Sample records for enteric coated multiparticulate

  1. Rabeprazole sodium delayed-release multiparticulates: Effect of enteric coating layers on product performance (United States)

    Tirpude, Rakesh N.; Puranik, Prashant K.


    Rabeprazole sodium is one of the most effective proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) used in antiulcer therapy. Like most other PPIs, owing to its acid-labile nature, the drug is formulated as enteric-coated dosage form. Conventional means of producing delayed release multiparticulate dosage forms of PPIs require large quantities of enteric polymer coatings. In the present study, in order to better evaluate the effect of polymeric coating on product performance, the pellet core structure and composition was kept constant. Four different enteric-coating formulations and designs were evaluated. Enteric-coated drug multiparticulates prepared with single polymeric coatings (acrylic or cellulosic) were compared with two different polymeric layer coatings to evaluate the effectiveness of latter coatings in more effectively producing a better rabeprazole sodium delayed-release pellet product. The pH-dependent, enteric acrylic, and cellulosic polymers were used either alone, in combination, or applied one over the other to impart delayed-release properties to the core drug pellets. It was demonstrated that dual delayed-release coating with two different enteric polymers—an inner acrylic coating followed by an outer cellulosic coating—yields the best product that provides all the desired physicochemical and drug dissolution characteristics. PMID:22171316

  2. Development and in vitro Evaluation of Enteric Coated Multiparticulate System for Resistant Tuberculosis. (United States)

    Rahman, Md A; Ali, J


    The multiparticulate formulation of sodium para aminosalicylate for oral administration was developed by extrusion spheronization technique. Microcrystalline cellulose was used as filler in concentration of 14.4% w/w. Pellets were coated with Eudragit L 30 D-55 using fluidized bed processor. Different weight gains of acrylic polymer were applied onto the pellets and evaluated for in vitro dissolution behavior in 0.1 N HCl for two hours and then media was changed to phosphate buffer pH 6.8. A 60% w/w coating level of Eudragit L30 D 55 has produced the most acceptable results against the gastric attack. 3% Seal coat of HPMC E5 was also applied in order to protect the drug from migration into the Eudragit coat and film coat was applied in order to prevent aggregation of pellets in the dissolution media. Morphological characteristics of developed pellets were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy and found to be smooth and spherical. Developed system was found to be suitable for the delivery of Sod PAS in to intestinal region.

  3. Development of a multiparticulate system containing enteric-release mini-tablets of omeprazole

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    Volnei Jose Tondo Filho


    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to develop a multiparticulate system containing mini-tablets of omeprazole formulated with an enteric polymer with pH-dependent solubility. Pre-formulation studies showed good flow and compaction capacity, leading to the production ofhigh quality mini-tablets. The mini-tablets were coated in a fluidized bed with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose /Eudragit(r L30D55 and packed into hard gelatin capsules. The dissolution profile showed gastro-resistance and zero-order kinetics. The dissolution profile for the formulation containing lactose as the diluent and coated with 12% (tablet weight gain of polymer was similar to that ofthe reference drug.

  4. Development of enteric coated sustained release minitablets containing mesalamine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souza, Dayse Fernanda de; Goebel, Karin; Andreazza, Itamar Francisco


    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a multiparticulate modified release system, composed of minitablets with a sustained release matrix system coated with a pH-dependent release polymer...

  5. Application of ICH Q9 Quality Risk Management Tools for Advanced Development of Hot Melt Coated Multiparticulate Systems. (United States)

    Stocker, Elena; Becker, Karin; Hate, Siddhi; Hohl, Roland; Schiemenz, Wolfgang; Sacher, Stephan; Zimmer, Andreas; Salar-Behzadi, Sharareh


    This study aimed to apply quality risk management based on the The International Conference on Harmonisation guideline Q9 for the early development stage of hot melt coated multiparticulate systems for oral administration. N-acetylcysteine crystals were coated with a formulation composing tripalmitin and polysorbate 65. The critical quality attributes (CQAs) were initially prioritized using failure mode and effects analysis. The CQAs of the coated material were defined as particle size, taste-masking efficiency, and immediate release profile. The hot melt coated process was characterized via a flowchart, based on the identified potential critical process parameters (CPPs) and their impact on the CQAs. These CPPs were prioritized using a process failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis and their critical impact on the CQAs was experimentally confirmed using a statistical design of experiments. Spray rate, atomization air pressure, and air flow rate were identified as CPPs. Coating amount and content of polysorbate 65 in the coating formulation were identified as critical material attributes. A hazard and critical control points analysis was applied to define control strategies at the critical process points. A fault tree analysis evaluated causes for potential process failures. We successfully demonstrated that a standardized quality risk management approach optimizes the product development sustainability and supports the regulatory aspects. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of active layering and coating techniques in the development of a multiparticulate, controlled release dosage form of a high-dose, highly soluble drug. (United States)

    Ahmad, Haitham; Khalifeh, Ismail; Alkhalidi, Bashar; Aiedeh, Khaled; Alkhatib, Hatim S


    The success of the development of controlled release, multilayered, multiparticulate dosage form of a high-dose, highly-soluble drug is dependent upon proper material and processing choices. To develop a controlled release dosage form of diltiazem hydrochloride using active layering and coating. Active layering was achieved by spraying a drug solution onto sugar cores using polyvinyl alcohol - polyethylene glycol as a binder. Layered pellets with highest loading and lowest binder content were coated using aqueous dispersions of polyvinyl acetate (PVAc). The effects of the plasticizer and curing on drug release were evaluated. The binder level had no effect on the process efficiency. Drug release from PVAc-coated pellets was slowed by increasing PVAc level. Plasticization slowed drug release in comparison to nonplasticized formulations. Curing affected drug release of nonplasticized formulations only. Protection against humidity was essential in stabilizing drug release under stability study conditions. Materials and process used were suitable to face the challenge posed by the high dose of the water-soluble drug on the success of the formulation. The effects of the plasticizer, curing and ability of packaging to protect against elevated humidity on the performance of the studied system should be considered in development.

  7. Application and Preparation of Enteric Coating Materials (United States)

    Zhou, M. M.; Wang, L.; Zhang, X. L.; Zhou, H. J.; Chen, X. Q.; Li, Y. T.; Yang, S. L.


    In this paper, polymethacrylate enteric coated materials based on the equal mass of methyl acrylic acid and ethyl acrylate as the main raw materials were synthesized through emulsion polymerization. Omeprazole Enteric-coated Capsules were prepared by the fluidized bed coating technology using above materials as enteric layer and in vitro enteric test was considered according to standard. The results showed that the material had good coverage in the surface of omeprazole isolated pellets, excellent acid resistance in artificial gastric acid environment, and reached the disintegration effect in the buffer solution of 20min. Moreover the drug release reached 88.2% and had excellent long-term storage.

  8. [Preparation of tablets containing enteric-coated diclofenac sodium pellets]. (United States)

    Qi, Xiao-Le; Zhu, Jia-Bi; Chen, Sheng-Jun


    Fluidized-bed manufactured enteric-coated diclofenac sodium pellets were compressed into tablets. The blend of two aqueous acrylic resins dispersion in different ratios, Eudragit NE30D and Eudragit L30D-55, were used to prepare enteric-coated diclofenac sodium pellets of different particle sizes and coating level. The cushioning pellets with different properties and these enteric-coated pellets were compressed into tablets in different proportions. The drug release of the tablets containing these pellets would be lower than 10% in 2 h in simulated gastric fluid, but reach (83 +/- 2.42)% in 1 h in simulated enteric fluid. The mixture of Eudragit NE30D and Eudragit L30D-55 could be used to prepare enteric pellets which are suitable for compression. The cushioning pellets which were composed of stearic acid/microcrystalline cellulose (4:1, w/w) could avoid rupture of the coating of pellets during the compression.

  9. An oral multi-particulate, modified release, hydrocortisone replacement therapy that provides physiological cortisol exposure (United States)

    Huatan, Hiep; Merke, Deborah; Arlt, Wiebke; Ross, Richard J.


    Objective It is not possible with current hydrocortisone replacement to mimic the diurnal cortisol profile in patients with adrenal insufficiency. Previous attempts with modified release technology were unsuccessful. Our objective was to develop hydrocortisone formulations that recreate the diurnal cortisol profile using multi-particulate technology. Design and Measurements Screening by in-vitro dissolution profiles, pharmacokinetic testing in dexamethasone suppressed dogs and humans, and comparison to a reference population. Setting Field laboratories and clinical research facility. Results Formulations were generated using an enteric (delayed-release) design configuration with an extended (sustained-release) dissolution profile. In-vitro dissolution confirmed delayed and sustained hydrocortisone release. However, in dogs and humans, sustained release resulted in reduced bioavailability. A formulation, DIURF-006, was developed that maintained delayed release but omitted the sustained release functionality. Pharmacokinetic characterisation of DIURF-006 showed that, despite absence of a sustained release component, absorption was sufficiently sustained to deliver extended hydrocortisone absorption. In dexamethasone-suppressed volunteers (n=16) receiving a twice daily ‘toothbrush’ regimen (20mg at 23:00h and 10mg at 07:00h), DIURF-006 gave a similar cortisol profile to physiological cortisol levels: DIURF-006 vs physiological, Geomean AUC 5610 vs 4706 hr*nmol/l, Geomean Cmax 665 vs 594 nmol/l and Median Tmax 8.5h vs clock time 08:12 hours for peak cortisol. The relative bioavailability of DIURF-006 vs hydrocortisone was 89% and cortisol levels increased linearly with doses between 5 and 30mg. Conclusion A multi-particulate oral hydrocortisone formulation with only an enteric coat provides delayed and sustained absorption and when given in a ‘toothbrush’ regimen provides physiological cortisol exposure. PMID:23980724

  10. An oral multiparticulate, modified-release, hydrocortisone replacement therapy that provides physiological cortisol exposure. (United States)

    Whitaker, Martin; Debono, Miguel; Huatan, Hiep; Merke, Deborah; Arlt, Wiebke; Ross, Richard J


    It is not possible with current hydrocortisone replacement to mimic the diurnal cortisol profile in patients with adrenal insufficiency. Previous attempts with modified-release technology were unsuccessful. Our objective was to develop hydrocortisone formulations that recreate the diurnal cortisol profile using multiparticulate technology. Screening by in vitro dissolution profiles, pharmacokinetic (PK) testing in dexamethasone-suppressed dogs and humans, and comparison with a reference population. Field laboratories and clinical research facility. Formulations were generated using an enteric (delayed release) design configuration with an extended (sustained release) dissolution profile. In vitro dissolution confirmed delayed and sustained hydrocortisone release. However, in dogs and humans, sustained release resulted in reduced bioavailability. A formulation, DIURF-006, was developed that maintained delayed release but omitted the sustained-release functionality. PK characterization of DIURF-006 showed that, despite absence of a sustained-release component, absorption was sufficiently sustained to deliver extended hydrocortisone absorption. In dexamethasone-suppressed volunteers (n = 16) receiving a twice-daily 'toothbrush' regimen (20 mg at 23:00 h and 10 mg at 07:00 h), DIURF-006 gave a similar cortisol profile to physiological cortisol levels: DIURF-006 vs physiological, Geomean AUC 5610 vs 4706 h * nmol/l, Geomean Cmax 665 vs 594 nmol/l and Median Tmax 8·5 h vs clock time 08:12 h for peak cortisol. The relative bioavailability of DIURF-006 vs hydrocortisone was 89%, and cortisol levels increased linearly with doses between 5 and 30 mg. A multiparticulate oral hydrocortisone formulation with only an enteric coat provides delayed and sustained absorption and when given in a 'toothbrush' regimen provides physiological cortisol exposure. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of an enteric-coated naproxen pellet formulation. (United States)

    Hardy, J G; Lamont, G L; Evans, D F; Haga, A K; Gamst, O N


    An enteric-coated, pellet formulation of naproxen has been evaluated in eight healthy subjects. Each volunteer was dosed with 153Sm-labelled, enteric-coated pellets on two occasions, once whilst fasted and once after breakfast. Gastrointestinal transit was followed using gamma scintigraphy and drug absorption compared with that from uncoated naproxen pellets dosed on a separate occasion. The pH in the stomach and intestines was monitored using radiotelemetry capsules. Gastric emptying was delayed by dosing after breakfast, but small intestinal transit of the enteric-coated formulation was the same on both occasions. The highest pH recorded from the stomach was 4.0 and in all subjects the pH rose to at least 7.3 in the small intestine. The onset of drug absorption was fastest from the uncoated formulation and slowest from the coated pellets taken after breakfast. The total amount of drug absorbed was the same on all three occasions.

  12. General class of multiparticulate dissolution models. (United States)

    Pedersen, P V; Brown, K F


    The dissolution of multiparticulate systems under sink and nonsink conditions can be described rigorously according to a generally applicable formula on the basis of the single-particle dissolution model and the initial particle distribution. The kinetic model for log-normal systems dissolving under sink conditions is extended to nonsink conditions as a specific example. The equation presented describes a general class of multiparticulate models for various values of the dispersion parameter and the dissolution capacity coefficient.

  13. Preparation and evaluation of duloxetine hydrochloride enteric-coated pellets with different enteric polymers

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    Chen Kuang


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to prepare duloxetine hydrochloride (DXH enteric-coated pellets using different enteric polymers. Three layers (drug-loaded layer, barrier layer, and enteric-coated layer were applied to the inert core pellets, successively. The optimal formulation was manufactured by employing suspension layering method in fluidized bed processor (FBP with varieties of enteric polymers like Aqoat® AS-LF, Eudragit® L30D55 and HPMCP-HP55. The prepared pellets were measured for physical characterization and the in vitro dissolution profile. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was conducted to observe the morphology of pellets, and different kinetic models were applied to analyze the release mechanism of Cymbalta® and home-made pellets. The coating weight gain of enteric-coated layer containing Eudragit® L30D55, Aqoat® AS-LF and HP-55 were determined to be 35%, 26% and 24%, respectively. The similarity factors (f2 of self-made capsules with above polymers and commercially available capsules (Cymbalta® were above 50 in the dissolution medium of pH 6.8 phosphate buffer solution (PBS. SEM figures showed the smooth surfaces of self-prepared pellets using Eudragit® L30D55 and Aqoat® AS-LF, whereas rough surface was found in the HP-55 pellets at day 0, and an impurity was appearing in the condition of 40 °C/75% relative humidity for 1 month. In conclusion, the pellets prepared by utilizing Eudragit® L30D55 and Aqoat® AS-LF were the optimal preparations based on the dissolution profile and stability.

  14. Enteric coating of granules containing the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus. (United States)

    Pyar, Hassan; Peh, Kok-Khiang


    In the present study, a capsule formulation composed of enteric coated granules of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4962 was developed using Eudragit L30D-55 as enteric polymer. Optimization of the capsule formulation was achieved with a maximum viable cell count after 2 h of incubation in acid medium and disintegration time of 1 h in buffer pH 6.8. The amount of Eudragit L30D-55 in the capsules correlated with gastric juice resistance. The best protective qualities against artificial gastric juice were observed when capsules were prepared from granules composed of L. acidophilus, corn starch, lactose monohydrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and coated with 12.5 % (m/V) of Eudragit L30D-55. Capsule formulation of L. acidophilus in edible broth medium suspension serves as a cheap alternative to the expensive freeze-drying procedure for preparing L. acidophilus. In addition, the enteric coating using Eudragit L30D-55 could protect probiotics from the acidic gastric environment and enhance the bioactivity of probiotics along with replacement of pathogenic microbes in human intestine.

  15. Enteric coating of granules containing the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyar Hassan


    Full Text Available In the present study, a capsule formulation composed of enteric coated granules of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4962 was developed using Eudragit L30D-55 as enteric polymer. Optimization of the capsule formulation was achieved with a maximum viable cell count after 2 h of incubation in acid medium and disintegration time of 1 h in buffer pH 6.8. The amount of Eudragit L30D-55 in the capsules correlated with gastric juice resistance. The best protective qualities against artificial gastric juice were observed when capsules were prepared from granules composed of L. acidophilus, corn starch, lactose monohydrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and coated with 12.5 % (m/V of Eudragit L30D-55. Capsule formulation of L. acidophilus in edible broth medium suspension serves as a cheap alternative to the expensive freeze-drying procedure for preparing L. acidophilus. In addition, the enteric coating using Eudragit L30D-55 could protect probiotics from the acidic gastric environment and enhance the bioactivity of probiotics along with replacement of pathogenic microbes in human intestine

  16. Enteric coating can lead to reduced antiplatelet effect of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fentz Haastrup, Peter; Grønlykke, Thor; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg


    Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely used as antithrombotic prophylaxis. Enteric coated ASA has been developed in order to decrease the risk of gastrointestinal side effects. The consequences of enteric coating on pharmacokinetics and antiplatelet effect of ASA have not systematically be....... Therefore, low dose enteric coated ASA might not be bioequivalent to plain ASA, entailing the risk of insufficient cardiovascular prophylaxis....

  17. Solid-State Interactions at the Core-Coat Interface: Physicochemical Characterization of Enteric-Coated Omeprazole Pellets Without a Protective Sub-Coat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharma, Vishnu Dutt; Akocak, Suleyman; Ilies, Marc A; Fassihi, Reza


    .... This study highlights the use of fluorescence microscopy to investigate the physicochemical stability and coating integrity of the commercially available enteric-coated omeprazole pellets containing...

  18. Mycophenolic acid agents: is enteric coating the answer?

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    Manitpisitkul W


    Full Text Available Wana Manitpisitkul1, Sabrina Lee2, Matthew Cooper31Department of Pharmacy, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Solid Organ Transplant Program, University of Utah Health Care, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3Department of Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Addition of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF to calcineurin-based immunosuppressive therapy has led to a significant improvement in graft survival and reduction of acute rejection in renal transplant recipients. However, in clinical practice, MMF dose reduction, interruption, or discontinuation due to hematological and gastrointestinal (GI side-effects occurred in up to 50% of the patients. Large retrospective analyses have demonstrated that patients requiring MMF dose manipulation due to adverse events experienced a higher rate of rejection and graft loss. Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS was developed with the goal of improving upper GI side-effects. Here, we review the efficacy and safety of EC-MPS in de novo kidney transplant recipient, and in stable renal transplant patients who were converted from MMF. The changes in GI-related adverse events using patient-reported outcome instruments are also reviewed.Keywords: enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium, mycophenolate mofetil, kidney transplant, efficacy, gastrointestinal tolerability

  19. Preformulation studies for generic omeprazole magnesium enteric coated tablets. (United States)

    Migoha, C O; Ratansi, M; Kaale, E; Kagashe, G


    Preformulation is an important step in the rational formulation of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Micromeritics properties: bulk density (BD) and tapped density (TD), compressibility index (Carr's index), Hauser's ratio (H), and sieve analysis were performed in order to determine the best excipients to be used in the formulation development of omeprazole magnesium enteric coated tablets. Results show that omeprazole magnesium has fair flow and compressibility properties (BD 0.4 g/mL, TD 0.485 g/mL, Carr's index 17.5%, Hauser's ratio 1.2, and sieve analysis time 5 minutes). There were no significant drug excipient interactions except change in colour in all three conditions in the mixture of omeprazole and aerosil 200. Moisture content loss on drying in all three conditions was not constant and the changes were attributed to surrounding environment during the test time. Changes in the absorption spectra were noted in the mixture of omeprazole and water aerosil only in the visible region of 350-2500 nm. Omeprazole magnesium alone and with all excipients showed no significant changes in omeprazole concentration for a 30-day period. Omeprazole magnesium formulation complies with USP standards with regards to the fineness, flowability, and compressibility of which other excipients can be used in the formulation.

  20. Development and evaluation of a hot-melt coating technique for enteric coating

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    Arun Trambak Patil


    Full Text Available Conventional enteric coating requires the use of organic based polymers which are equally hazardous to the environment and operating personnel. Hot-melt coating avoids the use of solvents and is a safer and time-saving process. The present study was designed to assess the efficacy of hot-melt coating (HMC as an enteric coating technique. Pellets prepared by extrusion spheronization were selected as the core formulation for a model of the gastric irritant drug diclofenac sodium (DFS because of their innate advantages over single-unit formulations. Stearic acid (SA and palmitic acid (PA were evaluated as enteric hot-melt coating materials. HMC was carried out in a specially modified coating pan by applying SA and PA in molten state onto preheated pellets to achieve a coating level of 5-15 %w/w. Hot-melt coated pellets were evaluated for disintegration pH and in vitro dissolution in the pH range 1.2 to 6.8, along with basic micromeritics. SEM of coated pellets showed a uniform and smooth coating. These results indicated that HMC of both SA and PA exhibited very good enteric coating ability. The coated pellets showed negligible drug release in acidic pH. As the pellets were subsequently transferred to a higher pH level, a gradual increase in release of the drug from the pellets was observed with increasing pH of the dissolution media. The release was dependent upon coating extent, providing sustained enteric release as opposed to abrupt release with mixed release kinetics.O revestimento entérico convencional requer o uso de polímeros orgânicos os quais são igualmente danosos ao meio ambiente e ao pessoal que o executa. O revestimento por fusão a quente evita o uso de solventes e é processo mais seguro e que consome menos tempo. O presente estudo foi planejado para avaliar a eficácia do revestimento por fusão a quente (RFQ como técnica de revestimento entérico. Os péletes preparados por esferonização por extrusão foram selecionados como

  1. Aspirin-induced gastric mucosal damage: prevention by enteric-coating and relation to prostaglandin synthesis.


    Hawthorne, A B; Mahida, Y R; Cole, A T; Hawkey, C J


    1. Gastric damage induced by low-dose aspirin and the protective effect of enteric-coating was assessed in healthy volunteers in a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial using Latin square design. Each was administered placebo, plain aspirin 300 mg daily, plain aspirin 600 mg four times daily, enteric-coated aspirin 300 mg daily, or enteric-coated aspirin 600 mg four times daily for 5 days. Gastric damage was assessed endoscopically, and gastric mucosal bleeding measured. 2. Aspirin...

  2. The Preparation of Capsaicin-Chitosan Microspheres (CCMS Enteric Coated Tablets

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    Jian Chen


    Full Text Available This study aimed to research the preparation and content determination of capsaicin-chitosan microspheres (CCMS enteric coated tablets. The core tablets were prepared with the method of wet granulation. Nine formulae were designed to determine the optimal formula of the core tablet. Eudragit L100 was used to prepare the CCMS enteric-coated tablets. The effect of enteric coated formulation variables such as content of talc (10%, 25% and 40%, plasticisers (TEC and DBS, dosage of plasticiser (10%, 20% and 30% and coating weight (2%, 3% and 5% were evaluated for drug release characteristics. The in vitro release was studied using 0.1 N HCl and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. Enteric coated tablets without ruptures or swelling behaviour over 2 h in 0.1 N HCl indicated that these tablets showed acid resistance. The accumulated release rate in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8 revealed that the prepared tablets were able to sustain drug release into the intestine and a first-order release was obtained for capsaicin. This research is the first report of the preparation and content determination of CCMS enteric coated tablets. The sustained release behavior of enteric coated formulations in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer demonstrated that it would be a potential drug delivery platform for sustained delivery of gastric irritant drugs.

  3. Development and stability evaluation of enteric coated Diclofenac sodium tablets using Sureteric. (United States)

    Zaid, Abdel Naser


    This study was aimed to develop a stable enteric coated diclofenac sodium tablets using Sureteic without a subcoating layer. Diclofenac uncoated tablets were developed and manufactured through the non direct compression process. Sureteric white aqueous coating dispersion was used as enteric coating material. Sureteric is a special mixture of Polyvinyl Acetate Phthalate (Phthalavin (R), PVAP), plasticizers and other ingredients in a suitable optimized dry powder formulation. The obtained enteric coated tablets were subjected to disintegration and no sign of cracking was observed when they placed in a hydrochloric solution at pH 1.2, but they were completely disintegrated within 10 minutes when they putted in buffered solution at pH6.8. Dissolution test was also conducted by placing tablets in 0.1 M HCl for 2 hours and then 1 hour in phosphate buffer at pH 6.8. Less than 0.9% of drug was released in the acidic phase and up to 97% in the basic medium. These results show that Sureteric can be successfully used to produce diclofenac sodium enteric coated tablets in order to prevent its release in the stomach and facilitate immediate release of the drug in the duodenum. These findings suggest that aqueous enteric coating with Sureteric system is an easy and economical approach for preparing stable diclofenac sodium enteric coat without the use of a subcoating layer.

  4. Comparative effects of enteric-coated pancreatin microsphere therapy after conventional and pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruno, M. J.; Borm, J. J.; Hoek, F. J.; Delzenne, B.; Hofmann, A. F.; de Goeij, J. J.; van Royen, E. A.; van Gulik, T. M.; de Wit, L. T.; Gouma, D. J.; van Leeuwen, D. J.; Tytgat, G. N.


    BACKGROUND: A comparative study was performed between patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after conventional pancreatoduodenectomy (Whipple's procedure) and pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD). In these patients the pharmacodynamics of 2-mm enteric-coated pancreatin

  5. Diffusion of a freely water-soluble drug in aqueous enteric-coated pellets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guo, HX; Heinämäki, J; Yliruusi, J


    ...%) with an aqueous dispersion of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP). The diffusion of riboflavin sodium phosphate in aqueous enteric-coated pellets was investigated using noninvasive confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM...

  6. Formulation and evaluation of sustained release enteric-coated pellets of budesonide for intestinal delivery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raval, Mihir K; Ramani, Riddhi V; Sheth, Navin R


    ...) full factorial design by giving an enteric coating with Eudragit S100. Budesonide-sustained release pellets were prepared by extruder and spheronization technique using a combination of water-soluble and permeable polymers by applying 3(2...

  7. Tablet formulation study of spray-dried sodium diclofenac enteric-coated microcapsules. (United States)

    Lin, S Y; Kao, Y H


    Sodium diclofenac enteric-coated microcapsules were prepared by a spray-drying technique with Eudragit L 30D as enteric-coating material. The spray-dried powder, mixed with neocel or flo-starch, or the mixture of neocel and flo-starch (weight ratio, 1:1) was directly compressed into a tablet. The micromeritic properties of the spray-dried powder and the mixed powder for tableting were investigated. The flowability of the spray-dried powder was poor but improved after incorporating the excipients. The release rates of sodium diclofenac from the spray-dried powder, the mixed powder before tableting, and the tablets were determined in 0.1 N HCl solution, pH 6.8, phosphate buffer solution, distilled water, and pH-changed medium. The results indicated that the spray-dried powder, the mixed powder before tableting, and the tablets all exhibited enteric-coated release properties; these powders and tablets showed some resistance to stimulated gastric acid and then released drug more rapidly in pH 6.8 buffer solution. The weight ratio of neocel to flo-starch plays an important role in controlling the release of sodium diclofenac from enteric tablets. The 1:1 weight ratio of neocel to flo-starch was more suitable for designing the microdispersed sodium diclofenac enteric-coated tablets.

  8. Multiparticulate Drug Delivery Systems for Controlled Release | Dey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmaceutical invention and research are increasingly focusing on delivery systems which enhance desirable therapeutic objectives while minimising side effects. Recent trends indicate that multiparticulate drug delivery systems are especially suitable for achieving controlled or delayed release oral formulations with low ...

  9. Drug Resistance and Pseudoresistance: An Unintended Consequence of Enteric Coating Aspirin (United States)

    Grosser, Tilo; Fries, Susanne; Lawson, John A.; Kapoor, Shiv C.; Grant, Gregory R.; FitzGerald, Garret A.


    Background Low dose aspirin reduces the secondary incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. Drug resistance to aspirin might result in treatment failure. Despite this concern, no clear definition of “aspirin resistance” has emerged and estimates of its incidence have varied remarkably. We aimed to determine the commonality of a mechanistically consistent, stable and specific phenotype of true pharmacological resistance to aspirin – such as might be explained by genetic causes. Methods and Results Healthy volunteers (n=400) were screened for their response to a single oral dose of 325 mg immediate release or enteric coated aspirin. Response parameters reflected the activity of aspirin's molecular target, cyclooxygenase-1. Individuals who appeared “aspirin resistant” on one occasion underwent repeat testing and if still “resistant” were exposed to low dose enteric coated aspirin (81 mg) and clopidogrel (75 mg) for one week each. Variable absorption caused a high frequency of apparent resistance to a single dose of 325 mg enteric coated aspirin (up to 49%) but not to immediate release aspirin (0%). All individuals responded to aspirin upon repeated exposure, extension of the post dosing interval or addition of aspirin to their platelets ex vivo. Conclusions Pharmacological resistance to aspirin is rare; this study failed to identify a single case of true drug resistance. Pseudoresistance, reflecting delayed and reduced drug absorption, complicates enteric coated but not immediate release aspirin administration. Clinical Trial Registration Information Identifier: NCT00948987. PMID:23212718

  10. Design and evaluation of enteric-coated tablets for rifampicin and isoniazid combinations. (United States)

    Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Hongzhuo; Liu, Kai; Sun, Jin; He, Zhonggui


    In order to improve the bioavailability of rifampicin (RIF) from rifampicin and isoniazid (INH) combination formulations, the physicochemical characteristics of RIF, stability of RIF in different pH buffers in the presence of INH, as well as the effect of particle size of RIF materials on the dissolution rate were investigated. On the basis of the above examinations, enteric-coated tablets for RIF and INH combinations were designed and prepared. RIF showed low solubility and high apparent distribution coefficient in the intestinal pH (pH 4.0-7.4). With the decrease in pH, the degradation of RIF increase and the presence of INH deepen the degradation. Enteric-coated tablets were prepared after grinding the RIF materials by dry granulation technique. The pharmacokinetics of RIF and INH of self-made enteric-coated tablets in dogs were studied by comparing with the reference tablets. The AUC(0-48) of RIF in both reference and test tablets were 304.77 ± 42.27 and 353.79 ± 31.63 µg·h·mL(-1), respectively. The AUC(0-48) of INH in both reference and test tablets were 17.14 ± 8.59 and 19.62 ± 10.57 µg·h·mL(-1), respectively. Enteric-coated tablets may minimize the decomposition of RIF in gastrointestinal tract and improve the bioavailability.

  11. Use of bicarbonate buffer systems for dissolution characterization of enteric-coated proton pump inhibitor tablets. (United States)

    Shibata, Hiroko; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Goda, Yukihiro


    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of buffer systems (bicarbonate or phosphate at different concentrations) on the in vitro dissolution profiles of commercially available enteric-coated tablets. In vitro dissolution tests were conducted using an USP apparatus II on 12 enteric-coated omeprazole and rabeprazole tablets, including innovator and generic formulations in phosphate buffers, bicarbonate buffers and a media modified Hanks (mHanks) buffer. Both omeprazole and rabeprazole tablets showed similar dissolution profiles among products in the compendial phosphate buffer system. However, there were large differences between products in dissolution lag time in mHanks buffer and bicarbonate buffers. All formulations showed longer dissolution lag times at lower concentrations of bicarbonate or phosphate buffers. The dissolution rank order of each formulation differed between mHanks buffer and bicarbonate buffers. A rabeprazole formulation coated with a methacrylic acid copolymer showed the shortest lag time in the high concentration bicarbonate buffer, suggesting varied responses depending on the coating layer and buffer components. Use of multiple dissolution media during in vitro testing, including high concentration bicarbonate buffer, would contribute to the efficient design of enteric-coated drug formulations. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous, plain oral and enteric-coated oral omeprazole in the horse. (United States)

    Sykes, B W; Underwood, C; McGowan, C M; Mills, P C


    The objectives were to document the pharmacokinetics of intravenous, enteric-coated oral and plain oral omeprazole in fasted horses and to investigate the impact of feeding on the bioavailability of an enteric-coated omeprazole. Twelve horses received four treatments: intravenous omeprazole (0.5 mg/kg) in the fasted state (IV-Fasted), enteric-coated omeprazole (4 mg/kg) orally in the fasted state (ECO-Fasted), enteric-coated omeprazole (4 mg/kg) orally in the fed state (ECO-Fed) and plain omeprazole (4 mg/kg) orally in the fasted state (PL-Fasted). Plasma omeprazole concentrations were determined by UHPLC-MS. Bioavailability was higher (P = 0.038) in the ECO-Fasted group (21.5 [9.0-27.7]%) than the PL-Fasted group (10.1 [7.7-13.3]%). Similarly, AUC0-∞ was higher in the ECO-Fasted group than the PL-Fasted group (P = 0.027). No significant differences were present between the ECO-Fasted and ECO-Fed groups with regards to bioavailability, Cmax , Tmax or AUC0-∞ . When the half-life data from the oral formulations was pooled, it was longer than that observed in the IV-Fasted group (100 [73-118] min) and 35 [34-39] min, respectively; P omeprazole was higher than previously reported and feeding had minimal impact. Bioavailability of plain omeprazole was approximately half that of enteric-coated omeprazole. The longer half-life observed following oral administration was consistent with the flip-flop effect and has not previously been described for omeprazole in the horse. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Enteric-coated sustained-release nanoparticles by coaxial electrospray: preparation, characterization, and in vitro evaluation (United States)

    Hao, Shilei; Wang, Bochu; Wang, Yazhou; Xu, Yingqian


    Enteric-coated formulations can delay the release of drugs until they have passed through the stomach. However, high concentration of drugs caused by rapidly released in the small intestine leads to the intestinal damage, and frequent administration would increase the probability of missing medication and reduce the patient compliance. To solve the above-mentioned problems, aspirin-loaded enteric-coated sustained-release nanoparticles with core-shell structure were prepared via one-step method using coaxial electrospray in this study. Eudragit L100-55 as pH-sensitive polymer and Eudragit RS as sustained-release polymer were used for the outer coating and inner core of the nanoparticles, respectively. The maximum loading capacity of nanoparticles was 23.66 % by changing the flow rate ratio of outer/inner solutions, and the entrapment efficiency was nearly 100 %. Nanoparticles with core-shell structure were observed via fluorescence microscope and transmission electron microscope. And pH-sensitive and sustained drug release profiles were observed in the media with different pH values (1.2 and 6.8). In addition, mild cytotoxicity in vitro was detected, and the nanoparticles could be taken up by Caco-2 cells within 1.0 h in cellular uptake study. These results indicate that prepared enteric-coated sustained-release nanoparticles would be a more safety and effective carrier for oral drug delivery.

  14. Formulation and in vitro and in vivo availability of diclofenac sodium enteric-coated beads. (United States)

    Hosny, E A; el-Mahrouk, G M; Gouda, M W


    Diclofenac sodium enteric-coated beads were prepared using the conventional pan coating technique. Eudragit L100 was used as a pH-dependent release-controlling polymer. The beads were evaluated for their particle size distribution, drug loading efficiency, flowability, in vitro release in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2) and phosphate buffer (pH 6.8), and bioavailability in beagle dogs relative to the commercial enteric-coated tablets Voltaren. The beads showed a narrow particle size distribution in which 83% of the beads were in the range of 1-2 mm. The actual yield of the beads was 90.5% and their drug loading was 92%. The beads released about 8% of the drug during 2 hr of dissolution in 0.1 N HCl, and the commercial tablets released no drug. In phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) both formulations released their drug content in 1 hr. Both formulations are, therefore, in compliance with the USP requirements for release from enteric-coated dosage forms. The in vivo availability study in six beagle dogs revealed that the formulated enteric-coated beads filled in hard gelatin capsules had a 197.54% bioavailability relative to that of the commercial Voltaren tablets. The tablets showed a significantly lower (p 0.05) higher peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of 6.77 +/- 0.67 micrograms/ml compared to 5.88 +/- 7.38 micrograms/ml for the tablets. The time to reach peak (Tmax) values were 2 +/- 1.48 and 2.25 +/- 1.08 hr for the capsules and tablets, respectively. The capsules showed less interdog variability with respect to Cmax (CV% 34.6) and AUC (CV% 19.55) compared to CV% 79.9 and 111.76, respectively, for the commercial tablets.

  15. Enteric-coating of pulsatile-release HPC capsules prepared by injection molding. (United States)

    Macchi, E; Zema, L; Maroni, A; Gazzaniga, A; Felton, L A


    Capsular devices based on hydroxypropyl cellulose (Klucel® LF) intended for pulsatile release were prepared by injection molding (IM). In the present work, the possibility of exploiting such capsules for the development of colonic delivery systems based on a time-dependent approach was evaluated. For this purpose, it was necessary to demonstrate the ability of molded cores to undergo a coating process and that coated systems yield the desired performance (gastric resistance). Although no information was available on the coating of IM substrates, some issues relevant to that of commercially-available capsules are known. Thus, preliminary studies were conducted on molded disks for screening purposes prior to the spray-coating of HPC capsular cores with Eudragit® L 30 D 55. The ability of the polymeric suspension to wet the substrate, spread, start penetrating and initiate hydration/swelling, as well as to provide a gastroresistant barrier was demonstrated. The coating of prototype HPC capsules was carried out successfully, leading to coated systems with good technological properties and able to withstand the acidic medium with no need for sealing at the cap/body joint. Such systems maintained the original pulsatile release performance after dissolution of the enteric film in pH 6.8 fluid. Therefore, they appeared potentially suitable for the development of a colon delivery platform based on a time-dependent approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Formulation and evaluation of sustained release enteric-coated pellets of budesonide for intestinal delivery. (United States)

    Raval, Mihir K; Ramani, Riddhi V; Sheth, Navin R


    The aim of present work was to develop intestinal-targeted pellets of Budesonide, a potent glucocorticoid, used for the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease by extrusion and spheronization method. Current available oral formulations of Budesonide have low efficacy because of the premature drug release in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, a pH-controlled intestinal-targeted pellet of budesonide was established using 3(2) full factorial design by giving an enteric coating with Eudragit S100. Budesonide-sustained release pellets were prepared by extruder and spheronization technique using a combination of water-soluble and permeable polymers by applying 3(2) full factorial design. The pellets were coated by spray coating technique using Eudragit S100 as an enteric polymer. The pellets were characterized for its flowability, sphericity, friability, and in vitro drug release. Release behaviour was studied in different pH media. The release profile was studied for the mechanism of drug release. The optimized formulation showed negligible drug release in the stomach followed by release for 12 h in the intestinal pH. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy studies indicated no interaction between drug and polymer. Scanning Electron Microscopy image of coated pellets suggested a uniform and smooth coat over the surface of pellets. Accelerated stability studies showed a stable nature of drug in the formulation. All evaluation parameter showed that pellets were good in spherocity and flowability. Sustained release pellets of Budesonide could be prepared by extrusion and spheronization which released the drug in intestinal pH for an intestine to treat inflammatory bowel disease. A ratio of polymer combination could be decided using a full factorial design.

  17. Glucose-Coated Gold Nanoparticles Transfer across Human Brain Endothelium and Enter Astrocytes In Vitro (United States)

    Gromnicova, Radka; Davies, Heather A.; Sreekanthreddy, Peddagangannagari; Romero, Ignacio A.; Lund, Torben; Roitt, Ivan M.; Phillips, James B.; Male, David K.


    The blood-brain barrier prevents the entry of many therapeutic agents into the brain. Various nanocarriers have been developed to help agents to cross this barrier, but they all have limitations, with regard to tissue-selectivity and their ability to cross the endothelium. This study investigated the potential for 4 nm coated gold nanoparticles to act as selective carriers across human brain endothelium and subsequently to enter astrocytes. The transfer rate of glucose-coated gold nanoparticles across primary human brain endothelium was at least three times faster than across non-brain endothelia. Movement of these nanoparticles occurred across the apical and basal plasma membranes via the cytosol with relatively little vesicular or paracellular migration; antibiotics that interfere with vesicular transport did not block migration. The transfer rate was also dependent on the surface coating of the nanoparticle and incubation temperature. Using a novel 3-dimensional co-culture system, which includes primary human astrocytes and a brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3, we demonstrated that the glucose-coated nanoparticles traverse the endothelium, move through the extracellular matrix and localize in astrocytes. The movement of the nanoparticles through the matrix was >10 µm/hour and they appeared in the nuclei of the astrocytes in considerable numbers. These nanoparticles have the correct properties for efficient and selective carriers of therapeutic agents across the blood-brain barrier. PMID:24339894

  18. Glucose-coated gold nanoparticles transfer across human brain endothelium and enter astrocytes in vitro.

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    Radka Gromnicova

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier prevents the entry of many therapeutic agents into the brain. Various nanocarriers have been developed to help agents to cross this barrier, but they all have limitations, with regard to tissue-selectivity and their ability to cross the endothelium. This study investigated the potential for 4 nm coated gold nanoparticles to act as selective carriers across human brain endothelium and subsequently to enter astrocytes. The transfer rate of glucose-coated gold nanoparticles across primary human brain endothelium was at least three times faster than across non-brain endothelia. Movement of these nanoparticles occurred across the apical and basal plasma membranes via the cytosol with relatively little vesicular or paracellular migration; antibiotics that interfere with vesicular transport did not block migration. The transfer rate was also dependent on the surface coating of the nanoparticle and incubation temperature. Using a novel 3-dimensional co-culture system, which includes primary human astrocytes and a brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3, we demonstrated that the glucose-coated nanoparticles traverse the endothelium, move through the extracellular matrix and localize in astrocytes. The movement of the nanoparticles through the matrix was >10 µm/hour and they appeared in the nuclei of the astrocytes in considerable numbers. These nanoparticles have the correct properties for efficient and selective carriers of therapeutic agents across the blood-brain barrier.

  19. Enteric coating of ibuprofen tablets (200 mg using an aqueous dispersion system

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    Rabia Bushra


    Full Text Available Ibuprofen is a propionic acid derivative that belongs to the class NSAIDs. Major adverse reactions associated with Ibuprofen are related to GIT and include peptic and mucosal ulcers, dyspepsia, severe gastric pain and bleeding, that results in excessive treatment failure. The goal of this study was to develop enteric coated ibuprofen tablets in order to avoid gastric mucosal irritation, diffusion of drug across mucosal lining and to let active ingredient be absorbed easily in small intestine. The formulation was developed and manufactured through the direct compression process, the simplest, easiest and most economical method of manufacturing. Enteric coating was done using an Opadry white subcoating and an aqueous coating dispersion of Acryl-Eze. Enteric coated formulation was subjected to disintegration and dissolution tests by placing in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid for 2 h and then 1 h in phosphate buffer with a pH of 6.8. About 0.04% of drug was released in the acidic phase and 99.05% in the basic medium. These results reflect that ibuprofen can be successfully enteric coated in order to prevent its release in the stomach and facilitate rapid release of the drug in the duodenum, due to the presence of superdisintegrant. Formulating this enteric coated tablets could increase patient compliance by decreasing adverse drug reactions (ADR S associated with Ibuprofen therapy.Ibuprofeno é um derivado do ácido propiônico, que pertence à classe dos fármacos não-esteróides (AINES. As principais reações adversas associadas com o ibuprofeno se referem àquelas do trato gastrintestinal (TGI, como úlceras pépticas e da mucosa, dispepsia, dor gástrica grave e sangramento, que resultam em muitas falhas de tratamento. O objetivo do estudo foi desenvolver comprimidos revestidos de ibuprofeno que impeçam a irritação da mucosa gástrica, difusão do fármaco através da mucosa e permitam, facilmente, a absorção do princípio ativo do intestino

  20. Compaction of enteric-coated pellets: influence of formulation and process parameters on tablet properties and in vivo evaluation. (United States)

    Debunne, Ann; Vervaet, Chris; Mangelings, Debby; Remon, Jean-Paul


    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of formulation and compression parameters on the properties of tablets, containing enteric-coated pellets, and on the integrity of the enteric polymer of the individual pellets after compression. In addition the piroxicam plasma concentrations were determined after single and multiple oral administration of powder, pellet and tablet formulations at a dose of 0.3 mg piroxicam/kg bodyweight to dogs. Tablets consisted of enteric-coated pellets (containing 2.5% (w/w) piroxicam in combination with microcrystalline cellulose and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (using Avicel PH 101 and Avicel CL 611 in a ratio of 1-3), cushioning waxy pellets and 10% Kollidon CL (as an external disintegrator). From the D-optimality experimental design it was concluded that the ratio of coated pellets to cushioning pellets (CoP/CuP) affected all tablet properties evaluated. Variation of the pellet size and the CoP/CuP ratio resulted in different in vitro tablet disintegration times. Enteric coating of the pellets or compression of the coated pellets did not have a significant influence (P >0.05) on AUC(0-->72 h). Cmax values obtained after oral administration of coated pellets and compressed coated pellets were significantly lower than for the other formulations. Differences in in vitro tablet disintegration times were not reflected in the onset of the piroxicam plasma concentrations. A dosing interval of 48 h prevented piroxicam accumulation following multiple dose administration.

  1. Implementation of mixture design for formulation of albumin containing enteric-coated spray-dried microparticles. (United States)

    Shastri, Prathap Nagaraja; Ubale, Ruhi V; D'Souza, Martin J


    Oral delivery of proteins has been a challenging as well as rapidly developing field. To implement mixture design of experiment to develop enteric-coated microparticles containing bovine serum albumin. Microparticles were prepared using Buchi Spray Dryer 191. Simplex lattice mixture design computed using JMP software was implemented to compare the gastric protection rendered by Eudragit FS30D, Eudragit L100-55, and Eudragit S100 in microparticulate form. Further, an extreme vertices mixture design was used to incorporate hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) Chitosan in the formulation to delay the release. Microparticle recovery yield and protein content in microparticles were evaluated. The design was statistically significant with Eudragit S100 resulting in protein release of < 5% in acidic buffer. The selected optimal formulation had 70% of Eudragit S, 25% HPMC, and 5% Chitosan. The release profiles of protein from Eudragit S alone and along with HPMC were compared. About 25% decrease in the amount of protein release was observed 6 h post exposure of microparticle to buffer of pH 6.8. The microparticle recovery yield reduced from 77.99% to 71.56% which is due to addition of HPMC into the formulation matrix. Although all three Eudragit polymers can be used for enteric coating, in the microparticulate form Eudragit S resulted in higher gastric protection. Also use of HPMC along with Eudragit S resulted in further sustained release.

  2. Comparative bioavailability and in vitro characterization of two brands of diclofenac sodium enteric-coated tablets. (United States)

    el-Sayed, Y; Suleiman, M S; Hasan, M; Najib, N; Muti, H; Abdulhameed, M


    A bioavailability study and an in vitro characterization were conducted on two brands of diclofenac sodium enteric-coated tablets marketed in Jordan. The two brands were found similar in weight variation and content uniformity and both met the BP requirements of disintegration for enteric-coated tablets. The in vitro dissolution, according to the USP XXI method, revealed that brand B had significantly faster dissolution (99% of the drug dissolved in 1 h). The bioavailability was carried out on eight healthy male volunteers who received a single dose (2 x 50 mg) of each product in a crossover design. Blood samples were obtained over a 10 h interval and drug serum concentrations were determined using a sensitive HPLC assay. The two brands did not significantly differ with respect to peak serum concentration (4.4 and 4.5 for A and B, respectively) or to the lag time between dosing and the appearance of the drug in serum (1.06 and 0.88 h for A and B, respectively). Further, the two brands were not found significantly different with respect to the extent of absorption as indicated by the area under serum concentration-time curve (6.31 and 5.91 for A and B, respectively). Brand B, however, exhibited a significantly earlier time to attain peak serum concentration (1.2 h) compared to brand A (2.4 h). The difference in the tmax values is consistent with the in vitro dissolution pattern for the two brands.

  3. Comparative in vitro dissolution and in vivo bioequivalence of two diclofenac enteric coated formulations. (United States)

    Basmenji, Saeed; Valizadeh, Hadi; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin


    The aim of this study was the comparison of in vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability of two different brands of diclofenac sodium (CAS 15307-86-5) enteric coated tablets in healthy male Iranian volunteers in a single-dose, randomized, open-label, single blind study, which was conducted according to a crossover design in healthy volunteers. A washout interval of two weeks was selected between administrations to each subject in this study. Serial venous blood samples over 10 h after each administration to measure diclofenac sodium concentration in serum were obtained, and placed into tubes containing sodium heparin. Then the plasma was separated and kept frozen at -20 degrees C for subsequent analysis with a modified HPLC method with UV detection. In addition, the in vitro dissolution study was performed on the brands. For the test and reference formulation, mean Cmax values were 2257.3 (ng/ml) and 2156 (ng/ml), respectively. The mean AUC(0)tau and AUC(0)infinity were 5726.1 (ng x h/ml) and 5917.8 (ng x h/ml) for the test and 5689.9 (ng x h/ml) and 5967.4 (ng x h/ml) for the reference formulation, respectively. Results show that the 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of test and reference products in Cmax (101.4-114.9%), AUC(0)tau (96.3-109.1%) and AUC(0)infinity (94.7-107.3%) were all within the 80-125% interval proposed by the FDA and EMA. Both formulations released > 80% of drug within 30 min in buffer pH = 6.8 medium. Therefore the diclofenac sodium enteric coated tablets of the test and reference formulations are bioequivalent in terms of rate and extent of absorption.

  4. Controlled release floating multiparticulates of metoprolol succinate by hot melt extrusion. (United States)

    Malode, Vilas N; Paradkar, Anant; Devarajan, Padma V


    We present hot melt extrusion (HME) for the design of floating multiparticulates. Metoprolol succinate was selected as the model drug. Our foremost objective was to optimize the components Eudragit(®) RS PO, polyethylene oxide (PEO) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) to balance both buoyancy and controlled release. Gas generated by sodium bicarbonate in acidic medium was trapped in the polymer matrix to enable floating. Eudragit(®) RS PO and PEO with sodium bicarbonate resulted in multiparticulates which exhibited rapid flotation within 3 min but inadequate total floating time (TFT) of 3h. Addition of HPMC to the matrix did not affect floating lag time (FLT), moreover TFT increased to more than 12h with controlled release of metoprolol succinate. Floating multiparticulates exhibited t50% of 5.24h and t90% of 10.12h. XRD and DSC analysis revealed crystalline state of drug while FTIR suggested nonexistence of chemical interaction between the drug and the other excipients. The assay, FLT, TFT and the drug release of the multiparticulates were unchanged when stored at 40°C/75%RH for 3 months confirming stability. We present floating multiparticulates by HME which could be extrapolated to a range of other drugs. Our approach hence presents platform technology for floating multiparticulates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hot-melt sub- and outercoating combined with enteric aqueous coating to improve the stability of aspirin tablets

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    Xiuzhi Wang


    Full Text Available Aspirin is apt to hydrolyze. In order to improve its stability, a new method has been developed involving the application of hot-melt sub- and outercoating combined with enteric aqueous coating. The main aim was to investigate the influence of these factors on the stability of ASA and understand how they work. Satisfactory storage stability were obtained when the aspirin tablet core coated with Eudragit L30D55 film was combined with glycerin monostearate (GMS as an outercoat. Hygroscopicity testing indicated that the moisture penetrating into the tablet may result in a significant change in the physical properties of the coating film observed by scanning electron microscopy. Investigation of the compatibility between the drug and film excipients shows that the talc and methacrylic acid had a significant catalytic effect on ASA. A hypothesis was proposed that the hydrolysis of ASA enteric coated tablets (ASA-ECT was mostly concentrated in the internal film and the interfaces between the film and tablet core. In conclusion, hot-melt coating technology is an alternative to subcoating or outercoating. Also, GMS sub-coating was a better choice for forming a stable barrier between the tablet core and the polymer coating layer, and increases the structure and chemical stability.

  6. Gastric transit and pharmacodynamics of a two-millimeter enteric-coated pancreatin microsphere preparation in patients with chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruno, M. J.; Borm, J. J.; Hoek, F. J.; Delzenne, B.; Hofmann, A. F.; de Goeij, J. J.; van Royen, E. A.; van Leeuwen, D. J.; Tytgat, G. N.


    It has been suggested that enteric-coated pancreatin microsphere (ECPM) preparations with sphere sizes larger than 1.7 mm pass through the stomach at a slower rate than a meal and therefore may be less efficacious in restoring pancreatic enzyme activity than preparations with smaller sphere sizes.

  7. Comparative bioavailability of two enteric-coated tablet preparations of diclofenac sodium. (United States)

    Paton, D M


    In a random cross-over study, eight healthy volunteers received single 25 mg doses of enteric-coated diclofenac sodium tablets (as either Voltaren 25, Ciba-Geigy or Anfenax 25, Istituto Biochimico Italiano) after an overnight fast. The bioavailability of these two preparations of diclofenac sodium did not differ significantly as judged by absorption lag time, peak plasma concentration, time to peak plasma concentrations or area under the plasma concentration-time curve. Diclofenac was found to have a plasma clearance of 2.85 +/- 1.03 (s.d.) and 3.39 +/- 1.43 ml min-1 kg-1, a plasma terminal half-life of elimination of 0.61 +/- 0.25 and 0.71 +/- 0.39 h, and an apparent volume of distribution of 0.15 +/- 0.10 and 0.21 +/- 0.13 l kg-1 (the values obtained with the Ciba-Geigy preparation being shown before the Istituto Biochimico Italiano preparation in each case).

  8. Assessment of the pharmaceutical quality of marketed enteric coated pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate products. (United States)

    Mostafa, Haitham F; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Mahrous, Gamal M; Sakr, Adel


    Pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate (PSS) is a proton pump inhibitor, used in acid-related disorders, like peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux. Increasing the number of pantoprazole containing products in the market, raises questions of its efficacy and generic substitution. The pharmaceutical quality of 6 generic PSS enteric coated tablets in 2 local markets was assessed relative to the innovator product (pantozol®). Uniformity of dosage unit, disintegration and in vitro drug release were determined using United States pharmacopeia for delayed release tablets. The similarity factor (f2) was assessed using the FDA recommended approach (f2 similarity factor). The content uniformity of the innovator product was 98.39% of the labeled claim with RSD value of 1.08%, while the content of generic products ranged from 96.98% to 98.80% with RSD values of 1.24-2.19%. All the products showed no disintegration, cracks or swelling in 0.1 N HCl, except product 1, which showed complete disintegration after 20 min. However, the disintegration of all the products in phosphate buffer met USP requirements. Dissolution of tablets in 0.1 N HCl showed no drug release after 2 h except product 1 in which one tablet showed a drug release more than 10% at acid stage level A1. In addition, three tablets of this product showed dissolution of 45%, 48% and 69% at acid stage level A2. The similarity factor f2 of the products was between 71 and 74 indicating the similarity in dissolution profiles of all the products in accordance to FDA requirements, except product 1 in which f2 value was 18.67.

  9. Improved drug delivery to the lower intestinal tract with tablets compression-coated with enteric/nonenteric polymer powder blends. (United States)

    Rujivipat, Soravoot; Bodmeier, Roland


    The objective of this study was to develop pH-erosion-controlled compression-coated tablets for potential colonic drug delivery with improved gastric resistance and pulsatile release based on compression-coatings of powder blends of the enteric polymer Eudragit® L100-55 and the extended release polymer ethylcellulose. Tablet cores containing model drugs of varying solubilities (acetaminophen, carbamazepine and chlorpheniramine maleate) were compression-coated with different ratios of Eudragit® L100-55:ethylcellulose 10cP FP at different compression forces and tablet core:compression-coat ratios. The compression-coated tablets were characterized by drug release, media uptake, erosion behaviour and wettability. All drugs were released in a pulsatile fashion in higher pH-media after a lag time, which was controlled by the erosion properties of the Eudragit L:ethylcellulose compression-coating. The addition of ethylcellulose avoided premature drug release in lower pH-media and significantly increased the lag time in higher pH-media because of a reduction in wettability, media uptake and erosion of the compression-coatings. Importantly, ethylcellulose also reduced the pH-dependency of the erosion process between pH 5.5 and 7.4. The lag time could also be increased by increasing the compression force and decreasing the core:compression-coat ratio. In conclusion, tablets compression-coated with blends of Eudragit L and ethylcellulose resulted in excellent release properties for potential targeting to the lower intestinal tract with no release in lower pH-media and rapid release after a controllable lag time in higher pH-media. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enteric coated HPMC capsules plugged with 5-FU loaded microsponges: a potential approach for treatment of colon cancer

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    Ankita Gupta


    Full Text Available The work was aimed at developing novel enteric coated HPMC capsules (ECHC plugged with 5 Florouracil (5-FU loaded Microsponges in combination with calcium pectinate beads. Modified quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method was used to formulate microsponges based on 32 factorial design and the effects of independent variables (volume of organic solvent and Eudragit RS100 content on the dependent variables (Particle size, %EE & % CDR were determined. The optimized microsponges (F4 were characterized by SEM, PXRD, TGA and were plugged along with calcium pectinate beads in HPMC capsules and the HPMC capsules were further coated with enteric polymer Eudragit L 100 (Ed-L100 and/ or Eudrgit S 100 (Ed-S 100 in different proportions. In vitro release study of ECHC was performed in various release media sequentially SGF for 2 h, followed by SIF for the next 6 h and then in SCF (in the presence and absence of pectinase enzyme for further 16 h. Drug release was retarded on coating with EdS-100 in comparison to blend of EdS-100: EdL-100 coating. The percentage of 5-FU released at the end of 24 h from ECHC 3 was 97.83 ± 0.12% in the presence of pectinase whereas in control study it was 40.08 ± 0.02% drug. The optimized formulation was subjected to in vivo Roentgenographic studies in New Zealand white rabbits to analyze the in vivo behavior of the developed colon targeted capsules. Pharmacokinetic studies in New Zealand white rabbits were conducted to determine the extent of systemic exposure provided by the developed formulation in comparison to 5-FU aqueous solutions. Thus, enteric coated HPMC capsules plugged with 5-FU loaded microsponges and calcium pectinate beads proved to be promising dosage form for colon targeted drug delivery to treat colorectal cancer.

  11. Enteric-coated charcoal as a means of blinding studies comparing bismuth and H2-receptor antagonists. (United States)

    Yates, S; Barnett, C; Peterson, W L


    Clinical trials comparing H2-receptor antagonists and bismuth-containing regimens in ulcer healing, ulcer relapse, or dyspepsia have not been double-blind, because bismuth darkens stools. This study was designed to determine whether enteric-coated charcoal could darken stools of subjects taking an H2-receptor antagonist without interfering with absorption of the drug. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial of oral ranitidine (300 mg at bedtime) alone, ranitidine plus bismuth (30 ml Pepto-Bismol four times daily), and ranitidine plus enteric-coated charcoal (four tablets daily). Mean stool colors both with ranitidine plus charcoal and with ranitidine plus bismuth were significantly darker than with ranitidine alone, but were not significantly different from each other. Blood levels of ranitidine during the 10 h after its administration did not differ significantly among the three regimens. We conclude that enteric-coated charcoal can be used to blind clinical trials comparing an H2-receptor antagonist (e.g., ranitidine) and a bismuth regimen.

  12. Comparative bioavailability of slow release diclofenac (Voveran SR) with enteric coated tablet and internationally used Voltaren Retard. (United States)

    Sahajwalla, C G; Bhatt, A D; Bhatia, S C; Bakshi, R; Doshi, K J; Banavalikar, M M; Bharucha, E D; Marthak, K V; Shah, N N; Gupta, K C


    The objective of the study was to compare the enteric coated diclofenac sodium (Voveran), the slow release formulation developed in India (Voveran SR) and the internationally marketed formulation Voltaren Retard. Ten healthy volunteers were administered 100 mg each of the three formulations in a three-way crossover fashion. Blood samples were collected over 24 hours following administration of the drug; plasma levels of unchanged drug were determined by gas chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters for the three formulations were compared. The extent of the drug available from the three formulations was the same as the mean AUC values were not significantly different. Cmax and MRT values for the two slow release formulations were comparable but were significantly different from the values obtained with the enteric coated formulation. Tmax values for the two slow release formulations were similar while the enteric coated tablet had faster time to peak. Voveran SR is comparable to Voltaren Retard and has the distinct advantage of a slow release formulation in that its Cmax is much lower and levels are maintained over 12 hours and detectable upto 24 hours. This slow release formulation will offer clinical advantages of better compliance, relief of early morning symptoms and better tolerability over long term usage.

  13. Enteric coated spheres produced by extrusion/spheronization provide effective gastric protection and efficient release of live therapeutic bacteria. (United States)

    de Barros, João M S; Lechner, Tabea; Charalampopoulos, Dimitrios; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V; Edwards, Alexander D


    We present a novel but simple enteric coated sphere formulation containing probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei). Oral delivery of live bacterial cells (LBC) requires live cells to survive firstly manufacturing processes and secondly GI microbicidal defenses including gastric acid. We incorporated live L. casei directly in the granulation liquid, followed by granulation, extrusion, spheronization, drying and spray coating to produce dried live probiotic spheres. A blend of MCC, calcium-crosslinked alginate, and lactose was developed that gave improved live cell survival during manufacturing, and gave excellent protection from gastric acid plus rapid release in intestinal conditions. No significant loss of viability was observed in all steps except drying, which resulted in approximately 1 log loss of viable cells. Eudragit coating was used to protect dried live cells from acid, and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was combined with sodium alginate to achieve efficient sphere disintegration leading to rapid and complete bacterial cell release in intestinal conditions. Viability and release of L. casei was evaluated in vitro in simulated GI conditions. Uncoated spheres gave partial acid protection, but enteric coated spheres effectively protected dried probiotic LBC from acid for 2h, and subsequently released all viable cells within 1h of transfer into simulated intestinal fluid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Relative bioavailability of diclofenac after a single administration of a new multiple-unit formulation of enteric-coated pellets]. (United States)

    Walter, K; von Nieciecki, A


    The relative bioavailability of diclofenac (CAS 15307-86-5) was investigated after a single administration of a multiple-unit formulation containing 75 mg diclofenac sodium in enteric-coated pellets (A) in comparison to an enteric-coated tablet with 50 mg diclofenac sodium (B), a capsule containing 140 mg diclofenac resinate (C) and a dispersible tablet containing 46.5 mg diclofenac acid (D). The study was carried out in a four-way crossover design in 16 healthy male volunteers. Serum concentrations of diclofenac were determined with a validated and specific HPLC-method. After dose normalisation, a mean relative bioavailability of 99% (B), 142% (C) and 116% (D) was determined for the pellet formulation. According to the corresponding 90%-confidence interval, bioequivalence for the extent of bioavailability of the test formulation can be concluded compared to the enteric-coated tablet. In comparison to the formulations C and D, the test formulation showed an increased extent of bioavailability. Further differences in pharmacokinetics were observed for the rate-dependent parameters. For the test formulation, the highest mean maximum serum concentration (1595 ng/ml) was measured with a corresponding tmax of 0.8 h. For the reference formulations, mean peak serum concentrations of 1285 ng/ml after 2.0 h (B), 370 ng/ml after 1.8 h (C) and 735 ng/ml after 1.9 h (D) were observed. Despite the enteric-coating of the pellets, a short lagtime of 0.4 h was determined for the test formulation. For the other rapid-release formulation (D), the lagtime was of a similar magnitude (0.3 h), while drug release and absorption from the enteric-coated tablet and the diclofenac resinate capsule were delayed (1.8 and 0.7 h, respectively). Due to the rapid and high bioavailability of diclofenac, the multiple-unit formulation fulfills the prerequisites for the oral treatment of acute painful conditions when prompt analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy is desired.

  15. Relative Bioavailability of Two Enteric-Coated Formulations of Omeprazole following Repeated Doses in Healthy Volunteers. (United States)

    Vaz-da-Silva, M; Hainzl, D; Almeida, L; Dolgner, A; Silveira, P; Maia, J; Soares-da-Silva, P


    This study aimed to investigate the relative bioavailability and bioequivalence of two omeprazole enteric-coated formulations following repeated doses (steady state) in healthy male and female adult volunteers. The study formulation (Ompranyt® 20mg capsules, Bial-Industrial Farmaceutica SA, Spain) was compared with an omeprazole reference formulation (Mopral® 20mg capsules, Laboratório Astra, Spain). 24 participants were randomised using a two-way, crossover design to receive either one capsule/day of Ompranyt® or one capsule/day of Mopral® during two sequential periods of five consecutive days each. The participants were administered the drugs in the fasting state. Omeprazole concentrations in plasma samples were quantified by a validated method using a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The validation method is described. The study was conducted at the Human Pharmacology Unit, Department of Research & Development, Laboratorios Bial (S. Mamede do Coronado, Portugal). The arithmetic mean ± SD values of the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) were 1474 ± 1417 μg/L·h for Ompranyt® and 1490 ± 1276 μg/L·h for Mopral®. The geometric means ratio (Ompranyt®/Mopral®) was 0.99, with 90% confidence intervals (CI) of 0.97-1.03. The estimated maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 630.1 ± 516.7 μg/L for Ompranyt® and 736.7 ± 443.3 μg/L for Mopral®, with a geometric means ratio (Ompranyt®/Mopral®) of 0.96 (90% CI: 0.94-0.99). Bioequivalence of these two formulations was accepted based on the two one-sided ANOVA for AUC0-∞ as well as for Cmax. In both cases, the 90% CI lies within the acceptance range of 0.80-1.25. Bioequivalence of Ompranyt® and Mopral® was demonstrated after repeated drug administration in fasting conditions, and both products were similarly well tolerated. Therefore, both formulations are expected to be equivalent in a clinical

  16. Non-destructive prediction of enteric coating layer thickness and drug dissolution rate by near-infrared spectroscopy and X-ray computed tomography. (United States)

    Ariyasu, Aoi; Hattori, Yusuke; Otsuka, Makoto


    The coating layer thickness of enteric-coated tablets is a key factor that determines the drug dissolution rate from the tablet. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) enables non-destructive and quick measurement of the coating layer thickness, and thus allows the investigation of the relation between enteric coating layer thickness and drug dissolution rate. Two marketed products of aspirin enteric-coated tablets were used in this study, and the correlation between the predicted coating layer thickness and the obtained drug dissolution rate was investigated. Our results showed correlation for one product; the drug dissolution rate decreased with the increase in enteric coating layer thickness, whereas, there was no correlation for the other product. Additional examination of the distribution of coating layer thickness by X-ray computed tomography (CT) showed homogenous distribution of coating layer thickness for the former product, whereas the latter product exhibited heterogeneous distribution within the tablet, as well as inconsistent trend in the thickness distribution between the tablets. It was suggested that this heterogeneity and inconsistent trend in layer thickness distribution contributed to the absence of correlation between the layer thickness of the face and side regions of the tablets, which resulted in the loss of correlation between the coating layer thickness and drug dissolution rate. Therefore, the predictability of drug dissolution rate from enteric-coated tablets depended on the homogeneity of the coating layer thickness. In addition, the importance of micro analysis, X-ray CT in this study, was suggested even if the macro analysis, NIRS in this study, are finally applied for the measurement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative effects of aspirin and enteric-coated aspirin on loss of chromium 51-labeled erythrocytes from the gastrointestinal tract

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    Robbins, D.C.; Schwartz, R.S.; Kutny, K.; Vallejo, G.; Horton, E.S.; Cotter, J.M.


    Sodium chromate Cr 51 was used to label red blood cells of 19 healthy male volunteers, whose stools were collected for four days before and four days during oral administration of either uncoated (N . 9) or enteric-coated (N . 10) aspirin. Each subject received 2.925 gm/day of aspirin, in three equal doses separated by eight-hour intervals, for a total of seven days. During drug use, stools were collected on days 4 through 7. Fecal blood content, estimated by measuring radioactivity in the stools, was significantly higher (P less than 0.001) during use of either type of aspirin than at baseline, but losses measured during use of the coated aspirin (mean, 1.54 ml/day) were significantly lower (P less than 0.001) than those measured during use of the uncoated aspirin (mean, 4.33 ml/day). The two types of aspirin produced equivalent serum concentrations of salicylates. We conclude that enteric-coated aspirin reduces gastrointestinal blood loss.

  18. Development of enteric coated tablets from spray dried extract of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L:

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    Juliana Siqueira Chaves


    Full Text Available Tanacetum parthenium (feverfew is an herb that is commercialized worldwide as a therapeutic treatment for migraine. Its pharmacological effect is mainly due to the presence of the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide as well as of flavonoids. So far, there are no studies on standardization of pre-formulations or phytomedicines containing this herb. The present study aimed at developing a pre-formulation using a standardized spray-dried extract of feverfew and further designing and standardizing enteric coated tablets. In this work, the spray-dried extract of feverfew was evaluated for its parthenolide, santin and total flavonoid content, parthenolide solubility, particle size, tapped density, hygroscopicity, angle of repose and moisture content. Tablets containing the spray-dried extract were tested for their average weight, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. The total flavonoid and parthenolide contents in the spray-dried extract were 1.31 % and 0.76% w/w, respectively. The spray-dried extract presented consistent pharmacotechnical properties and allowed its tableting by direct compression. Tablet properties were in accordance with the proposed specifications. The procedures described herein can be used to prepare and evaluate pre-formulations of feverfew with adequate properties for the development of a high-quality phytomedicine.Tanacetum parthenium (tanaceto é uma planta medicinal comercializada no mundo todo para tratamento de enxaqueca. Seu efeito farmacológico é creditado principalmente à lactona sesquiterpênica partenolídeo e flavonóides. Até o momento não existem estudos sobre a padronização de pré-formulações ou o desenvolvimento de fitoterápicos com tanaceto. Logo, o objetivo deste trabalho foi obter comprimidos de revestimento entérico a partir de extrato seco e padronizado de tanaceto. Neste trabalho, o extrato seco do tanaceto obtido pelo método de spray drying foi avaliado quanto ao teor de partenol

  19. Enteric-coated aspirin versus other antiplatelet drugs in acute non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke: post-marketing study in Japan. (United States)

    Takahashi, Shunichi; Mizuno, Osamu; Sakaguchi, Toshiaki; Yamada, Takashi; Inuyama, Lyo


    Japanese guidelines recommend aspirin 160-300 mg/day, starting within 48 h, for patients with acute cerebral infarction. However, there are few reports evaluated in Japanese patients. Our objective was to examine the safety and efficacy of enteric-coated aspirin, compared with other oral antiplatelet drugs, in Japanese patients with acute ischemic stroke. We performed a prospective, non-randomized, observational and multicenter study between June 2005 and December 2007. Patients with symptomatic acute ischemic stroke, including transient ischemic attack (TIA), who started enteric-coated aspirin or other antiplatelet drugs within 7 days of hospitalization were registered. Outcome measures evaluated within 3 months were incidence of cerebral and non-cerebral hemorrhagic events, recurrence of ischemic stroke or TIA, non-cerebral ischemic events and death from any cause. Overall, 2,548 and 830 patients treated with enteric-coated aspirin (100-300 mg/day) or other antiplatelet drugs, respectively, were registered; approximately 60% were male, mean age was 70 years, 85% had pre-existing cardiovascular disease or other complications. Enteric-coated aspirin of 100 mg was mainly prescribed, and only approximately half of the patients were started on it within 48 h after onset of ischemic stroke. Safety and efficacy population excluded patients without follow-up data were 2,521 in enteric-coated aspirin and 807 in other antiplatelets. Hemorrhagic events occurred in 46 (1.8%) in the enteric-coated aspirin group and in 13 (1.6%) in the other antiplatelet drugs group, there was not significant. Recurrent ischemic stroke or TIA occurred in 39 (1.5%) of the enteric-coated aspirin and in 18 (2.2%) of other antiplatelet drugs, and there were any-cause death in 16 (0.6%) and 8 (1.0%). Incidences were slightly lower in the enteric-coated aspirin group compared with the other antiplatelet drugs group, but not statistically significant. It seems that these results showed the

  20. Preparation of enteric-coated microcapsules of astaxanthin oleoresin by complex coacervation. (United States)

    Li, Rongli; Chen, Rencai; Liu, Weiwei; Qin, Cuiying; Han, Jing


    Astaxanthin oleoresin (AO) has a number of beneficial physiological functions. However, its sensitivity to light, heat, oxygen and gastric fluids has limited its application. In this paper, we describe the preparation of AO enteric microcapsules by coacervation to improve its stability and enteric solubility, and evaluate their efficacy by measuring the drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, optical microscopic appearance, stability, in vitro release and bioavailability. The results obtained showed that the AO enteric microcapsules possessed a high encapsulation efficiency (85.9%), a satisfactory in vitro release profile, and the ability of the microencapsulated AO to resist the effects of light, heat and oxygen was improved by 2.2-fold, 3.1-fold and 2.4-fold, respectively, during storage. In addition, the bioavailability of AO microcapsules was approximately 1.29-fold higher than AO, which is important for pharmaceutical applications and as a functional food.

  1. Preparation and evaluation of enteric-coated delayed-release pellets of duloxetine hydrochloride using a fluidized bed coater. (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Il; Pradhan, Roshan; Paudel, Bijay K; Choi, Ju Yeon; Im, Ho Taek; Kim, Jong Oh


    In this study, the enteric-coated delayed-release pellets of duloxetine hydrochloride (DLX) were formulated using a fluidized bed coater. Three separate layers, the drug layer, the barrier layer, and the enteric layer, were coated onto inert core pellets. Among the three formulations (F1-F3), the dissolution profiles of formulation F2 were most similar to those of the marketed product, with similarity and difference factors of 83.99 and 3.77, respectively. In addition, pharmacokinetic parameters of AUC, C(max), T(max), t(1/2), K(el), and MRT of DLX for the developed formulation (F2) did not differ significantly from those for the marketed product in beagle dogs, suggesting that they were bioequivalent. Our results demonstrated that the in vitro dissolution data resembled the in vivo performance of the drug. Therefore, this study has a positive scope for further scale up and development of the formulation for achievement of the generic product.

  2. Automated Dissolution for Enteric-Coated Aspirin Tablets: A Case Study for Method Transfer to a RoboDis II. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sarah A; Martini, Luigi


    Dissolution method transfer is a complicated yet common process in the pharmaceutical industry. With increased pharmaceutical product manufacturing and dissolution acceptance requirements, dissolution testing has become one of the most labor-intensive quality control testing methods. There is an increased trend for automation in dissolution testing, particularly for large pharmaceutical companies to reduce variability and increase personnel efficiency. There is no official guideline for dissolution testing method transfer from a manual, semi-automated, to automated dissolution tester. In this study, a manual multipoint dissolution testing procedure for an enteric-coated aspirin tablet was transferred effectively and reproducibly to a fully automated dissolution testing device, RoboDis II. Enteric-coated aspirin samples were used as a model formulation to assess the feasibility and accuracy of media pH change during continuous automated dissolution testing. Several RoboDis II parameters were evaluated to ensure the integrity and equivalency of dissolution method transfer from a manual dissolution tester. This current study provides a systematic outline for the transfer of the manual dissolution testing protocol to an automated dissolution tester. This study further supports that automated dissolution testers compliant with regulatory requirements and similar to manual dissolution testers facilitate method transfer. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  3. A simple and inexpensive enteric-coated capsule for delivery of acid-labile macromolecules to the small intestine* (United States)

    Miller, Darren S.; Parsons, Anne Michelle; Bresland, John; Herde, Paul; Pham, Duc Minh; Tan, Angel; Hsu, Hung-yao; Prestidge, Clive A.; Kuchel, Tim; Begg, Rezaul; Aziz, Syed Mahfuzul; Butler, Ross N.


    Understanding the ecology of the gastrointestinal tract and the impact of the contents on the host mucosa is emerging as an important area for defining both wellness and susceptibility to disease. Targeted delivery of drugs to treat specific small intestinal disorders such as small bowel bacterial overgrowth and targeting molecules to interrogate or to deliver vaccines to the remote regions of the small intestine has proven difficult. There is an unmet need for methodologies to release probes/drugs to remote regions of the gastrointestinal tract in furthering our understanding of gut health and pathogenesis. In order to address this concern, we need to know how the regional delivery of a surrogate labeled test compound is handled and in turn, if delivered locally as a liquid or powder, the dynamics of its subsequent handling and metabolism. In the studies we report on in this paper, we chose 13C sodium acetate (13C-acetate), which is a stable isotope probe that once absorbed in the small intestine can be readily measured non-invasively by collection and analysis of 13CO2 in the breath. This would provide information of gastric emptying rates and an indication of the site of release and absorptive capacity. In a series of in vitro and in vivo pig experiments, we assessed the enteric-protective properties of a commercially available polymer EUDRAGIT®L100-55 on gelatin capsules and also on DRcaps®. Test results demonstrated that DRcaps®coated with EUDRAGIT®L100-55 possessed enhanced enteric-protective properties, particularly in vivo. These studies add to the body of knowledge regarding gastric emptying in pigs and also begin the process of gathering specifications for the design of a simple and cost-effective enteric-coated capsule for delivery of acid-labile macromolecules to the small intestine. PMID:26160716

  4. A simple and inexpensive enteric-coated capsule for delivery of acid-labile macromolecules to the small intestine. (United States)

    Miller, Darren S; Parsons, Anne Michelle; Bresland, John; Herde, Paul; Pham, Duc Minh; Tan, Angel; Hsu, Hung-yao; Prestidge, Clive A; Kuchel, Tim; Begg, Rezaul; Aziz, Syed Mahfuzul; Butler, Ross N


    Understanding the ecology of the gastrointestinal tract and the impact of the contents on the host mucosa is emerging as an important area for defining both wellness and susceptibility to disease. Targeted delivery of drugs to treat specific small intestinal disorders such as small bowel bacterial overgrowth and targeting molecules to interrogate or to deliver vaccines to the remote regions of the small intestine has proven difficult. There is an unmet need for methodologies to release probes/drugs to remote regions of the gastrointestinal tract in furthering our understanding of gut health and pathogenesis. In order to address this concern, we need to know how the regional delivery of a surrogate labeled test compound is handled and in turn, if delivered locally as a liquid or powder, the dynamics of its subsequent handling and metabolism. In the studies we report on in this paper, we chose (13)C sodium acetate ((13)C-acetate), which is a stable isotope probe that once absorbed in the small intestine can be readily measured non-invasively by collection and analysis of (13)CO2 in the breath. This would provide information of gastric emptying rates and an indication of the site of release and absorptive capacity. In a series of in vitro and in vivo pig experiments, we assessed the enteric-protective properties of a commercially available polymer EUDRAGIT(®) L100-55 on gelatin capsules and also on DRcaps(®). Test results demonstrated that DRcaps(®) coated with EUDRAGIT(®) L100-55 possessed enhanced enteric-protective properties, particularly in vivo. These studies add to the body of knowledge regarding gastric emptying in pigs and also begin the process of gathering specifications for the design of a simple and cost-effective enteric-coated capsule for delivery of acid-labile macromolecules to the small intestine.

  5. Comparison of esomeprazole enteric-coated capsules vs esomeprazole magnesium in the treatment of active duodenal ulcer: A randomized, double-blind, controlled study (United States)

    Liang, Xiao-Yan; Gao, Qing; Gong, Neng-Ping; Tang, Li-Ping; Wang, Pi-Long; Tao, Xiao-Hong


    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of two different preparations of esomeprazole in healing duodenal ulcers. METHODS: A total of 60 patients with active duodenal ulcers were enrolled and randomized to receive esomeprazole enteric-coated capsules (40 mg) or esomeprazole magnesium (40 mg), once daily, for 4 consecutive wk, with ulcer healing being monitored by endoscopy. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. RESULTS: Fifty seven patients completed the whole trial. The ulcer healing rates at the end of wk 2 were 86.7% and 85.2% in the esomeprazole enteric-coated capsules and esomeprazole magnesium groups, respectively (P = 0.8410), and reached 100% at the end of wk 4 in both groups. Symptom relief at the end of wk 2 was 90.8% in the esomeprazole enteric-coated capsules group and 86.7% in the esomeprazole magnesium group (P = 0.5406); at the end of wk 4 symptom relief was 95.2% and 93.2%, respectively (P = 0.5786). Adverse events occurred in 16.7% of the esomeprazole enteric-coated capsules group and 14.8% of the esomeprazole magnesium group (P = 1.0000). CONCLUSION: The efficacies of esomeprazole enteric-coated capsules and esomeprazole magnesium in healing duodenal ulcer lesions and relieving gastrointestinal symptoms are equivalent. The tolerability and safety of both drugs were comparable. PMID:18350637

  6. Novel application method of talcum powder to prevent sticking tendency and modify release of esomeprazole magnesium enteric-coated pellets. (United States)

    Liu, Zan; Wang, Weiwei; Chen, Hao; Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Wenli


    Actually, reflecting drug release from polymer-coated pellets remains a challenge. In this study, sticking of pellets caused by Eudragit®L30D-55 was observed during the release process, leading to change in drug release. Talcum powder (talc) was used in esomeprazole magnesium pellets to prevent sticking and modify release of pellets. Three methods including talc incorporated in enteric layer, physically mixed and coating resulted pellets were employed to prevent the sticking. The release of pellets was modified by addition talc into subcoat. The dispersion coefficient (Fd) and release profiles were determined in phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.8 and 6.0) and distilled water. It was found that the first manner made Fd increase to about 0.75, but the latter two methods could completely prevent sticking. Also, the second manner was more simple and readily scaled up. In addition, talc in subcoat significantly slowed the drug release in water, but the slowing release effect is less pronounced at pH 6.0 and 6.8. These different effects of talc were attributed to a different release mechanism in three media. The release profiles in water were fitted to Nuttanan model, and the K designated as "diffusive resistance constant" was linearly increased with talc levels in subcoat (R(2)=0.9874).

  7. Design and characterization of enteric-coated controlled release mucoadhesive microcapsules of Rabeprazole sodium. (United States)

    Swain, Suryakanta; Behera, Upali A; Beg, Sarwar; Sruti, J; Patro, Ch Niranjan; Dinda, S C; Rao, M E B


    The objectives of present work was to design and characterize the rabeprazole sodium loaded microcapsules prepared by solvent evaporation technique using ethyl cellulose (EC) based various mucoadhesive polymer, followed by a triple coating with Eudragit L100. The Box-behnken design (BBD) was applied for optimization of formulations containing EC, HPMCK100M and Eudragit L100 as factors for selected responses like entrapment efficiency, mucoadhesive property and drug release in 24 h. The prepared microcapsules were characterized for particle size, drug content, swelling index, mucoadhesive strength, and in vivo antiulcer activity. FT-IR studies revealed that there was no drug-polymer interaction. SEM studies revealed that microcapsules were non-aggregated, spherical shape and smooth appearance. In vitro drug release data from microcapsules was fitted to different kinetic models to explain release profiles. The correlation coefficient value (r(2)) indicated that the drug release followed Higuchi model. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant difference in the release of drug from all formulations at p microcapsules were able to protect rat stomach against ulcer formation vis-à-vis aqueous solution of the drug showed only negligible and minimum effect.

  8. A randomized, phase I, double-blind, crossover study on pharmacokinetics of peppermint oil capsules in healthy volunteers : Enteric-coating versus colon-targeted-delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerts, Z.Z.R.M.; Keszthelyi, D.; Frijlink, H.W.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; Vork, L.; Jonkers, D.M.A.E.; Masclee, A.A.M.


    Peppermint oil (PO) has been shown to reduce abdominal pain in patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Menthol, the main constituent of PO, induces intestinal smooth muscle relaxation and desensitizes nociceptive nerve afferents. Enteric-coated (EC PO) capsules that release PO mainly in the

  9. Developing a Stable Aqueous Enteric Coating Formulation with Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS-MF) and Colloidal Silicon Dioxide as Anti-tacking Agent. (United States)

    Deshpande, Tanvi M; Quadir, Anisul; Obara, Sakae; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Hoag, Stephen W


    The purpose of this study was to use statistical design of experiments to develop a stable aqueous enteric coating formulation containing stabilizing excipients, such as polyethylene glycol that can minimize hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate aggregation and minimize spray-nozzle clogging at elevated processing temperatures. The mechanisms of stabilization (i.e. charge stabilization and molecular interactions) were studied by performing zeta potential and FTIR studies. Electrostatic stabilization by sodium lauryl sulfate and hydrogen bonding by polyethylene glycol provided dispersion stability and yielded a stable aqueous coating formulation that prevented spray-nozzle clogging. An enteric coated tablet with better gastric resistance was obtained by incorporating fumed silica (Aerosil ® R972) as the anti-tacking agent instead of talc. Dissolution testing on the riboflavin enteric coated tablets showed a good enteric release profile without releasing riboflavin in 0.1 N HCl, and completely disintegrating within 10 min in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Efficacy of omeprazole powder paste or enteric-coated formulation in healing of gastric ulcers in horses. (United States)

    Birkmann, K; Junge, H K; Maischberger, E; Wehrli Eser, M; Schwarzwald, C C


    GastroGard, an omeprazole powder paste formulation, is considered the standard treatment for gastric ulcers in horses and is highly effective. Gastrozol, an enteric-coated omeprazole formulation for horses, has recently become available, but efficacy data are controversial and sparse. To investigate the efficacy of GastroGard and Gastrozol at labeled doses (4 and 1 mg of omeprazole per kg bwt, respectively, PO q24h) in healing of gastric ulcers. 40 horses; 9.5 ± 4.6 years; 491 ± 135 kg. Prospective, randomized, blinded study. Horses with an ulcer score ≥1 (Equine Gastric Ulcer Council) were randomly divided into 2 groups and treated for 2 weeks each with GastroGard followed by Gastrozol (A) or vice versa (B). After 2 and 4 weeks, scoring was repeated and compared with baseline. Plasma omeprazole concentrations were measured on the first day of treatment after administration of GastroGard (n = 5) or Gastrozol (n = 5). Compared with baseline (squamous score (A) 1.65 ± 0.11, (B) 1.98 ± 0.11), ulcer scores at 2 weeks ((A) 0.89 ± 0.11, (B) 1.01 ± 0.11) and 4 weeks ((A) 1.10 ± 0.12, (B) 0.80 ± 0.12) had significantly decreased in both groups (P omeprazole concentrations were significantly higher after GastroGard compared with Gastrozol administration (AUCGG = 2856 (1405-4576) ng/mL × h, AUCGZ = 604 (430-1609) ng/mL × h; P = .03). The bioavailability for Gastrozol was 1.26 (95% CI 0.56-2.81) times higher than for GastroGard. Both Gastrozol and GastroGard, combined with appropriate environmental changes, promote healing of gastric ulcers in horses. However, despite enteric coating of Gastrozol, plasma omeprazole concentrations after single labeled doses were significantly higher with GastroGard. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Enteric-coated, highly standardized cranberry extract reduces risk of UTIs and urinary symptoms during radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma (United States)

    Bonetta, Alberto; Di Pierro, Francesco


    Background Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins can interfere with adhesion of bacteria to uroepithelial cells, potentially preventing lower urinary tract infections (LUTIs). Because LUTIs are a common side effect of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer, we evaluated the clinical efficacy of enteric-coated tablets containing highly standardized V. msacrocarpon (ecVM) in this condition. Methods A total of 370 consecutive patients were entered into this study. All patients received intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer; 184 patients were also treated with ecVM while 186 served as controls. Cranberry extract therapy started on the simulation day, at which time a bladder catheterization was performed. During EBRT (over 6–7 weeks), all patients underwent weekly examination for urinary tract symptoms, including regular urine cultures during the treatment period. Results Compliance was excellent, with no adverse effects or allergic reactions being observed, apart from gastric pain in two patients. In the cranberry cohort (n = 184), 16 LUTIs (8.7%) were observed, while in the control group (n = 186) 45 LUTIs (24.2%) were recorded. This difference was statistically significant. Furthermore, lower rates of nocturia, urgency, micturition frequency, and dysuria were observed in the group that received cranberry extract. Conclusion Cranberry extracts have been reported to reduce the incidence of LUTIs significantly in women and children. Our data extend these results to patients with prostate cancer undergoing irradiation to the pelvis, who had a significant reduction in LUTIs compared with controls. These results were accompanied by a statistically significant reduction in urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, nocturia, urinary frequency, urgency), suggesting a generally protective effect of cranberry extract on the bladder mucosa. PMID:22977312

  12. Enteric-coated, highly standardized cranberry extract reduces risk of UTIs and urinary symptoms during radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma

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    Bonetta A


    Full Text Available Alberto Bonetta,1 Francesco Di Pierro21Unità Operativa Radioterapia Oncologica, Istituti Ospedalieri di Cremona, Cremona; 2Velleja Research, Milan, ItalyBackground: Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon proanthocyanidins can interfere with adhesion of bacteria to uroepithelial cells, potentially preventing lower urinary tract infections (LUTIs. Because LUTIs are a common side effect of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT for prostate cancer, we evaluated the clinical efficacy of enteric-coated tablets containing highly standardized V. msacrocarpon (ecVM in this condition.Methods: A total of 370 consecutive patients were entered into this study. All patients received intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer; 184 patients were also treated with ecVM while 186 served as controls. Cranberry extract therapy started on the simulation day, at which time a bladder catheterization was performed. During EBRT (over 6–7 weeks, all patients underwent weekly examination for urinary tract symptoms, including regular urine cultures during the treatment period.Results: Compliance was excellent, with no adverse effects or allergic reactions being observed, apart from gastric pain in two patients. In the cranberry cohort (n = 184, 16 LUTIs (8.7% were observed, while in the control group (n = 186 45 LUTIs (24.2% were recorded. This difference was statistically significant. Furthermore, lower rates of nocturia, urgency, micturition frequency, and dysuria were observed in the group that received cranberry extract.Conclusion: Cranberry extracts have been reported to reduce the incidence of LUTIs significantly in women and children. Our data extend these results to patients with prostate cancer undergoing irradiation to the pelvis, who had a significant reduction in LUTIs compared with controls. These results were accompanied by a statistically significant reduction in urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, nocturia, urinary frequency, urgency, suggesting a generally

  13. Evaluation of Multiple Linear Regression Limited Sampling Strategies for Enteric-Coated Mycophenolate Sodium in Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients. (United States)

    Brooks, Emily K; Staatz, Christine E; Tett, Susan E; Isbel, Nicole M; McWhinney, Brett


    Although multiple linear regression-based limited sampling strategies (LSS) have been published for enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MS), none have been evaluated for the prediction of subsequent mycophenolic acid (MPA) exposure. This study aimed to examine the predictive performance of the published LSS for the estimation of future MPA area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 hours (AUC0-12) in renal transplant recipients. Total MPA plasma concentrations were measured in twenty adult renal transplant patients on two occasions a week apart. All subjects received concomitant tacrolimus and were approximately one-month post transplant. Samples were taken at 0, 0.33, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 6, and 8 hours and 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, and 12 hours post dose on the first and second sampling occasion, respectively. Predicted MPA AUC0-12 was calculated using nineteen published LSS and data from the first or second sampling occasion for each patient and compared to the second occasion full MPA AUC0-12 calculated using the linear trapezoidal rule. Bias (median percentage prediction error [MPPE]) and imprecision (median absolute prediction error [MAPE]) were determined. MPPE and MAPE for the prediction of full MPA AUC0-12 were multiple linear regression-based LSS was not possible without concentrations up to at least 8 hours after the dose.

  14. Influence of Food on the Bioavailability of an Enteric-Coated Tablet Formulation of Omeprazole 20 mg Under Repeated Dose Conditions

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    ABR Thomson


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of food on the bioavailability of omeprazole (20 mg given as an enteric-coated tablet under repeated dose conditions. This open randomized crossover study consisted of three seven-day treatment periods, each separated by a drug-free period. During each treatment period an enteric-coated tablet of omeprazole was taken once daily either under fasting conditions, or immediately before or after a standardized breakfast. On the last day of each treatment period, blood samples for the determination of plasma omeprazole concentrations were collected at baseline and at predetermined intervals over the 24 h period following drug administration. Fifty-seven male and female subjects, aged 18 to 52 years, completed the study according to the protocol. No statistically significant differences were found when comparing either the before breakfast or after breakfast treatment regimens with the fasting regimen for the estimated mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC. The maximum plasma concentration was not found to differ significantly among any of the treatment regimens. However, the lower limit of the CI for the comparison of fasting/before breakfast was not contained within the limits of bioequivalence. The time to reach maximum plasma concentration was significantly different when fasting and after breakfast regimens were compared. Thus, under repeated dose conditions, food has no influence on the bioavailability (expressed as AUC of omeprazole given as the enteric-coated tablet formulation.

  15. A quality by design (QbD case study on enteric-coated pellets: Screening of critical variables and establishment of design space at laboratory scale

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    Shuling Kan


    Full Text Available The study aims to prepare naproxen enteric-coated pellets (NAP-ECPs by fluid-bed coating using QbD principle. Risk assessment was firstly performed by using failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA methodology. A Plackett–Burman design was then used for assessment of the most important variables affecting enteric-coated pellets characteristics. A Box–Behnken design was subsequently used for investigating the main, interactive, and quadratic effects of these variables on the response. By FMEA we discovered that eight factors should be considered to be high/important risk variables as compared with others. The responses of acid resistance and cumulative drug release were taken as critical quality attributes (CQAs. Pareto ranking analyses indicated that the coating weight gain (X7, triethyl citrate percentage (X1 and glycerol monostearate percentage (X2 were the most significant factors affecting the selected responses out of the eight high-risk variables. Optimization with response surface method (RSM further fully clarified the relationship between X7, X1, X2 and CQAs, and design space was established based on the constraints set on the responses. Due to the extreme coincidence of the predicted value generated by model with the observed value, the accuracy and robustness of the model were confirmed. It could be concluded that a promising NAP-ECPs was successfully designed using QbD approach in a laboratory scale.

  16. The evaluation of enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium in cardiac deceased donor liver transplant patients in China. (United States)

    Wang, Zuoyi; He, J J; Liu, X Y; Lin, Bingyi; Zhang, Lin; Geng, Lei; Zheng, Shusen


    The management of liver receivers requires intense immunosuppression to prevent graft rejection. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a common immunosuppressant but frequently suffer dose reduction for gastrointestinal adverse reactions (GI). Hence, the enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) is introduced as a substitute for MMF to reduce GI. The study was designed to investigate the efficacy, safety and exposure equation of EC-MPS in liver transplant patients in China. Ninety-two liver receivers who administered EC-MPS or MMF as a primary immunosuppressant were enrolled in this single-center study and divided into MMF group and EC-MPC group, respectively. Efficacy and safety of EC-MPS were compared with MMF. The MPA exposure was measured at time 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 h after mean 4.5 days of EC-MPS treatment. An equation of limited time points for estimating serum MPA exposure of EC-MPS was established using multiple stepwise regression model. Data show an interpatient variation in MPA AUC, Cmax and Tmax. After a first dose of EC-MPS, the mean value of serum AUC0-12 h was 20.68 mg/L (SD 8.94, range 8.1-46.3). Cmax was 9.7 mg/L (SD 6.48, range 2.7-16.3); Tmax was 1.90 h (SD 0.97, range 0.5-4). The best equation for estimating the AUC was 6.0 1 4 + 0.946C2 + 0.606C3 + 1.154C4 + 2.479C6 + 5.07C12. Comparing with MMF, EC-MPS not only effectively maintained immunosuppression, but also had similar incidences of infection, renal dysfunction and hematological disorders. However, EC-MPS markedly improved GI, the incidence of GI was half of the MMF group. This analysis presented that EC-MPS is an effective and safe immunosuppressant as similar as MMF. The conversion of MMF to EC-MPS could be administered.

  17. Accelerating the dissolution of enteric coatings in the upper small intestine: evolution of a novel pH 5.6 bicarbonate buffer system to assess drug release. (United States)

    Varum, Felipe J O; Merchant, Hamid A; Goyanes, Alvaro; Assi, Pardis; Zboranová, Veronika; Basit, Abdul W


    Despite rapid dissolution in compendial phosphate buffers, gastro resistant (enteric coated) products can take up to 2 h to disintegrate in the human small intestine, which clearly highlights the inadequacy of the in vitro test method to predict in vivo behaviour of these formulations. The aim of this study was to establish the utility of a novel pH 5.6 bicarbonate buffer, stabilized by an Auto pH™ System, as a better surrogate of the conditions of the proximal small intestine to investigate the dissolution behaviour of standard and accelerated release enteric double coating formulations. Prednisolone tablets were coated with 3 or 5 mg/cm(2) of partially neutralized EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55, HP-55 or HPMC adjusted to pH 6 or 8. An outer layer of EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55 was applied at 5mg/cm(2). For comparison purposes, a standard single layer of EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55 was applied to the tablets. Dissolution was carried out using USP II apparatus in 0.1 M HCl for 2 h, followed by pH 5.6 bicarbonate buffer. EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55 single-coated tablets showed a slow drug release with a lag time of 75 min in buffer, whereas release from the EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55 double-coated tablets was accelerated. These in vitro lag times closely match the in vivo disintegration times for these coated tablets reported previously. Drug release was further accelerated from modified double coatings, particularly in the case of coatings with a thinner inner layer of HP-55 or HPMC (pH 8 and KH2PO4). This study confirms that the pH 5.6 bicarbonate buffer system offers significant advantages during the development of dosage forms designed to release the drug in the upper small intestine. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics during Treatment with the Omeprazole 20 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet and 20 mg Capsule in Asymptomatic Duodenal Ulcer Patients

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    ABR Thomson


    Full Text Available This study compared the 24 h intragastric pH profile and bioavailability at repeated dosing conditions of the omeprazole 20 mg enteric-coated tablet versus the 20 mg capsule. Forty duodenal ulcer patients in asymptomatic remission completed this randomized open two-way crossover study. Omeprazole 20 mg tablets or capsules were administered for seven days in each period. A 24 h pH recording was performed before the start of treatment and on day 7 of each treatment period. Plasma concentrations of omeprazole were determined 24 h after the dose. The treatment periods were separated by two to four weeks. The difference in percentage of time with pH of at least 3 was less than 16% in favour of the tablet (not significant. The estimated mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve as well as the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax for omeprazole were 18% and 41% higher, respectively, for the tablet versus the capsule, with the latter percentage being statistically significant. The time to reach Cmax (tmax with the tablet was, on average, about 0.5 h longer than to reach the tmax of the capsule. This study indicates that the enteric-coated tablet formulation of omeprazole is biodynamically equivalent to the capsule regarding their effects on intragastric pH during repeated dosing.

  19. Assessing the influence of media composition and ionic strength on drug release from commercial immediate-release and enteric-coated aspirin tablets. (United States)

    Karkossa, Frank; Klein, Sandra


    The objective of this test series was to elucidate the importance of selecting the right media composition for a biopredictive in-vitro dissolution screening of enteric-coated dosage forms. Drug release from immediate-release (IR) and enteric-coated (EC) aspirin formulations was assessed in phosphate-based and bicarbonate-based media with different pH, electrolyte composition and ionic strength. Drug release from aspirin IR tablets was unaffected by media composition. In contrast, drug release from EC aspirin formulations was affected by buffer species and ionic strength. In all media, drug release increased with increasing ionic strength, but in bicarbonate-based buffers was delayed when compared with that in phosphate-based buffers. Interestingly, the cation species in the dissolution medium had also a clear impact on drug release. Drug release profiles obtained in Blank CarbSIF, a new medium simulating pH and average ionic composition of small intestinal fluid, were different from those obtained in all other buffer compositions studied. Results from this study in which the impact of various media parameters on drug release of EC aspirin formulations was systematically screened clearly show that when developing predictive dissolution tests, it is important to simulate the ionic composition of intraluminal fluids as closely as possible. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  20. Pharmacokinetic Study of a Diclofenac Sodium Capsule Filled with Enteric-coated Pellets in Healthy Chinese Volunteers by Liquid Chromatography-electrospray Ionization-tandem Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    Ma, J-Y; Liu, M; Yang, M; Zhao, H; Tong, Y; Zhang, Y; Deng, M; Liu, H


    The pharmacokinetic study of a diclofenac sodium capsule filled with enteric-coated pellets (abbreviated as CAPSULE) in healthy Chinese subjects was evaluated using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry with simple sample preparation. In a cross-over study, 12 healthy male volunteers were given 50 mg CAPSULE and diclofenac sodium enteric-coated tablet (abbreviated as TABLET, used as a control dosage form) at fasting. The Cmax, AUC0-t, and Tmax of CAPSULE were 1.01±0.52 μg/mL, 1.54±0.18 μg·h/mL, and 1.50±1.31 h, respectively. When compared with TABLET, the pharmacokinetic study showed that although this CAPSULE exhibited similar AUC (only 10% lower), it presented lower maximum plasma concentration, faster absorption and shorter time to reach maximum concentration. When compared with the previous study in Germany, obvious variations on Tmax were found in Chinese subjects taking CAPSULE, but not TABLET. The results indicated that individual difference should be paid attention when prescribing CAPSULE to Chinese patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Formulation and Optimization of Multiparticulate Drug Delivery System Approach for High Drug Loading. (United States)

    Shah, Neha; Mehta, Tejal; Gohel, Mukesh


    The aim of the present work was to develop and optimize multiparticulate formulation viz. pellets of naproxen by employing QbD and risk assessment approach. Mixture design with extreme vertices was applied to the formulation with high loading of drug (about 90%) and extrusion-spheronization as a process for manufacturing pellets. Independent variables chosen were level of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)-X 1 , polyvinylpyrrolidone K-90 (PVP K-90)-X 2 , croscarmellose sodium (CCS)-X 3 , and polacrilin potassium (PP)-X 4 . Dependent variables considered were disintegration time (DT)-Y 1 , sphericity-Y 2 , and percent drug release-Y 3 . The formulation was optimized based on the batches generated by MiniTab 17 software. The batch with maximum composite desirability (0.98) proved to be optimum. From the evaluation of design batches, it was observed that, even in low variation, the excipients affect the pelletization property of the blend and also the final drug release. In conclusion, pellets with high drug loading can be effectively manufactured and optimized systematically using QbD approach.

  2. A pilot trial on subjects with lactose and/or oligosaccharides intolerance treated with a fixed mixture of pure and enteric-coated α- and ß-galactosidase

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    Di Pierro F


    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Alexander Bertuccioli,2 Eleonora Marini,3 Leandro Ivaldi4 1Velleja Research, Milan, Italy; 2Italian Association Fitness and Medicine, Fano, PU, Italy; 3Pharmextracta, Pontenure, Piacenza, Italy; 4Digestive Endoscopic Department, Ceva Hospital, Ceva, Cuneo, Italy Aim: Lactose and complex carbohydrates maldigestion, common food intolerances due to low gut content of α- and ß-galactosidase, lead to abdominal symptoms including pain, diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and cramping. Commonly, intolerant patients are advised by physicians to avoid the offending foods (dairy foods, cereals, beans, etc. This food-limiting option, however, has possible nutritional risks. We have therefore evaluated the impact of using pure, enteric-coated α- plus ß-galactosidase on gut symptoms in intolerant subjects instead of avoidance of the offending foods. Methods: Sixteen subjects intolerant to lactose and/or complex carbohydrates were enrolled and evaluated in terms of gut symptoms with 1 uncontrolled diet, 2 diet devoid of offending foods, and 3 uncontrolled diet along with pure, enteric-coated α- and ß-galactosidase (DDM Galactosidase®. Results: Even with the uncontrolled diet, intolerant subjects treated with DDM Galactosidase® exhibited reduced gut symptoms (bloating, flatulence, diarrhea, and constipation significantly better than the control treatment as well as having a diet devoid of offending foods. Conclusion: DDM Galactosidase® is a valid and safe optional treatment to counteract lactose and complex carbohydrate intolerance in subjects who prefer not to avoid, at least partially, offending foods. Keywords: lactase, lactose intolerance, complex carbohydrate intolerance

  3. Once-daily dosing is appropriate for extended-release divalproex over a wide dose range, but not for enteric-coated, delayed-release divalproex : Evidence via computer simulations and implications for epilepsy therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, Ronald Charles; Dutta, Sandeep; Liu, Wei


    Divalproex sodium extended-release (divalproex-ER), administered once-daily, maintains plasma valproic acid (VPA) concentrations for 24 h, whereas enteric-coated, delayed-release divalproex sodium (divalproex) requires multiple-daily doses to do the same. We hypothesize that a once-daily divalproex

  4. FcRn binding is not sufficient for achieving systemic therapeutic levels of immunoglobulin G after oral delivery of enteric-coated capsules in cynomolgus macaques. (United States)

    Muzammil, Salman; Mabus, John R; Cooper, Philip R; Brezski, Randall J; Bement, Courtney B; Perkinson, Rob; Huebert, Norman D; Thompson, Suzanne; Levine, Dalia; Kliwinski, Connie; Bradley, Dino; Hornby, Pamela J


    Although much speculation has surrounded intestinally expressed FcRn as a means for systemic uptake of orally administered immunoglobulin G (IgG), this has not been validated in translational models beyond neonates or in FcRn-expressing cells in vitro. Recently, IgG1 intestinal infusion acutely in anesthetized cynomolgus resulted in detectable serum monoclonal antibody (mAb) levels. In this study, we show that IgG2 has greater protease resistance to intestinal enzymes in vitro and mice in vivo, due to protease resistance in the hinge region. An IgG2 mAb engineered for FcRn binding, was optimally formulated, lyophilized, and loaded into enteric-coated capsules for oral dosing in cynomolgus. Small intestinal pH 7.5 was selected for enteric delivery based on gastrointestinal pH profiling of cynomolgus by operator-assisted IntelliCap System(®). Milling of the lyophilized IgG2 M428L FcRn-binding variant after formulation in 10 mmol/L histidine, pH 5.7, 8.5% sucrose, 0.04% PS80 did not alter the physicochemical properties nor the molecular integrity compared to the batch released in PBS. Size 3 hard gel capsules (23.2 mg IgG2 M428L ~3 mg/kg) were coated with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate for rapid dissolution at pH 7.5 in small intestine and FcRn binding of encapsulated mAb confirmed. Initial capsule dosing by endoscopic delivery into the small intestine achieved 0.2 + 0.1 ng/mL (n = 5) peak at 24 h. Weekly oral capsule dosing for 6 weeks achieved levels of 0.4 + 0.2 ng/mL and, despite increasing the dose and frequency, remained below 1 ng/mL. In conclusion, lyophilized milled mAb retains FcRn binding and molecular integrity for small intestinal delivery. The low systemic exposure has demonstrated the limitations of intestinal FcRn in non-human primates and the unfeasibility of employing this for therapeutic levels of mAb. Local mAb delivery with limited systemic exposure may be sufficient as a therapeutic for intestinal diseases.

  5. Three-Year Outcomes in Kidney Transplant Patients Randomized to Steroid-Free Immunosuppression or Steroid Withdrawal, with Enteric-Coated Mycophenolate Sodium and Cyclosporine: The Infinity Study

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    A. Thierry


    Full Text Available In a six-month, multicenter, open-label trial, de novo kidney transplant recipients at low immunological risk were randomized to steroid avoidance or steroid withdrawal with IL-2 receptor antibody (IL-2RA induction, enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS: 2160 mg/day to week 6, 1440 mg/day thereafter, and cyclosporine. Results from a 30-month observational follow-up study are presented. Of 166 patients who completed the core study on treatment, 131 entered the follow-up study (70 steroid avoidance, 61 steroid withdrawal. The primary efficacy endpoint of treatment failure (clinical biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR graft loss, death, or loss to follow-up occurred in 21.4% (95% CI 11.8–31.0% of steroid avoidance patients and 16.4% (95% CI 7.1–25.7% of steroid withdrawal patients by month 36 (P=0.46. BPAR had occurred in 20.0% and 11.5%, respectively (P=0.19. The incidence of adverse events with a suspected relation to steroids during months 6–36 was 22.9% versus 37.1% (P=0.062. By month 36, 32.4% and 51.7% of patients in the steroid avoidance and steroid withdrawal groups, respectively, were receiving oral steroids. In conclusion, IL-2RA induction with early intensified EC-MPS dosing and CNI therapy in de novo kidney transplant patients at low immunological risk may achieve similar three-year efficacy regardless of whether oral steroids are withheld for at least three months.

  6. Bioavailability of a crushed pantoprazole tablet after buffering with sodium hydrogencarbonate or magaldrate relative to the intact enteric coated pantoprazole tablet. (United States)

    Ley, L M; Stahlheber-Dilg, B; Sander, P; Huber, R; Mascher, H; Lücker, P W


    The aim of this study was to determine the bioavailability of orally administered, crushed pantoprazole tablets after buffering with either 1.4% sodium hydrogencarbonate or 1600 mg magaldrate relative to the intact enteric coated pantoprazole tablet. A single dose, three-period crossover study was performed with 18 healthy male volunteers. The crushed pantoprazole suspension, together with either sodium hydrogencarbonate or magaldrate, was administered via a nasogastral tube. Tmax of crushed pantoprazole was earlier as compared to the intact tablet (0.5 h vs. 3 h) and Cmax was approximately 10% higher due to faster absorption. The bioavailability of the crushed pantoprazole tablet relative to the intact pantoprazole tablet was 93% when using sodium hydrogencarbonate as the buffering agent, and 88% when using magaldrate. Based on the internationally approved confidence intervals for AUC (0.80-1.20) and Cmax (0.70-1.43), the crushed tablet buffered with sodium hydrogencarbonate was shown to be bioequivalent with the intact tablet (point estimates for AUC or Cmax: 0.93 or 1.10). For the crushed tablet buffered with magaldrate (point estimates for AUC or Cmax: 0.88 or 1.12) bioequivalence with the intact tablet could not be formally demonstrated, although the lower confidence limit for AUC of 0.78 was only slightly below the lower limit of the equivalence range of 0.80.

  7. Clinical trial on the efficacy and safety of different diclofenac formulations: multiple-unit formulations compared to enteric coated tablets in patients with activated osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Schmitt, W; Walter, K; Kurth, H J


    This double-blind, randomised, multicentre study investigated the efficacy and safety of two different dosages of a diclofenac sodium dual release capsule (150 mg or 75 mg once daily) in comparison to a standard treatment with enteric coated tablets (50 mg t.i.d.) and placebo in patients with activated osteoarthritis. Pain relief as the main efficacy variable was measured through 24 hours by means of a Visual Analogue Scale at baseline and on five assessment days during the 12 weeks of treatment. Efficacy was observed in all treatment groups with a statistically significant difference between the verum groups and placebo. The overall safety and tolerability of the active treatments was good. For the 75 mg group, a lower incidence of liver and biliary system-related side effects was reported. Considering efficacy, safety, and compliance aspects, the once daily administration of diclofenac sodium 75 mg dual release capsule is the appropriate dosage regimen for mid- and long-term treatment of osteoarthritis.

  8. Therapeutic equivalence of diclofenac sustained-released 75 mg tablets and diclofenac enteric-coated 50 mg tablets in the treatment of painful osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Le Loët, X; Dreiser, R L; Le Gros, V; Febvre, N


    Efficacy and tolerability of diclofenac sustained-released (SR) 75 mg tablets taken b.i.d. were compared with that of enteric-coated diclofenac sodium 50 mg tablets given t.i.d. in a seven-day, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel groups study in 294 outpatients suffering from painful femorotibial or hip osteoarthritis. Primary efficacy criteria were spontaneous joint pain assessed on serial visual analogue scales during the first 36 hours and after 48 hours of treatment. The two treatments had equivalent efficacy since all the 90% confidence intervals of differences between means for pain intensity between the two groups were included within the interval (-10 mm; +10 mm). Rates of overall efficacy judged good to excellent ranged from 74.3-78.5% in both groups. One or more drug-related adverse events, mainly gastrointestinal, was reported by 24.5% and 27.2% of patients in diclofenac SR 75 mg and diclofenac 50 mg groups, respectively. Percentage of good compliance (i.e. > 90%) was higher with diclofenac SR 75 mg (p < 0.001).

  9. Feasability of a new process to produce fast disintegrating pellets as novel multiparticulate dosage form for pediatric use. (United States)

    Hoang Thi, Thanh Huong; Lhafidi, Siham; Carneiro, Simone Pinto; Flament, Marie-Pierre


    Novel orally disintegrating system based on multiparticulate form was developed, offering an alternative to encounter major issues in the design of dosage form for pediatric patients, i.e., the difficulty in swallowing large solid dosage form (tablet or capsule), and the requirement to cover a broad range of doses for different age groups. Microcrystalline cellulose-based pellets containing acetaminophen were prepared via extrusion/spheronization followed by freeze-drying. The in vitro disintegration behavior of these pellets was quantitatively measured with a texture analyzer. Mercury intrusion and gas adsorption techniques, scanning electron microscopy of pellet surface and cross-section were performed in order to characterize their internal porous structure. Pellets characteristics such as size distribution, sphericity, friability and drug release were also determined. The developing process was able to produce pellets containing high drug loading (25, 50 and up to 75%, w/w) with good sphericity (aspect ratio ∼1) and low friability. The pellets exhibited an instantaneous disintegration upon contact with water, which was indicated by two parameters: the disintegration onset was approximating to 0, and the disintegration time less than 5s. The fast disintegration behavior is correlated with the pellet internal structure characterized by a capillary network with pore diameter varying from 0.1 to 10μm. Such a structure not only ensured a rapid disintegration but it also offers to freeze-dried pellets adequate mechanical properties in comparison with conventional freeze-dried forms. Due to pellet disintegration, fast dissolution of acetaminophen was achieved, i.e., more than 90% of drug released within 15min. This novel multiparticulate system offers novel age-appropriate dosage form for pediatric population owing to their facility of administration (fast disintegration) and dosing flexibility (divided and reduced-size solid form). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  10. An Open Label, Prospective, Single Centre Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Fixed Dose Combination of Rabeprazole (Enteric-Coated, EC) 20 mg + Domperidone (Sustained Release, SR) 30 mg Capsule in Treatment of Patients with Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Disease. (United States)

    Semmanaselvan, K; Mukaddam, Qayum I; Naik, Manoj


    To evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of fixed dose combination of Rabeprazole (enteric-coated, EC) 20 mg + Domperidone (sustained release, SR) 30 mg for treatment of laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD). A prospective, single centre, open-label, non-comparative, observational study The study was conducted at an otolaryngology clinic in India between May 2012 and November 2012. Patients (>18 yrs) with suspicious LPR-related symptoms, reflux symptom index (RSI) score >13 and reflux finding score (RFS) >7, willing to undergo rigid laryngoscopy and requiring fixed dose combination of Rabeprazole (enteric-coated, EC) 20 mg + Domperidone (sustained release, SR) 30 mg capsule treatment according to the investigator's discretion were eligible for enrolment in the study. Fixed dose combination of Rabeprazole (enteric-coated, EC) 20 mg + Domperidone (sustained release, SR) 30 mg capsule treatment was given for a total duration of 90 days and efficacy was assessed by the change in RFS and RSI score at Day 90. The safety and tolerability of the study drug was assessed by monitoring adverse events, vital signs and physical examination. Overall, 50 patients were enrolled and completed the study. After 12 weeks of fixed dose combination of Rabeprazole (enteric-coated, EC) 20 mg + Domperidone (sustained release, SR) 30 mg capsule treatment there was a significant change in mean RSI scores [mean (SD) RSI: 19.18 (3.24) at baseline to 2.52 (2.31) at end of study; (p<0.0001)] as well as mean RFS score [mean (SD) RFS: 12.62 (1.48) at baseline to 0.30 (0.51) at end of study; (p<0.0001)]. No adverse event was reported by any patient during the study period. Twelve weeks of treatment with combination of fixed dose combination of Rabeprazole (enteric-coated, EC) 20 mg + Domperidone (sustained release, SR) 30 mg capsule significantly improved reflux symptoms in patients with LPR. The combination was found to be safe and well tolerated.

  11. Interdiction of hypoglycemia in diabetic children by multiparticulate dosage form with controlled glucose release. (United States)

    Franc, Aleš; Sabadková, Dana; Neumann, David; Pavloková, Sylvie; Kopecká, Pavlína; Muselík, Jan


    Patients tend to evade the occurrence of hypoglycemic episodes by excessive carbohydrate intake. Glucose pellets with delayed release in the time of the maximum effect of insulin can not only prevent hypoglycemia but also eliminate the preventive carbohydrate intake. The pellets can be administered in a mixture with semisolid food. The cores containing glucose in combination with osmotically active agents (croscarmellose sodium, carmellose sodium, polyethylene glycol, or carboxymethyl starch) were prepared by extrusion-spheronization and coated with 15% water ethylcellulose dispersion (Surelease® B NF) in Wurster column (Medipo, Havlíčkův Brod, Czech Republic) into four coating levels (12.5, 25, 35, and 50%). Mean particle size is 0.63-0.73 for cores and 0.82-0.98 for coated pellets. Cores and coated pellets have excellent or good flow properties according to Hausner ratio and Carr index. Aspect ratio ranges from 1.78 to 2.17 for cores and from 1.73 to 2.31 for coated pellets. Dissolution was performed using pH-independent method and method with continual change of pH. The suitable pH-independent release was achieved in the samples containing carboxymethyl starch or polyethylene glycol. Glucose release is enabled by a membrane rupture caused by core swelling. It can be, therefore, assumed that the glucose release profile will not be affected by food or transit time.

  12. Radiation enteritis (United States)

    Radiation enteropathy; Radiation-induced small bowel injury; Post-radiation enteritis ... Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. The therapy ...

  13. Vaginal distribution and retention of a multiparticulate drug delivery system, assessed by gamma scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    Mehta, Samata; Verstraelen, Hans; Peremans, Kathelijne; Villeirs, Geert; Vermeire, Simon; De Vos, Filip; Mehuys, Els; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris


    For any new vaginal dosage form, the distribution and retention in the vagina has to be assessed by in vivo evaluation. We evaluated the vaginal distribution and retention of starch-based pellets in sheep as live animal model by gamma scintigraphy (using Indium-111 DTPA as radiolabel) and in women via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, using a gadolinium chelate as contrast agent). A conventional cream formulation was used as reference in both studies. Cream and pellets were administered to sheep (n=6) in a two period-two treatment study and to healthy female volunteers (n=6) via a randomized crossover trial. Pellets (filled into hard gelatin capsule) and cetomacrogol cream, both labeled with Indium-111 DTPA (for gamma scintigraphy) or with gadolinium chelate (for MRI) were evaluated for their intravaginal distribution and retention over a 24h period. Spreading in the vagina was assessed based on the part of the vagina covered with formulation (expressed in relation to the total vaginal length). Vaginal retention of the formulation was quantified based on the radioactivity remaining in the vaginal area (sheep study), or qualitatively evaluated (women study). Both trials indicated a rapid distribution of the cream within the vagina as complete coverage of the vaginal mucosa was seen 1h after dose administration. Clearance of the cream was rapid: about 10% activity remained in the vaginal area of the sheep 12h post-administration, while after 8h only a thin layer of cream was detected on the vaginal mucosa of women. After disintegration of the hard gelatin capsule, the pellet formulation gradually distributed over the entire vaginal mucosa. Residence time of the pellets in the vagina was longer compared to the semi-solid formulation: after 24h 23 ± 7% radioactivity was detected in the vaginal area of the sheep, while in women the pellet formulation was still detected throughout the vagina. A multi-particulate system containing starch-based pellets was identified as a

  14. The impact of selected preparations of trace elements - magnesium, potassium, calcium, and zinc on the release of diclofenac sodium from enteric coated tablets and from sustained release capsules. (United States)

    Biernat, Paweł; Musiał, Witold; Gosławska, Dorota; Pluta, Janusz


    In an aging society, many patients require long-term treatment. This fact is associated clearly with the simultaneous occurrence of lifestyle diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and even osteoarthritis. Concomitant medications, which are a common practice, pose a major threat of an interaction between these drugs. Very popular now "fast way of life" that makes people have less and less time to prepare well-balanced meals of high nutritional value. The result of this lifestyle is an increased need for supplementation preparations necessary vitamins and minerals. Given the wide availability of dietary supplements (shops, kiosks, petrol stations) raises the question about the possibility of an interaction between the uncontrolled intake of dietary supplements and medications received in the most common diseases of civilization. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the most important minerals (magnesium, potassium, calcium, zinc) contained in the popular nutritional supplements, the release also often used as an anti-pain, anti-inflammatory, diclofenac sodium from the different formulations. Among the many as sodium diclofenac selected two most common: film-coated tablets and sustained release capsules. The study showed a significant effect of minerals on the release of diclofenac sodium and differences that impact, depending on the test form of the drug.

  15. Direct compression of cushion-layered ethyl cellulose-coated extended release pellets into rapidly disintegrating tablets without changes in the release profile. (United States)

    Hosseini, Armin; Körber, Martin; Bodmeier, Roland


    The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a segregation-free ethyl cellulose-coated extended release multiparticulate formulation to be compressed into tablets without affecting the drug release. Standard tableting excipients (e.g., microcrystalline cellulose, lactose or sorbitol) were layered onto ethyl cellulose-coated propranolol hydrochloride pellets to form a cushion layer in order to eliminate segregation problems normally resulting from particle size difference between coated pellets and excipient powders and second to protect the integrity of the brittle ethyl cellulose coating during compression. The disintegration behavior of the tablets depended strongly on the composition of the cushion layer. Rapid tablet disintegration was obtained with microcrystalline cellulose and the disintegrant sodium croscarmellose. However, the drug release from these cushion-layered pellets still increased upon compression. Incorporation of a glidant into the cushion layer or between the cushion layer and the ethyl cellulose coating reduced the compression effect on drug release markedly. Glidant-containing formulations showed a delayed deformation and damage of the ethyl cellulose-coated pellet upon mechanical stress. In summary, cushion layer based on microcrystalline cellulose facilitated segregation-free compression of a highly compression-sensitive extended release ethyl cellulose-coated pellets into fast-disintegrating and hard tablets without compromising the release properties of the multiparticulates. Directly compressible cushion-layered pellets protected the pellet coating significantly better from damages during tabletting when compared to the conventional compression of blends of coated pellets and excipient powders. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Micropellets coated with Kollicoat(®) Smartseal 30D for taste masking in liquid oral dosage forms. (United States)

    Dashevskiy, Andriy; Mohylyuk, Valentyn; Ahmed, Abid Riaz; Kolter, Karl; Guth, Felicitas; Bodmeier, Roland


    The objective of this study was to develop delivery systems for taste masking based on multiparticulates coated with Kollicoat(®) Smartseal 30D formulated as liquid oral suspensions. Coating of particles containing bitter drugs with Kollicoat(®) Smartseal reduced drug leaching into aqueous medium, especially when increasing pH, therefore can be used for the formulation of liquid dosage forms. Application of an intermediate layer of ion exchange resins between drug layer and coating can further decrease drug leaching into aqueous vehicle that is beneficial in terms of taste masking. Using optimized compositions of liquid vehicles such as addition of sugar alcohols and ion exchange resin, reconstitutable or ready-to-use liquid dosage forms with micropellets can be developed with bitter taste protection after redispersion lasting longer than 3 weeks, which exceeds the usual period of application.

  17. Is it appropriate regarding patient preference to take Myrtol standardized enteric-coated soft capsules after a meal rather than at fasted state? A food–drug pharmacokinetic interaction study in healthy Chinese volunteers (United States)

    Zhao, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Chen, Meng; Zhou, Quan


    Background According to prescribing information for Myrtol standardized enteric-coated soft capsules, the medicine should be taken on an empty stomach. Some patients may experience stomach discomfort after oral administration in fasted state and would prefer to take the medicine after a meal. However, there is no literature addressing the effect of meal on absorption of this drug; therefore, it is desirable to explore the feasibility of taking the capsule after a meal from pharmacokinetic perspective. Methods A gas chromatography coupled with triple quadruples mass spectrometry assay was established and validated for determining plasma concentrations of eucalyptol, a target component of Myrtol standardized capsules. A self-control clinical study was carried out in healthy male volunteers in fasted and fed states after a single oral dose of 300 mg capsules. Comparison of pharmacokinetic parameters in the two phases and bioequivalence evaluation were performed. Results The specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the assay satisfied the requirements for biopharmaceutical analysis. Pharmacokinetic parameters of eucalyptol (fasted vs fed) were as follows: maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax) (167.60±114.69 vs 518.89±314.47 ng·mL−1), time of maximum concentration (Tmax) (3.7±1.1 vs 4.8±0.7 h), elimination half-life (T1/2) (3.2±1.4 vs 2.6±0.7 h), area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC0–t) (584.91±369.90 vs 1,271.61±605.82 ng·h·mL−1), and AUC0–∞ (690.36±467.26 vs 1,458.02±720.21 ng·h·mL−1). There was statistically significant difference in Cmax, AUC0–t, and AUC0–∞ between the two dosing methods (Pinteraction issue should be balanced. Further clinical study is necessary to explore the clinical outcome of oral administration of Myrtol standardized capsules after or with meal. PMID:27757023

  18. Delivery of enteral nutrition. (United States)

    Grant, M J; Martin, S


    There is increasing evidence that enteral feeding is superior to parenteral nutrition with regard to maintaining gut structure and function. Selection of the enteral access route depends on the type and anticipated duration of nutrient delivery. At present, enteral feeding devices can be divided into two major categories: those entering the gastrointestinal tract through the oral or nasal cavity (oroenteric or nasoenteric tubes) and those entering through the abdominal wall including gastrostomy, duodenostomy, or jejunostomy tubes. This article provides a review of methods to insert and confirm gastric and intestinal feeding tube placement. Care of the patient with an enteric tube will be described.

  19. Is it appropriate regarding patient preference to take Myrtol standardized enteric-coated soft capsules after a meal rather than at fasted state? A food-drug pharmacokinetic interaction study in healthy Chinese volunteers. (United States)

    Zhao, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Chen, Meng; Zhou, Quan


    According to prescribing information for Myrtol standardized enteric-coated soft capsules, the medicine should be taken on an empty stomach. Some patients may experience stomach discomfort after oral administration in fasted state and would prefer to take the medicine after a meal. However, there is no literature addressing the effect of meal on absorption of this drug; therefore, it is desirable to explore the feasibility of taking the capsule after a meal from pharmacokinetic perspective. A gas chromatography coupled with triple quadruples mass spectrometry assay was established and validated for determining plasma concentrations of eucalyptol, a target component of Myrtol standardized capsules. A self-control clinical study was carried out in healthy male volunteers in fasted and fed states after a single oral dose of 300 mg capsules. Comparison of pharmacokinetic parameters in the two phases and bioequivalence evaluation were performed. The specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the assay satisfied the requirements for biopharmaceutical analysis. Pharmacokinetic parameters of eucalyptol (fasted vs fed) were as follows: maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax) (167.60±114.69 vs 518.89±314.47 ng·mL(-1)), time of maximum concentration (Tmax) (3.7±1.1 vs 4.8±0.7 h), elimination half-life (T1/2) (3.2±1.4 vs 2.6±0.7 h), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-t) (584.91±369.90 vs 1,271.61±605.82 ng·h·mL(-1)), and AUC0-∞ (690.36±467.26 vs 1,458.02±720.21 ng·h·mL(-1)). There was statistically significant difference in Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ between the two dosing methods (P<0.05). Pharmacokinetic parameters of eucalyptol given in fasted state in Chinese were comparable to those in Germany population. The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of Cmax (18.4%~64.7%), AUC0-t (28.9%~68.5%), and AUC0-∞ (31.1%~68.4%) values for the test (fasted) and reference (fed) were beyond the Food and Drug Administration's acceptable range

  20. Is it appropriate regarding patient preference to take Myrtol standardized enteric-coated soft capsules after a meal rather than at fasted state? A food–drug pharmacokinetic interaction study in healthy Chinese volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao TT


    Full Text Available Ting-Ting Zhao,1 Ling-Ling Zhu,2 Meng Chen,1 Quan Zhou1 1Department of Pharmacy, 2VIP Care Ward, Division of Nursing, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China Background: According to prescribing information for Myrtol standardized enteric-coated soft capsules, the medicine should be taken on an empty stomach. Some patients may experience stomach discomfort after oral administration in fasted state and would prefer to take the medicine after a meal. However, there is no literature addressing the effect of meal on absorption of this drug; therefore, it is desirable to explore the feasibility of taking the capsule after a meal from pharmacokinetic perspective.Methods: A gas chromatography coupled with triple quadruples mass spectrometry assay was established and validated for determining plasma concentrations of eucalyptol, a target component of Myrtol standardized capsules. A self-control clinical study was carried out in healthy male volunteers in fasted and fed states after a single oral dose of 300 mg capsules. Comparison of pharmacokinetic parameters in the two phases and bioequivalence evaluation were performed.Results: The specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the assay satisfied the requirements for biopharmaceutical analysis. Pharmacokinetic parameters of eucalyptol (fasted vs fed were as follows: maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax (167.60±114.69 vs 518.89±314.47 ng·mL-1, time of maximum concentration (Tmax (3.7±1.1 vs 4.8±0.7 h, elimination half-life (T1/2 (3.2±1.4 vs 2.6±0.7 h, area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC0–t (584.91±369.90 vs 1,271.61±605.82 ng·h·mL-1, and AUC0–∞ (690.36±467.26 vs 1,458.02±720.21 ng·h·mL-1. There was statistically significant difference in Cmax, AUC0–t, and AUC0–∞ between the two dosing methods (P<0.05. Pharmacokinetic parameters of eucalyptol given in fasted

  1. What Is Enteral Nutrition? (United States)

    ... pharmacists) will talk with you about the different types of feeding tubes. Enteral Nutrition Fact Sheet ... Continuing Education Certification Claim CE Credits ASPEN 2018 Nutrition Science and ...

  2. Immediate preoperative enteral nutrition (preoperative enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lađević Nebojša


    Full Text Available Nutritional support of surgical patients is a necessary part of the treatment. It alone cannot cure the disease but it significantly affects the recovery of patients and supports surgical interventions. Patients in malnutrition have shown to have significantly more postoperative infectious and non-infectious complications. This significantly prolongs treatment time and increases costs. However, there is one fact that cannot be expressed in money, which is the patient's impression of the surgical intervention. Adequate preoperative patient support, based on the intake of liquid nutritive solutions, reduces preoperative stress and deflects the metabolic response. Now, it is recommended for adults and children older than one year to drink clear liquid up to 2 hours before induction in anesthesia. Appropriate enteral nutrition has a significant place in the postoperative recovery of patients. Enteral nutrition is reducing complications, mainly infectious complications because the function of the digestive system as one large immune system is preserved. Perioperative enteral nutrition is a necessary part of the modern treatment of surgical patients. In addition to the significant effect on the occurrence of postoperative complications, it is also important that this type of diet improves the psychological status of patients.

  3. Enteric neurodegeneration in ageing. (United States)

    Camilleri, M; Cowen, T; Koch, T R


    The objective of this article is to review the clinical presentation and neurobiology of degeneration of the enteric nervous system with emphasis on human data where available. Constipation, incontinence and evacuation disorders are frequently encountered in the ageing population. Healthy lower gastrointestinal function is essential for successful ageing as it is critical to maintaining independence and autonomy to pursue further activity. One clinical expression of enteric neurodegeneration is constipation. However, the aetiology may be multifactorial as disturbances of epithelial, muscle or neural function may all result from neurodegeneration. There is evidence of loss of excitatory (e.g. cholinergic) enteric neurons and interstitial cells of Cajal, whereas inhibitory (including nitrergic) neurons appear unaffected. Understanding neurodegeneration in the enteric nervous system is key to developing treatments to reverse it. Neurotrophins have been shown to accelerate colonic transit and relieve constipation in the medium term; they are also implicated in maintenance programmes in adult enteric neurons through a role in antioxidant defence. However, their effects in ageing colon require further study. There is evidence that 5-HT(2) and 5-HT(4) mechanisms are involved in development, maintenance and survival of enteric neurons. Further research is needed to understand and potentially reverse enteric neurodegeneration.

  4. The enteric nervous system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sasselli, Valentina; Pachnis, Vassilis; Burns, Alan J


    The enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic innervation of the gastrointestinal tract, consists of numerous types of neurons, and glial cells, that are distributed in two intramuscular plexuses that extend along the entire...

  5. ENFit Enteral Nutrition Connectors. (United States)

    Guenter, Peggi; Lyman, Beth


    New enteral connectors are now available based on the development of standards using the International Organization of Standardization process to prevent misconnections between systems that should not connect. Enteral devices with the new patient access connectors, called ENFit, are being now introduced for the purpose of improving patient safety. Transitioning to these new connectors poses benefits and challenges for facilities or agencies implementing these new devices. Information from appropriate resources should be sought by clinicians who need to partner with their suppliers and clinical organizations to see how best to meet these challenges.

  6. 5. Enter Bernhard Riemann

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 6. Geometry Enter Bernhard Riemann. Kapil H Paranjape. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 6 June 1996 pp 33-40. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Author Affiliations.

  7. Design and development of colon specific microspheres for chronotherapy of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Patel


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to design, and evaluate multiparticulate systems for Chronotherapeutic delivery of beta blocker containing biodegradable polymers coated with pH sensitive polymers in hypertension. Chitosan was used as a carrier for drug delivery and Eudragit S100 was used as an enteric coating polymer. 3 2 full factorial design was employed to optimize the proper formulation for Chronotherapeutic drug delivery.

  8. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems (United States)

    ... page: // Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  9. [Fiber and enteral nutrition]. (United States)

    Gómez Candela, C; de Cos Blanco, A I; Iglesias Rosado, C


    Dietary fibre is a mixture of various substances and is essential for maintaining appropriate intestinal functionality and it is currently considered to be a necessary part of a healthy diet. Current recommendations for fibre consumption by adults range from 20 to 35 g/day. Enteral nutrition is an emerging therapeutic variation in both hospital and domestic settings. To a great extent, this development has been made possible thanks to the design of new formulas that adapt better and better to the clinicla conditions or our patients. The type of fibre used in these preparations varies greatly. Some have only one source of fibre while others use differnet combinations. There are currently 32 formulas available on the Spanish market, without counting the modules or specific preparations of individual types of fibre. Despite the enormous advances in the knowledge of the beneficial effects of fibre, the fact of the matter is that enteral nutrition that we routinely prescribe in normal clinical practice does not contain fibre. The are several explanations for this, perhaps the most plausible is that these formulas may lead to problems in their administration and tolerance. It is necessary to choose the correct calibre of catheter and define the best infusion method and timing. Another difficulty may be the gastrointestinal tolerance of the formulas containing fibre. No large-scale problems of intolerance have however been described in healthy volunteers nor in patients with acute or chronic pathologies, although it is of fundamental importance to monitor the rhythm of depositions in all patients with enteral nutrition (EN) and ensure proper intake of liquids, which would also be useful to prevent occlusion of the catheter. The theoretical benefits of EN with fibre with a view to maintaining or improving normal intestinal structure and function are very varied. Nonetheless, it has noit yet been possible to prove many of these effects in controlled clinical trials. At the

  10. Enteral nutrition access devices. (United States)

    Kwon, Richard S; Banerjee, Subhas; Desilets, David; Diehl, David L; Farraye, Francis A; Kaul, Vivek; Mamula, Petar; Pedrosa, Marcos C; Rodriguez, Sarah A; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Song, Louis-Michel Wong Kee; Tierney, William M


    The ASGE Technology Committee provides reviews of existing, new, or emerging endoscopic technologies that have an impact on the practice of GI endoscopy. Evidence-based methodology is used, performing a MEDLINE literature search to identify pertinent clinical studies on the topic and a MAUDE (U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health) database search to identify the reported complications of a given technology. Both are supplemented by accessing the "related articles" feature of PubMed and by scrutinizing pertinent references cited by the identified studies. Controlled clinical trials are emphasized, but, in many cases, data from randomized, controlled trials are lacking. In such situations, large case series, preliminary clinical studies, and expert opinions are used. Technical data are gathered from traditional and Web-based publications, proprietary publications, and informal communications with pertinent vendors. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are drafted by 1 or 2 members of the ASGE Technology Committee, reviewed and edited by the committee as a whole, and approved by the ASGE Governing Board. When financial guidance is indicated, the most recent coding data and list prices at the time of publication are provided. For this review, the MEDLINE database was searched through August 2009 for articles related to endoscopy in patients requiring enteral feeding access by using the keywords "endoscopy," "percutaneous," "gastrostomy," "jejunostomy," "nasogastric," "nasoenteric," "nasojejunal," "transnasal," "feeding tube," "enteric," and "button." Technology Status Evaluation Reports are scientific reviews provided solely for educational and informational purposes. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are not rules and should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care or as encouraging, advocating, requiring, or discouraging any particular treatment or payment for such treatment. Copyright 2010 American Society

  11. Comparative Evaluation and Optimization of Film Coating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Evaluation and Optimization of Film Coating Formulation Variables and Delayed Release Properties of Three Enteric Polymers on Diclofenac ... According to f2 test, the Wangit L30D-55® and Wangit L-100® coated tablets were similar to the two most commonly marketed products of diclofenac sodium 50 mg ...

  12. [Modular enteral nutrition in pediatrics]. (United States)

    Murillo Sanchís, S; Prenafeta Ferré, M T; Sempere Luque, M D


    Modular Enteral Nutrition may be a substitute for Parenteral Nutrition in children with different pathologies. Study of 4 children with different pathologies selected from a group of 40 admitted to the Maternal-Childrens Hospital "Valle de Hebrón" in Barcelona, who received modular enteral nutrition. They were monitored on a daily basis by the Dietician Service. Modular enteral nutrition consists of modules of proteins, peptides, lipids, glucids and mineral salts-vitamins. 1.--Craneo-encephalic traumatisms with loss of consciousness, Feeding with a combination of parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition for 7 days. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended and modular enteral nutrition alone used up to a total of 43 days. 2.--55% burns with 36 days of hyperproteic modular enteral nutrition together with normal feeding. A more rapid recovery was achieved with an increase in total proteins and albumin. 3.--Persistent diarrhoea with 31 days of modular enteral nutrition, 5 days on parenteral nutrition alone and 8 days on combined parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended. 4.--Mucoviscidosis with a total of 19 days on modular enteral nutrition, 12 of which were exclusively on modular enteral nutrition and 7 as a night supplement to normal feeding. We administered proteic intakes of up to 20% of the total calorific intake and in concentrations of up to 1.2 calories/ml of the final preparation, always with a good tolerance. Modular enteral nutrition can and should be used as a substitute for parenteral nutrition in children with different pathologies, thus preventing the complications inherent in parenteral nutrition.

  13. Medication administration via enteral tubes: a survey of nurses' practices. (United States)

    Phillips, Nicole Margaret; Endacott, Ruth


    This article is a report of a study examining the practices of acute care nurses when administering medication via enteral tubes. Administering medication via enteral tubes is predominantly a nursing responsibility across countries. It is important to establish what nurses actually do when giving enteral medication to inform policy and continuing education development. In 2007, a survey was conducted using a random sample of acute care nurses at two large metropolitan hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. There were 181 Registered Nurses who participated in the study; 92 (50.8%) practised in intensive care units, 52 (28.7%) in surgical areas, 30 (16.6%) in medical areas and 7 (3.9%) were from combined medical-surgical areas. The questionnaire was developed by the researchers and a pilot study was conducted in August 2006 to test reliability, face validity and user-friendliness of the tool. Nurses reported using a range of methods to verify enteral tube position prior to administering enteral medication; some were unreliable methods. A majority reported administering enteric-coated and slow or extended release forms of medication, and giving solid forms of medication when liquid form was available. Nearly all (96%) reported flushing a tube after giving medication, 28% before, and 12% always flushed between each medication. Enteral medication administration practices are inconsistent. Some nurses are using unsafe practices and may therefore compromise patient care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Bioequivalence study of two enteric coated capsule formulations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical profession has realized the problem of wide variations in the therapeutic effectiveness of various brands of oral formulations containing the same active ingredient in equal amounts. The study was conducted as an open label, balanced, randomized, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence single-dose crossover ...

  15. Gastro-enteritis in huisartsenpeilstations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Leeuwen, W.J. van; Vinje, J.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duijnhoven, Y.T.P.H. van


    De incidentie van huisartsconsulten voor gastro-enteritis van 77 per 10.000 persoonjaren lijkt een lichte daling te vertonen t.o.v. de incidentie van 90 per 10.000 persoonjaren in een vergelijkbaar onderzoek in 1992-1993. De belangrijkste verwekkers van gastro-enteritis waarvoor de huisarts wordt

  16. Technical aspects of enteral nutrition.


    Keymling, M


    Advances in technical aspects of enteral feeding such as the manufacture of tubes from polyurethane or silicone have helped promote the science of enteral nutrition. Nasoenteral tubes have few complications, apart from a high unwanted extubation rate and some reluctance from patients because of cosmetic unacceptability. Needle jejunostomy has low morbidity but can only be placed at laparotomy. Percutaneous gastrotomy (in all its different guises) has been established as a low risk procedure a...

  17. Recent Advances in Enteral Nutrition


    Ojo, Omorogieva; Brooke, Joanne


    There have been significant advances in the provision of enteral nutrition support in the acute and community healthcare settings. Enteral nutrition is beneficial to individuals who have functional guts but may not be able to meet their nutritional requirements via a normal diet. Most of these people have neurological conditions such as stroke, multiple sclerosis and dementia which could impact on swallowing reflexes, leading to dysphagia [1]. Others may have cancer, intellectual disability o...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Muthiah


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome-  In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery.  In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer

  19. Effects of coating layer and release medium on release profile from coated capsules with Eudragit FS 30D: an in vitro and in vivo study. (United States)

    Moghimipour, Eskandar; Rezaei, Mohsen; Kouchak, Maryam; Fatahiasl, Jafar; Angali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Ramezani, Zahra; Amini, Mohsen; Dorkoosh, Farid Abedin; Handali, Somayeh


    The aim of the present research was to evaluate the impact of coating layers on release profile from enteric coated dosage forms. Capsules were coated with Eudragit FS 30D using dipping method. The drug profile was evaluated in both phosphate buffer and Hank's solutions. Utilization X-ray imaging, gastrointestinal transmission of enteric coated capsules was traced in rats. According to the results, no release of the drug was found at pH 1.2, and the extent of release drug in pH 6.8 medium was decreased by adding the coating layers. The results indicated single-layer coated capsules in phosphate buffer were significantly higher than that in Hank's solution. However, no significant difference was observed from capsules with three coating layers in two different dissolution media. X-ray imaging showed that enteric coated capsules were intact in the stomach and in the small intestine, while disintegrated in the colon.

  20. Meat-based enteral nutrition (United States)

    Derevitskay, O. K.; Dydykin, A. S.


    Enteral nutrition is widely used in hospitals as a means of nutritional support and therapy for different diseases. Enteral nutrition must fulfil the energy needs of the body, be balanced by the nutrient composition and meet patient’s nutritional needs. Meat is a source of full-value animal protein, vitamins and minerals. On the basis of this research, recipes and technology for a meat-based enteral nutrition product were developed. The product is a ready-to-eat sterilised mixture in the form of a liquid homogeneous mass, which is of full value in terms of composition and enriched with vitamins and minerals, consists of particles with a size of not more than 0.3 mm and has the modified fat composition and rheological characteristics that are necessary for passage through enteral feeding tubes. The study presents experimental data on the content of the main macro- and micro-nutrients in the developed product. The new product is characterised by a balanced fatty acid composition, which plays an important role in correction of lipid metabolism disorders and protein-energy deficiency, and it is capable of satisfying patients’ daily requirements for vitamins and the main macro- and microelements when consuming 1500-2000 ml. Meat-based enteral nutrition can be used in diets as a standard mixture for effective correction of the energy and anabolic requirements of the body and support of the nutritional status of patients, including those with operated stomach syndrome.

  1. Enteric Neurobiology: Discoveries and Directions. (United States)

    Wood, Jackie D

    Discovery and documentation of noncholinergic-nonadrenergic neurotransmission in the enteric nervous system started a revolution in mechanisms of neural control of the digestive tract that continues into a twenty-first century era of translational gastroenterology, which is now firmly embedded in the term, neurogastroenterology. This chapter, on Enteric Neurobiology: Discoveries and Directions, tracks the step-by-step advances in enteric neuronal electrophysiology and synaptic behavior and progresses to the higher order functions of central pattern generators, hard wired synaptic circuits and libraries of neural programs in the brain-in-the-gut that underlie the several different patterns of motility and secretory behaviors that occur in the specialized, serially-connected compartments extending from the esophagus to the anus.

  2. Manufacture and properties of erythromycin beads containing neutron-activated erbium-171. (United States)

    Parr, A F; Digenis, G A; Sandefer, E P; Ghebre-Sellassie, I; Iyer, U; Nesbitt, R U; Scheinthal, B M


    To evaluate the effects of a neutron activation radiolabeling technique on an enteric-coated multiparticulate formulation of erythromycin, test quantities were produced under industrial pilot scale conditions. The pellets contained the stable isotope erbium oxide (Er-170), which was later converted by neutron activation into the short-lived gamma ray-emitting radionuclide, erbium-171. In vitro studies indicated that the dissolution profile, acid resistance, and enteric-coated surface of the pellets were minimally affected by the irradiation procedure. Antimicrobial potency was also unaffected, as determined by microbiological assay. Neutron activation thus appears to simplify the radiolabeling of complex pharmaceutical dosage forms for in vivo study by external gamma scintigraphy.

  3. Nutrición enteral


    Barrachina Bellés, Lidón; García Hernández, Misericordia; Oto Cavero, Isabel


    Este trabajo nos introduce en la administración de la nutrición enteral, haciendo una revisión de los aspectos a tener en cuenta tanto en sus indicaciones, vias, tipos, métodos, cuidados y complicaciones más importantes.

  4. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia (United States)

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David


    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  5. Biomaterial-Derived Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles for Enteric Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Render


    Full Text Available Oral drug delivery systems provide the most convenient, noninvasive, readily acceptable alternatives to parenteral systems. In the current work, eggshell-derived calcium carbonate (CaCO3 nanoparticles were used to develop enteric drug delivery system in the form of tablets. CaCO3 nanoparticles were manufactured using top-down ball-milling method and characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM and loaded with 5-fluorouracil as a model drug. Tablets with varying CaCO3 core and binder compositions were fabricated and coated with Eudragit S100 or Eudragit L100. Suitability for enteric delivery of the tablets was tested by oral administration to rabbits and radiography. Radiograph images showed that the tablet remained in the stomach of the rabbit for up to 3 hours. Further modifications of these biomaterial-derived nanoparticles and the coatings will enable manufacturing of stable formulations for slow or controlled release of pharmaceuticals for enteric delivery.

  6. In vitro dissolution of proton-pump inhibitor products intended for paediatric and geriatric use in physiological bicarbonate buffer. (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Shokrollahi, Honaz


    Proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) products based on enteric coated multiparticulates are design to meet the needs of patients who cannot swallow tablets such as children and older adults. Enteric coated PPI preparations exhibit delays in in vivo absorption and onset of antisecretory effects, which is not reflected by the rapid in vitro dissolution in compendial pH 6.8 phosphate buffer commonly used for assessment of these products. A more representative and physiological medium, pH 6.8 mHanks bicarbonate buffer, was used in this study to evaluate the in vitro dissolution of enteric coated multiparticulate-based PPI products. Commercially available omeprazole, lansoprazole and esomeprazole products were subject to dissolution tests using USP-II apparatus in pH 4.5 phosphate buffer saline for 45 min (acid stage) followed by pH 6.8 phosphate buffer or pH 6.8 mHanks bicarbonate buffer. In pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, all nine tested products displayed rapid and comparable dissolution profiles meeting the pharmacopeia requirements for delayed release preparations. In pH 6.8 mHanks buffer, drug release was delayed and failed the pharmacopeia requirements from most enteric coated preparations. Despite that the same enteric polymer, methacrylic acid-ethyl acrylate copolymer (1:1), was applied to all commercial multiparticulate-based products, marked differences were observed between dissolution profiles of these preparations. The use of pH 6.8 physiological bicarbonate (mHanks) buffer can serve as a useful tool to provide realistic and discriminative in vitro release assessment of enteric coated PPI preparations and to assist rational formulation development of these products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Processing and properties of electrodeposited layered surface coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsewell, Andy


    Hard chromium, produced by conventional dir ect curl ent (DC) electrodeposition, cannot be deposited to thicknesses gl enter than about 5 mu m because of the buildup of processing stresses which cause channel cracks in the coating. Much thicker chromium coatings map be produced by depositing a la...

  8. CERN openlab enters fifth phase

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrew Purcell


    CERN openlab is a unique public-private partnership between CERN and leading ICT companies. At the start of this year, openlab officially entered its fifth phase, which will run until the end of 2017. For the first time in its history, it has extended beyond the CERN community to include other major European and international research laboratories.   Founded in 2001 to develop the innovative ICT systems needed to cope with the unprecedented computing challenges of the LHC, CERN openlab unites science and industry at the cutting edge of research and innovation. In a white paper published last year, CERN openlab set out the main ICT challenges it will tackle during its fifth phase, namely data acquisition, computing platforms, data storage architectures, computer management and provisioning, networks and connectivity, and data analytics. As it enters its fifth phase, CERN openlab is expanding to include other research laboratories. "Today, research centres in other disciplines are also st...

  9. [Enteral feeding in adults: indications]. (United States)

    Matuchansky, C


    In this overview article the author examines successively: (1) the effects expected from enteral nutrition in adults: general and/or local nutritional effects, temporary arrest in progressive intestinal lesions, partial intestinal function replacement; (2) indications in gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal pathologies and modalities of application to each indication (route of administration, elemental, semi-elemental or polymeric nutrients, incremental or non-incremental calorie intake, necessity or lack of necessity for addition of fibres, value of ambulatory methods); (3) results according to indications: chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases, notably Crohn's disease, short small bowel syndromes, fistulae and stomies, preoperative period in gastrointestinal surgery, support of heavy treatments in non-terminal cancers, hypermetabolic states, notably stress; (4) absolute or relative contraindications of enteral nutrition.

  10. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul


    .5 g protein/kg ideal body weight/d. Plasma gut peptide responses were monitored in 15 subjects. RESULTS: In comparison with basal fasting trypsin secretion rates (mean = 134 [standard error = 22] U/h), duodenal feeding with the polymeric and elemental formulae stimulated trypsin secretion (mean = 408...... in enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation, with particular reference to trypsin, because the avoidance of trypsin stimulation may optimize enteral feeding in acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The pancreatic secretory responses to feeding were studied in 36 healthy volunteers by standard double...... [standard error = 51] U/h; P standard error = 34] U/h) and mid-distal jejunal (mean = 119 [standard error = 16] U/h) did not. Stimulation was associated with an increase in plasma cholecystokinin, whereas distal jejunal feeding resulted in an increase...

  11. Enteral alimentation: administration and complications. (United States)

    Benya, R; Mobarhan, S


    Tube feeding is commonly used for providing essential calories and nutrients to the patient otherwise unable to eat. In the last two decades there has been significant expansion in the number and quality of enteral formulas. In this review, we evaluate the indications for each major class of formula, and survey complications associated with formulas and devices that deliver formula. Recommendations for future research are listed.

  12. A Map Enters the Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    'modes of mattering'. In this paper I explore what difference digital cartography can make to STS practice. I draw on three examples from my own work where digitally mediated maps have entered the conversation and made critical, often surprising, differences to the research process. In my first example...... it was trying to chart. I use these examples to discuss the potential modes of mattering afforded by digital cartography in STS....

  13. Enteric Immunization of Mice Against Influenza with Recombinant Vaccinia (United States)

    Meitin, Catherine A.; Bender, Bradley S.; Small, Parker A., Jr.


    Intrajejunal administration to mice of a recombinant vaccinia virus containing the influenza virus hemagglutinin gene induced IgA antibody in nasal, gut, and vaginal secretions. It also induced IgG antibody in serum and cell-mediated immunity. The immunization provided significant protection against an influenza virus challenge. This work suggests that enteric-coated recombinant vaccinia could be an orally administered, inexpensive, multivalent, temperature-stable, safe, and effective vaccine for children that could be particularly useful in developing nations, where multiple injections are not easily administered. Oral administration of vaccines should also reduce children's fear of shots at the doctor's office.

  14. Enteric campylobacter: purging its secrets? (United States)

    Crushell, Ellen; Harty, Sinead; Sharif, Farhana; Bourke, Billy


    Campylobacterial infections are the most common cause of bacterial enterocolitis in humans. Among children, especially in developing countries, Campylobacter infections can cause severe life-threatening diarrheal disease. Although usually associated with a benign outcome in the developed world, the burden of illness posed by Campylobacter infections is enormous, and serious neurologic sequelae also can occur. For a variety of reasons our understanding of the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of Campylobacter infection has lagged far behind that of other enteric pathogens. However, recent completion of the genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni promises to open up the Campylobacter research field with the prospect of developing novel therapeutic and preventive strategies.

  15. Evolving trends in enteral alimentation. (United States)

    Ponsky, J L


    Nutrition has become a cornerstone of surgical patient care. With better understanding of metabolic and compositional requirements, great advances have been made in the area of total parenteral nutrition. Recent attention to full utilization of alimentary tract function has prompted a resurgence of interest in dietary formulas and methods of delivery. Three new approaches to the alimentary tract provide better access for feeding. Needle catheter jejunostomy allows early alimentary tract utilization following operations, while percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and jejunostomy provide long-term solutions to the provision of enteral alimentation. Future utilization of these techniques will certainly lead to better patient care.

  16. Sustained delivery of propranolol by using multiparticulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    METHODS: A formulation was prepared without using mineral oil by conventional ionotropic gelation method. All other formulations of oil entrapped floating gel beads of propranolol hydrochloride were prepared by using emulsion gelation method in which sodium alginate was used as a gelling agent and mineral oil was ...

  17. The challenge of enteric fever. (United States)

    Waddington, Claire S; Darton, Thomas C; Pollard, Andrew J


    Enteric fever, a non-specific, systemic infection caused by S. Typhi or Paratyphi A, B or C, is common in resource-limited regions of the world, where poor sanitation infrastructure facilitates faeco-oral transmission. Prompt treatment with appropriate antibiotics minimises illness severity, but presentation to health care facilities is often delayed because of the non-specific nature of the symptoms and the lack of reliable diagnostic tests. Disease prevention requires significant investment in provision of clean water and sanitation in the long term; vaccination offers a more realistic strategy for medium term control. However, implementation of existing vaccines and development of more efficacious vaccines has been hindered by the lack of an established correlate of protection and under appreciation of the true disease burden. Human microbial infection studies could provide a vehicle for the rapid evaluation of novel vaccines and investigation of the immunobiology of enteric infection. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Drug distribution in enteric microparticles. (United States)

    Nilkumhang, Suchada; Alhnan, Mohamed A; McConnell, Emma L; Basit, Abdul W


    The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of three fluorescent drug or drug-like molecules in enteric microparticles. Microparticles were prepared using the pH-responsive methylmethacrylate polymer Eudragit L by an emulsion solvent evaporation process. In the process drug and polymer are dissolved in ethanol, and dispersed in a liquid paraffin external phase using sorbitan sesquioleate as stabiliser. The incorporation and distribution of riboflavin, dipyridamole and acridine orange into these microparticles were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The influence of the physicochemical properties of the molecules (solubility in the inner phase, partition coefficient [ethanol/paraffin]) on the distribution, encapsulation efficiency and pH-responsive dissolution behaviour of the microparticles were examined. The drug that tended to partition in ethanol rather than liquid paraffin (riboflavin) was efficiently encapsulated and evenly distributed. In contrast, compounds which partitioned in favour of the liquid paraffin localised towards the surface of the microparticles and exhibited lower encapsulation efficiency (dipyridamole and acridine orange). All three sets of drug-loaded microparticles showed a limited release in acid (distribution appeared to have a minimum effect on drug release. This microparticle technology has the potential to provide effective enteric drug release with a wide variety of molecules.

  19. [New nutrients in enteral nutrition]. (United States)

    Vázquez Martínez, C


    1. Medical and surgical stress (major surgery, sepsis, injuries,...) increases requirements of certain essential nutrients and others considered non-essential or semi-essential. 2. Some nutrients such as glutamine, arginine, omega 3 fatty acids nucleotides, ... have a considerable influence on the immune function (delayed hypersensitivity, lymphocyte sub-population counts, immunological tests,..) and improve certain metabolic and nutritional indices (nitrogen balance, medium and short life proteins,...). For this reason, they are called "immunonutrients" or "immunity regulators". 3. The supply of special enteral formulas for situations of immunological compromise, with the addition of one or more of the nutrients considered today as "immunity regulators" has increased since 1988 in both absolute and percentage terms. 4. These nutrient-enriched enteral formulas improve the rate of infections, reduce the number of days on ventilator equipment, the length of hospital stays for critical patients, with a more marked effect on surgical patients. 5. The evidence seems today to support the use of enriched formulas with critical patients. Nonetheless, some caution must be maintained as it has not been possible to show any reduction in the mortality of the cases studied nor, in short, in the prognosis of patients affected by situations of hypercatabolism and reduced immunity. 6. We feel that their use should, therefore, be carried out in accordance with the protocols and in patients expected to survive, where the evolution reveals severe catabolism unhindered by conventional therapy.

  20. Evaluation of Statens Serum Institut Enteric Medium for Detection of Enteric Pathogens


    Blom, Marianne; Meyer, Aase; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Gaarslev, Knud; Espersen, Frank


    The efficacy of the Statens Serum Institut (SSI) enteric medium for isolation and direct identification of enteric pathogens was evaluated. Six different biochemical reactions can be read by using the SSI enteric medium, allowing direct identification of a range of enteric pathogens. All 248 gram-negative bacterial species that were tested grew on the SSI enteric medium. Only 10 of 248 bacteria (4%) showed discrepant results in the biochemical reactions, and none of these were enteric pathoge...

  1. Role of nerves in enteric infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spiller, R C


    Peripheral and central effects of enteric infection are considered. Nerves play a vital part in the immediate response to enteric infection, promoting pathogen expulsion by orchestrating intestinal secretion and propulsive motor patterns...

  2. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition


    Seres, David S.; Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra


    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

  3. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition (United States)

    Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra


    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition. PMID:23503324

  4. spin coating

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Intense UV photoluminescence is observed for intrinsic ZnO film. Keywords : thin films, oxidize zinc doped aluminium (ZnO:Al), sol-gel, spin coating, structural analysis, electric and optical properties. 1. Introduction. Depuis ces vingt dernières années les couches minces d'oxyde de zinc ont connu un intérêt croissant dans ...

  5. Enteral tube feeding in adults. (United States)

    Scott, R; Bowling, T E


    Enteral tube feeding is usually a relatively straightforward method of nutritional support, and should be facilitated by a multiprofessional team. For short-term use (tube is indicated but if longer term feeding is required then a gastrostomy is appropriate, usually inserted endoscopically (a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube). The most common serious complication of a nasogastric tube is not identifying a misplaced tube within the lungs: there are clear recommendations from the National Patient Safety Agency as to how to check tube placement. Nasojejunal tubes are required in patients with gastroparesis. Tube blockage is common and is prevented by careful and regular flushing. Diarrhoea is the most complication of feeding and is often related to other medication. Clinicians need an algorithm for systematically dealing with such a problem. Refeeding syndrome may occur in malnourished patients and is characterised by low levels of potassium, phosphate, and/or magnesium, as well as disorders of water and salt balance. Identifying the at-risk patient with careful monitoring is crucial.

  6. CERN openlab enters new phase

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony


    The newest phase of CERN’s openlab framework was inaugurated this week during a meeting of the openlab partners. This phase will last three years and will bring together existing openlab partners and a new contributor: Huawei.   Group picture taken at the first CERN openlab IV annual Board of Sponsors meeting, in the presence of the CERN Director-General, the partners and the openlab team members. © Fons Rademakers (CERN Photo Club). Eleven years ago, the creation of the CERN openlab created a long-term link between industrial partners and the Organization. Its framework has allowed industry to carry out large-scale IT research and development in an open atmosphere – an “Open Lab”, if you will. For CERN, openlab has contributed to giving the computing centre and, more broadly, the LHC community, the opportunity to ensure that the next generation of services and products is suitable to their needs. Now entering its fourth phase, openlab will ...

  7. Extending the enteric nervous system. (United States)

    Sbarbati, Andrea; Osculati, Francesco


    The work reviews the evidence suggesting that lingual components of the autonomic system may be considered the most rostral portion of the enteric nervous system (ENS) defining the concept of lingual ENS (LENS). The LENS is not dissimilar from the more distally located portions of the ENS, however, it is characterized by a massive sensory input generated by collaterals of gustatory and trigeminal fibers. The different neuronal subpopulations that compose the LENS operate reflexes involved in regulation of secretion and vasomotility. Systemic reflexes on the digestive and respiratory apparatus are operated by means of neural connections through the pharynx or larynx. The LENS can modulate the activity of distally located organs by means of the annexed glands.The LENS seems therefore to be a "chemical eye" located at the beginning of the digestive apparatus which analyses the foods before their ingestion and diffuses this information distally. The definition of the LENS supports the concept of an elevated degree of autonomy in the ENS and puts in a new light the role of the gustatory system in modulation of the digestive functions. For its characteristics, the LENS appears to be an ideal model to study the elementary connectivity of the ENS.

  8. spin coating

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dans ce travail nous avons préparé des couches minces de l'oxyde de zinc ZnO dopées à l'aluminium et non dopées par la technique Sol-Gel associée au « spin coating » sur des substrats en verre « pyrex » à partir de l'acétate de zinc dissous dans une solution de l'éthanol. Nous avons ensuite effectué des analyses ...

  9. [Enteral feeding tubes for critically ill patients]. (United States)

    Braun, J; Bein, T; Wiese, C H R; Graf, B M; Zausig, Y A


    The use of enteral feeding tubes is an important part of early enteral feeding in intensive care medicine. In other faculties with non-critically ill patients, such as (oncologic) surgery, neurology, paediatrics or even in palliative care medicine feeding tubes are used under various circumstances as a temporary or definite solution. The advantage of enteral feeding tubes is the almost physiologic administration of nutrition, liquids and medication. Enteral nutrition is thought to be associated with a reduced infection rate, increased mucosal function, improved immunologic function, reduced length of hospital stay and reduced costs. However, the insertion and use of feeding tubes is potentially dangerous and may be associated with life-threatening complications (bleeding, perforation, peritonitis, etc.). Therefore, the following article will give a summary of the different types of enteral feeding tubes and their range of application. Additionally, a critical look on indication and contraindication is given as well as how to insert an enteral feeding tube.

  10. [New home enteral nutrition via jejunostomy using semi-solid enteral formula]. (United States)

    Ogasawara, Mihoko; Makishima, Junko; Maruyama, Makishima Michio


    Home enteral nutrition via jejunostomy requires considerable time for infusion to the patients. A new method using semisolid enteral formula dramatically reduces the time of infusion. This method makes use of pectin and liquid enteral formula. The authors applied this method in two patients with total gastrectomy being given enteral nutrition at home. There were no complications such as diarrhea or abdominal pain. This new method of home enteral nutrition could enhance the patients' quality of life (QOL) by reducing the time of infusion of enteral nutrition.

  11. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  12. Graphene Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Bøggild, Peter


    Owing to its remarkable electrical and mechanical properties, graphene has been attracting tremendous interest in materials science. In particular, its chemical stability and impermeability make it a promising protective membrane. However, recent investigations reveal that single layer graphene...... cannot be used as a barrier in the long run, due to galvanic corrosion phenomena arising when oxygen or water penetrate through graphene cracks or domain boundaries. Here, we overcome this issue by using a multilayered (ML) graphene coating. Our lab- as well as industrial-scale tests demonstrate that ML...... graphene can effectively protect Ni in harsh environments, even after long term exposure. This is made possible by the presence of a high number of graphene layers, which can efficiently mask the cracks and domain boundaries defects found in individual layers of graphene. Our findings thus show...

  13. Abdominal abscesses with enteric communications: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chintapalli, K.; Thorsen, M.K.; Foley, W.D.; Unger, G.F.


    CT examinations of four proven abdominal abscesses with enteric communications are reported. All the patients received oral contrast (3% Gastrografin solution). Three patients recieved rectal contrast. The patient who did not receive rectal contrast had a prior abdominoperineal resection. Contrast material was administered intravenously unless there was a contraindication or a suspected enteric vesical fistula. A representative case is described.

  14. Noncommunicating Isolated Enteric Duplication Cyst in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noncommunicating isolated enteric duplications in the abdomen are an extremely rare variant of enteric duplications with their own blood supply. We report a case of a noncommunicating isolated ileal duplication in a 10-month-old boy. He was admitted because of severe abdominal distension and developed irritability ...

  15. Enteral Nutrition and Acute Pancreatitis: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanier, B.W.M.; Bruno, M.J.; Mathus-Vliegen, E.M.H.


    Introduction. In patients with acute pancreatitis (AP), nutritional support is required if normal food cannot be tolerated within several days. Enteral nutrition is preferred over parenteral nutrition. We reviewed the literature about enteral nutrition in AP. Methods. A MEDLINE search of the English

  16. Enteral nutrition and acute pancreatitis: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.W.M. Spanier (Marcel); M.J. Bruno (Marco); E.M.H. Mathus-Vliegen (Elisabeth)


    textabstractIntroduction. In patients with acute pancreatitis (AP), nutritional support is required if normal food cannot be tolerated within several days. Enteral nutrition is preferred over parenteral nutrition. We reviewed the literature about enteral nutrition in AP. Methods. A MEDLINE search of

  17. Understanding and controlling the enteric nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, G. E.


    The enteric nervous system or the `Little Brain' of the gut controls gastrointestinal motility and secretion, and is involved in visceral sensation. In this chapter, new developments in understanding the function of the enteric nervous system are described. In particular, the interaction of this

  18. Enteral nutrition in the critically ill. (United States)

    Koruda, M J; Guenter, P; Rombeau, J L


    Although total parenteral nutrition has greatly influenced the clinical management of the critically ill, enteral nutrition can provide much needed support in the intensive care unit. In order to employ the best enteral nutrition, one must understand its rationale, delivery principles, equipment, feeding techniques, and diets, as well as patient selection and monitoring.

  19. Water quality indicators: bacteria, coliphages, enteric viruses. (United States)

    Lin, Johnson; Ganesh, Atheesha


    Water quality through the presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms may affect human health. Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and coliphages are normally used as indicators of water quality. However, the presence of above-mentioned indicators do not always suggest the presence of human enteric viruses. It is important to study human enteric viruses in water. Human enteric viruses can tolerate fluctuating environmental conditions and survive in the environment for long periods of time becoming causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases. Therefore, the potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging. Human Adenoviruses and other viruses have been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems. This article reports on the recent developments in the management of water quality specifically focusing on human enteric viruses as indicators.

  20. Enteral and parenteral nutrition in patients with enteric fistulas and short bowel syndrome. (United States)

    Rombeau, J L; Rolandelli, R H


    Significant advances in the use of enteral and parenteral nutrition in patients with either enteric fistulas or short bowel syndrome include increased usage of enteral nutrition because of its trophic effects on the gut and increased usage of both enteral and parenteral nutrition in the home setting. Current investigations are directed toward identifying gut-specific fuels and dietary and pharmacologic enhancement of nutrient utilization.

  1. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.


    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  2. Enteral fluid therapy in large animals. (United States)

    Rainger, J E; Dart, A J


    Enteral fluids administered alone, or in conjunction with intravenous fluids, are reported to be useful for the treatment of dehydration and electrolyte loss associated with diarrhoea in a number of species, following exercise in horses and for feed impaction of the large intestine of horses. Enteral fluids are suitable for treatment of mild to moderately dehydrated patients with some intact intestinal epithelium and motile small intestine. In patients that will drink voluntarily or tolerate nasal intubation the use of enteral fluids may avoid the complications associated with intravenous fluid administration. However the labour costs associated with repeated nasal intubation in intensively managed patients requiring large volumes of fluids may make the use of enteral fluids less economical than intravenous fluid administration. Enteral fluid use alone is contraindicated in patients that are severely dehydrated and/or in hypovolaemic shock, however, if used in conjunction with intravenous fluids, the effects of villous atrophy and malnutrition may be ameliorated and the duration of hospitalisation shortened. There is a variety of commercially available enteral fluids available to veterinary practitioners. While the key components of these fluids are sodium, chloride and carbohydrates, the amounts of ions and other ingredients such as potassium, alkalising agents, amino acids and shortchain fatty acids may vary. The species of the animal, the underlying condition, and the constituents of the fluid, should influence the choice of an enteral fluid.

  3. Pneumatosis intestinalis associated with enteral tube feeding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zorgdrager, Marcel; Pol, Robert


    ...). Explorative laparotomy showed an omental band adhesion without signs of ischaemia. After a short period of total parenteral nutrition PI resolved almost completely and enteral tube feeding could be continued once again...

  4. Endoscopic placement of enteral feeding tubes. (United States)

    Rafferty, Gerard P; Tham, Tony Ck


    Malnutrition is common in patients with acute and chronic illness. Nutritional management of these malnourished patients is an essential part of healthcare. Enteral feeding is one component of nutritional support. It is the preferred method of nutritional support in patients that are not receiving adequate oral nutrition and have a functioning gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This method of nutritional support has undergone progression over recent times. The method of placement of enteral feeding tubes has evolved due to development of new feeding tubes and endoscopic technology. Enteral feeding can be divided into methods that provide short-term and long-term access to the GIT. This review article focuses on the current range of methods of gaining access to the GIT to provide enteral feed.

  5. American Society for Parenteral & Enteral Nutrition (United States)

    ... Center Advertising and Sponsorship Learn More ASPEN Enteral Nutrition by the Numbers: EN Data Across the Healthcare Continuum Learn More The ASPEN Adult Nutrition Support Core Curriculum, 3rd Edition Has Arrived! The ...

  6. Duck Virus Enteritis - A Contingency Plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Duck plague, also known as duck virus enteritis (DVE) is a highly contagious, extremely deadly epizootic virus with a potential for devastating continental waterfowl...

  7. [Indications and practice of enteral nutrition]. (United States)

    Hallay, Judit; Nagy, Dániel; Fülesdi, Béla


    Malnutrition in hospitalised patients has a significant and disadvantageous impact on treatment outcome. If possible, enteral nutrition with an energy/protein-balanced nutrient should be preferred depending on the patient's condition, type of illness and risk factors. The aim of the nutrition therapy is to increase the efficacy of treatment and shorten the length of hospital stay in order to ensure rapid rehabilitation. In the present review the authors summarize the most important clinical and practical aspects of enteral nutrition therapy.

  8. Medication administration through enteral feeding tubes. (United States)

    Williams, Nancy Toedter


    An overview of enteral feeding tubes, drug administration techniques, considerations for dosage form selection, common drug interactions with enteral formulas, and methods to minimize tube occlusion is given. Enteral nutrition through a feeding tube is the preferred method of nutrition support in patients who have a functioning gastrointestinal tract but who are unable to be fed orally. This method of delivering nutrition is also commonly used for administering medications when patients cannot swallow safely. However, several issues must be considered with concurrent administration of oral medications and enteral formulas. Incorrect administration methods may result in clogged feeding tubes, decreased drug efficacy, increased adverse effects, or drug-formula incompatibilities. Various enteral feeding tubes are available and are typically classified by site of insertion and location of the distal tip of the feeding tube. Liquid medications, particularly elixirs and suspensions, are preferred for enteral administration; however, these formulations may be hypertonic or contain large amounts of sorbitol, and these properties increase the potential for adverse effects. Before solid dosage forms are administered through the feeding tube, it should be determined if the medications are suitable for manipulation, such as crushing a tablet or opening a capsule. Medications should not be added directly to the enteral formula, and feeding tubes should be properly flushed with water before and after each medication is administered. To minimize drug-nutrient interactions, special considerations should be taken when administering phenytoin, carbamazepine, warfarin, fluoroquinolones, and proton pump inhibitors via feeding tubes. Precautions should be implemented to prevent tube occlusions, and immediate intervention is required when blockages occur. Successful drug delivery through enteral feeding tubes requires consideration of the tube size and placement as well as careful

  9. Endoscopic placement of enteral feeding tubes


    Rafferty, Gerard P; Tham, Tony CK


    Malnutrition is common in patients with acute and chronic illness. Nutritional management of these malnourished patients is an essential part of healthcare. Enteral feeding is one component of nutritional support. It is the preferred method of nutritional support in patients that are not receiving adequate oral nutrition and have a functioning gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This method of nutritional support has undergone progression over recent times. The method of placement of enteral feedin...

  10. Correlates of protection for enteric vaccines. (United States)

    Holmgren, Jan; Parashar, Umesh D; Plotkin, Stanley; Louis, Jacques; Ng, Su-Peing; Desauziers, Eric; Picot, Valentina; Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra


    An immunological Correlate of Protection (CoP) is an immune response that is statistically interrelated with protection. Identification of CoPs for enteric vaccines would help design studies to improve vaccine performance of licensed vaccines in low income settings, and would facilitate the testing of future vaccines in development that might be more affordable. CoPs are lacking today for most existing and investigational enteric vaccines. In order to share the latest information on CoPs for enteric vaccines and to discuss novel approaches to correlate mucosal immune responses in humans with protection, the Foundation Mérieux organized an international conference of experts where potential CoPs for vaccines were examined using case-studies for both bacterial and viral enteric pathogens. Experts on the panel concluded that to date, all established enteric vaccine CoPs, such as those for hepatitis A, Vi typhoid and poliovirus vaccines, are based on serological immune responses even though these may poorly reflect the relevant gut immune responses or predict protective efficacy. Known CoPs for cholera, norovirus and rotavirus could be considered as acceptable for comparisons of similarly composed vaccines while more work is still needed to establish CoPs for the remaining enteric pathogens and their candidate vaccines. Novel approaches to correlate human mucosal immune responses with protection include the investigation of gut-originating antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), B memory cells and follicular helper T cells from samples of peripheral blood during their recirculation. Copyright © 2017.

  11. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating (United States)

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood


    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  12. Niobium pentoxide coating replacing zinc phosphate coating




    A new coating made of niobium pentoxide, obtained through the sol-gel process, was developed for the carbon steel (SAE 1010). The corrosion protection provided by this coating was evaluated through electrochemical tests such as: open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and anodic potentiodynamic polarization in NaCl 0,5 mol L-1 solution. The morphology and composition of the coatings were analyzed using scanning electronic microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X...

  13. Single-layer closure of typhoid enteric perforation: Our experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Typhoid enteritis is rare in developed countries. The increasing prevalence of typhoid fever with enteric perforation in our environment is alarming. Peritonitis follows enteric perforation due to typhoid enteritis. Surgical treatments and repair of the perforated areas due to typhoid enteritis varies between ...

  14. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J.L.; Taat, C.W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Becker, A.E. (Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands))


    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were quantified by counting their number per unit length of muscularis mucosa. Results in radiation enteritis were compared with matched control specimens by using Student's t test. Chromogranin immunostaining showed a statistically significant increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis specimens compared with controls both in small and large intestine (ileum, 67.5 +/- 23.5 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 17.0 +/- 6.1 in controls; colon, 40.9 +/- 13.7 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 9.5 +/- 4.1 in controls--p less than 0.005 in both instances). Increase of endocrine cells was demonstrated also by Grimelius' staining; however, without reaching statistical significance. It is not clear whether or not the increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis reported in this study is caused by a hyperplastic response or by a sparing phenomenon. We should consider that increased endocrine cells, when abnormally secreting their products, may be involved in some of the clinical features of radiation enteropathy. In addition, as intestinal endocrine cells produce trophic substances to the intestine, their increase could be responsible for the raised risk of developing carcinoma of the intestine in long standing radiation enteritis.

  15. Endoscopic solutions to challenging enteral feeding problems. (United States)

    Paski, Shirley C; Dominitz, Jason A


    Enteral nutrition support is often required in patients who are unable to meet their own nutritional requirements. Endoscopists play a key role in the placement of enteral feeding catheters. This review focuses on the recently published solutions to common problems encountered during endoscopic placement of enteral feeding devices. Case reports and case series describe solutions for overcoming common problems encountered during the placement of enteral feeding devices. Transnasal techniques can simplify nasojejunal tube placement, whereas deep enteroscopy techniques provide more reliable jejunostomy placement. Endoscopic ultrasound can help when transillumination is not possible or in the setting of postsurgical anatomy like Roux-en-Y. Laparoscopic-assisted procedures are useful when endoscopic techniques have failed in adults or in select high-risk pediatric patients. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and the American Gastroenterology Association both published comprehensive guidelines that outline the indications, contraindications, technical aspects of feeding catheter placement, and complications. Advances in endoscopic techniques, including deep enteroscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, ultra-slim transnasal endoscopes and laparoscopic-assisted procedures, have enabled endoscopists to successfully place enteral feeding tubes in patients who previously required open procedures.

  16. European coatings conference - Marine coatings. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This volume contains 13 lectures (manuscripts or powerpoint foils) with the following topics: 1. Impact of containerization on polyurethane and polyurea in marine and protective coatings (Malte Homann); 2. The application of combinatorial/high-throughput methods to the development of marine coatings (Bret Chisholm); 3. Progress and perspectives in the AMBIO (advanced nanostructured surfaces for the control of biofouling) Project (James Callow); 4. Release behaviour due to shear and pull-off of silicone coatings with a thickness gradient (James G. Kohl); 5. New liquid rheology additives for high build marine coatings (Andreas Freytag); 6. Effective corrosion protection with polyaniline, polpyrrole and polythiophene as anticorrosice additives for marine paints (Carlos Aleman); 7. Potential applications of sol gel technology for marine applications (Robert Akid); 8: Performance of biocide-free Antifouling Coatings for leisure boats (Bernd Daehne); 9. Novel biocidefree nanostructured antifouling coatings - can nano do the job? (Corne Rentrop); 10. One component high solids, VOC compliant high durability finish technology (Adrian Andrews); 11. High solid coatings - the hybrid solution (Luca Prezzi); 12. Unique organofunctional silicone resins for environmentally friendly high-performance coatings (Dieter Heldmann); 13. Silicone-alkyd paints for marine applications: from battleship-grey to green (Thomas Easton).

  17. Pancreatic enzymes prepared in bicarbonate solution for administration through enteral feeding tubes. (United States)

    Boullata, Angela M; Boullata, Joseph I


    The dissolution and physicochemical effects of preparing delayed-release pancrelipase in a sodium bicarbonate solution before administration via an enteral feeding tube were studied. Several doses of four delayed-release pancrelipase products (Creon, Pancreaze, Ultresa, Zenpep) were studied. The intact contents of pancrelipase capsules was added to 20 mL of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate solution to dissolve the enteric coating and liberate the enzymes into solution. In addition to visual observation, the pH, relative particle count, and osmolality of each admixture were assessed immediately and 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes after admixture preparation. The only dose of Creon that was completely dissolved at 30 minutes was the 24,000 lipase unit dose. None of the doses of Pancreaze and only the lowest dose (23,000 lipase units) of Ultresa were completely dissolved at 30 minutes. However, Zenpep doses of 20,000 and 40,000 lipase units were completely dissolved 30 minutes after preparation. Higher doses of each pancrelipase product did not completely dissolve. The baseline pH of the solvent decreased slightly at the first few time points after pancrelipase was added. The relative particle count increased over time and with increasing doses. The osmolality of the mixtures varied by pancrelipase product. The dissolution of enteric coated granules in sodium bicarbonate varied with the pancrelipase product and dose. Zenpep 40,000 lipase units was found to most efficiently dissolve in sodium bicarbonate, possibly due to the consistent size of the product's granules and visibly thinner and uniform enteric coating. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seljaev Vladimir Pavlovich


    Full Text Available On the basis of the computer program «Statistical analysis of color components for paint and varnish coatings», methods are suggested and experimental results are obtained for decorative characteristics polyurethane coatings.

  19. Corrosion inhibiting organic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasson, E.


    A corrosion inhibiting coating comprises a mixture of waxes, petroleum jelly, a hardener and a solvent. In particular, a corrosion inhibiting coating comprises candelilla wax, carnauba wax, microcrystalline waxes, white petrolatum, an oleoresin, lanolin and a solvent.

  20. Molecular survey of enteric viruses in commercial chicken farms in Korea with a history of enteritis. (United States)

    Koo, B S; Lee, H R; Jeon, E O; Han, M S; Min, K C; Lee, S B; Mo, I P


    Several enteric viruses have increasingly received attention as potential causative agents of runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in chickens. A molecular survey was performed to determine the presence of a broad range of enteric viruses, namely chicken astrovirus (CAstV), avian nephritis virus (ANV), chicken parvovirus (ChPV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), avian rotavirus (AvRV), avian reovirus (ARV), and fowl adenovirus (FAdV), in intestinal samples derived from 34 commercial chicken flocks that experienced enteritis outbreaks between 2010 and 2012. Using techniques such as PCR and reverse-transcription PCR, enteric viruses were identified in a total of 85.3% of investigated commercial chicken flocks in Korea. Furthermore, diverse combinations of 2 or more enteric viruses were simultaneously identified in 51.7% of chicken farms positive for enteric viruses. The rank order of positivity for enteric viruses was as follows: ANV (44.1%), CAstV (38.2%), ChPV (26.5%), IBV (20.6%), ARV (8.8%), AvRV (5.9%), and FAdV (2.9%). Additionally, other pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Eimeria spp., and FAdV were detected in 79% of chicken flocks positive for enteric viruses using PCR, bacterial isolation, and microscopic examination. The results of our study indicate the presence of several enteric viruses with various combinations in commercial chicken farms that experienced enteritis outbreaks. Experimental studies are required to further understand the roles of enteric viruses in RSS in commercial chickens.

  1. Acute cerebellar ataxia in enteric fever. (United States)

    Sawhney, I M; Prabhakar, S; Dhand, U K; Chopra, J S


    Acute cerebellar ataxia as an isolated neurological manifestation of enteric fever is very rare. Three cases of acute cerebellar ataxia associated with enteric fever are reported. The diagnosis of enteric fever was confirmed by positive blood culture, strongly positive Widal test and rising antibody titres. The major clinical features were rapid development of gait ataxia, limb ataxia and dysarthria. None of the patients had altered sensorium. The cerebellar involvement was noticed on the second or third day of fever which progressed for one to two days. The symptoms remained static for one to two weeks and thereafter all the patients showed gradual recovery in a few weeks. Acute onset of cerebellar lesion, self limiting course and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis suggest par- or post-infectious demyelinating pathology in these patients, who were not related to each other.

  2. Pneumatosis intestinalis associated with enteral tube feeding. (United States)

    Zorgdrager, Marcel; Pol, Robert


    A 49-year-old man presented with a Hinchey II perforated diverticulitis and underwent laparoscopic peritoneal lavage. During the postoperative course the patient received enteral tube feeding which was followed by a bowel obstruction accompanied with pneumatosis intestinalis (PI). Explorative laparotomy showed an omental band adhesion without signs of ischaemia. After a short period of total parenteral nutrition PI resolved almost completely and enteral tube feeding could be continued once again. In the weeks that followed the patient developed atypical bowel symptoms and recurrent PI which resolved each time the drip feeding was discontinued. Despite the mild clinical course, a CT scan showed massive PI on day 21 after the laparotomy. After excluding life-threatening conditions conservative management was instituted and the patient recovered completely after discontinuing the drip feeding. We present one of the few cases of subclinical PI associated with enteral tube feeding that could be managed conservatively.

  3. Instantaneous enteric nano-encapsulation of omeprazole: pharmaceutical and pharmacological evaluation. (United States)

    Bendas, Ehab R; Abdelbary, Aly A


    Recently, great attention has been paid to nanocapsules. The interest of these structures is due to their promising applications as drug delivery systems. The objective of this study was to develop novel enteric coating technique based on instantaneous encapsulation of the acid-labile drug, omeprazole in innovative enteric nanocapsules. Omeprazole enteric nanocapsules were formulated by varying the type and amount of the enteric polymer. The particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP) and encapsulation efficiency (EE) values of the prepared enteric nanocapsules were determined. A full 2(1)×3(1) factorial design was used for planning and analysis of the experimental trials to select the optimized formulation. The highest desirability value was 0.7463 for formula E3 (containing 200mg hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP)). The stability of omeprazole was reflected by the absence of the exothermal peak when the drug was encapsulated as detected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms. In vitro drug release study confirmed the USP specifications required to meet the key formulation characteristics of gastro-resistance. In vivo pharmacological assessment showed that the optimized nanocapsules were able to protect rat stomach against ulcer formation compared to the aqueous suspension of the drug which showed less significant protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nanocrystalline coatings properties forecasting (United States)

    Eremin, E. N.; Yurov, V. M.; Guchenko, S. A.; Laurynas, V. Ch


    The paper considers various properties of nanocrystalline coatings. The methods of determining the surface tension of the deposited coating on the basis of the size dependence of their physical properties. It is shown that predict the mechanical properties of the coatings, their melting point, heat resistance, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, etc. It can be based on a theoretical evaluation of the surface tension.

  5. Spin coating of electrolytes (United States)

    Stetter, Joseph R.; Maclay, G. Jordan


    Methods for spin coating electrolytic materials onto substrates are disclosed. More particularly, methods for depositing solid coatings of ion-conducting material onto planar substrates and onto electrodes are disclosed. These spin coating methods are employed to fabricate electrochemical sensors for use in measuring, detecting and quantifying gases and liquids.

  6. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  7. Coating of graphene


    Schneider, G.F.; Dekker, C.


    The present invention is in the field of highly crystalline graphene and coating said graphene with a layer. Said graphene may have further structures, such as nanopores, nanogaps, and nanoribbons. The coated graphene can be used for biomolecular analysis and modification, such as DNA-sequencing, as a sensor, etc. The invention therefor also relates to use of coated graphene.

  8. Enteric alpha defensins in norm and pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisitsyn Nikolai A


    Full Text Available Abstract Microbes living in the mammalian gut exist in constant contact with immunity system that prevents infection and maintains homeostasis. Enteric alpha defensins play an important role in regulation of bacterial colonization of the gut, as well as in activation of pro- and anti-inflammatory responses of the adaptive immune system cells in lamina propria. This review summarizes currently available data on functions of mammalian enteric alpha defensins in the immune defense and changes in their secretion in intestinal inflammatory diseases and cancer.

  9. A Systematic Approach of Employing Quality by Design Principles: Risk Assessment and Design of Experiments to Demonstrate Process Understanding and Identify the Critical Process Parameters for Coating of the Ethylcellulose Pseudolatex Dispersion Using Non-Conventional Fluid Bed Process. (United States)

    Kothari, Bhaveshkumar H; Fahmy, Raafat; Claycamp, H Gregg; Moore, Christine M V; Chatterjee, Sharmista; Hoag, Stephen W


    The goal of this study was to utilize risk assessment techniques and statistical design of experiments (DoE) to gain process understanding and to identify critical process parameters for the manufacture of controlled release multiparticulate beads using a novel disk-jet fluid bed technology. The material attributes and process parameters were systematically assessed using the Ishikawa fish bone diagram and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) risk assessment methods. The high risk attributes identified by the FMEA analysis were further explored using resolution V fractional factorial design. To gain an understanding of the processing parameters, a resolution V fractional factorial study was conducted. Using knowledge gained from the resolution V study, a resolution IV fractional factorial study was conducted; the purpose of this IV study was to identify the critical process parameters (CPP) that impact the critical quality attributes and understand the influence of these parameters on film formation. For both studies, the microclimate, atomization pressure, inlet air volume, product temperature (during spraying and curing), curing time, and percent solids in the coating solutions were studied. The responses evaluated were percent agglomeration, percent fines, percent yield, bead aspect ratio, median particle size diameter (d50), assay, and drug release rate. Pyrobuttons® were used to record real-time temperature and humidity changes in the fluid bed. The risk assessment methods and process analytical tools helped to understand the novel disk-jet technology and to systematically develop models of the coating process parameters like process efficiency and the extent of curing during the coating process.

  10. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.


    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  11. ATHENA optimized coating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen


    The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed...... in order to review the current coating baseline. The performance of several material combinations, considering a simple bi-layer, simple multilayer and linear graded multilayer coatings are tested and simulation of the mirror performance considering both the optimized coating design and the coating...

  12. Ghanaian Women Enter into Popular Entertainment | Collins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discuses the problems faced by West African and particularly Ghanaian female popular performers and the various factors that have, since the 1960's led to increasing numbers of women entering the professional theatre and the commercial entertainment industry. The study examines the upsurge of female ...

  13. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip (United States)

    Henderson, Linda


    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  14. Experimental Yersinia pseudotuberculosis enteritis in laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and guinea pigs. Animals orally fed with clean water showed no symptoms of yersiniosis. Rabbits infected with Y. pseudotuberculosis showed signs of illness while guinea pigs did not show any clinical sign. Visceral organs of infected rabbits showed enteritis with necrotic lesions but no pathological changes were observed ...

  15. Campylobacter enteritis among children in Dembia District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To estimate the magnitude of Campylobacter enteritis in children below fifteen years of age. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Seven villages found in the outskirts of Kolla Diba town were covered. The town is located 35 kilometres away from Gondar teaching hospital. Participants: Stool specimens were ...

  16. Astronaut John Glenn Enters Friendship 7 (United States)


    Astronaut John Glenn enters the Mercury spacecraft, Friendship 7, prior to the launch of MA-6 on February 20, 1961 and became the first American who orbited the Earth. The MA-6 mission was the first manned orbital flight boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile), lasted for five hours, and orbited the Earth three times.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 12, 2000 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: To estimate the magnitude of Campylobacter enteritis in children below fifteen years of age. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Seven ... Campylobacter species can cause infection in all age groups but the ..... stereotype distribution of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolated.

  18. [Enteral alimentation at home: why PEG now?]. (United States)

    Suzuki, Y; Hanyu, N; Kashiwagi, H; Kubo, T; Aoki, T


    The history of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is relatively short. In 1980, a report entitled "Gastrostomy without laparotomy: A percutaneous endoscopic technique" by Ponsky and Gaudere was first published in the Journal of Pediatric Surgery. Thereafter, PEG soon saw widespread use in Western countries because of its clinical efficacy and economy. It has been performed in about 170,000 cases annually in the US. In contrast, its spread in Japan has been extremely slow: only about 10,000 cases have undergone this procedure annually, and this number accounted for less than 5% of patients receiving enteral alimentation. The reason why PEG has not spread may be the medical insurance system in Japan and the local distaste for operation scarring. However, in consideration of the unprecedented ageing of society that is surely coming in the near future, the role of PEG in Japan must be reexamined. In this report, we presented the methodology of enteral alimentation at home by means of PEG, giving special consideration to: (1) "What points are improved by using enteral alimentation at home by means of PEG in various diseases; (2) dysphagia due to cerebral angiopathy; (3) terminal cancer; (4) otolaryngological diseases; and (5) Crohn disease. We also discussed "Why PEG is important now?" in performing enteral alimentation at home.

  19. Kokainudløst iskaemisk enteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Lise; Bendtsen, Flemming


    and a pill cam capsule endoscopy were normal. In all cases the condition normalized spontaneously. A thorough interview revealed a recreational use of cocaine, and diary recordings confirmed the association between her abdominal pain and cocaine use. Ischaemic enteritis has previously been described...... in cocaine users. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Sep...

  20. Aspects of enteral nutrition in cancer chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jitske Martha


    This thesis deals with several aspects of the influences of intensive cancer chemotherapy on the nutritional status, the metabolism, and the gastrointestinal tract of the host and describes whether these results can be influenced by enteral hyperalimentation, We studied these aspects in patients

  1. Evaluation of HVOF coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Landová


    Full Text Available Attention in this paper is devoted to the evaluation of wear coatings deposited using HVOF technology (high velocity oxy-fuel. There were evaluated three types of coatings based on WC-Co (next only 1343, WC-Co-Cr (next only 1350 and Cr3C2-25NiCr (next only 1375. There was assessed adherence of coatings, micro hardness, porosity and the tribological properties of erosive, abrasive, adhesive and wear resistance of coatings in terms of cyclic thermal load. Thanks to wide variety of suitable materials and their combinations, the area of utilization thermally sprayed coatings is very broad. It is possible to deposit coatings of various materials from pure metals to special alloys. The best results in the evaluated properties were achieved at the coating with the label 1375.

  2. Flexible Antibacterial Coatings. (United States)

    Musil, Jindřich


    This article reviews the present state of the art in the field of flexible antibacterial coatings which efficiently kill bacteria on their surfaces. Coatings are formed using a reactive magnetron sputtering. The effect of the elemental composition and structure of the coating on its antibacterial and mechanical properties is explained. The properties of Cr-Cu-O, Al-Cu-N, and Zr-Cu-N antibacterial coatings are used as examples and described in detail. The efficiency of killing of bacteria was tested for the Escherichia coli bacterium. The principle of the formation of thick, flexible antibacterial coatings which are resistant to cracking under bending is explained. It is shown that magnetron sputtering enables production of robust, several-micrometer thick, flexible antibacterial coatings for long-term use. The antibacterial coatings produced by magnetron sputtering present huge potential for many applications.

  3. Anticorrosive coatings: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim


    The main objective of this review is to describe some of the important topics related to the use of marine and protective coatings for anticorrosive purposes. In this context, "protective" refers to coatings for containers, offshore constructions, wind turbines, storage tanks, bridges, rail cars...... of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have caused significant changes in the anticorrosive coating industry. The requirement for new VOC-compliant coating technologies means that coating manufacturers can no longer rely on the extensive track record of their time-served products to convince consumers......, and inhibitive coatings are outlined. In the past decades, several alternatives to organic solvent-borne coatings have reached the commercial market. This review also presents some of these technologies and discusses some of their advantages and limitations. Finally, some of the mechanisms leading to degradation...

  4. Coated Aerogel Beads (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)


    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  5. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  6. Preliminary coating design and coating developments for ATHENA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland


    We present initial novel coating design for ATHENA. We make use of both simple bilayer coatings of Ir and B4C and more complex constant period multilayer coatings to enhance the effective area and cover the energy range from 0.1 to 10 keV. We also present the coating technology used...... for these designs and present test results from coatings....

  7. Clinical and nutritional implications of radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, W.H.; Fan, A.; Halsted, C.H.


    The clinical and nutritional significance of radiation enteritis was assessed in eight patients with chronic diarrhea which followed curative doses of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Steatorrhea, found in seven malnourished patients, was ascribed to ileal disease or previous surgery, or to bacterial contamination of the small intestine. Lactose intolerance, assessed by breath hydrogen excretion after oral lactose and by jejunal lactase levels, was found in six patients. In a subgroup of five patients, the administration of two different defined formula liquid diets by nasoduodenal infusion decreased fecal fluid and energy losses by about one-half. Compared to Vivonex-HN, the infusion of Criticare-HN was associated with greater likelihood of intestinal gas production but a three-fold greater utilization of protein. Intestinal malabsorption and malnutrition in radiation enteritis has diverse etiologies. Whereas nutritional support by liquid diet limits fecal fluid and energy losses, these diets differ significantly in clinical tolerance and biologic value.

  8. Enteral feeding practices in the NICU: results from a 2009 Neonatal Enteral Feeding Survey. (United States)

    Gregory, Katherine E; Connolly, Teresa C


    : The purpose of this study was to examine the current management of the enteral feeding regimens of premature infants cared for in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). : The study included responses from 70 neonatal nurses who participated in a 2009 Neonatal Enteral Feeding Survey distributed electronically to the National Association of Neonatal Nurses membership. These respondents were representative of both the United States and Canada, with 29 US states represented. The majority of respondents (95.7%) reported current nursing employment in a level III NICU. : Survey research was used in this exploratory study. The survey, Enteral Tube Feeding Practices in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, was developed in collaboration with expert neonatal nurses and nutritionists, pilot tested, and distributed via electronic means. : Survey research was conducted according to the Dillman methodology. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and univariate analysis of variance assessing for significant differences in specific neonatal feeding practices reported. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data reported. : The outcome measures included the survey responses to the questions asked about the implementation of an enteral feeding protocol and various aspects of enteral feeding practices in the NICU. : The majority of participants (60.9%) reported that an enteral feeding protocol was implemented in practice, but that it was inconsistently followed because of individual physician or nurse practice patterns, or highly individualized feeding plans required of specific clinical care needs of the patient. Respondents indicated that gestational age was the leading criteria used to initiate feedings, and patent ductus arteriosis treatment was the primary contraindication to enteral feedings. The leading factor reported to delay or alter enteral feedings was the presence of gastric residuals. Survey data indicated that other contraindicating factors to

  9. Collaborative Innovation for Entering Emerging Markets


    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna


    The aim of this paper is to investigate collaborative innovation in business networks for small environmental technology companies entering an emerging market (EM). Export of environmental technology solutions to emerging economies involves high investment opportunities and high growth potential, but also high risk. For example, large-scale demonstrator equipment proving the function of the environmental technology solution might be needed, which usually requires cooperation between several c...

  10. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Brooke


    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life.

  11. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva


    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life. PMID:25854831

  12. Modified release from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose compression-coated tablets. (United States)

    Rujivipat, Soravoot; Bodmeier, Roland


    The goal of this study was to obtain flexible extended drug release profiles (e.g., sigmoidal, pulsatile, increasing/decreasing release rates with time) with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) compression-coated tablets. Drugs of varying solubility (carbamazepine, acetaminophen, propranolol HCl and chlorpheniramine maleate) were incorporated into the tablet core in order to evaluate the flexibility/limitations of the compression-coated system. The HPMC-compression-coating resulted in release profiles with a distinct lag time followed by different release phases primarily determined by the drug solubility. Carbamazepine, a water-insoluble drug, was released in a pulsatile fashion after a lag time only after erosion of the HPMC compression-coat, while the more soluble drugs were released in a sigmoidal fashion by diffusion through the gel prior to erosion. With carbamazepine, increasing the molecular weight of HPMC significantly increased the lag time because of the erosion-based release mechanism, while, in contrast, molecular weight did not affect the release of the more soluble drugs. The lag-time and the release rate could also be well controlled by varying the HPMC amount in and the thickness of the compression-coating. A pulsatile release could also be achieved for water-soluble drugs by introducing an enteric polymer coating between the drug core and the HPMC compression-coating. This novel concept of introducing an enteric subcoating eliminated drug diffusion through the gelled HPMC layer prior to its erosion. Incorporating drug in the compression-coating in addition to the tablet core in varying ratios resulted in release profiles with increasing, decreasing or constant release rates. In conclusion, a versatile single-unit delivery system for a wide range of drugs with great flexibility in release profiles was presented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Improved Manganese Phosphate Coatings (United States)


    AD K/ . / R-TR-75-034 IMPROVED MANGANESE PHOSPHATE COATINGS HENRY CRAIN - APRIL 1975 RESEARCH DIRECTORATE DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT Approved for public...which superior manganese phosphate coatings are producel. The phosphate coatings were applied at temp- eratures above 2124F and with -.anganese...temperature for the conversion of mlnganese dihydrogen phosphate [(P(HjPO•’)] to manganese phosphate [Nns(PO4)J]. 1 A ii UNCLASSIFIED SE[CURITY CL. A

  14. Nanostructured Protective Coatings (United States)


    understanding of PVD parameters, depositing coatings on practical substrates such as the Ti6Al4V used for turbine blades, and developing a versatile...Phase I objectives, particularly in enhancing the understanding of PVD parameters, depositing coatings on practical substrates such as the Ti6Al4V ...understanding of PVD parameters, depositing coatings on practical substrates such as the Ti6Al4V used for turbine blades, and developing a versatile

  15. Smooth Compliant Antifoulant Coatings. (United States)


    team reviewed the state of the art in marine antifoulant tech- nology. As part of this technology review, the team visited the Naval Ship Research and...high payoff is the incorporation of the biocide within the substrate polymer chain. This permits the antifoulant to be held chemi- cally rather than by...traditionally used red lead as a basis for protection against marine fouling. The antifoulant coating consists of a metal pretreatment coat, four coats of an

  16. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings (United States)

    Sugama, T.


    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  17. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi


    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  18. Enteral ecoimmunonutrition reduced enteral permeability and serum ghrelin activity in severe cerebral stroke patients with lung infection. (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Di; Shao, Feng


    The study analyzed how enteral ecoimmunonutrition, which comprises probiotics, glutamine, fish oil, and Enteral Nutritional Suspension (TPF), can impact on the enteral permeability and serum Ghrelin activity in severe cerebral stroke patients with lung infection. Among 190 severe cerebral stroke patients with tolerance to TPF, they were randomized into control and treatment groups after antibiotics treatment due to lung infections. There were 92 patients in the control group and 98 patients in treatment group. The control group was treated with TPF and the treatment group was treated with enteral ecoimmunonutrition, which comprises probiotics, glutamine, fish oil, and Enteral Nutritional Suspension. All patients received continuous treatments through nasoenteral or nasogastric tubes. 7, 14, and 21 days after the treatments, the enteral tolerance to nutrition was observed in both groups. The tests included abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, and lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio. Serum Ghrelin levels were determined by ELISA. The incidence of abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea was lower in the treatment group and enteral tolerance to nutrition was also superior to the control group. No difference in serum Ghrelin level was observed between the control and treatment groups with enteral intolerance to nutrition. However, in patients with enteral tolerance to nutrition, the treatment group showed lower enteral nutrition and lower enteral permeability compared to the control group. In severe cerebral stroke patients with lung infection, enteral ecoimmunonutrition after antibiotics treatment improved enteral tolerance to nutrition and reduced enteral permeability; meanwhile, it lowered the serum Ghrelin activity, which implied the high serum Ghrelin reduces enteral permeability.

  19. Superhydrophobic silica coating by dip coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadik, Satish A., E-mail: [Air Glass Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India); Parale, Vinayak; Vhatkara, Rajiv S.; Mahadik, Dinesh B.; Kavale, Mahendra S. [Air Glass Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India); Wagh, Pratap B.; Gupta, Satish [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Gurav, Jyoti [Empa, Advanced Materials Processing laboratory, 3602 Thun (Switzerland)


    Herein, we report a simple and low cost method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic coating surface on quartz substrates via sol-gel dip coating method at room temperature. Desired surface chemistry and texture growth for superhydrophobicity developed under double step sol–gel process at room temperature. The resultant superhydrophobic surfaces were characterized by Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), water contact angle (WCA) measurement, differential thermal gravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) calorimetry and optical spectrometer. Coating shows the ultra high water contact angle about 168 ± 2° and water sliding angle 3 ± 1° and superoleophilic with petroleum oils. This approach allows a simple strategy for the fabrication process of superhydrophilic–superhydrophobic on same surfaces with high thermal stability of superhydrophobicity up to 560 °C. Thus, durability, special wettability and thermal stability of superhydrophobicity expand their application fields.

  20. ADEPT - Abnormal Doppler Enteral Prescription Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCormick Kenny


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancies complicated by abnormal umbilical artery Doppler blood flow patterns often result in the baby being born both preterm and growth-restricted. These babies are at high risk of milk intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis, as well as post-natal growth failure, and there is no clinical consensus about how best to feed them. Policies of both early milk feeding and late milk feeding are widely used. This randomised controlled trial aims to determine whether a policy of early initiation of milk feeds is beneficial compared with late initiation. Optimising neonatal feeding for this group of babies may have long-term health implications and if either of these policies is shown to be beneficial it can be immediately adopted into clinical practice. Methods and Design Babies with gestational age below 35 weeks, and with birth weight below 10th centile for gestational age, will be randomly allocated to an "early" or "late" enteral feeding regimen, commencing milk feeds on day 2 and day 6 after birth, respectively. Feeds will be gradually increased over 9-13 days (depending on gestational age using a schedule derived from those used in hospitals in the Eastern and South Western Regions of England, based on surveys of feeding practice. Primary outcome measures are time to establish full enteral feeding and necrotising enterocolitis; secondary outcomes include sepsis and growth. The target sample size is 400 babies. This sample size is large enough to detect a clinically meaningful difference of 3 days in time to establish full enteral feeds between the two feeding policies, with 90% power and a 5% 2-sided significance level. Initial recruitment period was 24 months, subsequently extended to 38 months. Discussion There is limited evidence from randomised controlled trials on which to base decisions regarding feeding policy in high risk preterm infants. This multicentre trial will help to guide clinical practice and may also

  1. Enteral nutrition. Potential complications and patient monitoring. (United States)

    Kohn, C L; Keithley, J K


    Enteral feedings are safely tolerated by most patients. When complications occur, gastrointestinal disturbances are most frequently encountered, followed by mechanical and metabolic complications. Nurses can prevent many of the problems associated with enteral feeding through careful monitoring. Based on the current literature, the authors make the following recommendations: 1. All patients receiving tube feedings should be placed on a protocol that provides guidelines for (a) confirming correct tube placement; (b) preventing/managing tube obstruction; (c) handling and selecting formulas; (d) administering formulas; and (e) monitoring patients. 2. Fine-bore tubes are easily misplaced or dislodged; ensure correct positioning both before and during feeding. Food coloring should be added to all feedings to help detect aspiration/tube displacement. 3. Multiple factors can cause diarrhea in tube-fed patients and, therefore, require periodic assessment. These factors include concomitant drug therapy; malnutrition/hypoalbuminemia; formula-related factors (for example, lactose content, osmolality); and bacterial contamination. 4. Urine sugar and acetone levels should be checked every 6 hours (until stable). Vital signs and fluid intake and output should be determined every 8 hours, and weight should be measured on a daily basis. Serum electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, and glucose levels should be determined daily, until serum levels stabilize. Weekly measurements of trace elements should be made to ensure adequate mineral replacement. 5. Use a controller pump to administer continuous feedings at a constant rate or to administer formulas that are viscous. Flush feeding tubes with water every 4 hours during continuous feedings, after giving intermittent feedings, after giving medications, and after checking for gastric residuals. If tube obstruction occurs, attempt to irrigate the tube with either water or cola. 6. Select feedings that contain appropriate nutrient sources

  2. Prediction of enteric methane emissions from cattle. (United States)

    Moraes, Luis E; Strathe, Anders B; Fadel, James G; Casper, David P; Kebreab, Ermias


    Agriculture has a key role in food production worldwide and it is a major component of the gross domestic product of several countries. Livestock production is essential for the generation of high quality protein foods and the delivery of foods in regions where animal products are the main food source. Environmental impacts of livestock production have been examined for decades, but recently emission of methane from enteric fermentation has been targeted as a substantial greenhouse gas source. The quantification of methane emissions from livestock on a global scale relies on prediction models because measurements require specialized equipment and may be expensive. The predictive ability of current methane emission models remains poor. Moreover, the availability of information on livestock production systems has increased substantially over the years enabling the development of more detailed methane prediction models. In this study, we have developed and evaluated prediction models based on a large database of enteric methane emissions from North American dairy and beef cattle. Most probable models of various complexity levels were identified using a Bayesian model selection procedure and were fitted under a hierarchical setting. Energy intake, dietary fiber and lipid proportions, animal body weight and milk fat proportion were identified as key explanatory variables for predicting emissions. Models here developed substantially outperformed models currently used in national greenhouse gas inventories. Additionally, estimates of repeatability of methane emissions were lower than the ones from the literature and multicollinearity diagnostics suggested that prediction models are stable. In this context, we propose various enteric methane prediction models which require different levels of information availability and can be readily implemented in national greenhouse gas inventories of different complexity levels. The utilization of such models may reduce errors

  3. Campylobacter enteritis: early diagnosis with Gram's stain. (United States)

    Ho, D D; Ault, M J; Ault, M A; Murata, G H


    Campylobacter jejuni has become one of the most important causes of infectious diarrhea in the United States. We examined the utility of Gram's stain of stool for the rapid presumptive diagnosis of Campylobacter enteritis in a large, urban hospital and found that this test has a sensitivity of 43.5% and a specificity of 99.4%. We believe that Gram's stain of stool could be used to direct the early management of up to one half of patients infected with this pathogen.

  4. Enteric methane emissions from German pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Schulz, Joachim; Klausing, Heinrich Kleine


    . Meanwhile numerous experimental data on methane emissions from enteric fermentation is available in Germany and abroad; the results are compiled in this work. These results also allow for a description of transformation processes in the hind gut and a subsequent establishment of models that relate emissions...... to feed and performance data. The model by Kirchgeßner et al. (1995) is based on German experimental data and reflects typical national diet compositions. It is used to quantify typical emissions and methane conversion ratios. The results agree with other experimental findings at home and abroad...


    Polyakova, E P; Ksenofontov, D A; Revyakin, A O; Ivanov, A A


    Experiments on goats and rabbits showed that zinc supplement to the diet leads to calcium concentration rise in muscle, bone and blood of animals. However, this rise was not adequate to increase in.zinc consumption. The bulk of alimentary zinc stayed in soluble fraction, dense endogen fraction and infusoria fraction of digesta and stimulated calcium release from food particles, it's accumulation in digesta fractions and calcium utilization on the whole. Authors estimate animal digesta as homeostatic, spatial organized, endogenic formation in which zinc and calcium are functionally dependent through enteral mucosa.

  6. Rocket Combustion Chamber Coating (United States)

    Holmes, Richard R. (Inventor); McKechnie, Timothy N. (Inventor)


    A coating with the ability to protect (1) the inside wall (i.e., lining) of a rocket engine combustion chamber and (2) parts of other apparatuses that utilize or are exposed to combustive or high temperature environments. The novelty of this invention lies in the manner a protective coating is embedded into the lining.

  7. Coated electroactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali


    A process includes suspending an electroactive material in a solvent, suspending or dissolving a carbon precursor in the solvent; and depositing the carbon precursor on the electroactive material to form a carbon-coated electroactive material. Compositions include a graphene-coated electroactive material prepared from a solution phase mixture or suspension of an electroactive material and graphene, graphene oxide, or a mixture thereof.

  8. Coating of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, G.F.; Dekker, C.


    The present invention is in the field of highly crystalline graphene and coating said graphene with a layer. Said graphene may have further structures, such as nanopores, nanogaps, and nanoribbons. The coated graphene can be used for biomolecular analysis and modification, such as DNA-sequencing, as

  9. Molecular Adsorber Coating (United States)

    Straka, Sharon; Peters, Wanda; Hasegawa, Mark; Hedgeland, Randy; Petro, John; Novo-Gradac, Kevin; Wong, Alfred; Triolo, Jack; Miller, Cory


    A document discusses a zeolite-based sprayable molecular adsorber coating that has been developed to alleviate the size and weight issues of current ceramic puck-based technology, while providing a configuration that more projects can use to protect against degradation from outgassed materials within a spacecraft, particularly contamination-sensitive instruments. This coating system demonstrates five times the adsorption capacity of previously developed adsorber coating slurries. The molecular adsorber formulation was developed and refined, and a procedure for spray application was developed. Samples were spray-coated and tested for capacity, thermal optical/radiative properties, coating adhesion, and thermal cycling. Work performed during this study indicates that the molecular adsorber formulation can be applied to aluminum, stainless steel, or other metal substrates that can accept silicate-based coatings. The coating can also function as a thermal- control coating. This adsorber will dramatically reduce the mass and volume restrictions, and is less expensive than the currently used molecular adsorber puck design.

  10. The Enteric Nervous System in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Sharkey


    Full Text Available Since about the 1950s nerves in the wall of the intestine have been postulated to play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Human and animal studies examining the role of nerves in intestinal inflammation are the focus of this review. Consideration is given to two possible ways that nerves are involved in IBD. First, nerves may play a role in the development or maintenance of inflammation through local release of transmitters. Second, once initiated (by whatever means, the processes of inflammation may disrupt the normal pattern of innervation and the interactions of nerves and their target tissues. Many of the functional disturbances observed in IBD are likely due to an alteration in the enteric nervous system either structurally through disruptions of nerve-target relationships or by modifications of neurotransmitters or their receptors. Finally, it appears that the enteric nervous system may be a potential therapeutic target in IBD and that neuroactive drugs acting locally can represent useful agents in the management of this disease.

  11. Administration of antiretroviral medication via enteral tubes. (United States)

    Prohaska, Emily S; King, Allison R


    Case reports and other published or manufacturer-provided data on the administration of antiretroviral agents through enteral feeding tubes are reviewed. There is very limited published evidence to guide clinicians in the delivery of therapies for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by feeding tubes, especially crushed tablets and capsule contents. A search of the primary literature (through February 2012) identified a total of nine articles describing the delivery of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) agents via gastrostomy (G), jejunostomy, and other feeding tubes; correspondence with pharmaceutical manufacturers yielded additional information. Most of the published evidence (from two prospective studies, one retrospective study, and six case reports) pertains to the treatment of HIV-infected children (33 of 40 cases). Although not a primary endpoint of any of the reviewed studies, viral suppression was documented in 29 of the 40 patients referenced in the reviewed articles. Manufacturer-provided information indicates that crushed darunavir tablets in suspension, as well as oral solutions of ritonavir and lopinavir-ritonavir, can be administered through G-tubes without significant loss of therapeutic efficacy. Data regarding enteral feeding tube administration are available for 63% of commercially available oral HAART agents and are primarily limited to case reports specific to the pediatric population.

  12. [Our experience with ambulatory enteral nutrition]. (United States)

    Orduña, R M; Giménez Martínez, R; Valdivia Garvayo, M; Ruiz Santa-Olalla, A T; Roca Fernández-Castanys, E; Pérez de la Cruz, A


    Enteral nutrition in the home of the patient, has gained interest in recent years. In our health care area, we do not have a Unit of at Home Hospitalization, which has not prevented the implementation of this therapeutic modality in certain types of patients. 89 cases who have undergone enteral Nutrition in their home after the last hospital admission, were reviewed. According to the basic pathology, 41.6% (37 patients) correspond to neurological patients; 51.7% correspond to neoplasmic patients, and 6.7% are classified as miscellaneous. The average age is 64 years (18 months-92 years); the mean caloric ingestion is 1,520 Kcal/day (500-2,500), and the duration is a mean of 315 days (7-1,560). The complications observed through ambulatory visits of the patient and/or the family, accounted for a total of 36, of which 30 (83%) were digestive, and were corrected with the usual methods. In 8 cases (22%), it involved mechanical complications, and only 2 cases involved metabolic complications. Only 1 serious complication (massive bronchoaspiration) could have been avoided. The results indicate a good degree of acceptance, with similar results to those described by other authors, and with a low incidence of severe complications.

  13. Filamentous Influenza Virus Enters Cells via Macropinocytosis (United States)

    Rossman, Jeremy S.; Leser, George P.


    Influenza virus is pleiomorphic, producing both spherical (100-nm-diameter) and filamentous (100-nm by 20-μm) virions. While the spherical virions are known to enter host cells through exploitation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the entry pathway for filamentous virions has not been determined, though the existence of an alternative, non-clathrin-, non-caveolin-mediated entry pathway for influenza virus has been known for many years. In this study, we confirm recent results showing that influenza virus utilizes macropinocytosis as an alternate entry pathway. Furthermore, we find that filamentous influenza viruses use macropinocytosis as the primary entry mechanism. Virions enter cells as intact filaments within macropinosomes and are trafficked to the acidic late-endosomal compartment. Low pH triggers a conformational change in the M2 ion channel protein, altering membrane curvature and leading to a fragmentation of the filamentous virions. This fragmentation may enable more-efficient fusion between the viral and endosomal membranes. PMID:22875971

  14. Enteric parasitic infections among secondary school students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enteric parasitic infections among secondary school students in Gusau, ... Age, gender, marital status, anaemia and type of toilet significantly affected the ... There was no case of mixed infection of enteric parasites observed in this study.

  15. Routes for early enteral nutrition after esophagectomy : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, Teus J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413993558; Berkelmans, Gijs H K; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; Ruurda, Jelle P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/257561021; Hillegersberg, Richard V|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110706242; Soeters, Peter B; Luyer, Misha D P

    BACKGROUND: Early enteral feeding following surgery can be given orally, via a jejunostomy or via a nasojejunal tube. However, the best feeding route following esophagectomy is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine the best route for enteral nutrition following esophagectomy regarding anastomotic

  16. Incidence of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Patients with Standard Enteral Formula

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shabbu Ahmadi bonakdar; Mahdieh Pouryazdanpanah; Zahra Ganie Far; Saba Ghazanfari; Abdolreza Norouzy


    ...`s reports standard enteral formula is inducing diarrhea. In this study our purpose is to evaluate the incidence of diarrhea in hospitalized patients with standard Enteral Nutrition (EN) formula intake...

  17. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine...

  18. Early enteral nutrition compared to outcome in critically ill trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The benefit of an early enteral nutrition start in critical ill patients is widely accepted. However, limited published data focus on trauma patients. This study aimed to investigate the effect of early enteral nutrition initiation on length of stay and mortality in an intensive care unit (ICU), as well as explore if enteral ...

  19. Fluorine Based Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Denis Brassard


    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic coatings, inspired by nature, are an emerging technology. These water repellent coatings can be used as solutions for corrosion, biofouling and even water and air drag reduction applications. In this work, synthesis of monodispersive silica nanoparticles of ~120 nm diameter has been realized via Stöber process and further functionalized using fluoroalkylsilane (FAS-17 molecules to incorporate the fluorinated groups with the silica nanoparticles in an ethanolic solution. The synthesized fluorinated silica nanoparticles have been spin coated on flat aluminum alloy, silicon and glass substrates. Functionalization of silica nanoparticles with fluorinated groups has been confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR by showing the presence of C-F and Si-O-Si bonds. The water contact angles and surface roughness increase with the number of spin-coated thin films layers. The critical size of ~119 nm renders aluminum surface superhydrophobic with three layers of coating using as-prepared nanoparticle suspended solution. On the other hand, seven layers are required for a 50 vol.% diluted solution to achieve superhydrophobicity. In both the cases, water contact angles were more than 150°, contact angle hysteresis was less than 2° having a critical roughness value of ~0.700 µm. The fluorinated silica nanoparticle coated surfaces are also transparent and can be used as paint additives to obtain transparent coatings.

  20. Determinant factors of the viscosity of enteral formulas: basic analysis of thickened enteral formulas. (United States)

    Wakita, Maki; Masui, Hironori; Ichimaru, Satomi; Amagai, Teruyoshi


    Thickened enteral formula (TEF), which is made by adding thickener to enteral formula, has been used mainly in Japan to reduce the incidence of clinical complications associated with enteral nutrition. However, the optimal viscosity of TEF needed to achieve a high efficiency is different for each medical complication and for individual patients. The viscosity of TEF, which consists of enteral formula and thickener, was determined by 5 factors: (1) formula energy density, (2) formula temperature, (3) stirring speed, (4) stirring time, and (5) time elapsed since preparation. Then, the changing index (CI) was calculated for each of the 5 factors to determine which exerts the most influence on TEF viscosities. The most influential factor (CI ≥-50%) for the decrease in TEF viscosity was formula energy density. In contrast, the most influential factors (CI ≥50%) for the increase in TEF viscosity were stirring time and time elapsed since preparation. The results of this study indicate that formula energy density, stirring time, and time elapsed since preparation are the most influential factors to consider during manipulation of TEF viscosity.

  1. Acrodermatitis enteropathica during adequate enteral nutrition. (United States)

    Changela, Avani; Javaiya, Hemangkumar; Changela, Kinesh; Davanos, Evangelia; Rickenbach, Kiersten


    Acrodermatitis enteropathica is a rare skin disorder of zinc deficiency. This case report describes a 91-year-old female nursing home resident who presented with a skin eruption resembling acrodermatitis enteropathica while receiving adequate enteral nutrition (EN) via a percutaneous gastrostomy tube. A low zinc level of 36 mcg/dL confirmed zinc deficiency, and treatment with oral zinc sulfate 220 mg 3 times a day resulted in rapid resolution of the skin lesions. This case supports the notion of close monitoring of patients on long-term EN for clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency, especially in the presence of an unexplained skin rash. Although micronutrient deficiencies are more prevalent in underdeveloped countries and with patients receiving parenteral nutrition, these deficiencies should be kept in mind for patients in developed countries as well as patients receiving EN.

  2. Pathogenesis of Salmonella-induced enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Santos


    Full Text Available Infections with Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of food-borne diseases worldwide. Animal models other than the mouse have been employed for the study of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections because the murine model is not suitable for the study of Salmonella-induced diarrhea. The microbe has developed mechanisms to exploit the host cell machinery to its own purpose. Bacterial proteins delivered directly into the host cell cytosol cause cytoskeletal changes and interfere with host cell signaling pathways, which ultimately enhance disease manifestation. Recently, marked advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular interactions between Salmonella serotypes and their hosts. Here, we discuss the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of Salmonella-induced enteritis.


    Ariadel Cobo, Diana; Pereira Cunill, José Luis; Socas Macías, María; Serrano Aguayo, Pilar; Gómez Liébana, Eulalia; Morales Conde, Salvador; García Luna, Pedro Pablo


    The particularity of this case is the nutritional management that has managed to avoid the use of prolonged parenteral nutrition and possible complications by placing jejunal tube at the distal end in patients with short bowel. It is a 34-year-old colecistectomizado complicated with postoperative peritonitis and dehiscence; two years he studied with small bowel obstruction, he was made de-volvulus and was complicated with two leak at different times after the second escape took place jejunostomy side double barreled shotgun level dehiscence, presented high debits by afferent loop of the terminal jejunostomy; during admission, polyurethane probe enteral feeding was inserted by the efferent loop jejunostomy. He received jejunal tube feeding laundry in the efferent loop terminal with decreased weight gain and subsequent reconstruction of intestinal transit debit proximal jejunostomy. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimal Time to Enter a Retirement Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Zhang


    Full Text Available We consider the financial planning problem of a retiree wishing to enter a retirement village at a future uncertain date. The date of entry is determined by the retiree’s utility and bequest maximisation problem within the context of uncertain future health states. In addition, the retiree must choose optimal consumption, investment, bequest and purchase of insurance products prior to their full annuitisation on entry to the retirement village. A hyperbolic absolute risk-aversion (HARA utility function is used to allow necessary consumption for basic living and medical costs. The retirement village will typically require an initial deposit upon entry. This threshold wealth requirement leads to exercising the replication of an American put option at the uncertain stopping time. From our numerical results, active insurance and annuity markets are shown to be a critical aspect in retirement planning.

  5. Reactive Arthritis Caused by Yersinia enterocolitica Enteritis. (United States)

    Honda, Kazuya; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Izumi, Yasumori; Tsuji, Yoshika; Kawahara, Chieko; Michitsuji, Toru; Higashi, Shuntaro; Kawakami, Atsushi; Migita, Kiyoshi


    We report a case of reactive arthritis (ReA) triggered by Yersinia enterocolitica enteritis. A 24-year-old Japanese man developed polyarthritis in the lower limbs. Two weeks prior to these symptoms, he noted diarrhea, right lower abdominal pain and a fever. Y. enterocolitica was not isolated from a stool culture; however, he was diagnosed with ReA based on the colonoscopic findings of a high anti-Y. enterocolitica antibody titer and HLA-B27 antigen positivity. Following treatment with methotrexate and steroids, his arthritis improved. This is the first reported Japanese case of ReA in the English literature after a gastrointestinal infection caused by Y. enterocolitica.

  6. Aluminum phosphate coatings (United States)

    Sambasivan, Sankar; Steiner, Kimberly A.; Rangan, Krishnaswamy K.


    Aluminophosphate compounds and compositions as can be used for substrate or composite films and coating to provide or enhance, without limitation, planarization, anti-biofouling and/or anti-microbial properties.

  7. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  8. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering - Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Rafi, H. Khalid, E-mail: [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Ram, G.D. Janaki [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Reddy, G. Madhusudhan [Metal Joining Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Nagalakshmi, R. [Welding Research Institute, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli 620 014 (India)


    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiarto Danu


    Full Text Available Most of the medium-density fiberboard (MDF as an engineered woods need surface coating process before entering final products, such as furniture and building materials. The wood surface should be covered for surface protection from damage during service life as well as to enhance its appearance. Surface coating of MDF was conducted using epoxy acrylate resin either for clear and pigmented coatings. Titanium dioxide was used for white pigmented coatings. Coating was conducted at variation thickness level of 30 to 150 μm. Curing was carried out by using 350 kV electron beam accelerator at 1.35 mA current and 1.6 m/min conveyor speed to get the absorbed dose of 3 Mrad. Effect of coating thickness was evaluated by measuring the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of cured samples, i.e., hardness, gloss, transparency, adhesion, abrasion resistance, and chemical, solvent and stain resistance. Experimental results showed that pendulum hardness and abrasion resistance slightly increased whereas gloss, transparency and adhesion resistance decreased with increasing coating thickness, while chemical, solvent and stain resistance remains similar. In general, clear coating provides better properties than pigmented coating.   Keywords: electron-beam; coating; epoxy-acrylate; pigment; medium-density fiberboard

  10. Spin coating apparatus (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.


    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  11. Biocompatibility of Niobium Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Olivares-Navarrete


    Full Text Available Niobium coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering were evaluated as a possible surface modification for stainless steel (SS substrates in biomedical implants. The Nb coatings were deposited on 15 mm diameter stainless steel substrates having an average surface roughness of 2 mm. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the coatings three different in vitro tests, using human alveolar bone derived cells, were performed: cellular adhesion, proliferation and viability. Stainless steel substrates and tissue culture plastic were also studied, in order to give comparative information. No toxic response was observed for any of the surfaces, indicating that the Nb coatings act as a biocompatible, bioinert material. Cell morphology was also studied by immune-fluorescence and the results confirmed the healthy state of the cells on the Nb surface. X-ray diffraction analysis of the coating shows that the film is polycrystalline with a body centered cubic structure. The surface composition and corrosion resistance of both the substrate and the Nb coating were also studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and potentiodynamic tests. Water contact angle measurements showed that the Nb surface is more hydrophobic than the SS substrate.

  12. Hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam


    Hydroxyapatite coatings are of great importance in the biological and biomedical coatings fields, especially in the current era of nanotechnology and bioapplications. With a bonelike structure that promotes osseointegration, hydroxyapatite coating can be applied to otherwise bioinactive implants to make their surface bioactive, thus achieving faster healing and recovery. In addition to applications in orthopedic and dental implants, this coating can also be used in drug delivery. Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications explores developments in the processing and property characteri

  13. Coated microneedles for transdermal delivery


    Gill, Harvinder S.; Prausnitz, Mark R.


    Coated microneedles have been shown to deliver proteins and DNA into the skin in a minimally invasive manner. However, detailed studies examining coating methods and their breadth of applicability are lacking. This study’s goal was to develop a simple, versatile and controlled microneedle coating process to make uniform coatings on microneedles and establish the breadth of molecules and particles that can be coated onto microneedles. First, microneedles were fabricated from stainless steel sh...

  14. Coated particle waste form development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.


    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes.

  15. Measurement and prediction of enteric methane emission (United States)

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Lal, Rattan; Lakritz, Jeffrey; Ezeji, Thaddeus


    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector account for about 25.5% of total global anthropogenic emission. While CO2 receives the most attention as a factor relative to global warming, CH4, N2O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also cause significant radiative forcing. With the relative global warming potential of 25 compared with CO2, CH4 is one of the most important GHGs. This article reviews the prediction models, estimation methodology and strategies for reducing enteric CH4 emissions. Emission of CH4 in ruminants differs among developed and developing countries, depending on factors like animal species, breed, pH of rumen fluid, ratio of acetate:propionate, methanogen population, composition of diet and amount of concentrate fed. Among the ruminant animals, cattle contribute the most towards the greenhouse effect through methane emission followed by sheep, goats and buffalos, respectively. The estimated CH4 emission rate per cattle, buffaloe, sheep and goat in developed countries are 150.7, 137, 21.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) respectively. However, the estimated rates in developing countries are significantly lower at 95.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) per cattle and sheep, respectively. There exists a strong interest in developing new and improving the existing CH4 prediction models to identify mitigation strategies for reducing the overall CH4 emissions. A synthesis of the available literature suggests that the mechanistic models are superior to empirical models in accurately predicting the CH4 emission from dairy farms. The latest development in prediction model is the integrated farm system model which is a process-based whole-farm simulation technique. Several techniques are used to quantify enteric CH4 emissions starting from whole animal chambers to sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer techniques. The latest technology developed to estimate CH4 more accurately is the micrometeorological mass difference technique. Because the conditions under which

  16. White paper on guidelines concerning enteric nervous system stem cell therapy for enteric neuropathies⋆ (United States)

    Burns, Alan J.; Goldstein, Allan M.; Newgreen, Donald F.; Stamp, Lincon; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Metzger, Marco; Hotta, Ryo; Young, Heather M.; Andrews, Peter W.; Thapar, Nikhil; Belkind-Gerson, Jaime; Bondurand, Nadege; Bornstein, Joel C.; Chan, Wood Yee; Cheah, Kathryn; Gershon, Michael D.; Heuckeroth, Robert O.; Hofstra, Robert M.W.; Just, Lothar; Kapur, Raj P.; King, Sebastian K.; McCann, Conor J.; Nagy, Nandor; Ngan, Elly; Obermayr, Florian; Pachnis, Vassilis; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Sham, Mai Har; Tam, Paul; Berghe, Pieter Vanden


    Over the last 20 years, there has been increasing focus on the development of novel stem cell based therapies for the treatment of disorders and diseases affecting the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gastrointestinal tract (so-called enteric neuropathies). Here, the idea is that ENS progenitor/stem cells could be transplanted into the gut wall to replace the damaged or absent neurons and glia of the ENS. This White Paper sets out experts’ views on the commonly used methods and approaches to identify, isolate, purify, expand and optimize ENS stem cells, transplant them into the bowel, and assess transplant success, including restoration of gut function. We also highlight obstacles that must be overcome in order to progress from successful preclinical studies in animal models to ENS stem cell therapies in the clinic. PMID:27059883

  17. Chronic radiation enteritis: A community hospital experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenner, M.N.; Sheehan, P.; Nanavati, P.J.; Ross, D.S. (Southern Illinois Univ. School of Medicine, Springfield (USA))


    A retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the operative management of patients with chronic radiation enteropathy. Thirty-eight affected patients from 1974 to 1986 were reviewed. Patients with recurrent cancer responsible for symptoms were excluded. Seventy-one percent of patients presented with bowel obstruction. Twenty-one patients were treated with bowel resection, while 17 were treated with a bypass procedure or diverting ostomy alone. Overall morbidity was 45%, and postoperative mortality was 16%. Patients in the bypass group were significantly older than those in the resection group (70.3 vs. 55.5 years, P = .024), suggesting that age may have been a determinant of the procedure performed. In our study there was no difference in outcome based on preexisting vascular disease, tumor site, type of procedure performed, or radiation dose. We conclude that resection is the procedure of choice in cases of chronic radiation enteritis requiring surgery except in cases with dense adhesions when enteroenterostomal bypass is a viable alternative.

  18. Enteric bacterial catalysts for fuel ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, L.O.; Aldrich, H.C.; Borges, A.C.C. [and others


    The technology is available to produce fuel ethanol from renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The current challenge is to assemble the various process options into a commercial venture and begin the task of incremental improvement. Current process designs for lignocellulose are far more complex than grain to ethanol processes. This complexity results in part from the complexity of the substrate and the biological limitations of the catalyst. Their work at the University of Florida has focused primarily on the genetic engineering of Enteric bacteria using genes encoding Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. These two genes have been assembled into a portable ethanol production cassette, the PET operon, and integrated into the chromosome of Escherichia coli B for use with hemicellulose-derived syrups. The resulting strain, KO11, produces ethanol efficiently from all hexose and pentose sugars present in the polymers of hemicellulose. By using the same approach, the authors integrated the PET operon into the chromosome of Klebsiella oxytoca to produce strain P2 for use in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for cellulose. Strain P2 has the native ability to ferment cellobiose and cellotriose, eliminating the need for one class of cellulase enzymes.

  19. Enteral and parenteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis. (United States)

    Imrie, Clement W; Carter, C Ross; McKay, Colin J


    In the last 5 years naso-enteric feeding has increasingly been used in clinical practice in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Randomized clinical studies in both mild and severe forms of the disease have demonstrated not only the feasibility but also the safety of this approach. The majority of patients have been fed by variously placed nasojejunal tubes with varied problems in maintaining both location and patency. Most have been surprised to find that it is possible to feed the patients in this way with the potential of improving gut barrier function and immune response, at reduced cost and greater safety than with parenteral nutrition. The current evidence points to nasojejunal feeding being preferable to parenteral feeding, but evidence has yet to be produced to prove beyond reasonable doubt that such feeding is an improvement on conservative management without feeding. Finally, the most recent development has indicated that fine-bore nasogastric feeding may well be a realistic alternative to nasojejunal feeding even in the more severe forms of this disease. A small percentage of patients may still need parenteral nutrition. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  20. Pathophysiology and surgical treatment for radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, Hisashi; Park, Tae Bun; Hasegawa, Masato (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)


    We analyzed 23 patients (5 males and 18 females, mean age 60) who had been operated on in our department for radiation enteritis. (1) These patients were divided into two types according to the time of surgery. Sixteen of 23 (79%) patients were operated on a median of 12 months after radiotherapy, while 7 (30%) underwent surgery more than 10 years later. (2) They were also divided according to the dominant symptoms. Fourteen of 23 (60%) complained of nausea and abdominal distension suggestive of small bowel injury, whereas 7 (30%) had tenesmus and anal bleeding indicating proctitis. Two patients developed perforative peritonitis. (3) The operations performed were as follows: extensive intestinal resection and anastomosis (13), pull-through procedure (3), rectal excision (2), ileostomy (3), by-pass operation (2). Two patients with peritonitis died despite open drainage. Nineteen intestinal anastomoses were all successfully performed. Patients who underwent extensive small bowel resection could resume ordinary daily life without symptoms. Our analysis showed that small bowel injury should be treated by generous resection of the affected bowels followed by anastomosis of the disease-free ends, while rectal lesions are best dealt with by restorative proctectomy. This may provide a good quality of life and minimize major postoperative complications such as leakage. (author).

  1. Enteral Nutrition in Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Buscemi


    Full Text Available Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD is considered the gold standard treatment for periampullory carcinomas. This procedure presents 30%–40% of morbidity. Patients who have undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy often present perioperative malnutrition that is worse in the early postoperative days, affects the process of healing, the intestinal barrier function and the number of postoperative complications. Few studies focus on the relation between enteral nutrition (EN and postoperative complications. Our aim was to perform a review, including only randomized controlled trial meta-analyses or well-designed studies, of evidence regarding the correlation between EN and main complications and outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy, as delayed gastric emptying (DGE, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF, postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH, length of stay and infectious complications. Several studies, especially randomized controlled trial have shown that EN does not increase the rate of DGE. EN appeared safe and tolerated for patients after PD, even if it did not reveal any advantages in terms of POPF, PPH, length of stay and infectious complications.

  2. Osmolality and pH in handmade enteral diets used in domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Simeone HENRIQUES

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients who need prolonged domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy may benefit from handmade diets. However, the preparation of such diets might cause insecurity with regard to their nutritional composition and physical-chemical properties. Current study analyzes the osmolality and Hydrogen-Ion concentration (pH on handmade enteral diets. To this purpose, six formulas and two juices, prescribed on discharge from hospital, were analyzed physically and chemically. Osmolality and pH were respectively determined by cryoscopy and potentiometry. Most formulations were classified as isosmolar (with less than 400 mOsm/kg solvent, and only one was classified as slightly hyperosmolar, with rates ranging from 356.7 to 403.5 mOsm/kg solvent. On average, the standard formula presented higher osmolality than similar ones prepared for hyperglycemia. Among the juices, only one registered hyperosmolar concentration of 595.54 mOsm/kg solvent. All formulas presented pH rates classified as low acidity, ranging between 6.1 and 6.6, while the two juices had the lowest results, 4.73 and 4.66 each. The blend of ingredients used in handmade formulas and juices studied presented acceptable osmolality and pH rates for a safe administration and absence of gastrointestinal complications. Data showed here are consistent with an appropriate and healthy diet and contributed towards success in domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy.

  3. Steam initiated hydrotalcite conversion coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Roefzaad, Melanie


    in the following order: K2S2O8 > Na2SO4 > NH4NO3 > KNO3. Post-coating rinsing by Mg(CH3COO)2, in addition to Ce- and La- based salts, is capable of sealing the porous Al-Li HT coatings and increasing the corrosion resistance ability. The Ce modified Al-Li HT coatings show better corrosion protection than the La...... modified coatings, due to a behaviour of “active corrosion protection” that enables precipitation of insoluble Ce(IV) oxides to reinforce the existed HT coatings........ A range of coating processesased on the formation of HT surface layers has been developed to examine its effect on the coating's thicknessnd corrosion resistance properties. These varieties include pre-coating cleaning (grid blasting vs. chemicaltching), metal species in HT compounds (Al-Zn HT coating vs...

  4. Protective Woodcutting Tool Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana D. Latushkina


    Full Text Available The modern woodworking industry applies resource-saving, environmentally appropriate technologies, providing both the metal removal performance enhancement and functioning with the optimal economic factors. Progressive cutting parameters require the application of the high-reliability cutting tools, eliminating machine-tool equipment standstill and increased cost of the expensive tool materials. In this paper it is suggested to increase the wood-cutting tool efficiency by means of the vacuum-arc separated coating deposition process optimization. The droplets are one of the main problems while generating vacuum-arc coatings, and they have a bad influence on the quality and operational coatings characteristics. The application of the separated system, allowing minimize the droplets content, is one of the most promising ways to solve this problem. Vacuum-arc deposition technique was used in this work to generate multicomponent coatings. The coatings deposition was directly carried out on the modernized vacuum-arc plant, equipped by Y-shaped macroparticles separator.

  5. The Role of Carbohydrates in Infection Strategies of Enteric Pathogens


    KATO, Kentaro; Ishiwa, Akiko; 加藤, 健太郎


    Enteric pathogens cause considerable public health concerns worldwide including tropical regions. Here, we review the roles of carbohydrates in the infection strategies of various enteric pathogens including viruses, bacteria and protozoa, which infect the epithelial lining of the human and animal intestine. At host cell entry, enteric viruses, including norovirus, recognize mainly histo-blood group antigens. At the initial step of bacterial infections, carbohydrates also function as receptor...

  6. Coronavirus–associated enteritis in a quail farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Camarda


    Full Text Available An enteric syndrome observed in semi-intensively reared quails is described. The affected birds showed depression, severe diarrhoea and dehydration. The mortality occurred particularly in young birds. At necropsy, the prominent lesion was catarrhal enteritis. Laboratory investigations demonstrated the presence of coronavirus in the gut of dead animals. No additional pathogens were detected. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence for the presence of CoVs in quail with enteritis.

  7. [Sensory evaluation of enteral nutritional supplements]. (United States)

    Granell Vidal, Lina; Sánchez Juan, Carlos; Alfonso García, Antonio


    Enteral nutrition (EN) is indicated in patients who, although they may not eat enough food, maintain a sufficient function to receive, digest and absorb nutrients digestive system. Oral Nutritional Supplements (SON) are nutritionally complete or incomplete formulas (depending on whether or not provide all the nutrients needed to serve as the sole source of nutrients), which supplement inadequate oral diet. This study aims to evaluate the organoleptic characteristics of hyperproteic, normoproteic and fiber-enriched oral SON. SON test, carried out at the Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition Consortium Hospital General Universitario de Valencia from October 2012 to February 2013. 137 SON were evaluated in total, of which 47 were hyperproteic, 46 normoproteic and 44 enriched in fiber. Of the SON evaluated in the group of hyperproteic the following 3 SON obtained the best scores: Fresenius Prot Energy Drink® (21,27, vanilla flavor), Avant Standard Nut® (20.3 , strawberry flavor) and Resource® Protein (20.01, chocolate flavor) In the group of normoproteic SON the 3 best rated were: Ensure Plus® (22.3, banana flavor), Ensure Plus® (21.9, peach flavor) and Fresubin Energy Drink® (21, strawberry flavor) In the group of fiber-enriched the 3 SON most appreciated were: 2 Kcal Fresubin Fibre Drink® (23.78, vanilla flavor), Ensure Plus® TwoCal (22.9, banana flavor) and Fortimel Compact® (21.5, strawberry flavor) The study aims to guide clinicians on what SON may be more acceptable to the patient, so that the SON serve their purpose and restore or improve nutritional status, as the SON intervention is safe and cost - effective, since they improve both the functionality and quality of life. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Enteral feeding pumps: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability (United States)

    White, Helen; King, Linsey


    Enteral feeding is a long established practice across pediatric and adult populations, to enhance nutritional intake and prevent malnutrition. Despite recognition of the importance of nutrition within the modern health agenda, evaluation of the efficacy of how such feeds are delivered is more limited. The accuracy, safety, and consistency with which enteral feed pump systems dispense nutritional formulae are important determinants of their use and acceptability. Enteral feed pump safety has received increased interest in recent years as enteral pumps are used across hospital and home settings. Four areas of enteral feed pump safety have emerged: the consistent and accurate delivery of formula; the minimization of errors associated with tube misconnection; the impact of continuous feed delivery itself (via an enteral feed pump); and the chemical composition of the casing used in enteral feed pump manufacture. The daily use of pumps in delivery of enteral feeds in a home setting predominantly falls to the hands of parents and caregivers. Their understanding of the use and function of their pump is necessary to ensure appropriate, safe, and accurate delivery of enteral nutrition; their experience with this is important in informing clinicians and manufacturers of the emerging needs and requirements of this diverse patient population. The review highlights current practice and areas of concern and establishes our current knowledge in this field. PMID:25170284

  9. Enteral feeding pumps: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White H


    Full Text Available Helen White, Linsey King Nutrition and Dietetic Group, School of Health and Wellbeing, Faculty Health and Social Science, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, United Kingdom Abstract: Enteral feeding is a long established practice across pediatric and adult populations, to enhance nutritional intake and prevent malnutrition. Despite recognition of the importance of nutrition within the modern health agenda, evaluation of the efficacy of how such feeds are delivered is more limited. The accuracy, safety, and consistency with which enteral feed pump systems dispense nutritional formulae are important determinants of their use and acceptability. Enteral feed pump safety has received increased interest in recent years as enteral pumps are used across hospital and home settings. Four areas of enteral feed pump safety have emerged: the consistent and accurate delivery of formula; the minimization of errors associated with tube misconnection; the impact of continuous feed delivery itself (via an enteral feed pump; and the chemical composition of the casing used in enteral feed pump manufacture. The daily use of pumps in delivery of enteral feeds in a home setting predominantly falls to the hands of parents and caregivers. Their understanding of the use and function of their pump is necessary to ensure appropriate, safe, and accurate delivery of enteral nutrition; their experience with this is important in informing clinicians and manufacturers of the emerging needs and requirements of this diverse patient population. The review highlights current practice and areas of concern and establishes our current knowledge in this field. Keywords: nutrition, perceptions, experience

  10. [Update of enteral nutrition at the patient's home]. (United States)

    García-Luna, P P; Parejo Campos, J; Fenoy Macías, J L


    Home enteral nutrition is the administration of enteral formulae into the digestive tract using a tube, with the objective of preventing or correcting malnutrition patients who are seen at home. Home enteral nutrition is a type of nutritional support that is growing, that improves the nutritional status of the patient with a lower cost and with a greater quality of life of the family unit than enteral nutrition in the hospital. The prevalence is clearly increasing although the data of the national registers of patients with at home enteral nutrition are under estimated. Patients who are candidates for home enteral nutrition can be all those with an indication for enteral nutrition and whose underlying disease is stabilized or does not require all the technical means of the hospital in a permanent and essential manner. Neoplasias and neurological diseases are those that benefit most from at home enteral nutrition and in all registries each group varies between 30 and 40%. All access routes and all enteral nutrition formulae can be used in patients with home enteral nutrition. The use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies is ever more recommended in patients who need at home enteral nutrition for a period longer than 4 weeks. Since the publication of the Ministerial Order of June 2nd 1998, home enteral nutrition is considered a health care service that can be covered by the Social Security. This order lists a series of disease that are likely to be treated with at home enteral nutrition (in our opinion the list is not complete but it is likely to be changed in the future by an Assessing Committee), and it presents some basic norms that all patients must comply with, regardless of the autonomous community in which they live. Before beginning at home enteral nutrition the training of the patient and/or the family with regard to the management of at home enteral nutrition is essential. The existence of qualified personnel with experience in this nutritional support

  11. A New Coating Process for Production of Coated Magnesium Powders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... In brief, Task 1 involved the construction and assembly of the coating system and supporting infrastructure, which was used for the scale-up and production of 1-lb batches of coated magnesium powder...

  12. Superheating in coated niobium


    T. Junginger; Wasserman, W.; Laxdal, R. E.


    Using muon spin rotation it is shown that the field of first flux penetration H_entry in Nb is enhanced by about 30% if coated with an overlayer of Nb_3Sn or MgB_2. This is consistent with an increase from the lower critical magnetic field H_c1 up to the superheating field H_sh of the Nb substrate. In the experiments presented here coatings of Nb_3Sn and MgB_2 with a thickness between 50 and 2000nm have been tested. H_entry does not depend on material or thickness. This suggests that the ener...

  13. Advanced Coating Removal Techniques (United States)

    Seibert, Jon


    An important step in the repair and protection against corrosion damage is the safe removal of the oxidation and protective coatings without further damaging the integrity of the substrate. Two such methods that are proving to be safe and effective in this task are liquid nitrogen and laser removal operations. Laser technology used for the removal of protective coatings is currently being researched and implemented in various areas of the aerospace industry. Delivering thousands of focused energy pulses, the laser ablates the coating surface by heating and dissolving the material applied to the substrate. The metal substrate will reflect the laser and redirect the energy to any remaining protective coating, thus preventing any collateral damage the substrate may suffer throughout the process. Liquid nitrogen jets are comparable to blasting with an ultra high-pressure water jet but without the residual liquid that requires collection and removal .As the liquid nitrogen reaches the surface it is transformed into gaseous nitrogen and reenters the atmosphere without any contamination to surrounding hardware. These innovative technologies simplify corrosion repair by eliminating hazardous chemicals and repetitive manual labor from the coating removal process. One very significant advantage is the reduction of particulate contamination exposure to personnel. With the removal of coatings adjacent to sensitive flight hardware, a benefit of each technique for the space program is that no contamination such as beads, water, or sanding residue is left behind when the job is finished. One primary concern is the safe removal of coatings from thin aluminum honeycomb face sheet. NASA recently conducted thermal testing on liquid nitrogen systems and found that no damage occurred on 1/6", aluminum substrates. Wright Patterson Air Force Base in conjunction with Boeing and NASA is currently testing the laser remOval technique for process qualification. Other applications of liquid

  14. Mechanically Invisible Polymer Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    phase comprises particles, said particles comprising a filler material and an encapsulating coating of a second polymeric material, wherein the backbones of the first and second polymeric materials are the same. The composition may be used in electroactive polymers (EAPs) in order to obtain mechanically......The present invention relates to a composition comprising encapsulated particles in a polymeric material. The composition comprises a continuous phase and a discontinuous phase incorporated therein, wherein the continuous phase comprises a first polymeric material and wherein the discontinuous...... invisible polymer coatings....

  15. Thermal Inactivation of Enteric Viruses and Bioaccumulation of Enteric Foodborne Viruses in Live Oysters (Crassostrea virginica). (United States)

    Araud, Elbashir; DiCaprio, Erin; Ma, Yuanmei; Lou, Fangfei; Gao, Yu; Kingsley, David; Hughes, John H; Li, Jianrong


    Human enteric viruses are among the main causative agents of shellfish-associated outbreaks. In this study, the kinetics of viral bioaccumulation in live oysters and the heat stabilities of the predominant enteric viruses were determined both in tissue culture and in oyster tissues. A human norovirus (HuNoV) GII.4 strain, HuNoV surrogates (murine norovirus [MNV-1], Tulane virus [TV]), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and human rotavirus (RV) bioaccumulated to high titers within oyster tissues, with different patterns of bioaccumulation for the different viruses. We tested the thermal stability of each virus at 62, 72, and 80°C in culture medium. The viruses can be ranked from the most heat resistant to the least stable as follows: HAV, RV, TV, MNV-1. In addition, we found that oyster tissues provided protection to the viruses during heat treatment. To decipher the mechanism underlying viral inactivation by heat, purified TV was treated at 80°C for increasing time intervals. It was found that the integrity of the viral capsid was disrupted, whereas viral genomic RNA remained intact. Interestingly, heat treatment leading to complete loss of TV infectivity was not sufficient to completely disrupt the receptor binding activity of TV, as determined by the porcine gastric mucin-magnetic bead binding assay. Similarly, HuNoV virus-like particles (VLPs) and a HuNoV GII.4 strain retained some receptor binding ability following heat treatment. Although foodborne viruses have variable heat stability, 80°C for >6 min was sufficient to completely inactivate enteric viruses in oysters, with the exception of HAV. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Methods and means for coating paper by film coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maarel, Marc; Ter Veer, Arend Berend Cornelis; Vrieling-Smit, Annet; Delnoye, Pierre


    This invention relates to the field of paper coating, more in particular to means and methods for providing paper with at least one layer of pigment using film coating to obtain a well printable surface. Provided is a method for preparing coated paper comprising the steps of: a) providing a

  17. [Home Enteral Nutrition: National Registry 2001]. (United States)

    Planas, M; Castellà, M; García Luna, P P; Parés, R M; Chamorro, J; Camarero, E; Calañas, A J; Bonada, A; Irles, J A; Adrio, G; Jiménez, M; Bobis, M A; Rodríguez, A; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Gómez Enterría, P; Zamarrón, I; Cos, A; Mancha, A; Martínez, I; Martí, E; de Luis, D; Virgili, N; Moreno, J M; Luengo, L M; de la Cuerda, C; Forga, M T; Goenaga, M A; Carrera, J A; Garde, C; Ordóñez, J; Pedrón, C


    The NADYA-SENPE Working Group analyzed the registered data of patients on Home Enteral Nutrition (HEN) in our country, during year 2001. The data were collected through a closed questionnaire included on our web site ( Apart from epidemiological information, the form includes the indication to prescribe this treatment, the specific nutritional treatment used and its duration, access path, complications and readmission rate in hospital, follow-up of the treatment, patient's quality of life and progress. All data were processed and analyzed by the coordinating team. Twenty two hospitals participated and 3,458 patients, aged 5.6 +/- 4.0 y for those younger than 14 y, and 67.1 +/- 19.5 y for those older than 14 y, were enrolled. Of these patients, 43.4% were diagnosed with neurological diseases and 33.5% with cancer. The mean time on HEN was 6.5 +/- 4.5 months. Oral nutrition was the preferential route (54.5%), followed by nasoenteral tube (32.3%), and in 13.3% ostomy tubes were placed. Polymeric was the formula composition mainly used (85.9%). Patients were followed (71.1%) by the hospital reference Nutritional Support Unit. The complications related to nutrition included mainly the gastrointestinal (0.16 complications/patient), and the mechanical one (0.15 complications/patient). At the end for the year, 48.3% of the patients were in the HEN program, and in 33.3% HEN was finish due to different reasons. In 22.9% of the patients no, o light, discapacity degree was found. Neurological diseases and cancer were the more frequent diagnoses in HEN patients. Oral access was the higher feeding route due, probably, to the high prevalence of cancer patients. In spite of the elevated prevalence of neurological diseases, a few number of patients, as previous years, were feed with ostomy tube. Due to the few complications observed, HEN is a safe treatment in our country.

  18. Aesthetic coatings for steel bridge components. (United States)


    The effectiveness of aesthetic coating systems for steel bridges was studied. Twelve 2-coat, 3-coat, and duplex : coating systems were selected and subjected to a series of accelerated weathering and mechanical tests to : determine their performance....

  19. Mechanisms of Military Coatings Degradation (United States)


    volume and bulk film compaction. Coating A is a less sterically and thermally stable biuret trimer of HDI in comparison to the HDI of coating system...developed coatings systems used by the Army, Marine Corps and Air Force. This study has incorporated numerous analytical tools and methods in an effort to...blistering. Peel away was evaluated as per ASTM D 3359, Method A and blistering was evaluated as per ASTM D 714. Coating systems are summarized

  20. Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (United States)


    Abstract Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE) is a rare and severe bowel disorder caused by mutation in SKIV2L or in TTC37, 2 genes encoding subunits of the putative human SKI complex. The estimated prevalence is 1/1,000,000 births and the transmission is autosomal recessive. The classical form is characterized by 5 clinical signs: intractable diarrhea of infancy beginning in the first month of life, usually leading to failure to thrive and requiring parenteral nutrition; facial dysmorphism characterised by prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism; hair abnormalities described as woolly and easily removable; immune disorders resulting from defective antibody production; intrauterine growth restriction. The aetiology is a defect in TTC37, a TPR containing protein, or in the RNA helicase SKIV2L, both constituting the putative human ski complex. The ski complex is a heterotetrameric cofactor of the cytoplasmic RNA exosome which ensures aberrants mRNAs decay. The diagnosis SD/THE is initially based on clinical findings and confirmed by direct sequencing of TTC37 and SKIV2L. Differential diagnosis with the other causes of intractable diarrhea is easily performed by pathologic investigations. During their clinical course, most of the children require parenteral nutrition and often immunoglobulin supplementation. With time, some of them can be weaned off parenteral nutrition and immunoglobulin supplementation. The prognosis depends on the management and is largely related to the occurrence of parenteral nutrition complications or infections. Even with optimal management, most of the children seem to experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Mild mental retardation is observed in half of the cases. Abstract in French Les diarrhées syndromiques ou syndrome tricho-hepato-enterique (SD/THE) sont un syndrome rare et sévère dont l’incidence est estimée à 1 cas pour 1 million de naissances et la transmission

  1. Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabre Alexandre


    Full Text Available Abstract Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE is a rare and severe bowel disorder caused by mutation in SKIV2L or in TTC37, 2 genes encoding subunits of the putative human SKI complex. The estimated prevalence is 1/1,000,000 births and the transmission is autosomal recessive. The classical form is characterized by 5 clinical signs: intractable diarrhea of infancy beginning in the first month of life, usually leading to failure to thrive and requiring parenteral nutrition; facial dysmorphism characterised by prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism; hair abnormalities described as woolly and easily removable; immune disorders resulting from defective antibody production; intrauterine growth restriction. The aetiology is a defect in TTC37, a TPR containing protein, or in the RNA helicase SKIV2L, both constituting the putative human ski complex. The ski complex is a heterotetrameric cofactor of the cytoplasmic RNA exosome which ensures aberrants mRNAs decay. The diagnosis SD/THE is initially based on clinical findings and confirmed by direct sequencing of TTC37 and SKIV2L. Differential diagnosis with the other causes of intractable diarrhea is easily performed by pathologic investigations. During their clinical course, most of the children require parenteral nutrition and often immunoglobulin supplementation. With time, some of them can be weaned off parenteral nutrition and immunoglobulin supplementation. The prognosis depends on the management and is largely related to the occurrence of parenteral nutrition complications or infections. Even with optimal management, most of the children seem to experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Mild mental retardation is observed in half of the cases. Abstract in French Les diarrhées syndromiques ou syndrome tricho-hepato-enterique (SD/THE sont un syndrome rare et sévère dont l’incidence est estimée à 1 cas pour 1 million de naissances et la

  2. The effect of honey-coated bandages compared with silver-coated bandages on treatment of malignant wounds - a randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Nielsen, Betina; Adamsen, Lis; Kolmos, Hans Jørn


    Malignant wounds (MWs) occur in 5-10% of all cancer patients. Malodor and exudation are the most common side effects. The aim was to determine the influence of honey-coated compared with silver-coated bandages on treatment of MWs. Patients were randomly selected to enter either group A (honey......-coated bandages) or group B (silver-coated bandages). Parameters were the following: wound size, cleanliness, malodor, exudation, and wound pain. Digital photographs, visual analog scales (VAS), and wound morphology registration were used for measurement at baseline and following the 4-week intervention. Sixty......-nine patients with MWs and advanced cancer, aged 47-90 (median 65.6), were included. No statistically significant difference was noted between the groups with respect to wound size, degree of cleanliness, exudation, malodor, and wound pain. There was a median decrease in wound size of 15 cm(2) and 8 cm(2...

  3. Enteral Nutrition in Crohn’s Disease: An Underused Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kansal


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature on the history, efficacy, and putative mechanism of action of enteral nutrition for inflammatory bowel disease in both paediatric and adult patients. It also analyses the reasoning behind the low popularity of exclusive enteral nutrition in clinical practice despite the benefits and safety profile.

  4. Effects of nitric oxide modulating activities on development of enteric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Oct 20, 2014 ... across the epithelium, gastric secretions and blood flow. The ... Abbreviations used: ENCC, enteric neural crest-derived cells; ENS, enteric nervous system; GFAP, glial fibrillary acidic protein; GI, gastrointestinal; KHB .... were kept overnight at room temperature before incubation. The eggs were randomly ...

  5. 30 CFR 228.100 - Entering into an agreement. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entering into an agreement. 228.100 Section 228... MANAGEMENT COOPERATIVE ACTIVITIES WITH STATES AND INDIAN TRIBES Oil and Gas, Onshore § 228.100 Entering into... proposing to undertake activities on Indian lands located within the State, a resolution from the...

  6. Noncommunicating isolated enteric duplication cyst in the abdomen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noncommunicating isolated enteric duplications in the abdomen are an extremely rare variant of enteric duplications with their own blood supply. We report a case of a noncommunicating isolated ileal duplication in a. 10-month-old boy. He was admitted because of severe abdominal distension and developed irritability ...

  7. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified and...

  8. Complications relating to enteral and parenteral nutrition in trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the incidence of complications in patients receiving enteral and parenteral nutrition (PN), and review how the early initiation of enteral feeding and early achievement of caloric goal would affect the incidence of complications. Design: The design was a retrospective audit of ...

  9. Tracing enteric viruses in the European berry fruit supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maunula, L.; Kaupke, A.; Vasickova, P.; Soderberg, K.; Kozyra, I.; Lazic, S.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Bouwknegt, M.; Rutjes, S.; Willems, K.A.; Moloney, R.; Agostino, D' M.; Husman, A.M.D.; Bonsdorff, C.H.; Rzezutka, A.; Pavlik, I.; Petrovic, T.; Cook, N.


    In recent years, numerous foodborne outbreaks due to consumption of berry fruit contaminated by human enteric viruses have been reported. This European multinational study investigated possible contamination routes by monitoring the entire food chain for a panel of human and animal enteric viruses.

  10. Enteric pathogen modification by anaecic earthworm, Lampito Mauritii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment plant contains several enteric microbial pathogens, predominantly Salmonella and Escherichia species in the range of 15-18 x 104 CFU/g and 11-12 x 104 CFU/g respectively. The present study investigates the influence of earthworm, Lampito mauritii on enteric pathogen ...

  11. Introductory to the ESPEN guidelines on enteral nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochs, H.; Allison, S.P.; Meier, R.


    The ESPEN guidelines on enteral nutrition are the first evidence-based European recommendations for enteral nutrition. They were established by European experts for a variety of disease groups. During guideline development it became evident that terms and definitions in clinical nutrition have been...

  12. Coating method for graphite (United States)

    Banker, J.G.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.


    A method of limiting carbon contamination from graphite ware used in induction melting of uranium alloys is provided. The graphite surface is coated with a suspension of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ particles in water containing about 1.5 to 4 percent by weight sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

  13. Coatings for transport industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof LUKASZKOWICZ


    Full Text Available The investigations concerned structural analysis, as well as mechanical properties and wear resistant of MeN/DLC double-layer coating deposited by hybrid PVD/PACVD method. In sliding dry friction conditions, after the break-in time, the friction coefficient for the investigated elements is set in the range between 0.03-0.06.

  14. The Spore Coat. (United States)

    Driks, Adam; Eichenberger, Patrick


    Spores of Clostridiales and Bacillales are encased in a complex series of concentric shells that provide protection, facilitate germination, and mediate interactions with the environment. Analysis of diverse spore-forming species by thin-section transmission electron microscopy reveals that the number and morphology of these encasing shells vary greatly. In some species, they appear to be composed of a small number of discrete layers. In other species, they can comprise multiple, morphologically complex layers. In addition, spore surfaces can possess elaborate appendages. For all their variability, there is a consistent architecture to the layers encasing the spore. A hallmark of all Clostridiales and Bacillales spores is the cortex, a layer made of peptidoglycan. In close association with the cortex, all species examined possess, at a minimum, a series of proteinaceous layers, called the coat. In some species, including Bacillus subtilis, only the coat is present. In other species, including Bacillus anthracis, an additional layer, called the exosporium, surrounds the coat. Our goals here are to review the present understanding of the structure, composition, assembly, and functions of the coat, primarily in the model organism B. subtilis, but also in the small but growing number of other spore-forming species where new data are showing that there is much to be learned beyond the relatively well-developed basis of knowledge in B. subtilis. To help summarize this large field and define future directions for research, we will focus on key findings in recent years.

  15. HA-Coated Implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Henrik; Søballe, Kjeld; Bechtold, Joan E


    The goal of osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants is the rapid achievement of a mechanically stable and long lasting fixation between living bone and the implant surface. In total joint replacements of cementless designs, coatings of calcium phosphates were introduced as a means...

  16. Durable superhydrophobic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, John T.; Polyzos, Georgios; Schaeffer, Daniel A.


    A superhydrophobic coating including a plurality of particles and a resin. The particles covalently bond to the resin and the resin does not fill the pores of the superhydrophobic particles such that the three dimensional surface topology of the superhydrophobic particles is preserved.

  17. A Comparison of Postoperative Early Enteral Nutrition with Delayed Enteral Nutrition in Patients with Esophageal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongchao Wang


    Full Text Available We examined esophageal cancer patients who received enteral nutrition (EN to evaluate the validity of early EN compared to delayed EN, and to determine the appropriate time to start EN. A total of 208 esophagectomy patients who received EN postoperatively were divided into three groups (Group 1, 2 and 3 based on whether they received EN within 48 h, 48 h–72 h or more than 72 h, respectively. The postoperative complications, length of hospital stay (LOH, days for first fecal passage, cost of hospitalization, and the difference in serum albumin values between pre-operation and post-operation were all recorded. The statistical analyses were performed using the t-test, the Mann-Whitney U test and the chi square test. Statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Group 1 had the lowest thoracic drainage volume, the earliest first fecal passage, and the lowest LOH and hospitalization expenses of the three groups. The incidence of pneumonia was by far the highest in Group 3 (p = 0.019. Finally, all the postoperative outcomes of nutritional conditions were the worst by a significant margin in Group 3. It is therefore safe and valid to start early enteral nutrition within 48 h for postoperative esophageal cancer patients.


    Stoddard, S.D.


    Refractory coating for graphite molds used in the casting of uranium is described. The coating is an alumino-silicate refractory composition which may be used as a mold surface in solid form or as a coating applied to the graphite mold. The composition consists of a mixture of ball clay, kaolin, alumina cement, alumina, water, sodium silicate, and sodium carbonate.

  19. Nephritis and cerebellar ataxia: rare presenting features of enteric fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar R


    Full Text Available Enteric fever is a common infectious disease of the tropical world, about 80% of these cases occur in Asian countries. Enteric fever presenting with isolated cerebellar ataxia or nephritis is rare. We report three cases of enteric fever that presented with these complications. Isolated cerebellar ataxia usually occurs in the second week, whereas in our cases it presented within first four days of fever. The common complications of enteric fever related to the urinary tract are cystitis, pyelitis, and pyelonephritis. Glomerulonephritis is uncommon. Most patients with enteric glomerulonephritis present with acute renal failure, hypertensive encephalopathy, or nephritic syndrome. In comparison, our case had milder manifestations. All three patients were treated with parenteral ceftriaxone and showed a prompt recovery.

  20. Detection and molecular characterization of enteric viruses from poult enteritis syndrome in turkeys. (United States)

    Jindal, N; Patnayak, D P; Chander, Y; Ziegler, A F; Goyal, S M


    This study was conducted to detect and characterize enteric viruses [rotavirus, turkey astrovirus-2 (TAstV-2), reovirus, and turkey coronavirus] from cases of poult enteritis syndrome (PES) in Minnesota turkeys. Of the intestinal contents collected from 43 PES cases, 25 were positive for rotavirus and 13 for small round viruses by electron microscopy (EM). Of the enteric virus-positive cases by EM (n=27), 16 cases had rotavirus or small round viruses alone and the remaining 11 cases had both viruses. None of the cases were positive for reovirus or coronavirus by EM. However, with reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), 40 cases (93%) were positive for rotavirus, 36 (84%) for TAstV-2, and 17 (40%) for reovirus. None of the cases were positive for turkey coronavirus by RT-PCR. The viruses from all cases were detected either alone or in combination of 2 or 3 by RT-PCR. Thus, 8 (19%) cases were positive for a single virus, whereas a combination of viruses was detected in the remaining 35 (81%) cases. The rota-TAstV-2 combination was the most predominant (n=18 cases). Fifteen cases were positive for all 3 viruses. The rotaviruses had sequence homology of 89.8 to 100% with previously published sequences of turkey rotaviruses at the nucleotide level. The TAstV-2 had sequence homology of 84.6 to 98.7% with previously published TAstV-2, whereas reoviruses had sequence homology of 91.6 to 99.3% with previously published sequences of turkey reoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that rota- and reoviruses clustered in a single group, whereas TAstV-2 clustered in 2 different groups. In conclusion, a larger number of PES cases was positive for rotavirus, TAstV-2, and reovirus by RT-PCR than with EM. The presence of more than one virus and changes at the genetic level in a virus may affect the severity of PES in turkey flocks.

  1. Methods for Coating Particulate Material (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)


    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  2. Enteric microbiota leads to new therapeutic strategies for ulcerative colitis. (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Xu; Ren, Li-Hua; Shi, Rui-Hua


    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a leading form of inflammatory bowel disease that involves chronic relapsing or progressive inflammation. As a significant proportion of UC patients treated with conventional therapies do not achieve remission, there is a pressing need for the development of more effective therapies. The human gut contains a large, diverse, and dynamic population of microorganisms, collectively referred to as the enteric microbiota. There is a symbiotic relationship between the human host and the enteric microbiota, which provides nutrition, protection against pathogenic organisms, and promotes immune homeostasis. An imbalance of the normal enteric microbiota composition (termed dysbiosis) underlies the pathogenesis of UC. A reduction of enteric microbiota diversity has been observed in UC patients, mainly affecting the butyrate-producing bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which can repress pro-inflammatory cytokines. Many studies have shown that enteric microbiota plays an important role in anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities, which can benefit UC patients. Therefore, manipulation of the dysbiosis is an attractive approach for UC therapy. Various therapies targeting a restoration of the enteric microbiota have shown efficacy in treating patients with active and chronic forms of UC. Such therapies include fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, prebiotics, antibiotics, helminth therapy, and dietary polyphenols, all of which can alter the abundance and composition of the enteric microbiota. Although there have been many large, randomized controlled clinical trials assessing these treatments, the effectiveness and safety of these bacteria-driven therapies need further evaluation. This review focuses on the important role that the enteric microbiota plays in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and discusses new therapeutic strategies targeting the enteric microbiota for UC.

  3. Superelastic Orthopedic Implant Coatings (United States)

    Fournier, Eric; Devaney, Robert; Palmer, Matthew; Kramer, Joshua; El Khaja, Ragheb; Fonte, Matthew


    The demand for hip and knee replacement surgery is substantial and growing. Unfortunately, most joint replacement surgeries will fail within 10-25 years, thereby requiring an arduous, painful, and expensive revision surgery. To address this issue, a novel orthopedic implant coating material ("eXalt") has been developed. eXalt is comprised of super elastic nitinol wire that is knit into a three-dimensional spacer fabric structure. eXalt expands in vivo to conform to the implantation site and is porous to allow for bone ingrowth. The safety and efficacy of eXalt were evaluated through structural analysis, mechanical testing, and a rabbit implantation model. The results demonstrate that eXalt meets or exceeds the performance of current coating technologies with reduced micromotion, improved osseointegration, and stronger implant fixation in vivo.

  4. High Solids Coating System (United States)


    36622 Aircraft Gray No, 3� Dark Green No 30219 Tan No 17875 Tnsignia White D. Applicat ion In addition to conventionl . air ,3pray, evaluation of...requirements are 60% for gloss colors and 20% for camouflage colors. Adhesion of the coating to the elongated surfaces was evaluated by placing 250 masking...tape (3M) to the surface, insuring adhesion and then removing with one abrupt pull. Any paintI removal constitutes failure. 2. Heat Resistance Test

  5. for zeolite coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Rambo


    Full Text Available Biotemplating is the processing of microcellular ceramics by reproduction of natural morphologies, where the microstructural features of the biotemplate are maintained in the biomorphic ceramic. Different biotemplates with distinct pore anatomies were used to produce biomorphic supports for the zeolite coating: wood, cardboard, sea-sponge and sisal. The biomorphic ceramics were produced by distinguished processing routes: Al-gas infiltration-reaction, liquid-metal infiltration, dip-coating and sol-gel synthesis, in order to produce nitrides, carbides and oxides, depending on the processing conditions. The zeolite coating was performed by hydrothermal growth of MFI-type (Silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 zeolite crystals onto the internal pore walls of the biomorphic templates. The final biomorphic ceramic-zeolite composites were physically characterized, evaluated in terms of their gas adsorption capabilities and correlated to their microstructure and specific pore anatomy. The combination of the properties of the biomorphic ceramics with the adsorption properties of zeolites results in materials with distinct properties as potential candidates for adsorption and catalytic applications due to their characteristic porosity, molecular sieving capabilities and high thermo-mechanical strength.

  6. Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating and Molecular Adsorber Coating (United States)

    O'Connor, Kenneth M.; Abraham, Nithin S.


    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed two unique coating formulations that will keep surfaces clean and sanitary and contain contaminants.The Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating, modeled after the self-cleaning, water-repellant lotus leaf, disallows buildup of dust, dirt, water, and more on surfaces. This coating, has been successfully tested on painted, aluminum, glass, silica, and some composite surfaces, could aid in keeping medical assets clean.The Molecular Adsorber Coating is a zeolite-based, sprayable molecular adsorber coating, designed to prevent outgassing in materials in vacuums. The coating works well to adsorb volatiles and contaminates in manufacturing and processing, such as in pharmaceutical production. The addition of a biocide would also aid in controlling bacteria levels.

  7. Enteritis caused by Pasteurella pneumotropica infection in hamsters.


    Lesher, R J; Jeszenka, E V; Swan, M E


    Pasteurella pneumotropica was isolated in essentially pure cultures from the bowels of hamsters with enteritis 7 days after parturition. Newly received hamsters showed presence of P. pneumotropica in their nasal cavities but not in their uteri, lungs, spleens, or bowels.

  8. Epigenetic Regulation of Enteric Neurotransmission by Gut Bacteria. (United States)

    Savidge, Tor C


    The Human Microbiome Project defined microbial community interactions with the human host, and provided important molecular insight into how epigenetic factors can influence intestinal ecosystems. Given physiological context, changes in gut microbial community structure are increasingly found to associate with alterations in enteric neurotransmission and disease. At present, it is not known whether shifts in microbial community dynamics represent cause or consequence of disease pathogenesis. The discovery of bacterial-derived neurotransmitters suggests further studies are needed to establish their role in enteric neuropathy. This mini-review highlights recent advances in bacterial communications to the autonomic nervous system and discusses emerging epigenetic data showing that diet, probiotic and antibiotic use may regulate enteric neurotransmission through modulation of microbial communities. A particular emphasis is placed on bacterial metabolite regulation of enteric nervous system function in the intestine.

  9. Environmental enteric dysfunction is associated with altered bile acid metabolism (United States)

    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a clinically asymptomatic condition characterized by inflammation of the small bowel mucosa, villous atrophy, and increased gut permeability, is common among children in developing countries. Because of abnormal gut mucosa and altered gut microbiome, EED coul...

  10. Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas prepares to enter Columbia (United States)


    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-83 Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39A with assistance from white room closeout crew members (from left) Rick Welty, Bob Saulnier, and Rene Arriens.

  11. Duck Virus Enteritis for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1974 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses some of the options for managing the large numbers of waterfowl should there be an outbreak of the Duck Virus Enteritis Disease at the Prime...

  12. Antibiotic resistance profiles and relatedness of enteric bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic resistance profiles and relatedness of enteric bacterial pathogens isolated from HIV/AIDS patients with and without diarrhoea and their household drinking water in rural communities in Limpopo Province South Africa.

  13. Clinical Aspects of Postoperative Enteral Feeding in the Surgical Patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J.M. Han-Geurts


    textabstractIn this thesis clinical aspects of perioperative feeding in gastrointestinal surgery are discussed in several clinical studies. The main goal is to obtain insight in the influence of enteral feeding and

  14. [Nutrition and health--enteral nutrition in intensive care patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haren, F.M. van; Oudemans-van Straaten, H.M.; Mathus-Vliegen, E.M.H.; Tepaske, R.; Hoeven, J.G. van der


    Nutritional therapy in the intensive care unit exerts favourable effects on morbidity and mortality. Enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. Only perforation or total obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract, proven mesenteric ischaemia and toxic megacolon are absolute

  15. Strategies for design and application of enteric viral vaccines. (United States)

    Chattha, Kuldeep S; Roth, James A; Saif, Linda J


    Enteric viral infections in domestic animals cause significant economic losses. The recent emergence of virulent enteric coronaviruses [porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)] in North America and Asia, for which no vaccines are available, remains a challenge for the global swine industry. Vaccination strategies against rotavirus and coronavirus (transmissible gastroenteritis virus) infections are reviewed. These vaccination principles are applicable against emerging enteric infections such as PEDV. Maternal vaccines to induce lactogenic immunity, and their transmission to suckling neonates via colostrum and milk, are critical for early passive protection. Subsequently, in weaned animals, oral vaccines incorporating novel mucosal adjuvants (e.g., vitamin A, probiotics) may provide active protection when maternal immunity wanes. Understanding intestinal and systemic immune responses to experimental rotavirus and transmissible gastroenteritis virus vaccines and infection in pigs provides a basis and model for the development of safe and effective vaccines for young animals and children against established and emerging enteric infections.

  16. Stabilization and target delivery of Nattokinase using compression coating. (United States)

    Law, D; Zhang, Z


    The aim of the work is to develop a new formulation in order to stabilize a nutraceutical enzyme Nattokinase (NKCP) in powders and to control its release rate when it passes through the gastrointestinal tract of human. NKCP powders were first compacted into a tablet, which was then coated with a mixture of an enteric material Eudragit L100-55 (EL100-55) and Hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) by direct compression. The activity of the enzyme was determined using amidolytic assay and its release rates in artificial gastric juice and an intestinal fluid were quantified using bicinchoninic acid assay. Results have shown that the activity of NKCP was pressure independent and the coated tablets protected NKCP from being denatured in the gastric juice, and realized its controlled release to the intestine based on in vitro experiments.

  17. Nutritional support via enteral tube feeding in hospital patients. (United States)

    Roberts, Elizabeth

    Patients receiving enteral tube feeding are often encountered in the ward environment of an acute care setting. Patients may receive enteral tube feed through tubes intended for short-term feeding, or they may have a long-term feeding tube in situ. This article aims to provide a practical overview of feeding solutions and administration to enable nursing staff to understand prescribed regimens and provide patients with optimum care.

  18. Antimicrobial effect of Malaysian vegetables against enteric bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanain Al-Talib


    Conclusions: Garlic had excellent antimicrobial effects against enteric bacteria and was recommended to be given to patients with gastroenteritis. The other vegetables (pennywort, mint, parsley and celery showed no inhibitory effects on enteric bacteria but still can be used for its richness in vitamins and fibers. The performance of the well diffusion method was better than that of the disc diffusion method in detecting the antibacterial effects of green vegetables.

  19. [National registry of home enteral nutrition in Spain 2007]. (United States)

    Luengo Pérez, L M; Chicharro, M L; Cuerda, C; García Luna, P P; Rabassa Soler, A; Romero, A; Irles, J A; Penacho, M A; Camarero, E; Martínez Olmos, M A; Calañas, A; Parés, R M; Lecha, M; Gómez Candela, C; Zapata, A; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Luis, D de; Wanden-Berghe, C; Cantón, A; Laborda, L; Matía, P; Martí, E


    To communicate the results from the registry of Home-Based Enteral Nutrition of the NADYASENPE group in 2007. We included every patient in the registry with home enteral nutrition any time from January 1st to December 31st of 2007. The number of patients with home enteral nutrition in 2007 was 5,107 (52% male) from 28 different hospitals. 95.4% of them were 15 yr or older, with a mean age of 67.96 +/- 18.12, and 4.2 +/- 3.38 among patients aged 14 yr or less. The most common underlying diseases were neurological (37.8%) and neoplastic diseases (29.3%). Enteral nutrition was administered p.o. in most patients (63.5%), followed by nasogastric tube (25.9%), while gastrostomy was only used in 9.2%. The mean time in enteral nutrition support was 9.4 months and the most common reasons for withdrawal were death (58.7%) and switching to oral intake (32%). Activity was limited in 31.4% of patients and 36.01% were house-bound. Most patients needed partial (26.51%) or total (37.68%) care assistance. Enteral formula was provided by hospitals to 69.14% of patients and by pharmacies to 30.17% of them, while disposable material was provided by hospitals to 81.63% and by Primary Care to the remaining patients. In 2007, there has been an increase of more than 30% of patients registered with home enteral nutrition comparing with 2006, without any big difference in other data, but a higher proportion of patients with enteral nutrition p.o.

  20. Nanoparticle/Polymer Nanocomposite Bond Coat or Coating (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.


    This innovation addresses the problem of coatings (meant to reduce gas permeation) applied to polymer matrix composites spalling off in service due to incompatibility with the polymer matrix. A bond coat/coating has been created that uses chemically functionalized nanoparticles (either clay or graphene) to create a barrier film that bonds well to the matrix resin, and provides an outstanding barrier to gas permeation. There is interest in applying clay nanoparticles as a coating/bond coat to a polymer matrix composite. Often, nanoclays are chemically functionalized with an organic compound intended to facilitate dispersion of the clay in a matrix. That organic modifier generally degrades at the processing temperature of many high-temperature polymers, rendering the clay useless as a nano-additive to high-temperature polymers. However, this innovation includes the use of organic compounds compatible with hightemperature polymer matrix, and is suitable for nanoclay functionalization, the preparation of that clay into a coating/bondcoat for high-temperature polymers, the use of the clay as a coating for composites that do not have a hightemperature requirement, and a comparable approach to the preparation of graphene coatings/bond coats for polymer matrix composites.

  1. Dense protective coatings, methods for their preparation and coated articles (United States)

    Tulyani, Sonia; Bhatia, Tania; Smeggil, John G.


    A method for depositing a protective coating on a complex shaped substrate includes the steps of: (1) dipping a complex shaped substrate into a slurry to form a base coat thereon, the slurry comprising an aqueous solution, at least one refractory metal oxide, and at least one transient fluid additive present in an amount of about 0.1 percent to 10 percent by weight of the slurry; (2) curing the dipped substrate; (3) dipping the substrate into a precursor solution to form a top barrier coat thereon; and (4) heat treating the dipped, cured substrate to form a protective coating.

  2. Enteral nutrition and drug administration, interactions, and complications. (United States)

    Magnuson, Barbara L; Clifford, Timothy M; Hoskins, Lora A; Bernard, Andrew C


    The enteral route has become the standard of care to deliver nutrition support for hospitalized acute care and ambulatory care patients. The same access device is increasingly being used to deliver medications, which provides cost savings but also creates new challenges. Cost savings can be negated if the concomitant administration of nutrition elicits a decrease in bioavailability due to incompatibilities that alter drug or nutrition therapy. Feeding tubes can deliver nutrients and drugs to the stomach, small bowel, or both, with optimal efficacy of medications depending on delivery to the appropriate segment of the gastrointestinal tract. Liquid preparations are often the preferred formulation for enteral administration. Obstruction of the enteral access device may occur when specialized medication formulations are altered inappropriately. Occasionally, the enteral formula should be changed to modify the content of free water, fiber, electrolytes, or vitamins that may interfere with the drug therapy. Intolerance to enteral nutrition such as abdominal distention and diarrhea may be the result of the medication, and the causative agent should be identified to improve patient comfort. This article will address optimal drug delivery via enteral access devices and possible complications associated with therapy.

  3. Enteral nutrition and immune modulation of acute pancreatitis (United States)

    Hegazi, Refaat A; DeWitt, Tiffany


    Enteral nutrition has been strongly recommended by major scientific societies for the nutritional management of patients with acute pancreatitis. Providing severe acute pancreatitis patients with enteral nutrition within the first 24-48 h of hospital admission can help improve outcomes compared to parenteral nutrition and no feeding. New research is focusing in on when and what to feed to best improve outcomes for acute pancreatitis patients. Early enteral nutrition have the potential to modulate the immune responses. Despite this consistent evidence of early enteral nutrition in patients with acute pancreatitis, clinical practice continues to vary due to individual clinician preference. Achieving the immune modulating effects of enteral nutrition heavily depend on proper placement of the feeding tube and managing any tube feeding associated complications. The current article reviews the immune modulating effects of enteral nutrition and pro- and prebiotics and suggests some practical tools that help improve the patient adherence and tolerance to the tube feeding. Proper selection of the type of the tube, close monitoring of the tube for its placement, patency and securing its proper placement and routine checking the gastric residual volume could all help improve the outcome. Using peptide-based and high medium chain triglycerides feeding formulas help improving feeding tolerance. PMID:25473161

  4. Enteral tube feeding: using good practice to prevent infection. (United States)

    Malhi, Hardip


    Enteral tube feeding is the delivery of nutritionally complete feed via a tube into the gut. It is used for patients who are unable to meet their nutritional needs orally. Enteral feeding can be given through a variety of different tubes that access the gastrointestinal tract either via the stomach or the small bowel. The contamination of enteral feed can often be overlooked as a source of bacterial infection. Enteral feeds can become contaminated in a variety of different ways. Most often infections result in extended lengths of stay in hospital and patients also need additional therapies and treatments in order to resolve these infections. Healthcare-associated infections not only affect the patients who acquire them but also have an impact on the staff involved in their care. Each acute trust will have its own local policies and guidelines regarding enteral feeding and infection control and prevention. These local documents will be based on national initiatives and guidelines. It is important for nurses to refer to their local policies and guidelines before they start a patient on enteral feeding to ensure that they are doing so in the safest manner possible. Nurses' practice is key to preventing bacterial contamination in such patients.

  5. Enteral nutrition intolerance in critically ill septic burn patients. (United States)

    Lavrentieva, Athina; Kontakiotis, Theodore; Bitzani, Militsa


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of enteral feeding intolerance in critically ill septic burn patients, the effect of enteral feeding intolerance on the efficacy of feeding, the correlation between the infection marker (procalcitonin [PCT]) and the nutrition status marker (prealbumin) and the impact of feeding intolerance on the outcome of septic burn patients. From January 2009 to December 2012 the data of all burn patients with the diagnosis of sepsis who were placed on enteral nutrition were analyzed. Septic patients were divided into two groups: group A, septic patients who developed feeding intolerance; group B, septic patients who did not develop feeding intolerance. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were analyzed and compared. The diagnosis of sepsis was applied to 29% of all patients. Of these patients 35% developed intolerance to enteral feeding throughout the septic period. A statistically significant increase in mean PCT level and a decrease in prealbumin level was observed during the sepsis period. Group A patients had statistically significant lower mean caloric intake, higher PCT:prealbumin ratio, higher pneumonia incidence, higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Maximum Score, a longer duration of mechanical ventilation, and a higher mortality rate in comparison with the septic patients without gastric feeding intolerance. The authors concluded that a high percentage of septic burn patients developed enteral feeding intolerance. Enteral feeding intolerance seems to have a negative impact on the patients' nutritional status, morbidity, and mortality.

  6. Parenteral or enteral nutrition: do you have the choice? (United States)

    Oshima, Taku; Singer, Pierre; Pichard, Claude


    The review focuses on the use of parenteral nutrition and enteral nutrition in critically ill patients to optimize the nutrition care throughout the ICU stay. The key message is: you have the choice! Enteral nutrition has been recommended for critically ill patients, whereas parenteral nutrition has been considered harmful and to be avoided. However, recent studies have challenged this theory. They demonstrated that enteral nutrition is frequently associated with energy and protein undernutrition, whereas parenteral nutrition becomes deleterious only if overfeeding is induced. Measuring energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry, in most cases, enables accurate determination of the energy needs to optimize the prescription of nutrition. Protein targets should also be considered for adequate feeding. Parenteral nutrition can be used as a supplement or as an alternative to enteral nutrition in case of gastrointestinal intolerance, to enable adequate energy, and protein provision. Parenteral nutrition is a powerful tool to optimize nutrition care of critically ill patients to improve clinical outcome, if prescribed according to the individual needs of the patients. After 3-4 days of attempt to feed enterally, enteral nutrition or parenteral nutrition can be used alternatively or combined, as long as the target is reached with special attention to avoid hypercaloric feeding.

  7. [Biological evaluation of a protein mixture intended for enteral nutrition]. (United States)

    Meneses, J Olza; Foulquie, J Porres; Valero, G Urbano; de Victoria, E Martínez; Hernández, A Gil


    Enteral nutrition is the best way to feed or supplement the diet when gastrointestinal tract functions of patients are partially or totally preserved. Whenever total enteral nutrition is needed, it represents the only source of nutrients for patients. Thus, it is mandatory to ensure that high biological value proteins are included in enteral formulae. To assess the biological quality of a protein blend constituted by 50% potassium caseinate, 25% whey protein and 25% pea protein intended to be used in enteral nutrition products. Forty Wistar rats (20 male and 20 female), with initial body weight of 51 g, where divided into four groups and feed for 10 days with: casein (Control), experimental protein blend (Experimental), liophylized normo- and hyperproteic enteral nutrition formulae adapted to the animal nutritional requirements (Normoproteic and Hyperproteic). Protein efficiency ratio (PER), apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC), relationship between retained and absorbed nitrogen (R/A) and relationship between retained and consumed nitrogen (R/I) where calculated. Experimental and control groups had similar values for all analysed indices (PER, ADC, R/A and R/I). These indices where also similar between normo and hyperproteic groups, but lower than experimental and control groups, except in PER, where normoproteic group was either similar to control and hiperproteic group. The quality of the protein blend used in this study is high. It is a good protein source to be used in the development of new enteral nutritional products.

  8. Tablet coating by injection molding technology - Optimization of coating formulation attributes and coating process parameters. (United States)

    Desai, Parind M; Puri, Vibha; Brancazio, David; Halkude, Bhakti S; Hartman, Jeremy E; Wahane, Aniket V; Martinez, Alexander R; Jensen, Keith D; Harinath, Eranda; Braatz, Richard D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Trout, Bernhardt L


    We developed and evaluated a solvent-free injection molding (IM) coating technology that could be suitable for continuous manufacturing via incorporation with IM tableting. Coating formulations (coating polymers and plasticizers) were prepared using hot-melt extrusion and screened via stress-strain analysis employing a universal testing machine. Selected coating formulations were studied for their melt flow characteristics. Tablets were coated using a vertical injection molding unit. Process parameters like softening temperature, injection pressure, and cooling temperature played a very important role in IM coating processing. IM coating employing polyethylene oxide (PEO) based formulations required sufficient room humidity (>30% RH) to avoid immediate cracks, whereas other formulations were insensitive to the room humidity. Tested formulations based on Eudrajit E PO and Kollicoat IR had unsuitable mechanical properties. Three coating formulations based on hydroxypropyl pea starch, PEO 1,000,000 and Opadry had favorable mechanical (35% elongation, >95×10 4 J/m 3 toughness) and melt flow (>0.4g/min) characteristics, that rendered acceptable IM coats. These three formulations increased the dissolution time by 10, 15 and 35min, respectively (75% drug release), compared to the uncoated tablets (15min). Coated tablets stored in several environmental conditions remained stable to cracking for the evaluated 8-week time period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 100% Solids Polyurethane Sequestration Coating (United States)


    section of an aluminum flake loaded thiol-ene coating peeled off of a glass plate after cure. Adsorbents and Reactive Particles Nanoparticulate ...commercially to the oil drilling industry. The incorporation of CaCO3 nanoparticulate into thiol-ene coatings was demonstrated in our Phase I project...Porous, nanoparticulate SiO2 has also been identified and evaluated in coating systems. The effect of high capacity adsorbents on permeation through

  10. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)


    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  11. Axisymmetric fretting analysis in coated cylinder

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    erties by coating the surface. There is rather scanty literature available on fretting analysis of coated components. Presence of such coatings has a large influence on the near surface state of stress. The effect of coatings on the severity of fretting is the focus of this paper. Results obtained for both hard and soft coatings are ...

  12. Coatings Technology Integration Office (CTIO) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CTIO serves as the Air Force's central resource for aircraft coating systems and their applications. CTIO's primary objectives are pollution prevention and improved...

  13. Corrosion behavior of duplex coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Raghu Ram Mohan Reddy


    Full Text Available The titanium alloys are used in defense, aerospace, automobile, chemical plants and biomedical applications due to their very high strength and lightweight properties. However, corrosion is a life-limiting factor when Ti alloys are exposed to different chemical environments at high temperatures. In the present paper, duplex NiCrAlY/WC–Co coating is coated onto Ti6Al4V substrate to investigate the corrosion behavior of both coated samples and the substrate. The duplex coating was performed with NiCrAlY as the intermediate coat of 200 μm thickness deposited by HVOF process and WC–Co ceramic top coat with varying thicknesses of 250 μm, 350 μm and 450 μm deposited by DS process. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were employed to investigate the corrosion performance of duplex coated samples and substrate in Ringer’s solution at 37 °C and pH value was set to 5.7. Finally the results reveal that 350 μm thick coated samples showed highest corrosion resistance compared to 250 μm thick samples as well as bare substrate. However, the 450 μm thick coated sample showed poor corrosion resistance compared to the substrate. The scale formed on the samples upon corrosion was characterized by using SEM analysis to understand the degree of corrosion behavior.

  14. Electrochemically switchable polypyrrole coated membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidlich, Claudia, E-mail: weidlich@dechema.d [DECHEMA e.V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Mangold, Klaus-Michael [DECHEMA e.V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)


    A method for coating membranes with polypyrrole (PPy) has been developed. Different membranes, such as microfiltration as well as ion exchanger membranes have been coated with PPy to yield electrical conductivity of the membranes. The coated membranes have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy and their permeability and permselectivity have been tested. The results show that PPy can be tailored as cation or anion exchanger and its porosity can be controlled to avoid any impairment of the membrane by the polymer layer. These PPy coated membranes can be applied as electrochemically switchable, functionalised membranes with controllabel and variable separation properties.

  15. Conduit Coating Abrasion Testing (United States)

    Sullivan, Mary K.


    During my summer internship at NASA I have been working alongside the team members of the RESTORE project. Engineers working on the RESTORE project are creating ·a device that can go into space and service satellites that no longer work due to gas shortage or other technical difficulties. In order to complete the task of refueling the satellite a hose needs to be used and covered with a material that can withstand effects of space. The conduit coating abrasion test will help the researchers figure out what type of thermal coating to use on the hose that will be refueling the satellites. The objective of the project is to determine whether or not the conduit coating will withstand the effects of space. For the RESTORE project I will help with various aspects of the testing that needed to be done in order to determine which type of conduit should be used for refueling the satellite. During my time on the project I will be assisting with wiring a relay board that connected to the test set up by soldering, configuring wires and testing for continuity. Prior to the testing I will work on creating the testing site and help write the procedure for the test. The testing will take place over a span of two weeks and lead to an informative conclusion. Working alongside various RESTORE team members I will assist with the project's documentation and records. All in all, throughout my internship at NASA I hope to learn a number of valuable skills and be a part of a hard working team of engineers.

  16. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun


    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  17. Durable Hybrid Coatings (United States)


    rich primers at 32% and 42% PVC. PVC Epon 828 (g) Epicure 2353 (g) MEK (g) Mg and Mg alloy Pigments (g) 3820 AM60 AZ91B LNR96 AM503 AZG...vol. ratio. Epon 1001-CX-75 is an epoxide containing 25 wt.% MIBK/xylene (vol. ratio 65/35) solvent mixture, and Epicure 3140 is a solventless...μm. Table 1. Formulation of Mg-rich Primer Coating Ingredients Weight, g Epon 1001-CX-75 67 111 Epicure 3140 9.5 Mg powder 95 Aerosil® R974 1

  18. Multifunctional Ceramic Nanostructured Coatings (United States)


    Stansky D.V., Petrznik M.I., Levashov E.A., Mavrin B.N. // Surf. Coat. Tech. -2007.-V.201.- P . 6143-6147. 7. Kauffmann F., Dehm G., Schier V...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER STCU Registration No: P -253 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Anatolij Tarasovich Pugachov...lead to the increase in crystalline lattice rigidness, hardness, melting temperature and oxidation resistance in Me2B→MeB→ MeB2 line [13]. Boron p

  19. Role of FODMAP content in enteral nutrition-associated diarrhea. (United States)

    Halmos, Emma P


    Gastrointestinal symptoms including diarrhea are common complications of enteral nutrition (EN); however, the cause is unclear. Mode of EN delivery that alters digestion and possibly absorption is suggested to contribute to the high incidence of diarrhea; however, enteral formula is frequently blamed. Most research has focused on fiber-supplemented EN, with a meta-analysis showing that fiber reduces the incidence of diarrhea in non-intensive care unit studies. Other hypotheses include formula osmolality and FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) content. FODMAPs are poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates that exert an osmotic effect. Dietary FODMAPs have been shown to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhea, in those with irritable bowel syndrome and, given a high-enough dose, will induce a laxative effect in most people. As FODMAPs are commonly added to enteral formula and EN is frequently used as the main source of nutrition, it is reasonable to hypothesize that EN provides more FODMAPs than usual dietary intake and increases risk for developing diarrhea. This hypothesis was assessed through a retrospective study showing that the standard-use enteral formula Isosource 1.5 had a protective effect of developing diarrhea. The only characteristic unique to Isosource 1.5 was the lower FODMAP content as determined through methodologies previously validated for food analysis. Methodologies for application to enteral formulas are currently undergoing formal validation. Once confirmed for application in enteral formula, future directions include FODMAP analysis of specific ingredients to increase understanding of potential problems associated with enteral formula and a randomized, controlled trial investigating the role of formula FODMAP content. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinomas exhibit gastric differentiation. (United States)

    Whitcomb, Emma; Liu, Xiuli; Xiao, Shu-Yuan


    Primary small bowel adenocarcinoma is rare. Although generally similar to colonic adenocarcinoma, some small bowel adenocarcinomas exhibit unique morphologic features, particularly those arising in association with Crohn disease. In this study, 15 sporadic small bowel adenocarcinomas and 11 Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinomas were examined for histology and immunohistochemical profile including cytokeratins (CK) 7 and 20, intestinal markers CDX2 and MUC2, and gastric epithelial markers MUC5AC and MUC6. We found that Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinomas frequently resemble gastric tubular adenocarcinoma histologically. In addition, when compared to sporadic small bowel adenocarcinoma, the former expressed MUC5AC and MUC6 with much higher frequency (82% vs. 7% and 73% vs. 0%, respectively). Ten of 11 Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinomas (91%) were positive for at least one gastric-type marker (MUC5AC or MUC6). Expression of CK7 was also more frequent in Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinoma (73% versus 27%) while expression of CK20 was less frequent (64% vs. 100%). There was no difference between sporadic and Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinoma in expression of CDX2 (100% vs. 91%) and MUC2 (93% vs. 73%). These observations suggest that there is a difference in the morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of sporadic versus Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinoma, particularly in their expression of gastric-type mucin. The findings also suggest that gastric differentiation in Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinoma is related to gastric metaplasia, a common phenomenon in Crohn disease. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Polymer Coated CaAl-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanomaterials for Potential Calcium Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyun Kim


    Full Text Available We have successfully prepared layered double hydroxide (LDH nanomaterials containing calcium and aluminum ions in the framework (CaAl-LDH. The surface of CaAl-LDH was coated with enteric polymer, Eudragit®L 100 in order to protect nanomaterials from fast dissolution under gastric condition of pH 1.2. The X-ray diffraction patterns, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the pristine LDH was well prepared having hydrocalumite structure, and that the polymer effectively coated the surface of LDH without disturbing structure. From thermal analysis, it was determined that only a small amount (less than 1% of polymer was coated on the LDH surface. Metal dissolution from LDH nanomaterials was significantly reduced upon Eudragit®L 100 coating at pH 1.2, 6.8 and 7.4, which simulates gastric, enteric and plasma conditions, respectively, and the dissolution effect was the most suppressed at pH 1.2. The LDH nanomaterials did not exhibit any significant cytotoxicity up to 1000 μg/mL and intracellular calcium concentration significantly increased in LDH-treated human intestinal cells. Pharmacokinetic study demonstrated absorption efficiency of Eudragit®L 100 coated LDH following oral administration to rats. Moreover, the LDH nanomaterials did not cause acute toxic effect in vivo. All the results suggest the great potential of CaAl-LDH nanomaterials as a calcium supplement.

  2. Monitoring of tablet coating processes with colored coatings. (United States)

    Barimani, Shirin; Kleinebudde, Peter


    Endpoints of coating processes for colored tablets were determined using in-line Raman spectroscopy. Coatings were performed with six commercially available formulations of pink, yellow, red, beige, green and blue color. The coatings were comprising pigments and/or dyes, some causing fluorescence and interfering the Raman signal. Using non-contact optics, a Raman probe was used as process analytical technology (PAT) tool, and acquired spectra were correlated to the sprayed mass of aqueous coating suspension. Process endpoints were determined using univariate (UV) data analysis and three multivariate analysis methods, namely Projection to Latent Structures (PLS)-regression, Science-Based Calibration (SBC) and Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR). The methods were compared regarding model performance parameters. The endpoints of all coating experiments could be predicted until a total coating time of 50min corresponding to coating thicknesses between 21 and 38µm, depending on the density of the coat formulation. With the exception of SBC, all calibration methods resulted in R 2 values higher than 0.9. Additionally, the methods were evaluated regarding their capability for in-line process monitoring. For each color, at least two methods were feasible to do this. Overall, PLS-regression led to best model performance parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Silica coating improves the efficacy of Pd nanosheets for photothermal therapy of cancer cells using near infrared laser. (United States)

    Tang, Shaoheng; Huang, Xiaoqing; Zheng, Nanfeng


    Thickness does matter! The ultrathin nature of 1.8 nm-thick Pd nanosheets prevents them entering cells effectively. A 13-times enhancement in the cells' uptake of the Pd nanosheets has now been achieved by silica coating together with surface functionalization, therefore significantly improving their NIR photothermal cell-killing efficacy.

  4. [National registry of Home Enteral Nutrition in 2003]. (United States)

    Planas, M; Lecha, M; García Luna, P P; Parés, R M; Chamorro, J; Martí, E; Bonada, A; Irles, J A; Boris, M A; Cardona, D; Zamarrón, I; Calañas, A J; Rodríguez, A; Camarero, E; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Mancha, A; De Luis Román, D; Cos, A; Luengo, L M; Jiménez, M; Bayo, P; Goenaga, M A


    To communicate the information available by the NADYA-SENPE Working Group from patients on Home Enteral Nutrition (HEN) in our country during the year 2003. The data were collected through a closed questionnaire included in the web site of the Working Group ( available only by the authorized users. Variable included were: epidemiological information, the indication to prescribe this treatment, the access path, the specific nutritional formula used, the treatment duration, the complications and hospital readmission related to the nutritional treatment, the follow-up and the quality of life. We register 3,858 patients that belong to twenty-one hospitals. Mean age from those adults 66.2 +/- 18.9 years, and from those younger than 14, 6.0 +/- 4.3 years. Neurological and neoplasic diseases were the diagnostics more frequents (38.9% and 37.4%, respectively). Oral nutrition was the preferential rout used for the enteral nutrition (54.7%) followed by naso-enteral tube (26.6%), and only in 17.6% we used ostomy tubes. Polymeric was the enteral formula mainly utilized (80.1%). The mean time on HEN was 6.6 +/- 4.3 months; the 28.8% of patients stayed in the treatment for less than 3 months, 21.2 % between 3 and 6 months, and 50.0% more than 6 months. Patients were followed mainly by Nutritional Support Unit from the reference hospital (73.1%). While the reference hospital supplies the material (62.4%), reference hospital pharmacy (46.8%) and public pharmacies (32.0%) provides the enteral formula. Complications related to enteral nutrition included change of enteral tube (44.5%), gastrointestinal complications (30.5%), mechanical complications (21.7%), and the metabolic one (3.3%). These complications were followed by 0.02 hospitalizations/patient. At the end of the year, 54.7% of patients were in the HEN programme, and in 35.2 % HEN was finish due to accept oral conventional alimentation (49.2%) or by deceased of patients (40.9%). While 26.6% of the

  5. Superheating in coated niobium (United States)

    Junginger, T.; Wasserman, W.; Laxdal, R. E.


    Using muon spin rotation it is shown that the field of first flux penetration {H}{entry} in Nb is enhanced by about 30% if coated with an overlayer of Nb3Sn or MgB2. This is consistent with an increase from the lower critical magnetic field {H}{{c}1} up to the superheating field {H}{sh} of the Nb substrate. In the experiments presented here coatings of Nb3Sn and MgB2 with a thickness between 50 and 2000 nm have been tested. {H}{entry} does not depend on material or thickness. This suggests that the energy barrier at the boundary between the two materials prevents flux entry up to {H}{sh} of the substrate. A mechanism consistent with these findings is that the proximity effect recovers the stability of the energy barrier for flux penetration, which is suppressed by defects for uncoated samples. Additionally, a low temperature baked Nb sample has been tested. Here a 6% increase of {H}{entry} was found, also pushing {H}{entry} beyond {H}{{c}1}.

  6. Stress levels experienced by the parents of enterally fed children. (United States)

    Pedersen, S D; Parsons, H G; Dewey, D


    The stress levels of parents of children with chronic illness/disability who were also involved in an enteral feeding programme were examined and compared to the stress levels of parents of healthy children and parents of children with other chronic illnesses reported in previous research. Sixty-four parents who had a child with an enteral feeding tube completed the Parenting Stress Index (PSI). Based on criteria developed by Abidin (1995), 42.18% (n = 29) of these parents displayed high stress levels. T-tests revealed that Total Stress scores on the PSI of the parents of children involved in the enteral feeding programme were significantly higher than those reported in the sample of parents used to norm the PSI (P parents of children with growth deficiencies (P parents of children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (P parents of children with Rett syndrome, the parents of children involved in the enteral feeding programme reported similar levels of stress on the Parent Domain of the PSI and significantly less stress on the Child Domain (P parents of children with an enteral feeding tube were severity of their child's illness/disability, the constant caretaking demands placed on the parent, and the level of support provided by the parents' social network.

  7. The Use of Enteral Nutrition in the Management of Stroke. (United States)

    Ojo, Omorogieva; Brooke, Joanne


    This article discusses the use of enteral nutrition in the management of stroke. Stroke is a major source of disability, including dysphagia. The clinical manifestation of swallowing difficulties in stroke patients may lead to malnutrition which has implications for health status and clinical outcomes including morbidity, mortality and cost to the health service. The prevalence of malnutrition following an acute stroke could range from 8% to 34%. Therefore, the need to develop and implement the use of enteral nutrition support in stroke patients becomes pertinent. A range of enteral feeding tubes and feeding methods may be used to support stroke patients who are unable to meet their nutritional requirements through oral intake alone, although each of these approaches has its merits and limitations. Based on this review, there is evidence that enteral nutrition support is a useful method of providing nutrition for patients with dysphagia following a stroke in order to enhance their nutritional status and promote their health. However, there are challenges in the use of enteral tube feeding in these patients.

  8. Recent developments in enteral feeding for adults: an update. (United States)

    Medlin, Sophie

    In the 1980s, enteral nutrition became increasingly recognised as a safe, effective and cost-efficient method of providing nutrition to patients with a functional gut (Silk, 2003). With this came the development of feeding-specific nasogastric (NG) tubes (Rees et al, 1986) and the formulation of nutritionally complete, ready-to-hang feeds (Keohane et al, 1983), as well as the creation of gastrostomy tubes for direct access to the stomach by Ponsky and Gauderer (1981) followed by jejunostomys 11 years later (Shike et al, 1991). Since then there have been many developments in every aspect of enteral feeding, with over 30 enteral feeds listed in the British National Formulary (BNF) (Joint Formulary Committee, 2012) and companies continually designing new tubes that are smaller or more comfortable and feeding pumps that are quieter and easier to use. This article discusses the developments in enteral feeding over the last 5 years to give the reader an update on current topics and issues in enteral feeding.

  9. The Use of Enteral Nutrition in the Management of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omorogieva Ojo


    Full Text Available This article discusses the use of enteral nutrition in the management of stroke. Stroke is a major source of disability, including dysphagia. The clinical manifestation of swallowing difficulties in stroke patients may lead to malnutrition which has implications for health status and clinical outcomes including morbidity, mortality and cost to the health service. The prevalence of malnutrition following an acute stroke could range from 8% to 34%. Therefore, the need to develop and implement the use of enteral nutrition support in stroke patients becomes pertinent. A range of enteral feeding tubes and feeding methods may be used to support stroke patients who are unable to meet their nutritional requirements through oral intake alone, although each of these approaches has its merits and limitations. Based on this review, there is evidence that enteral nutrition support is a useful method of providing nutrition for patients with dysphagia following a stroke in order to enhance their nutritional status and promote their health. However, there are challenges in the use of enteral tube feeding in these patients.

  10. Molecular detection of porcine enteric caliciviruses in Venezuelan farms. (United States)

    Martínez, Mindre A; Alcalá, Ana C; Carruyo, Gabriela; Botero, Ligia; Liprandi, Ferdinando; Ludert, Juan E


    Caliciviruses are a well-established cause of respiratory, vesicular and hemorrhagic diseases in animals. In addition, these viruses are an important cause of enteric diseases in humans. Recently, molecular analysis of several porcine enteric caliciviruses indicated that they are closely related to human enteric caliciviruses. The objective of this work was to determine the frequency, age distribution, and association with diarrhea of enteric calicivirus infections in piglets and to partially characterize the detected isolates. A total of 203 stool samples from animals 0 to 9 weeks of age, collected between 1993 and 2003 in seven porcine farms located in the central region of Venezuela were tested for enteric caliciviruses by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification using primers designed to detect both norovirus and sapovirus. Selected amplicons were sequenced to establish phylogenetic relationships with reference strains. Calicivirus were detected in 18% (36/204) of the samples. Viruses were detected more frequently in animals between 3 and 4 weeks of age, and were detected in samples from animals with diarrhea and without diarrhea with equal frequencies (14 versus 19%, p>0.5). Phylogenetic studies based on partial RNA polymerase gene sequences indicated that the Venezuelan isolates were most closely related (75-95% identity) to the sapovirus Cowden reference strain. These results provide evidence that caliciviruses of the genus sapovirus circulate frequently in piglets but further studies are needed to clarify their importance as cause of diarrhea.

  11. Polypharmacy and enteral nutrition in patients with complex chronic diseases (United States)

    Romero Jiménez, Rosa Mª; Ortega Navarro, Cristina; Cuerda Compés, Cristina


    Oral medications are often administered through enteral feeding tubes in patients with complex chronic diseases. It is important to consider possible interactions between drugs and enteral nutrition that might lead to unsuccessful treatment or tube occlusion. These patients become subjects for higher risk of problems and errors such as drug incompatibility with enteral nutrition and inappropriate dosage form selection. It is possible to minimize the risk of tube occlusion and incompatibilities problems by recognizing potential medication errors, selecting the most appropriate drug and dosage form and using appropriate administration techniques. In this context, high-alert medications for patients with chronic diseases deserve special attention. Furthermore, risk exposure should be considered among healthcare professionals and patient caregivers handling hazardous drugs. Therefore, main incompatibility problems between drugs and enteral nutrition have been reviewed, including general recommendations for administration of oral medications through enteral feeding tubes and safe handling of hazardous drugs. Specific recommendations for administration of high-alert medications for patients with chronic diseases are also included.

  12. Implementation of enteral feeding protocol in an intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padar, Martin; Uusvel, Gerli; Starkopf, Liis


    AIM: To determine the effects of implementing an enteral feeding protocol on the nutritional delivery and outcomes of intensive care patients. METHODS: An uncontrolled, observational before-and-after study was performed in a tertiary mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU). In 2013, a nu...... predictors of insufficient enteral nutrition. CONCLUSION: The use of a nurse-driven feeding protocol improves the delivery of enteral nutrition in ICU patients without concomitant increases in gastrointestinal symptoms or intra-abdominal hypertension.......AIM: To determine the effects of implementing an enteral feeding protocol on the nutritional delivery and outcomes of intensive care patients. METHODS: An uncontrolled, observational before-and-after study was performed in a tertiary mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU). In 2013......, a nurse-driven enteral feeding protocol was developed and implemented in the ICU. Nutrition and outcome-related data from patients who were treated in the study unit from 2011-2012 (the Before group) and 2014-2015 (the After group) were obtained from a local electronic database, the national Population...

  13. Enteral nutrition in person with Dementia: Indication, effects and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Alves


    Full Text Available Objective: This systematic literature review aims to clarify indications for the use of enteral feeding in patients with dementia. Difficulties in feeding patients with dementia may arise at any stage of the disease and may include malnutrition, weight loss, decreased quality of life, among others. Enteral tube feeding by tube may be a way of mitigating the effects, but its benefits are under discussion. Methods: Eight qualitative studies were included: 5 primary sources, 3 systematic literature reviews, published in the 2008-2013 period. Results: Enteral tube feeding in patients with dementia may affect survival/mortality rate (no evidence of benefit, nutritional status (no improvement, functional status and cognitive development (no improvement, aspiration (does not reduce the risk of aspiration, pressure ulcers (no evidence of benefit in ulcers incidence and progression, and quality of life (without hard data in most studies. Conclusion: Evidence on benefits of enteral tube feeding in patients with dementia was not conclusive and may even have the opposite effect. We lack data on the adverse effects of these interventions. Keywords: Palliative care; Dementia; Enteral feeding; Therapeutic use.

  14. Federal Highway Administration 100-year coating study. (United States)


    The Federal Highway Administration 100-Year Coating Study was initiated in August 2009 to search for durable : coating systems at a reasonable cost. The objective of the study was to identify and evaluate coating materials that can : provide 100 year...

  15. Intumescent coatings under fast heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kristian Petersen; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Català, Pere


    Intumescent coatings are widely used to delay or minimise the destructive effects of fire. They are usually tested under conditions that simulate the relatively slow build-up of heat in a normal fire. Here, the effects of damage during a fire causing sudden heating of the coating were studied....

  16. Westinghouse thermal barrier coatings development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goedjen, J.G.; Wagner, G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)


    Westinghouse, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has embarked upon a program for the development of advanced thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbines. Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) for industrial gas turbines has relied heavily on the transfer of technology from the aerospace industry. Significant differences in the time/temperature/stress duty cycles exist between these two coating applications. Coating systems which perform well in aerospace applications may not been optimized to meet power generation performance requirements. This program will focus on development of TBC`s to meet the specific needs of power generation applications. The program is directed at developing a state-of-the-art coating system with a minimum coating life of 25,000 hours at service temperatures required to meet increasing operating efficiency goals. Westinghouse has assembled a team of university and industry leaders to accomplish this goal. Westinghouse will coordinate the efforts of all program participants. Chromalloy Turbine Technologies, Inc. and Sermatech International, Inc. will be responsible for bond coat and TBC deposition technology. Praxair Specialty Powders, Inc. will be responsible for the fabrication of all bond coat and ceramic powders for the program. Southwest Research Institute will head the life prediction modelling effort; they will also be involved in coordinating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) efforts. Process modelling will be provided by the University of Arizona.

  17. Lignin based controlled release coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Eastham, D.


    Urea is a commonly used fertilizer. Due to its high water-solubility, misuse easily leads to excess nitrogen levels in the soil. The aim of this research was to develop an economically feasible and biodegradable slow-release coating for urea. For this purpose, lignin was selected as coating

  18. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob


    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  19. Pack cementation coatings for alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yi-Rong; Zheng, Minhui; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)


    The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating on a Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb alloy in a single processing step. The morphology and composition of the coating depended both on the composition of the pack and on the composition and microstructure of the substrate. Higher Ge content in the pack suppressed the formation of CrSi{sub 2} and reduced the growth kinetics of the coating. Ge was not homogeneously distributed in the coatings. In cyclic and isothermal oxidation in air at 700 and 1050{degrees}C, the Ge-doped silicide coating protected the Cr-Nb alloys from significant oxidation by the formation of a Ge-doped silica film. The codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium into low alloy steel have been achieved using elemental Al and Cr powders and a two-step pack cementation process. Sequential process treatments at 925{degrees}C and 1150{degrees}C yield dense and uniform ferrite coatings, whose compositions are close to either Fe{sub 3}Al or else FeAl plus a lower Cr content, when processed under different conditions. The higher content of Al in the coatings was predicted by thermodynamic calculations of equilibrium in the gas phase. The effect of the particle size of the metal powders on the surface composition of the coating has been studied for various combinations of Al and Cr powders.

  20. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.


    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  1. Magnesium Diboride thin Films, multilayers, and coatings for SRF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Xiaoxing [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities currently use low-temperature superconductor niobium, and the Nb SRF cavities have approached the performance levels predicted theoretically. Compared to Nb, MgB2 becomes superconducting at a much higher temperature and promises a better RF performance in terms of higher quality factor Q and higher acceleration capability. An MgB2 SRF technology can significantly reduce the operating costs of particle accelerators when these potentials are realized. This project aimed to advance the development of an MgB2 SRF technology. It had two main objectives: (1) materials issues of MgB2 thin films and multilayers related to their applications in SRF cavities; and (2) coating single-cell cavities for testing at RF frequencies. The key technical thrust of the project is the deposition of high quality clean MgB2 films and coatings by the hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) technique, which was developed in my group. We have achieved technical progress in each of the two areas. For the first objective, we have confirmed that MgB2 thin film coatings can be used to effectively enhance the vortex penetration field of an SRF cavity. A vortex is a normal region in the shape of spaghetti that threads through a superconductor. Its existence is due to an applied magnetic field that is greater than a so-called lower critical field, Hc1. Once a vortex enters the superconductor, its movement leads to loss. This has been shown to be the reason for an SRF cavity to break down. Thus, enhancing the magnetic field for a vortex to enter the superconductor that forms the SRF cavity has be a goal of intense research. To this end, Gurevich proposed that a coating of thin superconductor layer can impede the vortex entrance. In this project, we have done two important experiment to test this concept. One, we showed that the enhancement of Hc1 can be

  2. Update on enteral nutrition support for cystic fibrosis. (United States)

    Erskine, Jamie M; Lingard, Catherine; Sontag, Marci


    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease affecting the respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, and reproductive systems. Nutrition status in persons with CF is often compromised due to increased energy needs, frequent infections, pancreatic insufficiency, lung disease, or CF-related diabetes. Maintaining good nutrition status has been associated with better pulmonary function, reduced hospitalizations, and increased longevity. Nutrition support as oral supplementation (used in >37% of the CF population) or tube feeding (used in >13% of the CF population) is often required for children and adults with CF. The purpose of this update is to describe current consensus and evidence for enteral nutrition support guidelines, reported complications of enteral feeding in the CF population, evidence of expected outcomes, and to discuss related areas requiring further research. A case report is provided to illustrate potential outcomes of aggressive enteral support.

  3. Bioengineered probiotics, a strategic approach to control enteric infections. (United States)

    Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Bhunia, Arun K


    Enteric infections account for high morbidity and mortality and are considered to be the fifth leading cause of death at all ages worldwide. Seventy percent of all enteric infections are foodborne. Thus significant efforts have been directed toward the detection, control and prevention of foodborne diseases. Many antimicrobials including antibiotics have been used for their control and prevention. However, probiotics offer a potential alternative intervention strategy owing to their general health beneficial properties and inhibitory effects against foodborne pathogens. Often, antimicrobial probiotic action is non-specific and non-discriminatory or may be ineffective. In such cases, bioengineered probiotics expressing foreign gene products to achieve specific function is highly desirable. In this review we summarize the strategic development of recombinant bioengineered probiotics to control enteric infections, and to examine how scientific advancements in the human microbiome and their immunomodulatory effects help develop such novel and safe bioengineered probiotics.

  4. Management of Hyperglycemia During Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition Therapy (United States)

    Umpierrez, Guillermo E.


    Hyperglycemia is a frequent complication of enteral and parenteral nutrition in hospitalized patients. Extensive evidence from observational studies indicates that the development of hyperglycemia during parenteral and enteral nutrition is associated with an increased risk of death and infectious complications. There are no specific guidelines recommending glycemic targets and effective strategies for the management of hyperglycemia during specialized nutritional support. Managing hyperglycemia in these patients should include optimization of carbohydrate content and administration of intravenous or subcutaneous insulin therapy. The administration of continuous insulin infusion and insulin addition to nutrition bag are efficient approaches to control hyperglycemia during parenteral nutrition. Subcutaneous administration of long-acting insulin with scheduled or corrective doses of short-acting insulin is superior to the sliding scale insulin strategy in patients receiving enteral feedings. Randomized controlled studies are needed to evaluate safe and effective therapeutic strategies for the management of hyperglycemia in patients receiving nutritional support. PMID:23065369

  5. Enteral Feedings in Children: Sorting Out Tubes, Buttons, and Formulas. (United States)

    Vermilyea, Sarah; Goh, Vi Lier


    Enteral nutrition (EN) is the provision of food or nutrients beyond the esophagus via a tube either to the stomach or small intestines. Choosing the route, method, and formula for administration of EN to infants and children is complicated by the increasing options available. Indications and contraindications change as surgical procedures and medical treatments advance. Human milk remains the normative standard for infant formulas; if a safe supply is available, it is recommended as optimal nutrition for infants, including via enteral tube access. For infants without an available supply of human milk and children older than 12 months, a wide variety of formulas are available, including the renewed interest in formulas using cooked table foods. This article presents the different methods of EN access placement, maintenance, formula recommendations, and advancement of EN. It is important for healthcare professionals to be aware of the options and recommendations for EN. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  6. Diarrhea in Critically Ill Patients: The Role of Enteral Feeding. (United States)

    de Brito-Ashurst, Ione; Preiser, Jean-Charles


    This tutorial presents a systematic approach to the management of diarrhea in the critical care setting. Diarrhea is a common and prevalent problem in critically ill patients. Despite the high prevalence, its management is far from simple. Professionals are confronted with a myriad of definitions based on frequency, consistency, and volume. The causes are complex and multifactorial, yet enteral tube feeding formula is believed to be the perpetrator. Potential causes for diarrhea are discussed, and 3 case reports provide context to examine the treatment from a nutrition perspective. Each scenario is comprehensively addressed discussing potential causes and providing specific clinical strategies contributing to improved bowel function in this patient group. The approach used for diarrhea management is based on a complete understanding of enteral tube formula, their composition, and their impact in the presence of gut dysfunction. Choosing the right feeding formula may positively influence bowel function and contribute to improved nutrition. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  7. Cheap and Easy PIN Entering Using Eye Gaze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprowski Pawel


    Full Text Available PINs are one of the most popular methods to perform simple and fast user authentication. PIN stands for Personal Identification Number, which may have any number of digits or even letters. Nevertheless, 4-digit PIN is the most common and is used for instance in ATMs or cellular phones. The main advantage of the PIN is that it is easy to remember and fast to enter. There are, however, some drawbacks. One of them - addressed in this paper - is a possibility to steal PIN by a technique called `shoulder surfing'. To avoid such problems a novel method of the PIN entering was proposed. Instead of using a numerical keyboard, the PIN may be entered by eye gazes, which is a hands-free, easy and robust technique. References:

  8. Genomic diversification of giant enteric symbionts reflects host dietary lifestyles

    KAUST Repository

    Ngugi, David


    Herbivorous surgeonfishes are an ecologically successful group of reef fish that rely on marine algae as their principal food source. Here, we elucidated the significance of giant enteric symbionts colonizing these fishes regarding their roles in the digestive processes of hosts feeding predominantly on polysiphonous red algae and brown Turbinaria algae, which contain different polysaccharide constituents. Using metagenomics, single-cell genomics, and metatranscriptomic analyses, we provide evidence of metabolic diversification of enteric microbiota involved in the degradation of algal biomass in these fishes. The enteric microbiota is also phylogenetically and functionally simple relative to the complex lignocellulose-degrading microbiota of terrestrial herbivores. Over 90% of the enzymes for deconstructing algal polysaccharides emanate from members of a single bacterial lineage,

  9. Enteral nutrition in the critically ill: myths and misconceptions. (United States)

    Marik, Paul E


    Nutritional support is an essential component of the management of critically ill and injured ICU patients. Optimal provision of calories and protein has been demonstrated to reduce morbidity, mortally, and length of ICU and hospital stay. Yet, a large proportion of ICU patients receive inadequate nutrition. To provide an evidence-base assessment of factors leading to inadequate enteral nutrition support in critically ill patients. Search of PubMed database and manual review of bibliographies from selected articles. A number of common myths and misconceptions appear to play a major role in limiting the provision of enteral nutrition in the critically ill. This article provides scientific data to debunk the most common myths and misconceptions related to enteral nutrition.

  10. [Enteral resection in the nursing rabbit (an experimental study)]. (United States)

    Villegas Alvarez, F; Cárdenas Orihuela, A; Vigueras Villaseñor, R M


    The response to enteral resection in human newborns and nursing babies depends on the site and magnitude of the resection: usually these patients have a satisfactory recovery although long term supportive measures are required in order to prevent nutritional and digestive complications. This study assessed the post-surgical response of six groups of nursing rabbits with 0, 40, 50, 60, 75 and 90% selective resection of the small intestine. A greater number of surgical complications was observed in those cases with more manipulation and greater resection. Villi hypertrophic was found at the distal extremes of the enteral remnants only with 40% jejunal resection and 75 and 90% jejunum-ileum resections. None of the groups showed growth interruption. Only in rabbits with resections greater than 60% a significant decrease in weight was found. Forty and sixty percent enteral resections, mainly proximal and distal respectively, did not yield weight or length deficits as compared with the control group.

  11. The aging colon: the role of enteric neurodegeneration in constipation. (United States)

    Wiskur, Brandt; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley


    Constipation is a common problem in the elderly, and abnormalities in the neural innervation of the colon play a significant role in abnormalities in colonic motility leading to delayed colonic transit. The scope of this review encompasses the latest advances to enhance our understanding of the aging colon with emphasis on enteric neurodegeneration, considered a likely cause for the development of constipation in the aging gut in animal models. Neural innervation of the colon and the effects of aging on intrinsic and extrinsic nerves innervating the colonic smooth muscle is discussed. Evidence supporting the concept that neurologic disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, not only affect the brain but also cause neurodegeneration within the enteric nervous system leading to colonic dysmotility is presented. Further research is needed to investigate the influence of aging on the gastrointestinal tract and to develop novel approaches to therapy directed at protecting the enteric nervous system from neurodegeneration.

  12. Functional Plasma-Deposited Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhaylo Pashechko


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the problem of low adhesion of plasma sprayed coatings to the substrate. The subsequent laser treatment modes and their influence on the coating-substrate interface were studied. This allows to decrease the level of metstability of the coating, thus decreasing its hardness down to 11-12 GPa on the surface and to about 9 GPa on depth of 400 µm. The redistribution of alloying elements through solid and liquid diffusion improves mechanical properties and rises the adhesion up to 450 MPa after remelting and up to 90-110 MPa after laser-aided thermal cycling. At he same time, remelting of coating helps to decrease its porosity down to 1%. Obtained complex of properties also allows to improve wear resistance of coatings and to decrease friction factor.

  13. Foundry Coating Technology: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat


    The importance of foundry coating in improving the surface quality of castings cannot be over emphasized. The appli-cation of mould and core washes creates a high thermal integrity barrier between the metal and the mould resulting in the reduction of the thermal shock experienced by the sand system....... These thermal shock leads to series of surface de-fects such as veining/finning, metal penetration, burn-on/in, scab, rat tail, erosion etc. The use of coatings reduces the tendency of occurrence of these defects. However, the understanding of the coating, its components, characteristics and mechanism of action...... is important. In this review, a detailed description of these topics and examples are provided where necessary. A potential area of research in foundry coating development, using sol-gel process is suggested. The application of sol-gel technology in the development of foundry coatings is a novel approach....

  14. Enteric Diseases of Poultry with Special Attention to Clostridium perfringens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez Mohamed Hafez


    Full Text Available The enteric heath of growing poultry is imperative to success of the production. The basic role of poultry production is turning feed stuffs into meat. Any changes in this turning process, due to mechanical, chemical or biological disturbance of digestive system (enteric disorders is mostly accompanied with high economic losses due to poor performance, increased mortality rates and increased medication costs. The severity of clinical signs and course of the disorders are influenced several factors such as management, nutrition and the involved agent(s. Several pathogens (viruses, bacteria and parasites are incriminated as possible cause of enteric disorders either alone (mono-causal, in synergy with other micro-organisms (multi-causal, or with non-infectious causes such as feed and /or management related factors. In addition, excessive levels of mycotoxins and biogenic amines in feed lead to enteric disorders. Also factors such as high stocking density, poor litter conditions, poor hygiene and high ammonia level and other stressful situation may reduce the resistance of the birds and increases their susceptibility to infections. Under field conditions, however, under filed conditions it is difficult to determine whether the true cause of enteric disorders, is of infectious or non-infectious origin. In recent years and since the ban of use of antimicrobial growth promoters in several countries the incidence of intestinal disorders especially those caused by clostridial infection was drastically increased. The present review described in general the several factors involved in enteric disorders and summarized the available literatures about Clostridium perfringens infection in poultry.

  15. Multilayer Microlaminated Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coating

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Charles


    .... Both thermal and mechanical characteristics of the coatings can be potentially optimized, and the coating will be more tolerant towards strain damage, have better thermal insulation and provide...

  16. Exposure to GDNF Enhances the Ability of Enteric Neural Progenitors to Generate an Enteric Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja J. McKeown


    Full Text Available Cell therapy is a promising approach to generate an enteric nervous system (ENS and treat enteric neuropathies. However, for translation to the clinic, it is highly likely that enteric neural progenitors will require manipulation prior to transplantation to enhance their ability to migrate and generate an ENS. In this study, we examine the effects of exposure to several factors on the ability of ENS progenitors, grown as enteric neurospheres, to migrate and generate an ENS. Exposure to glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF resulted in a 14-fold increase in neurosphere volume and a 12-fold increase in cell number. Following co-culture with embryonic gut or transplantation into the colon of postnatal mice in vivo, cells derived from GDNF-treated neurospheres showed a 2-fold increase in the distance migrated compared with controls. Our data show that the ability of enteric neurospheres to generate an ENS can be enhanced by exposure to appropriate factors.

  17. Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis after an outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis. (United States)

    Mori, Masahiro; Koga, Michiaki; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Hattori, Takamichi; Kuwabara, Satoshi


    Twenty-eight patients suffered Campylobacter jejuni enteritis after eating raw chicken. Among them, only one patient developed Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis, who carried anti-GQ1b IgG antibodies. In contrast, none of the others did the autoantibodies. C. jejuni was cultured from all stool samples from five patients with enteritis alone. All the isolates had the same genotype, cst-II (Asn51), which are characteristic of strains isolated from Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis. These findings suggest that host susceptibility may play a role in inducing the production of anti-ganglioside antibodies and the development of Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis.

  18. Enteric fever in India: current scenario and future directions. (United States)

    Divyashree, S; Nabarro, L E B; Veeraraghavan, B; Rupali, P


    Enteric fever is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical areas worldwide. The Indian subcontinent bears the brunt of the disease, both in terms of absolute case numbers and drug-resistant strains. Recent phylogenetic studies suggest that the multidrug-resistant clade H58 originated in India and subsequently expanded through Asia and Africa. In Africa, it caused unrecognised outbreaks in areas previously considered free of the disease. In this study, we discuss the current status of enteric fever in India, the factors preventing its control and its future directions in this rapidly developing nation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Coatings to prevent frost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusada, Ricardo; Holberg, Stefan; Bennedsen, Jeanette Marianne Dalgaard


    at temperatures just below 0°C, for example at −4°C, is low. Freezing of a single drop on aluminum leads, however, to instant freezing of the complete surface. On hydrophobic coatings, such a freezing drop is isolated; the frozen area grows slowly. At −4°C surface temperature in a +12°C/90% relative humidity...... environment, on surfaces providing a water contact angle hysteresis of about 10° and receding water contact angles higher than 90°, a rate for the growth of the average radius of the frozen area of about 2 µm/s was observed. Submitting the surface to an airflow of 1 m/s led to faster frost spreading in flow...

  20. Nature Inspired Surface Coatings (United States)

    Rubner, Michael


    Materials Scientists more and more are looking to nature for clues on how to create highly functional surface coatings with exceptional properties. The fog harvesting capabilities of the Namib Desert beetle, the beautiful iridescent colors of the hummingbird, and the super water repellant abilities of the Lotus leaf are but a few examples of the amazing properties developed over many years in the natural world. Nature also makes extensive use of the pH-dependent behavior of weak functional groups such as carboxylic acid and amine functional groups. This presentation will explore synthetic mimics to the nano- and microstructures responsible for these fascinating properties. For example, we have demonstrated a pH-induced porosity transition that can be used to create porous films with pore sizes that are tunable from the nanometer scale to the multiple micron scale. The pores of these films, either nano- or micropores, can be reversibly opened and closed by changes in solution pH. The ability to engineer pH-gated porosity transitions in heterostructured thin films has led to the demonstration of broadband anti-reflection coatings that mimic the anti-reflection properties of the moth eye and pH-tunable Bragg reflectors with a structure and function similar to that found in hummingbird wings and the Longhorn beetle. In addition, the highly textured honeycomb-like surfaces created by the formation of micron-scale pores are ideally suited for the creation of superhydrophobic surfaces that mimic the behavior of the self-cleaning lotus leaf. The development of synthetic "backbacks" on immune system cells that may one day ferry drugs to disease sites will also be discussed.

  1. Knowledge of Constituent Ingredients in Enteral Nutrition Formulas Can Make a Difference in Patient Response to Enteral Feeding. (United States)

    Savino, Patricia


    Enteral feeding is considered the preferred method for providing a complete or supplemental source of nutrition to patients. Enteral formulas (EFs) are traditionally assessed from general information provided by the manufacturer such as caloric density, percentage of macronutrients, and micronutrients to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Sometimes labeling information highlights particular ingredients to indicate specific properties at a metabolic or nutrition level. However, it is necessary to review the quality and composition of any enteral formula, since the basic components are responsible for tolerance and nutrition efficacy, and this should not be overshadowed by the benefit of a single constituent. Intolerance to EF is commonly attributed to individual patient response or to the means of administration. The objective of this review is to highlight the importance of appraising EFs with regard to composition and effect on the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Comparison of the EntericBio multiplex PCR system with routine culture for detection of bacterial enteric pathogens.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, James


    The EntericBio system uses a multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Escherichia coli O157 from feces. It combines overnight broth enrichment with PCR amplification and detection by hybridization. An evaluation of this system was conducted by comparing the results obtained with the system with those obtained by routine culture, supplemented with alternative PCR detection methods. In a study of 773 samples, routine culture and the EntericBio system yielded 94.6 and 92.4% negative results, respectively. Forty-two samples had positive results by culture, and all of these were positive with the EntericBio system. This system detected an additional 17 positive samples (Campylobacter spp., n = 12; Shigella spp., n = 1; E. coli O157, n = 4), but the results for 5 samples (Campylobacter spp., n = 2; Shigella spp., n = 1; E. coli O157, n = 2) could not be confirmed. The target for Shigella spp. detected by the EntericBio system is the ipaH gene, and the molecular indication of the presence of Shigella spp. was investigated by sequence analysis, which confirmed that the ipaH gene was present in a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from the patient. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 100%, 99.3%, 91.5%, and 100%, respectively. Turnaround times were significantly reduced with the EntericBio system, and a result was available between 24 and 32 h after receipt of the sample in the laboratory. In addition, the amount of laboratory waste was significantly reduced by use of this system. In summary, the EntericBio system proved convenient to use, more sensitive than the conventional culture used in this study, and highly specific; and it generated results significantly faster than routine culture for the pathogens tested.

  3. Avian Egg and Egg Coat. (United States)

    Okumura, Hiroki


    An ovulated egg of vertebrates is surrounded by unique extracellular matrix, the egg coat or zona pellucida, playing important roles in fertilization and early development. The vertebrate egg coat is composed of two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins that are characterized by the evolutionarily conserved ZP-domain module and classified into six subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses. Interestingly, investigations of biochemical and functional features of the ZP glycoproteins show that the roles of each ZP-glycoprotein family member in the egg-coat formation and the egg-sperm interactions seemingly vary across vertebrates. This might be one reason why comprehensive understandings of the molecular basis of either architecture or physiological functions of egg coat still remain elusive despite more than 3 decades of intensive investigations. In this chapter, an overview of avian egg focusing on the oogenesis are provided in the first section, and unique features of avian egg coat, i.e., perivitelline layer, including the morphology, biogenesis pathway, and physiological functions are discussed mainly on chicken and quail in terms of the characteristics of ZP glycoproteins in the following sections. In addition, these features of avian egg coat are compared to mammalian zona pellucida, from the viewpoint that the structural and functional varieties of ZP glycoproteins might be associated with the evolutionary adaptation to their reproductive strategies. By comparing the egg coat of birds and mammals whose reproductive strategies are largely different, new insights into the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate egg-sperm interactions might be provided.

  4. Enteral feeding practices in preterm infants in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Optimal feeding regimens in babies weighing <1 000 g have not been established, and wide variations occur. In South Africa. (SA) this situation is complicated by varied resource constraints. Objective. To determine the preterm enteral feeding practices of paediatricians in SA. Methods. We invited 288 ...

  5. Problems experienced by women re-entering the education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    centrating on the re-entry of women into the labour market and on the implications ... ers and students. Studies in the USA also concentrated on women's return to school following marriage and motherhood (Bradburn, 1995;. Fagan & Williams, 1991). ... entering women need to catch up on skills, knowledge and experience.

  6. Bacteriophages as enteric viral indicators in bivalve mollusc management. (United States)

    Hodgson, Kate R; Torok, Valeria A; Turnbull, Alison R


    Human enteric viruses, such as norovirus and hepatitis A virus, are spread by a variety of routes including faecal-oral transmission. Contaminated bivalve shellfish are regularly implicated in foodborne viral disease outbreaks internationally. Traditionally indicator bacteria, the coliforms and Escherichia coli, have been used to detect faecal pollution in growing waters and shellfish. However, studies have established that they are inadequate as indicators of the risk of human enteric viruses. Bacteriophages have been identified as potential indicators or surrogates for human enteric viruses due to their similarities in morphology, behaviour in water environments and resistance to disinfectant treatments. The somatic coliphages, male-specific RNA coliphages (FRNA coliphages) and the bacteriophages of Bacteroides are the groups recognised as most suitable for water and shellfish testing. In this review, we discuss the rationale and supporting evidence for the application of bacteriophages as surrogates for human enteric viruses in shellfish under a variety of conditions. There is some evidence to support the validity of using bacteriophage levels to indicate viral risk in shellfish in highly contaminated sites and following adverse sewage events. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enteric Pathogens and Coinfections in Foals with and without Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovane Olivo


    Full Text Available Diarrhea is a major clinical problem affecting foals up to 3 months of age. The aim of this study was to identify enteric microorganisms involved in monoinfections and coinfections and the associated virulence factors in healthy and diarrheic foals. Diarrheic (D (n=56 and nondiarrheic (ND foals (n=60 up to three months of age were studied. Fecal samples were analyzed for identification of infectious agents (microbiological culturing, molecular techniques, and microscopic analyses. Escherichia coli fimH (30% versus 25%, Salmonella spp. (25% versus 7%, Strongyloides westeri (25% versus 25%, Clostridium perfringens type A (21% versus 10%, E. coli ag43 (20% versus 35%, Strongylus (11% versus 18%, and vapA-positive Rhodococcus equi (5% versus 2% were the most frequent enteric pathogens detected in D and ND foals, respectively. The frequency of toxin A-positive C. perfringens was significantly increased in the D (p=0.033 compared with the ND animals. R. equi strains harboring virulent plasmids were also identified (VapA 85-kb type I and VapA 87-kb type I in D and ND foals. Coinfections were observed in 46% of the D and 33% of the ND foals. Our results demonstrate the great diversity of enteric pathogens, virulence factors, and coinfections involved in enteric infections of foals.

  8. Clostridium perfringens, necrotic enteritis and its vaccination in broiler chickens (United States)

    Clostridium perfringens type A strains are the main etiological factors for necrotic enteritis (NE), one of the economically important gastrointestinal diseases in poultry responsible for the annual loss of 2 billion dollars in US poultry industry. NE has gained worldwide importance during the last...

  9. Formation and malformation of the enteric nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.C. Meijers (Johan)


    textabstractTo clarify pathogenetic mechanisms of congenital malformations of the ENS, the formation of the ENS was investigated in chicken and murine embryos. The experimental work was concentrated on several aspects of the interaction between neural crest cells and the enteric microenvironment.

  10. Enteral or parenteral nimodipine treatment: a comparative pharmacokinetic study. (United States)

    Scheller, Christian; Wienke, Andreas; Wurm, Franziska; Vogel, Anne-Sophie; Simmermacher, Sebastian; Prell, Julian; Rachinger, Jens; Koman, Gershom; Strauss, Christian; Scheller, Konstanze


    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS/OBJECT: Oral nimodipine is recommended to reduce poor outcome related to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In addition, animal experiments and clinical trails revealed a beneficial effect of enteral and parenteral nimodipine for the regeneration of cranial nerves following skull base, laryngeal, and maxillofacial surgery. Despite these findings there is a lack of pharmacokinetic data in the literature, especially concerning its distribution in nerve tissue. Samples were taken from a consecutive series of 57 patients suffering from skull base lesions and treated with nimodipine prophylaxis from the day before surgery until the seventh postoperative day. Both groups received standard dosages for enteral (n = 25) and parenteral (n = 32) nimodipine . Nimodipine levels were measured in serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and tissue samples, including vestibular nerves. Nimodipine levels were significantly higher following parenteral as compared with enteral administration for intraoperative serum (p nimodipine was significantly more frequently detected in nerve tissue following parenteral administration (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.015). From a pharmacokinetic point of view, parenteral nimodipine medication leads to higher levels in serum and CSF. Furthermore, traces are more frequently found in nerve tissue following parenteral as compared with enteral nimodipine administration, at least in the early course. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Bacteriophages as indicators of faecal pollution and enteric virus removal (United States)

    Bacteriophages are an attractive alternative to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), particularly as surrogates of enteric virus fate and transport due to their closer morphological and biological properties compared to FIB. Based on a meta-analysis of published data, we summarize con...

  12. Enteric defensins are essential regulators of intestinal microbial ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salzman, Nita H.; Hung, Kuiechun; Haribhai, Dipica; Chu, Hiutung; Karlsson-Sjoeberg, Jenny; Amir, Elad; Teggatz, Paul; Barman, Melissa; Hayward, Michael; Eastwood, Daniel; Stoel, Maaike; Zhou, Yanjiao; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Bevins, Charles L.; Williams, Calvin B.; Bos, Nicolaas A.

    Antimicrobial peptides are important effectors of innate immunity throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. In the mammalian small intestine, Paneth cell alpha-defensins are antimicrobial peptides that contribute to host defense against enteric pathogens. To determine if alpha-defensins also govern

  13. Mobility of Tylosin and Enteric Bacteria in Soil Columns (United States)

    To maximize production, producers regularly use antibiotics as supplements in animal feed and water to increase weight gain and prevent diseases among their livestock, which may result in nonpoint source pollution of ground or surface waters. This study examined the leaching of the enteric bacteria ...

  14. Environmental enteric dysfunction and the fecal microbiota in Malawian children (United States)

    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is often measured with a dual sugar absorption test and implicated as a causative factor in childhood stunting. Disturbances in the gut microbiota are hypothesized to be a mechanism by which EED is exacerbated, although this supposition lacks support. We perfo...

  15. Early enteral nutrition compared to outcome in critically ill trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 1, 2014 ... Original Research: Early enteral nutrition compared to outcome in critically ill trauma patients at a level one trauma centre. 2015;28(2). S Afr J Clin Nutr. Löfgren E, MD, Medical Student, Research toward MD degree, Clintec, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Mabesa T, RD(SA), Senior Dietitian, ...

  16. Emerging antibiotic resistant enteric bacterial flora among food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotic in food animals is an emerging public health concern as a result of increasing multi-resistant bacteria found in Abeokuta. Therefore, occurrence rate and resistant profile of the emerging enteric pathogens were determined in food animals in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Fecal and rectal samples of 82 ...


    Escortell Sánchez, Raquel; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel


    to identify what effect causes enteral nutrition on nutritional status of cancer. a search was performed using the keywords "Cancer" AND "Enteral Nutrition" AND "Supplementation" in four document databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, ProQuest, and Web of Science. age of the sample, major than 18 years; submitted to surgery for cancer; that the intervention program was including diet and employment or not of nutritional Supplementation; clinical trials published between January 2004 and December 2014, in scientific journals indexed. we analyzed 660 articles, of which only 2% has been included. 58% of intervention programs are applied outside Spain; 84% of the interventions was carried out in a hospitable ambient; 58% of the sample is formed by adults older than 54 years; 33% of the interventions were multidisciplinary and its duration ranges between 1 and 4 years. we found just a few national interventions in cancer participants and there two types of interventions: by exclusive polymeric enteral formula or mixed with immunonutrition. enteral nutrition shows against the parenteral and its introduction at an early stage, it helps to improve nutritional status of the patient; polymeric formulas next immunonutrition, it helps to reduce the time of hospitalization; the analytical parameters are shown as a measurement pattern when assessing the improvement in nutritional status in cancer. It is recommended to increase the research in this field, especially in children. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Barriers and strategies for innovations entering BoP markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, L.M.; Ortt, J.R.; Harahap, B.


    Companies that bring a new product to the market or enter a new market with an existing product, come across a number of barriers that prevent large?scale diffusion. In order to circumvent or remove these barriers, they can adopt alternative strategies. This paper looks into these barriers and

  19. Malnutrition and enteric parasitoses among under-five children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fewer proportion 1.9%, 1.0%, and 1.0%, harbored Strongloides stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni, and Entrobius vermicularis, respectively. There was no statistically meaningful association between age group specific prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of enteric infections. The results from this study indicate ...

  20. Eosinophilic enteritis – A diagnostic dilemma | Clegg-Lamptey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eosinophilic enteritis is a rare condition of unknown aetiology, although it is generally believed to be due to intestinal allergy. It may mimic peptic ulcer, subacute (or chronic) intestinal obstruction, gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. The diagnosis is often difficult to make and most ...

  1. Comparison of Spatial Skills of Students Entering Different Engineering Majors (United States)

    Veurink, N.; Sorby, S. A.


    Spatial skills have been shown to be important to success in an engineering curriculum, and some question if poor spatial skills prevent students from entering STEM fields or if students with weak spatial skills avoid engineering disciplines believed to highly spatially-oriented. Veurink and Hamlin (2011) found that freshmen students entering…

  2. The Enteric Nervous System In The Goat: Regional Morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regional differences, submucosal and intramucosal organization of ganglia in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of large mammals are not yet clear. The ENS of eight adult goats was studied by S-100 protein, neurofilament proteins, and substance P immunohistochemistry. Numerical density was used to establish ...

  3. Influence of enteric bacteria and parasite infection and nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children's stool, weights, ages and information on socioeconomic, feeding, water and sanitation factors were obtained. Stool samples were analysed for Escherichia coli O157, Shigella dysentriae, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella species and enteric parasites. Logistic regression was used to identify their association with ...

  4. Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting with eosinophilic enteritis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalany Mohammad


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multisystem disorder that may present with various symptoms. It may involve the gastrointestinal tract in a variety of ways; some of the most well-known ones are transaminitis, lupus mesenteric vasculitis, lupus enteritis and mesenteric vascular leakage. We describe a case of a patient with SLE who presented with a five-month history of diarrhea caused by eosinophilic enteritis. To the best of our knowledge, there are few cases reported in the literature of patients with SLE who initially present with chronic diarrhea due to eosinophilic enteritis. Case presentation A 38-year-old Persian Iranian woman was admitted with a five-month history of diarrhea and abdominal pain. A physical examination showed nothing abnormal. Initially, she had only lymphopenia and mild eosinophilia. No autoimmune or infectious etiology was detected to justify these abnormalities. A thorough evaluation was not helpful in finding the etiology, until she developed a scalp lesion similar to discoid lupus erythematosus. Computed tomography showed small bowel wall thickening. Briefly, she manifested full-blown SLE, and it was revealed that the diarrhea was caused by eosinophilic enteritis. Conclusion Considering SLE in a patient who presents with chronic diarrhea and lymphopenia may be helpful in earlier diagnosis and therapy. This is an original case report of interest to physicians who practice internal medicine, family medicine and gastroenterology.

  5. Screening and Evaluating Abused and Neglected Children Entering Protective Custody. (United States)

    Urquiza, Anthony J.; And Others


    Describes the Screening and Evaluation Project (SEP), a longitudinal study examining the range of problems in 167 children entering protective custody in Sacramento, California, for reasons of abuse or neglect. Found that 68% of the children were at risk according to one or more of the four standardized assessment instruments that measured…

  6. Complications relating to enteral and parenteral nutrition in trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 1, 2014 ... Nutritional support is an essential component for improved outcome.8,11,12. Early enteral nutrition has been defined by the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) as feeding initiated within the first 24-48 hours of admission to the ICU,8 and in meta- analyses has been shown to ...

  7. Plasticity and Neural Stem Cells in the Enteric Nervous System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, Karl-Herbert; Van Ginneken, Chris; Copray, Sjef


    The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a highly organized part of the autonomic nervous system, which innervates the whole gastrointestinal tract by several interconnected neuronal networks. The ENS changes during development and keeps throughout its lifespan a significant capacity to adapt to

  8. effects of enteral glutamine supplementation on reduction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 91 No. 1 January 2014. EFFECTS OF ENTERAL GLUTAMINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON REDUCTION OF INFECTION IN ADULT PATIENTS. WITH SEVERE BURNS. D.K. Kibor, MBChB, MMed, Chuka District, Hospital, P. O. Box 8, Chuka, O.E. Nyaim, MBChB, MMed, Senior Lecturer,.

  9. Effects of Enteral Glutamine Supplementation on Reduction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the effect of enteral glutamine in reducing the incidence of post burn infections in patients with severe burns. Design: A double blind randomised clinical trial. Setting: Burns unit and ward 4D of Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Subjects: Sixty patients with severe burns who were randomised to two ...

  10. Health, Social Participation and Entering Paid Employment among Unemployed Persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Carlier (Bouwine)


    markdownabstractUnemployed persons have poorer health compared to employed persons. Also, persons with a poor health are less likely to enter the workforce than healthy persons. So, more insight is needed in determinants of re-employment and effective re-employment programs for unemployed persons

  11. Document of standardization of enteral nutrition access in adults. (United States)

    Arribas, Lorena; Frías, Laura; Creus, Gloria; Parejo, Juana; Urzola, Carmen; Ashbaugh, Rosana; Pérez-Portabella, Cleofé; Cuerda, Cristina


    The group of standardization and protocols of the Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SENPE) published in 2011 a consensus document SENPE/SEGHNP/ANECIPN/SECP on enteral access for paediatric nutritional support. Along the lines of this document, we have developed another document on adult patients to homogenize the clinical practice and improve the quality of care in enteral access in this age group. The working group included health professionals (nurses, dietitians and doctor) with extensive experience in enteral nutrition and access. We tried to find scientific evidence through a literature review and we used the criteria of the Agency for Health-care Research and Quality (AHRQ) to classify the evidence (Grade of Recommendation A, B or C). Later the document was reviewed by external experts to the group and requested the endorsement of the Scientific and Educational Committee (CCE) and the group of home artificial nutrition (NADYA) of the SENPE. The full text will be published as a monograph number in this journal. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Necrotizing hepatitis associated with enteric salmonellosis in an alpaca (United States)


    Abstract Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from the feces of an alpaca suffering anorexia and weight loss. Multifocal necrotizing and suppurative hepatitis consistent with bacterial infection was found in the liver biopsies. Enteric salmonellosis may be associated with milder physical and clinicopathological changes in camelids than in other large animal species. PMID:15144106

  13. Enteral nutrition and cardiovascular failure: from myths to clinical practice. (United States)

    Berger, Mette M; Chiolero, René L


    Cardiovascular failure and low flow states may arise in very different conditions from both cardiac and noncardiac causes. Systemic hemodynamic failure inevitably alters splanchnic blood flow but in an unpredictable way. Prolonged low splanchnic blood flow causes intestinal ischemia, increased mucosal permeability, endotoxemia, and distant organ failure. Mortality associated with intestinal ischemia is high. Why would enteral nutrition (EN) be desirable in these complex patients when parenteral nutrition could easily cover energy and substrate requirements? Metabolic, immune, and practical reasons justify the use of EN. In addition, continuous enteral feeding minimizes systemic and myocardial oxygen consumption in patients with congestive heart failure. Further, early feeding in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients has been shown to reduce mortality, particularly in the sickest patients. In a series of cardiac surgery patients with compromised hemodynamics, absorption has been maintained, and 1000-1200 kcal/d could be delivered by enteral feeding. Therefore, early EN in stabilized patients should be attempted, and can be carried out safely under close clinical monitoring, looking for signs of incipient intestinal ischemia. Energy delivery and balance should be monitored, and combined feeding considered when enteral feeds cannot be advanced to target within 4-6 days.

  14. Distribution pattern of enteric organisms in the Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wide range of organisms was encountered in the 24 sampled sites of the Lagos Lagoon. The enteric gram-negative shortrods, Lactose fermenting organisms such as Klebsiella spp, Enterobacter spp and Escherichia coli were prevalent in most of the Lagoon sites studied. The in vitro antibiotic sensitivity profile of the ...

  15. Helping Students Enter the Health Professions in Arizona. (United States)

    Hernandez, Aleena; Parker, Myra; Lewis, John; Roubideaux, Yvette


    The University of Arizona and the Inter Tribal Council of Arizona collaborate on a program to increase the number of American Indian students who enter the health professions and eventually serve communities in Arizona. The council conducts outreach, needs assessments, and health career forums. The university provides students with counseling;…

  16. Mentors for Women Entering Administration: A Program That Works. (United States)

    Luebkemann, Heinz; Clemens, Jacqueline


    Describes a Florida State University study of six women principals to determine specific influences in their emerging development as successful leaders. Although women can advance without mentors, having mentors can definitely advance the timetable for entering the administrative ranks. Since mentoring efforts are not always successful, careful…

  17. Can wheat bran mitigate malnutrition and enteric pathogens? (United States)

    Child malnutrition is a complex global problem, of which lack of food is only one component. Enteric pathogens and malnutrition work in a cyclic manner to depress a child’s intestinal immunity, while decreasing nutrient absorption. This cycle leads to stunting, wasting, and death. Often malnourished...

  18. Jaarlijkse reunie loopt uit op een gastro-enteritis explosie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carsauw HHC; Bosman A; Reintjes R; de Wit MAS; Conyn-van Spaendonck MAE; CIE; GGD Rotterdam e.o.


    Een explosie van acute gastro-enteritis deed zich voor onder 200 deelnemers aan een reunie van oud-personeelsleden. De reunie vond plaats in een restaurant. Om de oorzaak van de explosie en de mogelijke rol van voedsel hierbij te achterhalen werd een retrospectieve cohort studie opgezet.

  19. Problems experienced by women re-entering the education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problems experienced by women re-entering the education profession in South Africa were focused on. A review of the literature revealed that problems are experienced at five different levels: within the women themselves, in their work situation, at management level, within their career, and within society.

  20. Typhoid Enteric Perforation in Children in Calabar, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Typhoid enteric perforation, a severely debilitating illness with a high mortality rate in children was studied in Calabar. The aim of the study was to determine the role that ingestion of herbal preparations, laxatives and enemas has on perforation and whether there is a relationship between the observed perforation and its ...

  1. Problems experienced by women re-entering the education profession

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    women educators to combine work and family responsibilities more successfully. ... re-entering women to combine family and workplace responsibilities. ..... Burnout in female educators. South African Journal of Education, 19:192-197. Van der Westhuizen PC 1999. Educational management tasks. In: Van der. Westhuizen ...

  2. The van Hiele levels of understanding of students entering senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was an attempt to measure the Van Hiele levels of geometric thought attained by SHS 1 students on entering Senior High School in Ghana. In all, 188 SHS Form 1 students from two schools were involved in this study. These students were given the Van Hiele Geometry Test adapted from the 'Cognitive ...

  3. Regional enteritis and gluten-free diet. A clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merwe, Christiaan Frederik van der


    The purpose of this clinical study was to determine whether the use of a gluten-free diet influenced the course and prognosis of regional enteritis. Following a few clinical communications in the Dutch medical literature reporting favourable results obtained with the gluten-free diet in the

  4. Defining travel-associated cases of enteric fever. (United States)

    Freedman, Joanne; Lighton, Lorraine; Jones, Jane


    There is no internationally recognized case-definition for travel-associated enteric fever in non-endemic countries. This study describes the patterns of case reporting between 2007 and 2011 as travel-associated or not from the surveillance data in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (EWNI), before and after a change in the time component of the case-definition in January 2011. It examines in particular the role of a time frame based on the reported typical incubation period in defining a case of travel-associated enteric fever. The results showed no significant differences in the distribution of cases of enteric fever in regards to the interval between the onset and UK arrival in 2011 compared to 2007-2010 (p=0.98 for typhoid and paratyphoid A); the distribution for paratyphoid B was also similar in both time periods. During 2007-2010, 93% (1730/1853) of all of the cases were classified as travel-associated compared to 94% (448/477) in 2011. This difference was not statistically significant. Changing the time component of the definition of travel-associated enteric fever did not make a significant difference to the proportion of travel-associated cases reported by investigators. Our analysis suggests that time might be subordinate to other considerations when investigators classify a case as travel-associated. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Case Study: Enteral formula: Selecting the right formula for your ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We provide a brief summary of all enteral formulae in terms of unique features and recommendations for use. Practical application .... Be cautious of the high fibre and fat content of the products in patients with gastroparesis. Low sodium. • Polymeric formulae with reduced sodium content. • For use in patients with persistent ...

  6. Validation of the use of POSSUM score in enteric perforation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The objective of the study was to present our last 5-years experience of peritonitis and validate POSSUM score in predicting mortality and morbidity in patients of enteric perforation (EP) peritonitis. Methods: Data was collected prospectively for all peritonitis cases admitted in single surgical unit from January ...

  7. Nurses' Competency and Challenges in Enteral feeding in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tube feeding using intermittent regimen; where feed is given and stopped at regular intervals, is the standard method used. .... between level of nursing training and knowledge. Results. Demographic Characteristics of ... had never had in-service training in enteral feeding. Examination of sources of knowledge revealed that.

  8. The measurement and reduction of urban litter entering stormwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It proposes preliminary guidelines for the reduction of urban litter loads entering the drainage system by dealing with litter pollution at its source. Keywords: Litter management, Stormwater drainage systems, Water quality management, Source controls, Reduction of urban litter, Solid waste pollution control WaterSA ...

  9. Practical theology '[ re ]entering vernacular culture?' New frontiers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article critically discusses the necessity for (practical) theology to transform. Taking as a point of departure church historian Andrew Walls' remark: 'Christian faith must go on being translated, must continuously enter into the vernacular culture and interact with it, or it withers and fades', examples from ministry are ...

  10. Overconfidence of Vocational Education Students When Entering Higher Education (United States)

    Bowden, Mark P.; Abhayawansa, Subhash; Bahtsevanoglou, John


    Purpose: There is evidence that students who attend Technical and Further Education (TAFE) prior to entering higher education underperform in their first year of study. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of self-efficacy in understanding the performance of students who completed TAFE in the previous year in a first year subject of…

  11. Etiology of soybean-induced enteritis in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urán Carmona, P.A.


    The inclusion of soybean meal (SBM), especially in the diet of Atlantic salmon, induces an inflammatory response of the distal intestinal mucosa, known as SBM-induced enteritis. A semi-quantitative scoring system was developed to assess the extent of the morphological changes observed in this study.

  12. Nonconsensual Sexual Experiences and Alcohol Consumption among Women Entering College (United States)

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Kolars, Candace L. Kurth; Krahn, Dean D.; Gomberg, Edith S. Lisansky; Clark, Ginna; Niehaus, Ashley


    The authors investigated the relationship between precollege nonconsensual sexual experiences (NSEs) and drinking among women entering college. College women (N = 797) at a midwestern university participated. Eighteen percent reported one or more NSE prior to arriving at college. Having a precollege NSE was associated with recent drinking, binge…

  13. Integrated Glass Coating Manufacturing Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor [Enki Technology Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)


    This project aims to enable US module manufacturers to coat glass with Enki’s state of the art tunable functionalized AR coatings at the lowest possible cost and highest possible performance by encapsulating Enki’s coating process in an integrated tool that facilitates effective process improvement through metrology and data analysis for greater quality and performance while reducing footprint, operating and capital costs. The Phase 1 objective was a fully designed manufacturing line, including fully specified equipment ready for issue of purchase requisitions; a detailed economic justification based on market prices at the end of Phase 1 and projected manufacturing costs and a detailed deployment plan for the equipment.

  14. Laser-based coatings removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A. [F2 Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D&D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building. This report describes the use of pulse-repetetion laser systems for the removal of paints and coatings.

  15. In Vitro Evaluation of Eslicarbazepine Delivery via Enteral Feeding Tubes. (United States)

    Reindel, Kristin; Zhao, Fang; Hughes, Susan; Dave, Vivek S


    Purpose: The feasibility of preparing an eslicarbazepine acetate suspension using Aptiom tablets for administration via enteral feeding tubes was evaluated. Methods: Eslicarbazepine acetate suspension (40 mg/mL) was prepared using Aptiom tablets after optimizing the tablet crushing methods and the vehicle composition. A stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to monitor the eslicarbazepine stability in the prepared suspension. Three enteric feeding tubes of various composition and dimensions were evaluated for the delivery of the suspensions. The suspension was evaluated for the physical and chemical stability for 48 hours. Results: The reproducibility and consistency of particle size reduction was found to be best with standard mortar/pestle. The viscosity analysis and physical stability studies showed that ORA-Plus:water (50:50 v/v) was optimal for suspending ability and flowability of suspension through the tubes. The developed HPLC method was found to be stability indicating and suitable for the assay of eslicarbazepine acetate in the prepared suspension. The eslicarbazepine concentrations in separately prepared suspensions were within acceptable range (±3%), indicating accuracy and reproducibility of the procedure. The eslicarbazepine concentrations in suspensions before and after delivery through the enteric feeding tubes were within acceptable range (±4%), indicating absence of any physical/chemical interactions of eslicarbazepine with the tubes and a successful delivery of eslicarbazepine dosage via enteric feeding tubes. The stability study results showed that eslicarbazepine concentration in the suspension remained unchanged when stored at room temperature for 48 hours. Conclusion: The study presents a convenient procedure for the preparation of a stable suspension of eslicarbazepine acetate (40 mg/mL) using Aptiom tablets, for administration via enteral feeding tubes.

  16. East London experience with enteric fever 2007-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Dave

    Full Text Available The clinical presentation and epidemiology for patients with enteric fever at two hospitals in East London during 2007-2012 is described with the aim to identify preventive opportunities and to reduce the cost of treatment.A retrospective analysis of case notes from patients admitted with enteric fever during 2007 to 2012 with a microbiologically confirmed diagnosis was undertaken. Details on clinical presentation, travel history, demographic data, laboratory parameters, treatment, patient outcome and vaccination status were collected.Clinical case notes were available for 98/129 (76% patients including 69 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi and 29 Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi. Thirty-four patients (35% were discharged from emergency medicine without a diagnosis of enteric fever and then readmitted after positive blood cultures. Seventy-one of the 98 patients (72% were UK residents who had travelled abroad, 23 (23% were foreign visitors/new entrants to the UK and four (4% had not travelled abroad. Enteric fever was not considered in the initial differential diagnosis for 48/98 (49% cases. The median length of hospital stay was 7 days (range 0-57 days. The total cost of bed days for managing enteric fever was £454,000 in the two hospitals (mean £75,666/year. Median time to clinical resolution was five days (range 1-20. Seven of 98 (7% patients were readmitted with relapsed or continued infection. Six of the 71 (8% patients had received typhoid vaccination, 34 (48% patients had not received vaccination, and for 31 cases (44% vaccination status was unknown.Further interventions regarding education and vaccination of travellers and recognition of the condition by emergency medicine clinicians in travellers to South Asia is required.


    Willard, Devina L; Young, Lorraine S; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N


    Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, and iodine deficiency may result in thyroid disorders including goiter and hypothyroidism. Patients on long-term enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN) may be at risk for micronutrient deficiencies. The recommended daily allowance for iodine intake is 150 μg for nonpregnant adults. However, there is no current consensus among scientific societies regarding the quantity of iodine to be added in adult EN and PN formulations. The objective of this study was to determine the iodine content of U.S. adult enteral and parenteral nutrition solutions. This study also aimed to determine whether adult patients in the United States who are receiving long-term artificial nutrition may be at risk for iodine deficiency. Ten enteral nutrition solutions and 4 parenteral nutrition solutions were evaluated. The iodine contents of these solutions were measured spectrophotometrically and compared to the labeled contents. Measured and labeled EN iodine contents were similar (range 131-176 μg/L and 106-160 μg/L, respectively). In contrast, PN formulas were found to contain small, unlabeled amounts of iodine, averaging 27 μg/L. Typical fluid requirements are 30 to 40 mL/kg/day for adults receiving either total EN (TEN) or total PN (TPN). Adults on long-term TEN likely consume enough servings to meet their daily iodine requirements. However, patients on long-term TPN would require on average 5.6 L PN/day to meet the recommended daily allowance of iodine. This volume of PN is far in excess of typical consumption. Thus, U.S. patients requiring long-term TPN may be at risk for iodine deficiency. EN = enteral nutrition; PN = parenteral nutrition; TEN = total enteral nutrition; TPN = total parenteral nutrition; UIC = urinary iodine concentration.

  18. Hyaluronate coating enhances the delivery and biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles. (United States)

    Karakocak, Bedia Begum; Liang, Jue; Biswas, Pratim; Ravi, Nathan


    For targeted delivery with nanoparticles (NPs) as drug carriers, it is imperative that the NPs are internalized into the targeted cell. Surface properties of NPs influence their interactions with cells. We examined the responses of retinal pigment epithelial cells, NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells, and Chinese hamster ovary cells to gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in their nascent form as well as coated with end-thiolated hyaluronate (HS-HA). The grafting density of HS-HA on Au NPs was calculated based on total organic carbon measurements and thermal gravimetric analysis. We imaged the intracellular NPs by 3D confocal microscopy. We quantified viability and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of the cells to Au NPs and monitored cell-surface attachment via electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing. The results confirmed that receptors on cell surfaces, for HA, are critical in internalizing HS-HA-Au NPs, and HA may mitigate ROS pathways known to lead to cell death. The 50- and 100-nm HS-HA-Au NPs were able to enter the cells; however, their nascent forms could not. This study shows that the delivery of larger Au NPs is enhanced with HS-HA coating and illustrates the potential of HA-coated NPs as a drug delivery agent for inflamed, proliferating, and cancer cells that express CD44 receptors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Rapid diagnostic tests for typhoid and paratyphoid (enteric) fever (United States)

    Wijedoru, Lalith; Mallett, Sue; Parry, Christopher M


    Background Differentiating both typhoid (Salmonella Typhi) and paratyphoid (Salmonella Paratyphi A) infection from other causes of fever in endemic areas is a diagnostic challenge. Although commercial point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for enteric fever are available as alternatives to the current reference standard test of blood or bone marrow culture, or to the widely used Widal Test, their diagnostic accuracy is unclear. If accurate, they could potentially replace blood culture as the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended main diagnostic test for enteric fever. Objectives To assess the diagnostic accuracy of commercially available rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and prototypes for detecting Salmonella Typhi or Paratyphi A infection in symptomatic persons living in endemic areas. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index, IndMED, African Index Medicus, LILACS,, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) up to 4 March 2016. We manually searched WHO reports, and papers from international conferences on Salmonella infections. We also contacted test manufacturers to identify studies. Selection criteria We included diagnostic accuracy studies of enteric fever RDTs in patients with fever or with symptoms suggestive of enteric fever living in endemic areas. We classified the reference standard used as either Grade 1 (result from a blood culture and a bone marrow culture) or Grade 2 (result from blood culture and blood polymerase chain reaction, or from blood culture alone). Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted the test result data. We used a modified QUADAS-2 extraction form to assess methodological quality. We performed a meta-analysis when there were sufficient studies for the test and heterogeneity was reasonable. Main results Thirty-seven studies met the inclusion

  20. Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Overview (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt


    The overall objective of the Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics project is to evaluate and test pretreatment coating systems not containing hexavalent chrome in avionics and electronics housing applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing strong performing coating systems from prior NASA and DoD testing or new coating systems as determined by the stakeholders.

  1. Dos casos de Enteritis con bacteriemia por Campylobacter jejuni Two cases of enteritis with bacteremia due to Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Borda


    Full Text Available Campylobacter es un importante agente causante de enfermedad en el ser humano en nuestro medio. Los casos de bacteriemia ocurren principalmente en pacientes inmunosuprimidos y son debidos frecuentemente a C. fetus. Sin embargo la bacteriemia es un episodio que también se ha observado en pacientes con enteritis por C. jejuni. Referimos dos pacientes con enteritis grave y bacteriemia, ambos con enfermedades concomitantes compatibles con inmunodepresión: uno con síndrome nefrótico de larga data y otro con hepatopatía crónica con cirrosis. Destacamos que los dos casos presentaron hematemesis y uno de ellos, enterorragia. Sugerimos prestar atención a la coloración de Gram durante el subcultivo de los caldos con hemocultivos, en busca de formas características de esta especie, y en ese caso emplear medios de cultivo en microaerofilia a 37 y 42 °C.Campylobacter is an important agent of illness in human beings. Bacteremia occurs principally in the immunocompromissed host and is frequently due to C. fetus. Nevertheless bacteremia also has been observed in patients with enteritis due to C. jejuni. We refer two cases of patients with severe enteritis and bacteremia, both of them with immunosupressive concomitant diseases such as nephrotic syndrome and chronic cirrotic hepatopathy. Both patients presented hemathemesis.

  2. Epidemiology of Enteric Disease in C-EnterNet’s Pilot Site – Waterloo Region, Ontario, 1990 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A Keegan


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to describe the epidemiology of reportable enteric illness in Ontario’s Waterloo region, including comparing calculated incidence rates with published rates, and adjusting for under-reporting to determine the number of community cases, where published data were available.

  3. Estimation of efficiency of hydrotransport pipelines polyurethane coating application in comparison with steel pipelines (United States)

    Aleksandrov, V. I.; Vasilyeva, M. A.; Pomeranets, I. B.


    The paper presents analytical calculations of specific pressure loss in hydraulic transport of the Kachkanarsky GOK iron ore processing tailing slurry. The calculations are based on the results of the experimental studies on specific pressure loss dependence upon hydraulic roughness of pipelines internal surface lined with polyurethane coating. The experiments proved that hydraulic roughness of polyurethane coating is by the factor of four smaller than that of steel pipelines, resulting in a decrease of hydraulic resistance coefficients entered into calculating formula of specific pressure loss - the Darcy-Weisbach formula. Relative and equivalent roughness coefficients are calculated for pipelines with polyurethane coating and without it. Comparative calculations show that hydrotransport pipelines polyurethane coating application is conductive to a specific energy consumption decrease in hydraulic transport of the Kachkanarsky GOC iron ore processing tailings slurry by the factor of 1.5. The experiments were performed on a laboratory hydraulic test rig with a view to estimate the character and rate of physical roughness change in pipe samples with polyurethane coating. The experiments showed that during the following 484 hours of operation, roughness changed in all pipe samples inappreciably. As a result of processing of the experimental data by the mathematical statistics methods, an empirical formula was obtained for the calculation of operating roughness of polyurethane coating surface, depending on the pipeline operating duration with iron ore processing tailings slurry.

  4. Differential scanning calorimetry and surface morphology studies on coated pellets using aqueous dispersions. (United States)

    Nisar-ur-Rahman; K H, Yuen; Jia Woei, Wong; Khan, Nurzalina A k


    The present study was conducted to examine the physicochemical changes during passage of drug through polymeric membranes and observe the surface morphology features of the coated pellets using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Drug solution was first sprayed around inert pellets to form drug-layered pellets that were coated with two commercial aqueous dispersions namely, Eudragit NE30 and Kollicoat SR30 using bottom-spray fluidized bed technique. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed that no interactions existed between drug and polymers. Small peak of drug was observed in the DSC thermograms of Eudragit NE30 coated pellets indicating that small amount of drug was still present in the polymeric membrane after dissolution. Views of SEM revealed as the coating levels of two types of aqueous dispersions were increased the surface of the pellets become more uniform and compact. Therefore, the diffusion length for dissolution medium to enter the drug layer and dissolved drug to diffuse out would be increased at higher coating levels. The polymer surface of coated pellets after 12 hours dissolution testing seemed to be shrunk and size of the pellets were also reduced indicating the depletion of reservoir layer.

  5. Protective coatings for commercial particulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindl, B.; Teng, Y.H.; Liu, Y.L.


    SiC/Al composites are in large-scale production with Al-Si alloy matrices. The same composites with pure Al or low Si matrices need diffusion barriers on the SiC reinforcement to control the interfacial reaction. The present paper describes various approaches taken to obtain protective coatings...... of alumina and zirconia on SiC particulates by sol-gel techniques. Aqueous and organic precursors have been used. The extent of the reaction, i.e., the Si and Al4C3 content in the matrix, was determined by differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The reaction rates of some coated particulates...... in liquid Al are decreased by as much as one order of magnitude during the first 15 min of immersion. Pretreatments of the SiC surface, the composition and thickness of the coating interphase and heat treatments of the coated materials have been studied, and are discussed in relation to their effect...

  6. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses (United States)

    Herrera, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil-Albarova, Jorge; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Gabarre, Sergio; Más, Yolanda


    More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA), calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality. PMID:25802848

  7. Smart Coatings for Corrosion Protection (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Li, Wendy; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.


    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. It is essential to detect corrosion when it occurs, and preferably at its early stage, so that action can be taken to avoid structural damage or loss of function. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it.

  8. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Herrera


    Full Text Available More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA, calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality.

  9. Positron studies of polymeric coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean, Y.C. E-mail:; Mallon, P.E.; Zhang, R.; Chen Hongmin; Li Ying; Zhang Junjie; Wu, Y.C.; Sandreczki, T.C.; Suzuki, R.; Ohdaira, T.; Gu, X.; Nguyen, T


    In complicated coating systems, positrons have shown sensitivity in detecting the early stage of deterioration due to weathering, specially, in probing a specific location or depth of coatings from the surface through interfaces and the bulk. Existing extensive experimental positron data show that positron annihilation signals respond quantitatively to the deterioration process due to weathering. Now it is possible to detect the very early stage of coating deterioration at the atomic and molecular scale by using positrons, typically in days as compared to years by conventional methods. This paper summarizes recent positron studies in polymeric coatings. Correlations between positron data and a variety of chemical, physical and engineering data from ESR, AFM, cross-link density, gloss, and cyclic loading are presented.

  10. Method of measuring metal coating adhesion (United States)

    Roper, J.R.

    A method for measuring metal coating adhesion to a substrate material comprising the steps of preparing a test coupon of substrate material having the metal coating applied to one surface thereof, applying a second metal coating of gold or silver to opposite surfaces of the test coupon by hot hollow cathode process, applying a coating to one end of each of two pulling rod members, joining the coated ends of the pulling rod members to said opposite coated surfaces of the test coupon by a solid state bonding technique and finally applying instrumented static tensile loading to the pulling rod members until fracture of the metal coating adhesion to the substrate material occurs.

  11. 76 FR 2754 - Agency Information Collection (Pay Now Enter Info Page) Activity Under OMB Review (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Pay Now Enter Info Page) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office... Info Page. OMB Control Number: 2900-0663. Type of Review: Extension of a currently approved collection... payments through VA's Pay Now Enter Info Page website. Data enter on the Pay Now Enter Info Page is...

  12. Coating of silicon pore optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Ackermann, M.; Christensen, Finn Erland


    For the International X-ray observatory (IXO), a mirror module with an effective area of 3 m2 at 1.25 keV and at least 0.65 m2 at 6 keV has to be realized. To achieve this goal, coated silicon pore optics has been developed over the last years. One of the challenges is to coat the Si plates...

  13. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings (United States)

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA


    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  14. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings (United States)

    Fontana, Jack J.; Elling, David; Reams, Walter


    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  15. Evaluation of Manganese Phosphate Coatings. (United States)



  16. Coated substrate apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Zhenan; Diao, Ying; Mannsfeld, Stefan Christian Bernhardt; Tee, Chee-Keong; Becerril-Garcia, Hector A.; Zhou, Yan


    A coated substrate is formed with aligned objects such as small molecules, macromolecules and nanoscale particulates, such as inorganic, organic or inorganic/organic hybrid materials. In accordance with one or more embodiments, an apparatus or method involves an applicator having at least one surface patterned with protruded or indented features, and a coated substrate including a solution-based layer of objects having features and morphology attributes arranged as a function of the protruded or indented features.

  17. Silicone nanocomposite coatings for fabrics (United States)

    Eberts, Kenneth (Inventor); Lee, Stein S. (Inventor); Singhal, Amit (Inventor); Ou, Runqing (Inventor)


    A silicone based coating for fabrics utilizing dual nanocomposite fillers providing enhanced mechanical and thermal properties to the silicone base. The first filler includes nanoclusters of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a metal oxide and a second filler of exfoliated clay nanoparticles. The coating is particularly suitable for inflatable fabrics used in several space, military, and consumer applications, including airbags, parachutes, rafts, boat sails, and inflatable shelters.

  18. Material Science Smart Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, A. I. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Sabirianov, R. F. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Namavar, Fereydoon [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)


    The contribution of electrostatic interactions to the free energy of binding between model protein and a ceramic implant surface in the aqueous solvent, considered in the framework of the nonlocal electrostatic model, is calculated as a function of the implant low-frequency dielectric constant. We show that the existence of a dynamically ordered (low-dielectric) interfacial solvent layer at the protein-solvent and ceramic-solvent interface markedly increases charging energy of the protein and ceramic implant, and consequently makes the electrostatic contribution to the protein-ceramic binding energy more favorable (attractive). Our analysis shows that the corresponding electrostatic energy between protein and oxide ceramics depends nonmonotonically on the dielectric constant of ceramic, εC. Obtained results indicate that protein can attract electrostatically to the surface if ceramic material has a moderate εC below or about 35 (in particularly ZrO2 or Ta2O5). This is in contrast to classical (local) consideration of the solvent, which demonstrates an unfavorable electrostatic interaction of protein with typical metal oxide ceramic materials (εC>10). Thus, a solid implant coated by combining oxide ceramic with a reduced dielectric constant can be beneficial to strengthen the electrostatic binding of the protein-implant complex.

  19. Graphene: corrosion-inhibiting coating. (United States)

    Prasai, Dhiraj; Tuberquia, Juan Carlos; Harl, Robert R; Jennings, G Kane; Rogers, Bridget R; Bolotin, Kirill I


    We report the use of atomically thin layers of graphene as a protective coating that inhibits corrosion of underlying metals. Here, we employ electrochemical methods to study the corrosion inhibition of copper and nickel by either growing graphene on these metals, or by mechanically transferring multilayer graphene onto them. Cyclic voltammetry measurements reveal that the graphene coating effectively suppresses metal oxidation and oxygen reduction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest that while graphene itself is not damaged, the metal under it is corroded at cracks in the graphene film. Finally, we use Tafel analysis to quantify the corrosion rates of samples with and without graphene coatings. These results indicate that copper films coated with graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition are corroded 7 times slower in an aerated Na(2)SO(4) solution as compared to the corrosion rate of bare copper. Tafel analysis reveals that nickel with a multilayer graphene film grown on it corrodes 20 times slower while nickel surfaces coated with four layers of mechanically transferred graphene corrode 4 times slower than bare nickel. These findings establish graphene as the thinnest known corrosion-protecting coating.

  20. Spray-Deposited Superconductor/Polymer Coatings (United States)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Tran, Sang Q.; Hooker, Matthew W.


    Coatings that exhibit the Meissner effect formed at relatively low temperature. High-temperature-superconductor/polymer coatings that exhibit Meissner effect deposited onto components in variety of shapes and materials. Simple, readily available equipment needed in coating process, mean coatings produced economically. Coatings used to keep magnetic fields away from electronic circuits in such cryogenic applications as magnetic resonance imaging and detection of infrared, and in magnetic suspensions to provide levitation and/or damping of vibrations.

  1. Switchable antifouling coatings and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Michele L. Baca; Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross Stefan


    The present invention relates to antifouling coatings capable of being switched by using heat or ultraviolet light. Prior to switching, the coating includes an onium cation component having antimicrobial and antibacterial properties. Upon switching, the coating is converted to a conjugated polymer state, and the cationic component is released with any adsorbed biofilm layer. Thus, the coatings herein have switchable and releasable properties. Methods of making and using such coatings are also described.

  2. Polyester based hybrid organic coatings (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojiang

    Polyesters are a class of polymers widely used in organic coatings applications. In this work, four types of organic coatings based on polyester polyols were prepared: UV-curable polyester/poly(meth)acrylate coatings, thermal curable polyester polyurethane-urea coatings, thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings, and UV-curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings. Polyester/poly(meth)acrylate block copolymers are synthesized using a combination of polycondensation and Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP). All block copolymers are characterized by means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). In the case of unsaturated-polyester-based block copolymers the main chain double bond in the polyester backbone remains almost unaffected during ATRP. The unsaturated block copolymers are crosslinkable and can form networks upon photo-irradiation in the presence of a suitable photoinitiator. These copolymers might be interesting candidates for coatings with better overall properties than those based on neat polyesters. Thermal curable polyester polyol based Polyurethane-Urea (PUU) coatings were formulated using Partially Blocked HDI isocyanurate (PBH), Isophorone Diamine (IPDA), and polyester polyol. As a comparison, the polyurethane coatings (PU) without adding IPDA were also prepared. The mechanical and viscoelastic properties of the PUU and PU coating were investigated by using tensile test and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analyzer (DMTA). It was found that PUU coating exhibited higher crosslink density, Tg, tensile modulus and strength than the corresponding PU coating. Thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings were prepared by using polyamine and cyclic carbonate terminated polyester. Cyclic carbonate terminated polyester was synthesized from the reaction of the carbon dioxide and epoxidized polyester which was prepared from the polyester polyol. The properties of the epoxidized and cyclic carbonate

  3. Coatings and Tints of Spectacle Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zeki Büyükyıldız


    Full Text Available Spectacle lenses are made of mineral or organic (plastic materials. Various coatings and tints are applied to the spectacle lenses according to the characteristic of the lens material, and for the personal needs and cosmetic purpose. The coatings may be classified in seven groups: 1 Anti-reflection coatings, 2 Hard coatings, 3 Clean coat, 4 Mirror coatings, 5 Color tint coating (one of coloring processes, 6 Photochromic coating (one of photochromic processes, and 7 Anti-fog coatings. Anti-reflection coatings reduce unwanted reflections from the lens surfaces and increase light transmission. Hard coatings are applied for preventing the plastic lens surface from scratches and abrasion. Hard coatings are not required for the mineral lenses due to their hardness. Clean coat makes the lens surface smooth and hydrophobic. Thus, it prevents the adherence of dust, tarnish, and dirt particles on the lens surface. Mirror coatings are applied onto the sunglasses for cosmetic purpose. Color tinted and photochromic lenses are used for sun protection and absorption of the harmful UV radiations. Anti-fog coatings make the lens surface hydrophilic and prevent the coalescence of tiny water droplets on the lens surface that reduces light transmission. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 359-69

  4. Dual pathways regulate neurite outgrowth in enteric ganglia. (United States)

    Simeone, D M; Romanchuk, G; Mulholland, M W


    Primary cultures of guinea pig myenteric plexus ganglia were used to examine the ability of agents that activate adenylate cyclase or mimic intracellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) to stimulate morphological growth. Dose-dependent increases in neurite length and density were produced in enteric neuronal cultures by forskolin (212% of control), cholera toxin (356% of control), or the permeant cAMP analogues 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and dibutyryl cAMP. (R)-p-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent kinases, blocked the growth-promoting effects of cAMP analogues but not of nerve growth factor (NGF). Activation of cAMP-dependent signaling pathways also increased production of mRNA for alpha-tubulin and microtubule-associated protein 2. Dual pathways, regulated by NGF and cAMP-dependent protein kinases, influence growth signaling in enteric ganglia.

  5. Enteral tube feeding--from hospital to home. (United States)

    Best, Carolyn; Hitchings, Helen

    There are a number of benefits to providing home enteral feeding, however, problems can occur if care is not taken to arrange training and after-care appropriately. It is therefore essential to facilitate an informed and thorough transfer of care to minimize potential problems. This article will address some of the issues that arise when patients who require home enteral feeding are discharged from hospital to their own homes or to care homes. These issues include the knowledge that is required to enable the patient and/or carer to safely manage their feeding tube, the feeding regimen, the continuing support required from health-care professionals, and some of the more common problems that may arise.

  6. Liver disease due to parenteral and enteral nutrition. (United States)

    Kwan, V; George, J


    Liver disease due to parenteral and enteral nutrition is a well-recognized iatrogenic phenomenon, but its cause and pathogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. Various mechanisms have been postulated, but it is likely that the cause is multifactorial with significant interplay among several factors. A preventive approach to management is ideal but awaits a more complete understanding of the pathophysiology. A variety of management strategies has been proposed in small case series, but level 1 evidence-based guidelines have yet to be established. Although an abundance of both clinical and animal studies exist regarding liver disease associated with parenteral nutrition (PN), there is a paucity of data regarding enteral nutrition (EN)-associated hepatic disease. The latter probably reflects differences in the frequency and severity of PN- versus EN-associated liver disease. This article addresses the two routes of nutritional support individually, with the major focus on PN-associated liver disease.

  7. Scheme for Entering Binary Data Into a Quantum Computer (United States)

    Williams, Colin


    A quantum algorithm provides for the encoding of an exponentially large number of classical data bits by use of a smaller (polynomially large) number of quantum bits (qubits). The development of this algorithm was prompted by the need, heretofore not satisfied, for a means of entering real-world binary data into a quantum computer. The data format provided by this algorithm is suitable for subsequent ultrafast quantum processing of the entered data. Potential applications lie in disciplines (e.g., genomics) in which one needs to search for matches between parts of very long sequences of data. For example, the algorithm could be used to encode the N-bit-long human genome in only log2N qubits. The resulting log2N-qubit state could then be used for subsequent quantum data processing - for example, to perform rapid comparisons of sequences.

  8. Identification of Enteric Viruses in Foods from Mexico City. (United States)

    Parada-Fabián, José Carlos; Juárez-García, Patricia; Natividad-Bonifacio, Iván; Vázquez-Salinas, Carlos; Quiñones-Ramírez, Elsa Irma


    Foodborne viruses are a common and, probably, the most under-recognized cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Among the main foods involved in the transmission of human enteric viruses are mollusks, and fruits and vegetables irrigated with wastewater and/or washed with non-potable water or contaminated by contact with surfaces or hands of the infected personnel during its preparation. In this study, 134 food samples were analyzed for the detection of Norovirus, Rotavirus, and Hepatitis A virus (HAV) by amplification of conserved regions of these viruses. From the 134 analyzed samples, 14 were positive for HAV, 6 for Norovirus, and 11 for Rotavirus. This is the first report in Mexico where emphasis is given to the presence of HAV and Norovirus on perishable foods and food from fisheries, as well as Rotavirus on frozen vegetables, confirming the role of vegetables and bivalve mollusks as transmitting vehicles of enteric viruses.

  9. Residual feed intake and breeding approaches for enteric methane mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, Donagh P; Lassen, Jan; de Hass, Y


    no explicit inclusion of environmental load (and in most instances, even feed efficiency) in these goals. Heritability of feed intake-related traits in cattle is moderate to high, implying that relatively high accuracy of selection can be achieved with relatively low information content per animal; however......, the genetic variation in feed intake independent of animal performance is expectedly less than other performance traits. Nonetheless, exploitable genetic variation does exist and, if properly utilized, could augment further gains in feed efficiency. Genetic parameters for enteric methane (CH4) emissions...... in cattle are rare. No estimate of the genetic variation in enteric CH4 emissions independent of animal performance exists; it is the parameters for this trait that depict the scope for genetic improvement. The approach to the inclusion of feed intake or CH4 emissions in cattle breeding goals is not clear...

  10. The Occurrence of Enteric Bacteria in Marine Environment and Pollution


    Kılınç, Berna; Besler, Aysu


    The microbiological quality of the marine environment affects the microbiological quality of all fishery products. This study is a review of the occurence of enteric bacteria in freshly harvested fishery products dependent on the quality of marine environment from which these products are harvested. The control of marine environment from pollution as measured by the index of fecal coliform bacteria is necessary. Otherwise, our fishery products can be contaminated from the polluted marine envi...

  11. Role of anaerobic bacteria in simian enteric diseases. (United States)

    Stasilevich, Z K; Dzhikidze, E K; Kalashnikova, V A; Sultanova, O A


    Screening of monkeys for anaerobic bacteria showed that the incidence of non-spore-forming anaerobes was 2.0-2.5 times higher than that of clostridia. The overwhelming majority of isolated anaerobes were saprophytes and opportunistic bacteria. The incidence of C. perfringens was higher in monkeys with enteric infections of obscure etiology and dead from these diseases than in healthy animals (48.2 vs. 36.8%).

  12. STS-88 Mission Specialist Krikalev prepares to enter Endeavour (United States)


    STS-88 Mission Specialist Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev, a Russian cosmonaut, is assisted with his ascent and re-entry flight suit in the white room at Launch Pad 39A before entering Space Shuttle Endeavour for launch. During the nearly 12-day mission, the six-member crew will mate the first two elements of the International Space Station -- the already-orbiting Zarya control module with the Unity connecting module carried by Endeavour. He is making his fourth spaceflight.

  13. [Home enteral nutrition in Spain: NADYA registry in 2010]. (United States)

    Frías, L; Puiggròs, C; Calañas, A; Cuerda, C; García-Luna, P P; Camarero, E; Rabassa-Soler, A; Irles, J A; Martínez-Olmos, M A; Romero, A; Wanden-Berghe, C; Laborda, L; Vidal, A; Gómez-Candela, C; Penacho, M A; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Lecha, M; Luengo, L M; Suárez, P; de Luis, D; García, Y; Parés, R M; Garde, C


    To describe the results of the home enteral nutrition (HEN) registry of the NADYA-SENPE group in 2010. We retrieved the data of the patients recorded from January 1st to December 31st 2010. We registered 6,591 patients (51% males) with 6,688 episodes of HEN, from 32 hospitals. Mean age in those younger than 14 yr (4%) was 1 ± 2 yrs (m ± SD) and 69,9 ± 17,8 yrs in those older than 14 yr. The length of HEN was longer than 2 yrs in 76% of the patients. The most frequent underlying disease was neurological disorders 42%, followed by cancer 28% (mostly head and neck cancer 18%). We had information related to the enteral access route in only 626 cases (9,4%), 51% of them used nasogastric tubes, 27% gastrostomies, 10% oral route and 3% jejunostomies. Only 251 episodes were closed during the year, mostly due to patient death 57% and progress to oral diet 14%. The activity level was limited in 29% of the patients and 39% of them were bed- or chairridden. Total or partial help was needed by 68% of the patients. The hospitals and the private pharmacies delivered the enteral formula in 63% and 34% of the cases, respectively. The hospitals and the primary care centres delivered the disposables in 83% and 16% of the cases, respectively. The results of the 2010 HEN registry are similar to those published in previous years regarding the number and characteristics of the patients. We continue finding problems in the entrance of data referred to the enteral access route and the closing of the episodes.

  14. Effects of HIV-1 Tat on Enteric Neuropathogenesis (United States)

    Ngwainmbi, Joy; De, Dipanjana D.; Smith, Tricia H.; El-Hage, Nazira; Fitting, Sylvia; Kang, Minho; Dewey, William L.; Hauser, Kurt F.


    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract presents a major site of immune modulation by HIV, resulting in significant morbidity. Most GI processes affected during HIV infection are regulated by the enteric nervous system. HIV has been identified in GI histologic specimens in up to 40% of patients, and the presence of viral proteins, including the trans-activator of transcription (Tat), has been reported in the gut indicating that HIV itself may be an indirect gut pathogen. Little is known of how Tat affects the enteric nervous system. Here we investigated the effects of the Tat protein on enteric neuronal excitability, proinflammatory cytokine release, and its overall effect on GI motility. Direct application of Tat (100 nm) increased the number of action potentials and reduced the threshold for action potential initiation in isolated myenteric neurons. This effect persisted in neurons pretreated with Tat for 3 d (19 of 20) and in neurons isolated from Tat+ (Tat-expressing) transgenic mice. Tat increased sodium channel isoforms Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 levels. This increase was accompanied by an increase in sodium current density and a leftward shift in the sodium channel activation voltage. RANTES, IL-6, and IL-1β, but not TNF-α, were enhanced by Tat. Intestinal transit and cecal water content were also significantly higher in Tat+ transgenic mice than Tat− littermates (controls). Together, these findings show that Tat has a direct and persistent effect on enteric neuronal excitability, and together with its effect on proinflammatory cytokines, regulates gut motility, thereby contributing to GI dysmotilities reported in HIV patients. PMID:25339738

  15. Characteristics of transgender individuals entering substance abuse treatment


    Flentje, A; Heck, NC; Sorensen, JL


    Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13,440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007 to 2009 using logistic and linear...

  16. The use of specialised enteral formulae for patients with diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of enteral nutrition products for diabetes mellitus have a carbohydrate content of 30–45% and fat between 40–49%, mainly monounsaturated fat, with a mix of soluble and insoluble fibre (total of 14–24 g/l). Does this have short- and long-term benefits and which component(s) is/are crucial for the outcome or is it ...

  17. Effect of solvents on the morphological characterization of enteric nanoparticles


    Dupeyrón Martell,Danay Rosa; Rieumont Briones,Jacques; González Hurtado,Mayra; del Real López,Alicia; Castaño Meneses,Víctor Manuel


    Size and external and internal morphologies of nanoparticles and microparticles are very important on the design of drug devices for controlled release. Random enteric copolymers such as poly (methacrylic acid-co-ethyl acrylate) and poly (methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) were used to produce nanoparticles, which contain a model drug and could be employed as drug carriers for proteins. The solvent effect on re-dispersion of such nanoparticles was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy...

  18. Pattern of serum transaminases in enteric fever patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of gender related difference in the activities of the transaminases between enteric fever patients and the controls as well showed the activity of aspartate transaminase to be higher (P<0.05) in male (n=30, 36.57 ± 19.8 U/l) and female (n=25, 47.56 ± 15.52 U/l) patients than in the controls males (n=26, 26.61 ...

  19. The glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor is expressed in enteric neurons and not in the epithelium of the intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens; B. Pedersen, Nis; Brix, Sophie W.


    alone, (2) mucosa with lamina propria and epithelium, (3) the external muscle coat including myenteric plexus, (4) a compartment enriched for the myenteric plexus and (5) intestine without epithelium. Expression of Glp2r; chromogranin A; tubulin, beta 3; actin, gamma 2, smooth muscle, enteric and glial......Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a potent intestinotrophic growth factor with therapeutic potential in the treatment of intestinal deficiencies. It has recently been approved for the treatment of short bowel syndrome. The effects of GLP-2 are mediated by specific binding of the hormone to the GLP......-2 receptor (GLP-2R) which was cloned in 1999. However, consensus about the exact receptor localization in the intestine has never been established. By physical, chemical and enzymatic tissue fragmentation, we were able to divide rat jejunum into different compartments consisting of: (1) epithelium...

  20. Glucose, epithelium, and enteric nervous system: dialogue in the dark. (United States)

    Pfannkuche, H; Gäbel, G


    The gastrointestinal epithelium is in close contact with the various components of the chymus, including nutrients, bacteria and toxins. The epithelial barrier has to decide which components are effectively absorbed and which components are extruded. In the small intestine, a nutrient like glucose is mainly absorbed by the sodium linked glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). The expression and activity of both transport proteins is directly linked to the amount of intraluminal glucose. Besides the direct interaction between glucose and the enterocytes, glucose also stimulates different sensory mechanisms within the intestinal wall. The most important types of cells involved in the sensing of intraluminal contents are enteroendocrine cells and neurones of the enteric nervous system. Regarding glucosensing, a distinct type of enteroendocrine cells, the enterochromaffine (EC) cells are involved. Excitation of EC cells by intraluminal glucose results in the release of serotonin (5-HT), which modulates epithelial functions and activates enteric secretomotorneurones. Enteric neurones are not only activated by 5-HT, but also directly by glucose. The activation of different cell types and the subsequent crosstalk between these cells may trigger appropriate absorptive and secretory processes within the intestine.

  1. Bacteriophages as indicators of faecal pollution and enteric ... (United States)

    Bacteriophages are an attractive alternative to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), particularly as surrogates of enteric virus fate and transport due to their closer morphological and biological properties compared to FIB. Based on a meta-analysis of published data, we summarize concentrations of coliphages (F+ and somatic), Bacteroides spp. and enterococci bacteriophages (phages) in human waste, non-human waste, fresh and marine waters as well as removal through wastewater treatment processes. We also provide comparisons with FIB and enteric viruses whenever possible. Lastly, we examine fate and transport characteristics in the environment and provide an overview of the methods available for detection and enumeration of bacteriophages. In summary, concentrations of FIB bacteriophages in various sources were consistently lower than FIB, but more reflective of infectious enteric virus levels. Our investigation supports use of bacteriophages as viral surrogates especially for wastewater treatment processes, while additional research is needed to clarify their utility as indicators of viral fate and transport in the ambient water. Describes concentrations and removal through environmental and engineered systems of bacteriophages, fecal indicator bacteria and viral pathogens.

  2. Enteral Nutrition Delivery Is Overestimated in Provider Documentation. (United States)

    Kesey, Jenna; Puckett, Yana; Dissanaike, Sharmila


    Burn-injured patients have the highest metabolic demand of all critically ill patients and are vulnerable to complications of malnutrition. Many burn centers have challenges in achieving prescribed rates of nutrition, despite aggressive algorithms. One possible reason for the discrepancy is inaccurate documentation of volumes. This is a retrospective review of patients requiring tube feeding admitted to a regional burn center between June and August 2015. Demographics were abstracted including gender, type of injury, TBSA, and age. The total feeding volume was recorded from the feeding pump every 24 hours. The values were compared with the enteral nutrition volume charted by the nursing staff and rate prescribed by the physician team. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare continuous variables. Twenty-five patients were observed during the study period providing a total of 105 patient days. The average age was 44 years with 42% TBSA mean burn size. The average volume prescribed by providers was 1,598 ml/d. According to documentation, the average volume given was 1,448 ml/d, a significant difference (P = enteral nutrition was not provided. There was a significant discrepancy between ordered, recorded, and delivered volume of enteral nutrition. Potential reasons for the discrepancy may be frequent interruption for repositioning, wound care, linen changes, or other nursing workflow. Burn providers should be aware of the potential for underfeeding patients.

  3. Warfarin bioavailability with feeding tubes and enteral formula. (United States)

    Klang, Mark; Graham, Dennis; McLymont, Veronica


    Earlier literature showed reduced efficacy of warfarin when co-administered with enteral nutrition formulas through feeding tubes. This study used an in vitro model for gastric administration of warfarin through a feeding tube to evaluate potential causes for reduced warfarin absorption when administered through feeding tubes. There were 2 phases of the study. The first phase used an artificial stomach model with or without the infusion of enteral nutrition formula. Warfarin was added to the contents either directly into the vessel or passed through a feeding tube. Warfarin tablet dissolution was compared to the injectable formulation, which served as a control. The second phase used chopped feeding tube material added to beakers containing warfarin in increasing amounts. Warfarin injection and tablet formulations showed decreased solubility when combined with acid. The warfarin solubility was higher when enteral formula was added. Warfarin concentration dropped by 35% when the drug was passed through a feeding tube, as opposed to added directly to the flask.In the second study, the warfarin levels were lower in the beakers containing feeding tubes. Doubling the amount of warfarin added did not raise levels to that of the initial dissolved. Doubling the amount of feeding tube material further reduced the concentration dissolved. Feeding-tube administration compromises the total amount of warfarin reaching patients. It appears, from this in vitro study, that the mechanism of the interaction of warfarin may be a result of direct binding to the feeding tube.

  4. The Challenges of Home Enteral Tube Feeding: A Global Perspective (United States)

    Ojo, Omorogieva


    The aim of this review is to provide a global perspective of Home Enteral Tube Feeding (HETF) and to outline some of the challenges of home enteral nutrition (HEN) provisions. It is well established that the number of patients on HETF is on the increase worldwide due to advances in technology, development of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy techniques, and the shift in care provisions from acute to community settings. While the significance of home enteral nutrition in meeting the nutritional requirements of patients with poor swallowing reflexes and those with poor nutritional status is not in doubt, differences exist in terms of funding, standards, management approaches and the level of infrastructural development across the world. Strategies for alleviating some of the challenges militating against the effective delivery of HETF including the development of national and international standards, guidelines and policies for HETF, increased awareness and funding by government at all levels were discussed. Others, including development of HEN services, which should create the enabling environment for multidisciplinary team work, clinical audit and research, recruitment and retention of specialist staff, and improvement in patient outcomes have been outlined. However, more research is required to fully establish the cost effectiveness of the HEN service especially in developing countries and to compare the organization of HEN service between developing and developed countries. PMID:25856223

  5. Gravity Flow in Proposed Enteral Tube Small-Bore Connectors. (United States)

    Hurt, Ryan T; Epp, Lisa M; Pattinson, Adele K; Duellman, Wanda M; Corner, Stephen M; Mundi, Manpreet S


    Enteral nutrition (EN) misconnections have been identified as a serious and potential deadly problem. An international effort led by EN industry leaders has developed a small-bore enteral connector (ENFit) that in theory will reduce the frequency of misconnections. Despite the potential benefit of preventing misconnections, the full impact of adoption of the ENFit connector is unknown. To assess the impact of transitioning to ENFit on our home EN (HEN) patients, the current study evaluated gravity feeding comparing 2 proposed small-bore connectors to the legacy (current connector) using various commercial formulas. Six commonly used enteral formulas in our facility with varying density and viscosity were tested in triplicate. Forty milliliters of formula was poured into a syringe connected to an ENFit or legacy (current) feeding connector attached to varying French size tubes. The time it took formula to flow through the connectors was recorded, and the test was repeated in triplicate. All formulas took significantly longer to flow through the first ENFit connector compared with the legacy connector ( P tubes are being developed and adopted.

  6. Modification of polyurethane to reduce occlusion of enteral feeding tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaither, Kari A.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Goheen, Steven C.


    Feeding tubes are used to supply nutritional formula to immobilized patients. The most common cause for failure of enteral feeding tubes is their occlusion. The purpose of this study was to examine whether occlusion of enteral feeding tubes could be minimized using an additive. An open, intermittent enteral feeding system was simulated in the laboratory and data was collected over a period ranging from 2 to 6 days. Feeding formula was cycled through a feeding tube in either the presence or absence of simulated gastric acid in an effort to generate a reproducible occlusion. Pressures in the tube were measured frequently throughout these cycles. We observed pressure spikes with each cycle, but never a complete occlusion. Pressure spikes formed only when simulated gastric acid was mixed with the feeding solution. Large amounts of feeding formula adsorbed onto polyurethane surfaces in the presence of gastric acid. The maximum pressure was reduced by about half from 2.0 psi to 0.8 psi when polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was added. The addition of PVA to polyurethane also reduced the contact angle from 83° (untreated) to approximately 64° in the presence of PVA. Furthermore, when formula was added to polyurethane in the presence of PVA the thickness of the layer that remained on the surface was almost 10 times greater in controls than on PVA-treated surfaces. These results suggest that a treatment that increases the hydrophilicity of the feeding tube may help minimize clogging.

  7. Vaccines against enteric infections for the developing world (United States)

    Czerkinsky, Cecil; Holmgren, Jan


    Since the first licensure of the Sabin oral polio vaccine more than 50 years ago, only eight enteric vaccines have been licensed for four disease indications, and all are given orally. While mucosal vaccines offer programmatically attractive tools for facilitating vaccine deployment, their development remains hampered by several factors: —limited knowledge regarding the properties of the gut immune system during early life;—lack of mucosal adjuvants, limiting mucosal vaccine development to live-attenuated or killed whole virus and bacterial vaccines;—lack of correlates/surrogates of mucosal immune protection; and—limited knowledge of the factors contributing to oral vaccine underperformance in children from developing countries.There are now reasons to believe that the development of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants and of programmatically sound intervention strategies could enhance the efficacy of current and next-generation enteric vaccines, especially in lesser developed countries which are often co-endemic for enteric infections and malnutrition. These vaccines must be safe and affordable for the world's poorest, confer long-term protection and herd immunity, and must be able to contain epidemics. PMID:25964464

  8. The Challenges of Home Enteral Tube Feeding: A Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omorogieva Ojo


    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to provide a global perspective of Home Enteral Tube Feeding (HETF and to outline some of the challenges of home enteral nutrition (HEN provisions. It is well established that the number of patients on HETF is on the increase worldwide due to advances in technology, development of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy techniques, and the shift in care provisions from acute to community settings. While the significance of home enteral nutrition in meeting the nutritional requirements of patients with poor swallowing reflexes and those with poor nutritional status is not in doubt, differences exist in terms of funding, standards, management approaches and the level of infrastructural development across the world. Strategies for alleviating some of the challenges militating against the effective delivery of HETF including the development of national and international standards, guidelines and policies for HETF, increased awareness and funding by government at all levels were discussed. Others, including development of HEN services, which should create the enabling environment for multidisciplinary team work, clinical audit and research, recruitment and retention of specialist staff, and improvement in patient outcomes have been outlined. However, more research is required to fully establish the cost effectiveness of the HEN service especially in developing countries and to compare the organization of HEN service between developing and developed countries.

  9. Ipilimumab-Induced Enteritis without Colitis: A New Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Messmer


    Full Text Available Introduction: Ipilimumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA4, approved to treat metastatic melanoma. It was the first therapy shown to prolong survival in a large, randomized clinical trial. However, immune-related adverse events are common and can be severe. Enterocolitis is a common adverse event with ipilimumab, but enteritis without colitis has not been previously described. Case Report: An 83-year-old man presented to our hospital with grade 3 diarrhea for 5 days. One month prior, he had started treatment with ipilimumab for metastatic melanoma. On presentation, he was found to have severe electrolyte disturbances, including hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and acute kidney injury. Causes of infectious diarrhea were excluded, and he was treated with corticosteroids for presumed ipilimumab-associated enterocolitis. However, colonoscopy revealed normal mucosa, both grossly and on pathology of random biopsies. Steroids were weaned but his symptoms recurred. He then underwent upper endoscopy with enteroscopy. Biopsy of the duodenum was notable for acute inflammation, villous blunting, and other changes consistent with ipilimumab-associated injury. He was restarted on high-dose steroids and his symptoms resolved. Discussion: Ipilimumab-induced enteritis is a serious and potentially life-threatening immune related adverse event that warrants prompt recognition and aggressive management. As in cases of ipilimumab-associated enterocolitis, steroids are an effective therapy. Enteritis without colitis should be suspected in patients on ipilimumab who present with severe diarrhea but have a normal colonoscopy.

  10. The practical aspects of enteral nutrition in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Örs


    Full Text Available Preterm infants have higher nutrient requirements than term infants. Enteral tube feeding is the preferred route to feed preterm infants because premature infants are unable to coordinate sucking, swallowing, and breathing. There are two common tube feeding methods: intermittent (bolus or continuous infusion. Minimal enteral nutrition or trophic feeding has many advantages for preterms and should be started as soon as possible if an infant is clinically stable. Mother’s own milk is the best food for preterm infants. It also has many important non-nutrient advantages for preterm infants. However, breast milk alone may not meet their special nutritional needs. For this reason, it is common clinical practice to fortify human milk. Fortified human milk is an appropriate nutritional source for preterm infants compared to preterm formula and unfortified human milk. Fortification of maternal breast milk begins when feeding volume reaches 100 ml/kg/day. In the absence of mother’s own milk, donor milk and premature infant formula may be used. The aim of this brief review is to discuss the current practical concepts about enteral feeding in preterm infants.

  11. Survival of bacterial enteric pathogens in traditional fermented foods. (United States)

    Simango, C; Rukure, G


    The survival of strains of bacterial enteric pathogens was investigated in two traditional fermented foods (mahewu and sour porridge) and in unfermented porridge. The foods were inoculated with cell suspensions of Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Aeromonas species and pathogenic Escherichia coli which had a final concentration of 10(6)-10(7) cfu/ml of food. None of the strains of Aeromonas and Campylobacter were detected in mahewu and sour porridge 20 min after inoculation. The salmonellas were not found 4 h after inoculation in either fermented foods but the shigellas and pathogenic E. coli strains were more tolerant to the low pH of the fermented foods. Some of the shigellas and pathogenic E. coli strains survived for 24 h after inoculation but showed a sharp decrease in numbers. All the strains of the enteric pathogens survived for 24 h in the unfermented porridge and increased in the numbers except for campylobacters, the numbers of which declined. These results suggest that the traditional fermented foods have bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties and are unlikely to play a major role in the transmission of bacterial enteric pathogens.

  12. Bacterial Enteric Pathogens in Uncooked Foods in Thai Markets. (United States)

    Echeverria; Piyaphong; Bodhidatta; Hoge; Tungsen


    In developing countries, the morbidity and mortality rates of gastrointestinal tract infections from food borne bacteria have been difficult to establish. Most studies have only been able to gather data prospectively from isolated geographic sources, rather than from large point-source epidemics. This study investigates the types of bacterial enteric pathogens found in food that was collected in a community in Western Thailand, where sporadic cases of hemolytic uremia syndrome and cholera have been reported. Samples of six different uncooked foods were collected from markets in two villages and in the hills in an area near Bangkok and were tested at a district hospital laboratory within 2 hours of collection. From the 820 food samples collected, enteric pathogens were isolated from approximately 12%. These included nontyphoidal salmonella; Vibrio parahemolyticus; attaching and effacing Escherichia coli of nonenteropathogenic E. coli serogroups; Campylobacter jejuni; enterotoxigenic E. coli; Shigella; and V. cholerae. Travelers in developing countries should be made aware by diarrheal disease programs that food obtained in markets may contain bacterial enteric pathogens and, therefore, the hygienic preparation of such foods is important in the prevention of gastrointestinal disease.

  13. Postsurgery enteral nutrition in head and neck cancer patients. (United States)

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Cuellar, L; Terroba, M C


    Patients with head and neck cancer undergoing surgery have a high incidence of postoperative complications. The aim of our study was to investigate whether postoperative nutrition of head and neck cancer patients, using an arginine-enriched diet, could improve nutritional variables as well as clinical outcomes. Randomized clinical trial. Tertiary care. A population of 47 patients with oral and laryngeal cancer were enrolled. At surgery patients were randomly allocated to two groups: (a) patients receiving an enteral diet supplemented with arginine and fiber (group I); (b) patients receiving an isocaloric, isonitrogenous enteral formula (group II). No significant intergroup differences in the trend of the three plasma proteins and lymphocytes were detected. Gastrointestinal tolerance (diarrhea) of both formulas was good (17.4% group I and 8.3% group II; NS). During the 3 months after hospital discharge five patients died; no differences were detected between groups (13% group I and 8.3% group II; NS). The incidences postoperative infection complications were similar (nine patients) in both groups (21.7% group I and 16.7% group II; NS). Fistula were less frequent in enriched nutrition group (0% group I and 20.8% group II; Pcancer patients. Our results suggest that these patients could benefit from an immunonutrient-enhanced enteral formula.

  14. Rosacea and its association with enteral microbiota in Korean females. (United States)

    Nam, Jae-Hui; Yun, Yeojun; Kim, Han-Saem; Kim, Han-Na; Jung, Ho Joo; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Kim, Won-Serk


    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis affecting the face and eyes. An association between systemic comorbidities and rosacea has been reported, but the link to enteral microbiota is uncertain. We aimed to investigate the link between rosacea and enteral microbiota. A cross-sectional study was performed in a sample of Korean women who participated in a health check-up programme at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Health Screening Center between 23 June 2014 and 5 September 2014. The gut microbiome was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene and metagenome sequence analyses. A total of 12 rosacea patients and 251 controls were enrolled. We identified links between rosacea and several changes in gut microbiota: reduced abundance of Peptococcaceae family unknown genus, Methanobrevibacter (genus), Slackia (genus), Coprobacillus (genus), Citrobacter (genus), and Desulfovibrio (genus), and increased abundance of Acidaminococcus (genus), Megasphaera (genus), and Lactobacillales order unknown family unknown genus. A link between rosacea and enteral microbiota was observed in this metagenomic study. A large and elaborate study is needed to confirm these findings and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Tuberculous Enteritis: A Rare Complication of Miliary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danisha Figueroa


    Full Text Available Tuberculous enteritis is a clinical rarity even in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of miliary tuberculosis with gastrointestinal involvement. A 47-year-old homosexual male from Philippines with no significant medical history presented with productive cough, night sweats, subjective fevers, shortness of breath, watery diarrhea, and 25-pound weight loss in past one year. On physical exam he was afebrile, mildly hypotensive, tachycardic, and tachypneic, but saturating well on room air. He was cachectic with oral thrush and bilateral fine rales. Chest X-ray revealed a miliary pattern. His sputum AFB smear was strongly positive. PCR and sputum culture were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. He was started on Rifampin, Isoniazid, Ethambutol, and Pyrazinamide. He was found to be HIV positive with an absolute CD4 count of 4 cells/μL. Due to persistent diarrhea, stool was sent for AFB culture and grew M. tuberculosis. He responded well to treatment with resolution of symptoms. Tuberculous enteritis occurs in about 2% of the patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Although it is uncommon, it should be considered in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis and abdominal complaints. A presumptive diagnosis of tuberculous enteritis can be made in the setting of active pulmonary tuberculosis with suggestive clinical, endoscopic, and/or radiographic findings.

  16. Ecosystem response to antibiotics entering the aquatic environment. (United States)

    Costanzo, Simon D; Murby, John; Bates, John


    Awareness of antibiotics in wastewaters and aquatic ecosystems is growing as investigations into alternate pollutants increase and analytical techniques for detecting these chemicals improve. The presence of three antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and cephalexin) was evaluated in both sewage effluent and environmental waters downstream from a sewage discharge. Bacteria cultured from the sewage bioreactor and receiving waters were tested for resistance against six antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, ampicillin, trimethoprim, erythromycin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole) and effects of short term exposure (24 h) to antibiotics on bacterial denitrification rates were examined. Antibiotics were detected entering the sewage treatment plant with varying levels of removal during the treatment process. Antibiotics were also detected in effluent entering receiving waters and detectable 500 m from the source. Among the bacteria cultured from the sewage bioreactor, resistance was displayed against all six antibiotics tested and bacteria cultured from receiving waters were resistant against two of the antibiotics tested. Rates of denitrification were observed to decrease in response to some antibiotics and not to others, though this was only observed at concentrations exceeding those likely to be found in the environment. Findings from this preliminary research have indicated that antibiotics are entering our aquatic systems and pose a potential threat to ecosystem function and potentially human health.

  17. Navigating Risk When Entering and Participating in a Business Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Smith


    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs typically have limited resources during the start-up phase of a business. Business ecosystems are a strategy for entrepreneurs to access and exchange many different aspects of value, resources, and benefits. However, there may be business risks for entering a particular type of ecosystem, and further risks may be encountered after entering and participating in a business ecosystem. These risks are significant and can inhibit a startup's growth. In this article, the literature on business ecosystems is reviewed as it relates to risk to discover insights of relevance to entrepreneurs, top management teams, and business-ecosystem operators. First, the published research is organized into two streams: i risks relating to categories of business ecosystems, and ii risks relating to participating in business ecosystems. Then, the problem is abstracted to develop a potential strategy for managing these risks, which features a pre-entry inspection followed by real-time resource management. Finally, five recommendations are offered for entrepreneurs seeking to enter and participate in business ecosystems.

  18. Spacecraft thermal control coatings (United States)

    Guillaumon, Jean-Claude; Paillous, Alain


    The Experiment AO 138-6 was located on the trailing edge of the Long Duration Exposure Facility as part of the French Cooperative Payload (FRECOPA) Experiment. It was purely passive in nature: material specimens 2 x 2 cm, independently mounted in sample-holders, with their surface in the same reference plane, were exposed to space. Thirty samples were set in a vacuum-tight canister which was opened in space a few days after LDEF deployment and closed while still in orbit ten months later; twenty-four samples were directly exposed to space for the total flight duration (preflight handling, shuttle bay environment, separation from shuttle, shuttle environment, LEO environment, docking, descent, transfer to KSC). Materials included paints (conductive or nonconductive), SSM's, polymeric films, surface coatings, composite materials, and metals. After sample retrieving, inspection and measurements were carried out in atmospheric laboratory conditions on each sample: observation with binocular lenses and scanning electron microscopy, spectral relectance and transmittance using an integrating sphere in the wavelength range 280-2300 nm, emissivity by the means of a Gier & Dunkle portable reflectometer, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis-x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA-XPS), and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) measurements on some selected samples. The results obtained from flight were compared to laboratory data obtained in UV-irradiation tests when these data were available. As a general statement a good spectral concordance is observed for all samples not in the canister so long as air recoveries are taken into account. For one material, the degradation is more important for the sample in the canister than for those of the same material mounted at the surface of the tray; for most samples in the canister the degradation is slightly higher than the one which can be predicted from laboratory standard irradiations. Contamination problems having

  19. Coating Carbon Fibers With Platinum (United States)

    Effinger, Michael R.; Duncan, Peter; Coupland, Duncan; Rigali, Mark J.


    A process for coating carbon fibers with platinum has been developed. The process may also be adaptable to coating carbon fibers with other noble and refractory metals, including rhenium and iridium. The coated carbon fibers would be used as ingredients of matrix/fiber composite materials that would resist oxidation at high temperatures. The metal coats would contribute to oxidation resistance by keeping atmospheric oxygen away from fibers when cracks form in the matrices. Other processes that have been used to coat carbon fibers with metals have significant disadvantages: Metal-vapor deposition processes yield coats that are nonuniform along both the lengths and the circumferences of the fibers. The electrical resistivities of carbon fibers are too high to be compatible with electrolytic processes. Metal/organic vapor deposition entails the use of expensive starting materials, it may be necessary to use a furnace, and the starting materials and/or materials generated in the process may be hazardous. The present process does not have these disadvantages. It yields uniform, nonporous coats and is relatively inexpensive. The process can be summarized as one of pretreatment followed by electroless deposition. The process consists of the following steps: The surfaces of the fiber are activated by deposition of palladium crystallites from a solution. The surface-activated fibers are immersed in a solution that contains platinum. A reducing agent is used to supply electrons to effect a chemical reduction in situ. The chemical reduction displaces the platinum from the solution. The displaced platinum becomes deposited on the fibers. Each platinum atom that has been deposited acts as a catalytic site for the deposition of another platinum atom. Hence, the deposition process can also be characterized as autocatalytic. The thickness of the deposited metal can be tailored via the duration of immersion and the chemical activity of the solution.

  20. Development of the M2A1 Container Coatings ECP (United States)


    52891 Acrylic E-Coat Urethane Powder Results APPLICATION Low End One-Coat Dip Enamel High End One-Coat Electrocoat High End One-Coat Top Coat Cure...Properties Data MIL-E-52891 Acrylic E-Coat Urethane Powder Results APPLICATION Low End One-Coat Dip Enamel High End One-Coat Electrocoat High End One-Coat...To complete a finishing cost analysis for painting ammunition containers. Compare equipment, layout and operating costs for Electrocoat and powder