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Sample records for enteric apelin expression

  1. Effect of hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss in obese women on plasma apelin and adipose tissue expression of apelin and APJ.

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    Castan-Laurell, Isabelle; Vítkova, Michaela; Daviaud, Danièle; Dray, Cédric; Kováciková, Michaela; Kovacova, Zuzana; Hejnova, Jindriska; Stich, Vladimir; Valet, Philippe

    2008-06-01

    Apelin is a novel adipokine acting on APJ receptor, regulated by insulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in adipose tissue (AT). Plasma apelin levels are increased in obese hyperinsulinemic subjects. The aim was to investigate whether the hypocaloric diet associated with weight loss modifies the elevated plasma apelin levels and the expression of apelin and APJ receptor in AT in obese women. Fasting plasma levels of apelin and TNF-alpha as well as mRNA levels of apelin and APJ in AT were measured before and after a 12-week hypocaloric weight-reducing diet in 20 obese women (body mass index (BMI) before diet 32.2+/-6.4 kg/m(2)). Twelve healthy women with a BMI of 20.7+/-0.6 kg/m(2) served as reference. Plasma levels of apelin and TNF-alpha were higher in obese compared with lean controls. The hypocaloric diet resulted in a significant decrease of BMI to 29.8+/-6.3 kg/m(2), plasma insulin (8.16+/-0.73 to 6.58+/-0.66 mU/l), apelin (369+/-25 pg/ml to 257+/-12 pg/ml), TNF-alpha levels (0.66+/-0.04 pg/ml to 0.56+/-0.04 pg/ml), and AT mRNAs of apelin and APJ. In addition, changes in AT mRNA apelin were related to changes in AT mRNA APJ levels. The hypocaloric diet associated with weight loss reduces the increased plasma and AT expression of apelin in obese women. This reduced apelin expression in AT could contribute to decreased circulating apelin levels.

  2. Effects of Weight Loss and Exercise on Apelin Serum Concentrations and Adipose Tissue Expression in Human Obesity

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    Joanna Krist

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Apelin is an adipokine which plays a role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and may contribute to the link between increased adipose tissue mass and obesity related metabolic diseases. Here we investigate the role of omental and subcutaneous (SC adipose tissue apelin and its receptor APJ mRNA expression in human obesity and test the hypothesis that changes in circulating apelin are associated with reduced fat mass in three weight loss intervention studies. Methods: Apelin serum concentration was measured in 740 individuals in a cross-sectional (n = 629 study including a subgroup (n = 161 for which omental and SC apelin mRNA expression has been analyzed and in three interventions: 12 weeks exercise (n = 60, 6 months calorie-restricted diet (n = 19, 12 months after bariatric surgery (n = 32. Results: Apelin mRNA is significantly higher expressed in adipose tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes and correlates with circulating apelin, BMI, body fat, C-reactive protein, and insulin sensitivity. Obesity surgery-induced weight loss causes a significant reduction in omental and SC apelin expression. All interventions led to significantly reduced apelin serum concentrations which significantly correlate with improved insulin sensitivity, independently of changes in BMI. Conclusions: Reduced apelin expression and serum concentration may contribute to improved insulin sensitivity beyond significant weight loss.

  3. Repeated electroacupuncture attenuating of apelin expression and function in the rostral ventrolateral medulla in stress-induced hypertensive rats.

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    Zhang, Cheng-Rong; Xia, Chun-Mei; Jiang, Mei-Yan; Zhu, Min-Xia; Zhu, Ji-Min; Du, Dong-Shu; Liu, Min; Wang, Jin; Zhu, Da-Nian

    2013-08-01

    Studies have revealed that apelin is a novel multifunctional peptide implicated both in blood pressure (BP) regulation and cardiac function control. Evidence shows that apelin and its receptor (APJ) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) may play an important role in central BP regulation; however, its role is controversial and very few reports have shown the relationship between acupuncture and apelin. Our study aims to both investigate the apelinergic system role in stress-induced hypertension (SIH) and determine whether acupuncture therapy effects on hypertension involve the apelinergic system in the RVLM. We established the stress-induced hypertensive rat (SIHR) model using electric foot-shock stressors with noise interventions. The expression of both apelin and the APJ receptor in the RVLM neurons was examined by immunohistochemical staining and Western blots. The results showed apelin expression increased remarkably in SIHR while APJ receptor expression showed no significant difference between control and SIHR groups. Microinjection of apelin-13 into the RVLM of control rats or SIHR produced pressor and tachycardic effects. Furthermore, effects induced by apelin-13 in SIHR were significantly greater than those of control rats. In addition, repetitive electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation at the Zusanli (ST-36) acupoint attenuated hypertension and apelin expression in the RVLM in SIHR; it also attenuated the pressor effect elicited by exogenous apelin-13 microinjection in SIHR. The results suggest that augmented apelin in the RVLM was part of the manifestations of SIH; the antihypertensive effects of EA might be associated with the attenuation of apelin expression and function in the RVLM, which might be a novel role for EA in SIH setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of the apelin-APJ pathway and effects on erectile function in a mouse model of vasculogenic erectile dysfunction.

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    Kwon, Mi-Hye; Tuvshintur, Buyankhuu; Kim, Woo Jean; Jin, Hai-Rong; Yin, Guo Nan; Song, Kang-Moon; Choi, Min Ji; Kwon, Ki-Dong; Batbold, Dulguun; Ryu, Ji-Kan; Suh, Jun-Kyu

    2013-12-01

    Much attention has recently been focused on therapeutic angiogenesis as a treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). The apelin and apelin receptor (APJ) system is known to cause endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and to be involved in angiogenesis. To examine the differential expression of apelin and APJ in animal models of vasculogenic ED and to determine whether and how enhancement of apelin-APJ signaling restores erectile function in hypercholesterolemic mice. Acute cavernous ischemia was induced in C57BL/6J mice by bilateral occlusion of internal iliac arteries, and chronic vasculogenic ED was induced by feeding a high-cholesterol diet or by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of apelin and APJ were determined in cavernous tissue of each vasculogenic ED model by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We evaluated erectile function by electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve in hypercholesterolemic mice 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after a single intracavernous injection of apelin protein (5 μg/20 μL). The penis was harvested for histologic examinations and Western blot analysis. The cavernous mRNA expression of apelin and APJ was up-regulated in acute ischemia model and down-regulated in chronic vasculogenic ED models. A significant restoration of erectile function was noted 1 day after injection of apelin protein into the penis of hypercholesterolemic mice; however, erectile function returned to baseline values thereafter. The beneficial effects of apelin on erectile function resulted mainly from an activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and increase in nitric oxide bioavailability through reduction in reactive oxygen species-mediated endothelial apoptosis rather than through direct endothelial cell proliferation. These findings suggest that apelin-APJ signaling is a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of vasculogenic ED. Further studies are needed to develop a potent

  5. Apelin-APJ system is responsible for stress-induced increase in atrial natriuretic peptide expression in rat heart.

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    Izgut-Uysal, Vecihe Nimet; Acar, Nuray; Birsen, Ilknur; Ozcan, Filiz; Ozbey, Ozlem; Soylu, Hakan; Avci, Sema; Tepekoy, Filiz; Akkoyunlu, Gokhan; Yucel, Gultekin; Ustunel, Ismail

    2018-04-01

    The cardiovascular system is a primary target of stress and stress is the most important etiologic factor in cardiovascular diseases. Stressors increase expressions of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and apelin in cardiac tissue. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether stress-induced apelin has an effect on the expression of ANP in the right atrium of rat heart. The rats were divided into the control, stress and F13A+stress groups. In the stress and F13A+stress groups, the rats were subjected to water immersion and restraint stress (WIRS) for 6h. In the F13A+stress group, apelin receptor antagonist F13A, was injected intravenously immediately before application of WIRS. The plasma samples were obtained for the measurement of corticosterone and atrial natriuretic peptide. The atrial samples were used for immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. F13A administration prevented the rise of plasma corticosterone and ANP levels induced by WIRS. While WIRS application increased the expressions of apelin, HIF-1α and ANP in atrial tissue, while F13A prevented the stress-induced increase in the expression of HIF-1α and ANP. Stress-induced apelin induces ANP expression in atrial tissue and may play a role in cardiovascular homeostasis by increasing ANP expression under WIRS conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Apelin-13 upregulates Egr-1 expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways

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    Liu, Qi-Feng [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China); Yu, Hong-Wei [Department of Cardiology, Jinzhou Central Hospital, Jinzhou 121001 (China); Sun, Li-Li [Department of Ophthalmology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China); You, Lu; Tao, Gui-Zhou [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China); Qu, Bao-Ze, E-mail: qubaoze1971@hotmail.com [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China)

    2015-12-25

    Previous studies have shown that Apelin-13 upregulates early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) via the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. Apelin-13 induces proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) as well as the upregulation of osteopontin (OPN) via the upregulation of Egr-1. This study was designed to further explore the activity of Apelin-13 in VSMCs by investigating members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, in particular Jun kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38). We also examined whether the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways were involved in the regulation of Egr-1 by Apelin-13. We treated rat aortic VSMCs with Apelin-13 and examined the expression of JNK, p-JNK, P38, and p-P38 to investigate whether Apelin-13-mediated increases in Egr-1 occurred through the JNK and P38 signaling pathways. We then pretreated VSMCs with the Gi protein inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) and the Gq inhibitor YM254890, added Apelin-13 and looked for changes in Egr-1 expression. Finally, we pretreated with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, and treated with Apelin-13. Our results showed that JNK and P38 did not participate in Apelin-13-mediated increase in Egr-1. Instead, Apelin-13 upregulation of Egr-1 was mediated by a PTX-sensitive Gi protein. Apelin-13 did increase ERK phosphorylation through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways, resulting in changes in Egr-1 expression. These data provide important targets for future studies to modulate vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • Apelin-13 mediates Egr-1 upregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells via ERK1/2. • The underlying mechanisms are unknown, but exclude Jnk or p38 pathway activation. • Apelin-13 binds to Gi, activating the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling cascades. • Consequent ERK phosphorylation results in increased Egr-1

  7. Apelin-13 upregulates Egr-1 expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways

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    Liu, Qi-Feng; Yu, Hong-Wei; Sun, Li-Li; You, Lu; Tao, Gui-Zhou; Qu, Bao-Ze

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Apelin-13 upregulates early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) via the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. Apelin-13 induces proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) as well as the upregulation of osteopontin (OPN) via the upregulation of Egr-1. This study was designed to further explore the activity of Apelin-13 in VSMCs by investigating members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, in particular Jun kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38). We also examined whether the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways were involved in the regulation of Egr-1 by Apelin-13. We treated rat aortic VSMCs with Apelin-13 and examined the expression of JNK, p-JNK, P38, and p-P38 to investigate whether Apelin-13-mediated increases in Egr-1 occurred through the JNK and P38 signaling pathways. We then pretreated VSMCs with the Gi protein inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) and the Gq inhibitor YM254890, added Apelin-13 and looked for changes in Egr-1 expression. Finally, we pretreated with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, and treated with Apelin-13. Our results showed that JNK and P38 did not participate in Apelin-13-mediated increase in Egr-1. Instead, Apelin-13 upregulation of Egr-1 was mediated by a PTX-sensitive Gi protein. Apelin-13 did increase ERK phosphorylation through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways, resulting in changes in Egr-1 expression. These data provide important targets for future studies to modulate vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • Apelin-13 mediates Egr-1 upregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells via ERK1/2. • The underlying mechanisms are unknown, but exclude Jnk or p38 pathway activation. • Apelin-13 binds to Gi, activating the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling cascades. • Consequent ERK phosphorylation results in increased Egr-1

  8. Elabela/Toddler Is an Endogenous Agonist of the Apelin APJ Receptor in the Adult Cardiovascular System, and Exogenous Administration of the Peptide Compensates for the Downregulation of Its Expression in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

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    Yang, Peiran; Read, Cai; Kuc, Rhoda E; Buonincontri, Guido; Southwood, Mark; Torella, Rubben; Upton, Paul D; Crosby, Alexi; Sawiak, Stephen J; Carpenter, T Adrian; Glen, Robert C; Morrell, Nicholas W; Maguire, Janet J; Davenport, Anthony P

    2017-03-21

    Elabela/toddler (ELA) is a critical cardiac developmental peptide that acts through the G-protein-coupled apelin receptor, despite lack of sequence similarity to the established ligand apelin. Our aim was to investigate the receptor pharmacology, expression pattern, and in vivo function of ELA peptides in the adult cardiovascular system, to seek evidence for alteration in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in which apelin signaling is downregulated, and to demonstrate attenuation of PAH severity with exogenous administration of ELA in a rat model. In silico docking analysis, competition binding experiments, and downstream assays were used to characterize ELA receptor binding in human heart and signaling in cells expressing the apelin receptor. ELA expression in human cardiovascular tissues and plasma was determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, dual-labeling immunofluorescent staining, and immunoassays. Acute cardiac effects of ELA-32 and [Pyr 1 ]apelin-13 were assessed by MRI and cardiac catheterization in anesthetized rats. Cardiopulmonary human and rat tissues from PAH patients and monocrotaline- and Sugen/hypoxia-exposed rats were used to show changes in ELA expression in PAH. The effect of ELA treatment on cardiopulmonary remodeling in PAH was investigated in the monocrotaline rat model. ELA competed for binding of apelin in human heart with overlap for the 2 peptides indicated by in silico modeling. ELA activated G-protein- and β-arrestin-dependent pathways. We detected ELA expression in human vascular endothelium and plasma. Comparable to apelin, ELA increased cardiac contractility, ejection fraction, and cardiac output and elicited vasodilatation in rat in vivo. ELA expression was reduced in cardiopulmonary tissues from PAH patients and PAH rat models, respectively. ELA treatment significantly attenuated elevation of right ventricular systolic pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary vascular remodeling in

  9. Apelin is a novel angiogenic factor in retinal endothelial cells

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    Kasai, Atsushi; Shintani, Norihito; Oda, Maki; Kakuda, Michiya; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Toshio; Hinuma, Shuji; Baba, Akemichi

    2004-01-01

    There has been much focus recently on the possible functions of apelin, an endogenous ligand for the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor APJ, in cardiovascular and central nervous systems. We report a new function of apelin as a novel angiogenic factor in retinal endothelial cells. The retinal endothelial cell line RF/6A highly expressed both apelin and APJ transcripts, while human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) only expressed apelin mRNA. In accordance with these observations, apelin at concentrations of 1 pM-1 μM significantly enhanced migration, proliferation, and capillary-like tube formation of RF/6A cells, but not those of HUVECs, whereas VEGF stimulates those parameters of both cell types. In vivo Matrigel plug assay for angiogenesis, the inclusion of 1 nM apelin in the Matrigel resulted in clear capillary-like formations with an increase of hemoglobin content in the plug. This is the first report showing that apelin is an angiogenic factor in retinal endothelial cells

  10. Apelin Protects Primary Rat Retinal Pericytes from Chemical Hypoxia-Induced Apoptosis

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    Li Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericytes are a population of cells that participate in normal vessel architecture and regulate permeability. Apelin, as the endogenous ligand of G protein-coupled receptor APJ, participates in a number of physiological and pathological processes. To date, the effect of apelin on pericyte is not clear. Our study aimed to investigate the potential protection mechanisms of apelin, with regard to primary rat retinal pericytes under hypoxia. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that pericytes colocalized with APJ in the fibrovascular membranes dissected from proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients. In the in vitro studies, we first demonstrated that the expression of apelin/APJ was upregulated in pericytes under hypoxia, and apelin increased pericytes proliferation and migration. Moreover, knockdown of apelin in pericyte was achieved via lentivirus-mediated RNA interference. After the inhibition of apelin, pericytes proliferation was inhibited significantly in hypoxia culture condition. Furthermore, exogenous recombinant apelin effectively prevented hypoxia-induced apoptosis through downregulating active-caspase 3 expression and increasing the ratio of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2/Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax in pericytes. These results suggest that apelin suppressed hypoxia-induced pericytes injury, which indicated that apelin could be a potential therapeutic target for retinal angiogenic diseases.

  11. Apelin-13 enhances arcuate POMC neuron activity via inhibiting M-current.

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    Dong Kun Lee

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is a key element of the neural circuits that control energy homeostasis. Specific neuronal populations within the hypothalamus are sensitive to a variety of homeostatic indicators such as circulating nutrient levels and hormones that signal circulating glucose and body fat content. Central injection of apelin secreted by adipose tissues regulates feeding and glucose homeostasis. However, the precise neuronal populations and cellular mechanisms involved in these physiological processes remain unclear. Here we examine the electrophysiological impact of apelin-13 on proopiomelanocortin (POMC neuron activity. Approximately half of POMC neurons examined respond to apelin-13. Apelin-13 causes a dose-dependent depolarization. This effect is abolished by the apelin (APJ receptor antagonist. POMC neurons from animals pre-treated with pertussis toxin still respond to apelin, whereas the Gβγ signaling inhibitor gallein blocks apelin-mediated depolarization. In addition, the effect of apelin is inhibited by the phospholipase C and protein kinase inhibitors. Furthermore, single-cell qPCR analysis shows that POMC neurons express the APJ receptor, PLC-β isoforms, and KCNQ subunits (2, 3 and 5 which contribute to M-type current. Apelin-13 inhibits M-current that is blocked by the KCNQ channel inhibitor. Therefore, our present data indicate that apelin activates APJ receptors, and the resultant dissociation of the Gαq heterotrimer triggers a Gβγ-dependent activation of PLC-β signaling that inhibits M-current.

  12. The evidence of apelin has the bidirectional effects on feeding regulation in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

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    Hao, Jin; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Yuanbing; Zhu, Jieyao; Qi, Jinwen; Tang, Ni; Wang, Shuyao; Wang, Hong; Chen, Defang; Li, Zhiqiong

    2017-08-01

    Apelin is a peptide, mainly produced in the brain, which participates in several physiologic effects. However, knowledge about the mechanism of appetite regulation in teleosts, including the role of apelin is not well understood. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of feeding status on the expression of apelin mRNA in the whole brain and the effects of injection of apelin on food intake in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). In this study, we first cloned the apelin cDNA sequence of the Siberian sturgeon. We obtained a 1046-bp cDNA fragment, including a 237-bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded 78 amino acids. Apelin was widely distributed in 11 tissues related to feeding regulation, with the highest expression in thewhole brain, followed by the spleen and trunk kidney. In addition, we measured the effects of periprandial (preprandial and postprandial) change, fasting and re-feeding on apelin mRNA expression in whole brain. The level of apelin mRNA was significantly decreased 1h after feeding. The results of the fasting experiment showed that the expression of apelin mRNA in the brain was significantly reduced after 1day of fasting but consistently increased throughout the 15-day food deprivation period. When the 15-day fasted fish were re-fed, apelin mRNA expression in the brain was significantly increased as compared to that of the control. These results suggest that apelin may play a bidirectional role in the regulation of food intake in the Siberian sturgeon. In order to further examine the effect of apelin on feeding regulation in Siberian sturgeons, acute and chronic intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection experiments were performed and food intakes were recorded. Results showed that acute i.p. injection of apelin-13 reduced food intake, however, chronic i.p. injection apelin-13 increased the food intake for 7days in Siberian sturgeons. In conclusion, our results show that apelin has a bidirectional effect on feeding regulation in Siberian sturgeons

  13. Apelin ameliorates TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes through G protein-coupled receptor APJ.

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    Jiaojiao Chu

    Full Text Available Apelin, a novel adipokine, is the specific endogenous ligand of G protein-coupled receptor APJ. Consistent with its putative role as an adipokine, apelin has been linked to states of insulin resistance. However, the function of apelin in hepatic insulin resistance, a vital part of insulin resistance, and its underlying mechanisms still remains unclear. Here we define the impacts of apelin on TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes. Our studies indicate that apelin reversed TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in HepG2 cells, mouse primary hepatocytes and liver tissues of C57BL/6J mice by improving JNK-IRS1-AKT-GSK pathway. Moreover, Western blot revealed that APJ, but not apelin, expressed in the hepatocytes and liver tissues of mice. We found that F13A, a competitive antagonist for G protein-coupled receptor APJ, suppressed the effects of apelin on TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes, suggesting APJ is involved in the function of apelin. In conclusion, we show novel evidence suggesting that apelin ameliorates TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes through G protein-coupled receptor APJ. Apelin appears as a beneficial adipokine with anti-insulin resistance properties, and thus as a promising therapeutic target in metabolic disorders.

  14. Emerging role of apelin as a therapeutic target in cancer: a patent review.

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    Rayalam, Srujana; Della-Fera, Mary A; Kasser, Thomas; Warren, William; Baile, Clifton A

    2011-09-01

    Since tumors cannot grow or spread without forming new blood vessels, inhibiting angiogenesis is an excellent approach for the treatment of cancer. Further, inhibitors of angiogenesis have mild side effects since they act on endothelial cells, which eliminate the possibility of developing resistance or tolerance in tumor cells, unlike that seen with chemotherapy drugs. The anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monoclonal antibody bevacizumab acts by preventing new blood vessel formation in solid tumors and is approved by FDA to treat colorectal, lung, breast, glioblastoma and kidney cancers. The registration of this drug and its ongoing success in the clinic has validated the targeting of angiogenesis as an important approach to the treatment of solid tumors. Apelin is a novel angiogenic factor and recent studies indicate that apelin promotes angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo and the angiogenic potential of apelin is similar to that of VEGF. Also, apelin expression is upregulated and has been shown to be associated with clinical outcome in certain human cancers. Thus, inhibition of apelin activity might lead to a new class of anti-angiogenesis drugs which should be more efficacious than those currently on the market due to their ability to be both anti-angiogenic as well as anti-lymphangiogenic. There are very few patents on the angiogenic effects of apelin and this review article focuses on these patented claims related to inhibiting apelin signaling and sheds more light on how blocking apelin signaling might open doors to a new class of angiogenic inhibitors.

  15. The endoplasmic reticulum stress-autophagy pathway is involved in apelin-13-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro

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    Feng XIE; Di WU; Shi-fang HUANG; Jian-gang CAO; He-ning LI; Lu HE; Mei-qing LIU; Lan-fang LI; Lin-xi CHEN

    2017-01-01

    Apelin is the endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor APJ,and plays important roles in the cardiovascular system.Our previous studies showed that apelin-13 promotes the hypertrophy of H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes through the PI3K-autophagy pathway.The aim of this study was to explore what roles ER stress and autophagy played in apelin-13-induced hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes in vitro.Treatment of H9c2 cells with apelin-13 (0.001-2 μJmol/L) dose-dependently increased the production of ROS and the expression levels of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4).Knockdown of Nox4 with siRNAs effectively prevented the reduction of GSH/GSSG ratio in apelin-13-treated cells.Furthermore,apelin-13 treatment dose-dependently increased the expression of Bip and CHOP,two ER stress markers,in the cells.Knockdown of APJ or Nox4 with the corresponding siRNAs,or application of NADPH inhibitor DPI blocked apelin-13-induced increases in Bip and CHOP expression.Moreover,apelin-13 treatment increased the formation of autophagosome and ER fragments and the LC3 puncta in the ER of the cells.Knockdown of APJ,Nox4,Bip or CHOP with the corresponding siRNAs,or application of DPI or salubrinal attenuated apelin-13-induced overexpression of LC3-Ⅱ/Ⅰ and beclin 1.Finally,knockdown of Nox4,Bip or CHOP with the corresponding siRNAs,or application of salubrinal significantly suppressed apelin-13-induced increases in the cell diameter,volume and protein contents.Our results demonstrate that ER stress-autophagy is involved in apelin-13-induced H9c2 cell hypertrophy.

  16. Mechanisms involved in dual vasopressin/apelin neuron dysfunction during aging.

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    Julie Sauvant

    Full Text Available Normal aging is associated with vasopressin neuron adaptation, but little is known about its effects on the release of apelin, an aquaretic peptide colocalized with vasopressin. We found that plasma vasopressin concentrations were higher and plasma apelin concentrations lower in aged rats than in younger adults. The response of AVP/apelin neurons to osmotic challenge was impaired in aged rats. The overactivity of vasopressin neurons was sustained partly by the increased expression of Transient receptor potential vanilloid2 (Trpv2, because central Trpv blocker injection reversed the age-induced increase in plasma vasopressin concentration without modifying plasma apelin concentration. The morphofunctional plasticity of the supraoptic nucleus neuron-astrocyte network normally observed during chronic dehydration in adults appeared to be impaired in aged rats as well. IL-6 overproduction by astrocytes and low-grade microglial neuroinflammation may contribute to the modification of neuronal functioning during aging. Indeed, central treatment with antibodies against IL-6 decreased plasma vasopressin levels and increased plasma apelin concentration toward the values observed in younger adults. Conversely, minocycline treatment (inhibiting microglial metabolism did not affect plasma vasopressin concentration, but increased plasma apelin concentration toward control values for younger adults. This study is the first to demonstrate dual vasopressin/apelin adaptation mediated by inflammatory molecules and neuronal Trpv2, during aging.

  17. Xiaoyaosan Improves Depressive-Like Behaviors in Mice through Regulating Apelin-APJ System in Hypothalamus.

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    Yan, Zhiyi; Jiao, Haiyan; Ding, Xiufang; Ma, Qingyu; Li, Xiaojuan; Pan, Qiuxia; Wang, Tingye; Hou, Yajing; Jiang, Youming; Liu, Yueyun; Chen, Jiaxu

    2018-05-03

    Background: The apelin-APJ system has been considered to play a crucial role in HPA axis function, and how the traditional Chinese compound prescription Xiaoyaosan regulates the apelin-APJ system as a supplement to treat depressive disorders. Objective: To investigate the depression-like behaviors and expression of apelin and APJ in hypothalamus of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) mice and study whether these changes related to the regulation of Xiaoyaosan. Methods: 60 adult C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into four groups, including control group, CUMS group, Xiaoyaosan treatment group and fluoxetine treatment group. Mice in the control group and CUMS group received 0.5 mL physiological saline once a day by intragastric administration. Mice in two treatment groups received Xiaoyaosan (0.25 g/kg/d) and fluoxetine (2.6 mg/kg/d), respectively. After 21 days of modeling with CUMS, the expression of apelin and APJ in hypothalamus were measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical staining. The physical condition, body weight, food intake and behavior tests such as open field test, sucrose preference test and force swimming test were measured to evaluate depressive-like behaviors. Results: In this study, significant behavioral changes were found in CUMS-induced mice, meanwhile the expressions of apelin and APJ in the hypothalamus were changed after modeling. The body weight, food-intake and depressive-like behaviors in CUMS-induced mice could be improved by Xiaoyaosan treatment which is similar with the efficacy of fluoxetine, while the expressions of apelin and APJ in hypothalamus were modified by Xiaoyaosan. Conclusions: The data suggest that apelin-APJ system changes in the hypothalamus may be a target of depressive disorders, and the beneficial effects of Chinese compound prescription Xiaoyaosan on depressive-like behaviors may be mediated by the apelin-APJ system.

  18. Diminished metabolic responses to centrally-administered apelin-13 in diet-induced obese rats fed a high-fat diet.

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    Clarke, K J; Whitaker, K W; Reyes, T M

    2009-02-01

    The central administration of apelin, a recently identified adipokine, has been shown to affect food and water intake. The present study investigated whether body weight could affect an animal's response to apelin. The effects of centrally-administered apelin-13 on food and water intake, activity and metabolic rate were investigated in adult male diet-induced obese (DIO) rats fed either a high fat (32%) or control diet. Rats were administered i.c.v. apelin-13, 15-30 min prior to lights out, and food and water intake, activity and metabolic rate were assessed. Intracerebroventricular administration of apelin-13 decreased food and water intake and respiratory exchange ratio in DIO rats on the control diet, but had no effect in DIO rats on the high-fat diet. In an effort to identify potential central mechanisms explaining the observed physiological responses, the mRNA level of the apelin receptor, APJ, was examined in the hypothalamus. A high-fat diet induced an up-regulation of the expression of the receptor. Apelin induced a down-regulation of the receptor, but only in the DIO animals on the high-fat diet. In conclusion, we have demonstrated a diminished central nervous system response to apelin that is coincident with obesity.

  19. Phenotypic expression in the developing murine enteric nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, T.P.; Gershon, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    The development of the enteric nervous system was examined in fetal mice. Synthesis of [3H] acetylcholine ([3H]ACh) from [3H]choline and acetylcholinesterase histochemistry were used as phenotypic markers for cholinergic neurons, while the radioautographic detection of the specific uptake of [3H]serotonin (5-[3H]HT) and immunocytochemical staining with antiserum to 5-HT marked serotonergic neurons. The gut also was examined by light and electron microscopy. Development of the gut was studied in situ and in explants grown in organotypic tissue culture. Neurons were first detected morphologically in the foregut on embryonic day 12 (E12). Synthesis of [3H]ACh was detectable on days E10 to E12 but increased markedly between days E13 and E14. Uptake and radioautographic labeling by 5-[3H]HT was seen first in the foregut on day E12, in the colon on day E13, and in the terminal colon on day E14. Gut explanted from both distal and proximal bowel prior to the time when neurons could be detected (days E9 to E11) nevertheless formed neurons in culture. These cultures of early explants displayed markers for both cholinergic and serotonergic neurons. Enhances development of both cholinergic and serotonergic neurons was found in cultures explanted at day E11 over that found in cultures explanted on days E9 or E10. The evidence presented indicates (1) that enteric neurons develop from nonrecognizable precursors, (2) that the proximodistal gradient in neuronal phenotypic expression probably is not related to a proximodistal migration of precursor cells down the gut, (3) that the colonization of the bowel by neuronal precursors may be a prolonged process continuing from day E9 at least through day E11, (4) that the first pool of neuronal primordia to colonize the developing bowel can produce both cholinergic and serotonergic neurons

  20. Post-infarct treatment with [Pyr1]apelin-13 exerts anti-remodelling and anti-apoptotic effects in rats' hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Yaser; Imani, Alireza; Fanaei, Hamed; Khamse, Safoura; Parvizi, Mohammad Reza; Faghihi, Mahdieh

    2017-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is the main cause of mortality in the world. After myocardial infarction (MI) cardiomyocytes apoptosis and ventricular remodelling have occurred. Apelin is a peptide that has been shown to exert cardioprotective effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-apoptotic and anti-remodelling effects of [Pyr¹]apelin-13 in the rat model of post-MI. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: (1) sham, (2) MI, and (3) MI treated with [Pyr¹] apelin-13 (MI+Apel). MI animals were subjected to 30-min ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and 14 days of reperfusion. Twenty-four hours after LAD ligation, [Pyr¹]apelin-13 (10 nmol/kg/day, i.p.) was administered for five consecutive days. Hypertrophic parameters, left ventricular (LV) remodelling, and gene expression of Apel, apelin receptor (Apelr), Bax, caspase-3 (Casp-3), and Bcl-2 by real-time polymerase chain reaction and cardiomyocytes apoptosis by TUNEL immunostaining were assessed on day 14 post-MI. Post-infarct treatment with [Pyr¹]apelin-13 improved myocardial hypertrophic and LV remodelling parameters and led to a significant increase in the expression of Apel, Apelr, and Bcl-2, and a decrease in the expression of Bax and Casp-3. Furthermore, treatment with [Pyr¹]apelin-13 decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis. [Pyr¹]apelin-13 has anti-hypertrophic, anti-remodelling, and anti-apoptotic effects via overexpression of Apel, Apelr, and Bcl-2 and reduces gene expression of Bax and Casp-3 in the infarcted myocardium, which can in turn lead to repair myocardium.

  1. Serum CD73 and apelin levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy and the clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Qiang Du

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the serum ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) and apelin levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and the clinical significance.Methods:A total of 108 patients with type 2 diabetes treated in our hospital between April 2013 and February 2016 were collected and divided into non-diabetic retinopathy (NDR) group (n=51), background diabetic retinopathy (BDR) group (n=40) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) group (n=17) based on the results of fundus fluorescence angiography. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine CD73 and apelin level immediately after admission; thiobarbituric acid method and xanthine oxidase method were used to determine the serum levels of oxidative stress indicators; ELISA method was used to determine the levels of angiogenesis indexes and inflammatory factors; Pearson test was used to analyze the correlation of serum CD73 and apelin levels with the illness-related indexes in patients with DR.Results:Serum CD73 and apelin levels of BDR group and PDR group were significantly higher than those of NDR group, and serum CD73 and apelin levels of PDR group were significantly higher than those of BDR group; serum malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiogenin-2 (Ang-2) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) levels of BDR group and PDR group were significantly higher than those of NDR group while total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels were lower than those of NDR group, and the changes in above indexes of PDR group were more significant; Pearson test showed that serum CD73 and apelin levels in patients with DR were directly correlated with the levels of illness-related indexes.Conclusion:CD73 and apelin expression are abnormally high in patients with

  2. Serum CD73 and apelin levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy and the clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Qiang Du

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the serum ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73 and apelin levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR and the clinical significance. Methods: A total of 108 patients with type 2 diabetes treated in our hospital between April 2013 and February 2016 were collected and divided into non-diabetic retinopathy (NDR group (n=51, background diabetic retinopathy (BDR group (n=40 and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR group (n=17 based on the results of fundus fluorescence angiography. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to determine CD73 and apelin level immediately after admission; thiobarbituric acid method and xanthine oxidase method were used to determine the serum levels of oxidative stress indicators; ELISA method was used to determine the levels of angiogenesis indexes and inflammatory factors; Pearson test was used to analyze the correlation of serum CD73 and apelin levels with the illness-related indexes in patients with DR. Results: Serum CD73 and apelin levels of BDR group and PDR group were significantly higher than those of NDR group, and serum CD73 and apelin levels of PDR group were significantly higher than those of BDR group; serum malondialdehyde (MDA, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, interleukin-2 (IL-2, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-毩 (TNF- 毩, hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, angiogenin-2 (Ang-2 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1毩 (HIF-1毩 levels of BDR group and PDR group were significantly higher than those of NDR group while total antioxidant capacity (TAOC, superoxide dismutase (SOD and interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels were lower than those of NDR group, and the changes in above indexes of PDR group were more significant; Pearson test showed that serum CD73 and apelin levels in patients with DR were directly correlated with the levels of illness-related indexes. Conclusion: CD73 and apelin expression are abnormally high in

  3. Apelin as a marker for monitoring the tumor vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Takara, Kazuhiro; Yamakawa, Daishi; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Antiangiogenic agents transiently normalize tumor vessel structure and improve vessel function, thereby providing a window of opportunity for enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Currently, there are no reliable predictors or markers reflecting this vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy. Apelin, the expression of which is regulated by hypoxia, and which has well-described roles in tumor progression, is an easily measured secreted protein. Here, we show that apelin can be used as a marker for the vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy. Mice bearing s.c. tumors resulting from inoculation of the colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29 were treated with a single injection of bevacizumab, a mAb neutralizing vascular endothelial growth factor. Tumor growth, vessel density, pericyte coverage, tumor hypoxia, and small molecule delivery were determined at four different times after treatment with bevacizumab (days 1, 3, 5, and 8). Tumor growth and vessel density were significantly reduced after bevacizumab treatment, which also significantly increased tumor vessel maturity, and improved tumor hypoxia and small molecule delivery between days 3 and 5. These effects abated by day 8, suggesting that a time window for vessel normalization was opened between days 3 and 5 during bevacizumab treatment in this model. Apelin mRNA expression and plasma apelin levels decreased transiently at day 5 post-treatment, coinciding with vessel normalization. Thus, apelin is a potential indicator of the vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  4. Decreased maternal plasma apelin concentrations in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoff, Katherine D; Qiu, Chunfang; Runyon, Scott; Williams, Michelle A; Maitra, Rangan

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder that complicates 3-7% of pregnancies. The development of preeclampsia has not been completely elucidated and current therapies are not broadly efficacious. The apelinergic system appears to be involved in hypertensive disorders and experimental studies indicate a role of this system in preeclampsia. Thus, an epidemiological evaluation of apelin protein concentration in plasma was conducted in case-control study of pregnant women. Data and maternal plasma samples were collected from pregnant women with confirmed preeclampsia (n = 76) or normotensive controls (n = 79). Concentrations of apelin peptides were blindly measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. Plasma apelin concentrations, measured at delivery, were lower in preeclampsia cases compared with controls (mean ± standard deviation: 0.66 ± 0.29 vs. 0.78 ± 0.31 ng/mL, p = 0.02). After controlling for confounding by maternal age, smoking status, and pre-pregnancy body mass index, odds of preeclampsia were 48% lower for women with high versus low plasma apelin (≥0.73 vs. preclampsia and other hypertensive maternal disorders.

  5. Plasma Apelin Concentrations in Patients With Polyuria-Polydipsia Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwyler, Sandrine Andrea; Timper, Katharina; Fenske, Wiebke; de Mota, Nadia; Blanchard, Anne; Kühn, Felix; Frech, Nica; Arici, Birsen; Rutishauser, Jonas; Kopp, Peter; Stettler, Christoph; Müller, Beat; Katan, Mira; Llorens-Cortes, Catherine; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2016-05-01

    Apelin and arginine vasopressin are antagonists in the regulation of body fluid and osmotic homeostasis. There are no data about apelin levels in patients with polyuria-polydipsia syndrome (PPS). To investigate plasma apelin levels and plasma apelin to copeptin ratios in patients with PPS and healthy volunteers using copeptin as a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin. We included 41 patients with PPS in this post hoc analysis of a prospective study performed in tertiary care hospitals in Switzerland and Germany and 113 healthy volunteers as a control group. Plasma apelin and copeptin levels were measured in 15 patients with complete central diabetes insipidus (DI), seven patients with complete nephrogenic DI, 19 patients with primary polydipsia (PP), and 113 healthy volunteers. Plasma apelin levels were highest in patients with complete nephrogenic DI (413 pmol/L; interquartile range, 332-504 pmol/L; P = .01) and lower in patients with PP (190 [172-215] pmol/L; P .9) was similar to healthy volunteers (57 [37-102] pmol/pmol). In contrast, the apelin to copeptin ratio was higher in patients with complete central DI (89 [73-135] pmol/pmol; P = .02) and lower in patients with complete nephrogenic DI (7 [6-10] pmol/pmol; P < .001) compared to healthy volunteers. In PP, normal plasma apelin to copeptin ratio attests a normal water homeostasis. In contrast, in patients with central or nephrogenic DI, the increased or decreased apelin to copeptin ratio, respectively, reflects a disturbed osmotic and body fluid homeostasis.

  6. Promoting effect of adipocytokine, apelin, on hepatic injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marwa N. Emam

    2015-12-14

    Dec 14, 2015 ... and inflammatory markers, pancreatic and hepatic MPO activity with ..... ment, and possibly mediated by an apelin-induced reduction ... So targeting the ape- .... Adenoviral delivery of human and viral IL-10 in murine sepsis.

  7. Apelin rs2235306 polymorphism is not related to metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eman T. Mehanna

    2014-11-27

    Nov 27, 2014 ... effects on high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, improving glucose tolerance and increasing ... apelin and obesity-associated insulin resistance. Accordingly, ..... M, Kovacova Z, et al. Effect of hypocaloric diet-induced weight.

  8. Apelin enhances cardiac neovascularization after myocardial infarction by recruiting aplnr+ circulating cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempel, D.; de Boer, M.; van Deel, E.D.; Haasdijk, R.A.; Duncker, D.J.G.M.; Cheng, C.; Schulte-Merker, S.; Duckers, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    RATIONALE: Neovascularization stimulated by local or recruited stem cells after ischemia is a key process that salvages damaged tissue and shows similarities with embryonic vascularization. Apelin receptor (Aplnr) and its endogenous ligand apelin play an important role in cardiovascular development.

  9. Apelin Enhances Cardiac Neovascularization After Myocardial Infarction By Recruiting Aplnr+ Circulating Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempel, D.; Boer, de M.; Deel, van E.D.; Haasdijk, A.; Duncker, D.J.; Cheng, C.; Schulte-Merker, S.; Duckers, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Neovascularization stimulated by local or recruited stem cells after ischemia is a key process that salvages damaged tissue and shows similarities with embryonic vascularization. Apelin receptor (Aplnr) and its endogenous ligand apelin play an important role in cardiovascular development.

  10. The orphan G protein-coupled receptor 25 (GPR25) is activated by Apelin and Apela in non-mammalian vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiannan; Wan, Yiping; Fang, Chao; Chen, Junan; Ouyang, Wangan; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2018-06-22

    G protein-coupled receptor 25 (GPR25) is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor in vertebrates, that has been implicated to be associated with autoimmune diseases and regulate blood pressure in humans. However, the endogenous ligand of GPR25 remains unknown in vertebrates. Here, we reported that in non-mammalian vertebrates (zebrafish, spotted gars, and pigeons), GPR25 could be activated by Apelin and Apela peptides, which are also the two endogenous ligands of vertebrate Apelin receptor (APLNR). Using the pGL3-CRE-luciferase reporter assay and confocal microscopy, we first demonstrated that like APLNR, zebrafish GPR25 expressing in HEK293 cells could be effectively activated by zebrafish Apelin and Apela peptides, leading to the inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production and receptor internalization. Like zebrafish GPR25, pigeon and spotted gar GPR25 could also be activated by Apelin and Apela, and their activation could inhibit forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation. Interestingly, unlike zebrafish (/spotted gar/pigeon) GPR25, human GPR25 could not be activated by Apelin and Apela under the same experimental conditions. RNA-seq analysis further revealed that GPR25 is expressed in a variety of tissues, including the testes and intestine of zebrafish/spotted gars/humans, implying the potential roles of GPR25 signaling in many physiological processes in vertebrates. Taken together, our data not only provides the first proof that the orphan receptor GPR25 possesses two potential ligands 'Apelin and Apela' and its activation decreases intracellular cAMP levels in non-mammalian vertebrates, but also facilitates to unravel the physiological roles of GPR25 signaling in vertebrates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Is serum apelin related to portal hemodynamics in patients with liver cirrhosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf G Dala

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion Serum apelin is elevated in patients with cirrhosis and PH, and a positive correlation is found between serum apelin and the degree of hepatic fibrosis. Measurement of serum apelin represents a rapid, noninvasive method for the prediction of PH in cirrhotics and can assess the degree of hepatic fibrosis.

  12. Gene ontology of differentially expressed genes in the Necrotic enteritis induced chicken lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens has become prevalent in the broiler industry due to the withdrawal of antibiotics in poultry feed. The expression level of intestinal mRNA from two chicken lines (line 6.3: MD-resistant and 7.2: MD-susceptible) was significantly different followi...

  13. Galanin enhances systemic glucose metabolism through enteric Nitric Oxide Synthase-expressed neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Abot

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Decreasing duodenal contraction is now considered as a major focus for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, identifying bioactive molecules able to target the enteric nervous system, which controls the motility of intestinal smooth muscle cells, represents a new therapeutic avenue. For this reason, we chose to study the impact of oral galanin on this system in diabetic mice. Methods: Enteric neurotransmission, duodenal contraction, glucose absorption, modification of gut–brain axis, and glucose metabolism (glucose tolerance, insulinemia, glucose entry in tissue, hepatic glucose metabolism were assessed. Results: We show that galanin, a neuropeptide expressed in the small intestine, decreases duodenal contraction by stimulating nitric oxide release from enteric neurons. This is associated with modification of hypothalamic nitric oxide release that favors glucose uptake in metabolic tissues such as skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. Oral chronic gavage with galanin in diabetic mice increases insulin sensitivity, which is associated with an improvement of several metabolic parameters such as glucose tolerance, fasting blood glucose, and insulin. Conclusion: Here, we demonstrate that oral galanin administration improves glucose homeostasis via the enteric nervous system and could be considered a therapeutic potential for the treatment of T2D. Keywords: Galanin, Enteric nervous system, Diabetes

  14. Elabela-apelin receptor signaling pathway is functional in mammalian systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Yu, Daozhan; Wang, Mengqiao; Wang, Qilong; Kouznetsova, Jennifer; Yang, Rongze; Qian, Kun; Wu, Wenjun; Shuldiner, Alan; Sztalryd, Carole; Zou, Minghui; Zheng, Wei; Gong, Da-Wei

    2015-02-02

    Elabela (ELA) or Toddler is a recently discovered hormone which is required for normal development of heart and vasculature through activation of apelin receptor (APJ), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), in zebrafish. The present study explores whether the ELA-APJ signaling pathway is functional in the mammalian system. Using reverse-transcription PCR, we found that ELA is restrictedly expressed in human pluripotent stem cells and adult kidney whereas APJ is more widely expressed. We next studied ELA-APJ signaling pathway in reconstituted mammalian cell systems. Addition of ELA to HEK293 cells over-expressing GFP-AJP fusion protein resulted in rapid internalization of the fusion receptor. In Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells over-expressing human APJ, ELA suppresses cAMP production with EC50 of 11.1 nM, stimulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation with EC50 of 14.3 nM and weakly induces intracellular calcium mobilization. Finally, we tested ELA biological function in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells and showed that ELA induces angiogenesis and relaxes mouse aortic blood vessel in a dose-dependent manner through a mechanism different from apelin. Collectively, we demonstrate that the ELA-AJP signaling pathways are functional in mammalian systems, indicating that ELA likely serves as a hormone regulating the circulation system in adulthood as well as in embryonic development.

  15. The glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor is expressed in enteric neurons and not in the epithelium of the intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens; B. Pedersen, Nis; Brix, Sophie W.

    2015-01-01

    fibrillary acidic protein in these isolated tissue fractions was quantified with qRT-PCR. Expression of the Glp2r was confined to compartments containing enteric neurons and receptor expression was absent in the epithelium. Our findings provide evidence for the expression of the GLP-2R in intestinal...... compartments rich in enteric neurons and, importantly they exclude significant expression in the epithelium of rat jejunal mucosa....

  16. Neuroprotective effect of the endogenous neural peptide apelin in cultured mouse cortical neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Xiang Jun; Yu, Shan Ping; Zhang, Like; Wei, Ling

    2010-01-01

    The adipocytokine apelin and its G protein-coupled APJ receptor were initially isolated from a bovine stomach and have been detected in the brain and cardiovascular system. Recent studies suggest that apelin can protect cardiomyocytes from ischemic injury. Here, we investigated the effect of apelin on apoptosis in mouse primary cultures of cortical neurons. Exposure of the cortical cultures to a serum-free medium for 24 h induced nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic death; apelin-13 (1.0-5.0 nM) markedly prevented the neuronal apoptosis. Apelin neuroprotective effects were mediated by multiple mechanisms. Apelin-13 reduced serum deprivation (SD)-induced ROS generation, mitochondria depolarization, cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3. Apelin-13 prevented SD-induced changes in phosphorylation status of Akt and ERK1/2. In addition, apelin-13 attenuated NMDA-induced intracellular Ca 2+ accumulation. These results indicate that apelin is an endogenous neuroprotective adipocytokine that may block apoptosis and excitotoxic death via cellular and molecular mechanisms. It is suggested that apelins may be further explored as a potential neuroprotective reagent for ischemia-induced brain damage.

  17. Enteral peptide formulas inhibit radiation induced enteritis and apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells and suppress the expression and function of Alzheimer's and cell division control gene products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, F.O.; Issinger, O.G.; McArdle, A.H.; Shapiro, J.; Tomei, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    Studies have shown that patients receiving enteral peptide formulas prior to irradiation have a significantly reduced incidence of enteritis and express a profound increase in intestinal cellularity. Two conceptual approaches were taken to describe this response. First was the evaluation in changes in programmed intestinal cell death and secondly the evaluation of a gene product controlling cell division cycling. This study provided a relationship between the ratio of cell death to cell formulations. The results indicate that in the canine and murine models, irradiation induces expression of the Alzheimer's gene in intestinal crypt cells, while the incidence of apoptosis in apical cells is significantly increased. The use of peptide enteral formulations suppresses the expression of the Alzheimer's gene in crypt cells, while apoptosis is eliminated in the apical cells of the intestine. Concomitantly, enteral peptide formulations suppress the function of the CK-II gene product in the basal and baso-lateral cells of the intestine. These data indicate that although the mitotic index is significantly reduced in enterocytes, this phenomenon alone is not sufficient to account for the peptide-induced radio-resistance of the intestine. The data also indicate a significant reduction of normal apoptosis in the upper lateral and apical cells of the intestinal villi. Thus, the ratio of cell death to cell replacement is significantly decreased resulting in an increase in villus height and hypertrophy of the apical villus cells. Thus, peptide solutions should be considered as an adjunct treatment both in radio- and chemotherapy

  18. Plasma apelin levels in obstructive sleep apnea and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, David E; Buchanan, Fiona; Gibson, Rosemary; Douthwaite, Jennie A; Wood, Susan A; Woltersdorf, Wolfram W; Catterall, James R; Lightman, Stafford L

    2009-10-01

    Apelin is a peptide hormone with cardiovascular and glucose homeostasis properties, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is complicated by cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities. Plasma apelin has not been previously assessed in OSA. We investigated the response of plasma apelin to a 2-h 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and the effect of 3 months compliant continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in 15 obese males with newly diagnosed OSA. Plasma apelin and serum cortisol were recorded 10 minutely, while serum insulin and glucose were measured 30 minutely. Ten subjects had plasma apelin measured at intervals across a 24-h period to investigate for circadian variation in apelin levels, and this was repeated following 3 months compliant CPAP therapy. Fasting (0.342+/-0.038 vs 0.288+/-0.024 ng/ml, P=0.04), 30 min (0.399+/-0.035 vs 0.312+/-0.036 ng/ml, P=0.007) and 120 min (0.402+/-0.030 vs 0.259+/-0.024 ng/ml, P<0.001) apelin levels were reduced following CPAP. The area under curve for apelin OGTT response was lower post-CPAP (44.1+/-3.3 vs 35.8+/-2.3 ng/ml per min, P<0.001). Mean OGTT apelin levels showed a significant treatment effect (P=0.006) and a time effect (P<0.001), and the effect of time was different pre- versus post-CPAP (P=0.005). No significant variability in apelin levels existed across the 24-h period at diagnosis. Lower levels were evident overnight following treatment (P=0.004). Improvements in insulin and glucose parameters and reduced cortisol levels were found post-CPAP. In summary, untreated OSA was associated with elevated plasma apelin levels, altered apelin secretory dynamics in response to oral glucose and lack of an apparent circadian variability, which was restored following CPAP.

  19. The role of serum apelin in retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali YF

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Yasser F Ali,1 Salah El-Morshedy,1 Abdulbasit Abdulhalim Imam,2 Nasser Ismai A Abdelrahman,1 Riad M Elsayed,3 Usama M Alkholy,1 Nermin Abdalmonem,1 Mohammed M Shehab1 1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 2Department of Pediatrics, Al-Azhar Faculty of Medicine-Girls, Cairo, 3Pediatric Neurology Unit, Pediatric Department, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Objective: To evaluate the role of serum apelin as a diagnostic tool in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP disease.Patients and methods: Thirty-eight preterm infants (60% male with gestational age ranging from 30 to 36 weeks admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, KJO Hospital, Saudi Arabia with proven diagnosis of ROP were included in the study. In addition, 27 preterm infants without ROP served as controls. All newborn infants in the study were subjected to adequate history taking, full clinical examination, and fundus examination by indirect ophthalmoscope (at 4–6 weeks as well as determination of serum apelin at birth and at 4–6 weeks of age.Results: The study revealed that oxygen therapy longer than 7 days’ duration, cesarean section (as a mode of delivery, sepsis, mechanical ventilation, blood transfusion, premature rupture of membranes, pneumothorax, perinatal asphyxia, cardiac problems, and neonatal jaundice were considered as risk factors related to development of ROP. Serum apelin levels were significantly lower in patients than controls (P<0.001 at time of diagnosis of the disease (4–6 weeks while no significant differences were observed in levels at birth.Conclusion: Serum apelin was found to be of significant diagnostic value in the occurrence of ROP. Keywords: retinopathy of prematurity, preterm infants, serum apelin

  20. Does Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Itself Have Additional Effect on Apelin Levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Benk Silfeler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study was designed to compare serum levels of apelin between lean PCOS women and healthy women with regular menses. Study Design. A total of 30 lean patients with PCOS and 30 healthy subjects were included in this study. Serum apelin levels were compared between groups. Results. Serum apelin levels in lean PCOS patients were not significantly different from the control subjects. Conclusion. Our findings indicate that PCOS itself does not seem to change apelin levels. Further investigation on a large number of subjects will need to be conducted to prove the consistent or variable association in PCOS.

  1. Serum apelin levels and body composition changes in breast cancer patients treated with an aromatase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Tarik; Demir, Leyla; Varol, Umut; Akyol, Murat; Oflazoglu, Utku; Yildiz, Yasar; Taskaynatan, Halil; Cengiz, Hakan; Guvendi, Guven; Kucukzeybek, Yuksel; Alacacioglu, Ahmet; Tarhan, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The adipose tissue plays a role in carcinogenesis with the adipokines it generates. Apelin is an anti-obesigenic adipokine, and assumes roles in both vascularization and tumor cell proliferation. The present study aimed to investigate changes in apelin levels, in postmenopausal breast cancer (BC) patients receiving aromatase inhibitors (AIs). Forty early-stage postmenopausal BC patients treated with AIs with no history of chemotherapy administration were included in the study. At the beginning, we measured serum apelin levels in postmenopausal BC patients who were receiving AIs and healthy women of similar age and normal body mass index (BMI) (control group). We evaluated changes in the body composition, serum lipid profile and serum apelin levels at the beginning and the 12th month through anthropometric measurements and bioelectric impedance analysis. Forty subjects with postmenopausal BC had a median age of 57 years (range 44-82)). BC patients exhibited significantly higher apelin levels and body mass index (BMI) scores compared to the control group (p=0.0001, p=0.0001, respectively). The 12th month's measurements indicated reduced apelin levels in 24 patients (60%) and increased apelin levels in 16 patients (40%) compared to the initial figures. With respect to the parameters, the patients with reduced apelin levels had significantly different waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and fat mass scores compared to those with higher apelin levels (p=0.008, p=0.047, respectively). This study showed that postmenopausal BC patients had high levels of apelin and high BMI scores. This finding suggests that apelin promoted carcinogenesis particularly in obese individuals. The massive and metabolic changes observed in the fat tissues of the postmenopausal BC patients receiving AIs will especially affect the BC-associated outcome.

  2. Enteric glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühl, A; Nasser, Y; Sharkey, K A

    2004-04-01

    The enteric nervous system is composed of both enteric neurones and enteric glia. Enteric glial cells were first described by Dogiel and are now known to outnumber neurones approximately 4 : 1. In the past, these cells were assumed to subserve a largely supportive role; however, recent evidence indicates that enteric glial cells may play a more active role in the control of gut function. In transgenic mouse models, where enteric glial cells are selectively ablated, the loss of glia results in intestinal inflammation and disruption of the epithelial barrier. Enteric glia are activated specifically by inflammatory insults and may contribute actively to inflammatory pathology via antigen presentation and cytokine synthesis. Enteric glia also express receptors for neurotransmitters and so may serve as intermediaries in enteric neurotransmission. Thus, enteric glia may serve as a link between the nervous and immune systems of the gut and may also have an important role in maintaining the integrity of the mucosal barrier and in other aspects of intestinal homeostasis.

  3. Production of mink enteritis parvovirus empty capsids by expression in a baculovirus vector system: a recombinant vaccine for mink enteritis parvovirus in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J; Alexandersen, Søren; Bloch, B.

    1994-01-01

    The VP-2 gene of mink enteritis parvovirus (MEV) was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction using MEV DNA isolated from the faeces of a naturally infected mink. Subsequently the VP-2 gene was cloned into a baculovirus expression vector. Recombinant baculo-viruses were isolated and the MEV VP-2...... protein was able to form parvovirus-like particles, which had haemagglutinating properties comparable with the wild-type MEV. The cloned VP-2 gene was sequenced and only five nucleotide differences were found after alignment with the known sequences of the MEV type 1 and type 2 isolates. Surprisingly...

  4. Apelin-13 ameliorates cognitive impairments in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced substantia nigra lesion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Elham; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Sheibani, Vahid

    2018-04-01

    Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is well known with its motor deficits, the patients often suffer from cognitive dysfunction. Apelin, as the endogenous ligand of the APJ receptor, is found in several brain regions such as substantia nigra and mesolimbic pathway. However, the role of apelin in cognition and cognitive disorders has not been fully clarified. In this study the effects of apelin-13 were investigated on cognitive disorders in rat Parkinsonism experimental model. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was administrated into the substantia nigra. Apelin-13 (1, 2 and 3μg/rat) was administered into the substantia nigra one week after the 6-OHDA injection. Morris water maze (MWM), object location and novel object recognition tests were performed one month after the apelin injection. 6-OHDA-treated animals showed a significant impairment in cognitive functions which was revealed by the increased in the escape latency and traveled distance in MWM test and decreased in the exploration index in novel object recognition and object location tasks. Apelin-13 (3μg/rat) significantly attenuates the mentioned cognitive impairments in 6-OHDA-treated animals. In conclusion, the data support the pro-cognitive property of apelin-13 in 6-OHDA-induced cognitive deficit and provided a new pharmacological aspect of the neuropeptide apelin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Apelin Role in the Development of Glucose Metabolism Disorders (Review of the Literature and Our Own Researches

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    G.V. Demidenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The physiological and pathogenetic role of adipokine apelin, endogenous ligand of apelin (APJ or APLNR receptors in the development of glucose metabolism disorders has been analyzed. Established correlations of apelin with components of carbohydrate metabolism confirm the effect on glucose metabolism manifestations. Ambiguous data about apelin level at insulin resistance syndrome, prediabetes, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension require further detailed study. The close association of apelin with development of diabetes mellitus type 2 and prediction of cardiovascular events in patients with metabolic syndrome has been found.

  6. Effect of exogenous apelin-13 on cardiac stem cell mobilization in rats with myocardial infarction

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    Nan ZHENG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the protective effect of exogenous apelin-13 on heart after acute myocardial infarction (AMI in rats and its mechanism. Methods SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham-operated group (n=6, control group (AMI + saline solution, n=12, experimental group (AMI + apelin-13, n=12. Four rats died in the control group, and five in the experimental group. The rest rats of both control and experimental groups underwent intramyocardial injection with saline solution 20μl and apelin-13 0.2μg/20μl within 5min after coronary artery ligation, respectively. The rats of sham-operated group underwent thoracic surgery without both coronary artery ligation and drug injection. Echocardiography was performed and myocardial infarct size was measured to evaluate the changes of cardiac function. Immunohistochemical staining method was used to detect the positive expression of C-kit, Flk1 and Sca1 in myocardial tissue. Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to quantitatively examine the expression levels of C-kit, Flk1 and Sca1 protein and mRNA in myocardial tissue. Results The results of echocardiography and myocardial infarct size measurement showed that cardiac function of rats was improved more significantly in experimental group than in control group (EF: 68.43%±2.06% in experimental group and 46.40%±15.18% in control group; FS: 33.70%±1.55% in experimental group and 20.73%±8.14% in control group; infarction myocardial area percentage: 16.10%±3.08% in experimental group and 33.83%±5.64% in control group; P<0.05. Immunohistochemical staining of C-kit, Flk1 and Sca1 was negative in sham-operated group and positive or strong positive both in experimental group and control group. Western blotting and RT-PCR showed that the protein and mRNA expression of C-kit, Flk1 and Sca1 were significantly higher in experimental group than in control group (protein level: C-kit 0.48±0.17 vs 1.05±0.08, Flk1 0.40±0.26 vs 0.88±0.10, Sca1

  7. Lateral intracerebroventricular injection of Apelin-13 inhibits apoptosis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

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    Xiao-ge Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apelin-13 inhibits neuronal apoptosis caused by hydrogen peroxide, yet apoptosis following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury has rarely been studied. In this study, Apelin-13 (0.1 µg/g was injected into the lateral ventricle of middle cerebral artery occlusion model rats. TTC, TUNEL, and immunohistochemical staining showed that compared with the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion group, infarct volume and apoptotic cell number at the ischemic penumbra region were decreased in the Apelin-13 treatment group. Additionally, Apelin-13 treatment increased Bcl-2 immunoreactivity and decreased caspase-3 immunoreactivity. Our findings suggest that Apelin-13 is neuroprotective against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through inhibition of neuronal apoptosis.

  8. Cloning and bacterial expression of adenosine-5'-triphosphate sulfurylase from the enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, T; Arase, T; Shigeta, Y; Asai, T; Leustek, T; Takeuchi, T

    1998-12-08

    A gene encoding adenosine-5'-triphosphate sulfurylase (AS) was cloned from the enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica by polymerase chain reaction using degenerate oligonucleotide primers corresponding to conserved regions of the protein from a variety of organisms. The deduced amino acid sequence of E. histolytica AS revealed a calculated molecular mass of 47925 Da and an unusual basic pI of 9.38. The amebic protein sequence showed 23-48% identities with AS from bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and animals with the highest identities being to Synechocystis sp. and Bacillus subtilis (48 and 44%, respectively). Four conserved blocks including putative sulfate-binding and phosphate-binding regions were highly conserved in the E. histolytica AS. The upstream region of the AS gene contained three conserved elements reported for other E. histolytica genes. A recombinant E. histolytica AS revealed enzymatic activity, measured in both the forward and reverse directions. Expression of the E. histolytica AS complemented cysteine auxotrophy of the AS-deficient Escherichia coli strains. Genomic hybridization revealed that the AS gene exists as a single copy gene. In the literature, this is the first description of an AS gene in Protozoa.

  9. Expression and characterization of UL16 gene from duck enteritis virus

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    Wang Mingshu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have indicated that the UL16 protein and its homologs from herpesvirus were conserved and played similar roles in viral DNA packaging, virion assembly, budding, and egress. However, there was no report on the UL16 gene product of duck enteritis virus (DEV. In this study, we analyzed the amino acid sequence of UL16 using bioinformatics tools and expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3 induced by isopropy1-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG. The recombinant protein was produced, purified using a Ni-NTA column and used to generate the polyclonal antibody against UL16. The intracellular distribution of the DEV UL16 product was carried out using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Results In our study, UL16 gene of DEV was composed of 1089 nucleotides, which encoded 362 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignment suggested that the UL16 gene was highly conserved in herpesvirus family. The UL16 gene was cloned into a pET prokaryotic expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli Rossetta (DE3 induced by IPTG. A 60kDa fusion protein band corresponding to the predicted size was produced on the SDS-PAGE, purified using a Ni-NTA column. Anti-UL16 polyclonal sera was prepared by immunizing rabbits, and reacted with a band in the IPTG induced cell lysates with an apparent molecular mass of 60 kDa. In vivo expression of the UL16 protein in DEV infected duck embryo fibroblast cells (DEFs was localized mostly around perinuclear cytoplasmic area and in cytosol using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Conclusions The UL16 gene of DEV was successfully cloned, expressed and detected in DEV infected DEFs for the first time. The UL16 protein localized mostly around perinuclear cytoplasmic area and in cytosol in DEV infected DEFs. DEV UL16 shared high similarity with UL16 family members, indicating that DEV UL16 many has similar function with its homologs. All these results may provide some insight for further research about

  10. Limited effects of preterm birth and the first enteral nutrition on cerebellum morphology and gene expression in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Kaalund, Sanne S.; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    three ages but the proportion of white matter increased postnatally, relative to term pigs. Early initiation of enteral nutrition had limited structural or molecular effects. The Sonic Hedgehog pathway was unaffected by preterm birth. Few differences in expression of the selected genes were found...

  11. Enteral intestinal alkaline phosphatase administration in newborns decreases iNOS expression in a neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentea, Rebecca M; Liedel, Jennifer L; Fredrich, Katherine; Pritchard, Kirkwood; Oldham, Keith T; Simpson, Pippa M; Gourlay, David M

    2013-01-01

    To determine if intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) decreases intestinal injury resulting from experimentally induced necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We hypothesized that IAP administration prevents the initial development of NEC related intestinal inflammation. Pre- and full-term newborn Sprague-Dawley rat pups were sacrificed on day 1 of life. Pre-term pups were exposed to intermittent hypoxia and formula containing LPS to induce NEC. Select NEC pups were given 40, 4 or 0.4 units/kg of bovine IAP (NEC+IAP40u, IAP4u or IAP0.4u) enterally, once daily. Ileal sections were evaluated by real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) for IAP, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α mRNA and immunofluorescence for 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT). Experimentally induced NEC decreased IAP mRNA expression by 66% (p ≤ 0.001). IAP supplementation increased IAP mRNA expression to control. Supplemental enteral IAP decreased nitrosative stress as measured by iNOS mRNA expression and 3-NT staining in the NEC stressed pups (p ≤ 0.01), as well as decreased intestinal TNF-α mRNA expression. In addition, IAP decreased LSP translocation into the serum in the treated pups. We conclude that enterally administered IAP prevents NEC-related intestinal injury and inflammation. Enteral IAP may prove a useful strategy in the prevention of NEC in preterm neonates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Do plasma concentrations of apelin predict prognosis in patients with advanced heart failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Jonathan R; Jackson, Colette E; Chong, Kwok S; McDonagh, Theresa A; Gardner, Roy S

    2014-01-01

    Apelin is an endogenous vasodilator and inotrope, plasma concentrations of which are reduced in advanced heart failure (HF). We determined the prognostic significance of plasma concentrations of apelin in advanced HF. Plasma concentrations of apelin were measured in 182 patients with advanced HF secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The predictive value of apelin for the primary end point of all-cause mortality was assessed over a median follow-up period of 544 (IQR: 196-923) days. In total, 30 patients (17%) reached the primary end point. Of those patients with a plasma apelin concentration above the median, 14 (16%) reached the primary end point compared with 16 (17%) of those with plasma apelin levels below the median (p = NS). NT-proBNP was the most powerful prognostic marker in this population (log rank statistic: 10.37; p = 0.001). Plasma apelin concentrations do not predict medium to long-term prognosis in patients with advanced HF secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

  13. Apelin-13 increased food intake with serum ghrelin and leptin levels in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saral, S; Alkanat, M; Sumer, A; Canpolat, S

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to explain the role of apelin-13 on body weight, food and water intake with serum leptin, ghrelin, neuropeptid Y (NPY) and peptid YY (PYY) levels in male rat. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats were used for the study. The rats were injected SP (0.9 %) intraperitoneally (i.p) in the control group and 30 (AP30), 100 (AP100) and 300 (AP300) µg/kg apelin-13 in the study groups, respectively, 10 min before the transition to dark period, for 10 days. During the experimental period, with light and dark periods of food and water intake, body weights were recorded in rats. Rats were euthanized and serum samples were obtained. In serum samples leptin, ghrelin, NPY and PYY levels were measured with specific ELISA kit. Apelin-13 was increased body weights in all three (AP30, AP100 and AP300) groups compared with the control group. AP100 and AP300 groups had increased food intake in the dark and the cumulative period, but in the light period food intake values were not significantly increased (p > 0.05). As for the value of water intake, compared with the control group, all dose of apelin-13 increased water intake during the dark and the cumulative period. There was no significant change in water intake in the light period. On the other hand, compared with the control group, serum leptin levels were found to increase in the groups administered 100 and 300 µg/kg of apelin-13 (p Ghrelin levels were found high in all groups treated with apelin-13. Serum levels of NPY decreased only in the 300 µg/kg apelin-13 treated group (p 0.05). Apelin-13 increases body weight in rats as well as food and water intake (dark and cumulative period). Additionally, ghrelin can mediate the orexigenic effect of apelin-13 in the regulation of food intake (Fig. 4, Ref. 37).

  14. Associations between serum apelin-12 levels and obesity-related markers in Chinese children.

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    Hong-Jun Ba

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible correlations between apelin-12 levels and obesity in children in China and associations between apelin-12 and obesity-related markers, including lipids, insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR. METHODS: Forty-eight obese and forty non-obese age- and gender-matched Chinese children were enrolled between June 2008 and June 2009. Mean age was 10.42 ± 2.03 and 10.86±2.23 years in obesity and control groups, respectively. Main outcome measures were apelin-12, BMI, lipids, glucose and insulin. HOMA-IR was calculated for all subjects. RESULTS: All obesity group subjects had significantly higher total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, insulin levels and HOMA-IR (all P<0.05. In separate analyses, obese girls had significantly higher LDL-C, insulin and HOMA-IR than controls, and obese boys had significantly higher TC, TG, insulin and HOMA-IR than controls (all P<0.05. Apelin-12 levels were significantly higher in obese girls compared to controls (P = 0.024, and correlated positively with TG in all obese subjects. Among obese girls, apelin-12 levels correlated positively with TG, insulin and HOMA-IR after adjusting for age and BMI. In all boys (obese and controls apelin-12 was positively associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG. No significant correlations were found in either group between apelin-12 levels and other characteristics after adjusting for age, sex, and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Apelin-12 levels are significantly higher in obese vs. non-obese girls in China and correlate significantly with obesity-related markers insulin, HOMA-IR, and TG. Increased apelin-12 levels may be involved in the pathological mechanism of childhood obesity.

  15. TIMP3 interplays with apelin to regulate cardiovascular metabolism in hypercholesterolemic mice

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    Robert Stöhr

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: TIMP3 regulates lipid metabolism as well as oxidative stress response via apelin. These findings therefore suggest that TIMP3 maintains metabolic flexibility in the heart, particularly during episodes of increased cardiac stress.

  16. Beneficial Effects of Apelin on Vascular Function in Patients With Central Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinzari, Francesca; Veneziani, Augusto; Mores, Nadia; Barini, Angela; Di Daniele, Nicola; Cardillo, Carmine; Tesauro, Manfredi

    2017-05-01

    Patients with central obesity have impaired insulin-stimulated vasodilation and increased ET-1 (endothelin 1) vasoconstriction, which may contribute to insulin resistance and vascular damage. Apelin enhances insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal but also acts as a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilator and a counter-regulator of AT 1 (angiotensin [Ang] II type 1) receptor-induced vasoconstriction. We, therefore, examined the effects of exogenous (Pyr 1 )apelin on NO-mediated vasodilation and Ang II- or ET-1-dependent vasoconstrictor tone in obese patients. In the absence of hyperinsulinemia, forearm blood flow responses to graded doses of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were not different during saline or apelin administration (both P >0.05). During intra-arterial infusion of regular insulin, however, apelin enhanced the vasodilation induced by both acetylcholine and nitroprusside (both P 0.05). In conclusion, in patients with central obesity, apelin has favorable effects not only to improve insulin-stimulated endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilator responses but also to blunt Ang II- and ET-1-dependent vasoconstriction by a mechanism not involving NO. Taken together, our results suggest that targeting the apelin system might favorably impact some hemodynamic abnormalities of insulin-resistant states like obesity. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. The apelin receptor influences biomechanical and morphological properties of endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohbach, Anne; Pennewitz, Malte; Glaubitz, Michael; Palankar, Raghavendra; Groß, Stefan; Lorenz, Florian; Materzok, Ilka; Rong, Alena; Busch, Mathias C; Felix, Stephan B; Delcea, Mihaela; Busch, Raila

    2018-08-01

    The adaption of endothelial cells to local flow conditions is a multifunctional process which leads to distinct alterations in cell shape, the subcellular distribution of structural proteins, and cellular function. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified to be fundamentally involved in such processes. Recently, we and others have shown that the expression of the endothelial GPCR apelin receptor (APJ) is regulated by fluid flow and that activation of APJ participates in signaling pathways which are related to processes of mechanotransduction. The present study aims to illuminate these findings by further visualization of APJ function. We show that APJ is located to the cellular junctions and might thus be associated with platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Furthermore, siRNA-mediated silencing of APJ expression influences the shear-induced adaption of HUVEC in terms of cytoskeletal remodeling, cellular elasticity, cellular motility, attachment, and distribution of adhesion complexes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that APJ is crucial for complemented endothelial adaption to local flow conditions. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Relationship between Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, Apelin, and New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation after Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

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    Shu Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that inflammation and oxidative stress are important factors in postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE and apelin have a close relationship with inflammation and oxidative stress. The effect of ACE and apelin on POAF after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG remains a question. The concentrations of serum ACE, angiotensin II (Ang II, apelin, bradykinin (BK, malondialdehyde (MDA, and C reactive protein (CRP were measured in the perioperative period of OPCABG. The levels of serum ACE in the POAF group were higher than in the no POAF group both preoperatively and postoperatively. Apelin in the POAF group was lower than in the no POAF group. There was a correlation between serum ACE and apelin. Postoperatively, CRP and MDA in the POAF group were higher than in the no POAF group; however, there was no difference before the operation. Preoperative ACE and apelin were both significant and independent risk factors for POAF. In conclusion, the high ACE and low apelin preoperatively led to CRP and MDA being increased postoperatively, which was probably associated with POAF after OPCABG. Apelin may be a new predictor for POAF.

  19. Identification of serine 348 on the apelin receptor as a novel regulatory phosphorylation site in apelin-13-induced G protein-independent biased signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Bai, Bo; Tian, Yanjun; Du, Hui; Chen, Jing

    2014-11-07

    Phosphorylation plays vital roles in the regulation of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) functions. The apelin and apelin receptor (APJ) system is involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function and central control of body homeostasis. Here, using tandem mass spectrometry, we first identified phosphorylated serine residues in the C terminus of APJ. To determine the role of phosphorylation sites in APJ-mediated G protein-dependent and -independent signaling and function, we induced a mutation in the C-terminal serine residues and examined their effects on the interaction between APJ with G protein or GRK/β-arrestin and their downstream signaling. Mutation of serine 348 led to an elimination of both GRK and β-arrestin recruitment to APJ induced by apelin-13. Moreover, APJ internalization and G protein-independent ERK signaling were also abolished by point mutation at serine 348. In contrast, this mutant at serine residues had no demonstrable impact on apelin-13-induced G protein activation and its intracellular signaling. These findings suggest that mutation of serine 348 resulted in inactive GRK/β-arrestin. However, there was no change in the active G protein thus, APJ conformation was biased. These results provide important information on the molecular interplay and impact of the APJ function, which may be extrapolated to design novel drugs for cardiac hypertrophy based on this biased signal pathway. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Altered gut microbiota and endocannabinoid system tone in obese and diabetic leptin-resistant mice: impact on apelin regulation in adipose tissue

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    Lucie eGeurts

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence supports the role of gut microbiota in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes and low-grade inflammation. The endocrine activity of adipose tissue has been found to contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis and low-grade inflammation. Among the key hormones produced by this tissue, apelin has been shown to regulate glucose homeostasis. Recently, it has been proposed that gut microbiota participate in adipose tissue metabolism via the endocannabinoid system and gut microbiota-derived compounds, namely lipopolysaccharide (LPS. We have investigated gut microbiota composition in obese and diabetic leptin-resistant mice (db/db by combining pyrosequencing and phylogenetic microarray analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. We observed a significant higher abundance of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Fibrobacteres phyla in db/db mice compared to lean mice. The abundance of 10 genera was significantly affected by the genotype. We identified the roles of the endocannabinoid system and LPS in the regulation of apelinergic system tone (apelin and APJ mRNA expression in genetic obese and diabetic mice. By using in vivo and in vitro models, we have demonstrated that both the endocannabinoid system and low-grade inflammation differentially regulate apelin and APJ mRNA expression in adipose tissue. Finally, deep-gut microbiota profiling revealed that the gut microbial community of type 2 diabetic mice is significantly different from that of their lean counterparts. This indicates specific relationships between the gut microbiota and the regulation of the apelinergic system. However, the exact roles of specific bacteria in shaping the phenotype of db/db mice remain to be determined.

  1. NDRG4, an early detection marker for colorectal cancer, is specifically expressed in enteric neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaes, N.; Lentjes, M. H. F. M.; Gijbels, M. J.; Rademakers, G.; Daenen, K. L.; Boesmans, W.; Wouters, K. A. D.; Geuzens, A.; Qu, X.; Steinbusch, H. P. J.; Rutten, B. P. F.; Baldwin, S. H.; Sharkey, K. A.; Hofstra, R. M. W.; van Engeland, M.; Vanden Berghe, P.; Melotte, V.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Promoter methylation of N-myc Downstream-Regulated Gene 4 (NDRG4) in fecal DNA is an established early detection marker for colorectal cancer (CRC). Despite its connection to CRC, NDRG4 is predominantly studied in brain and heart, with little to no knowledge about its expression or role

  2. Research on the promoting role of apelin-13 in proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of RF/6A cells

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    Kun-Peng Xie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects of apelin-13 on proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of a monkey choroid / retinal endothelial cell line, RF/6A, to clarify whether apelin-13 could promote retinal angiogenesis in vitro.METHODS: RF/6A cells in good conditions were administrated with DMSO(the control group, apelin-13 at 0.1μmol/L(low dose groupor apelin-13 at 1μmol/L(high dose group. Cell proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation were detected by using the MTT assay, scratch assay and matrigel assay, respectively, at 24h after plating the cells. RESULTS: Cell proliferation was promoted in both low and high dose apelin-13 groups compared to the control cells(PPPCONCLUSION: Apelin-13 could obviously promote the angiogenesis capacity of RF/6A cells, suggesting that apelin-13 was an important pro-angiogenic factor in retinal endothelial cells.

  3. Expression and characterization of the UL31 protein from duck enteritis virus

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    Zhu Dekang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies indicate that the UL31 protein and its homology play similar roles in nuclear egress of all herpesviruses. However, there is no report on the UL31 gene product of DEV. In this study, we expressed and presented the basic properties of the DEV UL31 product. Results The entire ORF of the UL31 was cloned into pET 32a (+ prokaryotic expression vector. Escherichia coli BL21(DE3 competent cells were transformed with the construct followed by the induction of protein expression by the addition of IPTG. Band corresponding to the predicted sizes (55 kDa was produced on the SDS-PAGE. Over expressed 6×His-UL31 fusion protein was purified by nickel affinity chromatography. The DEV UL31 gene product has been identified by using a rabbit polyclonal antiserum raised against the purified protein. A protein of approximate 35 kDa that reacted with the antiserum was detected in immunoblots of DEV-infected cellular lysates, suggesting that the 35 kDa protein was the primary translation product of the UL31 gene. RT-PCR analyses revealed that the UL31 gene was transcribed most abundantly during the late phase of replication. Subsequently, Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that the protein was widespread speckled structures in the nuclei of infected cells. Western blotting of purified virion preparations showed that UL31 was a component of intracellular virions but was absent from mature extracellular virions. Finally, an Immunofluorescence assay was established to study the distribution of the UL31 antigen in tissues of artificially DEV infected ducks. The results showed that the UL31 antigen was primarily located in the cells of digestive organs and immunological organs. Conclusion In this work, we present the basic properties of the DEV UL31 product. The results indicate that DEV UL31 shares many similarities with its HSV or PRV homolog UL31 and suggest that functional cross-complementation is possible between members of the

  4. Eight-week aerobic training effects on Apelin-13 and insulin resistance in overweight men

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    Rahman Soori

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aims: Obesity as a pandemic disease is the high accumulation of adipose tissue which secrets different hormones such as apelin. Apelin as an adipocytokine increases in obesity. Aerobic training induced apelin responses are not clarify well. So, we aimed to determine the effect of eight weeks aerobic training on Apelin-13 and insulin resistance in overweight men. Methods: Current study was quasi-experiment design. Twenty-six overweight men with BMI between 27-30 kg/m2 were randomly enrolled in the present study following public call announcement and match to inclusion criteria. They accidently divided into submaximal-aerobic and control groups. The submaximal-aerobic group carried out exercise training for 24 continuous sessions (with 50-70% of maximum heart rate and 3 sessions/per-week for eight weeks. The anthropometrical, VO2max and blood sampling assessments performed and later assessments were completed 24 hours after last training period. Then, whole of data were analyzed by Stata software at P0.05. In addition, there were direct and significant relationship between anthropometrical indices and HbA1c with Apelin-13 (p<0.05. Conclusions: Obesity increases the possibility of metabolic diseases and insulin resistance. In the current study we represented that the internal factors of exercise, such as intensity, had meaningful effects on anthropometric features of overweight individuals but it was not enough for exercise induced-apelin-13 and insulin resistance changes.  According to this record, longer and higher intense exercise compare with the current study's protocol were recommended to beneficially decrease and control the incidence and catch the type II diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Submucosal neurons and enteric glial cells expressing the P2X7 receptor in rat experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Marosti, Aline Rosa; Mendes, Cristina Eusébio; Palombit, Kelly; Castelucci, Patricia

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ulcerative colitis on the submucosal neurons and glial cells of the submucosal ganglia of rats. 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS; colitis group) was administered in the colon to induce ulcerative colitis, and distal colons were collected after 24h. The colitis rats were compared with those in the sham and control groups. Double labelling of the P2X7 receptor with calbindin (marker for intrinsic primary afferent neurons, IPANs, submucosal plexus), calretinin (marker for secretory and vasodilator neurons of the submucosal plexus), HuC/D and S100β was performed in the submucosal plexus. The density (neurons per area) of submucosal neurons positive for the P2X7 receptor, calbindin, calretinin and HuC/D decreased by 21%, 34%, 8.2% and 28%, respectively, in the treated group. In addition, the density of enteric glial cells in the submucosal plexus decreased by 33%. The profile areas of calbindin-immunoreactive neurons decreased by 25%. Histological analysis revealed increased lamina propria and decreased collagen in the colitis group. This study demonstrated that ulcerative colitis affected secretory and vasodilatory neurons, IPANs and enteric glia of the submucosal plexus expressing the P2X7 receptor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of Apelin and Insulin Resistance in Patients with PCOS and Therapeutic Effect of Drospirenone-Ethinylestradiol Plus Metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xianchang; Wu, Xingguo; Zhou, Yan; Yu, Xinyan; Zhang, Wenjuan

    2015-08-28

    The aim of this study was to determine the relevance of apelin and insulin resistance (IR) with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to assess the possible therapeutic effect of the combined therapy of drospirenone-ethinylestradiol (DRSP-EE) combined with metformin. Sixty-three PCOS patients and 40 non-PCOS infertile patients were recruited. The fasting serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), glucose (FBG), insulin (FINS), and apelin at the early follicular phase were measured. To further investigate the relation between apelin and IR, we treated the PCOS patients with DRSP-EE (1 tablet daily, 21 d/month) plus metformin (500 mg tid) for 3 months. All of the above indices were measured again after treatment. 1) Levels of apelin, LH, LH/FSH, T, and FINS, as well as homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) in PCOS patients, were significantly higher than in the control group before treatment. 2) These indices significantly decreased after treatment with DRSP-EE plus metformin. 3) Correlation analysis showed that apelin level was positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), FINS level, and HOMA-IR. Apelin level significantly increased in PCOS patients. The combined therapy of DRSP-EE plus metformin not only decreases IR, but also improves apelin level. This combination is a superior approach for PCOS treatment.

  7. The Effect of Rast Exercise on Plasma Levels of Apelin and Blood Pressure in Elite Women Runner

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    Shaibani Sh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Intense exercise increases heart susceptibility to the disorder in this physiological factor.The purpose of this study is to study the effect of sprint interval training on plasma levels of apelin, blood pressure and heart rate in elite female runner. Methods: Plasma levels of apelin, Heart rate (HR & blood pressure (BP, analyzed before, after and 24 hours after exercise. 15 elite female runner, whom were playing in Shiraz track & field league, selected for this study. They all were homogenized according to any kind of disease.Results: Rast exercise made plasma level of Apelin decrease after exercise compared with plasma level before exercise and this decrease was significant (p=0.001. Also, plasma level of apelin increased significantly 24 hrs after finishing exercise (p=0.001, but there were no significant differences before exercise (p=0.375. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate increased immediately after exercise and decreased significantly after 24 hrs (p=0.001. However, significant difference was not observed in diastolic pressure before and after exercise (p=0.338.Conclusion: The finding of this study shows that sprint interval training decreases plasma levels of apelin, so we can say that apelin and blood pressure must be in balance in natural position. With knowing the role of apelin, changes in this peptide during exercise can be an alarm to cardiovascular risk factor, during or after exercise in elite athletes.

  8. Serum concentrations of apelin-17 isoform vary in accordance to blood pressure categories in individuals with obesity class 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Martínez, Luis Javier; Coral Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Méndez, Juan Pablo; Trejo, Silvia; Pérez Razo, Juan Carlos; Canto, Patricia

    2018-04-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate if serum concentrations of apelin-36, apelin-17, apelin-13 or apelin-12 were different in obesity class 3 individuals with hypertension, when compared to those without hypertension (normal or high-normal). Twenty six individuals with obesity class 3-related hypertension and thirty three individuals without hypertension, who were divided in individuals with normal (n = 23) or with high-normal (n = 10) blood pressure (BP) were analyzed. All individuals presented obesity class 3, without diabetes mellitus. Measurements of all apelin isoforms were performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Analysis of differences between groups of Apelin isoform concentrations was performed by a One-way ANOVA, with a Tukey test post hoc. The individuals of the hypertensive group presented a slightly lower serum concentration of all apelin isoforms, but these differences were not statistically significant. These results were more evident when the group of patients without hypertension were divided based in normal and high-normal BP, observing that apelin-17 isoform were higher in individuals with high-normal BP in comparison to subjects with normal BP (P = 0.018); concentrations were also higher when compared to subjects with hypertension (P = 0.004). To our knowledge, this is the first study regarding the differences of apelin-17 isoform concentrations in individuals pertaining to different categories of BP, who presented obesity class 3. The group of patients that presented hypertension showed a lower concentration of all isoforms. This observation could be due to the fact that these patients were taking antihypertensive medication.

  9. Distribution and differential expression of microRNAs in the intestinal mucosal layer of necrotic enteritis induced Fayoumi chickens

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    Deivendran Rengaraj

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Despite an increasing number of investigations into the pathophysiology of necrotic enteritis (NE disease, etiology of NE-associated diseases, and gene expression profiling of NE-affected tissues, the microRNA (miRNA profiles of NE-affected poultry have been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to induce NE disease in the genetically disparate Fayoumi chicken lines, and to perform non-coding RNA sequencing in the intestinal mucosal layer. Methods NE disease was induced in the Fayoumi chicken lines (M5.1 and M15.2, and non-coding RNA sequencing was performed in the intestinal mucosal layer of both NE-affected and uninfected chickens to examine the differential expression of miRNAs. Next, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR was performed to further examine four miRNAs that showed the highest fold differences. Finally, bioinformatics analyses were performed to examine the four miRNAs target genes involvement in the signaling pathways, and to examine their interaction. Results According to non-coding RNA sequencing, total 50 upregulated miRNAs and 26 downregulated miRNAs were detected in the NE-induced M5.1 chickens. While 32 upregulated miRNAs and 11 downregulated miRNAs were detected in the NE-induced M15.2 chickens. Results of real-time qPCR analysis on the four miRNAs (gga-miR-9-5p, gga-miR-20b-5p, gga-miR-196-5p, and gga-let-7d were mostly correlated with the results of RNAseq. Overall, gga-miR-20b-5p was significantly downregulated in the NE-induced M5.1 chickens and this was associated with the upregulation of its top-ranking target gene, mitogen-activated protein kinase, kinase 2. Further bioinformatics analyses revealed that 45 of the gene targets of gga-miR-20b-5p were involved in signal transduction and immune system-related pathways, and 35 of these targets were predicted to interact with each other. Conclusion Our study is a novel report of miRNA expression in Fayoumi chickens, and could be

  10. Relationship of apelin, procalcitonin, and fetuin-A concentrations with carotid intima-media thickness in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topsakal, S; Akin, F; Turgut, S; Yaylali, G F; Herek, D; Ayada, C

    2015-07-01

    Acromegaly is characterized by excess growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations. There is conflicting evidence as to whether acromegaly is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis. Apelin is an adipose tissue-derived peptide that may be associated with hyperinsulinemia. Fetuin-A is a hepatocyte produced plasma glycoprotein that has an important role as a calcification inhibitor. The aim of this study was to examine apelin, fetuin-A, and procalcitonin concentrations and to assess their relationship with carotid intima medial thickness (cIMT) in subjects with acromegaly. Apelin, fetuin-A, and procalcitonin serum concentrations were measured in 37 (20 inactive and 17 active) subjects with acromegaly and 30 control subjects, along with carotid intima medial thickness. The concentrations of apelin, fetuin-A, and procalcitonin were increased in subjects with acromegaly. There were significant correlations between apelin, fetuin-A, and procalcitonin in subjects with acromegaly. Carotid intima medial thickness values were similar between control subjects and subjects with acromegaly. Carotid intima medial thickness was not increased in subjects with acromegaly. It is possible that the increased apelin and fetuin-A concentrations observed play a protective role against the development of atherosclerosis in subjects with acromegaly. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. High-intensity interval training lowers blood pressure and improves apelin and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghardashi Afousi, Alireza; Asvadi Fard, Maryam; Babaee Bigi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-02-01

    Hypertension is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Apelin levels and NO bioavailability are impaired in older hypertensive patients. Exercise is an effective intervention for treating hypertension. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval training on blood pressure, apelin, and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals. Thirty treated hypertensive subjects (61.70 ± 5.78 years, 17 males, 13 females) were randomly divided into 6 weeks of high-intensity interval training (n = 15) and control (n = 15). The exercise training was conducted for three 35-min sessions a week (1.5-min interval at 85-90% of heart rate reserve [HRR] and 2 min active phase at 50-55% of HRR). Assessment of plasma apelin, nitrite/nitrate (NOx), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) was performed before and after the intervention. At the end of the study, apelin, and NOx plasma levels increased significantly in the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) group (P = 0.021, P = 0.003, respectively). Conversely, ET-1 plasma levels significantly decreased in the training group after the intervention (P = 0.015). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the change of plasma apelin and change of plasma NOx (r = 0. 771, P = 0.0008). In addition, there was a negative correlation between the change of plasma ET-1, change of plasma apelin (r = - 0.595, P = 0.019), and variation of NOx (r = - 0.572, P = 0.025). This study indicates that, by increasing of apelin and NOx plasma levels, HIIT may be effective in reducing blood pressure.

  12. Enteral tranexamic acid attenuates vasopressor resistance and changes in α1-adrenergic receptor expression in hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Marco Henry; Aletti, Federico; Li, Joyce B; Tan, Aaron; Chang, Monica; Leon, Jessica; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W; Kistler, Erik B

    2017-08-01

    Irreversible hemorrhagic shock is characterized by hyporesponsiveness to vasopressor and fluid therapy. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms that contribute to this phenomenon. Previous studies have shown that decreased intestinal perfusion in hemorrhagic shock leads to proteolytically mediated increases in gut permeability, with subsequent egress of vasoactive substances systemically. Maintenance of blood pressure is achieved in part by α1 receptor modulation, which may be affected by vasoactive factors; we thus hypothesized that decreases in hemodynamic stability and vasopressor response in shock can be prevented by enteral protease inhibition. Rats were exposed to experimental hemorrhagic shock (35 mm Hg mean arterial blood pressure for 2 hours, followed by reperfusion for 2 hours) and challenged with phenylephrine (2 μg/kg) at discrete intervals to measure vasopressor responsiveness. A second group of animals received enteral injections with the protease inhibitor tranexamic acid (TXA) (127 mM) along the small intestine and cecum 1 hour after induction of hemorrhagic shock. Blood pressure response (duration and amplitude) to phenylephrine after reperfusion was significantly attenuated in animals subjected to hemorrhagic shock compared with baseline and control nonshocked animals and was restored to near baseline by enteral TXA. Arteries from shocked animals also displayed decreased α1 receptor density with restoration to baseline after enteral TXA treatment. In vitro, rat shock plasma decreased α1 receptor density in smooth muscle cells, which was also abrogated by enteral TXA treatment. Results from this study demonstrate that experimental hemorrhagic shock leads to decreased response to the α1-selective agonist phenylephrine and decreased α1 receptor density via circulating shock factors. These changes are mitigated by enteral TXA with correspondingly improved hemodynamics. Proteolytic inhibition in the lumen of the small intestine improves

  13. Radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochsner, S.F.; Head, L.H.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive review of radiation enteritis is presented. Experience in clinical radiation therapy has indicated that the small bowel is the segment of the alimentary tract that is most susceptible to radiation damage. (U.S.)

  14. Enteric Duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeziorczak, Paul M; Warner, Brad W

    2018-03-01

    Enteric duplications have been described throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract. The usual perinatal presentation is an abdominal mass. Duplications associated with the foregut have associated respiratory symptoms, whereas duplications in the midgut and hindgut can present with obstructive symptoms, perforation, nausea, emesis, hemorrhage, or be asymptomatic, and identified as an incidental finding. These are differentiated from other cystic lesions by the presence of a normal gastrointestinal mucosal epithelium. Enteric duplications are located on the mesenteric side of the native structures and are often singular with tubular or cystic characteristics. Management of enteric duplications often requires operative intervention with preservation of the native blood supply and intestine. These procedures are usually very well tolerated with low morbidity.

  15. Co-administration of Apelin and T4 Protects Inotropic and Chronotropic Changes Occurring in Hypothyroid Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhondali, Zahra; Badavi, Mohammad; Dianat, Mahin, E-mail: dianat@ajums.ac.ir; Faraji, Farzaneh [Physiology Research Center and Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    One of the most important thyroid hormone targets is the cardiovascular system. Hemodynamic changes, such as decreased resting heart rate (HR), myocardial contractility, and cardiac output, and increased diastolic pressure and systemic vascular resistance, have been observed in hypothyroid patients. Moreover, in these patients, ECG changes include sinus bradycardia and low voltage complexes (P waves or QRS complexes). This study aimed at evaluating the prophylactic effect of apelin on HR changes and QRS voltage that occur in propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroid rats. In this study, 48 adult male Wistar rats weighing 170-235g were randomly divided into 6 groups: Control group (normal saline ip injection + tap water gavage); P group (PTU 0.05%, in drinking water); A group (apelin 200 µg.kg{sup -1}.day{sup -1}, ip); PA group [co-administration of PTU and apelin]; PT group [co-administration of PTU + T4 (0.2 mg/g per day, gavage)]; and PAT group (co-administration of PTU, apelin and T4). All experiments were performed for 28 consecutive days, and then the animals were anesthetized with an ip injection of ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (12 mg/kg). Lead II electrocardiogram was recorded to calculate HR and QRS voltage. Heart rate and QRS voltage increased more significantly in the hypothyroid group that consumed both apelin and T4 (201 ± 4 beat/min, 0.71 ± 0.02 mv vs. hypothyroid 145 ± 9 beat/min, 0.563 ± 0.015 mv; respectively). The co-administration of apelin and T4 showed a protective effect on QRS voltage and HR in PTU‑induced hypothyroid rats.

  16. Co-administration of Apelin and T4 Protects Inotropic and Chronotropic Changes Occurring in Hypothyroid Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Akhondali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: One of the most important thyroid hormone targets is the cardiovascular system. Hemodynamic changes, such as decreased resting heart rate (HR, myocardial contractility, and cardiac output, and increased diastolic pressure and systemic vascular resistance, have been observed in hypothyroid patients. Moreover, in these patients, ECG changes include sinus bradycardia and low voltage complexes (P waves or QRS complexes. Objective: This study aimed at evaluating the prophylactic effect of apelin on HR changes and QRS voltage that occur in propylthiouracil (PTU-induced hypothyroid rats. Method: In this study, 48 adult male Wistar rats weighing 170-235g were randomly divided into 6 groups: Control group (normal saline ip injection + tap water gavage; P group (PTU 0.05%, in drinking water; A group (apelin 200 µg.kg-1.day-1, ip; PA group [co-administration of PTU and apelin]; PT group [co-administration of PTU + T4 (0.2 mg/g per day, gavage]; and PAT group (co-administration of PTU, apelin and T4. All experiments were performed for 28 consecutive days, and then the animals were anesthetized with an ip injection of ketamine (80 mg/kg and xylazine (12 mg/kg. Lead II electrocardiogram was recorded to calculate HR and QRS voltage. Results: Heart rate and QRS voltage increased more significantly in the hypothyroid group that consumed both apelin and T4 (201 ± 4 beat/min, 0.71 ± 0.02 mv vs. hypothyroid 145 ± 9 beat/min, 0.563 ± 0.015 mv; respectively. Conclusion: The co-administration of apelin and T4 showed a protective effect on QRS voltage and HR in PTU‑induced hypothyroid rats.

  17. Treatment with metformin and a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor elevates apelin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan YJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Yujuan Fan,* Yu Zhang,* Xuesong Li,* Hui Zheng, Yuping Song, Ning Zhang, Chunfang Shen, Xiaofang Fan, Fengdong Ren, Jiayi Shen, Guoguang Ren, Jialin Yang Department of Endocrinology, Central Hospital of Minhang District, Minhang Hospital affiliated to Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The objective of this study was to assess the effects of metformin monotherapy or combined treatment with a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (vildagliptin on apelin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Twenty-five patients with poor glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin >6.5% [48 mmol/mol] taking 1,000 mg of metformin daily and 25 healthy controls matched for age and body mass index were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric parameters, glycemic and lipid profile, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, and apelin levels were measured at baseline and at 12-week and 24-week visits. Results: At baseline, apelin levels were higher in the T2DM patients than in the controls (1.93±1.81 ng/mL versus 6.09±4.90 ng/mL; P<0.05. After 12 weeks, when vildagliptin was added, fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin decreased, and apelin levels increased further (from 6.09±4.90 ng/mL to 24.23±12.59 ng/mL; P<0.05. Follow-up at 24 weeks showed no further improvement in the glycemic profile and no further increase in apelin levels. Conclusion: Both metformin and vildagliptin favorably changed glycemic indices and apelin levels. For patients inadequately controlled on a low dose of metformin, addition of vildagliptin may be helpful. Keywords: glucagon-like peptides, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, antidiabetic drug, adipocytokine

  18. Effect of 4 Weeks of Detraining After a Period of Resistance Training on Plasma Apelin Levels in Overweight and Obese Girls

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    Rezvaneh Galdavi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Apelin is secreted from visceral adipose tissue. However, the effect of resistance training and consequent detraining on the apelin level in obesity, has not yet been clearly determined. In the current research, the effect of 4 weeks of detraining after a period of resistance training, was investigated on the plasma apelin levels in overweight and obese girls. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 22 overweight and obese girls were purposefully selected and randomly divided into two groups of experimental (n=12 and control (n=10. The experimental group exercised in an 8-week training program (4 sessions per week according to a training program with an intensity of 65-80% of one maximum repetition, and then experienced 4 weeks of detraining. Blood sampling was performed after a 12-h fasting in various phases and the level of apelin was measured. Data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, repeated measure ANOVA, post-hoc LSD, and independent t-tests at a significance level of α 0.05. Also, after 4 weeks of detraining a slight increase was seen in the levels of apelin, but was not significant (p>0.05. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, resistance training as a new non-drug therapy can be effective in reducing the levels of apelin. Also, apelin levels increases with discontinuation of exercise, which may lead to the emergence of inflammatory features in the cardiovascular system.

  19. Apelin-13 inhibits large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels in cerebral artery smooth muscle cells via a PI3-kinase dependent mechanism.

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    Amit Modgil

    Full Text Available Apelin-13 causes vasoconstriction by acting directly on APJ receptors in vascular smooth muscle (VSM cells; however, the ionic mechanisms underlying this action at the cellular level remain unclear. Large-conductance Ca(2+-activated K(+ (BKCa channels in VSM cells are critical regulators of membrane potential and vascular tone. In the present study, we examined the effect of apelin-13 on BK(Ca channel activity in VSM cells, freshly isolated from rat middle cerebral arteries. In whole-cell patch clamp mode, apelin-13 (0.001-1 μM caused concentration-dependent inhibition of BK(Ca in VSM cells. Apelin-13 (0.1 µM significantly decreased BK(Ca current density from 71.25 ± 8.14 pA/pF to 44.52 ± 7.10 pA/pF (n=14 cells, P<0.05. This inhibitory effect of apelin-13 was confirmed by single channel recording in cell-attached patches, in which extracellular application of apelin-13 (0.1 µM decreased the open-state probability (NPo of BK(Ca channels in freshly isolated VSM cells. However, in inside-out patches, extracellular application of apelin-13 (0.1 µM did not alter the NPo of BK(Ca channels, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of apelin-13 on BKCa is not mediated by a direct action on BK(Ca. In whole cell patches, pretreatment of VSM cells with LY-294002, a PI3-kinase inhibitor, markedly attenuated the apelin-13-induced decrease in BK(Ca current density. In addition, treatment of arteries with apelin-13 (0.1 µM significantly increased the ratio of phosphorylated-Akt/total Akt, indicating that apelin-13 significantly increases PI3-kinase activity. Taken together, the data suggest that apelin-13 inhibits BK(Ca channel via a PI3-kinase-dependent signaling pathway in cerebral artery VSM cells, which may contribute to its regulatory action in the control of vascular tone.

  20. Evaluation of the relationship between serum apelin levels and vitamin D and mean platelet volume in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiskac, Muharrem; Zorlu, Mehmet; Cakirca, Mustafa; Karatoprak, Cumali; Kesgin, Sıdıka; Büyükaydın, Banu; Yavuz, Erdinc; Ardic, Cuneyt; Camli, Ahmet Adil; Cikrikcioglu, Mehmet Ali

    2014-09-01

    It was reported that Vitamin D deficiency was associated with a greater risk of cardiometabolic diseases, obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus type 2, arterial hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Apelin is an adipocytokine suspected to have a role in skeletal muscle glucose utilization and glycemic regulation which may be a promising treatment modality for diabetes. It was recently reported that increased mean platelet volume (MPV) was emerging as an independent risk factor for thromboembolism, stroke, and myocardial infarction. In patients with diabetes, MPV was higher compared with the normal glycemic controls; in addition, it has been proposed that an increase in MPV may play a role in the micro- and macro-vascular complications related to diabetes. We postulated that deficiency in Vitamin D levels might be associated with higher MPV and lower serum apelin levels leading a further increase in insulin resistance in diabetic patients. So, we aimed to investigate Vitamin D levels, MPV and serum apelin levels in diabetic patients and their correlations between each other. This is a cross-sectional study design. Seventy-eight patients with Diabetes Mellitus type 2, admitted to our outpatient clinic of internal medicine department at Bezmialem Vakif University, were included in our study. Forty-one patients were female; 37 patients were male. Serum apelin levels, fasting glucose levels, urea, creatinine, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting serum insulin level, HbA1c, free T3, free T4, TSH, vitamin D (25-OH Vitamin D) and complete blood counts were analyzed in all subjects. Each sex was analyzed separately. We found that a positive correlation existed between serum apelin levels and BMI in female patients. (r: 0.380, P: 0.014) There was also a significant positive correlation between MPV and HbA1c and fasting glucose levels and a negative correlation

  1. The effects of nonlinear resistance and aerobic interval training on serum levels of apelin and insulin resistance in middle-aged obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Nikseresht

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: The practical applications indicate that obese men can use both AIT and NRT exercise programs to reduce insulin resistance. However, the AIT may have better beneficial effects (as indicated by apelin-13 compared to NRT.

  2. The assessment of the relationship between variations in the apelin gene and coronary artery disease in Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakizeh, Ebrahim; Çoşkunpınar, Ender; Oltulu, Yasemin Müşteri; Çakmak, Hüseyin Altuğ; İkitimur, Barış; Işık Sağlam, Zümrüt Mine; Karimova, Ayla; Vural, Vural Ali

    2015-09-01

    Apelin is a novel endogenous peptide with inotropic and vasodilatory properties and is the ligand for the angiotensin receptor-like 1 (APJ) receptor. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the apelin gene with susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Turkish population. The present observational case-control study consisted of 244 subjects (134 angiographically proven CAD patients and 110 healthy controls) aged 30-65 years. The association of 2 SNPs (rs3115758 and rs3115759) in the apelin gene and CAD risk was investigated. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to analyze the 2 SNPs in both the CAD and the healthy subjects. Allele and genotype frequencies between patients and control groups were compared using the Chi-square (χ2) test. The relationships of the 2 polymorphisms with the presence of CAD were determined with multiple binary logistic regression analysis after adjustment for CAD risk factors. TT and AA risk genotypes of the rs3115758 and rs3115759 variants in the apelin gene were found to be significantly related with the risk of CAD with the same power (OR: 6.36, 95% CI: 1.41-28.6) (p=0.007). After adjustments for traditional CAD risk factors, the homozygous TT genotype for rs3115758 and AA genotype for rs3115759 increased the CAD risk, both with an OR of 5.91. Genetic variants in the apelin gene are significantly associated with the risk of CAD in the Turkish population.

  3. Is there association between vitamin D levels, apelin 36, and visfatin in PCOS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyak Caglayan, Emel; Engin-Üstun, Yaprak; Sari, Nagihan; Göçmen, Ayşe Yesim; Seckin, Levent; Kara, Mustafa; Metin, Asli; Polat, M Fevzi

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate vitamin D, apelin-36, and visfatin levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study was completed in six months, including a total of 110 patients who were admitted to the obstetrics and gynecology polyclinic. Patients with a diagnosis of PCOS were divided into two subgroups according to their vitamin D levels. Thirty-four patients had PCOS patients were 2.52 ± 0.68 nmol/L and 72.63 ± 22:31 ng/ml, in the control group they were 0.92 ± 0.33 nmol/L, 24.66 ± 6 ng/ml, respectively. The difference found in PCOS patients was statistically significant (p = 0.0001, p = 0.0001). In conclusion, the present study shows that in PCOS patients with low levels of vitamin D, insulin resistance is greater and apelin-36 serum levels were significantly higher. Although there are different opinions in the literature on this subject, we believe that when vitamin D levels are brought to an optimal level in PCOS patient, it can prevent the negative effects of adipokines in the pathogenesis of PCOS.

  4. The Effect of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed and 17-β Estradiol on Serum Apelin, Glucose, Lipids, and Insulin in Ovariectomized Rats

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    Abedinzade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Menopause, a natural phenomenon, is defined by the fall of ovarian hormones mainly estrogens causing major problems such as insulin resistance. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum is known to have some useful properties such as insulin sensitizing effect. Apelin is an adipokine, which has several roles such as regulation of insulin secretion. Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed and 17-β estradiol on serum Apelin along with glucose, lipids and insulin in ovariectomized rats. Materials and Methods Forty-nine adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided to seven groups: normal control, ovariectomized control, ovariectomized treated with ethanolic and hexanic extract of fenugreek seed (50 and 150 mg/kg/daily for each, and ovariectomized treated with 17-β estradiol (10 µg/kg/daily for 42 days. Serum Apelin, glucose, lipids and insulin were measured. Results Serum Apelin, glucose, lipids and insulin significantly increased in ovariectomized controls in comparison with normal controls (P < 0.05. Serum glucose, lipids and insulin in ovariectomized rats treated with fenugreek seed extract and 17-β estradiol were remarkably lower than ovariectomized controls (P < 0.05. Furthermore, 17-β estradiol caused a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in serum Apelin in ovariectomized rats. Conclusions It appears that fenugreek seed might be effective against hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in ovariectomized rats without impact on serum Apelin. Furthermore, 17-β estradiol could have similar effects along with possible inhibitory effects on serum Apelin. The complicated role of Apelin in menopause needs to be further explored.

  5. Radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Makoto; Sano, Masanori; Minakuchi, Naoki; Narisawa, Tomio; Takahashi, Toshio

    1981-01-01

    Radiation enteritis with severe complications including intestinal bleeding, fistula, and stenosis were treated surgically in 9 cases. These 9 cases included 7 cases of cancer of the uterine cervix and 2 single cases of seminoma and melanoma. The patients received 60 Co or Linac x-ray external irradiation with or without intracavitary irradiation by a radium needle. Radiation injury began with melena, vaginorectal fistula, and intestinal obstruction 3 to 18 months after irradiation. One patient with melena underwent colostomy and survived 2 years. One of the three patients with vaginorectal fistula who had colostomy survived 1.5 years. In intestinal obstruction, one patients had bypass operation and three patients had resection of the intestine and the other had both. Leakage was noted in one patient, but the others had favorable prognosis. (Ueda, J.)

  6. GLP-2 receptor localizes to enteric neurons and endocrine cells expressing vasoactive peptides and mediates increased blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Xinfu; Karpen, Heidi E; Stephens, John

    2006-01-01

    . These actions are mediated by the G-protein-coupled receptor, GLP-2R. Cellular localization of the GLP-2R and the nature of its signaling network in the gut, however, are poorly defined. Thus, our aim was to establish cellular localization of GLP-2R and functional connection to vascular action of GLP-2......-dependently stimulated intestinal blood flow and coordinately upregulated the expression of intestinal eNOS mRNA, protein, and phosphorylation (eNOS-Ser1117). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the GLP-2-induced stimulation of blood flow is mediated by vasoactive neurotransmitters that are colocalized with GLP-2R in 2...

  7. Effects of Bacillus licheniformis on the growth performance and expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mengjia; Zeng, Dong; Ni, Xueqin; Tu, Teng; Yin, Zhongqiong; Pan, Kangcheng; Jing, Bo

    2016-03-08

    Necrotic enteritis (NE), caused by Clostridium perfringens, has cost the poultry industry $2 billion in losses. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Bacillus licheniformis as dietary supplement on the growth, serum antioxidant status, and expression of lipid-metabolism genes of broiler chickens with C. perfringens-induced NE. A total of 240 one-day-old broilers were randomly grouped into four: a negative control, an NE experimental model (PC), chickens fed a diet supplemented with 30 % of fishmeal from day 14 onwards and challenged with coccidiosis vaccine (FC), and NE group supplied with feed containing 1.0 × 10(6) CFU/g B. licheniformis (BL). Body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, serum antioxidant status, and lipid-metabolism-gene expression were analyzed. In the PC group, FCR increased significantly whereas serum catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity decreased compared with NC group. Dietary B. licheniformis supplementation improved FCR and oxidative stress in experimental avian NE. Using Bacillus licheniformis as a direct-fed microbial (DFM) could also significantly upregulate catabolism-related genes, namely, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, in livers and changed the expression of lipid-anabolism genes. These results suggested that dietary B. licheniformis supplementation can enhance growth and antioxidant ability, as well as change the expression of genes related to fatty-acid synthesis and oxidation in the livers of NE-infected broilers.

  8. Protective Effect of Neuropeptide Apelin-13 on 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Dopaminergic Cells: Involvement of Its Antioxidant and Antiapoptotic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouresmaeili-Babaki, Elham; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Ravan, Hadi

    2018-04-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of brain dopaminergic neurons. Beside pharmacologic and symptomatic treatment of PD the neuroprotective therapy has recently attracted more attention. Apelin, a novel neuropeptide, and its receptors have numerous reported roles in regulating brain functions. In addition, this peptide has potent neuroprotective effects in some neurodegenerative situations. In this study, the effects of apelin-13 were investigated in a cell model of PD. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell damage was induced by 150 μM 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and the cells viability was examined by MTT assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential were determined by fluorescence spectrophotometry method. Immunoblotting analysis was also employed to evaluate cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activity. Data showed that 6-OHDA could decrease cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential and increase intracellular ROS, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3 levels. Pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with apelin-13 (5 and 10 nM) significantly prevented the mentioned biochemical and molecular markers of 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. Furthermore, the results showed that apelin receptor and PI3K signaling contributed to the observed protective effects of apelin. The results suggest that apelin-13 has protective effects against dopaminergic neural toxicity and its antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties are involved, at least in part, in such protection.

  9. Immediate preoperative enteral nutrition (preoperative enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lađević Nebojša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional support of surgical patients is a necessary part of the treatment. It alone cannot cure the disease but it significantly affects the recovery of patients and supports surgical interventions. Patients in malnutrition have shown to have significantly more postoperative infectious and non-infectious complications. This significantly prolongs treatment time and increases costs. However, there is one fact that cannot be expressed in money, which is the patient's impression of the surgical intervention. Adequate preoperative patient support, based on the intake of liquid nutritive solutions, reduces preoperative stress and deflects the metabolic response. Now, it is recommended for adults and children older than one year to drink clear liquid up to 2 hours before induction in anesthesia. Appropriate enteral nutrition has a significant place in the postoperative recovery of patients. Enteral nutrition is reducing complications, mainly infectious complications because the function of the digestive system as one large immune system is preserved. Perioperative enteral nutrition is a necessary part of the modern treatment of surgical patients. In addition to the significant effect on the occurrence of postoperative complications, it is also important that this type of diet improves the psychological status of patients.

  10. Construction of recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the S1 protein of Turkey enteric coronavirus for use as a bivalent vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkey enteric coronavirus (TCoV) causes a contagious form of enteritis in turkeys, generally recognized in the field by outward signs including diarrhea and decreased weight gain, resulting in severe economic losses for the poultry industry in the US. To date there is no commercial vaccine availab...

  11. The Correlation of Plasma Levels of Apelin-13 with Insulin Resistance Index and Plasma Leptin of Diabetic Male Rats after 8-Week Aerobic Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Kazemi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The physiological role of apelin, an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue, in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes has been identified. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of plasma levels of apelin-13 with insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR and plasma leptin of diabetic male rats after 8-week aerobic exercise. Materials and Methods: Peresent study was an experimental study with animal model. Twenty eight diabetic male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: Non-diabetic (n=9, control diabetic (n=9 and trained diabetic (n=10. Type 2 diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide and streptozotocin. The trained diabetic rat ran 8-week on treadmill progressively. After the training period, plasma levels of glucose, insulin, leptin and apelin-13 were measured and HOMA-IR was calculated. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation were used for analyzing data. p<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A significant decrease in plasma levels of glucose, insulin and leptin and HOMA-IR in trained diabetic vs control diabetic rats, a significant increase in plasma levels of apelin in trained diabetic vs non-diabetic and control diabetic rats and a significant negative correlation of plasma levels of apelin with HOMA-IR and plasma leptin in trained diabetic rats was observed. Conclusion: In present study, 8-week aerobic training by improvement of insulin sensitivity (decrease of HOMA-IR and plasma leptin increased plasma levels of apelin-13 in diabetic male rats.

  12. Apelin and APJ orchestrate complex tissue-specific control of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and contractility in the hypertrophy-heart failure transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Victoria Nicole; Liu, Jing; Shang, Ching; Woods, Christopher; Chang, Alex Chia Yu; Zhao, Mingming; Charo, David N; Grunwald, Zachary; Huang, Yong; Seo, Kinya; Tsao, Philip S; Bernstein, Daniel; Ruiz-Lozano, Pilar; Quertermous, Thomas; Ashley, Euan A

    2018-05-18

    The G protein coupled receptor APJ is a promising therapeutic target for heart failure. Constitutive deletion of APJ in the mouse is protective against the hypertrophy-heart failure transition via elimination of ligand-independent, β-arrestin dependent stretch transduction. However, the cellular origin of this stretch transduction and the details of its interaction with apelin signaling remain unknown. We generated mice with conditional elimination of APJ in the endothelium (APJ endo-/- ) and myocardium (APJ myo-/- ). No baseline difference was observed in LV function in APJ endo-/- , APJ myo-/- or controls (APJ endo+/+ , APJ myo+/+ ). After exposure to transaortic constriction (TAC), APJ endo-/- animals developed left ventricular failure while APJ myo-/- were protected. At the cellular level, carbon fiber stretch of freshly isolated single cardiomyocytes demonstrated decreased contractile response to stretch in APJ -/- cardiomyocytes compared to APJ +/+ cardiomyocytes. Calcium transient did not change with stretch in either APJ -/- or APJ +/+ cardiomyocytes. Application of apelin to APJ +/+ cardiomyocytes resulted in decreased calcium transient. Further, hearts of mice treated with apelin exhibited decreased phosphorylation at Troponin I (cTnI) N-terminal residues (Ser 22,23), consistent with increased calcium sensitivity. These data establish that APJ stretch transduction is mediated specifically by myocardial APJ, that APJ is necessary for stretch-induced increases in contractility, and that apelin opposes APJ's stretch-mediated hypertrophy signaling by lowering calcium transient while maintaining contractility through myofilament calcium sensitization. These findings underscore apelin's unique potential as a therapeutic agent that can simultaneously support cardiac function and protect against the hypertrophy-heart failure transition.

  13. Enteral nutrition in surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucha, R.; Lichvarova, I.; Duchon, R.; Dolnik, J.; Pindak, D.

    2011-01-01

    Enteral feeding provides physiologic, metabolic, safety, and cost benefits over parenteral nutrition. There are various ways enteral nutritional is administered and scheduled. The method of administration must be individualized to each patient's specific needs. Enteral nutrition is not only the supply of exogenous substrates and to prevent depletion of endogenous sources. Today the enteral nutrition becomes part of a therapeutic strategy to influence the severity of the disease to affect the function of GIT, and to modulate immune responses of the gut and the whole organism. Early enteral nutrition in the postoperative period reduces the risk of infectious complications. (author)

  14. Genetics of enteric neuropathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosens, Erwin; Burns, Alan J.; Brooks, Alice S.; Matera, Ivana; Borrego, Salud; Ceccherini, Isabella; Tam, Paul K.; García-Barceló, Maria-Mercè; Thapar, Nikhil; Benninga, Marc A.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.; Alves, Maria M.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal development or disturbed functioning of the enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic innervation of the gastrointestinal tract, is associated with the development of neuropathic gastrointestinal motility disorders. Here, we review the underlying molecular basis of these disorders and

  15. Enteric bacterial metabolites propionic and butyric acid modulate gene expression, including CREB-dependent catecholaminergic neurotransmission, in PC12 cells--possible relevance to autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bistra B Nankova

    Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbiome composition have an emerging role in health and disease including brain function and behavior. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA like propionic (PPA, and butyric acid (BA, which are present in diet and are fermentation products of many gastrointestinal bacteria, are showing increasing importance in host health, but also may be environmental contributors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Further to this we have shown SCFA administration to rodents over a variety of routes (intracerebroventricular, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal or developmental time periods can elicit behavioral, electrophysiological, neuropathological and biochemical effects consistent with findings in ASD patients. SCFA are capable of altering host gene expression, partly due to their histone deacetylase inhibitor activity. We have previously shown BA can regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH mRNA levels in a PC12 cell model. Since monoamine concentration is known to be elevated in the brain and blood of ASD patients and in many ASD animal models, we hypothesized that SCFA may directly influence brain monoaminergic pathways. When PC12 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids having a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the TH promoter, PPA was found to induce reporter gene activity over a wide concentration range. CREB transcription factor(s was necessary for the transcriptional activation of TH gene by PPA. At lower concentrations PPA also caused accumulation of TH mRNA and protein, indicative of increased cell capacity to produce catecholamines. PPA and BA induced broad alterations in gene expression including neurotransmitter systems, neuronal cell adhesion molecules, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function, all of which have been implicated in ASD. In conclusion, our data are consistent with a molecular mechanism through which gut related environmental signals

  16. IL-17A promotes protective IgA responses and expression of other potential effectors against the lumen-dwelling enteric parasite Giardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Sara M; Manthey, Carolin F; Le, Christine; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Gima, Lauren; Abrahim, Andrew; Cao, Anthony T; Hanson, Elaine M; Kolls, Jay K; Raz, Eyal; Cong, Yingzi; Eckmann, Lars

    2015-09-01

    Giardia lamblia is a leading protozoan cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. It colonizes the lumen and epithelial surface of the small intestine, but does not invade the mucosa. Acute infection causes only minimal mucosal inflammation. Effective immune defenses exist, yet their identity and mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Interleukin (IL)-17A has emerged as an important cytokine involved in inflammation and antimicrobial defense against bacterial pathogens at mucosal surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate that IL-17A has a crucial function in host defense against Giardia infection. Using murine infection models with G. muris and G. lamblia, we observed marked and selective induction of intestinal IL-17A with peak expression after 2 weeks. Th17 cells in the lamina propria and innate immune cells in the epithelial compartment of the small intestine were responsible for the IL-17A response. Experiments in gene-targeted mice revealed that the cytokine, and its cognate receptor IL-17RA, were required for eradication of the parasite. The actions of the cytokine were mediated by hematopoietic cells, and were required for the transport of IgA into the intestinal lumen, since IL-17A deficiency led to marked reduction of fecal IgA levels, as well as for increased intestinal expression of several other potential effectors, including β-defensin 1 and resistin-like molecule β. In contrast, intestinal hypermotility, another major antigiardial defense mechanism, was not impacted by IL-17A loss. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that IL-17A and IL-17 receptor signaling are essential for intestinal defense against the important lumen-dwelling intestinal parasite Giardia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  18. [Modular enteral nutrition in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Sanchís, S; Prenafeta Ferré, M T; Sempere Luque, M D

    1991-01-01

    Modular Enteral Nutrition may be a substitute for Parenteral Nutrition in children with different pathologies. Study of 4 children with different pathologies selected from a group of 40 admitted to the Maternal-Childrens Hospital "Valle de Hebrón" in Barcelona, who received modular enteral nutrition. They were monitored on a daily basis by the Dietician Service. Modular enteral nutrition consists of modules of proteins, peptides, lipids, glucids and mineral salts-vitamins. 1.--Craneo-encephalic traumatisms with loss of consciousness, Feeding with a combination of parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition for 7 days. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended and modular enteral nutrition alone used up to a total of 43 days. 2.--55% burns with 36 days of hyperproteic modular enteral nutrition together with normal feeding. A more rapid recovery was achieved with an increase in total proteins and albumin. 3.--Persistent diarrhoea with 31 days of modular enteral nutrition, 5 days on parenteral nutrition alone and 8 days on combined parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended. 4.--Mucoviscidosis with a total of 19 days on modular enteral nutrition, 12 of which were exclusively on modular enteral nutrition and 7 as a night supplement to normal feeding. We administered proteic intakes of up to 20% of the total calorific intake and in concentrations of up to 1.2 calories/ml of the final preparation, always with a good tolerance. Modular enteral nutrition can and should be used as a substitute for parenteral nutrition in children with different pathologies, thus preventing the complications inherent in parenteral nutrition.

  19. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-03-07

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5(th) International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy.

  20. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...

  1. Combined enteral and parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernerman, Jan

    2012-03-01

    To review and discuss the evidence and arguments to combine enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition in the ICU, in particular with reference to the Early Parenteral Nutrition Completing Enteral Nutrition in Adult Critically Ill Patients (EPaNIC) study. The EPaNIC study shows an advantage in terms of discharges alive from the ICU when parenteral nutrition is delayed to day 8 as compared with combining enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition from day 3 of ICU stay. The difference between the guidelines from the European Society of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition in Europe and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition/Society of Critical Care Medicine in North America concerning the combination of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition during the initial week of ICU stay was reviewed. The EPaNIC study clearly demonstrates that early parenteral nutrition in the ICU is not in the best interests of most patients. Exactly at what time point the combination of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition should be considered is still an open question.

  2. Enteric Methane Emission from Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    per kg meat produced is increased (Fernández et al. 1983; Lekule et al. 1990). The present chapter will summarise our current knowledge concerning dietary and enteric fermentation that may influence the methane (CH4) emission in pigs. Enteric fermentation is the digestive process by which.......3 % of the worlds pig population. The main number of pigs is in Asia (59.6 %) where the main pig population stay in China (47.8 % of the worlds pig population). The objective of the chapter is therefore: To obtain a general overview of the pigs’ contribution to methane emission. Where is the pigs’ enteric gas...... produced and how is it measured. The variation in methane emission and factors affecting the emission. Possibility for reducing the enteric methane emission and the consequences....

  3. EARLY ENTERAL FEEDING AND DELAYED ENTERAL FEEDING- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Muthiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome-  In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery.  In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer

  4. The enter-educate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrow, P T; Coleman, P L

    1992-03-01

    This article describes how the Population Communication Services (PCS) has seized on the "enter-educate" approach, the blending of popular entertainment with social messages, to change reproductive health behavior. The enter-educate approach spreads its message through songs, soap operas, variety shows, and other types of popular entertainment mediums. Because they entertain, enter-educate projects can capture the attention of an audience -- such as young people -- who would otherwise scorn social messages. And the use of population mediums makes it possible to reach a variety of audiences. Funded by USAID, PCS began its first enter-educate project in response to the increasing number of teenage pregnancies in Latin America. PCS developed 2 songs and videos, which featured popular teenage singers to serve as role models, to urge abstinence. The songs became instant hits. Since then, PCS has mounted more then 80 major projects in some 40 countries. Highlights of programs range from a successful multi-media family planning campaign in Turkey to humorous television ads in Brazil promoting vasectomy. Recently, PCS initiated projects to teach AIDS awareness. At the core of the enter-educate approach is the social learning theory which holds that much behavior is learned through the observation of role-models. Health professionals work alongside entertainers to produce works that have audience appeal and factual social messages. The enter-educate approach works because it is popular, pervasive, personal, persuasive, and profitable. PCS has found that enter-educate programs pay for themselves through cost sharing and cost recovery.

  5. Meat-based enteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevitskay, O. K.; Dydykin, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Enteral nutrition is widely used in hospitals as a means of nutritional support and therapy for different diseases. Enteral nutrition must fulfil the energy needs of the body, be balanced by the nutrient composition and meet patient’s nutritional needs. Meat is a source of full-value animal protein, vitamins and minerals. On the basis of this research, recipes and technology for a meat-based enteral nutrition product were developed. The product is a ready-to-eat sterilised mixture in the form of a liquid homogeneous mass, which is of full value in terms of composition and enriched with vitamins and minerals, consists of particles with a size of not more than 0.3 mm and has the modified fat composition and rheological characteristics that are necessary for passage through enteral feeding tubes. The study presents experimental data on the content of the main macro- and micro-nutrients in the developed product. The new product is characterised by a balanced fatty acid composition, which plays an important role in correction of lipid metabolism disorders and protein-energy deficiency, and it is capable of satisfying patients’ daily requirements for vitamins and the main macro- and microelements when consuming 1500-2000 ml. Meat-based enteral nutrition can be used in diets as a standard mixture for effective correction of the energy and anabolic requirements of the body and support of the nutritional status of patients, including those with operated stomach syndrome.

  6. Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  7. Nutrición enteral

    OpenAIRE

    Barrachina Bellés, Lidón; García Hernández, Misericordia; Oto Cavero, Isabel

    1984-01-01

    Este trabajo nos introduce en la administración de la nutrición enteral, haciendo una revisión de los aspectos a tener en cuenta tanto en sus indicaciones, vias, tipos, métodos, cuidados y complicaciones más importantes.

  8. [Enteral nutrition in burn patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J L; Garrido, M; Gómez-Cía, T; Serrera, J L; Franco, A; Pumar, A; Relimpio, F; Astorga, R; García-Luna, P P

    1992-01-01

    Nutritional support plays an important role in the treatment of patients with burns. Due to the severe hypercatabolism that develops in these patients, oral support is insufficient in most cases, and this makes it essential to initiate artificial nutritional support (either enteral or parenteral). Enteral nutrition is more physiological than parenteral, and data exist which show that in patients with burns, enteral nutrition exercises a protective effect on the intestine and may even reduce the hypermetabolic response in these patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of enteral nutritional support with a hypercaloric, hyperproteic diet with a high content of branched amino acids in the nutritional support of patients suffering from burns. The study included 12 patients (8 males and 4 females), admitted to the Burns Unit. Average age was 35 +/- 17 years (range: 21-85 years). The percentage of body surface affected by the burns was 10% in two cases, between 10-30% in three cases, between 30-50% in five cases and over 50% in two cases. Initiation of the enteral nutrition was between twenty-four hours and seven days after the burn. The patients were kept in the unit until they were discharged, and the average time spent in the unit was 31.5 days (range: 17-63 days). Total energetic requirements were calculated based on Harris-Benedict, with a variable aggression factor depending on the body surface burned, which varied from 2,000 and 4,000 cal day. Nitrogenous balance was determined on a daily basis, and plasmatic levels of total proteins, albumin and prealbumin on a weekly basis. There was a significant difference between the prealbumin values at the initiation and finalization of the enteral nutrition (9.6 +/- 2.24 mg/dl compared with 19.75 +/- 5.48 mg/dl; p diet was very good, and only mild complications such as diarrhoea developed in two patients. Enteral nutrition is a suitable nutritional support method for patients with

  9. CERN openlab enters fifth phase

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrew Purcell

    2015-01-01

    CERN openlab is a unique public-private partnership between CERN and leading ICT companies. At the start of this year, openlab officially entered its fifth phase, which will run until the end of 2017. For the first time in its history, it has extended beyond the CERN community to include other major European and international research laboratories.   Founded in 2001 to develop the innovative ICT systems needed to cope with the unprecedented computing challenges of the LHC, CERN openlab unites science and industry at the cutting edge of research and innovation. In a white paper published last year, CERN openlab set out the main ICT challenges it will tackle during its fifth phase, namely data acquisition, computing platforms, data storage architectures, computer management and provisioning, networks and connectivity, and data analytics. As it enters its fifth phase, CERN openlab is expanding to include other research laboratories. "Today, research centres in other disciplines are also st...

  10. The Effect of 8 Weeks of Aerobic Training and Consumption of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Nettle on Apelin and hs-CRP plasma Levels of Overweight and Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Madadi Jaberi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The use of exercise along with herbal supplements is one method proposed for controlling obesity and its complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks aerobic training and use of hydro-alcoholic extract of nettle on levels apelin and hs-CRP plasma in overweight and obese women. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted with blind randomized clinical trial. 46 overweight and obese women (body mass index greater than 25 kilograms per square millimeter two, aged 25-45 years were selected purposefully and randomly divided into four groups of: aerobic training + hydro alcoholic extract of nettle, aerobic exercise + placebo extract of nettle and placebo. The intervention group and placebo received 8 mg of hydro alcoholic extract of nettle 8 ml of water-soluble daily for 8 weeks respectively. Aerobic exercise ergometer for 8 weeks, 3 sessions of 16 to 30 minutes with the intensity of 60-75% heart rate was reserved. In two pre and post-test after 14 hours of fasting at the same conditions, blood samples were collected. The ELISA method was use to assess levels of plasma apelin and hs-CRP d. Data obtained were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, ANOVA, t-test and LSD test. Results: The results showed that the levels of hs-CRP were significantly different in comparison among the groups as well as in groups of aerobic exercise + hydro alcoholic extract of nettle, nettle and hydro-alcholic aerobic exercise + placebo significant reduction was observed (p>0.05. Conclusion: It seems that consumption of Nettle extract along with aerobic exercise through Weight loss, body fat percentage and BMI, play an effective role in control of obesity and reducing of inflammatory Apelin markers and hs-CRP in obese women

  11. Surgical treatment of radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, M.J.; Frazee, R.C. (Department of General Surgery, Scott and White Memorial Hospital, Temple TX (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Radiation enteritis is a progressive, disease process that causes intestinal fibrosis and obliterative endarteritis, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The authors' clinical experience involving 20 patients over a 22-year period from 1967 through 1989 who underwent various surgical procedures to alleviate chronic symptoms secondary to radiation enteritis is described. Eight men and 12 women with a mean age of 52 years (24 to 81 years) underwent a total of 27 procedures for complications of radiation enteritis. Radiation therapy was delivered for treatment of gynecologic malignancies (55%), colorectal cancer (20%), prostate malignancies (10%), and others (15%). The mean average dose of radiation delivered was 5,514 rads with a range of 2,613 to 7,000 rads. The interval from radiation treatment to time of surgery averaged 9 years. Operative procedures consisted of 12 resection and primary anastomosis procedures and 15 resections with stoma creation. Formation of a stoma was used in patients with more severe disease. The 30-day operative mortality was 0% and morbidity was 55%. There were no anastomotic leaks or intra-abdominal abscesses. The authors conclude that resection and primary anastomosis can safely be performed in selected patients but that judicious use of stoma formation can avoid major mortality and morbidity associated with surgery in this setting.

  12. Surgical treatment of radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, M.J.; Frazee, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation enteritis is a progressive, disease process that causes intestinal fibrosis and obliterative endarteritis, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The authors' clinical experience involving 20 patients over a 22-year period from 1967 through 1989 who underwent various surgical procedures to alleviate chronic symptoms secondary to radiation enteritis is described. Eight men and 12 women with a mean age of 52 years (24 to 81 years) underwent a total of 27 procedures for complications of radiation enteritis. Radiation therapy was delivered for treatment of gynecologic malignancies (55%), colorectal cancer (20%), prostate malignancies (10%), and others (15%). The mean average dose of radiation delivered was 5,514 rads with a range of 2,613 to 7,000 rads. The interval from radiation treatment to time of surgery averaged 9 years. Operative procedures consisted of 12 resection and primary anastomosis procedures and 15 resections with stoma creation. Formation of a stoma was used in patients with more severe disease. The 30-day operative mortality was 0% and morbidity was 55%. There were no anastomotic leaks or intra-abdominal abscesses. The authors conclude that resection and primary anastomosis can safely be performed in selected patients but that judicious use of stoma formation can avoid major mortality and morbidity associated with surgery in this setting

  13. Enteral Feeding Set Handling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Beth; Williams, Maria; Sollazzo, Janet; Hayden, Ashley; Hensley, Pam; Dai, Hongying; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-04-01

    Enteral nutrition therapy is common practice in pediatric clinical settings. Often patients will receive a pump-assisted bolus feeding over 30 minutes several times per day using the same enteral feeding set (EFS). This study aims to determine the safest and most efficacious way to handle the EFS between feedings. Three EFS handling techniques were compared through simulation for bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs: (1) rinsing the EFS with sterile water after each feeding, (2) refrigerating the EFS between feedings, and (3) using a ready-to-hang (RTH) product maintained at room temperature. Cultures were obtained at baseline, hour 12, and hour 21 of the 24-hour cycle. A time-in-motion analysis was conducted and reported in average number of seconds to complete each procedure. Supply costs were inventoried for 1 month comparing the actual usage to our estimated usage. Of 1080 cultures obtained, the overall bacterial growth rate was 8.7%. The rinse and refrigeration techniques displayed similar bacterial growth (11.4% vs 10.3%, P = .63). The RTH technique displayed the least bacterial growth of any method (4.4%, P = .002). The time analysis in minutes showed the rinse method was the most time-consuming (44.8 ± 2.7) vs refrigeration (35.8 ± 2.6) and RTH (31.08 ± 0.6) ( P refrigerating the EFS between uses is the next most efficacious method for handling the EFS between bolus feeds.

  14. EXPRESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, C.; Le, P.; DeSaint-Quentin, S.; Villatte, N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents EXPRESS, an expert system developed for the automation of reliability studies. The first part consists in the description of the method for static thermohydraulic systems. In this step, the authors define the knowledge representation based on the two inference engines - ALOUETTE and LCR developed by EDF. They explain all the process to construct a fault tree from a topological and functional description of the system. Numerous examples are exhibited in illustration of the method. This is followed by the lessons derived from the studies performed on some safety systems of the PALUEL nuclear plant. The development of the same approach for electric power systems is described, insisting on the difference resulting from the sequential nature of these systems. Finally, they show the main advantages identified during the studies

  15. A Map Enters the Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    Over the past decade STS scholars have been engaged in a continuous dialogue about the performativity of their methods and the interventions of their research practices. A frequently posed question is how STS can make a difference to its fields of study, what John Law has called its different...... 'modes of mattering'. In this paper I explore what difference digital cartography can make to STS practice. I draw on three examples from my own work where digitally mediated maps have entered the conversation and made critical, often surprising, differences to the research process. In my first example...... the map is brought along as an ethnographic device on a piece of fieldwork, in my second example it serves as the central collaborative object in a participatory design project, and in my third example the map becomes the object of contestation as it finds itself centre stage in the controversy...

  16. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Seres, David S.; Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

  17. Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Tran, Jennifer L; Clarkson, Michael R

    2003-11-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of mycophenolate sodium. Primary literature was obtained via a MEDLINE search (1966-June 2003). Abstracts were obtained from the manufacturer and included in the analysis. All studies and abstracts evaluating mycophenolate sodium in solid organ transplantation were considered for inclusion. English-language studies and abstracts were selected for inclusion, but were limited to those consisting of human subjects. Mycophenolate sodium, a mycophenolic acid prodrug, is an inhibitor of T-lymphocyte proliferation. Mycophenolic acid reduces the incidence of acute rejection in renal transplantation. Mycophenolate sodium is enteric coated and has been suggested as a potential method to reduce the gastrointestinal adverse events seen with mycophenolate mofetil. Both mycophenolate mofetil and mycophenolate sodium have been shown to be therapeutically equivalent at decreasing the incidence of allograft rejection and loss. The frequency of adverse events is similar between both compounds, with the most common events being diarrhea and leukopenia. Mycophenolate sodium is effective in preventing acute rejection in renal transplant recipients. At doses of 720 mg twice daily, the efficacy and safety profiles are similar to those of mycophenolate mofetil 1000 mg twice daily. Mycophenolate sodium has been approved in Switzerland; approval in the US is pending.

  18. CERN openlab enters new phase

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The newest phase of CERN’s openlab framework was inaugurated this week during a meeting of the openlab partners. This phase will last three years and will bring together existing openlab partners and a new contributor: Huawei.   Group picture taken at the first CERN openlab IV annual Board of Sponsors meeting, in the presence of the CERN Director-General, the partners and the openlab team members. © Fons Rademakers (CERN Photo Club). Eleven years ago, the creation of the CERN openlab created a long-term link between industrial partners and the Organization. Its framework has allowed industry to carry out large-scale IT research and development in an open atmosphere – an “Open Lab”, if you will. For CERN, openlab has contributed to giving the computing centre and, more broadly, the LHC community, the opportunity to ensure that the next generation of services and products is suitable to their needs. Now entering its fourth phase, openlab will ...

  19. Enteric hyperoxaluria in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, Nathalie; Issa, Zaina; Crott, Ralph; Morelle, Johann; Danse, Etienne; Wallemacq, Pierre; Jadoul, Michel; Deprez, Pierre H

    2017-05-01

    Chronic pancreatitis may lead to steatorrhea, enteric hyperoxaluria, and kidney damage. However, the prevalence and determinants of hyperoxaluria in chronic pancreatitis patients as well as its association with renal function decline have not been investigated.We performed an observational study. Urine oxalate to creatinine ratio was assessed on 2 independent random urine samples in consecutive adult patients with chronic pancreatitis followed at the outpatient clinic from March 1 to October 31, 2012. Baseline characteristics and annual estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) change during follow-up were compared between patients with hyper- and normo-oxaluria.A total of 48 patients with chronic pancreatitis were included. The etiology of the disease was toxic (52%), idiopathic (27%), obstructive (11%), autoimmune (6%), or genetic (4%). Hyperoxaluria (defined as urine oxalate to creatinine ratio >32 mg/g) was found in 23% of patients. Multivariate regression analysis identified clinical steatorrhea, high fecal acid steatocrit, and pancreatic atrophy as independent predictors of hyperoxaluria. Taken together, a combination of clinical steatorrhea, steatocrit level >31%, and pancreatic atrophy was associated with a positive predictive value of 100% for hyperoxaluria. On the contrary, none of the patients with a fecal elastase-1 level >100 μg/g had hyperoxaluria. Longitudinal evolution of eGFR was available in 71% of the patients, with a mean follow-up of 904 days. After adjustment for established determinants of renal function decline (gender, diabetes, bicarbonate level, baseline eGFR, and proteinuria), a urine oxalate to creatinine ratio >32 mg/g was associated with a higher risk of eGFR decline.Hyperoxaluria is highly prevalent in patients with chronic pancreatitis and associated with faster decline in renal function. A high urine oxalate to creatinine ratio in patients with chronic pancreatitis is best predicted by clinical steatorrhea, a high acid

  20. Enteral Nutrition and Acute Pancreatitis: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanier, B. W. M.; Bruno, M. J.; Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. In patients with acute pancreatitis (AP), nutritional support is required if normal food cannot be tolerated within several days. Enteral nutrition is preferred over parenteral nutrition. We reviewed the literature about enteral nutrition in AP. Methods. A MEDLINE search of the English

  1. Understanding and controlling the enteric nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    2002-01-01

    The enteric nervous system or the `Little Brain' of the gut controls gastrointestinal motility and secretion, and is involved in visceral sensation. In this chapter, new developments in understanding the function of the enteric nervous system are described. In particular, the interaction of this

  2. Noncommunicating Isolated Enteric Duplication Cyst in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noncommunicating isolated enteric duplications in the abdomen are an extremely rare variant of enteric duplications with their own blood supply. We report a case of a noncommunicating isolated ileal duplication in a 10-month-old boy. He was admitted because of severe abdominal distension and developed irritability ...

  3. Enteric nervous system specific deletion of Foxd3 disrupts glial cell differentiation and activates compensatory enteric progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Nathan A; Plank, Jennifer L; LeGrone, Alison W; Frist, Audrey Y; Zhu, Lei; Shin, Myung K; Southard-Smith, E Michelle; Labosky, Patricia A

    2012-03-15

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) arises from the coordinated migration, expansion and differentiation of vagal and sacral neural crest progenitor cells. During development, vagal neural crest cells enter the foregut and migrate in a rostro-to-caudal direction, colonizing the entire gastrointestinal tract and generating the majority of the ENS. Sacral neural crest contributes to a subset of enteric ganglia in the hindgut, colonizing the colon in a caudal-to-rostral wave. During this process, enteric neural crest-derived progenitors (ENPs) self-renew and begin expressing markers of neural and glial lineages as they populate the intestine. Our earlier work demonstrated that the transcription factor Foxd3 is required early in neural crest-derived progenitors for self-renewal, multipotency and establishment of multiple neural crest-derived cells and structures including the ENS. Here, we describe Foxd3 expression within the fetal and postnatal intestine: Foxd3 was strongly expressed in ENPs as they colonize the gastrointestinal tract and was progressively restricted to enteric glial cells. Using a novel Ednrb-iCre transgene to delete Foxd3 after vagal neural crest cells migrate into the midgut, we demonstrated a late temporal requirement for Foxd3 during ENS development. Lineage labeling of Ednrb-iCre expressing cells in Foxd3 mutant embryos revealed a reduction of ENPs throughout the gut and loss of Ednrb-iCre lineage cells in the distal colon. Although mutant mice were viable, defects in patterning and distribution of ENPs were associated with reduced proliferation and severe reduction of glial cells derived from the Ednrb-iCre lineage. Analyses of ENS-lineage and differentiation in mutant embryos suggested activation of a compensatory population of Foxd3-positive ENPs that did not express the Ednrb-iCre transgene. Our findings highlight the crucial roles played by Foxd3 during ENS development including progenitor proliferation, neural patterning, and glial

  4. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J.L.; Taat, C.W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Becker, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were quantified by counting their number per unit length of muscularis mucosa. Results in radiation enteritis were compared with matched control specimens by using Student's t test. Chromogranin immunostaining showed a statistically significant increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis specimens compared with controls both in small and large intestine (ileum, 67.5 +/- 23.5 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 17.0 +/- 6.1 in controls; colon, 40.9 +/- 13.7 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 9.5 +/- 4.1 in controls--p less than 0.005 in both instances). Increase of endocrine cells was demonstrated also by Grimelius' staining; however, without reaching statistical significance. It is not clear whether or not the increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis reported in this study is caused by a hyperplastic response or by a sparing phenomenon. We should consider that increased endocrine cells, when abnormally secreting their products, may be involved in some of the clinical features of radiation enteropathy. In addition, as intestinal endocrine cells produce trophic substances to the intestine, their increase could be responsible for the raised risk of developing carcinoma of the intestine in long standing radiation enteritis

  5. Enteral nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassull, M A; Abad, A; Cabré, E; González-Huix, F; Giné, J J; Dolz, C

    1986-01-01

    To assess the effect of the addition of enteral tube feeding with polymeric diets to the standard treatment of acute attacks of inflammatory bowel disease a total of 43 patients admitted to hospital (23 with Crohn's disease and 20 with ulcerative colitis) were studied retrospectively. Total enteral nutrition was given to 26 as the sole nutritional supply and to 17 in conjunction with a normal ward diet, when appropriate, according to the severity of attack (control group). Nutritional state was assessed and classified in all patients at admission and at the end of the study, by measuring the triceps skinfold thickness, mid arm muscle circumference, and serum albumin concentration as representative of body fat, muscle protein, and visceral protein, respectively. At admission the three nutritional variables were not statistically different between the groups. There was a significantly positive effect on mid arm muscle circumference in patients on total enteral nutrition compared with the control group, but there was no effect on either triceps skinfold thickness or serum albumin concentration. The percentage of subjects requiring intravenous albumin infusion, however, was significantly less in the group fed enterally than in the control group. In addition, fewer patients in the group fed enterally required surgical treatment compared with the control group, despite the fact that one of the criteria for starting enteral nutritional support was the expectancy that surgery would be needed. Total enteral nutrition was well tolerated and no major side effects arose during its use in patients with acute exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:3098646

  6. American Society for Parenteral & Enteral Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Advertising and Sponsorship Learn More ASPEN Enteral Nutrition by the Numbers: EN Data Across the Healthcare Continuum Learn More The ASPEN Adult Nutrition Support Core Curriculum, 3rd Edition Has Arrived! The ...

  7. Do enteric neurons make hypocretin? ☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Christian R.; Clark, Erika L.; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Hecht, Jonathan L.; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Hypocretins (orexins) are wake-promoting neuropeptides produced by hypothalamic neurons. These hypocretin-producing cells are lost in people with narcolepsy, possibly due to an autoimmune attack. Prior studies described hypocretin neurons in the enteric nervous system, and these cells could be an additional target of an autoimmune process. We sought to determine whether enteric hypocretin neurons are lost in narcoleptic subjects. Even though we tried several methods (including whole mounts, sectioned tissue, pre-treatment of mice with colchicine, and the use of various primary antisera), we could not identify hypocretin-producing cells in enteric nervous tissue collected from mice or normal human subjects. These results raise doubts about whether enteric neurons produce hypocretin. PMID:18191238

  8. OCCURRENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN SURFACE WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human enteric viruses cause a number of diseases when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking & recreational waters. Vaccination against poliovirus has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis from the planet. Other members of enterovirus group cause numerous diseases. Hepatit...

  9. effects of enteral glutamine supplementation on reduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the effect of enteral glutamine in reducing the incidence of ... in use. These modalities include among others; topical antibacterial agents, early excision of eschar, and ... in the burns unit and plastic surgery ward 4D of.

  10. [Indications and practice of enteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallay, Judit; Nagy, Dániel; Fülesdi, Béla

    2014-12-21

    Malnutrition in hospitalised patients has a significant and disadvantageous impact on treatment outcome. If possible, enteral nutrition with an energy/protein-balanced nutrient should be preferred depending on the patient's condition, type of illness and risk factors. The aim of the nutrition therapy is to increase the efficacy of treatment and shorten the length of hospital stay in order to ensure rapid rehabilitation. In the present review the authors summarize the most important clinical and practical aspects of enteral nutrition therapy.

  11. Do enteric neurons make hypocretin? ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Christian R.; Clark, Erika L.; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Hecht, Jonathan L.; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    Hypocretins (orexins) are wake-promoting neuropeptides produced by hypothalamic neurons. These hypocretin-producing cells are lost in people with narcolepsy, possibly due to an autoimmune attack. Prior studies described hypocretin neurons in the enteric nervous system, and these cells could be an additional target of an autoimmune process. We sought to determine whether enteric hypocretin neurons are lost in narcoleptic subjects. Even though we tried several methods (including whole mounts, s...

  12. Laboratory Screening for Children Entering Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Mary V; Beal, Sarah J; Nause, Katie; Staat, Mary Allen; Dexheimer, Judith W; Scribano, Philip V

    2017-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of medical illness detected by laboratory screening in children entering foster care in a single, urban county. All children entering foster care in a single county in Ohio were seen at a consultation foster care clinic and had laboratory screening, including testing for infectious diseases such as HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, and tuberculosis as well as for hemoglobin and lead levels. Over a 3-year period (2012-2015), laboratory screening was performed on 1977 subjects entering foster care in a consultative foster care clinic. The prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, and tuberculosis were all found to be <1%. There were no cases of HIV. Seven percent of teenagers entering foster care tested positive for Chlamydia . A secondary finding was that 54% of subjects were hepatitis B surface antibody-negative, indicating an absence of detected immunity to the hepatitis B virus. Routine laboratory screening for children entering foster care resulted in a low yield. Targeted, rather than routine, laboratory screening may be a more clinically meaningful approach for children entering foster care. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Glucose, epithelium, and enteric nervous system: dialogue in the dark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuche, H; Gäbel, G

    2009-06-01

    The gastrointestinal epithelium is in close contact with the various components of the chymus, including nutrients, bacteria and toxins. The epithelial barrier has to decide which components are effectively absorbed and which components are extruded. In the small intestine, a nutrient like glucose is mainly absorbed by the sodium linked glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). The expression and activity of both transport proteins is directly linked to the amount of intraluminal glucose. Besides the direct interaction between glucose and the enterocytes, glucose also stimulates different sensory mechanisms within the intestinal wall. The most important types of cells involved in the sensing of intraluminal contents are enteroendocrine cells and neurones of the enteric nervous system. Regarding glucosensing, a distinct type of enteroendocrine cells, the enterochromaffine (EC) cells are involved. Excitation of EC cells by intraluminal glucose results in the release of serotonin (5-HT), which modulates epithelial functions and activates enteric secretomotorneurones. Enteric neurones are not only activated by 5-HT, but also directly by glucose. The activation of different cell types and the subsequent crosstalk between these cells may trigger appropriate absorptive and secretory processes within the intestine.

  14. The spectrum of radiation enteritis: surgical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, G.K.; Grodsinsky, C.; Allen, H.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation therapy, often used to treat gynecologic and urologic pelvic malignancies, has varying, adverse effects on the bowel. Radiation enteritis may occur from one month to 20 years after irradiation, and disabling symptoms may require surgery in 10 to 20 per cent of patients. From our experience with 20 patients who required surgery for radiation enteritis and who were followed for up to 20 years, we were able to identify three clinical groups. Patients in the first group need only medical treatment for their symptoms, and observation, whereas patients in the second group may present with acute, debilitating, life-threatening symptoms that may require emergency surgery. Patients in the third group have a long-standing history of intermittent bowel obstruction and/or enteric fistulas that are best treated with adequate nutritional support followed by timely surgical intervention

  15. Enteric alpha defensins in norm and pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisitsyn Nikolai A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microbes living in the mammalian gut exist in constant contact with immunity system that prevents infection and maintains homeostasis. Enteric alpha defensins play an important role in regulation of bacterial colonization of the gut, as well as in activation of pro- and anti-inflammatory responses of the adaptive immune system cells in lamina propria. This review summarizes currently available data on functions of mammalian enteric alpha defensins in the immune defense and changes in their secretion in intestinal inflammatory diseases and cancer.

  16. The radiological features of chronic radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelson, R.M.; Nolan, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The radiological findings, using a single-contrast barium infusion technique, are described in a series of 13 patients with chronic radiation enteritis. The signs include evidence of submucosal thickening, single or multiple stenoses, adhesions and sinus or fistula formation. A combination of these signs characterises the condition. This technique is particularly suited to the investigation of radiation enteritis because of its ability to distend maximally the small intestine. A cause, stenosis and/or adhesions, was demonstrated in the eight of the 13 patients presenting with intermittent small-intestinal obstruction. Three patients had diarrhoea as their predominant complaint and a fistula was demonstrated in two. (author)

  17. Identification and expression patterns of adipokine genes during adipocyte differentiation in the Tibetan goat (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueying; Wang, Yan; Guo, Jiazhong; Zhong, Tao; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Wang, Linjie

    2018-02-15

    Adipokines are secreted by adipose tissue and play an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. However, the information regarding adipokines in goats is limited. PPARγ is a key gene in adipocyte differentiation and activates adipokine genes. Rosiglitazone is a PPARγ agonist and can promote the expression of PPARγ to increase the expression of lipogenesis-related genes. Therefore, investigation of the relationship between rosiglitazone and adipokines will help us to better understand the function of PPARγ in lipid metabolism in Tibetan goats. In this study, we cloned the resistin (RETN), apelin (APLN), fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and visfatin (NAMPT) genes from non-pregnant female Tibetan goat adipose tissue. APLN and NAMPT were predominantly expressed in the kidney, and FGF21 was expressed at the highest levels in the liver in vivo. In fat tissues, the highest expression levels of FGF21 and RETN were detected in omental fat, whereas their expression in perirenal and subcutaneous fat was extremely weak. APLN and NAMPT were abundantly expressed in omental and subcutaneous fat in vivo. In addition, the four adipokines had different expression profiles during goat adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Oil red O staining showed that rosiglitazone could promote adipocyte differentiation and lipid droplet formation. In addition, rosiglitazone significantly increased the expression of FGF21 and RETN (pgoat adipocyte differentiation. And PPARγ could regulate the expression of the four adipokines, but the detailed regulatory mechanism still needs to be elucidated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect Of Oligomeric Enteral Nutrition On Symptoms Of Acute Radiation Enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinsky, P.

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy of abdominal and pelvic tumours is frequently associated with acute radiation enteritis. Predominant symptoms include diarrhea, watery stools, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. There are very few effective interventions available for this condition. Enteral oligomeric nutrition has been used in bowel diseases with functional failure similar to radiation enteritis. The aim of presented work was to observe occurrence of symptoms of radiation enteritis in patients undergoing abdominal or pelvic radiotherapy. Apart from diet and pharmacological therapy, oral oligomeric enteral nutrition (Peptisorb Powder Nutricia) at the dose of 1000 - 2000 ml per day was administered for minimum of 4 days. Planned period of administration was 14 days and longer. Symptoms of radiation enteritis were evaluated at the beginning and in the end of administration. Prevalence of all evaluated symptoms of radiation enteritis was decreased and difference was statistically significant for diarrhea, watery stools, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. The use of evaluated oligomeric nutritional support might, in conjunction with pharmacotherapy and diet, alleviate symptoms of acute radiation enteritis and maintain nutritional status of patients. (author)

  19. Thermal inactivation of enteric viruses and bioaccumulation of enteric foodborne viruses in live oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human enteric viruses are one of the main causative agents of shellfish associated outbreaks. In this study, the kinetics of viral bioaccumulation in live oysters and the heat stability of the most predominant enteric viruses were determined in both tissue culture and in oyster tissues. A human nor...

  20. Isolated Enteric Cyst in the Neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Mahore

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an extremely rare case of isolated enteric cyst in the neck region which was diagnosed on the histopathological examination. It was suspected to be duplication cyst on radiology. We have also evaluated the differential diagnosis and management issues.

  1. Hypophosphatemia associated with enteral alimentation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, R B; Hohenhaus, A E

    1995-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia is uncommon in cats, but it has been reported in association with diabetes mellitus and hepatic lipidosis, where it can cause hemolysis, rhabdomyopathy, depression, seizures, and coma. The purpose of this article is to describe 9 cats that developed low serum phosphorus concentrations (alimentation. Serum biochemical analyses from more than 6,000 cats were reviewed. The medical records of all cats with hypophosphatemia were examined for history of enteral alimentation; diabetic cats were excluded from the study. Nine cats, ranging in age from 3 to 17 years, were identified. All cats had normal serum phosphorus concentrations before tube feeding began. Onset of hypophosphatemia occurred 12 to 72 hours after initiation of enteral alimentation, and the nadir for phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 mg/dL. Hemolysis occurred in 6 of the 9 cats. Hypophosphatemia secondary to enteral alimentation is an uncommon clinical finding in cats. Cats with high alanine aminotransferase activity, hyperbilirubinemia, and weight loss should be closely monitored for hypophosphatemia during the first 72 hours of enteral alimentation.

  2. [Enteral alimentation at home: why PEG now?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y; Hanyu, N; Kashiwagi, H; Kubo, T; Aoki, T

    1996-12-01

    The history of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is relatively short. In 1980, a report entitled "Gastrostomy without laparotomy: A percutaneous endoscopic technique" by Ponsky and Gaudere was first published in the Journal of Pediatric Surgery. Thereafter, PEG soon saw widespread use in Western countries because of its clinical efficacy and economy. It has been performed in about 170,000 cases annually in the US. In contrast, its spread in Japan has been extremely slow: only about 10,000 cases have undergone this procedure annually, and this number accounted for less than 5% of patients receiving enteral alimentation. The reason why PEG has not spread may be the medical insurance system in Japan and the local distaste for operation scarring. However, in consideration of the unprecedented ageing of society that is surely coming in the near future, the role of PEG in Japan must be reexamined. In this report, we presented the methodology of enteral alimentation at home by means of PEG, giving special consideration to: (1) "What points are improved by using enteral alimentation at home by means of PEG in various diseases; (2) dysphagia due to cerebral angiopathy; (3) terminal cancer; (4) otolaryngological diseases; and (5) Crohn disease. We also discussed "Why PEG is important now?" in performing enteral alimentation at home.

  3. Aspects of enteral nutrition in cancer chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jitske Martha

    1985-01-01

    This thesis deals with several aspects of the influences of intensive cancer chemotherapy on the nutritional status, the metabolism, and the gastrointestinal tract of the host and describes whether these results can be influenced by enteral hyperalimentation, We studied these aspects in patients

  4. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  5. Kokainudløst iskaemisk enteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Lise; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    and a pill cam capsule endoscopy were normal. In all cases the condition normalized spontaneously. A thorough interview revealed a recreational use of cocaine, and diary recordings confirmed the association between her abdominal pain and cocaine use. Ischaemic enteritis has previously been described...

  6. Astronaut John Glenn Enters Friendship 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut John Glenn enters the Mercury spacecraft, Friendship 7, prior to the launch of MA-6 on February 20, 1961 and became the first American who orbited the Earth. The MA-6 mission was the first manned orbital flight boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile), lasted for five hours, and orbited the Earth three times.

  7. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J. L.; Taat, C. W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W. H.; Becker, A. E.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were

  8. Enteric methane emissions from German pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Schulz, Joachim; Klausing, Heinrich Kleine

    2012-01-01

    Methane emissions from enteric fermentation of pigs are object of emission reporting. Hitherto they were treated as part of the energy balance of pigs, in accordance with IPCC guidance documents. They were calculated from the gross energy intake rate and a constant methane conversion ratio....... Meanwhile numerous experimental data on methane emissions from enteric fermentation is available in Germany and abroad; the results are compiled in this work. These results also allow for a description of transformation processes in the hind gut and a subsequent establishment of models that relate emissions...... to feed and performance data. The model by Kirchgeßner et al. (1995) is based on German experimental data and reflects typical national diet compositions. It is used to quantify typical emissions and methane conversion ratios. The results agree with other experimental findings at home and abroad...

  9. Clinical and nutritional implications of radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, W.H.; Fan, A.; Halsted, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The clinical and nutritional significance of radiation enteritis was assessed in eight patients with chronic diarrhea which followed curative doses of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Steatorrhea, found in seven malnourished patients, was ascribed to ileal disease or previous surgery, or to bacterial contamination of the small intestine. Lactose intolerance, assessed by breath hydrogen excretion after oral lactose and by jejunal lactase levels, was found in six patients. In a subgroup of five patients, the administration of two different defined formula liquid diets by nasoduodenal infusion decreased fecal fluid and energy losses by about one-half. Compared to Vivonex-HN, the infusion of Criticare-HN was associated with greater likelihood of intestinal gas production but a three-fold greater utilization of protein. Intestinal malabsorption and malnutrition in radiation enteritis has diverse etiologies. Whereas nutritional support by liquid diet limits fecal fluid and energy losses, these diets differ significantly in clinical tolerance and biologic value

  10. Clinical and nutritional implications of radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, W.H.; Fan, A.; Halsted, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The clinical and nutritional significance of radiation enteritis was assessed in eight patients with chronic diarrhea which followed curative doses of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Steatorrhea, found in seven malnourished patients, was ascribed to ileal disease or previous surgery, or to bacterial contamination of the small intestine. Lactose intolerance, assessed by breath hydrogen excretion after oral lactose and by jejunal lactase levels, was found in six patients. In a subgroup of five patients, the administration of two different defined formula liquid diets by nasoduodenal infusion decreased fecal fluid and energy losses by about one-half. Compared to Vivonex-HN, the infusion of Criticare-HN was associated with greater likelihood of intestinal gas production but a three-fold greater utilization of protein. Intestinal malabsorption and malnutrition in radiation enteritis has diverse etiologies. Whereas nutritional support by liquid diet limits fecal fluid and energy losses, these diets differ significantly in clinical tolerance and biologic value.

  11. Effects of entering adulthood during a recession

    OpenAIRE

    Dettling, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Current cohorts of young adults entered adulthood during an international labor and housing market crisis of a severity not experienced since the Great Depression. Concerns have arisen over the impacts on young adults’ employment, income, wealth, and living arrangements, and about whether these young adults constitute a “scarred generation” that will suffer permanent contractions in financial well-being. If true, knowing the mechanisms through which young adults’ finances have been affected h...

  12. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Brooke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life.

  13. Potential virulence of Klebsiella sp. isolates from enteral diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C.L. Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the potential virulence of Klebsiella isolates from enteral diets in hospitals, to support nosocomial infection control measures, especially among critical-care patients. Phenotypic determination of virulence factors, such as capsular expression on the external membrane, production of aerobactin siderophore, synthesis of capsular polysaccharide, hemolytic and phospholipase activity, and resistance to antibiotics, which are used therapeutically, were investigated in strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and K. oxytoca. Modular industrialized enteral diets (30 samples as used in two public hospitals were analyzed, and Klebsiella isolates were obtained from six (20% of them. The hypermucoviscous phenotype was observed in one of the K. pneumoniae isolates (6.7%. Capsular serotypes K1 to K6 were present, namely K5 and K4. Under the conditions of this study, no aerobactin production, hemolytic activity or lecithinase activity was observed in the isolates. All isolates were resistant to amoxicillin and ampicillin and sensitive to cefetamet, imipenem, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Most K. pneumoniae isolates (6/7, 85.7% from hospital B presented with a higher frequency of resistance to the antibiotics tested in this study, and multiple resistance to at least four antibiotics (3/8; 37.5% compared with isolates from Hospital A. The variations observed in the antibiotic resistance profiles allowed us to classify the Klebsiella isolates as eight antibiotypes. No production of broad-spectrum β-lactamases was observed among the isolates. Our data favor the hypothesis that Klebsiella isolates from enteral diets are potential pathogens for nosocomial infections.

  14. Introducing enteral feeding induces intestinal subclinical inflammation and respective chromatin changes in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, Rhea; Krych, Lukasz; Rybicki, Verena

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To analyze how enteral food introduction affects intestinal gene regulation and chromatin structure in preterm pigs. MATERIALS & METHODS: Preterm pigs were fed parenteral nutrition plus/minus slowly increasing volumes of enteral nutrition. Intestinal gene-expression and chromatin structure......; no significant differences for colostrum) with corresponding decondensed chromatin configurations. On histology this correlated with mild mucosal lesions, particularly in formula-fed pigs. In CaCo-2 cells, histone hyperacetylation led to a marked increase in TLR4 mRNA and increased IL8 expression upon...... stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (median: 7.0; interquartile range: 5.63-8.85) compared with naive cells (median 4.2; interquartile range: 2.45-6.33; p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Enteral feeding, particular with formula, induces subclinical inflammation in the premature intestine and more open chromatin...

  15. Transgastrostomy jejunal intubation for enteric alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, G K; Rombeau, J L; Caldwell, M D; Ring, E J; Freiman, D B

    1982-12-01

    Malnourished patients who cannot maintain an adequate oral intake but have normal intestinal absorption and motility are candidates for enteric alimentation. When impaired gastric peristalsis or an increased risk for aspiration makes gastrostomy feeding unsafe, direct jejunal infusion is the preferred route of alimentation. Angiographic techniques were used to convert previously placed, simple gastrostomies to combined gastrostomy-jejunostomies in 14 patients. In 17 additional patients, a combined gastrostomy-jejunal tube was placed under local anesthesia; angiographic techniques assisted in the placement of 11 of these tubes.

  16. Soya Saponins Induce Enteritis in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogdahl, Åshild; Gajardo, Karina; Kortner, Trond M; Penn, Michael; Gu, Min; Berge, Gerd Marit; Bakke, Anne Marie

    2015-04-22

    Soybean meal-induced enteritis (SBMIE) is a well-described condition in the distal intestine of salmonids, and saponins have been implicated as the causal agent. However, the question remains whether saponins alone cause SBMIE. Moreover, the dose-response relationship has not been described. In a 10 week feeding trial with Atlantic salmon, a highly purified (95%) soya saponin preparation was supplemented (0, 2, 4, 6, or 10 g/kg) to two basal diets, one containing fishmeal as the major protein source (FM) and the other 25% lupin meal (LP). Saponins caused dose-dependent increases in the severity of inflammation independent of the basal diet, with concomitant alterations in digestive functions and immunological marker expression. Thus, saponins induced inflammation whether the diet contained other legume components or not. However, responses were often the same or stronger in fish fed the corresponding saponin-supplemented LP diets despite lower saponin exposure, suggesting potentiation by other legume component(s).

  17. Enteric neurons show a primary cilium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luesma, Ma José; Cantarero, Irene; Castiella, Tomás; Soriano, Mario; Garcia-Verdugo, José Manuel; Junquera, Concepción

    2013-01-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile cilium whose structure is 9+0. It is involved in co-ordinating cellular signal transduction pathways, developmental processes and tissue homeostasis. Defects in the structure or function of the primary cilium underlie numerous human diseases, collectively termed ciliopathies. The presence of single cilia in the central nervous system (CNS) is well documented, including some choroid plexus cells, neural stem cells, neurons and astrocytes, but the presence of primary cilia in differentiated neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS) has not yet been described in mammals to the best of our knowledge. The enteric nervous system closely resembles the central nervous system. In fact, the ultrastructure of the ENS is more similar to the CNS ultrastructure than to the rest of the peripheral nervous system. This research work describes for the first time the ultrastructural characteristics of the single cilium in neurons of rat duodenum myenteric plexus, and reviews the cilium function in the CNS to propose the possible role of cilia in the ENS cells. © 2012 The Authors. Published by Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  18. Ageing of enteric neurons: oxidative stress, neurotrophic factors and antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korsak Kris

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ageing is associated with gastrointestinal dysfunction, which can have a major impact on quality of life of the elderly. A number of changes in the innervation of the gut during ageing have been reported, including neuronal loss and degenerative changes. Evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS are elevated in ageing enteric neurons, but that neurotrophic factors may reduce generation of neuronal ROS. Two such factors, glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 have also been found to protect enteric neurons against oxidative stress induced cell death of enteric ganglion cells in vitro. We have investigated the possible roles of neurotrophic factors further, by examining their expression in the gut during ageing, and by analysing their effects on antioxidant enzyme production in cultures of enteric ganglion cells. Results Analysis of the expression of GDNF and its receptors c-Ret and GFR α − 1 in rat gut by RT-PCR showed that expression continues throughout life and into ageing, in both ad libitum(AL and calorically-restricted (CR animals. Levels of expression of GDNF and GFR α − 1 were elevated in 24 month AL animals compared to 24 month CR animals, and to 24 CR and 6 month control animals respectively. The related factor Neurturin and its receptor GFR α − 2 were also expressed throughout life, the levels of the GFR – α-2(b isoform were reduced in 24 m AL animals. Immunolabelling showed that c-Ret and GFR α − 1 proteins were expressed by myenteric neurons in ageing animals. GDNF, but not NT-3, was found to increase expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase by cultured enteric ganglion cells. Conclusions The neurotrophic factors GDNF and neurturin and their receptors continue to be expressed in the ageing gut. Changes in the levels of expression of GDNF , GFR α-1 and GFR α-2(b isoform occurred in 24 m AL animals. GDNF, but not

  19. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons in the guinea pig gastric corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eMazzuoli-Weber

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For long it was believed that a particular population of enteric neurons, referred to as intrinsic primary afferent neuron (IPANs, encodes mechanical stimulation. We recently proposed a new concept suggesting that there are in addition mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN that are multifunctional. Based on firing pattern MEN behaved as rapidly, slowly or ultra-slowly adapting RAMEN, SAMEN or USAMEN, respectively. We aimed to validate this concept in the myenteric plexus of the gastric corpus, a region where IPANs were not identified and existence of enteric sensory neurons was even questioned. The gastric corpus is characterized by a particularly dense extrinsic sensory innervation. Neuronal activity was recorded with voltage sensitive dye imaging after deformation of ganglia by compression (intraganglionic volume injection or von Fry hair or tension (ganglionic stretch. We demonstrated that 27% of the gastric neurons were MEN and responded to intraganglionic volume injection. Of these 73% were RAMEN, 25% SAMEN and 2% USAMEN with a firing frequency of 1.7 (1.1/ 2.2 Hz, 5.1 (2.2/7.7 Hz and of 5.4 (5.0/15.5 Hz, respectively. The responses were reproducible and stronger with increased stimulus strength. Even after adaptation another deformation evoked spike discharge again suggesting a resetting mode of the mechanoreceptors. All MEN received fast synaptic input. 55% of all MEN were cholinergic and 45% nitrergic. Responses in some MEN significantly decreased after perfusion of TTX, low Ca++/high Mg++ Krebs solution, capsaicin induced nerve defunctionalization and capsazepine indicating the involvement of TRPV1 expressing extrinsic mechanosensitive nerves. Half of gastric MEN responded to intraganglionic volume injection as well as to ganglionic stretch and 23% responded to stretch only. Tension-sensitive MEN were to a large proportion USAMEN (44%. In summary, we demonstrated for the first time compression and tension-sensitive MEN in the stomach

  20. Enteral nutrition practices in the intensive care unit: Understanding of nursing practices and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate nutritional support is important for the comprehensive management of patients in intensive care units (ICUs. Aim: The study was aimed to survey prevalent enteral nutrition practices in the trauma intensive care unit, nurses′ perception, and their knowledge of enteral feeding. Study Design: The study was conducted in the ICU of a level 1 trauma center, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. The study design used an audit. Materials and Methods: Sixty questionnaires were distributed and the results analyzed. A database was prepared and the audit was done. Results: Forty-two (70% questionnaires were filled and returned. A majority (38 of staff nurses expressed awareness of nutrition guidelines. A large number (32 of staff nurses knew about nutrition protocols of the ICU. Almost all (40 opined enteral nutrition to be the preferred route of nutrition unless contraindicated. All staff nurses were of opinion that enteral nutrition is to be started at the earliest (within 24-48 h of the ICU stay. Everyone opined that the absence of bowel sounds is an absolute contraindication to initiate enteral feeding. Passage of flatus was considered mandatory before starting enteral nutrition by 86% of the respondents. Everyone knew that the method of Ryle′s tube feeding in their ICU is intermittent boluses. Only 4 staff nurses were unaware of any method to confirm Ryle′s tube position. The backrest elevation rate was 100%. Gastric residual volumes were always checked, but the amount of the gastric residual volume for the next feed to be withheld varied. The majority said that the unused Ryle′s tube feed is to be discarded after 6 h. The most preferred (48% method to upgrade their knowledge of enteral nutrition was from the ICU protocol manual. Conclusion: Information generated from this study can be helpful in identifying nutrition practices that are lacking and may be used to review and revise enteral feeding

  1. Genomic diversification of giant enteric symbionts reflects host dietary lifestyles

    KAUST Repository

    Ngugi, David; Miyake, Sou; Cahill, Matthew; Vinu, Manikandan; Hackmann, Timothy J.; Blom, Jochen; Tietbohl, Matthew; Berumen, Michael L.; Stingl, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    of metabolic diversification of enteric microbiota involved in the degradation of algal biomass in these fishes. The enteric microbiota is also phylogenetically and functionally simple relative to the complex lignocellulose-degrading microbiota of terrestrial

  2. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.M.; Chernish, S.M.; Rosenek, B.D.; Brunelle, R.L.; Hargrove, B.; Wellman, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets

  3. Russian Gas Market: Entering New Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrova, Tatiana; Molnar, Gergely

    2015-04-01

    After a period of extensive growth in the 2000's, the Russian gas industry is now facing numerous challenges. Mounting competition by independent producers and the development of new production by Gazprom, combined with stagnating domestic demand and weakening export markets, have created a situation of overproduction, made worse by western sanctions and low oil and gas prices. Expansion to the East thanks to the recent China deal is not expected to provide much relief before 2024. The coming decade will be critical for the industry and its outcome will largely depend on the government's pricing and institutional policies but the role of the state should remain essential. This document presents the key findings of the New CEDIGAZ report 'Russian Gas Market: Entering New Era'. The report analyses the ongoing changes in the Russian industry and the challenges to be met

  4. Enteric methane emissions from German dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammgen, U; Rosemann, C; Haenel, H D

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, the German agricultural emission inventory used a model for the assessment of methane emissions from enteric fermentation that combined an estimate of the energy and feed requirements as a function of performance parameters and diet composition, with the constant methane conversion rate......, as stated by IPCC. A methane emission model was selected here that is based on German feed data. It was combined with the hitherto applied model describing energy requirements. The emission rates thus calculated deviate from those previously obtained. In the new model, the methane conversion rate is back......-calculated from emission rates and gross energy intake rates. For German conditions of animal performance and diet composition, the national means of methane conversion rates range between 71 kJ MJ(-1) and 61 kJ MJ(-1) for low and high performances (4700 kg animal(-1) a(-1) in 1990 to 7200 kg animal(-1) a(-1...

  5. Radiation enteritis. Evaluation of surgical cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Sano, M.; Minakuchi, N.; Narisawa, T.; Takahashi, T. (Akita Univ. (Japan))

    1981-09-01

    Radiation enteritis with severe complications including intestinal bleeding, fistula, and stenosis were treated surgically in 9 cases. These 9 cases included 7 cases of cancer of the uterine cervix and 2 single cases of seminoma and melanoma. The patients received /sup 60/Co or Linac x-ray external irradiation with or without intracavitary irradiation by a radium needle. Radiation injury began with melena, vaginorectal fistula, and intestinal obstruction 3 to 18 months after irradiation. One patient with melena underwent colostomy and survived 2 years. One of the three patients with vaginorectal fistula who had colostomy survived 1.5 years. In intestinal obstruction, one patients had bypass operation and three patients had resection of the intestine and the other had both. Leakage was noted in one patient, but the others had favorable prognosis.

  6. Optimal Time to Enter a Retirement Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the financial planning problem of a retiree wishing to enter a retirement village at a future uncertain date. The date of entry is determined by the retiree’s utility and bequest maximisation problem within the context of uncertain future health states. In addition, the retiree must choose optimal consumption, investment, bequest and purchase of insurance products prior to their full annuitisation on entry to the retirement village. A hyperbolic absolute risk-aversion (HARA utility function is used to allow necessary consumption for basic living and medical costs. The retirement village will typically require an initial deposit upon entry. This threshold wealth requirement leads to exercising the replication of an American put option at the uncertain stopping time. From our numerical results, active insurance and annuity markets are shown to be a critical aspect in retirement planning.

  7. APOLLO 10 ASTRONAUT ENTERS LUNAR MODULE SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 10 lunar module pilot Eugene A. Cernan prepares to enter the lunar module simulator at the Flight Crew Training Building at the NASA Spaceport. Cernan, Apollo 10 commander Thomas P. Stafford and John W. Young, command module pilot, are to be launched May 18 on the Apollo 10 mission, a dress rehearsal for a lunar landing later this summer. Cernan and Stafford are to detach the lunar module and drop to within 10 miles of the moon's surface before rejoining Young in the command/service module. Looking on as Cernan puts on his soft helmet is Snoopy, the lovable cartoon mutt whose name will be the lunar module code name during the Apollo 10 flight. The command/service module is to bear the code name Charlie Brown.

  8. Reactive Arthritis Caused by Yersinia enterocolitica Enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kazuya; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Izumi, Yasumori; Tsuji, Yoshika; Kawahara, Chieko; Michitsuji, Toru; Higashi, Shuntaro; Kawakami, Atsushi; Migita, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of reactive arthritis (ReA) triggered by Yersinia enterocolitica enteritis. A 24-year-old Japanese man developed polyarthritis in the lower limbs. Two weeks prior to these symptoms, he noted diarrhea, right lower abdominal pain and a fever. Y. enterocolitica was not isolated from a stool culture; however, he was diagnosed with ReA based on the colonoscopic findings of a high anti-Y. enterocolitica antibody titer and HLA-B27 antigen positivity. Following treatment with methotrexate and steroids, his arthritis improved. This is the first reported Japanese case of ReA in the English literature after a gastrointestinal infection caused by Y. enterocolitica.

  9. Compounded Apixaban Suspensions for Enteral Feeding Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Maria L; Donmez, Seda; Nathan, Kobi; Zhao, Fang

    2017-07-01

    Objective: There is limited information on compounded apixaban formulations for administration via enteral feeding tubes. This study was designed to identify a suitable apixaban suspension formulation that is easy to prepare in a pharmacy setting, is compatible with commonly used feeding tubes, and has a beyond-use date of 7 days. Methods: Apixaban suspensions were prepared from commercially available 5-mg Eliquis tablets. Several vehicles and compounding methods were screened for ease of preparation, dosage accuracy, and tube compatibility. Two tubing types, polyurethane and polyvinyl chloride, with varying lengths and diameters, were included in the study. They were mounted on a peg board during evaluation to mimic the patient body position. A 7-day stability study of the selected formulation was also conducted. Results: Vehicles containing 40% to 60% Ora-Plus in water all exhibited satisfactory flowability through the tubes. The mortar/pestle compounding method was found to produce more accurate and consistent apixaban suspensions than the pill crusher or crushing syringe method. The selected formulation, 0.25 mg/mL apixaban in 50:50 Ora-Plus:water, was compatible with both tubing types, retaining >98% drug in posttube samples. The stability study also confirmed that this formulation was stable physically and chemically over 7 days of storage at room temperature. Conclusions: A suitable apixaban suspension formulation was identified for administration via enteral feeding tubes. The formulation consisted of 0.25 mg/mL apixaban in 50:50 Ora-Plus:water. The stability study results supported a beyond-use date of 7 days at room temperature.

  10. Enteral Feeding in Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V Grigoryev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to substantiate the choice of a gastrointestinal tract (GIT function support regimen as a mode for correction of the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS. Subjects and methods. Forty-three patients with different causes of inadequate GIT function of various origin and ACS (disseminated peritonitis (45%, pancreatitis (24%, and severe concomitant injury (31% were examined. Group 1 (control received complete parenteral nutritional feeding (n=23; APACHE II scores, 21±4; calculated probability of fatal outcome, 33.5%. In Group II (study, complete parenteral feeding in the first 24 hours after stabilization was supplemented with GIT function support with Pepsisorb (Nutricia in doses of 500, 1000, and 1500 ml on days 1, 2, and 3, respectively (n=20; APACHE II scores, 20±6; calculated probability of fatal outcome, 37.1%. During early enteral nutritional support, the SOFA score was significantly less than that in Group 1 on days 2—3; the oxygenation index significantly increased on day 3; the value of intra-abdominal hypertension decreased to the control values. The positive effect of the GIT function support regimen on regression of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS was confirmed by the lowered levels of biological markers (von Willebrand factor (WF and endothelin-1 as markers of endothelial damage of MODS. Correlation analysis showed a direct correlation between the markers of endothelial damage and the SOFA scores (r=0.34; p=0.05 for WF and r=0.49;p=0.03 for endothelin. Conclusion. The GIT function support regimen via early enteral alimentation with Peptisorb, which was initiated in the first 24 hours after admission, is able to level off the manifestations of the early stages of the abdominal compartment syndrome, with the acceptable values of oxygen balance and water-electrolyte and osmotic homeostasis being achieved. Key words: abdominal compartment syndrome, nutritional support, biological markers, oxygenation index

  11. Early enteral nutrition compared to outcome in critically ill trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The benefit of an early enteral nutrition start in critical ill patients is widely accepted. However, limited published data focus on trauma patients. This study aimed to investigate the effect of early enteral nutrition initiation on length of stay and mortality in an intensive care unit (ICU), as well as explore if enteral ...

  12. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1502 - Auger holes; restriction against entering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger holes; restriction against entering. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1502 Auger holes; restriction against entering. No person shall be permitted to enter an auger hole except with the approval of the MSHA Coal Mine Safety and Health District...

  14. Postoperative ileus involves interleukin-1 receptor signaling in enteric glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffels, Burkhard; Hupa, Kristof Johannes; Snoek, Susanne A; van Bree, Sjoerd; Stein, Kathy; Schwandt, Timo; Vilz, Tim O; Lysson, Mariola; Veer, Cornelis Van't; Kummer, Markus P; Hornung, Veit; Kalff, Joerg C; de Jonge, Wouter J; Wehner, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is a common consequence of abdominal surgery that increases the risk of postoperative complications and morbidity. We investigated the cellular mechanisms and immune responses involved in the pathogenesis of POI. We studied a mouse model of POI in which intestinal manipulation leads to inflammation of the muscularis externa and disrupts motility. We used C57BL/6 (control) mice as well as mice deficient in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytokine signaling components (TLR-2(-/-), TLR-4(-/-), TLR-2/4(-/-), MyD88(-/-), MyD88/TLR adaptor molecule 1(-/-), interleukin-1 receptor [IL-1R1](-/-), and interleukin (IL)-18(-/-) mice). Bone marrow transplantation experiments were performed to determine which cytokine receptors and cell types are involved in the pathogenesis of POI. Development of POI did not require TLRs 2, 4, or 9 or MyD88/TLR adaptor molecule 2 but did require MyD88, indicating a role for IL-1R1. IL-1R1(-/-) mice did not develop POI; however, mice deficient in IL-18, which also signals via MyD88, developed POI. Mice given injections of an IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra) or antibodies to deplete IL-1α and IL-1β before intestinal manipulation were protected from POI. Induction of POI activated the inflammasome in muscularis externa tissues of C57BL6 mice, and IL-1α and IL-1β were released in ex vivo organ bath cultures. In bone marrow transplantation experiments, the development of POI required activation of IL-1 receptor in nonhematopoietic cells. IL-1R1 was expressed by enteric glial cells in the myenteric plexus layer, and cultured primary enteric glia cells expressed IL-6 and the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein 1 in response to IL-1β stimulation. Immunohistochemical analysis of human small bowel tissue samples confirmed expression of IL-1R1 in the ganglia of the myenteric plexus. IL-1 signaling, via IL-1R1 and MyD88, is required for development of POI after intestinal manipulation in mice. Agents that interfere with

  15. Measurement and prediction of enteric methane emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Lal, Rattan; Lakritz, Jeffrey; Ezeji, Thaddeus

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector account for about 25.5% of total global anthropogenic emission. While CO2 receives the most attention as a factor relative to global warming, CH4, N2O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also cause significant radiative forcing. With the relative global warming potential of 25 compared with CO2, CH4 is one of the most important GHGs. This article reviews the prediction models, estimation methodology and strategies for reducing enteric CH4 emissions. Emission of CH4 in ruminants differs among developed and developing countries, depending on factors like animal species, breed, pH of rumen fluid, ratio of acetate:propionate, methanogen population, composition of diet and amount of concentrate fed. Among the ruminant animals, cattle contribute the most towards the greenhouse effect through methane emission followed by sheep, goats and buffalos, respectively. The estimated CH4 emission rate per cattle, buffaloe, sheep and goat in developed countries are 150.7, 137, 21.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) respectively. However, the estimated rates in developing countries are significantly lower at 95.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) per cattle and sheep, respectively. There exists a strong interest in developing new and improving the existing CH4 prediction models to identify mitigation strategies for reducing the overall CH4 emissions. A synthesis of the available literature suggests that the mechanistic models are superior to empirical models in accurately predicting the CH4 emission from dairy farms. The latest development in prediction model is the integrated farm system model which is a process-based whole-farm simulation technique. Several techniques are used to quantify enteric CH4 emissions starting from whole animal chambers to sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer techniques. The latest technology developed to estimate CH4 more accurately is the micrometeorological mass difference technique. Because the conditions under which

  16. [Enteral nutrition: reduction in the contamination risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemerlo, H; Menéndez, A M; Marcenac, F; Floridia, J; Esteban, L; Barbaricca, M

    1996-01-01

    Enteral nutrition is used as a routine therapy in patients with caloric-protein malnutrition, severe dysphagia, major burns, intestinal resection, and enterocutaneous fistulae, as long as a portion of the digestive tract still has an active absorptive function. The administration takes place by means of surgical (ostomies) or non-surgical (nasogastric) tubes. In our country, a significant number of hospitalized patients with various diseases receive this type of nutrition. Given that the colonization of the digestive tract by hospital flora is the first step towards developing intra-hospital infections, the contamination implies serious risks. The objective of this study was to study the most appropriate conditions for the manufacturing, storage and administration of the mixture of nutrients of enteral nutrition, to guarantee nutrition with a lower contamination risk. This study was conducted by the Unit of Nutritional Assistance of the Mater Dei Clinic, by means of bacteriological controls, from January 1991 to December 1992, and in 1993 in which the work systematics were reviewed. The study was prospective, and those solutions whose bacteriological counts were lower than 100.000 colony forming units (CFU), and which showed an absence of enteropathological micro-organisms, were considered acceptable, and those solutions which had a bacteriological count greater than or equal to 100.000 CFU and or the presence of enteropathological micro-organisms, were considered unacceptable. During the first period, "usual working conditions", we analyzed the infra-structure, the personnel, the constituents, and the apparatus used in the manufacturing, for which 36 samples were studied at t0 (moment of preparation). Afterwards, in the second period "special working conditions", we analyzed the manufacturing procedures, the storage and the administration of 103 solutions, corresponding to 36 patients, taking samples at t0 and t24 (after 24 hours of preparing). In the first phase

  17. Enter as an outsider: Teaching organizational humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabby, John F

    2017-05-01

    The concept of cultural humility acknowledges the enormous task of becoming culturally competent by encouraging curiosity about the context within which others live. For physicians, this includes curiosity about the organizations in which they work as Outsiders in settings such as a new hospital or patients' homes. However, efforts to train healthcare professionals in cultural competence are often de-emphasized due to the pressure learners feel to acquire Medical Knowledge and clinical skills. Little time is devoted to address the significance of cultural humility for fully appreciating the experiences of others. Efforts to educate physicians-in-training about the cultural aspects of care require innovative approaches that help them recognize bias without provoking defensiveness. Enter as an Outsider is a highly focused activity which fosters a culturally humble approach to an often neglected problem, organizational bias. This article describes how cultural humility is explained to learners and small group activities are used to explore the thoughts and feelings of an organization's Insiders and Outsiders. This program relies on instructor self-disclosure to facilitate learning and on a video vignette from popular-culture media to illustrate being an Outsider in a healthcare setting. Participants in this training have improved their ability to recognize when they are Outsiders where they provide care. They have developed a better understanding that cultural humility in organizations is a gateway to providing quality care. They have begun the process of committing to respectfully learn from the organization's Insiders.

  18. Treatment of radiation enteritis: a comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loiudice, T.A.; Lang, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with severe radiation injury to the small bowel seen over a 4-year period were randomized to four treatment groups: 1) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po, 2) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, 3) total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, and 4) Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po. Patients received nothing by mouth except water in groups II and III, and only Vivonex-HN in groups I and IV. Patients were treated for 8-wk periods. Improvement was gauged by overall nutritional assessment measurements, nitrogen balance data and by radiological and clinical parameters. No significant difference between groups I, II, III, and IV could be found for age, sex, mean radiation dosage, time of onset after radiation therapy, or initial nutritional assessment data. Differences statistically could be found between groups II and III and I and IV regarding nutritional assessment data, nitrogen balance, radiographic and clinical parameters after therapy, with marked improvement noted in groups II and III. We conclude that a treatment regimen consisting of total parenteral nutrition and bowel rest is beneficial in the treatment of radiation enteritis. Methylprednisolone appears to enhance this effect and indeed, may be responsible for a longer lasting response

  19. Pathophysiology and surgical treatment for radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Hisashi; Park, Tae Bun; Hasegawa, Masato

    1993-01-01

    We analyzed 23 patients (5 males and 18 females, mean age 60) who had been operated on in our department for radiation enteritis. 1) These patients were divided into two types according to the time of surgery. Sixteen of 23 (79%) patients were operated on a median of 12 months after radiotherapy, while 7 (30%) underwent surgery more than 10 years later. 2) They were also divided according to the dominant symptoms. Fourteen of 23 (60%) complained of nausea and abdominal distension suggestive of small bowel injury, whereas 7 (30%) had tenesmus and anal bleeding indicating proctitis. Two patients developed perforative peritonitis. 3) The operations performed were as follows: extensive intestinal resection and anastomosis (13), pull-through procedure (3), rectal excision (2), ileostomy (3), by-pass operation (2). Two patients with peritonitis died despite open drainage. Nineteen intestinal anastomoses were all successfully performed. Patients who underwent extensive small bowel resection could resume ordinary daily life without symptoms. Our analysis showed that small bowel injury should be treated by generous resection of the affected bowels followed by anastomosis of the disease-free ends, while rectal lesions are best dealt with by restorative proctectomy. This may provide a good quality of life and minimize major postoperative complications such as leakage. (author)

  20. Pathophysiology and surgical treatment for radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, Hisashi; Park, Tae Bun; Hasegawa, Masato (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)

    1993-12-01

    We analyzed 23 patients (5 males and 18 females, mean age 60) who had been operated on in our department for radiation enteritis. (1) These patients were divided into two types according to the time of surgery. Sixteen of 23 (79%) patients were operated on a median of 12 months after radiotherapy, while 7 (30%) underwent surgery more than 10 years later. (2) They were also divided according to the dominant symptoms. Fourteen of 23 (60%) complained of nausea and abdominal distension suggestive of small bowel injury, whereas 7 (30%) had tenesmus and anal bleeding indicating proctitis. Two patients developed perforative peritonitis. (3) The operations performed were as follows: extensive intestinal resection and anastomosis (13), pull-through procedure (3), rectal excision (2), ileostomy (3), by-pass operation (2). Two patients with peritonitis died despite open drainage. Nineteen intestinal anastomoses were all successfully performed. Patients who underwent extensive small bowel resection could resume ordinary daily life without symptoms. Our analysis showed that small bowel injury should be treated by generous resection of the affected bowels followed by anastomosis of the disease-free ends, while rectal lesions are best dealt with by restorative proctectomy. This may provide a good quality of life and minimize major postoperative complications such as leakage. (author).

  1. Enteral Nutrition in Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Buscemi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD is considered the gold standard treatment for periampullory carcinomas. This procedure presents 30%–40% of morbidity. Patients who have undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy often present perioperative malnutrition that is worse in the early postoperative days, affects the process of healing, the intestinal barrier function and the number of postoperative complications. Few studies focus on the relation between enteral nutrition (EN and postoperative complications. Our aim was to perform a review, including only randomized controlled trial meta-analyses or well-designed studies, of evidence regarding the correlation between EN and main complications and outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy, as delayed gastric emptying (DGE, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF, postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH, length of stay and infectious complications. Several studies, especially randomized controlled trial have shown that EN does not increase the rate of DGE. EN appeared safe and tolerated for patients after PD, even if it did not reveal any advantages in terms of POPF, PPH, length of stay and infectious complications.

  2. Chronic radiation enteritis: A community hospital experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenner, M.N.; Sheehan, P.; Nanavati, P.J.; Ross, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the operative management of patients with chronic radiation enteropathy. Thirty-eight affected patients from 1974 to 1986 were reviewed. Patients with recurrent cancer responsible for symptoms were excluded. Seventy-one percent of patients presented with bowel obstruction. Twenty-one patients were treated with bowel resection, while 17 were treated with a bypass procedure or diverting ostomy alone. Overall morbidity was 45%, and postoperative mortality was 16%. Patients in the bypass group were significantly older than those in the resection group (70.3 vs. 55.5 years, P = .024), suggesting that age may have been a determinant of the procedure performed. In our study there was no difference in outcome based on preexisting vascular disease, tumor site, type of procedure performed, or radiation dose. We conclude that resection is the procedure of choice in cases of chronic radiation enteritis requiring surgery except in cases with dense adhesions when enteroenterostomal bypass is a viable alternative

  3. Osmolality and pH in handmade enteral diets used in domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Simeone HENRIQUES

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients who need prolonged domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy may benefit from handmade diets. However, the preparation of such diets might cause insecurity with regard to their nutritional composition and physical-chemical properties. Current study analyzes the osmolality and Hydrogen-Ion concentration (pH on handmade enteral diets. To this purpose, six formulas and two juices, prescribed on discharge from hospital, were analyzed physically and chemically. Osmolality and pH were respectively determined by cryoscopy and potentiometry. Most formulations were classified as isosmolar (with less than 400 mOsm/kg solvent, and only one was classified as slightly hyperosmolar, with rates ranging from 356.7 to 403.5 mOsm/kg solvent. On average, the standard formula presented higher osmolality than similar ones prepared for hyperglycemia. Among the juices, only one registered hyperosmolar concentration of 595.54 mOsm/kg solvent. All formulas presented pH rates classified as low acidity, ranging between 6.1 and 6.6, while the two juices had the lowest results, 4.73 and 4.66 each. The blend of ingredients used in handmade formulas and juices studied presented acceptable osmolality and pH rates for a safe administration and absence of gastrointestinal complications. Data showed here are consistent with an appropriate and healthy diet and contributed towards success in domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy.

  4. Role of central nervous system glucagon-like Peptide-1 receptors in enteric glucose sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Claude; Cani, Patrice D; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Iglesias, Miguel A; Chabo, Chantal; Waget, Aurélie; Colom, André; Rastrelli, Sophie; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Drucker, Daniel J; Seeley, Randy J; Burcelin, Remy

    2008-10-01

    Ingested glucose is detected by specialized sensors in the enteric/hepatoportal vein, which send neural signals to the brain, which in turn regulates key peripheral tissues. Hence, impairment in the control of enteric-neural glucose sensing could contribute to disordered glucose homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine the cells in the brain targeted by the activation of the enteric glucose-sensing system. We selectively activated the axis in mice using a low-rate intragastric glucose infusion in wild-type and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor knockout mice, neuropeptide Y-and proopiomelanocortin-green fluorescent protein-expressing mice, and high-fat diet diabetic mice. We quantified the whole-body glucose utilization rate and the pattern of c-Fos positive in the brain. Enteric glucose increased muscle glycogen synthesis by 30% and regulates c-Fos expression in the brainstem and the hypothalamus. Moreover, the synthesis of muscle glycogen was diminished after central infusion of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1Rc) antagonist Exendin 9-39 and abolished in GLP-1Rc knockout mice. Gut-glucose-sensitive c-Fos-positive cells of the arcuate nucleus colocalized with neuropeptide Y-positive neurons but not with proopiomelanocortin-positive neurons. Furthermore, high-fat feeding prevented the enteric activation of c-Fos expression. We conclude that the gut-glucose sensor modulates peripheral glucose metabolism through a nutrient-sensitive mechanism, which requires brain GLP-1Rc signaling and is impaired during diabetes.

  5. Diarrhea in enterally fed patients: blame the diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sue-Joan; Huang, Hsiu-Hua

    2013-09-01

    Diarrhea has great impact on enteral nutrition. The purpose of this review is to identify the factors leading to diarrhea during enteral nutrition and to provide the published updates on diarrhea prevention through nutritional intervention. Diarrhea in enteral fed patients is attributed to multiple factors, including medications (major contributor), infections, bacterial contamination, underlying disease, and enteral feeding. Diet management can alleviate diarrhea in enteral feeding. High content of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in enteral formula is postulated to induce diarrhea and lower FODMAPs formula may reduce the likelihood of diarrhea in enterally fed patients. Fiber-enriched formula can reduce the incidence of diarrhea and produce short-chain fatty acids for colonocytes. Ingesting prebiotics, nonviable probiotics or probiotic derivatives, and human lactoferrin may provide alternatives for reducing/preventing diarrhea. Enteral feeding is not generally considered the primary cause of diarrhea, which is frequently linked to prescribed medications. When diarrhea is apparent, healthcare members should evaluate the possible risk factors and systematically attempt to eliminate the underlying causes of diarrhea before reducing or suspending enteral feeding. Lower FODMAPs formula, prebiotics, probiotic derivatives, and lactoferrin may be used to manage enteral feeding-related diarrhea.

  6. [Sensory evaluation of enteral nutritional supplements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granell Vidal, Lina; Sánchez Juan, Carlos; Alfonso García, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) is indicated in patients who, although they may not eat enough food, maintain a sufficient function to receive, digest and absorb nutrients digestive system. Oral Nutritional Supplements (SON) are nutritionally complete or incomplete formulas (depending on whether or not provide all the nutrients needed to serve as the sole source of nutrients), which supplement inadequate oral diet. This study aims to evaluate the organoleptic characteristics of hyperproteic, normoproteic and fiber-enriched oral SON. SON test, carried out at the Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition Consortium Hospital General Universitario de Valencia from October 2012 to February 2013. 137 SON were evaluated in total, of which 47 were hyperproteic, 46 normoproteic and 44 enriched in fiber. Of the SON evaluated in the group of hyperproteic the following 3 SON obtained the best scores: Fresenius Prot Energy Drink® (21,27, vanilla flavor), Avant Standard Nut® (20.3 , strawberry flavor) and Resource® Protein (20.01, chocolate flavor) In the group of normoproteic SON the 3 best rated were: Ensure Plus® (22.3, banana flavor), Ensure Plus® (21.9, peach flavor) and Fresubin Energy Drink® (21, strawberry flavor) In the group of fiber-enriched the 3 SON most appreciated were: 2 Kcal Fresubin Fibre Drink® (23.78, vanilla flavor), Ensure Plus® TwoCal (22.9, banana flavor) and Fortimel Compact® (21.5, strawberry flavor) The study aims to guide clinicians on what SON may be more acceptable to the patient, so that the SON serve their purpose and restore or improve nutritional status, as the SON intervention is safe and cost - effective, since they improve both the functionality and quality of life. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. GPR41/FFAR3 and GPR43/FFAR2 as Cosensors for Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Enteroendocrine Cells vs FFAR3 in Enteric Neurons and FFAR2 in Enteric Leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Mark K; Pedersen, Maria H; Gille, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The expression of short-chain fatty acid receptors GPR41/FFAR3 and GPR43/ free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) was studied in the gastrointestinal tract of transgenic monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP) reporter mice. In the stomach free fatty acid receptor 3 (FFAR3)-mRFP was expressed...... for the majority of enteroendocrine cells of the small and large intestine and that FFAR3 and FFAR2 both act as sensors for short-chain fatty acids in enteroendocrine cells, whereas FFAR3 apparently has this role alone in enteric neurons and FFAR2 in enteric leukocytes....

  8. Coronavirus–associated enteritis in a quail farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Camarda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An enteric syndrome observed in semi-intensively reared quails is described. The affected birds showed depression, severe diarrhoea and dehydration. The mortality occurred particularly in young birds. At necropsy, the prominent lesion was catarrhal enteritis. Laboratory investigations demonstrated the presence of coronavirus in the gut of dead animals. No additional pathogens were detected. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence for the presence of CoVs in quail with enteritis.

  9. Enteral feeding pumps: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White H

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Helen White, Linsey King Nutrition and Dietetic Group, School of Health and Wellbeing, Faculty Health and Social Science, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, United Kingdom Abstract: Enteral feeding is a long established practice across pediatric and adult populations, to enhance nutritional intake and prevent malnutrition. Despite recognition of the importance of nutrition within the modern health agenda, evaluation of the efficacy of how such feeds are delivered is more limited. The accuracy, safety, and consistency with which enteral feed pump systems dispense nutritional formulae are important determinants of their use and acceptability. Enteral feed pump safety has received increased interest in recent years as enteral pumps are used across hospital and home settings. Four areas of enteral feed pump safety have emerged: the consistent and accurate delivery of formula; the minimization of errors associated with tube misconnection; the impact of continuous feed delivery itself (via an enteral feed pump; and the chemical composition of the casing used in enteral feed pump manufacture. The daily use of pumps in delivery of enteral feeds in a home setting predominantly falls to the hands of parents and caregivers. Their understanding of the use and function of their pump is necessary to ensure appropriate, safe, and accurate delivery of enteral nutrition; their experience with this is important in informing clinicians and manufacturers of the emerging needs and requirements of this diverse patient population. The review highlights current practice and areas of concern and establishes our current knowledge in this field. Keywords: nutrition, perceptions, experience

  10. Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabre Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE is a rare and severe bowel disorder caused by mutation in SKIV2L or in TTC37, 2 genes encoding subunits of the putative human SKI complex. The estimated prevalence is 1/1,000,000 births and the transmission is autosomal recessive. The classical form is characterized by 5 clinical signs: intractable diarrhea of infancy beginning in the first month of life, usually leading to failure to thrive and requiring parenteral nutrition; facial dysmorphism characterised by prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism; hair abnormalities described as woolly and easily removable; immune disorders resulting from defective antibody production; intrauterine growth restriction. The aetiology is a defect in TTC37, a TPR containing protein, or in the RNA helicase SKIV2L, both constituting the putative human ski complex. The ski complex is a heterotetrameric cofactor of the cytoplasmic RNA exosome which ensures aberrants mRNAs decay. The diagnosis SD/THE is initially based on clinical findings and confirmed by direct sequencing of TTC37 and SKIV2L. Differential diagnosis with the other causes of intractable diarrhea is easily performed by pathologic investigations. During their clinical course, most of the children require parenteral nutrition and often immunoglobulin supplementation. With time, some of them can be weaned off parenteral nutrition and immunoglobulin supplementation. The prognosis depends on the management and is largely related to the occurrence of parenteral nutrition complications or infections. Even with optimal management, most of the children seem to experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Mild mental retardation is observed in half of the cases. Abstract in French Les diarrhées syndromiques ou syndrome tricho-hepato-enterique (SD/THE sont un syndrome rare et sévère dont l’incidence est estimée à 1 cas pour 1 million de naissances et la

  11. Home Enteral Nutrition therapy: Difficulties, satisfactions and support needs of caregivers assisting older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukic P, Nikolina; Gagliardi, Cristina; Fagnani, Donata; Venturini, Claudia; Orlandoni, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to comprehend and describe the views, experiences and adaptations of caregivers who assist older patients treated with Home Enteral Nutrition. The objective was to gather empirical evidence to improve the delivery of Home Enteral Nutrition for old patients taking into account the caregivers' support needs. A qualitative methodology with focus groups as data collection method was used to collect the testimonies of 30 informal and formal caregivers of older patients treated with Home Enteral Nutrition by the Clinical Nutrition Service of INRCA (Ancona) during 2014. Quantitative methodology was used to collect socio-demographic data. Partially modified Silver's "Home Enteral Nutrition Caregiver Task Checklist" was used to identify training needs. The constant comparison method was used to code and categorize data and to develop themes of focus groups. Simple descriptive statistics were used to summarize questionnaires. Five main themes were identified from focus groups: acceptance of the therapy, skill acquisition process, need for psychological and practical support at home from healthcare professionals, lifestyle adaptation, affirmation of life and family. All caregivers testified the initial fear and refusal to manage the nutrition pump and the therapy. They expressed the need to be trained gradually, starting during a patient's hospitalization, and continuing in the community. With reference to their overall QoL, it emerged that informal caregivers suffered mostly from the reduction of their free time while formal caregivers suffered social isolation and psychological burden. For both groups the monthly home visit was the most important element of the HEN service. Informal caregivers highlighted the importance of having their loved ones at home. Unsatisfied training needs were identified by the modified Silver's "Home Enteral Nutrition Caregiver Task Checklist". This qualitative study underlined the challenges and adaptations of

  12. Two Contrasting Failure Modes of Enteric Coated Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Galen H; Dong, Xia; Lytle, Michelle; Kemp, Craig A J; Behme, Robert J; Hinds, Jeremy; Xiao, Zhicheng

    2018-04-09

    This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms and kinetics of coating failure for enteric coated beads exposed to high-humidity conditions at different storage temperatures. Enteric coated beads were placed on high-humidity conditions (75 to 98% relative humidity (RH)) in the temperature range of 5 to 40°C. These stability samples of beads were tested for acid dissolution and water activity and also analyzed with SEM, X-ray CT, and DMA. Exposure of enteric coated beads to high humidity led to increased gastric release of drug which eventually failed the dissolution specification. SEM showed visible cracks on the surface of beads exposed to 5°C/high humidity and fusion of enteric beads into agglomerates at 40°C/high humidity. In a non-destructive time elapse study, X-ray CT demonstrated swelling of microcrystalline cellulose cores, crack initiation, and propagation through the API layer within days under 5°C/98% RH storage conditions and ultimately fracture through the enteric coating. DMA data showed a marked reduction in T g of the enteric coating materials after exposure to humidity. At 5°C/high humidity, the hygroscopic microcrystalline cellulose core absorbed moisture leading to core swelling and consequent fracture through the brittle API and enteric layers. At 40°C (high humidity) which is above the T g of the enteric polymer, enteric coated beads coalesced into agglomerates due to melt flow of the enteric coating. We believe it is the first report on two distinct failure models of enteric coated dosage forms.

  13. Dieta enteral prescrita versus dieta infundida Prescribed enteral diet versus infused diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aparecida Ribeiro Simões

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar o volume prescrito de dieta enteral versus o volume infundido, identificando as causas de interrupção da dieta e os gastos gerados por essas interrupções. Métodos: Estudo observacional, com pacientes adultos e idosos, recebendo nutrição enteral em um hospital particular de São Paulo. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de prontuário eletrônico. Resultados: O volume infundido foi significantemente menor que o volume prescrito, nos cinco dias de acompanhamento, em toda a amostra. A principal intercorrência na administração da dieta foi a diarreia. Os gastos com a não administração da dieta somam 41,4% do valor despendido para esse serviço. Conclusão: Este estudo contribui para a atuação e desempenho do nutricionista em conjunto com a Equipe Multidisciplinar em Terapia Nutricional visando a melhora do paciente.

  14. Transition from parenteral to enteral nutrition induces immediate diet-dependent gut histological and immunological responses in preterm neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siggers, Jayda; Sangild, Per T.; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2011-01-01

    bacterial groups (Clostridium, Enterococcus, Streptococcus species) increased with time. We conclude that a switch from parenteral to enteral nutrition rapidly induces diet-dependent histopathological, functional, and proinflammatory insults to the immature intestine. Great care is required when introducing......-six preterm pigs were fed total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for 48 h followed by enteral feeding for 0, 8, 17, or 34 h with either colostrum (Colos, n = 20) or formula (Form, n = 31). Macroscopic NEC lesions were detected in Form pigs throughout the enteral feeding period (20/31, 65%), whereas most Colos pigs...... no histopathological lesions, increased maltase activity, and induced changes in gene expressions related to tissue development. Total bacterial density was high after 2 days of parenteral feeding and was not significantly affected by diet (colostrum, formula) or length of enteral feeding (8–34 h), except that a few...

  15. Tracing enteric viruses in the European berry fruit supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maunula, L.; Kaupke, A.; Vasickova, P.; Soderberg, K.; Kozyra, I.; Lazic, S.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Bouwknegt, M.; Rutjes, S.; Willems, K.A.; Moloney, R.; Agostino, D' M.; Husman, A.M.D.; Bonsdorff, C.H.; Rzezutka, A.; Pavlik, I.; Petrovic, T.; Cook, N.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous foodborne outbreaks due to consumption of berry fruit contaminated by human enteric viruses have been reported. This European multinational study investigated possible contamination routes by monitoring the entire food chain for a panel of human and animal enteric viruses.

  16. Complications relating to enteral and parenteral nutrition in trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the incidence of complications in patients receiving enteral and parenteral nutrition (PN), and review how the early initiation of enteral feeding and early achievement of caloric goal would affect the incidence of complications. Design: The design was a retrospective audit of ...

  17. Enteric pathogen modification by anaecic earthworm, Lampito Mauritii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment plant contains several enteric microbial pathogens, predominantly Salmonella and Escherichia species in the range of 15-18 x 104 CFU/g and 11-12 x 104 CFU/g respectively. The present study investigates the influence of earthworm, Lampito mauritii on enteric pathogen ...

  18. Enteral alimentation and gastrointestinal bleeding in mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingleton, S K; Hadzima, S K

    1983-01-01

    The incidence of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in mechanically ventilated ICU patients receiving enteral alimentation was reviewed and compared to bleeding occurring in ventilated patients receiving prophylactic antacids or cimetidine. Of 250 patients admitted to our ICU during a 1-yr time period, 43 ventilated patients were studied. Patients in each group were comparable with respect to age, respiratory diagnosis, number of GI hemorrhage risk factors, and number of ventilator, ICU, and hospital days. Twenty-one patients had evidence of GI bleeding. Fourteen of 20 patients receiving antacids and 7 of 9 patients receiving cimetidine had evidence of GI bleeding. No bleeding occurred in 14 patients receiving enteral alimentation. Complications of enteral alimentation were few and none required discontinuation of enteral alimentation. Our preliminary data suggest the role of enteral alimentation in critically ill patients may include not only protection against malnutrition but also protection against GI bleeding.

  19. Zebrafish: an exciting model for investigating the spatio-temporal pattern of enteric nervous system development.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doodnath, Reshma

    2012-02-01

    AIM: Recently, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been shown to be an excellent model for human paediatric research. Advantages over other models include its small size, externally visually accessible development and ease of experimental manipulation. The enteric nervous system (ENS) consists of neurons and enteric glia. Glial cells permit cell bodies and processes of neurons to be arranged and maintained in a proper spatial arrangement, and are essential in the maintenance of basic physiological functions of neurons. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is expressed in astrocytes, but also expressed outside of the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal pattern of GFAP expression in developing zebrafish ENS from 24 h post-fertilization (hpf), using transgenic fish that express green fluorescent protein (GFP). METHODS: Zebrafish embryos were collected from transgenic GFP Tg(GFAP:GFP)(mi2001) adult zebrafish from 24 to 120 hpf, fixed and processed for whole mount immunohistochemistry. Antibodies to Phox2b were used to identify enteric neurons. Specimens were mounted on slides and imaging was performed using a fluorescent laser confocal microscope. RESULTS: GFAP:GFP labelling outside the spinal cord was identified in embryos from 48 hpf. The patterning was intracellular and consisted of elongated profiles that appeared to migrate away from the spinal cord into the periphery. At 72 and 96 hpf, GFAP:GFP was expressed dorsally and ventrally to the intestinal tract. At 120 hpf, GFAP:GFP was expressed throughout the intestinal wall, and clusters of enteric neurons were identified using Phox2b immunofluorescence along the pathway of GFAP:GFP positive processes, indicative of a migratory pathway of ENS precursors from the spinal cord into the intestine. CONCLUSION: The pattern of migration of GFAP:GFP expressing cells outside the spinal cord suggests an organized, early developing migratory pathway to the ENS. This shows for the

  20. Medium-chain triglyceride-rich enteral nutrition is more effective than low-fat enteral nutrition in rat colitis, but is equal in enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, T; Ohta, N; Nakamura, T; Yasuoka, T; Satoh, J; Fukunaga, T; Itohi, A; Uda, K; Ihara, T; Andoh, A; Sasaki, M; Fujiyama, Y; Bamba, T

    2001-10-01

    Although enteral nutrition (EN) therapy for Crohn's disease has been confirmed to be as effective as steroid therapy, the precise mechanism responsible for the effects of EN remains unclear, although some of the therapeutic effects of EN are believed to be due to a low dietary fat content. In order to elucidate the influence of fat in EN, it is important to investigate not only the quantity of fat, but also the source of the fat. We compared two enteral nutritional formulae: Elental (Ajinomoto) (elemental diet; ED), which contains only 1.5% fat, provided as long-chain triglycerides (LCT), versus Twinline (Snow Brand Milk Products) (TL), which contains a high percentage of fat (20.4%), provided mainly as medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). These formulae were tested on rat enteritis and rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Both ED and TL reduced the manifestations of enteritis. TL had a stronger anti-inflammatory effect than ED for colitis. TL also had nutritional advantages as compared with ED, as shown by the total serum protein in the TL group being significantly higher than that in the ED group. The results indicate that intraluminal MCT is suitable as a fat energy source during intestinal inflammation in rats. We suggest that Twinline may be more useful to improve nutritional status and to reduce the mucosal inflammation in rat colitis, but that Twinline is equal in effect to Elental for rat enteritis.

  1. Cellular changes in the enteric nervous system during ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffrey, M Jill

    2013-10-01

    The intrinsic neurons of the gut, enteric neurons, have an essential role in gastrointestinal functions. The enteric nervous system is plastic and continues to undergo changes throughout life, as the gut grows and responds to dietary and other environmental changes. Detailed analysis of changes in the ENS during ageing suggests that enteric neurons are more vulnerable to age-related degeneration and cell death than neurons in other parts of the nervous system, although there is considerable variation in the extent and time course of age-related enteric neuronal loss reported in different studies. Specific neuronal subpopulations, particularly cholinergic myenteric neurons, may be more vulnerable than others to age-associated loss or damage. Enteric degeneration and other age-related neuronal changes may contribute to gastrointestinal dysfunction that is common in the elderly population. Evidence suggests that caloric restriction protects against age-associated loss of enteric neurons, but recent advances in the understanding of the effects of the microbiota and the complex interactions between enteric ganglion cells, mucosal immune system and intestinal epithelium indicate that other factors may well influence ageing of enteric neurons. Much remains to be understood about the mechanisms of neuronal loss and damage in the gut, although there is evidence that reactive oxygen species, neurotrophic factor dysregulation and/or activation of a senescence associated phenotype may be involved. To date, there is no evidence for ongoing neurogenesis that might replace dying neurons in the ageing gut, although small local sites of neurogenesis would be difficult to detect. Finally, despite the considerable evidence for enteric neurodegeneration during ageing, and evidence for some physiological changes in animal models, the ageing gut appears to maintain its function remarkably well in animals that exhibit major neuronal loss, indicating that the ENS has considerable

  2. Pediatric Enteric Feeding Techniques: Insertion, Maintenance, and Management of Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijs, Els L. F.; Cahill, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    Enteral feeding is considered a widespread, well-accepted means of delivering nutrition to adults and children who are unable to consume food by mouth or who need support in maintaining adequate nutrition for a variety of reasons, including acute and chronic disease states. Delivery of enteral feeding to nutritionally deprived patients may be achieved by several means. In this article, the indications and insertion of enteral access in children will be reviewed. In addition, common complications and management of problems will be discussed.

  3. Communication Skill Attributes Needed for Vocational Education enter The Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, L. M.; Masih, I. K.; Rejeki, I. N. Mei

    2018-01-01

    Communication skills are generic skills which need to be developed for success in the vocational education entering the workforce. This study aimed to discover the attributes of communication skill considered important in entering the workforce as perceived by vocational education students. The research was conducted by survey method using questionnaire as data collecting tool. The research population is final year student of D3 Vocational education Program and D4 Managerial Vocational education in academic year 2016/2017 who have completed field work practice in industry. The sampling technique was proportional random sampling. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and independent sampel t-test. Have ten communication skills attributes with the highest important level required to enter the workplace as perceived by the vocational education diploma. These results indicate that there was the same need related communication skills to enter the workforce

  4. High enteric bacterial contamination of drinking water in Jigjiga city ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    Key words: Contamination, drinking water, households, enteric bacteria, Jigjiga. Introduction. Water safety ... regular sanitary checks for un-chlorinated water (9). Because of this ... 238, considering 5% non-response rate. All kebeles have.

  5. Problems experienced by women re-entering the education profession

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problems experienced by women re-entering the education profession: a South ... in maternity benefits, as well as the introduction of paternity and childcare leave, should be introduced to assist women educators to combine work and family ...

  6. Parenteral and Early Enteral Feeding in Patients with Colonic Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Malkov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to provide evidence whether it is expedient to use an early enteral feeding protocol in patients with colonic malignancies in the postoperative period to prevent and to correct hemodynamic disorders, oxygen imbalance, and malnutrition. Subjects and methods. A hundred patients (61 males and 39 females aged 66.2±5.0 years, who had Stages 2—3 colonic malignancies, were examined. Two algorithms of postoperative management were analyzed using the traditional diet and early enteral feeding. Results. The early enteral feeding protocol improves central hemodynamics and oxygen and nutritional status, prevents moderate protein-energy deficiency in the early postoperative period and reduces the number of complications and fatal outcomes in patients with colonic malignancies. Key words: malignancies, malnutrition, hemo-dynamics, oxygen status, enteral feeding.

  7. Nurses' Competency and Challenges in Enteral feeding in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have emphasised the role of nurses in nutritional support. .... Ethical consideration. The study was ... Mann-Whitney U test was applied to make associations ..... based guidelines and critical care nurses knowledge of enteral feeding.

  8. Environmental enteric dysfunction is associated with altered bile acid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a clinically asymptomatic condition characterized by inflammation of the small bowel mucosa, villous atrophy, and increased gut permeability, is common among children in developing countries. Because of abnormal gut mucosa and altered gut microbiome, EED coul...

  9. Epigenetic regulation of enteric neurotransmission by gut bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor eSavidge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Human Microbiome Project defined microbial community interactions with the human host, and provided important molecular insight into how epigenetic factors can influence intestinal ecosystems. Given physiological context, changes in gut microbial community structure are increasingly found to associate with alterations in enteric neurotransmission and disease. At present, it is not known whether shifts in microbial community dynamics represent cause or consequence of disease pathogenesis. The discovery of bacterial-derived neurotransmitters suggests further studies are needed to establish their role in enteric neuropathy. This mini-review highlights recent advances in bacterial communications to the autonomic nervous system and discusses emerging epigenetic data showing that diet, probiotic and antibiotic use may regulate enteric neurotransmission through modulation of microbial communities. Because of its limited scope, a particular emphasis is placed on bacterial regulation of enteric nervous system function in the intestine.

  10. Emerging antibiotic resistant enteric bacterial flora among food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emerging antibiotic resistant enteric bacterial flora among food animals in Abeokuta, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Bacterial resistance to antibiotic in food animals is an emerging public health concern as a result of ...

  11. Short communication: Tryptic β-casein hydrolysate modulates enteric nervous system development in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossais, F; Clawin-Rädecker, I; Lorenzen, P C; Klempt, M

    2017-05-01

    -casein hydrolysate increased the expression of the glial marker glial fibrillary acidic protein and induced profound modifications of enteric glial cells morphology. Finally, expression of BMP2 and BMP4 and activation of Smad1/5 was altered after treatment with tryptic bioactive β-casein hydrolysate. Our data suggests that this milk-derived bioactive hydrolysate modulates ENS maturation through the regulation of BMP/Smad-signaling pathway. This study supports the need for further investigation on the influence of milk-derived bioactive peptides on ENS and intestinal maturation in vivo. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantification of gut lesions in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholamiandehkordi, Ahmad R.; Timbermont, Leen; Lanckriet, Anouk

    2007-01-01

    Currently Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis is a major problem in broiler flocks. In the present study, broilers were inoculated with a combination of Eimeria maxima or overdose coccidial vaccine (one inoculation) with C. perfringens (repeated inoculations). Single C. perfringens...... in combination with multiple oral C. perfringens inoculations is a suitable model for necrotic enteritis without inducing mortality of the animals. C. perfringens and Eimeria act synergistically in inducing grossly visible gut damage....

  13. Antimicrobial effect of Malaysian vegetables against enteric bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanain Al-Talib

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Garlic had excellent antimicrobial effects against enteric bacteria and was recommended to be given to patients with gastroenteritis. The other vegetables (pennywort, mint, parsley and celery showed no inhibitory effects on enteric bacteria but still can be used for its richness in vitamins and fibers. The performance of the well diffusion method was better than that of the disc diffusion method in detecting the antibacterial effects of green vegetables.

  14. [Biological evaluation of a protein mixture intended for enteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, J Olza; Foulquie, J Porres; Valero, G Urbano; de Victoria, E Martínez; Hernández, A Gil

    2008-01-01

    Enteral nutrition is the best way to feed or supplement the diet when gastrointestinal tract functions of patients are partially or totally preserved. Whenever total enteral nutrition is needed, it represents the only source of nutrients for patients. Thus, it is mandatory to ensure that high biological value proteins are included in enteral formulae. To assess the biological quality of a protein blend constituted by 50% potassium caseinate, 25% whey protein and 25% pea protein intended to be used in enteral nutrition products. Forty Wistar rats (20 male and 20 female), with initial body weight of 51 g, where divided into four groups and feed for 10 days with: casein (Control), experimental protein blend (Experimental), liophylized normo- and hyperproteic enteral nutrition formulae adapted to the animal nutritional requirements (Normoproteic and Hyperproteic). Protein efficiency ratio (PER), apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC), relationship between retained and absorbed nitrogen (R/A) and relationship between retained and consumed nitrogen (R/I) where calculated. Experimental and control groups had similar values for all analysed indices (PER, ADC, R/A and R/I). These indices where also similar between normo and hyperproteic groups, but lower than experimental and control groups, except in PER, where normoproteic group was either similar to control and hiperproteic group. The quality of the protein blend used in this study is high. It is a good protein source to be used in the development of new enteral nutritional products.

  15. Enteral immunonutrition versus enteral nutrition for gastric cancer patients undergoing a total gastrectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ying; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhang, Liwei; Wu, Juan; Zhan, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    Background Nutrition support is a common means for patients with gastric cancer, especially for those undergoing elective surgery. Recently, enteral immunonutrition (EIN) was increasingly found to be more effective than enteral nutrition (EN) in enhancing the host immunity and eventually improving the prognosis of gastric cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy. However, the results reported were not consistent. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the impact of EIN for patients with GC on bioch...

  16. Interaction of Human Enterochromaffin Cells with Human Enteric Adenovirus 41 Leads to Serotonin Release and Subsequent Activation of Enteric Glia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, Sonja; Hagbom, Marie; Rajan, Anandi; Loitto, Vesa; Persson, B David; Allard, Annika; Nordgren, Johan; Sharma, Sumit; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Arnberg, Niklas; Svensson, Lennart

    2018-04-01

    Human adenovirus 41 (HAdV-41) causes acute gastroenteritis in young children. The main characteristics of HAdV-41 infection are diarrhea and vomiting. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism of HAdV-41-induced diarrhea is unknown, as a suitable small-animal model has not been described. In this study, we used the human midgut carcinoid cell line GOT1 to investigate the effect of HAdV-41 infection and the individual HAdV-41 capsid proteins on serotonin release by enterochromaffin cells and on enteric glia cell (EGC) activation. We first determined that HAdV-41 could infect the enterochromaffin cells. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the cells expressed HAdV-41-specific coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR); flow cytometry analysis supported these findings. HAdV-41 infection of the enterochromaffin cells induced serotonin secretion dose dependently. In contrast, control infection with HAdV-5 did not induce serotonin secretion in the cells. Confocal microscopy studies of enterochromaffin cells infected with HAdV-41 revealed decreased serotonin immunofluorescence compared to that in uninfected cells. Incubation of the enterochromaffin cells with purified HAdV-41 short fiber knob and hexon proteins increased the serotonin levels in the harvested cell supernatant significantly. HAdV-41 infection could also activate EGCs, as shown in the significantly altered expression of glia fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in EGCs incubated with HAdV-41. The EGCs were also activated by serotonin alone, as shown in the significantly increased GFAP staining intensity. Likewise, EGCs were activated by the cell supernatant of HAdV-41-infected enterochromaffin cells. IMPORTANCE The nonenveloped human adenovirus 41 causes diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and low-grade fever mainly in children under 2 years of age. Even though acute gastroenteritis is well described, how human adenovirus 41 causes diarrhea is unknown. In our study, we analyzed the effect of human adenovirus 41

  17. Role of FODMAP content in enteral nutrition-associated diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmos, Emma P

    2013-12-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms including diarrhea are common complications of enteral nutrition (EN); however, the cause is unclear. Mode of EN delivery that alters digestion and possibly absorption is suggested to contribute to the high incidence of diarrhea; however, enteral formula is frequently blamed. Most research has focused on fiber-supplemented EN, with a meta-analysis showing that fiber reduces the incidence of diarrhea in non-intensive care unit studies. Other hypotheses include formula osmolality and FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) content. FODMAPs are poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates that exert an osmotic effect. Dietary FODMAPs have been shown to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhea, in those with irritable bowel syndrome and, given a high-enough dose, will induce a laxative effect in most people. As FODMAPs are commonly added to enteral formula and EN is frequently used as the main source of nutrition, it is reasonable to hypothesize that EN provides more FODMAPs than usual dietary intake and increases risk for developing diarrhea. This hypothesis was assessed through a retrospective study showing that the standard-use enteral formula Isosource 1.5 had a protective effect of developing diarrhea. The only characteristic unique to Isosource 1.5 was the lower FODMAP content as determined through methodologies previously validated for food analysis. Methodologies for application to enteral formulas are currently undergoing formal validation. Once confirmed for application in enteral formula, future directions include FODMAP analysis of specific ingredients to increase understanding of potential problems associated with enteral formula and a randomized, controlled trial investigating the role of formula FODMAP content. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Expression of Na,K-ATPase and H,K-ATPase Isoforms with the Baculovirus Expression System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, J.B.; Swarts, H.G.

    2016-01-01

    P-type ATPases can be expressed in several cell systems. The baculovirus expressions system uses an insect virus to enter and express proteins in Sf9 insect cells. This expression system is a lytic system in which the cells will die a few days after viral infection. Subsequently, the expressed

  19. Recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administered enterally to neonates is not absorbed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Darlene A; Maheshwari, Akhil; Christensen, Robert D

    2003-08-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is present in liquids swallowed by the fetus and neonate; specifically, amniotic fluid, colostrum, and human milk. The swallowed G-CSF has local effects on enteric cells, which express the G-CSF receptor. However, some portion of the G-CSF ingested by the fetus and neonate might be absorbed into the circulation and have systemic actions, such as stimulating neutrophil production. To assess this possibility we sought to determine if circulating G-CSF concentrations of neonates increase after enteral administration of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). This was a single-center, prospective, blinded, randomized, 2 x 2 crossover study, with each infant receiving 1 dose of rhG-CSF (100 microg/kg) and 1 dose of placebo. Plasma G-CSF concentrations were measured at 2 and 4 hours after administration of the test solution. No significant change in plasma G-CSF concentration was observed after the enteral administration of rhG-CSF. On this basis, we conclude that orally administered rhG-CSF is not absorbed in significant quantities, and we speculate that the G-CSF swallowed by the fetus and neonate has local but not systemic effects.

  20. [Enteral distress syndrome in surgery: definition, pathogenesis, diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, A P; Trofimov, V A; Grigorieva, T I; Shibitov, V A; Vlasov, P A

    2016-01-01

    It was performed a comprehensive experimental and clinical study of functional and metabolic status of the intestine in acute peritonitis, pancreatic necrosis, acute intestinal obstruction. We obtained objective data of impaired barrier function based on levels of toxins in arterial and mesenteric venous blood. Association of organ and organismic homeostatic changes was revealed. It was proved an important role of membrane-destabilizing processes in intestinal epithelium as a cause of enteral insufficiency. Leading trigger mechanisms of lipid metabolic disorders were determined. Enteral distress syndrome was determined as pathological response to acute abdominal surgical diseases. Enteral distress syndrome is a complex of pathological processes due to membrane-destabilizing mechanisms, impaired intestinal barrier function followed by progression of endogenous intoxication. This syndrome significantly aggravates the course of acute surgical abdominal diseases.

  1. Implementation of enteral feeding protocol in an intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padar, Martin; Uusvel, Gerli; Starkopf, Liis

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of implementing an enteral feeding protocol on the nutritional delivery and outcomes of intensive care patients. METHODS: An uncontrolled, observational before-and-after study was performed in a tertiary mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU). In 2013......, a nurse-driven enteral feeding protocol was developed and implemented in the ICU. Nutrition and outcome-related data from patients who were treated in the study unit from 2011-2012 (the Before group) and 2014-2015 (the After group) were obtained from a local electronic database, the national Population...... the groups. Patients in the After group had a lower 90-d (P = 0.026) and 120-d (P = 0.033) mortality. In the After group, enteral nutrition was prescribed less frequently (P = 0.039) on day 1 but significantly more frequently on all days from day 3. Implementation of the feeding protocol resulted in a higher...

  2. Enteral Nutrition Support to Treat Malnutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare, Roberta; Damiano, Giuseppe; Abruzzo, Alida; Palumbo, Vincenzo Davide; Tomasello, Giovanni; Buscemi, Salvatore; Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common consequence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Diet has an important role in the management of IBD, as it prevents and corrects malnutrition. It is well known that diet may be implicated in the aetiology of IBD and that it plays a central role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal-tract disease. Often oral nutrition alone is not sufficient in the management of IBD patients, especially in children or the elderly, and must be combined with oral supplementation or replaced with tube enteral nutrition. In this review, we describe several different approaches to enteral nutrition—total parenteral, oral supplementation and enteral tube feeding—in terms of results, patients compliance, risks and and benefits. We also focus on the home entaral nutrition strategy as the future goal for treating IBD while focusing on patient wellness. PMID:25816159

  3. Management of Hyperglycemia During Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umpierrez, Guillermo E.

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is a frequent complication of enteral and parenteral nutrition in hospitalized patients. Extensive evidence from observational studies indicates that the development of hyperglycemia during parenteral and enteral nutrition is associated with an increased risk of death and infectious complications. There are no specific guidelines recommending glycemic targets and effective strategies for the management of hyperglycemia during specialized nutritional support. Managing hyperglycemia in these patients should include optimization of carbohydrate content and administration of intravenous or subcutaneous insulin therapy. The administration of continuous insulin infusion and insulin addition to nutrition bag are efficient approaches to control hyperglycemia during parenteral nutrition. Subcutaneous administration of long-acting insulin with scheduled or corrective doses of short-acting insulin is superior to the sliding scale insulin strategy in patients receiving enteral feedings. Randomized controlled studies are needed to evaluate safe and effective therapeutic strategies for the management of hyperglycemia in patients receiving nutritional support. PMID:23065369

  4. Genomic diversification of giant enteric symbionts reflects host dietary lifestyles

    KAUST Repository

    Ngugi, David

    2017-08-24

    Herbivorous surgeonfishes are an ecologically successful group of reef fish that rely on marine algae as their principal food source. Here, we elucidated the significance of giant enteric symbionts colonizing these fishes regarding their roles in the digestive processes of hosts feeding predominantly on polysiphonous red algae and brown Turbinaria algae, which contain different polysaccharide constituents. Using metagenomics, single-cell genomics, and metatranscriptomic analyses, we provide evidence of metabolic diversification of enteric microbiota involved in the degradation of algal biomass in these fishes. The enteric microbiota is also phylogenetically and functionally simple relative to the complex lignocellulose-degrading microbiota of terrestrial herbivores. Over 90% of the enzymes for deconstructing algal polysaccharides emanate from members of a single bacterial lineage,

  5. Enteric Diseases of Poultry with Special Attention to Clostridium perfringens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez Mohamed Hafez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The enteric heath of growing poultry is imperative to success of the production. The basic role of poultry production is turning feed stuffs into meat. Any changes in this turning process, due to mechanical, chemical or biological disturbance of digestive system (enteric disorders is mostly accompanied with high economic losses due to poor performance, increased mortality rates and increased medication costs. The severity of clinical signs and course of the disorders are influenced several factors such as management, nutrition and the involved agent(s. Several pathogens (viruses, bacteria and parasites are incriminated as possible cause of enteric disorders either alone (mono-causal, in synergy with other micro-organisms (multi-causal, or with non-infectious causes such as feed and /or management related factors. In addition, excessive levels of mycotoxins and biogenic amines in feed lead to enteric disorders. Also factors such as high stocking density, poor litter conditions, poor hygiene and high ammonia level and other stressful situation may reduce the resistance of the birds and increases their susceptibility to infections. Under field conditions, however, under filed conditions it is difficult to determine whether the true cause of enteric disorders, is of infectious or non-infectious origin. In recent years and since the ban of use of antimicrobial growth promoters in several countries the incidence of intestinal disorders especially those caused by clostridial infection was drastically increased. The present review described in general the several factors involved in enteric disorders and summarized the available literatures about Clostridium perfringens infection in poultry.

  6. Home parenteral nutrition in treatment of severe radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.G.; Ivey, M.; Young, J.

    1979-01-01

    Ten patients with radiation enteritis unresponsive to conventional medical and surgical therapy were put on long-term parenteral nutrition at home. Six of the patients are alive at home; four patients died, two from recurrent cancer. Some of the patients have been able to resume oral intake, but none have been able to discontinue parenteral nutrition. Fistulas healed or had a marked decrease in output. Two patients in our series were given prednisone and sulfasalazine without significant benefit, in contrast to previously reported clinical improvement of radiation enteritis with this therapy

  7. New Insights into c-Ret Signalling Pathway in the Enteric Nervous System and Its Relationship with ALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Luesma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The receptor tyrosine kinase Ret (c-Ret transduces the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF signal, one of the neurotrophic factors related to the degeneration process or the regeneration activity of motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. The phosphorylation of several tyrosine residues of c-Ret seems to be altered in ALS. c-Ret is expressed in motor neurons and in the enteric nervous system (ENS during the embryonic period. The characteristics of the ENS allow using it as model for central nervous system (CNS study and being potentially useful for the research of human neurological diseases such as ALS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cellular localization and quantitative evaluation of marker c-Ret in the adult human gut. To assess the nature of c-Ret positive cells, we performed colocalization with specific markers of cells that typically are located in the enteric ganglia. The colocalization of PGP9.5 and c-Ret was preferentially intense in enteric neurons with oval morphology and mostly peripherally localized in the ganglion, so we concluded that the c-Ret receptor is expressed by a specific subtype of enteric neurons in the mature human ENS of the gut. The functional significance of these c-Ret positive neurons is discussed.

  8. New insights into c-Ret signalling pathway in the enteric nervous system and its relationship with ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luesma, M J; Cantarero, I; Álvarez-Dotu, J M; Santander, S; Junquera, C

    2014-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase Ret (c-Ret) transduces the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signal, one of the neurotrophic factors related to the degeneration process or the regeneration activity of motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The phosphorylation of several tyrosine residues of c-Ret seems to be altered in ALS. c-Ret is expressed in motor neurons and in the enteric nervous system (ENS) during the embryonic period. The characteristics of the ENS allow using it as model for central nervous system (CNS) study and being potentially useful for the research of human neurological diseases such as ALS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cellular localization and quantitative evaluation of marker c-Ret in the adult human gut. To assess the nature of c-Ret positive cells, we performed colocalization with specific markers of cells that typically are located in the enteric ganglia. The colocalization of PGP9.5 and c-Ret was preferentially intense in enteric neurons with oval morphology and mostly peripherally localized in the ganglion, so we concluded that the c-Ret receptor is expressed by a specific subtype of enteric neurons in the mature human ENS of the gut. The functional significance of these c-Ret positive neurons is discussed.

  9. Comparison of the EntericBio multiplex PCR system with routine culture for detection of bacterial enteric pathogens.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, James

    2009-11-01

    The EntericBio system uses a multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Escherichia coli O157 from feces. It combines overnight broth enrichment with PCR amplification and detection by hybridization. An evaluation of this system was conducted by comparing the results obtained with the system with those obtained by routine culture, supplemented with alternative PCR detection methods. In a study of 773 samples, routine culture and the EntericBio system yielded 94.6 and 92.4% negative results, respectively. Forty-two samples had positive results by culture, and all of these were positive with the EntericBio system. This system detected an additional 17 positive samples (Campylobacter spp., n = 12; Shigella spp., n = 1; E. coli O157, n = 4), but the results for 5 samples (Campylobacter spp., n = 2; Shigella spp., n = 1; E. coli O157, n = 2) could not be confirmed. The target for Shigella spp. detected by the EntericBio system is the ipaH gene, and the molecular indication of the presence of Shigella spp. was investigated by sequence analysis, which confirmed that the ipaH gene was present in a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from the patient. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 100%, 99.3%, 91.5%, and 100%, respectively. Turnaround times were significantly reduced with the EntericBio system, and a result was available between 24 and 32 h after receipt of the sample in the laboratory. In addition, the amount of laboratory waste was significantly reduced by use of this system. In summary, the EntericBio system proved convenient to use, more sensitive than the conventional culture used in this study, and highly specific; and it generated results significantly faster than routine culture for the pathogens tested.

  10. Formation and malformation of the enteric nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.C. Meijers (Johan)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractTo clarify pathogenetic mechanisms of congenital malformations of the ENS, the formation of the ENS was investigated in chicken and murine embryos. The experimental work was concentrated on several aspects of the interaction between neural crest cells and the enteric microenvironment.

  11. Natural history and surgical management of radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galland, R.B.; Spencer, J.

    1987-01-01

    The natural history and surgical management of radio enteritis is reviewed. Predisposing factors include the dose of radiation patients build, combination with chemotherapy, previous operations and vascular disease. Management is related to the stage of disease at presentation, and tailored to the clinical problem. Surgical management must take into account the poor healing associated with irradiated intestine. (author)

  12. Case Study: Enteral formula: Selecting the right formula for your ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    placed on the type of fat (mono-unsaturated fatty acids), the addition ... patient with normal GIT function, but could worsen symptoms of poor enteral feed tolerance in a .... of omega-3 fatty acids, as well as gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) reflect an ...

  13. Overconfidence of Vocational Education Students When Entering Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Mark P.; Abhayawansa, Subhash; Bahtsevanoglou, John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is evidence that students who attend Technical and Further Education (TAFE) prior to entering higher education underperform in their first year of study. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of self-efficacy in understanding the performance of students who completed TAFE in the previous year in a first year subject of…

  14. Persistence of enteric viruses within oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well known that water-borne enteric viruses are concentrated by bivalves. Why these viruses are selectively retained and remain infectious within shellfish tissues for extended periods is unknown. Our current hypothesis is that phagocytic hemocytes (blood cells) are a site of virus persiste...

  15. Critical Success Factors for Franchised Restaurants Entering the Kenyan Market

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy Gikonyo; Adele Berndt; Joseph Wadawi

    2015-01-01

    In today’s globalized world, businesses look to expand to have a global presence. Restaurant businesses have expanded internationally using franchising. This study sought to determine the critical success factors (CSFs) of a franchised restaurant system entering the Kenyan market from the franchisors’ perspective. It sought to establish how franchisors define, identify, and evaluate success. This study provides a theor...

  16. Defining travel-associated cases of enteric fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Joanne; Lighton, Lorraine; Jones, Jane

    2014-01-01

    There is no internationally recognized case-definition for travel-associated enteric fever in non-endemic countries. This study describes the patterns of case reporting between 2007 and 2011 as travel-associated or not from the surveillance data in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (EWNI), before and after a change in the time component of the case-definition in January 2011. It examines in particular the role of a time frame based on the reported typical incubation period in defining a case of travel-associated enteric fever. The results showed no significant differences in the distribution of cases of enteric fever in regards to the interval between the onset and UK arrival in 2011 compared to 2007-2010 (p=0.98 for typhoid and paratyphoid A); the distribution for paratyphoid B was also similar in both time periods. During 2007-2010, 93% (1730/1853) of all of the cases were classified as travel-associated compared to 94% (448/477) in 2011. This difference was not statistically significant. Changing the time component of the definition of travel-associated enteric fever did not make a significant difference to the proportion of travel-associated cases reported by investigators. Our analysis suggests that time might be subordinate to other considerations when investigators classify a case as travel-associated. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [ENTERAL NUTRITION ON THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escortell Sánchez, Raquel; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    to identify what effect causes enteral nutrition on nutritional status of cancer. a search was performed using the keywords "Cancer" AND "Enteral Nutrition" AND "Supplementation" in four document databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, ProQuest, and Web of Science. age of the sample, major than 18 years; submitted to surgery for cancer; that the intervention program was including diet and employment or not of nutritional Supplementation; clinical trials published between January 2004 and December 2014, in scientific journals indexed. we analyzed 660 articles, of which only 2% has been included. 58% of intervention programs are applied outside Spain; 84% of the interventions was carried out in a hospitable ambient; 58% of the sample is formed by adults older than 54 years; 33% of the interventions were multidisciplinary and its duration ranges between 1 and 4 years. we found just a few national interventions in cancer participants and there two types of interventions: by exclusive polymeric enteral formula or mixed with immunonutrition. enteral nutrition shows against the parenteral and its introduction at an early stage, it helps to improve nutritional status of the patient; polymeric formulas next immunonutrition, it helps to reduce the time of hospitalization; the analytical parameters are shown as a measurement pattern when assessing the improvement in nutritional status in cancer. It is recommended to increase the research in this field, especially in children. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. characterisation of gastro- enteritis-associated adenoviruses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To analyse adenovirus (Ad) numbers and types associated with paediatric gastro-enteritis in South Africa. Setting. Gauteng, 1994-1996. Metfwds. A total of 234 paediatric diarrhoeal stool samples were screened for Ad using commercial enzyme-linked. iInmunosorbent assays (EUSAs). Adenoviral isolates were.

  19. Can wheat bran mitigate malnutrition and enteric pathogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child malnutrition is a complex global problem, of which lack of food is only one component. Enteric pathogens and malnutrition work in a cyclic manner to depress a child’s intestinal immunity, while decreasing nutrient absorption. This cycle leads to stunting, wasting, and death. Often malnourished...

  20. Early enteral nutrition compared to outcome in critically ill trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-01

    Nov 1, 2014 ... 16.4 days, p-value 0.00315) and mortality (9.5 % vs. 20.7 % ..... had a more complicated clinical picture, despite no significant differences in terms ... In other words, an early enteral nutrition start was associated with an almost.

  1. Barriers and strategies for innovations entering BoP markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, L.M.; Ortt, J.R.; Harahap, B.

    2015-01-01

    Companies that bring a new product to the market or enter a new market with an existing product, come across a number of barriers that prevent large?scale diffusion. In order to circumvent or remove these barriers, they can adopt alternative strategies. This paper looks into these barriers and

  2. Regional enteritis and gluten-free diet. A clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merwe, Christiaan Frederik van der

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical study was to determine whether the use of a gluten-free diet influenced the course and prognosis of regional enteritis. Following a few clinical communications in the Dutch medical literature reporting favourable results obtained with the gluten-free diet in the

  3. Plasticity and Neural Stem Cells in the Enteric Nervous System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, Karl-Herbert; Van Ginneken, Chris; Copray, Sjef

    2009-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a highly organized part of the autonomic nervous system, which innervates the whole gastrointestinal tract by several interconnected neuronal networks. The ENS changes during development and keeps throughout its lifespan a significant capacity to adapt to

  4. Single-layer closure of typhoid enteric perforation: Our experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied the effects of single versus double layer intestinal closure after typhoid enteric perforation with peritonitis in 902 pediatric patients from September 2007 to April 2012. All the patients underwent laparotomy after resuscitation and antibiotic cover. The patients were divided ...

  5. Antibiotic-Resistant Enteric Bacteria in Environmental Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa M. Casanova; Mark D. Sobsey

    2016-01-01

    Sources of antibiotic resistant organisms, including concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), may lead to environmental surface and groundwater contamination with resistant enteric bacteria of public health concern. The objective of this research is to determine whether Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, and enterococci resistant to clinically relevant antibiotics are present in surface and groundwater sources in two eastern North Carolina counties, Craven and Wayne...

  6. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants. 355.21 Section 355.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. Enteral feeding practices in preterm infants in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Optimal feeding regimens in babies weighing <1 000 g have not been established, and wide variations occur. In South Africa. (SA) this situation is complicated by varied resource constraints. Objective. To determine the preterm enteral feeding practices of paediatricians in SA. Methods. We invited 288 ...

  8. Risk Factors Associated With Canine Parvovirus Enteritis In Vom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk Factors Associated With Canine Parvovirus Enteritis In Vom And Environs. J G Mohammed, AO Ogbe, NJ Zwandor, JU Umoh. Abstract. No Abstract. Animal Research International Vol. 2 (3) 2005 pp. 366-368. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  9. Human enteric pathogen internalization by root uptake into food crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    With an increasing number of outbreaks and illnesses associated with pre-harvest contaminated produce, understanding the potential and mechanisms of produce contamination by enteric pathogens can aid in the development of preventative measures and post-harvest processing to reduce microbial populati...

  10. The Future Entering: Reflections on and Challenges to Ethical Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Elizabeth C.

    2006-01-01

    To enter a future that waits to be born, educational leaders must continually assess their own ethical stance as well as that of the organizations they serve. Three frames form a model for examining the ethics of both individual and organization, with internal monologue and engaged conversation as the means for reflection and action.

  11. Glutamine-enriched enteral diet increases renal arginine production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdijk, A. P.; van Leeuwen, P. A.; Teerlink, T.; FLINKERBUSCH, E. L.; Boermeester, M. A.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Wesdorp, R. I.

    1994-01-01

    Arginine (Arg) is generated in the kidney by the conversion of circulating citrulline. The most important source for circulating citrulline is the metabolism of glutamine (Gln) by the gut. In this study, we investigated the influence of an enteral diet enriched with Gln on renal Arg synthesis in the

  12. Bacteriophages as indicators of faecal pollution and enteric virus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMinn, B R; Ashbolt, N J; Korajkic, A

    2017-07-01

    Bacteriophages are an attractive alternative to faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), particularly as surrogates of enteric virus fate and transport, due to their closer morphological and biological properties. Based on a review of published data, we summarize densities of coliphages (F+ and somatic), Bacteroides spp. and enterococci bacteriophages (phages) in individual human waste, raw wastewater, ambient fresh and marine waters and removal through wastewater treatment processes utilizing traditional treatments. We also provide comparisons with FIB and enteric viruses whenever possible. Lastly, we examine fate and transport characteristics in the aquatic environment and provide an overview of the environmental factors affecting their survival. In summary, concentrations of bacteriophages in various sources were consistently lower than FIB, but more reflective of infectious enteric virus levels. Overall, our investigation indicates that bacteriophages may be adequate viral surrogates, especially in built systems, such as wastewater treatment plants. Bacteriophage are alternative fecal indicators that may be better surrogates for viral pathogens than fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). This report offers a summary of the existing literature concerning the utility of bacteriophage as indicators of viral presence (fecal sources and surface waters) and persistence (in built infrastructure and aquatic environments). Our findings indicate that bacteriophage levels in all matrices examined are consistently lower than FIB, but similar to viral pathogens. Furthermore, in built infrastructure (e.g. wastewater treatment systems) bacteriophage closely mimic viral pathogen persistence suggesting they may be adequate sentinels of enteric virus removal. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Eosinophilic enteritis – A diagnostic dilemma | Clegg-Lamptey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It may mimic peptic ulcer, subacute (or chronic) intestinal obstruction, gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. The diagnosis is often ... Finalement laparotomy a revele des segments enflames de petit intestin, une biopsie de qui a montré Eosinophilic enteritis. Le malade a été traite par la ...

  14. Enteric Duplication Cysts in Children: A Clinicopathological Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sonam; Yadav, Amit K; Mandal, Ashish K; Zaheer, Sufian; Yadav, Devendra K; Samie, Amat

    2015-08-01

    Enteric duplication cysts are rare and uncommon congenital malformations formed during the embryonic period of the development of human digestive system and are mainly encountered during infancy or early childhood, but seldom in adults. The clinical presentation is extremely variable depending upon its size, location and type. We present six cases of enteric duplication cysts with diverse clinico-pathological features. This study was carried out in the Department of Pathology and Department of Paediatric Surgery, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India for a period of 2 years (January 2013 - December 2014). We retrospectively analyzed six patients of enteric duplication cysts based on data obtained, which consisted of patient's age, sex, clinical presentation, radiological features, operative findings and histopathology report. The data collected was analyzed by descriptive statistics. Six children between age range of 3 days to 10 years had enteric duplication cysts. Two had ileal and one each were of pyloroduodenal, colonic and rectal duplication cyst. In one patient a presumptive diagnosis of enteric duplication cyst was made. Radiology played an important contributory role in diagnosis of these cysts in all the patients but histopathology proved to be gold standard for its confirmation. All these patients were managed by surgical excision. The postoperative and follow up period in all the cases was uneventful. It is important to be aware and make a definitive diagnosis of this rare congenital anomaly as they can present in various clinical forms and can cause significant morbidity and even mortality if left untreated by causing life threatening complications.

  15. In Vitro Evaluation of Eslicarbazepine Delivery via Enteral Feeding Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindel, Kristin; Zhao, Fang; Hughes, Susan; Dave, Vivek S

    2017-12-01

    Purpose: The feasibility of preparing an eslicarbazepine acetate suspension using Aptiom tablets for administration via enteral feeding tubes was evaluated. Methods: Eslicarbazepine acetate suspension (40 mg/mL) was prepared using Aptiom tablets after optimizing the tablet crushing methods and the vehicle composition. A stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to monitor the eslicarbazepine stability in the prepared suspension. Three enteric feeding tubes of various composition and dimensions were evaluated for the delivery of the suspensions. The suspension was evaluated for the physical and chemical stability for 48 hours. Results: The reproducibility and consistency of particle size reduction was found to be best with standard mortar/pestle. The viscosity analysis and physical stability studies showed that ORA-Plus:water (50:50 v/v) was optimal for suspending ability and flowability of suspension through the tubes. The developed HPLC method was found to be stability indicating and suitable for the assay of eslicarbazepine acetate in the prepared suspension. The eslicarbazepine concentrations in separately prepared suspensions were within acceptable range (±3%), indicating accuracy and reproducibility of the procedure. The eslicarbazepine concentrations in suspensions before and after delivery through the enteric feeding tubes were within acceptable range (±4%), indicating absence of any physical/chemical interactions of eslicarbazepine with the tubes and a successful delivery of eslicarbazepine dosage via enteric feeding tubes. The stability study results showed that eslicarbazepine concentration in the suspension remained unchanged when stored at room temperature for 48 hours. Conclusion: The study presents a convenient procedure for the preparation of a stable suspension of eslicarbazepine acetate (40 mg/mL) using Aptiom tablets, for administration via enteral feeding tubes.

  16. IODINE CONTENT OF ENTERAL AND PARENTERAL NUTRITION SOLUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Devina L; Young, Lorraine S; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2017-07-01

    Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, and iodine deficiency may result in thyroid disorders including goiter and hypothyroidism. Patients on long-term enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN) may be at risk for micronutrient deficiencies. The recommended daily allowance for iodine intake is 150 μg for nonpregnant adults. However, there is no current consensus among scientific societies regarding the quantity of iodine to be added in adult EN and PN formulations. The objective of this study was to determine the iodine content of U.S. adult enteral and parenteral nutrition solutions. This study also aimed to determine whether adult patients in the United States who are receiving long-term artificial nutrition may be at risk for iodine deficiency. Ten enteral nutrition solutions and 4 parenteral nutrition solutions were evaluated. The iodine contents of these solutions were measured spectrophotometrically and compared to the labeled contents. Measured and labeled EN iodine contents were similar (range 131-176 μg/L and 106-160 μg/L, respectively). In contrast, PN formulas were found to contain small, unlabeled amounts of iodine, averaging 27 μg/L. Typical fluid requirements are 30 to 40 mL/kg/day for adults receiving either total EN (TEN) or total PN (TPN). Adults on long-term TEN likely consume enough servings to meet their daily iodine requirements. However, patients on long-term TPN would require on average 5.6 L PN/day to meet the recommended daily allowance of iodine. This volume of PN is far in excess of typical consumption. Thus, U.S. patients requiring long-term TPN may be at risk for iodine deficiency. EN = enteral nutrition; PN = parenteral nutrition; TEN = total enteral nutrition; TPN = total parenteral nutrition; UIC = urinary iodine concentration.

  17. Rapid diagnostic tests for typhoid and paratyphoid (enteric) fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijedoru, Lalith; Mallett, Sue; Parry, Christopher M

    2017-01-01

    Background Differentiating both typhoid (Salmonella Typhi) and paratyphoid (Salmonella Paratyphi A) infection from other causes of fever in endemic areas is a diagnostic challenge. Although commercial point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for enteric fever are available as alternatives to the current reference standard test of blood or bone marrow culture, or to the widely used Widal Test, their diagnostic accuracy is unclear. If accurate, they could potentially replace blood culture as the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended main diagnostic test for enteric fever. Objectives To assess the diagnostic accuracy of commercially available rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and prototypes for detecting Salmonella Typhi or Paratyphi A infection in symptomatic persons living in endemic areas. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index, IndMED, African Index Medicus, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) up to 4 March 2016. We manually searched WHO reports, and papers from international conferences on Salmonella infections. We also contacted test manufacturers to identify studies. Selection criteria We included diagnostic accuracy studies of enteric fever RDTs in patients with fever or with symptoms suggestive of enteric fever living in endemic areas. We classified the reference standard used as either Grade 1 (result from a blood culture and a bone marrow culture) or Grade 2 (result from blood culture and blood polymerase chain reaction, or from blood culture alone). Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted the test result data. We used a modified QUADAS-2 extraction form to assess methodological quality. We performed a meta-analysis when there were sufficient studies for the test and heterogeneity was reasonable. Main results Thirty-seven studies met the inclusion

  18. Epidemiology of Enteric Disease in C-EnterNet’s Pilot Site – Waterloo Region, Ontario, 1990 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A Keegan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to describe the epidemiology of reportable enteric illness in Ontario’s Waterloo region, including comparing calculated incidence rates with published rates, and adjusting for under-reporting to determine the number of community cases, where published data were available.

  19. The Biochemistry of Sensing: Enteric Pathogens Regulate Type III Secretion in Response to Environmental and Host Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nisco, Nicole J; Rivera-Cancel, Giomar; Orth, Kim

    2018-01-16

    Enteric pathogens employ sophisticated strategies to colonize and infect mammalian hosts. Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli , Salmonella , and Campylobacter jejuni , are among the leading causes of gastrointestinal tract infections worldwide. The virulence strategies of many of these Gram-negative pathogens rely on type III secretion systems (T3SSs), which are macromolecular syringes that translocate bacterial effector proteins directly into the host cytosol. However, synthesis of T3SS proteins comes at a cost to the bacterium in terms of growth rate and fitness, both in the environment and within the host. Therefore, expression of the T3SS must be tightly regulated to occur at the appropriate time and place during infection. Enteric pathogens have thus evolved regulatory mechanisms to control expression of their T3SSs in response to specific environmental and host cues. These regulatory cascades integrate multiple physical and chemical signals through complex transcriptional networks. Although the power of bacterial genetics has allowed elucidation of many of these networks, the biochemical interactions between signal and sensor that initiate the signaling cascade are often poorly understood. Here, we review the physical and chemical signals that Gram-negative enteric pathogens use to regulate T3SS expression during infection. We highlight the recent structural and functional studies that have elucidated the biochemical properties governing both the interaction between sensor and signal and the mechanisms of signal transduction from sensor to downstream transcriptional networks. Copyright © 2018 De Nisco et al.

  20. The Biochemistry of Sensing: Enteric Pathogens Regulate Type III Secretion in Response to Environmental and Host Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole J. De Nisco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteric pathogens employ sophisticated strategies to colonize and infect mammalian hosts. Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Campylobacter jejuni, are among the leading causes of gastrointestinal tract infections worldwide. The virulence strategies of many of these Gram-negative pathogens rely on type III secretion systems (T3SSs, which are macromolecular syringes that translocate bacterial effector proteins directly into the host cytosol. However, synthesis of T3SS proteins comes at a cost to the bacterium in terms of growth rate and fitness, both in the environment and within the host. Therefore, expression of the T3SS must be tightly regulated to occur at the appropriate time and place during infection. Enteric pathogens have thus evolved regulatory mechanisms to control expression of their T3SSs in response to specific environmental and host cues. These regulatory cascades integrate multiple physical and chemical signals through complex transcriptional networks. Although the power of bacterial genetics has allowed elucidation of many of these networks, the biochemical interactions between signal and sensor that initiate the signaling cascade are often poorly understood. Here, we review the physical and chemical signals that Gram-negative enteric pathogens use to regulate T3SS expression during infection. We highlight the recent structural and functional studies that have elucidated the biochemical properties governing both the interaction between sensor and signal and the mechanisms of signal transduction from sensor to downstream transcriptional networks.

  1. In Vivo Transplantation of Enteric Neural Crest Cells into Mouse Gut; Engraftment, Functional Integration and Long-Term Safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie E Cooper

    Full Text Available Enteric neuropathies are severe gastrointestinal disorders with unsatisfactory outcomes. We aimed to investigate the potential of enteric neural stem cell therapy approaches for such disorders by transplanting mouse enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs into ganglionic and aganglionic mouse gut in vivo and analysing functional integration and long-term safety.Neurospheres generated from yellow fluorescent protein (YFP expressing ENCCs selected from postnatal Wnt1-cre;R26R-YFP/YFP murine gut were transplanted into ganglionic hindgut of wild-type littermates or aganglionic hindgut of Ednrbtm1Ywa mice (lacking functional endothelin receptor type-B. Intestines were then assessed for ENCC integration and differentiation using immunohistochemistry, cell function using calcium imaging, and long-term safety using PCR to detect off-target YFP expression.YFP+ ENCCs engrafted, proliferated and differentiated into enteric neurons and glia within recipient ganglionic gut. Transplanted cells and their projections spread along the endogenous myenteric plexus to form branching networks. Electrical point stimulation of endogenous nerve fibres resulted in calcium transients (F/F0 = 1.16 ± 0.01;43 cells, n = 6 in YFP+ transplanted ENCCs (abolished with TTX. Long-term follow-up (24 months showed transplanted ENCCs did not give rise to tumours or spread to other organs (PCR negative in extraintestinal sites. In aganglionic gut ENCCs similarly spread and differentiated to form neuronal and glial networks with projections closely associated with endogenous neural networks of the transition zone.Transplanted ENCCs successfully engrafted into recipient ganglionic and aganglionic gut showing appropriate spread, localisation and, importantly, functional integration without any long-term safety issues. This study provides key support for the development and use of enteric neural stem cell therapies.

  2. Entering adulthood in a recession tempers later narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Emily C

    2014-07-01

    Despite widespread interest in narcissism, relatively little is known about the conditions that encourage or dampen it. Drawing on research showing that macroenvironmental conditions in emerging adulthood can leave a lasting imprint on attitudes and behaviors, I argue that people who enter adulthood during recessions are less likely to be narcissistic later in life than those who come of age in more prosperous times. Using large samples of American adults, Studies 1 and 2 showed that people who entered adulthood during worse economic times endorsed fewer narcissistic items as older adults. Study 3 extended these findings to a behavioral manifestation of narcissism: the relative pay of CEOs. CEOs who came of age in worse economic times paid themselves less relative to other top executives in their firms. These findings suggest that macroenvironmental experiences at a critical life stage can have lasting implications for how unique, special, and deserving people believe themselves to be. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Scheme for Entering Binary Data Into a Quantum Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin

    2005-01-01

    A quantum algorithm provides for the encoding of an exponentially large number of classical data bits by use of a smaller (polynomially large) number of quantum bits (qubits). The development of this algorithm was prompted by the need, heretofore not satisfied, for a means of entering real-world binary data into a quantum computer. The data format provided by this algorithm is suitable for subsequent ultrafast quantum processing of the entered data. Potential applications lie in disciplines (e.g., genomics) in which one needs to search for matches between parts of very long sequences of data. For example, the algorithm could be used to encode the N-bit-long human genome in only log2N qubits. The resulting log2N-qubit state could then be used for subsequent quantum data processing - for example, to perform rapid comparisons of sequences.

  4. Multidrug resistance in enteric and other gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A M

    1996-05-15

    In Gram-negative bacteria, multidrug resistance is a term that is used to describe mechanisms of resistance by chromosomal genes that are activated by induction or mutation caused by the stress of exposure to antibiotics in natural and clinical environments. Unlike plasmid-borne resistance genes, there is no alteration or degradation of drugs or need for genetic transfer. Exposure to a single drug leads to cross-resistance to many other structurally and functionally unrelated drugs. The only mechanism identified for multidrug resistance in bacteria is drug efflux by membrane transporters, even though many of these transporters remain to be identified. The enteric bacteria exhibit mostly complex multidrug resistance systems which are often regulated by operons or regulons. The purpose of this review is to survey molecular mechanisms of multidrug resistance in enteric and other Gram-negative bacteria, and to speculate on the origins and natural physiological functions of the genes involved.

  5. Effect of pentoxifylline and tocopherol on radiation proctitis/enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, A.; Christiansen, H.; Pradier, O.; Hermann, R.M.; Siekmeyer, B.; Weiss, E.; Hess, C.F.; Schmidberger, H.; Hilgers, R.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Chronic radiation proctitis/enteritis is a relevant complication of pelvic irradiation, which is still mainly treated by supportive measures only. There is some evidence that the combined treatment with pentoxifylline and tocopherol might alter the pathogenesis of radiation-induced fibrosis. In a retrospective analysis the clinical benefit of the treatment with pentoxifylline/tocopherol on radiation-induced proctitis/enteritis was evaluated, compared to supportive care only. Patients and methods: Of 30 patients with radiation-induced proctitis/enteritis grade I-II according to the RTOG/EORTC toxicity criteria, 21 were treated with pentoxifylline and tocopherol. Depending on physician's decision nine patients received symptomatic treatment only. Results: With pentoxifylline/tocopherol treatment 15/21 patients (71%) experienced a relief of their symptoms. A reduction from grade I/II to grade 0 toxicity was observed in seven and from grade II to grade I toxicity in eight patients. No improvement was seen in six patients. The median time to improvement with pentoxifylline and tocopherol treatment was 28 weeks. In three of nine patients who were treated supportively only, deterioration of symptoms occurred. Three patients experienced no amelioration, and three patients with grade I toxicity experienced a spontaneous relief of their symptoms (33%). Conclusion: The combination treatment with pentoxifylline and tocopherol seems to have a benefit in patients with grade I-II radiation-induced proctitis/enteritis. The optimal schedule of treatment duration is not yet clear. From the observations made in this study it is assumed the treatment should be given for 6-12 months at least. A prospective phase II study should be undertaken to evaluate optimal treatment duration. (orig.)

  6. Effect of pentoxifylline and tocopherol on radiation proctitis/enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hille, A.; Christiansen, H.; Pradier, O.; Hermann, R.M.; Siekmeyer, B.; Weiss, E.; Hess, C.F.; Schmidberger, H. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation; Hilgers, R. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. for Medical Statisics

    2005-09-15

    Background and purpose: Chronic radiation proctitis/enteritis is a relevant complication of pelvic irradiation, which is still mainly treated by supportive measures only. There is some evidence that the combined treatment with pentoxifylline and tocopherol might alter the pathogenesis of radiation-induced fibrosis. In a retrospective analysis the clinical benefit of the treatment with pentoxifylline/tocopherol on radiation-induced proctitis/enteritis was evaluated, compared to supportive care only. Patients and methods: Of 30 patients with radiation-induced proctitis/enteritis grade I-II according to the RTOG/EORTC toxicity criteria, 21 were treated with pentoxifylline and tocopherol. Depending on physician's decision nine patients received symptomatic treatment only. Results: With pentoxifylline/tocopherol treatment 15/21 patients (71%) experienced a relief of their symptoms. A reduction from grade I/II to grade 0 toxicity was observed in seven and from grade II to grade I toxicity in eight patients. No improvement was seen in six patients. The median time to improvement with pentoxifylline and tocopherol treatment was 28 weeks. In three of nine patients who were treated supportively only, deterioration of symptoms occurred. Three patients experienced no amelioration, and three patients with grade I toxicity experienced a spontaneous relief of their symptoms (33%). Conclusion: The combination treatment with pentoxifylline and tocopherol seems to have a benefit in patients with grade I-II radiation-induced proctitis/enteritis. The optimal schedule of treatment duration is not yet clear. From the observations made in this study it is assumed the treatment should be given for 6-12 months at least. A prospective phase II study should be undertaken to evaluate optimal treatment duration. (orig.)

  7. Enteral Formula Containing Egg Yolk Lecithin Improves Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Tetsuro; Muto, Ayano; Takahashi, Yayoi; Nishiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Diarrhea often occurs during enteral nutrition. Recently, several reports showed that diarrhea improves by adding egg yolk lecithin, an emulsifier, in an enteral formula. Therefore, we evaluated if this combination could improve diarrhea outcomes. We retrospectively investigated the inhibitory effects on watery stools by replacing a polymeric fomula with that containing egg yolk lecithin. Then, we investigated the emulsion stability in vitro. Next, we examined the lipid absorption using different emulsifiers among bile duct-ligated rats and assessed whether egg yolk lecithin, medium-chain triglyceride, and dietary fiber can improve diarrhea outcomes in a rat model of short bowel syndrome. Stool consistency or frequency improved on the day after using the aforementioned combination in 13/14 patients. Average particle size of the egg yolk lecithin emulsifier did not change by adding artificial gastric juice, whereas that of soy lecithin and synthetic emulsifiers increased. Serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in the egg yolk lecithin group compared with the soybean lecithin and synthetic emulsifier groups in bile duct-ligated rats. In rats with short bowels, the fecal consistency was a significant looser the dietary fiber (+) group than the egg yolk lecithin (+) groups from day 6 of test meal feedings. The fecal consistency was also a significant looser the egg yolk lecithin (-) group than the egg yolk lecithin (+) groups from day 4 of test meal feeding. The fecal consistency was no significant difference between the medium-chain triglycerides (-) and egg yolk lecithin (+) groups. Enteral formula emulsified with egg yolk lecithin promotes lipid absorption by preventing the destruction of emulsified substances by gastric acid. This enteral formula improved diarrhea and should reduce the burden on patients and healthcare workers.

  8. Enteral Nutrition for Feeding Severely Underfed Patients with Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriella Gentile

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Severe undernutrition nearly always leads to marked changes in body spaces (e.g., alterations of intra-extracellular water and in body masses and composition (e.g., overall and compartmental stores of phosphate, potassium, and magnesium. In patients with severe undernutrition it is almost always necessary to use oral nutrition support and/or artificial nutrition, besides ordinary food; enteral nutrition should be a preferred route of feeding if there is a functional accessible gastrointestinal tract. Refeeding of severely malnourished patients represents two very complex and conflicting tasks: (1 to avoid “refeeding syndrome” caused by a too fast correction of malnutrition; (2 to avoid “underfeeding” caused by a too cautious rate of refeeding. The aim of this paper is to discuss the modality of refeeding severely underfed patients and to present our experience with the use of enteral tube feeding for gradual correction of very severe undernutrition whilst avoiding refeeding syndrome, in 10 patients aged 22 ± 11.4 years and with mean initial body mass index (BMI of 11.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2. The mean BMI increased from 11.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2 to 17.3 ± 1.6 kg/m2 and the mean body weight from 27.9 ± 3.3 to 43.0 ± 5.7 kg after 90 days of intensive in-patient treatment (p < 0.0001. Caloric intake levels were established after measuring resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry, and nutritional support was performed with enteral feeding. Vitamins, phosphate, and potassium supplements were administered during refeeding. All patients achieved a significant modification of BMI; none developed refeeding syndrome. In conclusion, our findings show that, even in cases of extreme undernutrition, enteral feeding may be a well-tolerated way of feeding.

  9. When IKEA enters : Do local retailers win or lose?

    OpenAIRE

    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov; Mihaescu, Oana; Nilsson, Helena; Rudholm, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    IKEA is one of the world’s largest retailers, but little is known about how IKEA impact incumbent retailers when deciding to enter a local market. Previous studies on the effects of big-box entry on surrounding retailers have also generated inconclusive results, and mainly been focused towards entry of Wal-Mart in the United States. We contribute to this literature by investigating the effects of IKEA entry on revenues and employment for incumbent retail firms in three Swedish municipalities ...

  10. Haemorrhagic enteritis seroconversion in turkey breeders: field observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Ceruti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seroconversion to viral haemorrhagic enteritis (HE was studied in seven flocks of turkey breeders (17.974 birds in total, after 20 weeks of the onset of egg production. They showed no clinical signs, and mortality rate was normal. However, the infection caused a drop in egg production lasting about five weeks (-2.32 eggs laid during this period, but had no effect on hatching parameters.

  11. The use of specialised enteral formulae for patients with diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of enteral nutrition products for diabetes mellitus have a carbohydrate content of 30–45% and fat between 40–49%, mainly monounsaturated fat, with a mix of soluble and insoluble fibre (total of 14–24 g/l). Does this have short- and long-term benefits and which component(s) is/are crucial for the outcome or is it ...

  12. Diagnosis of acute and chronic enteric fever using metabolomics

    OpenAIRE

    Näsström, Elin

    2017-01-01

    Enteric (or typhoid) fever is a systemic infection mainly caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A. The disease is common in areas with poor water quality and insufficient sanitation. Humans are the only reservoir for transmission of the disease. The presence of asymptomatic chronic carriers is a complicating factor for the transmission. There are major limitations regarding the current diagnostic methods both for acute infection and chronic carriage. Metabolomics is a methodolog...

  13. How EPC firms can enter the nuclear renaissance

    OpenAIRE

    Locatelli, Giorgio; Mancini, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    the so called “nuclear renaissance” is creating a millionaire market for new nuclear reactors. Few firms have the capabilities to work in this complex and highly demanding market, whereas many other are investigating the option to enter. Quite surprising the international scientific literature provides information regarding the high-level governmental aspects of nuclear power programs in different countries while the analysis at firm level is almost inexistent. Moreover the usual business mod...

  14. Enticing consumers to enter fashion stores : a sensory marketing perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Abazi, Jeton; Sohani, Armin

    2016-01-01

    During the past years, there has been a re-emergence of sensory marketing in the paradigm of marketing. However, there is a lack of empirical studies done on the subject. Furthermore, the previous literature has focused on whether senses affects, rather than how they affect. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to study how sensory stimuli affects the consumers’ choice of entering physical fashion stores. This thesis is based on sensory marketing, consumer behaviour, and retail marketing...

  15. Franchising as a method of entering the market

    OpenAIRE

    Kolář, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with franchising as a method of entering the market. My work is divided into theoretical and practical part. In the first part I describe the essential principals of functioning every franchising system. I explain the mutual relationship between franchisor and franchisee and also advantages and disadvantages for both of them. As a next part I mention the importance of using franchising in the world and also in the Czech Republic. Practical part deals with concrete u...

  16. Marketing Strategy : Company X Entering the Australian Wine Market

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukrejev, Jaan

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to identify which marketing strategy is most effective for wine producing companies to enter and compete on the Australian wine market with excessive supply and diminishing demand. The purpose of the thesis was to create a marketing strategy for the commissioner, a case company, referred to as Company X for confidential reasons. Secondary research, predominantly based on marketing literature and governmental statistics, was conducted to create the th...

  17. Vaccines against enteric infections for the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerkinsky, Cecil; Holmgren, Jan

    2015-06-19

    Since the first licensure of the Sabin oral polio vaccine more than 50 years ago, only eight enteric vaccines have been licensed for four disease indications, and all are given orally. While mucosal vaccines offer programmatically attractive tools for facilitating vaccine deployment, their development remains hampered by several factors: -limited knowledge regarding the properties of the gut immune system during early life; -lack of mucosal adjuvants, limiting mucosal vaccine development to live-attenuated or killed whole virus and bacterial vaccines; -lack of correlates/surrogates of mucosal immune protection; and -limited knowledge of the factors contributing to oral vaccine underperformance in children from developing countries. There are now reasons to believe that the development of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants and of programmatically sound intervention strategies could enhance the efficacy of current and next-generation enteric vaccines, especially in lesser developed countries which are often co-endemic for enteric infections and malnutrition. These vaccines must be safe and affordable for the world's poorest, confer long-term protection and herd immunity, and must be able to contain epidemics. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. [Croatian guidelines for perioperative enteral nutrition of surgical patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelić, Marko; Bender, Darija Vranesić; Kelecić, Dina Ljubas; Zupan, Zeljko; Cicvarić, Tedi; Maldini, Branka; Durut, Iva; Rahelić, Velimir; Skegro, Mate; Majerović, Mate; Perko, Zdravko; Sustić, Alan; Madzar, Tomislav; Kovacić, Borna; Kekez, Tihomir; Krznarić, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional status of patients significantly affects the outcome of surgical treatment, whether it's about being obese or malnutrition with loss of muscle mass. Inadequate nutritional support in the perioperative period compromises surgical procedures even in patients who are adequately nourished. In this paper, particular attention was paid to malnourished patients, and their incidence in population hospitalized in surgical wards can be high up to 30%. Special emphasis was paid to the appropriateness of preoperative fasting and to the acceptance of new knowledge in this area of treatment. The aim of this working group was to make guidelines for perioperative nutritional support with different modalities of enteral nutrition. The development of these guidelines was attended by representatives of Croatian Medical Association: Croatian Society for Digestive Surgery, Croatian Society for Clinical Nutrition, Croatian Society of Surgery, Croatian Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Croatian Trauma Society and the Croatian Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care. The guidelines are designed as a set of questions that arise daily in clinical practice when preparing patients for surgery and after the surgical treatment, which relate to the assessment of nutritional status, perioperative nutritional support, duration of preoperative fasting period and the selection of food intake route. Assessment of nutritional status and the use of different modes of enteral nutrition should enter into standard protocols of diagnosis and treatment in the Croatian hospitals.

  19. The Challenges of Home Enteral Tube Feeding: A Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omorogieva Ojo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to provide a global perspective of Home Enteral Tube Feeding (HETF and to outline some of the challenges of home enteral nutrition (HEN provisions. It is well established that the number of patients on HETF is on the increase worldwide due to advances in technology, development of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy techniques, and the shift in care provisions from acute to community settings. While the significance of home enteral nutrition in meeting the nutritional requirements of patients with poor swallowing reflexes and those with poor nutritional status is not in doubt, differences exist in terms of funding, standards, management approaches and the level of infrastructural development across the world. Strategies for alleviating some of the challenges militating against the effective delivery of HETF including the development of national and international standards, guidelines and policies for HETF, increased awareness and funding by government at all levels were discussed. Others, including development of HEN services, which should create the enabling environment for multidisciplinary team work, clinical audit and research, recruitment and retention of specialist staff, and improvement in patient outcomes have been outlined. However, more research is required to fully establish the cost effectiveness of the HEN service especially in developing countries and to compare the organization of HEN service between developing and developed countries.

  20. Enteric virus removal inactivation by coal-based media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A.; Chaudhuri, M. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-02-01

    Four coal-based media, viz. alum-pretreated or ferric hydroxide-impregnated Giridih bituminous coal and lignite (alum-GBC, Fe-GBC; alum-lignite and Fe-Lignite) were laboratory tested to assess their potential in removing/inactivating enteric viruses in water. Batch-sorption screening tests, employing a poliovirus-spiked canal water, indicated high poliovirus sorption by Fe-GBC and alum-GBC in a short contact time of 5 min. Based on the results of further batch-sorption tests, using silver incorporated media (alum/Ag-GBC, alum-GBC-Ag and Fe-GBC-Ag), as well as aesthetic water quality consideration and previous findings on removal of coliforms and turbidity, alum/Ag-GBC, alum-GBC and alum-GBC-AG were included in downflow column studies employing poliovirus-spiked canal water. All three media showed potential in removing/inactivating enteric viruses. In a separate column study employing a joint challenge of poliovirus and rotavirus, alum/Ag-GBC removed 59.3-86.5% of the viruses along with more than 99% reduction in indigenous heterotrophic bacteria. Alum/silver-pretreated bituminous coal medium appears promising for use in household water filters in rural areas of the developing world. However, improved medium preparation to further enhance its efficiency is needed; also, its efficacy in removing/inactivating indigenous enteric bacteria, viruses and protozoa has to be ensured and practicalities or economics of application need to be considered.

  1. Navigating Risk When Entering and Participating in a Business Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Smith

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs typically have limited resources during the start-up phase of a business. Business ecosystems are a strategy for entrepreneurs to access and exchange many different aspects of value, resources, and benefits. However, there may be business risks for entering a particular type of ecosystem, and further risks may be encountered after entering and participating in a business ecosystem. These risks are significant and can inhibit a startup's growth. In this article, the literature on business ecosystems is reviewed as it relates to risk to discover insights of relevance to entrepreneurs, top management teams, and business-ecosystem operators. First, the published research is organized into two streams: i risks relating to categories of business ecosystems, and ii risks relating to participating in business ecosystems. Then, the problem is abstracted to develop a potential strategy for managing these risks, which features a pre-entry inspection followed by real-time resource management. Finally, five recommendations are offered for entrepreneurs seeking to enter and participate in business ecosystems.

  2. Biomaterial-Derived Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles for Enteric Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Render

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral drug delivery systems provide the most convenient, noninvasive, readily acceptable alternatives to parenteral systems. In the current work, eggshell-derived calcium carbonate (CaCO3 nanoparticles were used to develop enteric drug delivery system in the form of tablets. CaCO3 nanoparticles were manufactured using top-down ball-milling method and characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM and loaded with 5-fluorouracil as a model drug. Tablets with varying CaCO3 core and binder compositions were fabricated and coated with Eudragit S100 or Eudragit L100. Suitability for enteric delivery of the tablets was tested by oral administration to rabbits and radiography. Radiograph images showed that the tablet remained in the stomach of the rabbit for up to 3 hours. Further modifications of these biomaterial-derived nanoparticles and the coatings will enable manufacturing of stable formulations for slow or controlled release of pharmaceuticals for enteric delivery.

  3. Enteric coating of granules containing the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyar Hassan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a capsule formulation composed of enteric coated granules of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4962 was developed using Eudragit L30D-55 as enteric polymer. Optimization of the capsule formulation was achieved with a maximum viable cell count after 2 h of incubation in acid medium and disintegration time of 1 h in buffer pH 6.8. The amount of Eudragit L30D-55 in the capsules correlated with gastric juice resistance. The best protective qualities against artificial gastric juice were observed when capsules were prepared from granules composed of L. acidophilus, corn starch, lactose monohydrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and coated with 12.5 % (m/V of Eudragit L30D-55. Capsule formulation of L. acidophilus in edible broth medium suspension serves as a cheap alternative to the expensive freeze-drying procedure for preparing L. acidophilus. In addition, the enteric coating using Eudragit L30D-55 could protect probiotics from the acidic gastric environment and enhance the bioactivity of probiotics along with replacement of pathogenic microbes in human intestine

  4. Enteric Protozoa in the Developed World: a Public Health Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Stephanie M.; Stark, Damien; Harkness, John

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Several enteric protozoa cause severe morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals worldwide. In developed settings, enteric protozoa are often ignored as a cause of diarrheal illness due to better hygiene conditions, and as such, very little effort is used toward laboratory diagnosis. Although these protozoa contribute to the high burden of infectious diseases, estimates of their true prevalence are sometimes affected by the lack of sensitive diagnostic techniques to detect them in clinical and environmental specimens. Despite recent advances in the epidemiology, molecular biology, and treatment of protozoan illnesses, gaps in knowledge still exist, requiring further research. There is evidence that climate-related changes will contribute to their burden due to displacement of ecosystems and human and animal populations, increases in atmospheric temperature, flooding and other environmental conditions suitable for transmission, and the need for the reuse of alternative water sources to meet growing population needs. This review discusses the common enteric protozoa from a public health perspective, highlighting their epidemiology, modes of transmission, prevention, and control. It also discusses the potential impact of climate changes on their epidemiology and the issues surrounding waterborne transmission and suggests a multidisciplinary approach to their prevention and control. PMID:22763633

  5. Vaccines against enteric infections for the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerkinsky, Cecil; Holmgren, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Since the first licensure of the Sabin oral polio vaccine more than 50 years ago, only eight enteric vaccines have been licensed for four disease indications, and all are given orally. While mucosal vaccines offer programmatically attractive tools for facilitating vaccine deployment, their development remains hampered by several factors: —limited knowledge regarding the properties of the gut immune system during early life;—lack of mucosal adjuvants, limiting mucosal vaccine development to live-attenuated or killed whole virus and bacterial vaccines;—lack of correlates/surrogates of mucosal immune protection; and—limited knowledge of the factors contributing to oral vaccine underperformance in children from developing countries.There are now reasons to believe that the development of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants and of programmatically sound intervention strategies could enhance the efficacy of current and next-generation enteric vaccines, especially in lesser developed countries which are often co-endemic for enteric infections and malnutrition. These vaccines must be safe and affordable for the world's poorest, confer long-term protection and herd immunity, and must be able to contain epidemics. PMID:25964464

  6. Rapid diagnostic tests for typhoid and paratyphoid (enteric) fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijedoru, Lalith; Mallett, Sue; Parry, Christopher M

    2017-05-26

    Differentiating both typhoid (Salmonella Typhi) and paratyphoid (Salmonella Paratyphi A) infection from other causes of fever in endemic areas is a diagnostic challenge. Although commercial point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for enteric fever are available as alternatives to the current reference standard test of blood or bone marrow culture, or to the widely used Widal Test, their diagnostic accuracy is unclear. If accurate, they could potentially replace blood culture as the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended main diagnostic test for enteric fever. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of commercially available rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and prototypes for detecting Salmonella Typhi or Paratyphi A infection in symptomatic persons living in endemic areas. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index, IndMED, African Index Medicus, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) up to 4 March 2016. We manually searched WHO reports, and papers from international conferences on Salmonella infections. We also contacted test manufacturers to identify studies. We included diagnostic accuracy studies of enteric fever RDTs in patients with fever or with symptoms suggestive of enteric fever living in endemic areas. We classified the reference standard used as either Grade 1 (result from a blood culture and a bone marrow culture) or Grade 2 (result from blood culture and blood polymerase chain reaction, or from blood culture alone). Two review authors independently extracted the test result data. We used a modified QUADAS-2 extraction form to assess methodological quality. We performed a meta-analysis when there were sufficient studies for the test and heterogeneity was reasonable. Thirty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria and included a total of 5080 participants (range 50 to 1732). Enteric fever prevalence

  7. The natural history of clinically established radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galland, R.B.; Spencer, J.

    1985-01-01

    70 patients presenting to a surgical unit with radiation enteritis were followed up. 11 of the 61 who underwent operations died of operation-related causes. The 51 patients who survived for more than 3 months were followed up for up to 12 years (median 12 months). 24 had no further symptoms related to their radiation enteritis. The other 27 patients had persistence of symptoms, post-operative complications, new radiation-related problems, or a combination of these. The twenty new radiation-related problems were stricture (8 patients), malabsorption (5), fistula(1), and miscellaneous(6). These developed in in 12 of 36 patients presenting initially with stricture, compared with 8 of 9 patients presenting with a perforation or fistula (p=0.007 Fisher's exact test) and none whose first symptom was bleeding (p=0.001 vs perforation and fistula combined). 10 of the 27 patients with further problems required operations and 5 of them died. Radiation enteritis is thus a progressive disease, with further complications becoming apparent in about half of those surviving the initial lesion. Perforation or fistula formation indicates a poorer prognosis than does stricture or haemorrhage. (author)

  8. The orexin system in the enteric nervous system of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Claudia; Russo, Finizia; Russolillo, Maria Grazia; Varricchio, Ettore; Paolucci, Marina; Castaldo, Luciana; Lucini, Carla; de Girolamo, Paolo; Cozzi, Bruno; Maruccio, Lucianna

    2014-01-01

    This study provides a general approach to the presence and possible role of orexins and their receptors in the gut (three gastric chambers and intestine) of confined environment bottlenose dolphin. The expression of prepro-orexin, orexin A and B and orexin 1 and 2 receptors were investigated by single immunostaining and western blot analysis. The co-localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide and orexin 1 receptor in the enteric nervous system was examined by double immunostaining. Also, orexin A concentration were measured in plasma samples to assess the possible diurnal variation of the plasma level of peptide in this species. Our results showed that the orexin system is widely distributed in bottlenose dolphin enteric nervous system of the all gastrointestinal tract examined. They are very peculiar and partially differs from that of terrestrial mammals. Orexin peptides and prepro-orexin were expressed in the main stomach, pyloric stomach and proximal intestine; while orexin receptors were expressed in the all examined tracts, with the exception of main stomach where found no evidence of orexin 2 receptor. Co-localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide and orexin 1 receptor were more evident in the pyloric stomach and proximal intestine. These data could suggest a possible role of orexin system on the contractility of bottlenose dolphin gastrointestinal districts. Finally, in agreement with several reports, bottlenose dolphin orexin A plasma level was higher in the morning during fasting. Our results emphasize some common features between bottlenose dolphin and terrestrial mammals. Certainly, further functional investigations may help to better explain the role of the orexin system in the energy balance of bottlenose dolphin and the complex interaction between feeding and digestive physiology.

  9. The orexin system in the enteric nervous system of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gatta

    Full Text Available This study provides a general approach to the presence and possible role of orexins and their receptors in the gut (three gastric chambers and intestine of confined environment bottlenose dolphin. The expression of prepro-orexin, orexin A and B and orexin 1 and 2 receptors were investigated by single immunostaining and western blot analysis. The co-localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide and orexin 1 receptor in the enteric nervous system was examined by double immunostaining. Also, orexin A concentration were measured in plasma samples to assess the possible diurnal variation of the plasma level of peptide in this species. Our results showed that the orexin system is widely distributed in bottlenose dolphin enteric nervous system of the all gastrointestinal tract examined. They are very peculiar and partially differs from that of terrestrial mammals. Orexin peptides and prepro-orexin were expressed in the main stomach, pyloric stomach and proximal intestine; while orexin receptors were expressed in the all examined tracts, with the exception of main stomach where found no evidence of orexin 2 receptor. Co-localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide and orexin 1 receptor were more evident in the pyloric stomach and proximal intestine. These data could suggest a possible role of orexin system on the contractility of bottlenose dolphin gastrointestinal districts. Finally, in agreement with several reports, bottlenose dolphin orexin A plasma level was higher in the morning during fasting. Our results emphasize some common features between bottlenose dolphin and terrestrial mammals. Certainly, further functional investigations may help to better explain the role of the orexin system in the energy balance of bottlenose dolphin and the complex interaction between feeding and digestive physiology.

  10. La nutrición enteral precoz en el enfermo grave Early enteral nutrition in the critically-ill patient

    OpenAIRE

    B. García Vila; T. Grau

    2005-01-01

    La nutrición enteral se ha demostrado como un método eficaz y seguro de nutrir a los enfermos graves ingresados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Aunque se desconoce cuánto tiempo puede estar un enfermo grave sin nutrición, el catabolismo acelerado y el ayuno pueden ser deletéreos en el enfermo grave y la recomendación más frecuente es la de empezar la nutrición artificial cuando se prevea un período de ayuno superior a los siete días. Las ventajas de la nutrición enteral sobre la nutrici...

  11. Randomized clinical trial of arginine-supplemented enteral nutrition versus standard enteral nutrition in patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyan; Zhao, Hongying; Wang, Yu; Jing, Huang; Ding, Qian; Xue, Jun

    2013-09-01

    Significant malnutrition exists in a high percentage of patients with gastric cancer. It is, therefore, crucial to establish an effective means to provide nutrition for these patients. This prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial aims to assess the long-term survival of arginine-supplementation enteral nutrition versus standard enteral nutrition in malnourished patients with gastric cancer. The control group (36 cases) received postoperative standard enteral nutrition. Meanwhile, the arginine-supplementation group (37 cases) adopted the same nutrition product but enriched with arginine (9.0 g/L). The primary study objective was overall survival (OS). Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS); serum parameters including total protein, albumin, proalbumin, and transferrin obtained on preoperative day 1, postoperative day 2, and day 12; CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) obtained on preoperative day 1 and postoperative day 7. No significant differences in baseline characteristics were observed between groups. The group receiving arginine-enriched nutrition had a significantly better OS (P = 0.03, 41 vs. 30.5 months) and better PFS (P = 0.02, 18 vs. 11.5 months). On postoperative day 7, CD4(+) T cells, NK cells, IgM and IgG levels of the arginine-supplemented group increased prominently and were significantly higher than those of the control group and those on preoperative day 1. There is no significant difference in the serum total protein, albumin, proalbumin, and transferrin levels between the two arms. Arginine-supplemented enteral nutrition significantly improves long-term survival and restores immunity in malnourished gastric cancer.

  12. ATP-dependent paracrine communication between enteric neurons and glia in a primary cell culture derived from embryonic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, P; Chevalier, J; Boesmans, W; Roosen, L; van den Abbeel, V; Neunlist, M; Tack, J; Vanden Berghe, P

    2009-08-01

    The importance of dynamic interactions between glia and neurons is increasingly recognized, both in the central and enteric nervous system. However, apart from their protective role, little is known about enteric neuro-glia interaction. The aim was to investigate neuro-glia intercellular communication in a mouse culture model using optical techniques. Complete embryonic (E13) guts were enzymatically dissociated, seeded on coverslips and studied with immunohistochemistry and Ca(2+)-imaging. Putative progenitor-like cells (expressing both PGP9.5 and S-100) differentiated over approximately 5 days into glia or neurons expressing typical cell-specific markers. The glia-neuron ratio could be manipulated by specific supplements (N2, G5). Neurons and glia were functionally identified both by their Ca(2+)-response to either depolarization (high K(+)) or lysophosphatidic acid and by the expression of typical markers. Neurons responded to ACh, DMPP, 5-HT, ATP and electrical stimulation, while glia responded to ATP and ADPbetas. Inhibition of glial responses by MRS2179 suggests involvement of P2Y1 receptors. Neuronal stimulation also caused delayed glial responses, which were reduced by suramin and by exogenous apyrases that catalyse nucleotide breakdown. Conversely, glial responses were enhanced by ARL-67156, an ecto-ATPase inhibitor. In this mouse enteric co-culture, functional glia and neurons can be easily monitored using optical techniques. Glial cells can be activated directly by ATP or ADPbetas. Activation of neuronal cells (DMPP, K(+)) causes secondary responses in glial cells, which can be modulated by tuning ATP and ADP breakdown. This strongly supports the involvement of paracrine purinergic communication between enteric neurons and glia.

  13. Enteric Glia Mediate Neuron Death in Colitis Through Purinergic Pathways That Require Connexin-43 and Nitric OxideSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isola A.M. Brown

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: The concept of enteric glia as regulators of intestinal homeostasis is slowly gaining acceptance as a central concept in neurogastroenterology. Yet how glia contribute to intestinal disease is still poorly understood. Purines generated during inflammation drive enteric neuron death by activating neuronal P2X7 purine receptors (P2X7R; triggering adenosine triphosphate (ATP release via neuronal pannexin-1 channels that subsequently recruits intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i in surrounding enteric glia. We tested the hypothesis that the activation of enteric glia contributes to neuron death during inflammation. Methods: We studied neuroinflammation in vivo using the 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid model of colitis and in situ using whole-mount preparations of human and mouse intestine. Transgenic mice with a targeted deletion of glial connexin-43 (Cx43 [GFAP::CreERT2+/−/Cx43f/f] were used to specifically disrupt glial signaling pathways. Mice deficient in inducible nitric oxide (NO synthase (iNOS−/− were used to study NO production. Protein expression and oxidative stress were measured using immunohistochemistry and in situ Ca2+ and NO imaging were used to monitor glial [Ca2+]i and [NO]i. Results: Purinergic activation of enteric glia drove [Ca2+]i responses and enteric neuron death through a Cx43-dependent mechanism. Neurotoxic Cx43 activity, driven by NO production from glial iNOS, was required for neuron death. Glial Cx43 opening liberated ATP and Cx43-dependent ATP release was potentiated by NO. Conclusions: Our results show that the activation of glial cells in the context of neuroinflammation kills enteric neurons. Mediators of inflammation that include ATP and NO activate neurotoxic pathways that converge on glial Cx43 hemichannels. The glial response to inflammatory mediators might contribute to the development of motility disorders. Keywords: Enteric Nervous System, Hemichannels

  14. Enteral versus parenteral nutrition and enteral versus a combination of enteral and parenteral nutrition for adults in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sharon R; Schofield-Robinson, Oliver J; Alderson, Phil; Smith, Andrew F

    2018-06-08

    Critically ill people are at increased risk of malnutrition. Acute and chronic illness, trauma and inflammation induce stress-related catabolism, and drug-induced adverse effects may reduce appetite or increase nausea and vomiting. In addition, patient management in the intensive care unit (ICU) may also interrupt feeding routines. Methods to deliver nutritional requirements include provision of enteral nutrition (EN), or parenteral nutrition (PN), or a combination of both (EN and PN). However, each method is problematic. This review aimed to determine the route of delivery that optimizes uptake of nutrition. To compare the effects of enteral versus parenteral methods of nutrition, and the effects of enteral versus a combination of enteral and parenteral methods of nutrition, among critically ill adults, in terms of mortality, number of ICU-free days up to day 28, and adverse events. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase on 3 October 2017. We searched clinical trials registries and grey literature, and handsearched reference lists of included studies and related reviews. We included randomized controlled studies (RCTs) and quasi-randomized studies comparing EN given to adults in the ICU versus PN or versus EN and PN. We included participants that were trauma, emergency, and postsurgical patients in the ICU. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We assessed the certainty of evidence with GRADE. We included 25 studies with 8816 participants; 23 studies were RCTs and two were quasi-randomized studies. All included participants were critically ill in the ICU with a wide range of diagnoses; mechanical ventilation status between study participants varied. We identified 11 studies awaiting classification for which we were unable to assess eligibility, and two ongoing studies.Seventeen studies compared EN versus PN, six compared EN versus EN and PN, two were multi-arm studies comparing EN versus PN

  15. Zonulin Regulates Intestinal Permeability and Facilitates Enteric Bacteria Permeation in Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanwei; Gao, Min; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Caiyu; Zhou, Faying; Hu, Zhangxu; Zeng, Chunyu

    2016-06-29

    Several studies have reported an association between enteric bacteria and atherosclerosis. Bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene belong to Enterobacteriaceae have been detected in atherosclerotic plaques. How intestinal bacteria go into blood is not known. Zonulin reversibly modulate intestinal permeability (IP), the circulating zonulin levels were increased in diabetes, obesity, all of which are risk factors for atherosclerosis. It is unclear whether the circulating zonulin levels were changed in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and modulate IP. The 16S rRNA gene of bacteria in blood sample was checked by 454 pyrosequencing. The zonulin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. The distribution of zonulin was detected by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Bacteria and Caco-2 cell surface micro-structure were checked by transmission electron microscopy. A high diversity of bacterial 16S rRNA gene can be detected in samples from CAD patients, most of them (99.4%) belong to Enterobacteriaceaes, eg. Rahnella. The plasma zonulin levels were significantly higher in CAD patients. Pseudomonas fluorescens exposure significantly increased zonulin expression and decreased IP in a time dependent manner. The elevated zonulin increase IP and may facilitate enteric translocation by disassembling the tight junctions, which might explain the observed high diversity of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in blood samples.

  16. Genetic aspects of enteric methane emission in ruminants livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the importance of enteric methane (CH4 emission in ruminants and relevant to the current on knowledge relevant to genetic aspects of enteric CH4 production, highlighting future research needs and directions. Global average temperature has increased by about 0.7°C in the last century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC reported that anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHG, including carbon dioxide (CO2, CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O and halocarbons, have been responsible for most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the twentieth century. Agriculture, particularly livestock, is increasingly being recognized as both a contributor to the process and a potential victim of it. Policy interventions and technical solutions are required to address both the impact of livestock production on climate change and the effects of climate change on livestock production. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, declared that in the next 50 years, the world’s farmers will be called upon to produce more food than has been produced in the past 10,000 years, and to do so in environmentally sustainable ways. Therefore, the GHG reduction should be treated as a public good. The United States congress is prospecting to define a price on GHG emissions. Limiting the concentration of CO2 and other GHG in Earth’s atmosphere requires a technological and economic revolution. A cost-effective way could be the genetic improvement of livestock, which produces permanent and cumulative changes in performance. Animal variation in enteric CH4 emission has been reported in the literature, providing potential for improvement through genetic selection. 

  17. Enteric and indicator virus removal by surface flow wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmadi, Andri T; Kitajima, Masaaki; Pepper, Ian L; Gerba, Charles P

    2016-01-15

    We investigated the occurrence and attenuation of several human enteric viruses (i.e., norovirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus 1, polyomaviruses, and enterovirus) as well as a plant virus, pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), at two surface flow wetlands in Arizona. The retention time in one of the wetlands was seven days, whereas in the other wetland it could not be defined. Water samples were collected at the inlet and outlet from the wetlands over nine months, and concentration of viral genomes was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Of the human enteric viruses tested, adenovirus and Aichi virus 1 were found in the greatest prevalence in treated wastewater (i.e., inlet of the wetlands). Reduction efficiencies of enteric viruses by the wetlands ranged from 1 to 3 log10. Polyomaviruses were generally removed to below detection limit, indicating at least 2 to 4 log10 removal. PMMoV was detected in a greater concentration in the inlet of both wetlands for all the viruses tested (10(4) to 10(7) genome copies/L), but exhibited little or no removal (1 log10 or less). To determine the factors associated with virus genome attenuation (as determined by qPCR), the persistence of PMMoV and poliovirus type 1 (an enterovirus) was studied in autoclaved and natural wetland water, and deionized water incubated under three different temperatures for 21 days. A combination of elevated water temperature and biological activities reduced poliovirus by 1 to 4 log10, while PMMoV was not significantly reduced during this time period. Overall, PMMoV showed much greater persistence than human viruses in the wetland treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Entering the lesbian world in Japan: debut stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamano, Saori

    2005-01-01

    Conceiving of a "lesbian community" as the process and/or the end product of a lesbian's going outside herself or her intimate relationship to connect with other lesbians, this paper explores the experiences of lesbians in entering the community in Tokyo, Japan, which lesbians refer to as "community debut." Based on the personal accounts gathered through interviewing 24 women in 2002 in the Tokyo area, this paper examines the personal contexts in which the women entered a lesbian community, which included searching for and defining themselves, accepting themselves, and acting out the new identity to make changes in their lives. Some of the women interviewed were prompted by a need to understand themselves as lesbians. Others with a lesbian identity searched for further affirmation through connecting with "the world of lesbians" beyond their immediate contexts. For some other women interviewed, entering the community was a way to help them start their lives anew by getting out of their previous (married) lives. The paper also specifically touches on the significance of the Internet as a source of information for individual women and as a way of creating a lesbian community, identifying both positive and negative aspects. Although the research reported in this paper leaves for further exploration how boundaries of the communities are negotiated and drawn, the norms of the communities, and conflicts and negotiations among individuals and groups, it has provided one piece of the mosaic of lesbian communities in Japan. The communities, while still largely invisible in the mainstream society, are nonetheless an important part of life, albeit in different ways, of many lesbians. The research process leads the author to anticipate greater visibility of lesbians and lesbian communities in Japan in the not too distant future.

  19. Clostridial necrotic enteritis in chicken associated with growth rate depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adin Priadi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens as well as a potential pathogen causing necrotic enteritis. C. perfringens only causes necrotic enteritis when it transforms from non-toxin producing type to toxin producing type. The alpha toxin, (phospholipase C is believed to be a key to the occurrence of Clostridial necrotic enteritis (CNE. The best known predisposing factor is mucosal damage, caused by coccidiosis that damages the intestinal lining, making the gut susceptible to infections including C. perfringens. The purpose of this study was to observe the chicken performance in experimental CNE and field cases of CNE. Diagnosis of CNE were made by latex agglutination test, isolation and identification of the agent. Pathological and histopathological changes were also observed. Experimentally, NE could be reproduced when Eimeria sp and C. perfringens spores are inoculated in chicken. Signs of an NE are wet litter and diarrhea, and an increase in mortality is not often obvious. The depression of growth rate and feed efficiency of chicken become noticeable by week 5 because of damage to the intestine and the subsequent reduction in digestion and absorption of food. Subclinical form of CNE was also frequently found in the field, leading to significant decreases in performance. Chicken gut samples examinations revealed that subclinical form of CNE causes damage to the intestinal mucosa caused by C. perfringens leads to decreased digestion and absorption, increased feed conversion ratio and reduced weight gain. Dual infection with C. perfringens and Eimeria sp. was frequently found in field. The results of these studies provide evidence for C. perfringens as a causative bacteria for growth depression.

  20. Duck viral enteritis in domestic muscovy ducks in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, S.; Converse, K.A.; Hamir, A.N.; Eckroade, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Duck viral enteritis (DVE) outbreaks occurred at two different locations in Pennsylvania in 1991 and 1992. In the first outbreak, four ducks died out of a group of 30 domestic ducks; in the second outbreak, 65 ducks died out of a group of 114 domestic ducks, and 15 domestic geese died as well. A variety of species of ducks were present on both premises, but only muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) died from the disease. On necropsy, gross lesions included hepatomegaly with petechial hemorrhages, petechial hemorrhages in the abdominal fat, petechial hemorrhages on the epicardial surface of the heart, and multifocal to coalescing areas of fibrinonecrotic material over the mucosal surface of the trachea, esophagus, intestine, and cloaca. Histologically, the liver had random multifocal areas of necrosis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes. DVE virus was isolated and identified using muscovy duck embryo fibroblast inoculation and virus neutralization. /// En dos sitios diferentes se presentaron brotes de enteritis viral de los patos en el estados de Pensilvania en los a??os 1991 y 1992. En el primer brote, cuatro de un lote de 30 patos murieron mientras que en el segundo brote murieron 65 patos de un lote de 114 patos y 15 gansos. En ambas localidades exist?-a una variedad de especies de patos, sin embargo, s??lamente los patos almizcleros (Cairina moschata) murieron. A la necropsia, las lesiones macrosc??picas incluyeron hepatomegalia con hemorragias petequiales, hemorragias petequiales en la grasa abdominal y en la superficie del epicardio, y ?!reas multifocales o coalescentes de material fibrinonecr??tico sobre la superficie de la mucosa de la tr?!quea, es??fago, intestino y cloaca. Histol??gicamente, el h?-gado mostraba ?!reas multifocales de necrosis y cuerpos de inclusi??n intranucleares eosinof?-licos en los hepatocitos. El virus de la enteritis viral de los patos fue aislado e identificado usando fibroblasto de embriones de pato almizclero

  1. The effect of enteric galactose on neonatal canine carbohydrate metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliegman, R.M.; Miettinen, E.L.; Kalhan, S.C.; Adam, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Newborn pups were assigned to a fasting group or to a group receiving intravenous glucose alimentation. Glucose turnover was determined during steady state equilibration of simultaneously infused [6- 3 H] glucose. Thereafter, pups from each group received 0.625 g/Kg of either oral [U- 14 C] galactose or [U- 14 C] glucose. In fasted or intravenously alimented pups enteric glucose resulted in a rapid and sustained elevation of blood glucose concentrations. Systemic appearance of 14 C label from enteric glucose increased rapidly as did the enrichment of blood [ 14 C] glucose specific activity. In those pups given enteric galactose, blood glucose values were equivalent to that in the glucose fed groups, however 14 C appearing in blood glucose and blood glucose specific activity was significantly lower. The peak values for rates of appearance and disappearance of systemic glucose were significantly lower in pups fed galactose than among pups fed glucose. Glucose clearance was also significantly lower in these pups despite equivalent plasma insulin responses. Among fasting pups hepatic glycogen content was significantly higher in those given either oral glucose or galactose when compared to a completely starved control group. In contrast, among alimented pups galactose administration significantly enhanced hepatic glycogen content compared to those fed glucose. In addition, hepatic glycogen synthase (glucose-6-phosphate independent) activity was increased only among alimented pups fed galactose when compared to completely fasted pups. In conclusion these data suggest that following gastrointestinal galactose administration, hepatic carbohydrate uptake is augmented while glycogen synthesis may be enhanced. Augmented glycogen synthesis following galactose administration may reflect alterations in hepatic glycogen synthase activity or enhanced hepatic carbohydrate uptake

  2. Lupus enteritis: from clinical findings to therapeutic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Lupus enteritis is a rare and poorly understood cause of abdominal pain in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, we report a series of 7 new patients with this rare condition who were referred to French tertiary care centers and perform a systematic literature review of SLE cases fulfilling the revised ACR criteria, with evidence for small bowel involvement, excluding those with infectious enteritis. We describe the characteristics of 143 previously published and 7 new cases. Clinical symptoms mostly included abdominal pain (97%), vomiting (42%), diarrhea (32%) and fever (20%). Laboratory features mostly reflected lupus activity: low complement levels (88%), anemia (52%), leukocytopenia or lymphocytopenia (40%) and thrombocytopenia (21%). Median CRP level was 2.0 mg/dL (range 0–8.2 mg/dL). Proteinuria was present in 47% of cases. Imaging studies revealed bowel wall edema (95%), ascites (78%), the characteristic target sign (71%), mesenteric abnormalities (71%) and bowel dilatation (24%). Only 9 patients (6%) had histologically confirmed vasculitis. All patients received corticosteroids as a first-line therapy, with additional immunosuppressants administered either from the initial episode or only in case of relapse (recurrence rate: 25%). Seven percent developed intestinal necrosis or perforation, yielding a mortality rate of 2.7%. Altogether, lupus enteritis is a poorly known cause of abdominal pain in SLE patients, with distinct clinical and therapeutic features. The disease may evolve to intestinal necrosis and perforation if untreated. Adding with this an excellent steroid responsiveness, timely diagnosis becomes primordial for the adequate management of this rare entity. PMID:23642042

  3. A Case of Typhoid Fever with Hepatic Granulomas and Enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Narechania

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The common histopathologic hepatic manifestations in patients infected with Salmonella include cloudy swelling and balloon degeneration with vacuolation of the hepatocytes and steatosis. Hepatic granulomas are a very rare finding, so far reported in very few cases. We report a 64-year-old patient with Salmonella enteritis who was found to have multiple 1.4 to 1.6 cm hypoechoic liver masses on ultrasound of the abdomen which on biopsy revealed hepatic granulomas. This case highlights the importance of keeping the differential diagnosis of Salmonella typhi (S. typhi in mind in a patient with hepatic granulomas.

  4. Enteric Parasites of Orangutans (Pongo Pygmaeus) in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-27

    Spiruridae 0 0 2 Enterobius sp . 0 1 2 Ternidenssp. 4 11 0 Balantidium coli 14 21 12 Giard~a sp . 1 0 0 Iodamoeba sp . 0 1 1 Endolimax nana 0 0 1 Entamoeba sp ...1 21 6 Entamoeba coli 0 0 1 Dicrocoelidae 1 0 13 Oesophagostomum sp . 0 0 1 Unidentified protozoa 0 O 5 Trichomonas 5p. 0 1 0 Chilomastix §p. 0 2 0...two with ’Ascaris, four with Trichuris, and twenty-one with Entamoeba (one or more parasites per animal). Enteric parasites identified from forty

  5. Bilateral breast abscess: A rare complication of enteric fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast abscess is usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus in pregnant or lactating females. Salmonella spp. is occasionally associated with abscess formation in various organs, but breast abscess is a very rare complication. In enteric fever dissemination to multiple organ systems following bacteraemia can lead to localized abscess. We report a case of bilateral breast abscess due to Salmonella Typhi in an unmarried 35-year-old female without any predisposing conditions. She presented with fever and painful swelling of both the breasts. S. typhi was isolated from both breasts. Such rare cause must be suspected in females without any evident predisposing factors for effective management.

  6. Bilateral breast abscess: a rare complication of enteric fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Pandya, Y; Rathod, J; Trivedi, S

    2009-01-01

    Breast abscess is usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus in pregnant or lactating females. Salmonella spp. is occasionally associated with abscess formation in various organs, but breast abscess is a very rare complication. In enteric fever dissemination to multiple organ systems following bacteraemia can lead to localized abscess. We report a case of bilateral breast abscess due to Salmonella Typhi in an unmarried 35-year-old female without any predisposing conditions. She presented with fever and painful swelling of both the breasts. S. typhi was isolated from both breasts. Such rare cause must be suspected in females without any evident predisposing factors for effective management.

  7. 7 key measures for France to enter energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creach, Morgane; Vandaele, Diane; Richard, Marion; Fink, Meike; Quirion, Philippe; Bonduelle, Antoine; Berthier, Julien; Mossalgue, Marc; Louchard, Olivier; Lenoir, Didier; Vormus, Joel; Charru, Madeleine; Claustre, Raphael; Mathis, Paul; Gauthier, Raphaelle; Couturier, Christian; Mijeon, Charlotte; Gavand, Karine; Majnoni d'Intignano, Sophia; Delcroix, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The authors of this report propose, describe and discuss seven measures to be taken to promote and support energy transition in France: to introduce a climate-energy contribution, to adopt a law for a progressive and complete nuclear phasing out, to set local communities at the heart of energy transition, to introduce a mandatory thermal renewal of existing buildings, to develop a less greenhouse gas emitter agricultural model, to enter into a low-carbon and energy efficient transport infrastructure scheme, and to plan the struggle against urban sprawl at the scale of the living area

  8. Enteric and rectal duplications and duplication cysts in the adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Abdurrahman; Zeybek, Nazif; Yagci, Gokhan; Kaymakcioglu, Nihat; Tas, Huseyin; Saglam, Mutlu; Cetiner, Sadettin

    2005-03-01

    Alimentary tract duplication and duplication cysts are rare congenital malformations. The ileum is the most frequently affected site. However, alimentary tract duplication and duplication cysts can occur at any point along the gastrointestinal tract. Early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment is the best way to prevent associated morbidity. This article presents the cases of three patients admitted to Gulhane Military Medical Academy with signs of acute abdomen, intra-abdominal mass and chronic abdominal pain. These patients were found to have enteric duplication, duplication cyst and/or retro-rectal cyst. The literature on alimentary tract duplications is reviewed.

  9. Preparing Our Undergraduates to Enter a Cyber World

    OpenAIRE

    Schweitzer , Dino; Gibson , David; Bibighaus , David; Boleng , Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Part 2: WISE 7; International audience; Today’s students have grown up with computer-based technology and need to be prepared to enter a career in a digital world. This includes an understanding of the broader implications of technology such as the growing threat of cyber-crime and cyber-terrorism, cyber-ethics, the legal and social implications of technology, and the local and global impacts. At our institution, we have taken a broad look at ways of integrating cyber awareness and education ...

  10. Outbread of disease in turkeys farms attributed to haemorrhagic enteritis

    OpenAIRE

    DONOSO, S.; OLIVARES, P.; QUEZADA, M.; GÓMEZ-VILLAMANDOS, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Para determinar la causa específica de una elevada mortalidad en un plantel de pavos, se recibieron 5 pavos en total, provenientes de tres lotes de 6, 7 y 8 semanas de edad realizándose en ellos necropsia y se recolectó muestras para estudio histopatológico, ultraestructural y bacteriológico. En la necropsia se observaron lesiones en intestino, el que se encontraba distendido, y con contenido sanguinolento en el lumen. Histopatológicamente se observó una enteritis hemorrágica, hiperemia e in...

  11. APOLLO 16 COMMANDER JOHN YOUNG ENTERS ALTITUDE CHAMBER FOR TESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Apollo 16 commander John W. Young prepares to enter the lunar module in an altitude chamber in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building at the spaceport prior to an altitude run. During the altitude run, in which Apollo 16 lunar module pilot Charles M. Duke also participated, the chamber was pumped down to simulate pressure at an altitude in excess of 200,000 feet. Young, Duke and command module pilot Thomas K. Mattingly II, are training at the Kennedy Space Center for the Apollo 16 mission. Launch is scheduled from Pad 39A, March 17, 1972.

  12. Systemic gene delivery transduces the enteric nervous system of guinea pigs and cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombash, S E; Cowley, C J; Fitzgerald, J A; Lepak, C A; Neides, M G; Hook, K; Todd, L J; Wang, G-D; Mueller, C; Kaspar, B K; Bielefeld, E C; Fischer, A J; Wood, J D; Foust, K D

    2017-10-01

    Characterization of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) mediated gene delivery to the enteric nervous system (ENS) was recently described in mice and rats. In these proof-of-concept experiments, we show that intravenous injections of clinically relevant AAVs can transduce the ENS in guinea pigs and non-human primates. Neonatal guinea pigs were given intravenous injections of either AAV8 or AAV9 vectors that contained a green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression cassette or phosphate-buffered saline. Piglets were euthanized three weeks post injection and tissues were harvested for immunofluorescent analysis. GFP expression was detected in myenteric and submucosal neurons along the length of the gastrointestinal tract in AAV8 injected guinea pigs. GFP-positive neurons were found in dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and dorsal root ganglia. Less transduction occurred in AAV9-treated tissues. Gastrointestinal tissues were analyzed from young cynomolgus macaques that received systemic injection of AAV9 GFP. GFP expression was detected in myenteric neurons of the stomach, small and large intestine. These data demonstrate that ENS gene delivery translates to larger species. This work develops tools for the field of neurogastroenterology to explore gut physiology and anatomy using emerging technologies such as optogenetics and gene editing. It also provides a basis to develop novel therapies for chronic gut disorders.

  13. Delayed initiation but not gradual advancement of enteral formula feeding reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC in preterm pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Ghoneim

    Full Text Available Enteral formula feeding is a risk factor for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC in premature infants, yet studies are conflicting regarding the safest timing for introduction and advancement of feeds. Our aim was to test the effects of early vs. late initiation and abrupt vs. gradual advancement of enteral feeding of an intact vs. hydrolyzed protein formula on NEC incidence and severity in preterm pigs. In Experiment 1, preterm pigs received total parenteral nutrition (TPN at birth with abrupt initiation of enteral formula feeds (50% full intake on d of life (DOL 2 (EA or 5 (LA while PN continued. Pigs were also fed formula containing either intact or hydrolyzed protein. In Experiment 2, preterm pigs received TPN at birth with enteral, hydrolyzed-protein formula feeds introduced on DOL 2 either abruptly (EA; 50% full feeds or gradually (EG; 10-50% full feeds over 5 d while PN continued. NEC incidence and severity were assessed based on macroscopic and histological scoring. In Experiment 1, NEC incidence (41% vs. 70%, P<0.05 and severity were reduced in LA vs. EA groups and LA was associated with a higher survival rate, daily weight gain and jejunum villus height. Piglets fed hydrolyzed vs. intact protein formula had lower stomach content weights and similar NEC incidence. In Experiment 2, NEC incidence and severity were not different between pigs the EG vs. EA group. Proinflammatory gene expression (IL-1β, IL-6 and S100A9 in the ileum was lower in both LA and EG vs. EA groups. In conclusion, delayed initiation but not gradual advancement of enteral feeding is protective against NEC in preterm pigs. Feeding hydrolyzed vs. intact protein formula improved gastric transit without affecting the NEC incidence.

  14. Predictors of Enteral Tube Feeding in Hospitalized Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenitte, Milton Roberto Furst; Avelino-Silva, Thiago Junqueira; Apolinario, Daniel; Curiati, Jose Antonio Esper; Campora, Flavia; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2017-11-01

    Despite general recognition that enteral tube feeding (ETF) is frequently employed in long-term care facilities and patients with dementia, remarkably little research has determined which factors are associated with its use in acutely ill older adults. In this study, we aimed to investigate determinants of ETF introduction in hospitalized older adults. We examined a retrospective cohort of acutely ill patients, aged 60 years and older, admitted to a university hospital's geriatric ward from 2014-2015, in São Paulo, Brazil. The main outcome was the introduction of ETF during hospitalization. Predictors of interest included age, sex, referring unit, comorbidity burden, functional status, malnutrition, depression, dementia severity, and delirium. Multivariate analysis was performed using backward stepwise logistic regression. A total of 214 cases were included. Mean age was 81 years, and 63% were women. Malnutrition was detected in 47% of the cases, dementia in 46%, and delirium in 36%. ETF was initiated in 44 (21%) admissions. Independent predictors of ETF were delirium (odds ratio [OR], 4.83; 95% CI, 2.12-11.01; P ETF. One in five acutely ill older adults used ETF while hospitalized. Delirium and functional dependency were independent predictors of its introduction. Risks and benefits of enteral nutrition in this particular context need to be further explored.

  15. Development and Evaluation of a Home Enteral Nutrition Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dinenage

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The organisation of services to support the increasing number of people receiving enteral tube feeding (ETF at home varies across regions. There is evidence that multi-disciplinary primary care teams focussed on home enteral nutrition (HEN can provide cost-effective care. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a HEN Team in one UK city. A HEN Team comprising dietetians, nurses and a speech and language therapist was developed with the aim of delivering a quality service for people with gastrostomy tubes living at home. Team objectives were set and an underpinning framework of organisation developed including a care pathway and a schedule of training. Impact on patient outcomes was assessed in a pre-post test evaluation design. Patients and carers reported improved support in managing their ETF. Cost savings were realised through: (1 prevention of hospital admission and related transport for ETF related issues; (2 effective management and reduction of waste of feed and thickener; (3 balloon gastrostomy tube replacement by the HEN Team in the patient’s home, and optimisation of nutritional status. This service evaluation demonstrated that the establishment of a dedicated multi-professional HEN Team focussed on achievement of key objectives improved patient experience and, although calculation of cost savings were estimates, provided evidence of cost-effectiveness.

  16. Critical Success Factors for Franchised Restaurants Entering the Kenyan Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Gikonyo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In today’s globalized world, businesses look to expand to have a global presence. Restaurant businesses have expanded internationally using franchising. This study sought to determine the critical success factors (CSFs of a franchised restaurant system entering the Kenyan market from the franchisors’ perspective. It sought to establish how franchisors define, identify, and evaluate success. This study provides a theoretical framework that helps to understand the background of why organizations seek to expand using franchising method and consequently the CSFs of franchised restaurants entering the Kenyan market. The study used qualitative methodology with the use of in-depth interviews for collecting data. The results yielded CSFs from the franchisors’ perspective. As revealed by the study, the CSFs include brand power/concept, competitive environment, government policies, distance management, cultural appeal, excellent selection of franchisees, good site/location selection, good relationship with the franchisees, and proper contract management. These findings can be used by restaurant franchises that seek to establish successful businesses in the Kenyan market and other similar regional markets. The Africa franchise partners may also find some useful information from this article as they seek to set up the Franchise Association of Kenya. Other franchise businesses may also benefit from some aspects of the study.

  17. Delivered volumes of enteral nutrition exceed prescribed volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Renee Nichole; Utech, Anne; Velez, Maria Eugenia; Schwartz, Katie

    2014-10-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) provisions are typically calculated based on a 24-hour infusion period. However, feedings are often interrupted for daily activities, procedures, or gastrointestinal intolerance. The study's objective was to determine the delivered EN quantities provided to stable hospitalized patients, using cellular time and measured volumes to verify our EN calculation adjustment. A supply of consecutively numbered ready-to-hang (RTH) EN product was delivered to the bedside of 26 inpatients with established EN tolerance at goal rates on various types of nursing units. The dietitian weighed the volume remaining in the infusing product and recorded the measurement time. On the following days, the dietitian continued to weigh the infusing RTH product and the empty RTH bottles saved by nursing. The primary outcome was the difference between the prescribed and delivered EN provisions, which was calculated with a paired t test. Patients received significantly more calories in the delivered enteral feeding (mean [SD], 1678 [385] kcal) than prescribed calories in the EN order (1489 [246 kcal]; t = 3.736, P = .001), adjusting for observed time. No significant differences were found between nursing units, product, and rate. EN delivered may actually exceed ordered amounts by 5%–21% (mean, 12%) with feeding pump inaccuracy as the primary contributing factor. This differs from what others have found. Our findings support using a volume-based ordering system vs a rate-based ordering system for more accurate EN delivery.

  18. Mycophenolic acid agents: is enteric coating the answer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manitpisitkul W

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wana Manitpisitkul1, Sabrina Lee2, Matthew Cooper31Department of Pharmacy, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Solid Organ Transplant Program, University of Utah Health Care, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3Department of Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Addition of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF to calcineurin-based immunosuppressive therapy has led to a significant improvement in graft survival and reduction of acute rejection in renal transplant recipients. However, in clinical practice, MMF dose reduction, interruption, or discontinuation due to hematological and gastrointestinal (GI side-effects occurred in up to 50% of the patients. Large retrospective analyses have demonstrated that patients requiring MMF dose manipulation due to adverse events experienced a higher rate of rejection and graft loss. Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS was developed with the goal of improving upper GI side-effects. Here, we review the efficacy and safety of EC-MPS in de novo kidney transplant recipient, and in stable renal transplant patients who were converted from MMF. The changes in GI-related adverse events using patient-reported outcome instruments are also reviewed.Keywords: enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium, mycophenolate mofetil, kidney transplant, efficacy, gastrointestinal tolerability

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance of Enteric Salmonella in Bangui, Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Diamant Mossoro-Kpinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The number of Salmonella isolated from clinical samples that are resistant to multiple antibiotics has increased worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of resistant Salmonella enterica isolated in Bangui. Methods. All enteric Salmonella strains isolated from patients in 2008 were identified and serotyped, and the phenotypes of resistance were determined by using the disk diffusion method. Nine resistance-associated genes, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaSHV, tetA, aadA1, catA1, dhfrA1, sul I, and sul II, were sought by genic amplification in seven S.e. Typhimurium strains. Results. The 94 strains isolated consisted of 47 S.e. Typhimurium (50%, 21 S.e. Stanleyville (22%, 18 S.e. Enteritidis (19%, 4 S.e. Dublin (4%, 4 S.e. Hadar (4%, and 1 S.e. Papuana (1%. Twenty-five (28% were multiresistant, including 20 of the Typhimurium serovar (80%. Two main phenotypes of resistance were found: four antibiotics (56% and to five antibiotics (40%. One S.e. Typhimurium isolate produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL. Only seven strains of S.e. Typhimurium could be amplified genically. Only phenotypic resistance to tetracycline and aminosides was found. Conclusion. S. Typhimurium is the predominant serovar of enteric S. enterica and is the most widely resistant. The search for resistance genes showed heterogeneity of the circulating strains.

  20. Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

    1988-12-31

    Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

  1. Pathogenic characteristics of persistent feline enteric coronavirus infection in cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Liesbeth; Van der Lubben, Mariken; Te Lintelo, Eddie G.; Bekker, Cornelis P.J.; Geerts, Tamara; Schuijff, Leontine S.; Grinwis, Guy C.M.; Egberink, Herman F.; Rottier, Peter J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Feline coronaviruses (FCoV) comprise two biotypes: feline enteric coronaviruses (FECV) and feline infectious peritonitis viruses (FIPV). FECV is associated with asymptomatic persistent enteric infections, while FIPV causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a usually fatal systemic disease in domestic cats and some wild Felidae. FIPV arises from FECV by mutation. FCoV also occur in two serotypes, I and II, of which the serotype I viruses are by far the most prevalent in the field. Yet, most of our knowledge about FCoV infections relates to serotype II viruses, particularly about the FIPV, mainly because type I viruses grow poorly in cell culture. Hence, the aim of the present work was the detailed study of the epidemiologically most relevant viruses, the avirulent serotype I viruses. Kittens were inoculated oronasally with different doses of two independent FECV field strains, UCD and RM. Persistent infection could be reproducibly established. The patterns of clinical symptoms, faecal virus shedding and seroconversion were monitored for up to 10 weeks revealing subtle but reproducible differences between the two viruses. Faecal virus, i.e. genomic RNA, was detected during persistent FECV infection only in the large intestine, downstream of the appendix, and could occasionally be observed also in the blood. The implications of our results, particularly our insights into the persistently infected state, are discussed. PMID:20663472

  2. Enteral nutrition in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBellis, Heather F; Fetterman, James W

    2012-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, chronic disease, in which malnutrition can have an undesirable effect. Therefore, the patient's nutritional status is critical for optimizing outcomes in COPD. The initial nutrition assessment is focused on identifying calorically compromised COPD patients in order to provide them with appropriate nutrition. Nutritional intervention consists of oral supplementation and enteral nutrition to prevent weight loss and muscle mass depletion. Evaluation of nutritional status should include past medical history (medications, lung function, and exercise tolerance) and dietary history (patient's dietary habits, food choices, meal patterns, food allergy information, and malabsorption issues), in addition to physiological stress, visceral proteins, weight, fat-free mass, and body mass index. The current medical literature conflicts regarding the appropriate type of formulation to select for nutritional intervention, especially regarding the amount of calories from fat to provide COPD patients. This review article focuses on the enteral product formulations currently available, and how they are most appropriately utilized in patients with COPD.

  3. Beneficial effects of enteral nutrition containing with hydrolyzed whey peptide on warm ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Jun; Shimada, Mitsuo; Utsunomiya, Toru; Morine, Yuji; Imura, Satoru; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Mori, Hiroki; Sugimoto, Koji; Saito, Yu; Yamada, Shinichiro; Asanoma, Michihito

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of enteral nutrition containing hydrolyzed whey peptide (HWP) on warm ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the rat liver. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 30 min of warm hepatic ischemia followed by immediate p.o. intake of enteral nutrition with WHP (HWP group) or 20% glucose solution (control group) (0.025 mL/g). The animals were killed at 6 or 12 h after reperfusion. The serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase alt (ALT) levels were measured. The necrotic areas were assessed histologically. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and caspase-3 activation were assessed to evaluate apoptosis. The expressions of hepatic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the liver tissue were assessed by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Significant reductions in the serum AST and ALT levels were seen in the HWP group compared with the control group at both 6 and 12 h after reperfusion. The necrotic areas and numbers of TUNEL positive cells were significantly decreased in the HWP group at 6 and 12 h after reperfusion. The caspase-3/7 activities were significantly decreased in HWP group at 6 and 12 h after reperfusion. The mRNA expressions of TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly reduced in the HWP group at 12 h after reperfusion. NF-κB mRNA expression was significantly increased in the HWP group at 6 and 12 h after reperfusion. Enteral nutrition containing HWP ameliorated the hepatic warm I/R injury possibly through the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine expressions and the induction of NF-κB in the rat liver. © 2013 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  4. Effect of minimal enteral feeding on recovery in a methotrexate-induced gastrointestinal mucositis rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, Nicoline S. S.; Rings, Edmond H. H. M.; Havinga, Rick; Groen, Albert K.; Tissing, Wim J. E.

    Patients suffering from gastrointestinal mucositis often receive parenteral nutrition as nutritional support. However, the absence of enteral nutrition might not be beneficial for the intestine. We aimed to determine the feasibility of minimal enteral feeding (MEF) administration in a methotrexate

  5. The Sensitivity Of Diazo Test In The Diagnosis Of Enteric Fevers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    serological) test in the diagnosis of enteric fevers, blood specimens from101 patients suspected of having enteric fevers were collected. 54.5% (55) of the patients were significantly seropositive. Fifteen urine specimens from these 55 seropositive ...

  6. Influence of intestinal early enteral nutrition therapy on intestinal barrier function and immune response of patients with radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guohui; Kang Xin; Chen Gong; Wang Guangyi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of early enteral nutrition therapy on the intestinal barrier function and immune response of the patients with radiation enteritis (ER) so as to find a relatively simple and effective method to treat RE. Methods: Fifty-six patients with radiation enteritis (RE) diagnosed by colonoscopy, X-rays, and pathology were randomly divided into 2 equal groups: experimental group undergoing enteral nutrition therapy, and control group undergoing conventional therapy only. Peripheral blood samples were collected 1, 11, and 21 days after admission. Plasma diamine oxidase (DAO), D-lactic acid, endotoxin, and lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio, and levels of IgG, IgM, and IgA, and CD4/CD8 ratio were examined. Five cases from the experimental group and 5 cases from the control group underwent second-time operation because of incomplete intestinal obstruction, intestinal stenosis, or recurrent tumor respectively. The biopsy specimens of the terminal ileum or distal descending colon taken during the first and second operations underwent pathological examination. Peripheral blood samples were collected 1, 11, and 21 days after admission. Plasma diamine oxidase (DAO), D-lactic acid, endotoxin, and lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio, and levels of IgG, IgM, and IgA, and CD4/CD8 ratio were examined. Results: There were no significant differences in the intestinal function and blood immunological indices between these 2 groups. The levels of DAO, D-lactic acid, and endotoxin,and the L/M ratio 11 days after admission of the experiment group were all significantly lower than those of the control group (t=2.568, 2.427, 2.143, 2.443, P<0.05), and all those indices 21 days after admission of the experiment group were all much more significantly lower in comparison with the control group (t=6.019, 12.834, 7.837, 7.997, P<0.01). The levels of IgG, IgM, and IgA, and CD4/CD8 ratio 11 days after admission of the experimental group were all significantly higher than

  7. The role of the interventional radiologist in enteral alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, M F; Lyon, S M; Lee, M J

    2004-01-01

    The provision of enteral nutrition through the placement of gastrostomy/gastrojejunostomy tubes is a well-established procedure. Traditionally, these catheters have been placed either surgically or endoscopically; however, over the past two decades interventional radiologists have increasingly performed these procedures successfully. The perceived advantages of this route lie in the reported lower morbidity and mortality rates. In addition, percutaneous radiologically guided (PRG) catheters may be placed in certain subgroups of patients in whom it would be technically difficult or impossible by other routes, e.g., patients with head and neck or oesophageal tumours. The aim of this review is to describe the techniques of radiologically placed gastrostomy/gastrojejunostomy, discuss its indications and contraindications, describe any associated potential complications and compare PRG results with the more established techniques of open surgical and endoscopic placement. We also describe some recent procedural and catheter modifications.

  8. Entering the Field: Decisions of an Early Career Researcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajeel Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Classic grounded theory methodology is a much-debated topic in research, especially when novice researchers are selecting classic grounded theory for their research or theses. There is a constant need to justify and defend certain processes of grounded theory, which often challenge other research methods. As a novice researcher, I have often found myself juggling between the need to follow specific procedures and regulations of the university while opting to support the views of Glaser and the application of classic grounded theory for my research. To tackle such difficulties, specific decisions were used to support and justify key choices that favoured classic grounded theory and the requirements of the research institute and my research process. This article provides a reflection on the decisions taken at different stages of the research process to help readers make informed decisions before entering the field.

  9. Experimental reproduction of necrotic enteritis in chickens: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, John F; Smyth, Joan A; Shojadoost, Bahram; Vince, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    This review discusses key factors important in successful experimental reproduction of necrotic enteritis (NE) in chickens, and how these factors can be adjusted to affect the severity of the lesions induced. The critical bacterial factor is the need to use virulent, netB-positive, strains of Clostridium perfringens; disease severity can be enhanced by using netB-positive C. perfringens strains that are also tpeL-positive, by the use of young rather than old broth cultures, and by the number of days of inoculation and the number of bacteria used. Use of cereals rich in non-starch polysaccharides can enhance disease, as does use of animal proteins. Administration of coccidia, including coccidial vaccines, combined with netB-positive C. perfringens, increases the severity of experimentally-induced NE. Dietary manipulation may be less important in coccidia-based models since the latter are so effective. Disease scoring systems and welfare considerations are discussed.

  10. Hospital to home paediatric enteral nutrition--parents need support.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shortall, C

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed the provision of education and support to parents of children on home enteral nutrition (HEN), current dietetic support available and perceived challenges facing parents and carers. From the 39 responses (13%), 29 (83%, n = 35) parents suggested services for HEN need improvement. 29 (74%, n = 39) parents wanted more structured follow up and 22 (56%) would like one person to co-ordinate HEN, education and discharge. 7 parents (18%) reported a need for further education of health care professionals (HCP). Hospital dietitians were the most common HCPs reported to provide support to patients following discharge. Specialist paediatric HEN dietetic services working in a dedicated HEN team, who would provide accurate training and education and liaise with both parents and community care services post discharge should be in place. This would facilitate transfer to community care, reduce hospital re-admissions, outpatient department attendances and costs.

  11. The motivation of massage therapy students to enter professional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Paul

    2004-12-01

    In Ontario massage therapy is a regulated health profession, and it has been speculated that massage therapy students are motivated primarily by altruistic values, as has been documented in medicine. Students at Sutherland-Chan School and Teaching Clinic in Ontario were surveyed regarding their motivation to enter massage therapy education, with the intention of assessing the influence of certain value complexes on their decision. The results indicate that their decision was influenced more strongly by intrinsic values related to helping and working with people than by the prospect of extrinsic rewards (p < 0.0005). This supports a belief commonly held within the professional community, and bodies well for the future of massage therapy as a caring profession.

  12. Parkinson disease: the enteric nervous system spills its guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkinderen, P; Rouaud, T; Lebouvier, T; Bruley des Varannes, S; Neunlist, M; De Giorgio, R

    2011-11-08

    Lewy pathology in Parkinson disease (PD) extends well beyond the CNS, also affecting peripheral autonomic neuronal circuits, especially the enteric nervous system (ENS). The ENS is an integrative neuronal network also referred to as "the brain in the gut" because of its similarities to the CNS. We have recently shown that the ENS can be readily analyzed using routine colonic biopsies. This led us to propose that the ENS could represent a unique window to assess the neuropathology in living patients with PD. In this perspective, we discuss current evidence which indicates that the presence of ENS pathology may by exploited to improve our understanding and management of PD and likely other neurodegenerative disorders.

  13. The role of the interventional radiologist in enteral alimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Given, M.F.; Lyon, S.M.; Lee, M.J. [Department of Academic Radiology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, St. Stephen' s Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2004-01-01

    The provision of enteral nutrition through the placement of gastrostomy/gastrojejunostomy tubes is a well-established procedure. Traditionally, these catheters have been placed either surgically or endoscopically; however, over the past two decades interventional radiologists have increasingly performed these procedures successfully. The perceived advantages of this route lie in the reported lower morbidity and mortality rates. In addition, percutaneous radiologically guided (PRG) catheters may be placed in certain subgroups of patients in whom it would be technically difficult or impossible by other routes, e.g., patients with head and neck or oesophageal tumours. The aim of this review is to describe the techniques of radiologically placed gastrostomy/gastrojejunostomy, discuss its indications and contraindications, describe any associated potential complications and compare PRG results with the more established techniques of open surgical and endoscopic placement. We also describe some recent procedural and catheter modifications. (orig.)

  14. Multiple, Pan-Enteric Perforation Secondary to Intestinal Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Irfan; Majid, Zain; Rafiq, Ali; Rind, Waqas; Zia, Aisha; Raza, Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Free perforation is one of the most feared complications of the intestinal tuberculosis. The terminal ileum is the most common site of perforation, while the majority of (90%) perforations are solitary. Herein, we describe a case of a 25-year-old male who presented with generalized peritonitis requiring an emergency exploratory laparotomy, which revealed pan-enteric perforation characterized by multiple perforations of the small bowel extending 10–15 cm from the DJ flexure up to the terminal ileum. The perforations were primarily closed, while 6–8 cm of the diseased terminal ileum was resected and the two ends were brought out as double-barreled ostomy. To the best of our knowledge, such an extensive tuberculous perforation of the small bowel has not been previously reported in the literature before. PMID:26798540

  15. Multiple, Pan-Enteric Perforation Secondary to Intestinal Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Masood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free perforation is one of the most feared complications of the intestinal tuberculosis. The terminal ileum is the most common site of perforation, while the majority of (90% perforations are solitary. Herein, we describe a case of a 25-year-old male who presented with generalized peritonitis requiring an emergency exploratory laparotomy, which revealed pan-enteric perforation characterized by multiple perforations of the small bowel extending 10–15 cm from the DJ flexure up to the terminal ileum. The perforations were primarily closed, while 6–8 cm of the diseased terminal ileum was resected and the two ends were brought out as double-barreled ostomy. To the best of our knowledge, such an extensive tuberculous perforation of the small bowel has not been previously reported in the literature before.

  16. Entering the Black Hole: The Taliban, Terrorism, and Organised Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Phillips

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 'Cooperation and imitation among crime and terror groups in recent years has given rise to a crime-terror nexus. A linear conceptualisation of a crime-terror spectrum, suggests that complete convergence of crime and terror in a failed state can give rise to a ‘black hole.’ Theoretical models of the crime-terror nexus, however, do not specify the means by which a crime-terror group enters this black hole state, yet others do not. Using the Taliban movement as a case study, this article presents a theoretical extension of black hole theory, using organisation-level characteristics to merge black hole theory with the crime-terror continuum.'

  17. Esophagitis and enteritis caused by herpesvirus in pigeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egobol, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The pigeon squabs, aged 5-26 day-old, showed clinical signs of dullness, anorexia, indigestion, reten-tion of feed in crop, progressive emaciation then died. The morbidity rate and mortality rate were 7.14% (50/700. The adult pigeons did not show any signs of disease. From pathological finding, pharyngitis, esophagitis were found with diphtheritic membrane covering necrotic ulcers on the mucosa of pharynx, esophagus and crop. From histopathological findings, esophagitis with epithelial hyperplasia and sloughed, lamina propria mucosa edema with lymphoid cells infiltration were found in duodenum and jejunum. The intranuclear inclusion body, Cowdry type A, was found in epithelial mucosa of esophagus, enterocyte of jejunum and lymphoid cells in spleen. FA test to duck virus enteritis and inoculation to ducklings showed negative results. Electron microscopic study revealed electron dense core sized 146-167 nm., which was identified as herpesvirus.

  18. Grape seed extract for control of human enteric viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2011-06-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is reported to have many pharmacological benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antimicrobial properties. However, the effect of this inexpensive rich source of natural phenolic compounds on human enteric viruses has not been well documented. In the present study, the effect of commercial GSE, Gravinol-S, on the infectivity of human enteric virus surrogates (feline calicivirus, FCV-F9; murine norovirus, MNV-1; and bacteriophage MS2) and hepatitis A virus (HAV; strain HM175) was evaluated. GSE at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml was individually mixed with equal volumes of each virus at titers of ∼7 log(10) PFU/ml or ∼5 log(10) PFU/ml and incubated for 2 h at room temperature or 37°C. The infectivity of the recovered viruses after triplicate treatments was evaluated by standardized plaque assays. At high titers (∼7 log(10) PFU/ml), FCV-F9 was significantly reduced by 3.64, 4.10, and 4.61 log(10) PFU/ml; MNV-1 by 0.82, 1.35, and 1.73 log(10) PFU/ml; MS2 by 1.13, 1.43, and 1.60 log(10) PFU/ml; and HAV by 1.81, 2.66, and 3.20 log(10) PFU/ml after treatment at 37°C with 0.25, 0.50, and 1 mg/ml GSE, respectively (P PFU/ml) at 37°C also showed viral reductions. Room-temperature treatments with GSE caused significant reduction of the four viruses, with higher reduction for low-titer FCV-F9, MNV-1, and HAV compared to high titers. Our results indicate that GSE shows promise for application in the food industry as an inexpensive novel natural alternative to reduce viral contamination and enhance food safety.

  19. Detection methods for human enteric viruses in representative foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggitt, P R; Jaykus, L A

    2000-12-01

    Although viral foodborne disease is a significant problem, foods are rarely tested for viral contamination, and when done, testing is limited to shellfish commodities. In this work, we report a method to extract and detect human enteric viruses from alternative food commodities using an elution-concentration approach followed by detection using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Fifty-gram lettuce or hamburger samples were artificially inoculated with poliovirus type 1 (PV1), hepatitis A virus (HAV), or the Norwalk virus and processed by the sequential steps of homogenization, filtration, Freon extraction (hamburger), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation. To reduce volumes further and remove RT-PCR inhibitors, a secondary PEG precipitation was necessary, resulting in an overall 10- to 20-fold sample size reduction from 50 g to 3 to 5 ml. Virus recoveries in secondary PEG concentrates ranged from 10 to 70% for PV1 and 2 to 4% for HAV as evaluated by mammalian cell culture infectivity assay. Total RNA from PEG concentrates was extracted to a small volume (30 to 40 microl) and subjected to RT-PCR amplification of viral RNA sequences. Detection limit studies indicated that viral RNA was consistently detected by RT-PCR at initial inoculum levels > or =102 PFU/50-g food sample for PV1 and > or =10(3) PFU/50-g food sample for HAV. In similar studies with the Norwalk virus, detection at inoculum levels > or =1.5 X 10(3) PCR-amplifiable units/50-g sample for both food products was possible. All RT-PCR amplicons were confirmed by subsequent Southern hybridization. The procedure reported represents progress toward the development of methods to detect human enteric viral contamination in foods other than shellfish.

  20. Enteral and parenteral lipid requirements of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapillonne, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Lipids provide infants with most of their energy needs. The major portion of the fat in human milk is found in the form of triglycerides, the phospholipids and cholesterol contributing for only a small proportion of the total fat. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are crucial for normal development of the central nervous system and have potential for long-lasting effects that extend beyond the period of dietary insufficiency. Given the limited and highly variable formation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from α-linolenic acid, and because DHA is critical for normal retinal and brain development in the human, DHA should be considered to be conditionally essential during early development. In early enteral studies, the amount of LC-PUFAs administered in formula was chosen to produce the same concentration of arachidonic acid and DHA as in term breast milk. Recent studies report outcome data in preterm infants fed formula with DHA content 2-3 times higher than the current concentration. Overall, these studies show that providing larger amounts of DHA supplements is associated with better neurological outcomes and may provide other health benefits. One study further suggests that the smallest babies are the most vulnerable to DHA deficiency and likely to reap the greatest benefit from high-dose DHA supplementation. Current nutritional management may not provide sufficient amounts of preformed DHA during the parenteral and enteral nutrition periods and in very preterm/very low birth weight infants until due date and higher amounts than those routinely used are likely to be necessary to compensate for intestinal malabsorption, DHA oxidation, and early deficit. Recommendations for the healthcare provider are made in order to prevent lipid and more specifically LC-PUFA deficit. Research should be continued to fill the gaps in knowledge and to further refine the adequate intake for each group of preterm infants. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Enteric neural crest cells regulate vertebrate stomach patterning and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Sandrine; McKey, Jennifer; Sagnol, Sébastien; de Santa Barbara, Pascal

    2015-01-15

    In vertebrates, the digestive tract develops from a uniform structure where reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions pattern this complex organ into regions with specific morphologies and functions. Concomitant with these early patterning events, the primitive GI tract is colonized by the vagal enteric neural crest cells (vENCCs), a population of cells that will give rise to the enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic innervation of the GI tract. The influence of vENCCs on early patterning and differentiation of the GI tract has never been evaluated. In this study, we report that a crucial number of vENCCs is required for proper chick stomach development, patterning and differentiation. We show that reducing the number of vENCCs by performing vENCC ablations induces sustained activation of the BMP and Notch pathways in the stomach mesenchyme and impairs smooth muscle development. A reduction in vENCCs also leads to the transdifferentiation of the stomach into a stomach-intestinal mixed phenotype. In addition, sustained Notch signaling activity in the stomach mesenchyme phenocopies the defects observed in vENCC-ablated stomachs, indicating that inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway is essential for stomach patterning and differentiation. Finally, we report that a crucial number of vENCCs is also required for maintenance of stomach identity and differentiation through inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway. Altogether, our data reveal that, through the regulation of mesenchyme identity, vENCCs act as a new mediator in the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions that control stomach development. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Indonesian Comparative Advantage Entering the ASEAN Economic Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riandi .

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the comparative advantage of Indonesian commodities in order to enter the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC. This study uses the export data during the period of 2003-2013 among five ASEAN countries participating in the AEC, including Indonesia, Malaysia, The Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. All data obtained from the UN Comtrade database following the Harmonized System (HS at the two-digit classification level. This study applies dynamic revealed comparative advantage (DRCA index developed by Edwards and Schoer (2001 which is the development of revealed comparative advantage (RCA index by Balassa (1965. The results show that Indonesia is ready to enter the AEC. From this research, there are several Indonesian main commodities which have comparative advantage in ASEAN, including fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic invertebrates ones (HS-03, edible fruit, nuts, peel of citrus fruit, melons (HS-08, oil seed, oleagic fruits, grain, seed, fruit, etc, nes (HS-12, lac, gums, resins, vegetable saps and extracts nes (HS-13, rubber and articles thereof (HS-40, paper & paperboard, articles of pulp, paper and board (HS-48, special woven or tufted fabric, lace, tapestry etc (HS-58, articles apparel, accessories, not knit or crochet (HS-62, and vehicles other than railway, tramway (HS-87. Those commodities are in line with Indonesian government export's strategy direction which mainly focuses on several sectors, including fishery, vegetable products, rubber, wood and wood products, textiles, and transportation. Therefore, Indonesian government should focus to improve those commodities in AEC. Keywords: Indonesian Comparative Advantage, Main Export Commodities, Export Strategy Direction, ASEAN Economic Community

  3. Metagenomic mining of feruloyl esterases from termite enteric flora

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rashamuse, K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A metagenome expression library was created from Trinervitermes trinervoides termite hindgut symbionts and subsequently screened for feruloyl esterase (FAE) activities, resulting in seven recombinant fosmids conferring feruloyl esterase phenotypes...

  4. 9 CFR 302.3 - Livestock and products entering official establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock and products entering official establishments. 302.3 Section 302.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Livestock and products entering official establishments. All livestock and all products entering any...

  5. 77 FR 69650 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States Duty Free AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... information collection requirement concerning the Holders or Containers which Enter the United States Duty... concerning the following information collection: Title: Holders or Containers which Enter the United States...

  6. Entering of Stefan Dušan into the Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirivatrić Srđan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available At the moment when, in October 1341, a new Civil War broke out in the Byzantium after the death of Andronicus III, the traditional views of the imperial power and the Empire underwent considerable changes. The powers of the co-rulers had been on the rise since 1272, and during the Civil War of 1321-1328 the Byzantine Empire was in effect divided, that is, two Basileis were ruling 'imperially' (autokratorikōs over their respective territories within the formally unified Empire, under the scope of relations of Superior basileus - co-basileus. Therefore, the Empire (autokratoria, imperium could multiply in the sense of rulers’ authorities, and be divided in the sense of territoriality. The imperial power and the Empire became subject to family relations and family law. In view of the family connections between the Byzantine Emperors (basileis autokratores and the monarchs of the neighboring countries and nations, the right to succession was being used as an argument in some disputes between the rulers. The Byzantine law, that is the Byzantine political views, allowed for the possibility of the so-called 'joint rule' (e oikeia arch by a Byzantine basileus autokrator and some other, foreign member of the dynasty ruling over certain region of the Byzantine Empire - a foreign ruler would be allowed to rule on condition that the Byzantine basileus be recognized as the supreme master. This scenario is known from one recorded dispute between the Byzantine basileus Andronicus III and the Bulgarian tsar Michael Assen III dating from 1328, when the Bulgarian Emperor did not accept the Byzantine rule, however. All these circumstances are of special importance since they directly precede the King Stefan Dušan’s involvement in the Civil War, that is, his later entering into the Empire. The first phase of Dušan’s involvement in the Civil War is typically conquering and opportunistic in nature, with the aim of immediate territorial enlargement. The

  7. Biodetection of potential genotoxic pollutants entering the human food chain through ashes used in livestock diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Vicente, Laura; Herraez, Elisa; Briz, Oscar; Nogales, Rogelio; Molina-Alcaide, Eduarda; Marin, Jose J G

    2016-08-15

    Ash derived from energy generation is used as a source of minerals in livestock feeds. The microbial biosensor recApr-Luc2 was built to detect genotoxic hazard in recycled ash. Escherichia coli SOS gene (recA, lexA, dinI and umuC) expression in response to cisplatin-induced DNA damage led to the selection of the recA promoter. The biosensor required functional RecA expression to respond to genotoxic heavy metals (Cr>Cd≈Pb), and polluted ash induced a strong recApr-Luc2 response. In human liver and intestinal cells, heavy metals induced acute toxicity (Cr>Cd>Pb) at concentrations sufficient to activate recApr-Luc2. Cytostatic effects, including genotoxicity, were cell- and metal-dependent, apart from Cr. In agreement with the recApr-Luc2 bioassay, Cr had the strongest effect in all cells. In conclusion, recApr-Luc2 could be useful for evaluating the genotoxic risk of pollutants present in ash that might be concentrated in animal products and, thus, entering the human food chain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Histamine, mast cells, and the enteric nervous system in the irritable bowel syndrome, enteritis, and food allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, J D

    2006-01-01

    There is altered expression of histamine H1 and H2 receptor subtypes in mucosal biopsies from the terminal ileum and large intestine of patients with symptoms of food allergy and/or irritable bowel syndrome

  9. Enteric Neural Cells From Hirschsprung Disease Patients Form Ganglia in Autologous Aneuronal ColonSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N. Rollo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Hirschsprung disease (HSCR is caused by failure of cells derived from the neural crest (NC to colonize the distal bowel in early embryogenesis, resulting in absence of the enteric nervous system (ENS and failure of intestinal transit postnatally. Treatment is by distal bowel resection, but neural cell replacement may be an alternative. We tested whether aneuronal (aganglionic colon tissue from patients may be colonized by autologous ENS-derived cells. Methods: Cells were obtained and cryopreserved from 31 HSCR patients from the proximal resection margin of colon, and ENS cells were isolated using flow cytometry for the NC marker p75 (nine patients. Aneuronal colon tissue was obtained from the distal resection margin (23 patients. ENS cells were assessed for NC markers immunohistologically and by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and mitosis was detected by ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine labeling. The ability of human HSCR postnatal ENS-derived cells to colonize the embryonic intestine was demonstrated by organ coculture with avian embryo gut, and the ability of human postnatal HSCR aneuronal colon muscle to support ENS formation was tested by organ coculture with embryonic mouse ENS cells. Finally, the ability of HSCR patient ENS cells to colonize autologous aneuronal colon muscle tissue was assessed. Results: ENS-derived p75-sorted cells from patients expressed multiple NC progenitor and differentiation markers and proliferated in culture under conditions simulating Wnt signaling. In organ culture, patient ENS cells migrated appropriately in aneural quail embryo gut, and mouse embryo ENS cells rapidly spread, differentiated, and extended axons in patient aneuronal colon muscle tissue. Postnatal ENS cells derived from HSCR patients colonized autologous aneuronal colon tissue in cocultures, proliferating and differentiating as neurons and glia. Conclusions: NC-lineage cells can be obtained from HSCR

  10. Medicinal lavender modulates the enteric microbiota to protect against Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J; Brown, K; Rajendiran, E; Yip, A; DeCoffe, D; Dai, C; Molcan, E; Chittick, S A; Ghosh, S; Mahmoud, S; Gibson, D L

    2012-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease, inclusive of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, consists of immunologically mediated disorders involving the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract. Lavender oil is a traditional medicine used to relieve many gastrointestinal disorders. The goal of this study was to examine the therapeutic effects of the essential oil obtained from a novel lavender cultivar, Lavandula×intermedia cultivar Okanagan lavender (OLEO), in a mouse model of acute colitis caused by Citrobacter rodentium. In colitic mice, oral gavage with OLEO resulted in less severe disease, including decreased morbidity and mortality, reduced intestinal tissue damage, and decreased infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages, with reduced levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-22, macrophage inflammatory protein-2α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. This was associated with increased levels of regulatory T cell populations compared with untreated colitic mice. Recently, we demonstrated that the composition of the enteric microbiota affects susceptibility to C. rodentium-induced colitis. Here, we found that oral administration of OLEO induced microbiota enriched with members of the phylum Firmicutes, including segmented filamentous bacteria, which are known to protect against the damaging effects of C. rodentium. Additionally, during infection, OLEO treatment promoted the maintenance of microbiota loads, with specific increases in Firmicutes bacteria and decreases in γ-Proteobacteria. We observed that Firmicutes bacteria were intimately associated with the apical region of the intestinal epithelial cells during infection, suggesting that their protective effect was through contact with the gut wall. Finally, we show that OLEO inhibited C. rodentium growth and adherence to Caco-2 cells, primarily through the activities of 1,8-cineole and borneol. These results indicate that while OLEO promoted Firmicutes populations, it also controlled pathogen load through

  11. Enteral β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate supplementation increases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Michelle; Columbus, Daniel A.; Suryawan, Agus; Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Hernandez-Garcia, Adriana; Nguyen, Hanh V.; Fiorotto, Marta L.

    2016-01-01

    Many low-birth weight infants are at risk for poor growth due to an inability to achieve adequate protein intake. Administration of the amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonates. To determine the effects of enteral supplementation of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on protein synthesis and the regulation of translation initiation and degradation pathways, overnight-fasted neonatal pigs were studied immediately (F) or fed one of five diets for 24 h: low-protein (LP), high-protein (HP), or LP diet supplemented with 4 (HMB4), 40 (HMB40), or 80 (HMB80) μmol HMB·kg body wt−1·day−1. Cell replication was assessed from nuclear incorporation of BrdU in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and jejunum crypt cells. Protein synthesis rates in LD, gastrocnemius, rhomboideus, and diaphragm muscles, lung, and brain were greater in HMB80 and HP and in brain were greater in HMB40 compared with LP and F groups. Formation of the eIF4E·eIF4G complex and S6K1 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in LD, gastrocnemius, and rhomboideus muscles were greater in HMB80 and HP than in LP and F groups. Phosphorylation of eIF2α and eEF2 and expression of SNAT2, LAT1, MuRF1, atrogin-1, and LC3-II were unchanged. Numbers of BrdU-positive myonuclei in the LD were greater in HMB80 and HP than in the LP and F groups; there were no differences in jejunum. The results suggest that enteral supplementation with HMB increases skeletal muscle protein anabolism in neonates by stimulation of protein synthesis and satellite cell proliferation. PMID:27143558

  12. Quality indicators for enteral and parenteral nutrition therapy: application in critically ill patients "at nutritional risk".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Filho, Ronaldo Sousa; Ribeiro, Lia Mara Kauchi; Caruso, Lucia; Lima, Patricia Azevedo; Damasceno, Náglia Raquel Teixeira; García Soriano, Francisco

    2016-09-20

    Quality Indicators for Nutritional Therapy (QINT) allow a practical assessment of nutritional therapy (NT) quality. To apply and monitor QINT for critically ill patients at nutritional risk. Cross sectional study including critically ill patients > 18 years old, at nutritional risk, on exclusive enteral (ENT) or parenteral nutritional therapy (PNT) for > 72 hours. After three consecutive years, 9 QINT were applied and monitored. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 17.0. A total of 145 patients were included, 93 patients were receiving ENT, among then 65% were male and the mean age was 55.7 years (± 17.4); 52 patients were receiving PNT, 67% were male and the mean age was 58.1 years (± 17.4). All patients (ENT and PNT) were nutritionally screened at admission and their energy and protein needs were individually estimated. Only ENT was early initiated, more than 70% of the prescribed ENT volume was infused and there was a reduced withdrawal of enteral feeding tube. The frequency of diarrhea episodes and digestive fasting were not adequate in ENT patients. The proper supply of energy was contemplated only for PNT patients and there was an expressive rate of oral intake recovery in ENT patients. After three years of research, the percentage of QINT adequacy varied between 55%-77% for ENT and 60%-80% for PNT. The results were only made possible by the efforts of a multidisciplinary team and the continuous re-evaluation of the procedures in order to maintain the nutritional assistance for patients at nutritional risk.

  13. [Enteral nutrition in patients with ulcerative and postburn cicatrix strictures of the esophagus and stomach outcome region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumov, M M; Kostiuchenko, L N

    2009-01-01

    Decompensated cicatrices stricture of upper alimentary canal is a complex disease clinically presenting a high mechanical blocking and leads to expressed abnormality of homeostasis, which requires its pathogenetic correction of urgency evidence. The greatest difficulty is correct protein-energy malnutrition and water-electrolyte metabolism. Prior to the imposition of stoma for feeding should begin immediately with standard parenteral nutrition solutions. In a subsequent it is nessesary to resort more physiologecal tube alimentasion. As with esophageal postambustion stricture electrical activity of the stomach inhibiting and in essentially remains small bowel function, preference should be given to ways of enteral threpsology support. This can be used as a balanced composition in breeding (primary breeding should be 1: 2) and special blends for intraintestinal alimentation (close chyme on line carrying the major components). In the case of postambustion struck of outlet termination stomach department when identified violations of the underlying functions of the digestive canal division, rational come to gentle tactics of enteral alimentation using mixtures, completely similar in composition to himus. At stricture janitor ulcer genesis appropriate tactics is enteral correction, similar to that used in the event of postambustion strictures of the zones when bowel function is largely preserved.

  14. Spectral analysis of HIV seropositivity among migrant workers entering Kuwait

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    Mohammad Hameed GHH

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is paucity of published data on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seroprevalence among migrant workers entering Middle-East particularly Kuwait. We took advantage of the routine screening of migrants for HIV infection, upon arrival in Kuwait from the areas with high HIV prevalence, to 1 estimate the HIV seroprevalence among migrant workers entering Kuwait and to 2 ascertain if any significant time trend or changes had occurred in HIV seroprevalence among these migrants over the study period. Methods The monthly aggregates of daily number of migrant workers tested and number of HIV seropositive were used to generate the monthly series of proportions of HIV seropositive (per 100,000 migrants over a period of 120 months from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2006. We carried out spectral analysis of these time series data on monthly proportions (per 100,000 of HIV seropositive migrants. Results Overall HIV seroprevalence (per 100,000 among the migrants was 21 (494/2328582 (95% CI: 19 -23, ranging from 11 (95% CI: 8 – 16 in 2003 to 31 (95% CI: 24 -41 in 1998. There was no discernable pattern in the year-specific proportions of HIV seropositive migrants up to 2003; in subsequent years there was a slight but consistent increase in the proportions of HIV seropositive migrants. However, the Mann-Kendall test showed non-significant (P = 0.741 trend in de-seasonalized data series of proportions of HIV seropositive migrants. The spectral density had a statistically significant (P = 0.03 peak located at a frequency (radians 2.4, which corresponds to a regular cycle of three-month duration in this study. Auto-correlation function did not show any significant seasonality (correlation coefficient at lag 12 = – 0.025, P = 0.575. Conclusion During the study period, overall a low HIV seroprevalence (0.021% was recorded. Towards the end of the study, a slight but non-significant upward trend in the proportions of HIV seropositive

  15. Molecules produced by probiotics prevent enteric colibacillosis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordeste, Ricardo; Tessema, Akalate; Sharma, Sapana; Kovač, Zlatko; Wang, Chuan; Morales, Rocio; Griffiths, Mansel William

    2017-11-15

    With the advent of antimicrobial resistance in animal pathogens, novel methods to combat infectious diseases are being sought. Among these, probiotics have been proposed as a means of promoting animal health but problems with their use has been reported. Research has demonstrated that bioactive molecules produced during the growth of certain probiotics interfere with bacterial cell-to-cell communication, which consequently results in an attenuation of virulence in a number of pathogens, including E. coli. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of the bioactive molecules, termed proteobiotics, produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus in preventing enterotoxigenic E, coli (ETEC) infection in pigs, which is the etiological agent for enteric colibacillosis, a common disease of nursing and young pigs. To achieve this, piglets were fed a preparation of the bioactive at four levels: 0, 0.5×, 1.0× and 2.0× for 7 days prior to challenge with E. coli K88. There were 36 pigs (18 gilts and 18 barrows) per treatment, resulting in 144 piglets in total for the study. Each pen had 6 piglets (3 gilts and 3 barrows). Only piglets with no physical abnormality or conditions were used in the trial and intact male piglets and ridglings were excluded. The bioactive continued to be fed to the pigs post-challenge. Based of fecal and demeanour scores, pigs fed the low and high dose of the proteobiotic were significanlty less likely to show symptoms of illness than pigs fed no bioactive. While not being significant, the weight gain of pigs given the proteobiotics was improved. At day 4 following challenge, almost 50% of piglets that did not receive the proteobiotic were shedding ETEC in their feces, compared with about 15% of animals receiving the supplement. There was also an indication that the proteobiotics reduced colonization of the ileum by E. coli K88 and improved gut health. This study indicates that the bioactive molecules produced by L. acidophilus reduces

  16. Impact of enteral protein supplementation in premature infants

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    Barrus DM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available David M Barrus1, Joann Romano-Keeler2, Christopher Carr3, Kira Segebarth4, Betty Claxton2, William F Walsh2, Paul J Flakoll51Department of Neonatology, Saint Francis Hospital–Bartlett, Memphis, TN, 2Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt Medical Center, Nashville, TN, 3Department of Surgery, Naval Hospital Bremerton, Bremerton, WA, 4Pediatric and Diabetes Specialists, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, 5Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USAObjective: The quantity of enteral protein supplementation required by premature infants to optimize growth has not been determined. This study compares the growth of premature infants fed the current standard intake of protein (3.5 g/kg/day with the growth of those fed a higher amount (4.0 g/kg/day.Study design: Fifty-two infants <1500 g and <33 weeks gestational age participated in a blinded, single-center, prospective randomized control trial to compare growth between two groups of different protein-intake levels. Primary outcomes were average daily weight gain (g/kg/day, head-circumference (cm/kg/week and linear growth velocity (cm/kg/week. Secondary outcomes were serum indices of protein tolerance and plasma amino acid concentrations.Results: Infants receiving higher amounts of protein had higher rates of growth for body weight (18.2 ± 0.7 versus 16.2 ± 1.0 g/kg/day; P < 0.05 and head circumference (0.87 ± 0.08 versus 0.62 ± 0.07 cm/kg/week; P < 0.05, with no differences in blood protein or plasma amino acid concentrations. Length of hospital stay was 14 days shorter for the higher-protein group (51.4 ± 4.0 versus 65.9 ± 6.3 days.Conclusion: Increasing premature infant enteral protein supplementation from a calculated intake of 3.5–4.0 g/kg/day improved growth in a safe manner.Keywords: human milk, human milk fortifier, growth, low birth weight

  17. Outcomes of 50 patients entering an adolescent bariatric surgery programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Billy; Doyle, Jacqueline; Matschull, Kirsten; Adamo, Marco; Christie, Deborah; Nicholls, Dasha; Kinra, Sanjay; Wong, Ian Chi Kei; Viner, Russell M

    2017-08-09

    Bariatric surgery is the most effective intervention for weight loss and obesity-related comorbidities currently available. Little is known about adolescents entering National Health Service (NHS) bariatric programmes. We aimed to characterise those entering a pathway and report their outcomes. Prospective service evaluation of patients assessed within a single NHS adolescent bariatric service. 50 patients assessed between 26 July 2007 and 27 January 2014; 6 (12%) were not eligible for surgery, 7 (14%) actively opted out, 8 (16%) were lost to follow-up and 29 (58%) underwent surgery (18 sleeve gastrectomy (SG) 11 Roux-en-y gastric bypass (RYGB) and 0 adjustable gastric band). Mean (SD) age at initial assessment was 16.0 (1.3) years and 18.3 (1.3) at surgery (youngest 15.7 years). Mean time taken to surgery was 1.8 years; longer in those with higher body mass index (BMI) and aged below 14 at first assessment. Mean (SD) BMI at surgery was 53.1 (8.3) kg/m 2 , lower in those undergoing RYGB (-5.2, 95% CI -11.6 to 1.13). Follow-up was inconsistent and challenging; 1/29 (3.5%) was transferred to a regional centre, 10/29 (34.5%) attended ongoing follow-up within our protocol, 6/29 (20.7%) had intermittent monitoring and 12/29 (41.4%) were lost to follow-up. Mean BMI change at 1 year (-14.0 kg/m 2 ) and complications were similar to published cohorts. Data from 11 lost to follow-up were obtained and outcomes appeared similar to those who actively followed up. Adolescent bariatric surgery in the NHS appears effective, with outcomes similar to those reported internationally. Further work is needed to optimise postsurgical surveillance and reduce age at surgery. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Changes in Enteric Neurons of Small Intestine in a Rat Model of Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan; Fei, Guijun; Fang, Xiucai; Yang, Xilin; Sun, Xiaohong; Qian, Jiaming; Wood, Jackie D; Ke, Meiyun

    2016-04-30

    Physical and/or emotional stresses are important factors in the exacerbation of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Several lines of evidence support that a major impact of stress on the gastrointestinal tract occurs via the enteric nervous system. We aimed to evaluate histological changes in the submucosal plexus (SMP) and myenteric plexus (MP) of the distal ileum in concert with the intestinal motor function in a rat model of IBS with diarrhea. The rat model was induced by heterotypic chronic and acute stress (CAS). The intestinal transit was measured by administering powdered carbon by gastric gavage. Double immunohistochemical fluorescence staining with whole-mount preparations of SMP and MP of enteric nervous system was used to assess changes in expression of choline acetyltransferase, vasoactive intestinal peptide, or nitric oxide synthase in relation to the pan neuronal marker, anti-Hu. The intestinal transit ratio increased significantly from control values of 50.8% to 60.6% in the CAS group. The numbers of enteric ganglia and neurons in the SMP were increased in the CAS group. The proportions of choline acetyltransferase- and vasoactive intestinal peptide-immunoreactive neurons in the SMP were increased (82.1 ± 4.3% vs. 76.0 ± 5.0%, P = 0.021; 40.5 ± 5.9% vs 28.9 ± 3.7%, P = 0.001), while nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive neurons in the MP were decreased compared with controls (23.3 ± 4.5% vs 32.4 ± 4.5%, P = 0.002). These morphological changes in enteric neurons to CAS might contribute to the dysfunction in motility and secretion in IBS with diarrhea.

  19. Arco to enter European PGE production with new Rotterdam plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.

    1993-01-01

    Arco Chemical (Newtown Square, PA) will enter production of propylene glycol ethers (PGEs) in Europe by building a 70,000-m.t./year plant at its Rotterdam site. Arco's board has approved the project, with construction to begin this year and completion expected in mid-1995. 'This new plant supports the company's long-standing strategy to increase its downstream integration in value-added derivatives of propylene oxide,' says Jack Oppasser, president of Arco Chemical Europe (Maidenhead, U.K.). 'It allows the company to sustain its strong position in the growing European glycol ether market.' Arco's move represents a challenge to Dow Europe (Horgen, Switzerland), which dominates the European PGE market. Dow is Europe's biggest producer of PGEs, with its Dowanol brands commanding a share greater than 50% of the estimated 90,000-m.t./year methyl-based PGE market. This was recently boosted by completion of the expansion of its plant at Stade, Germany, from 60,000 m.t./year to 110,000 m.t./year. While Arco does not currently make PGEs in Europe, it is the second-largest supplier, with about 15,000 m.t.-20,000 m.t./year, via 'third-party manufacturing arrangements' with European producers, including BP Chemicals, and imports from its 90-million lbs/year plant at Bayport, TX. However, Arco refuses to comment on this because of 'antitrust aspects.'

  20. Personal characteristics of students entering higher medical school

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    Akimova O.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the structure of personal features of students decided to devote their life to medical profession, their personal readiness for a profession of a doctor. 241 students going to enter the Saratov Medical University in 2013 serve as an object of research. Methods of research included psychology tests on a self-assessment of a mental state, ability to empathy, a motivation orientation. Result. It was revealed that the majority of respondents low level of uneasiness, low level of frustration, the average level of aggression, the average level of a rigidity, and also high rates on an empathy scale. The types of the personality in relation to work are emotive and intuitive. Prevalence of motive of achievement of success or motive of avoiding of failures directly depends on specifics of a situation. Conclusion. Students possess qualities which are necessary in professional activity for doctors, namely high resistance to stress, absence of fear before difficulties, low level of rigidity, high level of empathy, the average level of aggression. Students are motivated on success, in situations when they are fully confident.

  1. Characteristics of Transgender Individuals Entering Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Nicholas C.; Sorensen, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007–2009 using logistic and linear regression analyses (run separately by identified gender). Transgender men (assigned birth sex of female) differed from cisgender men across many psychosocial factors, including having more recent employment, less legal system involvement, greater incidence of living with a substance abuser, and greater family conflict, while transgender women (assigned birth sex of male) were less likely to have minor children than cisgender women. Transgender women reported greater needle use and HIV testing rates were greater among transgender women. Transgender men and women reported higher rates of physical health problems, mental health diagnoses, and psychiatric medications but there were no differences in service utilization. There were no differences in substance use behaviors except that transgender women were more likely to endorse primary methamphetamine use. Transgender individuals evidence unique strengths and challenges that could inform targeted services in substance abuse treatment. PMID:24561017

  2. Early enteral nutrition after total gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhang, Zheng; Xiong, Maoming; Meng, Xiangling; Dai, Fen; Fang, Jun; Wan, Hong; Wang, Miaofeng

    2014-01-01

    To assess the difference between early enteral nutrition (EEN group) and total parenteral nutrition (TPN group) after total gastrectomy for gastric cancer. The nutrition index, liver function, patient generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) score, the post-operation complications, the hospital stay and hospitalization expense of the postoperative patient after total gastrectomy, admitted to our Department of Surgery from May 2011 to May 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 72 patients including 37 cases in the EEN group and 35 cases in the TPN group were recruited. Hypoalbuminemia gradually improved in the EEN group about 3-5 days, but it did not increase until average 21 days in the TPN group. The body weight decreased in the EEN group during the first 2 weeks and recovered gradually in 21 days; body weight in the TPN group was significantly lower than the EEN group at 21 days (pnutrition indicators. The incidence of complications in the EEN group and TPN group were 8.1% and 25.7% respectively, with no significant differences (p>0.05). The days of hospital stays in the EEN and in the TPN group were up to 12.2 ± 2.5 d vs 14.9 ± 2.9 d (pgastric cancer.

  3. Preformulation Studies for Generic Omeprazole Magnesium Enteric Coated Tablets

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    C. O. Migoha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preformulation is an important step in the rational formulation of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API. Micromeritics properties: bulk density (BD and tapped density (TD, compressibility index (Carr’s index, Hauser’s ratio (H, and sieve analysis were performed in order to determine the best excipients to be used in the formulation development of omeprazole magnesium enteric coated tablets. Results show that omeprazole magnesium has fair flow and compressibility properties (BD 0.4 g/mL, TD 0.485 g/mL, Carr’s index 17.5%, Hauser’s ratio 1.2, and sieve analysis time 5 minutes. There were no significant drug excipient interactions except change in colour in all three conditions in the mixture of omeprazole and aerosil 200. Moisture content loss on drying in all three conditions was not constant and the changes were attributed to surrounding environment during the test time. Changes in the absorption spectra were noted in the mixture of omeprazole and water aerosil only in the visible region of 350–2500 nm. Omeprazole magnesium alone and with all excipients showed no significant changes in omeprazole concentration for a 30-day period. Omeprazole magnesium formulation complies with USP standards with regards to the fineness, flowability, and compressibility of which other excipients can be used in the formulation.

  4. Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy in the Enteral Feeding of the Elderly

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    Huan-Lin Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Today we are faced with an aging society that may develop malnutrition because of dysphagia related to dementia, stroke, and malignancy seen often in the elderly. The preferred form of nutritional supplementation for this group is enteral nutrition, and the most appropriate long-term method is by use of a gastrostomy. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG was first introduced in 1980 as an alternative to the traditional operative procedure and rapidly became the preferred procedure. In geriatric patients, the principal indications are neurological dysphagia and malnutrition, related to an underlying disease or anorexia-cachexia in very elderly. PEG is contraindicated in the presence of respiratory distress, previous gastric resection, total esophageal obstruction, coagulation disorders and sepsis in the elderly. Common complications include wound infection, leakage, hemorrhage, and fistula in the general population, but aspiration pneumonia is the major case of death in this group. Risks and complications of PEG must be discussed with patients and their families; and the decision for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion should only be made after careful consideration and discussion between managing physicians, allied health professionals, and the patient and/or family. Four ethical principles may help make feeding decisions: beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice. Attentive long-term care after tube replacement is mandatory. Acceptance of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement by patients and their families tends to increase once favorable outcomes are offered.

  5. Surgical aspects of radiation enteritis of the small bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobbes, T.; Verschueren, R.C.; Lubbers, E.J.; Jansen, W.; Paping, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Injury to the small bowel is one of the tragic complications of radiotherapy. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients operated upon for stenosis, perforation, fistulization, and chronic blood loss of the small bowel after radiotherapy for multiple malignant diseases. In the period 1970 to 1982 in the Department of General Surgery of the St. Radboud University Hospital, Nijmegen, and the Department of Surgical Oncology of the State University, Groningen, 27 patients were treated surgically. Twenty patients presented with obstruction. In 17 patients a side-to-side ileotransversostomy was performed; in three the injured bowel was resected. Of the five patients with fistulization, three underwent a bypass procedure; in two cases the affected bowel was resected. In one patient with perforation, a resection was performed, as in a patient with chronic blood loss. Two of the 20 patients (10 per cent) in whom the diseased bowel was bypassed died postoperatively. Of the seven patients whose affected bowel was resected four (57 per cent) died of intra-abdominal sepsis. Management of the patient with chronic radiation enteritis is discussed. We conclude, on the basis of our experience, that in patients with obstruction and fistulization, a bypass procedure of the affected bowel is a safe method of treatment. In case of resection, the anastomosis should be performed during a second operation

  6. Rationale of azithromycin prescribing practices for enteric fever in India

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    S Rai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study was performed to assess the current susceptibility pattern of blood isolates of Salmonella spp from a super specialty hospital in North India against nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin and compare the in vitro and in vivo response against azithromycin. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the minimum inhibitory concentration′s (MIC′s of 107 blood isolates of Salmonella spp against nalidixic acid, azithromycin and ciprofloxacin and correlated in vitro and in vivo response of azithromycin from the treatment and discharge summaries from the Hospital Information System (HIS software. Results: Among the 107 isolates evaluated, 94 (87.8% were nalidixic acid-resistant (NAR Salmonella and 36 were resistant to azithromycin by MIC testing. The MIC 90 value for azithromycin was 24 μg/mL. Among the 57 treatment histories evaluated using the HIS software, 19 (33% patients had documented clinical non-response to azithromycin which required change of therapy. Conclusions: The present study observed a higher MIC 90 values for azithromycin compared to Salmonella isolates from Western studies. There was also a documented clinical non-response against azithromycin. The in vitro and in vivo findings in this study suggest a guarded use of azithromycin for cases of enteric fever in India. The study also augments the reversal of resistance pattern in favour of chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole.

  7. Enteric duplication in children: clinical presentation and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Naima; Safdar, Chaudhry Aqeel; Ahmad, Asrar; Kanwal, Shehla

    2013-06-01

    Enteric duplication (ED) is an anomaly with varied presentations and possible involvement of the alimentary tract. Once diagnosed, resection of the lesion and the involved part of the gut is usually required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical presentations, diagnostic investigations, management and outcomes of patients with ED. This was a descriptive case study conducted at the Department of Paediatric Surgery, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January 2005 to January 2011. The medical records of all patients diagnosed with ED were retrospectively analysed with respect to age, presentation, investigations, site and type of lesion, surgical procedures, histological findings and complications. A total of nine patients were managed during the study period. The patients' ages ranged from three months to five years. Four out of nine EDs were rectal duplications. Three EDs were of the cystic type, five were of the tubular type and one was a complex mixed anomaly. Patients presented with varied symptoms, with the two most common being the presence of an abdominal mass and bleeding per rectum. Diagnosis was mainly achieved based on magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, although Meckel's scan provided accurate diagnosis in three of the nine patients. All the cysts were resected without any major complications, and patients were event-free during the five-year follow-up. EDs should be kept in mind when examining patients with an abdominal mass and bleeding per rectum. Meckel's scan can provide accurate diagnosis of EDs with bleeding. Prompt diagnosis and management results in satisfactory outcomes.

  8. Surgical aspects of radiation enteritis of the small bowel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wobbes, T.; Verschueren, R.C.; Lubbers, E.J.; Jansen, W.; Paping, R.H.

    1984-02-01

    Injury to the small bowel is one of the tragic complications of radiotherapy. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients operated upon for stenosis, perforation, fistulization, and chronic blood loss of the small bowel after radiotherapy for multiple malignant diseases. In the period 1970 to 1982 in the Department of General Surgery of the St. Radboud University Hospital, Nijmegen, and the Department of Surgical Oncology of the State University, Groningen, 27 patients were treated surgically. Twenty patients presented with obstruction. In 17 patients a side-to-side ileotransversostomy was performed; in three the injured bowel was resected. Of the five patients with fistulization, three underwent a bypass procedure; in two cases the affected bowel was resected. In one patient with perforation, a resection was performed, as in a patient with chronic blood loss. Two of the 20 patients (10 per cent) in whom the diseased bowel was bypassed died postoperatively. Of the seven patients whose affected bowel was resected four (57 per cent) died of intra-abdominal sepsis. Management of the patient with chronic radiation enteritis is discussed. We conclude, on the basis of our experience, that in patients with obstruction and fistulization, a bypass procedure of the affected bowel is a safe method of treatment. In case of resection, the anastomosis should be performed during a second operation.

  9. Causal events enter awareness faster than non-causal events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Moors

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Philosophers have long argued that causality cannot be directly observed but requires a conscious inference (Hume, 1967. Albert Michotte however developed numerous visual phenomena in which people seemed to perceive causality akin to primary visual properties like colour or motion (Michotte, 1946. Michotte claimed that the perception of causality did not require a conscious, deliberate inference but, working over 70 years ago, he did not have access to the experimental methods to test this claim. Here we employ Continuous Flash Suppression (CFS—an interocular suppression technique to render stimuli invisible (Tsuchiya & Koch, 2005—to test whether causal events enter awareness faster than non-causal events. We presented observers with ‘causal’ and ‘non-causal’ events, and found consistent evidence that participants become aware of causal events more rapidly than non-causal events. Our results suggest that, whilst causality must be inferred from sensory evidence, this inference might be computed at low levels of perceptual processing, and does not depend on a deliberative conscious evaluation of the stimulus. This work therefore supports Michotte’s contention that, like colour or motion, causality is an immediate property of our perception of the world.

  10. In vivo transplantation of enteric neural crest cells into mouse gut; Engraftment, functional integration and long-term safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Cooper (Julie E.); C. Mccann; D. Natarajan (Dipa); S. Choudhury; W. Boesmans (Werend); J.-M. Delalande (Jean-Marie); P.V. Berghe (Pieter Vanden); A.J. Burns (Alan); N. Thapar (Nikhil)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: Enteric neuropathies are severe gastrointestinal disorders with unsatisfactory outcomes. We aimed to investigate the potential of enteric neural stem cell therapy approaches for such disorders by transplanting mouse enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) into ganglionic and

  11. Online handwritten mathematical expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükbayrak, Hakan; Yanikoglu, Berrin; Erçil, Aytül

    2007-01-01

    We describe a system for recognizing online, handwritten mathematical expressions. The system is designed with a user-interface for writing scientific articles, supporting the recognition of basic mathematical expressions as well as integrals, summations, matrices etc. A feed-forward neural network recognizes symbols which are assumed to be single-stroke and a recursive algorithm parses the expression by combining neural network output and the structure of the expression. Preliminary results show that writer-dependent recognition rates are very high (99.8%) while writer-independent symbol recognition rates are lower (75%). The interface associated with the proposed system integrates the built-in recognition capabilities of the Microsoft's Tablet PC API for recognizing textual input and supports conversion of hand-drawn figures into PNG format. This enables the user to enter text, mathematics and draw figures in a single interface. After recognition, all output is combined into one LATEX code and compiled into a PDF file.

  12. Enteral immunonutrition versus enteral nutrition for gastric cancer patients undergoing a total gastrectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhang, Liwei; Wu, Juan; Zhan, Zhen

    2018-01-16

    Nutrition support is a common means for patients with gastric cancer, especially for those undergoing elective surgery. Recently, enteral immunonutrition (EIN) was increasingly found to be more effective than enteral nutrition (EN) in enhancing the host immunity and eventually improving the prognosis of gastric cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy. However, the results reported were not consistent. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the impact of EIN for patients with GC on biochemical, immune indices and clinical outcomes. Four electronical databases (Medline, EMBASE, Scopus and Cochrane library) were used to search articles in peer-reviewed, English-language journals. Mean difference (MD), Relative risk (RR), or standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Heterogeneity was assessed by Cochrane Q and I 2 statistic combined with corresponding P-value. The analysis was carried out with RevMan 5.3. Seven studies involving 583 patients were eligible for the pooled analysis. EIN, when beyond a 7-day time-frame post-operatively (D ≥ 7), increased level of CD4 + (SMD = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.65-1.33; P SMD = 0.34; 95% CI, 0.02-0.67; P = 0.04), the IgM (SMD = 1.15; 95% CI, 0.11-2.20; P = 0.03), the IgG (SMD = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.55-1.42; P SMD = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.32-1.06; P = 0.0003), and the proalbumin (SMD = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.33-1.14; P = 0.0004). However, those increased effects were not obvious within a 7-day time-frame post-operatively (D infection and length of hospitalization (LHS) were not improved no matter what time after surgery. EIN was found to improve the cellular immunity, modulate inflammatory reaction and reduce postoperative complication for GC patients undergoing radical gastrointestinal surgery. Exclusion of grey literature and non-English language studies was the key limitation in this study.

  13. Abdominal and pelvic CT: is positive enteric contrast still necessary? Results of a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, S; Höink, A J; Wessling, J; Heinzow, H; Koch, R; Schuelke, C; Heindel, W; Buerke, B

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of abdominal CT depending on the type of enteric contrast agent. Multislice CTs of 2,008 patients with different types of oral preparation (positive with barium, n = 576; neutral with water, n = 716; and no enteric contrast, n = 716) were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists including delineation of intestinal segments and influence on diagnosis and diagnostic reliability exerted by the enteric contrast, using a three-point scale. Furthermore, diagnostic reliability of the delineation of selected enteric pathologies was noted. CT data were assigned into groups: oncology, inflammation, vascular, pathology, trauma and gastrointestinal pathology. Delineation of the bowel was clearly practicable across all segments irrespective of the type of enteric contrast, though a slight impairment was observed without enteric contrast. Although delineation of intestinal pathologies was mostly classified "clearly delimitable" more difficulties occurred without oral contrast (neutral/positive/no contrast, 0.8 %/3.8 %/6.5 %). Compared to examinations without enteric contrast, there was a significant improvement in diagnosis that was even increased regarding the reader's diagnostic reliability. Positive opacification impaired detection of mucosal enhancement or intestinal bleeding. Water can replace positive enteric contrast agents in abdominal CTs. However, selected clinical questions require individual enteric contrast preparations. Pathology detection is noticeably impaired without any enteric contrast.

  14. Abdominal and pelvic CT: is positive enteric contrast still necessary? Results of a retrospective observational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammerer, S.; Hoeink, A.J.; Wessling, J.; Schuelke, C.; Heindel, W.; Buerke, B. [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Heinzow, H. [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolic Diseases, Muenster (Germany); Koch, R. [University Muenster, Institute of Biostatistics and Clinical Research, Muenster (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of abdominal CT depending on the type of enteric contrast agent. Multislice CTs of 2,008 patients with different types of oral preparation (positive with barium, n = 576; neutral with water, n = 716; and no enteric contrast, n = 716) were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists including delineation of intestinal segments and influence on diagnosis and diagnostic reliability exerted by the enteric contrast, using a three-point scale. Furthermore, diagnostic reliability of the delineation of selected enteric pathologies was noted. CT data were assigned into groups: oncology, inflammation, vascular, pathology, trauma and gastrointestinal pathology. Delineation of the bowel was clearly practicable across all segments irrespective of the type of enteric contrast, though a slight impairment was observed without enteric contrast. Although delineation of intestinal pathologies was mostly classified ''clearly delimitable'' more difficulties occurred without oral contrast (neutral/positive/no contrast, 0.8 %/3.8 %/6.5 %). Compared to examinations without enteric contrast, there was a significant improvement in diagnosis that was even increased regarding the reader's diagnostic reliability. Positive opacification impaired detection of mucosal enhancement or intestinal bleeding. Water can replace positive enteric contrast agents in abdominal CTs. However, selected clinical questions require individual enteric contrast preparations. Pathology detection is noticeably impaired without any enteric contrast. circle Neutral oral contrast ensures an equivalent delineation of the bowel. (orig.)

  15. Modulation of Immunological Pathways in Autistic and Neurotypical Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines by the Enteric Microbiome Metabolite Propionic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Richard E; Nankova, Bistra; Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Rose, Shannon; Bennuri, Sirish C; MacFabe, Derrick F

    2017-01-01

    Propionic acid (PPA) is a ubiquitous short-chain fatty acid which is a fermentation product of the enteric microbiome and present or added to many foods. While PPA has beneficial effects, it is also associated with human disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We previously demonstrated that PPA modulates mitochondrial dysfunction differentially in subsets of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from patients with ASD. Specifically, PPA significantly increases mitochondrial function in LCLs that have mitochondrial dysfunction at baseline [individuals with autistic disorder with atypical mitochondrial function (AD-A) LCLs] as compared to ASD LCLs with normal mitochondrial function [individuals with autistic disorder with normal mitochondrial function (AD-N) LCLs] and control (CNT) LCLs. PPA at 1 mM was found to have a minimal effect on expression of immune genes in CNT and AD-N LCLs. However, as hypothesized, Panther analysis demonstrated that 1 mM PPA exposure at 24 or 48 h resulted in significant activation of the immune system genes in AD-A LCLs. When the effect of PPA on ASD LCLs were compared to the CNT LCLs, both ASD groups demonstrated immune pathway activation, although the AD-A LCLs demonstrate a wider activation of immune genes. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified several immune-related pathways as key Canonical Pathways that were differentially regulated, specifically human leukocyte antigen expression and immunoglobulin production genes were upregulated. These data demonstrate that the enteric microbiome metabolite PPA can evoke atypical immune activation in LCLs with an underlying abnormal metabolic state. As PPA, as well as enteric bacteria which produce PPA, have been implicated in a wide variety of diseases which have components of immune dysfunction, including ASD, diabetes, obesity, and inflammatory diseases, insight into this metabolic modulator may have wide applications for both health and disease.

  16. Hospital-based surveillance of enteric parasites in Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Mrinmoy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of illness and death in developing countries and the second commonest cause of death due to infectious diseases among children under five in such countries. Parasites, as well as bacterial and viral pathogens, are important causes of diarrhoea. However, parasitic infections are sometimes overlooked, leading after a period of time to an uncertain aetiology. In this paper we report the prevalence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium sp. in and around Kolkata. Findings A hospital-based laboratory surveillance study was conducted among the patients admitted between November 2007 and October 2008 to the Infectious Diseases (ID Hospital (Population = 1103 with diarrhoeal complaints. Of the 1103 samples collected, 147 were positive for Giardia lamblia, 84 for Cryptosporidium sp. and 51 for Entamoeba histolytica. For all these parasites there was a high rate of mixed infection with common enteric viruses and bacteria such as Rotavirus, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella sp. There were also cases of co-infection with all other diarrheogenic pathogens. The age group ≥ 5 years had the highest prevalence of parasites whereas the age group >5 – 10 years was predominantly infected with Giardia lamblia (p =10 – 20 years could also be considered at risk for G. lamblia (p = 0.009; OR = 2.231; 95% CI = 1.223 – 4.067. Month-wise occurrence data showed an endemic presence of G. lamblia whereas Cryptosporidium sp. and E. histolytica occurred sporadically. The GIS study revealed that parasites were more prevalent in areas such as Tangra, Tiljala and Rajarhat, which are mainly slum areas. Because most of the population surveyed was in the lower income group, consumption of contaminated water and food could be the major underlying cause of parasitic infestations. Conclusion This study provides important information on the occurrence and distribution of three important intestinal

  17. Digital diffractive optics: Have diffractive optics entered mainstream industry yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Bernard; Hejmadi, Vic

    2010-05-01

    When a new technology is integrated into industry commodity products and consumer electronic devices, and sold worldwide in retail stores, it is usually understood that this technology has then entered the realm of mainstream technology and therefore mainstream industry. Such a leap however does not come cheap, as it has a double edge sword effect: first it becomes democratized and thus massively developed by numerous companies for various applications, but also it becomes a commodity, and thus gets under tremendous pressure to cut down its production and integration costs while not sacrificing to performance. We will show, based on numerous examples extracted from recent industry history, that the field of Diffractive Optics is about to undergo such a major transformation. Such a move has many impacts on all facets of digital diffractive optics technology, from the optical design houses to the micro-optics foundries (for both mastering and volume replication), to the final product integrators or contract manufacturers. The main causes of such a transformation are, as they have been for many other technologies in industry, successive technological bubbles which have carried and lifted up diffractive optics technology within the last decades. These various technological bubbles have been triggered either by real industry needs or by virtual investment hype. Both of these causes will be discussed in the paper. The adjective ""digital"" in "digital diffractive optics" does not refer only, as it is done in digital electronics, to the digital functionality of the element (digital signal processing), but rather to the digital way they are designed (by a digital computer) and fabricated (as wafer level optics using digital masking techniques). However, we can still trace a very strong similarity between the emergence of micro-electronics from analog electronics half a century ago, and the emergence of digital optics from conventional optics today.

  18. Molecular and Genomic Characterization of Enteric Pathogens Circulating during Hajj

    KAUST Repository

    Alsomali, Mona

    2016-05-01

    Hajj, the annual Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia is a unique mass gathering event that attracts approximately 3 million pilgrims from around the globe. This diverse pilgrim population coupled with the nature of the performed activities raise major public health concerns in the host country with potential global implications. Although gastroenteritis and diarrhea are common among the pilgrims performing Hajj, the microbial etiologies of these infections are still unknown. We used molecular and antigenic approaches to identify the main pathogens associated with Hajj diarrhea. 544 fecal samples from pilgrims suffering from diarrhea whilst performing Hajj during three consecutive seasons (2011-2013) and 99 control samples from 2011 were screened for 16 pathogens that include bacterial, parasitic and viral etiologies that are commonly associated with diarrheal infections. At least one of the screened pathogens could be detected in 42% (n=228) of the samples from the diarrheal cases. Bacteria were the main agents detected in 83% (n=189) of the positive samples, followed by viral and parasitic agents detected in 6% (n=14) and 5% (n=12) respectively. We have also standardized a 16S-based metagenomic approach to identify the gut microbiome in diarrheal cases and non-diarrheal controls in 76 samples. Also, we have standardized a shotgun metagenomics protocol for the direct characterization (diagnosis) of enteric pathogens without cultivation. This approach was used successfully to identify viral (adenovirus) and bacterial causes of Enterotoxigenic E. coli diarrhea from Hajj samples. The findings in this study fill in clear gaps in our knowledge of the etiologies associated with diarrheal infections during Hajj. Foodborne bacteria were the major contributors to Hajj-diarrheal infections. This was coupled with the increased incidences of antimicrobial resistance loci associated with the identified bacteria. These findings would help the public health policy makers to

  19. Moments of greatness: entering the fundamental state of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Robert E

    2005-01-01

    When we do our best work as leaders, we don't imitate others. Rather, we draw on our own values and capabilities. We enter what author Robert Quinn calls the fundamental state of leadership. This is a frame of mind we tend to adopt when facing a significant challenge: a promotion opportunity, the risk of professional failure, a serious illness, a divorce, the death of a loved one, or any other major life jolt. Crisis calls, and we rise to the occasion. But we don't need to spend time in the dark night of the soul to reach this fundamental state. We can make the shift at any time by asking ourselves-and honestly answering--four transformative questions: Am I results centered? (Am I willing to leave my comfort zone to make things happen?) Am I internally directed? (Am I behaving according to my values rather than bending to social or political pressures?) Am I other focused? (Am I putting the collective good above my own needs?) Am I externally open? (Am I receptive to outside stimuli that may signal the need for change?) When we can answer these questions in the affirmative, we're prepared to lead in the truest sense. Of course, we can't sustain the fundamental state of leadership indefinitely. Fatigue and external resistance pull us out of it. But each time we reach it, we then return to our everyday selves a bit more capable, and we usually boost the performance of the people around us. Over time, we create a high-performance culture--and that can be sustained.

  20. CT finding of secondary aorto-enteric fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacchini, Simona; Nicoletti, Roberto; Ghio, Domenica; Martinenghi, Carlo Maria Andrea; Del Maschio, Alessandro; Chiesa, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of our study was to review CT finding concerning secondary aorto-enteric fistulae (AEF). In particular, we aimed to evaluate signs of contrast medium extravasation from the aortic graft into the bowel (active bleeding), in correlation with clinical and surgical reports. Materials and methods. Clinical and CT findings were retrospectively evaluated in 13 surgically proven cases of AEF. All patients underwent spiral CT examination with biphasic contrast technique, before and 30 and 80 seconds after intravenous injection of 120-150 ml of contrast medium (Ultravist 370; flow rate 2.5-3 ml/sec). Late scans (240 seconds) were also acquired on surgical anastomoses. We used 3 mm (arterial phase) and 5 mm (venous phase slices. Results. At surgery, all patients presented a communication between the bowel and the aortic graft. At CT examination, all 13 patients presented one or more CT signs indicating AEF (perigraft soft tissue, perigraft fluid, ectopic air or bowel wall thickening). Moreover, in 6 out of 13 patients, contrast medium extravasation from the aortic graft into the small bowel (active bleeding) was detected with CT. Detection of active bleeding was possible because CT examinations were performed without oral administration of contrast medium. Conclusions. CT is easily and readily available and provides an accurate evaluation of the aorta and surrounding retroperitoneal tissues. In our study we were able to identify the CT sign of active bleeding in more than a half of the patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding (66%). Hence, we suggest that patients undergo CT examination without oral contrast medium administration in order to better appreciate the presence of active bleeding [it

  1. Antibiotic-Resistant Enteric Bacteria in Environmental Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Casanova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sources of antibiotic resistant organisms, including concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs, may lead to environmental surface and groundwater contamination with resistant enteric bacteria of public health concern. The objective of this research is to determine whether Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, and enterococci resistant to clinically relevant antibiotics are present in surface and groundwater sources in two eastern North Carolina counties, Craven and Wayne. 100 surface and groundwater sites were sampled for Salmonella, E. coli, and enterococci, and the bacteria isolated from these samples were tested for susceptibility to clinically relevant antibiotics. Salmonella were detected at low levels in some surface but not groundwater. E. coli were in surface waters but not ground in both counties. Enterococci were present in surface water and a small number of groundwater sites. Yersinia was not found. Bacterial densities were similar in both counties. For Salmonella in surface water, the most frequent type of resistance was to sulfamethoxazole. There was no ciprofloxacin resistance. There were a few surface water E. coli isolates resistant to chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and ampicillin. Enterococci in surface water had very low levels of resistance to vancomycin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and streptomycin. E. coli and enterococci are present more frequently and at higher levels in surface water than Salmonella, but groundwater contamination with any of these organisms was rare, and low levels of resistance can be found sporadically. Resistant bacteria are relatively uncommon in these eastern N.C. surface and groundwaters, but they could pose a risk of human exposure via ingestion or primary contact recreation.

  2. CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebetsroither, E.; Orthofer, R.; Strebl, F.

    2002-07-01

    This report contains the results of an inventory for methane (CH 4 ) emissions from agricultural enteric fermentation in Austria for the period 1980-2001. Emissions were calculated according to IPCC guidelines. The detailed IPCC 'Tier 2' methodology was applied for cattle (which contribute the vast majority of emissions). The 'Tier 2' methodology relies on specific emission factors that are calculated from the energy intake for different cattle farming practices. The less detailed 'Tier 1' methodology was applied for all other animal categories. Emissions from organic and conventional farming practices were calculated separately. Results indicate that CH 4 emissions from manure management have increased from 1980 to a peak in 1984-1985, and since then have steadily declined. CH 4 emissions were about 169.300 t/yr in 'Kyoto' base year 1990 and have since declined by about 11 % to about 150.000 t/yr in 2001. Almost all emissions (95 % in 1990 and 94 % in 2001) are caused by cattle farming. The contribution of 'dairy cattle' to all emissions from cattle was 49 % in 1990, and has declined to 43 % in 2001. The overall reduction was caused mainly by a decrease in the total numbers of animals. However, in the case of dairy cows the reduction of animals is partly counterbalanced by an increase in emissions per animal (because of the increasing gross energy intake and milk production of milk cattle since 1990). Uncertainties of emissions were estimated with a 'Monte Carlo' simulation. Assuming a normal probability distribution, the calculated standard deviation is 4 %. This indicates there is a 95 % probability that CH 4 emissions are between ± 2 standard deviations, i.e. between 153.000 t and 178.000 t in the year 1990 and between 138.000 t and 162.000 t in the year 2001. (author)

  3. Enteral versus parenteral nutrition in cancer patients: evidences and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotogni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The debate over the use of enteral nutrition (EN) and parenteral nutrition (PN) is an old but evergreen and hot topic. Since many years, studies comparing EN and PN have been a pivotal 'leitmotif' in the published literature on artificial nutrition (AN). Actually, there is a background misunderstanding in this debate; specifically, that EN and PN are competitors in the choice of the route for delivering nutrition support in cancer patients. Conversely, EN and PN have specific indications and contraindications. This review has the purpose to discuss the indications and complications as well as pros and cons of EN and PN in cancer patients, the crucial role of nutrition support in oncology patients during anticancer treatments and throughout the course of disease, and, finally, the role of AN in advanced cancer patients. In summary, we have no evidence-based data able to definitively indicate the optimal method for delivering AN in cancer patients. EN and PN have to be considered equally effective in maintaining or improving nutritional status in cancer patients. Besides, this review strongly supports the recommendation that a baseline nutritional assessment should be carried out by a healthcare professional expert in AN for all cancer patients at the time of diagnosis or anticancer treatment plan, taking the nutritional status, estimated duration of AN, AN-related potential benefits and possible complications into consideration on an individual basis. Moreover, the patient symptoms, performance status, estimated life expectancy, and mainly, will or preferences have to be evaluated and incorporated into the nutrition support plan before the definitive choice of the route for delivering nutrients is decided. Finally, applying a decision-making process tailored to patient needs-regardless of whether receiving or not anticancer treatment-allows to choose reasonably the optimal nutritional support strategy.

  4. Survey of Enteric Pathogens Causing Bacteremia in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enayatollah Kalantar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Symptomatic bacteraemia, is a frequent condition among cancer patients with a significant morbidity and mortality all over the world. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the burden of enteric pathogens causing bacteremia among cancer patients. Patients and Methods: Ten ml blood samples were withdrawn from the cancer patients under aseptic conditions. The blood specimens were added to the blood culture bottles and incubated at 37°C. The bacterial isolates from these samples were identified by routine biochemical reactions. Results: During the study period, 68 blood samples from cancer patients were analyzed for bacteremia. Of these patients, six were female (08/82% and 62 were male (91.18%; with age ranging from under 40 years to 85 years old (mean, 63 years. Gastro-intestinal cancer and cancers of head and neck were the most frequent cancer types in the studied group, accounting for 51 (75% and 15 (22.1% cases, respectively. The mean weight of patients was 69.18 Kg (range: 49-100 Kg. Similarly, the mean length of hospital stay was 8 days (range: 4-12 days. Positive blood cultures were detected in only 12 (17.65% and 11 (91.7% blood specimens from the Cancer Institute, Tehran, compared with one (08.33% from Shahid Kamali hospital, Karaj. From these patients, 15 bacteria were isolated; E. coli alone outnumbered other species and accounted for 33.33% of the episodes of bacteremia. Conclusions: In conclusion, our investigation revealed that cancers of GI tract are the most common cancer types causing bacteremia and also we identified that most common bacteria causing bacteremia in Cancer Institute, Tehran and Shahid Kamali Hospital, Karaj, are E. coli and S. aureus

  5. Interleukin-1 beta activates specific populations of enteric neurons and enteric glia in the guinea pig ileum and colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjwa, ETTL; Bradley, JM; Keenan, CM; Kroese, ABA; Sharkey, KA

    2003-01-01

    Fos expression was used to assess whether the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) activated specific, chemically coded neuronal populations in isolated preparations of guinea pig ileum and colon. Whether the effects of IL-1beta were mediated through a prostaglandin pathway and

  6. Non-coding RNAs enter mitosis: functions, conservation and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Pek, Jun Wei; Kai, Toshie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nuage (or commonly known as chromatoid body in mammals) is a conserved germline-specific organelle that has been linked to the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway. piRNAs are a class of gonadal-specific RNAs that are ~23-29 nucleotides in length and protect genome stability by repressing the expression of deleterious retrotransposons. More recent studies in Drosophila have implicated the piRNA pathway in other functions including canalization of embryonic development, regulation of ...

  7. Comparison of canine parvovirus with mink enteritis virus by restriction site mapping.

    OpenAIRE

    McMaster, G K; Tratschin, J D; Siegl, G

    1981-01-01

    The genomes of canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus were compared by restriction enzyme analysis of their replicative-form DNAs. Of 79 mapped sites, 68, or 86%, were found to be common for both types of DNA, indicating that canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus are closely related viruses. Whether they evolved from a common precursor or whether canine parvovirus is derived from mink enteritis virus, however, cannot be deduced from our present data.

  8. Critical Analysis of the Factors Associated with Enteral Feeding in Preventing VAP: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Chih Chen

    2009-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common cause of morbidity in critically ill patients. Appropriate enteral feeding is the most important factor associated with the prevention of VAP. However, the standardization of enteral feeding methods needs clarification. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the factors associated with enteral feeding in order to prevent VAP and to describe the characteristics of these factors. A comprehensive search was undertaken involving a...

  9. Problems experienced by women re-entering into the education profession / Melanie Beyers

    OpenAIRE

    Beyers, Melanie

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated problems experienced by women re-entering into the education profession by focusing on: • The nature and scope of re-entry by women into the education profession; • the features and problems experienced by women on re-entering the education profession; • the problems women educators experience on re-entering the education profession in the North West Province. To achieve these goals, both an empirical survey and a survey of literature was conducted. The study...

  10. Natural Art, False Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Hernando Nossa García

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the documentary My Kid Could Paint That, directed by Bar-Lev, which deals with Marla Olmstead, the child prodigy of painting, several interviews with persons in the art world are conducted, among them an artist who uses a magnifying glass and the thinnest brushes to do his work. This man, although happy for the success of the child’s abstract paintings, saw in the whole spectacle a mockery of art, and stood firmly by her work. The girl’s father, also an artist, was accused of plagiarism. Cameras entered the child’s studio in order to prove that Marla was the real artist. Why should such relevance be given to authorship? What is the cause of the dispute between the expressive and the rational?

  11. Effectiveness of the herbal medicine daikenchuto for radiation-induced enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Takashi; Kamiura, Shouji; Kimura, Tadashi

    2008-07-01

    Radiation-induced enteritis is a serious clinical problem for which there is currently no recommended standard management. Daikenchuto (DKT) is a Japanese herbal medicine that has been used to treat adhesive bowel obstruction in Japan. This report describes a patient with radiation-induced enteritis whose clinical symptoms were much improved by treatment with DKT. The patient was administered DKT, a traditional Japanese herbal formula, orally (2.5 g 3 times daily). Abdominal distention was evaluated objectively with computed tomography. Gastrointestinal symptoms associated with radiation-induced enteritis were controlled successfully with DKT treatment. DKT treatment may be useful for the management of radiation-induced enteritis.

  12. Comparison of Intermittent and Bolus Enteral Feeding Methods on Enteral Feeding Intolerance of Patients with Sepsis: A Triple-blind Controlled Trial in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Morteza; Farsi, Zahra; Ahangari, Mojtaba; Dadgari, Fahimeh

    2017-10-01

    BACKGROUND Recent trials have shown controversial results on which enteral feeding methods has a lower risk of enteral feeding intolerance. Therefore, we aimed to compare two methods of bolus and intermittent feeding on enteral feeding intolerance of patients with sepsis. METHODS This triple-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on 60 patients with sepsis, who were fed through tubes for at least 3 days. The patients were randomly assigned into bolus feeding, intermittent feeding, and control groups. Enteral feeding intolerance of all patients was recorded in 3 consecutive days by a researcher-made checklist including the data on gastric residual volume, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal distension. RESULTS There were no significant differences between the three studied groups in none of the intervention days pertaining to constipation, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal distention, and gastric residual volume ( p > 0.05). Also, no statistically significant difference was found between all variables in the three studied groups during the 3 days ( p > 0.05). CONCLUSION As enteral feeding intolerance of patients with sepsis was similar in both bolus and intermittent feeding methods, it can be concluded that bolus method can still be used as a standard method to decrease the risk of enteral feeding intolerance if it is used properly.

  13. Preparedness and Practice Management Skills of Graduating Dental Students Entering the Work Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Manakil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental education aims to produce competent graduates with the ability to provide quality care to the patients and facilitate the smooth integration into professional practice. The objective of this study was to explore the overall preparedness of graduands for integrating into professional practice. The survey was tested for reliability and analysed the career paths, learning preferences, overall knowledge, and confidence amongst graduating dentists in integrating and managing a dental practice on graduation. Sixty-nine students (89.6% in age group of 20–50 years participated in the study. Students indicated a high level of confidence in their skills and ability to work in a team in a practice or collaboratively with other colleagues and specialists but expressed some reservation on their practice management skills (73.1%. Challenges in gaining employment and pressures to repay educational debts are amongst the reasons for graduands preferring a paid job immediately on graduation regardless of demographics. Students indicated that an increase in speciality training and clinical/outreach placements could enhance employability. This study explores the students’ perception of their confidences, knowledge, learning preferences, and practice management skills as a method of evaluating their preparedness to practice on graduation and provides a base line for curriculum structuring to prepare graduands to enter the competitive dental work force.

  14. Efficient Strategy to Generate a Vectored Duck Enteritis Virus Delivering Envelope of Duck Tembusu Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV is a recently emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has resulted in a huge economic loss in the duck industry. However, no vaccine is currently available to control this pathogen. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against this pathogen should be determined. In this study, duck enteritis virus (DEV was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the envelope (E of DTMUV. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the SORF3 and US2 gene junctions of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE. The envelope (E gene of DTMUV was inserted into the C-KCE genome through the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC strategy, resulting in the recombinant vector, pBAC-C-KCE-E. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-E was generated by eliminating the BAC backbone. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis results indicated that the E proteins were vigorously expressed in C-KCE-E-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs. Duck experiments demonstrated that the insertion of the E gene did not alter the protective efficacy of C-KCE. Moreover, C-KCE-E-immunized ducks induced neutralization antibodies against DTMUV. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant C-KCE-E can serve as a potential bivalent vaccine against DEV and DTMUV.

  15. Substance P immunoreactivity in the enteric nervous system in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, K; Reyes, C; Chakraborty, S; Antalffy, B; Glaze, D; Armstrong, D

    2001-12-01

    Rett syndrome is associated with profound mental retardation and motor disability in girls. It has a characteristic clinical phenotype which includes abnormalities of the autonomic nervous system. Feeding impairment and severe constipation are two symptoms of this autonomic dysfunction. Substance P, an important peptide in the autonomic nervous system, is decreased in the cerebrospinal fluid of Rett syndrome. We have demonstrated that substance P immunoreactivity is significantly decreased in Rett syndrome brain-stem and may be related to the autonomic dysfunction. In this study, we have continued the investigation of substance P in the enteric nervous system. We immunohistochemically examined the normal developing bowel in 22 controls (ages, 14 gestational weeks to 31 years) using formalin fixed tissue, with antibodies to substance P, tyrosine hydroxylase and vasoactive intestinal peptide. We compared the immunoreactivity of normal controls with 14 cases of Rett syndrome (ages, 5-41 years) and observed that the expression of substance P, tyrosine hydroxylase and vasoactive intestinal peptide immunoreactivity in the bowel in Rett syndrome was not significantly different from that of controls. This suggests that the feeding impairment and constipation in Rett syndrome relate to dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system originating outside of the bowel, in the brain-stem, as suggested by our previous study.

  16. Clinical Onset of Celiac Disease after an Episode of Campylobacter jejuni Enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EF Verdu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes a young woman with no previous gastrointestinal complaints who was initially diagnosed with postinfective irritable bowel syndrome (IBS after a confirmed case of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis. However, because of persistent diarrhea, new-onset bloating and the development of iron and vitamin deficiencies, serological markers for celiac disease (CD were evaluated. A positive tissue transglutaminase immunoglobulin A antibody test and repeat endoscopy with duodenal biopsy showing a Marsh IIIa lesion confirmed the diagnosis of CD. Infectious gastroenteritis is a well-established risk factor for the development of IBS, and there is recent evidence that it could play a role in the initiation and exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease. The present case suggests that the clinical expression of CD can be unmasked by an acute gastrointestinal infection and supports the hypothesis that environmental factors other than gliadin may play a role in the clinical onset of CD in a genetically susceptible host. The increasing availability of serological testing and upper endoscopy has led to increasingly frequent diagnoses of CD and recognition that it may mimic IBS. The present case findings suggest that CD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent IBS-like symptoms after an episode of infectious gastroenteritis.

  17. Efficacy and role of inulin in mitigation of enteric sulfur-containing odor in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuan-Fan; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Yi-Tao; Wang, Yan; Liang, Juan-Boo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito; Liao, Xin-Di

    2017-06-01

    The efficacy and role of inulin in the mitigation of enteric sulfur-containing odor gases hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and methyl mercaptan (CH 3 SH) in pigs were examined in this study. Twelve Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire male finisher pigs (60.7 ± 1.9 kg), housed individually in open-circuit respiration chambers, were randomly assigned to two dietary groups, namely basal diet (control) and basal diet supplemented with 1% (w/w) inulin. At the end of the 45 day experiment, pigs were slaughtered and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, sulfate radical (SO 4 2 - ) concentration, population of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and expression of methionine gamma-lyase (MGL) gene were determined in contents from the caecum, colon (two segments) and rectum. Metabonomic analysis was used to compare differences in biochemical composition, and the Illumina MiSeq procedure to investigate differences in bacterial components, in the different parts of the large intestine between inulin-supplemented and inulin-free (control) groups. Inulin decreased (P inulin treatment, whereas valerate concentration and MGL mRNA expression decreased (P inulin-supplemented pigs, suggesting that inulin mitigates H 2 S generation from the SO 4 2 - reduction pathway by reducing the growth of SRB. The results showed that inulin mitigates CH 3 SH generation via three methionine degradation metabolic pathways and H 2 S generation from two cysteine degradation metabolic pathways, thus resulting in increased synthesis of these two sulfur-containing amino acids in the pig large intestine. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Non-coding RNAs enter mitosis: functions, conservation and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Toshie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nuage (or commonly known as chromatoid body in mammals is a conserved germline-specific organelle that has been linked to the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA pathway. piRNAs are a class of gonadal-specific RNAs that are ~23-29 nucleotides in length and protect genome stability by repressing the expression of deleterious retrotransposons. More recent studies in Drosophila have implicated the piRNA pathway in other functions including canalization of embryonic development, regulation of maternal gene expression and telomere protection. We have recently shown that Vasa (known as Mouse Vasa Homolog in mouse, a nuage component, plays a mitotic role in promoting chromosome condensation and segregation by facilitating robust chromosomal localization of condensin I in the Drosophila germline. Vasa functions together with Aubergine (a PIWI family protein and Spindle-E/mouse TDRD-9, two other nuage components that are involved in the piRNA pathway, therefore providing a link between the piRNA pathway and mitotic chromosome condensation. Here, we propose and discuss possible models for the role of Vasa and the piRNA pathway during mitosis. We also highlight relevant studies implicating mitotic roles for RNAs and/or nuage in other model systems and their implications for cancer development.

  19. Usefulness of enteral contrast media in MR evaluation of pelvic mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hun; Kim, Jung Sik; Kim, Hong; Shon, Chul Ho; Lee, Hee Jung; Lee, Sung Moon; Woo, Sung Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1999-01-01

    To assess the value of enteral contrast media for the evaluation of pelvic masses by MR imaging. Between April and July 1998, 16 women with pelvic masses were examined by MRI. The origin of the lesion was the ovary in twelve cases, the uterus in three, and the sigmoid in one. Using a 1.5T scanner(Magnetom Vision, Siemens), T1-weighted axial spin echo(SE), T2-weighted turbo spin echo(TSE), two dimensional fast low-angle shot(FLASH 2D), and half-Fourier TSE(HASTE) images were obtained in all patients after the administration of Magnevist Enteral (Shering, Berlin, Germany). In each MR imagine sequence, distinction between the lesion and adjacent bowel (1, not distinguished; 2, partly distinguished; 3, clearly distinguished), artifact (0, absent; 1, mild; 2, severe), image quality (1, poor; 2, fair; 3, good), were compared before and after the use of enteral contrast media. Changes in MRI impression after the use of enteral contrast media were also evaluated. Two radiologists reached a consensus after reviewing the images. Statistical significance was determined by Wilcoxon's signed ranked test. For distinguishing lesions, SE T1WI and FLASH 2D with enteral contrast media were significantly superior to SE T1WI without enteral contrast media (p < 0.05). With regard to image quality, FLASH 2D and HASTE, both with enteral contrast media, were significantly superior to SE T1WI and TSE T2WI, respectively, both without enteral contrast media (p < 0.05). Artefacts were more frequently found after the application of enteral contrast media in conventional sequences but were not present in breathhold sequences. In two patients, MRI impression changed after the application of enteral contrast media. In a limited number of cases, enteral contrast media improved lesion detection, image quality and diagnostic accuracy when breathhold fast MR imaging was applied

  20. Comparison of neutral and positive enteral contrast media for MDCT enteroclysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiyappan, Senthil Kumar; Kalra, Naveen; Sandhu, Manavjit Singh; Kochhar, Rakesh; Wig, Jai Dev; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare neutral and positive enteral contrast media for MDCT enteroclysis (MDCTE) in various small bowel diseases. Materials and methods: 40 patients with suspicion of small bowel diseases were divided randomly into two equal groups. In one group, water was used as neutral enteral contrast and in other group, 2% water soluble iodinated contrast was used as positive enteral contrast. All MDCTE were done on a 16-slice multidetector row CT unit. The findings of MDCTE were compared with the standards of reference. Results: There were 12 cases of abdominal tuberculosis (30%), 5 cases of bowel masses (12%), 4 cases of Crohn's disease (10%), 3 cases of small bowel adhesions (7%), 2 cases of midgut volvulus (5%), 2 cases of segmental enteritis (5%) and 12 of all cases (30%) were normal. There was no statistically significant difference between neutral and positive enteral contrast with regards to bowel distention, contrast reflux and evaluation of duodenum. Abnormal bowel wall enhancement was appreciated only with use of neutral enteral contrast (n = 12). Evaluation of ileocaecal junction was possible in all 20 patients (100%) with positive enteral contrast but in only 17 patients (85%) with neutral enteral contrast. Overall sensitivity and specificity of MDCTE with use of neutral contrast medium (100 and 88% respectively) was greater for evaluation of small bowel diseases, when compared to MDCTE using positive enteral contrast medium (92.8 and 83.3% respectively). Conclusions: Water is a good enteral contrast medium for MDCT enteroclysis examination and allows better evaluation of abnormal bowel wall enhancement. Ileocaecal junction evaluation is better with positive enteral contrast medium.

  1. Low Triiodothyronine Syndrome in Patients With Radiation Enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shengxian; Ni, Xiaodong; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Yongliang; Tao, Shen; Chen, Mimi; Li, Yousheng; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The implications of low triiodothyronine syndrome (LT3S) in patients with radiation enteritis (RE) have not been properly investigated. As such, we conducted this cohort study to investigate the association between LT3S and RE, to explore the etiology of LT3S in RE, to evaluate the clinical features and clinical outcomes of LT3S patients, and to inspect the correlation of clinical variables and LT3S in RE. This prospective study included 39 RE patients. Medical records and various laboratory parameters (including thyroidal, tumorous, nutritional, and radiotherapy variables) were collected in all participants. Our results showed that the incidence of LT3S was 84.6% in patients with RE. Total protein (71.7 ± 5.7 vs 63.2 ± 9.6 g/L, P = 0.04) and albumin (ALB, 46.0 ± 4.6 vs 38.7 ± 5.3 g/L, P = 0.01) were significantly lower in LT3S group compared with those in euthyroid group. Standard thyroid-stimulating hormone index (−0.89 ± 2.11 vs −2.39 ± 1.33, P = 0.03) and sum activity of deiodinases (19.74 ± 4.19 vs 12.55 ± 4.32 nmol/L, P = 0.01) were significantly lower in LT3S group. Patients with LT3S suffered longer duration of hospitalization (48.25 ± 23.29 days in LT3S vs 26.75 ± 10.56 days in euthyroid, P = 0.036). Low serum ALB (β = 0.694, 95% CI = 0.007–0.190, P = 0.037) was the only significant predictor of LT3S. LT3S was common in RE patients. A hypodeiodination condition and a potential pituitary-thyrotroph dysfunction might play a role in the pathophysiology of LT3S in RE. Worse nutritional status and clinical outcomes were confirmed in RE patients with LT3S. Furthermore, total protein and ALB were observed as protective and differentiating parameters of LT3S in RE. In summary, this was the 1st investigation to evaluate the clinical correlation between RE and LT3S, investigate the prevalence of LT3S in RE, and explore the pathogenesis of LT3S, despite the

  2. Enteric Pathogen Survival Varies Substantially in Irrigation Water from Belgian Lettuce Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Linden, Inge; Cottyn, Bart; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Berkvens, Nick; Vlaemynck, Geertrui; Heyndrickx, Marc; Maes, Martine

    2014-01-01

    It is accepted that irrigation water is a potential carrier of enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 and, therefore, a source for contamination of fresh produce. We tested this by comparing irrigation water samples taken from five different greenhouses in Belgium. The water samples were inoculated with four zoonotic strains, two Salmonella and two E. coli O157:H7 strains, and pathogen survival and growth in the water were monitored up till 14 days. The influence of water temperature and chemical water quality was evaluated, and the survival tests were also performed in water samples from which the resident aquatic microbiota had previously been eliminated by filter sterilization. The pathogen’s survival differed greatly in the different irrigation waters. Three water samples contained nutrients to support important growth of the pathogens, and another enabled weaker growth. However, for all, growth was only observed in the samples that did not contain the resident aquatic microbiota. In the original waters with their specific water biota, pathogen levels declined. The same survival tendencies existed in water of 4 °C and 20 °C, although always more expressed at 20 °C. Low water temperatures resulted in longer pathogen survival. Remarkably, the survival capacity of two E. coli 0157:H7 strains differed, while Salmonella Thompson and Salmonella Typhimurium behaved similarly. The pathogens were also transferred to detached lettuce leaves, while suspended in two of the water samples or in a buffer. The effect of the water sample on the pathogen’s fitness was also reproduced on the leaves when stored at 100% relative humidity. Inoculation of the suspension in buffer or in one of the water samples enabled epiphytic growth and survival, while the pathogen level in the other water sample decreased once loaded on the leaves. Our results show that irrigation waters from different origin may have a different capacity to transmit enteric pathogens and

  3. Enteric neurospheres are not specific to neural crest cultures : Implications for neural stem cell therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binder, E. (Ellen); D. Natarajan (Dipa); J.E. Cooper (Julie E.); Kronfli, R. (Rania); Cananzi, M. (Mara); J.-M. Delalande (Jean-Marie); C. Mccann; A.J. Burns (Alan); N. Thapar (Nikhil)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjectives Enteric neural stem cells provide hope of curative treatment for enteric neuropathies. Current protocols for their harvesting from humans focus on the generation of 'neurospheres' from cultures of dissociated gut tissue. The study aims to better understand the derivation,

  4. Heritability for enteric methane emission from Danish Holstein cows using a non-invasive FTIR method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jan; Løvendahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Enteric methane emission from ruminants contributes substantially to the greenhouse effect. Few studies have focused on the genetic variation in enteric methane emission from dairy cattle. One reason for that is the limited number of methods appropriate for large scale phenotyping to measure...

  5. 78 FR 9720 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States Duty Free AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... or Containers which enter the United States Duty Free. This is a proposed extension of an information..., or other technological techniques or other forms of information. Title: Holders or Containers which...

  6. Development of a vaccine for the prevention of hemorrhagic enteritis in turkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurk, van den J.V.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Hemorrhagic enteritis (HE) in turkeys is an acute infectious disease characterized by depression, intestinal bleeding, and death. HE occurs worldwide affecting 6 to 12 week-old turkeys and lasting 4 to 6 days. This economically important disease is caused by hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), a

  7. 9 CFR 590.26 - Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products entering or prepared in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.26 Egg products entering or prepared in official plants. Eggs and...

  8. Ability of select probiotics to reduce enteric Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne enteritis worldwide and is primarily caused by consumption/mishandling of contaminated poultry. Probiotic use in poultry has been an effective strategy in reducing many enteric pathogens, but has not demonstrated consistent reduction against Campylobac...

  9. Effect of bismuth citrate, lactose, and organic acid on necrotic enteritis in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostridium perfringens – associated necrotic enteritis causes significant losses and increased morbidity in poultry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bismuth citrate and acidifiers on the development of necrotic enteritis in broilers. The first study was a dose response t...

  10. Prediction of enteric methane production, yield, and intensity in dairy cattle using an intercontinental database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Mutian; Kebreab, Ermias; Hristov, Alexander N

    2018-01-01

    data from animals under different management systems worldwide. The objectives of this study were to (1) collate a global database of enteric CH4production from individual lactating dairy cattle; (2) determine the availability of key variables for predicting enteric CH4production (g/day per cow), yield...

  11. Phlegmonous enteritis in a patient with congestive heart failure and colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namkung, Sook; Yoo, Yoon Sik; Hwang, Im Kyung; Kim, Bong Soo; Bae, Sang Hoon; Choi, Young Hee [Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    Phlegmonous enteritis is a rare infective inflammatory disease of the intestine, predominantly involving the submucosal layer. It is difficult to diagnose and often fatal. Its association with alcoholism and various liver diseases, although rarely reported, is well documented. We report a case of phlegmonous enteritis in a male patient with congestive heart failure and colon cancer, and describe the ultrasonographic and CT findings.

  12. Comparing Entering Freshmen's Perceptions of Campus Marijuana and Alcohol Use to Reported Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.

    2009-01-01

    Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.…

  13. Path Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    Traditionally, synchronization of concurrent processes is coded in line by operations on semaphores or similar objects. Path expressions move the...discussion about a variety of synchronization primitives . An analysis of their relative power is found in [3]. Path expressions do not introduce yet...another synchronization primitive . A path expression relates to such primitives as a for- or while-statement of an ALGOL-like language relates to a JUMP

  14. Early postoperative enteral nutrition is useful for recovering gastrointestinal motility and maintaining the nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Naruo; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakayoshi, Tomoko; Hanyu, Nobuyoshi; Nakao, Masatoshi; Takeda, Akihiro; Furukawa, Yoshiyuki; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of enteral nutrition in postoperative nutritional management is known, but the effects on gastrointestinal motility and nutrition have not yet been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of enteral and parenteral nutrition soon after open abdominal surgery on gastrointestinal motility and nutritional status. A partial resection of rectum models was prepared to compare two types of nutrient administration: enteral nutrition and total parenteral nutrition. The differences between the effects of nutrition types in terms of gastrointestinal motility and nutritional status were investigated. Enteral nutrition contributed to recovery of gastrointestinal motility and maintenance of nutritional status. Enteral nutrition should therefore be initiated soon after surgery if the gastrointestinal tract is available.

  15. Principles of feeding cancer patients via enteral or parenteral nutrition during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fietkau, R.

    1998-01-01

    Background: The nutritional status of cancer patients is frequently impaired already before any therapy starts and may deteriorate even more by radio(chemo)therapy. Methods: This review describes the possibilities and risks of enteral and parenteral nutrition during radiotherapy. The indications of enteral nutrition will be derived from own results. Results: Enteral nutrition is the most preferable way of artificial long-term nutrition. In a prospective non-randomized trial we demonstrated that enteral nutrition via percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) not only improves the anthropometric and biochemical parameters during radio(chemo)therapy but also the quality of life of patients with advanced cancers of the head and neck. Moreover supportive use of megestrolacetate can improve the nutritional status. Parenteral nutrition is only recommended if enteral nutrition is not possible e.g. during radio(chemo)therapy of tumors of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Conclusions: Today adequate nutritional support is feasible during intensive radio(chemo)therapy. (orig.) [de

  16. Settling and survival profile of enteric pathogens in the swine effluent for water reuse purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, G; Kunz, A; Magri, M E; Schissi, C D; Viancelli, A; Philippi, L S; Barardi, C R M

    2016-11-01

    The present study evaluated the pathogens persistence and settling profile in swine effluent. We determined the enteric pathogens settling characteristics, their survival and inactivation profile in swine effluent (for water reuse purpose) and in sludge (generated after aerobic treatment - during secondary settling process). The study was performed in laboratorial-scale and in full-scale (manure treatment plant). Enteric viruses and enteric bacteria were used as biomarkers. Results showed that these enteric pathogens were significantly reduced from swine effluent during secondary settling process, and enteric viruses removal was correlated with the suspended solids decantation. The design of secondary settlers can be adapted to improve pathogens removal, by diminishing the solids loading rate per area and time, ending in higher hydraulic retention times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. The transcriptome of HIV-1 infected intestinal CD4+ T cells exposed to enteric bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson C Yoder

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Global transcriptome studies can help pinpoint key cellular pathways exploited by viruses to replicate and cause pathogenesis. Previous data showed that laboratory-adapted HIV-1 triggers significant gene expression changes in CD4+ T cell lines and mitogen-activated CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood. However, HIV-1 primarily targets mucosal compartments during acute infection in vivo. Moreover, early HIV-1 infection causes extensive depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal tract that herald persistent inflammation due to the translocation of enteric microbes to the systemic circulation. Here, we profiled the transcriptome of primary intestinal CD4+ T cells infected ex vivo with transmitted/founder (TF HIV-1. Infections were performed in the presence or absence of Prevotella stercorea, a gut microbe enriched in the mucosa of HIV-1-infected individuals that enhanced both TF HIV-1 replication and CD4+ T cell death ex vivo. In the absence of bacteria, HIV-1 triggered a cellular shutdown response involving the downregulation of HIV-1 reactome genes, while perturbing genes linked to OX40, PPAR and FOXO3 signaling. However, in the presence of bacteria, HIV-1 did not perturb these gene sets or pathways. Instead, HIV-1 enhanced granzyme expression and Th17 cell function, inhibited G1/S cell cycle checkpoint genes and triggered downstream cell death pathways in microbe-exposed gut CD4+ T cells. To gain insights on these differential effects, we profiled the gene expression landscape of HIV-1-uninfected gut CD4+ T cells exposed to bacteria. Microbial exposure upregulated genes involved in cellular proliferation, MAPK activation, Th17 cell differentiation and type I interferon signaling. Our findings reveal that microbial exposure influenced how HIV-1 altered the gut CD4+ T cell transcriptome, with potential consequences for HIV-1 susceptibility, cell survival and inflammation. The HIV-1- and microbe-altered pathways unraveled here may serve as a

  18. The Potential Association of Later Initiation of Oral/Enteral Nutrition on Euthyroid Sick Syndrome in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Pérez-Guisado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine if early initiation of oral/enteral nutrition in burn patients minimizes the drop in fT3 levels, reduces the potential for euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS, and shortens the length of hospital stay (LHS. Subjects and Methods. We retrospectively evaluated the statistical association of serum fT3, fT4, and TSH at the first (2nd–5th day and second sample collection (9th–12th day after the burn injury in 152 burn patients. Three groups were established depending on time of initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition: 48 h after the injury (Group 3. Results. They were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. We found that LHS and the fT3 levels were statistically different in the 3 groups. The LHS (in days was, respectively, in each group, 16.77±4.56, 21.98±4.86, and 26.06±5.47. Despite the quantifiable drop in fT3, ESS was present only at the first sample collection (2.61±0.92 days in Group 3, but there was no group with ESS at the second sample collection (9.89±1.01 days. Our data suggest that early initiation of nutritional supplementation decreases the length of hospitalization and is associated with decreasing fT3 serum concentration depression. Conclusion. Early initiation of oral/enteral nutrition counteracts ESS and improves the LHS in burn patients.

  19. The potential association of later initiation of oral/enteral nutrition on euthyroid sick syndrome in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; de Haro-Padilla, Jesús M; Rioja, Luis F; Derosier, Leo C; de la Torre, Jorge I

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine if early initiation of oral/enteral nutrition in burn patients minimizes the drop in fT3 levels, reduces the potential for euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS), and shortens the length of hospital stay (LHS). Subjects and Methods. We retrospectively evaluated the statistical association of serum fT3, fT4, and TSH at the first (2nd-5th day) and second sample collection (9th-12th day) after the burn injury in 152 burn patients. Three groups were established depending on time of initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition: 48 h after the injury (Group 3). Results. They were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. We found that LHS and the fT3 levels were statistically different in the 3 groups. The LHS (in days) was, respectively, in each group, 16.77 ± 4.56, 21.98 ± 4.86, and 26.06 ± 5.47. Despite the quantifiable drop in fT3, ESS was present only at the first sample collection (2.61 ± 0.92 days) in Group 3, but there was no group with ESS at the second sample collection (9.89 ± 1.01 days). Our data suggest that early initiation of nutritional supplementation decreases the length of hospitalization and is associated with decreasing fT3 serum concentration depression. Conclusion. Early initiation of oral/enteral nutrition counteracts ESS and improves the LHS in burn patients.

  20. The spore differentiation pathway in the enteric pathogen Clostridium difficile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima C Pereira

    Full Text Available Endosporulation is an ancient bacterial developmental program that culminates with the differentiation of a highly resistant endospore. In the model organism Bacillus subtilis, gene expression in the forespore and in the mother cell, the two cells that participate in endospore development, is governed by cell type-specific RNA polymerase sigma subunits. σ(F in the forespore, and σ(E in the mother cell control early stages of development and are replaced, at later stages, by σ(G and σ(K, respectively. Starting with σ(F, the activation of the sigma factors is sequential, requires the preceding factor, and involves cell-cell signaling pathways that operate at key morphological stages. Here, we have studied the function and regulation of the sporulation sigma factors in the intestinal pathogen Clostridium difficile, an obligate anaerobe in which the endospores are central to the infectious cycle. The morphological characterization of mutants for the sporulation sigma factors, in parallel with use of a fluorescence reporter for single cell analysis of gene expression, unraveled important deviations from the B. subtilis paradigm. While the main periods of activity of the sigma factors are conserved, we show that the activity of σ(E is partially independent of σ(F, that σ(G activity is not dependent on σ(E, and that the activity of σ(K does not require σ(G. We also show that σ(K is not strictly required for heat resistant spore formation. In all, our results indicate reduced temporal segregation between the activities of the early and late sigma factors, and reduced requirement for the σ(F-to-σ(E, σ(E-to-σ(G, and σ(G-to-σ(K cell-cell signaling pathways. Nevertheless, our results support the view that the top level of the endosporulation network is conserved in evolution, with the sigma factors acting as the key regulators of the pathway, established some 2.5 billion years ago upon its emergence at the base of the Firmicutes Phylum.

  1. A qualitative study of the perceived value of membership in The Oley Foundation by home parenteral and enteral nutrition consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopy, Katelyn; Winkler, Marion; Schwartz-Barcott, Donna; Melanson, Kathleen; Greene, Geoffrey

    2015-05-01

    Support and educational organizations have been shown to improve quality of life of consumers of home nutrition support. One such organization, The Oley Foundation, offers resources for the home parenteral and enteral nutrition (HPEN) consumer. While research has shown proven benefits to HPEN consumers affiliated with The Oley Foundation, no studies have investigated the perceived value of membership to the consumer or the way in which consumers are introduced to the organization. Qualitative methodology was used to gain a deeper understanding of the perceived value of membership in The Oley Foundation. Audiotaped, in-depth, semistructured telephone interviews were conducted to explore participants' experiences with The Oley Foundation and HPEN. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze data and identify themes associated with membership value. The value of The Oley Foundation lies in programs and resources and the competency, inspiration, normalcy, and advocacy gained from membership, helping individuals adjust to life with HPEN dependency. More than half of participants found the organization through self-initiated Internet searches, but all participants clearly expressed the desire "I wish I knew about it sooner." This study identifies the value of membership in The Oley Foundation and the important role the organization has in the lives of HPEN-dependent consumers. Nutrition support clinicians should introduce the organization to patients when the need for HPEN is established and prior to hospital discharge. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  2. Transcriptional and physiological response of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to urban waters entering into wildlife protected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Jorquera, Ignacio A.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Toor, Gurpal S.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of protected areas is to conserve biodiversity and improve human welfare. To assess the effect of urban waters entering into protected areas, we performed 48-h whole-effluent exposures with fathead minnows, analyzing changes in steady state levels of mRNAs in the livers of exposed fish. Raw wastewater, treated city wastewater, and treated wastewater from a university were collected for exposures. All exposed fish showed altered mRNA levels of DNA damage-repair genes. Fish exposed to raw and treated wastewaters showed down-regulation of transcripts for key intermediates of cholesterol biosynthesis and elevated plasma cholesterol. The type of wastewater treatment influenced the response of gene transcription. Because of the relevance of some of the altered cellular pathways, we suggest that these effluents may cause deleterious effects on fish inside protected areas that receive these waters. Inclusion of research and mitigation efforts for this type of threat in protected areas management is advised. - Highlights: • Wastewater entering wildlife preserves alters gene expression in exposed fish. • DNA repair mechanisms and cholesterol metabolism were altered in fish. • Effects on cholesterol genes were in agreement with fish hypercholesterolemia. - Urban wastewaters released into protected areas altered gene transcription of key genes such as DNA repair and cholesterol biosynthesis and produced hypercholesterolemia in fish

  3. Ammonia modifies enteric neuromuscular transmission through glial γ-aminobutyric acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, David E; Watson, Ralph E; Robson, Simon C; Gulbransen, Brian D

    2017-12-01

    Impaired gut motility may contribute, at least in part, to the development of systemic hyperammonemia and systemic neurological disorders in inherited metabolic disorders, or in severe liver and renal disease. It is not known whether enteric neurotransmission regulates intestinal luminal and hence systemic ammonia levels by induced changes in motility. Here, we propose and test the hypothesis that ammonia acts through specific enteric circuits to influence gut motility. We tested our hypothesis by recording the effects of ammonia on neuromuscular transmission in tissue samples from mice, pigs, and humans and investigated specific mechanisms using novel mutant mice, selective drugs, cellular imaging, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Exogenous ammonia increased neurogenic contractions and decreased neurogenic relaxations in segments of mouse, pig, and human intestine. Enteric glial cells responded to ammonia with intracellular Ca 2+ responses. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase and the deletion of glial connexin-43 channels in hGFAP :: Cre ER T2+/- /connexin43 f/f mice potentiated the effects of ammonia on neuromuscular transmission. The effects of ammonia on neuromuscular transmission were blocked by GABA A receptor antagonists, and ammonia drove substantive GABA release as did the selective pharmacological activation of enteric glia in GFAP::hM3Dq transgenic mice. We propose a novel mechanism whereby local ammonia is operational through GABAergic glial signaling to influence enteric neuromuscular circuits that regulate intestinal motility. Therapeutic manipulation of these mechanisms may benefit a number of neurological, hepatic, and renal disorders manifesting hyperammonemia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We propose that local circuits in the enteric nervous system sense and regulate intestinal ammonia. We show that ammonia modifies enteric neuromuscular transmission to increase motility in human, pig, and mouse intestine model systems. The mechanisms underlying the

  4. Bacillus subtilis and surfactin inhibit the transmissible gastroenteritis virus from entering the intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Hu, Weiwei; Zhu, Liqi; Yang, Qian

    2017-04-28

    Intestinal epithelial cells are the targets for transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus (TGEV) infection. It is urgent to develop a novel candidate against TGEV entry. Bacillus subtilis is a probiotic with excellent anti-microorganism properties and one of its secretions, surfactin, has been regarded as a versatile weapon for most plant pathogens, especially for the enveloped virus. We demonstrate for the first time that B. subtilis OKB105 and its surfactin can effectively inhibit one animal coronavirus, TGEV, entering the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2). Then, several different experiments were performed to seek the might mechanisms. The plaque assays showed that surfactant could reduce the plaque generation of TGEV in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, after incubation with TGEV for 1.5 h, B. subtilis could attach TGEV particles to their surface so that the number of virus to bind to the host cells was declined. Furthermore, our data showed that the inhibition of B. subtilis was closely related to the competition with TGEV for the viral entry receptors, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and aminopeptidase N (APN) protein. In addition, Western blotting and apoptosis analysis indicated that B. subtilis could enhance the resistance of IPEC-J2 cells by up-regulating the expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)-6 and reducing the percentage of apoptotic cells. Taken together, our results suggest that B. subtilis OKB105 and its surfactin can antagonize TGEV entry in vitro and may serve as promising new candidates for TGEV prevention. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Transfer Rates of Enteric Microorganisms in Recycled Water during Machine Clothes Washing▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Joanne; Sinclair, Martha; Leder, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 15% of overall Australian household water usage is in the laundry; hence, a significant reduction in household drinking water demand could be achieved if potable-quality water used for clothes washing is replaced with recycled water. To investigate the microbiological safety of using recycled water in washing machines, bacteriophages MS-2 and PRD-1, Escherichia coli, and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were used in a series of experiments to investigate the transfer efficiency of enteric microorganisms from washing machine water to objects including hands, environmental surfaces, air, and fabric swatches. By determining the transference efficiency, it is possible to estimate the numbers of microorganisms that the user will be exposed to if recycled water with various levels of residual microorganisms is used in washing machines. Results, expressed as transfer rates to a given surface area per object, showed that the mean transfer efficiency of E. coli, bacteriophages MS-2 and PRD-1, and C. parvum oocysts from seeded water to fabric swatches ranged from 0.001% to 0.090%. Greatest exposure to microorganisms occurred through direct contact of hands with seeded water and via hand contact with contaminated fabric swatches. No microorganisms were detected in the air samples during the washing machine spin cycle, and transfer rates of bacteriophages from water to environmental surfaces were 100-fold less than from water directly to hands. Findings from this study provide relevant information that can be used to refine regulations governing recycled water and to allay public concerns about the use of recycled water. PMID:19124592

  6. Enteral bile acid treatment improves parenteral nutrition-related liver disease and intestinal mucosal atrophy in neonatal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Ajay Kumar; Stoll, Barbara; Burrin, Douglas G

    2012-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is essential for patients with impaired gut function but leads to parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). TPN disrupts the normal enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, and we hypothesized that it would decrease intestinal expression of the newly...... described metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19) and also glucagon-like peptides-1 and -2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2). We tested the effects of restoring bile acids by treating a neonatal piglet PNALD model with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). Neonatal pigs received enteral feeding (EN), TPN, or TPN...... + CDCA for 14 days, and responses were assessed by serum markers, histology, and levels of key regulatory peptides. Cholestasis and steatosis were demonstrated in the TPN group relative to EN controls by elevated levels of serum total and direct bilirubin and also bile acids and liver triglyceride (TG...

  7. Radiogenic enteritis in children: study in a series of 63 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alert Silva, J.; Longchong Ramos, M.; Castillo Otero, E.; Valdes Zamora, M.

    1981-01-01

    In children, the abdominal irradiation being part of multidisciplinary therapeutical treatment for various malignant neoplasias, inferred radiogenic enteritis onset. In a group of 63 patients treated at the Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology, in Havana City, who presented intraabdominal located no Hodgkin's linfomas, Wilms' tumors, neuroblastomas, intraabdominal sarcomas and ovarium malignant neoplasias, incidence for this complication was 63,5%; in 34 children showed up during radiant treatment (early enteritis) and in eleven children after it was finished (late enteritis). Extended surgical exeresis accounted to clinical picture onset. Hygienicdietetic treatment improves patient's clinical evolution. (author)

  8. Comparative transcriptome analysis by RNAseq of necrotic enteritis Clostridium perfringens during in vivo colonization and in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Valeria R; Russell, Kay; Athanasiadou, Spiridoula; Prescott, John F

    2016-08-12

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by netB-positive type A Clostridium perfringens is an important bacterial disease of poultry. Through its complex regulatory system, C. perfringens orchestrates the expression of a collection of toxins and extracellular enzymes that are crucial for the development of the disease; environmental conditions play an important role in their regulation. In this study, and for the first time, global transcriptomic analysis was performed on ligated intestinal loops in chickens colonized with a netB-positive C. perfringens strain, as well as the same strain propagated in vitro under various nutritional and environmental conditions. Analysis of the respective pathogen transcriptomes revealed up to 673 genes that were significantly expressed in vivo. Gene expression profiles in vivo were most similar to those of C. perfringens grown in nutritionally-deprived conditions. Taken together, our results suggest a bacterial transcriptome responses to the early stages of adaptation, and colonization of, the chicken intestine. Our work also reveals how netB-positive C. perfringens reacts to different environmental conditions including those in the chicken intestine.

  9. Effect of Calcium Ions on the Disintegration of Enteric-Coated Solid Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gousous, Jozef; Langguth, Peter

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effect of calcium ions on the disintegration of enteric-coated dosage forms, disintegration testing was performed on enteric-coated aspirin tablets in the presence and absence of calcium in the test media. The results show that the presence of calcium ions retards the disintegration of enteric-coated dosage forms. This finding, which has not been reported in scientific literature, sheds light on the importance of conducting well-designed detailed investigations into the potential of calcium from dietary sources, calcium supplements, antacids, and/or phosphate binders affecting the absorption of drugs formulated into enteric-coated dosage forms. Moreover, it shows the necessity to investigate the potential of the occurrence of additional nutrient-excipient interactions. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Round-robin comparison of methods for the detection of human enteric viruses in lettuce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guyader, Francoise S.; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Haugarreau, Larissa

    2004-01-01

    Five methods that detect human enteric virus contamination in lettuce were compared. To mimic multiple contaminations as observed after sewage contamination, artificial contamination was with human calicivirus and poliovirus and animal calicivirus strains at different concentrations. Nucleic acid...

  11. Environmental enteric dysfunction is associated with carnitine deficiency and altered fatty acid oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a condition characterized by small intestine inflammation and abnormal gut permeability, is widespread in children in developing countries and a major cause of growth failure. The pathophysiology of EED remains poorly understood. We measured serum metabolite...

  12. Enteric glial cells and their role in gastrointestinal motor abnormalities: Introducing the neuro-gliopathies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabrio Bassotti; Vincenzo Villanacci; Simona Fisogni; Elisa Rossi; Paola Baronio; Carlo Clerici; Christoph A Maurer; Gieri Cathomas; Elisabetta Antonelli

    2007-01-01

    The role of enteric glial cells has somewhat changed from that of mere mechanical support elements, gluing together the various components of the enteric nervous system, to that of active participants in the complex interrelationships of the gut motor and inflammatory events. Due to their multiple functions, spanning from supporting elements in the myenteric plexuses to neurotransmitters, to neuronal homeostasis, to antigen presenting cells, this cell population has probably more intriguing abilities than previously thought. Recently,some evidence has been accumulating that shows how these cells may be involved in the pathophysiological aspects of some diseases. This review will deal with the properties of the enteric glial cells more strictly related to gastrointestinal motor function and the human pathological conditions in which these cells may play a role, suggesting the possibility of enteric neurogliopathies.

  13. Assessment of enteric bacterial indicators and correlation with physico-chemical parameters in Veraval coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Borade, S.; Dhawde, R.; Maloo, A.; Gajbhiye, S.N.; Ram, A.; Dastager, S.G.

    different locations in three different seasons Statistical analysis of data showed that there is a significant increase in count in September (Monsoon) as compared to January (post monsoon) It was also found that the enteric bacterial count was higher...

  14. Detection of enteric Adenoviruses in South-African waters using gene probes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene probes developed locally for both enteric Adenoviruses 40 and 41 were used to determine whether these viruses were present in both raw and treated waters. Approximately sixty water samples were concentrated by ultra filtration and analysed...

  15. A practical guide for the diagnosis of primary enteric nervous system disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäppi, M G; Staiano, A; Milla, P J

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Primary gastrointestinal neuropathies are a heterogeneous group of enteric nervous system (ENS) disorders that continue to cause difficulties in diagnosis and histological interpretation. Recently, an international working group published guidelines for histological techniques...

  16. Comparative effects of enteric-coated pancreatin microsphere therapy after conventional and pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruno, M. J.; Borm, J. J.; Hoek, F. J.; Delzenne, B.; Hofmann, A. F.; de Goeij, J. J.; van Royen, E. A.; van Gulik, T. M.; de Wit, L. T.; Gouma, D. J.; van Leeuwen, D. J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A comparative study was performed between patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after conventional pancreatoduodenectomy (Whipple's procedure) and pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD). In these patients the pharmacodynamics of 2-mm enteric-coated pancreatin

  17. Recent advances in regenerative medicine to treat enteric neuropathies: use of human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamp, L A; Young, H M

    2017-01-01

    As current options for treating most enteric neuropathies are either non-effective or associated with significant ongoing problems, cell therapy is a potential attractive possibility to treat congenital and acquired neuropathies. Studies using animal models have shown that following transplantation of enteric neural progenitors into the bowel of recipients, the transplanted cells migrate, proliferate, and generate neurons that are electrically active and receive synaptic inputs. Recent studies have transplanted human enteric neural progenitors into the mouse colon and shown engraftment. In this article, we summarize the significance of these recent advances and discuss priorities for future research that might lead to the use of regenerative medicine to treat enteric neuropathies in the clinic. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Chitosan supplementation reduces enteric colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens and down-regulates expression of colonization genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and poultry is considered as the most common source of human infections. Campylobacter is prevalent in most poultry flocks and a reduction of Campylobacter in poultry would greatly reduce the risk of campylo...

  19. Human milk consumption and full enteral feeding among infants who weigh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Paula M; Lovelady, Cheryl A; Gruber, Kenneth J; Dillard, Robert G; O'Shea, T Michael

    2008-06-01

    Establishing enteral feeding is an important goal in the care of very low birth weight infants. In such infants, receipt of >/=50 mL/kg per day human milk during hospitalization has been associated with shorter time to full enteral feeding. The objective of this study was to determine whether high proportions (>/=50%) of human milk during feeding advancement are associated with shorter time to full enteral feeding and improved feeding tolerance. This was a prospective cohort study of very low birth weight infants (n = 127) who were grouped into low (/=50%; n = 93) human milk consumption groups according to their human milk proportion of enteral feeding during the time of feeding advancement. The primary outcomes of interest were ages at which 100 and 150 mL/kg per day enteral feedings were achieved. The high human milk group reached 100 mL/kg per day enteral feeding 4.5 days faster than the low human milk group. The high human milk group reached 150 mL/kg per day enteral feeding 5 days faster than the low human milk group. After adjustment for gestational age, gender, and respiratory distress syndrome, times to reach 100 and 150 mL/kg per day were significantly shorter for those in the high human milk group. Infants in the high human milk group had a greater number of stools per day; other indicators of feeding tolerance were not statistically different. In infants who weighed milk was associated with fewer days to full enteral feedings.

  20. How Can Asian Snack FuLoi Plan Successful Entering to Greater Helsinki Area? : Market research

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Loc

    2014-01-01

    This thesis introduces the significant factors of market research and its importance when considering doing international business. Furthermore, it could be useful for investors who have same favour to enter Finnish market. The case company is Asian Snack FuLoi- a German food industry company looking for new market. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility for a company to enter Finland in general and Greater Helsinki in particular. The thesis was structured with theor...

  1. Infection control in enteral feed and feeding systems in the community

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Omorogieva; Bowden, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the infection risk to adult patients receiving home enteral nutrition (HEN) and strategies for its prevention and management. Enteral nutrition was historically associated with acute care settings owing to its invasive nature. The changing landscape of community care means that it is now likely to be administered in the patient’s home or in other community settings such as nursing homes. HEN is associated with two main routes of infection risks: the risk of gastrointesti...

  2. Necrotizing enterocolitis is associated with earlier achievement of enteral autonomy in children with short bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Eric A; Khan, Faraz A; Fisher, Jeremy G; Fullerton, Brenna S; Hall, Amber; Raphael, Bram P; Duggan, Christopher; Modi, Biren P; Jaksic, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains one of the most common underlying diagnoses of short bowel syndrome (SBS) in children. The relationship between the etiology of SBS and ultimate enteral autonomy has not been well studied. This investigation sought to evaluate the rate of achievement of enteral autonomy in SBS patients with and without NEC. Following IRB approval, 109 patients (2002-2014) at a multidisciplinary intestinal rehabilitation program were reviewed. The primary outcome evaluated was achievement of enteral autonomy (i.e. fully weaning from parenteral nutrition). Patient demographics, primary diagnosis, residual small bowel length, percent expected small bowel length, median serum citrulline level, number of abdominal operations, status of the ileocecal valve (ICV), presence of ileostomy, liver function tests, and treatment for bacterial overgrowth were recorded for each patient. Median age at PN onset was 0 weeks [IQR 0-0]. Median residual small bowel length was 33.5 cm [IQR 20-70]. NEC was present in 37 of 109 (33.9%) of patients. 45 patients (41%) achieved enteral autonomy after a median PN duration of 15.3 [IQR 7.2-38.4]months. Overall, 64.9% of patients with NEC achieved enteral autonomy compared to 29.2% of patients with a different primary diagnosis (p=0.001, Fig. 1). Patients with NEC remained more likely than those without NEC to achieve enteral autonomy after two (45.5% vs. 12.0%) and four (35.7% vs. 6.3%) years on PN (Fig. 1). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following parameters as independent predictors of enteral autonomy: diagnosis of NEC (pChildren with SBS because of NEC have a significantly higher likelihood of fully weaning from parenteral nutrition compared to children with other causes of SBS. Additionally, patients with NEC may attain enteral autonomy even after long durations of parenteral support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of commonly used anticoccidials and antibiotics in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model

    OpenAIRE

    Lanckriet , Anouk; Timbermont , Leen; De Gussem , Maarten; Marien , Maja; Vancraeynest , Dieter; Haesebrouck , Freddy; Ducatelle , Richard; Van Immerseel , Filip

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Necrotic enteritis poses an important health risk to broilers. The ionophore anticoccidials lasalocid, salinomycin, maduramicin, narasin and a combination of narasin and nicarbazin were tested in feed for their prophylactic effect on the incidence of necrotic enteritis in a subclinical experimental infection model that uses coccidia as predisposing factor. In addition, drinking water medication with the antibiotics amoxicillin, tylosin and lincomycin was evaluated as curat...

  4. A Retroperitoneal Isolated Enteric Duplication Cyst Mimicking a Teratoma: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daichi Momosaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteric duplication cysts lacking anatomic association with the gastrointestinal tract are called isolated enteric duplication cysts (IEDCs. We present an atypical case of a retroperitoneal IEDC with a tortuous tubular complex shape that enfolded the surrounding retroperitoneal fat and mimicked a retroperitoneal teratoma. Multiplanar reconstruction images should be used to evaluate such a lesion correctly. A tortuous tubular complex shape could be a key finding to differentiate from other retroperitoneal cysts.

  5. Systematic review of the global epidemiology, clinical and laboratory profile of enteric fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Azmatullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Children suffer the highest burden of enteric fever among populations in South Asian countries. The clinical features are non–specific, vary in populations, and are often difficult to distinguish clinically from other febrile illnesses, leading to delayed or inappropriate diagnosis and treatment. We undertook a systematic review to assess the clinical profile and laboratory features of enteric fever across age groups, economic regions, level of care and antibiotic susceptibility patterns.

  6. Microbiological quality and safe handling of enteral diets in a hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto,Raquel Oliveira Medrado; Correia,Eliznara Fernades; Pereira,Keyla Carvalho; Costa Sobrinho,Paulo de Souza; Silva,Daniele Ferreira da

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of enteral diets represents a high risk of compromising the patient's medical condition. To assess the microbiological quality and aseptic conditions in the preparation and administration of handmade and industrialized enteral diets offered in a hospital in the Valley of Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil, we performed a microbiological analysis of 50 samples of diets and 27 samples of surfaces, utensils, and water used in the preparation of the diets. In addition, we assessed the good h...

  7. Predictors of Enteral Autonomy in Children with Intestinal Failure: A Multicenter Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Faraz A; Squires, Robert H; Litman, Heather J; Balint, Jane; Carter, Beth A; Fisher, Jeremy G; Horslen, Simon P; Jaksic, Tom; Kocoshis, Samuel; Martinez, J Andres; Mercer, David; Rhee, Susan; Rudolph, Jeffrey A; Soden, Jason; Sudan, Debra; Superina, Riccardo A; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Venick, Robert; Wales, Paul W; Duggan, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    In a large cohort of children with intestinal failure (IF), we sought to determine the cumulative incidence of achieving enteral autonomy and identify patient and institutional characteristics associated with enteral autonomy. A multicenter, retrospective cohort analysis from the Pediatric Intestinal Failure Consortium was performed. IF was defined as severe congenital or acquired gastrointestinal diseases during infancy with dependence on parenteral nutrition (PN) >60 days. Enteral autonomy was defined as PN discontinuation >3 months. A total of 272 infants were followed for a median (IQR) of 33.5 (16.2-51.5) months. Enteral autonomy was achieved in 118 (43%); 36 (13%) remained PN dependent and 118 (43%) patients died or underwent transplantation. Multivariable analysis identified necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC; OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.33-4.47), care at an IF site without an associated intestinal transplantation program (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.56-4.78), and an intact ileocecal valve (OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.63-4.83) as independent risk factors for enteral autonomy. A second model (n = 144) that included only patients with intraoperatively measured residual small bowel length found NEC (OR 3.44, 95% CI 1.36-8.71), care at a nonintestinal transplantation center (OR 6.56, 95% CI 2.53-16.98), and residual small bowel length (OR 1.04 cm, 95% CI 1.02-1.06 cm) to be independently associated with enteral autonomy. A substantial proportion of infants with IF can achieve enteral autonomy. Underlying NEC, preserved ileocecal valve, and longer bowel length are associated with achieving enteral autonomy. It is likely that variations in institutional practices and referral patterns also affect outcomes in children with IF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of a PCR method for the diagnosis of ulcerative enteritis: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Agnoletti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative enteritis or “quail disease” is an acute clostridial infection of young birds reported in many avian species, chicken and turkey included. Clostridium colinum is the causative agent of ulcerative enteritis and because of the difficulties bound to the isolation and identification of this bacterium by means of classic bacteriological techniques, its detection appears very hard and the prevalence of this disease could be underestimated. To investigate the diffusion of C. colinum in enteric disease of birds, a recently developed PCR protocol was applied to 42 cultural broths previously inoculated with organs and intestinal samples collected from diseased subjects. PCR-positive broths were cultivated to attempt the isolation of C. colinum. Samples collected from positive birds were subjected to histological examinations. 4 birds (3 broilers chickens and 1 pigeon resulted PCR-positive and, in one case, C. colinum was isolated. Gross and histological lesions of positive birds were compatible with those described in other ulcerative enteritis outbreaks. These preliminary results demonstrates that C. colinum is sporadically implicated in enteric diseases of broiler chickens (14.2%. In addition, the PCR assay proved to be an useful and reliable instrument to support the diagnosis of ulcerative enteritis and to facilitate the isolation of C. colinum.

  9. Microbiological quality and safe handling of enteral diets in a hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Raquel Oliveira Medrado; Correia, Eliznara Fernades; Pereira, Keyla Carvalho; Costa Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza; da Silva, Daniele Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Contamination of enteral diets represents a high risk of compromising the patient's medical condition. To assess the microbiological quality and aseptic conditions in the preparation and administration of handmade and industrialized enteral diets offered in a hospital in the Valley of Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil, we performed a microbiological analysis of 50 samples of diets and 27 samples of surfaces, utensils, and water used in the preparation of the diets. In addition, we assessed the good handling practices of enteral diets according to the requirements specified by the Brazilian legislation. Both kinds of enteral diets showed contamination by coliforms and Pseudomonas spp. No sample was positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. On the other hand, Listeria spp. was detected in only one sample of handmade diets. Contamination was significantly higher in the handmade preparations (p Nonconformities were detected with respect to good handling practices, which may compromise the diet safety. The results indicate that the sanitary quality of the enteral diets is unsatisfactory, especially handmade diets. Contamination by Pseudomonas spp. is significant because it is often involved in infection episodes. With regard to aseptic practices, it was observed the need of implementing new procedures for handling enteral diets.

  10. Microbiological quality and safe handling of enteral diets in a hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Oliveira Medrado Pinto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of enteral diets represents a high risk of compromising the patient's medical condition. To assess the microbiological quality and aseptic conditions in the preparation and administration of handmade and industrialized enteral diets offered in a hospital in the Valley of Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil, we performed a microbiological analysis of 50 samples of diets and 27 samples of surfaces, utensils, and water used in the preparation of the diets. In addition, we assessed the good handling practices of enteral diets according to the requirements specified by the Brazilian legislation. Both kinds of enteral diets showed contamination by coliforms and Pseudomonas spp. No sample was positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. On the other hand, Listeria spp. was detected in only one sample of handmade diets. Contamination was significantly higher in the handmade preparations (p < 0.05. Nonconformities were detected with respect to good handling practices, which may compromise the diet safety. The results indicate that the sanitary quality of the enteral diets is unsatisfactory, especially handmade diets. Contamination by Pseudomonas spp. is significant because it is often involved in infection episodes. With regard to aseptic practices, it was observed the need of implementing new procedures for handling enteral diets.

  11. Mining free-text medical records for companion animal enteric syndrome surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, R M; Berezowski, J; Jamal, I; Ribble, C; Stephen, C

    2014-03-01

    Large amounts of animal health care data are present in veterinary electronic medical records (EMR) and they present an opportunity for companion animal disease surveillance. Veterinary patient records are largely in free-text without clinical coding or fixed vocabulary. Text-mining, a computer and information technology application, is needed to identify cases of interest and to add structure to the otherwise unstructured data. In this study EMR's were extracted from veterinary management programs of 12 participating veterinary practices and stored in a data warehouse. Using commercially available text-mining software (WordStat™), we developed a categorization dictionary that could be used to automatically classify and extract enteric syndrome cases from the warehoused electronic medical records. The diagnostic accuracy of the text-miner for retrieving cases of enteric syndrome was measured against human reviewers who independently categorized a random sample of 2500 cases as enteric syndrome positive or negative. Compared to the reviewers, the text-miner retrieved cases with enteric signs with a sensitivity of 87.6% (95%CI, 80.4-92.9%) and a specificity of 99.3% (95%CI, 98.9-99.6%). Automatic and accurate detection of enteric syndrome cases provides an opportunity for community surveillance of enteric pathogens in companion animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Intestine, immunity, and parenteral nutrition in an era of preferred enteral feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Meredith; Demehri, Farokh R; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

    2015-09-01

    To review the benefits of enteral nutrition in contrast to the inflammatory consequences of administration of parenteral nutrition and enteral deprivation. To present the most recent evidence for the mechanisms of these immunologic changes and discuss potential areas for modification to decrease infectious complications of its administration. There is significant data supporting the early initiation of enteral nutrition in both medical and surgical patients unable to meet their caloric goals via oral intake alone. Despite the preference for enteral nutrition, some patients are unable to utilize their gut for nutritious gain and therefore require parenteral nutrition administration, along with its infectious complications. The mechanisms behind these complications are multifactorial and have yet to be fully elucidated. Recent study utilizing both animal and human models has provided further information regarding parenteral nutrition's deleterious effect on intestinal epithelial barrier function along with the complications associated with enterocyte deprivation. Changes associated with parenteral nutrition administration and enteral deprivation are complex with multiple potential areas for modification to allow for safer administration. Recent discovery of the mechanisms behind these changes present exciting areas for future study as to make parenteral nutrition administration in the enterally deprived patient safer.

  13. Changes and clinical significance of liver function and myocardial zymogram in children with rotavirus enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Ping Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the changes and clinical significance of liver function and myocardial zymogram in children with rotavirus (RV enteritis. Methods: A total of 70 children with RV enteritis who were admitted in our hospital were included in the study and served as the observation group. The liver function and myocardial zymogram before and after treatment were detected. The proportion of RV enteritis children with liver and myocardial damage was calculated. The effect of dehydration on the liver function and myocardial zymogram in children with RV enteritis was analyzed. A total of 65 children with non-RV enteritis who were admitted in our hospital at the same stage were served as the control group. Results: The serum ALT, AST, CK, CK-MB, LDH, and α-HBDH levels, and liver myocardial damage children proportion in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05. The serum ALT, AST, CK, CK-MB, LDH, and α-HBDH levels in the observation group were significantly elevated with the acceleration of dehydration degree (P<0.05. In the observation group, 45 children had liver and myocardial damage, whose ALT, AST, CK, CKMB, LDH, and α-HBDH levels after treatment were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P<0.05. Conclusions: Early detection of liver function and myocardial zymogram can accurately reflect the condition in children with RV enteritis, which can provide an evidence for the formulation of clinical treatment protocol.

  14. Parenteral nutrition versus enteral nutrition in severe acute pancreatitis Nutrição parenteral versus enteral em pacientes com pancreatite aguda grave

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    Josiel Paiva Vieira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the effect of parenteral versus enteral nutritional support in severe acute pancreatitis, with respect to efficacy, safety, morbidity, mortality and length of hospitalization. METHODS: The study was comprised of 31 patients, divided into a parenteral group (n=16 and an enteral group (n=15, who met severity criteria for abdominal tomography (Balthazar classes C, D, and E. The patients were compared by demographics, disease etiology, antibiotic prophylaxis, use or not of somatostatin, nutritional support, complications and disease progression. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference in the average duration of nutritional support, somatostatin, or antibiotics in the two groups. Imipenem was the drug of choice for prophylaxis of pancreatic infections in both groups. More complications occurred in the parenteral group, although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.10. Infectious complications, such as catheter sepsis and infections of the pancreatic tissue, were significantly more frequent in the parenteral group (p=0.006. There was no difference in average length of hospitalization in the two groups. There were three deaths in the parenteral group and none in the enteral group. CONCLUSION: Enteral nutritional support is associated with fewer septic complications compared to parenteral nutritional support.OBJETIVO: Comparar o efeito do suporte nutricional parenteral versus enteral, em pancreatite aguda grave, com relação à eficácia, à segurança, à morbi-mortalidade e ao tempo de internação. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 31 pacientes distribuídos em grupo parenteral (n=16, no período de 1995 a 1998 e grupo enteral (n=15, no período de 1999 a 2002, que preencheram os critérios de gravidade pela tomografia de abdome (Balthazar C,D,E. Os pacientes foram comparados quanto aos dados demográficos, etiologia, antibioticoprofilaxia, somatostatina, suporte nutricional, complicações e evolução. RESULTADOS

  15. Calcium Montmorillonite-based dietary supplement attenuates Necrotic Enteritis induced by Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    We provide the first description of Dietary Supplement of sorbent minerals attenuates Necrotic Enteritis Induced by Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens in Broilers. Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a poultry disease caused by Clostridium perfringens and characterized by severe intestinal necrosis....

  16. Gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, C.E.; Crawford, B.D.; Walters, R.A.; Enger, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    We prepared probes for isolating functional pieces of the metallothionein locus. The probes enabled a variety of experiments, eventually revealing two mechanisms for metallothionein gene expression, the order of the DNA coding units at the locus, and the location of the gene site in its chromosome. Once the switch regulating metallothionein synthesis was located, it could be joined by recombinant DNA methods to other, unrelated genes, then reintroduced into cells by gene-transfer techniques. The expression of these recombinant genes could then be induced by exposing the cells to Zn 2+ or Cd 2+ . We would thus take advantage of the clearly defined switching properties of the metallothionein gene to manipulate the expression of other, perhaps normally constitutive, genes. Already, despite an incomplete understanding of how the regulatory switch of the metallothionein locus operates, such experiments have been performed successfully

  17. ELABELA Improves Cardio-Renal Outcome in Fatal Experimental Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquerel, David; Chagnon, Frédéric; Sainsily, Xavier; Dumont, Lauralyne; Murza, Alexandre; Côté, Jérôme; Dumaine, Robert; Sarret, Philippe; Marsault, Éric; Salvail, Dany; Auger-Messier, Mannix; Lesur, Olivier

    2017-11-01

    Apelin-13 was recently proposed as an alternative to the recommended β-adrenergic drugs for supporting endotoxin-induced myocardial dysfunction. Since Apelin-13 signals through its receptor (Apelin peptide jejunum) to exert singular inotropic/vasotropic actions and to optimize body fluid balance, this candidate pathway might benefit septic shock management. Whether the newly discovered ELABELA (ELA), a second endogenous ligand of the Apelin peptide jejunum receptor highly expressed in the kidney, further improves cardio-renal impairment remains unknown. Interventional study in a rat model of septic shock (128 adult males) to assess the effects of ELA and Apelin-13 on vascular and cardio-renal function. Experiments were performed in a tertiary care University-based research institute. Polymicrobial sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction was produced by cecal ligation puncture to assess hemodynamic efficacy, cardioprotection, and biomechanics under acute or continuous infusions of the apelinergic agonists ELA or Apelin-13 (39 and 15 µg/kg/hr, respectively) versus normal saline. Apelinergic agonists improved 72-hour survival after sepsis induction, with ELA providing the best clinical outcome after 24 hours. Apelinergic agonist infusion counteracted cecal ligation puncture-induced myocardial dysfunction by improving left ventricular pressure-volume relationship. ELA-treated cecal ligation puncture rats were the only group to 1) display a significant improvement in left ventricular filling as shown by increased E-wave velocity and left ventricular end-diastolic volume, 2) exhibit a higher plasma volume, and 3) limit kidney injury and free-water clearance. These beneficial renal effects were superior to Apelin-13, likely because full-length ELA enabled a distinctive regulation of pituitary vasopressin release. Activation of the apelinergic system by exogenous ELA or Apelin-13 infusion improves cardiovascular function and survival after cecal ligation puncture

  18. Critical analysis of the factors associated with enteral feeding in preventing VAP: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chih

    2009-04-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common cause of morbidity in critically ill patients. Appropriate enteral feeding is the most important factor associated with the prevention of VAP. However, the standardization of enteral feeding methods needs clarification. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the factors associated with enteral feeding in order to prevent VAP and to describe the characteristics of these factors. A comprehensive search was undertaken involving all major databases from their inception to September 2008 using medical subject heading terms associated with enteral feeding in relation to VAP. The overall reference list of identified studies was audited, and eligible studies included randomized controlled trials, controlled before-and-after (pre-post) studies and meta-analyses. To generate the characteristics of the factors associated with VAP, the reported components of these trials were pinpointed and categorized. A total of 14 papers were found that had investigated the factors linking enteral feeding and VAP. For these, 11 were randomized controlled trials, 1 was a meta-analysis and 2 were case-controlled analyses. Twelve of these 14 studies were conducted at a single institute and 2 were conducted at multiple institutes. The sample sizes varied from 10 to 2,528 subjects. Three major issues were identified based on the purpose of study interventions, and these were the effects of feeding method (continuous vs. intermittent), feeding site on aspiration (gastric vs. small bowel), and the timing of enteral feeding (early vs. late). The evidence suggests that a correct choice of enteral feeding method can effectively reduce complications due to aspiration. Furthermore, intermittent enteral feeding and with a small residual volume feed can reduce gastroesophageal reflux, and increased total intake volume and early feeding can reduce ICU mortality. Nonetheless, the effects of these choices on preventing VAP still need further

  19. Critical Analysis of the Factors Associated with Enteral Feeding in Preventing VAP: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chih Chen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is a common cause of morbidity in critically ill patients. Appropriate enteral feeding is the most important factor associated with the prevention of VAP. However, the standardization of enteral feeding methods needs clarification. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the factors associated with enteral feeding in order to prevent VAP and to describe the characteristics of these factors. A comprehensive search was undertaken involving all major databases from their inception to September 2008 using medical subject heading terms associated with enteral feeding in relation to VAP. The overall reference list of identified studies was audited, and eligible studies included randomized controlled trials, controlled before-and-after (pre–post studies and meta-analyses. To generate the characteristics of the factors associated with VAP, the reported components of these trials were pinpointed and categorized. A total of 14 papers were found that had investigated the factors linking enteral feeding and VAP. For these, 11 were randomized controlled trials, 1 was a meta-analysis and 2 were case-controlled analyses. Twelve of these 14 studies were conducted at a single institute and 2 were conducted at multiple institutes. The sample sizes varied from 10 to 2,528 subjects. Three major issues were identified based on the purpose of study interventions, and these were the effects of feeding method (continuous vs. intermittent, feeding site on aspiration (gastric vs. small bowel, and the timing of enteral feeding (early vs. late. The evidence suggests that a correct choice of enteral feeding method can effectively reduce complications due to aspiration. Furthermore, intermittent enteral feeding and with a small residual volume feed can reduce gastroesophageal reflux, and increased total intake volume and early feeding can reduce ICU mortality. Nonetheless, the effects of these choices on preventing VAP

  20. Analysis of hepatic transcriptome demonstrates altered lipid metabolism following Lactobacillus johnsonii BS15 prevention in chickens with subclinical necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xiaodan; Zeng, Dong; Wang, Hesong; Ni, Xueqin; Lai, Jing; Liu, Lei; Khalique, Abdul; Pan, Kangcheng; Jing, Bo

    2018-04-20

    Subclinical necrotic enteritis (SNE) widely outbreaks in chickens which inflicted growth-slowing, causing enormous social and economic burdens. To better understand the molecular underpinnings of SNE on lipid metabolism and explore novel preventative strategies against SNE, we studied the regulatory mechanism of a potential probiotic, Lactobacillus johnsonii BS15 on the lipid metabolism pathways involved in chickens with SNE. One hundred eighty one-day-old chickens were randomly divided into three groups and arranged with basal diet (control and SNE group). Added with BS15 (1 × 10 6  cfu/g) or Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) liquid medium for 28 days. The hepatic gene expression of each group was then measured using high-throughput analysis methods (RNA-Seq). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression changes of the related genes. The results showed that there are eleven lipid metabolic pathways were found during the prevention of BS15 treatment in SNE chickens by RNA-Seq, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway and arachidonic acid metabolism. BS15 notably facilitated the expressions of fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2), acyl-CoA synthetase bubblegum family member 1 (ACSBG1), perilipin 1 (PLIN1) and perilipin 2 (PLIN2), which were involved in PPAR signaling pathway of SNE chickens. Besides, suppression of phospholipase A2 group IVA (PLA2G4A) in arachidonic acid metabolism was observed in SNE chickens after BS15 prevention. The expression patterns of FABP2, ACSBG1, PLIN1, PLIN2 and PLA24G in qRT-PCR validation were consistent with RNA-Seq results. These findings indicate that SNE may affect the hepatic lipid metabolism of chickens. Meanwhile, BS15 pretreatment may provide a prospective natural prophylaxis strategy against SNE through improving the PPAR signaling pathway and arachidonic acid metabolism.

  1. Duck enteritis virus glycoprotein D and B DNA vaccines induce immune responses and immunoprotection in Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Cao, Yongsheng; Cui, Lihong; Ma, Bo; Mu, Xiaoyu; Li, Yanwei; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Dan; Wei, Wei; Gao, Mingchun; Wang, Junwei

    2014-01-01

    DNA vaccine is a promising strategy for protection against virus infection. However, little is known on the efficacy of vaccination with two plasmids for expressing the glycoprotein D (gD) and glycoprotein B (gB) of duck enteritis virus (DEV) in inducing immune response and immunoprotection against virulent virus infection in Pekin ducks. In this study, two eukaryotic expressing plasmids of pcDNA3.1-gB and pcDNA3.1-gD were constructed. Following transfection, the gB and gD expressions in DF1 cells were detected. Groups of ducks were vaccinated with pcDNA3.1-gB and/or pcDNA3.1-gD, and boosted with the same vaccine on day 14 post primary vaccination. We found that intramuscular vaccinations with pcDNA3.1-gB and/or pcDNA3.1-gD, but not control plasmid, stimulated a high frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in Pekin ducks, particularly with both plasmids. Similarly, vaccination with these plasmids, particularly with both plasmids, promoted higher levels of neutralization antibodies against DEV in Pekin ducks. More importantly, vaccination with both plasmids significantly reduced the virulent DEV-induced mortality in Pekin ducks. Our data indicated that vaccination with plasmids for expressing both gB and gD induced potent cellular and humoral immunity against DEV in Pekin ducks. Therefore, this vaccination strategy may be used for the prevention of DEV infection in Pekin ducks.

  2. 77 FR 63221 - Waiver of Requirement To Enter Into a Reciprocal Waiver of Claims Agreement With All Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... To Enter Into a Reciprocal Waiver of Claims Agreement With All Customers AGENCY: Federal Aviation... a launch operator enter into a reciprocal waiver of claims with each customer. The FAA grants the... enter into a reciprocal waiver of claims (a ``cross-waiver'') with each of its customers. The FAA...

  3. A Comparative Study of Recent Trends and Characteristics of Students Entering American Junior Colleges, 1968-72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert H.; Scott, Craig S.

    Recent changes in the background characteristics and attributes of students entering American junior colleges are compared with those of students entering colleges offering baccalaureate and graduate degrees. Comparisons are also made between students entering private and public junior colleges. The characteristics and attributes are: Level of…

  4. Employee and work-related predictors for entering rehabilitation: a cohort study of civil servants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamminpää, Anne; Kuoppala, Jaana; Väänänen-Tomppo, Irma; Hinkka, Katariina

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how employee well-being, psychosocial factors at work, leadership and perceived occupational health services predict entering rehabilitation as modelled in the Job Well-being Pyramid. A random population of 967 civil servants participated in a survey on psychosocial factors and health at work in 2000 in Finland. A total of 147 employees entered rehabilitation during the median follow-up time of 7 years. Permanent employment, large organizations, feedback from supervisors, client violence and physically monotonous work were associated with an increased rate of entering rehabilitation, whereas physical jobs, clear aims, high appreciation, job satisfaction and job enjoyment were associated with a decreased rate of entering rehabilitation. Employee well-being in general was also associated with entering rehabilitation, and this was decreased by good work ability, good health, mental well-being and physical fitness and increased by constant musculoskeletal symptoms. On the other hand, support from supervisors, job control, work pressure, team climate at work, communication, bullying and discrimination, physical work environment, and sense of coherence appeared to have no association. Various psychosocial factors at work and job well-being predict entering rehabilitation. The association between employee health and entering rehabilitation refers to the fact that the selection process for rehabilitation works reasonably well and those in need of rehabilitation are also granted it. In general, these findings coincide well with the Job Well-being Pyramid model. Improving job conditions and well-being at work is likely to decrease the need for rehabilitation.

  5. Patient needs and research priorities in the enteral nutrition market - a quantitative prioritization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weenen, T C; Jentink, A; Pronker, E S; Commandeur, H R; Claassen, E; Boirie, Y; Singer, P

    2014-10-01

    A quantitative systematic identification and prioritization of unmet needs and research opportunities in relation to enteral nutrition was conducted by means of a tailor-made health research prioritization process. The research objectives were reached by conducting qualitative interviews followed by quantitative questionnaires targeting enteral nutrition key opinion leaders (KOLs). (1) Define disease areas that deserve more research attention; (2) Rank importance of product characteristics of tube feeding (TF) and oral nutritional supplements (ONS); (3) Assess involvement of KOLs in enteral nutrition R&D process. KOLs ranked three product characteristics and three disease areas that deserve additional research attention. From these, overall priority scores were calculated by multiplying ranks for both product characteristics and disease areas. 17 qualitative interviews were conducted and 77 questionnaires (response rate 35%) were completed and returned. (1) Disease areas in ONS and TF with highest priorities are: ONS: general malnutrition & geriatrics, TF: intensive care. (2) TF product characteristics with highest priorities are: composition and clinical evidence from a KOL perspective; tolerance and ease of use from a patient perspective. ONS product characteristics with highest priorities are: composition, clinical evidence and taste from a KOL perspective; taste from a patient perspective. We find a high discrepancy between product characteristic prioritization from a KOL and patient perspective. (3) Although 62% of all KOLs give advice to enteral nutrition companies on patient needs, they under-influence the setting of research priorities by enteral nutrition companies. This study provides a systematic approach to achieve research prioritization in enteral nutrition. In addition to providing new directions for enteral nutrition research and development, this study highlights the relevance of involving KOLs in the identification of research priorities as they

  6. Descriptive study of enteric zoonoses in Ontario, Canada, from 2010 – 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Whitfield

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contact with animals and their environment has long been recognized as an important source of enteric zoonoses. However, there are limited data available on the burden of illness associated with specific types of animals in Canada. This study describes the overall burden of enteric zoonoses in Ontario, Canada from 2010 to 2012. Methods Confirmed cases of seven enteric zoonotic diseases (campylobacteriosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, listeriosis, salmonellosis, verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC infection, and yersiniosis with episode dates from 2010 to 2012 were extracted from the integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS. Reported exposures were categorized as animal contact, foodborne, waterborne and ‘other’, with animal contact grouped into nine sub-categories based on the type of animal or transmission setting. Overall incidence rates and proportions by animal exposure categories, age and sex-specific incidence rates and hospitalization and death proportions were calculated and sex proportions compared. Results Our study found that approximately 26% of the enteric pathogens assessed during the 2010 to 2012 period reported contact with animals and their environments as the mode of transmission. Of enteric disease cases reporting animal contact, farm exposures were reported for 51.3%, dog or cat exposures for 26.3%, and reptile or amphibian exposures for 8.9%. Conclusions Contact with animals was reported more frequently during the period 2010 to 2012 in comparison to the period 1997 to 2003 when 6% or less of enteric cases were associated with animal contact. Public health professionals, stakeholders associated with animals and their related industries (e.g., pet treats, mobile zoos, abattoirs, and the public should recognize that animal contact is an important source of enteric illnesses in order to take measures to reduce the burden of illness from animal sources.

  7. Clinical and microbiological profile of a retrospective cohort of enteric fever in 2 Spanish tertiary hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Martínez-Pérez, Ángela; Pérez-Molina, José Antonio; González-López, Juan José; Lopez-Vélez, Rogelio; Salvador, Fernando; Sánchez, Irene; Planes, Anna M; Molina, Israel

    2015-05-01

    Enteric fever in high-income countries is diagnosed mainly in patients returning from endemic countries. We assess the clinical, microbiological, and prognosis aspects of enteric fever in 2 Spanish tertiary hospitals. A retrospective observational study was conducted at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital and Ramón y Cajal University Hospital in Spain. We reviewed medical records of all patients who were diagnosed with enteric fever from January 2000 to January 2014 at these hospitals. We identified 47 patients with enteric fever episodes. According to their travel history, 35 (74.5%) patients had travelled to highly endemic countries. Imported enteric fever was acquired mainly in Asia (70.3%). Imported infections were implicated in travelers (48.6%), visiting friends and relatives (40%) and immigrants (11.4%). We found that 12 patients were diagnosed with enteric fever without a travel history (autochthonous infection). The resistance profile of the isolates showed decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility in 66.7% of the imported group and 8.3% of the autochthonous group (P = 0.001). Salmonella strains from patients returning from Asia had an increased risk of having decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (odds ratio, 52.25; 95% confidence interval: 8.6-317.7). Patients with imported enteric fever are at higher risk for having a Salmonella strain with decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility, especially in patients returning from Asia. Initial treatment with third-generation cephalosporin or azithromycin is strongly recommended until a drug-susceptibility test is available. Prevention strategies such as pretravel counseling and immunization before travel may be beneficial.

  8. Nutritional and microbiological quality of commercial and homemade blenderized whole food enteral diets for home-based enteral nutritional therapy in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Maricy Machado Cavalca; Santos, Valdirene Francisca Neves; Bottoni, Andrea; Morais, Tania Beninga

    2018-02-01

    Serious nutritional and contamination risks may be involved in the preparation of blenderized tube-feeding diets and in the handling of commercial diets. Their nutritional and microbiological quality in home settings is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional and microbiological quality of commercial enteral and homemade blenderized whole foods diets intended to adult patients in home nutritional therapy. In a cross sectional study, 66 samples of commercial (CD) and noncommercial (NCD) enteral diets were collected at the homes of patients in home enteral nutritional therapy, 33 of each type. Commercial diets were either powder (PCD; n = 13) or liquid (LCD; n = 20). The samples were analyzed in laboratory to assess their nutritional and microbiological quality. Anthropometric data of mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and triceps skinfold (TST) thickness were obtained from the patients' medical records. NCD presented significantly lower values for protein, fat, fiber, carbohydrate and energy while water content was significantly higher. PCD and LCD did not show any statistically significant differences between them. In the NCD, the values measured for macronutrients and energy corresponded to less than 50% of the prescribed values (except for fat). In CD, protein value was about 20% more than the prescribed value; fat and energy values corresponded to approximately 100% of the prescription, while carbohydrate corresponded to 92%. Regardless the type of the diet, prevalence of undernutrition was high in both groups though patients of the NCD presented a higher percentage. Samples of NCD complied significantly less with the microbiological standards; only 6.0% complied with the standard for coliform bacteria. Escherichia coli was detected in 10, 2, and 2 samples of NCD, PCD and LCD, respectively. Homemade blenderized enteral diets showed low values of energy and macronutrients, delivered less than 50% of the prescribed values and had

  9. Polysialic acid enters the cell nucleus attached to a fragment of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM to regulate the circadian rhythm in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Nina; Kleene, Ralf; Lutz, David; Theis, Thomas; Schachner, Melitta

    2016-07-01

    In the mammalian nervous system, the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM is the major carrier of the glycan polymer polysialic acid (PSA) which confers important functions to NCAM's protein backbone. PSA attached to NCAM contributes not only to cell migration, neuritogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and behavior, but also to regulation of the circadian rhythm by yet unknown molecular mechanisms. Here, we show that a PSA-carrying transmembrane NCAM fragment enters the nucleus after stimulation of cultured neurons with surrogate NCAM ligands, a phenomenon that depends on the circadian rhythm. Enhanced nuclear import of the PSA-carrying NCAM fragment is associated with altered expression of clock-related genes, as shown by analysis of cultured neuronal cells deprived of PSA by specific enzymatic removal. In vivo, levels of nuclear PSA in different mouse brain regions depend on the circadian rhythm and clock-related gene expression in suprachiasmatic nucleus and cerebellum is affected by the presence of PSA-carrying NCAM in the cell nucleus. Our conceptually novel observations reveal that PSA attached to a transmembrane proteolytic NCAM fragment containing part of the extracellular domain enters the cell nucleus, where PSA-carrying NCAM contributes to the regulation of clock-related gene expression and of the circadian rhythm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Permissive or Trophic Enteral Nutrition and Full Enteral Nutrition Had Similar Effects on Clinical Outcomes in Intensive Care: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Camila F A; de Vasconcelos, Simone G; da Silva, Thales A; Silva, Flávia M

    2018-01-26

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the effect of permissive underfeeding/trophic feeding on the clinical outcomes of critically ill patients. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials to evaluate the mortality, length of stay, and mechanical ventilation duration in patients randomized to either hypocaloric or full-energy enteral nutrition was performed. Data sources included PubMed and Scopus and the reference lists of the articles retrieved. Two independent reviewers participated in all phases of this systematic review as proposed by the Cochrane Handbook, and the review was reported according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A total of 7 randomized clinical trials that included a total of 1,717 patients were reviewed. Intensive care unit length of stay and mechanical ventilation duration were not statistically different between the intervention and control groups in all randomized clinical trials, and mortality rate was also not different between the groups. In conclusion, hypocaloric enteral nutrition had no significantly different effects on morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients when compared with full-energy nutrition. It is still necessary to determine the safety of this intervention in this group of patients, the optimal amount of energy provided, and the duration of this therapy. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  11. Preventing subclinical necrotic enteritis through Lactobacillus johnsonii BS15 by ameliorating lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xiaodan; Zeng, Dong; Wang, Hesong; Ni, Xueqin; Liu, Lei; Lai, Jing; Khalique, Abdul; Pan, Kangcheng; Jing, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Increasing studies have focused on the beneficial effects of Lactobacillus johnsonii in certain diseases. Here, we studied the prevention ability of a probiotic strain, L. johnsonii BS15 on subclinical necrotic enteritis (SNE), and its underlying mechanism. 180 male Cobb 500 chicks were randomly allotted into three groups and administrated with BS15 (1 × 10 6 cfu/g) or Man Rogosa Sharpe liquid medium throughout a 28-day experimental period. With the exception of the normal group, SNE infection was treated for the remaining experimental period after the chicks were fed with normal diet 14 days. Results showed that BS15 notably suppressed the SNE-induced loss of average daily gain and liver functional abnormality. Additionally, BS15 facilitated lipid metabolism of SNE boilers when the contents of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ and adipose triglyceride lipase in adipose tissue and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. BS15 also attenuated the hepatic lipid accumulation of stricken chicks by suppressing the genes expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c as well as stimulating the genes expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. Moreover, BS15 enhanced the development of SNE gut by improving the intestinal development and digestion as well as adjusting the gut microflora. Therefore, BS15 may provide a promising natural preventative strategy against SNE, which may be contributed to the amelioration of lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora.

  12. Primary bovine skeletal muscle cells enters apoptosis rapidly via the intrinsic pathway when available oxygen is removed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissel Beate Rønning

    Full Text Available Muscle cells undergo changes post-mortem during the process of converting muscle into meat, and this complex process is far from revealed. Recent reports have suggested programmed cell death (apoptosis to be important in the very early period of converting muscle into meat. The dynamic balance that occurs between anti-apoptotic members, such as Bcl-2, and pro-apoptotic members (Bid, Bim helps determine whether the cell initiates apoptosis. In this study, we used primary bovine skeletal muscle cells, cultured in monolayers in vitro, to investigate if apoptosis is induced when oxygen is removed from the growth medium. Primary bovine muscle cells were differentiated to form myotubes, and anoxia was induced for 6h. The anoxic conditions significantly increased (P<0.05 the relative gene expression of anti- and pro-apoptotic markers (Aif, Bcl-2, Bid and Bim, and the PARK7 (P<0.05 and Grp75 (Hsp70 protein expressions were transiently increased. The anoxic conditions also led to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which is an early apoptotic event, as well as cytochrome c release from the mitochondria. Finally, reorganization and degradation of cytoskeletal filaments occurred. These results suggest that muscle cells enters apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway rapidly when available oxygen in the muscle diminishes post-mortem.

  13. Age most significant predictor of requiring enteral feeding in head-and-neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, Sean; Refaat, Tamer; Bacchus, Ian D; Sathiaseelan, Vythialinga; Mittal, Bharat B

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of patients treated for head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) undergo enteral tube feeding. Data suggest that avoiding enteral feeding can prevent long-term tube dependence and disuse of the swallowing mechanism which has been linked to complications such as prolonged dysphagia and esophageal constriction. We examined detailed dosimetric and clinical parameters to better identify those at risk of requiring enteral feeding. One hundred patients with advanced stage HNSCC were retrospectively analyzed after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to a median dose of 70 Gy (range: 60-75 Gy) with concurrent chemotherapy in nearly all cases (97%). Patients with significant weight loss (>10%) in the setting of severely reduced oral intake were referred for placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube. Detailed DVH parameters were collected for several structures. Univariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression were used to determine clinical and dosimetric factors associated with needing enteral feeding. Dichotomous outcomes were tested using Fisher’s exact test and continuous variables between groups using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Thirty-three percent of patients required placement of an enteral feeding tube. The median time to tube placement was 25 days from start of treatment, after a median dose of 38 Gy. On univariate analysis, age (p = 0.0008), the DFH (Docetaxel/5-FU/Hydroxyurea) chemotherapy regimen (p = .042) and b.i.d treatment (P = 0.040) (used in limited cases on protocol) predicted need for enteral feeding. On multivariate analysis, age remained the single statistically significant factor (p = 0.003) regardless of other clinical features (e.g. BMI) and all radiation planning parameters. For patients 60 or older compared to younger adults, the odds ratio for needing enteral feeding was 4.188 (p = 0.0019). Older age was found to be the most significant risk factor for needing enteral feeding in

  14. Radiation enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and tobacco Almost all milk products Coffee, tea, chocolate, and sodas with caffeine Foods containing whole bran ... Call your provider if you are having radiation therapy or have had it in the past and ...

  15. The IAEA inventory databases related to radioactive material entering the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, R.C.; Sjoeblom, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    Contracting Parties to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter (LC 1972) have requested the IAEA to develop an inventory of radioactive material entering the marine environment from all sources. The rationale for developing and maintaining the inventory is related to its use as an information base with which the impact of radionuclides entering the marine environment from different sources can be assessed and compared. Five anthropogenic sources of radionuclides entering the marine environment can be identified. These sources are: radioactive waste disposal at sea; accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material; discharge of low level liquid effluents from land-based nuclear facilities; the fallout from nuclear weapons testing; and accidental releases from land-based nuclear facilities. The first two of these sources are most closely related to the objective of the LC 1972 and its request to the IAEA. This paper deals with the Agency's work on developing a database on radioactive material entering the marine environment from these two sources. The database has the acronym RAMEM (RAdioactive Material Entering the Marine Environment). It includes two modules: inventory of radioactive waste disposal at sea and inventory of accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material

  16. Environmental change and enteric zoonoses in New Zealand: a systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Aparna; Lill, Adrian W T; Mcintyre, Mary; Hales, Simon; Baker, Michael G; French, Nigel P

    2015-02-01

    To review the available evidence that examines the association between climatic and agricultural land use factors and the risks of enteric zoonoses in humans and consider information needs and possible pathways of intervention. The electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science and Embase and government websites were searched systematically for published literature that investigated the association of climatic and/or agricultural exposures with the incidence of the four most common enteric zoonotic diseases in New Zealand (campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis). Results The 16 studies in the review demonstrated significant associations between climate, agricultural land use and enteric disease occurrence. The evidence suggests that enteric disease risk from environmental reservoirs is pathogen specific. In some rural regions, environmental pathogen load is considerable, with multiple opportunities for zoonotic transmission. Enteric disease occurrence in NZ is associated with climate variability and agricultural land use. However, these relationships interact with demographic factors to influence disease patterns. Improved understanding of how environmental and social factors interact can inform effective public health interventions under scenarios of projected environmental change. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. Continuous elemental enteral alimentation in children with Crohn's disease and growth failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, C L; Roulet, M; Roy, C C; Weber, A

    1980-12-01

    Four children aged (11.7-13.5 yr) with protracted growth retardation related to Crohn's disease, received a 6-wk period of continuous elemental enteral alimentation with no other form of treatment. Despite drug therapy the yearly height and weight gain velocities of these children (1.7 +/- 0.3 cm and -0.8 +/- 1.4 kg, respectively) had been abnormal during the previous 2 yr. All patients experienced a complete remission of symptoms, improved nutritional status, and significant height (1.8 +/- 0.3 cm) and weight (3.8 +/- 0.5 kg) gains during the 67 wk of treatment. After cessation of elemental enteral alimentation, 3 of the 4 patients continued to grow, and over a period of 4.5 mo from the beginning of this form of nutritional therapy, they gained an average of 5.0 +/- 1.6 kg and 3.5 +/- 0.3 cm. The disease became active thereafter, and the 3 children resumed their previously abnormal growth patterns during the ensuing year. The 4th patient had surgery 2 mo after elemental enteral alimentation and experienced a subsequent second spurt of growth and pubertal changes. This study suggests that a relatively short course of elemental enteral alimentation leads to a temporary resumption of growth in children with severe growth failure and Crohn's disease. The possibility that repeated courses of elemental enteral alimentation might be beneficial needs to be explored.

  18. Enteric disease surveillance under the AFHSC-GEIS: Current efforts, landscape analysis and vision forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Matthew R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mission of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS is to support global public health and to counter infectious disease threats to the United States Armed Forces, including newly identified agents or those increasing in incidence. Enteric diseases are a growing threat to U.S. forces, which must be ready to deploy to austere environments where the risk of exposure to enteropathogens may be significant and where routine prevention efforts may be impractical. In this report, the authors review the recent activities of AFHSC-GEIS partner laboratories in regards to enteric disease surveillance, prevention and response. Each partner identified recent accomplishments, including support for regional networks. AFHSC/GEIS partners also completed a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT survey as part of a landscape analysis of global enteric surveillance efforts. The current strengths of this network include excellent laboratory infrastructure, equipment and personnel that provide the opportunity for high-quality epidemiological studies and test platforms for point-of-care diagnostics. Weaknesses include inconsistent guidance and a splintered reporting system that hampers the comparison of data across regions or longitudinally. The newly chartered Enterics Surveillance Steering Committee (ESSC is intended to provide clear mission guidance, a structured project review process, and central data management and analysis in support of rationally directed enteric disease surveillance efforts.

  19. Clinical review: optimizing enteral nutrition for critically ill patients - a simple data-driven formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In modern critical care, the paradigm of 'therapeutic nutrition' is replacing traditional 'supportive nutrition'. Standard enteral formulas meet basic macro- and micronutrient needs; therapeutic enteral formulas meet these basic needs and also contain specific pharmaconutrients that may attenuate hyperinflammatory responses, enhance the immune responses to infection, or improve gastrointestinal tolerance. Choosing the right enteral feeding formula may positively affect a patient's outcome; targeted use of therapeutic formulas can reduce the incidence of infectious complications, shorten lengths of stay in the ICU and in the hospital, and lower risk for mortality. In this paper, we review principles of how to feed (enteral, parenteral, or both) and when to feed (early versus delayed start) patients who are critically ill. We discuss what to feed these patients in the context of specific pharmaconutrients in specialized feeding formulations, that is, arginine, glutamine, antioxidants, certain ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, hydrolyzed proteins, and medium-chain triglycerides. We summarize current expert guidelines for nutrition in patients with critical illness, and we present specific clinical evidence on the use of enteral formulas supplemented with anti-inflammatory or immune-modulating nutrients, and gastrointestinal tolerance-promoting nutritional formulas. Finally, we introduce an algorithm to help bedside clinicians make data-driven feeding decisions for patients with critical illness. PMID:22136305

  20. Enteric Viruses in Raw Vegetables and Groundwater Used for Irrigation in South Korea▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Sooryun; Lee, Cheonghoon; Song, Sung Won; Choi, Weon Cheon; Lee, Chan Hee; Kim, Sang-Jong

    2009-01-01

    Raw vegetables irrigated with groundwater that may contain enteric viruses can be associated with food-borne viral disease outbreaks. In this study, we performed reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and cell culture-PCR to monitor the occurrence of enteric viruses in groundwater samples and in raw vegetables that were cultivated using that groundwater in South Korea. Samples were collected 10 times from three farms located in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. RT-PCR and cell culture-PCR were performed to detect adenoviruses (AdVs), enteroviruses (EVs), noroviruses (NoVs), and rotaviruses, followed by sequence analyses of the detected strains. Of the 29 groundwater samples and the 30 vegetable samples, five (17%) and three (10%) were positive for enteric viruses, respectively. AdVs were the most frequently detected viruses in four groundwater and three vegetable samples. EVs and NoVs were detected in only one groundwater sample and one spinach sample, respectively. The occurrence of enteric viruses in groundwater and vegetable samples was not correlated with the water temperature and the levels of indicator bacteria, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most of the detected AdVs were temporally distributed, irrespective of sample type. Our results indicate that raw vegetables may be contaminated with a broad range of enteric viruses, which may originate from virus-infected farmers and virus-contaminated irrigation water, and these vegetables may act as a potential vector of food-borne viral transmission. PMID:19854919

  1. Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition in the Perioperative Period: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Sanchez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional support of surgical and critically ill patients has undergone significant advances since 1936 when Studley demonstrated a direct relationship between pre-operative weight loss and operative mortality. The advent of total parenteral nutrition followed by the extraordinary progress in parenteral and enteral feedings, in addition to the increased knowledge of cellular biology and biochemistry, have allowed clinicians to treat malnutrition and improve surgical patient’s outcomes. We reviewed the literature for the current status of perioperative nutrition comparing parenteral nutrition with enteral nutrition. In a surgical patient with established malnutrition, nutritional support should begin at least 7–10 days prior to surgery. Those patients in whom eating is not anticipated beyond the first five days following surgery should receive the benefits of early enteral or parenteral feeding depending on whether the gut can be used. Compared to parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition is associated with fewer complications, a decrease in the length of hospital stay, and a favorable cost-benefit analysis. In addition, many patients may benefit from newer enteral formulations such as Immunonutrition as well as disease-specific formulations.

  2. Influence of SPK with Enteric Drainage on the Pancreatic Exocrine Function in Diabetic Patients with Uremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Pei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to determine the use of fecal elastase in evaluating the effect of simultaneous pancreas–kidney transplantation with enteric drainage on the pancreatic exocrine function of diabetic patients with uremia. Methods. A total of 19 patients with simultaneous pancreas–kidney transplantation (SPK with enteric drainage, 31 diabetic patients with uremia (chronic renal failure (CRF, 22 diabetic patients with uremia who underwent renal transplantation (RT, and 20 normal individuals (CON were included in the study. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency was determined using fecal elastase. Results. The fecal pancreatic elastase level in SPK patients with enteric drainage was 479 μg/g, which was significantly higher than 229 μg/g in CRF patients and 197 μg/g in RT patients. Using 200 μg/g as the established threshold, a reduced fecal pancreatic elastase level was found in 14/31 of CRF patients, 12/22 of RT patients, 1/19 of SPK patients with enteric drainage, and 1/20 of CON patients. The correlation analysis revealed a significant association between fecal elastase and glycosylated hemoglobin. Conclusions. The present study indicated that SPK with enteric drainage improves pancreatic endocrine and exocrine functions. Fecal elastase may be a clinically relevant means to determine the therapeutic effects.

  3. Benefits of postpyloric enteral access placement by a nutrition support dietitian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, L Lee; Ramage, James E

    2004-10-01

    Although enteral nutrition is considered the preferred strategy for nutrition support, it is often precluded by nasogastric feeding intolerance or the inability to place feeding access into the postpyloric position. In an effort to improve enteral nutrition (EN) outcomes at our institution, the nutrition support dietitian (NSD) began placing postpyloric feeding tubes (PPFT) in intensive care unit patients. Intensive care unit patients who received blind, bedside PPFT placements by the NSD (n = 18) were compared with a concurrent age- and diagnosis-matched control group that received standard nutritional care without NSD intervention (n = 18). Interruption of EN infusion, appropriateness of parenteral nutrition (PN) prescription (based on American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition guidelines), and incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), as defined by the American College of Chest Physicians practice guidelines, were determined in each group. The NSD was successful in positioning the PPFT at or distal to the third portion of the duodenum in 83% of attempts. The PPFT group demonstrated no interruption of enteral feeding compared with 56% in the control group (p VAP in the PPFT group (6% vs 28%, p = .07). Of the PN initiations in the control group, 88% were deemed to be potentially avoidable; 6 of 8 PNs were initiated because of gastric residuals. Enteral nutrition facilitated by NSD placement of postpyloric feeding access is associated with improved tube feeding tolerance and reduced PN use. Further studies are needed to evaluate a possible effect of postpyloric feeding on the incidence of VAP.

  4. The survival and inactivation of enteric viruses on soft surfaces: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeargin, Thomas; Buckley, David; Fraser, Angela; Jiang, Xiuping

    2016-11-01

    Worldwide, enteric viruses are the main cause of acute gastroenteritis. In humans, these viruses spread via person-to-person contact, food, water, and/or the environment. Their survival and inactivation on hard surfaces have been extensively studied; however, nonlaunderable soft surfaces, such as upholstery and carpet, have received little attention. The aim of this systematic review was to determine factors that influence the survival and inactivation of enteric viruses on nonlaunderable soft surfaces. EBSCO and Web of Science were searched for experimental studies published between 1965 and 2015 using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses methods. Titles and abstracts were screened using 3 eligibility criteria. The quality of all study methods was also assessed. Our search yielded 12 articles. Viruses survived between 0 hours and 140 days depending on surface and environment conditions. Virus survival was influenced by temperature, relative humidity, organic content, and deposition method. A variety of chemistries were tested across studies and were shown to have a varied effect on enteric viruses. Chlorine, glutaraldehyde, vaporous ozone, and hydrogen peroxide were the most efficacious against enteric viruses (> 3-log reduction). Environmental factors, such as temperature and relative humidity, can influence survival of enteric viruses on nonlaunderable soft surfaces. The efficacy of liquid and vaporous chemistries are associated with surface and virus type. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition in the Perioperative Period: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abunnaja, Salim; Cuviello, Andrea; Sanchez, Juan A.

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional support of surgical and critically ill patients has undergone significant advances since 1936 when Studley demonstrated a direct relationship between pre-operative weight loss and operative mortality. The advent of total parenteral nutrition followed by the extraordinary progress in parenteral and enteral feedings, in addition to the increased knowledge of cellular biology and biochemistry, have allowed clinicians to treat malnutrition and improve surgical patient’s outcomes. We reviewed the literature for the current status of perioperative nutrition comparing parenteral nutrition with enteral nutrition. In a surgical patient with established malnutrition, nutritional support should begin at least 7–10 days prior to surgery. Those patients in whom eating is not anticipated beyond the first five days following surgery should receive the benefits of early enteral or parenteral feeding depending on whether the gut can be used. Compared to parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition is associated with fewer complications, a decrease in the length of hospital stay, and a favorable cost-benefit analysis. In addition, many patients may benefit from newer enteral formulations such as Immunonutrition as well as disease-specific formulations. PMID:23429491

  6. Application of a radiotelemetric system to evaluate the performance of enteric coated and plain aspirin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, C Y; Oberle, R; Fleisher, D; Amidon, G L

    1986-05-01

    The bioavailability of enteric coated and plain aspirin tablets was studied in four beagle dogs. Blood sampling for enteric coated tablets was planned with the aid of a radiotelemetric system. The release of aspirin from its dosage form was detected by monitoring the change in intestinal pH. Aspirin and salicylic acid levels in plasma obtained from the enteric coated dosage form exhibited familiar concentration versus time absorption profiles. Variation in the plasma concentrations of these two compounds within each dog studied (four runs each) was relatively small when time zero was adjusted to the commencement of tablet dissolution. The plasma levels obtained from plain aspirin (three runs each), however, show atypical absorption. The estimated absolute bioavailability was 0.432 +/- 0.0213 and 0.527 +/- 0.0260 for enteric coated and plain aspirin, respectively. Other pharmacokinetic parameters for these two dosage forms such as the highest observed plasma concentration (Cmax) (10.9 +/- 0.535 microgram/mL versus 13.6 +/- 1.88 micrograms/mL) and the time to reach Cmax (tmax) (26.6 +/- 1.94 min versus 31.0 +/- 7.04 min) agree well. The mean values for gastric emptying time, in vivo coating dissolution time, and in vivo disintegration/dissolution time of the tablet core for enteric coated aspirin are 48.7 +/- 7.23 min, 44.3 +/- 3.80 min, and 34.7 +/- 2.04 min, respectively.

  7. Early enteral nutrition prevents intra-abdominal hypertension and reduces the severity of severe acute pancreatitis compared with delayed enteral nutrition: a prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia-Kui; Li, Wei-Qin; Ke, Lu; Tong, Zhi-Hui; Ni, Hai-Bin; Li, Gang; Zhang, Lu-Yao; Nie, Yao; Wang, Xin-Ying; Ye, Xiang-Hong; Li, Ning; Li, Jie-Shou

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the effects of early enteral nutrition (EEN) on intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and disease severity in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Enteral nutrition (EN) was started within 48 h after admission in the EEN group and from the 8th day in the delayed enteral nutrition (DEN) group. The IAP and intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) incidence were recorded for 2 weeks. The caloric intake and feeding intolerance (FI) incidence were recorded daily after EN was started. The severity markers and clinical outcome variables were also recorded. Sixty patients were enrolled to this study. No difference about IAP was found. The IAH incidence of the EEN group was significantly lower than that of the DEN group from the 9th day (8/30 versus 18/30; P = 0.009) after admission. The FI incidence of the EEN group was higher than that of the DEN group during the initial 3 days of feeding (25/30 versus 12/30; P = 0.001; 22/30 versus 9/30; P = 0.001; 15/30 versus 4/30; P = 0.002). Patients with an IAP FI incidence than those with an IAP ≥15 mmHg on the 1st day (20/22 versus 17/38; P < 0.001), the 3rd day (11/13 versus 8/47; P < 0.001), and the 7th day (3/5 versus 3/55; P = 0.005) of feeding. The severity markers and clinical outcome variables of the EEN group were significantly improved. Early enteral nutrition did not increase IAP. In contrast, it might prevent the development of IAH. In addition, EEN might be not appropriate during the initial 3-4 days of SAP onset. Moreover, EN might be of benefit to patients with an IAP <15 mmHg. Early enteral nutrition could improve disease severity and clinical outcome, but did not decrease mortality of SAP.

  8. High-protein enteral nutrition enriched with immune-modulating nutrients vs standard high-protein enteral nutrition and nosocomial infections in the ICU: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, Arthur R H; Sztark, François; Kaisers, Udo X; Zielmann, Siegfried; Felbinger, Thomas W; Sablotzki, Armin R; De Waele, Jan J; Timsit, Jean-François; Honing, Marina L H; Keh, Didier; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Zazzo, Jean-Fabien; Fijn, Harvey B M; Petit, Laurent; Preiser, Jean-Charles; van Horssen, Peter J; Hofman, Zandrie

    2014-08-06

    Enteral administration of immune-modulating nutrients (eg, glutamine, omega-3 fatty acids, selenium, and antioxidants) has been suggested to reduce infections and improve recovery from critical illness. However, controversy exists on the use of immune-modulating enteral nutrition, reflected by lack of consensus in guidelines. To determine whether high-protein enteral nutrition enriched with immune-modulating nutrients (IMHP) reduces the incidence of infections compared with standard high-protein enteral nutrition (HP) in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. The MetaPlus study, a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial, was conducted from February 2010 through April 2012 including a 6-month follow-up period in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in the Netherlands, Germany, France, and Belgium. A total of 301 adult patients who were expected to be ventilated for more than 72 hours and to require enteral nutrition for more than 72 hours were randomized to the IMHP (n = 152) or HP (n = 149) group and included in an intention-to-treat analysis, performed for the total population as well as predefined medical, surgical, and trauma subpopulations. High-protein enteral nutrition enriched with immune-modulating nutrients vs standard high-protein enteral nutrition, initiated within 48 hours of ICU admission and continued during the ICU stay for a maximum of 28 days. The primary outcome measure was incidence of new infections according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definitions. Secondary end points included mortality, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores, mechanical ventilation duration, ICU and hospital lengths of stay, and subtypes of infections according CDC definitions. There were no statistically significant differences in incidence of new infections between the groups: 53% (95% CI, 44%-61%) in the IMHP group vs 52% (95% CI, 44%-61%) in the HP group (P = .96). No statistically significant differences were

  9. Ameliorative effect of apelin on streptozotocin-induced diabetes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Islam Ibrahim Hegab

    trophy with its possible underlying protective mechanisms. Experimental protocol: .... diotoxicity18 and heart failure models,19 however its effect in dia- betic cardiomyopathy is ... day) dissolved in saline and treatment was started after 3 days of. STZ injection ... Sircol collagen assay depend on binding of sircol dye with colla-.

  10. Therapeutic effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-2 on experimental radiation enteritis in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, S.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation enteritis in patients treated by abdominal and pelvic radiotherapy is characterized by acute mucosal disruption and chronic intestinal fibrosis. Using a model of localized intestinal irradiation in the rat, we showed remote intestinal dysfunction outside the irradiation field along the whole gut, probably associated with perturbations in the systems regulating intestinal functions. Based on the hypothesis of consequential late effects, acute administration of Glucagon-Like Peptide-2, a growth factor with specific trophic effect on the intestinal mucosa, limited the apparition of both acute and chronic radiation enteritis. This suggests that therapeutic strategies targeting the severity of acute tissue damage may also limit chronic sequelae. The study of GLP-2 effects on epithelial cells in co-culture with either subepithelial myo-fibroblasts or enteric nervous system emphasized the problem of the modelization of complex systems in vitro, and suggested a synergic action from these different actors in vivo. (author)

  11. Toxin-mediated effects on the innate mucosal defenses: implications for enteric vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenn, Gregory M; Francis, David H; Danielsen, E Michael

    2009-01-01

    mucosal barrier as a key step in enteric pathogen survival. We review key observations relevant to the roles of LT and cholera toxin in protective immunity and the effects of these toxins on innate mucosal defenses. We suggest either that toxin-mediated fluid secretion mechanically disrupts the mucus...... layer or that toxins interfere with innate mucosal defenses by other means. Such a breach gives pathogens access to the enterocyte, leading to binding and pathogenicity by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and other organisms. Given the common exposure to LT(+) ETEC by humans visiting or residing...... unexpectedly broad protective effects against LT(+) ETEC and mixed infections when using a toxin-based enteric vaccine. If toxins truly exert barrier-disruptive effects as a key step in pathogenesis, then a return to classic toxin-based vaccine strategies for enteric disease is warranted and can be expected...

  12. Enteral feeding via jejunostomy as a cause of intestinal perforation and necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Vieiro-Medina

    Full Text Available Background: Jejunostomy for enteral feeding is excellent for patients who cannot manage oral intake, with a low complication rate. A Foley catheter, Ryle tube, Kerh tube or needle-catheter (Jejuno-Cath® are commonly used. It is a safe procedure but it can lead to severe complications. Case report: We present two cases: firstly, an 80 year old male who was admitted to the Emergency Room with a bowel perforation secondary to Jejuno-Cath® for enteral feeding after a subtotal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction; and secondly, a 53 year old male who was admitted to the Emergency Room due to gastric perforation developing multiple complications, including bowel necrosis and enteral feeding impaction. Discussion: We have reviewed the recent literature with regard to this rare complication.

  13. Minimal Enteral Nutrition to Improve Adaptation After Intestinal Resection in Piglets and Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsholt, Lise; Qvist, Niels; Sangild, Per Torp

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Minimal enteral nutrition (MEN) may induce a diet-dependent stimulation of gut adaptation following intestinal resection. Bovine colostrum is rich in growth factors, and we hypothesized that MEN with colostrum would stimulate intestinal adaptation, compared with formula, and would...... be well tolerated in patients with short bowel syndrome. METHODS: In experiment 1, 3-day-old piglets with 50% distal small intestinal resection were fed parenteral nutrition (PN, n = 10) or PN plus MEN given as either colostrum (PN-COL, n = 5) or formula (PN-FORM, n = 9) for 7 days. Intestinal nutrient......, enteral colostrum supplementation was well tolerated, and no infants developed clinical signs of cow's milk allergy. CONCLUSION: Minimal enteral nutrition feeding with bovine colostrum and formula induced similar intestinal adaptation after resection in piglets. Colostrum was well tolerated by newly...

  14. Eudragit L/HPMCAS blend enteric-coated lansoprazole pellets: enhanced drug stability and oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Wang, Guozheng; Zhang, Rong; Liu, Zhihua; Liu, Zhenghua; Wu, Xiaohui; Cao, Deying

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of the present work were to use blends of Eudragit L and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) as enteric film coatings for lansoprazole (LSP) pellets. The enteric-coated pellets were prepared with a fluid-bed coater. The influence of the blend ratio, type of plasticizer, plasticizer level, coating level, and curing conditions on gastric stability in vitro drug release and drug stability was evaluated. Furthermore, the bioavailability of the blend-coated pellets in beagle dogs was also performed. The blend-coated pellets exhibited significant improvement of gastric stability and drug stability compared to the pure polymer-coated pellets. Moreover, the AUC values of blend-coated pellets were greater than that of the pure polymer-coated pellets. It was concluded that the using blends of Eudragit L and HPMCAS as enteric film coatings for LSP pellets improved the drug stability and oral bioavailability.

  15. Enteric Micromotor Can Selectively Position and Spontaneously Propel in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinxing; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Liu, Wenjuan; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Angsantikul, Pavimol; Sandraz, Elodie; Wang, Jianxing; Xu, Tailin; Soto, Fernando; Ramez, Valentin; Wang, Xiaolei; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph

    2016-09-22

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which hosts hundreds of bacteria species, becomes the most exciting organ for the emerging microbiome research. Some of these GI microbes are hostile and cause a variety of diseases. These bacteria colonize in different segments of the GI tract dependent on the local physicochemical and biological factors. Therefore, selectively locating therapeutic or imaging agents to specific GI segments is of significant importance for studying gut microbiome and treating various GI-related diseases. Herein, we demonstrate an enteric micromotor system capable of precise positioning and controllable retention in desired segments of the GI tract. These motors, consisting of magnesium-based tubular micromotors coated with an enteric polymer layer, act as a robust nanobiotechnology tool for site-specific GI delivery. The micromotors can deliver payload to a particular location via dissolution of their enteric coating to activate their propulsion at the target site toward localized tissue penetration and retention.

  16. Distinction between porcine circovirus type 2 enteritis and porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Vigre, Håkan; Svensmark, B.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) was studied immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded samples of intestinal tissue from 80 pigs with a clinical history suggestive of Lawsonia intracellularis-associated diarrhoea. Histopathologically, enteritis of varying...... in the submucosa, lamina propria and crypt epithelium, as well as in the lymphoid tissue of the ileum and colon. Multinucleated giant cells, however, were seen in both infections. PCV2 was about three times more likely to be detected in L. intracellularis-negative than in L. intracellularis-positive samples (P ... intensity was diagnosed in 64 of the pigs. Of these 64 animals, 34 (18%) were infected with both PCV2 and L. intracellularis. Of the remaining 30 cases of enteritis, 23 (77%) were attributed to PCV2 infection alone. The PCV2-associated enteritis cases showed necrotizing ileitis and colitis...

  17. Fitness levels and physical activity among class A drug users entering prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jan; Butt, Christine; Dawes, Helen; Foster, Charlie; Neale, Joanne; Plugge, Emma; Wheeler, Carly; Wright, Nat

    2012-12-01

    Physical activity could benefit drug users' physiological and mental health. Previous research has suggested that physical activity levels change when drug users enter prison. Twenty-five class A drug users who were new to prison answered physical activity and drug use cross-sectional questionnaires, took a submaximal fitness test and wore a pedometer for 1 week. Participants' mean aerobic capacity was estimated as 49 mls O2/kg/min (±12 SD). Their mean self-reported walking distance outside of prison was 4.67 miles on an average day (±4.14 SD). Pedometer data suggest they walked a mean of 1.8 miles/day in prison. Many class A drug users entering prison had high levels of fitness and physical activity before admission, often gained from walking. Walking activity reduced when they entered prison, posing a challenge to maintaining healthy activity levels.

  18. Evaluation of Human Enteric Viruses in Surface Water and Drinking Water Resources in Southern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Kristen E.; Opryszko, Melissa C.; Schissler, James T.; Guo, Yayi; Schwab, Kellogg J.

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 884 million people worldwide do not have access to an improved drinking water source, and the microbial quality of these sources is often unknown. In this study, a combined tangential flow, hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF), and real-time PCR method was applied to large volume (100 L) groundwater (N = 4), surface water (N = 9), and finished (i.e., receiving treatment) drinking water (N = 6) samples for the evaluation of human enteric viruses and bacterial indicators. Human enteric viruses including norovirus GI and GII, adenovirus, and polyomavirus were detected in five different samples including one groundwater, three surface water, and one drinking water sample. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli assessed for each sample before and after UF revealed a lack of correlation between bacterial indicators and the presence of human enteric viruses. PMID:21212196

  19. Modulation of intestinal inflammation by minimal enteral nutrition with amniotic fluid in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mette Viberg; Bering, Stine Brandt; Jensen, Michael Ladegaard

    2014-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe inflammatory disorder, associated with the difficult transition from parenteral to enteral feeding after preterm birth. We hypothesized that minimal enteral nutrition (MEN) with amniotic fluid (AF), prior to enteral formula feeding, would...... improve resistance to NEC in preterm pigs. Methods: Experiment 1: IEC-6 cells were incubated with porcine (pAF) and human AF (hAF) to test AF-stimulated enterocyte proliferation and migration in vitro. Experiment 2: Cesarean-delivered, preterm pigs were fed parenteral nutrition and MEN with pAF, h...... fed AF as MEN, but NEC incidences were similar (NEC-pAF) or increased (NEC-hAF) compared with controls. Conclusions: Intake of pAF or hAF improved body growth and modulated intestinal inflammatory cytokines during a period of parenteral nutrition, but did not protect against later formula-induced NEC...

  20. A case of ileo-cutaneou fistula due to radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Tsukasa; Oguchi, Yoshiro; Nakaba, Hiroyuki [Kure National Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); and others

    1992-07-01

    Radiation enteritis can cause late complications including stenosis, perforation, fistulization, and bleeding, which sometimes necessitate surgical treatment, but a complication of ileocutaneous fistula is rarely reported. In this paper, an excellent result of an operation for ileocutaneous fistula due to radiation enteritis is described. A 68-year-old woman had undergone extended total histerectomy and radiation therapy on uterine cervical cancer. After the operation and the radiation therapy, frequent abdominal pain bothered her and then the intestinal fistula ensued resulted in the fistulization. The fistula was located between two stenotic lesions of the intestine caused by radiation enteritis. Resection of ileum including the two stenotic lesion and the fistula and end-to-end anastomosis relieved the symptoms and the treatment course has been satisfactory. The two stenotic lesions were resected because it was suggested that the two stenotic lesions directly led the fistulization. She is now followed asymptomatically. (author).