WorldWideScience

Sample records for enteric apelin expression

  1. Expression of apelin and apelin receptor (APJ) in porcine ovarian follicles and in vitro effect of apelin on steroidogenesis and proliferation through APJ activation and different signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, A; Drwal, E; Rame, Ch; Knapczyk-Stwora, K; Słomczyńska, M; Dupont, J; Gregoraszczuk, E L

    2017-07-01

    Apelin was thought to be an adipocyte-specific hormone, but recent studies indicate a link between apelin and female reproductive function. Using real-time PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and ELISA, we demonstrated expression of apelin and its receptor (APJ) in ovarian follicles of different sizes from mature pigs. Apelin concentration in the follicular fluid, and expression of both apelin and APJ, increased with follicular growth; greatest values were found in large follicles. Immunohistochemistry revealed the positive staining for apelin and APJ in membranes of granulosa, than theca cells. Furthermore, we observed strong expression of apelin in oocytes and APJ in the zona pellucida. The effect of apelin (0.02, 0.2, 2 and 20 ng/ml) on basal and IGF1- and FSH-induced steroid hormone (progesterone [P4], and estradiol [E2]) secretion, steroidogenic enzyme (3βHSD and CYP19A1) expression and cell proliferation (Alamar blue) was determined. Apelin was found to increase basal steroid secretion, but decrease IGF1- and FSH-induced steroid secretion, and 3βHSD and CYP19 expression. Apelin also increased cell proliferation and the phosphorylation level of 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), phosphatidyl inositol 3' kinase/Akt (Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). AMPKα was involved in the action of apelin in P4 production, and MAPK/ERK and Akt/PI3 mediated the proliferative effect of apelin. However, these effects on steroid secretion and cell proliferation were abolished when cultured in the presence of ML221, an APJ antagonist. In conclusion, apelin appears to regulate ovarian follicular functions such as steroidogenesis and proliferation via APJ activation and different signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of water immersion and restraint stress on the expressions of apelin, apelin receptor (APJR) and apoptosis rate in the rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustunel, Ismail; Acar, Nuray; Gemici, Burcu; Ozbey, Ozlem; Edizer, Imren; Soylu, Hakan; Tepekoy, Filiz; Izgut-Uysal, Vecihe Nimet

    2014-06-01

    Apelin has been identified as an endogenous ligand of the orphan G-protein-coupled apelin receptor (APJR). These receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system and periphery and play a role in the regulation of fluid and glucose homeostasis, feeding behavior, vessel formation, cell proliferation and immunity. We aimed to investigate whether water immersion and restraint stress have effects on apelin and APJR expression and apoptosis in heart tissue of male Wistar rats. The cardiac tissues were obtained from control, water immersion and restraint stress (WIRS) and apelin antagonist (F13A)+WIRS groups of rats and embedded in paraffin wax. Immunohistochemical staining methods were used to localize apelin, APJR and TUNEL immunopositive cells. H-SCORE was used for semi-quantitative determinations. Apelin protein levels were determined by Western blot in the cardiac tissues and plasma corticosteroid levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Apelin immunolocalization was found especially in endothelial cells and mast cells and faintly in cardiomyocytes, APJR immunostaining was shown in endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes, and TUNEL reaction was observed in endothelial cells and in some fibroblasts. Apelin expression was significantly increased in the WIRS and F13A+WIRS groups compared to the control group. The APJR reaction was similar in all groups. The number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly higher in the F13A+WIRS group than that of the control group. Our study showed that WIRS for 6h increased plasma corticosterone levels and cardiac apelin expression in rats. The increased levels of apelin inhibited stress-induced apoptosis in heart. These results may be important for the therapeutic approach to a variety of stress-related heart disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Weight Loss and Exercise on Apelin Serum Concentrations and Adipose Tissue Expression in Human Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Krist

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Apelin is an adipokine which plays a role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and may contribute to the link between increased adipose tissue mass and obesity related metabolic diseases. Here we investigate the role of omental and subcutaneous (SC adipose tissue apelin and its receptor APJ mRNA expression in human obesity and test the hypothesis that changes in circulating apelin are associated with reduced fat mass in three weight loss intervention studies. Methods: Apelin serum concentration was measured in 740 individuals in a cross-sectional (n = 629 study including a subgroup (n = 161 for which omental and SC apelin mRNA expression has been analyzed and in three interventions: 12 weeks exercise (n = 60, 6 months calorie-restricted diet (n = 19, 12 months after bariatric surgery (n = 32. Results: Apelin mRNA is significantly higher expressed in adipose tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes and correlates with circulating apelin, BMI, body fat, C-reactive protein, and insulin sensitivity. Obesity surgery-induced weight loss causes a significant reduction in omental and SC apelin expression. All interventions led to significantly reduced apelin serum concentrations which significantly correlate with improved insulin sensitivity, independently of changes in BMI. Conclusions: Reduced apelin expression and serum concentration may contribute to improved insulin sensitivity beyond significant weight loss.

  4. Expression of the apelin-APJ pathway and effects on erectile function in a mouse model of vasculogenic erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Mi-Hye; Tuvshintur, Buyankhuu; Kim, Woo Jean; Jin, Hai-Rong; Yin, Guo Nan; Song, Kang-Moon; Choi, Min Ji; Kwon, Ki-Dong; Batbold, Dulguun; Ryu, Ji-Kan; Suh, Jun-Kyu

    2013-12-01

    Much attention has recently been focused on therapeutic angiogenesis as a treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). The apelin and apelin receptor (APJ) system is known to cause endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and to be involved in angiogenesis. To examine the differential expression of apelin and APJ in animal models of vasculogenic ED and to determine whether and how enhancement of apelin-APJ signaling restores erectile function in hypercholesterolemic mice. Acute cavernous ischemia was induced in C57BL/6J mice by bilateral occlusion of internal iliac arteries, and chronic vasculogenic ED was induced by feeding a high-cholesterol diet or by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of apelin and APJ were determined in cavernous tissue of each vasculogenic ED model by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We evaluated erectile function by electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve in hypercholesterolemic mice 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after a single intracavernous injection of apelin protein (5 μg/20 μL). The penis was harvested for histologic examinations and Western blot analysis. The cavernous mRNA expression of apelin and APJ was up-regulated in acute ischemia model and down-regulated in chronic vasculogenic ED models. A significant restoration of erectile function was noted 1 day after injection of apelin protein into the penis of hypercholesterolemic mice; however, erectile function returned to baseline values thereafter. The beneficial effects of apelin on erectile function resulted mainly from an activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and increase in nitric oxide bioavailability through reduction in reactive oxygen species-mediated endothelial apoptosis rather than through direct endothelial cell proliferation. These findings suggest that apelin-APJ signaling is a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of vasculogenic ED. Further studies are needed to develop a potent

  5. Apelin is a novel islet peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringström, Camilla; Nitert, Marloes Dekker; Bennet, Hedvig

    2010-01-01

    Apelin, a recently discovered peptide with wide tissue distribution, regulates feeding behavior, improves glucose utilization, and inhibits insulin secretion. We examined whether apelin is expressed in human islets, as well as in normal and type 2 diabetic (T2D) animal islets. Further, we studied...... islet apelin regulation and the effect of apelin on insulin secretion. Apelin expression and regulation was examined in human and animal specimens using immunocytochemistry, in situ hybridization, and real-time PCR. Insulin secretion was studied in INS-1 (832/13) clonal beta cells. APJ......-receptor expression was studied using real-time PCR. In human and murine islets apelin was predominantly expressed in beta cells and alpha cells; a subpopulation of the PP cells in human islets also harbored apelin. In porcine and feline islets apelin was mainly expressed in beta cells. APJ-receptor expression...

  6. Apelin and energy metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bertrand, Chantal; Valet, Philippe; Castan-Laurell, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    .... Apelin, a ubiquitously expressed peptide was known to exert different physiological effects mainly on the cardiovascular system and the regulation of fluid homeostasis prior to its characterization as an adipokine...

  7. Small expression tags enhance bacterial expression of the first three transmembrane segments of the apelin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Aditya; Sarker, Muzaddid; Liu, Xiang-Qin; Rainey, Jan K

    2014-08-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are inherently dynamic membrane protein modulators of various important cellular signaling cascades. The apelin receptor (AR or APJ) is a class A GPCR involved in numerous physiological processes, implicated in angiogenesis during tumour formation and as a CD4 co-receptor for entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to cells. Due to the lack of efficient methods to produce full-length GPCRs enriched with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) active (15)N, (13)C, and (or) (2)H isotopes, small GPCR fragments typically comprising 1-2 transmembrane segments are frequently studied using NMR spectroscopy. Here, we report successful overexpression of transmembrane segments 1-3 of AR (AR_TM1-3) in the C41(DE3) strain of Escherichia coli using an AT-rich gene tag previously reported to enhance cell-free expression yields. The resulting protein, with 6 additional N-terminal residues due to the expression tag, was purified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Far UV circular dichroism spectropolarimetry demonstrates that AR_TM1-3 has the predicted ~40% α-helical character in membrane-mimetic environments. (1)H-(15)N HSQC NMR experiments imply amenability to high-resolution NMR structural characterization and stability in solution for weeks. Notably, this small expression tag approach may also be generally applicable to other membrane proteins that are difficult to express in E. coli.

  8. Apelin receptor (APJ expression during cardiopulmonary bypass in children undergoing surgical repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Walker

    Full Text Available In human adults, and animals, the Apelin-APJ ligand-receptor system is emerging as having a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular function and heart failure. The aim was to investigate expression, and regulation by oxygen, of the Apelin APJ receptor (APJ in myocardium obtained from children undergoing corrective surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass for repair of congenital heart defects.Western blotting and Real-time PCR were used to determine if APJ was expressed in the infant myocardium, if expression was influenced by the duration of myocardial ischemia and if any relationship existed between APJ expression and early post-operative outcome. The next aim was to determine if there was a difference in mRNA expression of APJ in myocardium from cyanotic patients compared with acyanotic patients and if re-perfusing myocardium in vitro with either hypoxic, normoxic or hyperoxic oxygen affected APJ mRNA expression.APJ was expressed in all myocardial samples and myocardium exposed to longer durations of ischemia and cardioplegia expressed higher levels of APJ (p<0.05. There was a significant correlation between APJ expression in myocardium resected after 10 min with both oxygen extraction ratio (p=0.021, rho= -0.523 and mixed venous oxygen saturation (p=0.028, rho 0.52. This association did not exist for myocardium collected before 10 min. There was no difference in APJ expression between cyanotic and acyanotic patients. No difference was found in APJ expression whether re-perfused with low, normal or high oxygen.Changes in APJ expression were observed during cardiopulmonary bypass in children and the reasons for this require further investigation.

  9. Apelin-13 upregulates Egr-1 expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi-Feng [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China); Yu, Hong-Wei [Department of Cardiology, Jinzhou Central Hospital, Jinzhou 121001 (China); Sun, Li-Li [Department of Ophthalmology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China); You, Lu; Tao, Gui-Zhou [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China); Qu, Bao-Ze, E-mail: qubaoze1971@hotmail.com [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China)

    2015-12-25

    Previous studies have shown that Apelin-13 upregulates early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) via the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. Apelin-13 induces proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) as well as the upregulation of osteopontin (OPN) via the upregulation of Egr-1. This study was designed to further explore the activity of Apelin-13 in VSMCs by investigating members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, in particular Jun kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38). We also examined whether the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways were involved in the regulation of Egr-1 by Apelin-13. We treated rat aortic VSMCs with Apelin-13 and examined the expression of JNK, p-JNK, P38, and p-P38 to investigate whether Apelin-13-mediated increases in Egr-1 occurred through the JNK and P38 signaling pathways. We then pretreated VSMCs with the Gi protein inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) and the Gq inhibitor YM254890, added Apelin-13 and looked for changes in Egr-1 expression. Finally, we pretreated with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, and treated with Apelin-13. Our results showed that JNK and P38 did not participate in Apelin-13-mediated increase in Egr-1. Instead, Apelin-13 upregulation of Egr-1 was mediated by a PTX-sensitive Gi protein. Apelin-13 did increase ERK phosphorylation through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways, resulting in changes in Egr-1 expression. These data provide important targets for future studies to modulate vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • Apelin-13 mediates Egr-1 upregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells via ERK1/2. • The underlying mechanisms are unknown, but exclude Jnk or p38 pathway activation. • Apelin-13 binds to Gi, activating the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling cascades. • Consequent ERK phosphorylation results in increased Egr-1

  10. Regulation of apelin and its receptor expression in adipose tissues of obesity rats with hypertension and cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongxian; Cheng, Xian Wu; Hao, Changning; Zhang, Zhi; Yao, Huali; Murohara, Toyoaki; Dai, Qiuyan

    2014-01-01

    The apelin/APJ system has been implicated in obesity-related hypertension. We investigated the mechanism responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension with a special focus on the crosstalk between AngII/its type 1 receptor (AT1R) signaling and apelin/APJ expression. Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat (obesity-related hypertension, OH) or normal-fat diet (NF) for 15 weeks were randomly assigned to one of two groups and administered vehicle or perindopril for 4 weeks. Compared to the NF rats, the OH rats showed lower levels of plasma apelin and apelin/APJ mRNAs of perirenal adipose tissues, and these changes were restored by perindopril. Administration of the AT1R antagonist olmesartan resulted in the restoration of the reduction of apelin and APJ expressions induced by AngII for 48 h in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Among several inhibitors for extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) PD98059, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) SB203580 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) LY294002, the latter showed an additive effect on AngII-mediated inhibitory effects. In addition, the levels of p-Akt, p-ERK and p38MAPK proteins were decreased by long-term treatment with AngII (120 min), and these changes were restored by Olmesartan. Apelin/APJ appears to be impaired in obesity-related hypertension. The AngII inhibition-mediated beneficial effects are likely attributable, at least in part, to restoration of p38/ERK-dependent apelin/APJ expression in diet-induced obesity-related hypertension.

  11. Regulation of oxidative stress and somatostatin, cholecystokinin, apelin gene expressions by ghrelin in stomach of newborn diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Zeynep Mine; Sacan, Ozlem; Karatug, Ayse; Turk, Neslihan; Yanardag, Refiye; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Bolkent, Sema

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether ghrelin treatment has a protective effect on gene expression and biochemical changes in the stomach of newborn streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. In this study, four groups of Wistar rats were used: control, ghrelin control, diabetic and diabetic+ghrelin. The rats were sacrificed after four weeks of treatment for diabetes. The gene expressions of: somatostatin, cholecystokinin, apelin and the altered active caspase-3, active caspase-8, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, were investigated in the pyloric region of the stomach and antioxidant parameters were measured in all the stomach. Although ghrelin treatment to diabetic rats lowered the stomach lipid peroxidation levels, the stomach glutathione levels were increased. Exogenous ghrelin caused an increased activities of stomach catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase in diabetic rats. Numbers of somatostatin, cholecystokinin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunoreactive cells decreased in the diabetic+ghrelin group compared to the diabetic group. Apelin mRNA expressions were remarkably less in the diabetic+ghrelin rats than in diabetic rats. The results may indicate that ghrelin treatment has a protective effect to some extent on the diabetic rats. This protection is possibly accomplished through the antioxidant activity of ghrelin observed in type 2 diabetes. Consequently exogenous ghrelin may be a candidate for therapeutic treatment of diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Promoting effects of the adipokine, apelin, on diabetic nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-hai Zhang

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis, increased glomerular permeability, and albuminuria are thought to contribute to the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN. Apelin receptor (APLNR and the endogenous ligand of APLNR, apelin, induce the sprouting of endothelial cells in an autocrine or paracrine manner, which may be one of the mechanisms of DN. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of apelin in the pathogenesis of DN. Therefore, we observed apelin/APLNR expression in kidneys from patients with type 2 diabetes as well as the correlation between albuminuria and serum apelin in patients with type 2 diabetes. We also measured the proliferating, migrating, and chemotactic effects of apelin on glomerular endothelial cells. To measure the permeability of apelin in glomerular endothelial cells, we used transwells to detect FITC-BSA penetration through monolayered glomerular endothelial cells. The results showed that serum apelin was significantly higher in the patients with type 2 diabetes compared to healthy people (p<0.05, Fig. 1B and that urinary albumin was positively correlated with serum apelin (R = 0.78, p<0.05. Apelin enhanced the migration, proliferation, and chemotaxis of glomerular endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05. Apelin also promoted the permeability of glomerular endothelial cells (p<0.05 and upregulated the expression of VEGFR2 and Tie2 in glomerular endothelial cells (p<0.05. These results indicated that upregulated apelin in type 2 diabetes, which may be attributed to increased fat mass, promotes angiogenesis in glomeruli to form abnormal vessels and that enhanced apelin increases permeability via upregulating the expression of VEGFR2 and Tie2 in glomerular endothelial cells.

  13. Tumor Endothelial Cell-Specific Drug Delivery System Using Apelin-Conjugated Liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Hiroki; Naito, Hisamichi; Takara, Kazuhiro; Wakabayashi, Taku; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Background A drug delivery system specifically targeting endothelial cells (ECs) in tumors is required to prevent normal blood vessels from being damaged by angiogenesis inhibitors. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether apelin, a ligand for APJ expressed in ECs when angiogenesis is taking place, can be used for targeting drug delivery to ECs in tumors. Methods and Results Uptake of apelin via APJ stably expressed in NIH-3T3 cells was investigated using TAMRA (fluorescent probe)-conjugated apelin. Both long and short forms of apelin (apelin 36 and apelin 13) were taken up, the latter more effectively. To improve efficacy of apelin- liposome conjugates, we introduced cysteine, with its sulfhydryl group, to the C terminus of apelin 13, resulting in the generation of apelin 14. In turn, apelin 14 was conjugated to rhodamine-encapsulating liposomes and administered to tumor-bearing mice. In the tumor microenvironment, we confirmed that liposomes were incorporated into the cytoplasm of ECs. In contrast, apelin non-conjugated liposomes were rarely found in the cytoplasm of ECs. Moreover, non-specific uptake of apelin-conjugated liposomes was rarely detected in other normal organs. Conclusions ECs in normal organs express little APJ; however, upon hypoxic stimulation, such as in tumors, ECs start to express APJ. The present study suggests that apelin could represent a suitable tool to effectively deliver drugs specifically to ECs within tumors. PMID:23799018

  14. Tumor endothelial cell-specific drug delivery system using apelin-conjugated liposomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Kawahara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A drug delivery system specifically targeting endothelial cells (ECs in tumors is required to prevent normal blood vessels from being damaged by angiogenesis inhibitors. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether apelin, a ligand for APJ expressed in ECs when angiogenesis is taking place, can be used for targeting drug delivery to ECs in tumors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Uptake of apelin via APJ stably expressed in NIH-3T3 cells was investigated using TAMRA (fluorescent probe-conjugated apelin. Both long and short forms of apelin (apelin 36 and apelin 13 were taken up, the latter more effectively. To improve efficacy of apelin- liposome conjugates, we introduced cysteine, with its sulfhydryl group, to the C terminus of apelin 13, resulting in the generation of apelin 14. In turn, apelin 14 was conjugated to rhodamine-encapsulating liposomes and administered to tumor-bearing mice. In the tumor microenvironment, we confirmed that liposomes were incorporated into the cytoplasm of ECs. In contrast, apelin non-conjugated liposomes were rarely found in the cytoplasm of ECs. Moreover, non-specific uptake of apelin-conjugated liposomes was rarely detected in other normal organs. CONCLUSIONS: ECs in normal organs express little APJ; however, upon hypoxic stimulation, such as in tumors, ECs start to express APJ. The present study suggests that apelin could represent a suitable tool to effectively deliver drugs specifically to ECs within tumors.

  15. Elabela/Toddler Is an Endogenous Agonist of the Apelin APJ Receptor in the Adult Cardiovascular System, and Exogenous Administration of the Peptide Compensates for the Downregulation of Its Expression in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peiran; Read, Cai; Kuc, Rhoda E; Buonincontri, Guido; Southwood, Mark; Torella, Rubben; Upton, Paul D; Crosby, Alexi; Sawiak, Stephen J; Carpenter, T Adrian; Glen, Robert C; Morrell, Nicholas W; Maguire, Janet J; Davenport, Anthony P

    2017-03-21

    Elabela/toddler (ELA) is a critical cardiac developmental peptide that acts through the G-protein-coupled apelin receptor, despite lack of sequence similarity to the established ligand apelin. Our aim was to investigate the receptor pharmacology, expression pattern, and in vivo function of ELA peptides in the adult cardiovascular system, to seek evidence for alteration in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in which apelin signaling is downregulated, and to demonstrate attenuation of PAH severity with exogenous administration of ELA in a rat model. In silico docking analysis, competition binding experiments, and downstream assays were used to characterize ELA receptor binding in human heart and signaling in cells expressing the apelin receptor. ELA expression in human cardiovascular tissues and plasma was determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, dual-labeling immunofluorescent staining, and immunoassays. Acute cardiac effects of ELA-32 and [Pyr1]apelin-13 were assessed by MRI and cardiac catheterization in anesthetized rats. Cardiopulmonary human and rat tissues from PAH patients and monocrotaline- and Sugen/hypoxia-exposed rats were used to show changes in ELA expression in PAH. The effect of ELA treatment on cardiopulmonary remodeling in PAH was investigated in the monocrotaline rat model. ELA competed for binding of apelin in human heart with overlap for the 2 peptides indicated by in silico modeling. ELA activated G-protein- and β-arrestin-dependent pathways. We detected ELA expression in human vascular endothelium and plasma. Comparable to apelin, ELA increased cardiac contractility, ejection fraction, and cardiac output and elicited vasodilatation in rat in vivo. ELA expression was reduced in cardiopulmonary tissues from PAH patients and PAH rat models, respectively. ELA treatment significantly attenuated elevation of right ventricular systolic pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary vascular remodeling in

  16. The role of apelin in the retina of diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Lu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Apelin is a novel adipocytokine participating in diabetes, but its role in diabetic retinopathy (DR is unknown. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of apelin on the proliferative potential in DR along with its antagonist inhibitory effects. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Strong staining of apelin, co-localized with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was observed in the retina of diabetic rats. Apelin, GFAP, and VEGF mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased in the sample's retinas. Moreover, exogenous apelin promoted retinal Müller cell proliferation in vivo. Simultaneously, apelin induced GFAP and VEGF expression. F13A markedly reduced retinal gliosis caused by diabetes. Furthermore, F13A suppressed both GFAP and VEGF expression in vivo. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results strongly suggest that apelin is associated with the development of DR and contributes to changes in the retinas of diabetic rats. Apelin induced promotion of cell proliferation lends support to the possibility that apelin may play a role in the progression of DR to a proliferative phase. This possible role deserves further investigation, which may offer new perspectives in the early prevention and treatment of DR.

  17. Apelin-13 as a novel target for intervention in secondary injury after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-jun Bao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The adipocytokine, apelin-13, is an abundantly expressed peptide in the nervous system. Apelin-13 protects the brain against ischemia/reperfusion injury and attenuates traumatic brain injury by suppressing autophagy. However, secondary apelin-13 effects on traumatic brain injury-induced neural cell death and blood-brain barrier integrity are still not clear. Here, we found that apelin-13 significantly decreases cerebral water content, mitigates blood-brain barrier destruction, reduces aquaporin-4 expression, diminishes caspase-3 and Bax expression in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and reduces apoptosis. These results show that apelin-13 attenuates secondary injury after traumatic brain injury and exerts a neuroprotective effect

  18. Intranasal Delivery of Apelin-13 Is Neuroprotective and Promotes Angiogenesis After Ischemic Stroke in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Apelin is a peptide originally isolated from bovine stomach tissue extracts and identified as an endogenous ligand of the APJ receptor; recent work showed that apelin ameliorates the ischemic injury in the heart and the brain. Being an analogue to the angiotensin II receptor, the apelin/APJ signaling may mediate angiogenesis process. We explored the noninvasive intranasal brain delivery method and investigated therapeutic effects of apelin-13 in a focal ischemic stroke model of mice. Intranasal administration of apelin-13 (4 mg/kg was given 30 min after the onset of stroke and repeated once daily. Three days after stroke, mice received apelin-13 had significantly reduced infarct volume and less neuronal death in the penumbra. Western blot analyses showed upregulated levels of apelin, apelin receptor APLNR, and Bcl-2 and decreased caspase-3 activation in the apelin-13-treated brain. The proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1β, and chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA increased in the ischemic brain, which were significantly attenuated by apelin-13. Apelin-13 remarkably reduced microglia recruitment and activation in the penumbra according to morphological features of Iba-1-positive cells 3 days after ischemia. Apelin-13 significantly increased the expression of angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9 14 days after stroke. Angiogenesis illustrated by collagen IV + /5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridin + colabeled cells was significantly increased by the apelin-13 treatment 21 days after stroke. Finally, apelin-13 promoted the local cerebral blood flow restoration and long-term functional recovery. This study demonstrates a noninvasive intranasal delivery of apelin-13 after stroke, suggesting that the reduced inflammatory activities, decreased cell death, and increased angiogenesis contribute to the therapeutic benefits of apelin-13.

  19. Apelin activates the expression of inflammatory cytokines in microglial BV2 cells via PI-3K/Akt and MEK/Erk pathways

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CHEN Li TAO Yong JIANG YanRong

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to observe the changes of the inflammatory cytokines in microglial BV2 cells stimulated by apelin, and inves- tigate the mechanism of inflammatory cytokines secretion after apelin stimulation...

  20. Apelin/APJ system: A novel potential therapy target for kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhen; Wu, Lele; Chen, Linxi

    2018-05-01

    Apelin is an endogenous ligand of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor APJ. Apelin and APJ are distributed in various tissues, including the heart, lung, kidney, and even in tumor tissues. Studies show that apelin mRNA is highly expressed in the inner stripe of kidney outer medulla, which plays an important role in process of water and sodium balance. Additionally, more studies also indicate that apelin/APJ system exerts a broad range of activities in kidney. Therefore, we review the role of apelin/APJ system in kidney diseases such as renal fibrosis, renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetic nephropathy, polycystic kidney disease, and hemodialysis (HD). Apelin/APJ system can improve renal interstitial fibrosis by reducing the deposition of extracellular matrix. Apelin/APJ system significantly reduces renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting renal cell death. Apelin/APJ system involves the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Apelin/APJ system also predicts the process of polycystic kidney disease. Besides, apelin/APJ system prevents some dialysis complications in HD patients. And apelin/APJ system alleviates chronic kidney disease (CKD) by inhibiting vascular calcification (VC). Overall, apelin/APJ system plays diversified roles in kidney disease and may be a potential target for the treatment of kidney disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Apelin and energy metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal eBertrand

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of adipokines identified over the past years has allowed considering white adipose tissue as a secretory organ closely integrated into overall physiological and metabolic control. Apelin, an ubiquitous peptide was known to exert different physiological effects mainly on the cardiovascular system and the regulation of fluid homeostasis until its identification as an adipokine. This has increased its broad range of action and apelin now appears clearly as a new player in energy metabolism alongside leptin and adiponectin. Apelin has been shown to act on glucose and lipid metabolism but also to modulate insulin secretion. Moreover, different studies in both animals and humans have shown that plasma apelin concentrations are usually increased during obesity and type 2 diabetes. This mini-review will focus on the various systemic apelin effects on energy metabolism by addressing its mechanisms of action. The advances concerning the role of apelin in metabolic diseases in relation with the recent reports on apelin concentrations in obese and/or diabetic subjects will also be discussed.

  2. Apelin attenuates the osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Fei Shan

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification, which results from a process osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs, is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Apelin is a recently discovered peptide that is the endogenous ligand for the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, APJ. Several studies have identified the protective effects of apelin on the cardiovascular system. However, the effects and mechanisms of apelin on the osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs have not been elucidated. Using a culture of calcifying vascular smooth muscle cells (CVMSCs as a model for the study of vascular calcification, the relationship between apelin and the osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs and the signal pathway involved were investigated. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and osteocalcin secretion were examined in CVSMCs. The involved signal pathway was studied using the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK inhibitor, PD98059, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K inhibitor, LY294002, and APJ siRNA. The results showed that apelin inhibited ALP activity, osteocalcin secretion, and the formation of mineralized nodules. APJ protein was detected in CVSMCs, and apelin activated ERK and AKT (a downstream effector of PI3-K. Suppression of APJ with siRNA abolished the apelin-induced activation of ERK and Akt. Furthermore, inhibition of APJ expression, and the activation of ERK or PI3-K, reversed the effects of apelin on ALP activity. These results showed that apelin inhibited the osteoblastic differentiation of CVSMCs through the APJ/ERK and APJ/PI3-K/AKT signaling pathway. Apelin appears to play a protective role against arterial calcification.

  3. Apelin deficiency accelerates the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kasai

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective loss of motor neurons. Recent studies have implicated that chronic hypoxia and insufficient vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-dependent neuroprotection may lead to the degeneration of motor neurons in ALS. Expression of apelin, an endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor APJ, is regulated by hypoxia. In addition, recent reports suggest that apelin protects neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Here, we examined whether apelin is an endogenous neuroprotective factor using SOD1(G93A mouse model of ALS. In mouse CNS tissues, the highest expressions of both apelin and APJ mRNAs were detected in spinal cord. APJ immunoreactivity was observed in neuronal cell bodies located in gray matter of spinal cord. Although apelin mRNA expression in the spinal cord of wild-type mice was not changed from 4 to 18 weeks age, that of SOD1(G93A mice was reduced along with the paralytic phenotype. In addition, double mutant apelin-deficient and SOD1(G93A displayed the disease phenotypes earlier than SOD1(G93A littermates. Immunohistochemical observation revealed that the number of motor neurons was decreased and microglia were activated in the spinal cord of the double mutant mice, indicating that apelin deficiency pathologically accelerated the progression of ALS. Furthermore, we showed that apelin enhanced the protective effect of VEGF on H(2O(2-induced neuronal death in primary neurons. These results suggest that apelin/APJ system in the spinal cord has a neuroprotective effect against the pathogenesis of ALS.

  4. Apelin Protects Primary Rat Retinal Pericytes from Chemical Hypoxia-Induced Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericytes are a population of cells that participate in normal vessel architecture and regulate permeability. Apelin, as the endogenous ligand of G protein-coupled receptor APJ, participates in a number of physiological and pathological processes. To date, the effect of apelin on pericyte is not clear. Our study aimed to investigate the potential protection mechanisms of apelin, with regard to primary rat retinal pericytes under hypoxia. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that pericytes colocalized with APJ in the fibrovascular membranes dissected from proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients. In the in vitro studies, we first demonstrated that the expression of apelin/APJ was upregulated in pericytes under hypoxia, and apelin increased pericytes proliferation and migration. Moreover, knockdown of apelin in pericyte was achieved via lentivirus-mediated RNA interference. After the inhibition of apelin, pericytes proliferation was inhibited significantly in hypoxia culture condition. Furthermore, exogenous recombinant apelin effectively prevented hypoxia-induced apoptosis through downregulating active-caspase 3 expression and increasing the ratio of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2/Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax in pericytes. These results suggest that apelin suppressed hypoxia-induced pericytes injury, which indicated that apelin could be a potential therapeutic target for retinal angiogenic diseases.

  5. Apelin-13 enhances arcuate POMC neuron activity via inhibiting M-current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Kun Lee

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is a key element of the neural circuits that control energy homeostasis. Specific neuronal populations within the hypothalamus are sensitive to a variety of homeostatic indicators such as circulating nutrient levels and hormones that signal circulating glucose and body fat content. Central injection of apelin secreted by adipose tissues regulates feeding and glucose homeostasis. However, the precise neuronal populations and cellular mechanisms involved in these physiological processes remain unclear. Here we examine the electrophysiological impact of apelin-13 on proopiomelanocortin (POMC neuron activity. Approximately half of POMC neurons examined respond to apelin-13. Apelin-13 causes a dose-dependent depolarization. This effect is abolished by the apelin (APJ receptor antagonist. POMC neurons from animals pre-treated with pertussis toxin still respond to apelin, whereas the Gβγ signaling inhibitor gallein blocks apelin-mediated depolarization. In addition, the effect of apelin is inhibited by the phospholipase C and protein kinase inhibitors. Furthermore, single-cell qPCR analysis shows that POMC neurons express the APJ receptor, PLC-β isoforms, and KCNQ subunits (2, 3 and 5 which contribute to M-type current. Apelin-13 inhibits M-current that is blocked by the KCNQ channel inhibitor. Therefore, our present data indicate that apelin activates APJ receptors, and the resultant dissociation of the Gαq heterotrimer triggers a Gβγ-dependent activation of PLC-β signaling that inhibits M-current.

  6. Apelin attenuates postburn sepsis via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B dependent mechanism: A randomized animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Keqin; Long, Huibao; Xu, Bincan; Luo, Yanling

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to investigate whether apelin would regulate inflammatory response and promote survival in an experimental burn sepsis model through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B dependent pathway. Male BALB/c mice were divided into the following groups: sham, burn, burn sepsis, burn sepsis treated with apelin, burn sepsis treated with apelin plus LY294002, and burn sepsis treated with LY294002 alone. Apelin level and inflammatory cytokines in serum were detected by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay. Apelin/APJ (apelin receptor, gene symbol APLNR) mRNA expression in spleen and adhesion molecules levels in lung was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Neutrophil infiltration in lung was determined by myeloperoxidase assay. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B in lung was determined by western blot. Mortality rate was monitored. Burn sepsis induced decreased apelin/APJ mRNA expression in spleen and reduced apelin level in plasma, which were both restored by exogenous apelin treatment. Burn sepsis treated with apelin resulted in decreased interleukin-6, tumor-necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin -1β and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels in plasma. Mice with apelin treatment also showed decreased neutrophil infiltration and adhesion molecules expression, accompanied by a remarkable increased protein kinase B phosphorylation in lung tissue. The mortality rate in apelin treated animals was also significantly reduced. Importantly, the above effects of apelin were abolished by LY294002 treatment. Apelin regulates inflammatory response, diminishes inflammatory remote organ damage and improves survival in an experimental model of burn sepsis, which is at least partly mediated by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B dependent pathway. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Myocardial injection of apelin-overexpressing bone marrow cells improves cardiac repair via upregulation of Sirt3 after myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanfang Li

    Full Text Available Our previous study shows that treatment with apelin increases bone marrow cells (BMCs recruitment and promotes cardiac repair after myocardial infarction (MI. The objective of this study was to investigate whether overexpression of apelin in BMCs improved cell therapy and accelerated cardiac repair and functional recovery in post-MI mice. Mouse myocardial infarction was achieved by coronary artery ligation and BMCs overexpressing apelin (apelin-BMCs or GFP (GFP-BMCs were injected into ischemic area immediately after surgery. In vitro, exposure of cultured BMCs to apelin led to a gradual increase in SDF-1á and CXCR4 expression. Intramyocardial delivery of apelin-BMCs in post-MI mice resulted in a significant increase number of APJ⁺/c-kit⁺/Sca1⁺ cells in the injected area compared to GFP-BMCs treated post-MI mice. Treatment with apelin-BMCs increased expression of VEGF, Ang-1 and Tie-2 in post-MI mice. Apelin-BMCs treatment also significantly increased angiogenesis and attenuated cardiac fibrosis formation in post-MI mice. Most importantly, treatment with apelin-BMCs significantly improved left ventricular (LV systolic function in post-MI mice. Mechanistically, Apelin-BMCs treatment led to a significant increase in Sirtuin3 (Sirt3 expression and reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS formation. Treatment of cultured BMCs with apelin also increased Notch3 expression and Akt phosphorylation. Apelin treatment further attenuated stress-induced apoptosis whereas knockout of Sirt3 abolished anti-apoptotic effect of apelin in cultured BMCs. Moreover, knockout of Sirt3 significantly attenuated apelin-BMCs-induced VEGF expression and angiogenesis in post-MI mice. Knockout of Sirt3 further blunted apelin-BMCs-mediated improvement of cardiac repair and systolic functional recovery in post-MI mice. These data suggest that apelin improves BMCs therapy on cardiac repair and systolic function in post-MI mice. Upregulation of Sirt3 may contribute to the

  8. Apelin ameliorates TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes through G protein-coupled receptor APJ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Chu

    Full Text Available Apelin, a novel adipokine, is the specific endogenous ligand of G protein-coupled receptor APJ. Consistent with its putative role as an adipokine, apelin has been linked to states of insulin resistance. However, the function of apelin in hepatic insulin resistance, a vital part of insulin resistance, and its underlying mechanisms still remains unclear. Here we define the impacts of apelin on TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes. Our studies indicate that apelin reversed TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in HepG2 cells, mouse primary hepatocytes and liver tissues of C57BL/6J mice by improving JNK-IRS1-AKT-GSK pathway. Moreover, Western blot revealed that APJ, but not apelin, expressed in the hepatocytes and liver tissues of mice. We found that F13A, a competitive antagonist for G protein-coupled receptor APJ, suppressed the effects of apelin on TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes, suggesting APJ is involved in the function of apelin. In conclusion, we show novel evidence suggesting that apelin ameliorates TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes through G protein-coupled receptor APJ. Apelin appears as a beneficial adipokine with anti-insulin resistance properties, and thus as a promising therapeutic target in metabolic disorders.

  9. Hypothalamic Apelin/Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling Controls Hepatic Glucose Metabolism in the Onset of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drougard, Anne; Duparc, Thibaut; Brenachot, Xavier; Carneiro, Lionel; Gouazé, Alexandra; Fournel, Audren; Geurts, Lucie; Cadoudal, Thomas; Prats, Anne-Catherine; Pénicaud, Luc; Vieau, Didier; Lesage, Jean; Leloup, Corinne; Benani, Alexandre; Cani, Patrice D.; Valet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: We have previously demonstrated that central apelin is implicated in the control of peripheral glycemia, and its action depends on nutritional (fast versus fed) and physiological (normal versus diabetic) states. An intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of a high dose of apelin, similar to that observed in obese/diabetic mice, increase fasted glycemia, suggesting (i) that apelin contributes to the establishment of a diabetic state, and (ii) the existence of a hypothalamic to liver axis. Using pharmacological, genetic, and nutritional approaches, we aim at unraveling this system of regulation by identifying the hypothalamic molecular actors that trigger the apelin effect on liver glucose metabolism and glycemia. Results: We show that icv apelin injection stimulates liver glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis via an over-activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), leading to fasted hyperglycemia. The effect of central apelin on liver function is dependent of an increased production of hypothalamic reactive oxygen species (ROS). These data are strengthened by experiments using lentiviral vector-mediated over-expression of apelin in hypothalamus of mice that present over-activation of SNS associated to an increase in hepatic glucose production. Finally, we report that mice fed a high-fat diet present major alterations of hypothalamic apelin/ROS signaling, leading to activation of glycogenolysis. Innovation/Conclusion: These data bring compelling evidence that hypothalamic apelin is one master switch that participates in the onset of diabetes by directly acting on liver function. Our data support the idea that hypothalamic apelin is a new potential therapeutic target to treat diabetes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 557–573. PMID:23879244

  10. Mechanisms involved in dual vasopressin/apelin neuron dysfunction during aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Sauvant

    Full Text Available Normal aging is associated with vasopressin neuron adaptation, but little is known about its effects on the release of apelin, an aquaretic peptide colocalized with vasopressin. We found that plasma vasopressin concentrations were higher and plasma apelin concentrations lower in aged rats than in younger adults. The response of AVP/apelin neurons to osmotic challenge was impaired in aged rats. The overactivity of vasopressin neurons was sustained partly by the increased expression of Transient receptor potential vanilloid2 (Trpv2, because central Trpv blocker injection reversed the age-induced increase in plasma vasopressin concentration without modifying plasma apelin concentration. The morphofunctional plasticity of the supraoptic nucleus neuron-astrocyte network normally observed during chronic dehydration in adults appeared to be impaired in aged rats as well. IL-6 overproduction by astrocytes and low-grade microglial neuroinflammation may contribute to the modification of neuronal functioning during aging. Indeed, central treatment with antibodies against IL-6 decreased plasma vasopressin levels and increased plasma apelin concentration toward the values observed in younger adults. Conversely, minocycline treatment (inhibiting microglial metabolism did not affect plasma vasopressin concentration, but increased plasma apelin concentration toward control values for younger adults. This study is the first to demonstrate dual vasopressin/apelin adaptation mediated by inflammatory molecules and neuronal Trpv2, during aging.

  11. Effects of Apelin on Cardiovascular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Apelin is the endogenous ligand of APJ, the orphan G protein-coupled receptor. The apelin–APJ signal transduction pathway is widely expressed in the cardiovascular system and is an important factor in cardiovascular homeostasis. This signal transduction pathway has long been related to diseases with high morbidity in the elderly, such as atherosclerosis, coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, hypertension, calcific aortic valve disease, heart failure and atrial fibrillation. In this review, we discuss the apelin–APJ signal transduction pathway related to age-associated cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Effects of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA supplementation in high-fat fed mice on lipid metabolism and apelin/APJ system in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Bertrand

    Full Text Available Various studies have shown that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA has beneficial effects on obesity and associated disorders. Apelin, the ligand of APJ receptor also exerts insulin-sensitizing effects especially by improving muscle metabolism. EPA has been shown to increase apelin production in adipose tissue but its effects in muscle have not been addressed. Thus, the effects of EPA supplementation (36 g/kg EPA in high-fat diet (HFD (45% fat, 20% protein, 35% carbohydrate were studied in mice with focus on muscle lipid metabolism and apelin/APJ expression. Compared with HFD mice, HFD+EPA mice had significantly less weight gain, fat mass, lower blood glucose, insulinemia and hepatic steatosis after 10 weeks of diet. In addition, EPA prevented muscle metabolism alterations since intramuscular triglycerides were decreased and β-oxidation increased. In soleus muscles of HFD+EPA mice, apelin and APJ expression were significantly increased compared to HFD mice. However, plasma apelin concentrations in HFD and HFD+EPA mice were similar. EPA-induced apelin expression was confirmed in differentiated C2C12 myocytes but in this model, apelin secretion was also increased in response to EPA treatment. In conclusion, EPA supplementation in HFD prevents obesity and metabolic alterations in mice, especially in skeletal muscle. Since EPA increases apelin/APJ expression in muscle, apelin may act in a paracrine/autocrine manner to contribute to these benefical effects.

  13. Type of arteriovenous fistula, NYHA class and apelin in hemodialyzed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyszko, Jolanta; Kozminski, Piotr; Malyszko, Jacek; Mysliwiec, Michal

    2011-03-01

    Apelin, a newly discovered adipocytokine, is produced by white adipose tissue and also expressed in kidney and heart. Increasing evidence suggests a role for apelin in the pathology of the cardiovascular system. It was demonstrated that apelin may contribute to the pathophysiology of human chronic heart failure. Apelin locates at the endothelium-a site of key functional importance in the kidney, and apelin has been shown to increase cardiac output. Cardiovascular disease is a major contributor to the mortality and morbidity of patients with chronic renal failure. We previously found that apelin was significantly lower in dialyzed patients with coronary artery disease and its level was predicted by cardiac function. Creation of a-v fistula might contribute to the development or worsening of chronic heart failure. The aim of this study was to assess associations between apelin, other adipocytokines, NYHA class and location of a-v fistula in hemodialyzed patients. This cross-sectional study was performed on a cohort of one hundred, clinically stable hemodialyzed patients. We investigated plasma apelin as well other adipocytokines: resistin, visfatin and von Willebrand factor (vWF)-a marker of endothelial cell injury. In patients with a-v fistula on the forearm (n = 77), apelin was significantly higher than in patients with a-v fistula on the arm (n = 23) (56.79 ± 23.56 vs. 43.12 ± 23.19 pg/ml). Patients with forearm a-v fistula had lower left ventricular internal end-diastolic dimension (LVIDd) (P fistula (P function, and Kt/V. In multiple logistic regression analysis, apelin was significantly associated with ejection fraction (beta value was -0.51, P = 0.007), the presence of diabetes (beta value 0.39, P = 0.049), a-v fistula arm location (beta value 0.42, P = 0.047). Multiple adjusted r (2) for variables in the equation = 0.45, F = 1.75, P = 0.04, SE of estimate = 20.85. Apelin level in dialyzed patients is predicted by cardiac function

  14. Apelin protects against NMDA-induced retinal neuronal death via an APJ receptor by activating Akt and ERK1/2, and suppressing TNF-α expression in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ishimaru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate excitotoxicity mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptors is an important cause of retinal ganglion cell death in glaucoma. To elucidate whether apelin protects against retinal neuronal cell death, we examined protective effects of exogenous and endogenous apelin on neuronal cell death induced by intravitreal injection of NMDA in the retinas of mice. An intravitreal injection of NMDA induced neuronal cell death in both the retinal ganglion cell layer and inner nuclear layer, and reduced the amplitudes of scotopic threshold response (STR in electroretinography studies. Both cell death and STR amplitudes decrease induced by NMDA were prevented by a co-injection of [Pyr1]-apelin-13, and were facilitated by apelin deficiency. The neuroprotective effects of [Pyr1]-apelin-13 were blocked by an apelin receptor APJ antagonist, and by inhibitors of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathways. Additionally, an intravitreal injection of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α neutralizing antibody prevented NMDA-induced retinal neuronal cell death, and exogenous and endogenous apelin suppressed NMDA-induced upregulation of TNF-α in the retina. These results suggest that apelin protects neuronal cells against NMDA-induced death via an APJ receptor in the retina, and that apelin may have beneficial effects in the treatment of glaucoma.

  15. Influence of apelin-12 on troponin levels and the rate of MACE in STEMI patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasniqi, Xhevdet; Berisha, Blerim; Gashi, Masar; Koçinaj, Dardan; Jashari, Fisnik; Vincelj, Josip

    2017-07-20

    During acute myocardial infarction, phosphorylated TnI levels, Ca2+ sensitivity and ATPase activity are decreased in the myocardium, and the subsequent elevation in Ca2+ levels activates protease I (caplain I), leading to the proteolytic degradation of troponins. Concurrently, the levels of apelin and APJ expression are increased by limiting myocardial injury. In this prospective observational study, 100 consecutive patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction were included. Patients meeting the following criteria were included in our study: (1) continuous chest pain lasting for >30 min, (2) observation of ST-segment elevation of more than 2 mm in two adjacent leads by electrocardiography (ECG), (3) increased cardiac troponin I levels, and (4) patients who underwent reperfusion therapy. We evaluated the levels of apelin-12 and troponin I on the first and seventh days after reperfusion therapy in all patients. Apelin-12 was inversely correlated with troponin I levels (Spearman's correlation = -0.40) with a p value 2.2 for the association of apelin with MACE was determined, and the AUC was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.58-0.84). Survival analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method showed a lower rate of MACE among patients with apelin levels >2.2 (p = 0.002), and the ROC curve analysis showed a statistically significant difference in the area under the curve (p = 0.004). The influence of apelin levels on troponin levels in the acute phase of STEMI is inversely correlated, whereas in the non-acute phase, low apelin values were associated with a high rate of MACE.

  16. Toddler: an embryonic signal that promotes cell movement via Apelin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Andrea; Norris, Megan L; Valen, Eivind; Chew, Guo-Liang; Gagnon, James A; Zimmerman, Steven; Mitchell, Andrew; Ma, Jiao; Dubrulle, Julien; Reyon, Deepak; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Joung, J Keith; Saghatelian, Alan; Schier, Alexander F

    2014-02-14

    It has been assumed that most, if not all, signals regulating early development have been identified. Contrary to this expectation, we identified 28 candidate signaling proteins expressed during zebrafish embryogenesis, including Toddler, a short, conserved, and secreted peptide. Both absence and overproduction of Toddler reduce the movement of mesendodermal cells during zebrafish gastrulation. Local and ubiquitous production of Toddler promote cell movement, suggesting that Toddler is neither an attractant nor a repellent but acts globally as a motogen. Toddler drives internalization of G protein-coupled APJ/Apelin receptors, and activation of APJ/Apelin signaling rescues toddler mutants. These results indicate that Toddler is an activator of APJ/Apelin receptor signaling, promotes gastrulation movements, and might be the first in a series of uncharacterized developmental signals.

  17. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Metabolizes and Partially Inactivates Pyr-Apelin-13 and Apelin-17: Physiological Effects in the Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wang; McKinnie, Shaun M K; Farhan, Maikel; Paul, Manish; McDonald, Tyler; McLean, Brent; Llorens-Cortes, Catherine; Hazra, Saugata; Murray, Allan G; Vederas, John C; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2016-08-01

    Apelin peptides mediate beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system and are being targeted as potential new drugs. However, apelin peptides have extremely short biological half-lives, and improved understanding of apelin peptide metabolism may lead to the discovery of biologically stable analogues with therapeutic potential. We examined the ability of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to cleave and inactivate pyr-apelin 13 and apelin 17, the dominant apelin peptides. Computer-assisted modeling shows a conserved binding of pyr-apelin 13 and apelin 17 to the ACE2 catalytic site. In ACE2 knockout mice, hypotensive action of pyr-apelin 13 and apelin 17 was potentiated, with a corresponding greater elevation in plasma apelin levels. Similarly, pharmacological inhibition of ACE2 potentiated the vasodepressor action of apelin peptides. Biochemical analysis confirmed that recombinant human ACE2 can cleave pyr-apelin 13 and apelin 17 efficiently, and apelin peptides are degraded slower in ACE2-deficient plasma. The biological relevance of ACE2-mediated proteolytic processing of apelin peptides was further supported by the reduced potency of pyr-apelin 12 and apelin 16 on the activation of signaling pathways and nitric oxide production from endothelial cells. Importantly, although pyr-apelin 13 and apelin 17 rescued contractile function in a myocardial ischemia-reperfusion model, ACE2 cleavage products, pyr-apelin 12 and 16, were devoid of these cardioprotective effects. We designed and synthesized active apelin analogues that were resistant to ACE2-mediated degradation, thereby confirming that stable apelin analogues can be designed as potential drugs. We conclude that ACE2 represents a major negative regulator of apelin action in the vasculature and heart. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Apelin rs2235306 polymorphism is not related to metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Apelin is an adipokine that was identified to play a role in the control of glucose homeostasis. Apelin rs2235306 gene polymorphism was linked to insulin resistance and poor glycemic control. Aim of the study: To assess the relation of apelin rs2235306 polymorphism with metabolic syndrome and its ...

  19. Apelin inhibits the proliferation and migration of rat PASMCs via the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal and the inhibition of autophagy under hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Gong, Yongsheng; Wang, Zhouguang; Jiang, Liping; Chen, Ran; Fan, Xiaofang; Zhu, Huanmian; Han, Liping; Li, Xiaokun; Xiao, Jian; Kong, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Apelin is highly expressed in the lungs, especially in the pulmonary vasculature, but the functional role of apelin under pathological conditions is still undefined. Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension is the most common cause of acute right heart failure, which may involve the remodeling of artery and regulation of autophagy. In this study, we determined whether treatment with apelin regulated the proliferation and migration of rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) under hypoxia, and investigated the underlying mechanism and the relationship with autophagy. Our data showed that hypoxia activated autophagy significantly at 24 hrs. The addition of exogenous apelin decreased the level of autophagy and further inhibited pulmonary arterial SMC (PASMC) proliferation via activating downstream phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/the mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signal pathways. The inhibition of the apelin receptor (APJ) system by siRNA abolished the inhibitory effect of apelin in PASMCs under hypoxia. This study provides the evidence that exogenous apelin treatment contributes to inhibit the proliferation and migration of PASMCs by regulating the level of autophagy. PMID:24447518

  20. Apelin targets gut contraction to control glucose metabolism via the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournel, Audren; Drougard, Anne; Duparc, Thibaut; Marlin, Alysson; Brierley, Stuart M; Castro, Joel; Le-Gonidec, Sophie; Masri, Bernard; Colom, André; Lucas, Alexandre; Rousset, Perrine; Cenac, Nicolas; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Valet, Philippe; Cani, Patrice D; Knauf, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Objective The gut–brain axis is considered as a major regulatory checkpoint in the control of glucose homeostasis. The detection of nutrients and/or hormones in the duodenum informs the hypothalamus of the host's nutritional state. This process may occur via hypothalamic neurons modulating central release of nitric oxide (NO), which in turn controls glucose entry into tissues. The enteric nervous system (ENS) modulates intestinal contractions in response to various stimuli, but the importance of this interaction in the control of glucose homeostasis via the brain is unknown. We studied whether apelin, a bioactive peptide present in the gut, regulates ENS-evoked contractions, thereby identifying a new physiological partner in the control of glucose utilisation via the hypothalamus. Design We measured the effect of apelin on electrical and mechanical duodenal responses via telemetry probes and isotonic sensors in normal and obese/diabetic mice. Changes in hypothalamic NO release, in response to duodenal contraction modulated by apelin, were evaluated in real time with specific amperometric probes. Glucose utilisation in tissues was measured with orally administrated radiolabeled glucose. Results In normal and obese/diabetic mice, glucose utilisation is improved by the decrease of ENS/contraction activities in response to apelin, which generates an increase in hypothalamic NO release. As a consequence, glucose entry is significantly increased in the muscle. Conclusions Here, we identify a novel mode of communication between the intestine and the hypothalamus that controls glucose utilisation. Moreover, our data identified oral apelin administration as a novel potential target to treat metabolic disorders. PMID:26565000

  1. Apelin targets gut contraction to control glucose metabolism via the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournel, Audren; Drougard, Anne; Duparc, Thibaut; Marlin, Alysson; Brierley, Stuart M; Castro, Joel; Le-Gonidec, Sophie; Masri, Bernard; Colom, André; Lucas, Alexandre; Rousset, Perrine; Cenac, Nicolas; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Valet, Philippe; Cani, Patrice D; Knauf, Claude

    2017-02-01

    The gut-brain axis is considered as a major regulatory checkpoint in the control of glucose homeostasis. The detection of nutrients and/or hormones in the duodenum informs the hypothalamus of the host's nutritional state. This process may occur via hypothalamic neurons modulating central release of nitric oxide (NO), which in turn controls glucose entry into tissues. The enteric nervous system (ENS) modulates intestinal contractions in response to various stimuli, but the importance of this interaction in the control of glucose homeostasis via the brain is unknown. We studied whether apelin, a bioactive peptide present in the gut, regulates ENS-evoked contractions, thereby identifying a new physiological partner in the control of glucose utilisation via the hypothalamus. We measured the effect of apelin on electrical and mechanical duodenal responses via telemetry probes and isotonic sensors in normal and obese/diabetic mice. Changes in hypothalamic NO release, in response to duodenal contraction modulated by apelin, were evaluated in real time with specific amperometric probes. Glucose utilisation in tissues was measured with orally administrated radiolabeled glucose. In normal and obese/diabetic mice, glucose utilisation is improved by the decrease of ENS/contraction activities in response to apelin, which generates an increase in hypothalamic NO release. As a consequence, glucose entry is significantly increased in the muscle. Here, we identify a novel mode of communication between the intestine and the hypothalamus that controls glucose utilisation. Moreover, our data identified oral apelin administration as a novel potential target to treat metabolic disorders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Apelin Serum Level in Egyptian Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala O. El-Mesallamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Highlighting the apelin system would present a new therapeutic target for liver disease. Apelin; endogenous ligand for the orphan receptor APJ, was recently suggested to be associated with fibrosis progression and cirrhosis in addition to insulin resistance (IR and inflammation. The present study was conducted to evaluate blood apelin level changes among 73 chronic hepatitis C (CHC Egyptian patients and if associated with body mass index (BMI, IR, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α. Serum apelin levels were significantly higher in patients with CHC with median value (3.25 when compared with controls (1.11, at P<0.0001, with significant apelin variations among asymptomatic carriers (ASC, fibrosis, and cirrhosis patients, and also among obese and nonobese patients. Multiple regression analysis depicted that BMI, triglycerides, and total cholesterol were independent correlation factors to apelin levels, whereas TNF-α was found to be significantly negatively correlated to adjusted apelin in CHC patients (r=−0.5944, P<0.0001. IR was positively correlated to adjusted apelin in CHC patients (r=0.2663, P<0.05. Conclusion. Apelin level varies among stages of CHC, which may contribute to fibrosis progression. In addition, obesity and IR could act as comorbid factors affecting apelin level in patients with CHC.

  3. Apelin as a marker for monitoring the tumor vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Takara, Kazuhiro; Yamakawa, Daishi; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Antiangiogenic agents transiently normalize tumor vessel structure and improve vessel function, thereby providing a window of opportunity for enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Currently, there are no reliable predictors or markers reflecting this vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy. Apelin, the expression of which is regulated by hypoxia, and which has well-described roles in tumor progression, is an easily measured secreted protein. Here, we show that apelin can be used as a marker for the vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy. Mice bearing s.c. tumors resulting from inoculation of the colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29 were treated with a single injection of bevacizumab, a mAb neutralizing vascular endothelial growth factor. Tumor growth, vessel density, pericyte coverage, tumor hypoxia, and small molecule delivery were determined at four different times after treatment with bevacizumab (days 1, 3, 5, and 8). Tumor growth and vessel density were significantly reduced after bevacizumab treatment, which also significantly increased tumor vessel maturity, and improved tumor hypoxia and small molecule delivery between days 3 and 5. These effects abated by day 8, suggesting that a time window for vessel normalization was opened between days 3 and 5 during bevacizumab treatment in this model. Apelin mRNA expression and plasma apelin levels decreased transiently at day 5 post-treatment, coinciding with vessel normalization. Thus, apelin is a potential indicator of the vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  4. Serum Levels of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Apelin as Potential Markers of Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Di Franco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Impaired endothelial function represents the early stage of atherosclerosis, which is typically associated with systemic inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA. As modulators of endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, asymmetric-dimethylarginine (ADMA and apelin might be measured in the blood of RA patients to detect early atherosclerotic changes. We conducted a prospective, case-control study to investigate serum ADMA and apelin profiles of patients with early-stage RA (ERA before and after disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD therapy. Methods. We enrolled 20 consecutively diagnosed, treatment-naïve patients with ERA and 20 matched healthy controls. Serum ADMA and apelin levels and the 28-joint disease activity scores (DAS28 were assessed before and after 12 months of DMARDs treatment. All patients underwent ultrasonographic assessment for intima-media tickness (IMT evaluation. Results. In the ERA group, ADMA serum levels were significantly higher than controls at baseline (P=0.007 and significantly decreased after treatment (P=0.012 versus controls. Baseline serum apelin levels were significantly decreased in this group (P=0.0001 versus controls, but they were not significantly altered by treatment. IMT did not show significant changes. Conclusions. ERA is associated with alterations of serum ADMA and apelin levels, which might be used as biomarkers to detect early endothelial dysfunction in these patients.

  5. Decreased maternal plasma apelin concentrations in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoff, Katherine D; Qiu, Chunfang; Runyon, Scott; Williams, Michelle A; Maitra, Rangan

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder that complicates 3-7% of pregnancies. The development of preeclampsia has not been completely elucidated and current therapies are not broadly efficacious. The apelinergic system appears to be involved in hypertensive disorders and experimental studies indicate a role of this system in preeclampsia. Thus, an epidemiological evaluation of apelin protein concentration in plasma was conducted in case-control study of pregnant women. Data and maternal plasma samples were collected from pregnant women with confirmed preeclampsia (n = 76) or normotensive controls (n = 79). Concentrations of apelin peptides were blindly measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. Plasma apelin concentrations, measured at delivery, were lower in preeclampsia cases compared with controls (mean ± standard deviation: 0.66 ± 0.29 vs. 0.78 ± 0.31 ng/mL, p = 0.02). After controlling for confounding by maternal age, smoking status, and pre-pregnancy body mass index, odds of preeclampsia were 48% lower for women with high versus low plasma apelin (≥0.73 vs. preclampsia and other hypertensive maternal disorders.

  6. Apelin, Nitric Oxide and Vascular Affection in Adolescent Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha M. El Dayem

    2017-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Diabetic patients had endothelial dysfunction and high apelin level, with no related to each other. High level of apelin is associated with bad glycemic control. Obesity had no role to increase in apelin level. NO is related to diabetic nephropathy and atherosclerosis. We recommend a further large study to evaluate the relationship of apelin with endothelial dysfunction.

  7. SNAP-25 is abundantly expressed in enteric neuronal networks and upregulated by the neurotrophic factor GDNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrenschee, M; Böttner, M; Harde, J; Lange, C; Cossais, F; Ebsen, M; Vogel, I; Wedel, T

    2015-06-01

    Control of intestinal motility requires an intact enteric neurotransmission. Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) is an essential component of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery. The aim of the study was to investigate the localization and expression of SNAP-25 in the human intestine and cultured enteric neurons and to assess its regulation by the neurotrophic factor glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). SNAP-25 expression and distribution were analyzed in GDNF-stimulated enteric nerve cell cultures, and synaptic vesicles were evaluated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Human colonic specimens were processed for site-specific SNAP-25 gene expression analysis and SNAP-25 immunohistochemistry including dual-labeling with the pan-neuronal marker PGP 9.5. Additionally, gene expression levels and distributional patterns of SNAP-25 were analyzed in colonic specimens of patients with diverticular disease (DD). GDNF-treated enteric nerve cell cultures showed abundant expression of SNAP-25 and exhibited granular staining corresponding to synaptic vesicles. SNAP-25 gene expression was detected in all colonic layers and isolated myenteric ganglia. SNAP-25 co-localized with PGP 9.5 in submucosal and myenteric ganglia and intramuscular nerve fibers. In patients with DD, both SNAP-25 mRNA expression and immunoreactive profiles were decreased compared to controls. GDNF-induced growth and differentiation of cultured enteric neurons is paralleled by increased expression of SNAP-25 and formation of synaptic vesicles reflecting enhanced synaptogenesis. The expression of SNAP-25 within the human enteric nervous system and its downregulation in DD suggest an essential role in enteric neurotransmission and render SNAP-25 as a marker for impaired synaptic plasticity in enteric neuropathies underlying intestinal motility disorders.

  8. Novel pathogenesis: regulation of apoptosis by Apelin/APJ system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaqi; Liu, Meiqing; Chen, Linxi

    2017-06-01

    Apelin is the endogenous peptide APJ receptor, while APJ is a member of the G protein-coupled receptors family. Recent evidence strongly suggests that Apelin/APJ system influences apoptosis in various diseases through different signal pathways. In this review, we discuss the possible mechanisms by which the Apelin/APJ system inhibits apoptosis, including the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, ERK1/2, caspase signaling, and autophagy pathway. We also summarize the role of Apelin/APJ system in apoptosis in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, pulmonary artery hypertension, retinal neovascular disease, acute renal injury, skeletal homeostasis, and gastrointestinal diseases. Apelin/APJ system decreases myocardial infarction size and alleviates myocardial I/R injury by inhibiting cardiomyocytes apoptosis. However, Apelin/APJ system improves pulmonary artery hypertension via increasing apoptosis. Apelin/APJ system exerts neuroprotective effect by blocking apoptosis and participates in the recovery of retinal neovascular disease by suppressing apoptosis. Apelin/APJ system also shows anti-apoptotic effect against acute renal injury and plays a role in regulating skeletal homeostasis. In gastrointestinal disease, Apelin/APJ system plays a potential physiological role in gastrointestinal cytoprotection by regulating apoptosis. We hope that a better understanding of the Apelin/APJ system will help to discover new disease pathogenesis and find possible therapeutic targets of the Apelin/APJ system essential for various diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The Role of Apelin on the Alleviative Effect of Angiotensin Receptor Blocker in Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction-Induced Renal Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Nishida

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Apelin is a selective endogenous ligand of the APJ receptor, which genetically has closest identity to the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT-1. The effects of the apelin/APJ system on renal fibrosis still remain unclear. Methods: We examined the effects of the apelin/APJ system on renal fibrosis during AT-1 blockade in a mouse unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO model. Results: We obtained the following results: (1 At UUO day 7, mRNA expressions of apelin/APJ and phosphorylations of Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in the UUO kidney were increased compared to those in the nonobstructed kidney. (2 AT-1 blockade by the treatment with losartan resulted in a further increase of apelin mRNA as well as phosphorylations of Akt/eNOS proteins, and this was accompanied by alleviated renal interstitial fibrosis, decreased myofibroblast accumulation, and a decreased number of interstitial macrophages. (3 Blockade of the APJ receptor by the treatment with F13A during losartan administration completely abrogated the effects of losartan in the activation of the Akt/eNOS pathway and the amelioration of renal fibrosis. (4 Inhibition of NOS by the treatment with L-NAME also resulted in a further increase in renal fibrosis compared to the control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that increased nitric oxide production through the apelin/APJ/Akt/eNOS pathway may, at least in part, contribute to the alleviative effect of losartan in UUO-induced renal fibrosis.

  10. Promoting effect of adipocytokine, apelin, on hepatic injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Cn injection caused severe AP, with marked hepatic damage. The exogenous apelin reduced Cn-induced pancreatic and hepatic injury with reduction in hepatic oxidative, apoptotic and inflammatory markers, pancreatic and hepatic MPO activity with modulation of inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion: Apelin could ...

  11. Promoting effect of adipocytokine, apelin, on hepatic injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marwa N. Emam

    2015-12-14

    Dec 14, 2015 ... The exogenous apelin reduced Cn-induced pancreatic and hepatic injury with reduction in hepatic oxidative, apoptotic and inflammatory markers, pancreatic and hepatic MPO activity with modulation of inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion: Apelin could be protective in AP associated liver damage, possibly ...

  12. [Changes of apelin and its receptor in lung tissue of rats with pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Gui-Qin; Pang, Ling-Xia; Xue, Feng; Chen, Xing-Yan; Chen, Ran; Kong, Xiao-Xia; Gong, Yong-Sheng; Fan, Xiao-Fang

    2013-03-01

    To observe the change of apelin and its receptor (APJ) in the lung tissue of rats with pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline and to explore its significance. Twenty-five male SD rats were randomly divided into control group (n = 10) and monocrotaline group (n = 15). On the twenty-first day after the rats were intraperitoneally injected 60 mg/kg monocrotaline for monocrotaline group or equal volume vehicle for control group, the mean pulmonary artery pressure was measured by right heart catheterization. Histopathological study of lung tissue was done with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson's trichrome staining. The concentration of apelin in the plasma was measured by radioimmunoassay. The expressions of apelin/APJ proteins and genes in lung tissue were measured respectively by Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The mean pulmonary arterial pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary vascular remodeling index, content of apelin protein in lung tissue of monocrotaline group were higher than those in control group. APJ protein and gene expression in monocrotaline group were significantly lower than those in control group (P pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline.

  13. Low Dose of Apelin-36 Attenuates ER Stress-Associated Apoptosis in Rats with Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Qiu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury-induced cellular apoptosis contributes to neuronal death in ischemic stroke, while endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS and subsequently triggered unfolded protein response (UPR are the major mechanisms of cerebral I/R injury-induced apoptosis. A number of studies indicated that apelin-13 protects neurons from I/R injury-induced apoptosis. Apelin-36, the longest isoform of apelin, has stronger affinity to apelin receptor than apelin-13 does. However, the role of apelin-36 in ischemic stroke is less studied. In addition, preventive administration of apelin was applied in most studies, which could not precisely reflect its therapeutic potential in ischemic stroke. Here, we first reported that low dose of apelin-36, other than apelin-13, administrated after ischemic stroke significantly reduced infarct volume in rats. Moreover, apelin-36 attenuated cerebral I/R injury-induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, apelin-36 suppressed I/R injury-induced CHOP and GRP78 elevation, indicating that apelin-36 inhibited ERS/UPR activation. Our study first demonstrated that post-stroke administration of low-dose apelin-36 could attenuate cerebral I/R injury-induced infarct and apoptosis, which is associated with the inhibition of cerebral I/R injury-induced ERS/UPR activation. Our data support the therapeutic potential of apelin-36 in ischemic stroke although further investigation is needed.

  14. Apelin and nutritional status in children on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Sevgi; Cetinkaya, Senay; Anarat, Ali; Bayazıt, Aysun Karabay

    2014-09-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether serum apelin could reflect the nutritional status of children on dialysis. Twelve patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 20 patients on hemodialysis (HD) were enrolled. Patients received individualized diet for six months. Anthropometric and laboratory indices were measured at onset and the end of the study. The anthropometric indices were all significantly lower in patients than in controls whereas similar in PD and HD patients. The protein catabolic rate (nPCR), height, mid-arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), arm muscle area (AMA) and arm fat area (AFA) z scores were significantly increased in dialysis patients after nutritional intervention. Weight z scores statistically increased in HD group whereas did not statistically change in PD group. Serum albumin levels were significantly improved in PD and HD patients. Apelin levels were similar in PD, HD and control groups. Post nutritional apelin values did not differ in each dialysis groups. On multivariate analysis, apelin was independently associated with age, weight, ESR and TG. Apelin seems to be not a useful indicator for monitoring the nutritional status in children on dialysis. However, the close link of apelin with inflammatory and lipid parameters suggested that apelin might be a novel target for slowing the atherogenic process in pediatric dialysis patients.

  15. Apelin protect against multiple organ injury following hemorrhagic shock and decrease the inflammatory response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soliman, Mona; Arafah, Maha

    2015-01-01

    .... Apelin has anti-inflammatory effects on the release of inflammatory mediators. To examine the protective effects of apelin against multiple organ injury and the possible involvement of inflammatory pathways...

  16. Apelin enhances cardiac neovascularization after myocardial infarction by recruiting aplnr+ circulating cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempel, D.; de Boer, M.; van Deel, E.D.; Haasdijk, R.A.; Duncker, D.J.G.M.; Cheng, C.; Schulte-Merker, S.; Duckers, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    RATIONALE: Neovascularization stimulated by local or recruited stem cells after ischemia is a key process that salvages damaged tissue and shows similarities with embryonic vascularization. Apelin receptor (Aplnr) and its endogenous ligand apelin play an important role in cardiovascular development.

  17. Apelin Enhances Cardiac Neovascularization After Myocardial Infarction By Recruiting Aplnr+ Circulating Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempel, D.; Boer, de M.; Deel, van E.D.; Haasdijk, A.; Duncker, D.J.; Cheng, C.; Schulte-Merker, S.; Duckers, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Neovascularization stimulated by local or recruited stem cells after ischemia is a key process that salvages damaged tissue and shows similarities with embryonic vascularization. Apelin receptor (Aplnr) and its endogenous ligand apelin play an important role in cardiovascular development.

  18. The ACE2/Apelin Signaling, MicroRNAs, and Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai-Jiang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS plays a pivotal role in the development of hypertension. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2, which primarily metabolises angiotensin (Ang II to generate the beneficial heptapeptide Ang-(1-7, serves as a negative regulator of the RAAS. Apelin is a second catalytic substrate for ACE2 and functions as an inotropic and cardiovascular protective peptide. The physiological effects of Apelin are exerted through binding to its receptor APJ, a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor that shares significant homology with the Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R. The deregulation of microRNAs, a class of short and small noncoding RNAs, has been shown to involve cardiovascular remodeling and pathogenesis of hypertension via the activation of the Ang II/AT1R pathway. MicroRNAs are linked with modulation of the ACE2/Apelin signaling, which exhibits beneficial effects in the cardiovascular system and hypertension. The ACE2-coupled crosstalk among the RAAS, the Apelin system, and microRNAs provides an important mechanistic insight into hypertension. This paper focuses on what is known about the ACE2/Apelin signaling and its biological roles, paying particular attention to interactions and crosstalk among the ACE2/Apelin signaling, microRNAs, and hypertension, aiming to facilitate the exploitation of new therapeutic medicine to control hypertension.

  19. Apelin levels are higher in obese patients with endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinkaya, S Ozlem; Nergiz, Sümeyra; Küçük, Mert; Yüksel, Hasan

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate serum concentrations of apelin, a newly discovered adipocytokine, in relation with tumor markers, metabolic profile and clinicopathologic features of patients with endometrial cancer. A total of 46 women with endometrial cancer and 44 controls were eligible for the study. Clinicopathologic features and metabolic profile as well as apelin-36 levels were evaluated in each subject. Women with endometrial cancer exhibited higher serum concentrations of apelin levels than controls (215.1 ± 59.8 pg/mL vs 177.3 ± 55.2 pg/mL, P = 0.002). Apelin levels were significantly correlated positively with body mass index, fasting insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment index (P obese (body mass index ≥ 30) and non-obese women, apelin levels remained higher in women with endometrial cancer in the obese group (P = 0.006, 243.5 ± 49.2 pg/mL vs 200.5 ± 52.7 pg/mL, respectively); whereas these levels were similar in the non-obese group (P = 0.879, 161.9 ± 37.5 pg/mL vs 159.6 ± 51.3, respectively). After adjustment for all possible confounding factors, age, apelin levels > 160 pg/mL, and diabetes mellitus were found to be associated with risk of endometrial cancer. The data of the present study suggest that higher levels of circulating apelin are associated with an increased risk of developing endometrial cancer in obese women. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Elabela-apelin receptor signaling pathway is functional in mammalian systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Yu, Daozhan; Wang, Mengqiao; Wang, Qilong; Kouznetsova, Jennifer; Yang, Rongze; Qian, Kun; Wu, Wenjun; Shuldiner, Alan; Sztalryd, Carole; Zou, Minghui; Zheng, Wei; Gong, Da-Wei

    2015-02-02

    Elabela (ELA) or Toddler is a recently discovered hormone which is required for normal development of heart and vasculature through activation of apelin receptor (APJ), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), in zebrafish. The present study explores whether the ELA-APJ signaling pathway is functional in the mammalian system. Using reverse-transcription PCR, we found that ELA is restrictedly expressed in human pluripotent stem cells and adult kidney whereas APJ is more widely expressed. We next studied ELA-APJ signaling pathway in reconstituted mammalian cell systems. Addition of ELA to HEK293 cells over-expressing GFP-AJP fusion protein resulted in rapid internalization of the fusion receptor. In Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells over-expressing human APJ, ELA suppresses cAMP production with EC50 of 11.1 nM, stimulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation with EC50 of 14.3 nM and weakly induces intracellular calcium mobilization. Finally, we tested ELA biological function in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells and showed that ELA induces angiogenesis and relaxes mouse aortic blood vessel in a dose-dependent manner through a mechanism different from apelin. Collectively, we demonstrate that the ELA-AJP signaling pathways are functional in mammalian systems, indicating that ELA likely serves as a hormone regulating the circulation system in adulthood as well as in embryonic development.

  1. Regulators of gene expression in Enteric Neural Crest Cells are putative Hirschsprung disease genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriemer, Duco; Sribudiani, Yunia; IJpma, Arne; Natarajan, Dipa; MacKenzie, Katherine C; Metzger, Marco; Binder, Ellen; Burns, Alan J; Thapar, Nikhil; Hofstra, Robert M W; Eggen, Bart J L

    2016-08-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) is required for peristalsis of the gut and is derived from Enteric Neural Crest Cells (ENCCs). During ENS development, the RET receptor tyrosine kinase plays a critical role in the proliferation and survival of ENCCs, their migration along the developing gut, and differentiation into enteric neurons. Mutations in RET and its ligand GDNF cause Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), a complex genetic disorder in which ENCCs fail to colonize variable lengths of the distal bowel. To identify key regulators of ENCCs and the pathways underlying RET signaling, gene expression profiles of untreated and GDNF-treated ENCCs from E14.5 mouse embryos were generated. ENCCs express genes that are involved in both early and late neuronal development, whereas GDNF treatment induced neuronal maturation. Predicted regulators of gene expression in ENCCs include the known HSCR genes Ret and Sox10, as well as Bdnf, App and Mapk10. The regulatory overlap and functional interactions between these genes were used to construct a regulatory network that is underlying ENS development and connects to known HSCR genes. In addition, the adenosine receptor A2a (Adora2a) and neuropeptide Y receptor Y2 (Npy2r) were identified as possible regulators of terminal neuronal differentiation in GDNF-treated ENCCs. The human orthologue of Npy2r maps to the HSCR susceptibility locus 4q31.3-q32.3, suggesting a role for NPY2R both in ENS development and in HSCR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Apelin and heart remodeling in patients with abdominal obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Listopad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate plasma concentration of apelin and its correlation with structural and functional heart parameters in patients with abdominal obesity. 93 patients with abdominal obesity (criteria IDF, 2005 and 21 healthy people at the ages from 25 to 57 years old were investigated. Weight, height, waist circumference, and plasma apelin concentration were measured. Dimensions and volume of the cardiac chambers, systolic and diastolic functions of the ventricles were measured with echocardiographic method. Plasma apelin concentration was higher in patients with abdominal obesity as compared to healthy people (0.70 (0.55 - 0.94 ng/ml and 0.55 (0.42 - 0.72 ng/ml, respectively; p = 0.04. There is significant negative correlation between apelin level and longitudinal size of the left ventricle (r=-0.307; p = 0.003; index of the left atrial volume (r=-0.201; p = 0.05; longitudinal size of the left atrium (r=-0.248; p = 0.02; right atrium volume (r=-0.261; p = 0.01; right atrium area (r=-0,251; p = 0,02; basal size of the right ventricle (r=-0,202; p = 0,05; longitudinal size of the right ventricle (r=-0.234; p = 0.02. Plasma apelin concentration was higher in patients with abdominal obesity as compared to healthy people. There were revealed significant negative correlation between apelin level and longitudinal size of left ventricle, index of left atrial volume, longitudinal size of left atrium, right atrium volume, right atrium area, basal size of right ventricle, and longitudinal size of right ventricle.

  3. Neuroprotective effect of the endogenous neural peptide apelin in cultured mouse cortical neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xiang Jun [Department of Pathophysiology, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Department of Anesthesiology, 101 Woodruff Circle, Suite 617, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Yu, Shan Ping [Department of Anesthesiology, 101 Woodruff Circle, Suite 617, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Zhang, Like [Department of Pathophysiology, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Wei, Ling, E-mail: lwei7@emory.edu [Department of Anesthesiology, 101 Woodruff Circle, Suite 617, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The adipocytokine apelin and its G protein-coupled APJ receptor were initially isolated from a bovine stomach and have been detected in the brain and cardiovascular system. Recent studies suggest that apelin can protect cardiomyocytes from ischemic injury. Here, we investigated the effect of apelin on apoptosis in mouse primary cultures of cortical neurons. Exposure of the cortical cultures to a serum-free medium for 24 h induced nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic death; apelin-13 (1.0-5.0 nM) markedly prevented the neuronal apoptosis. Apelin neuroprotective effects were mediated by multiple mechanisms. Apelin-13 reduced serum deprivation (SD)-induced ROS generation, mitochondria depolarization, cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3. Apelin-13 prevented SD-induced changes in phosphorylation status of Akt and ERK1/2. In addition, apelin-13 attenuated NMDA-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} accumulation. These results indicate that apelin is an endogenous neuroprotective adipocytokine that may block apoptosis and excitotoxic death via cellular and molecular mechanisms. It is suggested that apelins may be further explored as a potential neuroprotective reagent for ischemia-induced brain damage.

  4. Regulation of nrf operon expression in pathogenic enteric bacteria: sequence divergence reveals new regulatory complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Rita E; Lee, David J; Busby, Stephen J W; Browning, Douglas F

    2017-05-01

    The Escherichia coli K-12 nrf operon encodes a periplasmic nitrite reductase, the expression of which is driven from a single promoter, pnrf. Expression from pnrf is activated by the FNR transcription factor in response to anaerobiosis and further increased in response to nitrite by the response regulator proteins, NarL and NarP. FNR-dependent transcription is suppressed by the binding of two nucleoid associated proteins, IHF and Fis. As Fis levels increase in cells grown in rich medium, the positioning of its binding site, overlapping the promoter -10 element, ensures that pnrf is sharply repressed. Here, we investigate the expression of the nrf operon promoter from various pathogenic enteric bacteria. We show that pnrf from enterohaemorrhagic E. coli is more active than its K-12 counterpart, exhibits substantial FNR-independent activity and is insensitive to nutrient quality, due to an improved -10 element. We also demonstrate that the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium core promoter is more active than previously thought, due to differences around the transcription start site, and that its expression is repressed by downstream sequences. We identify the CsrA RNA binding protein as being responsible for this, and show that CsrA differentially regulates the E. coli K-12 and Salmonella nrf operons. © 2017 The Authors Molecular Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Apelin rs2235306 polymorphism is not related to metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eman T. Mehanna

    2014-11-27

    Nov 27, 2014 ... b Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Port Said University, 42526 Port Said, Egypt. Received 27 ... Apelin is derived from a 77 amino-acid prepropeptide that ... potential therapeutic target in diabetes and obesity [13]. ... type I, any type of cancer, renal failure or chronic liver disease.

  6. Apelin rs2235306 polymorphism is not related to metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eman T. Mehanna

    2014-11-27

    Nov 27, 2014 ... control subjects [32]. It was shown that increased plasma ape- lin concentration in obese and T2DM subjects is positively cor- related with insulinemia, glycemia and the percentage of glycated hemoglobin [33]. A decline in apelin levels after diet-induced weight loss [34] or bariatric surgery [31] in obese.

  7. Acylated apelin-13 amide analogues exhibit enzyme resistance and prolonged insulin releasing, glucose lowering and anorexic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Harte, Finbarr P M; Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Hogg, Christopher; Flatt, Peter R

    2017-12-15

    The adipokine, apelin has many biological functions but its activity is curtailed by rapid plasma degradation. Fatty acid derived apelin analogues represent a new and exciting avenue for the treatment of obesity-diabetes. This study explores four novel fatty acid modified apelin-13 analogues, namely, (Lys 8 GluPAL)apelin-13 amide, pGlu(Lys 8 GluPAL)apelin-13 amide, Lys 8 GluPAL(Tyr 13 )apelin-13 and Lys 8 GluPAL(Val 13 )apelin-13. Fatty acid modification extended the half-life of native apelin-13 to >24 h in vitro. pGlu(Lys 8 GluPAL)apelin-13 amide was the most potent insulinotropic analogue in BRIN-BD11 cells and isolated islets with maximal stimulatory effects of up to 2.7-fold (p glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (2.3-fold, p glucose (39-43%, p glucose tolerance tests in diet-induced obese mice. pGlu(Lys 8 GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and (Lys 8 GluPAL)apelin-13 amide also inhibited feeding (28-40%, p < .001), whereas Lys 8 GluPAL(Val 13 )apelin-13 increased food intake (8%, p < .05) in mice. These data indicate that novel enzymatically stable analogues of apelin-13 may be suitable for future development as therapeutic agents for obesity-diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Apelin, Elabela/Toddler, and biased agonists as novel therapeutic agents in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peiran; Maguire, Janet J; Davenport, Anthony P

    2015-09-01

    Apelin and its G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) have emerged as a key signalling pathway in the cardiovascular system. The peptide is a potent inotropic agent and vasodilator. Remarkably, a peptide, Elabela/Toddler, that has little sequence similarity to apelin, has been proposed as a second endogenous apelin receptor ligand and is encoded by a gene from a region of the genome previously classified as 'non-coding'. Apelin is downregulated in pulmonary arterial hypertension and heart failure. To replace the missing endogenous peptide, 'biased' apelin agonists have been designed that preferentially activate G protein pathways, resulting in reduced β-arrestin recruitment and receptor internalisation, with the additional benefit of attenuating detrimental β-arrestin signalling. Proof-of-concept studies support the clinical potential for apelin receptor biased agonists. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of serum apelin in retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali YF

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Yasser F Ali,1 Salah El-Morshedy,1 Abdulbasit Abdulhalim Imam,2 Nasser Ismai A Abdelrahman,1 Riad M Elsayed,3 Usama M Alkholy,1 Nermin Abdalmonem,1 Mohammed M Shehab1 1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 2Department of Pediatrics, Al-Azhar Faculty of Medicine-Girls, Cairo, 3Pediatric Neurology Unit, Pediatric Department, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Objective: To evaluate the role of serum apelin as a diagnostic tool in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP disease.Patients and methods: Thirty-eight preterm infants (60% male with gestational age ranging from 30 to 36 weeks admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, KJO Hospital, Saudi Arabia with proven diagnosis of ROP were included in the study. In addition, 27 preterm infants without ROP served as controls. All newborn infants in the study were subjected to adequate history taking, full clinical examination, and fundus examination by indirect ophthalmoscope (at 4–6 weeks as well as determination of serum apelin at birth and at 4–6 weeks of age.Results: The study revealed that oxygen therapy longer than 7 days’ duration, cesarean section (as a mode of delivery, sepsis, mechanical ventilation, blood transfusion, premature rupture of membranes, pneumothorax, perinatal asphyxia, cardiac problems, and neonatal jaundice were considered as risk factors related to development of ROP. Serum apelin levels were significantly lower in patients than controls (P<0.001 at time of diagnosis of the disease (4–6 weeks while no significant differences were observed in levels at birth.Conclusion: Serum apelin was found to be of significant diagnostic value in the occurrence of ROP. Keywords: retinopathy of prematurity, preterm infants, serum apelin

  10. Expression and function of Neuregulin 1 and its signaling system ERBB2/3 in the enteric nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eBarrenschee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuregulin 1 (NRG1 is suggested to promote the survival and maintenance of the enteric nervous system (ENS. As deficiency in its corresponding receptor signaling complex ERBB2/ERBB3 leads to postnatal colonic hypo/aganglionosis we assessed the distributional and expressional pattern of the NRG1-ERBB2/ERBB3 system in the human colon and explored the neurotrophic capacity of NRG1 on cultured enteric neurons.Site-specific mRNA expression of the NRG1-ERBB2/3 system was determined in microdissected samples harvested from enteric musculature and ganglia. Localization of NRG1, ERBB2 and ERBB3 was determined by dual-label-immunohistochemistry using pan-neuronal and pan-glial markers. Morphometric analysis was performed on NRG1-stimulated rat enteric nerve cultures to evaluate neurotrophic effects. mRNA expression of the NRG1-ERBB2/3 system was determined by qPCR. Co-localization of NRG1 with neuronal or synaptic markers was analyzed in enteric nerve cultures stimulated with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF. The NRG1 system was expressed in both neurons and glial cells of enteric ganglia and in nerve fibers. NRG1 significantly enhanced growth parameters in enteric nerve cell cultures and ErB3 mRNA expression was down-regulated upon NRG1 stimulation. GDNF negatively regulates ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA expressionThe NRG1-ERBB2/3 system is physiologically present in the human ENS and NRG1 acts as a neurotrophic factor for the ENS. The down-regulation of ErbB3/ErbB2 in GDNF stimulated nerve cell cultures points to an interaction of both neurotrophic factors. Thus, the data may provide a basis to assess disturbed signaling components of the NRG1 system in enteric neuropathies.

  11. Does Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Itself Have Additional Effect on Apelin Levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Benk Silfeler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study was designed to compare serum levels of apelin between lean PCOS women and healthy women with regular menses. Study Design. A total of 30 lean patients with PCOS and 30 healthy subjects were included in this study. Serum apelin levels were compared between groups. Results. Serum apelin levels in lean PCOS patients were not significantly different from the control subjects. Conclusion. Our findings indicate that PCOS itself does not seem to change apelin levels. Further investigation on a large number of subjects will need to be conducted to prove the consistent or variable association in PCOS.

  12. [The role of apelin in pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudnoch Jędrzejewska, Agnieszka; Czarzasta, Katarzyna; Gomółka, Ryszard; Szczepańska Sadowska, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    Apelin is a recently discovered biologically active peptide present in several isoforms that are agonists for orphan receptor APJ. Apelin and APJ receptor were found in the central nervous system and in different peripheral tissues. In the cardiovascular system the peptide is present both in the heart and in the endothelium and smooth muscles cells of the vascular wall. Acting on cardiomyocytes apelin exerts positive inotropic effect, in the endothelium it releases nitric oxide, which mediates its vasodilatory action, while acting directly on smooth muscles cells it causes vasoconstriction. Apelin interacts with other compounds regulating blood pressure; for instance with angiotensin II, vasopressin, and with the sympathetic nervous system. Special attention is focused on the possibility of positive role of apelin in hypertension, initial stages of heart failure and ischaemic heart disease. Synthesis of apelin in adipocytes permits to include this peptide among adipokines. In the adipose tissue its production is increased in obesity and by insulin. It appears that apelin may play essential role in pathogenesis of insulin-resistant obesity. In patients with type 2 diabetes apelin improves glucose tolerance in initial stages of the illness. However, further experimental and clinical studies are required for full evaluation of significance of positive and negative aspects of the role of apelin in the cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

  13. Age-related gene expression analysis in enteric ganglia of human colon after laser microdissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan eHetz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The enteric nervous system (ENS poses the intrinsic innervation of the gastrointestinal tract and plays a critical role for all stages of postnatal life. There is increasing scientific and clinical interest in acquired or age-related gastrointestinal dysfunctions that can be manifested in diseases such as gut constipation or fecal incontinence. In this study, we sought to analyze age-dependent changes in the gene expression profile of the human ENS, particularly in the myenteric plexus. Therefore, we used the laser microdissection technique which has been proven as a feasible tool to analyze distinct cell populations within heterogeneously composed tissues.Full biopsy gut samples were prepared from children (4-12 months, middle aged (48-58 years and aged donors (70-95 years. Cryosections were histologically stained with H&E, the ganglia of the myenteric plexus identified and RNA isolated using laser microdissection technique. Quantitative PCR was performed for selected neural genes, neurotransmitters and receptors. Data were confirmed on protein level using NADPH-diaphorase staining and immunohistochemistry.As result, we demonstrate age-associated alterations in site-specific gene expression pattern of the ENS. Thus, in the adult and aged distal parts of the colon a marked decrease in relative gene expression of neural key genes like NGFR, RET, NOS1 and a concurrent increase of CHAT were observed. Further, we detected notable regional differences of RET, CHAT, TH and S100B comparing gene expression in aged proximal and distal colon. Interestingly, markers indicating cellular senescence or oxidative stress (SNCA, CASP3, CAT, SOD2 and TERT were largely unchanged within the ENS. For the first time, our study also describes the age-dependent expression pattern of all major sodium channels within the ENS.Our results are in line with previous studies showing spatio-temporal differences within the mammalian ENS.

  14. Expression and characterization of duck enteritis virus gI gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Dekang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At present, alphaherpesviruses gI gene and its encoding protein have been extensively studied. It is likely that gI protein and its homolog play similar roles in virions direct cell-to-cell spread of alphaherpesviruses. But, little is known about the characteristics of DEV gI gene. In this study, we expressed and presented the basic properties of the DEV gI protein. Results The special 1221-bp fragment containing complete open reading frame(ORF of duck enteritis virus(DEV gI gene was extracted from plasmid pMD18-T-gI, and then cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a(+, resulting in pET-32a(+-gI. After being confirmed by PCR, restriction endonuclease digestion and sequencing, pET-32a(+-gI was transformed into E.coli BL21(DE3 competent cells for overexpression. DEV gI gene was successfully expressed by the addition of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside(IPTG. SDS-PAGE showed that the recombinant protein His6-tagged gI molecular weight was about 61 kDa. Subsequently, the expressed product was applied to generate specific antibody against gI protein. The specificity of the rabbit immuneserum was confirmed by its ability to react with the recombinant protein His6-tagged gI. In addition, real time-PCR was used to determine the the levels of the mRNA transcripts of gI gene, the results showed that the DEV gI gene was transcribed most abundantly during the late phase of infection. Furthermore, indirect immunofluorescence(IIF was established to study the gI protein expression and localization in DEV-infected duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs, the results confirmed that the protein was expressed and located in the cytoplasm of the infected cells, intensively. Conclusions The recombinant prokaryotic expression vector of DEV gI gene was constructed successfully. The gI protein was successfully expressed by E.coli BL21(DE3 and maintained its antigenicity very well. The basic information of the transcription and intracellular

  15. Correlation of serum apelin level with coronary calcium score in patients with suspected coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hassan Zeitoun

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an independent association between apelin and CCS in patients with suspected CAD. Apelin emerges as a possible novel biomarker for CAD, but this result remains to be proved prospectively.

  16. Expression and characterization of UL16 gene from duck enteritis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Mingshu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have indicated that the UL16 protein and its homologs from herpesvirus were conserved and played similar roles in viral DNA packaging, virion assembly, budding, and egress. However, there was no report on the UL16 gene product of duck enteritis virus (DEV. In this study, we analyzed the amino acid sequence of UL16 using bioinformatics tools and expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3 induced by isopropy1-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG. The recombinant protein was produced, purified using a Ni-NTA column and used to generate the polyclonal antibody against UL16. The intracellular distribution of the DEV UL16 product was carried out using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Results In our study, UL16 gene of DEV was composed of 1089 nucleotides, which encoded 362 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignment suggested that the UL16 gene was highly conserved in herpesvirus family. The UL16 gene was cloned into a pET prokaryotic expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli Rossetta (DE3 induced by IPTG. A 60kDa fusion protein band corresponding to the predicted size was produced on the SDS-PAGE, purified using a Ni-NTA column. Anti-UL16 polyclonal sera was prepared by immunizing rabbits, and reacted with a band in the IPTG induced cell lysates with an apparent molecular mass of 60 kDa. In vivo expression of the UL16 protein in DEV infected duck embryo fibroblast cells (DEFs was localized mostly around perinuclear cytoplasmic area and in cytosol using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Conclusions The UL16 gene of DEV was successfully cloned, expressed and detected in DEV infected DEFs for the first time. The UL16 protein localized mostly around perinuclear cytoplasmic area and in cytosol in DEV infected DEFs. DEV UL16 shared high similarity with UL16 family members, indicating that DEV UL16 many has similar function with its homologs. All these results may provide some insight for further research about

  17. Apelin Role in the Development of Glucose Metabolism Disorders (Review of the Literature and Our Own Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Demidenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The physiological and pathogenetic role of adipokine apelin, endogenous ligand of apelin (APJ or APLNR receptors in the development of glucose metabolism disorders has been analyzed. Established correlations of apelin with components of carbohydrate metabolism confirm the effect on glucose metabolism manifestations. Ambiguous data about apelin level at insulin resistance syndrome, prediabetes, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension require further detailed study. The close association of apelin with development of diabetes mellitus type 2 and prediction of cardiovascular events in patients with metabolic syndrome has been found.

  18. Altered glucose homeostasis is associated with increased serum apelin levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gisella Cavallo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apelin is an adipokine that plays a role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and in obesity. The relationship between apelin serum concentration and dysmetabolic conditions such as type 2 diabetes (T2D is still controversial. Aims of our study are: 1 determine the circulating levels of apelin in a large cohort of Italian subjects with T2D, T1D and in non-diabetic controls; 2 identify putative metabolic determinants of modified apelin concentrations, in order to search possible mechanism of apelin control; 3 investigate changes in apelin levels in response to sharp modifications of glucose/insulin metabolism in T2D obese subjects before and 3 days after bariatric surgery. METHODS: We recruited 369 subjects, 119 with T2D, 113 with T1D and 137 non-diabetic controls. All subjects underwent a complete clinical examination, including anthropometric and laboratory measurements. Serum apelin levels were determined by EIA (immunoenzyme assay. RESULTS: Patients with T2D had significantly higher serum apelin levels compared to controls (1.23 ± 1.1 ng/mL vs 0.91 ± 0.7 ng/mL, P<0.001 and to T1D subjects (0.73 ± 0.39 ng/mL, P<0.001. Controls and T1D subjects did not differ significantly in apelin levels. Apelin concentrations were directly associated with fasting blood glucose (FBG, body mass index (BMI, basal Disposition Index (DI-0, age, and diagnosis of T2D at bivariate correlation analysis. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that diagnosis of T2D, basal DI-0 and FBG were all determinants of serum apelin levels independently from age and BMI. Bariatric surgery performed in a subgroup of obese diabetic subjects (n = 12 resulted in a significant reduction of apelin concentrations compared to baseline levels (P = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that T2D, but not T1D, is associated with increased serum apelin levels compared to non-diabetic subjects. This association is dependent on impaired glucose homeostasis, and disappears

  19. Effect of exogenous apelin-13 on cardiac stem cell mobilization in rats with myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan ZHENG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the protective effect of exogenous apelin-13 on heart after acute myocardial infarction (AMI in rats and its mechanism. Methods SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham-operated group (n=6, control group (AMI + saline solution, n=12, experimental group (AMI + apelin-13, n=12. Four rats died in the control group, and five in the experimental group. The rest rats of both control and experimental groups underwent intramyocardial injection with saline solution 20μl and apelin-13 0.2μg/20μl within 5min after coronary artery ligation, respectively. The rats of sham-operated group underwent thoracic surgery without both coronary artery ligation and drug injection. Echocardiography was performed and myocardial infarct size was measured to evaluate the changes of cardiac function. Immunohistochemical staining method was used to detect the positive expression of C-kit, Flk1 and Sca1 in myocardial tissue. Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to quantitatively examine the expression levels of C-kit, Flk1 and Sca1 protein and mRNA in myocardial tissue. Results The results of echocardiography and myocardial infarct size measurement showed that cardiac function of rats was improved more significantly in experimental group than in control group (EF: 68.43%±2.06% in experimental group and 46.40%±15.18% in control group; FS: 33.70%±1.55% in experimental group and 20.73%±8.14% in control group; infarction myocardial area percentage: 16.10%±3.08% in experimental group and 33.83%±5.64% in control group; P<0.05. Immunohistochemical staining of C-kit, Flk1 and Sca1 was negative in sham-operated group and positive or strong positive both in experimental group and control group. Western blotting and RT-PCR showed that the protein and mRNA expression of C-kit, Flk1 and Sca1 were significantly higher in experimental group than in control group (protein level: C-kit 0.48±0.17 vs 1.05±0.08, Flk1 0.40±0.26 vs 0.88±0.10, Sca1

  20. Lateral intracerebroventricular injection of Apelin-13 inhibits apoptosis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ge Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apelin-13 inhibits neuronal apoptosis caused by hydrogen peroxide, yet apoptosis following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury has rarely been studied. In this study, Apelin-13 (0.1 µg/g was injected into the lateral ventricle of middle cerebral artery occlusion model rats. TTC, TUNEL, and immunohistochemical staining showed that compared with the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion group, infarct volume and apoptotic cell number at the ischemic penumbra region were decreased in the Apelin-13 treatment group. Additionally, Apelin-13 treatment increased Bcl-2 immunoreactivity and decreased caspase-3 immunoreactivity. Our findings suggest that Apelin-13 is neuroprotective against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through inhibition of neuronal apoptosis.

  1. Serum Levels of Resistin, Adiponectin, and Apelin in Gastroesophageal Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Diakowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the investigation of relationship between cachexia syndrome and serum resistin, adiponectin, and apelin in patients with gastroesophageal cancer (GEC. Material and Methods. Adipocytokines concentrations were measured in sera of 85 GEC patients and 60 healthy controls. They were also evaluated in tumor tissue and appropriate normal mucosa of 38 operated cancer patients. Results. Resistin and apelin concentrations were significantly higher in GEC patients than in the controls. The highest resistin levels were found in cachectic patients and in patients with distant metastasis. Serum adiponectin significantly decreased in GEC patients with regional and distant metastasis. Serum apelin was significantly higher in cachectic patients than in the controls. Apelin was positively correlated with hsCRP level. Resistin and apelin levels increased significantly in tumor tissues. Weak positive correlations between adipocytokines levels in serum and in tumor tissue were observed. Conclusions. Resistin is associated with cachexia and metastasis processes of GEC. Reduction of serum adiponectin reflects adipose tissue wasting in relation to GEC progression. Correlation of apelin with hsCRP can reflect a presumable role of apelin in systemic inflammatory response in esophageal and gastric cancer.

  2. Targeting the ACE2 and Apelin Pathways Are Novel Therapies for Heart Failure: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed M. R. Kazemi-Bajestani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2/Ang II/Ang 1–7 and the apelin/APJ are two important peptide systems which exert diverse effects on the cardiovascular system. ACE2 is a key negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS where it metabolizes angiotensin (Ang II into Ang 1–7, an endogenous antagonist of Ang II. Both the prolonged activation of RAS and the loss of ACE2 can be detrimental as they lead to functional deterioration of the heart and progression of cardiac, renal, and vascular diseases. Recombinant human ACE2 in an animal model of ACE2 knockout mice lowers Ang II. These interactions neutralize the pressor and subpressor pathologic effects of Ang II by producing Ang 1–7 levels in vivo, that might be cardiovascular protective. ACE2 hydrolyzes apelin to Ang II and, therefore, is responsible for the degradation of both peptides. Apelin has emerged as a promising peptide biomarker of heart failure. The serum level of apelin in cardiovascular diseases tends to be decreased. Apelin is recognized as an imperative controller of systemic blood pressure and myocardium contractility. Dysregulation of the apelin/APJ system may be involved in the predisposition to cardiovascular diseases, and enhancing apelin action may have important therapeutic effects.

  3. Associations between serum apelin-12 levels and obesity-related markers in Chinese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jun Ba

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible correlations between apelin-12 levels and obesity in children in China and associations between apelin-12 and obesity-related markers, including lipids, insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR. METHODS: Forty-eight obese and forty non-obese age- and gender-matched Chinese children were enrolled between June 2008 and June 2009. Mean age was 10.42 ± 2.03 and 10.86±2.23 years in obesity and control groups, respectively. Main outcome measures were apelin-12, BMI, lipids, glucose and insulin. HOMA-IR was calculated for all subjects. RESULTS: All obesity group subjects had significantly higher total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, insulin levels and HOMA-IR (all P<0.05. In separate analyses, obese girls had significantly higher LDL-C, insulin and HOMA-IR than controls, and obese boys had significantly higher TC, TG, insulin and HOMA-IR than controls (all P<0.05. Apelin-12 levels were significantly higher in obese girls compared to controls (P = 0.024, and correlated positively with TG in all obese subjects. Among obese girls, apelin-12 levels correlated positively with TG, insulin and HOMA-IR after adjusting for age and BMI. In all boys (obese and controls apelin-12 was positively associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG. No significant correlations were found in either group between apelin-12 levels and other characteristics after adjusting for age, sex, and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Apelin-12 levels are significantly higher in obese vs. non-obese girls in China and correlate significantly with obesity-related markers insulin, HOMA-IR, and TG. Increased apelin-12 levels may be involved in the pathological mechanism of childhood obesity.

  4. More than Words: Expressed and Revealed Preferences of Top College Graduates Entering Teaching in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganimian, Alejandro J.; Alfonso, Mariana; Santiago, Ana

    2017-01-01

    School systems are trying to attract top college graduates into teaching, but we know little about what dissuades this group from entering the profession. We provided college graduates who applied to a selective alternative pathway into teaching in Argentina with information on what their working conditions and pay would be if they were admitted…

  5. Impaired Heart Contractility in Apelin Gene–Deficient Mice Associated With Aging and Pressure Overload

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuba, Keiji; Zhang, Liyong; Imai, Yumiko; Arab, Sara; Chen, Manyin; Maekawa, Yuichiro; Leschnik, Michael; Leibbrandt, Andreas; Markovic, Mato; Schwaighofer, Julia; Beetz, Nadine; Musialek, Renata; Neely, G Greg; Komnenovic, Vukoslav; Kolm, Ursula; Metzler, Bernhard; Ricci, Romeo; Hara, Hiromitsu; Meixner, Arabella; Nghiem, Mai; Chen, Xin; Dawood, Fayez; Wong, Kit Man; Sarao, Renu; Cukerman, Eva; Kimura, Akinori; Hein, Lutz; Thalhammer, Johann; Liu, Peter P; Penninger, Josef M

    2007-01-01

    Apelin constitutes a novel endogenous peptide system suggested to be involved in a broad range of physiological functions, including cardiovascular function, heart development, control of fluid homeostasis, and obesity...

  6. TIMP3 interplays with apelin to regulate cardiovascular metabolism in hypercholesterolemic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Stöhr

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: TIMP3 regulates lipid metabolism as well as oxidative stress response via apelin. These findings therefore suggest that TIMP3 maintains metabolic flexibility in the heart, particularly during episodes of increased cardiac stress.

  7. Hypothalamic actions of apelin on energy metabolism: new insight on glucose homeostasis and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, C; Drougard, A; Fournel, A; Duparc, T; Valet, P

    2013-12-01

    Hypothalamus is key area implicated in control of glucose homeostasis. This structure integrates nervous and peripheral informations to adapt a response modifying peripheral glucose utilization and maintaining energetic balance. Among peripheral signals, adipokines such as adiponectin and leptin are of special importance since deregulations of their actions are closely associated to metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. During the past ten years, we have identified a new adipokine named apelin which has emerging role in the control of metabolism. The originality of the apelinergic system is to be largely represented in peripheral tissues (adipose tissue, intestine, etc.) and in the brain. Then, apelin is released by adipose tissue as all adipokines, but also present another crucial role as neurotransmitter in hypothalamic neurons. By acting in the whole body, apelin exerts pleiotropic actions and is now considered as a major determinant of physiological functions. Besides its general beneficial effects on peripheral targets, central action of apelin remains still a matter of debate. In this review, we have made a parallel between peripheral vs. central actions of apelin in term of signalization and effects. Then, we have focused our attention on hypothalamic apelin and its potential role in glucose metabolism and associated pathologies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Limited effects of preterm birth and the first enteral nutrition on cerebellum morphology and gene expression in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Kaalund, Sanne S.; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Preterm pigs show many signs of immaturity that are characteristic of preterm infants. In preterm infants, the cerebellum grows particularly rapid and hypoplasia and cellular lesions are associated with motor dysfunction and cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that functional brain delays observed...... three ages but the proportion of white matter increased postnatally, relative to term pigs. Early initiation of enteral nutrition had limited structural or molecular effects. The Sonic Hedgehog pathway was unaffected by preterm birth. Few differences in expression of the selected genes were found...

  9. Crohn's disease but not chronic ulcerative colitis induces the expression of PAI-1 in enteric neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laerum, O.D.; Illemann, M.; Skarstein, A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chronic inflammation of the intestinal wall is the common characteristic of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis; disorders, which in some cases can be difficult to distinguish. The inflammation also affects the local neuronal plexuses of the enteric nervous system. It is known...... by immunohistochemical techniques. RESULTS: PAI-1 was found in a subset of neurons primarily located in the submucosal plexus of the small and large intestine in 24 of 28 cases (86%) with Crohn's disease, but in none of 17 cases with chronic ulcerative colitis and other severe inflammatory conditions in the intestinal....... CONCLUSIONS: PAI-1-positive neurons in inflammatory bowel disease are linked to chronic inflammation in Crohn's disease, implying PAI-1 as a potential parameter for the differential diagnosis between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The findings also suggest that PAI-1 in neurons is related to pain...

  10. Apelin increases cardiac contractility via protein kinase Cε- and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ábel Perjés

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apelin, the endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled apelin receptor, is an important regulator of the cardiovascular homoeostasis. We previously demonstrated that apelin is one of the most potent endogenous stimulators of cardiac contractility; however, its underlying signaling mechanisms remain largely elusive. In this study we characterized the contribution of protein kinase C (PKC, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK to the positive inotropic effect of apelin. METHODS AND RESULTS: In isolated perfused rat hearts, apelin increased contractility in association with activation of prosurvival kinases PKC and ERK1/2. Apelin induced a transient increase in the translocation of PKCε, but not PKCα, from the cytosol to the particulate fraction, and a sustained increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the left ventricle. Suppression of ERK1/2 activation diminished the apelin-induced increase in contractility. Although pharmacological inhibition of PKC attenuated the inotropic response to apelin, it had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Moreover, the apelin-induced positive inotropic effect was significantly decreased by inhibition of MLCK, a kinase that increases myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Apelin increases cardiac contractility through parallel and independent activation of PKCε and ERK1/2 signaling in the adult rat heart. Additionally MLCK activation represents a downstream mechanism in apelin signaling. Our data suggest that, in addition to their role in cytoprotection, modest activation of PKCε and ERK1/2 signaling improve contractile function, therefore these pathways represent attractive possible targets in the treatment of heart failure.

  11. Relationship between Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, Apelin, and New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation after Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that inflammation and oxidative stress are important factors in postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE and apelin have a close relationship with inflammation and oxidative stress. The effect of ACE and apelin on POAF after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG remains a question. The concentrations of serum ACE, angiotensin II (Ang II, apelin, bradykinin (BK, malondialdehyde (MDA, and C reactive protein (CRP were measured in the perioperative period of OPCABG. The levels of serum ACE in the POAF group were higher than in the no POAF group both preoperatively and postoperatively. Apelin in the POAF group was lower than in the no POAF group. There was a correlation between serum ACE and apelin. Postoperatively, CRP and MDA in the POAF group were higher than in the no POAF group; however, there was no difference before the operation. Preoperative ACE and apelin were both significant and independent risk factors for POAF. In conclusion, the high ACE and low apelin preoperatively led to CRP and MDA being increased postoperatively, which was probably associated with POAF after OPCABG. Apelin may be a new predictor for POAF.

  12. Effect of myrrh and thyme on Trichinella spiralis enteral and parenteral phases with inducible nitric oxide expression in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Rasha AH; Mahmoud, Abeer E; Farrag, Haiam Mohammed Mahmoud; Makboul, Rania; Mohamed, Mona Embarek; Ibraheim, Zedan

    2015-01-01

    Trichinellosis is a serious disease with no satisfactory treatment. We aimed to assess the effect of myrrh (Commiphora molmol) and, for the first time, thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) against enteral and encysted (parenteral) phases of Trichinella spiralis in mice compared with albendazole, and detect their effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Oral administration of 500 mg/kg of myrrh and thyme led to adult reduction (90.9%, 79.4%), while 1,000 mg/kg led to larvae reduction (79.6%, 71.3%), respectively. Administration of 50 mg/kg of albendazole resulted in adult and larvae reduction (94.2%, 90.9%). Positive immunostaining of inflammatory cells infiltrating intestinal mucosa and submucosa of all treated groups was detected. Myrrh-treated mice showed the highest iNOS expression followed by albendazole, then thyme. On the other hand, both myrrh and thyme-treated groups showed stronger iNOS expression of inflammatory cells infiltrating and surrounding encapsulated T. spiralis larvae than albendazole treated group. In conclusion, myrrh and thyme extracts are highly effective against both phases of T. spiralis and showed strong iNOS expressions, especially myrrh which could be a promising alternative drug. This experiment provides a basis for further exploration of this plant by isolation and retesting the active principles of both extracts against different stages of T. spiralis. PMID:26676322

  13. Effect of myrrh and thyme on Trichinella spiralis enteral and parenteral phases with inducible nitric oxide expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Rasha A H; Mahmoud, Abeer E; Farrag, Haiam Mohammed Mahmoud; Makboul, Rania; Mohamed, Mona Embarek; Ibraheim, Zedan

    2015-12-01

    Trichinellosis is a serious disease with no satisfactory treatment. We aimed to assess the effect of myrrh (Commiphora molmol) and, for the first time, thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) against enteral and encysted (parenteral) phases of Trichinella spiralis in mice compared with albendazole, and detect their effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Oral administration of 500 mg/kg of myrrh and thyme led to adult reduction (90.9%, 79.4%), while 1,000 mg/kg led to larvae reduction (79.6%, 71.3%), respectively. Administration of 50 mg/kg of albendazole resulted in adult and larvae reduction (94.2%, 90.9%). Positive immunostaining of inflammatory cells infiltrating intestinal mucosa and submucosa of all treated groups was detected. Myrrh-treated mice showed the highest iNOS expression followed by albendazole, then thyme. On the other hand, both myrrh and thyme-treated groups showed stronger iNOS expression of inflammatory cells infiltrating and surrounding encapsulated T. spiralis larvae than albendazole treated group. In conclusion, myrrh and thyme extracts are highly effective against both phases of T. spiralis and showed strong iNOS expressions, especially myrrh which could be a promising alternative drug. This experiment provides a basis for further exploration of this plant by isolation and retesting the active principles of both extracts against different stages of T. spiralis.

  14. Expression and characterization of the UL31 protein from duck enteritis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Dekang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies indicate that the UL31 protein and its homology play similar roles in nuclear egress of all herpesviruses. However, there is no report on the UL31 gene product of DEV. In this study, we expressed and presented the basic properties of the DEV UL31 product. Results The entire ORF of the UL31 was cloned into pET 32a (+ prokaryotic expression vector. Escherichia coli BL21(DE3 competent cells were transformed with the construct followed by the induction of protein expression by the addition of IPTG. Band corresponding to the predicted sizes (55 kDa was produced on the SDS-PAGE. Over expressed 6×His-UL31 fusion protein was purified by nickel affinity chromatography. The DEV UL31 gene product has been identified by using a rabbit polyclonal antiserum raised against the purified protein. A protein of approximate 35 kDa that reacted with the antiserum was detected in immunoblots of DEV-infected cellular lysates, suggesting that the 35 kDa protein was the primary translation product of the UL31 gene. RT-PCR analyses revealed that the UL31 gene was transcribed most abundantly during the late phase of replication. Subsequently, Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that the protein was widespread speckled structures in the nuclei of infected cells. Western blotting of purified virion preparations showed that UL31 was a component of intracellular virions but was absent from mature extracellular virions. Finally, an Immunofluorescence assay was established to study the distribution of the UL31 antigen in tissues of artificially DEV infected ducks. The results showed that the UL31 antigen was primarily located in the cells of digestive organs and immunological organs. Conclusion In this work, we present the basic properties of the DEV UL31 product. The results indicate that DEV UL31 shares many similarities with its HSV or PRV homolog UL31 and suggest that functional cross-complementation is possible between members of the

  15. Altered gut microbiota and endocannabinoid system tone in obese and diabetic leptin-resistant mice: impact on apelin regulation in adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie eGeurts

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence supports the role of gut microbiota in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes and low-grade inflammation. The endocrine activity of adipose tissue has been found to contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis and low-grade inflammation. Among the key hormones produced by this tissue, apelin has been shown to regulate glucose homeostasis. Recently, it has been proposed that gut microbiota participate in adipose tissue metabolism via the endocannabinoid system and gut microbiota-derived compounds, namely lipopolysaccharide (LPS. We have investigated gut microbiota composition in obese and diabetic leptin-resistant mice (db/db by combining pyrosequencing and phylogenetic microarray analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. We observed a significant higher abundance of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Fibrobacteres phyla in db/db mice compared to lean mice. The abundance of 10 genera was significantly affected by the genotype. We identified the roles of the endocannabinoid system and LPS in the regulation of apelinergic system tone (apelin and APJ mRNA expression in genetic obese and diabetic mice. By using in vivo and in vitro models, we have demonstrated that both the endocannabinoid system and low-grade inflammation differentially regulate apelin and APJ mRNA expression in adipose tissue. Finally, deep-gut microbiota profiling revealed that the gut microbial community of type 2 diabetic mice is significantly different from that of their lean counterparts. This indicates specific relationships between the gut microbiota and the regulation of the apelinergic system. However, the exact roles of specific bacteria in shaping the phenotype of db/db mice remain to be determined.

  16. Submucosal neurons and enteric glial cells expressing the P2X7 receptor in rat experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Marosti, Aline Rosa; Mendes, Cristina Eusébio; Palombit, Kelly; Castelucci, Patricia

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ulcerative colitis on the submucosal neurons and glial cells of the submucosal ganglia of rats. 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS; colitis group) was administered in the colon to induce ulcerative colitis, and distal colons were collected after 24h. The colitis rats were compared with those in the sham and control groups. Double labelling of the P2X7 receptor with calbindin (marker for intrinsic primary afferent neurons, IPANs, submucosal plexus), calretinin (marker for secretory and vasodilator neurons of the submucosal plexus), HuC/D and S100β was performed in the submucosal plexus. The density (neurons per area) of submucosal neurons positive for the P2X7 receptor, calbindin, calretinin and HuC/D decreased by 21%, 34%, 8.2% and 28%, respectively, in the treated group. In addition, the density of enteric glial cells in the submucosal plexus decreased by 33%. The profile areas of calbindin-immunoreactive neurons decreased by 25%. Histological analysis revealed increased lamina propria and decreased collagen in the colitis group. This study demonstrated that ulcerative colitis affected secretory and vasodilatory neurons, IPANs and enteric glia of the submucosal plexus expressing the P2X7 receptor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of adiponectin, leptin and apelin levels in patients with psoriasis vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Tuğba Alataş

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Psoriasis is a chronic, T-cell mediated inflammatory skin disease with multifactorial etiology. Adiponectin, leptin and apelin are the adipokines that aresecreted from adipose tissue and plays a role in T-cell immunity.In this study, it wasaimed to investigate potential relationship between adiponectin, leptin, apelin and psoriasis. Methods: Fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol and serum adiponectin, leptin and apelin levels were measured in 50 adult patient with psoriasis, 20 patients with pemphigus vulgaris and 46 healthy individuals. In addition, BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure were measured in patient and control groups. Results: Metabolic syndrome frequency was found as significantly higher in patients with psoriasis than control group (p0.05, p>0.05 and p>0.05, respectively. No significant difference was found between PASI score and adiponectin, leptin, apelin values. Conclusion: In our study demonstrates the frequency of metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis. We think that adiponectin, leptin and apelin may play role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, but these adipokines aren’t markers, which are related to severity of disease.

  18. Evaluation of Adipokines: Apelin, Visfatin, and Resistin in Children with Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Machura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the role of adipokines in atopic dermatitis (AD in children. This study aimed at analyzing the serum levels of resistin, apelin, and visfatin in children with AD in relation to body weight, AD severity, and gender. Serum concentration of adipokines was measured in 27 children with AD and in 46 healthy subjects. Selected biochemical parameters were evaluated and skin prick test was performed. Serum levels of resistin and apelin were significantly higher, whereas serum visfatin concentration was significantly lower in children with AD versus healthy controls, although an increase in resistin levels was exclusively demonstrated in boys. In AD group, a significant increase in apelin levels in girls was documented. There was no relationship between adipokines levels and the degree of allergic sensitization. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that the serum apelin cutoff value differentiating children with AD from those without was >137.8 pg/mL. Resistin and visfatin cutoff values were >3.8 ng/mL and ≤ 2.13 ng/mL, respectively. Apelin and visfatin can serve as excellent indicators to distinguish children with AD from those without disease.

  19. Transition from metabolic adaptation to maladaptation of the heart in obesity: role of apelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfarano, C; Foussal, C; Lairez, O; Calise, D; Attané, C; Anesia, R; Daviaud, D; Wanecq, E; Parini, A; Valet, P; Kunduzova, O

    2015-02-01

    Impaired energy metabolism is the defining characteristic of obesity-related heart failure. The adipocyte-derived peptide apelin has a role in the regulation of cardiovascular and metabolic homeostasis and may contribute to the link between obesity, energy metabolism and cardiac function. Here we investigate the role of apelin in the transition from metabolic adaptation to maladaptation of the heart in obese state. Adult male C57BL/6J, apelin knock-out (KO) or wild-type mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 18 weeks. To induce heart failure, mice were subjected to pressure overload after 18 weeks of HFD. Long-term effects of apelin on fatty acid (FA) oxidation, glucose metabolism, cardiac function and mitochondrial changes were evaluated in HFD-fed mice after 4 weeks of pressure overload. Cardiomyocytes from HFD-fed mice were isolated for analysis of metabolic responses. In HFD-fed mice, pressure overload-induced transition from hypertrophy to heart failure is associated with reduced FA utilization (Pobesity-related decline in cardiac function is associated with defective myocardial energy metabolism and mitochondrial abnormalities. Furthermore, our work points for therapeutic potential of apelin to prevent myocardial metabolic abnormalities in heart failure paired with obesity.

  20. Research on the promoting role of apelin-13 in proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of RF/6A cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Peng Xie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects of apelin-13 on proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of a monkey choroid / retinal endothelial cell line, RF/6A, to clarify whether apelin-13 could promote retinal angiogenesis in vitro.METHODS: RF/6A cells in good conditions were administrated with DMSO(the control group, apelin-13 at 0.1μmol/L(low dose groupor apelin-13 at 1μmol/L(high dose group. Cell proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation were detected by using the MTT assay, scratch assay and matrigel assay, respectively, at 24h after plating the cells. RESULTS: Cell proliferation was promoted in both low and high dose apelin-13 groups compared to the control cells(PPPCONCLUSION: Apelin-13 could obviously promote the angiogenesis capacity of RF/6A cells, suggesting that apelin-13 was an important pro-angiogenic factor in retinal endothelial cells.

  1. The glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor is expressed in enteric neurons and not in the epithelium of the intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens; B. Pedersen, Nis; Brix, Sophie W.

    2015-01-01

    alone, (2) mucosa with lamina propria and epithelium, (3) the external muscle coat including myenteric plexus, (4) a compartment enriched for the myenteric plexus and (5) intestine without epithelium. Expression of Glp2r; chromogranin A; tubulin, beta 3; actin, gamma 2, smooth muscle, enteric and glial......Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a potent intestinotrophic growth factor with therapeutic potential in the treatment of intestinal deficiencies. It has recently been approved for the treatment of short bowel syndrome. The effects of GLP-2 are mediated by specific binding of the hormone to the GLP......-2 receptor (GLP-2R) which was cloned in 1999. However, consensus about the exact receptor localization in the intestine has never been established. By physical, chemical and enzymatic tissue fragmentation, we were able to divide rat jejunum into different compartments consisting of: (1) epithelium...

  2. Enteric plexuses of two choline-acetyltransferase transgenic mouse lines: chemical neuroanatomy of the fluorescent protein-expressing nerve cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Márta; Lawrence, J Josh; Gábriel, Robert

    2015-02-01

    We studied cholinergic circuit elements in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of two distinct transgenic mouse lines in which fluorescent protein expression was driven by the choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT) promoter. In the first mouse line, green fluorescent protein was fused to the tau gene. This construct allowed the visualization of the fiber tracts and ganglia, however the nerve cells were poorly resolved. In the second mouse line (ChATcre-YFP), CRE/loxP recombination yielded cytosolic expression of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). In these preparations the morphology of enteric neurons could be well studied. We also determined the neurochemical identity of ENS neurons in muscular and submucous layers using antibodies against YFP, calretinin (CALR), calbindin (CALB), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Confocal microscopic imaging was used to visualize fluorescently-conjugated secondary antibodies. In ChATcre-YFP preparations, YFP was readily apparent in somatodendritic regions of ENS neurons. In the myenteric plexus, YFP/CALR/VIP staining revealed that 34% of cholinergic cells co-labeled with CALR. Few single-stained CR-positive cells were observed. Neither YFP nor CALR co-localized with VIP. In GFP/CALB/CALR staining, all co-localization combinations were represented. In the submucosal plexus, YFP/CALR/VIP staining revealed discrete neuronal populations. However, in separate preparations, double labeling was observed for YFP/CALR and CALR/VIP. In YFP/CALR/CALB staining, all combinations of double staining and triple labeling were verified. In conclusion, the neurochemical coding of ENS neurons in these mouse lines is consistent with many observations in non-transgenic animals. Thus, they provide useful tools for physiological and pharmacological studies on distinct neurochemical subtypes of ENS neurons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Steroid Receptor Coactivator 3 Contributes to Host Defense against Enteric Bacteria by Recruiting Neutrophils via Upregulation of CXCL2 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenbo; Lu, Xuqiang; Chen, Yuan; Li, Ming; Mo, Pingli; Tong, Zhangwei; Wang, Wei; Wan, Wei; Su, Guoqiang; Xu, Jianming; Yu, Chundong

    2017-02-15

    Steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC-3) is a transcriptional coactivator that interacts with nuclear receptors and some other transcription factors to enhance their effects on target gene transcription. We reported previously that SRC-3-deficient (SRC-3(-/-)) mice are extremely susceptible to Escherichia coli-induced septic peritonitis as a result of uncontrolled inflammation and a defect in bacterial clearance. In this study, we observed significant upregulation of SRC-3 in colonic epithelial cells in response to Citrobacter rodentium infection. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that SRC-3 is involved in host defense against attaching and effacing bacterial infection. We compared the responses of SRC-3(-/-) and wild-type mice to intestinal C. rodentium infection. We found that SRC-3(-/-) mice exhibited delayed clearance of C. rodentium and more severe tissue pathology after oral infection with C. rodentium compared with wild-type mice. SRC-3(-/-) mice expressed normal antimicrobial peptides in the colons but exhibited delayed recruitment of neutrophils into the colonic mucosa. Accordingly, SRC-3(-/-) mice showed a delayed induction of CXCL2 and CXCL5 in colonic epithelial cells, which are responsible for neutrophil recruitment. At the molecular level, we found that SRC-3 can activate the NF-κB signaling pathway to promote CXCL2 expression at the transcriptional level. Collectively, we show that SRC-3 contributes to host defense against enteric bacteria, at least in part via upregulating CXCL2 expression to recruit neutrophils. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. Eight-week aerobic training effects on Apelin-13 and insulin resistance in overweight men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Soori

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aims: Obesity as a pandemic disease is the high accumulation of adipose tissue which secrets different hormones such as apelin. Apelin as an adipocytokine increases in obesity. Aerobic training induced apelin responses are not clarify well. So, we aimed to determine the effect of eight weeks aerobic training on Apelin-13 and insulin resistance in overweight men. Methods: Current study was quasi-experiment design. Twenty-six overweight men with BMI between 27-30 kg/m2 were randomly enrolled in the present study following public call announcement and match to inclusion criteria. They accidently divided into submaximal-aerobic and control groups. The submaximal-aerobic group carried out exercise training for 24 continuous sessions (with 50-70% of maximum heart rate and 3 sessions/per-week for eight weeks. The anthropometrical, VO2max and blood sampling assessments performed and later assessments were completed 24 hours after last training period. Then, whole of data were analyzed by Stata software at P0.05. In addition, there were direct and significant relationship between anthropometrical indices and HbA1c with Apelin-13 (p<0.05. Conclusions: Obesity increases the possibility of metabolic diseases and insulin resistance. In the current study we represented that the internal factors of exercise, such as intensity, had meaningful effects on anthropometric features of overweight individuals but it was not enough for exercise induced-apelin-13 and insulin resistance changes.  According to this record, longer and higher intense exercise compare with the current study's protocol were recommended to beneficially decrease and control the incidence and catch the type II diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Elevation of serum apelin-13 associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hui Du

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare apelin-13, a ligand of G-protein-coupled receptor which has been shown to be involved in retinal angiogenesis, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF serum levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM with or without retinopathy, and to investigate the relationship between the serum concentration of apelin-13 and diabetes retinopathy.METHODS: Sixty-nine patients with T2DM were enrolled. Of the 69 patients, 16 had proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR group, 23 had non-PDR (NPDR group and 30 had no retinopathy (T2DM group. Subjects’ information, including demographics, medical history, and use of medications were recorded. Their serum samples were collected for measuring the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, serum lipid and glycosylated hemoglobin. Apelin-13 and VEGF serum levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Kruskal-Wallis test and one-way ANOVA were used to compare the differences among these groups. Chi-square test was used to assess categorical variables. Correlations between variables were investigated by Spearman rho correlation test and stepwise regression analysis. All statistical analyses were performed through SPSS 17.0 software.RESULTS:Sex, age, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, CRP, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c have no significantly difference in the three groups. Serum level of apelin-13 was significantly elevated in PDR group as compared with T2DM group (P=0.041. Differences of VEGF serum concentration in the three groups were statistically significant (P=0.007, P=0.007 and P<0.001, respectively. Spearman rho correlation test showed that serum apelin-13 was positively correlated with BMI, serum triglycerides, VEGF, but not with age, duration of diabetes, blood pressure, CRP, HbA1c and total-cholesterol. Stepwise regression analysis showed that BMI also significantly associated with serum apelin-13 (P=0.002, while VEGF and serum triglycerides were irrelevant.CONCLUSION: This study elucidated a

  6. Apelin in hemodialysis patients: is there relationship with oxidative and inflammation markers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane O Leal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress are importante features associated with pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis (HD patients. Apelin is a bioactive peptide involved in a variety of physiological functions that has been associated with inflammation, however; little is known about apelin in chronic kidney disease (CKD. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyse apelin plasma levels in HD patients and verify if there is any relationship with inflammation and oxidative markers. Twenty-four HD patients (53.6±14.4 years of age, 14 men and body mass index (BMI of 25.0±4.2 kg/m2 were studied and compared to 15 healthy subjects (51.3±13.5 years of age, 7 men and BMI of 26.3±3.7 kg/m2. Plasma apelin-12 and -36 were measured using the enzyme immunometric assay (EIA method. Plasma electronegative low density lipoprotein (LDL- levels were measured using ELISA method. The levels of tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6, leptin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were measured by a multiplex assay kit and C-reactive protein (CRP by immunoturbidimetry. There was no difference between apelin-36 levels in HD patients (0.82±0.60 ng/mL and healthy subjects (0.83±0.23 ng/mL. In contrast, apelin-12 levels were significantly higher in patients, 0.34 ±0.15 ng/mL than in healthy subjects, 0.24± 0.13ng/mL. Inflammation (TNF-α and CRP and oxidative markers levels (LDL- were higher in HD patients (5.4±1.3 pg/mL, 0.15 (0.33 mg/dL and 0.19±0.13U/L, respectively; however, there was not correlation among apelin-12 or -36 and inflammatory or oxidative markers. In conclusion, plasma apelin seems to be not associated with inflammatory and oxidative status in HD patients.

  7. Hubungan Kadar Apelin dengan Disfungsi Diastol pada Penderita Gagal Jantung dengan Fraksi Ejeksi Normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Rostiati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apelin ia a novel multifunction peptide implicated in cardiovascular performance regulation in chronic pressure overload. Plasma apelin level and its correlation to diastolic dysfunction in patient heart failure with preserved ejection fraction were investigated. Hypertensive patients with heart failure but without coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, obese, and diabetes mellitus were enrolled in this study. Each patients underwent plasma apelin measurement and echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular diastolic function. Statistical analysis was conducted using Spearman Rank. Fifty patients, 24 males (48% and 26 females (52%, met the inclusion criteria. The mean age of the participants was 58.72 (11.02 years with a duration of hypertension between 1–30 years, median 5 year. Mean body mass index was 24.13 kg/m2. Systolic blood pressure median was 130 (120–180mmHg while the diastolic blood pressure median was 90 (70–110mmHg. Left ventricular ejection fraction median was 65 (49–77%, treatment with Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI was 48%, calcium channel blocker (CCB was 27%, beta blocker was 6%, angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB was 3%, and diuretic was 1%. Diastolic function assessment with tissue doppler imaging (TDI resulted in a mean of 10.32, deceleration time mean of 228.2, E/A (early/atrial (late filling velocities ratio median of 0.77 (0.43–1.53,and IVRT (isovolumic relaxation time median of 92 (59–177. Plasma apelin measurement median was 1080.5 (993.2–11 pg/mL. In conclusion, there is a positive correlation between plasma apelin level and diastolic function (TDI (R=0.3445, p=0.014. There is no significant correlation between plasma apelin level and diastolic function using other criteria. In conclusion, apelin can be used for assessing symptoms and prognosis of heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction because apelin level is upregulated when pressure overload occurs with less

  8. Endogenous Peptide Apelin and Pathological Cardiac Remodeling in Hypertensive Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Koval

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study involved 63 patients with essential hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2. The control group consisted of 16 apparently healthy individuals. Complex of examination included conventional clinical-laboratory and instrumental methods, ultrasound of the heart with Doppler sonography, determining apelin blood concentration by ELISA. Patients with essential hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2 compared with the control group had a probable reduction in apelin level associated with the development of pathological cardiac remodeling, increasing the size of the left atrium and diastolic dysfunction of the heart.

  9. The Effect of Rast Exercise on Plasma Levels of Apelin and Blood Pressure in Elite Women Runner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaibani Sh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Intense exercise increases heart susceptibility to the disorder in this physiological factor.The purpose of this study is to study the effect of sprint interval training on plasma levels of apelin, blood pressure and heart rate in elite female runner. Methods: Plasma levels of apelin, Heart rate (HR & blood pressure (BP, analyzed before, after and 24 hours after exercise. 15 elite female runner, whom were playing in Shiraz track & field league, selected for this study. They all were homogenized according to any kind of disease.Results: Rast exercise made plasma level of Apelin decrease after exercise compared with plasma level before exercise and this decrease was significant (p=0.001. Also, plasma level of apelin increased significantly 24 hrs after finishing exercise (p=0.001, but there were no significant differences before exercise (p=0.375. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate increased immediately after exercise and decreased significantly after 24 hrs (p=0.001. However, significant difference was not observed in diastolic pressure before and after exercise (p=0.338.Conclusion: The finding of this study shows that sprint interval training decreases plasma levels of apelin, so we can say that apelin and blood pressure must be in balance in natural position. With knowing the role of apelin, changes in this peptide during exercise can be an alarm to cardiovascular risk factor, during or after exercise in elite athletes.

  10. Evaluation of Apelin and Insulin Resistance in Patients with PCOS and Therapeutic Effect of Drospirenone-Ethinylestradiol Plus Metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xianchang; Wu, Xingguo; Zhou, Yan; Yu, Xinyan; Zhang, Wenjuan

    2015-08-28

    The aim of this study was to determine the relevance of apelin and insulin resistance (IR) with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to assess the possible therapeutic effect of the combined therapy of drospirenone-ethinylestradiol (DRSP-EE) combined with metformin. Sixty-three PCOS patients and 40 non-PCOS infertile patients were recruited. The fasting serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), glucose (FBG), insulin (FINS), and apelin at the early follicular phase were measured. To further investigate the relation between apelin and IR, we treated the PCOS patients with DRSP-EE (1 tablet daily, 21 d/month) plus metformin (500 mg tid) for 3 months. All of the above indices were measured again after treatment. 1) Levels of apelin, LH, LH/FSH, T, and FINS, as well as homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) in PCOS patients, were significantly higher than in the control group before treatment. 2) These indices significantly decreased after treatment with DRSP-EE plus metformin. 3) Correlation analysis showed that apelin level was positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), FINS level, and HOMA-IR. Apelin level significantly increased in PCOS patients. The combined therapy of DRSP-EE plus metformin not only decreases IR, but also improves apelin level. This combination is a superior approach for PCOS treatment.

  11. Expression analysis of cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway genes in the intestinal mucosal layer of necrotic enteritis-induced chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengaraj, Deivendran; Truong, Anh Duc; Lee, Sung-Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Hong, Yeong Ho

    2016-02-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a serious problem to the poultry farms, which report NE outbreaks more than once per year, as a result of the inappropriate use of antibiotics in the feed. The NE affected bird die rapidly as a result of various pathophysiological complications in the intestine and immune system. Also, several studies have reported that the genes exclusively related to intestine and immune functions are significantly altered in response to NE. In this study, NE was induced in two genetically disparate chicken lines that are resistant (line 6.3) and sensitive (line 7.2) to avian leukosis and Marek's disease. The intestinal mucosal layer was collected from NE-induced and control chickens, and subjected to RNA-sequencing analysis. The involvement of differentially expressed genes in the intestinal mucosal layer of line 6.3 and 7.2 with the immune system-related pathways was investigated. Among the identified immune system-related pathways, a candidate pathway known as chicken cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway (CDS pathway) was selected for further investigation. RNA-sequencing and pathway analysis identified a total of 21 genes that were involved in CDS pathway and differentially expressed in the intestinal mucosal layer of lines 6.3 and 7.2. The expression of CDS pathway genes was further confirmed by real-time qPCR. In the results, a majority of the CDS pathway genes were significantly altered in the NE-induced intestinal mucosal layer from lines 6.3 and 7.2. In conclusion, our study indicate that NE seriously affects several genes involved in innate immune defense and foreign DNA sensing mechanisms in the chicken intestinal mucosal layer. Identifying the immune genes affected by NE could be an important evidence for the protective immune response to NE-causative pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Production of mink enteritis parvovirus empty capsids by expression in a baculovirus vector system: a recombinant vaccine for mink enteritis parvovirus in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J; Alexandersen, Søren; Bloch, B.

    1994-01-01

    gene product was characterized after expression in Sf9 insect cells. The MEV VP-2 product had the same size as that reported for the wild-type MEV VP-2 protein and was recognized by convalescent sera from MEV-infected mink and a panel of monoclonal antibodies reactive to MEV. Furthermore, the VP-2...

  13. The Apelin receptor enhances Nodal/TGF beta signaling to ensure proper cardiac development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshwar, Ashish R.; Chng, Serene C.; Ho, Lena; Reversade, Bruno; Scott, Ian C.

    2016-01-01

    The Apelin receptor (Apinr) is essential for heart development, controlling the early migration of cardiac progenitors. Here we demonstrate that in zebrafish Apinr modulates Nodal/TGF beta signaling, a key pathway essential for mesendoderm induction and migration. Loss of Apinr function leads to a

  14. Quantification of Cell Proliferation and Alpha-Toxin Gene Expression of Clostridium perfringens in the Development of Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens▿

    OpenAIRE

    Si, Weiduo; Gong, Joshua; Han, Yanming; Yu, Hai; Brennan, John; Zhou, Huaijun; Chen, Shu

    2007-01-01

    Cell proliferation and alpha-toxin gene expression of Clostridium perfringens in relation to the development of necrotic enteritis (NE) were investigated. Unlike bacitracin-treated chickens, non-bacitracin-treated birds exhibited typical NE symptoms and reduced growth performance. They also demonstrated increased C. perfringens proliferation and alpha-toxin gene expression that were positively correlated and progressed according to the regression model y = b0 + b1X − b2X2. The average C. perf...

  15. Apelin attenuates postburn sepsis via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B dependent mechanism: A randomized animal study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luo, Keqin; Long, Huibao; Xu, Bincan; Luo, Yanling

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether apelin would regulate inflammatory response and promote survival in an experimental burn sepsis model through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B dependent pathway...

  16. Chronic administration of [Pyr(1)] apelin-13 attenuates neuropathic pain after compression spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimashhadi, Zahra; Aboutaleb, Nahid; Nasirinezhad, Farinaz

    2017-02-01

    Apelin is an endogenous ligand for apelin receptor (APJ) with analgesic effect on visceral, analgesic and proanalgesic influences on acute pains in animal models. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible analgesic effects of [Pyr(1)] apelin-13 on chronic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. Animals were randomly divided into three major groups as intact, sham and SCI. The SCI group randomly allocated to four subgroups as no treatment, vehicle-treatment (normal saline: 10μl, intrathecally) and two subgroups with intrathecal injection (i.t) of 1μg and 5μg of [Pyr(1)] apelin-13. After laminectomy at T6-T8 level, spinal cord compression injury was induced using an aneurysm clip. Vehicle or [Pyr(1)] apelin-13 injected from day1 post SCI and continued for a week on a daily basis. Pain behaviors and locomotor activity were monitored up to 8weeks. At the end of the experiments, intracardial paraformaldehyde perfusion was made under deep anesthesia in some animals for histological and immunohistochemistry evaluations. Western blot technique was also done to detect caspase-3 in fresh spinal cord tissues. SCI decreased nociceptive thresholds and locomotor scores. Administration of [Pyr(1)] apelin-13 (1μg and 5μg) improved locomotor activity and reduced pain symptoms, cavity size and caspase-3 levels. Results showed long-term beneficial effects of [Pyr(1)] apelin-13 on neuropathic pain and locomotion. Therefore, we may suggest [Pyr(1)] apelin-13 as a new option for further neuropathic pain research and a suitable candidate for ensuing clinical trials in spinal cord injury arena. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effect of Different Training Modes on Serum Apelin and Pain Threshold in Morphine-Dependent Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrinkalam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Apelin has recently been identified as an analgesic agent and a novel neuropeptide. On the other hand, it has been shown that exercise can lead to reduced pain in morphine-dependent patients. Objectives Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate apelin and pain threshold changes in healthy and morphine-dependent rats in response to two exercise paradigms. Materials and Methods In this study, 30 healthy and 30 morphine-dependent rats were used. Morphine-dependent and healthy rats were divided into six groups: 1, a control (healthy group; 2, a healthy endurance group; 3, a healthy strength-training group; 4, an addicted control group; 5, an addicted endurance group; 6, an addicted strength-training group. Then, the training groups performed aerobic and strength training for eight weeks. After the training program, the tail flick and formalin tests were used to assess pain. Apelin was also measured by ELISA. Results Regardless of the type of exercise, exercise significantly increased the apelin serum levels in healthy rats. The apelin levels significantly increased in the morphine-dependent rats compared with the healthy control group. Endurance, unlike strength training, significantly increased apelin in the serum compared to the addicted control group. The training led to pain relief in the morphine-dependent rats and returned it to the healthy control group level. The Pearson correlation showed a reverse significant correlation between the serum apelin level and the tail flick test in the morphine-dependent rats. Conclusions The results showed that endurance training reduced pain by increasing apelin in morphine-dependent rats. Therefore, it is suggested that this type of training be considered for the morphine-dependent patients for pain relief.

  18. O sistema apelinérgico: papel na fisiologia e patologia humanas e potenciais aplicações terapêuticas The apelinergic system: the role played in human physiology and pathology and potential therapeutic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ladeiras-Lopes

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A apelina é um peptídeo recentemente descoberto e identificado como o ligando endógeno do receptor APJ. A apelina e o receptor APJ são expressos numa grande variedade de tecidos, tais como coração, cérebro, rins e pulmões, onde a sua interação pode ter importantes efeitos fisiopatológicos. Com efeito, a última década foi fértil no esclarecimento de possíveis papéis desempenhados pela apelina na fisiologia humana, nomeadamente como peptídeo regulador dos sistemas cardiovascular, hipotálamo-hipófisário, gastrointestinal e imunitário. Um possível envolvimento da apelina na patogênese de doenças com elevada prevalência e co-morbilidades, como a hipertensão arterial, a insuficiência cardíaca e o diabete melito tipo 2, perspectivam-na como um possível alvo terapêutico a explorar no futuro. Este trabalho fornece uma visão geral dos efeitos fisiológicos da apelina e apresenta o possível papel desse peptídeo na patogênese de várias doenças, associado a implicações terapêuticas que poderão vir a ser, assim, exploradas.Apelin is a recently discovered peptide, identified as an endogenous ligand of receptor APJ. Apelin and receptor APJ are expressed in a wide variety of tissues including heart, brain, kidneys and lungs. Their interaction may have relevant pathophysiologic effects in those tissues. In fact, the last decade has been rich in illustrating the possible roles played by apelin in human physiology, namely as a regulating peptide of cardiovascular, hypothalamus-hypophysis, gastrointestinal, and immune systems. The possible involvement of apelin in the pathogenesis of high prevalence conditions and comorbidities - such as hypertension, heart failure, and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (T2DM - rank it as a likely therapeutic target to be investigated in the future. The present paper is an overview of apelin physiologic effects and presents the possible role played by this peptide in the pathogenesis of a number of

  19. THE RELATIONSHIP OF SERUM LEPTIN AND PLASMA APELIN LEVELS IN MEN WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Fedotova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic syndrome is seen as a  cluster of high cardiovascular risk factors. New hormone-like substances, such as adipokines leptin and apelin, produced by fat tissue, are important for the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome.Aim: To evaluate levels of plasma apelin and serum leptin in patients with metabolic syndrome.Materials and methods: We examined 122 male patients with metabolic syndrome and 30 healthy males aged from 25 to 60 years. All patients were assessed accordingly to confirm the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome, with additional measurements of serum leptin and plasma apelin.Results: Serum leptin levels were 10-fold higher and plasma apelin levels 3-fold higher in patients with metabolic syndrome (n=122, compared to the controls (n=30: 25.43 vs. 3.99 ng/mL (p<0.05 and 1.13 vs. 0.66 ng/mL (p<0.05, respectively. Serum leptin levels correlated with all parameters of the excess body weight, such as body mass (r=0.79, р<0.05, body mass index (r=0.93, р<0.05, waist circumference (r=0.61, р<0.05, hip circumference (r=0.57, р<0.05, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR; r=0.4, р<0.05. Plasma apelin levels correlated with the waist circumference (r=0.27, р<0.05 and WHR (r=0.29, р<0.05. There was a significant increase of serum leptin dependent on the bodyweight category: 19.8 ng/mL in patients with obesity Grade I  (n=49 and 28.7  ng/mL in those with obesity Grade II (n=46 (р<0.05. There was a  non-significant trend towards an increase in plasma apelin depending on bodyweight. As far as abdominal obesity is concerned, in patients with WHR<1 (n=35, plasma apelin level was 0.36  ng/mL, whereas in those with WHR of ≥1 (n=87, it was 3-fold higher (1.09 ng/mL, р<0.05; the increase in serum leptin levels was non-significant. There was no association between plasma apelin and serum leptin in patients with metabolic syndrome (r=0.1, р>0.05.Conclusion: The adipokine levels in men with metabolic syndrome are

  20. Radiation enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation enteropathy; Radiation-induced small bowel injury; Post-radiation enteritis ... Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. The therapy ...

  1. High-intensity interval training lowers blood pressure and improves apelin and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghardashi Afousi, Alireza; Asvadi Fard, Maryam; Babaee Bigi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-02-01

    Hypertension is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Apelin levels and NO bioavailability are impaired in older hypertensive patients. Exercise is an effective intervention for treating hypertension. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval training on blood pressure, apelin, and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals. Thirty treated hypertensive subjects (61.70 ± 5.78 years, 17 males, 13 females) were randomly divided into 6 weeks of high-intensity interval training (n = 15) and control (n = 15). The exercise training was conducted for three 35-min sessions a week (1.5-min interval at 85-90% of heart rate reserve [HRR] and 2 min active phase at 50-55% of HRR). Assessment of plasma apelin, nitrite/nitrate (NOx), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) was performed before and after the intervention. At the end of the study, apelin, and NOx plasma levels increased significantly in the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) group (P = 0.021, P = 0.003, respectively). Conversely, ET-1 plasma levels significantly decreased in the training group after the intervention (P = 0.015). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the change of plasma apelin and change of plasma NOx (r = 0. 771, P = 0.0008). In addition, there was a negative correlation between the change of plasma ET-1, change of plasma apelin (r = - 0.595, P = 0.019), and variation of NOx (r = - 0.572, P = 0.025). This study indicates that, by increasing of apelin and NOx plasma levels, HIIT may be effective in reducing blood pressure.

  2. What Is the Role of Apelin regarding Cardiovascular Risk and Progression of Renal Disease in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the association of different apelin levels with cardiovascular mortality, hospitalization, renal function, and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients with mild to moderate CKD. Methods. An observational, prospective study involving 150 patients divided into groups according to baseline apelin levels: 1≤98 pg/mL, 2 = 98–328 pg/mL, and 3≥329 pg/mL. Baseline characteristics were analyzed and compared. Multivariate Cox regression was used to find out predictors of cardiovascular mortality, and multivariate logistic regression was used to find out predictors of hospitalization and disease progression. Simple linear regressions and Pearson correlations were used to investigate correlations between apelin and renal disease and cardiovascular risk factors. Results. Patients’ survival at 83 months in groups 1, 2, and 3 was 39%, 40%, and 71.2%, respectively (P=0.046. Apelin, age, and eGFR were independent predictors of mortality, and apelin, creatinine, eGFR, resistin, and visfatin were independent predictors of hospitalization. Apelin levels were negatively correlated with cardiovascular risk factors and positively correlated with eGFR. Patients with lower apelin levels were more likely to start a depurative technique. Conclusions. Apelin levels might have a significant clinical use as a marker/predictor of cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization or even as a therapeutic agent for CKD patients with cardiovascular disease.

  3. The Effects of Apelin on Mesenteric Ischemia and Reperfusion Damage in an Experimental Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Burak Sayhan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There is ongoing research to find an effective preventive or treatment agent. We aimed to evaluate the effects of apelin 13 (AP on intestinal I/R injury in a rat model. Material and Methods: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 6-8 weeks and weighing 280±20 g were equally divided into three groups (control, I/R and I/R+AP. The control group underwent superior mesenteric artery (SMA mobilization alone without any clamping. In the I/R and I/R+AP groups, an atraumatic microvascular bulldog clamp was placed across the SMA at its point of origin from the aorta. In the I/R+AP group, 2 µg/kg/d apelin was administered intraperitoneally. After 60 minutes of ischemia, relaparotomy was performed to remove the microvascular clamp on the SMA for 3 hours of reperfusion. After 3 hours, tissue samples were obtained for biochemical [malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels] and histopathological analyses.Results: MDA levels were significantly higher in the I/R group compared to the control group. Although MDA levels were lower in the I/R+AP group compared tothe I/R group, the difference was not statistically significant. There was also no significant difference between the I/R+AP and I/R groups regarding GSH levels. The median histopathological grade was significantly lower in the I/R+AP group compared to the I/R group (p=0.001.Conclusion: Apelin appeared to have a positive effect on oxidative injury; this did not reach statistical significance. Thus, the role of apelin and associated findings in the initial treatment of intestinal ischemia needs further large-scale animal studies before human use.

  4. Effects of antihypertensive treatment on plasma apelin, resistin, and visfatin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczylas, Aleksander; Piecha, Grzegorz; Więcek, Andrzej

    2016-04-29

    INTRODUCTION Adipose tissue has been recently recognized as an endocrine organ secreting a number of adipokines contributing to the development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and vascular remodeling. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with a β-blocker, calcium antagonist, thiazide-like diuretic, or angiotensin II receptor type 1 influences plasma concentrations of apelin, resistin, and visfatin in obese hypertensive patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS The study included 84 obese patients with essential hypertension. One control group included obese subjects without hypertension, and the other, lean subjects without hypertension. Patients with hypertension were randomized into 4 groups treated for 6 weeks with bisoprolol, amlodipine, indapamide, or candesartan, respectively. RESULTS Mean daily plasma apelin concentrations in patients treated with amlodipine was significantly higher than the baseline values, whereas the difference in plasma apelin concentrations in other treatment groups was not significant. Mean daily plasma resistin concentrations were significantly lower after 6-week treatment with amlodipine, bisoprolol, or indapamide compared with the baseline values. In patients treated with candesartan, no significant differences in resistin concentrations were shown. After 6-week treatment with bisoprolol, mean daily plasma concentrations of visfatin were significantly lower compared with the baseline values. Treatment with amlodipine, candesartan, or indapamide did not significantly affect plasma visfatin levels. CONCLUSIONS Antihypertensive treatment exerts significant and varied effects on adipokine secretion in obese hypertensive patients. Changes in apelin secretion, caused by the use of different antihypertensive drugs, may protect the cardiovascular system and kidneys. The involvement of adipokins in the mechanism of diverse protective effects of

  5. Enteric neurodegeneration in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, M; Cowen, T; Koch, T R

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this article is to review the clinical presentation and neurobiology of degeneration of the enteric nervous system with emphasis on human data where available. Constipation, incontinence and evacuation disorders are frequently encountered in the ageing population. Healthy lower gastrointestinal function is essential for successful ageing as it is critical to maintaining independence and autonomy to pursue further activity. One clinical expression of enteric neurodegeneration is constipation. However, the aetiology may be multifactorial as disturbances of epithelial, muscle or neural function may all result from neurodegeneration. There is evidence of loss of excitatory (e.g. cholinergic) enteric neurons and interstitial cells of Cajal, whereas inhibitory (including nitrergic) neurons appear unaffected. Understanding neurodegeneration in the enteric nervous system is key to developing treatments to reverse it. Neurotrophins have been shown to accelerate colonic transit and relieve constipation in the medium term; they are also implicated in maintenance programmes in adult enteric neurons through a role in antioxidant defence. However, their effects in ageing colon require further study. There is evidence that 5-HT(2) and 5-HT(4) mechanisms are involved in development, maintenance and survival of enteric neurons. Further research is needed to understand and potentially reverse enteric neurodegeneration.

  6. Expression of Ecto-nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolases-2 and -3 in the Enteric Nervous System Affects Inflammation in Experimental Colitis and Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbrügge, Linda; Moss, Alan C; Yee, Eric U; Csizmadia, Eva; Mitsuhashi, Shuji; Longhi, Maria Serena; Sandhu, Bynvant; Stephan, Holger; Wu, Yan; Cheifetz, Adam S; Müller, Christa E; Sévigny, Jean; Robson, Simon C; Jiang, Z Gordon

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the enteric nervous system can modulate gut immunity. Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases [E-NTPDases] regulate purinergic signalling by sequential phosphohydrolysis of pro-inflammatory extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate [ATP]. Herein, we test the hypothesis that E-NTPDases modulate gut inflammation via neuro-immune crosstalk. We determined expression patterns of NTPDase2 and NTPDase3 in murine and human colon. Experimental colitis was induced by dextran sodium sulphate [DSS] in genetically engineered mice deficient in NTPDase2 or NTPDase3. We compared plasma adenosine diphosphatase [ADPase] activity from Crohn's patients and healthy controls, and linked the enzyme activity to Crohn's disease activity. NTPDase2 and -3 were chiefly expressed in cells of the enteric nervous system in both murine and human colon. When compared with wild type, DSS-induced colitis was exacerbated in Entpd2, and to a lesser extent, Entpd3 null mice as measured by disease activity score and histology, and marked anaemia was seen in both. Colonic macrophages isolated from Entpd2 null mice displayed a pro-inflammatory phenotype compared with wild type. In human plasma, Crohn's patients had decreases in ADPase activity when compared with healthy controls. The drop in ADPase activity was likely associated with changes in NTPDase2 and -3, as suggested by inhibitor studies, and were correlated with Crohn's disease activity. NTPDase2 and -3 are ecto-enzymes expressed in the enteric nervous system. Both enzymes confer protection against gut inflammation in experimental colitis and exhibit alterations in Crohn's disease. These observations suggest that purinergic signalling modulated by E-NTPDases governs neuro-immune interactions that are relevant in Crohn's disease.

  7. Serum omentin-1, vaspin, and apelin levels and central obesity in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Montazerifar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Omentin-1, vaspin, and apelin are novel adipokines which closely associate with obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the circulating levels of omentin-1, vaspin, and apelin in NAFLD patients and to clarify their relationship with biochemical parameters, abdominal obesity, and high sensitive C-reactive protein. Materials and Methods: In a case–control study, serum levels of omentin-1, vaspin, and apelin were measured in 41 NAFLD patients and 41 healthy volunteers. The study was performed in the outpatients' clinic of Imam-Ali Hospital in Zahedan, Iran, during February to July 2015. Fatty liver was confirmed by ultrasonography. The association of the adipokines with lipid profile and anthropometric parameters was assessed using multivariable linear regression models. In this model, those variables that showedP 0.05. Multiple regression analysis showed that the serum levels of apelin and vaspin correlated positively with waist circumference (WC (P < 0.01 andP< 0.05, respectively and low-density lipoprotein (P < 0.05 andP< 0.01, respectively while serum omentin-1 was inversely correlated with WC (P < 0.01 and positively corrected with high-density lipoprotein (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The findings showed that among the analyzed adipokines only apelin was different in patients with NAFLD when compared to controls. Considering the multivariate regression analysis, apelin seems be more suitable diagnostic marker in predicting of NAFLD and omentin might be considered as a protective factor in occurrence of NAFLD, particularly in those with central obesity.

  8. Co-administration of Apelin and T4 Protects Inotropic and Chronotropic Changes Occurring in Hypothyroid Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Akhondali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: One of the most important thyroid hormone targets is the cardiovascular system. Hemodynamic changes, such as decreased resting heart rate (HR, myocardial contractility, and cardiac output, and increased diastolic pressure and systemic vascular resistance, have been observed in hypothyroid patients. Moreover, in these patients, ECG changes include sinus bradycardia and low voltage complexes (P waves or QRS complexes. Objective: This study aimed at evaluating the prophylactic effect of apelin on HR changes and QRS voltage that occur in propylthiouracil (PTU-induced hypothyroid rats. Method: In this study, 48 adult male Wistar rats weighing 170-235g were randomly divided into 6 groups: Control group (normal saline ip injection + tap water gavage; P group (PTU 0.05%, in drinking water; A group (apelin 200 µg.kg-1.day-1, ip; PA group [co-administration of PTU and apelin]; PT group [co-administration of PTU + T4 (0.2 mg/g per day, gavage]; and PAT group (co-administration of PTU, apelin and T4. All experiments were performed for 28 consecutive days, and then the animals were anesthetized with an ip injection of ketamine (80 mg/kg and xylazine (12 mg/kg. Lead II electrocardiogram was recorded to calculate HR and QRS voltage. Results: Heart rate and QRS voltage increased more significantly in the hypothyroid group that consumed both apelin and T4 (201 ± 4 beat/min, 0.71 ± 0.02 mv vs. hypothyroid 145 ± 9 beat/min, 0.563 ± 0.015 mv; respectively. Conclusion: The co-administration of apelin and T4 showed a protective effect on QRS voltage and HR in PTU‑induced hypothyroid rats.

  9. Co-administration of Apelin and T4 Protects Inotropic and Chronotropic Changes Occurring in Hypothyroid Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhondali, Zahra; Badavi, Mohammad; Dianat, Mahin, E-mail: dianat@ajums.ac.ir; Faraji, Farzaneh [Physiology Research Center and Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    One of the most important thyroid hormone targets is the cardiovascular system. Hemodynamic changes, such as decreased resting heart rate (HR), myocardial contractility, and cardiac output, and increased diastolic pressure and systemic vascular resistance, have been observed in hypothyroid patients. Moreover, in these patients, ECG changes include sinus bradycardia and low voltage complexes (P waves or QRS complexes). This study aimed at evaluating the prophylactic effect of apelin on HR changes and QRS voltage that occur in propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroid rats. In this study, 48 adult male Wistar rats weighing 170-235g were randomly divided into 6 groups: Control group (normal saline ip injection + tap water gavage); P group (PTU 0.05%, in drinking water); A group (apelin 200 µg.kg{sup -1}.day{sup -1}, ip); PA group [co-administration of PTU and apelin]; PT group [co-administration of PTU + T4 (0.2 mg/g per day, gavage)]; and PAT group (co-administration of PTU, apelin and T4). All experiments were performed for 28 consecutive days, and then the animals were anesthetized with an ip injection of ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (12 mg/kg). Lead II electrocardiogram was recorded to calculate HR and QRS voltage. Heart rate and QRS voltage increased more significantly in the hypothyroid group that consumed both apelin and T4 (201 ± 4 beat/min, 0.71 ± 0.02 mv vs. hypothyroid 145 ± 9 beat/min, 0.563 ± 0.015 mv; respectively). The co-administration of apelin and T4 showed a protective effect on QRS voltage and HR in PTU‑induced hypothyroid rats.

  10. Lactation Is a Risk Factor of Postpartum Heart Failure in Mice with Cardiomyocyte-specific Apelin Receptor (APJ) Overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kazuya; Ishida, Junji; Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Mizukami, Hayase; Hamada, Juri; Saito, Chiaki; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2016-05-20

    The G protein-coupled receptor APJ and its ligand apelin are highly expressed in cardiovascular tissues and are associated with the regulation of blood pressure and cardiac function. Although accumulating evidence suggests that APJ plays a crucial role in the heart, it remains unclear whether up-regulation of APJ affects cardiac function. Here we generated cardiomyocyte-specific APJ-overexpressing (APJ-TG) mice and investigated the cardiac phenotype in APJ-TG mice. Male and non-pregnant APJ-TG mice showed cardiac hypertrophy, contractile dysfunction, and elevation of B-type natriuretic peptide gene expression in the heart but not cardiac fibrosis and symptoms of heart failure, including breathing abnormality and pleural effusion. We further examined the influence of APJ overexpression in response to physiological stress induced by pregnancy and lactation in the heart. Interestingly, repeating pregnancy and lactation (pregnancy-lactation cycle) exacerbated cardiac hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction and induced cardiac fibrosis, lung congestion, pleural effusion, and abnormal breathing in APJ-TG mice. These data indicate that female APJ-TG mice develop postpartum cardiomyopathy. We showed that lactation, but not parturition, was critical for the onset of postpartum cardiomyopathy in APJ-TG mice. Furthermore, we found that lactating APJ-TG mice showed impaired myocardial angiogenesis and imbalance of pro- and antiangiogenic gene expression in the heart. These results demonstrate that overexpression of APJ in cardiomyocytes has adverse effects on cardiac function in male and non-pregnant mice and that lactation contributes to the development of postpartum cardiomyopathy in the heart with APJ overexpression. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Effect of 4 Weeks of Detraining After a Period of Resistance Training on Plasma Apelin Levels in Overweight and Obese Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvaneh Galdavi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Apelin is secreted from visceral adipose tissue. However, the effect of resistance training and consequent detraining on the apelin level in obesity, has not yet been clearly determined. In the current research, the effect of 4 weeks of detraining after a period of resistance training, was investigated on the plasma apelin levels in overweight and obese girls. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 22 overweight and obese girls were purposefully selected and randomly divided into two groups of experimental (n=12 and control (n=10. The experimental group exercised in an 8-week training program (4 sessions per week according to a training program with an intensity of 65-80% of one maximum repetition, and then experienced 4 weeks of detraining. Blood sampling was performed after a 12-h fasting in various phases and the level of apelin was measured. Data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, repeated measure ANOVA, post-hoc LSD, and independent t-tests at a significance level of α 0.05. Also, after 4 weeks of detraining a slight increase was seen in the levels of apelin, but was not significant (p>0.05. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, resistance training as a new non-drug therapy can be effective in reducing the levels of apelin. Also, apelin levels increases with discontinuation of exercise, which may lead to the emergence of inflammatory features in the cardiovascular system.

  12. Apelin-13 inhibits large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels in cerebral artery smooth muscle cells via a PI3-kinase dependent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Modgil

    Full Text Available Apelin-13 causes vasoconstriction by acting directly on APJ receptors in vascular smooth muscle (VSM cells; however, the ionic mechanisms underlying this action at the cellular level remain unclear. Large-conductance Ca(2+-activated K(+ (BKCa channels in VSM cells are critical regulators of membrane potential and vascular tone. In the present study, we examined the effect of apelin-13 on BK(Ca channel activity in VSM cells, freshly isolated from rat middle cerebral arteries. In whole-cell patch clamp mode, apelin-13 (0.001-1 μM caused concentration-dependent inhibition of BK(Ca in VSM cells. Apelin-13 (0.1 µM significantly decreased BK(Ca current density from 71.25 ± 8.14 pA/pF to 44.52 ± 7.10 pA/pF (n=14 cells, P<0.05. This inhibitory effect of apelin-13 was confirmed by single channel recording in cell-attached patches, in which extracellular application of apelin-13 (0.1 µM decreased the open-state probability (NPo of BK(Ca channels in freshly isolated VSM cells. However, in inside-out patches, extracellular application of apelin-13 (0.1 µM did not alter the NPo of BK(Ca channels, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of apelin-13 on BKCa is not mediated by a direct action on BK(Ca. In whole cell patches, pretreatment of VSM cells with LY-294002, a PI3-kinase inhibitor, markedly attenuated the apelin-13-induced decrease in BK(Ca current density. In addition, treatment of arteries with apelin-13 (0.1 µM significantly increased the ratio of phosphorylated-Akt/total Akt, indicating that apelin-13 significantly increases PI3-kinase activity. Taken together, the data suggest that apelin-13 inhibits BK(Ca channel via a PI3-kinase-dependent signaling pathway in cerebral artery VSM cells, which may contribute to its regulatory action in the control of vascular tone.

  13. Expression of matrix metalloprotease-2, -7 and -9 on human colon, liver and bile duct cell lines by enteric and gastric Helicobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Naoko; Geironson, Linda; Al-Soud, Waleed Abu; Ljungh, Sa

    2005-05-01

    Gastric and enteric Helicobacter species have been associated with malignant and inflammatory diseases of the stomach, liver, gall bladder and intestine. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) participate in degradation of extracellular matrix, which allows bacteria to come in contact with and interact with the cells. Enhanced level of MMPs facilitates metastasis and cell invasion of tumor cells by removal of physical barriers, as well as modulation of biologic activities of the proteins residing in the extracellular matrix. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gastric and enteric Helicobacter on induction of MMPs in hepatocytes and epithelial cells of gall bladder and colon. Human hepatocytes HepG2, gall bladder epithelial cells TFK-1, and colon epithelial cells HT29 were infected with strains of H. pylori cagA+, cagE+, H. pylori cagA-, cagE-, H. pullorum, H. cholecystus, H. bilis and H. hepaticus. Protein levels of MMPs were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to study mRNA levels. Increased expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was observed on HepG2, TFK-1 and HT29 infected with H. pylori cagA+, cagE+ and H. cholecystus strains. H. pylori cagA+, cagE+, H. cholecystus, H. pullorum, H. bilis and H. hepaticus strains increased expression of MMP-7 on HT29, compared to uninfected control cells. The effect of MMP upregulation on HepG2, TFK-1 and HT29 was bacterial dose dependent. H. pylori cagA-, cagE- strain did not increase expression of MMPs. Inducible MMPs on colon and bile duct epithelial cells as well as hepatocytes may play an important role in facilitating invasion and progression of cancer by Helicobacter species colonizing the hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal tract.

  14. Effects of Bacillus licheniformis on the growth performance and expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mengjia; Zeng, Dong; Ni, Xueqin; Tu, Teng; Yin, Zhongqiong; Pan, Kangcheng; Jing, Bo

    2016-03-08

    Necrotic enteritis (NE), caused by Clostridium perfringens, has cost the poultry industry $2 billion in losses. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Bacillus licheniformis as dietary supplement on the growth, serum antioxidant status, and expression of lipid-metabolism genes of broiler chickens with C. perfringens-induced NE. A total of 240 one-day-old broilers were randomly grouped into four: a negative control, an NE experimental model (PC), chickens fed a diet supplemented with 30 % of fishmeal from day 14 onwards and challenged with coccidiosis vaccine (FC), and NE group supplied with feed containing 1.0 × 10(6) CFU/g B. licheniformis (BL). Body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, serum antioxidant status, and lipid-metabolism-gene expression were analyzed. In the PC group, FCR increased significantly whereas serum catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity decreased compared with NC group. Dietary B. licheniformis supplementation improved FCR and oxidative stress in experimental avian NE. Using Bacillus licheniformis as a direct-fed microbial (DFM) could also significantly upregulate catabolism-related genes, namely, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, in livers and changed the expression of lipid-anabolism genes. These results suggested that dietary B. licheniformis supplementation can enhance growth and antioxidant ability, as well as change the expression of genes related to fatty-acid synthesis and oxidation in the livers of NE-infected broilers.

  15. Interstitial cells of Cajal, enteric neurons, and smooth muscle and myoid cells of the murine gastrointestinal tract express full-length dystrophin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, Maria-Giuliana; Zardo, Claudio; Corsani, Letizia; Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria-Simonetta

    2002-12-01

    A gene located on the X chromosome is responsible for the transcription of several mRNA and related dystrophin isoforms. Lack or truncated expression of the 427-kDa, full-length isoform in skeletal muscle results in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Patients with DMD, as well as mdx mice, a mutant strain also lacking this isoform, show gastrointestinal dismotilities. The present aim was to identify the cell types that express full-length dystrophin in the gastrointestinal tract. An immunohistochemical study was performed using an antibody specific for this isoform, and double labelings were made for interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) identification and to verify whether all neurons express full-length dystrophin. Three different fixation procedures were used. The results showed that ICC, enteric neurons, and smooth muscle and myoid cells expressed full-length dystrophin. In ICC and neurons, dystrophin-immunoreactive patches were irregularly distributed at the cell contour and within the cytoplasm. In smooth muscle and myoid cells, regularly spaced dystrophin-immunoreactive bars were located along the cell contour. Labeling intensity varied according to fixation procedure. The different subcellular distributions of dystrophin immunoreactivity might reflect diverse roles played by full-length isoforms in each cell type. Dystrophin loss in cells involved in gastrointestinal motility might explain the gastrointestinal symptomatology affecting DMD patients and mdx mice.

  16. Immediate preoperative enteral nutrition (preoperative enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lađević Nebojša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional support of surgical patients is a necessary part of the treatment. It alone cannot cure the disease but it significantly affects the recovery of patients and supports surgical interventions. Patients in malnutrition have shown to have significantly more postoperative infectious and non-infectious complications. This significantly prolongs treatment time and increases costs. However, there is one fact that cannot be expressed in money, which is the patient's impression of the surgical intervention. Adequate preoperative patient support, based on the intake of liquid nutritive solutions, reduces preoperative stress and deflects the metabolic response. Now, it is recommended for adults and children older than one year to drink clear liquid up to 2 hours before induction in anesthesia. Appropriate enteral nutrition has a significant place in the postoperative recovery of patients. Enteral nutrition is reducing complications, mainly infectious complications because the function of the digestive system as one large immune system is preserved. Perioperative enteral nutrition is a necessary part of the modern treatment of surgical patients. In addition to the significant effect on the occurrence of postoperative complications, it is also important that this type of diet improves the psychological status of patients.

  17. Apelin, the natural ligand of the orphan seven-transmembrane receptor APJ, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cayabyab, M.; Hinuma, S.; Farzan, M.; Choe, H.; Fukusumi, S.; Kitada, C.; Nishizawa, N.; Hosoya, M.; Nishimura, O.; Messele, T.; Pollakis, G.; Goudsmit, J.; Fujino, M.; Sodroski, J.

    2000-01-01

    In addition to the CCR5 and CXCR4 chemokine receptors, a subset of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates can also use the seven-transmembrane-domain receptor APJ as a coreceptor. A previously identified ligand of APJ, apelin, specifically inhibited the entry of primary

  18. The effects of nonlinear resistance and aerobic interval training on serum levels of apelin and insulin resistance in middle-aged obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Nikseresht

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: The practical applications indicate that obese men can use both AIT and NRT exercise programs to reduce insulin resistance. However, the AIT may have better beneficial effects (as indicated by apelin-13 compared to NRT.

  19. Interactive association of five candidate polymorphisms in Apelin/APJ pathway with coronary artery disease among Chinese hypertensive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Via sequencing the genes of apelin/angiotensin receptor-like 1 (apelin/APJ pathway, we have recently identified and validated four common polymorphisms (rs3761581, rs56204867, rs7119375, and rs10501367 implicated in the development of hypertension. Extending these findings, we, in Chinese hypertensive patients, sought to investigate the association of these four polymorphisms and one additional promising candidate (rs9943582 from this pathway with the risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genotypes were obtained from 994 sporadic CAD patients and 708 age- and sex-matched controls. All participants were hypertensives and angiographically-confirmed. Data were analyzed by Haplo.Stats and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR softwares. Genotype distributions of five examined polymorphisms satisfied Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in controls of both genders. Single-locus analyses exhibited no significant differences in the genotype/allele frequencies of examined polymorphisms between CAD patients and controls (P>0.05, even after controlling traditional cardiovascular confounders. In haplotype analyses, low-penetrance haplotype G-A (in order of rs56204867 and rs3761581 from apelin gene was significantly overrepresented in controls (1.73% relative to in CAD patients (0.4% in males (P = 0.047. Further interaction analyses suggested an overall best MDR model including rs3761581 in males (P = 0.0408 and including rs7119375 and rs9943582 in females (P<0.0001, which were further substantiated in the classical logistical regression model. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated a contributive role of low-penetrance haplotype in apelin gene on CAD in males, and more importantly, interactive effects of genetic defects in apelin/APJ pathway might confer a potential risk in Chinese hypertensive patients.

  20. Apelin Compared With Dobutamine Exerts Cardioprotection and Extends Survival in a Rat Model of Endotoxin-Induced Myocardial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagnon, Frederic; Coquerel, David; Salvail, Dany; Marsault, Eric; Dumaine, Robert; Auger-Messier, Mannix; Sarret, Philippe; Lesur, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Dobutamine is the currently recommended β-adrenergic inotropic drug for supporting sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction when cardiac output index remains low after preload correction. Better and safer therapies are nonetheless mandatory because responsiveness to dobutamine is limited with numerous side effects. Apelin-13 is a powerful inotropic candidate that could be considered as an alternative noncatecholaminergic support in the setting of inflammatory cardiovascular dysfunction. Interventional controlled experimental animal study. Tertiary care university-based research institute. One hundred ninety-eight adult male rats. Using a rat model of "systemic inflammation-induced cardiac dysfunction" induced by intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide injection (10 mg/kg), hemodynamic efficacy, cardioprotection, and biomechanics were assessed under IV osmotic pump infusions of apelin-13 (0.25 μg/kg/min) or dobutamine (7.5 μg/kg/min). In this model and in both in vivo and ex vivo studies, apelin-13 compared with dobutamine provoked distinctive effects on cardiac function: 1) optimized cardiac energy-dependent workload with improved cardiac index and lower vascular resistance, 2) upgraded hearts' apelinergic responsiveness, and 3) consecutive downstream advantages, including increased urine output, enhanced plasma volume, reduced weight loss, and substantially improved overall outcomes. In vitro studies confirmed that these apelin-13-driven processes encompassed a significant and rapid reduction in systemic cytokine release with dampening of myocardial inflammation, injury, and apoptosis and resolution of associated molecular pathways. In this inflammatory cardiovascular dysfunction, apelin-13 infusion delivers distinct and optimized hemodynamic support (including positive fluid balance), along with cardioprotective effects, modulation of circulatory inflammation and extended survival.

  1. The Effect of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed and 17-β Estradiol on Serum Apelin, Glucose, Lipids, and Insulin in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedinzade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Menopause, a natural phenomenon, is defined by the fall of ovarian hormones mainly estrogens causing major problems such as insulin resistance. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum is known to have some useful properties such as insulin sensitizing effect. Apelin is an adipokine, which has several roles such as regulation of insulin secretion. Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed and 17-β estradiol on serum Apelin along with glucose, lipids and insulin in ovariectomized rats. Materials and Methods Forty-nine adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided to seven groups: normal control, ovariectomized control, ovariectomized treated with ethanolic and hexanic extract of fenugreek seed (50 and 150 mg/kg/daily for each, and ovariectomized treated with 17-β estradiol (10 µg/kg/daily for 42 days. Serum Apelin, glucose, lipids and insulin were measured. Results Serum Apelin, glucose, lipids and insulin significantly increased in ovariectomized controls in comparison with normal controls (P < 0.05. Serum glucose, lipids and insulin in ovariectomized rats treated with fenugreek seed extract and 17-β estradiol were remarkably lower than ovariectomized controls (P < 0.05. Furthermore, 17-β estradiol caused a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in serum Apelin in ovariectomized rats. Conclusions It appears that fenugreek seed might be effective against hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in ovariectomized rats without impact on serum Apelin. Furthermore, 17-β estradiol could have similar effects along with possible inhibitory effects on serum Apelin. The complicated role of Apelin in menopause needs to be further explored.

  2. Expression and localization of the Nav1.9 sodium channel in enteric neurons and in trigeminal sensory endings: implication for intestinal reflex function and orofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Françoise; Couble, Marie-Lise; Coste, Bertrand; Maingret, François; Clerc, Nadine; Crest, Marcel; Ritter, Amy M; Magloire, Henry; Delmas, Patrick

    2007-05-01

    The Nav1.9 sodium channel is expressed in nociceptive DRG neurons where it contributes to spontaneous pain behavior after peripheral inflammation. Here, we used a newly developed antibody to investigate the distribution of Nav1.9 in rat and mouse trigeminal ganglion (TG) nerve endings and in enteric nervous system (ENS). In TGs, Nav1.9 was expressed in the soma of small- and medium-sized, peripherin-positive neurons. Nav1.9 was present along trigeminal afferent fibers and at terminals in lip skin and dental pulp. In the ENS, Nav1.9 was detected within the soma and proximal axons of sensory, Dogiel type II, myenteric and submucosal neurons. Immunological data were correlated with the detection of persistent TTX-resistant Na(+) currents sharing similar properties in DRG, TG and myenteric neurons. Collectively, our data support a potential role of Nav1.9 in the transmission of trigeminal pain and the regulation of intestinal reflexes. Nav1.9 might therefore constitute a molecular target for therapeutic treatments of orofacial pain and gastrointestinal syndromes.

  3. The efficacy of Na-butyrate encapsulated in palm fat on performance of broilers infected with necrotic enteritis with gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Eshak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the efficacy of Na-butyrate encapsulated in palm fat on performance of broiler chickens experimentally infected with necrotic enteritis (NE with the determination of its protective effect against the changes in the gene expression profiles and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA fragmentation. Materials and Methods: A total of 800 one-day-old male Arbor Acres Plus broiler chickens were randomly allocated into four groups for 5 weeks. Na-butyrate was supplemented at dosages of 1 kg/ton for starter diet, 0.5 kg/ton for grower diet, and 0.25 kg/ton for finisher diet (presence or absence. Birds of groups 1 and 2 were inoculated by crop gavages with 4×108 CFU/ml/bird of Clostridium perfringens in phosphate buffered saline for 4 successive days, from 14 to 17 days of age to produce NE. Results: Addition of Na-butyrate, encapsulated in palm fat, to ration of experimentally infected broilers with NE resulted in increased final body weight, at 35 days of age, reduced total feed consumption, improved feed conversion ratio, reduced cumulative mortality, and increased production number. There were increased intestinal diameter, intestinal length, and significantly increased the weight of bursa of Fabricius(BF with higher hemagglutination inhibition titers against Newcastle disease (ND vaccination versus untreated infected and untreated negative control birds. The results showed increased expression levels of alpha-toxin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the bursa tissues of broilers infected with C. perfringens. However, the expression levels of these genes in broilers treated with Na-butyrate were similar to the non-infected control group. Supplementation of broilers with Na-butyrate increased the expression level of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 and decreased the DNA fragmentation induced by C. perfringens. Conclusion: Na-butyrate significantly improved chicken broiler body weights, increased relative weights of BF, increased

  4. Comparison of therapeutic effects of L-Thyroxin, apelin and a combination of both on antioxidant enzymes in the heart of PTU-induced hypothyroid rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Faraji Shahrivar

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is one of the common disorders among hypothyroidism, which, increased the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Reactive oxygen species are associated with atherosclerosis development. Antioxidant defense systems are the scavenger for free radicals. Apelin is an endogenous ligand for the APJ receptor (apelin receptor that exists in most tissues, acts as an adiponectin. It has been identified that apelin administration, improve the antioxidant capacity (TAC. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess, therapeutic effects of apelin, T4 (L-Thyroxin or both on antioxidant capacity in 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU-induced hypothyroid rats. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into five groups: C: control group; P group (hypothyroid: PTU (0.05 % administration for six weeks; P+A, P+T and P+A+T groups: after 4 weeks of PTU administration, animals treated with Apelin (200 μg/kg/day, ip T4 (0.02 µg/g/day, gavage and apelin+T4; for two weeks respectively accompanied by PTU administration. Aplein administration in P+A group and P+A+T group had beneficial effect to lowering of malondialdehyde (MDA content as compared to hypothyroid group (8.52±0.64 and 8.53±1 vs. 13.67±1.64 nmol/g tissue, P<0.05 and also had increasing effect on Superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathion peroxidase (GPx activity and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC content compared to the hypothyroid group. This study showed that apelin was able to improve the oxidant-antioxidant balance in the heart tissue of the hypothyroid rats by elevating of antioxidant enzyme activity.

  5. Construction of recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the S1 protein of Turkey enteric coronavirus for use as a bivalent vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkey enteric coronavirus (TCoV) causes a contagious form of enteritis in turkeys, generally recognized in the field by outward signs including diarrhea and decreased weight gain, resulting in severe economic losses for the poultry industry in the US. To date there is no commercial vaccine availab...

  6. Effect of Aerobic Exercise with 75-85% of Maximum Heart Rate on Apelin and Insulin Resistance Index in Sedentary Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Alavizadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ims: Apelin is an adipokine, which secreted from adipose tissue and has positive effects against the insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 8-week aerobic exercise on levels of apelin and insulin resistance index in sedentary men. Materials & Methods: In this semi-experimental study with controlled group pre/post-test design in 2015, 27 healthy sedentary men living in Mashhad City, Iran, were selected by convenience sampling method. They were divided into two groups; experimental group (n=14 and control group (n=13. In the trained group, the volunteers participated in 8 weeks aerobic exercise, 3 days/week (equivalent to 75-85% of maximum oxygen consumption for 60 minutes per session. The research variables were assessed before and after the intervention in both groups. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 20 software using paired and independent sample T tests. Findings: 8-week aerobic exercise significantly decreased the weight, BMI and apelin, insulin and insulin resistance index levels and increased the maximum oxygen consumption in experimental group sedentary men (p<0.05. Moreover, there were significant differences in levels of FBS, insulin, apelin, insulin resistance index and maximum oxygen consumption between experimental and control groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: 8-week aerobic exercise reduces apelin levels and insulin resistance index in sedentary men.

  7. Convenient Access to Fluorescent Probes by Chemoselective Acylation of Hydrazinopeptides: Application to the Synthesis of the First Far-Red Ligand for Apelin Receptor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margathe, Jean-François; Iturrioz, Xavier; Regenass, Pierre; Karpenko, Iuliia A; Humbert, Nicolas; de Rocquigny, Hugues; Hibert, Marcel; Llorens-Cortes, Catherine; Bonnet, Dominique

    2016-01-22

    Herein, we develop a convenient method to facilitate the solution-phase fluorescent labelling of peptides based on the chemoselective acylation of α-hydrazinopeptides. This approach combines the advantages of using commercially available amine-reactive dyes and very mild conditions, which are fully compatible with the chemical sensitivity of the dyes. The usefulness of this approach was demonstrated by the labelling of apelin-13 peptide. Various fluorescent probes were readily synthesized, enabling the rapid optimization of their affinities for the apelin receptor. Thus, the first far-red fluorescent ligand with sub-nanomolar affinity for the apelin receptor was characterized and shown to track the receptor efficiently in living cells by fluorescence confocal microscopy. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Effect of 6 Weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training with Cinnamon Supplementation on Serum Apelin Concentration and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kazemi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Playing an important role in regulating glucose hemostasis, apelin might empower the correlation between any increase in the adipose tissue mass and obesity and the correlated metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 6-week intensive periodic massive exercises with cinnamon supplementation on the apelin serum concentration and insulin resistance in the overweight boys. Materials & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 40 male overweight students were studied in Zahedan in 2014. The samples, randomly selected, were divided into four groups including exercise, exercise and supplementation, supplementation, and control. 6-week intensive periodic massive exercises were done in the exercise groups. In addition, three 380mg-cinnamon capsules were administrated in the supplementation groups. Blood sampling was done from the subjects 48 hours before and after the exercise program. Apelin, glucose, and insulin levels were measured. Data was analyzed by SPSS 19 software using one-way and two-way ANOVA tests and covariance analysis. Findings: There were significant differences between “exercise” and “exercise and supplementation” groups and “control” group in apelin and insulin resistance levels after the exercise program (p=0.0001. In addition, there was a significant difference between “cinnamon supplementation” and “control” groups in insulin resistance (p=0.001.There were significant differences between the exercise groups and supplementation group in apelin (p=0.0001 and insulin resistance (p=0.003 levels. Conclusion: The serum apelin level and the insulin resistance index in the overweight boys are reduced by 6-week intense periodic massive exercises. In addition, the cinnamon supplementation only reduces the insulin resistance index.

  9. Expression and functional implications of the renal apelinergic system in rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie O'Carroll

    Full Text Available Apelin binds to the G protein-coupled apelin receptor (APJ; gene name aplnr to modulate diverse physiological systems including cardiovascular function, and hydromineral and metabolic balance. Recently a second endogenous ligand for APJ, named apela, has been discovered. We confirm that apela activates signal transduction pathways (ERK activation in cells expressing the cloned rat APJ. Previous studies suggest that exogenous apela is diuretic, attributable wholly or in part to an action on renal APJ. Thus far the cellular distribution of apela in the kidney has not been reported. We have utilized in situ hybridization histochemistry to reveal strong apela labelling in the inner medulla (IM, with lower levels observed in the inner stripe of the outer medulla (ISOM, of rat and mouse kidneys. This contrasts with renal aplnr expression where the converse is apparent, with intense labelling in the ISOM (consistent with vasa recta labelling and low-moderate hybridization in the IM, in addition to labelling of glomeruli. Apelin is found in sparsely distributed cells amongst more prevalent aplnr-labelled cells in extra-tubular regions of the medulla. This expression profile is supported by RNA-Seq data that shows that apela, but not apelin or aplnr, is highly expressed in microdissected rat kidney tubules. If endogenous tubular apela promotes diuresis in the kidney it could conceivably do this by interacting with APJ in vasculature, or via an unknown receptor in the tubules. The comparative distribution of apela, apelin and aplnr in the rodent kidney lays the foundation for future work on how the renal apelinergic system interacts.

  10. Delivery of enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, M J; Martin, S

    2000-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that enteral feeding is superior to parenteral nutrition with regard to maintaining gut structure and function. Selection of the enteral access route depends on the type and anticipated duration of nutrient delivery. At present, enteral feeding devices can be divided into two major categories: those entering the gastrointestinal tract through the oral or nasal cavity (oroenteric or nasoenteric tubes) and those entering through the abdominal wall including gastrostomy, duodenostomy, or jejunostomy tubes. This article provides a review of methods to insert and confirm gastric and intestinal feeding tube placement. Care of the patient with an enteric tube will be described.

  11. From apelin to exercise: emerging therapies for management of hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey S

    2017-06-01

    Studies over the last couple of decades have provided exciting new insights into mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. In addition, several novel and innovative molecules and ideas for management of the syndrome have also come forth. While our basic understanding of the initiating events of preeclampsia continues to be placental ischemia/hypoxia stimulating the release of a variety of factors from the placenta that act on the cardiovascular and renal systems, the number of candidate pathways for intervention continues to increase. Recent studies have identified apelin and its receptor, APJ, as an important contributor to the regulation of cardiovascular and fluid balance that is found to be disrupted in preeclampsia. Likewise, continued studies have revealed a critical role for the complement arm of the innate immune system in placental ischemia induced hypertension and in preeclampsia. Finally, the recent increase in animal models for studying hypertensive disorders of pregnancy has provided opportunities to evaluate the potential role for physical activity and exercise in a more mechanistic fashion. While the exact quantitative importance of the various endothelial and humoral factors that mediate vasoconstriction and elevation of arterial pressure during preeclampsia remains unclear, significant progress has been made. Thus, the goal of this review is to discuss recent efforts towards identifying therapies for hypertension during pregnancy that derive from work exploring the apelinergic system, the complement system as well as the role that exercise and physical activity may play to that end.

  12. What Is Enteral Nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pharmacists) will talk with you about the different types of feeding tubes. Enteral Nutrition Fact Sheet ... Continuing Education Certification Claim CE Credits ASPEN 2018 Nutrition Science and ...

  13. Gastrectomy increases the expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 3A by increasing lithocholic acid-producing enteric bacteria in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Makoto; Toda, Takahiro; Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Kon, Risako; Ochiai, Wataru; Machida, Yoshiaki; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We had previously revealed that drug metabolism, as well as the expression level of hepatic CYP3A, a drug-metabolizing enzyme, increase 12 weeks after gastrectomy in mice. In this study, we elucidated the mechanism of the increased CYP3A expression. The levels of lithocholic acid (LCA)-producing bacteria (Bacteroides fragilis) and LCA in the colon did not show a significant increase up to 4 weeks after gastrectomy compared to the sham operation group. In contrast, at 12 and 24 weeks post-gastrectomy, the levels of Bacteroides fragilis and LCA were significantly higher in the gastrectomy group than in the sham operation group. At 12 and 24 weeks after gastrectomy, the hepatic nuclear translocation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) had also increased. The hepatic CYP3A11 mRNA expression and nuclear translocation of PXR after intraperitoneal administration of LCA to normal mice was significantly higher than those of the control group. The intraperitoneal administration of taurolithocholic acid (TLCA), a taurine conjugate of LCA, caused no change in the expression level of CYP3A11. We suggest that the increase in the expression level of CYP3A after gastrectomy is caused by an increase in the nuclear translocation of PXR, which is triggered by an increase in LCA-producing bacteria.

  14. Differentially expressed JAK-STAT signaling pathway genes and target microRNAs in the spleen of necrotic enteritis-afflicted chicken lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The JAK signal transducer and STAT signaling pathway is an important regulator of cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, motility, apoptosis, immune response, and development. In this study, we used RNA-Sequencing, qRT-PCR, and bioinformatics tools to investigate the differential expression ...

  15. The enteric nervous system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sasselli, Valentina; Pachnis, Vassilis; Burns, Alan J

    2012-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic innervation of the gastrointestinal tract, consists of numerous types of neurons, and glial cells, that are distributed in two intramuscular plexuses that extend along the entire...

  16. Presence of adropin, nesfatin-1, apelin-12, ghrelins and salusins peptides in the milk, cheese whey and plasma of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Suleyman

    2013-05-01

    Biological fluids (milk and serum/plasma) and cheese whey milk-derived fluid contain numerous molecules, especially amino acids and proteins. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to find out whether cheese whey (n:6), cow milk (n:6) and its blood (n=6) have adropin, nesfatin-1, apelin-12, ghrelins and salusin peptides. Adropin, nesfatin-1, apelin-12 concentrations were measured by ELISA, whereas ghrelin and salusin concentrations were measured by EIA methods. It was found that adropin, nesfatin-1, apelin-12, des-acylated ghrelin and salusins in cheese whey were higher than in the corresponding milk peptides and plasma of dairy cows, with the exception of salusin alpha and acylated ghrelin in milk being the same than that of the corresponding cheese whey concentration and plasma of dairy cows. A correlation was also found between milk peptides and cheese whey, as also with plasma of dairy cows. The data suggest that peptides in cow milk might be an important and nutritious food for (neonatal) calves and human diet due to their biological and physiological properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Enteric bacterial metabolites propionic and butyric acid modulate gene expression, including CREB-dependent catecholaminergic neurotransmission, in PC12 cells--possible relevance to autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bistra B Nankova

    Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbiome composition have an emerging role in health and disease including brain function and behavior. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA like propionic (PPA, and butyric acid (BA, which are present in diet and are fermentation products of many gastrointestinal bacteria, are showing increasing importance in host health, but also may be environmental contributors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Further to this we have shown SCFA administration to rodents over a variety of routes (intracerebroventricular, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal or developmental time periods can elicit behavioral, electrophysiological, neuropathological and biochemical effects consistent with findings in ASD patients. SCFA are capable of altering host gene expression, partly due to their histone deacetylase inhibitor activity. We have previously shown BA can regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH mRNA levels in a PC12 cell model. Since monoamine concentration is known to be elevated in the brain and blood of ASD patients and in many ASD animal models, we hypothesized that SCFA may directly influence brain monoaminergic pathways. When PC12 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids having a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the TH promoter, PPA was found to induce reporter gene activity over a wide concentration range. CREB transcription factor(s was necessary for the transcriptional activation of TH gene by PPA. At lower concentrations PPA also caused accumulation of TH mRNA and protein, indicative of increased cell capacity to produce catecholamines. PPA and BA induced broad alterations in gene expression including neurotransmitter systems, neuronal cell adhesion molecules, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function, all of which have been implicated in ASD. In conclusion, our data are consistent with a molecular mechanism through which gut related environmental signals

  18. IL-17A promotes protective IgA responses and expression of other potential effectors against the lumen-dwelling enteric parasite Giardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Sara M; Manthey, Carolin F; Le, Christine; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Gima, Lauren; Abrahim, Andrew; Cao, Anthony T; Hanson, Elaine M; Kolls, Jay K; Raz, Eyal; Cong, Yingzi; Eckmann, Lars

    2015-09-01

    Giardia lamblia is a leading protozoan cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. It colonizes the lumen and epithelial surface of the small intestine, but does not invade the mucosa. Acute infection causes only minimal mucosal inflammation. Effective immune defenses exist, yet their identity and mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Interleukin (IL)-17A has emerged as an important cytokine involved in inflammation and antimicrobial defense against bacterial pathogens at mucosal surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate that IL-17A has a crucial function in host defense against Giardia infection. Using murine infection models with G. muris and G. lamblia, we observed marked and selective induction of intestinal IL-17A with peak expression after 2 weeks. Th17 cells in the lamina propria and innate immune cells in the epithelial compartment of the small intestine were responsible for the IL-17A response. Experiments in gene-targeted mice revealed that the cytokine, and its cognate receptor IL-17RA, were required for eradication of the parasite. The actions of the cytokine were mediated by hematopoietic cells, and were required for the transport of IgA into the intestinal lumen, since IL-17A deficiency led to marked reduction of fecal IgA levels, as well as for increased intestinal expression of several other potential effectors, including β-defensin 1 and resistin-like molecule β. In contrast, intestinal hypermotility, another major antigiardial defense mechanism, was not impacted by IL-17A loss. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that IL-17A and IL-17 receptor signaling are essential for intestinal defense against the important lumen-dwelling intestinal parasite Giardia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ENFit Enteral Nutrition Connectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenter, Peggi; Lyman, Beth

    2016-12-01

    New enteral connectors are now available based on the development of standards using the International Organization of Standardization process to prevent misconnections between systems that should not connect. Enteral devices with the new patient access connectors, called ENFit, are being now introduced for the purpose of improving patient safety. Transitioning to these new connectors poses benefits and challenges for facilities or agencies implementing these new devices. Information from appropriate resources should be sought by clinicians who need to partner with their suppliers and clinical organizations to see how best to meet these challenges.

  20. Expression profiles of effector proteins SopB, SopD1, SopE1, and AvrA differ with systemic, enteric, and epidemic strains of Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streckel, Wiebke; Wolff, Anne-Christin; Prager, Rita; Tietze, Erhard; Tschäpe, Helmut

    2004-12-01

    The presence and expression of sopB, sopD1, sopE1, and avrA genes encoding virulence associated effector proteins were studied comparatively in 405 Salmonella enterica strains. They belong to different serovars and clonal types (genotypes, phage types) and originated from different clinical (systemic infection, focal enteritis, enterocolitis) and epidemic sources (epidemics, sporadic cases). The sopB and sopD1 determinants were commonly prevalent, but sopE1 and avrA genes only in 55% and 80%, respectively. A correlation of this pattern of absence and presence of the respective genes to the epidemic and clinical origin could not be detected. In contrast, the expression of the respective genes appeared differently: SopB and SopE1 proteins are well produced, but SopD1 and AvrA proteins only rarely under the applied standard culture conditions. However, using a range of different environmental signals (temperature, pH, cations, etc.) some of the S. enterica nonproducer strains (e. g., S. Agona, S. Bovismorbificans, S. Virchow, etc.) begin to produce AvrA and SopD1. They turned now into an expression profile which was found typically for the epidemic strains of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. Also S. enterica strains from systemic infections could be characterized by their strong SopB and SopE1 expression while SopD1 and AvrA proteins were missing. Although it is premature to outline generally a correlation of these expression profiles and the clinical and epidemiological potency of Salmonellae, the reported results allow a first understanding how a fine tuning of their virulence will take place.

  1. 5. Enter Bernhard Riemann

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 6. Geometry Enter Bernhard Riemann. Kapil H Paranjape. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 6 June 1996 pp 33-40. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/06/0033-0040. Author Affiliations.

  2. Metabolically engineered soybean seed with enhanced threonine levels: biochemical characterization and seed-specific expression of lysine-insensitive variants of aspartate kinases from the enteric bacterium Xenorhabdus bovienii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qungang; Huang, Jintai; Crowley, James; Ruschke, Lisa; Goldman, Barry S; Wen, Li; Rapp, William D

    2011-02-01

    Threonine (Thr) is one of a few limiting essential amino acids (EAAs) in the animal feed industry, and its level in feed rations can impact production of important meat sources, such as swine and poultry. Threonine as well as EAAs lysine (Lys) and methionine (Met) are all synthesized via the aspartate family pathway. Here, we report a successful strategy to produce high free threonine soybean seed via identification of a feedback-resistant aspartate kinase (AK) enzyme that can be over-expressed in developing soybean seed. Towards this goal, we have purified and biochemically characterized AK from the enteric bacterium Xenorhabdus bovienii (Xb). Site-directed mutagenesis of XbAK identified two key regulatory residues Glu-257 and Thr-359 involved in lysine inhibition. Three feedback-resistant alleles, XbAK_T359I, XbAK_E257K and XbAK_E257K/T359I, have been generated. This study is the first to kinetically characterize the XbAK enzyme and provide biochemical and transgenic evidence that Glu-257 near the catalytic site is a critical residue for the allosteric regulation of AK. Furthermore, seed-specific expression of the feedback-resistant XbAK_T359I or XbAK_E257K allele results in increases of free Thr levels of up to 100-fold in R(1) soybean seed when compared to wild-type. Expression of feedback-sensitive wild-type AK did not substantially impact seed Thr content. In addition to high Thr, transgenic seed also showed substantial increases in other major free amino acid (FAA) levels, resulting in an up to 3.5-fold increase in the total FAA content. The transgenic seed was normal in appearance and germinated well under greenhouse conditions. © 2010 Monsanto Technology LLC. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. The association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of the Apelin gene and diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui; Fan, Xiaofang; Li, Xuesong; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Yujuan; Zhang, Ning; Song, Yuping; Ren, Fengdong; Shen, Chunfang; Shen, Jiayi; Yang, Jialin

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the association of apelin gene (APLN) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 1966 subjects were enrolled in this study, including 168 cases (first batch), 330 cases (second batch), and 1468 nondiabetic controls. The SNPs in the HapMap-HCB of APLN were detected using Sequenom MassARRAY SNP technology and included rs2281068, rs3115757, rs2235309, and rs2235310. The related clinical characteristics with glucose metabolism were tested, including the fasting blood glucose (FPG), insulin (INS), C-peptide, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A correlation between rs3115757 and rs2281068 and diabetes was observed in first batch. Thus, we compared the SNPs (rs3115757 and rs2281068) between the cases and controls after more cases were enrolled. In addition, the results showed a significant correlation between APLN rs2281068 and diabetes (pSNP rs2281068 in APLN is significantly related to diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population.

  4. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  5. [Fiber and enteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Candela, C; de Cos Blanco, A I; Iglesias Rosado, C

    2002-01-01

    Dietary fibre is a mixture of various substances and is essential for maintaining appropriate intestinal functionality and it is currently considered to be a necessary part of a healthy diet. Current recommendations for fibre consumption by adults range from 20 to 35 g/day. Enteral nutrition is an emerging therapeutic variation in both hospital and domestic settings. To a great extent, this development has been made possible thanks to the design of new formulas that adapt better and better to the clinicla conditions or our patients. The type of fibre used in these preparations varies greatly. Some have only one source of fibre while others use differnet combinations. There are currently 32 formulas available on the Spanish market, without counting the modules or specific preparations of individual types of fibre. Despite the enormous advances in the knowledge of the beneficial effects of fibre, the fact of the matter is that enteral nutrition that we routinely prescribe in normal clinical practice does not contain fibre. The are several explanations for this, perhaps the most plausible is that these formulas may lead to problems in their administration and tolerance. It is necessary to choose the correct calibre of catheter and define the best infusion method and timing. Another difficulty may be the gastrointestinal tolerance of the formulas containing fibre. No large-scale problems of intolerance have however been described in healthy volunteers nor in patients with acute or chronic pathologies, although it is of fundamental importance to monitor the rhythm of depositions in all patients with enteral nutrition (EN) and ensure proper intake of liquids, which would also be useful to prevent occlusion of the catheter. The theoretical benefits of EN with fibre with a view to maintaining or improving normal intestinal structure and function are very varied. Nonetheless, it has noit yet been possible to prove many of these effects in controlled clinical trials. At the

  6. Resveratrol metabolites modify adipokine expression and secretion in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mature adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Eseberri

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Due to the low bioavailability of resveratrol, determining whether its metabolites exert any beneficial effect is an interesting issue. METHODS: 3T3-L1 maturing pre-adipocytes were treated during differentiation with 25 µM of resveratrol or with its metabolites and 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes were treated for 24 hours with 10 µM resveratrol or its metabolites. The gene expression of adiponectin, leptin, visfatin and apelin was assessed by Real Time RT-PCR and their concentration in the incubation medium was quantified by ELISA. RESULTS: Resveratrol reduced mRNA levels of leptin and increased those of adiponectin. It induced the same changes in leptin secretion. Trans-resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide and trans-resveratrol-4'-O-glucuronide increased apelin and visfatin mRNA levels. Trans-resveratrol-3-O-sulfate reduced leptin mRNA levels and increased those of apelin and visfatin. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows for the first time that resveratrol metabolites have a regulatory effect on adipokine expression and secretion. Since resveratrol has been reported to reduce body-fat accumulation and to improve insulin sensitivity, and considering that these effects are mediated in part by changes in the analyzed adipokines, it may be proposed that resveratrol metabolites play a part in these beneficial effects of resveratrol.

  7. Enteral nutrition access devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Richard S; Banerjee, Subhas; Desilets, David; Diehl, David L; Farraye, Francis A; Kaul, Vivek; Mamula, Petar; Pedrosa, Marcos C; Rodriguez, Sarah A; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Song, Louis-Michel Wong Kee; Tierney, William M

    2010-08-01

    The ASGE Technology Committee provides reviews of existing, new, or emerging endoscopic technologies that have an impact on the practice of GI endoscopy. Evidence-based methodology is used, performing a MEDLINE literature search to identify pertinent clinical studies on the topic and a MAUDE (U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health) database search to identify the reported complications of a given technology. Both are supplemented by accessing the "related articles" feature of PubMed and by scrutinizing pertinent references cited by the identified studies. Controlled clinical trials are emphasized, but, in many cases, data from randomized, controlled trials are lacking. In such situations, large case series, preliminary clinical studies, and expert opinions are used. Technical data are gathered from traditional and Web-based publications, proprietary publications, and informal communications with pertinent vendors. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are drafted by 1 or 2 members of the ASGE Technology Committee, reviewed and edited by the committee as a whole, and approved by the ASGE Governing Board. When financial guidance is indicated, the most recent coding data and list prices at the time of publication are provided. For this review, the MEDLINE database was searched through August 2009 for articles related to endoscopy in patients requiring enteral feeding access by using the keywords "endoscopy," "percutaneous," "gastrostomy," "jejunostomy," "nasogastric," "nasoenteric," "nasojejunal," "transnasal," "feeding tube," "enteric," and "button." Technology Status Evaluation Reports are scientific reviews provided solely for educational and informational purposes. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are not rules and should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care or as encouraging, advocating, requiring, or discouraging any particular treatment or payment for such treatment. Copyright 2010 American Society

  8. [Modular enteral nutrition in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Sanchís, S; Prenafeta Ferré, M T; Sempere Luque, M D

    1991-01-01

    Modular Enteral Nutrition may be a substitute for Parenteral Nutrition in children with different pathologies. Study of 4 children with different pathologies selected from a group of 40 admitted to the Maternal-Childrens Hospital "Valle de Hebrón" in Barcelona, who received modular enteral nutrition. They were monitored on a daily basis by the Dietician Service. Modular enteral nutrition consists of modules of proteins, peptides, lipids, glucids and mineral salts-vitamins. 1.--Craneo-encephalic traumatisms with loss of consciousness, Feeding with a combination of parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition for 7 days. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended and modular enteral nutrition alone used up to a total of 43 days. 2.--55% burns with 36 days of hyperproteic modular enteral nutrition together with normal feeding. A more rapid recovery was achieved with an increase in total proteins and albumin. 3.--Persistent diarrhoea with 31 days of modular enteral nutrition, 5 days on parenteral nutrition alone and 8 days on combined parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended. 4.--Mucoviscidosis with a total of 19 days on modular enteral nutrition, 12 of which were exclusively on modular enteral nutrition and 7 as a night supplement to normal feeding. We administered proteic intakes of up to 20% of the total calorific intake and in concentrations of up to 1.2 calories/ml of the final preparation, always with a good tolerance. Modular enteral nutrition can and should be used as a substitute for parenteral nutrition in children with different pathologies, thus preventing the complications inherent in parenteral nutrition.

  9. Gastro-enteritis in huisartsenpeilstations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Leeuwen, W.J. van; Vinje, J.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duijnhoven, Y.T.P.H. van

    1998-01-01

    De incidentie van huisartsconsulten voor gastro-enteritis van 77 per 10.000 persoonjaren lijkt een lichte daling te vertonen t.o.v. de incidentie van 90 per 10.000 persoonjaren in een vergelijkbaar onderzoek in 1992-1993. De belangrijkste verwekkers van gastro-enteritis waarvoor de huisarts wordt

  10. Technical aspects of enteral nutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    Keymling, M

    1994-01-01

    Advances in technical aspects of enteral feeding such as the manufacture of tubes from polyurethane or silicone have helped promote the science of enteral nutrition. Nasoenteral tubes have few complications, apart from a high unwanted extubation rate and some reluctance from patients because of cosmetic unacceptability. Needle jejunostomy has low morbidity but can only be placed at laparotomy. Percutaneous gastrotomy (in all its different guises) has been established as a low risk procedure a...

  11. Recent Advances in Enteral Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Omorogieva; Brooke, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    There have been significant advances in the provision of enteral nutrition support in the acute and community healthcare settings. Enteral nutrition is beneficial to individuals who have functional guts but may not be able to meet their nutritional requirements via a normal diet. Most of these people have neurological conditions such as stroke, multiple sclerosis and dementia which could impact on swallowing reflexes, leading to dysphagia [1]. Others may have cancer, intellectual disability o...

  12. EARLY ENTERAL FEEDING AND DELAYED ENTERAL FEEDING- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Muthiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome-  In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery.  In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer

  13. Meat-based enteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevitskay, O. K.; Dydykin, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Enteral nutrition is widely used in hospitals as a means of nutritional support and therapy for different diseases. Enteral nutrition must fulfil the energy needs of the body, be balanced by the nutrient composition and meet patient’s nutritional needs. Meat is a source of full-value animal protein, vitamins and minerals. On the basis of this research, recipes and technology for a meat-based enteral nutrition product were developed. The product is a ready-to-eat sterilised mixture in the form of a liquid homogeneous mass, which is of full value in terms of composition and enriched with vitamins and minerals, consists of particles with a size of not more than 0.3 mm and has the modified fat composition and rheological characteristics that are necessary for passage through enteral feeding tubes. The study presents experimental data on the content of the main macro- and micro-nutrients in the developed product. The new product is characterised by a balanced fatty acid composition, which plays an important role in correction of lipid metabolism disorders and protein-energy deficiency, and it is capable of satisfying patients’ daily requirements for vitamins and the main macro- and microelements when consuming 1500-2000 ml. Meat-based enteral nutrition can be used in diets as a standard mixture for effective correction of the energy and anabolic requirements of the body and support of the nutritional status of patients, including those with operated stomach syndrome.

  14. Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinomas exhibit gastric differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Emma; Liu, Xiuli; Xiao, Shu-Yuan

    2014-02-01

    Primary small bowel adenocarcinoma is rare. Although generally similar to colonic adenocarcinoma, some small bowel adenocarcinomas exhibit unique morphologic features, particularly those arising in association with Crohn disease. In this study, 15 sporadic small bowel adenocarcinomas and 11 Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinomas were examined for histology and immunohistochemical profile including cytokeratins (CK) 7 and 20, intestinal markers CDX2 and MUC2, and gastric epithelial markers MUC5AC and MUC6. We found that Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinomas frequently resemble gastric tubular adenocarcinoma histologically. In addition, when compared to sporadic small bowel adenocarcinoma, the former expressed MUC5AC and MUC6 with much higher frequency (82% vs. 7% and 73% vs. 0%, respectively). Ten of 11 Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinomas (91%) were positive for at least one gastric-type marker (MUC5AC or MUC6). Expression of CK7 was also more frequent in Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinoma (73% versus 27%) while expression of CK20 was less frequent (64% vs. 100%). There was no difference between sporadic and Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinoma in expression of CDX2 (100% vs. 91%) and MUC2 (93% vs. 73%). These observations suggest that there is a difference in the morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of sporadic versus Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinoma, particularly in their expression of gastric-type mucin. The findings also suggest that gastric differentiation in Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinoma is related to gastric metaplasia, a common phenomenon in Crohn disease. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Enteric Neurobiology: Discoveries and Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jackie D

    Discovery and documentation of noncholinergic-nonadrenergic neurotransmission in the enteric nervous system started a revolution in mechanisms of neural control of the digestive tract that continues into a twenty-first century era of translational gastroenterology, which is now firmly embedded in the term, neurogastroenterology. This chapter, on Enteric Neurobiology: Discoveries and Directions, tracks the step-by-step advances in enteric neuronal electrophysiology and synaptic behavior and progresses to the higher order functions of central pattern generators, hard wired synaptic circuits and libraries of neural programs in the brain-in-the-gut that underlie the several different patterns of motility and secretory behaviors that occur in the specialized, serially-connected compartments extending from the esophagus to the anus.

  16. Nutrición enteral

    OpenAIRE

    Barrachina Bellés, Lidón; García Hernández, Misericordia; Oto Cavero, Isabel

    1984-01-01

    Este trabajo nos introduce en la administración de la nutrición enteral, haciendo una revisión de los aspectos a tener en cuenta tanto en sus indicaciones, vias, tipos, métodos, cuidados y complicaciones más importantes.

  17. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  18. Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  19. CERN openlab enters fifth phase

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrew Purcell

    2015-01-01

    CERN openlab is a unique public-private partnership between CERN and leading ICT companies. At the start of this year, openlab officially entered its fifth phase, which will run until the end of 2017. For the first time in its history, it has extended beyond the CERN community to include other major European and international research laboratories.   Founded in 2001 to develop the innovative ICT systems needed to cope with the unprecedented computing challenges of the LHC, CERN openlab unites science and industry at the cutting edge of research and innovation. In a white paper published last year, CERN openlab set out the main ICT challenges it will tackle during its fifth phase, namely data acquisition, computing platforms, data storage architectures, computer management and provisioning, networks and connectivity, and data analytics. As it enters its fifth phase, CERN openlab is expanding to include other research laboratories. "Today, research centres in other disciplines are also st...

  20. [Enteral feeding in adults: indications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuchansky, C

    1991-03-11

    In this overview article the author examines successively: (1) the effects expected from enteral nutrition in adults: general and/or local nutritional effects, temporary arrest in progressive intestinal lesions, partial intestinal function replacement; (2) indications in gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal pathologies and modalities of application to each indication (route of administration, elemental, semi-elemental or polymeric nutrients, incremental or non-incremental calorie intake, necessity or lack of necessity for addition of fibres, value of ambulatory methods); (3) results according to indications: chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases, notably Crohn's disease, short small bowel syndromes, fistulae and stomies, preoperative period in gastrointestinal surgery, support of heavy treatments in non-terminal cancers, hypermetabolic states, notably stress; (4) absolute or relative contraindications of enteral nutrition.

  1. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    .5 g protein/kg ideal body weight/d. Plasma gut peptide responses were monitored in 15 subjects. RESULTS: In comparison with basal fasting trypsin secretion rates (mean = 134 [standard error = 22] U/h), duodenal feeding with the polymeric and elemental formulae stimulated trypsin secretion (mean = 408...... in enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation, with particular reference to trypsin, because the avoidance of trypsin stimulation may optimize enteral feeding in acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The pancreatic secretory responses to feeding were studied in 36 healthy volunteers by standard double...... [standard error = 51] U/h; P standard error = 34] U/h) and mid-distal jejunal (mean = 119 [standard error = 16] U/h) did not. Stimulation was associated with an increase in plasma cholecystokinin, whereas distal jejunal feeding resulted in an increase...

  2. Enteral alimentation: administration and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benya, R; Mobarhan, S

    1991-06-01

    Tube feeding is commonly used for providing essential calories and nutrients to the patient otherwise unable to eat. In the last two decades there has been significant expansion in the number and quality of enteral formulas. In this review, we evaluate the indications for each major class of formula, and survey complications associated with formulas and devices that deliver formula. Recommendations for future research are listed.

  3. A Map Enters the Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    'modes of mattering'. In this paper I explore what difference digital cartography can make to STS practice. I draw on three examples from my own work where digitally mediated maps have entered the conversation and made critical, often surprising, differences to the research process. In my first example...... it was trying to chart. I use these examples to discuss the potential modes of mattering afforded by digital cartography in STS....

  4. Enteric campylobacter: purging its secrets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crushell, Ellen; Harty, Sinead; Sharif, Farhana; Bourke, Billy

    2004-01-01

    Campylobacterial infections are the most common cause of bacterial enterocolitis in humans. Among children, especially in developing countries, Campylobacter infections can cause severe life-threatening diarrheal disease. Although usually associated with a benign outcome in the developed world, the burden of illness posed by Campylobacter infections is enormous, and serious neurologic sequelae also can occur. For a variety of reasons our understanding of the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of Campylobacter infection has lagged far behind that of other enteric pathogens. However, recent completion of the genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni promises to open up the Campylobacter research field with the prospect of developing novel therapeutic and preventive strategies.

  5. Evolving trends in enteral alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsky, J L

    1986-01-01

    Nutrition has become a cornerstone of surgical patient care. With better understanding of metabolic and compositional requirements, great advances have been made in the area of total parenteral nutrition. Recent attention to full utilization of alimentary tract function has prompted a resurgence of interest in dietary formulas and methods of delivery. Three new approaches to the alimentary tract provide better access for feeding. Needle catheter jejunostomy allows early alimentary tract utilization following operations, while percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and jejunostomy provide long-term solutions to the provision of enteral alimentation. Future utilization of these techniques will certainly lead to better patient care.

  6. The Effect of 8 Weeks of Aerobic Training and Consumption of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Nettle on Apelin and hs-CRP plasma Levels of Overweight and Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Madadi Jaberi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The use of exercise along with herbal supplements is one method proposed for controlling obesity and its complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks aerobic training and use of hydro-alcoholic extract of nettle on levels apelin and hs-CRP plasma in overweight and obese women. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted with blind randomized clinical trial. 46 overweight and obese women (body mass index greater than 25 kilograms per square millimeter two, aged 25-45 years were selected purposefully and randomly divided into four groups of: aerobic training + hydro alcoholic extract of nettle, aerobic exercise + placebo extract of nettle and placebo. The intervention group and placebo received 8 mg of hydro alcoholic extract of nettle 8 ml of water-soluble daily for 8 weeks respectively. Aerobic exercise ergometer for 8 weeks, 3 sessions of 16 to 30 minutes with the intensity of 60-75% heart rate was reserved. In two pre and post-test after 14 hours of fasting at the same conditions, blood samples were collected. The ELISA method was use to assess levels of plasma apelin and hs-CRP d. Data obtained were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, ANOVA, t-test and LSD test. Results: The results showed that the levels of hs-CRP were significantly different in comparison among the groups as well as in groups of aerobic exercise + hydro alcoholic extract of nettle, nettle and hydro-alcholic aerobic exercise + placebo significant reduction was observed (p>0.05. Conclusion: It seems that consumption of Nettle extract along with aerobic exercise through Weight loss, body fat percentage and BMI, play an effective role in control of obesity and reducing of inflammatory Apelin markers and hs-CRP in obese women

  7. The challenge of enteric fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Claire S; Darton, Thomas C; Pollard, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Enteric fever, a non-specific, systemic infection caused by S. Typhi or Paratyphi A, B or C, is common in resource-limited regions of the world, where poor sanitation infrastructure facilitates faeco-oral transmission. Prompt treatment with appropriate antibiotics minimises illness severity, but presentation to health care facilities is often delayed because of the non-specific nature of the symptoms and the lack of reliable diagnostic tests. Disease prevention requires significant investment in provision of clean water and sanitation in the long term; vaccination offers a more realistic strategy for medium term control. However, implementation of existing vaccines and development of more efficacious vaccines has been hindered by the lack of an established correlate of protection and under appreciation of the true disease burden. Human microbial infection studies could provide a vehicle for the rapid evaluation of novel vaccines and investigation of the immunobiology of enteric infection. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Drug distribution in enteric microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilkumhang, Suchada; Alhnan, Mohamed A; McConnell, Emma L; Basit, Abdul W

    2009-09-08

    The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of three fluorescent drug or drug-like molecules in enteric microparticles. Microparticles were prepared using the pH-responsive methylmethacrylate polymer Eudragit L by an emulsion solvent evaporation process. In the process drug and polymer are dissolved in ethanol, and dispersed in a liquid paraffin external phase using sorbitan sesquioleate as stabiliser. The incorporation and distribution of riboflavin, dipyridamole and acridine orange into these microparticles were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The influence of the physicochemical properties of the molecules (solubility in the inner phase, partition coefficient [ethanol/paraffin]) on the distribution, encapsulation efficiency and pH-responsive dissolution behaviour of the microparticles were examined. The drug that tended to partition in ethanol rather than liquid paraffin (riboflavin) was efficiently encapsulated and evenly distributed. In contrast, compounds which partitioned in favour of the liquid paraffin localised towards the surface of the microparticles and exhibited lower encapsulation efficiency (dipyridamole and acridine orange). All three sets of drug-loaded microparticles showed a limited release in acid (distribution appeared to have a minimum effect on drug release. This microparticle technology has the potential to provide effective enteric drug release with a wide variety of molecules.

  9. [New nutrients in enteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez Martínez, C

    2000-01-01

    1. Medical and surgical stress (major surgery, sepsis, injuries,...) increases requirements of certain essential nutrients and others considered non-essential or semi-essential. 2. Some nutrients such as glutamine, arginine, omega 3 fatty acids nucleotides, ... have a considerable influence on the immune function (delayed hypersensitivity, lymphocyte sub-population counts, immunological tests,..) and improve certain metabolic and nutritional indices (nitrogen balance, medium and short life proteins,...). For this reason, they are called "immunonutrients" or "immunity regulators". 3. The supply of special enteral formulas for situations of immunological compromise, with the addition of one or more of the nutrients considered today as "immunity regulators" has increased since 1988 in both absolute and percentage terms. 4. These nutrient-enriched enteral formulas improve the rate of infections, reduce the number of days on ventilator equipment, the length of hospital stays for critical patients, with a more marked effect on surgical patients. 5. The evidence seems today to support the use of enriched formulas with critical patients. Nonetheless, some caution must be maintained as it has not been possible to show any reduction in the mortality of the cases studied nor, in short, in the prognosis of patients affected by situations of hypercatabolism and reduced immunity. 6. We feel that their use should, therefore, be carried out in accordance with the protocols and in patients expected to survive, where the evolution reveals severe catabolism unhindered by conventional therapy.

  10. Evaluation of Statens Serum Institut Enteric Medium for Detection of Enteric Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, Marianne; Meyer, Aase; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Gaarslev, Knud; Espersen, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of the Statens Serum Institut (SSI) enteric medium for isolation and direct identification of enteric pathogens was evaluated. Six different biochemical reactions can be read by using the SSI enteric medium, allowing direct identification of a range of enteric pathogens. All 248 gram-negative bacterial species that were tested grew on the SSI enteric medium. Only 10 of 248 bacteria (4%) showed discrepant results in the biochemical reactions, and none of these were enteric pathoge...

  11. Role of nerves in enteric infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spiller, R C

    2002-01-01

    Peripheral and central effects of enteric infection are considered. Nerves play a vital part in the immediate response to enteric infection, promoting pathogen expulsion by orchestrating intestinal secretion and propulsive motor patterns...

  12. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Seres, David S.; Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

  13. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition. PMID:23503324

  14. Bioengineered probiotics, a strategic approach to control enteric infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Bhunia, Arun K

    2013-01-01

    Enteric infections account for high morbidity and mortality and are considered to be the fifth leading cause of death at all ages worldwide. Seventy percent of all enteric infections are foodborne. Thus significant efforts have been directed toward the detection, control and prevention of foodborne diseases. Many antimicrobials including antibiotics have been used for their control and prevention. However, probiotics offer a potential alternative intervention strategy owing to their general health beneficial properties and inhibitory effects against foodborne pathogens. Often, antimicrobial probiotic action is non-specific and non-discriminatory or may be ineffective. In such cases, bioengineered probiotics expressing foreign gene products to achieve specific function is highly desirable. In this review we summarize the strategic development of recombinant bioengineered probiotics to control enteric infections, and to examine how scientific advancements in the human microbiome and their immunomodulatory effects help develop such novel and safe bioengineered probiotics.

  15. Introducing enteral feeding induces intestinal subclinical inflammation and respective chromatin changes in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, Rhea; Krych, Lukasz; Rybicki, Verena

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To analyze how enteral food introduction affects intestinal gene regulation and chromatin structure in preterm pigs. MATERIALS & METHODS: Preterm pigs were fed parenteral nutrition plus/minus slowly increasing volumes of enteral nutrition. Intestinal gene-expression and chromatin structure w...

  16. Enteral tube feeding in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R; Bowling, T E

    2015-03-01

    Enteral tube feeding is usually a relatively straightforward method of nutritional support, and should be facilitated by a multiprofessional team. For short-term use (tube is indicated but if longer term feeding is required then a gastrostomy is appropriate, usually inserted endoscopically (a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube). The most common serious complication of a nasogastric tube is not identifying a misplaced tube within the lungs: there are clear recommendations from the National Patient Safety Agency as to how to check tube placement. Nasojejunal tubes are required in patients with gastroparesis. Tube blockage is common and is prevented by careful and regular flushing. Diarrhoea is the most complication of feeding and is often related to other medication. Clinicians need an algorithm for systematically dealing with such a problem. Refeeding syndrome may occur in malnourished patients and is characterised by low levels of potassium, phosphate, and/or magnesium, as well as disorders of water and salt balance. Identifying the at-risk patient with careful monitoring is crucial.

  17. CERN openlab enters new phase

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The newest phase of CERN’s openlab framework was inaugurated this week during a meeting of the openlab partners. This phase will last three years and will bring together existing openlab partners and a new contributor: Huawei.   Group picture taken at the first CERN openlab IV annual Board of Sponsors meeting, in the presence of the CERN Director-General, the partners and the openlab team members. © Fons Rademakers (CERN Photo Club). Eleven years ago, the creation of the CERN openlab created a long-term link between industrial partners and the Organization. Its framework has allowed industry to carry out large-scale IT research and development in an open atmosphere – an “Open Lab”, if you will. For CERN, openlab has contributed to giving the computing centre and, more broadly, the LHC community, the opportunity to ensure that the next generation of services and products is suitable to their needs. Now entering its fourth phase, openlab will ...

  18. Extending the enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarbati, Andrea; Osculati, Francesco

    2007-08-01

    The work reviews the evidence suggesting that lingual components of the autonomic system may be considered the most rostral portion of the enteric nervous system (ENS) defining the concept of lingual ENS (LENS). The LENS is not dissimilar from the more distally located portions of the ENS, however, it is characterized by a massive sensory input generated by collaterals of gustatory and trigeminal fibers. The different neuronal subpopulations that compose the LENS operate reflexes involved in regulation of secretion and vasomotility. Systemic reflexes on the digestive and respiratory apparatus are operated by means of neural connections through the pharynx or larynx. The LENS can modulate the activity of distally located organs by means of the annexed glands.The LENS seems therefore to be a "chemical eye" located at the beginning of the digestive apparatus which analyses the foods before their ingestion and diffuses this information distally. The definition of the LENS supports the concept of an elevated degree of autonomy in the ENS and puts in a new light the role of the gustatory system in modulation of the digestive functions. For its characteristics, the LENS appears to be an ideal model to study the elementary connectivity of the ENS.

  19. [Enteral feeding tubes for critically ill patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J; Bein, T; Wiese, C H R; Graf, B M; Zausig, Y A

    2011-04-01

    The use of enteral feeding tubes is an important part of early enteral feeding in intensive care medicine. In other faculties with non-critically ill patients, such as (oncologic) surgery, neurology, paediatrics or even in palliative care medicine feeding tubes are used under various circumstances as a temporary or definite solution. The advantage of enteral feeding tubes is the almost physiologic administration of nutrition, liquids and medication. Enteral nutrition is thought to be associated with a reduced infection rate, increased mucosal function, improved immunologic function, reduced length of hospital stay and reduced costs. However, the insertion and use of feeding tubes is potentially dangerous and may be associated with life-threatening complications (bleeding, perforation, peritonitis, etc.). Therefore, the following article will give a summary of the different types of enteral feeding tubes and their range of application. Additionally, a critical look on indication and contraindication is given as well as how to insert an enteral feeding tube.

  20. Application and Preparation of Enteric Coating Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, M. M.; Wang, L.; Zhang, X. L.; Zhou, H. J.; Chen, X. Q.; Li, Y. T.; Yang, S. L.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, polymethacrylate enteric coated materials based on the equal mass of methyl acrylic acid and ethyl acrylate as the main raw materials were synthesized through emulsion polymerization. Omeprazole Enteric-coated Capsules were prepared by the fluidized bed coating technology using above materials as enteric layer and in vitro enteric test was considered according to standard. The results showed that the material had good coverage in the surface of omeprazole isolated pellets, excellent acid resistance in artificial gastric acid environment, and reached the disintegration effect in the buffer solution of 20min. Moreover the drug release reached 88.2% and had excellent long-term storage.

  1. [New home enteral nutrition via jejunostomy using semi-solid enteral formula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Mihoko; Makishima, Junko; Maruyama, Makishima Michio

    2014-12-01

    Home enteral nutrition via jejunostomy requires considerable time for infusion to the patients. A new method using semisolid enteral formula dramatically reduces the time of infusion. This method makes use of pectin and liquid enteral formula. The authors applied this method in two patients with total gastrectomy being given enteral nutrition at home. There were no complications such as diarrhea or abdominal pain. This new method of home enteral nutrition could enhance the patients' quality of life (QOL) by reducing the time of infusion of enteral nutrition.

  2. Abdominal abscesses with enteric communications: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chintapalli, K.; Thorsen, M.K.; Foley, W.D.; Unger, G.F.

    1983-07-01

    CT examinations of four proven abdominal abscesses with enteric communications are reported. All the patients received oral contrast (3% Gastrografin solution). Three patients recieved rectal contrast. The patient who did not receive rectal contrast had a prior abdominoperineal resection. Contrast material was administered intravenously unless there was a contraindication or a suspected enteric vesical fistula. A representative case is described.

  3. Noncommunicating Isolated Enteric Duplication Cyst in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noncommunicating isolated enteric duplications in the abdomen are an extremely rare variant of enteric duplications with their own blood supply. We report a case of a noncommunicating isolated ileal duplication in a 10-month-old boy. He was admitted because of severe abdominal distension and developed irritability ...

  4. Enteral Nutrition and Acute Pancreatitis: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanier, B.W.M.; Bruno, M.J.; Mathus-Vliegen, E.M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. In patients with acute pancreatitis (AP), nutritional support is required if normal food cannot be tolerated within several days. Enteral nutrition is preferred over parenteral nutrition. We reviewed the literature about enteral nutrition in AP. Methods. A MEDLINE search of the English

  5. Enteral nutrition and acute pancreatitis: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.W.M. Spanier (Marcel); M.J. Bruno (Marco); E.M.H. Mathus-Vliegen (Elisabeth)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction. In patients with acute pancreatitis (AP), nutritional support is required if normal food cannot be tolerated within several days. Enteral nutrition is preferred over parenteral nutrition. We reviewed the literature about enteral nutrition in AP. Methods. A MEDLINE search of

  6. Understanding and controlling the enteric nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    2002-01-01

    The enteric nervous system or the `Little Brain' of the gut controls gastrointestinal motility and secretion, and is involved in visceral sensation. In this chapter, new developments in understanding the function of the enteric nervous system are described. In particular, the interaction of this

  7. Enteral nutrition in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruda, M J; Guenter, P; Rombeau, J L

    1987-01-01

    Although total parenteral nutrition has greatly influenced the clinical management of the critically ill, enteral nutrition can provide much needed support in the intensive care unit. In order to employ the best enteral nutrition, one must understand its rationale, delivery principles, equipment, feeding techniques, and diets, as well as patient selection and monitoring.

  8. Water quality indicators: bacteria, coliphages, enteric viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Johnson; Ganesh, Atheesha

    2013-12-01

    Water quality through the presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms may affect human health. Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and coliphages are normally used as indicators of water quality. However, the presence of above-mentioned indicators do not always suggest the presence of human enteric viruses. It is important to study human enteric viruses in water. Human enteric viruses can tolerate fluctuating environmental conditions and survive in the environment for long periods of time becoming causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases. Therefore, the potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging. Human Adenoviruses and other viruses have been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems. This article reports on the recent developments in the management of water quality specifically focusing on human enteric viruses as indicators.

  9. Enteral and parenteral nutrition in patients with enteric fistulas and short bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombeau, J L; Rolandelli, R H

    1987-06-01

    Significant advances in the use of enteral and parenteral nutrition in patients with either enteric fistulas or short bowel syndrome include increased usage of enteral nutrition because of its trophic effects on the gut and increased usage of both enteral and parenteral nutrition in the home setting. Current investigations are directed toward identifying gut-specific fuels and dietary and pharmacologic enhancement of nutrient utilization.

  10. Enteral fluid therapy in large animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainger, J E; Dart, A J

    2006-12-01

    Enteral fluids administered alone, or in conjunction with intravenous fluids, are reported to be useful for the treatment of dehydration and electrolyte loss associated with diarrhoea in a number of species, following exercise in horses and for feed impaction of the large intestine of horses. Enteral fluids are suitable for treatment of mild to moderately dehydrated patients with some intact intestinal epithelium and motile small intestine. In patients that will drink voluntarily or tolerate nasal intubation the use of enteral fluids may avoid the complications associated with intravenous fluid administration. However the labour costs associated with repeated nasal intubation in intensively managed patients requiring large volumes of fluids may make the use of enteral fluids less economical than intravenous fluid administration. Enteral fluid use alone is contraindicated in patients that are severely dehydrated and/or in hypovolaemic shock, however, if used in conjunction with intravenous fluids, the effects of villous atrophy and malnutrition may be ameliorated and the duration of hospitalisation shortened. There is a variety of commercially available enteral fluids available to veterinary practitioners. While the key components of these fluids are sodium, chloride and carbohydrates, the amounts of ions and other ingredients such as potassium, alkalising agents, amino acids and shortchain fatty acids may vary. The species of the animal, the underlying condition, and the constituents of the fluid, should influence the choice of an enteral fluid.

  11. Neurotransmitters involved in fast excitatory neurotransmission directly activate enteric glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesmans, W; Cirillo, C; Van den Abbeel, V; Van den Haute, C; Depoortere, I; Tack, J; Vanden Berghe, P

    2013-02-01

    The intimate association between glial cells and neurons within the enteric nervous system has confounded careful examination of the direct responsiveness of enteric glia to different neuroligands. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether neurotransmitters known to elicit fast excitatory potentials in enteric nerves also activate enteric glia directly. We studied the effect of acetylcholine (ACh), serotonin (5-HT), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) on intracellular Ca(2+) signaling using aequorin-expressing and Fluo-4 AM-loaded CRL-2690 rat and human enteric glial cell cultures devoid of neurons. The influence of these neurotransmitters on the proliferation of glia was measured and their effect on the expression of c-Fos as well as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Sox10, and S100 was examined by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. Apart from ATP, also ACh and 5-HT induced a dose-dependent increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in CRL-2690 cells. Similarly, these neurotransmitters also evoked Ca(2+) transients in human primary enteric glial cells obtained from mucosal biopsies. In contrast with ATP, stimulation with ACh and 5-HT induced early gene expression in CRL-2690 cells. The proliferation of enteric glia and their expression of GFAP, Sox10, and S100 were not affected following stimulation with these neurotransmitters. We provide evidence that enteric glial cells respond to fast excitatory neurotransmitters by changes in intracellular Ca(2+). On the basis of our experimental in vitro setting, we show that enteric glia are not only directly responsive to purinergic but also to serotonergic and cholinergic signaling mechanisms. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Pneumatosis intestinalis associated with enteral tube feeding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zorgdrager, Marcel; Pol, Robert

    2013-01-01

    ...). Explorative laparotomy showed an omental band adhesion without signs of ischaemia. After a short period of total parenteral nutrition PI resolved almost completely and enteral tube feeding could be continued once again...

  13. Endoscopic placement of enteral feeding tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Gerard P; Tham, Tony Ck

    2010-05-16

    Malnutrition is common in patients with acute and chronic illness. Nutritional management of these malnourished patients is an essential part of healthcare. Enteral feeding is one component of nutritional support. It is the preferred method of nutritional support in patients that are not receiving adequate oral nutrition and have a functioning gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This method of nutritional support has undergone progression over recent times. The method of placement of enteral feeding tubes has evolved due to development of new feeding tubes and endoscopic technology. Enteral feeding can be divided into methods that provide short-term and long-term access to the GIT. This review article focuses on the current range of methods of gaining access to the GIT to provide enteral feed.

  14. American Society for Parenteral & Enteral Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Advertising and Sponsorship Learn More ASPEN Enteral Nutrition by the Numbers: EN Data Across the Healthcare Continuum Learn More The ASPEN Adult Nutrition Support Core Curriculum, 3rd Edition Has Arrived! The ...

  15. Duck Virus Enteritis - A Contingency Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Duck plague, also known as duck virus enteritis (DVE) is a highly contagious, extremely deadly epizootic virus with a potential for devastating continental waterfowl...

  16. [Indications and practice of enteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallay, Judit; Nagy, Dániel; Fülesdi, Béla

    2014-12-21

    Malnutrition in hospitalised patients has a significant and disadvantageous impact on treatment outcome. If possible, enteral nutrition with an energy/protein-balanced nutrient should be preferred depending on the patient's condition, type of illness and risk factors. The aim of the nutrition therapy is to increase the efficacy of treatment and shorten the length of hospital stay in order to ensure rapid rehabilitation. In the present review the authors summarize the most important clinical and practical aspects of enteral nutrition therapy.

  17. Medication administration through enteral feeding tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nancy Toedter

    2008-12-15

    An overview of enteral feeding tubes, drug administration techniques, considerations for dosage form selection, common drug interactions with enteral formulas, and methods to minimize tube occlusion is given. Enteral nutrition through a feeding tube is the preferred method of nutrition support in patients who have a functioning gastrointestinal tract but who are unable to be fed orally. This method of delivering nutrition is also commonly used for administering medications when patients cannot swallow safely. However, several issues must be considered with concurrent administration of oral medications and enteral formulas. Incorrect administration methods may result in clogged feeding tubes, decreased drug efficacy, increased adverse effects, or drug-formula incompatibilities. Various enteral feeding tubes are available and are typically classified by site of insertion and location of the distal tip of the feeding tube. Liquid medications, particularly elixirs and suspensions, are preferred for enteral administration; however, these formulations may be hypertonic or contain large amounts of sorbitol, and these properties increase the potential for adverse effects. Before solid dosage forms are administered through the feeding tube, it should be determined if the medications are suitable for manipulation, such as crushing a tablet or opening a capsule. Medications should not be added directly to the enteral formula, and feeding tubes should be properly flushed with water before and after each medication is administered. To minimize drug-nutrient interactions, special considerations should be taken when administering phenytoin, carbamazepine, warfarin, fluoroquinolones, and proton pump inhibitors via feeding tubes. Precautions should be implemented to prevent tube occlusions, and immediate intervention is required when blockages occur. Successful drug delivery through enteral feeding tubes requires consideration of the tube size and placement as well as careful

  18. Endoscopic placement of enteral feeding tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Rafferty, Gerard P; Tham, Tony CK

    2010-01-01

    Malnutrition is common in patients with acute and chronic illness. Nutritional management of these malnourished patients is an essential part of healthcare. Enteral feeding is one component of nutritional support. It is the preferred method of nutritional support in patients that are not receiving adequate oral nutrition and have a functioning gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This method of nutritional support has undergone progression over recent times. The method of placement of enteral feedin...

  19. Correlates of protection for enteric vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Jan; Parashar, Umesh D; Plotkin, Stanley; Louis, Jacques; Ng, Su-Peing; Desauziers, Eric; Picot, Valentina; Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra

    2017-06-08

    An immunological Correlate of Protection (CoP) is an immune response that is statistically interrelated with protection. Identification of CoPs for enteric vaccines would help design studies to improve vaccine performance of licensed vaccines in low income settings, and would facilitate the testing of future vaccines in development that might be more affordable. CoPs are lacking today for most existing and investigational enteric vaccines. In order to share the latest information on CoPs for enteric vaccines and to discuss novel approaches to correlate mucosal immune responses in humans with protection, the Foundation Mérieux organized an international conference of experts where potential CoPs for vaccines were examined using case-studies for both bacterial and viral enteric pathogens. Experts on the panel concluded that to date, all established enteric vaccine CoPs, such as those for hepatitis A, Vi typhoid and poliovirus vaccines, are based on serological immune responses even though these may poorly reflect the relevant gut immune responses or predict protective efficacy. Known CoPs for cholera, norovirus and rotavirus could be considered as acceptable for comparisons of similarly composed vaccines while more work is still needed to establish CoPs for the remaining enteric pathogens and their candidate vaccines. Novel approaches to correlate human mucosal immune responses with protection include the investigation of gut-originating antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), B memory cells and follicular helper T cells from samples of peripheral blood during their recirculation. Copyright © 2017.

  20. Single-layer closure of typhoid enteric perforation: Our experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Typhoid enteritis is rare in developed countries. The increasing prevalence of typhoid fever with enteric perforation in our environment is alarming. Peritonitis follows enteric perforation due to typhoid enteritis. Surgical treatments and repair of the perforated areas due to typhoid enteritis varies between ...

  1. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J.L.; Taat, C.W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Becker, A.E. (Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1989-08-01

    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were quantified by counting their number per unit length of muscularis mucosa. Results in radiation enteritis were compared with matched control specimens by using Student's t test. Chromogranin immunostaining showed a statistically significant increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis specimens compared with controls both in small and large intestine (ileum, 67.5 +/- 23.5 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 17.0 +/- 6.1 in controls; colon, 40.9 +/- 13.7 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 9.5 +/- 4.1 in controls--p less than 0.005 in both instances). Increase of endocrine cells was demonstrated also by Grimelius' staining; however, without reaching statistical significance. It is not clear whether or not the increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis reported in this study is caused by a hyperplastic response or by a sparing phenomenon. We should consider that increased endocrine cells, when abnormally secreting their products, may be involved in some of the clinical features of radiation enteropathy. In addition, as intestinal endocrine cells produce trophic substances to the intestine, their increase could be responsible for the raised risk of developing carcinoma of the intestine in long standing radiation enteritis.

  2. Enteric glial cells and their role in the intestinal epithelial barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan-Bo; Li, Yan-Qing

    2014-08-28

    The intestinal epithelium constitutes a physical and functional barrier between the external environment and the host organism. It is formed by a continuous monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells maintained together by intercellular junctional complex, limiting access of pathogens, toxins and xenobiotics to host tissues. Once this barrier integrity is disrupted, inflammatory disorders and tissue injury are initiated and perpetuated. Beneath the intestinal epithelial cells lies a population of astrocyte-like cells that are known as enteric glia. The morphological characteristics and expression markers of these enteric glia cells were identical to the astrocytes of the central nervous system. In the past few years, enteric glia have been demonstrated to have a trophic and supporting relationship with intestinal epithelial cells. Enteric glia lesions and/or functional defects can be involved in the barrier dysfunction. Besides, factors secreted by enteric glia are important for the regulation of gut barrier function. Moreover, enteric glia have an important impact on epithelial cell transcriptome and induce a shift in epithelial cell phenotype towards increased cell adhesion and cell differentiation. Enteric glia can also preserve epithelial barrier against intestinal bacteria insult. In this review, we will describe the current body of evidence supporting functional roles of enteric glia on intestinal barrier.

  3. Glucose, epithelium, and enteric nervous system: dialogue in the dark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuche, H; Gäbel, G

    2009-06-01

    The gastrointestinal epithelium is in close contact with the various components of the chymus, including nutrients, bacteria and toxins. The epithelial barrier has to decide which components are effectively absorbed and which components are extruded. In the small intestine, a nutrient like glucose is mainly absorbed by the sodium linked glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). The expression and activity of both transport proteins is directly linked to the amount of intraluminal glucose. Besides the direct interaction between glucose and the enterocytes, glucose also stimulates different sensory mechanisms within the intestinal wall. The most important types of cells involved in the sensing of intraluminal contents are enteroendocrine cells and neurones of the enteric nervous system. Regarding glucosensing, a distinct type of enteroendocrine cells, the enterochromaffine (EC) cells are involved. Excitation of EC cells by intraluminal glucose results in the release of serotonin (5-HT), which modulates epithelial functions and activates enteric secretomotorneurones. Enteric neurones are not only activated by 5-HT, but also directly by glucose. The activation of different cell types and the subsequent crosstalk between these cells may trigger appropriate absorptive and secretory processes within the intestine.

  4. Endoscopic solutions to challenging enteral feeding problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paski, Shirley C; Dominitz, Jason A

    2012-09-01

    Enteral nutrition support is often required in patients who are unable to meet their own nutritional requirements. Endoscopists play a key role in the placement of enteral feeding catheters. This review focuses on the recently published solutions to common problems encountered during endoscopic placement of enteral feeding devices. Case reports and case series describe solutions for overcoming common problems encountered during the placement of enteral feeding devices. Transnasal techniques can simplify nasojejunal tube placement, whereas deep enteroscopy techniques provide more reliable jejunostomy placement. Endoscopic ultrasound can help when transillumination is not possible or in the setting of postsurgical anatomy like Roux-en-Y. Laparoscopic-assisted procedures are useful when endoscopic techniques have failed in adults or in select high-risk pediatric patients. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and the American Gastroenterology Association both published comprehensive guidelines that outline the indications, contraindications, technical aspects of feeding catheter placement, and complications. Advances in endoscopic techniques, including deep enteroscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, ultra-slim transnasal endoscopes and laparoscopic-assisted procedures, have enabled endoscopists to successfully place enteral feeding tubes in patients who previously required open procedures.

  5. Effects of HIV-1 Tat on Enteric Neuropathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwainmbi, Joy; De, Dipanjana D.; Smith, Tricia H.; El-Hage, Nazira; Fitting, Sylvia; Kang, Minho; Dewey, William L.; Hauser, Kurt F.

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract presents a major site of immune modulation by HIV, resulting in significant morbidity. Most GI processes affected during HIV infection are regulated by the enteric nervous system. HIV has been identified in GI histologic specimens in up to 40% of patients, and the presence of viral proteins, including the trans-activator of transcription (Tat), has been reported in the gut indicating that HIV itself may be an indirect gut pathogen. Little is known of how Tat affects the enteric nervous system. Here we investigated the effects of the Tat protein on enteric neuronal excitability, proinflammatory cytokine release, and its overall effect on GI motility. Direct application of Tat (100 nm) increased the number of action potentials and reduced the threshold for action potential initiation in isolated myenteric neurons. This effect persisted in neurons pretreated with Tat for 3 d (19 of 20) and in neurons isolated from Tat+ (Tat-expressing) transgenic mice. Tat increased sodium channel isoforms Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 levels. This increase was accompanied by an increase in sodium current density and a leftward shift in the sodium channel activation voltage. RANTES, IL-6, and IL-1β, but not TNF-α, were enhanced by Tat. Intestinal transit and cecal water content were also significantly higher in Tat+ transgenic mice than Tat− littermates (controls). Together, these findings show that Tat has a direct and persistent effect on enteric neuronal excitability, and together with its effect on proinflammatory cytokines, regulates gut motility, thereby contributing to GI dysmotilities reported in HIV patients. PMID:25339738

  6. Molecular survey of enteric viruses in commercial chicken farms in Korea with a history of enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, B S; Lee, H R; Jeon, E O; Han, M S; Min, K C; Lee, S B; Mo, I P

    2013-11-01

    Several enteric viruses have increasingly received attention as potential causative agents of runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in chickens. A molecular survey was performed to determine the presence of a broad range of enteric viruses, namely chicken astrovirus (CAstV), avian nephritis virus (ANV), chicken parvovirus (ChPV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), avian rotavirus (AvRV), avian reovirus (ARV), and fowl adenovirus (FAdV), in intestinal samples derived from 34 commercial chicken flocks that experienced enteritis outbreaks between 2010 and 2012. Using techniques such as PCR and reverse-transcription PCR, enteric viruses were identified in a total of 85.3% of investigated commercial chicken flocks in Korea. Furthermore, diverse combinations of 2 or more enteric viruses were simultaneously identified in 51.7% of chicken farms positive for enteric viruses. The rank order of positivity for enteric viruses was as follows: ANV (44.1%), CAstV (38.2%), ChPV (26.5%), IBV (20.6%), ARV (8.8%), AvRV (5.9%), and FAdV (2.9%). Additionally, other pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Eimeria spp., and FAdV were detected in 79% of chicken flocks positive for enteric viruses using PCR, bacterial isolation, and microscopic examination. The results of our study indicate the presence of several enteric viruses with various combinations in commercial chicken farms that experienced enteritis outbreaks. Experimental studies are required to further understand the roles of enteric viruses in RSS in commercial chickens.

  7. Acute cerebellar ataxia in enteric fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, I M; Prabhakar, S; Dhand, U K; Chopra, J S

    1986-01-01

    Acute cerebellar ataxia as an isolated neurological manifestation of enteric fever is very rare. Three cases of acute cerebellar ataxia associated with enteric fever are reported. The diagnosis of enteric fever was confirmed by positive blood culture, strongly positive Widal test and rising antibody titres. The major clinical features were rapid development of gait ataxia, limb ataxia and dysarthria. None of the patients had altered sensorium. The cerebellar involvement was noticed on the second or third day of fever which progressed for one to two days. The symptoms remained static for one to two weeks and thereafter all the patients showed gradual recovery in a few weeks. Acute onset of cerebellar lesion, self limiting course and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis suggest par- or post-infectious demyelinating pathology in these patients, who were not related to each other.

  8. Pneumatosis intestinalis associated with enteral tube feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorgdrager, Marcel; Pol, Robert

    2013-12-03

    A 49-year-old man presented with a Hinchey II perforated diverticulitis and underwent laparoscopic peritoneal lavage. During the postoperative course the patient received enteral tube feeding which was followed by a bowel obstruction accompanied with pneumatosis intestinalis (PI). Explorative laparotomy showed an omental band adhesion without signs of ischaemia. After a short period of total parenteral nutrition PI resolved almost completely and enteral tube feeding could be continued once again. In the weeks that followed the patient developed atypical bowel symptoms and recurrent PI which resolved each time the drip feeding was discontinued. Despite the mild clinical course, a CT scan showed massive PI on day 21 after the laparotomy. After excluding life-threatening conditions conservative management was instituted and the patient recovered completely after discontinuing the drip feeding. We present one of the few cases of subclinical PI associated with enteral tube feeding that could be managed conservatively.

  9. Enteric alpha defensins in norm and pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisitsyn Nikolai A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microbes living in the mammalian gut exist in constant contact with immunity system that prevents infection and maintains homeostasis. Enteric alpha defensins play an important role in regulation of bacterial colonization of the gut, as well as in activation of pro- and anti-inflammatory responses of the adaptive immune system cells in lamina propria. This review summarizes currently available data on functions of mammalian enteric alpha defensins in the immune defense and changes in their secretion in intestinal inflammatory diseases and cancer.

  10. Ghanaian Women Enter into Popular Entertainment | Collins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discuses the problems faced by West African and particularly Ghanaian female popular performers and the various factors that have, since the 1960's led to increasing numbers of women entering the professional theatre and the commercial entertainment industry. The study examines the upsurge of female ...

  11. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  12. Experimental Yersinia pseudotuberculosis enteritis in laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and guinea pigs. Animals orally fed with clean water showed no symptoms of yersiniosis. Rabbits infected with Y. pseudotuberculosis showed signs of illness while guinea pigs did not show any clinical sign. Visceral organs of infected rabbits showed enteritis with necrotic lesions but no pathological changes were observed ...

  13. Campylobacter enteritis among children in Dembia District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To estimate the magnitude of Campylobacter enteritis in children below fifteen years of age. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Seven villages found in the outskirts of Kolla Diba town were covered. The town is located 35 kilometres away from Gondar teaching hospital. Participants: Stool specimens were ...

  14. Astronaut John Glenn Enters Friendship 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut John Glenn enters the Mercury spacecraft, Friendship 7, prior to the launch of MA-6 on February 20, 1961 and became the first American who orbited the Earth. The MA-6 mission was the first manned orbital flight boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile), lasted for five hours, and orbited the Earth three times.

  15. CAMPYLOBACTER ENTERITIS AMONG CHILDREN IN DEMBIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-12-12

    Dec 12, 2000 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: To estimate the magnitude of Campylobacter enteritis in children below fifteen years of age. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Seven ... Campylobacter species can cause infection in all age groups but the ..... stereotype distribution of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolated.

  16. [Enteral alimentation at home: why PEG now?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y; Hanyu, N; Kashiwagi, H; Kubo, T; Aoki, T

    1996-12-01

    The history of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is relatively short. In 1980, a report entitled "Gastrostomy without laparotomy: A percutaneous endoscopic technique" by Ponsky and Gaudere was first published in the Journal of Pediatric Surgery. Thereafter, PEG soon saw widespread use in Western countries because of its clinical efficacy and economy. It has been performed in about 170,000 cases annually in the US. In contrast, its spread in Japan has been extremely slow: only about 10,000 cases have undergone this procedure annually, and this number accounted for less than 5% of patients receiving enteral alimentation. The reason why PEG has not spread may be the medical insurance system in Japan and the local distaste for operation scarring. However, in consideration of the unprecedented ageing of society that is surely coming in the near future, the role of PEG in Japan must be reexamined. In this report, we presented the methodology of enteral alimentation at home by means of PEG, giving special consideration to: (1) "What points are improved by using enteral alimentation at home by means of PEG in various diseases; (2) dysphagia due to cerebral angiopathy; (3) terminal cancer; (4) otolaryngological diseases; and (5) Crohn disease. We also discussed "Why PEG is important now?" in performing enteral alimentation at home.

  17. Kokainudløst iskaemisk enteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Lise; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    and a pill cam capsule endoscopy were normal. In all cases the condition normalized spontaneously. A thorough interview revealed a recreational use of cocaine, and diary recordings confirmed the association between her abdominal pain and cocaine use. Ischaemic enteritis has previously been described...... in cocaine users. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Sep...

  18. Aspects of enteral nutrition in cancer chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jitske Martha

    1985-01-01

    This thesis deals with several aspects of the influences of intensive cancer chemotherapy on the nutritional status, the metabolism, and the gastrointestinal tract of the host and describes whether these results can be influenced by enteral hyperalimentation, We studied these aspects in patients

  19. Exclusive enteral nutrition ameliorates mesenteric adipose tissue alterations in patients with active Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yun; Li, Yi; Mei, Shuqin; Zhang, Liang; Gong, Jianfeng; Gu, Lili; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Weiming; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2014-10-01

    Mesenteric adipose tissue hypertrophy is a hallmark of Crohn's disease and can express various adipokines. Exclusive enteral nutrition could effectively induce remission in Crohn's disease with mechanisms largely unknown. We investigated whether exclusive enteral nutrition could modify mesenteric fat in patients with active Crohn's disease. Sixteen patients who underwent resection for ileum Crohn's disease were studied. As a control group, eight patients without inflammatory bowel disease were enrolled. Before operation, eight Crohn's disease patients received exclusive enteral nutrition for four weeks, and the other patients had no nutritional therapy. The mesenteric fat samples were obtained during operation. Adipocyte size, adipokine production and topical C-reactive protein level were assessed. The adipocyte size from patients treated with exclusive enteral nutrition was much larger than that from Crohn's disease patients without nutritional therapy. Furthermore, protein levels of proinflammatory adipokines such as TNF-alpha and leptin were lower while protein level of adiponectin was higher in these patients. As to mRNA level, the expression of adiponctin was up-regulated and leptin was down-regulated in the patients received enteral nutrition. Exclusive enteral nutrition could ameliorate mesenteric fat alterations which are associated with intestinal injury in patients with Crohn's disease by restoring adipocyte morphology and diminishing the inflammatory environment of mesenteric fat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical and nutritional implications of radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, W.H.; Fan, A.; Halsted, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The clinical and nutritional significance of radiation enteritis was assessed in eight patients with chronic diarrhea which followed curative doses of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Steatorrhea, found in seven malnourished patients, was ascribed to ileal disease or previous surgery, or to bacterial contamination of the small intestine. Lactose intolerance, assessed by breath hydrogen excretion after oral lactose and by jejunal lactase levels, was found in six patients. In a subgroup of five patients, the administration of two different defined formula liquid diets by nasoduodenal infusion decreased fecal fluid and energy losses by about one-half. Compared to Vivonex-HN, the infusion of Criticare-HN was associated with greater likelihood of intestinal gas production but a three-fold greater utilization of protein. Intestinal malabsorption and malnutrition in radiation enteritis has diverse etiologies. Whereas nutritional support by liquid diet limits fecal fluid and energy losses, these diets differ significantly in clinical tolerance and biologic value.

  1. Enteral feeding practices in the NICU: results from a 2009 Neonatal Enteral Feeding Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Katherine E; Connolly, Teresa C

    2012-02-01

    : The purpose of this study was to examine the current management of the enteral feeding regimens of premature infants cared for in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). : The study included responses from 70 neonatal nurses who participated in a 2009 Neonatal Enteral Feeding Survey distributed electronically to the National Association of Neonatal Nurses membership. These respondents were representative of both the United States and Canada, with 29 US states represented. The majority of respondents (95.7%) reported current nursing employment in a level III NICU. : Survey research was used in this exploratory study. The survey, Enteral Tube Feeding Practices in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, was developed in collaboration with expert neonatal nurses and nutritionists, pilot tested, and distributed via electronic means. : Survey research was conducted according to the Dillman methodology. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and univariate analysis of variance assessing for significant differences in specific neonatal feeding practices reported. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data reported. : The outcome measures included the survey responses to the questions asked about the implementation of an enteral feeding protocol and various aspects of enteral feeding practices in the NICU. : The majority of participants (60.9%) reported that an enteral feeding protocol was implemented in practice, but that it was inconsistently followed because of individual physician or nurse practice patterns, or highly individualized feeding plans required of specific clinical care needs of the patient. Respondents indicated that gestational age was the leading criteria used to initiate feedings, and patent ductus arteriosis treatment was the primary contraindication to enteral feedings. The leading factor reported to delay or alter enteral feedings was the presence of gastric residuals. Survey data indicated that other contraindicating factors to

  2. Collaborative Innovation for Entering Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate collaborative innovation in business networks for small environmental technology companies entering an emerging market (EM). Export of environmental technology solutions to emerging economies involves high investment opportunities and high growth potential, but also high risk. For example, large-scale demonstrator equipment proving the function of the environmental technology solution might be needed, which usually requires cooperation between several c...

  3. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Brooke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life.

  4. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life. PMID:25854831

  5. Enteral ecoimmunonutrition reduced enteral permeability and serum ghrelin activity in severe cerebral stroke patients with lung infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Di; Shao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The study analyzed how enteral ecoimmunonutrition, which comprises probiotics, glutamine, fish oil, and Enteral Nutritional Suspension (TPF), can impact on the enteral permeability and serum Ghrelin activity in severe cerebral stroke patients with lung infection. Among 190 severe cerebral stroke patients with tolerance to TPF, they were randomized into control and treatment groups after antibiotics treatment due to lung infections. There were 92 patients in the control group and 98 patients in treatment group. The control group was treated with TPF and the treatment group was treated with enteral ecoimmunonutrition, which comprises probiotics, glutamine, fish oil, and Enteral Nutritional Suspension. All patients received continuous treatments through nasoenteral or nasogastric tubes. 7, 14, and 21 days after the treatments, the enteral tolerance to nutrition was observed in both groups. The tests included abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, and lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio. Serum Ghrelin levels were determined by ELISA. The incidence of abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea was lower in the treatment group and enteral tolerance to nutrition was also superior to the control group. No difference in serum Ghrelin level was observed between the control and treatment groups with enteral intolerance to nutrition. However, in patients with enteral tolerance to nutrition, the treatment group showed lower enteral nutrition and lower enteral permeability compared to the control group. In severe cerebral stroke patients with lung infection, enteral ecoimmunonutrition after antibiotics treatment improved enteral tolerance to nutrition and reduced enteral permeability; meanwhile, it lowered the serum Ghrelin activity, which implied the high serum Ghrelin reduces enteral permeability.

  6. Enteric Helminths Promote Salmonella Coinfection by Altering the Intestinal Metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Redpath, Stephen A; Yurist-Doutsch, Sophie; Gill, Navkiran; Brown, Eric M; van der Heijden, Joris; Brosschot, Tara P; Han, Jun; Marshall, Natalie C; Woodward, Sarah E; Valdez, Yanet; Borchers, Christoph H; Perona-Wright, Georgia; Finlay, B Brett

    2017-04-15

    Intestinal helminth infections occur predominantly in regions where exposure to enteric bacterial pathogens is also common. Helminth infections inhibit host immunity against microbial pathogens, which has largely been attributed to the induction of regulatory or type 2 (Th2) immune responses. Here we demonstrate an additional 3-way interaction in which helminth infection alters the metabolic environment of the host intestine to enhance bacterial pathogenicity. We show that an ongoing helminth infection increased colonization by Salmonella independently of T regulatory or Th2 cells. Instead, helminth infection altered the metabolic profile of the intestine, which directly enhanced bacterial expression of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) genes and increased intracellular invasion. These data reveal a novel mechanism by which a helminth-modified metabolome promotes susceptibility to bacterial coinfection. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Soya Saponins Induce Enteritis in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogdahl, Åshild; Gajardo, Karina; Kortner, Trond M; Penn, Michael; Gu, Min; Berge, Gerd Marit; Bakke, Anne Marie

    2015-04-22

    Soybean meal-induced enteritis (SBMIE) is a well-described condition in the distal intestine of salmonids, and saponins have been implicated as the causal agent. However, the question remains whether saponins alone cause SBMIE. Moreover, the dose-response relationship has not been described. In a 10 week feeding trial with Atlantic salmon, a highly purified (95%) soya saponin preparation was supplemented (0, 2, 4, 6, or 10 g/kg) to two basal diets, one containing fishmeal as the major protein source (FM) and the other 25% lupin meal (LP). Saponins caused dose-dependent increases in the severity of inflammation independent of the basal diet, with concomitant alterations in digestive functions and immunological marker expression. Thus, saponins induced inflammation whether the diet contained other legume components or not. However, responses were often the same or stronger in fish fed the corresponding saponin-supplemented LP diets despite lower saponin exposure, suggesting potentiation by other legume component(s).

  8. The Hlx homeobox transcription factor is required early in enteric nervous system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaul Ajay

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of the enteric nervous system (ENS requires interactions between migrating neural crest cells and the nascent gastrointestinal tract that are dependent upon genes expressed by both cell compartments. Hlx, a homeobox transcription factor gene that is expressed in mouse intestinal and hepatic mesenchyme, is required for normal embryonic growth of intestine and liver, and the Hlx-/- genotype is embryonic lethal. We hypothesized that Hlx is required for ENS development. Results Enteric neurons were identified in Hlx+/+ and Hlx-/- mouse embryos by immunostaining of embryo sections for the neural markers PGP9.5 and Phox2b, or by staining for β-galactosidase in whole-mount embryos containing the dopamine β-hydroxylase-nLacZ transgene. In Hlx+/+ embryos, neural crest cells/enteric neurons have moved from the stomach into the intestine by E10.5. By contrast, neural crest cells/enteric neurons remain largely restricted to the lateral stomach mesenchyme of Hlx-/- embryos, with only a few scattered neural crest cells/enteric neurons in the intestine between E10.5–16.5. Conclusion The Hlx homeobox transcription factor is required for early aspects of ENS development.

  9. ADEPT - Abnormal Doppler Enteral Prescription Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCormick Kenny

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancies complicated by abnormal umbilical artery Doppler blood flow patterns often result in the baby being born both preterm and growth-restricted. These babies are at high risk of milk intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis, as well as post-natal growth failure, and there is no clinical consensus about how best to feed them. Policies of both early milk feeding and late milk feeding are widely used. This randomised controlled trial aims to determine whether a policy of early initiation of milk feeds is beneficial compared with late initiation. Optimising neonatal feeding for this group of babies may have long-term health implications and if either of these policies is shown to be beneficial it can be immediately adopted into clinical practice. Methods and Design Babies with gestational age below 35 weeks, and with birth weight below 10th centile for gestational age, will be randomly allocated to an "early" or "late" enteral feeding regimen, commencing milk feeds on day 2 and day 6 after birth, respectively. Feeds will be gradually increased over 9-13 days (depending on gestational age using a schedule derived from those used in hospitals in the Eastern and South Western Regions of England, based on surveys of feeding practice. Primary outcome measures are time to establish full enteral feeding and necrotising enterocolitis; secondary outcomes include sepsis and growth. The target sample size is 400 babies. This sample size is large enough to detect a clinically meaningful difference of 3 days in time to establish full enteral feeds between the two feeding policies, with 90% power and a 5% 2-sided significance level. Initial recruitment period was 24 months, subsequently extended to 38 months. Discussion There is limited evidence from randomised controlled trials on which to base decisions regarding feeding policy in high risk preterm infants. This multicentre trial will help to guide clinical practice and may also

  10. Enteral nutrition. Potential complications and patient monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, C L; Keithley, J K

    1989-06-01

    Enteral feedings are safely tolerated by most patients. When complications occur, gastrointestinal disturbances are most frequently encountered, followed by mechanical and metabolic complications. Nurses can prevent many of the problems associated with enteral feeding through careful monitoring. Based on the current literature, the authors make the following recommendations: 1. All patients receiving tube feedings should be placed on a protocol that provides guidelines for (a) confirming correct tube placement; (b) preventing/managing tube obstruction; (c) handling and selecting formulas; (d) administering formulas; and (e) monitoring patients. 2. Fine-bore tubes are easily misplaced or dislodged; ensure correct positioning both before and during feeding. Food coloring should be added to all feedings to help detect aspiration/tube displacement. 3. Multiple factors can cause diarrhea in tube-fed patients and, therefore, require periodic assessment. These factors include concomitant drug therapy; malnutrition/hypoalbuminemia; formula-related factors (for example, lactose content, osmolality); and bacterial contamination. 4. Urine sugar and acetone levels should be checked every 6 hours (until stable). Vital signs and fluid intake and output should be determined every 8 hours, and weight should be measured on a daily basis. Serum electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, and glucose levels should be determined daily, until serum levels stabilize. Weekly measurements of trace elements should be made to ensure adequate mineral replacement. 5. Use a controller pump to administer continuous feedings at a constant rate or to administer formulas that are viscous. Flush feeding tubes with water every 4 hours during continuous feedings, after giving intermittent feedings, after giving medications, and after checking for gastric residuals. If tube obstruction occurs, attempt to irrigate the tube with either water or cola. 6. Select feedings that contain appropriate nutrient sources

  11. Prediction of enteric methane emissions from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Luis E; Strathe, Anders B; Fadel, James G; Casper, David P; Kebreab, Ermias

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture has a key role in food production worldwide and it is a major component of the gross domestic product of several countries. Livestock production is essential for the generation of high quality protein foods and the delivery of foods in regions where animal products are the main food source. Environmental impacts of livestock production have been examined for decades, but recently emission of methane from enteric fermentation has been targeted as a substantial greenhouse gas source. The quantification of methane emissions from livestock on a global scale relies on prediction models because measurements require specialized equipment and may be expensive. The predictive ability of current methane emission models remains poor. Moreover, the availability of information on livestock production systems has increased substantially over the years enabling the development of more detailed methane prediction models. In this study, we have developed and evaluated prediction models based on a large database of enteric methane emissions from North American dairy and beef cattle. Most probable models of various complexity levels were identified using a Bayesian model selection procedure and were fitted under a hierarchical setting. Energy intake, dietary fiber and lipid proportions, animal body weight and milk fat proportion were identified as key explanatory variables for predicting emissions. Models here developed substantially outperformed models currently used in national greenhouse gas inventories. Additionally, estimates of repeatability of methane emissions were lower than the ones from the literature and multicollinearity diagnostics suggested that prediction models are stable. In this context, we propose various enteric methane prediction models which require different levels of information availability and can be readily implemented in national greenhouse gas inventories of different complexity levels. The utilization of such models may reduce errors

  12. Ageing of enteric neurons: oxidative stress, neurotrophic factors and antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korsak Kris

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ageing is associated with gastrointestinal dysfunction, which can have a major impact on quality of life of the elderly. A number of changes in the innervation of the gut during ageing have been reported, including neuronal loss and degenerative changes. Evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS are elevated in ageing enteric neurons, but that neurotrophic factors may reduce generation of neuronal ROS. Two such factors, glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 have also been found to protect enteric neurons against oxidative stress induced cell death of enteric ganglion cells in vitro. We have investigated the possible roles of neurotrophic factors further, by examining their expression in the gut during ageing, and by analysing their effects on antioxidant enzyme production in cultures of enteric ganglion cells. Results Analysis of the expression of GDNF and its receptors c-Ret and GFR α − 1 in rat gut by RT-PCR showed that expression continues throughout life and into ageing, in both ad libitum(AL and calorically-restricted (CR animals. Levels of expression of GDNF and GFR α − 1 were elevated in 24 month AL animals compared to 24 month CR animals, and to 24 CR and 6 month control animals respectively. The related factor Neurturin and its receptor GFR α − 2 were also expressed throughout life, the levels of the GFR – α-2(b isoform were reduced in 24 m AL animals. Immunolabelling showed that c-Ret and GFR α − 1 proteins were expressed by myenteric neurons in ageing animals. GDNF, but not NT-3, was found to increase expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase by cultured enteric ganglion cells. Conclusions The neurotrophic factors GDNF and neurturin and their receptors continue to be expressed in the ageing gut. Changes in the levels of expression of GDNF , GFR α-1 and GFR α-2(b isoform occurred in 24 m AL animals. GDNF, but not

  13. Campylobacter enteritis: early diagnosis with Gram's stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, D D; Ault, M J; Ault, M A; Murata, G H

    1982-10-01

    Campylobacter jejuni has become one of the most important causes of infectious diarrhea in the United States. We examined the utility of Gram's stain of stool for the rapid presumptive diagnosis of Campylobacter enteritis in a large, urban hospital and found that this test has a sensitivity of 43.5% and a specificity of 99.4%. We believe that Gram's stain of stool could be used to direct the early management of up to one half of patients infected with this pathogen.

  14. Enteric methane emissions from German pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Schulz, Joachim; Klausing, Heinrich Kleine

    2012-01-01

    . Meanwhile numerous experimental data on methane emissions from enteric fermentation is available in Germany and abroad; the results are compiled in this work. These results also allow for a description of transformation processes in the hind gut and a subsequent establishment of models that relate emissions...... to feed and performance data. The model by Kirchgeßner et al. (1995) is based on German experimental data and reflects typical national diet compositions. It is used to quantify typical emissions and methane conversion ratios. The results agree with other experimental findings at home and abroad...

  15. [ZINK IS ACTIVATOR OF ENTERAL CALCIUM METABOLISM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, E P; Ksenofontov, D A; Revyakin, A O; Ivanov, A A

    2015-01-01

    Experiments on goats and rabbits showed that zinc supplement to the diet leads to calcium concentration rise in muscle, bone and blood of animals. However, this rise was not adequate to increase in.zinc consumption. The bulk of alimentary zinc stayed in soluble fraction, dense endogen fraction and infusoria fraction of digesta and stimulated calcium release from food particles, it's accumulation in digesta fractions and calcium utilization on the whole. Authors estimate animal digesta as homeostatic, spatial organized, endogenic formation in which zinc and calcium are functionally dependent through enteral mucosa.

  16. Enteral nutrition practices in the intensive care unit: Understanding of nursing practices and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate nutritional support is important for the comprehensive management of patients in intensive care units (ICUs. Aim: The study was aimed to survey prevalent enteral nutrition practices in the trauma intensive care unit, nurses′ perception, and their knowledge of enteral feeding. Study Design: The study was conducted in the ICU of a level 1 trauma center, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. The study design used an audit. Materials and Methods: Sixty questionnaires were distributed and the results analyzed. A database was prepared and the audit was done. Results: Forty-two (70% questionnaires were filled and returned. A majority (38 of staff nurses expressed awareness of nutrition guidelines. A large number (32 of staff nurses knew about nutrition protocols of the ICU. Almost all (40 opined enteral nutrition to be the preferred route of nutrition unless contraindicated. All staff nurses were of opinion that enteral nutrition is to be started at the earliest (within 24-48 h of the ICU stay. Everyone opined that the absence of bowel sounds is an absolute contraindication to initiate enteral feeding. Passage of flatus was considered mandatory before starting enteral nutrition by 86% of the respondents. Everyone knew that the method of Ryle′s tube feeding in their ICU is intermittent boluses. Only 4 staff nurses were unaware of any method to confirm Ryle′s tube position. The backrest elevation rate was 100%. Gastric residual volumes were always checked, but the amount of the gastric residual volume for the next feed to be withheld varied. The majority said that the unused Ryle′s tube feed is to be discarded after 6 h. The most preferred (48% method to upgrade their knowledge of enteral nutrition was from the ICU protocol manual. Conclusion: Information generated from this study can be helpful in identifying nutrition practices that are lacking and may be used to review and revise enteral feeding

  17. Enteral nutrition practices in the intensive care unit: Understanding of nursing practices and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Babita; Agrawal, Pramendra; Soni, Kapil D; Yadav, Vikas; Dhakal, Roshni; Khurana, Shally; Misra, Mc

    2012-01-01

    Adequate nutritional support is important for the comprehensive management of patients in intensive care units (ICUs). The study was aimed to survey prevalent enteral nutrition practices in the trauma intensive care unit, nurses' perception, and their knowledge of enteral feeding. The study was conducted in the ICU of a level 1 trauma center, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. The study design used an audit. Sixty questionnaires were distributed and the results analyzed. A database was prepared and the audit was done. Forty-two (70%) questionnaires were filled and returned. A majority (38) of staff nurses expressed awareness of nutrition guidelines. A large number (32) of staff nurses knew about nutrition protocols of the ICU. Almost all (40) opined enteral nutrition to be the preferred route of nutrition unless contraindicated. All staff nurses were of opinion that enteral nutrition is to be started at the earliest (within 24-48 h of the ICU stay). Everyone opined that the absence of bowel sounds is an absolute contraindication to initiate enteral feeding. Passage of flatus was considered mandatory before starting enteral nutrition by 86% of the respondents. Everyone knew that the method of Ryle's tube feeding in their ICU is intermittent boluses. Only 4 staff nurses were unaware of any method to confirm Ryle's tube position. The backrest elevation rate was 100%. Gastric residual volumes were always checked, but the amount of the gastric residual volume for the next feed to be withheld varied. The majority said that the unused Ryle's tube feed is to be discarded after 6 h. The most preferred (48%) method to upgrade their knowledge of enteral nutrition was from the ICU protocol manual. Information generated from this study can be helpful in identifying nutrition practices that are lacking and may be used to review and revise enteral feeding practices where necessary.

  18. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons in the guinea pig gastric corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eMazzuoli-Weber

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For long it was believed that a particular population of enteric neurons, referred to as intrinsic primary afferent neuron (IPANs, encodes mechanical stimulation. We recently proposed a new concept suggesting that there are in addition mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN that are multifunctional. Based on firing pattern MEN behaved as rapidly, slowly or ultra-slowly adapting RAMEN, SAMEN or USAMEN, respectively. We aimed to validate this concept in the myenteric plexus of the gastric corpus, a region where IPANs were not identified and existence of enteric sensory neurons was even questioned. The gastric corpus is characterized by a particularly dense extrinsic sensory innervation. Neuronal activity was recorded with voltage sensitive dye imaging after deformation of ganglia by compression (intraganglionic volume injection or von Fry hair or tension (ganglionic stretch. We demonstrated that 27% of the gastric neurons were MEN and responded to intraganglionic volume injection. Of these 73% were RAMEN, 25% SAMEN and 2% USAMEN with a firing frequency of 1.7 (1.1/ 2.2 Hz, 5.1 (2.2/7.7 Hz and of 5.4 (5.0/15.5 Hz, respectively. The responses were reproducible and stronger with increased stimulus strength. Even after adaptation another deformation evoked spike discharge again suggesting a resetting mode of the mechanoreceptors. All MEN received fast synaptic input. 55% of all MEN were cholinergic and 45% nitrergic. Responses in some MEN significantly decreased after perfusion of TTX, low Ca++/high Mg++ Krebs solution, capsaicin induced nerve defunctionalization and capsazepine indicating the involvement of TRPV1 expressing extrinsic mechanosensitive nerves. Half of gastric MEN responded to intraganglionic volume injection as well as to ganglionic stretch and 23% responded to stretch only. Tension-sensitive MEN were to a large proportion USAMEN (44%. In summary, we demonstrated for the first time compression and tension-sensitive MEN in the stomach

  19. The Enteric Nervous System in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Sharkey

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Since about the 1950s nerves in the wall of the intestine have been postulated to play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Human and animal studies examining the role of nerves in intestinal inflammation are the focus of this review. Consideration is given to two possible ways that nerves are involved in IBD. First, nerves may play a role in the development or maintenance of inflammation through local release of transmitters. Second, once initiated (by whatever means, the processes of inflammation may disrupt the normal pattern of innervation and the interactions of nerves and their target tissues. Many of the functional disturbances observed in IBD are likely due to an alteration in the enteric nervous system either structurally through disruptions of nerve-target relationships or by modifications of neurotransmitters or their receptors. Finally, it appears that the enteric nervous system may be a potential therapeutic target in IBD and that neuroactive drugs acting locally can represent useful agents in the management of this disease.

  20. Administration of antiretroviral medication via enteral tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohaska, Emily S; King, Allison R

    2012-12-15

    Case reports and other published or manufacturer-provided data on the administration of antiretroviral agents through enteral feeding tubes are reviewed. There is very limited published evidence to guide clinicians in the delivery of therapies for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by feeding tubes, especially crushed tablets and capsule contents. A search of the primary literature (through February 2012) identified a total of nine articles describing the delivery of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) agents via gastrostomy (G), jejunostomy, and other feeding tubes; correspondence with pharmaceutical manufacturers yielded additional information. Most of the published evidence (from two prospective studies, one retrospective study, and six case reports) pertains to the treatment of HIV-infected children (33 of 40 cases). Although not a primary endpoint of any of the reviewed studies, viral suppression was documented in 29 of the 40 patients referenced in the reviewed articles. Manufacturer-provided information indicates that crushed darunavir tablets in suspension, as well as oral solutions of ritonavir and lopinavir-ritonavir, can be administered through G-tubes without significant loss of therapeutic efficacy. Data regarding enteral feeding tube administration are available for 63% of commercially available oral HAART agents and are primarily limited to case reports specific to the pediatric population.

  1. [Our experience with ambulatory enteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orduña, R M; Giménez Martínez, R; Valdivia Garvayo, M; Ruiz Santa-Olalla, A T; Roca Fernández-Castanys, E; Pérez de la Cruz, A

    1995-01-01

    Enteral nutrition in the home of the patient, has gained interest in recent years. In our health care area, we do not have a Unit of at Home Hospitalization, which has not prevented the implementation of this therapeutic modality in certain types of patients. 89 cases who have undergone enteral Nutrition in their home after the last hospital admission, were reviewed. According to the basic pathology, 41.6% (37 patients) correspond to neurological patients; 51.7% correspond to neoplasmic patients, and 6.7% are classified as miscellaneous. The average age is 64 years (18 months-92 years); the mean caloric ingestion is 1,520 Kcal/day (500-2,500), and the duration is a mean of 315 days (7-1,560). The complications observed through ambulatory visits of the patient and/or the family, accounted for a total of 36, of which 30 (83%) were digestive, and were corrected with the usual methods. In 8 cases (22%), it involved mechanical complications, and only 2 cases involved metabolic complications. Only 1 serious complication (massive bronchoaspiration) could have been avoided. The results indicate a good degree of acceptance, with similar results to those described by other authors, and with a low incidence of severe complications.

  2. Filamentous Influenza Virus Enters Cells via Macropinocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Jeremy S.; Leser, George P.

    2012-01-01

    Influenza virus is pleiomorphic, producing both spherical (100-nm-diameter) and filamentous (100-nm by 20-μm) virions. While the spherical virions are known to enter host cells through exploitation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the entry pathway for filamentous virions has not been determined, though the existence of an alternative, non-clathrin-, non-caveolin-mediated entry pathway for influenza virus has been known for many years. In this study, we confirm recent results showing that influenza virus utilizes macropinocytosis as an alternate entry pathway. Furthermore, we find that filamentous influenza viruses use macropinocytosis as the primary entry mechanism. Virions enter cells as intact filaments within macropinosomes and are trafficked to the acidic late-endosomal compartment. Low pH triggers a conformational change in the M2 ion channel protein, altering membrane curvature and leading to a fragmentation of the filamentous virions. This fragmentation may enable more-efficient fusion between the viral and endosomal membranes. PMID:22875971

  3. Enteric parasitic infections among secondary school students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enteric parasitic infections among secondary school students in Gusau, ... Age, gender, marital status, anaemia and type of toilet significantly affected the ... There was no case of mixed infection of enteric parasites observed in this study.

  4. Routes for early enteral nutrition after esophagectomy : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, Teus J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413993558; Berkelmans, Gijs H K; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; Ruurda, Jelle P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/257561021; Hillegersberg, Richard V|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110706242; Soeters, Peter B; Luyer, Misha D P

    BACKGROUND: Early enteral feeding following surgery can be given orally, via a jejunostomy or via a nasojejunal tube. However, the best feeding route following esophagectomy is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine the best route for enteral nutrition following esophagectomy regarding anastomotic

  5. Incidence of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Patients with Standard Enteral Formula

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shabbu Ahmadi bonakdar; Mahdieh Pouryazdanpanah; Zahra Ganie Far; Saba Ghazanfari; Abdolreza Norouzy

    2014-01-01

    ...`s reports standard enteral formula is inducing diarrhea. In this study our purpose is to evaluate the incidence of diarrhea in hospitalized patients with standard Enteral Nutrition (EN) formula intake...

  6. NetB, a Pore-Forming Toxin from Necrotic Enteritis Strains of Clostridium perfringens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony L. Keyburn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Clostridium perfringens necrotic enteritis B-like toxin (NetB is a recently discovered member of the β-barrel pore-forming toxin family and is produced by a subset of avian C. perfringens type A strains. NetB is cytotoxic for avian cells and is associated with avian necrotic enteritis. This review examines the current state of knowledge of NetB: its role in pathogenesis, its distribution and expression in C. perfringens and its vaccine potential.

  7. Isolation of Enteric Nervous System Progenitor Cells from the Aganglionic Gut of Patients with Hirschsprung's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Enteric nervous system progenitor cells isolated from postnatal human gut and cultured as neurospheres can then be transplanted into aganglionic gut to restore normal patterns of contractility. These progenitor cells may be of future use to treat patients with Hirschprung's disease, a congenital condition characterized by hindgut dysmotility due to the lack of enteric nervous system ganglia. Here we demonstrate that progenitor cells can also be isolated from aganglionic gut removed during corrective surgery for Hirschsprung's disease. Although the enteric nervous system marker calretinin is not expressed in the aganglionic gut region, de novo expression is initiated in cultured neurosphere cells isolated from aganglionic Hirschsprung bowel. Furthermore, expression of the neural markers NOS, VIP and GFAP also increased during culture of aganglionic gut neurospheres which we show can be transplantation into cultured embryonic mouse gut explants to restore a normal frequency of contractility. To determine the origin of the progenitor cells in aganglionic region, we used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to demonstrate that only p75-positive neural crest-derived cells present in the thickened nerve trunks characteristic of the aganglionic region of Hirschsprung gut gave rise to neurons in culture. The derivation of enteric nervous system progenitors in the aganglionic gut region of Hirschprung's patients not only means that this tissue is a potential source of cells for future autologous transplantation, but it also raises the possibility of inducing the differentiation of these endogenous cells in situ to compensate for the aganglionosis.

  8. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine...

  9. Early enteral nutrition compared to outcome in critically ill trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The benefit of an early enteral nutrition start in critical ill patients is widely accepted. However, limited published data focus on trauma patients. This study aimed to investigate the effect of early enteral nutrition initiation on length of stay and mortality in an intensive care unit (ICU), as well as explore if enteral ...

  10. Determinant factors of the viscosity of enteral formulas: basic analysis of thickened enteral formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakita, Maki; Masui, Hironori; Ichimaru, Satomi; Amagai, Teruyoshi

    2012-02-01

    Thickened enteral formula (TEF), which is made by adding thickener to enteral formula, has been used mainly in Japan to reduce the incidence of clinical complications associated with enteral nutrition. However, the optimal viscosity of TEF needed to achieve a high efficiency is different for each medical complication and for individual patients. The viscosity of TEF, which consists of enteral formula and thickener, was determined by 5 factors: (1) formula energy density, (2) formula temperature, (3) stirring speed, (4) stirring time, and (5) time elapsed since preparation. Then, the changing index (CI) was calculated for each of the 5 factors to determine which exerts the most influence on TEF viscosities. The most influential factor (CI ≥-50%) for the decrease in TEF viscosity was formula energy density. In contrast, the most influential factors (CI ≥50%) for the increase in TEF viscosity were stirring time and time elapsed since preparation. The results of this study indicate that formula energy density, stirring time, and time elapsed since preparation are the most influential factors to consider during manipulation of TEF viscosity.

  11. Acrodermatitis enteropathica during adequate enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changela, Avani; Javaiya, Hemangkumar; Changela, Kinesh; Davanos, Evangelia; Rickenbach, Kiersten

    2012-03-01

    Acrodermatitis enteropathica is a rare skin disorder of zinc deficiency. This case report describes a 91-year-old female nursing home resident who presented with a skin eruption resembling acrodermatitis enteropathica while receiving adequate enteral nutrition (EN) via a percutaneous gastrostomy tube. A low zinc level of 36 mcg/dL confirmed zinc deficiency, and treatment with oral zinc sulfate 220 mg 3 times a day resulted in rapid resolution of the skin lesions. This case supports the notion of close monitoring of patients on long-term EN for clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency, especially in the presence of an unexplained skin rash. Although micronutrient deficiencies are more prevalent in underdeveloped countries and with patients receiving parenteral nutrition, these deficiencies should be kept in mind for patients in developed countries as well as patients receiving EN.

  12. Pathogenesis of Salmonella-induced enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections with Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of food-borne diseases worldwide. Animal models other than the mouse have been employed for the study of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections because the murine model is not suitable for the study of Salmonella-induced diarrhea. The microbe has developed mechanisms to exploit the host cell machinery to its own purpose. Bacterial proteins delivered directly into the host cell cytosol cause cytoskeletal changes and interfere with host cell signaling pathways, which ultimately enhance disease manifestation. Recently, marked advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular interactions between Salmonella serotypes and their hosts. Here, we discuss the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of Salmonella-induced enteritis.

  13. [SHORT BOWEL SYNDROME AND NUTRITIONAL ENTERAL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariadel Cobo, Diana; Pereira Cunill, José Luis; Socas Macías, María; Serrano Aguayo, Pilar; Gómez Liébana, Eulalia; Morales Conde, Salvador; García Luna, Pedro Pablo

    2015-12-01

    The particularity of this case is the nutritional management that has managed to avoid the use of prolonged parenteral nutrition and possible complications by placing jejunal tube at the distal end in patients with short bowel. It is a 34-year-old colecistectomizado complicated with postoperative peritonitis and dehiscence; two years he studied with small bowel obstruction, he was made de-volvulus and was complicated with two leak at different times after the second escape took place jejunostomy side double barreled shotgun level dehiscence, presented high debits by afferent loop of the terminal jejunostomy; during admission, polyurethane probe enteral feeding was inserted by the efferent loop jejunostomy. He received jejunal tube feeding laundry in the efferent loop terminal with decreased weight gain and subsequent reconstruction of intestinal transit debit proximal jejunostomy. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimal Time to Enter a Retirement Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the financial planning problem of a retiree wishing to enter a retirement village at a future uncertain date. The date of entry is determined by the retiree’s utility and bequest maximisation problem within the context of uncertain future health states. In addition, the retiree must choose optimal consumption, investment, bequest and purchase of insurance products prior to their full annuitisation on entry to the retirement village. A hyperbolic absolute risk-aversion (HARA utility function is used to allow necessary consumption for basic living and medical costs. The retirement village will typically require an initial deposit upon entry. This threshold wealth requirement leads to exercising the replication of an American put option at the uncertain stopping time. From our numerical results, active insurance and annuity markets are shown to be a critical aspect in retirement planning.

  15. Reactive Arthritis Caused by Yersinia enterocolitica Enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kazuya; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Izumi, Yasumori; Tsuji, Yoshika; Kawahara, Chieko; Michitsuji, Toru; Higashi, Shuntaro; Kawakami, Atsushi; Migita, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of reactive arthritis (ReA) triggered by Yersinia enterocolitica enteritis. A 24-year-old Japanese man developed polyarthritis in the lower limbs. Two weeks prior to these symptoms, he noted diarrhea, right lower abdominal pain and a fever. Y. enterocolitica was not isolated from a stool culture; however, he was diagnosed with ReA based on the colonoscopic findings of a high anti-Y. enterocolitica antibody titer and HLA-B27 antigen positivity. Following treatment with methotrexate and steroids, his arthritis improved. This is the first reported Japanese case of ReA in the English literature after a gastrointestinal infection caused by Y. enterocolitica.

  16. Increased population of immature enteric glial cells in the resected proximal ganglionic bowel of Hirschsprung's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Gakuto; Tomuschat, Christian; O'Donnell, Anne Marie; Coyle, David; Puri, Prem

    2017-10-01

    Enteric glial cells are essential for normal gastrointestinal function. Abnormalities in glial structure, development, or function lead to disturbances in gastrointestinal physiology. Fatty acid-binding protein 7 (FABP7) is a marker of immature enteric glial cells, whereas S100 is expressed only by mature glial cells. Patients with Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) often suffer from dysmotility and enterocolitis despite proper surgery. We designed this study to determine the distribution and expression of glial cells in patients with HSCR compared to normal controls. We investigated FABP7, S100, and PGP 9.5 expressions in both the ganglionic and aganglionic bowel of patients with HSCR (n = 6) versus normal control colon (n = 6). Protein distribution was assessed by using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Gene and protein expressions were quantified using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Western blot analysis, and densitometry. qPCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated a significantly increased FABP7 expression in ganglionic specimens compared to control specimen (P < 0.05). Confocal microscopy revealed FABP7+ glia cells lie under the colonic epithelium and in close apposition to enteric neurons in the ganglionic bowel. The significantly increased number of immature enteric glial cells (EGCs) in the ganglionic bowel of HSCR patients may have adverse effect on the function of enteric neurons and intestinal barrier and thus predispose these patients to intestinal motility problems and enterocolitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation and evaluation of duloxetine hydrochloride enteric-coated pellets with different enteric polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Kuang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to prepare duloxetine hydrochloride (DXH enteric-coated pellets using different enteric polymers. Three layers (drug-loaded layer, barrier layer, and enteric-coated layer were applied to the inert core pellets, successively. The optimal formulation was manufactured by employing suspension layering method in fluidized bed processor (FBP with varieties of enteric polymers like Aqoat® AS-LF, Eudragit® L30D55 and HPMCP-HP55. The prepared pellets were measured for physical characterization and the in vitro dissolution profile. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was conducted to observe the morphology of pellets, and different kinetic models were applied to analyze the release mechanism of Cymbalta® and home-made pellets. The coating weight gain of enteric-coated layer containing Eudragit® L30D55, Aqoat® AS-LF and HP-55 were determined to be 35%, 26% and 24%, respectively. The similarity factors (f2 of self-made capsules with above polymers and commercially available capsules (Cymbalta® were above 50 in the dissolution medium of pH 6.8 phosphate buffer solution (PBS. SEM figures showed the smooth surfaces of self-prepared pellets using Eudragit® L30D55 and Aqoat® AS-LF, whereas rough surface was found in the HP-55 pellets at day 0, and an impurity was appearing in the condition of 40 °C/75% relative humidity for 1 month. In conclusion, the pellets prepared by utilizing Eudragit® L30D55 and Aqoat® AS-LF were the optimal preparations based on the dissolution profile and stability.

  18. Measurement and prediction of enteric methane emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Lal, Rattan; Lakritz, Jeffrey; Ezeji, Thaddeus

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector account for about 25.5% of total global anthropogenic emission. While CO2 receives the most attention as a factor relative to global warming, CH4, N2O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also cause significant radiative forcing. With the relative global warming potential of 25 compared with CO2, CH4 is one of the most important GHGs. This article reviews the prediction models, estimation methodology and strategies for reducing enteric CH4 emissions. Emission of CH4 in ruminants differs among developed and developing countries, depending on factors like animal species, breed, pH of rumen fluid, ratio of acetate:propionate, methanogen population, composition of diet and amount of concentrate fed. Among the ruminant animals, cattle contribute the most towards the greenhouse effect through methane emission followed by sheep, goats and buffalos, respectively. The estimated CH4 emission rate per cattle, buffaloe, sheep and goat in developed countries are 150.7, 137, 21.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) respectively. However, the estimated rates in developing countries are significantly lower at 95.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) per cattle and sheep, respectively. There exists a strong interest in developing new and improving the existing CH4 prediction models to identify mitigation strategies for reducing the overall CH4 emissions. A synthesis of the available literature suggests that the mechanistic models are superior to empirical models in accurately predicting the CH4 emission from dairy farms. The latest development in prediction model is the integrated farm system model which is a process-based whole-farm simulation technique. Several techniques are used to quantify enteric CH4 emissions starting from whole animal chambers to sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer techniques. The latest technology developed to estimate CH4 more accurately is the micrometeorological mass difference technique. Because the conditions under which

  19. White paper on guidelines concerning enteric nervous system stem cell therapy for enteric neuropathies⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alan J.; Goldstein, Allan M.; Newgreen, Donald F.; Stamp, Lincon; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Metzger, Marco; Hotta, Ryo; Young, Heather M.; Andrews, Peter W.; Thapar, Nikhil; Belkind-Gerson, Jaime; Bondurand, Nadege; Bornstein, Joel C.; Chan, Wood Yee; Cheah, Kathryn; Gershon, Michael D.; Heuckeroth, Robert O.; Hofstra, Robert M.W.; Just, Lothar; Kapur, Raj P.; King, Sebastian K.; McCann, Conor J.; Nagy, Nandor; Ngan, Elly; Obermayr, Florian; Pachnis, Vassilis; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Sham, Mai Har; Tam, Paul; Berghe, Pieter Vanden

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been increasing focus on the development of novel stem cell based therapies for the treatment of disorders and diseases affecting the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gastrointestinal tract (so-called enteric neuropathies). Here, the idea is that ENS progenitor/stem cells could be transplanted into the gut wall to replace the damaged or absent neurons and glia of the ENS. This White Paper sets out experts’ views on the commonly used methods and approaches to identify, isolate, purify, expand and optimize ENS stem cells, transplant them into the bowel, and assess transplant success, including restoration of gut function. We also highlight obstacles that must be overcome in order to progress from successful preclinical studies in animal models to ENS stem cell therapies in the clinic. PMID:27059883

  20. Chronic radiation enteritis: A community hospital experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenner, M.N.; Sheehan, P.; Nanavati, P.J.; Ross, D.S. (Southern Illinois Univ. School of Medicine, Springfield (USA))

    1989-08-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the operative management of patients with chronic radiation enteropathy. Thirty-eight affected patients from 1974 to 1986 were reviewed. Patients with recurrent cancer responsible for symptoms were excluded. Seventy-one percent of patients presented with bowel obstruction. Twenty-one patients were treated with bowel resection, while 17 were treated with a bypass procedure or diverting ostomy alone. Overall morbidity was 45%, and postoperative mortality was 16%. Patients in the bypass group were significantly older than those in the resection group (70.3 vs. 55.5 years, P = .024), suggesting that age may have been a determinant of the procedure performed. In our study there was no difference in outcome based on preexisting vascular disease, tumor site, type of procedure performed, or radiation dose. We conclude that resection is the procedure of choice in cases of chronic radiation enteritis requiring surgery except in cases with dense adhesions when enteroenterostomal bypass is a viable alternative.

  1. Enteric bacterial catalysts for fuel ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, L.O.; Aldrich, H.C.; Borges, A.C.C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    The technology is available to produce fuel ethanol from renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The current challenge is to assemble the various process options into a commercial venture and begin the task of incremental improvement. Current process designs for lignocellulose are far more complex than grain to ethanol processes. This complexity results in part from the complexity of the substrate and the biological limitations of the catalyst. Their work at the University of Florida has focused primarily on the genetic engineering of Enteric bacteria using genes encoding Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. These two genes have been assembled into a portable ethanol production cassette, the PET operon, and integrated into the chromosome of Escherichia coli B for use with hemicellulose-derived syrups. The resulting strain, KO11, produces ethanol efficiently from all hexose and pentose sugars present in the polymers of hemicellulose. By using the same approach, the authors integrated the PET operon into the chromosome of Klebsiella oxytoca to produce strain P2 for use in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for cellulose. Strain P2 has the native ability to ferment cellobiose and cellotriose, eliminating the need for one class of cellulase enzymes.

  2. Enteral and parenteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imrie, Clement W; Carter, C Ross; McKay, Colin J

    2002-06-01

    In the last 5 years naso-enteric feeding has increasingly been used in clinical practice in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Randomized clinical studies in both mild and severe forms of the disease have demonstrated not only the feasibility but also the safety of this approach. The majority of patients have been fed by variously placed nasojejunal tubes with varied problems in maintaining both location and patency. Most have been surprised to find that it is possible to feed the patients in this way with the potential of improving gut barrier function and immune response, at reduced cost and greater safety than with parenteral nutrition. The current evidence points to nasojejunal feeding being preferable to parenteral feeding, but evidence has yet to be produced to prove beyond reasonable doubt that such feeding is an improvement on conservative management without feeding. Finally, the most recent development has indicated that fine-bore nasogastric feeding may well be a realistic alternative to nasojejunal feeding even in the more severe forms of this disease. A small percentage of patients may still need parenteral nutrition. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  3. Pathophysiology and surgical treatment for radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, Hisashi; Park, Tae Bun; Hasegawa, Masato (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)

    1993-12-01

    We analyzed 23 patients (5 males and 18 females, mean age 60) who had been operated on in our department for radiation enteritis. (1) These patients were divided into two types according to the time of surgery. Sixteen of 23 (79%) patients were operated on a median of 12 months after radiotherapy, while 7 (30%) underwent surgery more than 10 years later. (2) They were also divided according to the dominant symptoms. Fourteen of 23 (60%) complained of nausea and abdominal distension suggestive of small bowel injury, whereas 7 (30%) had tenesmus and anal bleeding indicating proctitis. Two patients developed perforative peritonitis. (3) The operations performed were as follows: extensive intestinal resection and anastomosis (13), pull-through procedure (3), rectal excision (2), ileostomy (3), by-pass operation (2). Two patients with peritonitis died despite open drainage. Nineteen intestinal anastomoses were all successfully performed. Patients who underwent extensive small bowel resection could resume ordinary daily life without symptoms. Our analysis showed that small bowel injury should be treated by generous resection of the affected bowels followed by anastomosis of the disease-free ends, while rectal lesions are best dealt with by restorative proctectomy. This may provide a good quality of life and minimize major postoperative complications such as leakage. (author).

  4. Enteral Nutrition in Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Buscemi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD is considered the gold standard treatment for periampullory carcinomas. This procedure presents 30%–40% of morbidity. Patients who have undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy often present perioperative malnutrition that is worse in the early postoperative days, affects the process of healing, the intestinal barrier function and the number of postoperative complications. Few studies focus on the relation between enteral nutrition (EN and postoperative complications. Our aim was to perform a review, including only randomized controlled trial meta-analyses or well-designed studies, of evidence regarding the correlation between EN and main complications and outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy, as delayed gastric emptying (DGE, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF, postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH, length of stay and infectious complications. Several studies, especially randomized controlled trial have shown that EN does not increase the rate of DGE. EN appeared safe and tolerated for patients after PD, even if it did not reveal any advantages in terms of POPF, PPH, length of stay and infectious complications.

  5. Osmolality and pH in handmade enteral diets used in domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Simeone HENRIQUES

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients who need prolonged domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy may benefit from handmade diets. However, the preparation of such diets might cause insecurity with regard to their nutritional composition and physical-chemical properties. Current study analyzes the osmolality and Hydrogen-Ion concentration (pH on handmade enteral diets. To this purpose, six formulas and two juices, prescribed on discharge from hospital, were analyzed physically and chemically. Osmolality and pH were respectively determined by cryoscopy and potentiometry. Most formulations were classified as isosmolar (with less than 400 mOsm/kg solvent, and only one was classified as slightly hyperosmolar, with rates ranging from 356.7 to 403.5 mOsm/kg solvent. On average, the standard formula presented higher osmolality than similar ones prepared for hyperglycemia. Among the juices, only one registered hyperosmolar concentration of 595.54 mOsm/kg solvent. All formulas presented pH rates classified as low acidity, ranging between 6.1 and 6.6, while the two juices had the lowest results, 4.73 and 4.66 each. The blend of ingredients used in handmade formulas and juices studied presented acceptable osmolality and pH rates for a safe administration and absence of gastrointestinal complications. Data showed here are consistent with an appropriate and healthy diet and contributed towards success in domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy.

  6. The Role of Carbohydrates in Infection Strategies of Enteric Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    KATO, Kentaro; Ishiwa, Akiko; 加藤, 健太郎

    2015-01-01

    Enteric pathogens cause considerable public health concerns worldwide including tropical regions. Here, we review the roles of carbohydrates in the infection strategies of various enteric pathogens including viruses, bacteria and protozoa, which infect the epithelial lining of the human and animal intestine. At host cell entry, enteric viruses, including norovirus, recognize mainly histo-blood group antigens. At the initial step of bacterial infections, carbohydrates also function as receptor...

  7. Coronavirus–associated enteritis in a quail farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Camarda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An enteric syndrome observed in semi-intensively reared quails is described. The affected birds showed depression, severe diarrhoea and dehydration. The mortality occurred particularly in young birds. At necropsy, the prominent lesion was catarrhal enteritis. Laboratory investigations demonstrated the presence of coronavirus in the gut of dead animals. No additional pathogens were detected. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence for the presence of CoVs in quail with enteritis.

  8. [Sensory evaluation of enteral nutritional supplements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granell Vidal, Lina; Sánchez Juan, Carlos; Alfonso García, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) is indicated in patients who, although they may not eat enough food, maintain a sufficient function to receive, digest and absorb nutrients digestive system. Oral Nutritional Supplements (SON) are nutritionally complete or incomplete formulas (depending on whether or not provide all the nutrients needed to serve as the sole source of nutrients), which supplement inadequate oral diet. This study aims to evaluate the organoleptic characteristics of hyperproteic, normoproteic and fiber-enriched oral SON. SON test, carried out at the Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition Consortium Hospital General Universitario de Valencia from October 2012 to February 2013. 137 SON were evaluated in total, of which 47 were hyperproteic, 46 normoproteic and 44 enriched in fiber. Of the SON evaluated in the group of hyperproteic the following 3 SON obtained the best scores: Fresenius Prot Energy Drink® (21,27, vanilla flavor), Avant Standard Nut® (20.3 , strawberry flavor) and Resource® Protein (20.01, chocolate flavor) In the group of normoproteic SON the 3 best rated were: Ensure Plus® (22.3, banana flavor), Ensure Plus® (21.9, peach flavor) and Fresubin Energy Drink® (21, strawberry flavor) In the group of fiber-enriched the 3 SON most appreciated were: 2 Kcal Fresubin Fibre Drink® (23.78, vanilla flavor), Ensure Plus® TwoCal (22.9, banana flavor) and Fortimel Compact® (21.5, strawberry flavor) The study aims to guide clinicians on what SON may be more acceptable to the patient, so that the SON serve their purpose and restore or improve nutritional status, as the SON intervention is safe and cost - effective, since they improve both the functionality and quality of life. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Enteral feeding pumps: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Helen; King, Linsey

    2014-01-01

    Enteral feeding is a long established practice across pediatric and adult populations, to enhance nutritional intake and prevent malnutrition. Despite recognition of the importance of nutrition within the modern health agenda, evaluation of the efficacy of how such feeds are delivered is more limited. The accuracy, safety, and consistency with which enteral feed pump systems dispense nutritional formulae are important determinants of their use and acceptability. Enteral feed pump safety has received increased interest in recent years as enteral pumps are used across hospital and home settings. Four areas of enteral feed pump safety have emerged: the consistent and accurate delivery of formula; the minimization of errors associated with tube misconnection; the impact of continuous feed delivery itself (via an enteral feed pump); and the chemical composition of the casing used in enteral feed pump manufacture. The daily use of pumps in delivery of enteral feeds in a home setting predominantly falls to the hands of parents and caregivers. Their understanding of the use and function of their pump is necessary to ensure appropriate, safe, and accurate delivery of enteral nutrition; their experience with this is important in informing clinicians and manufacturers of the emerging needs and requirements of this diverse patient population. The review highlights current practice and areas of concern and establishes our current knowledge in this field. PMID:25170284

  10. Enteral feeding pumps: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White H

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Helen White, Linsey King Nutrition and Dietetic Group, School of Health and Wellbeing, Faculty Health and Social Science, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, United Kingdom Abstract: Enteral feeding is a long established practice across pediatric and adult populations, to enhance nutritional intake and prevent malnutrition. Despite recognition of the importance of nutrition within the modern health agenda, evaluation of the efficacy of how such feeds are delivered is more limited. The accuracy, safety, and consistency with which enteral feed pump systems dispense nutritional formulae are important determinants of their use and acceptability. Enteral feed pump safety has received increased interest in recent years as enteral pumps are used across hospital and home settings. Four areas of enteral feed pump safety have emerged: the consistent and accurate delivery of formula; the minimization of errors associated with tube misconnection; the impact of continuous feed delivery itself (via an enteral feed pump; and the chemical composition of the casing used in enteral feed pump manufacture. The daily use of pumps in delivery of enteral feeds in a home setting predominantly falls to the hands of parents and caregivers. Their understanding of the use and function of their pump is necessary to ensure appropriate, safe, and accurate delivery of enteral nutrition; their experience with this is important in informing clinicians and manufacturers of the emerging needs and requirements of this diverse patient population. The review highlights current practice and areas of concern and establishes our current knowledge in this field. Keywords: nutrition, perceptions, experience

  11. [Update of enteral nutrition at the patient's home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Luna, P P; Parejo Campos, J; Fenoy Macías, J L

    1999-05-01

    Home enteral nutrition is the administration of enteral formulae into the digestive tract using a tube, with the objective of preventing or correcting malnutrition patients who are seen at home. Home enteral nutrition is a type of nutritional support that is growing, that improves the nutritional status of the patient with a lower cost and with a greater quality of life of the family unit than enteral nutrition in the hospital. The prevalence is clearly increasing although the data of the national registers of patients with at home enteral nutrition are under estimated. Patients who are candidates for home enteral nutrition can be all those with an indication for enteral nutrition and whose underlying disease is stabilized or does not require all the technical means of the hospital in a permanent and essential manner. Neoplasias and neurological diseases are those that benefit most from at home enteral nutrition and in all registries each group varies between 30 and 40%. All access routes and all enteral nutrition formulae can be used in patients with home enteral nutrition. The use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies is ever more recommended in patients who need at home enteral nutrition for a period longer than 4 weeks. Since the publication of the Ministerial Order of June 2nd 1998, home enteral nutrition is considered a health care service that can be covered by the Social Security. This order lists a series of disease that are likely to be treated with at home enteral nutrition (in our opinion the list is not complete but it is likely to be changed in the future by an Assessing Committee), and it presents some basic norms that all patients must comply with, regardless of the autonomous community in which they live. Before beginning at home enteral nutrition the training of the patient and/or the family with regard to the management of at home enteral nutrition is essential. The existence of qualified personnel with experience in this nutritional support

  12. Home Enteral Nutrition therapy: Difficulties, satisfactions and support needs of caregivers assisting older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukic P, Nikolina; Gagliardi, Cristina; Fagnani, Donata; Venturini, Claudia; Orlandoni, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to comprehend and describe the views, experiences and adaptations of caregivers who assist older patients treated with Home Enteral Nutrition. The objective was to gather empirical evidence to improve the delivery of Home Enteral Nutrition for old patients taking into account the caregivers' support needs. A qualitative methodology with focus groups as data collection method was used to collect the testimonies of 30 informal and formal caregivers of older patients treated with Home Enteral Nutrition by the Clinical Nutrition Service of INRCA (Ancona) during 2014. Quantitative methodology was used to collect socio-demographic data. Partially modified Silver's "Home Enteral Nutrition Caregiver Task Checklist" was used to identify training needs. The constant comparison method was used to code and categorize data and to develop themes of focus groups. Simple descriptive statistics were used to summarize questionnaires. Five main themes were identified from focus groups: acceptance of the therapy, skill acquisition process, need for psychological and practical support at home from healthcare professionals, lifestyle adaptation, affirmation of life and family. All caregivers testified the initial fear and refusal to manage the nutrition pump and the therapy. They expressed the need to be trained gradually, starting during a patient's hospitalization, and continuing in the community. With reference to their overall QoL, it emerged that informal caregivers suffered mostly from the reduction of their free time while formal caregivers suffered social isolation and psychological burden. For both groups the monthly home visit was the most important element of the HEN service. Informal caregivers highlighted the importance of having their loved ones at home. Unsatisfied training needs were identified by the modified Silver's "Home Enteral Nutrition Caregiver Task Checklist". This qualitative study underlined the challenges and adaptations of

  13. Thermal Inactivation of Enteric Viruses and Bioaccumulation of Enteric Foodborne Viruses in Live Oysters (Crassostrea virginica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araud, Elbashir; DiCaprio, Erin; Ma, Yuanmei; Lou, Fangfei; Gao, Yu; Kingsley, David; Hughes, John H; Li, Jianrong

    2016-01-29

    Human enteric viruses are among the main causative agents of shellfish-associated outbreaks. In this study, the kinetics of viral bioaccumulation in live oysters and the heat stabilities of the predominant enteric viruses were determined both in tissue culture and in oyster tissues. A human norovirus (HuNoV) GII.4 strain, HuNoV surrogates (murine norovirus [MNV-1], Tulane virus [TV]), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and human rotavirus (RV) bioaccumulated to high titers within oyster tissues, with different patterns of bioaccumulation for the different viruses. We tested the thermal stability of each virus at 62, 72, and 80°C in culture medium. The viruses can be ranked from the most heat resistant to the least stable as follows: HAV, RV, TV, MNV-1. In addition, we found that oyster tissues provided protection to the viruses during heat treatment. To decipher the mechanism underlying viral inactivation by heat, purified TV was treated at 80°C for increasing time intervals. It was found that the integrity of the viral capsid was disrupted, whereas viral genomic RNA remained intact. Interestingly, heat treatment leading to complete loss of TV infectivity was not sufficient to completely disrupt the receptor binding activity of TV, as determined by the porcine gastric mucin-magnetic bead binding assay. Similarly, HuNoV virus-like particles (VLPs) and a HuNoV GII.4 strain retained some receptor binding ability following heat treatment. Although foodborne viruses have variable heat stability, 80°C for >6 min was sufficient to completely inactivate enteric viruses in oysters, with the exception of HAV. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Clostridial glucosylating toxins enter cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodorou, Panagiotis; Zamboglou, Constantinos; Genisyuerek, Selda; Guttenberg, Gregor; Aktories, Klaus

    2010-05-17

    Clostridium difficile toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), C. sordellii lethal toxin (TcsL) and C. novyi alpha-toxin (TcnA) are important pathogenicity factors, which represent the family of the clostridial glucosylating toxins (CGTs). Toxin A and B are associated with antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembraneous colitis. Lethal toxin is involved in toxic shock syndrome after abortion and alpha-toxin in gas gangrene development. CGTs enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis and require an acidified endosome for translocation of the catalytic domain into the cytosol. Here we studied the endocytic processes that mediate cell internalization of the CGTs. Intoxication of cells was monitored by analyzing cell morphology, status of Rac glucosylation in cell lysates and transepithelial resistance of cell monolayers. We found that the intoxication of cultured cells by CGTs was strongly delayed when cells were preincubated with dynasore, a cell-permeable inhibitor of dynamin, or chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of the clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway. Additional evidence about the role of clathrin in the uptake of the prototypical CGT family member toxin B was achieved by expression of a dominant-negative inhibitor of the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (Eps15 DN) or by siRNA against the clathrin heavy chain. Accordingly, cells that expressed dominant-negative caveolin-1 were not protected from toxin B-induced cell rounding. In addition, lipid rafts impairment by exogenous depletion of sphingomyelin did not decelerate intoxication of HeLa cells by CGTs. Taken together, our data indicate that the endocytic uptake of the CGTs involves a dynamin-dependent process that is mainly governed by clathrin.

  15. Clostridial glucosylating toxins enter cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Papatheodorou

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile toxin A (TcdA and toxin B (TcdB, C. sordellii lethal toxin (TcsL and C. novyi alpha-toxin (TcnA are important pathogenicity factors, which represent the family of the clostridial glucosylating toxins (CGTs. Toxin A and B are associated with antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembraneous colitis. Lethal toxin is involved in toxic shock syndrome after abortion and alpha-toxin in gas gangrene development. CGTs enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis and require an acidified endosome for translocation of the catalytic domain into the cytosol. Here we studied the endocytic processes that mediate cell internalization of the CGTs. Intoxication of cells was monitored by analyzing cell morphology, status of Rac glucosylation in cell lysates and transepithelial resistance of cell monolayers. We found that the intoxication of cultured cells by CGTs was strongly delayed when cells were preincubated with dynasore, a cell-permeable inhibitor of dynamin, or chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of the clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway. Additional evidence about the role of clathrin in the uptake of the prototypical CGT family member toxin B was achieved by expression of a dominant-negative inhibitor of the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (Eps15 DN or by siRNA against the clathrin heavy chain. Accordingly, cells that expressed dominant-negative caveolin-1 were not protected from toxin B-induced cell rounding. In addition, lipid rafts impairment by exogenous depletion of sphingomyelin did not decelerate intoxication of HeLa cells by CGTs. Taken together, our data indicate that the endocytic uptake of the CGTs involves a dynamin-dependent process that is mainly governed by clathrin.

  16. Agonist-Evoked Ca2+ Signaling in Enteric Glia Drives Neural Programs That Regulate Intestinal Motility in MiceSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon L. McClain

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Gastrointestinal motility is regulated by enteric neural circuitry that includes enteric neurons and glia. Enteric glia monitor synaptic activity and exhibit responses to neurotransmitters that are encoded by intracellular calcium (Ca2+ signaling. What role evoked glial responses play in the neural regulation of gut motility is unknown. We tested how evoking Ca2+ signaling in enteric glia affects the neural control of intestinal motility. Methods: We used a novel chemogenetic mouse model that expresses the designer receptor hM3Dq under the transcriptional control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP promoter (GFAP::hM3Dq mice to selectively trigger glial Ca2+ signaling. We used in situ Ca2+ imaging and immunohistochemistry to validate this model, and we assessed gut motility by measuring pellet output and composition, colonic bead expulsion time, small intestinal transit time, total gut transit time, colonic migrating motor complex (CMMC recordings, and muscle tension recordings. Results: Expression of the hM3Dq receptor is confined to GFAP-positive enteric glia in the intestines of GFAP::hM3Dq mice. In these mice, application of the hM3Dq agonist clozapine-N-oxide (CNO selectively triggers intracellular Ca2+ responses in enteric glia. Glial activation drove neurogenic contractions in the ileum and colon but had no effect on neurogenic relaxations. CNO enhanced the amplitude and frequency of CMMCs in ex vivo preparations of the colon, and CNO increased colonic motility in vivo. CNO had no effect on the composition of fecal matter, small intestinal transit, or whole gut transit. Conclusions: Glial excitability encoded by intracellular Ca2+ signaling functions to modulate excitatory enteric circuits. Selectively triggering glial Ca2+ signaling might be a novel strategy to improve gut function in motility disorders. Keywords: Autonomic, Chemogenetic, Enteric Nervous System, Intestine, Gut

  17. [Home Enteral Nutrition: National Registry 2001].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, M; Castellà, M; García Luna, P P; Parés, R M; Chamorro, J; Camarero, E; Calañas, A J; Bonada, A; Irles, J A; Adrio, G; Jiménez, M; Bobis, M A; Rodríguez, A; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Gómez Enterría, P; Zamarrón, I; Cos, A; Mancha, A; Martínez, I; Martí, E; de Luis, D; Virgili, N; Moreno, J M; Luengo, L M; de la Cuerda, C; Forga, M T; Goenaga, M A; Carrera, J A; Garde, C; Ordóñez, J; Pedrón, C

    2004-01-01

    The NADYA-SENPE Working Group analyzed the registered data of patients on Home Enteral Nutrition (HEN) in our country, during year 2001. The data were collected through a closed questionnaire included on our web site (www.nadya-senpe.com). Apart from epidemiological information, the form includes the indication to prescribe this treatment, the specific nutritional treatment used and its duration, access path, complications and readmission rate in hospital, follow-up of the treatment, patient's quality of life and progress. All data were processed and analyzed by the coordinating team. Twenty two hospitals participated and 3,458 patients, aged 5.6 +/- 4.0 y for those younger than 14 y, and 67.1 +/- 19.5 y for those older than 14 y, were enrolled. Of these patients, 43.4% were diagnosed with neurological diseases and 33.5% with cancer. The mean time on HEN was 6.5 +/- 4.5 months. Oral nutrition was the preferential route (54.5%), followed by nasoenteral tube (32.3%), and in 13.3% ostomy tubes were placed. Polymeric was the formula composition mainly used (85.9%). Patients were followed (71.1%) by the hospital reference Nutritional Support Unit. The complications related to nutrition included mainly the gastrointestinal (0.16 complications/patient), and the mechanical one (0.15 complications/patient). At the end for the year, 48.3% of the patients were in the HEN program, and in 33.3% HEN was finish due to different reasons. In 22.9% of the patients no, o light, discapacity degree was found. Neurological diseases and cancer were the more frequent diagnoses in HEN patients. Oral access was the higher feeding route due, probably, to the high prevalence of cancer patients. In spite of the elevated prevalence of neurological diseases, a few number of patients, as previous years, were feed with ostomy tube. Due to the few complications observed, HEN is a safe treatment in our country.

  18. Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE) is a rare and severe bowel disorder caused by mutation in SKIV2L or in TTC37, 2 genes encoding subunits of the putative human SKI complex. The estimated prevalence is 1/1,000,000 births and the transmission is autosomal recessive. The classical form is characterized by 5 clinical signs: intractable diarrhea of infancy beginning in the first month of life, usually leading to failure to thrive and requiring parenteral nutrition; facial dysmorphism characterised by prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism; hair abnormalities described as woolly and easily removable; immune disorders resulting from defective antibody production; intrauterine growth restriction. The aetiology is a defect in TTC37, a TPR containing protein, or in the RNA helicase SKIV2L, both constituting the putative human ski complex. The ski complex is a heterotetrameric cofactor of the cytoplasmic RNA exosome which ensures aberrants mRNAs decay. The diagnosis SD/THE is initially based on clinical findings and confirmed by direct sequencing of TTC37 and SKIV2L. Differential diagnosis with the other causes of intractable diarrhea is easily performed by pathologic investigations. During their clinical course, most of the children require parenteral nutrition and often immunoglobulin supplementation. With time, some of them can be weaned off parenteral nutrition and immunoglobulin supplementation. The prognosis depends on the management and is largely related to the occurrence of parenteral nutrition complications or infections. Even with optimal management, most of the children seem to experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Mild mental retardation is observed in half of the cases. Abstract in French Les diarrhées syndromiques ou syndrome tricho-hepato-enterique (SD/THE) sont un syndrome rare et sévère dont l’incidence est estimée à 1 cas pour 1 million de naissances et la transmission

  19. Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabre Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE is a rare and severe bowel disorder caused by mutation in SKIV2L or in TTC37, 2 genes encoding subunits of the putative human SKI complex. The estimated prevalence is 1/1,000,000 births and the transmission is autosomal recessive. The classical form is characterized by 5 clinical signs: intractable diarrhea of infancy beginning in the first month of life, usually leading to failure to thrive and requiring parenteral nutrition; facial dysmorphism characterised by prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism; hair abnormalities described as woolly and easily removable; immune disorders resulting from defective antibody production; intrauterine growth restriction. The aetiology is a defect in TTC37, a TPR containing protein, or in the RNA helicase SKIV2L, both constituting the putative human ski complex. The ski complex is a heterotetrameric cofactor of the cytoplasmic RNA exosome which ensures aberrants mRNAs decay. The diagnosis SD/THE is initially based on clinical findings and confirmed by direct sequencing of TTC37 and SKIV2L. Differential diagnosis with the other causes of intractable diarrhea is easily performed by pathologic investigations. During their clinical course, most of the children require parenteral nutrition and often immunoglobulin supplementation. With time, some of them can be weaned off parenteral nutrition and immunoglobulin supplementation. The prognosis depends on the management and is largely related to the occurrence of parenteral nutrition complications or infections. Even with optimal management, most of the children seem to experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Mild mental retardation is observed in half of the cases. Abstract in French Les diarrhées syndromiques ou syndrome tricho-hepato-enterique (SD/THE sont un syndrome rare et sévère dont l’incidence est estimée à 1 cas pour 1 million de naissances et la

  20. Enteral Nutrition in Crohn’s Disease: An Underused Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kansal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature on the history, efficacy, and putative mechanism of action of enteral nutrition for inflammatory bowel disease in both paediatric and adult patients. It also analyses the reasoning behind the low popularity of exclusive enteral nutrition in clinical practice despite the benefits and safety profile.

  1. Effects of nitric oxide modulating activities on development of enteric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... across the epithelium, gastric secretions and blood flow. The ... Abbreviations used: ENCC, enteric neural crest-derived cells; ENS, enteric nervous system; GFAP, glial fibrillary acidic protein; GI, gastrointestinal; KHB .... were kept overnight at room temperature before incubation. The eggs were randomly ...

  2. 30 CFR 228.100 - Entering into an agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entering into an agreement. 228.100 Section 228... MANAGEMENT COOPERATIVE ACTIVITIES WITH STATES AND INDIAN TRIBES Oil and Gas, Onshore § 228.100 Entering into... proposing to undertake activities on Indian lands located within the State, a resolution from the...

  3. Noncommunicating isolated enteric duplication cyst in the abdomen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noncommunicating isolated enteric duplications in the abdomen are an extremely rare variant of enteric duplications with their own blood supply. We report a case of a noncommunicating isolated ileal duplication in a. 10-month-old boy. He was admitted because of severe abdominal distension and developed irritability ...

  4. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified and...

  5. Complications relating to enteral and parenteral nutrition in trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the incidence of complications in patients receiving enteral and parenteral nutrition (PN), and review how the early initiation of enteral feeding and early achievement of caloric goal would affect the incidence of complications. Design: The design was a retrospective audit of ...

  6. Tracing enteric viruses in the European berry fruit supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maunula, L.; Kaupke, A.; Vasickova, P.; Soderberg, K.; Kozyra, I.; Lazic, S.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Bouwknegt, M.; Rutjes, S.; Willems, K.A.; Moloney, R.; Agostino, D' M.; Husman, A.M.D.; Bonsdorff, C.H.; Rzezutka, A.; Pavlik, I.; Petrovic, T.; Cook, N.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous foodborne outbreaks due to consumption of berry fruit contaminated by human enteric viruses have been reported. This European multinational study investigated possible contamination routes by monitoring the entire food chain for a panel of human and animal enteric viruses.

  7. Enteric pathogen modification by anaecic earthworm, Lampito Mauritii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment plant contains several enteric microbial pathogens, predominantly Salmonella and Escherichia species in the range of 15-18 x 104 CFU/g and 11-12 x 104 CFU/g respectively. The present study investigates the influence of earthworm, Lampito mauritii on enteric pathogen ...

  8. Introductory to the ESPEN guidelines on enteral nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochs, H.; Allison, S.P.; Meier, R.

    2006-01-01

    The ESPEN guidelines on enteral nutrition are the first evidence-based European recommendations for enteral nutrition. They were established by European experts for a variety of disease groups. During guideline development it became evident that terms and definitions in clinical nutrition have been...

  9. A Comparison of Postoperative Early Enteral Nutrition with Delayed Enteral Nutrition in Patients with Esophageal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongchao Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined esophageal cancer patients who received enteral nutrition (EN to evaluate the validity of early EN compared to delayed EN, and to determine the appropriate time to start EN. A total of 208 esophagectomy patients who received EN postoperatively were divided into three groups (Group 1, 2 and 3 based on whether they received EN within 48 h, 48 h–72 h or more than 72 h, respectively. The postoperative complications, length of hospital stay (LOH, days for first fecal passage, cost of hospitalization, and the difference in serum albumin values between pre-operation and post-operation were all recorded. The statistical analyses were performed using the t-test, the Mann-Whitney U test and the chi square test. Statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Group 1 had the lowest thoracic drainage volume, the earliest first fecal passage, and the lowest LOH and hospitalization expenses of the three groups. The incidence of pneumonia was by far the highest in Group 3 (p = 0.019. Finally, all the postoperative outcomes of nutritional conditions were the worst by a significant margin in Group 3. It is therefore safe and valid to start early enteral nutrition within 48 h for postoperative esophageal cancer patients.

  10. The adherent abilities of Clostridium perfringens strains are critical for the pathogenesis of avian necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ben; Keyburn, Anthony L; Haring, Volker; Ford, Mark; Rood, Julian I; Moore, Robert J

    2016-12-25

    Necrotic enteritis of poultry is an emerging disease of substantial economic importance, but aspects of the pathogenesis of this multi-factorial disease are still unclear. We recently demonstrated that the ability of avian strains of the causative bacterium, Clostridium perfringens, to bind to specific collagen types correlated strongly with their virulence and we postulated that binding of the pathogen to collagen types IV and V and gelatin may involve the putative adhesin-encoding gene cnaA, which is found in the VR-10B locus. In this study we have used site-directed mutagenesis to demonstrate that disruption of the cnaA gene leads to a reduction in the expression of the three genes immediately downstream of cnaA and reduced adherence to collagen types IV and V and gelatin. In addition, a cnaA mutant of strain EHE-NE18 was no longer capable of causing necrotic enteritis in a chicken disease induction model and had a significantly reduced ability to colonise the chicken intestinal mucosa. These results were confirmed by generating and analysing a similar mutant in an independent necrotic enteritis causing C. perfringens strain. This study expands our understanding of the mechanisms involved in necrotic enteritis pathogenesis by demonstrating the importance of C. perfringens adherence to extracellular matrix proteins. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Engraftment of enteric neural progenitor cells into the injured adult brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkind-Gerson, Jaime; Hotta, Ryo; Whalen, Michael; Nayyar, Naema; Nagy, Nandor; Cheng, Lily; Zuckerman, Aaron; Goldstein, Allan M; Dietrich, Jorg

    2016-01-25

    A major area of unmet need is the development of strategies to restore neuronal network systems and to recover brain function in patients with neurological disease. The use of cell-based therapies remains an attractive approach, but its application has been challenging due to the lack of suitable cell sources, ethical concerns, and immune-mediated tissue rejection. We propose an innovative approach that utilizes gut-derived neural tissue for cell-based therapies following focal or diffuse central nervous system injury. Enteric neuronal stem and progenitor cells, able to differentiate into neuronal and glial lineages, were isolated from the postnatal enteric nervous system and propagated in vitro. Gut-derived neural progenitors, genetically engineered to express fluorescent proteins, were transplanted into the injured brain of adult mice. Using different models of brain injury in combination with either local or systemic cell delivery, we show that transplanted enteric neuronal progenitor cells survive, proliferate, and differentiate into neuronal and glial lineages in vivo. Moreover, transplanted cells migrate extensively along neuronal pathways and appear to modulate the local microenvironment to stimulate endogenous neurogenesis. Our findings suggest that enteric nervous system derived cells represent a potential source for tissue regeneration in the central nervous system. Further studies are needed to validate these findings and to explore whether autologous gut-derived cell transplantation into the injured brain can result in functional neurologic recovery.

  12. Maintenance of the enteric stem cell niche by bacterial lipopolysaccharides? Evidence and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Anne; Klotz, Markus; Schwab, Tanja; Di Liddo, Rosa; Bertalot, Thomas; Schrenk, Sandra; Martin, Monika; Nguyen, The Duy; Nguyen, Thi Nha Quyen; Gries, Manuela; Faßbender, Klaus; Conconi, Maria Teresa; Parnigotto, Pier Paolo; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) has to respond to continuously changing microenvironmental challenges within the gut and is therefore dependent on a neural stem cell niche to keep the ENS functional throughout life. In this study, we hypothesize that this stem cell niche is also affected during inflammation and therefore investigated lipopolysaccharides (LPS) effects on enteric neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). NSPCs were derived from the ENS and cultured under the influence of different LPS concentrations. LPS effects upon proliferation and differentiation of enteric NSPC cultures were assessed using immunochemistry, flow cytometry, western blot, Multiplex ELISA and real-time PCR. LPS enhances the proliferation of enteric NSPCs in a dose-dependent manner. It delays and modifies the differentiation of these cells. The expression of the LPS receptor toll-like receptor 4 on NSPCs could be demonstrated. Moreover, LPS induces the secretion of several cytokines. Flow cytometry data gives evidence for individual subgroups within the NSPC population. ENS-derived NSPCs respond to LPS in maintaining at least partially their stem cell character. In the case of inflammatory disease or trauma where the liberation and exposure to LPS will be increased, the expansion of NSPCs could be a first step towards regeneration of the ENS. The reduced and altered differentiation, as well as the induction of cytokine signalling, demonstrates that the stem cell niche may take part in the LPS-transmitted inflammatory processes in a direct and defined way. PMID:24780093

  13. Nephritis and cerebellar ataxia: rare presenting features of enteric fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar R

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Enteric fever is a common infectious disease of the tropical world, about 80% of these cases occur in Asian countries. Enteric fever presenting with isolated cerebellar ataxia or nephritis is rare. We report three cases of enteric fever that presented with these complications. Isolated cerebellar ataxia usually occurs in the second week, whereas in our cases it presented within first four days of fever. The common complications of enteric fever related to the urinary tract are cystitis, pyelitis, and pyelonephritis. Glomerulonephritis is uncommon. Most patients with enteric glomerulonephritis present with acute renal failure, hypertensive encephalopathy, or nephritic syndrome. In comparison, our case had milder manifestations. All three patients were treated with parenteral ceftriaxone and showed a prompt recovery.

  14. [Preparation of tablets containing enteric-coated diclofenac sodium pellets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiao-Le; Zhu, Jia-Bi; Chen, Sheng-Jun

    2008-01-01

    Fluidized-bed manufactured enteric-coated diclofenac sodium pellets were compressed into tablets. The blend of two aqueous acrylic resins dispersion in different ratios, Eudragit NE30D and Eudragit L30D-55, were used to prepare enteric-coated diclofenac sodium pellets of different particle sizes and coating level. The cushioning pellets with different properties and these enteric-coated pellets were compressed into tablets in different proportions. The drug release of the tablets containing these pellets would be lower than 10% in 2 h in simulated gastric fluid, but reach (83 +/- 2.42)% in 1 h in simulated enteric fluid. The mixture of Eudragit NE30D and Eudragit L30D-55 could be used to prepare enteric pellets which are suitable for compression. The cushioning pellets which were composed of stearic acid/microcrystalline cellulose (4:1, w/w) could avoid rupture of the coating of pellets during the compression.

  15. Depletion of enteric bacteria diminishes leukocyte infiltration following doxorubicin-induced small intestinal damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jacquelyn S; King, Stephanie; Dekaney, Christopher M

    2017-01-01

    While enteric bacteria have been shown to play a critical role in other forms of intestinal damage, their role in mediating the response to the chemotherapeutic drug Doxorubicin (Doxo) is unclear. In this study, we used a mouse model of intestinal bacterial depletion to evaluate the role enteric bacteria play in mediating Doxo-induced small intestinal damage and, more specifically, in mediating chemokine expression and leukocyte infiltration following Doxo treatment. An understanding of this pathway may allow for development of intervention strategies to reduce chemotherapy-induced small intestinal damage. Mice were treated with (Abx) or without (NoAbx) oral antibiotics in drinking water for four weeks and then with Doxo. Jejunal tissues were collected at various time points following Doxo treatment and stained and analyzed for apoptosis, crypt damage and restitution, and macrophage and neutrophil number. In addition, RNA expression of inflammatory markers (TNFα, IL1-β, IL-10) and cytokines (CCL2, CC7, KC) was assessed by qRT-PCR. In NoAbx mice Doxo-induced damage was associated with rapid induction of apoptosis in jejunal crypt epithelium and an increase weight loss and crypt loss. In addition, we observed an increase in immune-modulating chemokines CCL2, CCL7 and KC and infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils. In contrast, while still positive for induction of apoptosis following Doxo treatment, Abx mice showed neither the overall weight loss nor crypt loss seen in NoAbx mice nor the increased chemokine expression and leukocyte infiltration. Enteric bacteria play a critical role in Doxo-induced small intestinal damage and are associated with an increase in immune-modulating chemokines and cells. Manipulation of enteric bacteria or the damage pathway may allow for prevention or treatment of chemotherapy-induced small intestinal damage.

  16. Zebrafish: an exciting model for investigating the spatio-temporal pattern of enteric nervous system development.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doodnath, Reshma

    2012-02-01

    AIM: Recently, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been shown to be an excellent model for human paediatric research. Advantages over other models include its small size, externally visually accessible development and ease of experimental manipulation. The enteric nervous system (ENS) consists of neurons and enteric glia. Glial cells permit cell bodies and processes of neurons to be arranged and maintained in a proper spatial arrangement, and are essential in the maintenance of basic physiological functions of neurons. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is expressed in astrocytes, but also expressed outside of the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal pattern of GFAP expression in developing zebrafish ENS from 24 h post-fertilization (hpf), using transgenic fish that express green fluorescent protein (GFP). METHODS: Zebrafish embryos were collected from transgenic GFP Tg(GFAP:GFP)(mi2001) adult zebrafish from 24 to 120 hpf, fixed and processed for whole mount immunohistochemistry. Antibodies to Phox2b were used to identify enteric neurons. Specimens were mounted on slides and imaging was performed using a fluorescent laser confocal microscope. RESULTS: GFAP:GFP labelling outside the spinal cord was identified in embryos from 48 hpf. The patterning was intracellular and consisted of elongated profiles that appeared to migrate away from the spinal cord into the periphery. At 72 and 96 hpf, GFAP:GFP was expressed dorsally and ventrally to the intestinal tract. At 120 hpf, GFAP:GFP was expressed throughout the intestinal wall, and clusters of enteric neurons were identified using Phox2b immunofluorescence along the pathway of GFAP:GFP positive processes, indicative of a migratory pathway of ENS precursors from the spinal cord into the intestine. CONCLUSION: The pattern of migration of GFAP:GFP expressing cells outside the spinal cord suggests an organized, early developing migratory pathway to the ENS. This shows for the

  17. Detection and molecular characterization of enteric viruses from poult enteritis syndrome in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, N; Patnayak, D P; Chander, Y; Ziegler, A F; Goyal, S M

    2010-02-01

    This study was conducted to detect and characterize enteric viruses [rotavirus, turkey astrovirus-2 (TAstV-2), reovirus, and turkey coronavirus] from cases of poult enteritis syndrome (PES) in Minnesota turkeys. Of the intestinal contents collected from 43 PES cases, 25 were positive for rotavirus and 13 for small round viruses by electron microscopy (EM). Of the enteric virus-positive cases by EM (n=27), 16 cases had rotavirus or small round viruses alone and the remaining 11 cases had both viruses. None of the cases were positive for reovirus or coronavirus by EM. However, with reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), 40 cases (93%) were positive for rotavirus, 36 (84%) for TAstV-2, and 17 (40%) for reovirus. None of the cases were positive for turkey coronavirus by RT-PCR. The viruses from all cases were detected either alone or in combination of 2 or 3 by RT-PCR. Thus, 8 (19%) cases were positive for a single virus, whereas a combination of viruses was detected in the remaining 35 (81%) cases. The rota-TAstV-2 combination was the most predominant (n=18 cases). Fifteen cases were positive for all 3 viruses. The rotaviruses had sequence homology of 89.8 to 100% with previously published sequences of turkey rotaviruses at the nucleotide level. The TAstV-2 had sequence homology of 84.6 to 98.7% with previously published TAstV-2, whereas reoviruses had sequence homology of 91.6 to 99.3% with previously published sequences of turkey reoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that rota- and reoviruses clustered in a single group, whereas TAstV-2 clustered in 2 different groups. In conclusion, a larger number of PES cases was positive for rotavirus, TAstV-2, and reovirus by RT-PCR than with EM. The presence of more than one virus and changes at the genetic level in a virus may affect the severity of PES in turkey flocks.

  18. Medication administration via enteral tubes: a survey of nurses' practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nicole Margaret; Endacott, Ruth

    2011-12-01

    This article is a report of a study examining the practices of acute care nurses when administering medication via enteral tubes. Administering medication via enteral tubes is predominantly a nursing responsibility across countries. It is important to establish what nurses actually do when giving enteral medication to inform policy and continuing education development. In 2007, a survey was conducted using a random sample of acute care nurses at two large metropolitan hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. There were 181 Registered Nurses who participated in the study; 92 (50.8%) practised in intensive care units, 52 (28.7%) in surgical areas, 30 (16.6%) in medical areas and 7 (3.9%) were from combined medical-surgical areas. The questionnaire was developed by the researchers and a pilot study was conducted in August 2006 to test reliability, face validity and user-friendliness of the tool. Nurses reported using a range of methods to verify enteral tube position prior to administering enteral medication; some were unreliable methods. A majority reported administering enteric-coated and slow or extended release forms of medication, and giving solid forms of medication when liquid form was available. Nearly all (96%) reported flushing a tube after giving medication, 28% before, and 12% always flushed between each medication. Enteral medication administration practices are inconsistent. Some nurses are using unsafe practices and may therefore compromise patient care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Enteric microbiota leads to new therapeutic strategies for ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Xu; Ren, Li-Hua; Shi, Rui-Hua

    2014-11-14

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a leading form of inflammatory bowel disease that involves chronic relapsing or progressive inflammation. As a significant proportion of UC patients treated with conventional therapies do not achieve remission, there is a pressing need for the development of more effective therapies. The human gut contains a large, diverse, and dynamic population of microorganisms, collectively referred to as the enteric microbiota. There is a symbiotic relationship between the human host and the enteric microbiota, which provides nutrition, protection against pathogenic organisms, and promotes immune homeostasis. An imbalance of the normal enteric microbiota composition (termed dysbiosis) underlies the pathogenesis of UC. A reduction of enteric microbiota diversity has been observed in UC patients, mainly affecting the butyrate-producing bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which can repress pro-inflammatory cytokines. Many studies have shown that enteric microbiota plays an important role in anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities, which can benefit UC patients. Therefore, manipulation of the dysbiosis is an attractive approach for UC therapy. Various therapies targeting a restoration of the enteric microbiota have shown efficacy in treating patients with active and chronic forms of UC. Such therapies include fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, prebiotics, antibiotics, helminth therapy, and dietary polyphenols, all of which can alter the abundance and composition of the enteric microbiota. Although there have been many large, randomized controlled clinical trials assessing these treatments, the effectiveness and safety of these bacteria-driven therapies need further evaluation. This review focuses on the important role that the enteric microbiota plays in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and discusses new therapeutic strategies targeting the enteric microbiota for UC.

  20. Liver but not adipose tissue is responsive to the pattern of enteral feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Yolanda F; Lundblad, Tammy M; Ford, Eric A; House, Lawrence M; McGuinness, Owen P

    2014-02-01

    Nutritional support is an important aspect of medical care, providing calories to patients with compromised nutrient intake. Metabolism has a diurnal pattern, responding to the light cycle and food intake, which in turn can drive changes in liver and adipose tissue metabolism. In this study, we assessed the response of liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) to different feeding patterns under nutritional support (total enteral nutrition or TEN). Mice received continuous isocaloric TEN for 10 days or equal calories of chow once a day (Ch). TEN was given either at a constant (CN, same infusion rate during 24 h) or variable rate (VN, 80% of calories fed at night, 20% at day). Hepatic lipogenesis and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) expression increased in parallel with the diurnal feeding pattern. Relative to Ch, both patterns of enteral feeding increased adiposity. This increase was not associated with enhanced lipogenic gene expression in WAT; moreover, lipogenesis was unaffected by the feeding pattern. Surprisingly, leptin and adiponectin expression increased. Moreover, nutritional support markedly increased hepatic and adipose FGF21 expression in CN and VN, despite being considered a fasting hormone. In summary, liver but not WAT, respond to the pattern of feeding. While hepatic lipid metabolism adapts to the pattern of nutrient availability, WAT does not. Moreover, sustained delivery of nutrients in an isocaloric diet can cause adiposity without the proinflammatory state observed in hypercaloric feeding. Thus, the liver but not adipose tissue is responsive to the pattern of feeding behavior.

  1. Enteric bacteria promote human and mouse norovirus infection of B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Melissa K; Watanabe, Makiko; Zhu, Shu; Graves, Christina L; Keyes, Lisa R; Grau, Katrina R; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Mariam B; Iovine, Nicole M; Wobus, Christiane E; Vinjé, Jan; Tibbetts, Scott A; Wallet, Shannon M; Karst, Stephanie M

    2014-11-07

    The cell tropism of human noroviruses and the development of an in vitro infection model remain elusive. Although susceptibility to individual human norovirus strains correlates with an individual's histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) profile, the biological basis of this restriction is unknown. We demonstrate that human and mouse noroviruses infected B cells in vitro and likely in vivo. Human norovirus infection of B cells required the presence of HBGA-expressing enteric bacteria. Furthermore, mouse norovirus replication was reduced in vivo when the intestinal microbiota was depleted by means of oral antibiotic administration. Thus, we have identified B cells as a cellular target of noroviruses and enteric bacteria as a stimulatory factor for norovirus infection, leading to the development of an in vitro infection model for human noroviruses. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Enteritis caused by Pasteurella pneumotropica infection in hamsters.

    OpenAIRE

    Lesher, R J; Jeszenka, E V; Swan, M E

    1985-01-01

    Pasteurella pneumotropica was isolated in essentially pure cultures from the bowels of hamsters with enteritis 7 days after parturition. Newly received hamsters showed presence of P. pneumotropica in their nasal cavities but not in their uteri, lungs, spleens, or bowels.

  3. Epigenetic Regulation of Enteric Neurotransmission by Gut Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savidge, Tor C

    2015-01-01

    The Human Microbiome Project defined microbial community interactions with the human host, and provided important molecular insight into how epigenetic factors can influence intestinal ecosystems. Given physiological context, changes in gut microbial community structure are increasingly found to associate with alterations in enteric neurotransmission and disease. At present, it is not known whether shifts in microbial community dynamics represent cause or consequence of disease pathogenesis. The discovery of bacterial-derived neurotransmitters suggests further studies are needed to establish their role in enteric neuropathy. This mini-review highlights recent advances in bacterial communications to the autonomic nervous system and discusses emerging epigenetic data showing that diet, probiotic and antibiotic use may regulate enteric neurotransmission through modulation of microbial communities. A particular emphasis is placed on bacterial metabolite regulation of enteric nervous system function in the intestine.

  4. Environmental enteric dysfunction is associated with altered bile acid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a clinically asymptomatic condition characterized by inflammation of the small bowel mucosa, villous atrophy, and increased gut permeability, is common among children in developing countries. Because of abnormal gut mucosa and altered gut microbiome, EED coul...

  5. Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas prepares to enter Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-83 Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39A with assistance from white room closeout crew members (from left) Rick Welty, Bob Saulnier, and Rene Arriens.

  6. Duck Virus Enteritis for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses some of the options for managing the large numbers of waterfowl should there be an outbreak of the Duck Virus Enteritis Disease at the Prime...

  7. Antibiotic resistance profiles and relatedness of enteric bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic resistance profiles and relatedness of enteric bacterial pathogens isolated from HIV/AIDS patients with and without diarrhoea and their household drinking water in rural communities in Limpopo Province South Africa.

  8. Clinical Aspects of Postoperative Enteral Feeding in the Surgical Patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J.M. Han-Geurts

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis clinical aspects of perioperative feeding in gastrointestinal surgery are discussed in several clinical studies. The main goal is to obtain insight in the influence of enteral feeding and

  9. [Nutrition and health--enteral nutrition in intensive care patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haren, F.M. van; Oudemans-van Straaten, H.M.; Mathus-Vliegen, E.M.H.; Tepaske, R.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional therapy in the intensive care unit exerts favourable effects on morbidity and mortality. Enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. Only perforation or total obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract, proven mesenteric ischaemia and toxic megacolon are absolute

  10. Strategies for design and application of enteric viral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattha, Kuldeep S; Roth, James A; Saif, Linda J

    2015-01-01

    Enteric viral infections in domestic animals cause significant economic losses. The recent emergence of virulent enteric coronaviruses [porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)] in North America and Asia, for which no vaccines are available, remains a challenge for the global swine industry. Vaccination strategies against rotavirus and coronavirus (transmissible gastroenteritis virus) infections are reviewed. These vaccination principles are applicable against emerging enteric infections such as PEDV. Maternal vaccines to induce lactogenic immunity, and their transmission to suckling neonates via colostrum and milk, are critical for early passive protection. Subsequently, in weaned animals, oral vaccines incorporating novel mucosal adjuvants (e.g., vitamin A, probiotics) may provide active protection when maternal immunity wanes. Understanding intestinal and systemic immune responses to experimental rotavirus and transmissible gastroenteritis virus vaccines and infection in pigs provides a basis and model for the development of safe and effective vaccines for young animals and children against established and emerging enteric infections.

  11. Nutritional support via enteral tube feeding in hospital patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Elizabeth

    Patients receiving enteral tube feeding are often encountered in the ward environment of an acute care setting. Patients may receive enteral tube feed through tubes intended for short-term feeding, or they may have a long-term feeding tube in situ. This article aims to provide a practical overview of feeding solutions and administration to enable nursing staff to understand prescribed regimens and provide patients with optimum care.

  12. Antimicrobial effect of Malaysian vegetables against enteric bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanain Al-Talib

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Garlic had excellent antimicrobial effects against enteric bacteria and was recommended to be given to patients with gastroenteritis. The other vegetables (pennywort, mint, parsley and celery showed no inhibitory effects on enteric bacteria but still can be used for its richness in vitamins and fibers. The performance of the well diffusion method was better than that of the disc diffusion method in detecting the antibacterial effects of green vegetables.

  13. [National registry of home enteral nutrition in Spain 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo Pérez, L M; Chicharro, M L; Cuerda, C; García Luna, P P; Rabassa Soler, A; Romero, A; Irles, J A; Penacho, M A; Camarero, E; Martínez Olmos, M A; Calañas, A; Parés, R M; Lecha, M; Gómez Candela, C; Zapata, A; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Luis, D de; Wanden-Berghe, C; Cantón, A; Laborda, L; Matía, P; Martí, E

    2009-01-01

    To communicate the results from the registry of Home-Based Enteral Nutrition of the NADYASENPE group in 2007. We included every patient in the registry with home enteral nutrition any time from January 1st to December 31st of 2007. The number of patients with home enteral nutrition in 2007 was 5,107 (52% male) from 28 different hospitals. 95.4% of them were 15 yr or older, with a mean age of 67.96 +/- 18.12, and 4.2 +/- 3.38 among patients aged 14 yr or less. The most common underlying diseases were neurological (37.8%) and neoplastic diseases (29.3%). Enteral nutrition was administered p.o. in most patients (63.5%), followed by nasogastric tube (25.9%), while gastrostomy was only used in 9.2%. The mean time in enteral nutrition support was 9.4 months and the most common reasons for withdrawal were death (58.7%) and switching to oral intake (32%). Activity was limited in 31.4% of patients and 36.01% were house-bound. Most patients needed partial (26.51%) or total (37.68%) care assistance. Enteral formula was provided by hospitals to 69.14% of patients and by pharmacies to 30.17% of them, while disposable material was provided by hospitals to 81.63% and by Primary Care to the remaining patients. In 2007, there has been an increase of more than 30% of patients registered with home enteral nutrition comparing with 2006, without any big difference in other data, but a higher proportion of patients with enteral nutrition p.o.

  14. Gene expression analysis: Regulation of key genes associated with mycophenolate mofetil treatment of symptomatic carotid artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Feng; Wang, Kai; Sun, Xiaochuan; Zhang, Zhanpu; Han, Ping

    2017-11-01

    The present study analyzed gene expression arrays to identify differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) between mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)‑treated and placebo‑treated patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis (SCAS). In addition, the key genes involved in the pharmacology of MMF treatment in patients with SCAS were identified. The gene expression dataset was obtained from a Gene Expression Omnibus database, which included 9 MMF‑treated and 11 placebo‑treated samples. The DEGs were identified between MMF and placebo groups using R software. Furthermore, a protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network of the identified DEGS was constructed. The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery was used to perform Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses of the 19 most significant DEGs. A total of 210 DEGs between the MMF and placebo groups were screened and their PPI was constructed. GO function analysis revealed that the 19 DEGs were predominantly involved in the tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription‑5 protein, which is closely associated with the activation of T cells. The KEGG pathway analysis suggested that the main metabolic pathways of the 19 DEGs were associated with the pharmacological functioning of MMF in activated T cells. In conclusion, the present study identified numerous key DEGs associated with SCAS, and the results suggested that v‑kit Hardy‑Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog and apelin may serve important roles in the MMF treatment of SCAS.

  15. Enteral nutrition and drug administration, interactions, and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Barbara L; Clifford, Timothy M; Hoskins, Lora A; Bernard, Andrew C

    2005-12-01

    The enteral route has become the standard of care to deliver nutrition support for hospitalized acute care and ambulatory care patients. The same access device is increasingly being used to deliver medications, which provides cost savings but also creates new challenges. Cost savings can be negated if the concomitant administration of nutrition elicits a decrease in bioavailability due to incompatibilities that alter drug or nutrition therapy. Feeding tubes can deliver nutrients and drugs to the stomach, small bowel, or both, with optimal efficacy of medications depending on delivery to the appropriate segment of the gastrointestinal tract. Liquid preparations are often the preferred formulation for enteral administration. Obstruction of the enteral access device may occur when specialized medication formulations are altered inappropriately. Occasionally, the enteral formula should be changed to modify the content of free water, fiber, electrolytes, or vitamins that may interfere with the drug therapy. Intolerance to enteral nutrition such as abdominal distention and diarrhea may be the result of the medication, and the causative agent should be identified to improve patient comfort. This article will address optimal drug delivery via enteral access devices and possible complications associated with therapy.

  16. Enteral nutrition and immune modulation of acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazi, Refaat A; DeWitt, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    Enteral nutrition has been strongly recommended by major scientific societies for the nutritional management of patients with acute pancreatitis. Providing severe acute pancreatitis patients with enteral nutrition within the first 24-48 h of hospital admission can help improve outcomes compared to parenteral nutrition and no feeding. New research is focusing in on when and what to feed to best improve outcomes for acute pancreatitis patients. Early enteral nutrition have the potential to modulate the immune responses. Despite this consistent evidence of early enteral nutrition in patients with acute pancreatitis, clinical practice continues to vary due to individual clinician preference. Achieving the immune modulating effects of enteral nutrition heavily depend on proper placement of the feeding tube and managing any tube feeding associated complications. The current article reviews the immune modulating effects of enteral nutrition and pro- and prebiotics and suggests some practical tools that help improve the patient adherence and tolerance to the tube feeding. Proper selection of the type of the tube, close monitoring of the tube for its placement, patency and securing its proper placement and routine checking the gastric residual volume could all help improve the outcome. Using peptide-based and high medium chain triglycerides feeding formulas help improving feeding tolerance. PMID:25473161

  17. Enteral tube feeding: using good practice to prevent infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Hardip

    2017-01-12

    Enteral tube feeding is the delivery of nutritionally complete feed via a tube into the gut. It is used for patients who are unable to meet their nutritional needs orally. Enteral feeding can be given through a variety of different tubes that access the gastrointestinal tract either via the stomach or the small bowel. The contamination of enteral feed can often be overlooked as a source of bacterial infection. Enteral feeds can become contaminated in a variety of different ways. Most often infections result in extended lengths of stay in hospital and patients also need additional therapies and treatments in order to resolve these infections. Healthcare-associated infections not only affect the patients who acquire them but also have an impact on the staff involved in their care. Each acute trust will have its own local policies and guidelines regarding enteral feeding and infection control and prevention. These local documents will be based on national initiatives and guidelines. It is important for nurses to refer to their local policies and guidelines before they start a patient on enteral feeding to ensure that they are doing so in the safest manner possible. Nurses' practice is key to preventing bacterial contamination in such patients.

  18. Enteral nutrition intolerance in critically ill septic burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentieva, Athina; Kontakiotis, Theodore; Bitzani, Militsa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of enteral feeding intolerance in critically ill septic burn patients, the effect of enteral feeding intolerance on the efficacy of feeding, the correlation between the infection marker (procalcitonin [PCT]) and the nutrition status marker (prealbumin) and the impact of feeding intolerance on the outcome of septic burn patients. From January 2009 to December 2012 the data of all burn patients with the diagnosis of sepsis who were placed on enteral nutrition were analyzed. Septic patients were divided into two groups: group A, septic patients who developed feeding intolerance; group B, septic patients who did not develop feeding intolerance. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were analyzed and compared. The diagnosis of sepsis was applied to 29% of all patients. Of these patients 35% developed intolerance to enteral feeding throughout the septic period. A statistically significant increase in mean PCT level and a decrease in prealbumin level was observed during the sepsis period. Group A patients had statistically significant lower mean caloric intake, higher PCT:prealbumin ratio, higher pneumonia incidence, higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Maximum Score, a longer duration of mechanical ventilation, and a higher mortality rate in comparison with the septic patients without gastric feeding intolerance. The authors concluded that a high percentage of septic burn patients developed enteral feeding intolerance. Enteral feeding intolerance seems to have a negative impact on the patients' nutritional status, morbidity, and mortality.

  19. Parenteral or enteral nutrition: do you have the choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Taku; Singer, Pierre; Pichard, Claude

    2016-08-01

    The review focuses on the use of parenteral nutrition and enteral nutrition in critically ill patients to optimize the nutrition care throughout the ICU stay. The key message is: you have the choice! Enteral nutrition has been recommended for critically ill patients, whereas parenteral nutrition has been considered harmful and to be avoided. However, recent studies have challenged this theory. They demonstrated that enteral nutrition is frequently associated with energy and protein undernutrition, whereas parenteral nutrition becomes deleterious only if overfeeding is induced. Measuring energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry, in most cases, enables accurate determination of the energy needs to optimize the prescription of nutrition. Protein targets should also be considered for adequate feeding. Parenteral nutrition can be used as a supplement or as an alternative to enteral nutrition in case of gastrointestinal intolerance, to enable adequate energy, and protein provision. Parenteral nutrition is a powerful tool to optimize nutrition care of critically ill patients to improve clinical outcome, if prescribed according to the individual needs of the patients. After 3-4 days of attempt to feed enterally, enteral nutrition or parenteral nutrition can be used alternatively or combined, as long as the target is reached with special attention to avoid hypercaloric feeding.

  20. [Biological evaluation of a protein mixture intended for enteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, J Olza; Foulquie, J Porres; Valero, G Urbano; de Victoria, E Martínez; Hernández, A Gil

    2008-01-01

    Enteral nutrition is the best way to feed or supplement the diet when gastrointestinal tract functions of patients are partially or totally preserved. Whenever total enteral nutrition is needed, it represents the only source of nutrients for patients. Thus, it is mandatory to ensure that high biological value proteins are included in enteral formulae. To assess the biological quality of a protein blend constituted by 50% potassium caseinate, 25% whey protein and 25% pea protein intended to be used in enteral nutrition products. Forty Wistar rats (20 male and 20 female), with initial body weight of 51 g, where divided into four groups and feed for 10 days with: casein (Control), experimental protein blend (Experimental), liophylized normo- and hyperproteic enteral nutrition formulae adapted to the animal nutritional requirements (Normoproteic and Hyperproteic). Protein efficiency ratio (PER), apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC), relationship between retained and absorbed nitrogen (R/A) and relationship between retained and consumed nitrogen (R/I) where calculated. Experimental and control groups had similar values for all analysed indices (PER, ADC, R/A and R/I). These indices where also similar between normo and hyperproteic groups, but lower than experimental and control groups, except in PER, where normoproteic group was either similar to control and hiperproteic group. The quality of the protein blend used in this study is high. It is a good protein source to be used in the development of new enteral nutritional products.

  1. A Rare Case of Primary Tubular Adenocarcinoma of the Thymus, Enteric Immunophenotype: A Case Study and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Yoen Jung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thymic carcinomas are uncommon malignant tumors, and thymic adenocarcinomas are extremely rare. Here, we describe a case of primary thymic adenocarcinoma in a 59-year-old woman. Histological examination of the tumor revealed tubular morphology with expression of cytokeratin 20 and caudal-type homeobox 2 according to immunohistochemistry, suggesting enteric features. Extensive clinical and radiological studies excluded the possibility of an extrathymic primary tumor. A review of the literature revealed only two global cases of primary tubular adenocarcinomas of the thymus with enteric immunophenotype.

  2. Gastrin Induces Nuclear Export and Proteasome Degradation of Menin in Enteric Glial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Sinju; Meininger, Cameron A; Kang, Anthony J; Photenhauer, Amanda L; Hayes, Michael M; Sahoo, Nirakar; Grembecka, Jolanta; Cierpicki, Tomasz; Ding, Lin; Giordano, Thomas J; Else, Tobias; Madrigal, David J; Low, Malcolm J; Campbell, Fiona; Baker, Ann-Marie; Xu, Haoxing; Wright, Nicholas A; Merchant, Juanita L

    2017-12-01

    The multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 1 (MEN1) locus encodes the nuclear protein and tumor suppressor menin. MEN1 mutations frequently cause neuroendocrine tumors such as gastrinomas, characterized by their predominant duodenal location and local metastasis at time of diagnosis. Diffuse gastrin cell hyperplasia precedes the appearance of MEN1 gastrinomas, which develop within submucosal Brunner's glands. We investigated how menin regulates expression of the gastrin gene and induces generation of submucosal gastrin-expressing cell hyperplasia. Primary enteric glial cultures were generated from the VillinCre:Men1FL/FL:Sst-/- mice or C57BL/6 mice (controls), with or without inhibition of gastric acid by omeprazole. Primary enteric glial cells from C57BL/6 mice were incubated with gastrin and separated into nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. Cells were incubated with forskolin and H89 to activate or inhibit protein kinase A (a family of enzymes whose activity depends on cellular levels of cyclic AMP). Gastrin was measured in blood, tissue, and cell cultures using an ELISA. Immunoprecipitation with menin or ubiquitin was used to demonstrate post-translational modification of menin. Primary glial cells were incubated with leptomycin b and MG132 to block nuclear export and proteasome activity, respectively. We obtained human duodenal, lymph node, and pancreatic gastrinoma samples, collected from patients who underwent surgery from 1996 through 2007 in the United States or the United Kingdom. Enteric glial cells that stained positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP+) expressed gastrin de novo through a mechanism that required PKA. Gastrin-induced nuclear export of menin via cholecystokinin B receptor (CCKBR)-mediated activation of PKA. Once exported from the nucleus, menin was ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome. GFAP and other markers of enteric glial cells (eg, p75 and S100B), colocalized with gastrin in human duodenal gastrinomas. MEN1-associated

  3. Isolation of Enteric Nervous System Progenitor Cells from the Aganglionic Gut of Patients with Hirschsprung’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David J.; Bethell, George S.; Shukla, Rajeev; Kenny, Simon E.; Edgar, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Enteric nervous system progenitor cells isolated from postnatal human gut and cultured as neurospheres can then be transplanted into aganglionic gut to restore normal patterns of contractility. These progenitor cells may be of future use to treat patients with Hirschprung’s disease, a congenital condition characterized by hindgut dysmotility due to the lack of enteric nervous system ganglia. Here we demonstrate that progenitor cells can also be isolated from aganglionic gut removed during corrective surgery for Hirschsprung’s disease. Although the enteric nervous system marker calretinin is not expressed in the aganglionic gut region, de novo expression is initiated in cultured neurosphere cells isolated from aganglionic Hirschsprung bowel. Furthermore, expression of the neural markers NOS, VIP and GFAP also increased during culture of aganglionic gut neurospheres which we show can be transplantation into cultured embryonic mouse gut explants to restore a normal frequency of contractility. To determine the origin of the progenitor cells in aganglionic region, we used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to demonstrate that only p75-positive neural crest-derived cells present in the thickened nerve trunks characteristic of the aganglionic region of Hirschsprung gut gave rise to neurons in culture. The derivation of enteric nervous system progenitors in the aganglionic gut region of Hirschprung’s patients not only means that this tissue is a potential source of cells for future autologous transplantation, but it also raises the possibility of inducing the differentiation of these endogenous cells in situ to compensate for the aganglionosis. PMID:25992739

  4. Role of FODMAP content in enteral nutrition-associated diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmos, Emma P

    2013-12-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms including diarrhea are common complications of enteral nutrition (EN); however, the cause is unclear. Mode of EN delivery that alters digestion and possibly absorption is suggested to contribute to the high incidence of diarrhea; however, enteral formula is frequently blamed. Most research has focused on fiber-supplemented EN, with a meta-analysis showing that fiber reduces the incidence of diarrhea in non-intensive care unit studies. Other hypotheses include formula osmolality and FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) content. FODMAPs are poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates that exert an osmotic effect. Dietary FODMAPs have been shown to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhea, in those with irritable bowel syndrome and, given a high-enough dose, will induce a laxative effect in most people. As FODMAPs are commonly added to enteral formula and EN is frequently used as the main source of nutrition, it is reasonable to hypothesize that EN provides more FODMAPs than usual dietary intake and increases risk for developing diarrhea. This hypothesis was assessed through a retrospective study showing that the standard-use enteral formula Isosource 1.5 had a protective effect of developing diarrhea. The only characteristic unique to Isosource 1.5 was the lower FODMAP content as determined through methodologies previously validated for food analysis. Methodologies for application to enteral formulas are currently undergoing formal validation. Once confirmed for application in enteral formula, future directions include FODMAP analysis of specific ingredients to increase understanding of potential problems associated with enteral formula and a randomized, controlled trial investigating the role of formula FODMAP content. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. [National registry of Home Enteral Nutrition in 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, M; Lecha, M; García Luna, P P; Parés, R M; Chamorro, J; Martí, E; Bonada, A; Irles, J A; Boris, M A; Cardona, D; Zamarrón, I; Calañas, A J; Rodríguez, A; Camarero, E; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Mancha, A; De Luis Román, D; Cos, A; Luengo, L M; Jiménez, M; Bayo, P; Goenaga, M A

    2006-01-01

    To communicate the information available by the NADYA-SENPE Working Group from patients on Home Enteral Nutrition (HEN) in our country during the year 2003. The data were collected through a closed questionnaire included in the web site of the Working Group (www.nadya-senpe.com) available only by the authorized users. Variable included were: epidemiological information, the indication to prescribe this treatment, the access path, the specific nutritional formula used, the treatment duration, the complications and hospital readmission related to the nutritional treatment, the follow-up and the quality of life. We register 3,858 patients that belong to twenty-one hospitals. Mean age from those adults 66.2 +/- 18.9 years, and from those younger than 14, 6.0 +/- 4.3 years. Neurological and neoplasic diseases were the diagnostics more frequents (38.9% and 37.4%, respectively). Oral nutrition was the preferential rout used for the enteral nutrition (54.7%) followed by naso-enteral tube (26.6%), and only in 17.6% we used ostomy tubes. Polymeric was the enteral formula mainly utilized (80.1%). The mean time on HEN was 6.6 +/- 4.3 months; the 28.8% of patients stayed in the treatment for less than 3 months, 21.2 % between 3 and 6 months, and 50.0% more than 6 months. Patients were followed mainly by Nutritional Support Unit from the reference hospital (73.1%). While the reference hospital supplies the material (62.4%), reference hospital pharmacy (46.8%) and public pharmacies (32.0%) provides the enteral formula. Complications related to enteral nutrition included change of enteral tube (44.5%), gastrointestinal complications (30.5%), mechanical complications (21.7%), and the metabolic one (3.3%). These complications were followed by 0.02 hospitalizations/patient. At the end of the year, 54.7% of patients were in the HEN programme, and in 35.2 % HEN was finish due to accept oral conventional alimentation (49.2%) or by deceased of patients (40.9%). While 26.6% of the

  6. Stress levels experienced by the parents of enterally fed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, S D; Parsons, H G; Dewey, D

    2004-09-01

    The stress levels of parents of children with chronic illness/disability who were also involved in an enteral feeding programme were examined and compared to the stress levels of parents of healthy children and parents of children with other chronic illnesses reported in previous research. Sixty-four parents who had a child with an enteral feeding tube completed the Parenting Stress Index (PSI). Based on criteria developed by Abidin (1995), 42.18% (n = 29) of these parents displayed high stress levels. T-tests revealed that Total Stress scores on the PSI of the parents of children involved in the enteral feeding programme were significantly higher than those reported in the sample of parents used to norm the PSI (P parents of children with growth deficiencies (P parents of children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (P parents of children with Rett syndrome, the parents of children involved in the enteral feeding programme reported similar levels of stress on the Parent Domain of the PSI and significantly less stress on the Child Domain (P parents of children with an enteral feeding tube were severity of their child's illness/disability, the constant caretaking demands placed on the parent, and the level of support provided by the parents' social network.

  7. The Use of Enteral Nutrition in the Management of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Omorogieva; Brooke, Joanne

    2016-12-20

    This article discusses the use of enteral nutrition in the management of stroke. Stroke is a major source of disability, including dysphagia. The clinical manifestation of swallowing difficulties in stroke patients may lead to malnutrition which has implications for health status and clinical outcomes including morbidity, mortality and cost to the health service. The prevalence of malnutrition following an acute stroke could range from 8% to 34%. Therefore, the need to develop and implement the use of enteral nutrition support in stroke patients becomes pertinent. A range of enteral feeding tubes and feeding methods may be used to support stroke patients who are unable to meet their nutritional requirements through oral intake alone, although each of these approaches has its merits and limitations. Based on this review, there is evidence that enteral nutrition support is a useful method of providing nutrition for patients with dysphagia following a stroke in order to enhance their nutritional status and promote their health. However, there are challenges in the use of enteral tube feeding in these patients.

  8. Recent developments in enteral feeding for adults: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlin, Sophie

    In the 1980s, enteral nutrition became increasingly recognised as a safe, effective and cost-efficient method of providing nutrition to patients with a functional gut (Silk, 2003). With this came the development of feeding-specific nasogastric (NG) tubes (Rees et al, 1986) and the formulation of nutritionally complete, ready-to-hang feeds (Keohane et al, 1983), as well as the creation of gastrostomy tubes for direct access to the stomach by Ponsky and Gauderer (1981) followed by jejunostomys 11 years later (Shike et al, 1991). Since then there have been many developments in every aspect of enteral feeding, with over 30 enteral feeds listed in the British National Formulary (BNF) (Joint Formulary Committee, 2012) and companies continually designing new tubes that are smaller or more comfortable and feeding pumps that are quieter and easier to use. This article discusses the developments in enteral feeding over the last 5 years to give the reader an update on current topics and issues in enteral feeding.

  9. The Use of Enteral Nutrition in the Management of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omorogieva Ojo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the use of enteral nutrition in the management of stroke. Stroke is a major source of disability, including dysphagia. The clinical manifestation of swallowing difficulties in stroke patients may lead to malnutrition which has implications for health status and clinical outcomes including morbidity, mortality and cost to the health service. The prevalence of malnutrition following an acute stroke could range from 8% to 34%. Therefore, the need to develop and implement the use of enteral nutrition support in stroke patients becomes pertinent. A range of enteral feeding tubes and feeding methods may be used to support stroke patients who are unable to meet their nutritional requirements through oral intake alone, although each of these approaches has its merits and limitations. Based on this review, there is evidence that enteral nutrition support is a useful method of providing nutrition for patients with dysphagia following a stroke in order to enhance their nutritional status and promote their health. However, there are challenges in the use of enteral tube feeding in these patients.

  10. Molecular detection of porcine enteric caliciviruses in Venezuelan farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Mindre A; Alcalá, Ana C; Carruyo, Gabriela; Botero, Ligia; Liprandi, Ferdinando; Ludert, Juan E

    2006-08-25

    Caliciviruses are a well-established cause of respiratory, vesicular and hemorrhagic diseases in animals. In addition, these viruses are an important cause of enteric diseases in humans. Recently, molecular analysis of several porcine enteric caliciviruses indicated that they are closely related to human enteric caliciviruses. The objective of this work was to determine the frequency, age distribution, and association with diarrhea of enteric calicivirus infections in piglets and to partially characterize the detected isolates. A total of 203 stool samples from animals 0 to 9 weeks of age, collected between 1993 and 2003 in seven porcine farms located in the central region of Venezuela were tested for enteric caliciviruses by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification using primers designed to detect both norovirus and sapovirus. Selected amplicons were sequenced to establish phylogenetic relationships with reference strains. Calicivirus were detected in 18% (36/204) of the samples. Viruses were detected more frequently in animals between 3 and 4 weeks of age, and were detected in samples from animals with diarrhea and without diarrhea with equal frequencies (14 versus 19%, p>0.5). Phylogenetic studies based on partial RNA polymerase gene sequences indicated that the Venezuelan isolates were most closely related (75-95% identity) to the sapovirus Cowden reference strain. These results provide evidence that caliciviruses of the genus sapovirus circulate frequently in piglets but further studies are needed to clarify their importance as cause of diarrhea.

  11. Polypharmacy and enteral nutrition in patients with complex chronic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Jiménez, Rosa Mª; Ortega Navarro, Cristina; Cuerda Compés, Cristina

    2017-05-08

    Oral medications are often administered through enteral feeding tubes in patients with complex chronic diseases. It is important to consider possible interactions between drugs and enteral nutrition that might lead to unsuccessful treatment or tube occlusion. These patients become subjects for higher risk of problems and errors such as drug incompatibility with enteral nutrition and inappropriate dosage form selection. It is possible to minimize the risk of tube occlusion and incompatibilities problems by recognizing potential medication errors, selecting the most appropriate drug and dosage form and using appropriate administration techniques. In this context, high-alert medications for patients with chronic diseases deserve special attention. Furthermore, risk exposure should be considered among healthcare professionals and patient caregivers handling hazardous drugs. Therefore, main incompatibility problems between drugs and enteral nutrition have been reviewed, including general recommendations for administration of oral medications through enteral feeding tubes and safe handling of hazardous drugs. Specific recommendations for administration of high-alert medications for patients with chronic diseases are also included.

  12. Implementation of enteral feeding protocol in an intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padar, Martin; Uusvel, Gerli; Starkopf, Liis

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of implementing an enteral feeding protocol on the nutritional delivery and outcomes of intensive care patients. METHODS: An uncontrolled, observational before-and-after study was performed in a tertiary mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU). In 2013, a nu...... predictors of insufficient enteral nutrition. CONCLUSION: The use of a nurse-driven feeding protocol improves the delivery of enteral nutrition in ICU patients without concomitant increases in gastrointestinal symptoms or intra-abdominal hypertension.......AIM: To determine the effects of implementing an enteral feeding protocol on the nutritional delivery and outcomes of intensive care patients. METHODS: An uncontrolled, observational before-and-after study was performed in a tertiary mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU). In 2013......, a nurse-driven enteral feeding protocol was developed and implemented in the ICU. Nutrition and outcome-related data from patients who were treated in the study unit from 2011-2012 (the Before group) and 2014-2015 (the After group) were obtained from a local electronic database, the national Population...

  13. Enteral nutrition in person with Dementia: Indication, effects and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Alves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This systematic literature review aims to clarify indications for the use of enteral feeding in patients with dementia. Difficulties in feeding patients with dementia may arise at any stage of the disease and may include malnutrition, weight loss, decreased quality of life, among others. Enteral tube feeding by tube may be a way of mitigating the effects, but its benefits are under discussion. Methods: Eight qualitative studies were included: 5 primary sources, 3 systematic literature reviews, published in the 2008-2013 period. Results: Enteral tube feeding in patients with dementia may affect survival/mortality rate (no evidence of benefit, nutritional status (no improvement, functional status and cognitive development (no improvement, aspiration (does not reduce the risk of aspiration, pressure ulcers (no evidence of benefit in ulcers incidence and progression, and quality of life (without hard data in most studies. Conclusion: Evidence on benefits of enteral tube feeding in patients with dementia was not conclusive and may even have the opposite effect. We lack data on the adverse effects of these interventions. Keywords: Palliative care; Dementia; Enteral feeding; Therapeutic use.

  14. Probiotic Enhanced Intestinal Immunity in Broilers against Subclinical Necrotic Enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesong Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Along with banning of antibiotics, necrotic enteritis (NE, especially subclinical NE (SNE whereby no clinical signs are present in chicks, has become one of the most threatening problems in poultry industry. Therefore, increasing attention has been focused on research and application of effective probiotic strains, as an alternative to antibiotics, to prevent SNE in broilers. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus johnsonii BS15 on the prevention of SNE in broilers. Specifically, assessment determined the growth performance and indexes related to intestinal mucosal immunity in the ileum and cecal tonsil of broilers. A total of 300 1-day-old Cobb 500 chicks were randomly distributed into the following 5 groups: control group (fed with basal diet + de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe liquid medium [normal diet], SNE group (normal diet, BS15 group (basal diet + 1 × 106 colony-forming units BS15/g as fed [BS15 diet], treatment group (normal diet [days 1–28] + BS15 diet [days 29–42], and prevention group (BS15 diet [days 1–28] + normal diet [days 29–42] throughout a 42-day experimental period. SNE infection was treated for all chicks in the SNE, BS15, treatment, and prevention groups. The present results demonstrated that BS15 supplementation of feeds in BS15 and prevention groups exerted a positive effect on preventing negative influences on growth performance; these negative influences included low body weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio caused by SNE. Although no changes were detected in all determined indexes in cecal tonsils, BS15-treated broilers were free from SNE-caused damage in villi in the ileum. BS15 inhibited SNE-caused decrease in immunoglobulins in the ileum. In the lamina propria of ileum, T cell subsets of lymphocytes influenced by SNE were also controlled by BS15. BS15 affected antioxidant abilities of the ileum and controlled SNE-induced mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis by

  15. Probiotic Enhanced Intestinal Immunity in Broilers against Subclinical Necrotic Enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hesong; Ni, Xueqin; Qing, Xiaodan; Liu, Lei; Lai, Jing; Khalique, Abdul; Li, Guangyao; Pan, Kangcheng; Jing, Bo; Zeng, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Along with banning of antibiotics, necrotic enteritis (NE), especially subclinical NE (SNE) whereby no clinical signs are present in chicks, has become one of the most threatening problems in poultry industry. Therefore, increasing attention has been focused on research and application of effective probiotic strains, as an alternative to antibiotics, to prevent SNE in broilers. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus johnsonii BS15 on the prevention of SNE in broilers. Specifically, assessment determined the growth performance and indexes related to intestinal mucosal immunity in the ileum and cecal tonsil of broilers. A total of 300 1-day-old Cobb 500 chicks were randomly distributed into the following 5 groups: control group (fed with basal diet + de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe liquid medium [normal diet]), SNE group (normal diet), BS15 group (basal diet + 1 × 106 colony-forming units BS15/g as fed [BS15 diet]), treatment group (normal diet [days 1-28] + BS15 diet [days 29-42]), and prevention group (BS15 diet [days 1-28] + normal diet [days 29-42]) throughout a 42-day experimental period. SNE infection was treated for all chicks in the SNE, BS15, treatment, and prevention groups. The present results demonstrated that BS15 supplementation of feeds in BS15 and prevention groups exerted a positive effect on preventing negative influences on growth performance; these negative influences included low body weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio caused by SNE. Although no changes were detected in all determined indexes in cecal tonsils, BS15-treated broilers were free from SNE-caused damage in villi in the ileum. BS15 inhibited SNE-caused decrease in immunoglobulins in the ileum. In the lamina propria of ileum, T cell subsets of lymphocytes influenced by SNE were also controlled by BS15. BS15 affected antioxidant abilities of the ileum and controlled SNE-induced mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis by positively changing

  16. Activation of neuronal P2X7 receptor-pannexin-1 mediates death of enteric neurons during colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbransen, Brian D; Bashashati, Mohammad; Hirota, Simon A; Gui, Xianyong; Roberts, Jane A; MacDonald, Justin A; Muruve, Daniel A; McKay, Derek M; Beck, Paul L; Mawe, Gary M; Thompson, Roger J; Sharkey, Keith A

    2012-03-18

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic relapsing and remitting conditions associated with long-term gut dysfunction resulting from alterations to the enteric nervous system and a loss of enteric neurons. The mechanisms underlying inflammation-induced enteric neuron death are unknown. Here using in vivo models of experimental colitis we report that inflammation causes enteric neuron death by activating a neuronal signaling complex composed of P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs), pannexin-1 (Panx1) channels, the Asc adaptor protein and caspases. Inhibition of P2X7R, Panx1, Asc or caspase activity prevented inflammation-induced neuron cell death. Preservation of enteric neurons by inhibiting Panx1 in vivo prevented the onset of inflammation-induced colonic motor dysfunction. Panx1 expression was reduced in Crohn's disease but not ulcerative colitis. We conclude that activation of neuronal Panx1 underlies neuron death and the subsequent development of abnormal gut motility in IBD. Targeting Panx1 represents a new neuroprotective strategy to ameliorate the progression of IBD-associated dysmotility.

  17. Isogenic enteric neural progenitor cells can replace missing neurons and glia in mice with Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, R; Cheng, L S; Graham, H K; Pan, W; Nagy, N; Belkind-Gerson, J; Goldstein, A M

    2016-04-01

    Transplanting autologous patient-derived enteric neuronal stem/progenitor cells (ENSCs) is an innovative approach to replacing missing enteric neurons in patients with Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). Using autologous cells eliminates immunologic and ethical concerns raised by other cell sources. However, whether postnatal aganglionic bowel is permissive for transplanted ENSCs and whether ENSCs from HSCR patients can be successfully isolated, cultured, and transplanted in vivo remains unknown. ENSCs isolated from the ganglionic intestine of Ednrb(-/-) mice (HSCR-ENSCs) were characterized immunohistochemically and evaluated for their capacity to proliferate and differentiate in vitro. Fluorescently labeled ENSCs were co-cultured ex vivo with aganglionic Ednrb(-/-) colon. For in vivo transplantation, HSCR-ENSCs were labeled with lentivirus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and implanted into aganglionic embryonic chick gut in ovo and postnatal aganglionic Ednrb(-/-) rectum in vivo. HSCR-ENSCs maintain normal capacity self-renewal and neuronal differentiation. Moreover, the Ednrb(-/-) aganglionic environment is permissive to engraftment by wild-type ENSCs ex vivo and supports migratrion and neuroglial differentiation of these cells following transplantation in vivo. Lentiviral GFP-labeled HSCR-ENSCs populated embryonic chick hindgut and postnatal colon of Ednrb(-/-) HSCR, with cells populating the intermuscular layer and forming enteric neurons and glia. ENSCs can be isolated and cultured from mice with HSCR, and transplanted into the aganglionic bowel of HSCR littermates to generate enteric neuronal networks. These results in an isogenic model establish the potential of using autologous-derived stem cells to treat HSCR and other intestinal neuropathies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Update on enteral nutrition support for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Jamie M; Lingard, Catherine; Sontag, Marci

    2007-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease affecting the respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, and reproductive systems. Nutrition status in persons with CF is often compromised due to increased energy needs, frequent infections, pancreatic insufficiency, lung disease, or CF-related diabetes. Maintaining good nutrition status has been associated with better pulmonary function, reduced hospitalizations, and increased longevity. Nutrition support as oral supplementation (used in >37% of the CF population) or tube feeding (used in >13% of the CF population) is often required for children and adults with CF. The purpose of this update is to describe current consensus and evidence for enteral nutrition support guidelines, reported complications of enteral feeding in the CF population, evidence of expected outcomes, and to discuss related areas requiring further research. A case report is provided to illustrate potential outcomes of aggressive enteral support.

  19. Management of Hyperglycemia During Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umpierrez, Guillermo E.

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is a frequent complication of enteral and parenteral nutrition in hospitalized patients. Extensive evidence from observational studies indicates that the development of hyperglycemia during parenteral and enteral nutrition is associated with an increased risk of death and infectious complications. There are no specific guidelines recommending glycemic targets and effective strategies for the management of hyperglycemia during specialized nutritional support. Managing hyperglycemia in these patients should include optimization of carbohydrate content and administration of intravenous or subcutaneous insulin therapy. The administration of continuous insulin infusion and insulin addition to nutrition bag are efficient approaches to control hyperglycemia during parenteral nutrition. Subcutaneous administration of long-acting insulin with scheduled or corrective doses of short-acting insulin is superior to the sliding scale insulin strategy in patients receiving enteral feedings. Randomized controlled studies are needed to evaluate safe and effective therapeutic strategies for the management of hyperglycemia in patients receiving nutritional support. PMID:23065369

  20. Evaluation of an enteric-coated naproxen pellet formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, J G; Lamont, G L; Evans, D F; Haga, A K; Gamst, O N

    1991-02-01

    An enteric-coated, pellet formulation of naproxen has been evaluated in eight healthy subjects. Each volunteer was dosed with 153Sm-labelled, enteric-coated pellets on two occasions, once whilst fasted and once after breakfast. Gastrointestinal transit was followed using gamma scintigraphy and drug absorption compared with that from uncoated naproxen pellets dosed on a separate occasion. The pH in the stomach and intestines was monitored using radiotelemetry capsules. Gastric emptying was delayed by dosing after breakfast, but small intestinal transit of the enteric-coated formulation was the same on both occasions. The highest pH recorded from the stomach was 4.0 and in all subjects the pH rose to at least 7.3 in the small intestine. The onset of drug absorption was fastest from the uncoated formulation and slowest from the coated pellets taken after breakfast. The total amount of drug absorbed was the same on all three occasions.

  1. Enteral Feedings in Children: Sorting Out Tubes, Buttons, and Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermilyea, Sarah; Goh, Vi Lier

    2016-02-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) is the provision of food or nutrients beyond the esophagus via a tube either to the stomach or small intestines. Choosing the route, method, and formula for administration of EN to infants and children is complicated by the increasing options available. Indications and contraindications change as surgical procedures and medical treatments advance. Human milk remains the normative standard for infant formulas; if a safe supply is available, it is recommended as optimal nutrition for infants, including via enteral tube access. For infants without an available supply of human milk and children older than 12 months, a wide variety of formulas are available, including the renewed interest in formulas using cooked table foods. This article presents the different methods of EN access placement, maintenance, formula recommendations, and advancement of EN. It is important for healthcare professionals to be aware of the options and recommendations for EN. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  2. Diarrhea in Critically Ill Patients: The Role of Enteral Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito-Ashurst, Ione; Preiser, Jean-Charles

    2016-09-01

    This tutorial presents a systematic approach to the management of diarrhea in the critical care setting. Diarrhea is a common and prevalent problem in critically ill patients. Despite the high prevalence, its management is far from simple. Professionals are confronted with a myriad of definitions based on frequency, consistency, and volume. The causes are complex and multifactorial, yet enteral tube feeding formula is believed to be the perpetrator. Potential causes for diarrhea are discussed, and 3 case reports provide context to examine the treatment from a nutrition perspective. Each scenario is comprehensively addressed discussing potential causes and providing specific clinical strategies contributing to improved bowel function in this patient group. The approach used for diarrhea management is based on a complete understanding of enteral tube formula, their composition, and their impact in the presence of gut dysfunction. Choosing the right feeding formula may positively influence bowel function and contribute to improved nutrition. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  3. Cheap and Easy PIN Entering Using Eye Gaze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprowski Pawel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available PINs are one of the most popular methods to perform simple and fast user authentication. PIN stands for Personal Identification Number, which may have any number of digits or even letters. Nevertheless, 4-digit PIN is the most common and is used for instance in ATMs or cellular phones. The main advantage of the PIN is that it is easy to remember and fast to enter. There are, however, some drawbacks. One of them - addressed in this paper - is a possibility to steal PIN by a technique called `shoulder surfing'. To avoid such problems a novel method of the PIN entering was proposed. Instead of using a numerical keyboard, the PIN may be entered by eye gazes, which is a hands-free, easy and robust technique. References:

  4. Genomic diversification of giant enteric symbionts reflects host dietary lifestyles

    KAUST Repository

    Ngugi, David

    2017-08-24

    Herbivorous surgeonfishes are an ecologically successful group of reef fish that rely on marine algae as their principal food source. Here, we elucidated the significance of giant enteric symbionts colonizing these fishes regarding their roles in the digestive processes of hosts feeding predominantly on polysiphonous red algae and brown Turbinaria algae, which contain different polysaccharide constituents. Using metagenomics, single-cell genomics, and metatranscriptomic analyses, we provide evidence of metabolic diversification of enteric microbiota involved in the degradation of algal biomass in these fishes. The enteric microbiota is also phylogenetically and functionally simple relative to the complex lignocellulose-degrading microbiota of terrestrial herbivores. Over 90% of the enzymes for deconstructing algal polysaccharides emanate from members of a single bacterial lineage,

  5. Enteral nutrition in the critically ill: myths and misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marik, Paul E

    2014-04-01

    Nutritional support is an essential component of the management of critically ill and injured ICU patients. Optimal provision of calories and protein has been demonstrated to reduce morbidity, mortally, and length of ICU and hospital stay. Yet, a large proportion of ICU patients receive inadequate nutrition. To provide an evidence-base assessment of factors leading to inadequate enteral nutrition support in critically ill patients. Search of PubMed database and manual review of bibliographies from selected articles. A number of common myths and misconceptions appear to play a major role in limiting the provision of enteral nutrition in the critically ill. This article provides scientific data to debunk the most common myths and misconceptions related to enteral nutrition.

  6. [Enteral resection in the nursing rabbit (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas Alvarez, F; Cárdenas Orihuela, A; Vigueras Villaseñor, R M

    1994-01-01

    The response to enteral resection in human newborns and nursing babies depends on the site and magnitude of the resection: usually these patients have a satisfactory recovery although long term supportive measures are required in order to prevent nutritional and digestive complications. This study assessed the post-surgical response of six groups of nursing rabbits with 0, 40, 50, 60, 75 and 90% selective resection of the small intestine. A greater number of surgical complications was observed in those cases with more manipulation and greater resection. Villi hypertrophic was found at the distal extremes of the enteral remnants only with 40% jejunal resection and 75 and 90% jejunum-ileum resections. None of the groups showed growth interruption. Only in rabbits with resections greater than 60% a significant decrease in weight was found. Forty and sixty percent enteral resections, mainly proximal and distal respectively, did not yield weight or length deficits as compared with the control group.

  7. The aging colon: the role of enteric neurodegeneration in constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskur, Brandt; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2010-12-01

    Constipation is a common problem in the elderly, and abnormalities in the neural innervation of the colon play a significant role in abnormalities in colonic motility leading to delayed colonic transit. The scope of this review encompasses the latest advances to enhance our understanding of the aging colon with emphasis on enteric neurodegeneration, considered a likely cause for the development of constipation in the aging gut in animal models. Neural innervation of the colon and the effects of aging on intrinsic and extrinsic nerves innervating the colonic smooth muscle is discussed. Evidence supporting the concept that neurologic disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, not only affect the brain but also cause neurodegeneration within the enteric nervous system leading to colonic dysmotility is presented. Further research is needed to investigate the influence of aging on the gastrointestinal tract and to develop novel approaches to therapy directed at protecting the enteric nervous system from neurodegeneration.

  8. Enteric Diseases of Poultry with Special Attention to Clostridium perfringens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez Mohamed Hafez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The enteric heath of growing poultry is imperative to success of the production. The basic role of poultry production is turning feed stuffs into meat. Any changes in this turning process, due to mechanical, chemical or biological disturbance of digestive system (enteric disorders is mostly accompanied with high economic losses due to poor performance, increased mortality rates and increased medication costs. The severity of clinical signs and course of the disorders are influenced several factors such as management, nutrition and the involved agent(s. Several pathogens (viruses, bacteria and parasites are incriminated as possible cause of enteric disorders either alone (mono-causal, in synergy with other micro-organisms (multi-causal, or with non-infectious causes such as feed and /or management related factors. In addition, excessive levels of mycotoxins and biogenic amines in feed lead to enteric disorders. Also factors such as high stocking density, poor litter conditions, poor hygiene and high ammonia level and other stressful situation may reduce the resistance of the birds and increases their susceptibility to infections. Under field conditions, however, under filed conditions it is difficult to determine whether the true cause of enteric disorders, is of infectious or non-infectious origin. In recent years and since the ban of use of antimicrobial growth promoters in several countries the incidence of intestinal disorders especially those caused by clostridial infection was drastically increased. The present review described in general the several factors involved in enteric disorders and summarized the available literatures about Clostridium perfringens infection in poultry.

  9. Effects of tissue age, presence of neurones and endothelin-3 on the ability of enteric neurone precursors to colonize recipient gut: implications for cell-based therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, R; Anderson, R B; Kobayashi, K; Newgreen, D F; Young, H M

    2010-03-01

    BACKGROUND Most enteric neurones arise from neural crest cells that originate in the post-otic hindbrain, and migrate into and along the developing gastrointestinal tract. There is currently great interest in the possibility of cell therapy to replace diseased or absent enteric neurones in patients with enteric neuropathies, such as Hirschsprung's disease. However, it is unclear whether neural crest stem/progenitor cells will be able to colonize colon (i) in which the mesenchyme has differentiated into distinct layers, (ii) that already contains enteric neurones or (iii) that lacks a gene expressed by the gut mesenchyme, such as endothelin-3 (Et-3). METHODS Co-cultures were used to examine the ability of enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs) from E11.5 mouse gut to colonize a variety of recipient hindguts. KEY RESULTS Enteric neural crest-derived cells migrated and gave rise to neurones in E14.5 and E16.5 aneural colon in which the external muscle layers had differentiated, but they did not migrate as far as in younger colon. There was no evidence of altered ENCC proliferation, cell death or neuronal differentiation in older recipient explants. Enteric neural crest-derived cells failed to enter most recipient E14.5 and E16.5 colon explants already containing enteric neurones, and the few that did showed very limited migration. Finally, ENCCs migrated a shorter distance and a higher proportion expressed the pan-neuronal marker, Hu, in recipient E11.5 Et-3(-/-) colon compared to wild-type recipient colon. CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES Age and an absence of Et-3 from the recipient gut both significantly reduced but did not prevent ENCC migration, but the presence of neurones almost totally prevented ENCC migration.

  10. Exposure to GDNF Enhances the Ability of Enteric Neural Progenitors to Generate an Enteric Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja J. McKeown

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapy is a promising approach to generate an enteric nervous system (ENS and treat enteric neuropathies. However, for translation to the clinic, it is highly likely that enteric neural progenitors will require manipulation prior to transplantation to enhance their ability to migrate and generate an ENS. In this study, we examine the effects of exposure to several factors on the ability of ENS progenitors, grown as enteric neurospheres, to migrate and generate an ENS. Exposure to glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF resulted in a 14-fold increase in neurosphere volume and a 12-fold increase in cell number. Following co-culture with embryonic gut or transplantation into the colon of postnatal mice in vivo, cells derived from GDNF-treated neurospheres showed a 2-fold increase in the distance migrated compared with controls. Our data show that the ability of enteric neurospheres to generate an ENS can be enhanced by exposure to appropriate factors.

  11. Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis after an outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masahiro; Koga, Michiaki; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Hattori, Takamichi; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2008-05-30

    Twenty-eight patients suffered Campylobacter jejuni enteritis after eating raw chicken. Among them, only one patient developed Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis, who carried anti-GQ1b IgG antibodies. In contrast, none of the others did the autoantibodies. C. jejuni was cultured from all stool samples from five patients with enteritis alone. All the isolates had the same genotype, cst-II (Asn51), which are characteristic of strains isolated from Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis. These findings suggest that host susceptibility may play a role in inducing the production of anti-ganglioside antibodies and the development of Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis.

  12. Enteric fever in India: current scenario and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divyashree, S; Nabarro, L E B; Veeraraghavan, B; Rupali, P

    2016-10-01

    Enteric fever is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical areas worldwide. The Indian subcontinent bears the brunt of the disease, both in terms of absolute case numbers and drug-resistant strains. Recent phylogenetic studies suggest that the multidrug-resistant clade H58 originated in India and subsequently expanded through Asia and Africa. In Africa, it caused unrecognised outbreaks in areas previously considered free of the disease. In this study, we discuss the current status of enteric fever in India, the factors preventing its control and its future directions in this rapidly developing nation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Pyruvate-enriched oral rehydration solution improved intestinal absorption of water and sodium during enteral resuscitation in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sen; Liu, Wei-wei; Zhao, Ying; Lin, Zhi-long; Luo, Hong-min; Bai, Xiao-dong; Sheng, Zhi-yong; Zhou, Fang-qiang

    2014-06-01

    To investigate alteration in intestinal absorption during enteral resuscitation with pyruvate-enriched oral rehydration solution (Pyr-ORS) in scalded rats. To compare pyruvate-enriched oral rehydration solution (Pyr-ORS) with World Health Organisation oral rehydration solution (WHO-ORS), 120 rats were randomly divided into 6 groups and 2 subgroups. At 1.5 and 4.5 h after a 35% TBSA scald, the intestinal absorption rate, mucosal blood flow (IMBF), Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) expression were determined (n = 10), respectively. The intestinal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, AQP-1 expression and IMBF were markedly decreased in scald groups, but they were profoundly preserved by enteral resuscitation with WHO-ORS and further improved significantly with Pyr-ORS at both time points. Na(+)-K+-ATPase activities remained higher in enteral resuscitation with Pyr-ORS (Group SP) than those with WHO-ORS (Group SW) at 4.5 h. AQP-1 and IMBF were significantly greater in Group SP than in Group SW at both time points. Intestinal absorption rates of water and sodium were obviously inhibited in scald groups; however, rates were also significantly preserved in Group SP than in Group SW with an over 20% increment at both time points. The Pyr-ORS may be superior to the standard WHO-ORS in the promotion of intestinal absorption of water and sodium during enteral resuscitation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Knowledge of Constituent Ingredients in Enteral Nutrition Formulas Can Make a Difference in Patient Response to Enteral Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Patricia

    2017-08-01

    Enteral feeding is considered the preferred method for providing a complete or supplemental source of nutrition to patients. Enteral formulas (EFs) are traditionally assessed from general information provided by the manufacturer such as caloric density, percentage of macronutrients, and micronutrients to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Sometimes labeling information highlights particular ingredients to indicate specific properties at a metabolic or nutrition level. However, it is necessary to review the quality and composition of any enteral formula, since the basic components are responsible for tolerance and nutrition efficacy, and this should not be overshadowed by the benefit of a single constituent. Intolerance to EF is commonly attributed to individual patient response or to the means of administration. The objective of this review is to highlight the importance of appraising EFs with regard to composition and effect on the gastrointestinal tract.

  15. Comparison of the EntericBio multiplex PCR system with routine culture for detection of bacterial enteric pathogens.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, James

    2009-11-01

    The EntericBio system uses a multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Escherichia coli O157 from feces. It combines overnight broth enrichment with PCR amplification and detection by hybridization. An evaluation of this system was conducted by comparing the results obtained with the system with those obtained by routine culture, supplemented with alternative PCR detection methods. In a study of 773 samples, routine culture and the EntericBio system yielded 94.6 and 92.4% negative results, respectively. Forty-two samples had positive results by culture, and all of these were positive with the EntericBio system. This system detected an additional 17 positive samples (Campylobacter spp., n = 12; Shigella spp., n = 1; E. coli O157, n = 4), but the results for 5 samples (Campylobacter spp., n = 2; Shigella spp., n = 1; E. coli O157, n = 2) could not be confirmed. The target for Shigella spp. detected by the EntericBio system is the ipaH gene, and the molecular indication of the presence of Shigella spp. was investigated by sequence analysis, which confirmed that the ipaH gene was present in a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from the patient. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 100%, 99.3%, 91.5%, and 100%, respectively. Turnaround times were significantly reduced with the EntericBio system, and a result was available between 24 and 32 h after receipt of the sample in the laboratory. In addition, the amount of laboratory waste was significantly reduced by use of this system. In summary, the EntericBio system proved convenient to use, more sensitive than the conventional culture used in this study, and highly specific; and it generated results significantly faster than routine culture for the pathogens tested.

  16. Enteral feeding practices in preterm infants in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Optimal feeding regimens in babies weighing <1 000 g have not been established, and wide variations occur. In South Africa. (SA) this situation is complicated by varied resource constraints. Objective. To determine the preterm enteral feeding practices of paediatricians in SA. Methods. We invited 288 ...

  17. Problems experienced by women re-entering the education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    centrating on the re-entry of women into the labour market and on the implications ... ers and students. Studies in the USA also concentrated on women's return to school following marriage and motherhood (Bradburn, 1995;. Fagan & Williams, 1991). ... entering women need to catch up on skills, knowledge and experience.

  18. Bacteriophages as enteric viral indicators in bivalve mollusc management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Kate R; Torok, Valeria A; Turnbull, Alison R

    2017-08-01

    Human enteric viruses, such as norovirus and hepatitis A virus, are spread by a variety of routes including faecal-oral transmission. Contaminated bivalve shellfish are regularly implicated in foodborne viral disease outbreaks internationally. Traditionally indicator bacteria, the coliforms and Escherichia coli, have been used to detect faecal pollution in growing waters and shellfish. However, studies have established that they are inadequate as indicators of the risk of human enteric viruses. Bacteriophages have been identified as potential indicators or surrogates for human enteric viruses due to their similarities in morphology, behaviour in water environments and resistance to disinfectant treatments. The somatic coliphages, male-specific RNA coliphages (FRNA coliphages) and the bacteriophages of Bacteroides are the groups recognised as most suitable for water and shellfish testing. In this review, we discuss the rationale and supporting evidence for the application of bacteriophages as surrogates for human enteric viruses in shellfish under a variety of conditions. There is some evidence to support the validity of using bacteriophage levels to indicate viral risk in shellfish in highly contaminated sites and following adverse sewage events. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enteric Pathogens and Coinfections in Foals with and without Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovane Olivo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is a major clinical problem affecting foals up to 3 months of age. The aim of this study was to identify enteric microorganisms involved in monoinfections and coinfections and the associated virulence factors in healthy and diarrheic foals. Diarrheic (D (n=56 and nondiarrheic (ND foals (n=60 up to three months of age were studied. Fecal samples were analyzed for identification of infectious agents (microbiological culturing, molecular techniques, and microscopic analyses. Escherichia coli fimH (30% versus 25%, Salmonella spp. (25% versus 7%, Strongyloides westeri (25% versus 25%, Clostridium perfringens type A (21% versus 10%, E. coli ag43 (20% versus 35%, Strongylus (11% versus 18%, and vapA-positive Rhodococcus equi (5% versus 2% were the most frequent enteric pathogens detected in D and ND foals, respectively. The frequency of toxin A-positive C. perfringens was significantly increased in the D (p=0.033 compared with the ND animals. R. equi strains harboring virulent plasmids were also identified (VapA 85-kb type I and VapA 87-kb type I in D and ND foals. Coinfections were observed in 46% of the D and 33% of the ND foals. Our results demonstrate the great diversity of enteric pathogens, virulence factors, and coinfections involved in enteric infections of foals.

  20. Clostridium perfringens, necrotic enteritis and its vaccination in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostridium perfringens type A strains are the main etiological factors for necrotic enteritis (NE), one of the economically important gastrointestinal diseases in poultry responsible for the annual loss of 2 billion dollars in US poultry industry. NE has gained worldwide importance during the last...

  1. Formation and malformation of the enteric nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.C. Meijers (Johan)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractTo clarify pathogenetic mechanisms of congenital malformations of the ENS, the formation of the ENS was investigated in chicken and murine embryos. The experimental work was concentrated on several aspects of the interaction between neural crest cells and the enteric microenvironment.

  2. Enteral or parenteral nimodipine treatment: a comparative pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Christian; Wienke, Andreas; Wurm, Franziska; Vogel, Anne-Sophie; Simmermacher, Sebastian; Prell, Julian; Rachinger, Jens; Koman, Gershom; Strauss, Christian; Scheller, Konstanze

    2014-03-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS/OBJECT: Oral nimodipine is recommended to reduce poor outcome related to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In addition, animal experiments and clinical trails revealed a beneficial effect of enteral and parenteral nimodipine for the regeneration of cranial nerves following skull base, laryngeal, and maxillofacial surgery. Despite these findings there is a lack of pharmacokinetic data in the literature, especially concerning its distribution in nerve tissue. Samples were taken from a consecutive series of 57 patients suffering from skull base lesions and treated with nimodipine prophylaxis from the day before surgery until the seventh postoperative day. Both groups received standard dosages for enteral (n = 25) and parenteral (n = 32) nimodipine . Nimodipine levels were measured in serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and tissue samples, including vestibular nerves. Nimodipine levels were significantly higher following parenteral as compared with enteral administration for intraoperative serum (p nimodipine was significantly more frequently detected in nerve tissue following parenteral administration (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.015). From a pharmacokinetic point of view, parenteral nimodipine medication leads to higher levels in serum and CSF. Furthermore, traces are more frequently found in nerve tissue following parenteral as compared with enteral nimodipine administration, at least in the early course. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Bacteriophages as indicators of faecal pollution and enteric virus removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacteriophages are an attractive alternative to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), particularly as surrogates of enteric virus fate and transport due to their closer morphological and biological properties compared to FIB. Based on a meta-analysis of published data, we summarize con...

  4. Enteric defensins are essential regulators of intestinal microbial ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salzman, Nita H.; Hung, Kuiechun; Haribhai, Dipica; Chu, Hiutung; Karlsson-Sjoeberg, Jenny; Amir, Elad; Teggatz, Paul; Barman, Melissa; Hayward, Michael; Eastwood, Daniel; Stoel, Maaike; Zhou, Yanjiao; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Bevins, Charles L.; Williams, Calvin B.; Bos, Nicolaas A.

    Antimicrobial peptides are important effectors of innate immunity throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. In the mammalian small intestine, Paneth cell alpha-defensins are antimicrobial peptides that contribute to host defense against enteric pathogens. To determine if alpha-defensins also govern

  5. Mobility of Tylosin and Enteric Bacteria in Soil Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    To maximize production, producers regularly use antibiotics as supplements in animal feed and water to increase weight gain and prevent diseases among their livestock, which may result in nonpoint source pollution of ground or surface waters. This study examined the leaching of the enteric bacteria ...

  6. Environmental enteric dysfunction and the fecal microbiota in Malawian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is often measured with a dual sugar absorption test and implicated as a causative factor in childhood stunting. Disturbances in the gut microbiota are hypothesized to be a mechanism by which EED is exacerbated, although this supposition lacks support. We perfo...

  7. Early enteral nutrition compared to outcome in critically ill trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-01

    Nov 1, 2014 ... Original Research: Early enteral nutrition compared to outcome in critically ill trauma patients at a level one trauma centre. 2015;28(2). S Afr J Clin Nutr. Löfgren E, MD, Medical Student, Research toward MD degree, Clintec, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Mabesa T, RD(SA), Senior Dietitian, ...

  8. Emerging antibiotic resistant enteric bacterial flora among food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotic in food animals is an emerging public health concern as a result of increasing multi-resistant bacteria found in Abeokuta. Therefore, occurrence rate and resistant profile of the emerging enteric pathogens were determined in food animals in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Fecal and rectal samples of 82 ...

  9. [ENTERAL NUTRITION ON THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escortell Sánchez, Raquel; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    to identify what effect causes enteral nutrition on nutritional status of cancer. a search was performed using the keywords "Cancer" AND "Enteral Nutrition" AND "Supplementation" in four document databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, ProQuest, and Web of Science. age of the sample, major than 18 years; submitted to surgery for cancer; that the intervention program was including diet and employment or not of nutritional Supplementation; clinical trials published between January 2004 and December 2014, in scientific journals indexed. we analyzed 660 articles, of which only 2% has been included. 58% of intervention programs are applied outside Spain; 84% of the interventions was carried out in a hospitable ambient; 58% of the sample is formed by adults older than 54 years; 33% of the interventions were multidisciplinary and its duration ranges between 1 and 4 years. we found just a few national interventions in cancer participants and there two types of interventions: by exclusive polymeric enteral formula or mixed with immunonutrition. enteral nutrition shows against the parenteral and its introduction at an early stage, it helps to improve nutritional status of the patient; polymeric formulas next immunonutrition, it helps to reduce the time of hospitalization; the analytical parameters are shown as a measurement pattern when assessing the improvement in nutritional status in cancer. It is recommended to increase the research in this field, especially in children. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Barriers and strategies for innovations entering BoP markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, L.M.; Ortt, J.R.; Harahap, B.

    2015-01-01

    Companies that bring a new product to the market or enter a new market with an existing product, come across a number of barriers that prevent large?scale diffusion. In order to circumvent or remove these barriers, they can adopt alternative strategies. This paper looks into these barriers and

  11. Malnutrition and enteric parasitoses among under-five children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fewer proportion 1.9%, 1.0%, and 1.0%, harbored Strongloides stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni, and Entrobius vermicularis, respectively. There was no statistically meaningful association between age group specific prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of enteric infections. The results from this study indicate ...

  12. Eosinophilic enteritis – A diagnostic dilemma | Clegg-Lamptey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eosinophilic enteritis is a rare condition of unknown aetiology, although it is generally believed to be due to intestinal allergy. It may mimic peptic ulcer, subacute (or chronic) intestinal obstruction, gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. The diagnosis is often difficult to make and most ...

  13. Comparison of Spatial Skills of Students Entering Different Engineering Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veurink, N.; Sorby, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial skills have been shown to be important to success in an engineering curriculum, and some question if poor spatial skills prevent students from entering STEM fields or if students with weak spatial skills avoid engineering disciplines believed to highly spatially-oriented. Veurink and Hamlin (2011) found that freshmen students entering…

  14. The Enteric Nervous System In The Goat: Regional Morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regional differences, submucosal and intramucosal organization of ganglia in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of large mammals are not yet clear. The ENS of eight adult goats was studied by S-100 protein, neurofilament proteins, and substance P immunohistochemistry. Numerical density was used to establish ...

  15. Influence of enteric bacteria and parasite infection and nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children's stool, weights, ages and information on socioeconomic, feeding, water and sanitation factors were obtained. Stool samples were analysed for Escherichia coli O157, Shigella dysentriae, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella species and enteric parasites. Logistic regression was used to identify their association with ...

  16. Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting with eosinophilic enteritis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalany Mohammad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multisystem disorder that may present with various symptoms. It may involve the gastrointestinal tract in a variety of ways; some of the most well-known ones are transaminitis, lupus mesenteric vasculitis, lupus enteritis and mesenteric vascular leakage. We describe a case of a patient with SLE who presented with a five-month history of diarrhea caused by eosinophilic enteritis. To the best of our knowledge, there are few cases reported in the literature of patients with SLE who initially present with chronic diarrhea due to eosinophilic enteritis. Case presentation A 38-year-old Persian Iranian woman was admitted with a five-month history of diarrhea and abdominal pain. A physical examination showed nothing abnormal. Initially, she had only lymphopenia and mild eosinophilia. No autoimmune or infectious etiology was detected to justify these abnormalities. A thorough evaluation was not helpful in finding the etiology, until she developed a scalp lesion similar to discoid lupus erythematosus. Computed tomography showed small bowel wall thickening. Briefly, she manifested full-blown SLE, and it was revealed that the diarrhea was caused by eosinophilic enteritis. Conclusion Considering SLE in a patient who presents with chronic diarrhea and lymphopenia may be helpful in earlier diagnosis and therapy. This is an original case report of interest to physicians who practice internal medicine, family medicine and gastroenterology.

  17. Screening and Evaluating Abused and Neglected Children Entering Protective Custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza, Anthony J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Screening and Evaluation Project (SEP), a longitudinal study examining the range of problems in 167 children entering protective custody in Sacramento, California, for reasons of abuse or neglect. Found that 68% of the children were at risk according to one or more of the four standardized assessment instruments that measured…

  18. Complications relating to enteral and parenteral nutrition in trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-01

    Nov 1, 2014 ... Nutritional support is an essential component for improved outcome.8,11,12. Early enteral nutrition has been defined by the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) as feeding initiated within the first 24-48 hours of admission to the ICU,8 and in meta- analyses has been shown to ...

  19. Plasticity and Neural Stem Cells in the Enteric Nervous System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, Karl-Herbert; Van Ginneken, Chris; Copray, Sjef

    2009-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a highly organized part of the autonomic nervous system, which innervates the whole gastrointestinal tract by several interconnected neuronal networks. The ENS changes during development and keeps throughout its lifespan a significant capacity to adapt to

  20. effects of enteral glutamine supplementation on reduction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 91 No. 1 January 2014. EFFECTS OF ENTERAL GLUTAMINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON REDUCTION OF INFECTION IN ADULT PATIENTS. WITH SEVERE BURNS. D.K. Kibor, MBChB, MMed, Chuka District, Hospital, P. O. Box 8, Chuka, O.E. Nyaim, MBChB, MMed, Senior Lecturer,.

  1. Effects of Enteral Glutamine Supplementation on Reduction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the effect of enteral glutamine in reducing the incidence of post burn infections in patients with severe burns. Design: A double blind randomised clinical trial. Setting: Burns unit and ward 4D of Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Subjects: Sixty patients with severe burns who were randomised to two ...

  2. Health, Social Participation and Entering Paid Employment among Unemployed Persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Carlier (Bouwine)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractUnemployed persons have poorer health compared to employed persons. Also, persons with a poor health are less likely to enter the workforce than healthy persons. So, more insight is needed in determinants of re-employment and effective re-employment programs for unemployed persons

  3. Document of standardization of enteral nutrition access in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Lorena; Frías, Laura; Creus, Gloria; Parejo, Juana; Urzola, Carmen; Ashbaugh, Rosana; Pérez-Portabella, Cleofé; Cuerda, Cristina

    2014-07-01

    The group of standardization and protocols of the Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SENPE) published in 2011 a consensus document SENPE/SEGHNP/ANECIPN/SECP on enteral access for paediatric nutritional support. Along the lines of this document, we have developed another document on adult patients to homogenize the clinical practice and improve the quality of care in enteral access in this age group. The working group included health professionals (nurses, dietitians and doctor) with extensive experience in enteral nutrition and access. We tried to find scientific evidence through a literature review and we used the criteria of the Agency for Health-care Research and Quality (AHRQ) to classify the evidence (Grade of Recommendation A, B or C). Later the document was reviewed by external experts to the group and requested the endorsement of the Scientific and Educational Committee (CCE) and the group of home artificial nutrition (NADYA) of the SENPE. The full text will be published as a monograph number in this journal. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Necrotizing hepatitis associated with enteric salmonellosis in an alpaca

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from the feces of an alpaca suffering anorexia and weight loss. Multifocal necrotizing and suppurative hepatitis consistent with bacterial infection was found in the liver biopsies. Enteric salmonellosis may be associated with milder physical and clinicopathological changes in camelids than in other large animal species. PMID:15144106

  5. Enteral nutrition and cardiovascular failure: from myths to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Mette M; Chiolero, René L

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular failure and low flow states may arise in very different conditions from both cardiac and noncardiac causes. Systemic hemodynamic failure inevitably alters splanchnic blood flow but in an unpredictable way. Prolonged low splanchnic blood flow causes intestinal ischemia, increased mucosal permeability, endotoxemia, and distant organ failure. Mortality associated with intestinal ischemia is high. Why would enteral nutrition (EN) be desirable in these complex patients when parenteral nutrition could easily cover energy and substrate requirements? Metabolic, immune, and practical reasons justify the use of EN. In addition, continuous enteral feeding minimizes systemic and myocardial oxygen consumption in patients with congestive heart failure. Further, early feeding in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients has been shown to reduce mortality, particularly in the sickest patients. In a series of cardiac surgery patients with compromised hemodynamics, absorption has been maintained, and 1000-1200 kcal/d could be delivered by enteral feeding. Therefore, early EN in stabilized patients should be attempted, and can be carried out safely under close clinical monitoring, looking for signs of incipient intestinal ischemia. Energy delivery and balance should be monitored, and combined feeding considered when enteral feeds cannot be advanced to target within 4-6 days.

  6. Distribution pattern of enteric organisms in the Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wide range of organisms was encountered in the 24 sampled sites of the Lagos Lagoon. The enteric gram-negative shortrods, Lactose fermenting organisms such as Klebsiella spp, Enterobacter spp and Escherichia coli were prevalent in most of the Lagoon sites studied. The in vitro antibiotic sensitivity profile of the ...

  7. Helping Students Enter the Health Professions in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Aleena; Parker, Myra; Lewis, John; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2003-01-01

    The University of Arizona and the Inter Tribal Council of Arizona collaborate on a program to increase the number of American Indian students who enter the health professions and eventually serve communities in Arizona. The council conducts outreach, needs assessments, and health career forums. The university provides students with counseling;…

  8. Mentors for Women Entering Administration: A Program That Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebkemann, Heinz; Clemens, Jacqueline

    1994-01-01

    Describes a Florida State University study of six women principals to determine specific influences in their emerging development as successful leaders. Although women can advance without mentors, having mentors can definitely advance the timetable for entering the administrative ranks. Since mentoring efforts are not always successful, careful…

  9. Can wheat bran mitigate malnutrition and enteric pathogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child malnutrition is a complex global problem, of which lack of food is only one component. Enteric pathogens and malnutrition work in a cyclic manner to depress a child’s intestinal immunity, while decreasing nutrient absorption. This cycle leads to stunting, wasting, and death. Often malnourished...

  10. Jaarlijkse reunie loopt uit op een gastro-enteritis explosie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carsauw HHC; Bosman A; Reintjes R; de Wit MAS; Conyn-van Spaendonck MAE; CIE; GGD Rotterdam e.o.

    1997-01-01

    Een explosie van acute gastro-enteritis deed zich voor onder 200 deelnemers aan een reunie van oud-personeelsleden. De reunie vond plaats in een restaurant. Om de oorzaak van de explosie en de mogelijke rol van voedsel hierbij te achterhalen werd een retrospectieve cohort studie opgezet.

  11. Problems experienced by women re-entering the education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problems experienced by women re-entering the education profession in South Africa were focused on. A review of the literature revealed that problems are experienced at five different levels: within the women themselves, in their work situation, at management level, within their career, and within society.

  12. Typhoid Enteric Perforation in Children in Calabar, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Typhoid enteric perforation, a severely debilitating illness with a high mortality rate in children was studied in Calabar. The aim of the study was to determine the role that ingestion of herbal preparations, laxatives and enemas has on perforation and whether there is a relationship between the observed perforation and its ...

  13. Problems experienced by women re-entering the education profession

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    women educators to combine work and family responsibilities more successfully. ... re-entering women to combine family and workplace responsibilities. ..... Burnout in female educators. South African Journal of Education, 19:192-197. Van der Westhuizen PC 1999. Educational management tasks. In: Van der. Westhuizen ...

  14. The van Hiele levels of understanding of students entering senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was an attempt to measure the Van Hiele levels of geometric thought attained by SHS 1 students on entering Senior High School in Ghana. In all, 188 SHS Form 1 students from two schools were involved in this study. These students were given the Van Hiele Geometry Test adapted from the 'Cognitive ...

  15. Regional enteritis and gluten-free diet. A clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merwe, Christiaan Frederik van der

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical study was to determine whether the use of a gluten-free diet influenced the course and prognosis of regional enteritis. Following a few clinical communications in the Dutch medical literature reporting favourable results obtained with the gluten-free diet in the

  16. Defining travel-associated cases of enteric fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Joanne; Lighton, Lorraine; Jones, Jane

    2014-01-01

    There is no internationally recognized case-definition for travel-associated enteric fever in non-endemic countries. This study describes the patterns of case reporting between 2007 and 2011 as travel-associated or not from the surveillance data in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (EWNI), before and after a change in the time component of the case-definition in January 2011. It examines in particular the role of a time frame based on the reported typical incubation period in defining a case of travel-associated enteric fever. The results showed no significant differences in the distribution of cases of enteric fever in regards to the interval between the onset and UK arrival in 2011 compared to 2007-2010 (p=0.98 for typhoid and paratyphoid A); the distribution for paratyphoid B was also similar in both time periods. During 2007-2010, 93% (1730/1853) of all of the cases were classified as travel-associated compared to 94% (448/477) in 2011. This difference was not statistically significant. Changing the time component of the definition of travel-associated enteric fever did not make a significant difference to the proportion of travel-associated cases reported by investigators. Our analysis suggests that time might be subordinate to other considerations when investigators classify a case as travel-associated. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Case Study: Enteral formula: Selecting the right formula for your ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We provide a brief summary of all enteral formulae in terms of unique features and recommendations for use. Practical application .... Be cautious of the high fibre and fat content of the products in patients with gastroparesis. Low sodium. • Polymeric formulae with reduced sodium content. • For use in patients with persistent ...

  18. Validation of the use of POSSUM score in enteric perforation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The objective of the study was to present our last 5-years experience of peritonitis and validate POSSUM score in predicting mortality and morbidity in patients of enteric perforation (EP) peritonitis. Methods: Data was collected prospectively for all peritonitis cases admitted in single surgical unit from January ...

  19. Nurses' Competency and Challenges in Enteral feeding in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tube feeding using intermittent regimen; where feed is given and stopped at regular intervals, is the standard method used. .... between level of nursing training and knowledge. Results. Demographic Characteristics of ... had never had in-service training in enteral feeding. Examination of sources of knowledge revealed that.

  20. The measurement and reduction of urban litter entering stormwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It proposes preliminary guidelines for the reduction of urban litter loads entering the drainage system by dealing with litter pollution at its source. Keywords: Litter management, Stormwater drainage systems, Water quality management, Source controls, Reduction of urban litter, Solid waste pollution control WaterSA ...

  1. Practical theology '[ re ]entering vernacular culture?' New frontiers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article critically discusses the necessity for (practical) theology to transform. Taking as a point of departure church historian Andrew Walls' remark: 'Christian faith must go on being translated, must continuously enter into the vernacular culture and interact with it, or it withers and fades', examples from ministry are ...

  2. Overconfidence of Vocational Education Students When Entering Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Mark P.; Abhayawansa, Subhash; Bahtsevanoglou, John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is evidence that students who attend Technical and Further Education (TAFE) prior to entering higher education underperform in their first year of study. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of self-efficacy in understanding the performance of students who completed TAFE in the previous year in a first year subject of…

  3. Etiology of soybean-induced enteritis in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urán Carmona, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    The inclusion of soybean meal (SBM), especially in the diet of Atlantic salmon, induces an inflammatory response of the distal intestinal mucosa, known as SBM-induced enteritis. A semi-quantitative scoring system was developed to assess the extent of the morphological changes observed in this study.

  4. Nonconsensual Sexual Experiences and Alcohol Consumption among Women Entering College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Kolars, Candace L. Kurth; Krahn, Dean D.; Gomberg, Edith S. Lisansky; Clark, Ginna; Niehaus, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between precollege nonconsensual sexual experiences (NSEs) and drinking among women entering college. College women (N = 797) at a midwestern university participated. Eighteen percent reported one or more NSE prior to arriving at college. Having a precollege NSE was associated with recent drinking, binge…

  5. In Vitro Evaluation of Eslicarbazepine Delivery via Enteral Feeding Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindel, Kristin; Zhao, Fang; Hughes, Susan; Dave, Vivek S

    2017-12-01

    Purpose: The feasibility of preparing an eslicarbazepine acetate suspension using Aptiom tablets for administration via enteral feeding tubes was evaluated. Methods: Eslicarbazepine acetate suspension (40 mg/mL) was prepared using Aptiom tablets after optimizing the tablet crushing methods and the vehicle composition. A stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to monitor the eslicarbazepine stability in the prepared suspension. Three enteric feeding tubes of various composition and dimensions were evaluated for the delivery of the suspensions. The suspension was evaluated for the physical and chemical stability for 48 hours. Results: The reproducibility and consistency of particle size reduction was found to be best with standard mortar/pestle. The viscosity analysis and physical stability studies showed that ORA-Plus:water (50:50 v/v) was optimal for suspending ability and flowability of suspension through the tubes. The developed HPLC method was found to be stability indicating and suitable for the assay of eslicarbazepine acetate in the prepared suspension. The eslicarbazepine concentrations in separately prepared suspensions were within acceptable range (±3%), indicating accuracy and reproducibility of the procedure. The eslicarbazepine concentrations in suspensions before and after delivery through the enteric feeding tubes were within acceptable range (±4%), indicating absence of any physical/chemical interactions of eslicarbazepine with the tubes and a successful delivery of eslicarbazepine dosage via enteric feeding tubes. The stability study results showed that eslicarbazepine concentration in the suspension remained unchanged when stored at room temperature for 48 hours. Conclusion: The study presents a convenient procedure for the preparation of a stable suspension of eslicarbazepine acetate (40 mg/mL) using Aptiom tablets, for administration via enteral feeding tubes.

  6. East London experience with enteric fever 2007-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Dave

    Full Text Available The clinical presentation and epidemiology for patients with enteric fever at two hospitals in East London during 2007-2012 is described with the aim to identify preventive opportunities and to reduce the cost of treatment.A retrospective analysis of case notes from patients admitted with enteric fever during 2007 to 2012 with a microbiologically confirmed diagnosis was undertaken. Details on clinical presentation, travel history, demographic data, laboratory parameters, treatment, patient outcome and vaccination status were collected.Clinical case notes were available for 98/129 (76% patients including 69 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi and 29 Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi. Thirty-four patients (35% were discharged from emergency medicine without a diagnosis of enteric fever and then readmitted after positive blood cultures. Seventy-one of the 98 patients (72% were UK residents who had travelled abroad, 23 (23% were foreign visitors/new entrants to the UK and four (4% had not travelled abroad. Enteric fever was not considered in the initial differential diagnosis for 48/98 (49% cases. The median length of hospital stay was 7 days (range 0-57 days. The total cost of bed days for managing enteric fever was £454,000 in the two hospitals (mean £75,666/year. Median time to clinical resolution was five days (range 1-20. Seven of 98 (7% patients were readmitted with relapsed or continued infection. Six of the 71 (8% patients had received typhoid vaccination, 34 (48% patients had not received vaccination, and for 31 cases (44% vaccination status was unknown.Further interventions regarding education and vaccination of travellers and recognition of the condition by emergency medicine clinicians in travellers to South Asia is required.

  7. IODINE CONTENT OF ENTERAL AND PARENTERAL NUTRITION SOLUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Devina L; Young, Lorraine S; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2017-07-01

    Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, and iodine deficiency may result in thyroid disorders including goiter and hypothyroidism. Patients on long-term enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN) may be at risk for micronutrient deficiencies. The recommended daily allowance for iodine intake is 150 μg for nonpregnant adults. However, there is no current consensus among scientific societies regarding the quantity of iodine to be added in adult EN and PN formulations. The objective of this study was to determine the iodine content of U.S. adult enteral and parenteral nutrition solutions. This study also aimed to determine whether adult patients in the United States who are receiving long-term artificial nutrition may be at risk for iodine deficiency. Ten enteral nutrition solutions and 4 parenteral nutrition solutions were evaluated. The iodine contents of these solutions were measured spectrophotometrically and compared to the labeled contents. Measured and labeled EN iodine contents were similar (range 131-176 μg/L and 106-160 μg/L, respectively). In contrast, PN formulas were found to contain small, unlabeled amounts of iodine, averaging 27 μg/L. Typical fluid requirements are 30 to 40 mL/kg/day for adults receiving either total EN (TEN) or total PN (TPN). Adults on long-term TEN likely consume enough servings to meet their daily iodine requirements. However, patients on long-term TPN would require on average 5.6 L PN/day to meet the recommended daily allowance of iodine. This volume of PN is far in excess of typical consumption. Thus, U.S. patients requiring long-term TPN may be at risk for iodine deficiency. EN = enteral nutrition; PN = parenteral nutrition; TEN = total enteral nutrition; TPN = total parenteral nutrition; UIC = urinary iodine concentration.

  8. Targeted Gene Delivery to the Enteric Nervous System Using AAV: A Comparison Across Serotypes and Capsid Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Benskey, Matthew J; Nathan C Kuhn; James J Galligan; Garcia, Joanna; Boye, Shannon E.; William W Hauswirth; Mueller, Christian; Boye, Sanford L.; Manfredsson, Fredric P.

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are one of the most widely used gene transfer systems in research and clinical trials. AAV can transduce a wide range of biological tissues, however to date, there has been no investigation on targeted AAV transduction of the enteric nervous system (ENS). Here, we examined the efficiency, tropism, spread, and immunogenicity of AAV transduction in the ENS. Rats received direct injections of various AAV serotypes expressing green fluorescent prot...

  9. Rapid diagnostic tests for typhoid and paratyphoid (enteric) fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijedoru, Lalith; Mallett, Sue; Parry, Christopher M

    2017-01-01

    Background Differentiating both typhoid (Salmonella Typhi) and paratyphoid (Salmonella Paratyphi A) infection from other causes of fever in endemic areas is a diagnostic challenge. Although commercial point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for enteric fever are available as alternatives to the current reference standard test of blood or bone marrow culture, or to the widely used Widal Test, their diagnostic accuracy is unclear. If accurate, they could potentially replace blood culture as the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended main diagnostic test for enteric fever. Objectives To assess the diagnostic accuracy of commercially available rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and prototypes for detecting Salmonella Typhi or Paratyphi A infection in symptomatic persons living in endemic areas. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index, IndMED, African Index Medicus, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) up to 4 March 2016. We manually searched WHO reports, and papers from international conferences on Salmonella infections. We also contacted test manufacturers to identify studies. Selection criteria We included diagnostic accuracy studies of enteric fever RDTs in patients with fever or with symptoms suggestive of enteric fever living in endemic areas. We classified the reference standard used as either Grade 1 (result from a blood culture and a bone marrow culture) or Grade 2 (result from blood culture and blood polymerase chain reaction, or from blood culture alone). Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted the test result data. We used a modified QUADAS-2 extraction form to assess methodological quality. We performed a meta-analysis when there were sufficient studies for the test and heterogeneity was reasonable. Main results Thirty-seven studies met the inclusion

  10. Dos casos de Enteritis con bacteriemia por Campylobacter jejuni Two cases of enteritis with bacteremia due to Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Borda

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter es un importante agente causante de enfermedad en el ser humano en nuestro medio. Los casos de bacteriemia ocurren principalmente en pacientes inmunosuprimidos y son debidos frecuentemente a C. fetus. Sin embargo la bacteriemia es un episodio que también se ha observado en pacientes con enteritis por C. jejuni. Referimos dos pacientes con enteritis grave y bacteriemia, ambos con enfermedades concomitantes compatibles con inmunodepresión: uno con síndrome nefrótico de larga data y otro con hepatopatía crónica con cirrosis. Destacamos que los dos casos presentaron hematemesis y uno de ellos, enterorragia. Sugerimos prestar atención a la coloración de Gram durante el subcultivo de los caldos con hemocultivos, en busca de formas características de esta especie, y en ese caso emplear medios de cultivo en microaerofilia a 37 y 42 °C.Campylobacter is an important agent of illness in human beings. Bacteremia occurs principally in the immunocompromissed host and is frequently due to C. fetus. Nevertheless bacteremia also has been observed in patients with enteritis due to C. jejuni. We refer two cases of patients with severe enteritis and bacteremia, both of them with immunosupressive concomitant diseases such as nephrotic syndrome and chronic cirrotic hepatopathy. Both patients presented hemathemesis.

  11. Epidemiology of Enteric Disease in C-EnterNet’s Pilot Site – Waterloo Region, Ontario, 1990 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A Keegan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to describe the epidemiology of reportable enteric illness in Ontario’s Waterloo region, including comparing calculated incidence rates with published rates, and adjusting for under-reporting to determine the number of community cases, where published data were available.

  12. The Biochemistry of Sensing: Enteric Pathogens Regulate Type III Secretion in Response to Environmental and Host Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nisco, Nicole J; Rivera-Cancel, Giomar; Orth, Kim

    2018-01-16

    Enteric pathogens employ sophisticated strategies to colonize and infect mammalian hosts. Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Campylobacter jejuni, are among the leading causes of gastrointestinal tract infections worldwide. The virulence strategies of many of these Gram-negative pathogens rely on type III secretion systems (T3SSs), which are macromolecular syringes that translocate bacterial effector proteins directly into the host cytosol. However, synthesis of T3SS proteins comes at a cost to the bacterium in terms of growth rate and fitness, both in the environment and within the host. Therefore, expression of the T3SS must be tightly regulated to occur at the appropriate time and place during infection. Enteric pathogens have thus evolved regulatory mechanisms to control expression of their T3SSs in response to specific environmental and host cues. These regulatory cascades integrate multiple physical and chemical signals through complex transcriptional networks. Although the power of bacterial genetics has allowed elucidation of many of these networks, the biochemical interactions between signal and sensor that initiate the signaling cascade are often poorly understood. Here, we review the physical and chemical signals that Gram-negative enteric pathogens use to regulate T3SS expression during infection. We highlight the recent structural and functional studies that have elucidated the biochemical properties governing both the interaction between sensor and signal and the mechanisms of signal transduction from sensor to downstream transcriptional networks. Copyright © 2018 De Nisco et al.

  13. HIV Impairs Lung Epithelial Integrity and Enters the Epithelium to Promote Chronic Lung Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran A Brune

    Full Text Available Several clinical studies show that individuals with HIV are at an increased risk for worsened lung function and for the development of COPD, although the mechanism underlying this increased susceptibility is poorly understood. The airway epithelium, situated at the interface between the external environment and the lung parenchyma, acts as a physical and immunological barrier that secretes mucins and cytokines in response to noxious stimuli which can contribute to the pathobiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We sought to determine the effects of HIV on the lung epithelium. We grew primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE cells and primary lung epithelial cells isolated from bronchial brushings of patients to confluence and allowed them to differentiate at an air- liquid interface (ALI to assess the effects of HIV on the lung epithelium. We assessed changes in monolayer permeability as well as the expression of E-cadherin and inflammatory modulators to determine the effect of HIV on the lung epithelium. We measured E-cadherin protein abundance in patients with HIV compared to normal controls. Cell associated HIV RNA and DNA were quantified and the p24 viral antigen was measured in culture supernatant. Surprisingly, X4, not R5, tropic virus decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased monolayer permeability. While there was some transcriptional regulation of E-cadherin, there was significant increase in lysosome-mediated protein degradation in cells exposed to X4 tropic HIV. Interaction with CXCR4 and viral fusion with the epithelial cell were required to induce the epithelial changes. X4 tropic virus was able to enter the airway epithelial cells but not replicate in these cells, while R5 tropic viruses did not enter the epithelial cells. Significantly, X4 tropic HIV induced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK. We demonstrate that HIV

  14. In Vivo Transplantation of Enteric Neural Crest Cells into Mouse Gut; Engraftment, Functional Integration and Long-Term Safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie E Cooper

    Full Text Available Enteric neuropathies are severe gastrointestinal disorders with unsatisfactory outcomes. We aimed to investigate the potential of enteric neural stem cell therapy approaches for such disorders by transplanting mouse enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs into ganglionic and aganglionic mouse gut in vivo and analysing functional integration and long-term safety.Neurospheres generated from yellow fluorescent protein (YFP expressing ENCCs selected from postnatal Wnt1-cre;R26R-YFP/YFP murine gut were transplanted into ganglionic hindgut of wild-type littermates or aganglionic hindgut of Ednrbtm1Ywa mice (lacking functional endothelin receptor type-B. Intestines were then assessed for ENCC integration and differentiation using immunohistochemistry, cell function using calcium imaging, and long-term safety using PCR to detect off-target YFP expression.YFP+ ENCCs engrafted, proliferated and differentiated into enteric neurons and glia within recipient ganglionic gut. Transplanted cells and their projections spread along the endogenous myenteric plexus to form branching networks. Electrical point stimulation of endogenous nerve fibres resulted in calcium transients (F/F0 = 1.16 ± 0.01;43 cells, n = 6 in YFP+ transplanted ENCCs (abolished with TTX. Long-term follow-up (24 months showed transplanted ENCCs did not give rise to tumours or spread to other organs (PCR negative in extraintestinal sites. In aganglionic gut ENCCs similarly spread and differentiated to form neuronal and glial networks with projections closely associated with endogenous neural networks of the transition zone.Transplanted ENCCs successfully engrafted into recipient ganglionic and aganglionic gut showing appropriate spread, localisation and, importantly, functional integration without any long-term safety issues. This study provides key support for the development and use of enteric neural stem cell therapies.

  15. Expressions Shared by Vietnamese in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Carole

    This document is a collection of a list of expressions shared by Vietnamese immigrants who have entered the United States. The expressions concern the following topics: names, formality, cultural influences, touching, tact and diplomacy, shared life, open houses, social standards, manual labor, fatalism, and adaptability. (Author/AM)

  16. 76 FR 2754 - Agency Information Collection (Pay Now Enter Info Page) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Pay Now Enter Info Page) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office... Info Page. OMB Control Number: 2900-0663. Type of Review: Extension of a currently approved collection... payments through VA's Pay Now Enter Info Page website. Data enter on the Pay Now Enter Info Page is...

  17. Dual pathways regulate neurite outgrowth in enteric ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, D M; Romanchuk, G; Mulholland, M W

    1994-10-01

    Primary cultures of guinea pig myenteric plexus ganglia were used to examine the ability of agents that activate adenylate cyclase or mimic intracellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) to stimulate morphological growth. Dose-dependent increases in neurite length and density were produced in enteric neuronal cultures by forskolin (212% of control), cholera toxin (356% of control), or the permeant cAMP analogues 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and dibutyryl cAMP. (R)-p-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent kinases, blocked the growth-promoting effects of cAMP analogues but not of nerve growth factor (NGF). Activation of cAMP-dependent signaling pathways also increased production of mRNA for alpha-tubulin and microtubule-associated protein 2. Dual pathways, regulated by NGF and cAMP-dependent protein kinases, influence growth signaling in enteric ganglia.

  18. Enteral tube feeding--from hospital to home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Carolyn; Hitchings, Helen

    There are a number of benefits to providing home enteral feeding, however, problems can occur if care is not taken to arrange training and after-care appropriately. It is therefore essential to facilitate an informed and thorough transfer of care to minimize potential problems. This article will address some of the issues that arise when patients who require home enteral feeding are discharged from hospital to their own homes or to care homes. These issues include the knowledge that is required to enable the patient and/or carer to safely manage their feeding tube, the feeding regimen, the continuing support required from health-care professionals, and some of the more common problems that may arise.

  19. Liver disease due to parenteral and enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, V; George, J

    2004-11-01

    Liver disease due to parenteral and enteral nutrition is a well-recognized iatrogenic phenomenon, but its cause and pathogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. Various mechanisms have been postulated, but it is likely that the cause is multifactorial with significant interplay among several factors. A preventive approach to management is ideal but awaits a more complete understanding of the pathophysiology. A variety of management strategies has been proposed in small case series, but level 1 evidence-based guidelines have yet to be established. Although an abundance of both clinical and animal studies exist regarding liver disease associated with parenteral nutrition (PN), there is a paucity of data regarding enteral nutrition (EN)-associated hepatic disease. The latter probably reflects differences in the frequency and severity of PN- versus EN-associated liver disease. This article addresses the two routes of nutritional support individually, with the major focus on PN-associated liver disease.

  20. Scheme for Entering Binary Data Into a Quantum Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin

    2005-01-01

    A quantum algorithm provides for the encoding of an exponentially large number of classical data bits by use of a smaller (polynomially large) number of quantum bits (qubits). The development of this algorithm was prompted by the need, heretofore not satisfied, for a means of entering real-world binary data into a quantum computer. The data format provided by this algorithm is suitable for subsequent ultrafast quantum processing of the entered data. Potential applications lie in disciplines (e.g., genomics) in which one needs to search for matches between parts of very long sequences of data. For example, the algorithm could be used to encode the N-bit-long human genome in only log2N qubits. The resulting log2N-qubit state could then be used for subsequent quantum data processing - for example, to perform rapid comparisons of sequences.

  1. Identification of Enteric Viruses in Foods from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada-Fabián, José Carlos; Juárez-García, Patricia; Natividad-Bonifacio, Iván; Vázquez-Salinas, Carlos; Quiñones-Ramírez, Elsa Irma

    2016-09-01

    Foodborne viruses are a common and, probably, the most under-recognized cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Among the main foods involved in the transmission of human enteric viruses are mollusks, and fruits and vegetables irrigated with wastewater and/or washed with non-potable water or contaminated by contact with surfaces or hands of the infected personnel during its preparation. In this study, 134 food samples were analyzed for the detection of Norovirus, Rotavirus, and Hepatitis A virus (HAV) by amplification of conserved regions of these viruses. From the 134 analyzed samples, 14 were positive for HAV, 6 for Norovirus, and 11 for Rotavirus. This is the first report in Mexico where emphasis is given to the presence of HAV and Norovirus on perishable foods and food from fisheries, as well as Rotavirus on frozen vegetables, confirming the role of vegetables and bivalve mollusks as transmitting vehicles of enteric viruses.

  2. Residual feed intake and breeding approaches for enteric methane mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, Donagh P; Lassen, Jan; de Hass, Y

    2015-01-01

    no explicit inclusion of environmental load (and in most instances, even feed efficiency) in these goals. Heritability of feed intake-related traits in cattle is moderate to high, implying that relatively high accuracy of selection can be achieved with relatively low information content per animal; however......, the genetic variation in feed intake independent of animal performance is expectedly less than other performance traits. Nonetheless, exploitable genetic variation does exist and, if properly utilized, could augment further gains in feed efficiency. Genetic parameters for enteric methane (CH4) emissions...... in cattle are rare. No estimate of the genetic variation in enteric CH4 emissions independent of animal performance exists; it is the parameters for this trait that depict the scope for genetic improvement. The approach to the inclusion of feed intake or CH4 emissions in cattle breeding goals is not clear...

  3. The orexin system in the enteric nervous system of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Claudia; Russo, Finizia; Russolillo, Maria Grazia; Varricchio, Ettore; Paolucci, Marina; Castaldo, Luciana; Lucini, Carla; de Girolamo, Paolo; Cozzi, Bruno; Maruccio, Lucianna

    2014-01-01

    This study provides a general approach to the presence and possible role of orexins and their receptors in the gut (three gastric chambers and intestine) of confined environment bottlenose dolphin. The expression of prepro-orexin, orexin A and B and orexin 1 and 2 receptors were investigated by single immunostaining and western blot analysis. The co-localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide and orexin 1 receptor in the enteric nervous system was examined by double immunostaining. Also, orexin A concentration were measured in plasma samples to assess the possible diurnal variation of the plasma level of peptide in this species. Our results showed that the orexin system is widely distributed in bottlenose dolphin enteric nervous system of the all gastrointestinal tract examined. They are very peculiar and partially differs from that of terrestrial mammals. Orexin peptides and prepro-orexin were expressed in the main stomach, pyloric stomach and proximal intestine; while orexin receptors were expressed in the all examined tracts, with the exception of main stomach where found no evidence of orexin 2 receptor. Co-localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide and orexin 1 receptor were more evident in the pyloric stomach and proximal intestine. These data could suggest a possible role of orexin system on the contractility of bottlenose dolphin gastrointestinal districts. Finally, in agreement with several reports, bottlenose dolphin orexin A plasma level was higher in the morning during fasting. Our results emphasize some common features between bottlenose dolphin and terrestrial mammals. Certainly, further functional investigations may help to better explain the role of the orexin system in the energy balance of bottlenose dolphin and the complex interaction between feeding and digestive physiology.

  4. The orexin system in the enteric nervous system of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gatta

    Full Text Available This study provides a general approach to the presence and possible role of orexins and their receptors in the gut (three gastric chambers and intestine of confined environment bottlenose dolphin. The expression of prepro-orexin, orexin A and B and orexin 1 and 2 receptors were investigated by single immunostaining and western blot analysis. The co-localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide and orexin 1 receptor in the enteric nervous system was examined by double immunostaining. Also, orexin A concentration were measured in plasma samples to assess the possible diurnal variation of the plasma level of peptide in this species. Our results showed that the orexin system is widely distributed in bottlenose dolphin enteric nervous system of the all gastrointestinal tract examined. They are very peculiar and partially differs from that of terrestrial mammals. Orexin peptides and prepro-orexin were expressed in the main stomach, pyloric stomach and proximal intestine; while orexin receptors were expressed in the all examined tracts, with the exception of main stomach where found no evidence of orexin 2 receptor. Co-localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide and orexin 1 receptor were more evident in the pyloric stomach and proximal intestine. These data could suggest a possible role of orexin system on the contractility of bottlenose dolphin gastrointestinal districts. Finally, in agreement with several reports, bottlenose dolphin orexin A plasma level was higher in the morning during fasting. Our results emphasize some common features between bottlenose dolphin and terrestrial mammals. Certainly, further functional investigations may help to better explain the role of the orexin system in the energy balance of bottlenose dolphin and the complex interaction between feeding and digestive physiology.

  5. The Occurrence of Enteric Bacteria in Marine Environment and Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kılınç, Berna; Besler, Aysu

    2014-01-01

    The microbiological quality of the marine environment affects the microbiological quality of all fishery products. This study is a review of the occurence of enteric bacteria in freshly harvested fishery products dependent on the quality of marine environment from which these products are harvested. The control of marine environment from pollution as measured by the index of fecal coliform bacteria is necessary. Otherwise, our fishery products can be contaminated from the polluted marine envi...

  6. Role of anaerobic bacteria in simian enteric diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasilevich, Z K; Dzhikidze, E K; Kalashnikova, V A; Sultanova, O A

    2013-12-01

    Screening of monkeys for anaerobic bacteria showed that the incidence of non-spore-forming anaerobes was 2.0-2.5 times higher than that of clostridia. The overwhelming majority of isolated anaerobes were saprophytes and opportunistic bacteria. The incidence of C. perfringens was higher in monkeys with enteric infections of obscure etiology and dead from these diseases than in healthy animals (48.2 vs. 36.8%).

  7. STS-88 Mission Specialist Krikalev prepares to enter Endeavour

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-88 Mission Specialist Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev, a Russian cosmonaut, is assisted with his ascent and re-entry flight suit in the white room at Launch Pad 39A before entering Space Shuttle Endeavour for launch. During the nearly 12-day mission, the six-member crew will mate the first two elements of the International Space Station -- the already-orbiting Zarya control module with the Unity connecting module carried by Endeavour. He is making his fourth spaceflight.

  8. [Home enteral nutrition in Spain: NADYA registry in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías, L; Puiggròs, C; Calañas, A; Cuerda, C; García-Luna, P P; Camarero, E; Rabassa-Soler, A; Irles, J A; Martínez-Olmos, M A; Romero, A; Wanden-Berghe, C; Laborda, L; Vidal, A; Gómez-Candela, C; Penacho, M A; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Lecha, M; Luengo, L M; Suárez, P; de Luis, D; García, Y; Parés, R M; Garde, C

    2012-01-01

    To describe the results of the home enteral nutrition (HEN) registry of the NADYA-SENPE group in 2010. We retrieved the data of the patients recorded from January 1st to December 31st 2010. We registered 6,591 patients (51% males) with 6,688 episodes of HEN, from 32 hospitals. Mean age in those younger than 14 yr (4%) was 1 ± 2 yrs (m ± SD) and 69,9 ± 17,8 yrs in those older than 14 yr. The length of HEN was longer than 2 yrs in 76% of the patients. The most frequent underlying disease was neurological disorders 42%, followed by cancer 28% (mostly head and neck cancer 18%). We had information related to the enteral access route in only 626 cases (9,4%), 51% of them used nasogastric tubes, 27% gastrostomies, 10% oral route and 3% jejunostomies. Only 251 episodes were closed during the year, mostly due to patient death 57% and progress to oral diet 14%. The activity level was limited in 29% of the patients and 39% of them were bed- or chairridden. Total or partial help was needed by 68% of the patients. The hospitals and the private pharmacies delivered the enteral formula in 63% and 34% of the cases, respectively. The hospitals and the primary care centres delivered the disposables in 83% and 16% of the cases, respectively. The results of the 2010 HEN registry are similar to those published in previous years regarding the number and characteristics of the patients. We continue finding problems in the entrance of data referred to the enteral access route and the closing of the episodes.

  9. Characteristics of transgender individuals entering substance abuse treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Flentje, A; Heck, NC; Sorensen, JL

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13,440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007 to 2009 using logistic and linear...

  10. The use of specialised enteral formulae for patients with diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of enteral nutrition products for diabetes mellitus have a carbohydrate content of 30–45% and fat between 40–49%, mainly monounsaturated fat, with a mix of soluble and insoluble fibre (total of 14–24 g/l). Does this have short- and long-term benefits and which component(s) is/are crucial for the outcome or is it ...

  11. Effect of solvents on the morphological characterization of enteric nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Dupeyrón Martell,Danay Rosa; Rieumont Briones,Jacques; González Hurtado,Mayra; del Real López,Alicia; Castaño Meneses,Víctor Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Size and external and internal morphologies of nanoparticles and microparticles are very important on the design of drug devices for controlled release. Random enteric copolymers such as poly (methacrylic acid-co-ethyl acrylate) and poly (methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) were used to produce nanoparticles, which contain a model drug and could be employed as drug carriers for proteins. The solvent effect on re-dispersion of such nanoparticles was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy...

  12. Pattern of serum transaminases in enteric fever patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of gender related difference in the activities of the transaminases between enteric fever patients and the controls as well showed the activity of aspartate transaminase to be higher (P<0.05) in male (n=30, 36.57 ± 19.8 U/l) and female (n=25, 47.56 ± 15.52 U/l) patients than in the controls males (n=26, 26.61 ...

  13. Enteric Glia Mediate Neuron Death in Colitis Through Purinergic Pathways That Require Connexin-43 and Nitric OxideSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isola A.M. Brown

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: The concept of enteric glia as regulators of intestinal homeostasis is slowly gaining acceptance as a central concept in neurogastroenterology. Yet how glia contribute to intestinal disease is still poorly understood. Purines generated during inflammation drive enteric neuron death by activating neuronal P2X7 purine receptors (P2X7R; triggering adenosine triphosphate (ATP release via neuronal pannexin-1 channels that subsequently recruits intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i in surrounding enteric glia. We tested the hypothesis that the activation of enteric glia contributes to neuron death during inflammation. Methods: We studied neuroinflammation in vivo using the 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid model of colitis and in situ using whole-mount preparations of human and mouse intestine. Transgenic mice with a targeted deletion of glial connexin-43 (Cx43 [GFAP::CreERT2+/−/Cx43f/f] were used to specifically disrupt glial signaling pathways. Mice deficient in inducible nitric oxide (NO synthase (iNOS−/− were used to study NO production. Protein expression and oxidative stress were measured using immunohistochemistry and in situ Ca2+ and NO imaging were used to monitor glial [Ca2+]i and [NO]i. Results: Purinergic activation of enteric glia drove [Ca2+]i responses and enteric neuron death through a Cx43-dependent mechanism. Neurotoxic Cx43 activity, driven by NO production from glial iNOS, was required for neuron death. Glial Cx43 opening liberated ATP and Cx43-dependent ATP release was potentiated by NO. Conclusions: Our results show that the activation of glial cells in the context of neuroinflammation kills enteric neurons. Mediators of inflammation that include ATP and NO activate neurotoxic pathways that converge on glial Cx43 hemichannels. The glial response to inflammatory mediators might contribute to the development of motility disorders. Keywords: Enteric Nervous System, Hemichannels

  14. Bacteriophages as indicators of faecal pollution and enteric ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacteriophages are an attractive alternative to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), particularly as surrogates of enteric virus fate and transport due to their closer morphological and biological properties compared to FIB. Based on a meta-analysis of published data, we summarize concentrations of coliphages (F+ and somatic), Bacteroides spp. and enterococci bacteriophages (phages) in human waste, non-human waste, fresh and marine waters as well as removal through wastewater treatment processes. We also provide comparisons with FIB and enteric viruses whenever possible. Lastly, we examine fate and transport characteristics in the environment and provide an overview of the methods available for detection and enumeration of bacteriophages. In summary, concentrations of FIB bacteriophages in various sources were consistently lower than FIB, but more reflective of infectious enteric virus levels. Our investigation supports use of bacteriophages as viral surrogates especially for wastewater treatment processes, while additional research is needed to clarify their utility as indicators of viral fate and transport in the ambient water. Describes concentrations and removal through environmental and engineered systems of bacteriophages, fecal indicator bacteria and viral pathogens.

  15. Enteral Nutrition Delivery Is Overestimated in Provider Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesey, Jenna; Puckett, Yana; Dissanaike, Sharmila

    2017-06-21

    Burn-injured patients have the highest metabolic demand of all critically ill patients and are vulnerable to complications of malnutrition. Many burn centers have challenges in achieving prescribed rates of nutrition, despite aggressive algorithms. One possible reason for the discrepancy is inaccurate documentation of volumes. This is a retrospective review of patients requiring tube feeding admitted to a regional burn center between June and August 2015. Demographics were abstracted including gender, type of injury, TBSA, and age. The total feeding volume was recorded from the feeding pump every 24 hours. The values were compared with the enteral nutrition volume charted by the nursing staff and rate prescribed by the physician team. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare continuous variables. Twenty-five patients were observed during the study period providing a total of 105 patient days. The average age was 44 years with 42% TBSA mean burn size. The average volume prescribed by providers was 1,598 ml/d. According to documentation, the average volume given was 1,448 ml/d, a significant difference (P = enteral nutrition was not provided. There was a significant discrepancy between ordered, recorded, and delivered volume of enteral nutrition. Potential reasons for the discrepancy may be frequent interruption for repositioning, wound care, linen changes, or other nursing workflow. Burn providers should be aware of the potential for underfeeding patients.

  16. Warfarin bioavailability with feeding tubes and enteral formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klang, Mark; Graham, Dennis; McLymont, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    Earlier literature showed reduced efficacy of warfarin when co-administered with enteral nutrition formulas through feeding tubes. This study used an in vitro model for gastric administration of warfarin through a feeding tube to evaluate potential causes for reduced warfarin absorption when administered through feeding tubes. There were 2 phases of the study. The first phase used an artificial stomach model with or without the infusion of enteral nutrition formula. Warfarin was added to the contents either directly into the vessel or passed through a feeding tube. Warfarin tablet dissolution was compared to the injectable formulation, which served as a control. The second phase used chopped feeding tube material added to beakers containing warfarin in increasing amounts. Warfarin injection and tablet formulations showed decreased solubility when combined with acid. The warfarin solubility was higher when enteral formula was added. Warfarin concentration dropped by 35% when the drug was passed through a feeding tube, as opposed to added directly to the flask.In the second study, the warfarin levels were lower in the beakers containing feeding tubes. Doubling the amount of warfarin added did not raise levels to that of the initial dissolved. Doubling the amount of feeding tube material further reduced the concentration dissolved. Feeding-tube administration compromises the total amount of warfarin reaching patients. It appears, from this in vitro study, that the mechanism of the interaction of warfarin may be a result of direct binding to the feeding tube.

  17. The Challenges of Home Enteral Tube Feeding: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Omorogieva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a global perspective of Home Enteral Tube Feeding (HETF) and to outline some of the challenges of home enteral nutrition (HEN) provisions. It is well established that the number of patients on HETF is on the increase worldwide due to advances in technology, development of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy techniques, and the shift in care provisions from acute to community settings. While the significance of home enteral nutrition in meeting the nutritional requirements of patients with poor swallowing reflexes and those with poor nutritional status is not in doubt, differences exist in terms of funding, standards, management approaches and the level of infrastructural development across the world. Strategies for alleviating some of the challenges militating against the effective delivery of HETF including the development of national and international standards, guidelines and policies for HETF, increased awareness and funding by government at all levels were discussed. Others, including development of HEN services, which should create the enabling environment for multidisciplinary team work, clinical audit and research, recruitment and retention of specialist staff, and improvement in patient outcomes have been outlined. However, more research is required to fully establish the cost effectiveness of the HEN service especially in developing countries and to compare the organization of HEN service between developing and developed countries. PMID:25856223

  18. Gravity Flow in Proposed Enteral Tube Small-Bore Connectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Ryan T; Epp, Lisa M; Pattinson, Adele K; Duellman, Wanda M; Corner, Stephen M; Mundi, Manpreet S

    2017-04-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) misconnections have been identified as a serious and potential deadly problem. An international effort led by EN industry leaders has developed a small-bore enteral connector (ENFit) that in theory will reduce the frequency of misconnections. Despite the potential benefit of preventing misconnections, the full impact of adoption of the ENFit connector is unknown. To assess the impact of transitioning to ENFit on our home EN (HEN) patients, the current study evaluated gravity feeding comparing 2 proposed small-bore connectors to the legacy (current connector) using various commercial formulas. Six commonly used enteral formulas in our facility with varying density and viscosity were tested in triplicate. Forty milliliters of formula was poured into a syringe connected to an ENFit or legacy (current) feeding connector attached to varying French size tubes. The time it took formula to flow through the connectors was recorded, and the test was repeated in triplicate. All formulas took significantly longer to flow through the first ENFit connector compared with the legacy connector ( P tubes are being developed and adopted.

  19. Modification of polyurethane to reduce occlusion of enteral feeding tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaither, Kari A.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Goheen, Steven C.

    2009-04-27

    Feeding tubes are used to supply nutritional formula to immobilized patients. The most common cause for failure of enteral feeding tubes is their occlusion. The purpose of this study was to examine whether occlusion of enteral feeding tubes could be minimized using an additive. An open, intermittent enteral feeding system was simulated in the laboratory and data was collected over a period ranging from 2 to 6 days. Feeding formula was cycled through a feeding tube in either the presence or absence of simulated gastric acid in an effort to generate a reproducible occlusion. Pressures in the tube were measured frequently throughout these cycles. We observed pressure spikes with each cycle, but never a complete occlusion. Pressure spikes formed only when simulated gastric acid was mixed with the feeding solution. Large amounts of feeding formula adsorbed onto polyurethane surfaces in the presence of gastric acid. The maximum pressure was reduced by about half from 2.0 psi to 0.8 psi when polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was added. The addition of PVA to polyurethane also reduced the contact angle from 83° (untreated) to approximately 64° in the presence of PVA. Furthermore, when formula was added to polyurethane in the presence of PVA the thickness of the layer that remained on the surface was almost 10 times greater in controls than on PVA-treated surfaces. These results suggest that a treatment that increases the hydrophilicity of the feeding tube may help minimize clogging.

  20. Vaccines against enteric infections for the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerkinsky, Cecil; Holmgren, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Since the first licensure of the Sabin oral polio vaccine more than 50 years ago, only eight enteric vaccines have been licensed for four disease indications, and all are given orally. While mucosal vaccines offer programmatically attractive tools for facilitating vaccine deployment, their development remains hampered by several factors: —limited knowledge regarding the properties of the gut immune system during early life;—lack of mucosal adjuvants, limiting mucosal vaccine development to live-attenuated or killed whole virus and bacterial vaccines;—lack of correlates/surrogates of mucosal immune protection; and—limited knowledge of the factors contributing to oral vaccine underperformance in children from developing countries.There are now reasons to believe that the development of safe and effective mucosal adjuvants and of programmatically sound intervention strategies could enhance the efficacy of current and next-generation enteric vaccines, especially in lesser developed countries which are often co-endemic for enteric infections and malnutrition. These vaccines must be safe and affordable for the world's poorest, confer long-term protection and herd immunity, and must be able to contain epidemics. PMID:25964464

  1. The Challenges of Home Enteral Tube Feeding: A Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omorogieva Ojo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to provide a global perspective of Home Enteral Tube Feeding (HETF and to outline some of the challenges of home enteral nutrition (HEN provisions. It is well established that the number of patients on HETF is on the increase worldwide due to advances in technology, development of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy techniques, and the shift in care provisions from acute to community settings. While the significance of home enteral nutrition in meeting the nutritional requirements of patients with poor swallowing reflexes and those with poor nutritional status is not in doubt, differences exist in terms of funding, standards, management approaches and the level of infrastructural development across the world. Strategies for alleviating some of the challenges militating against the effective delivery of HETF including the development of national and international standards, guidelines and policies for HETF, increased awareness and funding by government at all levels were discussed. Others, including development of HEN services, which should create the enabling environment for multidisciplinary team work, clinical audit and research, recruitment and retention of specialist staff, and improvement in patient outcomes have been outlined. However, more research is required to fully establish the cost effectiveness of the HEN service especially in developing countries and to compare the organization of HEN service between developing and developed countries.

  2. Biomaterial-Derived Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles for Enteric Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Render

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral drug delivery systems provide the most convenient, noninvasive, readily acceptable alternatives to parenteral systems. In the current work, eggshell-derived calcium carbonate (CaCO3 nanoparticles were used to develop enteric drug delivery system in the form of tablets. CaCO3 nanoparticles were manufactured using top-down ball-milling method and characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM and loaded with 5-fluorouracil as a model drug. Tablets with varying CaCO3 core and binder compositions were fabricated and coated with Eudragit S100 or Eudragit L100. Suitability for enteric delivery of the tablets was tested by oral administration to rabbits and radiography. Radiograph images showed that the tablet remained in the stomach of the rabbit for up to 3 hours. Further modifications of these biomaterial-derived nanoparticles and the coatings will enable manufacturing of stable formulations for slow or controlled release of pharmaceuticals for enteric delivery.

  3. Ipilimumab-Induced Enteritis without Colitis: A New Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Messmer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ipilimumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA4, approved to treat metastatic melanoma. It was the first therapy shown to prolong survival in a large, randomized clinical trial. However, immune-related adverse events are common and can be severe. Enterocolitis is a common adverse event with ipilimumab, but enteritis without colitis has not been previously described. Case Report: An 83-year-old man presented to our hospital with grade 3 diarrhea for 5 days. One month prior, he had started treatment with ipilimumab for metastatic melanoma. On presentation, he was found to have severe electrolyte disturbances, including hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and acute kidney injury. Causes of infectious diarrhea were excluded, and he was treated with corticosteroids for presumed ipilimumab-associated enterocolitis. However, colonoscopy revealed normal mucosa, both grossly and on pathology of random biopsies. Steroids were weaned but his symptoms recurred. He then underwent upper endoscopy with enteroscopy. Biopsy of the duodenum was notable for acute inflammation, villous blunting, and other changes consistent with ipilimumab-associated injury. He was restarted on high-dose steroids and his symptoms resolved. Discussion: Ipilimumab-induced enteritis is a serious and potentially life-threatening immune related adverse event that warrants prompt recognition and aggressive management. As in cases of ipilimumab-associated enterocolitis, steroids are an effective therapy. Enteritis without colitis should be suspected in patients on ipilimumab who present with severe diarrhea but have a normal colonoscopy.

  4. The practical aspects of enteral nutrition in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Örs

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants have higher nutrient requirements than term infants. Enteral tube feeding is the preferred route to feed preterm infants because premature infants are unable to coordinate sucking, swallowing, and breathing. There are two common tube feeding methods: intermittent (bolus or continuous infusion. Minimal enteral nutrition or trophic feeding has many advantages for preterms and should be started as soon as possible if an infant is clinically stable. Mother’s own milk is the best food for preterm infants. It also has many important non-nutrient advantages for preterm infants. However, breast milk alone may not meet their special nutritional needs. For this reason, it is common clinical practice to fortify human milk. Fortified human milk is an appropriate nutritional source for preterm infants compared to preterm formula and unfortified human milk. Fortification of maternal breast milk begins when feeding volume reaches 100 ml/kg/day. In the absence of mother’s own milk, donor milk and premature infant formula may be used. The aim of this brief review is to discuss the current practical concepts about enteral feeding in preterm infants.

  5. Survival of bacterial enteric pathogens in traditional fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simango, C; Rukure, G

    1992-07-01

    The survival of strains of bacterial enteric pathogens was investigated in two traditional fermented foods (mahewu and sour porridge) and in unfermented porridge. The foods were inoculated with cell suspensions of Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Aeromonas species and pathogenic Escherichia coli which had a final concentration of 10(6)-10(7) cfu/ml of food. None of the strains of Aeromonas and Campylobacter were detected in mahewu and sour porridge 20 min after inoculation. The salmonellas were not found 4 h after inoculation in either fermented foods but the shigellas and pathogenic E. coli strains were more tolerant to the low pH of the fermented foods. Some of the shigellas and pathogenic E. coli strains survived for 24 h after inoculation but showed a sharp decrease in numbers. All the strains of the enteric pathogens survived for 24 h in the unfermented porridge and increased in the numbers except for campylobacters, the numbers of which declined. These results suggest that the traditional fermented foods have bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties and are unlikely to play a major role in the transmission of bacterial enteric pathogens.

  6. Bacterial Enteric Pathogens in Uncooked Foods in Thai Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria; Piyaphong; Bodhidatta; Hoge; Tungsen

    1994-06-01

    In developing countries, the morbidity and mortality rates of gastrointestinal tract infections from food borne bacteria have been difficult to establish. Most studies have only been able to gather data prospectively from isolated geographic sources, rather than from large point-source epidemics. This study investigates the types of bacterial enteric pathogens found in food that was collected in a community in Western Thailand, where sporadic cases of hemolytic uremia syndrome and cholera have been reported. Samples of six different uncooked foods were collected from markets in two villages and in the hills in an area near Bangkok and were tested at a district hospital laboratory within 2 hours of collection. From the 820 food samples collected, enteric pathogens were isolated from approximately 12%. These included nontyphoidal salmonella; Vibrio parahemolyticus; attaching and effacing Escherichia coli of nonenteropathogenic E. coli serogroups; Campylobacter jejuni; enterotoxigenic E. coli; Shigella; and V. cholerae. Travelers in developing countries should be made aware by diarrheal disease programs that food obtained in markets may contain bacterial enteric pathogens and, therefore, the hygienic preparation of such foods is important in the prevention of gastrointestinal disease.

  7. Postsurgery enteral nutrition in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Cuellar, L; Terroba, M C

    2002-11-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer undergoing surgery have a high incidence of postoperative complications. The aim of our study was to investigate whether postoperative nutrition of head and neck cancer patients, using an arginine-enriched diet, could improve nutritional variables as well as clinical outcomes. Randomized clinical trial. Tertiary care. A population of 47 patients with oral and laryngeal cancer were enrolled. At surgery patients were randomly allocated to two groups: (a) patients receiving an enteral diet supplemented with arginine and fiber (group I); (b) patients receiving an isocaloric, isonitrogenous enteral formula (group II). No significant intergroup differences in the trend of the three plasma proteins and lymphocytes were detected. Gastrointestinal tolerance (diarrhea) of both formulas was good (17.4% group I and 8.3% group II; NS). During the 3 months after hospital discharge five patients died; no differences were detected between groups (13% group I and 8.3% group II; NS). The incidences postoperative infection complications were similar (nine patients) in both groups (21.7% group I and 16.7% group II; NS). Fistula were less frequent in enriched nutrition group (0% group I and 20.8% group II; Pcancer patients. Our results suggest that these patients could benefit from an immunonutrient-enhanced enteral formula.

  8. Rosacea and its association with enteral microbiota in Korean females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jae-Hui; Yun, Yeojun; Kim, Han-Saem; Kim, Han-Na; Jung, Ho Joo; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Kim, Won-Serk

    2017-06-21

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis affecting the face and eyes. An association between systemic comorbidities and rosacea has been reported, but the link to enteral microbiota is uncertain. We aimed to investigate the link between rosacea and enteral microbiota. A cross-sectional study was performed in a sample of Korean women who participated in a health check-up programme at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Health Screening Center between 23 June 2014 and 5 September 2014. The gut microbiome was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene and metagenome sequence analyses. A total of 12 rosacea patients and 251 controls were enrolled. We identified links between rosacea and several changes in gut microbiota: reduced abundance of Peptococcaceae family unknown genus, Methanobrevibacter (genus), Slackia (genus), Coprobacillus (genus), Citrobacter (genus), and Desulfovibrio (genus), and increased abundance of Acidaminococcus (genus), Megasphaera (genus), and Lactobacillales order unknown family unknown genus. A link between rosacea and enteral microbiota was observed in this metagenomic study. A large and elaborate study is needed to confirm these findings and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Tuberculous Enteritis: A Rare Complication of Miliary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danisha Figueroa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous enteritis is a clinical rarity even in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of miliary tuberculosis with gastrointestinal involvement. A 47-year-old homosexual male from Philippines with no significant medical history presented with productive cough, night sweats, subjective fevers, shortness of breath, watery diarrhea, and 25-pound weight loss in past one year. On physical exam he was afebrile, mildly hypotensive, tachycardic, and tachypneic, but saturating well on room air. He was cachectic with oral thrush and bilateral fine rales. Chest X-ray revealed a miliary pattern. His sputum AFB smear was strongly positive. PCR and sputum culture were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. He was started on Rifampin, Isoniazid, Ethambutol, and Pyrazinamide. He was found to be HIV positive with an absolute CD4 count of 4 cells/μL. Due to persistent diarrhea, stool was sent for AFB culture and grew M. tuberculosis. He responded well to treatment with resolution of symptoms. Tuberculous enteritis occurs in about 2% of the patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Although it is uncommon, it should be considered in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis and abdominal complaints. A presumptive diagnosis of tuberculous enteritis can be made in the setting of active pulmonary tuberculosis with suggestive clinical, endoscopic, and/or radiographic findings.

  10. Ecosystem response to antibiotics entering the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Simon D; Murby, John; Bates, John

    2005-01-01

    Awareness of antibiotics in wastewaters and aquatic ecosystems is growing as investigations into alternate pollutants increase and analytical techniques for detecting these chemicals improve. The presence of three antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and cephalexin) was evaluated in both sewage effluent and environmental waters downstream from a sewage discharge. Bacteria cultured from the sewage bioreactor and receiving waters were tested for resistance against six antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, ampicillin, trimethoprim, erythromycin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole) and effects of short term exposure (24 h) to antibiotics on bacterial denitrification rates were examined. Antibiotics were detected entering the sewage treatment plant with varying levels of removal during the treatment process. Antibiotics were also detected in effluent entering receiving waters and detectable 500 m from the source. Among the bacteria cultured from the sewage bioreactor, resistance was displayed against all six antibiotics tested and bacteria cultured from receiving waters were resistant against two of the antibiotics tested. Rates of denitrification were observed to decrease in response to some antibiotics and not to others, though this was only observed at concentrations exceeding those likely to be found in the environment. Findings from this preliminary research have indicated that antibiotics are entering our aquatic systems and pose a potential threat to ecosystem function and potentially human health.

  11. Enteric coating of granules containing the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyar, Hassan; Peh, Kok-Khiang

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, a capsule formulation composed of enteric coated granules of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4962 was developed using Eudragit L30D-55 as enteric polymer. Optimization of the capsule formulation was achieved with a maximum viable cell count after 2 h of incubation in acid medium and disintegration time of 1 h in buffer pH 6.8. The amount of Eudragit L30D-55 in the capsules correlated with gastric juice resistance. The best protective qualities against artificial gastric juice were observed when capsules were prepared from granules composed of L. acidophilus, corn starch, lactose monohydrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and coated with 12.5 % (m/V) of Eudragit L30D-55. Capsule formulation of L. acidophilus in edible broth medium suspension serves as a cheap alternative to the expensive freeze-drying procedure for preparing L. acidophilus. In addition, the enteric coating using Eudragit L30D-55 could protect probiotics from the acidic gastric environment and enhance the bioactivity of probiotics along with replacement of pathogenic microbes in human intestine.

  12. Enteric coating of granules containing the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyar Hassan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a capsule formulation composed of enteric coated granules of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4962 was developed using Eudragit L30D-55 as enteric polymer. Optimization of the capsule formulation was achieved with a maximum viable cell count after 2 h of incubation in acid medium and disintegration time of 1 h in buffer pH 6.8. The amount of Eudragit L30D-55 in the capsules correlated with gastric juice resistance. The best protective qualities against artificial gastric juice were observed when capsules were prepared from granules composed of L. acidophilus, corn starch, lactose monohydrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and coated with 12.5 % (m/V of Eudragit L30D-55. Capsule formulation of L. acidophilus in edible broth medium suspension serves as a cheap alternative to the expensive freeze-drying procedure for preparing L. acidophilus. In addition, the enteric coating using Eudragit L30D-55 could protect probiotics from the acidic gastric environment and enhance the bioactivity of probiotics along with replacement of pathogenic microbes in human intestine

  13. Navigating Risk When Entering and Participating in a Business Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Smith

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs typically have limited resources during the start-up phase of a business. Business ecosystems are a strategy for entrepreneurs to access and exchange many different aspects of value, resources, and benefits. However, there may be business risks for entering a particular type of ecosystem, and further risks may be encountered after entering and participating in a business ecosystem. These risks are significant and can inhibit a startup's growth. In this article, the literature on business ecosystems is reviewed as it relates to risk to discover insights of relevance to entrepreneurs, top management teams, and business-ecosystem operators. First, the published research is organized into two streams: i risks relating to categories of business ecosystems, and ii risks relating to participating in business ecosystems. Then, the problem is abstracted to develop a potential strategy for managing these risks, which features a pre-entry inspection followed by real-time resource management. Finally, five recommendations are offered for entrepreneurs seeking to enter and participate in business ecosystems.

  14. Enteric Pathogen-Plant Interactions: Molecular Connections Leading to Colonization and Growth and Implications for Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vaz, Betsy M.; Fink, Ryan C.; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Leafy green vegetables have been identified as a source of foodborne illnesses worldwide over the past decade. Human enteric pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, have been implicated in numerous food poisoning outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh produce. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the establishment of pathogenic bacteria in or on vegetable plants is critical for understanding and ameliorating this problem as well as ensuring the safety of our food supply. While previous studies have described the growth and survival of enteric pathogens in the environment and also the risk factors associated with the contamination of vegetables, the molecular events involved in the colonization of fresh produce by enteric pathogens are just beginning to be elucidated. This review summarizes recent findings on the interactions of several bacterial pathogens with leafy green vegetables. Changes in gene expression linked to the bacterial attachment and colonization of plant structures are discussed in light of their relevance to plant-microbe interactions. We propose a mechanism for the establishment and association of enteric pathogens with plants and discuss potential strategies to address the problem of foodborne illness linked to the consumption of leafy green vegetables. PMID:24859308

  15. Innervation of enteric mast cells by primary spinal afferents in guinea pig and human small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Liu, Sumei; Qu, Meihua; Xia, Yun; Needleman, Bradley J; Mikami, Dean J; Wood, Jackie D

    2014-10-01

    Mast cells express the substance P (SP) neurokinin 1 receptor and the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor in guinea pig and human small intestine. Enzyme-linked immunoassay showed that activation of intramural afferents by antidromic electrical stimulation or by capsaicin released SP and CGRP from human and guinea pig intestinal segments. Electrical stimulation of the afferents evoked slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in the enteric nervous system. The slow EPSPs were mediated by tachykinin neurokinin 1 and CGRP receptors. Capsaicin evoked slow EPSP-like responses that were suppressed by antagonists for protease-activated receptor 2. Afferent stimulation evoked slow EPSP-like excitation that was suppressed by mast cell-stabilizing drugs. Histamine and mast cell protease II were released by 1) exposure to SP or CGRP, 2) capsaicin, 3) compound 48/80, 4) elevation of mast cell Ca²⁺ by ionophore A23187, and 5) antidromic electrical stimulation of afferents. The mast cell stabilizers cromolyn and doxantrazole suppressed release of protease II and histamine when evoked by SP, CGRP, capsaicin, A23187, electrical stimulation of afferents, or compound 48/80. Neural blockade by tetrodotoxin prevented mast cell protease II release in response to antidromic electrical stimulation of mesenteric afferents. The results support a hypothesis that afferent innervation of enteric mast cells releases histamine and mast cell protease II, both of which are known to act in a diffuse paracrine manner to influence the behavior of enteric nervous system neurons and to elevate the sensitivity of spinal afferent terminals. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Neuronal Differentiation in Schwann Cell Lineage Underlies Postnatal Neurogenesis in the Enteric Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesaka, Toshihiro; Nagashimada, Mayumi; Enomoto, Hideki

    2015-07-08

    Elucidation of the cellular identity of neuronal precursors provides mechanistic insights into the development and pathophysiology of the nervous system. In the enteric nervous system (ENS), neurogenesis persists from midgestation to the postnatal period. Cellular mechanism underlying the long-term neurogenesis in the ENS has remained unclear. Using genetic fate mapping in mice, we show here that a subset of Schwann cell precursors (SCPs), which invades the gut alongside the extrinsic nerves, adopts a neuronal fate in the postnatal period and contributes to the ENS. We found SCP-derived neurogenesis in the submucosal region of the small intestine in the absence of vagal neural crest-derived ENS precursors. Under physiological conditions, SCPs comprised up to 20% of enteric neurons in the large intestine and gave rise mainly to restricted neuronal subtypes, calretinin-expressing neurons. Genetic ablation of Ret, the signaling receptor for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, in SCPs caused colonic oligoganglionosis, indicating that SCP-derived neurogenesis is essential to ENS integrity. Identification of Schwann cells as a physiological neurogenic source provides novel insight into the development and disorders of neural crest-derived tissues. Elucidating the cellular identity of neuronal precursors provides novel insights into development and function of the nervous system. The enteric nervous system (ENS) is innervated richly by extrinsic nerve fibers, but little is known about the significance of extrinsic innervation to the structural integrity of the ENS. This report reveals that a subset of Schwann cell precursors (SCPs), which invades the gut alongside the extrinsic nerves, adopts a neuronal fate and differentiates into specific neuronal subtypes. SCP-specific ablation of the Ret gene leads to colonic oligoganglionosis, demonstrating a crucial role of SCP-derived neurogenesis in ENS development. Cross-lineage differentiation capacity in SCPs suggests

  17. Enteral tube feeding for older people with advanced dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Elizabeth L; Candy, Bridget; Jones, Louise

    2009-04-15

    The use of enteral tube feeding for patients with advanced dementia who have poor nutritional intake is common. In one US survey 34% of 186,835 nursing home residents with advanced cognitive impairment were tube fed. Potential benefits or harms of this practice are unclear. To evaluate the outcome of enteral tube nutrition for older people with advanced dementia who develop problems with eating and swallowing and/or have poor nutritional intake. The Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group (CDCIG), The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and LILACS were searched in April 2008. Citation checking was undertaken. Where it was not possible to accept or reject, the full text of the citation was obtained for further evaluation. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series studies that evaluated the effectiveness of enteral feeding via a nasogastric tube or via a tube passed by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) were planned to be included. In addition, controlled observational studies were included. The study population comprised adults aged 50 and over (either sex), with a diagnosis of primary degenerative dementia made according to validated diagnostic criteria such as DSM-IV or ICD-10 (APA 1994; WHO 1993) and with advanced cognitive impairment defined by a recognised and validated tool or by clinical assessment and had poor nutrition intake and/or develop problems with eating and swallowing. Where data were limited we also considered studies in which the majority of participants had dementia. Data were independently extracted and assessed by one reviewer, checked by a second and if necessary, in the case of any disagreement or discrepancy it was planned that it would be reviewed by the third reviewer. Where information was lacking, we attempted contact with authors. It was planned that meta-analysis would be considered for

  18. Zonulin Regulates Intestinal Permeability and Facilitates Enteric Bacteria Permeation in Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanwei; Gao, Min; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Caiyu; Zhou, Faying; Hu, Zhangxu; Zeng, Chunyu

    2016-06-29

    Several studies have reported an association between enteric bacteria and atherosclerosis. Bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene belong to Enterobacteriaceae have been detected in atherosclerotic plaques. How intestinal bacteria go into blood is not known. Zonulin reversibly modulate intestinal permeability (IP), the circulating zonulin levels were increased in diabetes, obesity, all of which are risk factors for atherosclerosis. It is unclear whether the circulating zonulin levels were changed in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and modulate IP. The 16S rRNA gene of bacteria in blood sample was checked by 454 pyrosequencing. The zonulin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. The distribution of zonulin was detected by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Bacteria and Caco-2 cell surface micro-structure were checked by transmission electron microscopy. A high diversity of bacterial 16S rRNA gene can be detected in samples from CAD patients, most of them (99.4%) belong to Enterobacteriaceaes, eg. Rahnella. The plasma zonulin levels were significantly higher in CAD patients. Pseudomonas fluorescens exposure significantly increased zonulin expression and decreased IP in a time dependent manner. The elevated zonulin increase IP and may facilitate enteric translocation by disassembling the tight junctions, which might explain the observed high diversity of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in blood samples.

  19. GPR41/FFAR3 and GPR43/FFAR2 as Cosensors for Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Enteroendocrine Cells vs FFAR3 in Enteric Neurons and FFAR2 in Enteric Leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Mark K; Pedersen, Maria H; Gille, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The expression of short-chain fatty acid receptors GPR41/FFAR3 and GPR43/ free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) was studied in the gastrointestinal tract of transgenic monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP) reporter mice. In the stomach free fatty acid receptor 3 (FFAR3)-mRFP was expressed....... Throughout the colon and rectum, FFAR3-mRFP was strongly expressed in the large population of peptide YY and GLP-1 cells and in the neurotensin cells of the proximal colon. A gradient of expression of FFAR3-mRFP was observed in the somatostatin cells from less than 5% in the stomach to more than 95...... for the majority of enteroendocrine cells of the small and large intestine and that FFAR3 and FFAR2 both act as sensors for short-chain fatty acids in enteroendocrine cells, whereas FFAR3 apparently has this role alone in enteric neurons and FFAR2 in enteric leukocytes....

  20. Insights into Campylobacter jejuni colonization and enteritis using a novel infant rabbit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yuwei; Ren, Fangzhe; Song, Zhaojun; Li, Qiuchun; Zhou, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaobo; Xu, Zhonglan; Bao, Guangyu; Wan, Ting; Lei, Tianyao; Wang, Nan; Jiao, Xin-an; Huang, Jinlin

    2016-01-01

    A lack of relevant disease models for Campylobacter jejuni has long been an obstacle to research into this common enteric pathogen. Here we used an infant rabbit to study C. jejuni infection, which enables us to define several previously unknown but key features of the organism. C. jejuni is capable of systemic invasion in the rabbit, and developed a diarrhea symptom that mimicked that observed in many human campylobacteriosis. The large intestine was the most consistently colonized site and produced intestinal inflammation, where specific cytokines were induced. Genes preferentially expressed during C. jejuni infection were screened, and acs, cj1385, cj0259 seem to be responsible for C. jejuni invasion. Our results demonstrates that the infant rabbit can be used as an alternative experimental model for the study of diarrheagenic Campylobacter species and will be useful in exploring the pathogenesis of other related pathogens. PMID:27357336

  1. The gut commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron exacerbates enteric infection through modification of the metabolic landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Meredith M; Hu, Zeping; Klimko, Claire; Narayanan, Sanjeev; Deberardinis, Ralph; Sperandio, Vanessa

    2014-12-10

    The enteric pathogen enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) causes severe diarrhea, but the influence of the gut microbiota on EHEC infection is largely unknown. A predominant member of the microbiota, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (Bt), is resident at EHEC attachment sites. We show that Bt enhances EHEC virulence gene expression through the transcription factor Cra, which is functionally sensitive to sugar concentrations. This enhanced virulence accompanies increased formation of attaching and effacing (AE) lesions requisite for EHEC colonization. Infection with Citrobacter rodentium, a natural mouse pathogen homologous to EHEC, in Bt-reconstituted mice results in increased gut permeability along with exacerbated host pathology and mortality compared to mice deplete of microflora. Bt modifies the metabolite environment at infection sites, increasing metabolites involved in gluconeogenesis, with stark increases in succinate, which can be sensed by Cra. Our findings suggest that microbiota composition affects disease outcome and may explain links between microbiota composition and disease susceptibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genome analysis of Clostridium perfringens isolates from healthy and necrotic enteritis infected chickens and turkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronco, Troels; Stegger, Marc; Ng, Kim Lee

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Clostridium perfringens causes gastrointestinal diseases in both humans and domestic animals. Type A strains expressing the NetB toxin are the main cause of necrotic enteritis (NE) in chickens, which has remarkable impact on animal welfare and production economy in the international...... poultry industry. Three pathogenicity loci NELoc-1, -2 and -3 and a collagen adhesion gene cnaA have been found to be associated with NE in chickens, whereas the presence of these has not been investigated in diseased turkeys. The purpose was to investigate the virulence associated genome content...... and the genetic relationship among 30 C. perfringens isolates from both healthy and NE infected chickens and turkeys, applying whole-genome sequencing. Results: NELoc-1, -3, netB and cnaA were significantly associated with NE isolates from chickens, whereas only NELoc-2 was commonly observed in both diseased...

  3. Delayed initiation but not gradual advancement of enteral formula feeding reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC in preterm pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Ghoneim

    Full Text Available Enteral formula feeding is a risk factor for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC in premature infants, yet studies are conflicting regarding the safest timing for introduction and advancement of feeds. Our aim was to test the effects of early vs. late initiation and abrupt vs. gradual advancement of enteral feeding of an intact vs. hydrolyzed protein formula on NEC incidence and severity in preterm pigs. In Experiment 1, preterm pigs received total parenteral nutrition (TPN at birth with abrupt initiation of enteral formula feeds (50% full intake on d of life (DOL 2 (EA or 5 (LA while PN continued. Pigs were also fed formula containing either intact or hydrolyzed protein. In Experiment 2, preterm pigs received TPN at birth with enteral, hydrolyzed-protein formula feeds introduced on DOL 2 either abruptly (EA; 50% full feeds or gradually (EG; 10-50% full feeds over 5 d while PN continued. NEC incidence and severity were assessed based on macroscopic and histological scoring. In Experiment 1, NEC incidence (41% vs. 70%, P<0.05 and severity were reduced in LA vs. EA groups and LA was associated with a higher survival rate, daily weight gain and jejunum villus height. Piglets fed hydrolyzed vs. intact protein formula had lower stomach content weights and similar NEC incidence. In Experiment 2, NEC incidence and severity were not different between pigs the EG vs. EA group. Proinflammatory gene expression (IL-1β, IL-6 and S100A9 in the ileum was lower in both LA and EG vs. EA groups. In conclusion, delayed initiation but not gradual advancement of enteral feeding is protective against NEC in preterm pigs. Feeding hydrolyzed vs. intact protein formula improved gastric transit without affecting the NEC incidence.

  4. Modification of polyurethane to reduce occlusion of enteral feeding tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Kari A; Tarasevich, Barbara J; Goheen, Steven C

    2009-10-01

    Feeding tubes are used to supply nutritional formula to immobilized patients. The most common cause for failure of enteral feeding tubes is their occlusion. The purpose of this study was to examine whether occlusion of enteral feeding tubes could be minimized using an additive. An open, intermittent enteral feeding system was simulated in the laboratory and data were collected over a period ranging from 2 to 6 days. Feeding formula was cycled through a feeding tube in either the presence or absence of simulated gastric acid in an effort to generate a reproducible occlusion. Pressures in the tube were measured frequently throughout these cycles. We observed pressure spikes with each cycle, but never a complete occlusion. Pressure spikes formed only when simulated gastric acid was mixed with the feeding solution. Large amounts of feeding formula adsorbed onto polyurethane (PU) surfaces in the presence of gastric acid. Also, this subtle change in surface chemistry significantly affected the number of pressure spikes observed. The maximum pressure required to maintain flow in the tube was reduced by about half from 2.0 psi to 0.8 psi when polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was added. The addition of PVA to PU also reduced the contact angle from 83 degrees (untreated) to approximately 64 degrees in the presence of PVA. Furthermore, when formula was added to PU in the presence of PVA the thickness of the layer that remained on the surface was almost 10 times greater in controls than on PVA-treated surfaces. These results suggest that a treatment that increases the hydrophilicity of the feeding tube may help minimize clogging. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Electromagnetic Sensor-Guided Enteral Access Systems: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithard, David; Barrett, Nicholas A; Hargroves, David; Elliot, Stuart

    2015-06-01

    Enteral feeding is the nutritional support of choice for acutely ill patients with functional gastrointestinal tracts who are unable to swallow. Several benefits including reduced mortality and length of hospital stay have been associated with early initiation of enteral feeding. However, misplacement of conventional nasoenteric tubes is relatively common and can result in complications including pneumothorax. In addition, the need to confirm the position by X-ray can delay the start of using the tube. Eliminating these delays can help patients start feeding, and minimise the adverse impact on initiating hydration and medication. The purpose of this review was to critically examine whether electromagnetic sensor-guided enteral access systems (EMS-EAS) can help overcome the challenges of conventional nasoenteric feeding tube placement and confirmation. The Royal Society of Medicine's library performed two searches on Medline (1946-March 2014) and Embase (1947-March 2014) covering all papers on Cortrak or electromagnetic or magnetic guidance systems for feeding tubes in adults. Results from the literature search found an agreement between the radiographic and EMS-EAS confirmation of placement. EMS-EAS virtually eliminated the risk of misplacement and pneumothorax was not reported. In addition, studies showed a small decrease in the number of X-rays with EMS-EAS and a reduced average time to start feeding compared with blind placement. This review suggests that EMS-EAS reduces several complications associated with the misplacement of nasoenteric feeding tubes, and that there could be considerable improvements in mortality, morbidity, patient experience and cost if EMS-EAS is used instead of conventional methods.

  6. Lupus enteritis: from clinical findings to therapeutic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Lupus enteritis is a rare and poorly understood cause of abdominal pain in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, we report a series of 7 new patients with this rare condition who were referred to French tertiary care centers and perform a systematic literature review of SLE cases fulfilling the revised ACR criteria, with evidence for small bowel involvement, excluding those with infectious enteritis. We describe the characteristics of 143 previously published and 7 new cases. Clinical symptoms mostly included abdominal pain (97%), vomiting (42%), diarrhea (32%) and fever (20%). Laboratory features mostly reflected lupus activity: low complement levels (88%), anemia (52%), leukocytopenia or lymphocytopenia (40%) and thrombocytopenia (21%). Median CRP level was 2.0 mg/dL (range 0–8.2 mg/dL). Proteinuria was present in 47% of cases. Imaging studies revealed bowel wall edema (95%), ascites (78%), the characteristic target sign (71%), mesenteric abnormalities (71%) and bowel dilatation (24%). Only 9 patients (6%) had histologically confirmed vasculitis. All patients received corticosteroids as a first-line therapy, with additional immunosuppressants administered either from the initial episode or only in case of relapse (recurrence rate: 25%). Seven percent developed intestinal necrosis or perforation, yielding a mortality rate of 2.7%. Altogether, lupus enteritis is a poorly known cause of abdominal pain in SLE patients, with distinct clinical and therapeutic features. The disease may evolve to intestinal necrosis and perforation if untreated. Adding with this an excellent steroid responsiveness, timely diagnosis becomes primordial for the adequate management of this rare entity. PMID:23642042

  7. Clostridial necrotic enteritis in chicken associated with growth rate depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adin Priadi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens as well as a potential pathogen causing necrotic enteritis. C. perfringens only causes necrotic enteritis when it transforms from non-toxin producing type to toxin producing type. The alpha toxin, (phospholipase C is believed to be a key to the occurrence of Clostridial necrotic enteritis (CNE. The best known predisposing factor is mucosal damage, caused by coccidiosis that damages the intestinal lining, making the gut susceptible to infections including C. perfringens. The purpose of this study was to observe the chicken performance in experimental CNE and field cases of CNE. Diagnosis of CNE were made by latex agglutination test, isolation and identification of the agent. Pathological and histopathological changes were also observed. Experimentally, NE could be reproduced when Eimeria sp and C. perfringens spores are inoculated in chicken. Signs of an NE are wet litter and diarrhea, and an increase in mortality is not often obvious. The depression of growth rate and feed efficiency of chicken become noticeable by week 5 because of damage to the intestine and the subsequent reduction in digestion and absorption of food. Subclinical form of CNE was also frequently found in the field, leading to significant decreases in performance. Chicken gut samples examinations revealed that subclinical form of CNE causes damage to the intestinal mucosa caused by C. perfringens leads to decreased digestion and absorption, increased feed conversion ratio and reduced weight gain. Dual infection with C. perfringens and Eimeria sp. was frequently found in field. The results of these studies provide evidence for C. perfringens as a causative bacteria for growth depression.

  8. Genetic aspects of enteric methane emission in ruminants livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the importance of enteric methane (CH4 emission in ruminants and relevant to the current on knowledge relevant to genetic aspects of enteric CH4 production, highlighting future research needs and directions. Global average temperature has increased by about 0.7°C in the last century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC reported that anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHG, including carbon dioxide (CO2, CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O and halocarbons, have been responsible for most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the twentieth century. Agriculture, particularly livestock, is increasingly being recognized as both a contributor to the process and a potential victim of it. Policy interventions and technical solutions are required to address both the impact of livestock production on climate change and the effects of climate change on livestock production. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, declared that in the next 50 years, the world’s farmers will be called upon to produce more food than has been produced in the past 10,000 years, and to do so in environmentally sustainable ways. Therefore, the GHG reduction should be treated as a public good. The United States congress is prospecting to define a price on GHG emissions. Limiting the concentration of CO2 and other GHG in Earth’s atmosphere requires a technological and economic revolution. A cost-effective way could be the genetic improvement of livestock, which produces permanent and cumulative changes in performance. Animal variation in enteric CH4 emission has been reported in the literature, providing potential for improvement through genetic selection. 

  9. Activated eosinophils in association with enteric nerves in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Smyth

    Full Text Available Enteric neural dysfunction leads to increased mucous production and dysmotility in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Prior studies have shown that tissue eosinophilia is related to disease activity. We hypothesized that interactions between eosinophils and nerves contribute to neural dysfunction in IBD. Tissue from patients with intractable IBD, endoscopic biopsies from patients with steroid responsive IBD, both when active and quiescent, and control tissue were studied. Immunohistochemical studies showed that eosinophils localize to nerves in the mucosal layer of patients with Crohn's disease (CD (p<0.001 and ulcerative colitis (UC, (p<0.01. Eosinophils localized to substance P and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT immunostained nerves. Real time PCR of laser capture micro-dissected enteric ganglia demonstrated Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1 mRNA was increased 7-fold in UC (n = 4, (p = 0.03, and 10-fold in CD (n = 3, (p = 0.05. Compared with controls, eotaxin-3 (CCL-26 mRNA was increased 9-fold in UC (p = 0.04 and 15-fold in CD (p = 0.06. Eosinophil numbers correlated with disease activity, while deposition of major basic protein (MBP and eosinophil Transforming Growth Factor β-1 (TGFβ-1 expression were seen in therapeutically responsive disease. These data indicate a significant localization of eosinophils to nerves in IBD, mediated through neurally expressed ICAM-1 and eotaxin-3. This cell/neural interaction may influence the function of nerves and contribute to symptoms in IBD.

  10. Enteric Parasites of Orangutans (Pongo Pygmaeus) in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-27

    Spiruridae 0 0 2 Enterobius sp. 0 1 2 Ternidenssp. 4 11 0 Balantidium coli 14 21 12 Giard~a sp. 1 0 0 Iodamoeba sp. 0 1 1 Endolimax nana 0 0 1 Entamoeba sp...1 21 6 Entamoeba coli 0 0 1 Dicrocoelidae 1 0 13 Oesophagostomum sp. 0 0 1 Unidentified protozoa 0 O 5 Trichomonas 5p. 0 1 0 Chilomastix §p. 0 2 0...two with ’Ascaris, four with Trichuris, and twenty-one with Entamoeba (one or more parasites per animal). Enteric parasites identified from forty

  11. A Case of Typhoid Fever with Hepatic Granulomas and Enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Narechania

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The common histopathologic hepatic manifestations in patients infected with Salmonella include cloudy swelling and balloon degeneration with vacuolation of the hepatocytes and steatosis. Hepatic granulomas are a very rare finding, so far reported in very few cases. We report a 64-year-old patient with Salmonella enteritis who was found to have multiple 1.4 to 1.6 cm hypoechoic liver masses on ultrasound of the abdomen which on biopsy revealed hepatic granulomas. This case highlights the importance of keeping the differential diagnosis of Salmonella typhi (S. typhi in mind in a patient with hepatic granulomas.

  12. Establishing an enteric bacteria reference laboratory in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattaway, Marie Anne; Kamara, Abdul; Rhodes, Fay; Kaffeta, Konneh; Jambai, Amara; Alemu, Wondimagegnehu; Islam, Mohammed Sirajul; Freeman, Molly M; Welfare, William; Harding, Doris; Samba, Ahmed F; Abu, Musu; Kamanda, Sylvester; Grant, Kathie; Jenkins, Claire; Nair, Satheesh; Connell, Steve; Siorvanes, Lisa; Desai, Sarika; Allen, Collette; Frost, Margaret; Hughes, Daniel; Jeffrey, Zonya; Gill, Noel; Salter, Mark

    2014-06-09

    In 2012, Sierra Leone experienced its worst cholera outbreak in over 15 years affecting 12 of the country's 13 districts. With limited diagnostic capability, particularly in bacterial culture, the cholera outbreak was initially confirmed by microbiological testing of clinical specimens outside of Sierra Leone. During 2012 - 2013, in direct response to the lack of diagnostic microbiology facilities, and to assist in investigating and monitoring the cholera outbreak, diagnostic and reference services were established in Sierra Leone at the Central Public Health Reference Laboratory focusing specifically on isolating and identifying Vibrio cholerae and other enteric bacterial pathogens. Sierra Leone is now capable of confirming cholera cases by reference laboratory testing.

  13. Enteral nutrition for patients with advanced liver cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Luu, Tam Ngan

    2010-01-01

    Forty eligible patients with advanced liver cirrhosis (25% Child B und 75% Child C) were randomized to recieve standard oral diet (Controll; n= 21) or oral und nasogastric tube feeding (Intervention; n= 19). While the oral fed patients received 17,8 kcal/ Kg body weight/ day and 0,62g Protein/ Kg body weight/ day , the enteral fed patients tolerated well 43,6 kcal/ Kg body weight/ day and 1,78g Protein/ Kg body weight/ day. The aim: to evaluate the effect of the 14 day- oral and nasogastric...

  14. Blended food for enteral feeding via a gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Suzanne

    2014-11-01

    A blended diet for enteral nutrition is defined as home-made everyday food blended to a smooth 'single cream' consistency. At present, blended food is not recommended as a first choice. However, the wishes of parents who prefer to use blended food for their child need to be respected, and hospice policy for Children's Hospice South West is to replicate home conditions as far as possible. Therefore guidelines have been created for use of a blended diet. However, benefits in physical and emotional health need to be balanced against risks of tube blockage, contamination and digestive upsets.

  15. Administration of medicines via an enteral feed tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Neil; Best, Carolyn

    In 2007, the National Patient Safety Agency raised concerns about the administration of medicines through enteral feeding tubes. This article outlines safe practice when administering medication by this route. Considerations should include whether the patient can take the medicine orally and what interactions may occur with other drugs, the feed or the tube itself. Nurses need to be clear about safe procedures when giving medicine in this way, especially when working outside the product licence, and must work with doctors and pharmacists to safeguard patient safety.

  16. Bilateral breast abscess: A rare complication of enteric fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast abscess is usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus in pregnant or lactating females. Salmonella spp. is occasionally associated with abscess formation in various organs, but breast abscess is a very rare complication. In enteric fever dissemination to multiple organ systems following bacteraemia can lead to localized abscess. We report a case of bilateral breast abscess due to Salmonella Typhi in an unmarried 35-year-old female without any predisposing conditions. She presented with fever and painful swelling of both the breasts. S. typhi was isolated from both breasts. Such rare cause must be suspected in females without any evident predisposing factors for effective management.

  17. Enteral nutrition support of head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykher, Aleksandra; Russo, Lianne; Schattner, Mark; Schwartz, Lauren; Scott, Burma; Shike, Moshe

    2007-02-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer are at high risk for malnutrition due to dysphagia from the tumor and treatment. Despite difficulty with oral intake, these patients usually have a normal stomach and lower gastrointestinal tract. Enteral nutrition support via percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) administered in the home by the patient helps to prevent weight loss, dehydration, nutrient deficiencies, treatment interruptions, and hospitalizations. It also improves quality of life. Successful management of these patients requires orderly care and follow-up by a multidisciplinary nutrition team.

  18. Enteric Immunization of Mice Against Influenza with Recombinant Vaccinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitin, Catherine A.; Bender, Bradley S.; Small, Parker A., Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Intrajejunal administration to mice of a recombinant vaccinia virus containing the influenza virus hemagglutinin gene induced IgA antibody in nasal, gut, and vaginal secretions. It also induced IgG antibody in serum and cell-mediated immunity. The immunization provided significant protection against an influenza virus challenge. This work suggests that enteric-coated recombinant vaccinia could be an orally administered, inexpensive, multivalent, temperature-stable, safe, and effective vaccine for children that could be particularly useful in developing nations, where multiple injections are not easily administered. Oral administration of vaccines should also reduce children's fear of shots at the doctor's office.

  19. Neonatal segmental enteritis due to cow′s milk allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavai Arunachalam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow′s milk protein allergy (CMPA typically presents with persistent diarrhea or dysentery, vomiting and bleeding per rectum in young infants. CMPA is reported to mimic Hirschsprung′s disease and malrotation. We report, a neonate who presented with recurrent attacks of segmental enteritis due to CMPA and the last episode presented with signs of peritonitis. He improved dramatically after elimination of cow′s milk from his diet. CMPA should be considered in artificially fed babies with surgical abdomen and atypical clinical signs and symptoms.

  20. Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

    1988-12-31

    Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.