeostasis (particularly extracellular [K......+]) and accordingly onset of chill coma has been hypothesised to result from depolarization of membrane potential caused by loss of ion-homeostasis. Here we examined whether onset of chill coma is associated with a disturbance in ion balance by examining the correlation between disruption of ion homeostasis and onset...... of chill coma in locusts exposed to cold at varying rates of cooling. Chill coma onset temperature changed maximally 1°C under different cooling rates and marked disturbances of ion homeostasis were not observed at any of the cooling rates. In a second set of experiments we used isolated tibial muscle...

  17. Epigenetic regulation of enteric neurotransmission by gut bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor eSavidge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Human Microbiome Project defined microbial community interactions with the human host, and provided important molecular insight into how epigenetic factors can influence intestinal ecosystems. Given physiological context, changes in gut microbial community structure are increasingly found to associate with alterations in enteric neurotransmission and disease. At present, it is not known whether shifts in microbial community dynamics represent cause or consequence of disease pathogenesis. The discovery of bacterial-derived neurotransmitters suggests further studies are needed to establish their role in enteric neuropathy. This mini-review highlights recent advances in bacterial communications to the autonomic nervous system and discusses emerging epigenetic data showing that diet, probiotic and antibiotic use may regulate enteric neurotransmission through modulation of microbial communities. Because of its limited scope, a particular emphasis is placed on bacterial regulation of enteric nervous system function in the intestine.

  18. Osmolality and pH in handmade enteral diets used in domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Simeone HENRIQUES

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients who need prolonged domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy may benefit from handmade diets. However, the preparation of such diets might cause insecurity with regard to their nutritional composition and physical-chemical properties. Current study analyzes the osmolality and Hydrogen-Ion concentration (pH on handmade enteral diets. To this purpose, six formulas and two juices, prescribed on discharge from hospital, were analyzed physically and chemically. Osmolality and pH were respectively determined by cryoscopy and potentiometry. Most formulations were classified as isosmolar (with less than 400 mOsm/kg solvent, and only one was classified as slightly hyperosmolar, with rates ranging from 356.7 to 403.5 mOsm/kg solvent. On average, the standard formula presented higher osmolality than similar ones prepared for hyperglycemia. Among the juices, only one registered hyperosmolar concentration of 595.54 mOsm/kg solvent. All formulas presented pH rates classified as low acidity, ranging between 6.1 and 6.6, while the two juices had the lowest results, 4.73 and 4.66 each. The blend of ingredients used in handmade formulas and juices studied presented acceptable osmolality and pH rates for a safe administration and absence of gastrointestinal complications. Data showed here are consistent with an appropriate and healthy diet and contributed towards success in domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy.

  19. Selective flocculation and precipitation for the improvement of virus-like particle recovery from yeast homogenate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsoka, S.; Ciniawskyj, O. C.; Thomas, Owen R. T.

    2000-01-01

    The purification of an intracellular product from a complex mixture of contaminants after cell disruption is a common problem in processes downstream of fermentation systems. This is particularly challenging for the recovery of particulate (80 nm in diameter) multimeric protein products, named vi...... the challenge of scale-up of solid-liquid separation stages for biological particle processing.......The purification of an intracellular product from a complex mixture of contaminants after cell disruption is a common problem in processes downstream of fermentation systems. This is particularly challenging for the recovery of particulate (80 nm in diameter) multimeric protein products, named...

  20. Surgical treatment of radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, M.J.; Frazee, R.C. (Department of General Surgery, Scott and White Memorial Hospital, Temple TX (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Radiation enteritis is a progressive, disease process that causes intestinal fibrosis and obliterative endarteritis, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The authors' clinical experience involving 20 patients over a 22-year period from 1967 through 1989 who underwent various surgical procedures to alleviate chronic symptoms secondary to radiation enteritis is described. Eight men and 12 women with a mean age of 52 years (24 to 81 years) underwent a total of 27 procedures for complications of radiation enteritis. Radiation therapy was delivered for treatment of gynecologic malignancies (55%), colorectal cancer (20%), prostate malignancies (10%), and others (15%). The mean average dose of radiation delivered was 5,514 rads with a range of 2,613 to 7,000 rads. The interval from radiation treatment to time of surgery averaged 9 years. Operative procedures consisted of 12 resection and primary anastomosis procedures and 15 resections with stoma creation. Formation of a stoma was used in patients with more severe disease. The 30-day operative mortality was 0% and morbidity was 55%. There were no anastomotic leaks or intra-abdominal abscesses. The authors conclude that resection and primary anastomosis can safely be performed in selected patients but that judicious use of stoma formation can avoid major mortality and morbidity associated with surgery in this setting.

  1. Surgical treatment of radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, M.J.; Frazee, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation enteritis is a progressive, disease process that causes intestinal fibrosis and obliterative endarteritis, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The authors' clinical experience involving 20 patients over a 22-year period from 1967 through 1989 who underwent various surgical procedures to alleviate chronic symptoms secondary to radiation enteritis is described. Eight men and 12 women with a mean age of 52 years (24 to 81 years) underwent a total of 27 procedures for complications of radiation enteritis. Radiation therapy was delivered for treatment of gynecologic malignancies (55%), colorectal cancer (20%), prostate malignancies (10%), and others (15%). The mean average dose of radiation delivered was 5,514 rads with a range of 2,613 to 7,000 rads. The interval from radiation treatment to time of surgery averaged 9 years. Operative procedures consisted of 12 resection and primary anastomosis procedures and 15 resections with stoma creation. Formation of a stoma was used in patients with more severe disease. The 30-day operative mortality was 0% and morbidity was 55%. There were no anastomotic leaks or intra-abdominal abscesses. The authors conclude that resection and primary anastomosis can safely be performed in selected patients but that judicious use of stoma formation can avoid major mortality and morbidity associated with surgery in this setting

  2. Enteral alimentation and gastrointestinal bleeding in mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingleton, S K; Hadzima, S K

    1983-01-01

    The incidence of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in mechanically ventilated ICU patients receiving enteral alimentation was reviewed and compared to bleeding occurring in ventilated patients receiving prophylactic antacids or cimetidine. Of 250 patients admitted to our ICU during a 1-yr time period, 43 ventilated patients were studied. Patients in each group were comparable with respect to age, respiratory diagnosis, number of GI hemorrhage risk factors, and number of ventilator, ICU, and hospital days. Twenty-one patients had evidence of GI bleeding. Fourteen of 20 patients receiving antacids and 7 of 9 patients receiving cimetidine had evidence of GI bleeding. No bleeding occurred in 14 patients receiving enteral alimentation. Complications of enteral alimentation were few and none required discontinuation of enteral alimentation. Our preliminary data suggest the role of enteral alimentation in critically ill patients may include not only protection against malnutrition but also protection against GI bleeding.

  3. Physicochemical Factors Influence the Abundance and Culturability of Human Enteric Pathogens and Fecal Indicator Organisms in Estuarine Water and Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Hassard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To assess fecal pollution in coastal waters, current monitoring is reliant on culture-based enumeration of bacterial indicators, which does not account for the presence of viable but non-culturable or sediment-associated micro-organisms, preventing effective quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA. Seasonal variability in viable but non-culturable or sediment-associated bacteria challenge the use of fecal indicator organisms (FIOs for water monitoring. We evaluated seasonal changes in FIOs and human enteric pathogen abundance in water and sediments from the Ribble and Conwy estuaries in the UK. Sediments possessed greater bacterial abundance than the overlying water column, however, key pathogenic species (Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., hepatitis A virus, hepatitis E virus and norovirus GI and GII were not detected in sediments. Salmonella was detected in low levels in the Conwy water in spring/summer and norovirus GII was detected in the Ribble water in winter. The abundance of E. coli and Enterococcus spp. quantified by culture-based methods, rarely matched the abundance of these species when measured by qPCR. The discrepancy between these methods was greatest in winter at both estuaries, due to low CFU's, coupled with higher gene copies (GC. Temperature accounted for 60% the variability in bacterial abundance in water in autumn, whilst in winter salinity explained 15% of the variance. Relationships between bacterial indicators/pathogens and physicochemical variables were inconsistent in sediments, no single indicator adequately described occurrence of all bacterial indicators/pathogens. However, important variables included grain size, porosity, clay content and concentrations of Zn, K, and Al. Sediments with greater organic matter content and lower porosity harbored a greater proportion of non-culturable bacteria (including dead cells and extracellular DNA in winter. Here, we show the link between physicochemical

  4. Does enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 enter the viable but nonculturable state in salted salmon roe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, S I; Kii, T; Asakura, H; Shirahata, T; Ikeda, T; Takeshi, K; Itoh, K

    2000-12-01

    An outbreak caused by salted salmon roe contaminated with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 occurred in Japan in 1998. Since about 0.75 to 1.5 viable cells were estimated to cause infection, we presumed that O157 might enter the viable but nonculturable (VNC) state in salted salmon roe and consequently that viable cell numbers might be underestimated. Although patient-originating O157 cells could not grow on agar plates after 72 h of incubation in 13% NaCl, they were resuscitated in yeast extract broth, and more than 90% of the cells were shown to be viable by fluorescent staining, suggesting that almost all of them could enter the VNC state in NaCl water. Roe-originating O157 was resistant to NaCl because it could grow on agar after 72 h of incubation in NaCl water, but about 20% of cells appeared to enter the VNC state. Therefore, germfree mice were infected with O157 to examine the resuscitation of cells in the VNC state and the retention of pathogenicity. O157 that originated in roe, but not patients, killed mice and was isolated from the intestine. However, these isolates had become sensitive to NaCl. O157 cells of roe origin incubated in normal media also killed mice and were isolated from the intestine, but they also became transiently NaCl sensitive. We therefore propose that bacterial cells might enter the VNC state under conditions of stress, such as those encountered in vivo or in high salt concentrations, and then revive when those conditions have eased. If so, the VNC state in food is potentially dangerous from a public health viewpoint and may have to be considered at the time of food inspection. Finally, the establishment of a simple recovery system for VNC cells should be established.

  5. Bioreactor production of recombinant herpes simplex virus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, David R; Harrell, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Serotypical application of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors to gene therapy (type 1) and prophylactic vaccines (types 1 and 2) has garnered substantial clinical interest recently. HSV vectors and amplicons have also been employed as helper virus constructs for manufacture of the dependovirus adeno-associated virus (AAV). Large quantities of infectious HSV stocks are requisite for these therapeutic applications, requiring a scalable vector manufacturing and processing platform comprised of unit operations which accommodate the fragility of HSV. In this study, production of a replication deficient rHSV-1 vector bearing the rep and cap genes of AAV-2 (denoted rHSV-rep2/cap2) was investigated. Adaptation of rHSV production from T225 flasks to a packed bed, fed-batch bioreactor permitted an 1100-fold increment in total vector production without a decrease in specific vector yield (pfu/cell). The fed-batch bioreactor system afforded a rHSV-rep2/cap2 vector recovery of 2.8 x 10(12) pfu. The recovered vector was concentrated by tangential flow filtration (TFF), permitting vector stocks to be formulated at greater than 1.5 x 10(9) pfu/mL.

  6. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  7. Avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) surveillance in commercial breeding farm in China and the characterization of Class I NDV isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Beixia; Huang, Yanyan; He, Yefeng; Xu, Chuantian; Lu, Xishan; Zhang, Wei; Meng, Bin; Yan, Shigan; Zhang, Xiumei

    2010-07-29

    In order to determine the actual prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in ducks in Shandong province of China, extensive surveillance studies were carried out in the breeding ducks of an intensive farm from July 2007 to September 2008. Each month cloacal and tracheal swabs were taken from 30 randomly selected birds that appeared healthy. All of the swabs were negative for influenza A virus recovery, whereas 87.5% of tracheal swabs and 100% cloacal swabs collected in September 2007, were positive for Newcastle disease virus isolation. Several NDV isolates were recovered from tracheal and cloacal swabs of apparently healthy ducks. All of the isolates were apathogenic as determined by the MDT and ICPI. The HN gene and the variable region of F gene (nt 47-420) of four isolates selected at random were sequenced. A 374 bp region of F gene and the full length of HN gene were used for phylogenetic analysis. Four isolates were identified as the same isolate based on nucleotide sequences identities of 99.2-100%, displaying a closer phylogenetic relationship to lentogenic Class I viruses. There were 1.9-9.9% nucleotide differences between the isolates and other Class I virus in the variable region of F gene (nt 47-420), whereas there were 38.5-41.2% nucleotide difference between the isolates and Class II viruses. The amino acid sequences of the F protein cleavage sites in these isolates were 112-ERQERL-117. The full length of HN gene of these isolates was 1851 bp, coding 585 amino acids. The homology analysis of the nucleotide sequence of HN gene indicated that there were 2.0-4.2% nucleotide differences between the isolates and other Class I viruses, whereas there were 29.5-40.9% differences between the isolates and Class II viruses. The results shows that these isolates are not phylogenetically related to the vaccine strain (LaSota). This study adds to the understanding of the ecology of influenza viruses and Newcastle disease viruses in

  8. Prevalence of Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus in Western Thar Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kiran Khatri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatitis A Virus (HAV and Hepatitis E Virus (HEV pose major health problems in India. Both viruses are enterically transmitted, resulting in Acute Viral Hepatitis (AVH in developing countries. This study was done to determine prevalence of HAV and HEV and their co-infection in patients presenting with AVH in a tertiary care hospital. Aim: To determine the prevalence of HAV and HEV and their co-infection among patients attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Jodhpur presenting with symptoms of acute hepatitis. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of one year duration was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Dr S.N. Medical College, Jodhpur. A non random sampling of 174 patients presenting with AVH was considered in the study. On the basis of history, serum samples were analyzed for IgM anti-HAV and IgM anti-HEV for the detection of HAV and HEV, respectively using commercially available ELISA kits. Data collected was analysed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 11 and p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The seroprevalence of HAV and HEV positive patients were 13.79% and 4.02%, respectively. The seroprevalence of both HAV and HEV in patients with AVH was 1.15%. The prevalence of HAV and HEV among males (58.3% and 41.6% was higher than in females (7.97% and 14.28%. Conclusion: The prevalence of HAV is higher than that of HEV but screening of HEV should be done as there are cases of coinfections. In this region of country, these data will play a role in planning of vaccination strategies and for better sanitation programme in future.

  9. Selective elimination of HIV-1-infected cells by Env-directed, HIV-1-based virus-like particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretti, Silvia; Schiavoni, Ilaria; Pugliese, Katherina; Federico, Maurizio

    2006-01-01

    We recently showed that both replicating and resting cells cultivated with ganciclovir (GCV) were killed when challenged with vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein pseudotyped HIV-1-based virus-like particles (VLPs) carrying the Nef7 (i.e., an HIV-1 Nef mutant incorporating in virions at high levels)/herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) fusion product. On this basis, a novel anti-HIV therapeutic approach based on Nef7/TK VLPs expressing X4 or R5 HIV cell receptor complexes has been attempted. We here report that (CD4-CXCR4) and (CD4-CCR5) Nef7-based VLPs efficiently enter cells infected by X4- or R5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. Importantly, the delivery of the VLP-associated Nef7/TK led to cell death upon GCV treatment. Of interest, VLPs were effective also against non-replicating, HIV-1-infected primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. HIV-targeted VLPs represent a promising candidate for the treatment of persistently HIV-1-infected cells that are part of virus reservoirs resistant to HAART therapies

  10. 9 CFR 302.3 - Livestock and products entering official establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock and products entering official establishments. 302.3 Section 302.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Livestock and products entering official establishments. All livestock and all products entering any...

  11. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  12. Characteristics associated with clinical severity and inflammatory phenotype of naturally occurring virus-induced exacerbations of asthma in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Asger; Laing, Ingrid A; Poulsen, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In experimental studies viral infections have been shown to induce type 2 inflammation in asthmatics, but whether this is a feature of naturally occurring virus-induced asthma exacerbations is unknown. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) released from the airway epithelium in response...... occurring virus-induced exacerbations of asthma and whether TSLP is associated with this type 2 inflammation. METHODS: Patients presenting to hospital with acute asthma were examined during the exacerbation, and after 4 weeks recovery. The assessments included spirometry, FeNO and induced sputum...... in patients during virus-induced asthma exacerbations, to the same degree as non-viral exacerbations, and correlate negatively with FEV1. However, in virus-positive patients, high TSLP expression during exacerbation was associated with low sputum eosinophils, suggesting that the effect of TSLP in vivo...

  13. Recovery in soccer : part ii-recovery strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nédélec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue, and then to regain performance faster and reduce the risk of injury. Fatigue following competition is multifactorial and mainly related to dehydration, glycogen depletion, muscle damage and mental fatigue. Recovery strategies should consequently be targeted against the major causes of fatigue. Strategies reviewed in part II of this article were nutritional intake, cold water immersion, sleeping, active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. Some strategies such as hydration, diet and sleep are effective in their ability to counteract the fatigue mechanisms. Providing milk drinks to players at the end of competition and a meal containing high-glycaemic index carbohydrate and protein within the hour following the match are effective in replenishing substrate stores and optimizing muscle-damage repair. Sleep is an essential part of recovery management. Sleep disturbance after a match is common and can negatively impact on the recovery process. Cold water immersion is effective during acute periods of match congestion in order to regain performance levels faster and repress the acute inflammatory process. Scientific evidence for other strategies reviewed in their ability to accelerate the return to the initial level of performance is still lacking. These include active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. While this does not mean that these strategies do not aid the recovery process, the protocols implemented up until

  14. Pathobiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálmai, Nimród; Erdélyi, Károly; Bálint, Adám; Márton, Lázár; Dán, Adám; Deim, Zoltán; Ursu, Krisztina; Löndt, Brandon Z; Brown, Ian H; Glávits, Róbert

    2007-06-01

    The results of pathological, virological and polymerase chain reaction examinations carried out on 35 mute swans (Cygnus olor) that succumbed to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection during an outbreak in Southern Hungary are reported. The most frequently observed macroscopic lesions included: haemorrhages under the epicardium, in the proventricular and duodenal mucosa and pancreas; focal necrosis in the pancreas; myocardial degeneration; acute mucous enteritis; congestion of the spleen and lung, and the accumulation of sero-mucinous exudate in the body cavity. Histopathological lesions comprised: lymphocytic meningo-encephalomyelitis accompanied by gliosis and occasional perivascular haemorrhages; multi-focal myocardial necrosis with lympho-histiocytic infiltration; pancreatitis with focal necrosis; acute desquamative mucous enteritis; lung congestion and oedema; oedema of the tracheal mucosa and, in young birds, the atrophy of the bursa of Fabricius as a result of lymphocyte depletion and apoptosis. The observed lesions and the moderate to good body conditions were compatible with findings in acute highly pathogenic avian influenza infections of other bird species reported in the literature. Skin lesions and lesions typical for infections caused by strains of lower pathogenicity (low pathogenic avian influenza virus) such as emaciation or fibrinous changes in the reproductive and respiratory organs, sinuses and airsacs were not observed. The H5N1 subtype avian influenza virus was isolated in embryonated fowl eggs from all cases and it was identified by classical and molecular virological methods.

  15. Enteric nervous system specific deletion of Foxd3 disrupts glial cell differentiation and activates compensatory enteric progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Nathan A; Plank, Jennifer L; LeGrone, Alison W; Frist, Audrey Y; Zhu, Lei; Shin, Myung K; Southard-Smith, E Michelle; Labosky, Patricia A

    2012-03-15

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) arises from the coordinated migration, expansion and differentiation of vagal and sacral neural crest progenitor cells. During development, vagal neural crest cells enter the foregut and migrate in a rostro-to-caudal direction, colonizing the entire gastrointestinal tract and generating the majority of the ENS. Sacral neural crest contributes to a subset of enteric ganglia in the hindgut, colonizing the colon in a caudal-to-rostral wave. During this process, enteric neural crest-derived progenitors (ENPs) self-renew and begin expressing markers of neural and glial lineages as they populate the intestine. Our earlier work demonstrated that the transcription factor Foxd3 is required early in neural crest-derived progenitors for self-renewal, multipotency and establishment of multiple neural crest-derived cells and structures including the ENS. Here, we describe Foxd3 expression within the fetal and postnatal intestine: Foxd3 was strongly expressed in ENPs as they colonize the gastrointestinal tract and was progressively restricted to enteric glial cells. Using a novel Ednrb-iCre transgene to delete Foxd3 after vagal neural crest cells migrate into the midgut, we demonstrated a late temporal requirement for Foxd3 during ENS development. Lineage labeling of Ednrb-iCre expressing cells in Foxd3 mutant embryos revealed a reduction of ENPs throughout the gut and loss of Ednrb-iCre lineage cells in the distal colon. Although mutant mice were viable, defects in patterning and distribution of ENPs were associated with reduced proliferation and severe reduction of glial cells derived from the Ednrb-iCre lineage. Analyses of ENS-lineage and differentiation in mutant embryos suggested activation of a compensatory population of Foxd3-positive ENPs that did not express the Ednrb-iCre transgene. Our findings highlight the crucial roles played by Foxd3 during ENS development including progenitor proliferation, neural patterning, and glial

  16. Transport and fate of viruses in sediment and stormwater from a Managed Aquifer Recharge site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Salini; Bradford, Scott A.; Šimůnek, Jiří; Torkzaban, Saeed; Vanderzalm, Joanne

    2017-12-01

    Enteric viruses are one of the major concerns in water reclamation and reuse at Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) sites. In this study, the transport and fate of bacteriophages MS2, PRD1, and ΦX174 were studied in sediment and stormwater (SW) collected from a MAR site in Parafield, Australia. Column experiments were conducted using SW, stormwater in equilibrium with the aquifer sediment (EQ-SW), and two pore-water velocities (1 and 5 m day-1) to encompass expected behavior at the MAR site. The aquifer sediment removed >92.3% of these viruses under all of the considered MAR conditions. However, much greater virus removal (4.6 logs) occurred at the lower pore-water velocity and in EQ-SW that had a higher ionic strength and Ca2+ concentration. Virus removal was greatest for MS2, followed by PRD1, and then ΦX174 for a given physicochemical condition. The vast majority of the attached viruses were irreversibly attached or inactivated on the solid phase, and injection of Milli-Q water or beef extract at pH = 10 only mobilized a small fraction of attached viruses ( μs > kdet > μl, and katt was several orders of magnitude greater than μl. Therefore, current microbial risk assessment methods in the MAR guideline may be overly conservative in some instances. Interestingly, virus BTCs exhibited blocking behavior and the calculated solid surface area that contributed to the attachment was very small. Additional research is therefore warranted to study the potential influence of blocking on virus transport and potential implications for MAR guidelines.

  17. Enhanced replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.S.; Smith, K.O.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of DNA-damaging agents on the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) were assessed in vitro. Monolayers of human lung fibroblast cell lines were exposed to DNA-damaging agents (methyl methanesulfonate [MMS], methyl methanethiosulfonate [MMTS], ultraviolet light [UV], or gamma radiation [GR]) at specific intervals, before or after inoculation with low levels of HSV-1. The ability of cell monolayers to support HSV-1 replication was measured by direct plaque assay and was compared with that of untreated control samples. In this system, monolayers of different cell lines infected with identical HSV-1 strains demonstrated dissimilar levels of recovery of the infectious virus. Exposure of DNA-repair-competent cell cultures to DNA-damaging agents produced time-dependent enhanced virus replication. Treatment with agent before virus inoculation significantly (p less than 0.025) increased the number of plaques by 10 to 68%, compared with untreated control cultures, while treatment with agent after virus adsorption significantly increased (p less than 0.025) the number of plaques by 7 to 15%. In a parallel series of experiments, cells deficient in DNA repair (xeroderma pigmentosum) failed to support enhanced virus replication. These results suggest that after exposure to DNA-damaging agents, fibroblasts competent in DNA repair amplify the replication of HSV-1, and that DNA-repair mechanisms that act on a variety of chromosomal lesions may be involved in the repair and biological activation of HSV-1 genomes

  18. Disruption of Specific RNA-RNA Interactions in a Double-Stranded RNA Virus Inhibits Genome Packaging and Virus Infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Teodoro; Sung, Po-Yu; Roy, Polly

    2015-12-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes hemorrhagic disease in economically important livestock. The BTV genome is organized into ten discrete double-stranded RNA molecules (S1-S10) which have been suggested to follow a sequential packaging pathway from smallest to largest segment during virus capsid assembly. To substantiate and extend these studies, we have investigated the RNA sorting and packaging mechanisms with a new experimental approach using inhibitory oligonucleotides. Putative packaging signals present in the 3'untranslated regions of BTV segments were targeted by a number of nuclease resistant oligoribonucleotides (ORNs) and their effects on virus replication in cell culture were assessed. ORNs complementary to the 3' UTR of BTV RNAs significantly inhibited virus replication without affecting protein synthesis. Same ORNs were found to inhibit complex formation when added to a novel RNA-RNA interaction assay which measured the formation of supramolecular complexes between and among different RNA segments. ORNs targeting the 3'UTR of BTV segment 10, the smallest RNA segment, were shown to be the most potent and deletions or substitution mutations of the targeted sequences diminished the RNA complexes and abolished the recovery of viable viruses using reverse genetics. Cell-free capsid assembly/RNA packaging assay also confirmed that the inhibitory ORNs could interfere with RNA packaging and further substitution mutations within the putative RNA packaging sequence have identified the recognition sequence concerned. Exchange of 3'UTR between segments have further demonstrated that RNA recognition was segment specific, most likely acting as part of the secondary structure of the entire genomic segment. Our data confirm that genome packaging in this segmented dsRNA virus occurs via the formation of supramolecular complexes formed by the interaction of specific sequences located in the 3' UTRs. Additionally, the inhibition of packaging in-trans with inhibitory ORNs

  19. The production of antibody by invading B cells is required for the clearance of rabies virus from the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Craig Hooper

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of rabies is associated with the inability to deliver immune effectors across the blood-brain barrier and to clear virulent rabies virus from CNS tissues. However, the mechanisms that facilitate immune effector entry into CNS tissues are induced by infection with attenuated rabies virus.Infection of normal mice with attenuated rabies virus but not immunization with killed virus can promote the clearance of pathogenic rabies virus from the CNS. T cell activity in B cell-deficient mice can control the replication of attenuated virus in the CNS, but viral mRNA persists. Low levels of passively administered rabies virus-neutralizing antibody reach infected cells in the cerebellum of B cell-deficient mice but are not sufficient to mediate virus clearance. Production of rabies virus-specific antibody by B cells invading CNS tissues is required for this process, and a substantial proportion of the B cells that accumulate in the CNS of mice infected with attenuated rabies virus produce virus-specific antibodies.The mechanisms required for immune effectors to enter rabies virus-infected tissues are induced by infection with attenuated rabies virus but not by infection with pathogenic rabies viruses or immunization with killed virus. T cell activities can inhibit rabies virus replication, but the production of rabies virus-specific antibodies by infiltrating B cells, as opposed to the leakage of circulating antibody across the BBB, is critical to elimination of the virus. These findings suggest that a pathogenic rabies virus infection may be treatable after the virus has reached the CNS tissues, providing that the appropriate immune effectors can be targeted to the infected tissues.

  20. Detection and characterisation of novel bocavirus (genus Bocaparvovirus and gastroenteritis viruses from asymptomatic pigs in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Gunn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Livestock animals have been the assumed source of several human epidemics in recent years, for example, influenza H1N1, rotavirus G8/G9, and MERS-CoV. Surveillance of novel viruses in animals is essential to evaluate the risk to human and animal health and to determine any economic impact, for example, failure to thrive. There is a paucity of data regarding detection and characterisation of gastroenteritis viruses, particularly novel viruses, in porcines in Ireland. Recently, a number of small novel porcine DNA viruses have emerged globally, for example, torque teno sus virus, porcine bocavirus, and parvoviruses 2 & 4, and little is known about the biology and potential pathogenicity of these viruses. Bocaparvovirus is a genetically distinct group of viruses which has been recently detected in humans and animals. Methods: In this study, the presence of gastroenteritis viruses (rotavirus A, porcine circovirus, adenovirus, and porcine bocavirus was investigated in a selection of archived faecal samples from asymptomatic piglets from a commercial farm in Ireland. A total of 104 specimens were pooled and screened using conventional molecular techniques (PCR and RT-PCR, a subset of specimens (n=44 were then examined individually. Viral diversity was then investigated using statistical and phylogenetic techniques. Results: Initial screening showed a high prevalence of PBoV in this farm, with the formation of three distinct groups in phylogenetic analysis. Other viruses were also investigated in this study with the first report of PCV, PAdV and lineage I G5 RVA in Ireland. Some specimens contained >1 virus, with statistical analysis indicating a strong correlation for mixed infections of PBoV and PAdV on this farm. Conclusion: Investigating the diversity of circulating enteric viruses on Irish porcine farms is important to improve the prophylactic tools available and to facilitate the early detection of changes in circulating viruses.

  1. Enteric pathogen modification by anaecic earthworm, Lampito Mauritii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment plant contains several enteric microbial pathogens, predominantly Salmonella and Escherichia species in the range of 15-18 x 104 CFU/g and 11-12 x 104 CFU/g respectively. The present study investigates the influence of earthworm, Lampito mauritii on enteric pathogen ...

  2. Comparison of neutral and positive enteral contrast media for MDCT enteroclysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiyappan, Senthil Kumar; Kalra, Naveen; Sandhu, Manavjit Singh; Kochhar, Rakesh; Wig, Jai Dev; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare neutral and positive enteral contrast media for MDCT enteroclysis (MDCTE) in various small bowel diseases. Materials and methods: 40 patients with suspicion of small bowel diseases were divided randomly into two equal groups. In one group, water was used as neutral enteral contrast and in other group, 2% water soluble iodinated contrast was used as positive enteral contrast. All MDCTE were done on a 16-slice multidetector row CT unit. The findings of MDCTE were compared with the standards of reference. Results: There were 12 cases of abdominal tuberculosis (30%), 5 cases of bowel masses (12%), 4 cases of Crohn's disease (10%), 3 cases of small bowel adhesions (7%), 2 cases of midgut volvulus (5%), 2 cases of segmental enteritis (5%) and 12 of all cases (30%) were normal. There was no statistically significant difference between neutral and positive enteral contrast with regards to bowel distention, contrast reflux and evaluation of duodenum. Abnormal bowel wall enhancement was appreciated only with use of neutral enteral contrast (n = 12). Evaluation of ileocaecal junction was possible in all 20 patients (100%) with positive enteral contrast but in only 17 patients (85%) with neutral enteral contrast. Overall sensitivity and specificity of MDCTE with use of neutral contrast medium (100 and 88% respectively) was greater for evaluation of small bowel diseases, when compared to MDCTE using positive enteral contrast medium (92.8 and 83.3% respectively). Conclusions: Water is a good enteral contrast medium for MDCT enteroclysis examination and allows better evaluation of abnormal bowel wall enhancement. Ileocaecal junction evaluation is better with positive enteral contrast medium.

  3. Mast cells in Canine parvovirus-2-associated enteritis with crypt abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldemeskel, M W; Saliki, J T; Blas-Machado, U; Whittington, L

    2013-11-01

    The role of mast cells (MCs) in allergic reactions and parasitic infections is well established. Their involvement in host immune response against bacterial and viral infections is reported. In this study, investigation is made to determine if MCs are associated with Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2)-induced enteritis with crypt abscess (ECA). Mast cell count (MCC) was made on toluidine blue-stained intestinal sections from a total of 34 dogs. These included 16 dogs exhibiting ECA positive for CPV-2 and negative for Canine distemper virus and Canine coronavirus by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent antibody test, 12 dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and 6 non-ECA/non-IBD (control) dogs. The average total MCC per high-power field in ECA (40.8 ± 2.2) and IBD (24.7 ± 2.1) was significantly higher (P .05), MCC was also higher in ECA than in IBD. The present study for the first time has documented significantly increased MCs in CPV-2-associated ECA as was previously reported for IBD, showing that MCs may also play an important role in CPV-2-associated ECA. Further studies involving more CPV-infected dogs are recommended to substantiate the findings.

  4. Leaching of viruses and other microorganisms naturally occurring in pig slurry to tile drains on a well-structured loamy field in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Forslund, Anita; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2017-01-01

    The amount of animal manure used in modern agriculture is increasing due to the increase in global animal production. Pig slurry is known to contain zoonotic bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp., and viruses such as hepatitis E virus and group A rotavirus. Coliform...... sets out to investigate the leaching potential of six different microorganisms: E. coli and Enterococcus spp. (detected by colony assay), somatic coliphages (using plaque assays), and hepatitis E virus, porcine circovirus type 2, and group A rotavirus (by real-time polymerase chain reaction). All six...... microorganisms leached through the soil entering the tile drains situated at 1-m depth the first day following pig slurry application. The leaching pattern of group A rotavirus differed substantially from the pattern for somatic coliphages, which are otherwise used as indicators for virus contamination...

  5. [Enteral alimentation at home: why PEG now?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y; Hanyu, N; Kashiwagi, H; Kubo, T; Aoki, T

    1996-12-01

    The history of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is relatively short. In 1980, a report entitled "Gastrostomy without laparotomy: A percutaneous endoscopic technique" by Ponsky and Gaudere was first published in the Journal of Pediatric Surgery. Thereafter, PEG soon saw widespread use in Western countries because of its clinical efficacy and economy. It has been performed in about 170,000 cases annually in the US. In contrast, its spread in Japan has been extremely slow: only about 10,000 cases have undergone this procedure annually, and this number accounted for less than 5% of patients receiving enteral alimentation. The reason why PEG has not spread may be the medical insurance system in Japan and the local distaste for operation scarring. However, in consideration of the unprecedented ageing of society that is surely coming in the near future, the role of PEG in Japan must be reexamined. In this report, we presented the methodology of enteral alimentation at home by means of PEG, giving special consideration to: (1) "What points are improved by using enteral alimentation at home by means of PEG in various diseases; (2) dysphagia due to cerebral angiopathy; (3) terminal cancer; (4) otolaryngological diseases; and (5) Crohn disease. We also discussed "Why PEG is important now?" in performing enteral alimentation at home.

  6. The spectrum of radiation enteritis: surgical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, G.K.; Grodsinsky, C.; Allen, H.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation therapy, often used to treat gynecologic and urologic pelvic malignancies, has varying, adverse effects on the bowel. Radiation enteritis may occur from one month to 20 years after irradiation, and disabling symptoms may require surgery in 10 to 20 per cent of patients. From our experience with 20 patients who required surgery for radiation enteritis and who were followed for up to 20 years, we were able to identify three clinical groups. Patients in the first group need only medical treatment for their symptoms, and observation, whereas patients in the second group may present with acute, debilitating, life-threatening symptoms that may require emergency surgery. Patients in the third group have a long-standing history of intermittent bowel obstruction and/or enteric fistulas that are best treated with adequate nutritional support followed by timely surgical intervention

  7. Stochastic acidification, activation of hemagglutinin and escape of influenza viruses from an endosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagache, Thibault; Sieben, Christian; Meyer, Tim; Herrmann, Andreas; Holcman, David

    2017-06-01

    Influenza viruses enter the cell inside an endosome. During the endosomal journey, acidification triggers a conformational change of the virus spike protein hemagglutinin (HA) that results in escape of the viral genome from the endosome into the cytoplasm. It is still unclear how the interplay between acidification and HA conformation changes affects the kinetics of the viral endosomal escape. We develop here a stochastic model to estimate the change of conformation of HAs inside the endosome nanodomain. Using a Markov process, we model the arrival of protons to HA binding sites and compute the kinetics of their accumulation. We compute the Mean First Passage Time (MFPT) of the number of HA bound sites to a threshold, which is used to estimate the HA activation rate for a given pH concentration. The present analysis reveals that HA proton binding sites possess a high chemical barrier, ensuring a stability of the spike protein at sub-acidic pH. We predict that activating more than 3 adjacent HAs is necessary to trigger endosomal fusion and this configuration prevents premature release of viruses from early endosomes

  8. Early enteral nutrition compared to outcome in critically ill trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The benefit of an early enteral nutrition start in critical ill patients is widely accepted. However, limited published data focus on trauma patients. This study aimed to investigate the effect of early enteral nutrition initiation on length of stay and mortality in an intensive care unit (ICU), as well as explore if enteral ...

  9. Simultaneous detection of enteropathogenic viruses in buffalos faeces using multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Pagnini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A multiplex reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR assay that detects Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus, Bovine Coronavirus, and Group A Rotaviruses in infected cell-culture fluids and clinical faecal samples is described. One hundred twenty faecal samples from buffalo calves with acute gastroenteritis were tested. The mRT-PCR was validated against simplex RT-PCR with published primers for Pestivirus, Coronavirus and Rotavirus. The multiplex RT-PCR was equally sensitive and specific in detecting viral infections compared with simplex RT-PCR. The mRT-PCR readily identified viruses by discriminating the size of their amplified gene products. This mRT-PCR may be a sensitive and rapid assay for surveillance of buffalo enteric viruses in field specimens. This novel multiplex RT-PCR is an attractive technique for the rapid, specific, and cost-effective laboratory diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis.

  10. Surveillance of Enteric Viruses and Microbial Indicators in the Eastern Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and Harvest Waters along Louisiana Gulf Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Naim; Maite, Morgan; Liu, Da; Cormier, Jiemin; Landry, Matthew; Shackleford, John; Lampila, Lucina E; Achberger, Eric C; Janes, Marlene E

    2015-05-01

    Noroviruses are the most common causative agent of viral gastroenteritis in humans, and are responsible for major foodborne illnesses in the United States. Filter-feeding molluscan shellfish exposed to sewage-contaminated waters bioaccumulate viruses, and if consumed raw, transmit the viruses to humans and cause illness. We investigated the occurrence of norovirus GI and GII and microbial indicators of fecal contamination in the eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and water from commercial harvesting areas along the Louisiana Gulf Coast (January to November of 2013). Microbial indicators (aerobic plate count, enterococci, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, male-specific coliphages, and somatic coliphages) were detected at the densities lower than public health concerns. Only one oyster sample was positive for norovirus GII at 3.5 ± 0.2 log10 genomic equivalent copies/g digestive tissues. A stool specimen obtained from an infected individual associated with a norovirus outbreak and the suspected oysters (Cameron Parish, La., area 30, January 2013) were also analyzed. The norovirus strain in the stool belonged to GII.4 Sydney; however, the oysters were negative and could not be linked. In general, no temporal trend was observed in the microbial indicators. Low correlation among bacterial indicators was observed in oysters. Strongest correlations among microbial indicators were observed between enterococci and fecal coliforms (r = 0.63) and between enterococci and E. coli (r = 0.64) in water (P oysters (r oysters and harvest water (r ≤ 0.36, P > 0.05). Our results emphasize the need for regular monitoring of pathogenic viruses in commercial oyster harvesting areas to reduce the risks of viral gastroenteritis incidences. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Usefulness of enteral contrast media in MR evaluation of pelvic mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hun; Kim, Jung Sik; Kim, Hong; Shon, Chul Ho; Lee, Hee Jung; Lee, Sung Moon; Woo, Sung Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1999-01-01

    To assess the value of enteral contrast media for the evaluation of pelvic masses by MR imaging. Between April and July 1998, 16 women with pelvic masses were examined by MRI. The origin of the lesion was the ovary in twelve cases, the uterus in three, and the sigmoid in one. Using a 1.5T scanner(Magnetom Vision, Siemens), T1-weighted axial spin echo(SE), T2-weighted turbo spin echo(TSE), two dimensional fast low-angle shot(FLASH 2D), and half-Fourier TSE(HASTE) images were obtained in all patients after the administration of Magnevist Enteral (Shering, Berlin, Germany). In each MR imagine sequence, distinction between the lesion and adjacent bowel (1, not distinguished; 2, partly distinguished; 3, clearly distinguished), artifact (0, absent; 1, mild; 2, severe), image quality (1, poor; 2, fair; 3, good), were compared before and after the use of enteral contrast media. Changes in MRI impression after the use of enteral contrast media were also evaluated. Two radiologists reached a consensus after reviewing the images. Statistical significance was determined by Wilcoxon's signed ranked test. For distinguishing lesions, SE T1WI and FLASH 2D with enteral contrast media were significantly superior to SE T1WI without enteral contrast media (p < 0.05). With regard to image quality, FLASH 2D and HASTE, both with enteral contrast media, were significantly superior to SE T1WI and TSE T2WI, respectively, both without enteral contrast media (p < 0.05). Artefacts were more frequently found after the application of enteral contrast media in conventional sequences but were not present in breathhold sequences. In two patients, MRI impression changed after the application of enteral contrast media. In a limited number of cases, enteral contrast media improved lesion detection, image quality and diagnostic accuracy when breathhold fast MR imaging was applied

  12. Role of FODMAP content in enteral nutrition-associated diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmos, Emma P

    2013-12-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms including diarrhea are common complications of enteral nutrition (EN); however, the cause is unclear. Mode of EN delivery that alters digestion and possibly absorption is suggested to contribute to the high incidence of diarrhea; however, enteral formula is frequently blamed. Most research has focused on fiber-supplemented EN, with a meta-analysis showing that fiber reduces the incidence of diarrhea in non-intensive care unit studies. Other hypotheses include formula osmolality and FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) content. FODMAPs are poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates that exert an osmotic effect. Dietary FODMAPs have been shown to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhea, in those with irritable bowel syndrome and, given a high-enough dose, will induce a laxative effect in most people. As FODMAPs are commonly added to enteral formula and EN is frequently used as the main source of nutrition, it is reasonable to hypothesize that EN provides more FODMAPs than usual dietary intake and increases risk for developing diarrhea. This hypothesis was assessed through a retrospective study showing that the standard-use enteral formula Isosource 1.5 had a protective effect of developing diarrhea. The only characteristic unique to Isosource 1.5 was the lower FODMAP content as determined through methodologies previously validated for food analysis. Methodologies for application to enteral formulas are currently undergoing formal validation. Once confirmed for application in enteral formula, future directions include FODMAP analysis of specific ingredients to increase understanding of potential problems associated with enteral formula and a randomized, controlled trial investigating the role of formula FODMAP content. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Latent Virus Reactivation: From Space to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Donald H.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    Reactivation of latent viruses is a recognized consequence of decreased immunity. More recently viral reactivation has been identified as an important in vivo indicator of clinically relevant immune changes. Viral reactivation can be determined quickly and easily by the presence of virus in saliva and other body fluids. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a highly sensitive and specific molecular method to detect the presence of specific viral DNA. Studies in astronauts demonstrated that herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivate at rates above normal during and after spaceflight in response to moderately decreased T-cell immunity. This technology was expanded to patients on Earth beginning with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) immuno-compromised patients. The HIV patients shed EBV in saliva at rates 9-fold higher than observed in astronauts demonstrating that the level of EBV shedding reflects the severity of impaired immunity. Whereas EBV reactivation is not expected to produce serious effects in astronauts on missions of 6 months or less, VZV reactivation in astronauts could produce shingles. Reactivation of live, infectious VZV in astronauts with no symptoms was demonstrated in astronauts during and after spaceflight. We applied our technology to study VZV-induced shingles in patients. In a study of 54 shingles patients, we showed salivary VZV was present in every patient on the day antiviral (acyclovir) treatment was initiated. Pain and skin lesions decreased with antiviral treatment. Corresponding decreases in levels of VZV were also observed and accompanied recovery. Although the level of VZV in shingles patients before the treatment was generally higher than those found in astronauts, lower range of VZV numbers in shingles patients overlapped with astronaut s levels. This suggests a potential risk of shingles to astronauts resulting from reactivation of VZV. In

  14. Enteral immunonutrition versus enteral nutrition for gastric cancer patients undergoing a total gastrectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ying; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhang, Liwei; Wu, Juan; Zhan, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    Background Nutrition support is a common means for patients with gastric cancer, especially for those undergoing elective surgery. Recently, enteral immunonutrition (EIN) was increasingly found to be more effective than enteral nutrition (EN) in enhancing the host immunity and eventually improving the prognosis of gastric cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy. However, the results reported were not consistent. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the impact of EIN for patients with GC on bioch...

  15. Measles to the Rescue: A Review of Oncolytic Measles Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Aref

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic virotherapeutic agents are likely to become serious contenders in cancer treatment. The vaccine strain of measles virus is an agent with an impressive range of oncolytic activity in pre-clinical trials with increasing evidence of safety and efficacy in early clinical trials. This paramyxovirus vaccine has a proven safety record and is amenable to careful genetic modification in the laboratory. Overexpression of the measles virus (MV receptor CD46 in many tumour cells may direct the virus to preferentially enter transformed cells and there is increasing awareness of the importance of nectin-4 and signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM in oncolysis. Successful attempts to retarget MV by inserting genes for tumour-specific ligands to antigens such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CD20, CD38, and by engineering the virus to express synthetic microRNA targeting sequences, and “blinding” the virus to the natural viral receptors are exciting measures to increase viral specificity and enhance the oncolytic effect. Sodium iodine symporter (NIS can also be expressed by MV, which enables in vivo tracking of MV infection. Radiovirotherapy using MV-NIS, chemo-virotherapy to convert prodrugs to their toxic metabolites, and immune-virotherapy including incorporating antibodies against immune checkpoint inhibitors can also increase the oncolytic potential. Anti-viral host immune responses are a recognized barrier to the success of MV, and approaches such as transporting MV to the tumour sites by carrier cells, are showing promise. MV Clinical trials are producing encouraging preliminary results in ovarian cancer, myeloma and cutaneous non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and the outcome of currently open trials in glioblastoma multiforme, mesothelioma and squamous cell carcinoma are eagerly anticipated.

  16. Overcoming Abuse: A Phenomenological Investigation of the Journey to Recovery From Past Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasch, Paulina; Murray, Christine E; Crowe, Allison

    2015-08-10

    To date, minimal research has focused on the recovery process for survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study utilized a phenomenological methodology to understand the lived experiences of survivors of IPV (N = 123) who had overcome abusive relationships and created violence-free and meaningful lives. The researchers aimed to understand key factors involved in their recovery processes. Results indicated two main processes in the IPV recovery process: intrapersonal processes and interpersonal processes. Intrapersonal processes included (a) regaining and recreating one's identity, (b) embracing the freedom and power to direct one's own life, (c) healing from the mental and physical health symptoms of the abuse, (d) fostering acceptance and forgiveness with self and abuser, (e) education and examination of abusive relationships, (f) determining whether and how to enter new intimate relationships, and (g) acknowledging the long-term process of overcoming abuse. Interpersonal processes included themes of (a) building positive social support and relationships and (b) using ones' experiences with abuse to help others. Results of the present study are presented, and implications for practitioners are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Humoral and Cellular Response of Pheasants Vaccinated against Newcastle Disease and Haemorrhagic Enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Graczyk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiment was to define whether and to what extent can prophylactic vaccinations against Newcastle disease (ND and haemorrhagic enteritis (HE affect the humoral and cellular response in pheasants. The evaluation of humoral response was performed on a basis of agglutinin titre after administered antigen and the cellular immunity index was the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH reaction. The pheasants were prophylactically vaccinated against Newcastle Disease (ND on the 1st, 28th and 56th day of life. Moreover, on the 49th day of life, part of the birds was given in the drinking water a vaccine containing the HEV (Haemorrhagic Enteritis Virus. Fourteen days after the HEV vaccination, the birds were intravenously given 0.5 ml of the 10% SRBC (sheep red blood cells suspension. Simultaneously with the SRBC administration the delayed hypersensitivity test was performed by intradermal administration of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA. It was shown that in pheasants vaccinated with NDV and additionally with HEV, the specific agglutinin anti-SRBC titre was significantly (p < 0.05 lower than in birds vaccinated against ND only. It also appeared that, the antibodies resistant to 2-mercaptoethanol were 43% of the total pool of specific anti-SRBC antibodies in the NDV vaccinated birds, whereas in birds vaccinated also with HEV they were 75%. No significant differences were found in the DTH test. Only in the HEV vaccinated pheasants the tendency to increase the wing index value was noted. The results confirm the observations concerning immunosuppressive effects of simultaneous vaccinations. They also indicate that overloading the pheasants with many antigens (ND and HEV vaccination may weaken the humoral response to administered SRBC.

  18. FMDV-induced stress granules are disrupted by the viral L-protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polacek, Charlotta; Belsham, Graham; McInerney, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells respond to environmental stress by entering a state of reduced protein synthesis, redirecting resources to damage control and defense. This reduced translation is closely linked to the formation of cytoplasmic stress granules (SGs). SGs are multicomponent foci, which contain...... stalled translation preinitiation complexes, including polyadenylated mRNAs, and several aggregation-prone RNA binding factors, such as the Ras-GAP SH3 domain-binding protein (G3BP) that enable their formation. Once the stress is lifted, the stalled complexes from the SGs are believed to re......-engage in translation, facilitating cellular recovery. A growing body of evidence shows that various viruses can trigger SG formation. However, the presence of SGs may not be beneficial to the virus and many viruses have found ways to circumvent, disrupt or even utilize these granules, suggesting a role for SGs...

  19. Defining travel-associated cases of enteric fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Joanne; Lighton, Lorraine; Jones, Jane

    2014-01-01

    There is no internationally recognized case-definition for travel-associated enteric fever in non-endemic countries. This study describes the patterns of case reporting between 2007 and 2011 as travel-associated or not from the surveillance data in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (EWNI), before and after a change in the time component of the case-definition in January 2011. It examines in particular the role of a time frame based on the reported typical incubation period in defining a case of travel-associated enteric fever. The results showed no significant differences in the distribution of cases of enteric fever in regards to the interval between the onset and UK arrival in 2011 compared to 2007-2010 (p=0.98 for typhoid and paratyphoid A); the distribution for paratyphoid B was also similar in both time periods. During 2007-2010, 93% (1730/1853) of all of the cases were classified as travel-associated compared to 94% (448/477) in 2011. This difference was not statistically significant. Changing the time component of the definition of travel-associated enteric fever did not make a significant difference to the proportion of travel-associated cases reported by investigators. Our analysis suggests that time might be subordinate to other considerations when investigators classify a case as travel-associated. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pandemic (H1N1 2009 Influenza Virus Infection in A Survivor who has recovered from severe H7N9 Virus Infection, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Hui Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We firstly report a patient who presented with severe complications after infection with influenza A(H1N1 pdm2009, more than one year after recovery from severe H7N9 virus infections. The population of patients who recovered from severe H7N9 infections might be at a higher risk to suffer severe complications after seasonal influenza infections, and they should be included in the high-risk populations recommended to receive seasonal influenza vaccination.

  1. Effects of luminal nutrient absorption, intraluminal physical stimulation, and intravenous parenteral alimentation on the recovery responses of duodenal villus morphology following feed withdrawal in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarachai, P; Yamauchi, K

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify which of the following three factors induces villus morphological recovery best: enteral nutrient absorption, intraluminal physical stimulation, or intravenous parenteral alimentation. At 142 d, male White Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were divided into eight groups of five birds each as follows: 1) access given ad libitum to a commercial layer mash diet (CP, 17.5%; ME, 2,830 kcal/kg) (control), 2) 5-d feed withdrawal (feed withdrawal), 3) 3-d feed withdrawal (3-FW), followed by refeeding the same diet as the control for 2 d (refeeding), 4) 3-FW followed by force-feeding enteral hyperalimentation (enteral), 5) 3-FW followed by force-feeding an indigestible (nonabsorbable) substance (kaolin), 6) 3-FW followed by force-feeding water for 2 d (force-fed control), 7) 3-FW followed by parenteral hyperalimentation (parenteral), and 8) 3-FW followed by no alimentation (sham control) for 2 d. In the refeeding and enteral groups, BW significantly recovered (P alimentation, but by enteral nutrient absorption.

  2. Henipavirus Mediated Membrane Fusion, Virus Entry and Targeted Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar B. Nikolov

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Paramyxoviridae genus Henipavirus is presently represented by the type species Hendra and Nipah viruses which are both recently emerged zoonotic viral pathogens responsible for repeated outbreaks associated with high morbidity and mortality in Australia, Southeast Asia, India and Bangladesh. These enveloped viruses bind and enter host target cells through the coordinated activities of their attachment (G and class I fusion (F envelope glycoproteins. The henipavirus G glycoprotein interacts with host cellular B class ephrins, triggering conformational alterations in G that lead to the activation of the F glycoprotein, which facilitates the membrane fusion process. Using the recently published structures of HeV-G and NiV-G and other paramyxovirus glycoproteins, we review the features of the henipavirus envelope glycoproteins that appear essential for mediating the viral fusion process, including receptor binding, G-F interaction, F activation, with an emphasis on G and the mutations that disrupt viral infectivity. Finally, recent candidate therapeutics for henipavirus-mediated disease are summarized in light of their ability to inhibit HeV and NiV entry by targeting their G and F glycoproteins.

  3. CRYOTHERAPY: A NEW TECHNIQUE TO OBTAIN GRAPEVINE PLANTS FREE OF VIRUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEAN CARLOS BETTONI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Through in vitro tissue culture techniques it is possible to propagate high quality nursery plants faster. Cryotherapy is a promising tool, based on in vitro culture techniques, for achieving in a short time, high frequency of regenerating plants free of viruses. The objective of this review is to present and analyze the results of research conducted in cryotherapy methods based on cryopreservation protocols for recovery of cultivars free of micro-organisms with potential agronomic interest. The main methods employed in cryotherapy are encapsulation-dehydration, vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet vitrification, which are based on the immersion of preconditioned shoot tips in liquid nitrogen, followed by their recovery in vitro on to culture media for regeneration of healthy plantlets. Improvements to cryotherapy protocols used for grapevine are still needed, since there are variations in response according to the genotype. The published research mostly relates to Vitis vinifera and the few studies applied to other species show that the protocols need to be improved. This specificity goes beyond species, with different responses among cultivars, limiting the broader application of the technology. On the other hand, traditional methods used for virus removal from infected plant materials also have limitations and therefore investment in research for the development and application of cryopreservation techniques is highly justified, considering its efficiency and low-cost, once the protocols are developed. High frequency of virus-free plants among regenerants within a short time frame is the most desirable aspect of cryotherapy. Therefore, these advantages make the technique a promising tool for institutions mandated to the development of high-health planting materials with high genetic and agronomic potential for viticulture.

  4. Effectiveness of the herbal medicine daikenchuto for radiation-induced enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Takashi; Kamiura, Shouji; Kimura, Tadashi

    2008-07-01

    Radiation-induced enteritis is a serious clinical problem for which there is currently no recommended standard management. Daikenchuto (DKT) is a Japanese herbal medicine that has been used to treat adhesive bowel obstruction in Japan. This report describes a patient with radiation-induced enteritis whose clinical symptoms were much improved by treatment with DKT. The patient was administered DKT, a traditional Japanese herbal formula, orally (2.5 g 3 times daily). Abdominal distention was evaluated objectively with computed tomography. Gastrointestinal symptoms associated with radiation-induced enteritis were controlled successfully with DKT treatment. DKT treatment may be useful for the management of radiation-induced enteritis.

  5. Structure of a trimeric variant of the Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backovic, Marija [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Longnecker, Richard [Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Jardetzky, Theodore S [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2009-03-16

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus that is associated with development of malignancies of lymphoid tissue. EBV infections are life-long and occur in >90% of the population. Herpesviruses enter host cells in a process that involves fusion of viral and cellular membranes. The fusion apparatus is comprised of envelope glycoprotein B (gB) and a heterodimeric complex made of glycoproteins H and L. Glycoprotein B is the most conserved envelope glycoprotein in human herpesviruses, and the structure of gB from Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is available. Here, we report the crystal structure of the secreted EBV gB ectodomain, which forms 16-nm long spike-like trimers, structurally homologous to the postfusion trimers of the fusion protein G of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Comparative structural analyses of EBV gB and VSV G, which has been solved in its pre and postfusion states, shed light on gB residues that may be involved in conformational changes and membrane fusion. Also, the EBV gB structure reveals that, despite the high sequence conservation of gB in herpesviruses, the relative orientations of individual domains, the surface charge distributions, and the structural details of EBV gB differ from the HSV-1 protein, indicating regions and residues that may have important roles in virus-specific entry.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of recombinant hepatitis E virus-like particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Che-Yen; Miyazaki, Naoyuki; Yamashita, Tetsuo; Higashiura, Akifumi; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Li, Tian-Cheng; Takeda, Naokazu; Xing, Li; Hjalmarsson, Erik; Friberg, Claes; Liou, Der-Ming; Sung, Yen-Jen; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Cheng, R. Holland

    2008-01-01

    A recombinant virus-like particle that is a potential oral hepatitis E vaccine was crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 8.3 Å resolution and the X-ray structure was phased with the aid of a low-resolution density map determined using cryo-electron microscopy data. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) accounts for the majority of enterically transmitted hepatitis infections worldwide. Currently, there is no specific treatment for or vaccine against HEV. The major structural protein is derived from open reading frame (ORF) 2 of the viral genome. A potential oral vaccine is provided by the virus-like particles formed by a protein construct of partial ORF3 protein (residue 70–123) fused to the N-terminus of the ORF2 protein (residues 112–608). Single crystals obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K diffract X-rays to 8.3 Å resolution. The crystals belong to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 337, b = 343, c = 346 Å, α = β = γ = 90°, and contain one particle per asymmetric unit

  7. Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus Vectors Fully Retargeted to Tumor- Associated Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Hiroaki; Hamada, Hirofumi; Nakano, Kenji; Kwon, Heechung; Tahara, Hideaki; Cohen, Justus B; Glorioso, Joseph C

    2018-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a novel therapeutic modality for malignant diseases that exploits selective viral replication in cancer cells. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a promising agent for oncolytic virotherapy due to its broad cell tropism and the identification of mutations that favor its replication in tumor over normal cells. However, these attenuating mutations also tend to limit the potency of current oncolytic HSV vectors that have entered clinical studies. As an alternative, vector retargeting to novel entry receptors has the potential to achieve tumor specificity at the stage of virus entry, eliminating the need for replication-attenuating mutations. Here, we summarize the molecular mechanism of HSV entry and recent advances in the development of fully retargeted HSV vectors for oncolytic virotherapy. Retargeted HSV vectors offer an attractive platform for the creation of a new generation of oncolytic HSV with improved efficacy and specificity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. The herpes simplex virus receptor nectin-1 is down-regulated after trans-interaction with glycoprotein D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiles, Katie M.; Milne, Richard S.B.; Cohen, Gary H.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Krummenacher, Claude

    2008-01-01

    During herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry, membrane fusion occurs either on the cell surface or after virus endocytosis. In both cases, binding of glycoprotein D (gD) to a receptor such as nectin-1 or HVEM is required. In this study, we co-cultured cells expressing gD with nectin-1 expressing cells to investigate the effects of gD on nectin-1 at cell contacts. After overnight co-cultures with gD expressing cells, there was a down-regulation of nectin-1 in B78H1-C10, SY5Y, A431 and HeLa cells, which HSV enters by endocytosis. In contrast, on Vero cells, which HSV enters at the plasma membrane, nectin-1 was not down-regulated. Further analysis of B78H1-derived cells showed that nectin-1 down-regulation corresponds to the ability of gD to bind nectin-1 and is achieved by internalization and low-pH-dependent degradation of nectin-1. Moreover, gD is necessary for virion internalization in B78H1 cells expressing nectin-1. These data suggest that the determinants of gD-mediated internalization of nectin-1 may direct HSV to an endocytic pathway during entry

  9. Enteric alpha defensins in norm and pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisitsyn Nikolai A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microbes living in the mammalian gut exist in constant contact with immunity system that prevents infection and maintains homeostasis. Enteric alpha defensins play an important role in regulation of bacterial colonization of the gut, as well as in activation of pro- and anti-inflammatory responses of the adaptive immune system cells in lamina propria. This review summarizes currently available data on functions of mammalian enteric alpha defensins in the immune defense and changes in their secretion in intestinal inflammatory diseases and cancer.

  10. Recovery from schizophrenia and the recovery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Richard

    2009-07-01

    The recovery model refers to subjective experiences of optimism, empowerment and interpersonal support, and to a focus on collaborative treatment approaches, finding productive roles for user/consumers, peer support and reducing stigma. The model is influencing service development around the world. This review will assess whether optimism about outcome from serious mental illness and other tenets of the recovery model are borne out by recent research. Remission of symptoms has been precisely defined, but the definition of 'recovery' is a more diffuse concept that includes such factors as being productive and functioning independently. Recent research and a large, earlier body of data suggest that optimism about outcome from schizophrenia is justified. A substantial proportion of people with the illness will recover completely and many more will regain good social functioning. Outcome is better for people in the developing world. Mortality for people with schizophrenia is increasing but is lower in the developing world. Working appears to help people recover from schizophrenia, and recent advances in vocational rehabilitation have been shown to be effective in countries with differing economies and labor markets. A growing body of research supports the concept that empowerment is an important component of the recovery process. Key tenets of the recovery model - optimism about recovery from schizophrenia, the importance of access to employment and the value of empowerment of user/consumers in the recovery process - are supported by the scientific research. Attempts to reduce the internalized stigma of mental illness should enhance the recovery process.

  11. Kokainudløst iskaemisk enteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Lise; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    and a pill cam capsule endoscopy were normal. In all cases the condition normalized spontaneously. A thorough interview revealed a recreational use of cocaine, and diary recordings confirmed the association between her abdominal pain and cocaine use. Ischaemic enteritis has previously been described...

  12. Temporal relationships between colds, upper respiratory viruses detected by polymerase chain reaction, and otitis media in young children followed through a typical cold season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Birgit; Alper, Cuneyt M; Mandel, Ellen M; Doyle, William J; Hendley, J Owen

    2007-06-01

    Otitis media is a frequent complication of a viral upper respiratory tract infection, and the reported co-incidence of those diseases increases with assay sensitivity and sampling density. We determined the incidence of otitis-media complications in young children when referenced to cold-like illnesses and to concurrent virus recovery from the nasopharynx. A total of 60 children from 24 families were followed from October 2003 through April 30, 2004, by daily parental recording of illness signs, weekly pneumatic otoscopic examinations, and periodic polymerase chain reaction assay of collected nasal fluids for common viruses. One hundred ninety-nine cold-like illnesses were observed, but a sample for virus assay was not collected concurrent with 71 episodes. Of the remainder, 73% of cold-like illnesses were temporally related to recovery of 1 or a combination of the assayed viruses, with rhinovirus predominating. For non-cold-like illness periods, 54 (18%) of 297 assays were positive for virus, and the virus frequency distribution was similar to that for cold-like illnesses. There were 93 diagnosed otitis-media episodes; 65 (70%) of these occurred during a cold-like illness. For the 79 otitis-media episodes with available nasal samples, 61 (77%) were associated with a positive virus result. In this population, the otitis-media complication rate for a cold-like illness was 33%. A cold-like illness was not a prerequisite for polymerase chain reaction detection of viruses in the nose and nasopharynx of young children. Viral detection by polymerase chain reaction in the absence of a cold-like illness is associated with complications in some subjects. Otitis media is a complication of viral infection both with and without concurrent cold-like illnesses, thus downwardly biasing coincidence estimates that use cold-based illnesses as the denominator.

  13. Comparison of biological and genomic characteristics between a newly isolated mink enteritis parvovirus MEV-LHV and an attenuated strain MEV-L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yaping; Wang, Jigui; Hou, Qiang; Xi, Ji; Zhang, Xiaomei; Bian, Dawei; Yu, Yongle; Wang, Xi; Liu, Weiquan

    2016-06-01

    A virus isolated from mink showing clinical signs of enteritis was identified as a high virulent mink enteritis parvovirus (MEV) based on its biological characteristics in vivo and in vitro. Mink, challenged with this strain named MEV-LHV, exhibited severe pathological lesions as compared to those challenged with attenuated strain MEV-L. MEV-LHV also showed higher infection and replication efficiencies in vitro than MEV-L. Sequence of the complete genome of MEV-LHV was determined and analyzed in comparison with those in GenBank, which revealed that MEV-LHV shared high homology with virulent strain MEV SD12/01, whereas MEV-L was closely related to Abashiri and vaccine strain MEVB, and belonged to a different branch of the phylogenetic tree. The genomes of the two strains differed by insertions and deletions in their palindromic termini and specific unique mutations (especially VP2 300) in coding sequences which may be involved in viral replication and pathogenicity. The results of this study provide a better understanding of the biological and genomic characteristics of MEV and identify certain regions and sites that may be involved in viral replication and pathogenicity.

  14. Influence of virus strain and antigen mass on efficacy of H5 avian influenza inactivated vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, D E; Beck, J R; Garcia, M; Stone, H D

    1999-06-01

    The influence of vaccine strain and antigen mass on the ability of inactivated avian influenza (AI) viruses to protect chicks from a lethal, highly pathogenic (HP) AI virus challenge was studied. Groups of 4-week-old chickens were immunized with inactivated vaccines containing one of 10 haemagglutinin subtype H5 AI viruses, one heterologous H7 AI virus or normal allantoic fluid (sham), and challenged 3 weeks later by intra-nasal inoculation with a HP H5 chicken-origin AI virus. All 10 H5 vaccines provided good protection from clinical signs and death, and produced positive serological reactions on agar gel immunodiffusion and haemagglutination inhibition tests. In experiment 1, challenge virus was recovered from the oropharynx of 80% of chickens in the H5 vaccine group. In five H5 vaccine groups, challenge virus was not recovered from the cloaca of chickens. In the other five H5 vaccine groups, the number of chickens with detection of challenge virus from the cloaca was lower than in the sham group (P turkey/Wisconsin/68 (H5N9) was the best vaccine candidate of the H5 strains tested (PD50= 0.006 μg AI antigen). These data demonstrate that chickens vaccinated with inactivated H5 whole virus AI vaccines were protected from clinical signs and death, but usage of vaccine generally did not prevent infection by the challenge virus, as indicated by recovery of virus from the oropharynx. Vaccine use reduced cloacal detection rates, and quantity of virus shed from the cloaca and oropharynx in some vaccine groups, which would potentially reduce environmental contamination and disease transmission in the field.

  15. Enteric Duplication Cysts in Children: A Clinicopathological Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sonam; Yadav, Amit K; Mandal, Ashish K; Zaheer, Sufian; Yadav, Devendra K; Samie, Amat

    2015-08-01

    Enteric duplication cysts are rare and uncommon congenital malformations formed during the embryonic period of the development of human digestive system and are mainly encountered during infancy or early childhood, but seldom in adults. The clinical presentation is extremely variable depending upon its size, location and type. We present six cases of enteric duplication cysts with diverse clinico-pathological features. This study was carried out in the Department of Pathology and Department of Paediatric Surgery, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India for a period of 2 years (January 2013 - December 2014). We retrospectively analyzed six patients of enteric duplication cysts based on data obtained, which consisted of patient's age, sex, clinical presentation, radiological features, operative findings and histopathology report. The data collected was analyzed by descriptive statistics. Six children between age range of 3 days to 10 years had enteric duplication cysts. Two had ileal and one each were of pyloroduodenal, colonic and rectal duplication cyst. In one patient a presumptive diagnosis of enteric duplication cyst was made. Radiology played an important contributory role in diagnosis of these cysts in all the patients but histopathology proved to be gold standard for its confirmation. All these patients were managed by surgical excision. The postoperative and follow up period in all the cases was uneventful. It is important to be aware and make a definitive diagnosis of this rare congenital anomaly as they can present in various clinical forms and can cause significant morbidity and even mortality if left untreated by causing life threatening complications.

  16. Development of a novel method for simultaneous concentration of viruses and protozoa from a single water sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramoto, Eiji; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Asami, Mari; Akiba, Michihiro

    2012-06-01

    A novel method, electronegative membrane-vortex (EMV) method, was developed for simultaneous concentration of viruses and protozoa from a single water sample. Viruses and protozoa in a water sample were mixed with a cation solution and adsorbed on an electronegative membrane. Concentrated virus and protozoa samples were obtained as supernatant and pellet fractions, respectively, by vigorous vortex mixing of the membrane and centrifugation of the eluted material. The highest recovery efficiencies of model microbes from river water and tap water by this EMV method were obtained using a mixed cellulose ester membrane with a pore size of 0.45 μm (Millipore) as the electronegative membrane and MgCl(2) as the cation solution. The recovery was 27.7-86.5% for poliovirus, 25.7-68.3% for coliphage Qβ, 28.0-60.0% for Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 35.0-53.0% for Giardia cysts. The EMV method detected successfully indigenous viruses and protozoa in wastewater and river water samples from the Kofu basin, Japan, showing an overall positive rate of 100% (43/43) for human adenovirus, 79% (34/43) for norovirus GI, 65% (28/43) for norovirus GII, 23% (10/43) for Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 60% (26/43) for Giardia cysts. By direct DNA sequencing, a total of four genotypes (AI, AII, B, and G) of Giardia intestinalis were identified in the water samples, indicating that the river water was contaminated with feces from various mammals, including humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hepatitis A virus infection: Epidemiology and genetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Báez Triana, Paula Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A virus infection is a global public health problem. The virus has a wide range of distribution and it is the main cause of acute hepatitis transmitted by the enteric route in Latin America. The viral particle is stable under environmental conditions and conserves its infectivity for several weeks, enabling its transmission by contaminated water and food. Worldwide, different epidemiological patterns have been identified, which may change over time by modification of social and economic variables in the population such as vaccination and the improvement of hygiene and primary health conditions. This leaves new populations susceptible to infection. In Latin America the circulation of genotype I and subgenotypes A and B has been described, but more research is needed to provide the knowledge needed to manage the prevention and control plans for the worldwide reduction of the prevalence of infection. For this paper, a literature review was performed on the SciELO, PubMed and ScienceDirect databases under the search terms "Hepatitis A", "Epidemiology," "Seroprevalence" and "Infection." From the results obtained, only papers published in English and Spanish to describe epidemiological and molecular studies of interest in Latin America were included.

  18. [Enteral distress syndrome in surgery: definition, pathogenesis, diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, A P; Trofimov, V A; Grigorieva, T I; Shibitov, V A; Vlasov, P A

    2016-01-01

    It was performed a comprehensive experimental and clinical study of functional and metabolic status of the intestine in acute peritonitis, pancreatic necrosis, acute intestinal obstruction. We obtained objective data of impaired barrier function based on levels of toxins in arterial and mesenteric venous blood. Association of organ and organismic homeostatic changes was revealed. It was proved an important role of membrane-destabilizing processes in intestinal epithelium as a cause of enteral insufficiency. Leading trigger mechanisms of lipid metabolic disorders were determined. Enteral distress syndrome was determined as pathological response to acute abdominal surgical diseases. Enteral distress syndrome is a complex of pathological processes due to membrane-destabilizing mechanisms, impaired intestinal barrier function followed by progression of endogenous intoxication. This syndrome significantly aggravates the course of acute surgical abdominal diseases.

  19. Subclinical Shed of Infectious Varicella zoster Virus in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, Randall J.; Mehta, Satish K.; Schmid, D. Scott; Gilden, Donald H.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Aerosol borne varicella zoster virus (VZV) enters the nasopharynx and replicates in tonsillar T-cells, resulting in viremia and varicella (chickenpox). Virus then becomes latent in cranial nerve, dorsal root and autonomic nervous system ganglia along the entire neuraxis (1). Decades later, as cell-mediated immunity to VZV declines (4), latent VZV can reactivate to produce zoster (shingles). Infectious VZV is present in patients with varicella or zoster, but shed of infectious virus in the absence of disease has not been shown. We previously detected VZV DNA in saliva of astronauts during and shortly after spaceflight, suggesting stress induced subclinical virus reactivation (3). We show here that VZV DNA as well as infectious virus in present in astronaut saliva. VZV DNA was detected in saliva during and after a 13-day spaceflight in 2 of 3 astronauts (Fig. panel A). Ten days before liftoff, there was a rise in serum anti-VZV antibody in subjects 1 and 2, consistent with virus reactivation. In subject 3, VZV DNA was not detected in saliva, and there was no rise in anti-VZV antibody titer. Subject 3 may have been protected from virus reactivation by having zoster DNA was detected in astronaut saliva months before spaceflight, or in saliva of 10 age/sex-matched healthy control subjects sampled on alternate days for 3 weeks (88 saliva samples). Saliva taken 2-6 days after landing from all 3 subjects was cultured on human fetal lung cells (Fig. panel B). Infectious VZV was recovered from saliva of subjects 1 and 2 on the second day after landing. Virus specificity was confirmed by antibody staining and DNA analysis which showed it to be VZV of European descent, common in the US (5). Further, both antibody staining and DNA PCR demonstrated that no HSV-1 was detected in any infected culture. This is the first report of infectious VZV shedding in the absence of clinical disease. Spaceflight presents a uniquely stressful environment which includes physical isolation and

  20. Comparison of Intermittent and Bolus Enteral Feeding Methods on Enteral Feeding Intolerance of Patients with Sepsis: A Triple-blind Controlled Trial in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Morteza; Farsi, Zahra; Ahangari, Mojtaba; Dadgari, Fahimeh

    2017-10-01

    BACKGROUND Recent trials have shown controversial results on which enteral feeding methods has a lower risk of enteral feeding intolerance. Therefore, we aimed to compare two methods of bolus and intermittent feeding on enteral feeding intolerance of patients with sepsis. METHODS This triple-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on 60 patients with sepsis, who were fed through tubes for at least 3 days. The patients were randomly assigned into bolus feeding, intermittent feeding, and control groups. Enteral feeding intolerance of all patients was recorded in 3 consecutive days by a researcher-made checklist including the data on gastric residual volume, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal distension. RESULTS There were no significant differences between the three studied groups in none of the intervention days pertaining to constipation, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal distention, and gastric residual volume ( p > 0.05). Also, no statistically significant difference was found between all variables in the three studied groups during the 3 days ( p > 0.05). CONCLUSION As enteral feeding intolerance of patients with sepsis was similar in both bolus and intermittent feeding methods, it can be concluded that bolus method can still be used as a standard method to decrease the risk of enteral feeding intolerance if it is used properly.

  1. Efficient inactivation of MS-2 virus in water by hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosel, Janez; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Rački, Nejc; Dreo, Tanja; Ravnikar, Maja; Dular, Matevž

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to accurately quantify the impact of hydrodynamic cavitation on the infectivity of bacteriophage MS2, a norovirus surrogate, and to develop a small scale reactor for testing the effect of hydrodynamic cavitation on human enteric viruses, which cannot be easily prepared in large quantities. For this purpose, 3 mL scale and 1 L scale reactors were constructed and tested. Both devices were efficient in generating hydrodynamic cavitation and in reducing the infectivity of MS2 virus. Furthermore, they reached more than 4 logs reductions of viral infectivity, thus confirming the scalability of hydrodynamic cavitation for this particular application. As for the mechanism of page inactivation, we suspect that cavitation generated OH - radicals formed an advanced oxidation process, which could have damaged the host's recognition receptors located on the surface of the bacteriophage. Additional damage could arise from the high shear forces inside the cavity. Moreover, the effectiveness of the cavitation was higher for suspensions containing low initial viral titers that are in similar concentration to the ones found in real water samples. According to this, cavitation generators could prove to be a useful tool for treating virus-contaminated wastewaters in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lung Irradiation Increases Mortality After Influenza A Virus Challenge Occurring Late After Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Casey M. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Johnston, Carl J. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Reed, Christina K. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Lawrence, B. Paige [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Williams, Jacqueline P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Finkelstein, Jacob N., E-mail: Jacob_Finkelstein@urmc.rochester.edu [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: To address whether irradiation-induced changes in the lung environment alter responses to a viral challenge delivered late after exposure but before the appearance of late lung radiation injury. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6J mice received either lung alone or combined lung and whole-body irradiation (0-15 Gy). At 10 weeks after irradiation, animals were infected with 120 HAU influenza virus strain A/HKx31. Innate and adaptive immune cell recruitment was determined using flow cytometry. Cytokine and chemokine production and protein leakage into the lung after infection were assessed. Results: Prior irradiation led to a dose-dependent failure to regain body weight after infection and exacerbated mortality, but it did not affect virus-specific immune responses or virus clearance. Surviving irradiated animals displayed a persistent increase in total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and edema. Conclusions: Lung irradiation increased susceptibility to death after infection with influenza virus and impaired the ability to complete recovery. This altered response does not seem to be due to a radiation effect on the immune response, but it may possibly be an effect on epithelial repair.

  3. Immunobiotic Lactobacillus administered post-exposure averts the lethal sequelae of respiratory virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percopo, Caroline M; Rice, Tyler A; Brenner, Todd A; Dyer, Kimberly D; Luo, Janice L; Kanakabandi, Kishore; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Porcella, Stephen F; Domachowske, Joseph B; Keicher, Jesse D; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2015-09-01

    We reported previously that priming of the respiratory tract with immunobiotic Lactobacillus prior to virus challenge protects mice against subsequent lethal infection with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM). We present here the results of gene microarray which document differential expression of proinflammatory mediators in response to PVM infection alone and those suppressed in response to Lactobacillus plantarum. We also demonstrate for the first time that intranasal inoculation with live or heat-inactivated L. plantarum or Lactobacillus reuteri promotes full survival from PVM infection when administered within 24h after virus challenge. Survival in response to L. plantarum administered after virus challenge is associated with suppression of proinflammatory cytokines, limited virus recovery, and diminished neutrophil recruitment to lung tissue and airways. Utilizing this post-virus challenge protocol, we found that protective responses elicited by L. plantarum at the respiratory tract were distinct from those at the gastrointestinal mucosa, as mice devoid of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-10, exhibit survival and inflammatory responses that are indistinguishable from those of their wild-type counterparts. Finally, although L. plantarum interacts specifically with pattern recognition receptors TLR2 and NOD2, the respective gene-deleted mice were fully protected against lethal PVM infection by L. plantarum, as are mice devoid of type I interferon receptors. Taken together, L. plantarum is a versatile and flexible agent that is capable of averting the lethal sequelae of severe respiratory infection both prior to and post-virus challenge via complex and potentially redundant mechanisms. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Delayed gastrointestinal recovery after abdominal operation – role of alvimopan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger NG

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas G Berger, Timothy J Ridolfi, Kirk A LudwigDivision of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin USAAbstract: Postoperative Ileus (POI, which occurs after surgical manipulation of the bowel during abdominal operations, is associated with prolonged hospital stay, increasing medical costs, and delayed advancement of enteral diet, which contributes to a significant economic burden on the healthcare system. The use of accelerated care pathways has shown to positively impact gut function, but inevitable postoperative opioid use contributes to POI. Alvimopan is a peripherally acting µ-opioid receptor antagonist designed to mitigate antimotility effects of opioids. In our review, we examined ten trials on alvimopan's use after abdominal operations. Several of the earlier studies on patients undergoing bowel resection showed correlations between the study group and GI recovery as defined by passage of flatus, first bowel movement, and time to readiness for discharge. Data in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy showed similarly decreased GI recovery time. Additionally, data within the past few years shows alvimopan is associated with more rapid GI recovery time in patients undergoing radical cystectomy. Based on our review, use of alvimopan remains a safe and potentially cost-effective means of reducing POI in patients following open GI surgery, radical cystectomy, and total abdominal hysterectomy, and should be employed following these abdominal operations.Keywords: postoperative ileus, alvimopan, ileus, bowel resection, return of bowel function

  5. Concomitant herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis in a man with ulcerative colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Varun K.; Friedman-Moraco, Rachel J.; Quigley, Brian C.; Farris, Alton B.; Norvell, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Herpesvirus infections often complicate the clinical course of patients with inflammatory bowel disease; however, invasive disease due to herpes simplex virus is distinctly uncommon. Methods: We present a case of herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis, review all the previously published cases of herpes simplex virus colitis, and discuss common clinical features and outcomes. We also discuss the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of herpes simplex virus infections, focusing specifically on patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Results: A 43-year-old man with ulcerative colitis, previously controlled with an oral 5-aminosalicylic agent, developed symptoms of a colitis flare that did not respond to treatment with systemic corticosteroid therapy. One week later he developed orolabial ulcers and progressive hepatic dysfunction, with markedly elevated transaminases and coagulopathy. He underwent emergent total colectomy when imaging suggested bowel micro-perforation. Pathology from both the colon and liver was consistent with herpes simplex virus infection, and a viral culture of his orolabial lesions and a serum polymerase chain reaction assay also identified herpes simplex virus. He was treated with systemic antiviral therapy and made a complete recovery. Conclusions: Disseminated herpes simplex virus infection with concomitant involvement of the colon and liver has been reported only 3 times in the published literature, and to our knowledge this is the first such case in a patient with inflammatory bowel disease. The risk of invasive herpes simplex virus infections increases with some, but not all immunomodulatory therapies. Optimal management of herpes simplex virus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease includes targeted prophylactic therapy for patients with evidence of latent infection, and timely initiation of antiviral therapy for those patients suspected to have invasive disease. PMID:27759636

  6. Development of an elution device for ViroCap virus filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagnant, Christine Susan; Toles, Matthew; Zhou, Nicolette Angela; Powell, Jacob; Adolphsen, John; Guan, Yifei; Ockerman, Byron; Shirai, Jeffry Hiroshi; Boyle, David S; Novosselov, Igor; Meschke, John Scott

    2017-10-19

    Environmental surveillance of waterborne pathogens is vital for monitoring the spread of diseases, and electropositive filters are frequently used for sampling wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface water. Viruses adsorbed to electropositive filters require elution prior to detection or quantification. Elution is typically facilitated by a peristaltic pump, although this requires a significant startup cost and does not include biosafety or cross-contamination considerations. These factors may pose a barrier for low-resource laboratories that aim to conduct environmental surveillance of viruses. The objective of this study was to develop a biologically enclosed, manually powered, low-cost device for effectively eluting from electropositive ViroCap™ virus filters. The elution device described here utilizes a non-electric bilge pump, instead of an electric peristaltic pump or a positive pressure vessel. The elution device also fully encloses liquids and aerosols that could contain biological organisms, thereby increasing biosafety. Moreover, all elution device components that are used in the biosafety cabinet are autoclavable, reducing cross-contamination potential. This device reduces costs of materials while maintaining convenience in terms of size and weight. With this new device, there is little sample volume loss due to device inefficiency, similar virus yields were demonstrated during seeded studies with poliovirus type 1, and the time to elute filters is similar to that required with the peristaltic pump. The efforts described here resulted in a novel, low-cost, manually powered elution device that can facilitate environmental surveillance of pathogens through effective virus recovery from ViroCap filters while maintaining the potential for adaptability to other cartridge filters.

  7. Generation of Recombinant Oropouche Viruses Lacking the Nonstructural Protein NSm or NSs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilston-Lunel, Natasha L; Acrani, Gustavo Olszanski; Randall, Richard E; Elliott, Richard M

    2015-12-23

    Oropouche virus (OROV) is a midge-borne human pathogen with a geographic distribution in South America. OROV was first isolated in 1955, and since then, it has been known to cause recurring outbreaks of a dengue-like illness in the Amazonian regions of Brazil. OROV, however, remains one of the most poorly understood emerging viral zoonoses. Here we describe the successful recovery of infectious OROV entirely from cDNA copies of its genome and generation of OROV mutant viruses lacking either the NSm or the NSs coding region. Characterization of the recombinant viruses carried out in vitro demonstrated that the NSs protein of OROV is an interferon (IFN) antagonist as in other NSs-encoding bunyaviruses. Additionally, we demonstrate the importance of the nine C-terminal amino acids of OROV NSs in IFN antagonistic activity. OROV was also found to be sensitive to IFN-α when cells were pretreated; however, the virus was still capable of replicating at doses as high as 10,000 U/ml of IFN-α, in contrast to the family prototype BUNV. We found that OROV lacking the NSm protein displayed characteristics similar to those of the wild-type virus, suggesting that the NSm protein is dispensable for virus replication in the mammalian and mosquito cell lines that were tested. Oropouche virus (OROV) is a public health threat in Central and South America, where it causes periodic outbreaks of dengue-like illness. In Brazil, OROV is the second most frequent cause of arboviral febrile illness after dengue virus, and with the current rates of urban expansion, more cases of this emerging viral zoonosis could occur. To better understand the molecular biology of OROV, we have successfully rescued the virus along with mutants. We have established that the C terminus of the NSs protein is important in interferon antagonism and that the NSm protein is dispensable for virus replication in cell culture. The tools described in this paper are important in terms of understanding this important yet

  8. Antimicrobial effect of Malaysian vegetables against enteric bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanain Al-Talib

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Garlic had excellent antimicrobial effects against enteric bacteria and was recommended to be given to patients with gastroenteritis. The other vegetables (pennywort, mint, parsley and celery showed no inhibitory effects on enteric bacteria but still can be used for its richness in vitamins and fibers. The performance of the well diffusion method was better than that of the disc diffusion method in detecting the antibacterial effects of green vegetables.

  9. CERN openlab enters fifth phase

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrew Purcell

    2015-01-01

    CERN openlab is a unique public-private partnership between CERN and leading ICT companies. At the start of this year, openlab officially entered its fifth phase, which will run until the end of 2017. For the first time in its history, it has extended beyond the CERN community to include other major European and international research laboratories.   Founded in 2001 to develop the innovative ICT systems needed to cope with the unprecedented computing challenges of the LHC, CERN openlab unites science and industry at the cutting edge of research and innovation. In a white paper published last year, CERN openlab set out the main ICT challenges it will tackle during its fifth phase, namely data acquisition, computing platforms, data storage architectures, computer management and provisioning, networks and connectivity, and data analytics. As it enters its fifth phase, CERN openlab is expanding to include other research laboratories. "Today, research centres in other disciplines are also st...

  10. Randomized clinical trial of arginine-supplemented enteral nutrition versus standard enteral nutrition in patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyan; Zhao, Hongying; Wang, Yu; Jing, Huang; Ding, Qian; Xue, Jun

    2013-09-01

    Significant malnutrition exists in a high percentage of patients with gastric cancer. It is, therefore, crucial to establish an effective means to provide nutrition for these patients. This prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial aims to assess the long-term survival of arginine-supplementation enteral nutrition versus standard enteral nutrition in malnourished patients with gastric cancer. The control group (36 cases) received postoperative standard enteral nutrition. Meanwhile, the arginine-supplementation group (37 cases) adopted the same nutrition product but enriched with arginine (9.0 g/L). The primary study objective was overall survival (OS). Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS); serum parameters including total protein, albumin, proalbumin, and transferrin obtained on preoperative day 1, postoperative day 2, and day 12; CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) obtained on preoperative day 1 and postoperative day 7. No significant differences in baseline characteristics were observed between groups. The group receiving arginine-enriched nutrition had a significantly better OS (P = 0.03, 41 vs. 30.5 months) and better PFS (P = 0.02, 18 vs. 11.5 months). On postoperative day 7, CD4(+) T cells, NK cells, IgM and IgG levels of the arginine-supplemented group increased prominently and were significantly higher than those of the control group and those on preoperative day 1. There is no significant difference in the serum total protein, albumin, proalbumin, and transferrin levels between the two arms. Arginine-supplemented enteral nutrition significantly improves long-term survival and restores immunity in malnourished gastric cancer.

  11. Nutritional support of bone marrow transplant recipients: a prospective, randomized clinical trial comparing total parental nutrition to an enteral feeding program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeluga, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) have been associated with nutritionally-depleting side effects. Total parental nutrition (TPN) has become the standard, but it has not been demonstrated that TPN is the appropriate method of nutritional support. Therefore, in a prospective, randomized clinical trial TPN and enteral feeding were compared for their effectiveness in maintaining the nutritional status of patients through the first 29 post-transplant days. Nutritional assessment included measurement of serum proteins, body weight, anthropometry and isotope dilution analysis of body composition. Total body water (TBW) and extracellular fluid (ECF) were quantified by standard radioisotope dilution techniques using tritiated water and 169 ytterbium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate, respectively as the tracers. Consenting patients 10-58 years of age were stratified by type of BMT (autologous or allogeneic) and randomized to either TPN plus ad libitum oral feeding or the individualized enteral feeding program (EFP), which included one-on-one counseling, meal-by-meal menu selection, special snacks and tube feeding. There were no differences in the rate of hematologic recovery, incidence of graft-versus-host disease, organ toxicity, length of hospitalization or survival. Therefore, the observed changes in body composition were not clinically significant. Even allowing for increased dietary service, the EFP was only half as expensive as TPN. It was concluded that TPN is not superior to the EFP and therefore, TPN should be reserved for patients who demonstrate intolerance to enteral feeding

  12. Complications relating to enteral and parenteral nutrition in trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the incidence of complications in patients receiving enteral and parenteral nutrition (PN), and review how the early initiation of enteral feeding and early achievement of caloric goal would affect the incidence of complications. Design: The design was a retrospective audit of ...

  13. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen.

  14. Co-expression of HIV-1 virus-like particles and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor by GEO-D03 DNA vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstein, Michael; Xu, Yongxian; Marino, Tracie; Lu, Shan; Yi, Hong; Wright, Elizabeth R.; Robinson, Harriet L.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report on GEO-D03, a DNA vaccine that co-expresses non-infectious HIV-1 virus-like particles (VLPs) and the human cytokine, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The virus-like particles display the native gp160 form of the HIV-1 Envelope glycoprotein (Env) and are designed to elicit antibody against the natural form of Env on virus and virus-infected cells. The DNA-expressed HIV Gag, Pol and Env proteins also have the potential to elicit virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. The purpose of the co-expressed GM-CSF is to target a cytokine that recruits, expands and differentiates macrophages and dendritic cells to the site of VLP expression. The GEO-D03 DNA vaccine is currently entered into human trials as a prime for a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boost. In preclinical studies in macaques using an SIV prototype vaccine, this vaccination regimen elicited both anti-viral T cells and antibody, and provided 70% protection against acquisition during 12 weekly rectal exposures with a heterologous SIV. Higher avidity of the Env-specific Ab for the native form of the Env in the challenge virus correlated with lower likelihood of SIV infection. PMID:23111169

  15. Recovery in SoccerPart II—Recovery Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Nedelec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Grégory

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue...

  16. La nutrición enteral precoz en el enfermo grave Early enteral nutrition in the critically-ill patient

    OpenAIRE

    B. García Vila; T. Grau

    2005-01-01

    La nutrición enteral se ha demostrado como un método eficaz y seguro de nutrir a los enfermos graves ingresados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Aunque se desconoce cuánto tiempo puede estar un enfermo grave sin nutrición, el catabolismo acelerado y el ayuno pueden ser deletéreos en el enfermo grave y la recomendación más frecuente es la de empezar la nutrición artificial cuando se prevea un período de ayuno superior a los siete días. Las ventajas de la nutrición enteral sobre la nutrici...

  17. Pediatric Enteric Feeding Techniques: Insertion, Maintenance, and Management of Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijs, Els L. F.; Cahill, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    Enteral feeding is considered a widespread, well-accepted means of delivering nutrition to adults and children who are unable to consume food by mouth or who need support in maintaining adequate nutrition for a variety of reasons, including acute and chronic disease states. Delivery of enteral feeding to nutritionally deprived patients may be achieved by several means. In this article, the indications and insertion of enteral access in children will be reviewed. In addition, common complications and management of problems will be discussed.

  18. The System Dynamics Model in Electronic Products Closed-Loop Supply Chain Distribution Network with Three-Way Recovery and the Old-for-New Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-qing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the technological developments and rapid changes in demand pattern, diverse varieties of electronic products are entering into the market with reduced lifecycle which leads to the environmental problems. The awareness of electronic products take-back and recovery has been increasing in electronic products supply chains. In this paper, we build a system dynamics model for electronic products closed-loop supply chain distribution network with the old-for-new policy and three electronic products recovery ways, namely, electronic products remanufacturing, electronic component reuse and remanufacturing, and electronic raw material recovery. In the simulation study, we investigate the significance of various factors including the old-for-new policy, collection and remanufacturing, their interactions and the type of their impact on bullwhip, and profitability through sensitivity analysis. Our results instruct that the old-for-new policy and three electronic products recovery ways can reduce the bullwhip effect in the retailers and the distributors and increases the profitability in the closed-loop supply chain distribution network.

  19. Genomic diversification of giant enteric symbionts reflects host dietary lifestyles

    KAUST Repository

    Ngugi, David; Miyake, Sou; Cahill, Matthew; Vinu, Manikandan; Hackmann, Timothy J.; Blom, Jochen; Tietbohl, Matthew; Berumen, Michael L.; Stingl, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    of metabolic diversification of enteric microbiota involved in the degradation of algal biomass in these fishes. The enteric microbiota is also phylogenetically and functionally simple relative to the complex lignocellulose-degrading microbiota of terrestrial

  20. Parenteral nutrition versus enteral nutrition in severe acute pancreatitis Nutrição parenteral versus enteral em pacientes com pancreatite aguda grave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiel Paiva Vieira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the effect of parenteral versus enteral nutritional support in severe acute pancreatitis, with respect to efficacy, safety, morbidity, mortality and length of hospitalization. METHODS: The study was comprised of 31 patients, divided into a parenteral group (n=16 and an enteral group (n=15, who met severity criteria for abdominal tomography (Balthazar classes C, D, and E. The patients were compared by demographics, disease etiology, antibiotic prophylaxis, use or not of somatostatin, nutritional support, complications and disease progression. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference in the average duration of nutritional support, somatostatin, or antibiotics in the two groups. Imipenem was the drug of choice for prophylaxis of pancreatic infections in both groups. More complications occurred in the parenteral group, although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.10. Infectious complications, such as catheter sepsis and infections of the pancreatic tissue, were significantly more frequent in the parenteral group (p=0.006. There was no difference in average length of hospitalization in the two groups. There were three deaths in the parenteral group and none in the enteral group. CONCLUSION: Enteral nutritional support is associated with fewer septic complications compared to parenteral nutritional support.OBJETIVO: Comparar o efeito do suporte nutricional parenteral versus enteral, em pancreatite aguda grave, com relação à eficácia, à segurança, à morbi-mortalidade e ao tempo de internação. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 31 pacientes distribuídos em grupo parenteral (n=16, no período de 1995 a 1998 e grupo enteral (n=15, no período de 1999 a 2002, que preencheram os critérios de gravidade pela tomografia de abdome (Balthazar C,D,E. Os pacientes foram comparados quanto aos dados demográficos, etiologia, antibioticoprofilaxia, somatostatina, suporte nutricional, complicações e evolução. RESULTADOS

  1. Parenteral and Early Enteral Feeding in Patients with Colonic Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Malkov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to provide evidence whether it is expedient to use an early enteral feeding protocol in patients with colonic malignancies in the postoperative period to prevent and to correct hemodynamic disorders, oxygen imbalance, and malnutrition. Subjects and methods. A hundred patients (61 males and 39 females aged 66.2±5.0 years, who had Stages 2—3 colonic malignancies, were examined. Two algorithms of postoperative management were analyzed using the traditional diet and early enteral feeding. Results. The early enteral feeding protocol improves central hemodynamics and oxygen and nutritional status, prevents moderate protein-energy deficiency in the early postoperative period and reduces the number of complications and fatal outcomes in patients with colonic malignancies. Key words: malignancies, malnutrition, hemo-dynamics, oxygen status, enteral feeding.

  2. Recovery from cannabis use disorders: Abstinence versus moderation and treatment-assisted recovery versus natural recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, Jonathan N; Yakovenko, Igor; Hodgins, David C

    2015-09-01

    The present study of recovery from cannabis use disorders was undertaken with 2 primary objectives that address gaps in the literature. The first objective was to provide an exploratory portrait of the recovery process from cannabis use disorders, comparing individuals who recovered naturally with those who were involved in treatment. The second objective was to explore systematically the similarities and differences between abstinence and moderation recoveries. Adults who have recovered from a cannabis use disorder were recruited in the community (N = 119). The abstinence and treatment-assisted participants exhibited higher levels of lifetime cannabis problem severity than the moderation and natural recovery participants, respectively. As well, cognitive factors were identified as the most useful strategies for recovery (e.g., thinking about benefits and negative consequences of cannabis), followed by behavioral factors (e.g., avoidance of triggers for use and high-risk situations). Findings lend further support to the effectiveness of cognitive, motivational, and behavioral strategies as helpful actions and maintenance factors involved in the recovery process. The findings also generally support the idea that cannabis use disorders lie on a continuum of problem severity, with moderation and natural recoveries more likely to occur at the lower end of the continuum and abstinence and treatment-assisted recoveries more likely to occur at the upper end. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Recovery and Disinfection of Two Human Norovirus Surrogates, Feline Calicivirus and Murine Norovirus, from Hard Nonporous and Soft Porous Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeargin, Thomas; Fraser, Angela; Huang, Guohui; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-10-01

    Human norovirus is a leading cause of foodborne disease and can be transmitted through many routes, including environmental exposure to fomites. In this study, both the recovery and inactivation of two human norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV), on hard nonporous surfaces (glass) and soft porous surfaces (polyester and cotton) were evaluated by both plaque assay and reverse transcription quantitative PCR method. Two disinfectants, sodium hypochlorite (8.25%) and accelerated hydrogen peroxide (AHP, at 4.25%) were evaluated for disinfection efficacy. Five coupons per surface type were used to evaluate the recovery of FCV and MNV by sonication and stomaching and the disinfection of each surface type by using 5 ml of disinfectant for a contact time of 5 min. FCV at an initial titer of ca. 7 log PFU/ml was recovered from glass, cotton, and polyester at 6.2, 5.4, and 3.8 log PFU/ml, respectively, compared with 5.5, 5.2, and 4.1 log PFU/ml, respectively, for MNV with an initial titer of ca. 6 log PFU/ml. The use of sodium hypochlorite (5,000 ppm) was able to inactivate both FCV and MNV (3.1 to 5.5 log PFU/ml) below the limit of detection on all three surface types. AHP (2,656 ppm) inactivated FCV (3.1 to 5.5 log PFU/ml) below the limit of detection for all three surface types but achieved minimal inactivation of MNV (0.17 to 1.37 log PFU/ml). Reduction of viral RNA by sodium hypochlorite corresponded to 2.72 to 4.06 log reduction for FCV and 2.07 to 3.04 log reduction for MNV on all three surface types. Reduction of viral RNA by AHP corresponded to 1.89 to 3.4 log reduction for FCV and 0.54 to 0.85 log reduction for MNV. Our results clearly indicate that both virus and surface types significantly influence recovery efficiency and disinfection efficacy. Based on the performance of our proposed testing method, an improvement in virus recovery will be needed to effectively validate virus disinfection of soft porous surfaces.

  4. Radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Makoto; Sano, Masanori; Minakuchi, Naoki; Narisawa, Tomio; Takahashi, Toshio

    1981-01-01

    Radiation enteriti