Interference and complementarity for two-photon hybrid entangled states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nogueira, W. A. T.; Santibanez, M.; Delgado, A.; Saavedra, C.; Neves, L.; Lima, G.; Padua, S.
2010-01-01
In this work we generate two-photon hybrid entangled states (HESs), where the polarization of one photon is entangled with the transverse spatial degree of freedom of the second photon. The photon pair is created by parametric down-conversion in a polarization-entangled state. A birefringent double-slit couples the polarization and spatial degrees of freedom of these photons, and finally, suitable spatial and polarization projections generate the HES. We investigate some interesting aspects of the two-photon hybrid interference and present this study in the context of the complementarity relation that exists between the visibility of the one-photon and that of the two-photon interference patterns.
A, Karimi; M, K. Tavassoly
2016-04-01
In this paper, after a brief review on the entangled squeezed states, we produce a new class of the continuous-variable-type entangled states, namely, deformed photon-added entangled squeezed states. These states are obtained via the iterated action of the f-deformed creation operator A = f (n)a † on the entangled squeezed states. In the continuation, by studying the criteria such as the degree of entanglement, quantum polarization as well as sub-Poissonian photon statistics, the two-mode correlation function, one-mode and two-mode squeezing, we investigate the nonclassical behaviors of the introduced states in detail by choosing a particular f-deformation function. It is revealed that the above-mentioned physical properties can be affected and so may be tuned by justifying the excitation number, after choosing a nonlinearity function. Finally, to generate the introduced states, we propose a theoretical scheme using the nonlinear Jaynes-Cummings model.
Tomography of the quantum state of photons entangled in high dimensions
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Agnew, M
2011-12-01
Full Text Available precise knowledge of the nature of such entangled quantum states. The authors tomographically reconstruct the quantum state of the two photons produced by parametric downconversion that are entangled in a d-dimensional orbital angular momentum basis...
Multi-Photon Entanglement and Quantum Teleportation
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Shih, Yanhua
1999-01-01
The project 'Multi-Photon Entanglement and Quantum Teleportation' concerns a series of experimental and theoretical investigations on multi-photon entangled states and the applications, for example...
Manipulating continuous variable photonic entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plenio, M.B.
2005-01-01
I will review our work on photonic entanglement in the continuous variable regime including both Gaussian and non-Gaussian states. The feasibility and efficiency of various entanglement purification protocols are discussed this context. (author)
Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2016-01-01
Logic-qubit entanglement is a promising resource in quantum information processing, especially in future large-scale quantum networks. In the paper, we put forward an efficient entanglement purification protocol (EPP) for nonlocal mixed logic entangled states with the bit-flip error in the logic qubits of the logic Bell state, resorting to the photon-atom interaction in low-quality (Q) cavity and atomic state measurement. Different from existing EPPs, this protocol can also purify the logic p...
Heralded noiseless amplification for single-photon entangled state with polarization feature
Wang, Dan-Dan; Jin, Yu-Yu; Qin, Sheng-Xian; Zu, Hao; Zhou, Lan; Zhong, Wei; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2018-03-01
Heralded noiseless amplification is a promising method to overcome the transmission photon loss in practical noisy quantum channel and can effectively lengthen the quantum communication distance. Single-photon entanglement is an important resource in current quantum communications. Here, we construct two single-photon-assisted heralded noiseless amplification protocols for the single-photon two-mode entangled state and single-photon three-mode W state, respectively, where the single-photon qubit has an arbitrary unknown polarization feature. After the amplification, the fidelity of the single-photon entangled state can be increased, while the polarization feature of the single-photon qubit can be well remained. Both the two protocols only require the linear optical elements, so that they can be realized under current experimental condition. Our protocols may be useful in current and future quantum information processing.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flindt, Christian; Sørensen, A. S.; Lukin, M. D.
2007-01-01
We propose a semiconductor device that can electrically generate entangled electron spin-photon states, providing a building block for entanglement of distant spins. The device consists of a p-i-n diode structure that incorporates a coupled double quantum dot. We show that electronic control...... of the diode bias and local gating allow for the generation of single photons that are entangled with a robust quantum memory based on the electron spins. Practical performance of this approach to controlled spin-photon entanglement is analyzed....
Proposal for demonstration of long-range cluster state entanglement in the presence of photon loss
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Nutz
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Photonic cluster states are a crucial resource for optical quantum computing. Recently a quantum dot single photon source has been demonstrated to produce strings of single photons in a small linear cluster state. Sources of this kind could produce much larger cluster states, but high photon loss rates make it impossible to characterize the entanglement generated by quantum state tomography. We present a benchmarking method for such sources that can be used to demonstrate useful long-range entanglement with currently available collection/detection efficiencies below 1%. The measurement of the polarization state of single photons in different bases can provide an estimate for the three-qubit correlation function ⟨ZXZ⟩. This value constrains correlations spanning more than three qubits, which in turn provide a lower bound for the localizable entanglement between any two qubits in the large state produced by the source. Finite localizable entanglement can be established by demonstrating ⟨ZXZ⟩>23. This result enables photonic experiments demonstrating computationally useful entanglement with currently available technology.
Entanglement between atomic thermal states and coherent or squeezed photons in a damping cavity
Yadollahi, F.; Safaiee, R.; Golshan, M. M.
2018-02-01
In the present study, the standard Jaynes-Cummings model, in a lossy cavity, is employed to characterize the entanglement between atoms and photons when the former is initially in a thermal state (mixed ensemble) while the latter is described by either coherent or squeezed distributions. The whole system is thus assumed to be in equilibrium with a heat reservoir at a finite temperature T, and the measure of negativity is used to determine the time evolution of atom-photon entanglement. To this end, the master equation for the density matrix, in the secular approximation, is solved and a partial transposition of the result is made. The degree of atom-photon entanglement is then numerically computed, through the negativity, as a function of time and temperature. To justify the behavior of atom-photon entanglement, moreover, we employ the so obtained total density matrix to compute and analyze the time evolution of the initial photonic coherent or squeezed probability distributions and the squeezing parameters. On more practical points, our results demonstrate that as the initial photon mean number increases, the atom-photon entanglement decays at a faster pace for the coherent distribution compared to the squeezed one. Moreover, it is shown that the degree of atom-photon entanglement is much higher and more stable for the squeezed distribution than that for the coherent one. Consequently, we conclude that the time intervals during which the atom-photon entanglement is distillable is longer for the squeezed distribution. It is also illustrated that as the temperature increases the rate of approaching separability is faster for the coherent initial distribution. The novel point of the present report is the calculation of dynamical density matrix (containing all physical information) for the combined system of atom-photon in a lossy cavity, as well as the corresponding negativity, at a finite temperature.
Creation of single-photon entangled states around rotating black holes
Racorean, Ovidiu
2018-02-01
Recently, numerical simulations showed that X-ray photons emitted by accretion disks acquire rotation of polarization angle and orbital angular momentum due to strong gravitational field in the vicinity of the rotating black holes. Based on these two degrees of freedom we construct a bipartite two-level quantum system of the accretion disks photons. To characterize the quantum states of this composite system we consider linear entropy for the reduced density matrix of polarization with the intention to exploit its direct relation with the photons degree of polarization. Accordingly, the minimum degree of polarization of X-ray radiation located in the transition region of the accretion disk indicates a high value of the linear entropy for the photons emitted on this region, inferring a high degree of entanglement in the composite system. We emphasize that for an extreme rotating black hole in the thermal state, the photons with energies at the thermal peak are maximally entangled in polarization and orbital angular momentum, leading to the creation of all four Bell states. Detection and measurement of quantum information encoded in photons emitted in the accretion disk around rotating black holes may be performed by actual quantum information technology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuang Leman; Zhou Lan
2003-01-01
In this paper, we present a method to generate continuous-variable-type entangled states between photons and atoms in atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The proposed method involves an atomic BEC with three internal states, a weak quantized probe laser, and a strong classical coupling laser, which form a three-level Λ-shaped BEC system. We consider a situation where the BEC is in electromagnetically induced transparency with the coupling laser being much stronger than the probe laser. In this case, the upper and intermediate levels are unpopulated, so that their adiabatic elimination enables an effective two-mode model involving only the atomic field at the lowest internal level and the quantized probe laser field. Atom-photon quantum entanglement is created through laser-atom and interatomic interactions, and two-photon detuning. We show how to generate atom-photon entangled coherent states and entangled states between photon (atom) coherent states and atom-(photon-) macroscopic quantum superposition (MQS) states, and between photon-MQS and atom-MQS states
Single-Photon Switching and Entanglement of Solid- State Qubits in an Integrated Nanophotonic System
Evans, Ruffin; Sipahigil, Alp; Sukachev, Denis; Burek, Michael; Borregaard, Johannes; Bhaskar, Mihir; Nguyen, Christian; Pacheco, Jose; Bielejec, Edward; Loncar, Marko; Lukin, Mikhail
2017-04-01
Efficient interfaces between photons and quantum emitters form the basis for quantum networks and enable optical nonlinearities at the single-photon level. We demonstrate a platform for scalable quantum nanophotonics based on silicon-vacancy (SiV) color centers coupled to diamond nanodevices. By placing SiV centers inside diamond photonic crystal cavities, we realize a quantum-optical switch controlled by a single color center. We control the switch using SiV metastable states and observe switching at the single-photon level. Raman transitions are used to realize a single-photon source with a tunable frequency and bandwidth in a diamond waveguide. By measuring intensity correlations of indistinguishable Raman photons emitted into a single waveguide, we observe quantum interference resulting from the superradiant emission of two entangled SiV centers. We also discuss current work to extend the coherence time of the SiV spin degree of freedom, engineer deterministic multi-emitter interactions via the cavity mode, and related work with the Germanium-Vacancy center.
Wang, Zi-Hang; Yu, Wen-Xuan; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Gao, Cheng-Yan; Alzahrani, Faris; Hobiny, Aatef; Deng, Fu-Guo
2018-03-01
We present two different hyperentanglement concentration protocols (hyper-ECPs) for two-photon systems in nonlocal polarization-time-bin hyperentangled states with known parameters, including Bell-like and cluster-like states, resorting to the parameter splitting method. They require only one of two parties in quantum communication to operate her photon in the process of entanglement concentration, not two, and they have the maximal success probability. They work with linear optical elements and have good feasibility in experiment, especially in the case that there are a big number of quantum data exchanged as the parties can obtain the information about the parameters of the nonlocal hyperentangled states by sampling a subset of nonlocal hyperentangled two-photon systems and measuring them. As the quantum state of photons in the time-bin degree of freedom suffers from less noise in an optical-fiber channel, these hyper-ECPs may have good applications in practical long-distance quantum communication in the future.
High-dimensional quantum key distribution with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yang [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bao, Wan-Su, E-mail: 2010thzz@sina.com [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bao, Hai-Ze; Zhou, Chun; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Hong-Wei [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)
2017-04-25
High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HD-QKD) can generate more secure bits for one detection event so that it can achieve long distance key distribution with a high secret key capacity. In this Letter, we present a decoy state HD-QKD scheme with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state (ESPACS) source. We present two tight formulas to estimate the single-photon fraction of postselected events and Eve's Holevo information and derive lower bounds on the secret key capacity and the secret key rate of our protocol. We also present finite-key analysis for our protocol by using the Chernoff bound. Our numerical results show that our protocol using one decoy state can perform better than that of previous HD-QKD protocol with the spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) using two decoy states. Moreover, when considering finite resources, the advantage is more obvious. - Highlights: • Implement the single-photon-added coherent state source into the high-dimensional quantum key distribution. • Enhance both the secret key capacity and the secret key rate compared with previous schemes. • Show an excellent performance in view of statistical fluctuations.
Ou, Bao-Quan; Liu, Chang; Sun, Yuan; Chen, Ping-Xing
2018-02-01
Inspired by the recent developments of the research on the atom-photon quantum interface and energy-time entanglement between single-photon pulses, we are motivated to study the deterministic protocol for the frequency-bin entanglement of the atom-photon hybrid system, which is analogous to the frequency-bin entanglement between single-photon pulses. We show that such entanglement arises naturally in considering the interaction between a frequency-bin entangled single-photon pulse pair and a single atom coupled to an optical cavity, via straightforward atom-photon phase gate operations. Its anticipated properties and preliminary examples of its potential application in quantum networking are also demonstrated. Moreover, we construct a specific quantum entanglement witness tool to detect such extended frequency-bin entanglement from a reasonably general set of separable states, and prove its capability theoretically. We focus on the energy-time considerations throughout the analysis.
How a single photon can mediate entanglement between two others
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio de, E-mail: bertulio.fisica@gmail.com
2016-10-15
We describe a novel quantum information protocol, which probabilistically entangles two distant photons that have never interacted. Different from the entanglement swapping protocol, which requires two pairs of maximally entangled photons as the input states, as well as a Bell-state measurement (BSM), the present scheme only requires three photons: two to be entangled and another to mediate the correlation, and no BSM, in a process that we call “entanglement mediation”. Furthermore, in analyzing the paths of the photons in our arrangement, we conclude that one of them, the mediator, exchanges information with the two others simultaneously, which seems to be a new quantum-mechanical feature.
Protecting single-photon entanglement with practical entanglement source
Zhou, Lan; Ou-Yang, Yang; Wang, Lei; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2017-06-01
Single-photon entanglement (SPE) is important for quantum communication and quantum information processing. However, SPE is sensitive to photon loss. In this paper, we discuss a linear optical amplification protocol for protecting SPE. Different from the previous protocols, we exploit the practical spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) source to realize the amplification, for the ideal entanglement source is unavailable in current quantum technology. Moreover, we prove that the amplification using the entanglement generated from SPDC source as auxiliary is better than the amplification assisted with single photons. The reason is that the vacuum state from SPDC source will not affect the amplification, so that it can be eliminated automatically. This protocol may be useful in future long-distance quantum communications.
Robust entangled qutrit states in atmospheric turbulence
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Brunner, T
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The entangled quantum state of a photon pair propagating through atmospheric turbulence suffers decay of entanglement due to the scintillation it experiences. Here we investigate the robustness against this decay for different qutrit states. We use...
Broadband waveguide quantum memory for entangled photons.
Saglamyurek, Erhan; Sinclair, Neil; Jin, Jeongwan; Slater, Joshua A; Oblak, Daniel; Bussières, Félix; George, Mathew; Ricken, Raimund; Sohler, Wolfgang; Tittel, Wolfgang
2011-01-27
The reversible transfer of quantum states of light into and out of matter constitutes an important building block for future applications of quantum communication: it will allow the synchronization of quantum information, and the construction of quantum repeaters and quantum networks. Much effort has been devoted to the development of such quantum memories, the key property of which is the preservation of entanglement during storage. Here we report the reversible transfer of photon-photon entanglement into entanglement between a photon and a collective atomic excitation in a solid-state device. Towards this end, we employ a thulium-doped lithium niobate waveguide in conjunction with a photon-echo quantum memory protocol, and increase the spectral acceptance from the current maximum of 100 megahertz to 5 gigahertz. We assess the entanglement-preserving nature of our storage device through Bell inequality violations and by comparing the amount of entanglement contained in the detected photon pairs before and after the reversible transfer. These measurements show, within statistical error, a perfect mapping process. Our broadband quantum memory complements the family of robust, integrated lithium niobate devices. It simplifies frequency-matching of light with matter interfaces in advanced applications of quantum communication, bringing fully quantum-enabled networks a step closer.
Quantum cryptography using a photon source based on postselection from entangled two-photon states
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peřina ml., Jan; Haderka, Ondřej; Soubusta, Jan
2001-01-01
Roč. 64, - (2001), s. 052305-1-152305-13 ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : quantum cryptography * photon number squeezing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.810, year: 2001
Entangled photons and quantum communication
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan Zhensheng; Bao Xiaohui; Lu Chaoyang; Zhang Jun; Peng Chengzhi; Pan Jianwei
2010-01-01
This article reviews the progress of quantum communication that utilizes photonic entanglement. We start with a survey of various methods for generating entangled photons, followed by an introduction of the theoretical principles and the experimental implementations of quantum key distribution. We then move on to a discussion of more involved quantum communication protocols including quantum dense coding, teleportation and quantum communication complexity. After that, we review the progress in free-space quantum communication, decoherence-free subspace, and quantum repeater protocols which are essential ingredients for long-distance quantum communication. Practical realizations of quantum repeaters, which require an interface between photons and quantum memories, are discussed briefly. Finally, we draw concluding remarks considering the technical challenges, and put forward an outlook on further developments of this field.
Silicon photonic processor of two-qubit entangling quantum logic
Santagati, R.; Silverstone, J. W.; Strain, M. J.; Sorel, M.; Miki, S.; Yamashita, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Sasaki, M.; Terai, H.; Tanner, M. G.; Natarajan, C. M.; Hadfield, R. H.; O'Brien, J. L.; Thompson, M. G.
2017-11-01
Entanglement is a fundamental property of quantum mechanics, and is a primary resource in quantum information systems. Its manipulation remains a central challenge in the development of quantum technology. In this work, we demonstrate a device which can generate, manipulate, and analyse two-qubit entangled states, using miniature and mass-manufacturable silicon photonics. By combining four photon-pair sources with a reconfigurable six-mode interferometer, embedding a switchable entangling gate, we generate two-qubit entangled states, manipulate their entanglement, and analyse them, all in the same silicon chip. Using quantum state tomography, we show how our source can produce a range of entangled and separable states, and how our switchable controlled-Z gate operates on them, entangling them or making them separable depending on its configuration.
Nonlocal hyperconcentration on entangled photons using photonic module system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao, Cong; Wang, Tie-Jun; Mi, Si-Chen; Zhang, Ru; Wang, Chuan
2016-01-01
Entanglement distribution will inevitably be affected by the channel and environment noise. Thus distillation of maximal entanglement nonlocally becomes a crucial goal in quantum information. Here we illustrate that maximal hyperentanglement on nonlocal photons could be distilled using the photonic module and cavity quantum electrodynamics, where the photons are simultaneously entangled in polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom. The construction of the photonic module in a photonic band-gap structure is presented, and the operation of the module is utilized to implement the photonic nondestructive parity checks on the two degrees of freedom. We first propose a hyperconcentration protocol using two identical partially hyperentangled initial states with unknown coefficients to distill a maximally hyperentangled state probabilistically, and further propose a protocol by the assistance of an ancillary single photon prepared according to the known coefficients of the initial state. In the two protocols, the total success probability can be improved greatly by introducing the iteration mechanism, and only one of the remote parties is required to perform the parity checks in each round of iteration. Estimates on the system requirements and recent experimental results indicate that our proposal is realizable with existing or near-further technologies.
Exciton absorption of entangled photons in semiconductor quantum wells
Rodriguez, Ferney; Guzman, David; Salazar, Luis; Quiroga, Luis; Condensed Matter Physics Group Team
2013-03-01
The dependence of the excitonic two-photon absorption on the quantum correlations (entanglement) of exciting biphotons by a semiconductor quantum well is studied. We show that entangled photon absorption can display very unusual features depending on space-time-polarization biphoton parameters and absorber density of states for both bound exciton states as well as for unbound electron-hole pairs. We report on the connection between biphoton entanglement, as quantified by the Schmidt number, and absorption by a semiconductor quantum well. Comparison between frequency-anti-correlated, unentangled and frequency-correlated biphoton absorption is addressed. We found that exciton oscillator strengths are highly increased when photons arrive almost simultaneously in an entangled state. Two-photon-absorption becomes a highly sensitive probe of photon quantum correlations when narrow semiconductor quantum wells are used as two-photon absorbers. Research funds from Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de los Andes
Quantum secret sharing protocol using modulated doubly entangled photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chuan, Wang; Yong, Zhang
2009-01-01
In this paper, we propose a quantum secret sharing protocol utilizing polarization modulated doubly entangled photon pairs. The measurement devices are constructed. By modulating the polarizations of entangled photons, the boss could encode secret information on the initial state and share the photons with different members to realize the secret sharing process. This protocol shows the security against intercept-resend attack and dishonest member cheating. The generalized quantum secret sharing protocol is also discussed. (general)
System and method for clock synchronization and position determination using entangled photon pairs
Shih, Yanhua (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A system and method for clock synchronization and position determination using entangled photon pairs is provided. The present invention relies on the measurement of the second order correlation function of entangled states. Photons from an entangled photon source travel one-way to the clocks to be synchronized. By analyzing photon registration time histories generated at each clock location, the entangled states allow for high accuracy clock synchronization as well as high accuracy position determination.
Displacement-enhanced entanglement distillation of single-mode-squeezed entangled states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tipsmark, Anders; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2013-01-01
It has been shown that entanglement distillation of Gaussian entangled states by means of local photon subtraction can be improved by local Gaussian transformations. Here we show that a similar effect can be expected for the distillation of an asymmetric Gaussian entangled state that is produced...... by a single squeezed beam. We show that for low initial entanglement, our largely simplified protocol generates more entanglement than previous proposed protocols. Furthermore, we show that the distillation scheme also works efficiently on decohered entangled states as well as with a practical photon...
Fiber transport of spatially entangled photons
Löffler, W.; Eliel, E. R.; Woerdman, J. P.; Euser, T. G.; Scharrer, M.; Russell, P.
2012-03-01
High-dimensional entangled photons pairs are interesting for quantum information and cryptography: Compared to the well-known 2D polarization case, the stronger non-local quantum correlations could improve noise resistance or security, and the larger amount of information per photon increases the available bandwidth. One implementation is to use entanglement in the spatial degree of freedom of twin photons created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, which is equivalent to orbital angular momentum entanglement, this has been proven to be an excellent model system. The use of optical fiber technology for distribution of such photons has only very recently been practically demonstrated and is of fundamental and applied interest. It poses a big challenge compared to the established time and frequency domain methods: For spatially entangled photons, fiber transport requires the use of multimode fibers, and mode coupling and intermodal dispersion therein must be minimized not to destroy the spatial quantum correlations. We demonstrate that these shortcomings of conventional multimode fibers can be overcome by using a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, which follows the paradigm to mimic free-space transport as good as possible, and are able to confirm entanglement of the fiber-transported photons. Fiber transport of spatially entangled photons is largely unexplored yet, therefore we discuss the main complications, the interplay of intermodal dispersion and mode mixing, the influence of external stress and core deformations, and consider the pros and cons of various fiber types.
Photon states in anisotropic media
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Rosen) cor- relations as codified in Bell's inequalities have been tested for the polarization-entangled states of two photons. Similarly, quantum teleportation and quantum encryption have also been accomplished using photon polarization states.
Atomic Evolution and Entanglement of Two Qubits in Photon Superfluid
Yin, Miao; Zhang, Xiongfeng; Deng, Yunlong; Deng, Huaqiu
2018-03-01
By using reservoir theory, we investigate the evolution of an atom placed in photon superfluid and study the entanglement properties of two qubits interacting with photon superfluid. It is found that the atomic decay rate in photon superfluid changes periodically with position of the atom and the decay rate can be inhibited compared to that in usual electromagnetic environment without photon superfluid. It is also found that when two atoms are separately immersed in their own local photon-superfluid reservoir, the entanglement sudden death or birth occurs or not only depends on the initial state of the qubits. What is more, we find a possible case that the concurrence between two qubits can remain a constant value by choosing proper values of parameters of the system, which may provide a new way to preserve quantum entanglement.
Measurement problem and local hidden variables with entangled photons
Muchowski, Eugen
2017-12-01
It is shown that there is no remote action with polarization measurements of photons in singlet state. A model is presented introducing a hidden parameter which determines the polarizer output. This model is able to explain the polarization measurement results with entangled photons. It is not ruled out by Bell's Theorem.
Target Detection of Quantum Illumination Receiver Based on Photon-subtracted Entanglement State
Chi, Jiao; Liu, HongJun; Huang, Nan; Wang, ZhaoLu
2017-12-01
We theoretically propose a quantum illumination receiver based on the ideal photon-subtracted two-mode squeezed state (PSTMSS) to efficiently detect the noise-hidden target. This receiver is generated by applying an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) to the cross correlation detection. With analyzing the output performance, it is found that OPA as a preposition technology of the receiver can contribute to the PSTMSS by significantly reducing the error probability than that of the general two-mode squeezed state (TMSS). Comparing with TMSS, the signal-to-noise ratio of quantum illumination based on ideal PSTMSS and OPA is improved more than 4 dB under an optimal gain of OPA. This work may provide a potential improvement in the application of accurate target detection when two kinds of resource have the identical real squeezing parameter.
Cloning entangled photons to scales one can see
Sekatski, Pavel; Sanguinetti, Bruno; Pomarico, Enrico; Gisin, Nicolas; Simon, Christoph
2010-11-01
By amplifying photonic qubits it is possible to produce states that contain enough photons to be seen with the human eye, potentially bringing quantum effects to macroscopic scales [P. Sekatski, N. Brunner, C. Branciard, N. Gisin, and C. Simon, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.103.113601 103, 113601 (2009)]. In this paper we theoretically study quantum states obtained by amplifying one side of an entangled photon pair with different types of optical cloning machines for photonic qubits. We propose a detection scheme that involves lossy threshold detectors (such as the human eye) on the amplified side and conventional photon detectors on the other side. We show that correlations obtained with such coarse-grained measurements prove the entanglement of the initial photon pair and do not prove the entanglement of the amplified state. We emphasize the importance of the detection loophole in Bell violation experiments by giving a simple preparation technique for separable states that violate a Bell inequality without closing this loophole. Finally, we analyze the genuine entanglement of the amplified states and its robustness to losses before, during, and after amplification.
Quantum entangle photon and applications in communication and measurement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Surasak Chiangga
2004-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the use of a single photon entangled state to secure the transmission data via a wireless communication link and a biological tissue study where the encrypted data/qubit is prepared and formed by using a simple optical system. The encrypted data can transmit securely i.e. without cloning to theintended recipient via a public wireless link. We have shown that the result of the entangled states has good visibility for the use of data quantum encryption. The generated entangled photon for up-link via wireless communication is proposed and the problem of quantum cloning described. The biological tissue characterizations using such a short pulse can be realize by using a simple optical arrangement and components. Such an implemented system has the advantage of that the ultra-short pulse of a single photon with its quantum state identification can be used to provide the required measured data.
Quantum Entanglement Swapping between Two Multipartite Entangled States
Su, Xiaolong; Tian, Caixing; Deng, Xiaowei; Li, Qiang; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2016-12-01
Quantum entanglement swapping is one of the most promising ways to realize the quantum connection among local quantum nodes. In this Letter, we present an experimental demonstration of the entanglement swapping between two independent multipartite entangled states, each of which involves a tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled state of an optical field. The entanglement swapping is implemented deterministically by means of a joint measurement on two optical modes coming from the two multipartite entangled states respectively and the classical feedforward of the measurement results. After entanglement swapping the two independent multipartite entangled states are merged into a large entangled state in which all unmeasured quantum modes are entangled. The entanglement swapping between a tripartite GHZ state and an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state is also demonstrated and the dependence of the resultant entanglement on transmission loss is investigated. The presented experiment provides a feasible technical reference for constructing more complicated quantum networks.
Entanglement and quantum superposition induced by a single photon
Lü, Xin-You; Zhu, Gui-Lei; Zheng, Li-Li; Wu, Ying
2018-03-01
We predict the occurrence of single-photon-induced entanglement and quantum superposition in a hybrid quantum model, introducing an optomechanical coupling into the Rabi model. Originally, it comes from the photon-dependent quantum property of the ground state featured by the proposed hybrid model. It is associated with a single-photon-induced quantum phase transition, and is immune to the A2 term of the spin-field interaction. Moreover, the obtained quantum superposition state is actually a squeezed cat state, which can significantly enhance precision in quantum metrology. This work offers an approach to manipulate entanglement and quantum superposition with a single photon, which might have potential applications in the engineering of new single-photon quantum devices, and also fundamentally broaden the regime of cavity QED.
Spectroscopy by frequency entangled photon pairs
Yabushita, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Takayoshi
2003-01-01
Quantum spectroscopy was performed using the frequency-entangled broadband photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. An absorptive sample was placed in front of the idler photon detector, and the frequency of signal photons was resolved by a diffraction grating. The absorption spectrum of the sample was measured by counting the coincidences, and the result is in agreement with the one measured by a conventional spectrophotometer with a classical light source.
Optimized entanglement witnesses for Dicke states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergmann, Marcel; Guehne, Otfried [Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultaet, Universitaet Siegen, Department Physik, Walter-Flex-Strasse 3, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)
2013-07-01
Quantum entanglement is an important resource for applications in quantum information processing like quantum teleportation and cryptography. Moreover, the number of particles that can be entangled experimentally using polarized photons or ion traps has been significantly enlarged. Therefore, criteria to decide the question whether a given multi-particle state is entangled or not have to be improved. Our approach to this problem uses the notion of PPT mixtures which form an approximation to the set of bi-separable states. With this method, entanglement witnesses can be obtained in a natural manner via linear semi-definite programming. In our contribution, we will present analytical results for entanglement witnesses for Dicke states. This allows to overcome the limitations of convex optimization.
Towards Long-Distance Atom-Photon Entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenfeld, W.; Hocke, F.; Henkel, F.; Krug, M.; Volz, J.; Weber, M.; Weinfurter, H.
2008-01-01
We report the observation of entanglement between a single trapped atom and a single photon at remote locations. The degree of coherence of the entangled atom-photon pair is verified via appropriate local correlation measurements, after communicating the photon via an optical fiber link of 300 m length to a receiver 3.5 m apart. In addition, we measured the temporal evolution of the atomic density matrix after projecting the atom via a state measurement of the photon onto several well-defined spin states. We find that the state of the single atom dephases on a time scale of 150 μs, which represents an important step towards long-distance quantum networking with individual neutral atoms
Entangled-photon compressive ghost imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zerom, Petros; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; Howell, John C.; Boyd, Robert W.
2011-01-01
We have experimentally demonstrated high-resolution compressive ghost imaging at the single-photon level using entangled photons produced by a spontaneous parametric down-conversion source and using single-pixel detectors. For a given mean-squared error, the number of photons needed to reconstruct a two-dimensional image is found to be much smaller than that in quantum ghost imaging experiments employing a raster scan. This procedure not only shortens the data acquisition time, but also suggests a more economical use of photons for low-light-level and quantum image formation.
Deterministic teleportation using single-photon entanglement as a resource
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Björk, Gunnar; Laghaout, Amine; Andersen, Ulrik L.
2012-01-01
We outline a proof that teleportation with a single particle is, in principle, just as reliable as with two particles. We thereby hope to dispel the skepticism surrounding single-photon entanglement as a valid resource in quantum information. A deterministic Bell-state analyzer is proposed which...
Entanglement of neutrino states
Khokhlov, D. L.
2007-01-01
Muon and muon antineutrino born in the decay of charged pion form the entangled spin state. The decay of muon with the left helicity triggers the left helicity for muon antineutrino to preserve the null total angular momentum of muon and muon antineutrino. This is forbidden for antineutrino hence one cannot detect the muon antineutrino after the decay of muon. This effect may explain the deficit of muon neutrino flux in the Super-Kamiokande, K2K, MINOS experiments.
Heralded generation of a micro-macro entangled state
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou
2013-01-01
Using different optical setups based on squeezed state and photon subtraction we show how optical entanglement between a macroscopic and a microscopic state-the so-called Schro¨dinger cat state or micro-macro state-can be generated. The entangled state is heralded and is thus produced a priori...
Experimental test of photonic entanglement in accelerated reference frames
Fink, Matthias; Rodriguez-Aramendia, Ana; Handsteiner, Johannes; Ziarkash, Abdul; Steinlechner, Fabian; Scheidl, Thomas; Fuentes, Ivette; Pienaar, Jacques; Ralph, Timothy C.; Ursin, Rupert
2017-05-01
The unification of the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics is a long-standing challenge in contemporary physics. Experimental techniques in quantum optics have only recently reached the maturity required for the investigation of quantum systems under the influence of non-inertial motion, such as being held at rest in gravitational fields, or subjected to uniform accelerations. Here, we report on experiments in which a genuine quantum state of an entangled photon pair is exposed to a series of different accelerations. We measure an entanglement witness for g-values ranging from 30 mg to up to 30 g--under free-fall as well on a spinning centrifuge--and have thus derived an upper bound on the effects of uniform acceleration on photonic entanglement.
Coherent creation of photon pairs and generation of time-bin entangled photons from a quantum dot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harishankar, J.
2013-01-01
Semiconductor quantum dots are proven sources of single photons and entangled photon pairs. They are compact sources with the potential to find applications in quantum information processing. In this present work photon pairs were coherently created through resonant two-photon excitation of a biexciton in a single self-assembled semiconductor quantum dot. Emitted photons were collected in single mode fibers and correlation measurements were performed to determine the photon statistics. Measurements showed that the generated photons were anti-bunched with complete suppression of multi-photon emission. This excitation process was used to generate time-bin entangled photons from a single quantum dot. The existence of the entanglement was confirmed through two-photon interferometry based quantum state tomography. (author)
Photon entanglement in the phase-space Q representation of quantum optics
Santos, E
2003-01-01
Several examples of photon entanglement are studied in the Q representation of quantum optics. In particular, the entangled states produced in parametric down conversion are studied in detail, and we determine the conditions for the violation of Bell's inequality. Our approach shows that photon entanglement is related to the existence of correlations between the quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field associated to different modes. (author)
Orthogonal spectral coding of entangled photons.
Lukens, Joseph M; Dezfooliyan, Amir; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M; Leaird, Daniel E; Weiner, Andrew M
2014-04-04
We extend orthogonal optical coding, previously applied to multiuser classical communication networks, to entangled photons. Using a pulse shaper and sum-frequency generation for ultrafast coincidence detection, we demonstrate encoding and decoding of biphoton wave packets. Applying one code to the signal photon spreads the wave packet in time and creates a null at zero delay; filtering the idler with the matched code recovers a narrow correlation peak, whereas applying any other code leaves the wave packet spread. Our results could prove useful in the development of code-based quantum communication networks.
Local cloning of entangled states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gheorghiu, Vlad; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.
2010-01-01
We investigate the conditions under which a set S of pure bipartite quantum states on a DxD system can be locally cloned deterministically by separable operations, when at least one of the states is full Schmidt rank. We allow for the possibility of cloning using a resource state that is less than maximally entangled. Our results include that: (i) all states in S must be full Schmidt rank and equally entangled under the G-concurrence measure, and (ii) the set S can be extended to a larger clonable set generated by a finite group G of order |G|=N, the number of states in the larger set. It is then shown that any local cloning apparatus is capable of cloning a number of states that divides D exactly. We provide a complete solution for two central problems in local cloning, giving necessary and sufficient conditions for (i) when a set of maximally entangled states can be locally cloned, valid for all D; and (ii) local cloning of entangled qubit states with nonvanishing entanglement. In both of these cases, we show that a maximally entangled resource is necessary and sufficient, and the states must be related to each other by local unitary 'shift' operations. These shifts are determined by the group structure, so need not be simple cyclic permutations. Assuming this shifted form and partially entangled states, then in D=3 we show that a maximally entangled resource is again necessary and sufficient, while for higher-dimensional systems, we find that the resource state must be strictly more entangled than the states in S. All of our necessary conditions for separable operations are also necessary conditions for local operations and classical communication (LOCC), since the latter is a proper subset of the former. In fact, all our results hold for LOCC, as our sufficient conditions are demonstrated for LOCC, directly.
Quantum cobwebs: Universal entangling of quantum states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Note that this tripartite entangled state is not a maximally entangled state. The ZSA states are not maximally fragile ... The combined state of the input and the tripartite. ZSA entangled state ψ a ª Ψ 123 can be .... be N parties in a network of N nodes each having access to a single qubit. They share. N-partite ZSA entangled ...
Heralded amplification of path entangled quantum states
Monteiro, F.; Verbanis, E.; Caprara Vivoli, V.; Martin, A.; Gisin, N.; Zbinden, H.; Thew, R. T.
2017-06-01
Device-independent quantum key distribution (DI-QKD) represents one of the most fascinating challenges in quantum communication, exploiting concepts of fundamental physics, namely Bell tests of nonlocality, to ensure the security of a communication link. This requires the loophole-free violation of a Bell inequality, which is intrinsically difficult due to losses in fibre optic transmission channels. Heralded photon amplification (HPA) is a teleportation-based protocol that has been proposed as a means to overcome transmission loss for DI-QKD. Here we demonstrate HPA for path entangled states and characterise the entanglement before and after loss by exploiting a recently developed displacement-based detection scheme. We demonstrate that by exploiting HPA we are able to reliably maintain high fidelity entangled states over loss-equivalent distances of more than 50 km.
Correlation Plenoptic Imaging With Entangled Photons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesco V. Pepe
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Plenoptic imaging is a novel optical technique for three-dimensional imaging in a single shot. It is enabled by the simultaneous measurement of both the location and the propagation direction of light in a given scene. In the standard approach, the maximum spatial and angular resolutions are inversely proportional, and so are the resolution and the maximum achievable depth of focus of the 3D image. We have recently proposed a method to overcome such fundamental limits by combining plenoptic imaging with an intriguing correlation remote-imaging technique: ghost imaging. Here, we theoretically demonstrate that correlation plenoptic imaging can be effectively achieved by exploiting the position-momentum entanglement characterizing spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC photon pairs. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we shall show that correlation plenoptic imaging with entangled photons may enable the refocusing of an out-of-focus image at the same depth of focus of a standard plenoptic device, but without sacrificing diffraction-limited image resolution.
Multipartite entangled quantum states: Transformation, Entanglement monotones and Application
Cui, Wei
Entanglement is one of the fundamental features of quantum information science. Though bipartite entanglement has been analyzed thoroughly in theory and shown to be an important resource in quantum computation and communication protocols, the theory of entanglement shared between more than two parties, which is called multipartite entanglement, is still not complete. Specifically, the classification of multipartite entanglement and the transformation property between different multipartite states by local operators and classical communications (LOCC) are two fundamental questions in the theory of multipartite entanglement. In this thesis, we present results related to the LOCC transformation between multipartite entangled states. Firstly, we investigate the bounds on the LOCC transformation probability between multipartite states, especially the GHZ class states. By analyzing the involvement of 3-tangle and other entanglement measures under weak two-outcome measurement, we derive explicit upper and lower bound on the transformation probability between GHZ class states. After that, we also analyze the transformation between N-party W type states, which is a special class of multipartite entangled states that has an explicit unique expression and a set of analytical entanglement monotones. We present a necessary and sufficient condition for a known upper bound of transformation probability between two N-party W type states to be achieved. We also further investigate a novel entanglement transformation protocol, the random distillation, which transforms multipartite entanglement into bipartite entanglement ii shared by a non-deterministic pair of parties. We find upper bounds for the random distillation protocol for general N-party W type states and find the condition for the upper bounds to be achieved. What is surprising is that the upper bounds correspond to entanglement monotones that can be increased by Separable Operators (SEP), which gives the first set of
Entanglement and quantum teleportation via decohered tripartite entangled states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Metwally, N., E-mail: nmohamed31@gmail.com
2014-12-15
The entanglement behavior of two classes of multi-qubit system, GHZ and GHZ like states passing through a generalized amplitude damping channel is discussed. Despite this channel causes degradation of the entangled properties and consequently their abilities to perform quantum teleportation, one can always improve the lower values of the entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported state by controlling on Bell measurements, analyzer angle and channel’s strength. Using GHZ-like state within a generalized amplitude damping channel is much better than using the normal GHZ-state, where the decay rate of entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported states are smaller than those depicted for GHZ state.
Path-entangled photon sources on nonlinear chips
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander S. Solntsev
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Photon entanglement has a range of applications from secure communication to the tests of quantum mechanics. Utilizing optical nonlinearity for the generation of entangled photons remains the most widely used approach due to its quality and simplicity. The on-chip integration of entangled light sources has enabled the increase of complexity and enhancement of stability compared to bulk optical implementations. Entanglement over different optical paths is uniquely suited for photonic chips, since waveguides are typically optimized for particular wavelength and polarization, making polarization- and frequency-entanglement less practical. In this review we focus on the latest developments in the field of on-chip nonlinear path-entangled photon sources. We provide a review of recent implementations and compare various approaches to tunability, including thermo-optical, electro-optical and all-optical tuning. We also discuss a range of important technical issues, in particular the on-chip separation of the pump and generated entangled photons. Finally, we review different quality control methods, including on-chip quantum tomography and recently discovered classical-quantum analogy that allows to characterize entangled photon sources by performing simple nonlinear measurements in the classical regime.
Heralded entangling quantum gate via cavity-assisted photon scattering
Borges, Halyne S.; Rossatto, Daniel Z.; Luiz, Fabrício S.; Villas-Boas, Celso J.
2018-01-01
We theoretically investigate the generation of heralded entanglement between two identical atoms via cavity-assisted photon scattering in two different configurations, namely, either both atoms confined in the same cavity or trapped into locally separated ones. Our protocols are given by a very simple and elegant single-step process, the key mechanism of which is a controlled-phase-flip gate implemented by impinging a single photon on single-sided cavities. In particular, when the atoms are localized in remote cavities, we introduce a single-step parallel quantum circuit instead of the serial process extensively adopted in the literature. We also show that such parallel circuit can be straightforwardly applied to entangle two macroscopic clouds of atoms. Both protocols proposed here predict a high entanglement degree with a success probability close to unity for state-of-the-art parameters. Among other applications, our proposal and its extension to multiple atom-cavity systems step toward a suitable route for quantum networking, in particular for quantum state transfer, quantum teleportation, and nonlocal quantum memory.
Entanglement transfer from electrons to photons in quantum dots: an open quantum system approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budich, Jan C; Trauzettel, Bjoern
2010-01-01
We investigate entanglement transfer from a system of two spin-entangled electron-hole pairs, each placed in a separate single mode cavity, to the photons emitted due to cavity leakage. Dipole selection rules and a splitting between the light hole and the heavy hole subbands are the crucial ingredients establishing a one-to-one correspondence between electron spins and circular photon polarizations. To account for the measurement of the photons as well as dephasing effects, we choose a stochastic Schroedinger equation and a conditional master equation approach, respectively. The influence of interactions with the environment as well as asymmetries in the coherent couplings on the photon entanglement is analysed for two concrete measurement schemes. The first one is designed to violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, while the second one employs the visibility of interference fringes to prove the entanglement of the photons. Because of the spatial separation of the entangled electronic system over two quantum dots, a successful verification of entangled photons emitted by this system would imply the detection of nonlocal spin entanglement of massive particles in a solid state structure.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuang, L.-M.; Chen Zengbing; Pan Jianwei
2007-01-01
We propose a method to generate entangled coherent states between two spatially separated atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) via the technique of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Two strong coupling laser beams and two entangled probe laser beams are used to cause two distant BECs to be in EIT states and to generate an atom-photon entangled state between probe lasers and distant BECs. The two BECs are initially in unentangled product coherent states while the probe lasers are initially in an entangled state. Entangled states of two distant BECs can be created through the performance of projective measurements upon the two outgoing probe lasers under certain conditions. Concretely, we propose two protocols to show how to generate entangled coherent states of the two distant BECs. One is a single-photon scheme in which an entangled single-photon state is used as the quantum channel to generate entangled distant BECs. The other is a multiphoton scheme where an entangled coherent state of the probe lasers is used as the quantum channel. Additionally, we also obtain some atom-photon entangled states of particular interest such as entangled states between a pair of optical Bell states (or quasi-Bell-states) and a pair of atomic entangled coherent states (or quasi-Bell-states)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuta, Rikizo; Kato, Hiroshi; Kusaka, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Miki, Shigehito; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka; Wang, Zhen; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Koashi, Masato
2014-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate a high-fidelity visible-to-telecommunicationwavelength conversion of a photon by using a solid-state-based difference frequency generation. In the experiment, one half of a pico-second visible entangled photon pair at 780 nm is converted to a 1522-nm photon. Using superconducting single-photon detectors with low dark count rates and small timing jitters, we observed a fidelity of 0.93±0.04 after the wavelength conversion
Multi-photon entanglement and applications in quantum information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmid, Christian I.T.
2008-01-01
In this thesis, two new linear optics networks are introduced and their application for several quantum information tasks is presented. Spontaneous parametric down conversion, is used in different configurations to provide the input states for the networks. The first network is a new design of a controlled phase gate which is particularly interesting for applications in multi-photon experiments as it constitutes an improvement of former realizations with respect to stability and reliability. This is explicitly demonstrated by employing the gate in four-photon experiments. In this context, a teleportation and entanglement swapping protocol is performed in which all four Bell states are distinguished by means of the phase gate. A similar type of measurement applied to the subsystem parts of two copies of a quantum state, allows further the direct estimation of the state's entanglement in terms of its concurrence. Finally, starting from two Bell states, the controlled phase gate is applied for the observation of a four photon cluster state. The analysis of the results focuses on measurement based quantum computation, the main usage of cluster states. The second network, fed with the second order emission of non-collinear type ii spontaneous parametric down conversion, constitutes a tunable source of a whole family of states. Up to now the observation of one particular state required one individually tailored setup. With the network introduced here many different states can be obtained within the same arrangement by tuning a single, easily accessible experimental parameter. These states exhibit many useful properties and play a central role in several applications of quantum information. Here, they are used for the solution of a four-player quantum Minority game. It is shown that, by employing four-qubit entanglement, the quantum version of the game clearly outperforms its classical counterpart. Experimental data obtained with both networks are utilized to demonstrate
Multi-photon entanglement and applications in quantum information
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmid, Christian I.T.
2008-05-30
In this thesis, two new linear optics networks are introduced and their application for several quantum information tasks is presented. Spontaneous parametric down conversion, is used in different configurations to provide the input states for the networks. The first network is a new design of a controlled phase gate which is particularly interesting for applications in multi-photon experiments as it constitutes an improvement of former realizations with respect to stability and reliability. This is explicitly demonstrated by employing the gate in four-photon experiments. In this context, a teleportation and entanglement swapping protocol is performed in which all four Bell states are distinguished by means of the phase gate. A similar type of measurement applied to the subsystem parts of two copies of a quantum state, allows further the direct estimation of the state's entanglement in terms of its concurrence. Finally, starting from two Bell states, the controlled phase gate is applied for the observation of a four photon cluster state. The analysis of the results focuses on measurement based quantum computation, the main usage of cluster states. The second network, fed with the second order emission of non-collinear type ii spontaneous parametric down conversion, constitutes a tunable source of a whole family of states. Up to now the observation of one particular state required one individually tailored setup. With the network introduced here many different states can be obtained within the same arrangement by tuning a single, easily accessible experimental parameter. These states exhibit many useful properties and play a central role in several applications of quantum information. Here, they are used for the solution of a four-player quantum Minority game. It is shown that, by employing four-qubit entanglement, the quantum version of the game clearly outperforms its classical counterpart. Experimental data obtained with both networks are utilized to
Sensitivity of entangled photon holes to loss and amplification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franson, J. D. [Physics Department, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States)
2011-10-15
Energy-time entangled photon holes are shown to be relatively insensitive to photon loss due to absorption by atoms whose coherence times are longer than the time delays typically employed in nonlocal interferometry (a fraction of a nanosecond). Roughly speaking, the excited atoms do not retain any significant ''which-path'' information regarding the time at which a photon was absorbed. High-intensity entangled photon holes can also be amplified under similar conditions. Decoherence does occur from losses at beam splitters, and these results show that photon loss cannot always be adequately modeled using a sequence of beam splitters. These properties of entangled photon holes may be useful in quantum communications systems where the range of the system is limited by photon loss.
Effect of photonic band gap on entanglement dynamics of qubits
Wu, Jing-Nuo; Hsieh, Wen-Feng; Cheng, Szu-Cheng
2012-01-01
We study how the environment of photonic band gap (PBG) materials affects entanglement dynamics of qubits. Entanglement between the single qubit and the PBG environment is investigated through the von Neumann entropy while that for two initially entangled qubits in this PBG reservoir is through concurrence. Dynamics of these measurements are solved in use of the fractional calculus which has been shown appropriate for the systems with non-Markovian dynamics. Entropy dynamics of the single qub...
Equivalence principle and quantum mechanics: quantum simulation with entangled photons.
Longhi, S
2018-01-15
Einstein's equivalence principle (EP) states the complete physical equivalence of a gravitational field and corresponding inertial field in an accelerated reference frame. However, to what extent the EP remains valid in non-relativistic quantum mechanics is a controversial issue. To avoid violation of the EP, Bargmann's superselection rule forbids a coherent superposition of states with different masses. Here we suggest a quantum simulation of non-relativistic Schrödinger particle dynamics in non-inertial reference frames, which is based on the propagation of polarization-entangled photon pairs in curved and birefringent optical waveguides and Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference measurement. The photonic simulator can emulate superposition of mass states, which would lead to violation of the EP.
Entanglement between a Photon and a Quantum Well
Hoyer, W.; Kira, M.; Koch, S. W.; Stolz, H.; Mosor, S.; Sweet, J.; Ell, C.; Khitrova, G.; Gibbs, H. M.
2004-08-01
The lack of translational invariance perpendicular to the plane of a single quantum well causes equal probability for spontaneous emission to the left or right. Combining one emission path from the left and one from the right into a common detector leads to interference fringes for fundamentally indistinguishable paths corresponding to geometries where the same in-plane momentum is transferred to the quantum well. For all other paths, no interference is observed because of the entanglement between the photon and extended Bloch states of the many-body system. In multiple-quantum-well structures the interference can be controlled via the spacing between the wells.
Compact Tunable High-Efficiency Entangled Photon Source, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MagiQ proposes to develop a compact tunable high-efficiency low-power-consumption entangled photon source. The source, based on inter-Fabry-Perot-cavity Spontaneous...
Li, Song-Song
2018-01-01
We put forward a scheme on how to generate entangled state of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). It is shown that we can rapidly generate the entangled state in the dynamical process and the entangled state maintained a long time interval. It is also shown that the better entangled state can be generated by decreasing coupling strengths of two classical laser fields, increasing two-photon detuning and total number of atoms.
Fast entanglement detection for unknown states of two spatial qutrits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lima, G.; Gomez, E. S.; Saavedra, C.; Vargas, A.; Vianna, R. O.
2010-01-01
We investigate the practicality of the method proposed by Maciel et al. [Phys. Rev. A. 80, 032325 (2009).] for detecting the entanglement of two spatial qutrits (three-dimensional quantum systems), which are encoded in the discrete transverse momentum of single photons transmitted through a multislit aperture. The method is based on the acquisition of partial information of the quantum state through projective measurements, and a data processing analysis done with semidefinite programs. This analysis relies on generating gradually an optimal entanglement witness operator, and numerical investigations have shown that it allows for the entanglement detection of unknown states with a cost much lower than full state tomography.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tahira, Rabia; Ikram, Manzoor; Zubairy, M Suhail [Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Bougouffa, Smail [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, PO Box 30002, Madinah (Saudi Arabia)
2010-02-14
We investigate the phenomenon of sudden death of entanglement in a high-dimensional bipartite system subjected to dissipative environments with an arbitrary initial pure entangled state between two fields in the cavities. We find that in a vacuum reservoir, the presence of the state where one or more than one (two) photons in each cavity are present is a necessary condition for the sudden death of entanglement. Otherwise entanglement remains for infinite time and decays asymptotically with the decay of individual qubits. For pure two-qubit entangled states in a thermal environment, we observe that sudden death of entanglement always occurs. The sudden death time of the entangled states is related to the number of photons in the cavities, the temperature of the reservoir and the initial preparation of the entangled states.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tahira, Rabia; Ikram, Manzoor; Zubairy, M Suhail; Bougouffa, Smail
2010-01-01
We investigate the phenomenon of sudden death of entanglement in a high-dimensional bipartite system subjected to dissipative environments with an arbitrary initial pure entangled state between two fields in the cavities. We find that in a vacuum reservoir, the presence of the state where one or more than one (two) photons in each cavity are present is a necessary condition for the sudden death of entanglement. Otherwise entanglement remains for infinite time and decays asymptotically with the decay of individual qubits. For pure two-qubit entangled states in a thermal environment, we observe that sudden death of entanglement always occurs. The sudden death time of the entangled states is related to the number of photons in the cavities, the temperature of the reservoir and the initial preparation of the entangled states.
Geometric phase and entanglement of Raman photon pairs in the presence of photonic band gap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berrada, K.; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Abdel-Khalek, S.
2015-01-01
Robustness of the geometric phase (GP) with respect to different noise effects is a basic condition for an effective quantum computation. Here, we propose a useful quantum system with real physical parameters by studying the GP of a pair of Stokes and anti-Stokes photons, involving Raman emission processes with and without photonic band gap (PBG) effect. We show that the properties of GP are very sensitive to the change of the Rabi frequency and time, exhibiting collapse phenomenon as the time becomes significantly large. The system allows us to obtain a state which remains with zero GP for longer times. This result plays a significant role to enhance the stabilization and control of the system dynamics. Finally, we investigate the nonlocal correlation (entanglement) between the pair photons by taking into account the effect of different parameters. An interesting correlation between the GP and entanglement is observed showing that the PBG stabilizes the fluctuations in the system and makes the entanglement more robust against the change of time and frequency
Experimental entanglement distillation of mesoscopic quantum states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dong, Ruifang; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Heersink, Joel
2008-01-01
The distribution of entangled states between distant parties in an optical network is crucial for the successful implementation of various quantum communication protocols such as quantum cryptography, teleportation and dense coding(1-3). However, owing to the unavoidable loss in any real optical...... channel, the distribution of loss-intolerant entangled states is inevitably afflicted by decoherence, which causes a degradation of the transmitted entanglement. To combat the decoherence, entanglement distillation, a process of extracting a small set of highly entangled states from a large set of less...... entangled states, can be used(4-14). Here we report on the distillation of deterministically prepared light pulses entangled in continuous variables that have undergone non-Gaussian noise. The entangled light pulses(15-17) are sent through a lossy channel, where the transmission is varying in time similarly...
Bipartite and Multipartite Entanglement of Gaussian States
Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
In this chapter we review the characterization of entanglement in Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. For two-mode Gaussian states, we discuss how their bipartite entanglement can be accurately quantified in terms of the global and local amounts of mixedness, and efficiently estimated by direct measurements of the associated purities. For multimode Gaussian states endowed with local symmetry with respect to a given bipartition, we show how the multimode block entanglement can be completely and reversibly localized onto a single pair of modes by local, unitary operations. We then analyze the distribution of entanglement among multiple parties in multimode Gaussian states. We introduce the continuous-variable tangle to quantify entanglement sharing in Gaussian states and we prove that it satisfies the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters monogamy inequality. Nevertheless, we show that pure, symmetric three-mode Gaussian states, at variance with their discrete-variable counterparts, allow a promiscuous sharing of quantum correlations, exhibiting both maximum tripartite residual entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. Finally, we investigate the connection between multipartite entanglement and the optimal fidelity in a continuous-variable quantum teleportation network. We show how the fidelity can be maximized in terms of the best preparation of the shared entangled resources and, viceversa, that this optimal fidelity provides a clearcut operational interpretation of several measures of bipartite and multipartite entanglement, including the entanglement of formation, the localizable entanglement, and the continuous-variable tangle.
Optical microscope using an interferometric source of two-color, two-beam entangled photons
Dress, William B.; Kisner, Roger A.; Richards, Roger K.
2004-07-13
Systems and methods are described for an optical microscope using an interferometric source of multi-color, multi-beam entangled photons. A method includes: downconverting a beam of coherent energy to provide a beam of multi-color entangled photons; converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; transforming at least a portion of the converged multi-color entangled photon beam by interaction with a sample to generate an entangled photon specimen beam; and combining the entangled photon specimen beam with an entangled photon reference beam within a single beamsplitter. An apparatus includes: a multi-refringent device providing a beam of multi-color entangled photons; a condenser device optically coupled to the multi-refringent device, the condenser device converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; a beam probe director and specimen assembly optically coupled to the condenser device; and a beam splitter optically coupled to the beam probe director and specimen assembly, the beam splitter combining an entangled photon specimen beam from the beam probe director and specimen assembly with an entangled photon reference beam.
Setting Single Photon Detectors for Use with an Entangled Photon Distribution System
2017-12-01
System by Daniel E Jones, Drew Weninger, and Michael Brodsky Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...Laboratory Setting Single Photon Detectors for Use with an Entangled Photon Distribution System by Daniel E Jones and Michael Brodsky Computational...Use with an Entangled Photon Distribution System 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Daniel E Jones
Recyclable amplification for single-photon entanglement from photon loss and decoherence
Zhou, Lan; Chen, Ling-Quan; Zhong, Wei; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2018-01-01
We put forward a highly efficient recyclable single-photon assisted amplification protocol, which can protect single-photon entanglement (SPE) from photon loss and decoherence. Making use of quantum nondemolition detection gates constructed with the help of cross-Kerr nonlinearity, our protocol has some attractive advantages. First, the parties can recover less-entangled SPE to be maximally entangled SPE, and reduce photon loss simultaneously. Second, if the protocol fails, the parties can repeat the protocol to reuse some discarded items, which can increase the success probability. Third, when the protocol is successful, they can similarly repeat the protocol to further increase the fidelity of the SPE. Thereby, our protocol provides a possible way to obtain high entanglement, high fidelity and high success probability simultaneously. In particular, our protocol shows higher success probability in the practical high photon loss channel. Based on the above features, our amplification protocol has potential for future application in long-distance quantum communication.
Minimum-error discrimination of entangled quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Y.; Coish, N.; Kaltenbaek, R.; Hamel, D. R.; Resch, K. J.; Croke, S.
2010-01-01
Strategies to optimally discriminate between quantum states are critical in quantum technologies. We present an experimental demonstration of minimum-error discrimination between entangled states, encoded in the polarization of pairs of photons. Although the optimal measurement involves projection onto entangled states, we use a result of J. Walgate et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4972 (2000)] to design an optical implementation employing only local polarization measurements and feed-forward, which performs at the Helstrom bound. Our scheme can achieve perfect discrimination of orthogonal states and minimum-error discrimination of nonorthogonal states. Our experimental results show a definite advantage over schemes not using feed-forward.
Denning, Emil V.; Iles-Smith, Jake; McCutcheon, Dara P. S.; Mork, Jesper
2017-12-01
Multiphoton entangled states are a crucial resource for many applications in quantum information science. Semiconductor quantum dots offer a promising route to generate such states by mediating photon-photon correlations via a confined electron spin, but dephasing caused by the host nuclear spin environment typically limits coherence (and hence entanglement) between photons to the spin T2* time of a few nanoseconds. We propose a protocol for the deterministic generation of multiphoton entangled states that is inherently robust against the dominating slow nuclear spin environment fluctuations, meaning that coherence and entanglement is instead limited only by the much longer spin T2 time of microseconds. Unlike previous protocols, the present scheme allows for the generation of very low error probability polarization encoded three-photon GHZ states and larger entangled states, without the need for spin echo or nuclear spin calming techniques.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Denning, Emil Vosmar; Iles-Smith, Jake; McCutcheon, Dara P. S.
2017-01-01
Multiphoton entangled states are a crucial resource for many applications inquantum information science. Semiconductor quantum dots offer a promising route to generate such states by mediating photon-photon correlations via a confinedelectron spin, but dephasing caused by the host nuclear spin...... environment typically limits coherence (and hence entanglement) between photons to the spin T2* time of a few nanoseconds. We propose a protocol for the deterministic generation of multiphoton entangled states that is inherently robust against the dominating slow nuclear spin environment fluctuations, meaning...... that coherence and entanglement is instead limited only by the much longer spin T2 time of microseconds. Unlike previous protocols, the present schemeallows for the generation of very low error probability polarisation encoded three-photon GHZ states and larger entangled states, without the need for spin echo...
Efficient generation of photonic entanglement and multiparty quantum communication
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trojek, Pavel
2007-09-01
This thesis deals largely with the problem of efficient generation of photonic entanglement with the principal aim of developing a bright source of polarization-entangled photon pairs, which meets the requirements for reliable and economic operation of quantum communication prototypes and demonstrators. Our approach uses a cor-related photon-pair emission in nonlinear process of spontaneous parametric downconversion pumped by light coming from a compact and cheap blue laser diode. Two alternative source configurations are examined within the thesis. The first makes use of a well established concept of degenerate non-collinear emission from a single type-II nonlinear crystal and the second relies on a novel method where the emissions from two adjacent type-I phase-matched nonlinear crystals operated in collinear non-degenerate regime are coherently overlapped. The latter approach showed to be more effective, yielding a total detected rate of almost 10 6 pairs/s at >98% quantum interference visibility of polarization correlations. The second issue addressed within the thesis is the simplification and practical implementation of quantum-assisted solutions to multiparty communication tasks. We show that entanglement is not the only non-classical resource endowing the quantum multiparty information processing its power. Instead, only the sequential communication and transformation of a single qubit can be sufficient to accomplish certain tasks. This we prove for two distinct communication tasks, secret sharing and communication complexity. Whereas the goal of the first is to split a cryptographic key among several parties in a way that its reconstruction requires their collaboration, the latter aims at reducing the amount of communication during distributed computational tasks. Importantly, our qubitassisted solutions to the problems are feasible with state-of-the-art technology. This we clearly demonstrate in the laboratory implementation for 6 and 5 parties
Efficient generation of photonic entanglement and multiparty quantum communication
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trojek, Pavel
2007-09-15
This thesis deals largely with the problem of efficient generation of photonic entanglement with the principal aim of developing a bright source of polarization-entangled photon pairs, which meets the requirements for reliable and economic operation of quantum communication prototypes and demonstrators. Our approach uses a cor-related photon-pair emission in nonlinear process of spontaneous parametric downconversion pumped by light coming from a compact and cheap blue laser diode. Two alternative source configurations are examined within the thesis. The first makes use of a well established concept of degenerate non-collinear emission from a single type-II nonlinear crystal and the second relies on a novel method where the emissions from two adjacent type-I phase-matched nonlinear crystals operated in collinear non-degenerate regime are coherently overlapped. The latter approach showed to be more effective, yielding a total detected rate of almost 10{sup 6} pairs/s at >98% quantum interference visibility of polarization correlations. The second issue addressed within the thesis is the simplification and practical implementation of quantum-assisted solutions to multiparty communication tasks. We show that entanglement is not the only non-classical resource endowing the quantum multiparty information processing its power. Instead, only the sequential communication and transformation of a single qubit can be sufficient to accomplish certain tasks. This we prove for two distinct communication tasks, secret sharing and communication complexity. Whereas the goal of the first is to split a cryptographic key among several parties in a way that its reconstruction requires their collaboration, the latter aims at reducing the amount of communication during distributed computational tasks. Importantly, our qubitassisted solutions to the problems are feasible with state-of-the-art technology. This we clearly demonstrate in the laboratory implementation for 6 and 5 parties
Propagation and survival of frequency-bin entangled photons in metallic nanostructures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olislager Laurent
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We report on the design of two plasmonic nanostructures and the propagation of frequency-bin entangled photons through them. The experimental findings clearly show the robustness of frequency-bin entanglement, which survives after interactions with both a hybrid plasmo-photonic structure, and a nano-pillar array. These results confirm that quantum states can be encoded into the collective motion of a many-body electronic system without demolishing their quantum nature, and pave the way towards applications of plasmonic structures in quantum information.
Frequency-bin entanglement of ultra-narrow band non-degenerate photon pairs
Rieländer, Daniel; Lenhard, Andreas; Jime`nez Farìas, Osvaldo; Máttar, Alejandro; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Mazzera, Margherita; Acín, Antonio; de Riedmatten, Hugues
2018-01-01
We demonstrate frequency-bin entanglement between ultra-narrowband photons generated by cavity enhanced spontaneous parametric down conversion. Our source generates photon pairs in widely non-degenerate discrete frequency modes, with one photon resonant with a quantum memory material based on praseodymium doped crystals and the other photon at telecom wavelengths. Correlations between the frequency modes are analyzed using phase modulators and narrowband filters before detection. We show high-visibility two photon interference between the frequency modes, allowing us to infer a coherent superposition of the modes. We develop a model describing the state that we create and use it to estimate optimal measurements to achieve a violation of the Clauser-Horne (CH) Bell inequality under realistic assumptions. With these settings we perform a Bell test and show a significant violation of the CH inequality, thus proving the entanglement of the photons. Finally we demonstrate the compatibility with a quantum memory material by using a spectral hole in the praseodymium (Pr) doped crystal as spectral filter for measuring high-visibility two-photon interference. This demonstrates the feasibility of combining frequency-bin entangled photon pairs with Pr-based solid state quantum memories.
On-chip steering of entangled photons in nonlinear photonic crystals.
Leng, H Y; Yu, X Q; Gong, Y X; Xu, P; Xie, Z D; Jin, H; Zhang, C; Zhu, S N
2011-08-16
One promising technique for working toward practical photonic quantum technologies is to implement multiple operations on a monolithic chip, thereby improving stability, scalability and miniaturization. The on-chip spatial control of entangled photons will certainly benefit numerous applications, including quantum imaging, quantum lithography, quantum metrology and quantum computation. However, external optical elements are usually required to spatially control the entangled photons. Here we present the first experimental demonstration of on-chip spatial control of entangled photons, based on a domain-engineered nonlinear photonic crystal. We manipulate the entangled photons using the inherent properties of the crystal during the parametric downconversion, demonstrating two-photon focusing and beam-splitting from a periodically poled lithium tantalate crystal with a parabolic phase profile. These experimental results indicate that versatile and precise spatial control of entangled photons is achievable. Because they may be operated independent of any bulk optical elements, domain-engineered nonlinear photonic crystals may prove to be a valuable ingredient in on-chip integrated quantum optics.
Manipulation of multi-photon-entanglement. Applications in quantum information processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goebel, Alexander Matthias
2008-01-01
Over the last twenty years the field of quantum information processing (QIP) has attracted the attention of many scientists, due to the promise of impressive improvements in the areas of computational speed, communication security and the ability to simulate nature on the micro scale. This thesis describes an experimental work on the physics of multi-photon entanglement and its application in the field of QIP. We have thoroughly developed the necessary techniques to generate multipartite entanglement between up to six photons. By exploiting the developed six-photon interferometer, in this thesis we report for the first time the experimental quantum teleportation of a two-qubit composite system, the realization of multi-stage entanglement swapping, the implementation of a teleportation-based controlled-NOT gate for fault-tolerant quantum computation, the first generation of entanglement in sixpartite photonic graph states and the realization of 'one-way' quantum computation with two-photon four-qubit cluster states. The methods developed in these experiments are of great significance both for exploring the field of QIP and for future experiments on the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. (orig.)
Manipulation of multi-photon-entanglement. Applications in quantum information processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goebel, Alexander Matthias
2008-07-16
Over the last twenty years the field of quantum information processing (QIP) has attracted the attention of many scientists, due to the promise of impressive improvements in the areas of computational speed, communication security and the ability to simulate nature on the micro scale. This thesis describes an experimental work on the physics of multi-photon entanglement and its application in the field of QIP. We have thoroughly developed the necessary techniques to generate multipartite entanglement between up to six photons. By exploiting the developed six-photon interferometer, in this thesis we report for the first time the experimental quantum teleportation of a two-qubit composite system, the realization of multi-stage entanglement swapping, the implementation of a teleportation-based controlled-NOT gate for fault-tolerant quantum computation, the first generation of entanglement in sixpartite photonic graph states and the realization of 'one-way' quantum computation with two-photon four-qubit cluster states. The methods developed in these experiments are of great significance both for exploring the field of QIP and for future experiments on the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ming, Yang; Wu, Zi-jian; Xu, Fei, E-mail: feixu@nju.edu.cn; Lu, Yan-qing, E-mail: yqlu@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Cui, Guo-xin [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Nanoapplications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215000 (China); Tan, Ai-hong [Laboratory for Quantum Information, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)
2014-04-28
The nonmaximally entangled state is a special kind of entangled state, which has important applications in quantum information processing. It has been generated in quantum circuits based on bulk optical elements. However, corresponding schemes in integrated quantum circuits have been rarely considered. In this Letter, we propose an effective solution for this problem. An electro-optically tunable nonmaximally mode-entangled photon state is generated in an on-chip domain-engineered lithium niobate (LN) waveguide. Spontaneous parametric down-conversion and electro-optic interaction are effectively combined through suitable domain design to transform the entangled state into our desired formation. Moreover, this is a flexible approach to entanglement architectures. Other kinds of reconfigurable entanglements are also achievable through this method. LN provides a very promising platform for future quantum circuit integration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ming, Yang; Wu, Zi-jian; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-qing; Cui, Guo-xin; Tan, Ai-hong
2014-01-01
The nonmaximally entangled state is a special kind of entangled state, which has important applications in quantum information processing. It has been generated in quantum circuits based on bulk optical elements. However, corresponding schemes in integrated quantum circuits have been rarely considered. In this Letter, we propose an effective solution for this problem. An electro-optically tunable nonmaximally mode-entangled photon state is generated in an on-chip domain-engineered lithium niobate (LN) waveguide. Spontaneous parametric down-conversion and electro-optic interaction are effectively combined through suitable domain design to transform the entangled state into our desired formation. Moreover, this is a flexible approach to entanglement architectures. Other kinds of reconfigurable entanglements are also achievable through this method. LN provides a very promising platform for future quantum circuit integration
Generation of high-dimensional energy-time-entangled photon pairs
Zhang, Da; Zhang, Yiqi; Li, Xinghua; Zhang, Dan; Cheng, Lin; Li, Changbiao; Zhang, Yanpeng
2017-11-01
High-dimensional entangled photon pairs have many excellent properties compared to two-dimensional entangled two-photon states, such as greater information capacity, stronger nonlocality, and higher security. Traditionally, the degree of freedom that can produce high-dimensional entanglement mainly consists of angular momentum and energy time. In this paper, we propose a type of high-dimensional energy-time-entangled qudit, which is different from the traditional model with an extended propagation path. In addition, our method mainly focuses on the generation with multiple frequency modes, while two- and three-dimensional frequency-entangled qudits are examined as examples in detail through the linear or nonlinear optical response of the medium. The generation of high-dimensional energy-time-entangled states can be verified by coincidence counts in the damped Rabi oscillation regime, where the paired Stokes-anti-Stokes wave packet is determined by the structure of resonances in the third-order nonlinearity. Finally, we extend the dimension to N in the sequential-cascade mode. Our results have potential applications in quantum communication and quantum computation.
Detecting Multiparticle Entanglement of Dicke States
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lücke, Bernd; Peise, Jan; Vitagliano, Giuseppe
2014-01-01
of entangled states, including Dicke states. Experimentally, we produce a Dicke-like state using spin dynamics in a Bose-Einstein condensate. Our criterion proves that it contains at least genuine 28-particle entanglement. We infer a generalized squeezing parameter of −11.4(5) dB....
Semiconductor devices for entangled photon pair generation: a review
Orieux, Adeline; Versteegh, Marijn A. M.; Jöns, Klaus D.; Ducci, Sara
2017-07-01
Entanglement is one of the most fascinating properties of quantum mechanical systems; when two particles are entangled the measurement of the properties of one of the two allows the properties of the other to be instantaneously known, whatever the distance separating them. In parallel with fundamental research on the foundations of quantum mechanics performed on complex experimental set-ups, we assist today with bourgeoning of quantum information technologies bound to exploit entanglement for a large variety of applications such as secure communications, metrology and computation. Among the different physical systems under investigation, those involving photonic components are likely to play a central role and in this context semiconductor materials exhibit a huge potential in terms of integration of several quantum components in miniature chips. In this article we review the recent progress in the development of semiconductor devices emitting entangled photons. We will present the physical processes allowing the generation of entanglement and the tools to characterize it; we will give an overview of major recent results of the last few years and highlight perspectives for future developments.
Multiplexed entangled photon-pair sources for all-fiber quantum networks
Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Yin-Hai; Xu, Li-Xin; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-11-01
The ultimate goal of quantum information science is to build a global quantum network, which enables quantum resources to be distributed and shared between remote parties. Such a quantum network can be realized using only fiber elements, thus deriving the advantages of low transmission loss, low cost, scalability, and integrability through mature fiber communication techniques such as dense wavelength division multiplexing. Hence high-quality entangled-photon sources based on fibers are in high demand. Here we report multiplexed polarization- and time-bin-entangled photon-pair sources based on the dispersion-shifted fiber operating at room temperature. The associated high quality of entanglement is characterized using interference, Bell's inequality, and quantum state tomography. The simultaneous presence of both types of entanglement in multi-channel pairs of a 100-GHz dense wavelength division multiplexing device indicates a great capacity in distributing entangled photons over multiple users. Our design provides a versatile platform and takes a big step toward constructing an all-fiber quantum network.
Entanglement witnesses and characterizing entanglement properties of some PPT states
Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Behzadi, N.; Akbari, Y.
2009-10-01
On the basis of linear programming, new sets of entanglement witnesses (EWs) for 3⊗3 and 4⊗4 systems are constructed. In both cases, the constructed EWs correspond to the hyper-planes contacting, without intersecting, the related feasible regions at line segments and restricted planes respectively. Due to the special property of the contacting area between the hyper-planes and the feasible regions, the corresponding hyper-planes can be turned around the contacting area throughout a bounded interval and hence create an infinite number of EWs. As these EWs are able to detect entanglement of some PPT states, they are non-decomposable (nd-EWs).
A versatile source of polarization entangled photons for quantum network applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaiser, Florian; Issautier, Amandine; Ngah, Lutfi A; Alibart, Olivier; Martin, Anthony; Tanzilli, Sébastien
2013-01-01
We report a versatile and practical approach for the generation of high-quality polarization entanglement in a fully guided-wave fashion. Our setup relies on a high-brilliance type-0 waveguide generator producing paired photons at a telecom wavelength associated with an advanced energy-time to polarization transcriber. The latter is capable of creating any pure polarization entangled state, and allows manipulation of single-photon bandwidths that can be chosen at will over five orders of magnitude, ranging from tens of MHz to several THz. We achieve excellent entanglement fidelities for particular spectral bandwidths, i.e. 25 MHz, 540 MHz and 80 GHz, proving the relevance of our approach. Our scheme stands as an ideal candidate for a wide range of network applications, ranging from dense division multiplexing quantum key distribution to heralded optical quantum memories and repeaters. (letter)
Entanglement between a Photonic Time-Bin Qubit and a Collective Atomic Spin Excitation
Farrera, Pau; Heinze, Georg; de Riedmatten, Hugues
2018-03-01
Entanglement between light and matter combines the advantage of long distance transmission of photonic qubits with the storage and processing capabilities of atomic qubits. To distribute photonic states efficiently over long distances several schemes to encode qubits have been investigated—time-bin encoding being particularly promising due to its robustness against decoherence in optical fibers. Here, we demonstrate the generation of entanglement between a photonic time-bin qubit and a single collective atomic spin excitation (spin wave) in a cold atomic ensemble, followed by the mapping of the atomic qubit onto another photonic qubit. A magnetic field that induces a periodic dephasing and rephasing of the atomic excitation ensures the temporal distinguishability of the two time bins and plays a central role in the entanglement generation. To analyze the generated quantum state, we use largely imbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers to perform projective measurements in different qubit bases and verify the entanglement by violating a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality.
Deterministic dense coding with partially entangled states
Mozes, Shay; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Reznik, Benni
2005-01-01
The utilization of a d -level partially entangled state, shared by two parties wishing to communicate classical information without errors over a noiseless quantum channel, is discussed. We analytically construct deterministic dense coding schemes for certain classes of nonmaximally entangled states, and numerically obtain schemes in the general case. We study the dependency of the maximal alphabet size of such schemes on the partially entangled state shared by the two parties. Surprisingly, for d>2 it is possible to have deterministic dense coding with less than one ebit. In this case the number of alphabet letters that can be communicated by a single particle is between d and 2d . In general, we numerically find that the maximal alphabet size is any integer in the range [d,d2] with the possible exception of d2-1 . We also find that states with less entanglement can have a greater deterministic communication capacity than other more entangled states.
Multi-user distribution of polarization entangled photon pairs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trapateau, J.; Orieux, A.; Diamanti, E.; Zaquine, I., E-mail: isabelle.zaquine@telecom-paristech.fr [LTCI, CNRS, Télécom ParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, 75013 Paris (France); Ghalbouni, J. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences 2, Lebanese University, Campus Fanar, BP 90656 Jdeidet (Lebanon)
2015-10-14
We experimentally demonstrate multi-user distribution of polarization entanglement using commercial telecom wavelength division demultiplexers. The entangled photon pairs are generated from a broadband source based on spontaneous parametric down conversion in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal using a double path setup employing a Michelson interferometer and active phase stabilisation. We test and compare demultiplexers based on various technologies and analyze the effect of their characteristics, such as losses and polarization dependence, on the quality of the distributed entanglement for three channel pairs of each demultiplexer. In all cases, we obtain a Bell inequality violation, whose value depends on the demultiplexer features. This demonstrates that entanglement can be distributed to at least three user pairs of a network from a single source. Additionally, we verify for the best demultiplexer that the violation is maintained when the pairs are distributed over a total channel attenuation corresponding to 20 km of optical fiber. These techniques are therefore suitable for resource-efficient practical implementations of entanglement-based quantum key distribution and other quantum communication network applications.
Zhong, Wen-Xue; Cheng, Guang-Ling; Chen, Ai-Xi
2014-06-01
We present an alternative scheme for generating quadripartite continuous variable entanglement using the dispersion interactions of four separated resonators with a single driven superconducting qubit. We show that the cluster and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states of four output microwave photons can be created at the presence of quantum relaxations. The physical mechanism is proposed in the dressed-state representation of driving interaction. With the proper choice of the physical parameters, the concurrent parametric down-conversion interactions occur among four microwave modes, which are responsible for the four-mode entanglement generation. In practice, our scheme provides a useful approach for the scalable information processing in the solid-state system.
Symmetric states: Their nonlocality and entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Zizhu; Markham, Damian [CNRS LTCI, Département Informatique et Réseaux, Telecom ParisTech, 23 avenue d' Italie, CS 51327, 75214 Paris CEDEX 13 (France)
2014-12-04
The nonlocality of permutation symmetric states of qubits is shown via an extension of the Hardy paradox and the extension of the associated inequality. This is achieved by using the Majorana representation, which is also a powerful tool in the study of entanglement properties of symmetric states. Through the Majorana representation, different nonlocal properties can be linked to different entanglement properties of a state, which is useful in determining the usefulness of different states in different quantum information processing tasks.
Maximally entangled mixed states and conditional entropies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batle, J.; Casas, M.; Plastino, A.; Plastino, A.R.
2005-01-01
The maximally entangled mixed states of Munro et al. [Phys. Rev. A 64, 030302 (2001)] are shown to exhibit interesting features vis a vis conditional entropic measures. The same happens with the Ishizaka and Hiroshima states [Phys. Rev. A 62, 022310 (2000)], whose entanglement degree cannot be increased by acting on them with logic gates. Special types of entangled states that do not violate classical entropic inequalities are seen to exist in the space of two qubits. Special meaning can be assigned to the Munro et al. special participation ratio of 1.8
Light for the quantum. Entangled photons and their applications: a very personal perspective
Zeilinger, Anton
2017-07-01
local realistic explanations of the quantum phenomenon of entanglement in a significant way. These experiments may go down in the history books of science. Future experiments will address particularly the freedom-of-choice loophole using cosmic sources of randomness. Such experiments confirm that unconditionally secure quantum cryptography is possible, since quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem can provide unconditional security. The fact that the experiments were loophole-free proves that an eavesdropper cannot avoid detection in an experiment that correctly follows the protocol. I finally discuss some recent experiments with single- and entangled-photon states in higher dimensions. Such experiments realized quantum entanglement between two photons, each with quantum numbers beyond 10 000 and also simultaneous entanglement of two photons where each carries more than 100 dimensions. Thus they offer the possibility of quantum communication with more than one bit or qubit per photon. The paper concludes discussing Einstein’s contributions and viewpoints of quantum mechanics. Even if some of his positions are not supported by recent experiments, he has to be given credit for the fact that his analysis of fundamental issues gave rise to developments which led to a new information technology. Finally, I reflect on some of the lessons learned by the fact that nature cannot be local, that objective randomness exists and about the emergence of a classical world. It is suggestive that information plays a fundamental role also in the foundations of quantum physics.
Projected entangled pair states: status and prospects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verstraete, Frank [Universitaet Wien (Austria)
2008-07-01
We report on the progress made to extend the density matrix renormalization group to higher dimensions, discuss the underlying theory of projected entangled pair states (PEPS) and illustrate its potential on the hand of a few examples.
Behzadi, Naghi; Ahansaz, Bahram; Shojaei, Saeid
2013-01-01
New scheme for generating genuine three-partite entanglement among three quantum dots (QDs) is proposed. The QDs are trapped in an one-dimensional (1D) array of three equidistance single-mode coupled cavities. Photon hopping is considered to be responsible for coupling between the cavities. The effective dynamics of the system leads to generate genuine three-partite entangled coherent excitonic states in QDs. The entanglement of these states, after encoding as three-qubit system, can be detected by entanglement witnesses (EWs) based on GHZ-states. It is shown that the generated entangled states can be arbitrarily very close to the GHZ-states.
Entanglement and the shareability of quantum states
Doherty, Andrew C.
2014-10-01
This brief review discusses the problem of determining whether a given quantum state is separable or entangled. I describe an established approach to this problem that is based on the monogamy of entanglement, which is the observation that a pair of quantum systems that are strongly entangled must be uncorrelated with the rest of the world. Unentangled states on the other hand involve correlations that can be shared with many other parties. Checking whether a given quantum state is shareable involves constructing certain symmetric quantum state extensions and I discuss how to do this using a class of optimizations known as semidefinite programs. An attractive feature of this approach is that it generates explicit entanglement witnesses that can be measured to demonstrate the entanglement experimentally. In recent years analysis of this approach has greatly increased our understanding of the complexity of determining whether a given quantum state is entangled and this review aims to give a unified discussion of these developments. Specifically, I describe how to use finite quantum de Finetti theorems to prove that highly shareable states are nearly separable and use these results to understand the computational complexity of the problem. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.
Constructing Robust Entangled Coherent GHZ and W States via a Cavity QED System
Behzadi, N.; Ahansaz, B.; Kazemi, S.
2016-03-01
Using a system of three distant cavities, we propose a method for constructing tripartite entangled coherent GHZ and W states which are robust due to the photon losses in the cavities. Each of cavities is doped with a semiconductor quantum dot. By the dynamics, the excitonic modes of quantum dots are enabled to exhibit entangled coherent GHZ and W states. Apart from the exciton losses, the master equation approach shows that when the populations of the field modes in the cavities are negligible the destruction of entanglement due to dissipation arises from photon losses, is effectively suppressed.
Modal loss analysis of spin-orbit transduction of entangled photonic qubit in special fibers
Kirby, Brian; Brodsky, Michael; Bozinovic, Nenad; Ramachandran, Siddharth
The ability to switch entanglement between different degrees of freedom of the same photon is essential for tying various quantum technologies into operational quantum networks. We report the reversible conversion of one photon in a pair of polarization entangled photons into an Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) encoding. The photons are initially prepared using a conventional nonlinear scheme at 1550nm band, and are each routed into separate optical fibers. One photon propagates through single mode fiber, the other is sent through a specially designed vortex fiber, which supports OAM modes. Conversion from polarization to OAM and back is achieved using long-period gratings at each end of the vortex fiber. Using full state tomography, we find that our conversion procedure produces a photon pair that remains close to the initial state with fidelity of 0.95. Some loss in fidelity is a product of varying modal loss in the conversion process and temporal drifts during the tomography. We model these two loss mechanisms, and using parameters extracted from the data, are able fit the experimental results with a fidelity of 0.94-0.96. Current Address: Berkeley Lights Inc, 5858 Horton St #320, Emeryville, CA 94608.
Zhang, Jiaxiang; Zallo, Eugenio; Höfer, Bianca; Chen, Yan; Keil, Robert; Zopf, Michael; Böttner, Stefan; Ding, Fei; Schmidt, Oliver G
2017-01-11
We explore a method to achieve electrical control over the energy of on-demand entangled-photon emission from self-assembled quantum dots (QDs). The device used in our work consists of an electrically tunable diode-like membrane integrated onto a piezoactuator, which is capable of exerting a uniaxial stress on QDs. We theoretically reveal that, through application of the quantum-confined Stark effect to QDs by a vertical electric field, the critical uniaxial stress used to eliminate the fine structure splitting of QDs can be linearly tuned. This feature allows experimental realization of a triggered source of energy-tunable entangled-photon emission. Our demonstration represents an important step toward realization of a solid-state quantum repeater using indistinguishable entangled photons in Bell state measurements.
Multipartite entangled states in particle mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Di Mauro, M.; Illuminati, F.
2008-01-01
In the physics of flavor mixing, the flavor states are given by superpositions of mass eigenstates. By using the occupation number to define a multiqubit space, the flavor states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By exploiting a suitable global measure of entanglement, based on the entropies related to all possible bipartitions of the system, we analyze the correlation properties of such states in the instances of three- and four-flavor mixing. Depending on the mixing parameters, and, in particular, on the values taken by the free phases, responsible for the CP-violation, entanglement concentrates in certain bipartitions. We quantify in detail the amount and the distribution of entanglement in the physically relevant cases of flavor mixing in quark and neutrino systems. By using the wave packet description for localized particles, we use the global measure of entanglement, suitably adapted for the instance of multipartite mixed states, to analyze the decoherence, induced by the free evolution dynamics, on the quantum correlations of stationary neutrino beams. We define a decoherence length as the distance associated with the vanishing of the coherent interference effects among massive neutrino states. We investigate the role of the CP-violating phase in the decoherence process.
The entanglement of two moving atoms interacting with a single-mode field via a three-photon process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chao, Wu; Mao-Fa, Fang
2010-01-01
In this paper, the entanglement of two moving atoms induced by a single-mode field via a three-photon process is investigated. It is shown that the entanglement is dependent on the category of the field, the average photon number N, the number p of half-wave lengths of the field mode and the atomic initial state. Also, the sudden death and the sudden birth of the entanglement are detected in this model and the results show that the existence of the sudden death and the sudden birth depends on the parameter and the category of the mode field. In addition, the three-photon process is a higher order nonlinear process. (general)
Entangled-photons compressive ghost imaging based on spatial correlation of sensing matrix
Liu, Dawei; Li, Lifei; Geng, Yixing; Kang, Yan; Zhang, Tongyi; Zhao, Wei; Dong, Weibin; Shi, Kunlin
2017-12-01
Using the entangled photons generated by the spontaneous parametric down conversion as a light source, we demonstrate the first quantum ghost imaging system with a modified compressive sensing technique based on the spatial correlation of sensing matrix (SCCS). The ghost image is achieved at 16.27% sampling ratio of raster scanning and 0.65 photons/pixel at each measurement on average. Our results show that image quality and photon-utilization efficiency are remarkably enhanced in comparison with the traditional compressive imaging technique, due to the sensing matrix and noise-free measurement vector rebuilt by SCCS technique. It suggests the great potential of SCCS technique applied in quantum imaging and other quantum optics fields, such as quantum charactering and quantum state tomography to use the information loaded in each photon with high efficiency.
Polarization entanglement of sum-frequency photons: A tool to probe the Markovian limit
Volkov, Victor; Chelli, Riccardo
2015-06-01
The article addresses the possibility of entanglement-specific infrared-visible sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. In the case of an anisotropic interface, it is possible to employ SSS and PSS polarizations to detect responses not only specific to χY Y Y and χX Y Y nonlinearities, but also to higher-order χ(Y Y Y )(X Y Y ) and χ(X Y Y )(Y Y Y ) nonlinearities. Using quantum mechanical studies of the rhenium complex [Re (OH) 3(CO) 3] as a molecular model, we demonstrate that if such complexes would form an anisotropic orientational distribution at a surface, under the considered geometry and the polarization settings, we may prepare quantum correlated C =O vibrational states to emit polarization-entangled photons. Accordingly, we explore the possibility of a polarization-measurement protocol to extract spectral signatures of the entangled states. The response would be informative on intramolecular interactions. As a result, we discuss the possible practical implications in probing dynamics at interfaces, and different opportunities in the preparation of entangled vibrational states of quantified fidelity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoue, J.; Ohtaka, K.
2004-01-01
We study virtual bound states in photonics, which are a vectorial extension of electron virtual bound states. The condition for these states is derived. It is found that the Mie resonant state which satisfies the condition that the size parameter is less than the angular momentum should be interpreted as a photon virtual bound state. In order to confirm the validity of the concept, we compare the photonic density of states, the width of which represents the lifetime of the photon virtual bound states, with numerical results
Hybrid entanglement concentration assisted with single coherent state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Rui; Zhou Lan; Sheng Yu-Bo; Gu Shi-Pu; Wang Xing-Fu
2016-01-01
Hybrid entangled state (HES) is a new type of entanglement, which combines the advantages of an entangled polarization state and an entangled coherent state. HES is widely discussed in the applications of quantum communication and computation. In this paper, we propose three entanglement concentration protocols (ECPs) for Bell-type HES, W-type HES, and cluster-type HES, respectively. After performing these ECPs, we can obtain the maximally entangled HES with some success probability. All the ECPs exploit the single coherent state to complete the concentration. These protocols are based on the linear optics, which are feasible in future experiments. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheng Yubo; Deng Fuguo
2010-01-01
Entanglement purification is a very important element for long-distance quantum communication. Different from all the existing entanglement purification protocols (EPPs) in which two parties can only obtain some quantum systems in a mixed entangled state with a higher fidelity probabilistically by consuming quantum resources exponentially, here we present a deterministic EPP with hyperentanglement. Using this protocol, the two parties can, in principle, obtain deterministically maximally entangled pure states in polarization without destroying any less-entangled photon pair, which will improve the efficiency of long-distance quantum communication exponentially. Meanwhile, it will be shown that this EPP can be used to complete nonlocal Bell-state analysis perfectly. We also discuss this EPP in a practical transmission.
Transformation of bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
[6], quantum cryptography [7] and so on. The preparation of entangled state becomes more and more important in quantum infor- mation processing. One knows that bipartite entanglement can be generated through a variety of solutions [8–10]. A maximally entangled state of two qubits is called a Bell state. For atomic qubits ...
Tractable Quantification of Entanglement for Multipartite Pure States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nian-Quan, Jiang; Yu-Jian, Wang; Yi-Zhuang, Zheng; Gen-Chang, Cai
2008-01-01
We present kth-order entanglement measure and global kth-order entanglement measure for multipartite pure states, and extend Bennett's measure of partial entropy for bipartite pure states to a multipartite case. These measures are computable and can effectively classify and quantify the entanglement of multipartite pure states. (general)
Entanglement in Solid-State Nanostructures
Bodoky, F.
2009-01-01
The goal of this thesis is to investigate theoretically the generation and behaviour of multipartite entanglement for solid-state nanosystems, in particular electron spin quantum bits (so-called 'qubits') in quantum dots. A quantum dot is a tiny potential well where a single electron can be trapped.
Testing nonlocal realism with entangled coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paternostro, Mauro; Jeong, Hyunseok
2010-01-01
We investigate the violation of nonlocal realism using entangled coherent states (ECSs) under nonlinear operations and homodyne measurements. We address recently proposed Leggett-type inequalities, including a class of optimized incompatibility inequalities proposed by Branciard et al. [Nature Phys. 4, 681 (2008)], and thoroughly assess the effects of detection inefficiency.
Entangled exciton states in quantum dot molecules
Bayer, Manfred
2002-03-01
Currently there is strong interest in quantum information processing(See, for example, The Physics of Quantum Information, eds. D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert and A. Zeilinger (Springer, Berlin, 2000).) in a solid state environment. Many approaches mimic atomic physics concepts in which semiconductor quantum dots are implemented as artificial atoms. An essential building block of a quantum processor is a gate which entangles the states of two quantum bits. Recently a pair of vertically aligned quantum dots has been suggested as optically driven quantum gate(P. Hawrylak, S. Fafard, and Z. R. Wasilewski, Cond. Matter News 7, 16 (1999).)(M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z.R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, Science 291, 451 (2001).): The quantum bits are individual carriers either on dot zero or dot one. The different dot indices play the same role as a "spin", therefore we call them "isospin". Quantum mechanical tunneling between the dots rotates the isospin and leads to superposition of these states. The quantum gate is built when two different particles, an electron and a hole, are created optically. The two particles form entangled isospin states. Here we present spectrocsopic studies of single self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dot molecules that support the feasibility of this proposal. The evolution of the excitonic recombination spectrum with varying separation between the dots allows us to demonstrate coherent tunneling of carriers across the separating barrier and the formation of entangled exciton states: Due to the coupling between the dots the exciton states show a splitting that increases with decreasing barrier width. For barrier widths below 5 nm it exceeds the thermal energy at room temperature. For a given barrier width, we find only small variations of the tunneling induced splitting demonstrating a good homogeneity within a molecule ensemble. The entanglement may be controlled by application of electromagnetic field. For
Secured Optical Communications Using Quantum Entangled Two-Photon Transparency Modulation
Kojima, Jun (Inventor); Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor); Lekki, John (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A system and method is disclosed wherein optical signals are coded in a transmitter by tuning or modulating the interbeam delay time (which modulates the fourth-order coherence) between pairs of entangled photons. The photon pairs are either absorbed or not absorbed (transparent) by an atomic or molecular fluorescer in a receiver, depending on the inter-beam delay that is introduced in the entangled photon pairs. Upon the absorption, corresponding fluorescent optical emissions follow at a certain wavelength, which are then detected by a photon detector. The advantage of the disclosed system is that it eliminates a need of a coincidence counter to realize the entanglement-based secure optical communications because the absorber acts as a coincidence counter for entangled photon pairs.
Generation of narrow-band polarization-entangled photon pairs at a rubidium D1 line
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian Long; Li Shujing; Yuan Haoxiang; Wang Hai
2016-01-01
Using the process of cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC), we generate a narrow-band polarization-entangled photon pair resonant on the rubidium (Rb) D1 line (795 nm). The degenerate single-mode photon pair is selected by multiple temperature controlled etalons. The linewidth of generated polarization-entangled photon pairs is 15 MHz which matches the typical atomic memory bandwidth. The measured Bell parameter for the polarization-entangled photons S = 2.73 ± 0.04 which violates the Bell-CHSH inequality by ∼18 standard deviations. The presented entangled photon pair source could be utilized in quantum communication and quantum computing based on quantum memories in atomic ensemble. (author)
A significant-loophole-free test of Bell's theorem with entangled photons
Giustina, Marissa; Versteegh, Marijn A. M.; Wengerowsky, Sören; Handsteiner, Johannes; Hochrainer, Armin; Phelan, Kevin; Steinlechner, Fabian; Kofler, Johannes; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Abellán, Carlos; Amaya, Waldimar; Mitchell, Morgan W.; Beyer, Jörn; Gerrits, Thomas; Lita, Adriana E.; Shalm, Lynden K.; Nam, Sae Woo; Scheidl, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert; Wittmann, Bernhard; Zeilinger, Anton
2017-10-01
John Bell's theorem of 1964 states that local elements of physical reality, existing independent of measurement, are inconsistent with the predictions of quantum mechanics (Bell, J. S. (1964), Physics (College. Park. Md). Specifically, correlations between measurement results from distant entangled systems would be smaller than predicted by quantum physics. This is expressed in Bell's inequalities. Employing modifications of Bell's inequalities, many experiments have been performed that convincingly support the quantum predictions. Yet, all experiments rely on assumptions, which provide loopholes for a local realist explanation of the measurement. Here we report an experiment with polarization-entangled photons that simultaneously closes the most significant of these loopholes. We use a highly efficient source of entangled photons, distributed these over a distance of 58.5 meters, and implemented rapid random setting generation and high-efficiency detection to observe a violation of a Bell inequality with high statistical significance. The merely statistical probability of our results to occur under local realism is less than 3.74×10-31, corresponding to an 11.5 standard deviation effect.
Transverse correlations in multiphoton entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen Jianming; Rubin, Morton H.; Shih Yanhua
2007-01-01
We have analyzed the transverse correlation in multiphoton entanglement. The generalization of quantum ghost imaging is extended to the N-photon state. The Klyshko's two-photon advanced-wave picture is generalized to the N-photon case
Entangled-Photon Pair Emission from a Light-Emitting Diode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salter, Cameron L; Stevenson, R Mark; Shields, Andrew J; Farrer, Ian; Nicoll, Christine A; Ritchie, David A
2011-01-01
Electrically-driven entangled-photon generation is demonstrated for the first time using a single InAs/GaAs quantum dot embedded in a light emitting diode structure. Under alternating-current injection, we found that the entanglement fidelity was of sufficient quality for quantum information applications such as quantum key distribution.
Preparation of multi-party entanglement of individual photons and atomic ensembles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Guoping; Guo Guangcan
2003-01-01
An experimental feasible scheme is proposed to generate Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) type of maximal entanglement. Distinguishing from the previous schemes, this entanglement can be chosen between either atomic ensembles (stationary qubit) or individual photons (flying qubit), according to the difference applications we desire for it. The physical requirements of the scheme are moderate and well fit the present experimental technique
Polarization entangled photon pair source for space-based quantum communication, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this NASA effort is to develop and deliver efficient, single-pass quantum optical waveguide sources generating high purity hyper-entangled photon...
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Roux, FS
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Orbital angular momentum (OAM) entangled bi-photons are a resource for the higher dimensional implementation of quantum cryptography, which allows secure communication over various channels. In the case where free-space is used as communication...
Experimental Entanglement Distribution by Separable States
Vollmer, Christina E.; Schulze, Daniela; Eberle, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman
2013-12-01
Distribution of entanglement between macroscopically separated parties is crucial for future quantum information networks. Surprisingly, it has been theoretically shown that two distant systems can be entangled by sending a third system that is not entangled with either of them. Here, we experimentally distribute entanglement and successfully prove that our transmitted light beam is indeed not entangled with the parties’ local systems. Our work demonstrates an unexpected variant of entanglement distribution and improves the understanding necessary to engineer multipartite quantum networks.
Resonance interaction energy between two entangled atoms in a photonic bandgap environment.
Notararigo, Valentina; Passante, Roberto; Rizzuto, Lucia
2018-03-26
We consider the resonance interaction energy between two identical entangled atoms, where one is in the excited state and the other in the ground state. They interact with the quantum electromagnetic field in the vacuum state and are placed in a photonic-bandgap environment with a dispersion relation quadratic near the gap edge and linear for low frequencies, while the atomic transition frequency is assumed to be inside the photonic gap and near its lower edge. This problem is strictly related to the coherent resonant energy transfer between atoms in external environments. The analysis involves both an isotropic three-dimensional model and the one-dimensional case. The resonance interaction asymptotically decays faster with distance compared to the free-space case, specifically as 1/r 2 compared to the 1/r free-space dependence in the three-dimensional case, and as 1/r compared to the oscillatory dependence in free space for the one-dimensional case. Nonetheless, the interaction energy remains significant and much stronger than dispersion interactions between atoms. On the other hand, spontaneous emission is strongly suppressed by the environment and the correlated state is thus preserved by the spontaneous-decay decoherence effects. We conclude that our configuration is suitable for observing the elusive quantum resonance interaction between entangled atoms.
Ghasemi, M.; Tavassoly, M. K.; Nourmandipour, A.
2017-12-01
In this paper, we investigate the possibility of entanglement swapping between two independent nonperfect cavities consisting of an atom with finite lifetime of atomic levels (as two independent sources of dissipation), which interacts with a quantized electromagnetic field in the presence of detuning and Kerr medium. In fact, there is no direct interaction between the two atoms, therefore, no entanglement exists between them. We use the Bell state measurement performed on the photons leaving the cavities to swap the entanglement stored between the atom-fields in each cavity into atom-atom. Our motivation comes from the fact that two-qubit entangled states are of great interest for quantum information science and technologies. We discuss the effect of the initial state of the system, the detuning parameter, the Kerr medium and the two dissipation sources on the swapped entanglement to atom-atom. We interestingly find that when the atomic decay rates and photonic leakages from the cavities are equal, our system behaves as an ideal system with no dissipation. Our results show that it is possible to create a long-living atom-atom maximally entangled state in the presence of Kerr effect and dissipation; we determine these conditions in detail and also establish the final atom-atom Bell state.
Entanglement Evolution of Three-Qubit States under Local Decoherence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Xiaosan; Liu Gaosheng; Wang Anmin
2010-01-01
By using negativity as entanglement measure, we have investigated the effect of local decoherence from a non-Markovian environment on the time evolution of entanglement of three-qubit states including the GHZ state, the W state, and the Werner state. From the results, we find that the entanglement dynamics depends not only on the coupling strengths but also on the specific states of concern. Specifically, the entanglement takes different behaviors under weak or strong coupling and it varies with the quantum states under study. The entanglement of the GHZ state and the Werner state can be destroyed completely by the local decoherence, while the entanglement of the W state can survive through the local decoherence partially. (general)
Parameter Estimation with Entangled Photons Produced by Parametric Down-Conversion
Cable, Hugo; Durkin, Gabriel A.
2010-01-01
We explore the advantages offered by twin light beams produced in parametric down-conversion for precision measurement. The symmetry of these bipartite quantum states, even under losses, suggests that monitoring correlations between the divergent beams permits a high-precision inference of any symmetry-breaking effect, e.g., fiber birefringence. We show that the quantity of entanglement is not the key feature for such an instrument. In a lossless setting, scaling of precision at the ultimate "Heisenberg" limit is possible with photon counting alone. Even as photon losses approach 100% the precision is shot-noise limited, and we identify the crossover point between quantum and classical precision as a function of detected flux. The predicted hypersensitivity is demonstrated with a Bayesian simulation.
Quantum Conditional Cloning of Continuous Variable Entangled States
Liu, K.; Gao, J. R.
2014-12-01
We extend the technique of conditional preparation to a quantum cloning machine, and present a protocol of 1 -> 2 conditional cloning of squeezed state and entanglement states. It is shown that the entanglement degree of the cloned entangled states can be well preserved even when the fidelity between the input and output states is beyond the limit of 4/9. This scheme is practicable since only the linear elements of beam splitters, homodyne detections, optical modulations and electrical trigger system, are involved.
Unambiguous modification of nonorthogonal single- and two-photon polarization states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torres-Ruiz, F. A.; Aguirre, J.; Delgado, A.; Lima, G.; Neves, L.; Roa, L.; Saavedra, C.; Padua, S.
2009-01-01
In this paper we propose a probabilistic method which allows an unambiguous modification of two nonorthogonal quantum states. We experimentally implement this protocol by using two-photon polarization states generated in the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion. In the experiment, for codifying initial quantum states, we consider single-photon states and heralded detection. We show that the application of this protocol to entangled states allows a fine control of the amount of entanglement of the initial state.
Poddubny, Alexander N.; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.
2015-09-01
The practical development of quantum plasmonic circuits incorporating non-classical interference [1] and sources of entangled states calls for a versatile quantum theoretical framework which can fully describe the generation and detection of entangled photons and plasmons. However, majority of the presently used theoretical approaches are typically limited to the toy models assuming loss-less and nondispersive elements or including just a few resonant modes. Here, we present a rigorous Green function approach describing entangled photon-plasmon state generation through spontaneous wave mixing in realistic metal-dielectric nanostructures. Our approach is based on the local Huttner-Barnett quantization scheme [2], which enables problem formulation in terms of a Hermitian Hamiltonian where the losses and dispersion are fully encoded in the electromagnetic Green functions. Hence, the problem can be addressed by the standard quantum mechanical perturbation theory, overcoming mathematical difficulties associated with other quantization schemes. We derive explicit expressions with clear physical meaning for the spatially dependent two-photon detection probability, single-photon detection probability and single-photon density matrix. In the limiting case of low-loss nondispersive waveguides our approach reproduces the previous results [3,4]. Importantly, our technique is far more general and can quantitatively describe generation and detection of spatially-entangled photons in arbitrary metal-dielectric structures taking into account actual losses and dispersion. This is essential to perform the design and optimization of plasmonic structures for generation and control of quantum entangled states. [1] J.S. Fakonas, H. Lee, Y.A. Kelaita and H.A. Atwater, Nature Photonics 8, 317(2014) [2] W. Vogel and D.-G. Welsch, Quantum Optics, Wiley (2006). [3] D.A. Antonosyan, A.S. Solntsev and A.A. Sukhorukov, Phys. Rev. A 90 043845 (2014) [4] L.-G. Helt, J.E. Sipe and M.J. Steel, ar
Entangled state fusion with Rydberg atoms
Ji, Y. Q.; Dai, C. M.; Shao, X. Q.; Yi, X. X.
2017-10-01
We propose a scheme for preparation of large-scale entangled GHZ states and W states with neutral Rydberg atoms. The scheme mainly depends on Rydberg antiblockade effect, i.e., as the Rydberg-Rydberg interaction strength and the detuning between the atom transition frequency and the classical laser frequency satisfies some certain conditions, the effective Rabi oscillation between the two ground states and the two excitation Rydberg states would be generated. The prominent advantage is that both two multiparticle GHZ states and two multiparticle W states can be fused in this model, especially the success probability for fusion of GHZ states can reach unit. In addition, the imperfections induced by the spontaneous emission is also discussed through numerical simulation.
Entanglement of Generalized Two-Mode Binomial States and Teleportation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Dongmei; Yu Youhong
2009-01-01
The entanglement of the generalized two-mode binomial states in the phase damping channel is studied by making use of the relative entropy of the entanglement. It is shown that the factors of q and p play the crucial roles in control the relative entropy of the entanglement. Furthermore, we propose a scheme of teleporting an unknown state via the generalized two-mode binomial states, and calculate the mean fidelity of the scheme. (general)
Entanglement of two ground state neutral atoms using Rydberg blockade
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Browaeys, Antoine; Evellin, Charles
2011-01-01
We report on our recent progress in trapping and manipulation of internal states of single neutral rubidium atoms in optical tweezers. We demonstrate the creation of an entangled state between two ground state atoms trapped in separate tweezers using the effect of Rydberg blockade. The quality...... of the entanglement is measured using global rotations of the internal states of both atoms....
The next iteration of the small photon entangling quantum system (SPEQS-2.0)
Durak, Kadir; Villar, Aitor; Septriani, Brigitta; Tang, Zhongkan; Chandrasekara, Rakhitha; Bedington, Robert; Ling, Alexander
2016-03-01
The Small Photon Entangling Quantum System (SPEQS) is an integrated instrument where the pump, photon pair source and detectors are combined within a single optical tray and electronics package. This footprint enables the instrument to be placed onboard nanosatellites or the CubeLab facility within the International Space Station. The first mission to understand the different environmental conditions that may affect the operation of an entangled photon source in low Earth orbit (LEO) is underway. Here we present a work towards a violation of Bell's inequality with a brightness and visibility that can facilitate quantum key distribution (QKD) from space to ground.
Entanglement of mixed quantum states for qubits and qudit in double photoionization of atoms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chakraborty, M., E-mail: bminakshi@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Asansol Girls’ College, Asansol 713304 (India); Sen, S. [Department of Physics, Triveni Devi Bhalotia College, Raniganj 713347 (India)
2015-08-15
Highlights: • We study tripartite entanglement between two electronic qubits and an ionic qudit. • We study bipartite entanglement between any two subsystems of a tripartite system. • We have presented a quantitative application of entangled properties in Neon atom. - Abstract: Quantum entanglement and its paradoxical properties are genuine physical resources for various quantum information tasks like quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography, and quantum computer technology. The physical characteristic of the entanglement of quantum-mechanical states, both for pure and mixed, has been recognized as a central resource in various aspects of quantum information processing. In this article, we study the bipartite entanglement of one electronic qubit along with the ionic qudit and also entanglement between two electronic qubits. The tripartite entanglement properties also have been investigated between two electronic qubits and an ionic qudit. All these studies have been done for the single-step double photoionization from an atom following the absorption of a single photon without observing spin orbit interaction. The dimension of the Hilbert space of the qudit depends upon the electronic state of the residual photoion A{sup 2+}. In absence of SOI, when Russell–Saunders coupling (L–S coupling) is applicable, dimension of the qudit is equal to the spin multiplicity of A{sup 2+}. For estimations of entanglement and mixedness, we consider the Peres–Horodecki condition, concurrence, entanglement of formation, negativity, linear and von Neumann entropies. In case of L–S coupling, all the properties of a qubit–qudit system can be predicted merely with the knowledge of the spins of the target atom and the residual photoion.
Probing bath-induced entanglement in a qubit pair by measuring photon correlations
Cotlet, Ovidiu; Lovett, Brendon W.
2014-10-01
Self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) are ideal structures in which to test theories of open quantum systems: confined exciton states can be coherently manipulated and their decoherence properties are dominated by interactions with acoustic phonons. We here describe the interaction of a pair of un-coupled, driven, QD excitons with a common phonon environment, and find that this coupling effectively generates two kinds of interaction between the two QDs: an elastic coupling mediated by virtual phonons and an inelastic coupling mediated by real phonons. We show that both of these interactions produce steady state entanglement between the two QD excitons. We also show that photon correlations in the emission of the QDs can provide a signature of the common environment. Experiments to demonstrate our predictions are feasible with the state-of-the-art technology and would provide valuable insight into QD carrier-phonon dynamics.
Dark Entangled Steady States of Interacting Rydberg Atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dasari, Durga; Mølmer, Klaus
2013-01-01
their short-lived excited states lead to rapid, dissipative formation of an entangled steady state. We show that for a wide range of physical parameters, this entangled state is formed on a time scale given by the strengths of coherent Raman and Rabi fields applied to the atoms, while it is only weakly...
Sub-Rayleigh lithography using high flux loss-resistant entangled states of light.
Rosen, Shamir; Afek, Itai; Israel, Yonatan; Ambar, Oron; Silberberg, Yaron
2012-09-07
Quantum lithography achieves phase superresolution using fragile, experimentally challenging entangled states of light. We propose a scalable scheme for creating features narrower than classically achievable with reduced use of quantum resources and, consequently, enhanced resistance to loss. The scheme is an implementation of interferometric lithography using a mixture of a spontaneous parametric down-converted entangled state with intense classical coherent light. We measure coincidences of up to four photons mimicking multiphoton absorption. The results show a narrowing of the interference fringes of up to 30% with respect to the best analogous classical scheme using only 10% of the nonclassical light required for creating NOON states.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbieri, M.
2007-01-01
Bose-Einstein coalescence of independent photons at the surface of a beam splitter is the physical process that allows linear optical quantum gates to be built. When distinct parametric down-conversion events are used as an independent photon source, distinguishability arises form the energy correlation of each photon with its twin. We derive upper bound for the entanglement which can be generated under these conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gong, Yan-Xiao; Xie, Zhen-Da; Xu, Ping; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Xue, Peng
2011-01-01
We propose a scheme for the generation of counterpropagating polarization-entangled photon pairs from a dual-periodically-poled crystal. Compared with the usual forward-wave-type source, this source, in the backward-wave way, has a much narrower bandwidth. With a 2-cm-long bulk crystal, the bandwidths of the example sources are estimated to be 3.6 GHz, and the spectral brightnesses are more than 100 pairs/(s GHz mW). Two concurrent quasi-phase-matched spontaneous parametric down-conversion processes in a single crystal enable our source to be compact and stable. This scheme does not rely on any state projection and applies to both degenerate and nondegenerate cases, facilitating applications of the entangled photons.
Quantifying entanglement in two-mode Gaussian states
Tserkis, Spyros; Ralph, Timothy C.
2017-12-01
Entangled two-mode Gaussian states are a key resource for quantum information technologies such as teleportation, quantum cryptography, and quantum computation, so quantification of Gaussian entanglement is an important problem. Entanglement of formation is unanimously considered a proper measure of quantum correlations, but for arbitrary two-mode Gaussian states no analytical form is currently known. In contrast, logarithmic negativity is a measure that is straightforward to calculate and so has been adopted by most researchers, even though it is a less faithful quantifier. In this work, we derive an analytical lower bound for entanglement of formation of generic two-mode Gaussian states, which becomes tight for symmetric states and for states with balanced correlations. We define simple expressions for entanglement of formation in physically relevant situations and use these to illustrate the problematic behavior of logarithmic negativity, which can lead to spurious conclusions.
Algorithms for finite projected entangled pair states
Lubasch, Michael; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Bañuls, Mari-Carmen
2014-08-01
Projected entangled pair states (PEPS) are a promising ansatz for the study of strongly correlated quantum many-body systems in two dimensions. However, due to their high computational cost, developing and improving PEPS algorithms is necessary to make the ansatz widely usable in practice. Here we analyze several algorithmic aspects of the method. On the one hand, we quantify the connection between the correlation length of the PEPS and the accuracy of its approximate contraction and discuss how purifications can be used in the latter. On the other hand, we present algorithmic improvements for the update of the tensor that introduce drastic gains in the numerical conditioning and the efficiency of the algorithms. Finally, the state-of-the-art general PEPS code is benchmarked with the Heisenberg and quantum Ising models on lattices of up to 21×21 sites.
Quantum entanglement distribution with 810 nm photons through active telecommunication fibers.
Holloway, Catherine; Meyer-Scott, Evan; Erven, Chris; Jennewein, Thomas
2011-10-10
We demonstrate the distribution of polarization-entangled photons for the purpose of quantum key distribution (QKD) along active telecom fibers. Entangled photon pairs of 810 nm wavelength generated by a Sagnac interferometer source were coupled into standard telecom single mode fibers. The fibers were either dark or carrying a standardized 1550 nm ethernet signals (1000BASE-ZX) with a nominal speed of 1 GBps from regular media converter devices, without any requirements on the optical power or spectrum transmitted. Our system demonstrates a QKD network covering 6 km in distance with a central service provider for classical and quantum data.
An entanglement concentration protocol for cluster states using ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/086/05/0973-0983 ... The purpose of this paper is a proposal on entanglement concentration protocol forcluster states. The protocol ... We also make a comparative numerical study of the residual entanglement left out after the execution of each step of the protocol.
On-chip generation of high-dimensional entangled quantum states and their coherent control.
Kues, Michael; Reimer, Christian; Roztocki, Piotr; Cortés, Luis Romero; Sciara, Stefania; Wetzel, Benjamin; Zhang, Yanbing; Cino, Alfonso; Chu, Sai T; Little, Brent E; Moss, David J; Caspani, Lucia; Azaña, José; Morandotti, Roberto
2017-06-28
Optical quantum states based on entangled photons are essential for solving questions in fundamental physics and are at the heart of quantum information science. Specifically, the realization of high-dimensional states (D-level quantum systems, that is, qudits, with D > 2) and their control are necessary for fundamental investigations of quantum mechanics, for increasing the sensitivity of quantum imaging schemes, for improving the robustness and key rate of quantum communication protocols, for enabling a richer variety of quantum simulations, and for achieving more efficient and error-tolerant quantum computation. Integrated photonics has recently become a leading platform for the compact, cost-efficient, and stable generation and processing of non-classical optical states. However, so far, integrated entangled quantum sources have been limited to qubits (D = 2). Here we demonstrate on-chip generation of entangled qudit states, where the photons are created in a coherent superposition of multiple high-purity frequency modes. In particular, we confirm the realization of a quantum system with at least one hundred dimensions, formed by two entangled qudits with D = 10. Furthermore, using state-of-the-art, yet off-the-shelf telecommunications components, we introduce a coherent manipulation platform with which to control frequency-entangled states, capable of performing deterministic high-dimensional gate operations. We validate this platform by measuring Bell inequality violations and performing quantum state tomography. Our work enables the generation and processing of high-dimensional quantum states in a single spatial mode.
Noise effects on entanglement distribution by separable state
Bordbar, Najmeh Tabe; Memarzadeh, Laleh
2018-02-01
We investigate noise effects on the performance of entanglement distribution by separable state. We consider a realistic situation in which the mediating particle between two distant nodes of the network goes through a noisy channel. For a large class of noise models, we show that the average value of distributed entanglement between two parties is equal to entanglement between particular bipartite partitions of target qubits and exchange qubit in intermediate steps of the protocol. This result is valid for distributing two-qubit/qudit and three-qubit entangled states. In explicit examples of the noise family, we show that there exists a critical value of noise parameter beyond which distribution of distillable entanglement is not possible. Furthermore, we determine how this critical value increases in terms of Hilbert space dimension, when distributing d-dimensional Bell states.
Gaussian-state entanglement in a quantum beat laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tahira, Rabia; Ikram, Manzoor; Nha, Hyunchul; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2011-01-01
Recently quantum beat lasers have been considered as a source of entangled radiation [S. Qamar, F. Ghafoor, M. Hillery, and M. S. Zubairy, Phys. Rev. A 77, 062308 (2008)]. We investigate and quantify the entanglement of this system when the initial cavity modes are prepared in a Gaussian two-mode state, one being a nonclassical state and the other a thermal state. It is investigated how the output entanglement varies with the nonclassicality of the input Gaussian state, thermal noise, and the strength of the driving field.
Topological entanglement entropy, ground state degeneracy and holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parnachev, Andrei [School of Mathematics, Trinity College,Dublin 2 (Ireland); Institute Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden University,P.O. Box 9506, Leiden 2300RA (Netherlands); Poovuttikul, Napat [Institute Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden University,P.O. Box 9506, Leiden 2300RA (Netherlands)
2015-10-14
Topological entanglement entropy, a measure of the long-ranged entanglement, is related to the degeneracy of the ground state on a higher genus surface. The exact relation depends on the details of the topological theory. We consider a class of holographic models where such relation might be similar to the one exhibited by Chern-Simons theory in a certain large N limit. Both the non-vanishing topological entanglement entropy and the ground state degeneracy in these holographic models are consequences of the topological Gauss-Bonnet term in the dual gravitational description. A soft wall holographic model of confinement is used to generate finite correlation length but keep the disk topology of the entangling surface in the bulk, necessary for nonvanishing topological entanglement entropy.
Quantum frequency up-conversion of continuous variable entangled states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Wenyuan; Wang, Ning; Li, Zongyang; Li, Yongmin, E-mail: yongmin@sxu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)
2015-12-07
We demonstrate experimentally quantum frequency up-conversion of a continuous variable entangled optical field via sum-frequency-generation process. The two-color entangled state initially entangled at 806 and 1518 nm with an amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 3.2 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 3.1 dB is converted to a new entangled state at 530 and 1518 nm with the amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 1.7 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 1.8 dB. Our implementation enables the observation of entanglement between two light fields spanning approximately 1.5 octaves in optical frequency. The presented scheme is robust to the excess amplitude and phase noises of the pump field, making it a practical building block for quantum information processing and communication networks.
Quantum physics of entangled systems: wave-particle duality and atom-photon molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rempe, G.
2000-01-01
One of the cornerstones of quantum physics is the wave nature of matter. It explains experimentally observed effects like interference and diffraction, occurring when an object moves from one place to another along several indistinguishable ways simultaneously. The wave nature disappears when the individual ways are distinguishable. In this case, the particle nature of the object becomes visible. To determine the particle nature quantitatively, the way of the object has to be measured. Here, large progress has been made recently with new techniques, enabling one to investigate single moving atoms in a controlled manner. Two examples are discussed in the following two sections. The first experiment describes an atom interferometer, where the way of the atom is entangled with its internal state. This allows one to explore the origin of wave-particle duality and perform a quantitative test of this fundamental principle. The second experiment reports on the observation of an atom-photon molecule, a bound state between an atom and a single photon. A fascinating aspect of this system is that it makes possible to monitor the motion of a single neutral atom in real time. (orig.)
Dong, Li; Wang, Jun-Xi; Li, Qing-Yang; Shen, Hong-Zhi; Dong, Hai-Kuan; Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Ren, Yuan-Peng; Gao, Ya-Jun
2015-12-01
We propose a quantum secure direct communication protocol via a collective noise channel, exploiting polarization-entangled Bell states and the nondemolition parity analysis based on weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities. The participant Bob, who will receive the secret information, sends one of two photons in a polarization-entangled Bell state exploiting the transmission circuit against the collective noise to the participant Alice, who will send the secret information, by the means of photon block transmission. If the first security check employing the nondemolition parity analysis is passed, the task of securely distributing the quantum channel is fulfilled. Encoding secret information on the photons sent from Bob by performing single-photon unitary transformation operations, Alice resends these photons to Bob through the transmission circuit against the collective noise. Exploiting the nondemolition parity analysis to distinguish Bell states, Bob can obtain the secret information from Alice after the second security check is passed, and the resulting Bell states can be applied to other tasks of quantum information processing. Under the condition of the secure quantum channel being confirmed, the photons that are utilized in the role of the security check can be applied to the function of secure direct communication, thus enhancing the efficiency of transmitting secret information and saving a lot of resources.
Extracting Entanglement Geometry from Quantum States.
Hyatt, Katharine; Garrison, James R; Bauer, Bela
2017-10-06
Tensor networks impose a notion of geometry on the entanglement of a quantum system. In some cases, this geometry is found to reproduce key properties of holographic dualities, and subsequently much work has focused on using tensor networks as tractable models for holographic dualities. Conventionally, the structure of the network-and hence the geometry-is largely fixed a priori by the choice of the tensor network ansatz. Here, we evade this restriction and describe an unbiased approach that allows us to extract the appropriate geometry from a given quantum state. We develop an algorithm that iteratively finds a unitary circuit that transforms a given quantum state into an unentangled product state. We then analyze the structure of the resulting unitary circuits. In the case of noninteracting, critical systems in one dimension, we recover signatures of scale invariance in the unitary network, and we show that appropriately defined geodesic paths between physical degrees of freedom exhibit known properties of a hyperbolic geometry.
Unifying projected entangled pair state contractions
Lubasch, Michael; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Bañuls, Mari-Carmen
2014-03-01
The approximate contraction of a tensor network of projected entangled pair states (PEPS) is a fundamental ingredient of any PEPS algorithm, required for the optimization of the tensors in ground state search or time evolution, as well as for the evaluation of expectation values. An exact contraction is in general impossible, and the choice of the approximating procedure determines the efficiency and accuracy of the algorithm. We analyze different previous proposals for this approximation, and show that they can be understood via the form of their environment, i.e. the operator that results from contracting part of the network. This provides physical insight into the limitation of various approaches, and allows us to introduce a new strategy, based on the idea of clusters, that unifies previous methods. The resulting contraction algorithm interpolates naturally between the cheapest and most imprecise and the most costly and most precise method. We benchmark the different algorithms with finite PEPS, and show how the cluster strategy can be used for both the tensor optimization and the calculation of expectation values. Additionally, we discuss its applicability to the parallelization of PEPS and to infinite systems.
Entanglement concentration and purification of two-mode squeezed microwave photons in circuit QED
Zhang, Hao; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar; Deng, Fu-Guo
2018-04-01
We present a theoretical proposal for a physical implementation of entanglement concentration and purification protocols for two-mode squeezed microwave photons in circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). First, we give the description of the cross-Kerr effect induced between two resonators in circuit QED. Then we use the cross-Kerr media to design the effective quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement on microwave-photon number. By using the QND measurement, the parties in quantum communication can accomplish the entanglement concentration and purification of nonlocal two-mode squeezed microwave photons. We discuss the feasibility of our schemes by giving the detailed parameters which can be realized with current experimental technology. Our work can improve some practical applications in continuous-variable microwave-based quantum information processing.
Average subentropy, coherence and entanglement of random mixed quantum states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Lin, E-mail: godyalin@163.com [Institute of Mathematics, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Singh, Uttam, E-mail: uttamsingh@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad, 211019 (India); Pati, Arun K., E-mail: akpati@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad, 211019 (India)
2017-02-15
Compact expressions for the average subentropy and coherence are obtained for random mixed states that are generated via various probability measures. Surprisingly, our results show that the average subentropy of random mixed states approaches the maximum value of the subentropy which is attained for the maximally mixed state as we increase the dimension. In the special case of the random mixed states sampled from the induced measure via partial tracing of random bipartite pure states, we establish the typicality of the relative entropy of coherence for random mixed states invoking the concentration of measure phenomenon. Our results also indicate that mixed quantum states are less useful compared to pure quantum states in higher dimension when we extract quantum coherence as a resource. This is because of the fact that average coherence of random mixed states is bounded uniformly, however, the average coherence of random pure states increases with the increasing dimension. As an important application, we establish the typicality of relative entropy of entanglement and distillable entanglement for a specific class of random bipartite mixed states. In particular, most of the random states in this specific class have relative entropy of entanglement and distillable entanglement equal to some fixed number (to within an arbitrary small error), thereby hugely reducing the complexity of computation of these entanglement measures for this specific class of mixed states.
Entanglement entropy from tensor network states for stabilizer codes
He, Huan; Zheng, Yunqin; Bernevig, B. Andrei; Regnault, Nicolas
2018-03-01
In this paper, we present the construction of tensor network states (TNS) for some of the degenerate ground states of three-dimensional (3D) stabilizer codes. We then use the TNS formalism to obtain the entanglement spectrum and entropy of these ground states for some special cuts. In particular, we work out examples of the 3D toric code, the X-cube model, and the Haah code. The latter two models belong to the category of "fracton" models proposed recently, while the first one belongs to the conventional topological phases. We mention the cases for which the entanglement entropy and spectrum can be calculated exactly: For these, the constructed TNS is a singular value decomposition (SVD) of the ground states with respect to particular entanglement cuts. Apart from the area law, the entanglement entropies also have constant and linear corrections for the fracton models, while the entanglement entropies for the toric code models only have constant corrections. For the cuts we consider, the entanglement spectra of these three models are completely flat. We also conjecture that the negative linear correction to the area law is a signature of extensive ground-state degeneracy. Moreover, the transfer matrices of these TNSs can be constructed. We show that the transfer matrices are projectors whose eigenvalues are either 1 or 0. The number of nonzero eigenvalues is tightly related to the ground-state degeneracy.
Experimental Limits on Local Realism with Separable and Entangled Photons
2011-01-01
a photon received by Bob triggers a device which acts questionably on the unsuspecting feline ). There is only a single time slot available for the... feline fate information would not be available to her until after her photon reaches the (very remote) intrusive polarizer, and she had made a
Teleportation of an entangled atomic state using cavity-assisted collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Irfan, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mudassar Aqueel; Qamar, Shahid; Qamar, Sajid
2012-01-01
We present a scheme for the teleportation of two-qubit entangled atomic states using the idea of a quantum controlled-NOT gate, based on cavity-assisted collisions proposed by Zheng and Guo (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 2392). In this scheme, there is only virtual exchange of photons; thus the quantum information is not transferred between the atoms and the cavity field and so the decoherence time of the cavity is greatly enhanced. (paper)
Optimal quantum error correcting codes from absolutely maximally entangled states
Raissi, Zahra; Gogolin, Christian; Riera, Arnau; Acín, Antonio
2018-02-01
Absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states are pure multi-partite generalizations of the bipartite maximally entangled states with the property that all reduced states of at most half the system size are in the maximally mixed state. AME states are of interest for multipartite teleportation and quantum secret sharing and have recently found new applications in the context of high-energy physics in toy models realizing the AdS/CFT-correspondence. We work out in detail the connection between AME states of minimal support and classical maximum distance separable (MDS) error correcting codes and, in particular, provide explicit closed form expressions for AME states of n parties with local dimension \
Quantum entanglement distillation with metamaterials.
al Farooqui, Md Abdullah; Breeland, Justin; Aslam, Muhammad I; Sadatgol, Mehdi; Özdemir, Şahin K; Tame, Mark; Yang, Lan; Güney, Durdu Ö
2015-07-13
We propose a scheme for the distillation of partially entangled two-photon Bell and three-photon W states using metamaterials. The distillation of partially entangled Bell states is achieved by using two metamaterials with polarization dependence, one of which is rotated by π/2 around the direction of propagation of the photons. On the other hand, the distillation of three-photon W states is achieved by using one polarization dependent metamaterial and two polarization independent metamaterials. Upon transmission of the photons of the partially entangled states through the metamaterials the entanglement of the states increases and they become distilled. This work opens up new directions in quantum optical state engineering by showing how metamaterials can be used to carry out a quantum information processing task.
One-way entangled-photon autocompensating quantum cryptography
Walton, Zachary D.; Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Sergienko, Alexander V.; Saleh, Bahaa E.; Teich, Malvin C.
2003-06-01
A quantum cryptography implementation is presented that uses entanglement to combine one-way operation with an autocompensating feature that has hitherto only been available in implementations that require the signal to make a round trip between the users. Using the concept of advanced waves, it is shown that this proposed implementation is related to the round-trip implementation in the same way that Ekert’s two-particle scheme is related to the original one-particle scheme of Bennett and Brassard. The practical advantages and disadvantages of the proposed implementation are discussed in the context of existing schemes.
Hybrid entanglement concentration assisted with single coherent state
Rui, Guo; Lan, Zhou; Shi-Pu, Gu; Xing-Fu, Wang; Yu-Bo, Sheng
2016-03-01
Hybrid entangled state (HES) is a new type of entanglement, which combines the advantages of an entangled polarization state and an entangled coherent state. HES is widely discussed in the applications of quantum communication and computation. In this paper, we propose three entanglement concentration protocols (ECPs) for Bell-type HES, W-type HES, and cluster-type HES, respectively. After performing these ECPs, we can obtain the maximally entangled HES with some success probability. All the ECPs exploit the single coherent state to complete the concentration. These protocols are based on the linear optics, which are feasible in future experiments. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474168 and 61401222), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20151502), the Qing Lan Project in Jiangsu Province, China, the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China (Grant No. 15KJA120002), and the Priority Academic Development Program of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.
Multi-frequency entanglement router system
Erdmann, Reinhard; Hughes, David
2017-05-01
A high performance free-space Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) transceiver system is assessed as to its viability for routing collinear entangled photons in place of the classical optical signals for which it was designed. Explicit calculations demonstrate that entanglement in the input state is retained through transit of the system without intrinsic loss. Introducing spatial degrees of freedom changed the entanglement so that it could be manifested at remote locations, as required in non-local Bell test measurements or Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) Protocols. It was also found that by adding proper components, the exit state could be changed from being frequency entangled to polarization entangled, with respect to the (remote) paths of the photons. Finally it was found possible to route a complete entangled state to either of the two remote users by proper selection of the discrete frequencies in the input state. Each entanglement in the photon states was maximal, hence suited for Quantum Information Processing (QIP) applications.
Quantum Communication with a High-Rate Entangled Photon Source
Wilson, Nathaniel C.; Chaffee, Dalton W.; Lekki, John D.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.
2016-01-01
A high generation rate photon-pair source using a dual element periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PP KTP) waveguide is described. The photon-pair source features a high pair generation rate, a compact power-efficient package, and continuous wave (CW) or pulsed operation. Characterization and test results are presented. Details and preliminary results of a laboratory free-space QKD experiment with the B92 protocol are also presented.
Controlled Secure Direct Communication with Seven-Qubit Entangled States
Wang, Shu-Kai; Zha, Xin-Wei; Wu, Hao
2018-01-01
In this paper, a new controlled secure direct communication protocol based on a maximally seven-qubit entangled state is proposed. the outcomes of measurement is performed by the sender and the controller, the receiver can obtain different secret messages in a deterministic way with unit successful probability.In this scheme,by using entanglement swapping, no qubits carrying secret messages are transmitted.Therefore, the protocol is completely secure.
Approximating local observables on projected entangled pair states
Schwarz, M.; Buerschaper, O.; Eisert, J.
2017-06-01
Tensor network states are for good reasons believed to capture ground states of gapped local Hamiltonians arising in the condensed matter context, states which are in turn expected to satisfy an entanglement area law. However, the computational hardness of contracting projected entangled pair states in two- and higher-dimensional systems is often seen as a significant obstacle when devising higher-dimensional variants of the density-matrix renormalization group method. In this work, we show that for those projected entangled pair states that are expected to provide good approximations of such ground states of local Hamiltonians, one can compute local expectation values in quasipolynomial time. We therefore provide a complexity-theoretic justification of why state-of-the-art numerical tools work so well in practice. We finally turn to the computation of local expectation values on quantum computers, providing a meaningful application for a small-scale quantum computer.
Zhang, Hao; Liu, Qian; Xu, Xu-Sheng; Xiong, Jun; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar; Deng, Fu-Guo
2017-11-01
Microwave photons have become very important qubits in quantum communication, as the first quantum satellite has been launched successfully. Therefore, it is a necessary and meaningful task for ensuring the high security and efficiency of microwave-based quantum communication in practice. Here, we present an original polarization entanglement purification protocol for nonlocal microwave photons based on the cross-Kerr effect in circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). Our protocol can solve the problem that the purity of maximally entangled states used for constructing quantum channels will decrease due to decoherence from environment noise. This task is accomplished by means of the polarization parity-check quantum nondemolition (QND) detector, the bit-flipping operation, and the linear microwave elements. The QND detector is composed of several cross-Kerr effect systems which can be realized by coupling two superconducting transmission line resonators to a superconducting molecule with the N -type level structure. We give the applicable experimental parameters of QND measurement system in circuit QED and analyze the fidelities. Our protocol has good applications in long-distance quantum communication assisted by microwave photons in the future, such as satellite quantum communication.
Equally distant, partially entangled alphabet states for quantum channels
Zimányi, M
2000-01-01
Each Bell state has the property that by performing just local operations on one qubit, the complete Bell basis can be generated. That is, states generated by local operations are totally distinguishable. This remarkable property is due to maximal quantum entanglement between the two particles. We present a set of local unitary transformations that generate out of partially entangled two- qubit state a set of four maximally distinguishable states that are mutually equally distant. We discuss quantum dense coding based on these alphabet states. (8 refs).
Operational classification and quantification of multipartite entangled states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rigolin, Gustavo; Oliveira, Thiago R. de; Oliveira, Marcos C. de
2006-01-01
We formalize and extend an operational multipartite entanglement measure introduced by T. R. Oliveira, G. Rigolin, and M. C. de Oliveira, Phys. Rev. A 73, 010305(R) (2006), through the generalization of global entanglement (GE) [D. A. Meyer and N. R. Wallach, J. Math. Phys. 43, 4273 (2002)]. Contrarily to GE the main feature of this measure lies in the fact that we study the mean linear entropy of all possible partitions of a multipartite system. This allows the construction of an operational multipartite entanglement measure which is able to distinguish among different multipartite entangled states that GE failed to discriminate. Furthermore, it is also maximum at the critical point of the Ising chain in a transverse magnetic field, being thus able to detect a quantum phase transition
Entanglement swapping of noisy states: A kind of superadditivity in nonclassicality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Brukner, Caslav; Buzek, Vladimir; Zukowski, Marek
2005-01-01
We address the question as to whether an entangled state that satisfies local realism will give a violation of the same after entanglement swapping in a suitable scenario. We consider such a possibility as a kind of superadditivity in nonclassicality. Importantly, it will indicate that checking for violation of local realism, in the state obtained after entanglement swapping, can be a method for detecting entanglement in the input state of the swapping procedure. We investigate various entanglement swapping schemes, which involve mixed initial states. The strength of violation of local realism by the state obtained after entanglement swapping is compared with the one for the input states. We obtain a kind of superadditivity of violation of local realism for Werner states, consequent upon entanglement swapping involving Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-state measurements. We also discuss whether entanglement swapping of specific states may be used in quantum repeaters with a substantially reduced need to perform the entanglement distillation step
Left-right entanglement entropy of boundary states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando; Quiroz, Norma
2015-01-01
We study entanglement entropy of boundary states in a free bosonic conformal field theory. A boundary state can be thought of as composed of a particular combination of left and right-moving modes of the two-dimensional conformal field theory. We investigate the reduced density matrix obtained by tracing over the right-moving modes in various boundary states. We consider Dirichlet and Neumann boundary states of a free noncompact as well as a compact boson. The results for the entanglement entropy indicate that the reduced system can be viewed as a thermal CFT gas. Our findings are in agreement and generalize results in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory where coherent states can also be considered. In the compact case we verify that the entanglement entropy expressions are consistent with T-duality.
Left-right entanglement entropy of boundary states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando [Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics,Randall Laboratory of Physics, The University of Michigan,Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States); Quiroz, Norma [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima,Bernal Díaz del Castillo 340, Col. Villas San Sebastián,Colima 28045 (Mexico)
2015-01-21
We study entanglement entropy of boundary states in a free bosonic conformal field theory. A boundary state can be thought of as composed of a particular combination of left and right-moving modes of the two-dimensional conformal field theory. We investigate the reduced density matrix obtained by tracing over the right-moving modes in various boundary states. We consider Dirichlet and Neumann boundary states of a free noncompact as well as a compact boson. The results for the entanglement entropy indicate that the reduced system can be viewed as a thermal CFT gas. Our findings are in agreement and generalize results in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory where coherent states can also be considered. In the compact case we verify that the entanglement entropy expressions are consistent with T-duality.
Classical-driving-assisted entanglement dynamics control
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Ying-Jie, E-mail: yingjiezhang@qfnu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Han, Wei [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Xia, Yun-Jie, E-mail: yjxia@qfnu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laser Polarization and Information Technology, Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Fan, Heng, E-mail: hfan@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing, 100190 (China)
2017-04-15
We propose a scheme of controlling entanglement dynamics of a quantum system by applying the external classical driving field for two atoms separately located in a single-mode photon cavity. It is shown that, with a judicious choice of the classical-driving strength and the atom–photon detuning, the effective atom–photon interaction Hamiltonian can be switched from Jaynes–Cummings model to anti-Jaynes–Cummings model. By tuning the controllable atom–photon interaction induced by the classical field, we illustrate that the evolution trajectory of the Bell-like entanglement states can be manipulated from entanglement-sudden-death to no-entanglement-sudden-death, from no-entanglement-invariant to entanglement-invariant. Furthermore, the robustness of the initial Bell-like entanglement can be improved by the classical driving field in the leaky cavities. This classical-driving-assisted architecture can be easily extensible to multi-atom quantum system for scalability.
Partial angular coherence and the angular Schmidt spectrum of entangled two-photon fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jha, Anand Kumar; Boyd, Robert W. [Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Agarwal, Girish S. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)
2011-12-15
We study partially coherent fields that have a coherent-mode representation in the orbital-angular-momentum-mode basis. For such fields, we introduce the concepts of the angular coherence function and the coherence angle. Such fields are naturally produced by the process of parametric down-conversion--a second-order nonlinear optical process in which a pump photon breaks up into two entangled photons, known as the signal and idler photons. We show that the angular coherence functions of the signal and idler fields are directly related to the angular Schmidt (spiral) spectrum of the down-converted two-photon field and thus that the angular Schmidt spectrum can be measured directly by measuring the angular coherence function of either the signal or the idler field, without requiring coincidence detection.
Generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs with arbitrary joint spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walton, Zachary D.; Sergienko, Alexander V.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.
2004-01-01
We present a scheme for generating polarization-entangled photons pairs with arbitrary joint spectrum. Specifically, we describe a technique for spontaneous parametric down-conversion in which both the center frequencies and the bandwidths of the down-converted photons may be controlled by appropriate manipulation of the pump pulse. The spectral control offered by this technique permits one to choose the operating wavelengths for each photon of a pair based on optimizations of other system parameters (loss in optical fiber, photon counter performance, etc.). The combination of spectral control, polarization control, and lack of group-velocity matching conditions makes this technique particularly well suited for a distributed quantum information processing architecture in which integrated optical circuits are connected by spans of optical fiber
Coherent control of long-distance steady-state entanglement in lossy resonator arrays
Angelakis, D. G.; Dai, L.; Kwek, L. C.
2010-07-01
We show that coherent control of the steady-state long-distance entanglement between pairs of cavity-atom systems in an array of lossy and driven coupled resonators is possible. The cavities are doped with atoms and are connected through waveguides, other cavities or fibers depending on the implementation. We find that the steady-state entanglement can be coherently controlled through the tuning of the phase difference between the driving fields. It can also be surprisingly high in spite of the pumps being classical fields. For some implementations where the connecting element can be a fiber, long-distance steady-state quantum correlations can be established. Furthermore, the maximal of entanglement for any pair is achieved when their corresponding direct coupling is much smaller than their individual couplings to the third party. This effect is reminiscent of the establishment of coherence between otherwise uncoupled atomic levels using classical coherent fields. We suggest a method to measure this entanglement by analyzing the correlations of the emitted photons from the array and also analyze the above results for a range of values of the system parameters, different network geometries and possible implementation technologies.
Entanglement and Wigner Function Negativity of Multimode Non-Gaussian States
Walschaers, Mattia; Fabre, Claude; Parigi, Valentina; Treps, Nicolas
2017-11-01
Non-Gaussian operations are essential to exploit the quantum advantages in optical continuous variable quantum information protocols. We focus on mode-selective photon addition and subtraction as experimentally promising processes to create multimode non-Gaussian states. Our approach is based on correlation functions, as is common in quantum statistical mechanics and condensed matter physics, mixed with quantum optics tools. We formulate an analytical expression of the Wigner function after the subtraction or addition of a single photon, for arbitrarily many modes. It is used to demonstrate entanglement properties specific to non-Gaussian states and also leads to a practical and elegant condition for Wigner function negativity. Finally, we analyze the potential of photon addition and subtraction for an experimentally generated multimode Gaussian state.
Low-energy-state dynamics of entanglement for spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jafari, R.
2010-01-01
We develop the ideas of the quantum renormalization group and quantum information by exploring the low-energy-state dynamics of entanglement resources of a system close to its quantum critical point. We demonstrate that low-energy-state dynamical quantities of one-dimensional magnetic systems can show a quantum phase transition point and show scaling behavior in the vicinity of the transition point. To present our idea, we study the evolution of two spin entanglements in the one-dimensional Ising model in the transverse field. The system is initialized as the so-called thermal ground state of the pure Ising model. We investigate the evolution of the generation of entanglement with increasing magnetic field. We obtain that the derivative of the time at which the entanglement reaches its maximum with respect to the transverse field diverges at the critical point and its scaling behaviors versus the size of the system are the same as the static ground-state entanglement of the system.
Quantum Communication Using Macroscopic Phase Entangled States
2015-12-10
U.S. Army RDECOM, Aviation & Missile Research, Development & Engineering Center Name of Contractor: University of Maryland at Baltimore County...Principal Investigator: Dr. James Franson Business Address: 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore , MD 21250 Phone number: 410-455-8115 Effective date...distribution with entanglement witnessing”, Physical Review A, v. 89, 012315 (2014). • David Simon, Gregg Jaeger, and Alexander Sergienko ’’Quantum
Various quantum nonlocality tests with a commercial two-photon entanglement source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pomarico, Enrico; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Sanguinetti, Bruno; Rochdi, Anas; Gisin, Nicolas
2011-01-01
Nonlocality is a fascinating and counterintuitive aspect of nature, revealed by the violation of a Bell inequality. The standard and easiest configuration in which Bell inequalities can be measured has been proposed by Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH). However, alternative nonlocality tests can also be carried out. In particular, Bell inequalities requiring multiple measurement settings can provide deeper fundamental insights about quantum nonlocality, as well as offering advantages in the presence of noise and detection inefficiency. In this paper we show how these nonlocality tests can be performed using a commercially available source of entangled photon pairs. We report the violation of a series of these nonlocality tests (I 3322 , I 4422 , and chained inequalities). With the violation of the chained inequality with 4 settings per side we put an upper limit at 0.49 on the local content of the states prepared by the source (instead of 0.63 attainable with CHSH). We also quantify the amount of true randomness that has been created during our experiment (assuming fair sampling of the detected events).
Requirement of system-reservoir bound states for entanglement protection
Behzadi, N.; Ahansaz, B.; Faizi, E.; Kasani, H.
2018-03-01
In this work, a genuine mechanism for entanglement protection of a two- qubit system interacting with a dissipative common reservoir is investigated. Based on generating a bound state for the system-reservoir, we show that stronger bound state in the energy spectrum can be created by adding another non-interacting qubits into the reservoir. It turns out that obtaining higher degrees of boundedness in the energy spectrum leads to a better protection of two-qubit entanglement against the dissipative noises. Also, it is figured out that the formation of bound state not only exclusively determines the long-time entanglement protection, irrespective to the Markovian and non-Markovian dynamics, but also performs the same task for reservoirs with different spectral densities.
Generalized Remote Preparation of Arbitrary m-qubit Entangled States via Genuine Entanglements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dong Wang
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Herein, we present a feasible, general protocol for quantum communication within a network via generalized remote preparation of an arbitrary m-qubit entangled state designed with genuine tripartite Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger-type entangled resources. During the implementations, we construct novel collective unitary operations; these operations are tasked with performing the necessary phase transfers during remote state preparations. We have distilled our implementation methods into a five-step procedure, which can be used to faithfully recover the desired state during transfer. Compared to previous existing schemes, our methodology features a greatly increased success probability. After the consumption of auxiliary qubits and the performance of collective unitary operations, the probability of successful state transfer is increased four-fold and eight-fold for arbitrary two- and three-qubit entanglements when compared to other methods within the literature, respectively. We conclude this paper with a discussion of the presented scheme for state preparation, including: success probabilities, reducibility and generalizability.
Chen, Hongmei; Sheng, Xueli; Zhao, Fengsheng; Zhang, Yixin
2013-04-01
Based on the Rytov approximation, we analyze the effect of the pump beam's space-coherence of parametric down-conversion on entangled orbital angular momentum (OAM) states propagation in slant low-order turbulence aberration channels. The detection probability of signal photon of entangled OAM states is modeled. Our numerical evaluation shows that the signal photon detection probability and the crosstalk probability decay nonlinearly with the increasing of the number of space coherent speckle and the OAM quantum number of signal photon in the channels of Z-tilt aberration, astigmatism aberration, defocus aberration and coma aberration declines. The OAM entanglement states of low spatial coherence are improper to be used for the carrier wave of the encoding of OAM. The signal photon detection probability decreases as the power-law exponent of non-Kolmogorov spectrum increases from 3 to 4, in the turbulence Z-tilt, astigmatism and coma aberrations channels.
Transformation of bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We present two schemes for transforming bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a W state in cavity QED system, by using highly detuned interactions and the resonant interactions between ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science
Preparing Projected Entangled Pair States on a Quantum Computer
Schwarz, Martin; Temme, Kristan; Verstraete, Frank
2012-03-01
We present a quantum algorithm to prepare injective projected entangled pair states (PEPS) on a quantum computer, a class of open tensor networks representing quantum states. The run time of our algorithm scales polynomially with the inverse of the minimum condition number of the PEPS projectors and, essentially, with the inverse of the spectral gap of the PEPS’s parent Hamiltonian.
Detecting highly entangled states with a joint qubit readout
Chow, J. M.; Dicarlo, L.; Gambetta, J. M.; Nunnenkamp, A.; Bishop, Lev S.; Frunzio, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Girvin, S. M.; Schoelkopf, R. J.
2010-06-01
A single-channel joint readout is used to analyze highly entangled two-qubit states in a circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture. The measurement model for the readout is fully characterized, demonstrating a large sensitivity to two-qubit correlations. We quantify the high degree of entanglement by measuring a violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality with a value of 2.61±0.04, without optimizing the preparation of the two-qubit state. In its present form, this joint readout can resolve improvements to the fidelity of two-qubit operations and be extended to three or four qubits.
Generation of higher dimensional entangled states in quantum Rabi systems
Albarrán-Arriagada, F.; Alvarado Barrios, G.; Cárdenas-López, F. A.; Romero, G.; Retamal, J. C.
2017-05-01
We present protocols for the generation of high-dimensional entangled states of anharmonic oscillators by means of coherent manipulation of light-matter systems in the ultrastrong coupling regime. Our protocols consider a pair of ultrastrong coupled qubit-cavity systems, each coupled to an ancilla qubit, and combine classical pulses plus the selection rules imposed by the parity symmetry. We study the robustness of the entangling protocols under dissipative effects. This proposal may have applications within state-of-art circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Quantum communication network utilizing quadripartite entangled states of optical field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Heng; Su Xiaolong; Jia Xiaojun; Xie Changde
2009-01-01
We propose two types of quantum dense coding communication networks with optical continuous variables, in which a quadripartite entangled state of the optical field with totally three-party correlations of quadrature amplitudes is utilized. In the networks, the exchange of information between any two participants can be manipulated by one or two of the remaining participants. The channel capacities for a variety of communication protocols are numerically calculated. Due to the fact that the quadripartite entangled states applied in the communication systems have been successfully prepared already in the laboratory, the proposed schemes are experimentally accessible at present.
Entanglement spectrum and boundary theories with projected entangled-pair states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cirac, Ignacio [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Poilblanc, Didier [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, C.N.R.S. and Universite de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Schuch, Norbert [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Verstraete, Frank [Vienna Univ. (Austria)
2012-07-01
In many physical scenarios, close relations between the bulk properties of quantum systems and theories associated to their boundaries have been observed. In this work, we provide an exact duality mapping between the bulk of a quantum spin system and its boundary using Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS). This duality associates to every region a Hamiltonian on its boundary, in such a way that the entanglement spectrum of the bulk corresponds to the excitation spectrum of the boundary Hamiltonian. We study various models and find that a gapped bulk phase with local order corresponds to a boundary Hamiltonian with local interactions, whereas critical behavior in the bulk is reflected on a diverging interaction length of the boundary Hamiltonian. Furthermore, topologically ordered states yield non-local Hamiltonians. As our duality also associates a boundary operator to any operator in the bulk, it in fact provides a full holographic framework for the study of quantum many-body systems via their boundary.
Cluster-state quantum computation: the role of entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Annovi, Filippo [Department of Philosophy, University of Bologna (Italy)
2013-07-01
Cluster-state quantum computation is computationally equivalent to the traditional circuit model, but the pictures of computational processes outlined by the two are radically different. Here are investigated some of the consequences of this situation for the explanation of the quantum speed-up, whit particular regard to the role played by entanglement. At first sight, the evolution of a cluster-state computer seems to be disentangling (at each step one qubit is measured and discarded), but in a fully-unitary dynamical account it appears to be entangling (at each step a correlation is established between one qubit and its respective recorder). It is thus suggested that the different uses made of the features of quantum systems by the two frameworks, do not rule out the thesis that the speed-up is achieved by means of an entangling transformation. However, in this last case entanglement is created step by step, and thus the main difference between the two frameworks seems to remain the absence of ''quantum parallelism''. The only entangling-generating unitary transformations acting at the same time on all the qubits are the controlled-phase operation involved in the preparation of the cluster. Thus, the explanation of the quantum speed-up should be looked for just in these type of transformations.
Transverse entanglement migration in Hilbert space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, K. W.; Torres, J. P.; Eberly, J. H.
2007-01-01
We show that, although the amount of mutual entanglement of photons propagating in free space is fixed, the type of correlations between the photons that determine the entanglement can dramatically change during propagation. We show that this amounts to a migration of entanglement in Hilbert space, rather than real space. For the case of spontaneous parametric down-conversion, the migration of entanglement in transverse coordinates takes place from modulus to phase of the biphoton state and back again. We propose an experiment to observe this migration in Hilbert space and to determine the full entanglement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Anne E. B.; Muschik, Christine A.; Giedke, Geza
2010-01-01
not only provide the possibility to conditionally generate highly entangled photon number states as resource for quantum information protocols but also allows one to test and hence purify this type of quantum states in a communication scenario, which is of great practical importance. The scheme...... is especially attractive as a generalization to many modes allows for distribution and purification of entanglement in networks. In an alternative working mode, the setup allows for quantum nondemolition number resolved photodetection in the optical domain....
Cardoso B., W.; Almeida G. de, N.
2008-07-01
We propose a scheme to partially teleport an unknown entangled atomic state. A high-Q cavity, supporting one mode of a weak coherent state, is needed to accomplish this process. By partial teleportation we mean that teleportation will occur by changing one of the partners of the entangled state to be teleported. The entangled state to be teleported is composed by one pair of particles, we called this surprising characteristic of maintaining the entanglement, even when one of the particle of the entangled pair being teleported is changed, of divorce of entangled states.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cardoso, W. B.; Almeida, N. G. de
2008-01-01
We propose a scheme to partially teleport an unknown entangled atomic state. A high-Q cavity, supporting one mode of a weak coherent state, is needed to accomplish this process. By partial teleportation we mean that teleportation will occur by changing one of the partners of the entangled state to be teleported. The entangled state to be teleported is composed by one pair of particles, we called this surprising characteristic of maintaining the entanglement, even when one of the particle of the entangled pair being teleported is changed, of divorce of entangled states. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
Circuit QED: generation of two-transmon-qutrit entangled states via resonant interaction
Ye, Xi-Mei; Zheng, Zhen-Fei; Lu, Dao-Ming; Yang, Chui-Ping
2018-04-01
We present a way to create entangled states of two superconducting transmon qutrits based on circuit QED. Here, a qutrit refers to a three-level quantum system. Since only resonant interaction is employed, the entanglement creation can be completed within a short time. The degree of entanglement for the prepared entangled state can be controlled by varying the weight factors of the initial state of one qutrit, which allows the prepared entangled state to change from a partially entangled state to a maximally entangled state. Because a single cavity is used, only resonant interaction is employed, and none of identical qutrit-cavity coupling constant, measurement, and auxiliary qutrit is needed, this proposal is easy to implement in experiments. The proposal is quite general and can be applied to prepare a two-qutrit partially or maximally entangled state with two natural or artificial atoms of a ladder-type level structure, coupled to an optical or microwave cavity.
Autonomous stabilization of an entangled state of two transmon qubits
Shankar, S.; Leghtas, Z.; Hatridge, M.; Narla, A.; Vool, U.; Girvin, S. M.; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.
2013-03-01
Recent circuit QED (cQED) experiments on superconducting transmon qubits have shown good progress towards measurement-based quantum feedback, that should allow the stabilization of interesting quantum states, such as an entangled state of two qubits. These experiments crucially depend on fast, high-fidelity, quantum non-demolition qubit readout using superconducting parametric amplifiers as well as high-speed room-temperature electronics. We describe an alternate autonomous-feedback strategy to stabilize two qubits dispersively coupled to a single cavity into an entangled state, while obviating the need for an optimized measurement chain. The system Hamiltonian is designed to be in the strong dispersive cQED regime where the dispersive shifts of the two qubits are tuned to be equal (χ / 2 π = 5 MHz) and larger than the cavity linewidth (κ / 2 π = 1 . 5 MHz). By applying continuous microwave drives at the cavity and qubit frequencies, the system is forced into the desired quantum state. The stabilization rate of this scheme is of order κ which can be made much faster than all decoherence rates 1/T1, 1/Tϕ that take the system out of the entangled state. We will discuss initial experimental progress towards the goal of autonomous high-fidelity entanglement. Work supported by IARPA, ARO, and NSF.
Variational Approach to Projected Entangled Pair States at Finite Temperature
Czarnik, Piotr; Dziarmaga, Jacek
2015-01-01
The projected entangled pair state (PEPS) ansatz can represent a thermal state in a strongly correlated system. We introduce a novel variational algorithm to optimize this tensor network. Since full tensor environment is taken into account, then with increasing bond dimension the optimized PEPS becomes the exact Gibbs state. Our presentation opens with a 1D version for a matrix product state (MPS) and then generalizes to PEPS in 2D. Benchmark results in the quantum Ising model are presented.
Entanglement and quantum state transfer between two atoms trapped in two indirectly coupled cavities
Zheng, Bin; Shen, Li-Tuo; Chen, Ming-Feng
2016-05-01
We propose a one-step scheme for implementing entanglement generation and the quantum state transfer between two atomic qubits trapped in two different cavities that are not directly coupled to each other. The process is realized through engineering an effective asymmetric X-Y interaction for the two atoms involved in the gate operation and an auxiliary atom trapped in an intermediate cavity, induced by virtually manipulating the atomic excited states and photons. We study the validity of the scheme as well as the influences of the dissipation by numerical simulation and demonstrate that it is robust against decoherence.
Schroedinger cat states and optimum universal quantum cloning by entangled parametric amplification
De Martini, Francesco; Mussi, Valentina; Bovino, Fabio
2000-05-01
The new process of quantum-injection by a single-photon in a pure quantum superposition state into an optical parametric amplifier operating in entangled configuration is adopted to generate an all optical multiphoton Schroedinger-cat state which is largely detectable against the squeezed-vacuum noise. The invariance properties of the OPA interaction hamiltonian show that, under certain conditions, the device may act as a universal quantum cloning machine (UQCM) of the input qubits. Preliminary results here reported show the first experimental realization of such a device based on stimulated emission process in an optical parametric amplifier.
Quantum Private Comparison Based on χ-Type Entangled States
Hong-Ming, Pan
2017-10-01
A two-party quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol is constructed with χ-type entangled states in this paper. The proposed protocol employs a semi-honest third party (TP) that is allowed to misbehave on his own but cannot conspire with the adversary. The proposed protocol need perform Bell basis measurements and single-particle measurements but neither unitary operations nor quantum entanglement swapping technology. The proposed protocol possesses good security toward both the outside attack and the participant attack. TP only knows the comparison result of the private information from two parties in the proposed protocol.
An entanglement concentration protocol for cluster states using ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Entanglement is the most precious quantum resource in the theory of quantum information and communication [1,2]. ... quantum system with the environment, and also after some use has been made of an entan- gled state, the ..... [2] D McMahon, Quantum computing explained (John Wiley and Sons, 2007). [3] A Einstein, B ...
An entanglement concentration protocol for cluster states using ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The purpose of this paper is a proposal on entanglement concentration protocol for cluster states. The protocol uses CNOT gate operation and is assisted with a single qubit. Moreover, the local and non-local operations are performed by a single party. We also make a comparative numerical study of the residual ...
An entanglement concentration protocol for cluster states using ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The purpose of this paper is a proposal on entanglement concentration protocol forcluster states. The protocol uses CNOT gate operation and is assisted with a single qubit. Moreover, the local and non-local operations are performed by a single party. We also make a comparative numerical study of the residual ...
Continuous Variable Entanglement of Orbital Angular Momentum States
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Leuchs, G.; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2009-01-01
We have generated a new quantum state of light composed of quadrature entangled Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes. For the generation we used an OPO operating in a new regime where all field parameters are degenerate except for its spatial degree of freedom for which it is two-fold degenerate. The ent...
Continuous Variable Entanglement and Squeezing of Orbital Angular Momentum States
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Leuchs, Gerd; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2009-01-01
We report the first experimental characterization of the first-order continuous variable orbital angular momentum states. Using a spatially nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator (OPO) we produce quadrature entanglement between the two first-order Laguerre-Gauss modes. The family of orbital...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casado, A [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Guerra, S [Centro Asociado de la Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Placido, J [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)], E-mail: acasado@us.es
2008-02-28
In this paper, the theory of parametric down-conversion in the Wigner representation is applied to Ekert's quantum cryptography protocol. We analyse the relation between two-photon entanglement and (non-secure) quantum key distribution within the Wigner framework in the Heisenberg picture. Experiments using two-qubit polarization entanglement generated in nonlinear crystals are analysed in this formalism, along with the effects of eavesdropping attacks in the case of projective measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casado, A; Guerra, S; Placido, J
2008-01-01
In this paper, the theory of parametric down-conversion in the Wigner representation is applied to Ekert's quantum cryptography protocol. We analyse the relation between two-photon entanglement and (non-secure) quantum key distribution within the Wigner framework in the Heisenberg picture. Experiments using two-qubit polarization entanglement generated in nonlinear crystals are analysed in this formalism, along with the effects of eavesdropping attacks in the case of projective measurements
Preparation and purification of four-photon Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Ying-Qiu; Ding, Dong; Yan, Feng-Li; Gao, Ting
2015-01-01
We present an efficient scheme for the preparing and purifying of the four-photon Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) state based on linear optics and postselection. First, we describe how to create a four-photon GHZ state in both polarization and spatial degrees of freedom from two pairs. Moreover, in the presence of depolarization noise our scheme is capable of purifying the desired state. In the regime of weak nonlinearity we design an indirect photon number-resolving detection to distinguish two states of the two pairs. At last, a fourfold coincidence detector click indicates the creation of a polarization-entangled four-photon GHZ state. (paper)
Quantum teleportation from a telecom-wavelength photon to a solid-state quantum memory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bussieres, Felix [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva (Switzerland)
2014-07-01
Quantum teleportation is a cornerstone of quantum information science due to its essential role in several important tasks such as the long-distance transmission of quantum information using quantum repeaters. In this context, a challenge of paramount importance is the distribution of entanglement between remote nodes, and to use this entanglement as a resource for long-distance light-to-matter quantum teleportation. In this talk I will report on the demonstration of quantum teleportation of the polarization state of a telecom-wavelength photon onto the state of a solid-state quantum memory. Entanglement is established between a rare-earth-ion doped crystal storing a single photon that is polarization-entangled with a flying telecom-wavelength photon. The latter is jointly measured with another flying qubit carrying the polarization state to be teleported, which heralds the teleportation. The fidelity of the polarization state of the photon retrieved from the memory is shown to be greater than the maximum fidelity achievable without entanglement, even when the combined distances travelled by the two flying qubits is 25 km of standard optical fibre. This light-to-matter teleportation channel paves the way towards long-distance implementations of quantum networks with solid-state quantum memories.
Quantum entanglement of locally excited states in Maxwell theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nozaki, Masahiro; Watamura, Naoki
2016-01-01
In 4 dimensional Maxwell gauge theory, we study the changes of (Rényi) entanglement entropy which are defined by subtracting the entropy for the ground state from the one for the locally excited states, generated by acting with gauge invariant local operators on the state. The changes for the operators which we consider in this paper reflect the electric-magnetic duality. The late-time value of changes can be interpreted in terms of electromagnetic quasi-particles. When the operator constructed of both electric and magnetic fields acts on the ground state, it shows that the operator acts on the late-time structure of quantum entanglement differently from free scalar fields.
Quantum Enhanced Imaging by Entangled States
2009-07-01
semiconductor) AlSb: Aluminum Antimonide (a III-V compound semiconductor) APD: Avalanche Photo Diode AR: Anti-Reflection ARL: Army Research...92, 233601 (2004). 72 Y. Zhou, P. Xu, et al., (in preparation). 76 List of Acronyms AlInAs: Aluminum Indium Arsenide (a III-V compound...Photon Absorption FFT: Fast Fourier Transform FPA: Focal Plane Array (an optical detector) GaAlAs: Gallium Aluminum Arsenide (a III-V compound
Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2007-03-01
We present a novel, detailed study on the usefulness of three-mode Gaussian states for realistic processing of continuous variable (CV) quantum information, with a particular emphasis on the possibilities opened up by their genuine tripartite entanglement. We describe practical schemes to engineer several classes of pure and mixed three-mode states that stand out for their informational and/or entanglement properties. In particular, we introduce a simple procedure—based on passive optical elements—to produce pure three-mode Gaussian states with arbitrary entanglement structure (upon availability of an initial two-mode squeezed state). We analyse in depth the properties of distributed entanglement and the origin of its sharing structure, showing that the promiscuity of entanglement sharing is a feature peculiar to symmetric Gaussian states that survives even in the presence of significant degrees of mixedness and decoherence. Next, we discuss the suitability of the considered tripartite entangled states to the implementation of quantum information and communication protocols with CVs. This will lead to a feasible experimental proposal to test the promiscuous sharing of CV tripartite entanglement, in terms of the optimal fidelity of teleportation networks with Gaussian resources. We finally focus on the application of three-mode states to symmetric and asymmetric telecloning, and single out the structural properties of the optimal Gaussian resources for the latter protocol in different settings. Our analysis aims to lay the basis for a practical quantum communication with CVs beyond the bipartite scenario.
Hybrid Long-Distance Entanglement Distribution Protocol
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brask, J.B.; Rigas, I.; Polzik, E.S.
2010-01-01
We propose a hybrid (continuous-discrete variable) quantum repeater protocol for long-distance entanglement distribution. Starting from states created by single-photon detection, we show how entangled coherent state superpositions can be generated by means of homodyne detection. We show that near......-deterministic entanglement swapping with such states is possible using only linear optics and homodyne detectors, and we evaluate the performance of our protocol combining these elements....
Duality and the geometric measure of entanglement of general multiqubit W states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamaryan, Sayatnova; Sudbery, Anthony; Tamaryan, Levon
2010-01-01
We find the nearest product states for arbitrary generalized W states of n qubits, and show that the nearest product state is essentially unique if the W state is highly entangled. It is specified by a unit vector in Euclidean n-dimensional space. We use this duality between unit vectors and highly entangled W states to find the geometric measure of entanglement of such states.
Werner State Structure and Entanglement Classification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David W. Lyons
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We present applications of the representation theory of Lie groups to the analysis of structure and local unitary classification of Werner states, sometimes called the decoherence-free states, which are states of n quantum bits left unchanged by local transformations that are the same on each particle. We introduce a multiqubit generalization of the singlet state and a construction that assembles these qubits into Werner states.
Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on Bell Entangled States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Wen; Wang Yongbin; Cui Wei
2012-01-01
In this paper, a quantum private comparison protocol is proposed based on bell entangled states. In our protocol, two parties can compare the equality of their information with the help of a semi-honest third party. The correctness and security of our protocol are discussed. One party cannot learn the other's private information and the third party also cannot learn any information about the private information. (general)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bartkiewicz, K.; Lemr, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Miranowicz, A.
2017-01-01
Roč. 95, č. 3 (2017), s. 1-7, č. článku 030102. ISSN 2469-9926 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Bell nonlocality * fully entangled fraction * entanglement-swapping device * quantum state tomography Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2016
Shu, Chang-Gan; Xin, Xia; Liu, Yu-Min; Yu, Zhong-Yuan; Yao, Wen-Jie; Wang, Dong-Lin; Cao, Gui
2012-04-01
We investigate theoretically two photon entanglement processes in a photonic-crystal cavity embedding a quantum dot in the strong-coupling regime. The model proposed by Johne et al. (Johne R, Gippius N A, Pavlovic G, Solnyshkov D D, Shelykh I A and Malpuech G 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 240404), and by Robert et al. (Robert J, Gippius N A and Malpuech G 2009 Phys. Rev. B 79 155317) is modified by considering irreversible dissipation and incoherent continuous pumping for the quantum dot, which is necessary to connect the realistic experiment. The dynamics of the system is analysed by employing the Born—Markov master equation, through which the spectra for the system are computed as a function of various parameters. By means of this analysis the photon-reabsorption process in the strong-coupling regime is first observed and analysed from the perspective of radiation spectrum and the optimal parameters for observing energy-entangled photon pairs are identified.
Variational approach to projected entangled pair states at finite temperature
Czarnik, Piotr; Dziarmaga, Jacek
2015-07-01
The projected entangled pair state (PEPS) ansatz can represent a thermal state in a strongly correlated system. We introduce a variational algorithm to optimize this tensor network whose essential ingredient is an auxiliary tree tensor network (TTN). Since the full tensor environment is taken into account, with increasing bond dimension the PEPS-TTN ansatz provides the exact Gibbs state. Our presentation opens with a 1D version for a matrix product state (MPS-TTN) and then generalizes to PEPS-TTN in 2D. Benchmark results in the quantum Ising model are presented.
Entanglement on mixed stabilizer states: normal forms and reduction procedures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Audenaert, Koenraad M R; Plenio, Martin B
2005-01-01
The stabilizer formalism allows the efficient description of a sizeable class of pure as well as mixed quantum states of n-qubit systems. That same formalism has important applications in the field of quantum error correcting codes, where mixed stabilizer states correspond to projectors on subspaces associated with stabilizer codes. In this paper, we derive efficient reduction procedures to obtain various useful normal forms for stabilizer states. We explicitly prove that these procedures will always converge to the correct result and that these procedures are efficient in that they only require a polynomial number of operations on the generators of the stabilizers. On one hand, we obtain two single-party normal forms. The first, the row-reduced echelon form, is obtained using only permutations and multiplications of generators. This form is useful to calculate partial traces of stabilizer states. The second is the fully reduced form, where the reduction procedure invokes single-qubit operations and CNOT operations as well. This normal form allows for the efficient calculation of the overlap between two stabilizer states, as well as of the Uhlmann fidelity between them, and their Bures distance. On the other hand, we also find a reduction procedure of bipartite stabilizer states, where the operations involved are restricted to be local ones. The two-party normal form thus obtained lays bare a very simple bipartite entanglement structure of stabilizer states. To wit, we prove that every bipartite mixed stabilizer state is locally equivalent to a direct product of a number of maximally entangled states and, potentially, a separable state. As a consequence, using this normal form we can efficiently calculate every reasonable bipartite entanglement measure of mixed stabilizer states
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Javůrek, D.; Svozilík, J.; Peřina ml., Jan
2014-01-01
Roč. 90, č. 4 (2014), "043844-1"-"043844-12" ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : photon pairs * orbital-angular-momentum-entangled * nonlinear ring fiber * spontaneous parametric down-conversion Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.808, year: 2014
Discrimination strategies for inequivalent classes of multipartite entangled states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niekamp, Soenke; Kleinmann, Matthias; Guehne, Otfried
2010-01-01
How can one discriminate different inequivalent classes of multiparticle entanglement experimentally? We present an approach for the discrimination of an experimentally prepared state from the equivalence class of another state. We consider two possible measures for the discrimination strength of an observable. The first measure is based on the difference of expectation values, the second on the relative entropy of the probability distributions of the measurement outcomes. The interpretation of these measures and their usefulness for experiments with limited resources are discussed. In the case of graph states, the stabilizer formalism is employed to compute these quantities and to find sets of observables that result in the most decisive discrimination.
Perturbative 2-body parent Hamiltonians for projected entangled pair states
Brell, Courtney G.; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Doherty, Andrew C.
2014-12-01
We construct parent Hamiltonians involving only local 2-body interactions for a broad class of projected entangled pair states (PEPS). Making use of perturbation gadget techniques, we define a perturbative Hamiltonian acting on the virtual PEPS space with a finite order low energy effective Hamiltonian that is a gapped, frustration-free parent Hamiltonian for an encoded version of a desired PEPS. For topologically ordered PEPS, the ground space of the low energy effective Hamiltonian is shown to be in the same phase as the desired state to all orders of perturbation theory. An encoded parent Hamiltonian for the double semion string net ground state is explicitly constructed as a concrete example.
Constructing an entangled state in the Heisenberg picture for inflationary cosmology
Rostami, Abasalt; Firouzjaee, Javad T.
2018-03-01
The effects of the entanglement of the inflaton field which initially entangled with those of another field on observables like power spectrum are known in the context of the Schrödinger field theory. To clarify this effect in the Heisenberg picture, there were some attempts to construct the initial entangled state by making use of an entangled transformation (like Bogoliubov transformation) between the Bunch-Davies vacuums and squeezed states. We study the role of the time-dependent entangled transformation in the Schrödinger field theory. We derive the relation between two vacuum states which their mode functions are transformed by the entangled transformation in Schrödinger picture. We discuss that the time-dependency of the entanglement parameter is inevitable and only in the first order of the entanglement parameter perturbation this time-dependency vanishes. We study the entangled transformation in the Heisenberg picture in term of the entangled parameter which appears in the entangled state in Schrödinger picture.
Cao, Yuan; Li, Yu-Huai; Zou, Wen-Jie; Li, Zheng-Ping; Shen, Qi; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Ren, Ji-Gang; Yin, Juan; Chen, Yu-Ao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei
2018-04-01
Quantum entanglement was termed "spooky action at a distance" in the well-known paper by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Entanglement is expected to be distributed over longer and longer distances in both practical applications and fundamental research into the principles of nature. Here, we present a proposal for distributing entangled photon pairs between Earth and the Moon using a Lagrangian point at a distance of 1.28 light seconds. One of the most fascinating features in this long-distance distribution of entanglement is as follows. One can perform the Bell test with human supplying the random measurement settings and recording the results while still maintaining spacelike intervals. To realize a proof-of-principle experiment, we develop an entangled photon source with 1 GHz generation rate, about 2 orders of magnitude higher than previous results. Violation of Bell's inequality was observed under a total simulated loss of 103 dB with measurement settings chosen by two experimenters. This demonstrates the feasibility of such long-distance Bell test over extremely high-loss channels, paving the way for one of the ultimate tests of the foundations of quantum mechanics.
Holographic Storage of Biphoton Entanglement
Dai, Han-Ning; Zhang, Han; Yang, Sheng-Jun; Zhao, Tian-Ming; Rui, Jun; Deng, You-Jin; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Chen, Shuai; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Jin, Xian-Min; Zhao, Bo; Pan, Jian-Wei
2012-05-01
Coherent and reversible storage of multiphoton entanglement with a multimode quantum memory is essential for scalable all-optical quantum information processing. Although a single photon has been successfully stored in different quantum systems, storage of multiphoton entanglement remains challenging because of the critical requirement for coherent control of the photonic entanglement source, multimode quantum memory, and quantum interface between them. Here we demonstrate a coherent and reversible storage of biphoton Bell-type entanglement with a holographic multimode atomic-ensemble-based quantum memory. The retrieved biphoton entanglement violates the Bell inequality for 1μs storage time and a memory-process fidelity of 98% is demonstrated by quantum state tomography.
Quantum cobwebs: Universal entangling of quantum states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
cloning principle [12,13] (the other limitations are no-deleting against a copy [14], and no- complementing .... For example, if we project the first qubit onto the computational basis 0 , the state of the particles 2 and .... message (detailed discussions are beyond the scope of the present paper and the results will be reported ...
Note on entanglement temperature for low thermal excited states in higher derivative gravity
Guo, Wu-zhong; He, Song; Tao, Jun
2013-08-01
We investigate the entanglement temperature of a small scale subsystem in low excited states by using holographic method. Especially, we study the entanglement entropy and entanglement temperature in higher derivative gravities which are considered as low thermal excitation of pure AdS gravity. We find that the entanglement entropy are related to the central charges of CFT living on the boundary. The relation between the variance of entanglement entropy and energy of a small scale subsystem has been also obtained. Furthermore, the relation is consistent with the first law-like relation that is proposed by Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 (2013)091602. Finally, we derive the formula of the variance of entanglement entropy in general excited states in gravity background with the Fefferman-Graham coordinates and the entanglement temperature can be figured out in special case.
Preservation of Gaussian state entanglement in a quantum beat laser by reservoir engineering
Qurban, Misbah; Islam, Rameez ul; Ge, Guo-Qin; Ikram, Manzoor
2018-04-01
Quantum beat lasers have been considered as sources of entangled radiation in continuous variables such as Gaussian states. In order to preserve entanglement and to minimize entanglement degradation due to the system’s interaction with the surrounding environment, we propose to engineer environment modes through insertion of another system in between the laser resonator and the environment. This makes the environment surrounding the two-mode laser a structured reservoir. It not only enhances the entanglement among two modes of the laser but also preserves the entanglement for sufficiently longer times, a stringent requirement for quantum information processing tasks.
Characterizing symmetries in a projected entangled pair state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez-Garcia, D; Gonzalez-Guillen, C E [Departamento Analisis Matematico and IMI, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanz, M; Cirac, J I [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Wolf, M M [Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: dperez@mat.ucm.es
2010-02-15
We show that two different tensors defining the same translational invariant injective projected entangled pair state (PEPS) in a square lattice must be the same up to a trivial gauge freedom. This allows us to characterize the existence of any local or spatial symmetry in the state. As an application of these results we prove that a SU(2) invariant PEPS with half-integer spin cannot be injective, which can be seen as a Lieb-Shultz-Mattis theorem in this context. We also give the natural generalization for U(1) symmetry in the spirit of Oshikawa-Yamanaka-Affleck, and show that a PEPS with Wilson loops cannot be injective.
Numerical method of entangled state selection in association of molecules
Arakelov, K. S.; Ozhigov, Yu. I.
2008-03-01
We represent the economy method of separation of the entangled states of GHZ and W types which arise in the process of association of a single molecule. It makes possible to separate these types of quantum states in the simulation of real processes like the association of molecular ion of hydrogen by means of existing computers with the strictly limited memory. Numerical realization of this method is in process; we represent the semiclassical part of it, that is based on Landau-Ziner description of the association of molecules. Results of statistical processing of the row of numerical experiments are shown.
Faithful test of nonlocal realism with entangled coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Chang-Woo; Jeong, Hyunseok; Paternostro, Mauro
2011-01-01
We investigate the violation of Leggett's inequality for nonlocal realism using entangled coherent states and various types of local measurements. We prove mathematically the relation between the violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt form of Bell's inequality and Leggett's one when tested by the same resources. For Leggett inequalities, we generalize the nonlocal realistic bound to systems in Hilbert spaces larger than bidimensional ones and introduce an optimization technique that allows one to achieve larger degrees of violation by adjusting the local measurement settings. Our work describes the steps that should be performed to produce a self-consistent generalization of Leggett's original arguments to continuous-variable states.
Robustness in projected entangled pair states
Cirac, J. Ignacio; Michalakis, Spyridon; Pérez-García, David; Schuch, Norbert
2013-09-01
We analyze a criterion which guarantees that the ground states of certain many-body systems are stable under perturbations. Specifically, we consider PEPS, which are believed to provide an efficient description, based on local tensors, for the low energy physics arising from local interactions. In order to assess stability in the framework of PEPS, one thus needs to understand how physically allowed perturbations of the local tensor affect the properties of the global state. In this paper, we show that a restricted version of the local topological quantum order (LTQO) condition [Michalakis and Pytel, Commun. Math. Phys.10.1007/s00220-013-1762-6 322, 277 (2013)] provides a checkable criterion which allows us to assess the stability of local properties of PEPS under physical perturbations. We moreover show that LTQO itself is stable under perturbations which preserve the spectral gap, leading to nontrivial examples of PEPS which possess LTQO and are thus stable under arbitrary perturbations.
Joint quantum state tomography of an entangled qubit–resonator hybrid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
LinPeng, X Y; Zhang, H Z; Xu, K; Li, C Y; Zhong, Y P; Wang, Z L; Wang, H; Xie, Q W
2013-01-01
The integration of superconducting qubits and resonators in one circuit offers a promising solution for quantum information processing (QIP), which also realizes the on-chip analogue of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED), known as circuit QED. In most prototype circuit designs, qubits are active processing elements and resonators are peripherals. As resonators typically have better coherence performance and more accessible energy levels, it is proposed that the entangled qubit–resonator hybrid can be used as a processing element. To achieve such a goal, an accurate measurement of the hybrid is first necessary. Here we demonstrate a joint quantum state tomography (QST) technique to fully characterize an entangled qubit–resonator hybrid. We benchmarked our QST technique by generating and accurately characterizing multiple states, e.g. |gN〉 + |e(N − 1)〉 where (|g〉 and |e〉) are the ground and excited states of the qubit and (|0〉,…,|N〉) are Fock states of the resonator. We further provided a numerical method to improve the QST efficiency and measured the decoherence dynamics of the bipartite hybrid, witnessing dissipation coming from both the qubit and the N-photon Fock state. As such, the joint QST presents an important step toward actively using the qubit–resonator element for QIP in hybrid quantum devices and for studying circuit QED. (paper)
The study of entanglement and teleportation of the harmonic oscillator bipartite coherent states
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A Rabeie and
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we reproduce the harmonic oscillator bipartite coherent states with imperfect cloning of coherent states. We show that if these entangled coherent states are embedded in a vacuum environment, their entanglement is degraded but not totally lost . Also, the optimal fidelity of these states is worked out for investigating their teleportation
Photon final states at the Tevatron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Campanelli, Mario; /University Coll. London
2008-04-01
The authors present here several recent measurements involving associate production of photons and jets at the Tevatron. In particular, inclusive photon + met from D0, and photon + b-jets and photon + b-jet + leptons + MET from CDF are described in some detail. These measurements offer a good test of QCD predictions in rather complex final states.
Quantum Entanglement and the Topological Order of Fractional Hall States
Rezayi, Edward
2015-03-01
Fractional quantum Hall states or, more generally, topological phases of matter defy Landau classification based on order parameter and broken symmetry. Instead they have been characterized by their topological order. Quantum information concepts, such as quantum entanglement, appear to provide the most efficient method of detecting topological order solely from the knowledge of the ground state wave function. This talk will focus on real-space bi-partitioning of quantum Hall states and will present both exact diagonalization and quantum Monte Carlo studies of topological entanglement entropy in various geometries. Results on the torus for non-contractible cuts are quite rich and, through the use of minimum entropy states, yield the modular S-matrix and hence uniquely determine the topological order, as shown in recent literature. Concrete examples of minimum entropy states from known quantum Hall wave functions and their corresponding quantum numbers, used in exact diagonalizations, will be given. In collaboration with Clare Abreu and Raul Herrera. Supported by DOE Grant DE-SC0002140.
Experimental generation of tripartite polarization entangled states of bright optical beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Liang; Liu, Yanhong; Deng, Ruijie [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Yan, Zhihui; Jia, Xiaojun, E-mail: jiaxj@sxu.edu.cn; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)
2016-04-18
The multipartite polarization entangled states of bright optical beams directly associating with the spin states of atomic ensembles are one of the essential resources in the future quantum information networks, which can be conveniently utilized to transfer and convert quantum states across a network composed of many atomic nodes. In this letter, we present the experimental demonstration of tripartite polarization entanglement described by Stokes operators of optical field. The tripartite entangled states of light at the frequency resonant with D1 line of Rubidium atoms are transformed into the continuous variable polarization entanglement among three bright optical beams via an optical beam splitter network. The obtained entanglement is confirmed by the extended criterion for polarization entanglement of multipartite quantized optical modes.
Experimental generation of tripartite polarization entangled states of bright optical beams
Wu, Liang; Yan, Zhihui; Liu, Yanhong; Deng, Ruijie; Jia, Xiaojun; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2016-04-01
The multipartite polarization entangled states of bright optical beams directly associating with the spin states of atomic ensembles are one of the essential resources in the future quantum information networks, which can be conveniently utilized to transfer and convert quantum states across a network composed of many atomic nodes. In this letter, we present the experimental demonstration of tripartite polarization entanglement described by Stokes operators of optical field. The tripartite entangled states of light at the frequency resonant with D1 line of Rubidium atoms are transformed into the continuous variable polarization entanglement among three bright optical beams via an optical beam splitter network. The obtained entanglement is confirmed by the extended criterion for polarization entanglement of multipartite quantized optical modes.
Self-healing of quantum entanglement after an obstruction
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
McLaren, M
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Quantum entanglement between photon pairs is fragile and can easily be masked by losses in transmission path and noise in the detection system. When observing the quantum entanglement between the spatial states of photon pairs produced by parametric...
Chiral projected entangled-pair state with topological order
Yang, Shuo; Wahl, Thorsten; Tu, Hong-Hao; Schuch, Norbert; Cirac, J. Ignacio
We show that projected entangled-pair states (PEPS) can describe chiral topologically ordered phases. For that, we construct a simple PEPS for spin-1/2 particles in a two-dimensional lattice. We reveal a symmetry in the local projector of the PEPS that gives rise to the global topological character. We also extract characteristic quantities of the edge conformal field theory using the bulk-boundary correspondence. EU projects SIQS and QALGO, the Alexander von Humboldt foundation, the Government of Canada through Industry Canada, and the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Economic Development & Innovation.
Muon-fluorine entangled states in molecular magnets.
Lancaster, T; Blundell, S J; Baker, P J; Brooks, M L; Hayes, W; Pratt, F L; Manson, J L; Conner, M M; Schlueter, J A
2007-12-31
The information accessible from a muon-spin relaxation experiment can be limited due to a lack of knowledge of the precise muon stopping site. We demonstrate here the possibility of localizing a spin polarized muon in a known stopping state in a molecular material containing fluorine. The muon-spin precession that results from the entangled nature of the muon spin and surrounding nuclear spins is sensitive to the nature of the stopping site. We use this property to identify three classes of sites that occur in molecular magnets and describe the extent to which the muon distorts its surroundings.
Violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for states resulting from entanglement swapping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wojcik, Antoni; Modlawska, Joanna; Grudka, Andrzej; Czechlewski, Mikolaj
2010-01-01
We consider violation of CHSH inequality for states before and after entanglement swapping. We present a pair of initial states which do not violate CHSH inequality however the final state violates CHSH inequality for some results of Bell measurement performed in order to swap entanglement.
Gradient optimization of finite projected entangled pair states
Liu, Wen-Yuan; Dong, Shao-Jun; Han, Yong-Jian; Guo, Guang-Can; He, Lixin
2017-05-01
Projected entangled pair states (PEPS) methods have been proven to be powerful tools to solve strongly correlated quantum many-body problems in two dimensions. However, due to the high computational scaling with the virtual bond dimension D , in a practical application, PEPS are often limited to rather small bond dimensions, which may not be large enough for some highly entangled systems, for instance, frustrated systems. Optimization of the ground state using the imaginary time evolution method with a simple update scheme may go to a larger bond dimension. However, the accuracy of the rough approximation to the environment of the local tensors is questionable. Here, we demonstrate that by combining the imaginary time evolution method with a simple update, Monte Carlo sampling techniques and gradient optimization will offer an efficient method to calculate the PEPS ground state. By taking advantage of massive parallel computing, we can study quantum systems with larger bond dimensions up to D =10 without resorting to any symmetry. Benchmark tests of the method on the J1-J2 model give impressive accuracy compared with exact results.
Entanglement between particle partitions in itinerant many-particle states
Haque, M.; Zozulya, O.S.; Schoutens, K.
2009-01-01
We review 'particle-partitioning entanglement' for itinerant many-particle systems. This is defined as the entanglement between two subsets of particles making up the system. We identify generic features and mechanisms of particle entanglement that are valid over whole classes of itinerant quantum
Quantum Critical Point and Entanglement in a Matrix Product Ground State
Tribedi, Amit; Bose, Indrani
2006-01-01
In this paper, we study the entanglement properties of a spin-1 model the exact ground state of which is given by a Matrix Product state. The model exhibits a critical point transition at a parameter value a=0. The longitudinal and transverse correlation lengths are known to diverge as a tends to zero. We use three different entanglement measures S(i) (the one-site von Neumann entropy), S(i,j) (the two-body entanglement) and G(2,n) (the generalized global entanglement) to determine the entang...
Continuous-variable entanglement distillation of non-Gaussian mixed states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dong, Ruifang; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Heersink, Joel
2010-01-01
Many different quantum-information communication protocols such as teleportation, dense coding, and entanglement-based quantum key distribution are based on the faithful transmission of entanglement between distant location in an optical network. The distribution of entanglement in such a network...... is, however, hampered by loss and noise that is inherent in all practical quantum channels. Thus, to enable faithful transmission one must resort to the protocol of entanglement distillation. In this paper we present a detailed theoretical analysis and an experimental realization of continuous...... variable entanglement distillation in a channel that is inflicted by different kinds of non-Gaussian noise. The continuous variable entangled states are generated by exploiting the third order nonlinearity in optical fibers, and the states are sent through a free-space laboratory channel in which...
State-independent uncertainty relations and entanglement detection
Qian, Chen; Li, Jun-Li; Qiao, Cong-Feng
2018-04-01
The uncertainty relation is one of the key ingredients of quantum theory. Despite the great efforts devoted to this subject, most of the variance-based uncertainty relations are state-dependent and suffering from the triviality problem of zero lower bounds. Here we develop a method to get uncertainty relations with state-independent lower bounds. The method works by exploring the eigenvalues of a Hermitian matrix composed by Bloch vectors of incompatible observables and is applicable for both pure and mixed states and for arbitrary number of N-dimensional observables. The uncertainty relation for the incompatible observables can be explained by geometric relations related to the parallel postulate and the inequalities in Horn's conjecture on Hermitian matrix sum. Practical entanglement criteria are also presented based on the derived uncertainty relations.
Continuous variable quantum key distribution with modulated entangled states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Lars S; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Lassen, Mikael
2012-01-01
entangled states of light to greatly enhance the robustness to channel noise. We experimentally demonstrate that the resulting quantum key distribution protocol can tolerate more noise than the benchmark set by the ideal continuous variable coherent state protocol. Our scheme represents a very promising......Quantum key distribution enables two remote parties to grow a shared key, which they can use for unconditionally secure communication over a certain distance. The maximal distance depends on the loss and the excess noise of the connecting quantum channel. Several quantum key distribution schemes...... based on coherent states and continuous variable measurements are resilient to high loss in the channel, but are strongly affected by small amounts of channel excess noise. Here we propose and experimentally address a continuous variable quantum key distribution protocol that uses modulated fragile...
Entangled states with positive partial transposes arising from indecomposable positive linear maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ha, Kil-Chan; Kye, Seung-Hyeok; Park, Young Sung
2003-01-01
We construct entangled states with positive partial transposes using indecomposable positive linear maps between matrix algebras. We also exhibit concrete examples of entangled states with positive partial transposes arising in this way, and show that they generate extreme rays in the cone of all positive semi-definite matrices with positive partial transposes. They also have Schmidt numbers two
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno (Italy); CNISM and CNR-Coherentia, Gruppo di Salerno (Italy); and INFN Sezione di Napoli-Gruppo Collegato di Salerno (Italy); Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy)
2006-01-15
For continuous-variable (CV) systems, we introduce a measure of entanglement, the CV tangle (contangle), with the purpose of quantifying the distributed (shared) entanglement in multimode, multipartite Gaussian states. This is achieved by a proper convex-roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity. We prove that the contangle satisfies the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters monogamy inequality in all three-mode Gaussian states, and in all fully symmetric N-mode Gaussian states, for arbitrary N. For three-mode pure states, we prove that the residual entanglement is a genuine tripartite entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communication. We show that pure, symmetric three-mode Gaussian states allow a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite residual entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. These states are thus simultaneous CV analogues of both the GHZ and the W states of three qubits: in CV systems monogamy does not prevent promiscuity, and the inequivalence between different classes of maximally entangled states, holding for systems of three or more qubits, is removed.
Entropy of entangled states and SU(1,1) and SU(2) symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santana, A.E.; Khanna, F.C.; Revzen, M.
2002-01-01
Based on a recent definition of a measure for entanglement [Plenio and Vedral, Contemp. Phys. 39, 431 (1998)], examples of maximum entangled states are presented. The construction of such states, which have symmetry SU(1,1) and SU(2), follows the guidance of thermofield dynamics formalism
Smith, James F.
2017-11-01
With the goal of designing interferometers and interferometer sensors, e.g., LADARs with enhanced sensitivity, resolution, and phase estimation, states using quantum entanglement are discussed. These states include N00N states, plain M and M states (PMMSs), and linear combinations of M and M states (LCMMS). Closed form expressions for the optimal detection operators; visibility, a measure of the state's robustness to loss and noise; a resolution measure; and phase estimate error, are provided in closed form. The optimal resolution for the maximum visibility and minimum phase error are found. For the visibility, comparisons between PMMSs, LCMMS, and N00N states are provided. For the minimum phase error, comparisons between LCMMS, PMMSs, N00N states, separate photon states (SPSs), the shot noise limit (SNL), and the Heisenberg limit (HL) are provided. A representative collection of computational results illustrating the superiority of LCMMS when compared to PMMSs and N00N states is given. It is found that for a resolution 12 times the classical result LCMMS has visibility 11 times that of N00N states and 4 times that of PMMSs. For the same case, the minimum phase error for LCMMS is 10.7 times smaller than that of PMMS and 29.7 times smaller than that of N00N states.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nha, Hyunchul; Kim, Jaewan
2006-01-01
We derive a class of inequalities, from the uncertainty relations of the su(1,1) and the su(2) algebra in conjunction with partial transposition, that must be satisfied by any separable two-mode states. These inequalities are presented in terms of the su(2) operators J x =(a † b+ab † )/2, J y =(a † b-ab † )/2i, and the total photon number a +N b >. They include as special cases the inequality derived by Hillery and Zubairy [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050503 (2006)], and the one by Agarwal and Biswas [New J. Phys. 7, 211 (2005)]. In particular, optimization over the whole inequalities leads to the criterion obtained by Agarwal and Biswas. We show that this optimal criterion can detect entanglement for a broad class of non-Gaussian entangled states, i.e., the su(2) minimum-uncertainty states. Experimental schemes to test the optimal criterion are also discussed, especially the one using linear optical devices and photodetectors
Surface states in photonic crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vojtíšek P.
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Among many unusual and interesting physical properties of photonic crystals (PhC, in recent years, the propagation of surface electromagnetic waves along dielectric PhC boundaries have attracted considerable attention, also in connection to their possible applications. Such surfaces states, produced with the help of specialized defects on PhC boundaries, similarly to surfaces plasmons, are localized surfaces waves and, as such, can be used in various sensing applications. In this contribution, we present our recent studies on numerical modelling of surface states (SS for all three cases of PhC dimensionality. Simulations of these states were carried out by the use of plane wave expansion (PWE method via the MIT MPB package.
Ghali, Mohsen; Ohtani, Keita; Ohno, Yuzo; Ohno, Hideo
2012-02-07
Semiconductor quantum dots are potential sources for generating polarization-entangled photons efficiently. The main prerequisite for such generation based on biexciton-exciton cascaded emission is to control the exciton fine-structure splitting. Among various techniques investigated for this purpose, an electric field is a promising means to facilitate the integration into optoelectronic devices. Here we demonstrate the generation of polarization-entangled photons from single GaAs quantum dots by an electric field. In contrast to previous studies, which were limited to In(Ga)As quantum dots, GaAs island quantum dots formed by a thickness fluctuation were used because they exhibit a larger oscillator strength and emit light with a shorter wavelength. A forward voltage was applied to a Schottky diode to control the fine-structure splitting. We observed a decrease and suppression in the fine-structure splitting of the studied single quantum dot with the field, which enabled us to generate polarization-entangled photons with a high fidelity of 0.72 ± 0.05.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adesso, Gerardo; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2007-01-01
We present a geometric approach to the characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states of an arbitrary number of modes. The analysis is performed adapting to continuous variables a formalism based on single subsystem unitary transformations that has been recently introduced to characterize separability and entanglement in pure states of qubits and qutrits [S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)]. In analogy with the finite-dimensional case, we demonstrate that the 1xM bipartite entanglement of a multimode pure Gaussian state can be quantified by the minimum squared Euclidean distance between the state itself and the set of states obtained by transforming it via suitable local symplectic (unitary) operations. This minimum distance, corresponding to a, uniquely determined, extremal local operation, defines an entanglement monotone equivalent to the entropy of entanglement, and amenable to direct experimental measurement with linear optical schemes
Quantum secret sharing using orthogonal multiqudit entangled states
Bai, Chen-Ming; Li, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Cheng-Ji; Li, Yong-Ming
2017-12-01
In this work, we investigate the distinguishability of orthogonal multiqudit entangled states under restricted local operations and classical communication. According to these properties, we propose a quantum secret sharing scheme to realize three types of access structures, i.e., the ( n, n)-threshold, the restricted (3, n)-threshold and restricted (4, n)-threshold schemes (called LOCC-QSS scheme). All cooperating players in the restricted threshold schemes are from two disjoint groups. In the proposed protocol, the participants use the computational basis measurement and classical communication to distinguish between those orthogonal states and reconstruct the original secret. Furthermore, we also analyze the security of our scheme in four primary quantum attacks and give a simple encoding method in order to better prevent the participant conspiracy attack.
The effect of channel decoherence on entangled coherent states: A theoretical analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yao, Yao; Li, Hong-Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2011-01-01
Highlights: → We analyze decoherence properties of ECSs due to channel losses. → Our result gives a new counterexample of entanglement ordering. → ECSs with sufficient small amplitudes are more robust against channel decoherence than Bell states. -- Abstract: We analyze decoherence properties of entangled coherent states due to channel losses. Employing the concept of 'entanglement of formation', degradation of fidelity and degree of entanglement are calculated. We have obtained an explicit expression of concurrence concerning the symmetric noise channel and found our result is just incompatible with that of [K. Park, H. Jeong, Phys. Rev. A 82 (2010) 062325] measured by negativity in the limit of α→0. We demonstrate that entangled coherent states with sufficient small amplitudes are more robust against channel decoherence than Bell states.
Geometric measure of entanglement of mixed three-qubit-GHZ-symmetric states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchholz, Lars Erik; Moroder, Tobias; Guehne, Otfried [Theoretische Quantenoptik, Universitaet Siegen, Department Physik, Emmy-Noether-Campus, Walter-Flex-Strasse 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany)
2013-07-01
Quantifying entanglement is one of the challenging tasks in quantum information theory. The simplest case containing entanglement is the two-qubit system. This was intensively studied and significant results were distilled out of it. Progressive achievements on the experimental sector makes a consideration of multipartite entanglement essential. This problem is not a trivial extension of the bipartite entanglement due to different types of entanglement classes. Consequently, there exists not just one measure but a variety of possible quantifiers. To improve our understanding about this quantum phenomenon, one has started to investigate special cases, like the mixed GHZ-symmetric-three-qubit states. This set of states exposed to be interesting due to the fact that the GHZ-Class is a nontrivial class of genuine tripartite entanglement and because of its high symmetric properties. Partial results were already obtained like the ''three-tangle'' as a measure for the three particle entanglement. To complete our understanding of these states we give an explicit expression of the geometric measure of entanglement with respect to fully separable states as well as for the concurrence for this class of states.
Sustainable Entangled State of Two Qutrits Under Laser Irradiation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Biryukov A.А.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We study the evolution of quantum entanglement in the model of two identical qubits interacting with a single-mode laser field. The density matrix and Peres-Horodecki parameter are calculated within the frameworks of path-integral formalism. The quantum entanglement measure is shown to be strongly dependent upon the phase difference between the laser radiation acting on each cubit. This observation may offer the possibility of quantum entanglement stationary control by varying the distance between the qubits.
Entanglement Evolution of Jaynes-Cummings Model in Resonance Case and Non-resonance Case
Cheng, Jing; Chen, Xi; Shan, Chuan-Jia
2018-03-01
We investigate the entanglement evolution of a two-level atom and a quantized single model electromagnetic filed in the resonance and non-resonance cases. The effects of the initial state, detuning degree, photon number on the entanglement are shown in detail. The results show that the atom-cavity entanglement state appears with periodicity. The increasing of the photon number can make the period of quantum entanglement be shorter. In the non-resonant case, if we choose the suitable initial state the entanglement of atom-cavity can be 1.0
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chuan-Jia, Shan; Tao, Chen; Ji-Bing, Liu; Wei-Wen, Cheng; Tang-Kun, Liu; Yan-Xia, Huang; Hong, Li
2010-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the dynamical behaviour of entanglement in terms of concurrence in a bipartite system subjected to an external magnetic field under the action of dissipative environments in the extended Werner-like initial state. The interesting phenomenon of entanglement sudden death as well as sudden birth appears during the evolution process. We analyse in detail the effect of the purity of the initial entangled state of two qubits via Heisenberg XY interaction on the apparition time of entanglement sudden death and entanglement sudden birth. Furthermore, the conditions on the conversion of entanglement sudden death and entanglement sudden birth can be generalized when the initial entangled state is not pure. In particular, a critical purity of the initial mixed entangled state exists, above which entanglement sudden birth vanishes while entanglement sudden death appears. It is also noticed that stable entanglement, which is independent of different initial states of the qubits (pure or mixed state), occurs even in the presence of decoherence. These results arising from the combination of the extended Werner-like initial state and dissipative environments suggest an approach to control and enhance the entanglement even after purity induced sudden birth, death and revival. (general)
Ferguson, Kate R; Beavan, Sarah E; Longdell, Jevon J; Sellars, Matthew J
2016-07-08
Here, we demonstrate generating and storing entanglement in a solid-state spin-wave quantum memory with on-demand readout using the process of rephased amplified spontaneous emission (RASE). Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), resulting from an inverted ensemble of Pr^{3+} ions doped into a Y_{2}SiO_{5} crystal, generates entanglement between collective states of the praseodymium ensemble and the output light. The ensemble is then rephased using a four-level photon echo technique. Entanglement between the ASE and its echo is confirmed and the inseparability violation preserved when the RASE is stored as a spin wave for up to 5 μs. RASE is shown to be temporally multimode with almost perfect distinguishability between two temporal modes demonstrated. These results pave the way for the use of multimode solid-state quantum memories in scalable quantum networks.
Joint Remote State Preparation of a Single-Atom Qubit State via a GHZ Entangled State
Xiao, Xiao-Qi; Yao, Fengwei; Lin, Xiaochen; Gong, Lihua
2018-04-01
We proposed a physical protocol for the joint remote preparation of a single-atom qubit state via a three-atom entangled GHZ-type state previously shared by the two senders and one receiver. Only rotation operations of single-atom, which can be achieved though the resonant interaction between the two-level atom and the classical field, are required in the scheme. It shows that the splitting way of the classical information of the secret qubit not only determines the success of reconstruction of the secret qubit, but also influences the operations of the senders.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Tiejun; Deng Fuguo
2011-01-01
We present a remote three-party quantum state sharing (QSTS) scheme with three-atom Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states assisted by cavity QED and flying qubits. It exploits some photons to act as the flying qubits for setting up the quantum channel securely with three-atom systems in a GHZ state, which maybe make this remote QSTS scheme more practical than some other schemes based on atom systems only or ion-trap systems as photons interact with their environments weakly. The coherence of the stationary atom qubits in cavities provides the convenience for the parties in QSTS to check eavesdropping, different from entangled photon systems. Moreover, the present scheme works in a collective-noise condition and it may be more practical than others in applications in future. (general)
Quantum critical point and entanglement in a matrix-product ground state
Tribedi, Amit; Bose, Indrani
2007-04-01
In this paper, we study the entanglement properties of a spin-1 model, the exact ground state of which is given by a matrix product (MP) state. The model exhibits a critical point transition at a parameter value a=0 . The longitudinal and transverse correlation lengths are known to diverge as a→0 . We use three different entanglement measures S(i) (the one-site von Neumann entropy), S(i,j) (the two-body entanglement), and G(2,n) (the generalized global entanglement) to determine the entanglement content of the MP ground state as the parameter a is varied. The entanglement length, associated with S(i,j) , is found to diverge in the vicinity of the quantum critical point a=0 . The first derivative of the entanglement measure E [=S(i),S(i,j)] with respect to the parameter a also diverges. The first derivative of G(2,n) with respect to a does not diverge as a→0 but attains a maximum value at a=0 . At the quantum critical point itself all three entanglement measures become zero. We further show that multipartite correlations are involved in the quantum phase transitions at a=0 .
Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alba Cervera-Lierta, José I. Latorre, Juan Rojo, Luca Rottoli
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i $s$-channel processes where the virtual photon carries equal overlaps of the helicities of the final state particles, and ii the indistinguishable superposition between $t$- and $u$-channels. We then study whether requiring maximal entanglement constrains the coupling structure of QED and the weak interactions. In the case of photon-electron interactions unconstrained by gauge symmetry, we show how this requirement allows reproducing QED. For $Z$-mediated weak scattering, the maximal entanglement principle leads to non-trivial predictions for the value of the weak mixing angle $\\theta_W$. Our results are a first step towards understanding the connections between maximal entanglement and the fundamental symmetries of high-energy physics.
The entanglement evolution between two entangled atoms
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... entanglement sudden death (ESD) and sudden birth at some time. The entanglement properties between the field and the atom insidethe cavity are dependent on the photon number. Most interestingly, the entanglement between the field and the atom in the field is influenced significantly by manipulating the atom outside ...
Continuous variable entanglement distillation of non-Gaussian states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Dong, Ruifang; Heersink, Joel
2009-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate distillation of continuous variable entangled light that has undergone non-Gaussian attenuation loss. The continuous variable entanglement is generated with optical fibers and sent through a lossy channel, where the transmission is varying in time. By employing simple...
Entanglement of Grassmannian Coherent States for Multi-Partite n-Level Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ghader Najarbashi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the entanglement of multi-partite Grassmannian coherent states (GCSs described by Grassmann numbers for n>2 degree of nilpotency. Choosing an appropriate weight function, we show that it is possible to construct some well-known entangled pure states, consisting of GHZ, W, Bell, cluster type and bi-separable states, which are obtained by integrating over tensor product of GCSs. It is shown that for three level systems, the Grassmann creation and annihilation operators b and b^† together with bz form a closed deformed algebra, i.e., SU_q(2 with q=e^{2πi/3}, which is useful to construct entangled qutrit-states. The same argument holds for three level squeezed states. Moreover combining the Grassmann and bosonic coherent states we construct maximal entangled super coherent states.
Improved contraction schemes for projected entangled pair states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lubasch, Michael; Cirac, Juan Ignacio; Banuls, Mari-Carmen [Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)
2013-07-01
Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS) represent the natural generalization of Matrix Product States (MPS) in higher dimensions. The strength of MPS in the numerical simulation of 1D quantum many-body systems is well established, as they are the variational class of states underlying the Density Matrix Renormalization Group and the latter is nowadays considered numerically exact for systems comprising hundreds of quantum particles. In algorithms based on MPS or PEPS, the bond dimension D of the state determines the number of variational parameters and the computational cost. While bond dimensions on the order of hundreds and thousands are feasible with MPS, standard 2D PEPS algorithms are limited to values in the range 2 to 6 due to the much worse scaling of the computational cost with D. Recently, a new algorithm based on an alternative contraction has been proposed that reduces this cost significantly. It resorts to the single-layer picture where the contraction is done in ket and bra separately. We investigate the advantages and disadvantages of this algorithm which can be understood in terms of the PEPS's boundary approximation.
Experimental observation of entanglement duality for identical particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, J-J; Yuan, X-X; Zu, C; Chang, X-Y; Hou, P-Y; Duan, L-M
2014-01-01
It was shown recently that entanglement of identical particles has a feature called dualism (Bose and Home 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 140404), which is fundamentally connected with quantum indistinguishability. Here we report an experiment that observes the entanglement duality for the first time with two identical photons, which manifest polarization entanglement when labeled by different paths or path entanglement when labeled by polarization states. By adjusting the mismatch in frequency or arrival time of the entangled photons, we tune the photon indistinguishability from the quantum to the classical limit and observe that the entanglement duality disappears under the emergence of classical distinguishability, confirming it as a characteristic feature of quantum indistinguishable particles. (paper)
Bowles, Joseph; Francfort, Jérémie; Fillettaz, Mathieu; Hirsch, Flavien; Brunner, Nicolas
2016-04-01
The relation between entanglement and nonlocality is discussed in the case of multipartite quantum systems. We show that, for any number of parties, there exist genuinely multipartite entangled states that admit a fully local hidden variable model, i.e., where all parties are separated. Hence, although these states exhibit the strongest form of multipartite entanglement, they cannot lead to Bell inequality violation considering general nonsequential local measurements. Then, we show that the nonlocality of these states can nevertheless be activated using sequences of local measurements, thus revealing genuine multipartite hidden nonlocality.
Liu, Cheng-Ji; Li, Zhi-Hui; Bai, Chen-Ming; Si, Meng-Meng
2018-02-01
The concept of judgment space was proposed by Wang et al. (Phys. Rev. A 95, 022320, 2017), which was used to study some important properties of quantum entangled states based on local distinguishability. In this study, we construct 15 kinds of seven-qudit quantum entangled states in the sense of permutation, calculate their judgment space and propose a distinguishability rule to make the judgment space more clearly. Based on this rule, we study the local distinguishability of the 15 kinds of seven-qudit quantum entangled states and then propose a ( k, n) threshold quantum secret sharing scheme. Finally, we analyze the security of the scheme.
Engineering photonic density of states using metamaterials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacob, Z.; Kim, J.Y.; Naik, G.V.
2010-01-01
The photonic density of states (PDOS), like its electronic counterpart, is one of the key physical quantities governing a variety of phenomena and hence PDOS manipulation is the route to new photonic devices. The PDOS is conventionally altered by exploiting the resonance within a device such as a......The photonic density of states (PDOS), like its electronic counterpart, is one of the key physical quantities governing a variety of phenomena and hence PDOS manipulation is the route to new photonic devices. The PDOS is conventionally altered by exploiting the resonance within a device...... such as a microcavity or a bandgap structure like a photonic crystal. Here we show that nanostructured metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion can dramatically enhance the photonic density of states paving the way for metamaterial-based PDOS engineering....
Coherent-Entangled State in Three-Mode and Its Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan Hongyi; Wang Wenqin
2006-01-01
We introduce the new concept of coherent-entangled state (CES). By virtue of the technique of integration within an ordered product of operators we introduce a new kind of three-mode CES |β,γ,x), which exhibits both properties of the coherent state and the entangled state. |β,γ,x) makes up a new quantum mechanical representation. Its applications in quantum optics are also presented.
Experimental generation of tripartite polarization entangled states of bright optical beams
Wu, Liang; Yan, Zhihui; Liu, Yanhong; Deng, Ruijie; Jia, Xiaojun; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2017-01-01
The multipartite polarization entangled states of bright optical beams directly associating with the spin states of atomic ensembles are one of the essential resources in the future quantum information networks, which can be conveniently utilized to transfer and convert quantum states across a network composed of many atomic nodes. In this letter, we present the experimental demonstration of tripartite polarization entanglement described by Stokes operators of optical field. The tripartite en...
Studying entanglement-assisted entanglement transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu Liyi
2004-01-01
In this paper, we study catalysis of entanglement transformations for n-level pure entangled states. We propose an algorithm of finding the required catalystic entanglement. We introduce several examples by way of demonstration. We evaluate the lower and upper bound of the required inequalities for deciding whether there are m-level appropriate catalyst states for entanglement transformations for two n-level pure entangled states
Completely mixed state is a critical point for three-qubit entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamaryan, Sayatnova
2011-01-01
Pure three-qubit states have five algebraically independent and one algebraically dependent polynomial invariants under local unitary transformations and an arbitrary entanglement measure is a function of these six invariants. It is shown that if the reduced density operator of a some qubit is a multiple of the unit operator, than the geometric entanglement measure of the pure three-qubit state is absolutely independent of the polynomial invariants and is a constant for such tripartite states. Hence a one-particle completely mixed state is a critical point for the geometric measure of entanglement. -- Highlights: → Geometric measure of pure three-qubits is expressed in terms of polynomial invariants. → When one Bloch vector is zero the measure is independent of the remaining invariants. → Hence a one-particle completely mixed state is a critical point for the geometric measure. → The existence of the critical points is an inherent feature of the entanglement.
Entangled states decoherence in coupled molecular spin clusters
Troiani, Filippo; Szallas, Attila; Bellini, Valerio; Affronte, Marco
2010-03-01
Localized electron spins in solid-state systems are widely investigated as potential building blocks of quantum devices and computers. While most efforts in the field have been focused on semiconductor low-dimensional structures, molecular antiferromagnets were recently recognized as alternative implementations of effective few-level spin systems. Heterometallic, Cr-based spin rings behave as effective spin-1/2 systems at low temperature and show long decoherence times [1]; besides, they can be chemically linked and magnetically coupled in a controllable fascion [2]. Here, we theoretically investigate the decoherence of the Bell states in such ring dimers, resulting from hyperfine interactions with nuclear spins. Based on a microscopic description of the molecules [3], we simulate the effect of inhomogeneous broadening, spectral diffusion and electron-nuclear entanglement on the electron-spin coherence, estimating the role of the different nuclei (and of possible chemical substitutions), as well as the effect of simple spin-echo sequences. References: [1] F. Troiani, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 207208 (2005). [2] G. A. Timco, S: Carretta, F. Troiani et al., Nature Nanotech. 4, 173 (2009). [3] F. Troiani, V. Bellini, and M. Affronte, Phys. Rev. B 77, 054428 (2008).
Entanglement concentration for two-mode Gaussian states in non-inertial frames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Noia, Maurizio; Giraldi, Filippo; Petruccione, Francesco
2017-01-01
Entanglement creation and concentration by means of a beam splitter (BS) is analysed for a generic two-mode bipartite Gaussian state in a relativistic framework. The total correlations, the purity and the entanglement in terms of logarithmic negativity are analytically studied for observers in an inertial state and in a non-inertial state of uniform acceleration. The dependence of entanglement on the BS transmissivity due to the Unruh effect is analysed in the case when one or both observers undergo uniform acceleration. Due to the Unruh effect, depending on the initial Gaussian state parameters and observed accelerations, the best condition for entanglement generation limited to the two modes of the observers in their regions is not always a balanced beam splitter, as it is for the inertial case. (paper)
Steady-state entanglement and thermalization of coupled qubits in two common heat baths
Hu, Li-Zhen; Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie
2018-03-01
In this work, we study the steady-state entanglement and thermalization of two coupled qubits embedded in two common baths with different temperatures. The common bath is relevant when the two qubits are difficult to be isolated to only contact with their local baths. With the quantum master equation constructed in the eigenstate representation of the coupled qubits, we have demonstrated the variations of steady-state entanglement with respect to various parameters of the qubits' system in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium cases of the baths. The coupling strength and energy detuning of the qubits as well as the temperature gradient of the baths are found to be beneficial to the enhancement of the entanglement. We note a dark state of the qubits that is free from time-evolution and its initial population can greatly influence the steady-state entanglement. By virtues of effective temperatures, we also study the thermalization of the coupled qubits and their variations with energy detuning.
Arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on χ-type entangled states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuo, Huijuan; Huang, Wei; Qin, Sujuan
2013-01-01
An arbitrated quantum signature scheme, which is mainly applied in electronic-payment systems, is proposed and investigated. The χ-type entangled states are used for quantum key distribution and quantum signature in this protocol. Compared with previous quantum signature schemes which also utilize χ-type entangled states, the proposed scheme provides higher efficiency. Finally, we also analyze its security under various kinds of attacks. (paper)
Parameter dependence in the atmospheric decoherence of modal entangled photon pairs
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Ibrahim, AH
2014-11-01
Full Text Available the strength of the turbulence. We show that, beyond the weak scintillation regime, the entanglement evolution cannot be accurately modeled by a single phase screen that is specified by a single dimensionless parameter. Two dimensionless parameters...
Error Free Quantum Reading by Quasi Bell State of Entangled Coherent States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hirota Osamu
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Nonclassical states of light field have been exploited to provide marvellous results in quantum information science. Usefulness of nonclassical states in quantum information science depends on whether a physical parameter as a signal is continuous or discrete. Here we present an investigation of the potential of quasi Bell states of entangled coherent states in quantum reading of the classical digital memory which was pioneered by Pirandola (Phys.Rev.Lett.,106,090504,2011. This is a typical example of discrimination for discrete quantum parameters. We show that the quasi Bell state gives the error free performance in the quantum reading that cannot be obtained by any classical state.
Error Free Quantum Reading by Quasi Bell State of Entangled Coherent States
Hirota, Osamu
2017-12-01
Nonclassical states of light field have been exploited to provide marvellous results in quantum information science. Usefulness of nonclassical states in quantum information science depends on whether a physical parameter as a signal is continuous or discrete. Here we present an investigation of the potential of quasi Bell states of entangled coherent states in quantum reading of the classical digital memory which was pioneered by Pirandola (Phys.Rev.Lett.,106,090504,2011). This is a typical example of discrimination for discrete quantum parameters. We show that the quasi Bell state gives the error free performance in the quantum reading that cannot be obtained by any classical state.
Photon states in anisotropic media
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Quantum aspects of optical polarization are discussed for waves traveling in anisotropic dielectric media with a view to relate the dynamics of polarization with that of photon spin and its manipulation by classical polarizers.
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-steering swapping between two Gaussian multipartite entangled states
Wang, Meihong; Qin, Zhongzhong; Wang, Yu; Su, Xiaolong
2017-08-01
Multipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering is a useful quantum resource for quantum communication in quantum networks. It has potential applications in secure quantum communication, such as one-sided device-independent quantum key distribution and quantum secret sharing. By distributing optical modes of a multipartite entangled state to space-separated quantum nodes, a local quantum network can be established. Based on the existing multipartite EPR steering in a local quantum network, secure quantum communication protocol can be accomplished. In this manuscript, we present swapping schemes for EPR steering between two space-separated Gaussian multipartite entangled states, which can be used to connect two space-separated quantum networks. Two swapping schemes, including the swapping between a tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled state and an EPR entangled state and that between two tripartite GHZ entangled states, are analyzed. Various types of EPR steering are presented after the swapping of two space-separated independent multipartite entanglement states without direct interaction, which can be used to implement quantum communication between two quantum networks. The presented schemes provide technical reference for more complicated quantum networks with EPR steering.
Approximate transformations of bipartite pure-state entanglement from the majorization lattice
Bosyk, G. M.; Sergioli, G.; Freytes, H.; Holik, F.; Bellomo, G.
2017-05-01
We study the problem of deterministic transformations of an initial pure entangled quantum state, | ψ 〉 , into a target pure entangled quantum state, | ϕ 〉 , by using local operations and classical communication (LOCC). A celebrated result of Nielsen (1999) gives the necessary and sufficient condition that makes this entanglement transformation process possible. Indeed, this process can be achieved if and only if the majorization relation ψ ≺ ϕ holds, where ψ and ϕ are probability vectors obtained by taking the squares of the Schmidt coefficients of the initial and target states, respectively. In general, this condition is not fulfilled. However, one can look for an approximate entanglement transformation. Vidal et al. (2000) have proposed a deterministic transformation using LOCC in order to obtain a target state |χopt 〉 most approximate to | ϕ 〉 in terms of maximal fidelity between them. Here, we show a strategy to deal with approximate entanglement transformations based on the properties of the majorization lattice. More precisely, we propose as approximate target state one whose Schmidt coefficients are given by the supremum between ψ and ϕ. Our proposal is inspired on the observation that fidelity does not respect the majorization relation in general. Remarkably enough, we find that for some particular interesting cases, like two-qubit pure states or the entanglement concentration protocol, both proposals are coincident.
Genuine three-partite entanglement in coherent states via permutation and parity symmetries
Behzadi, N.
2013-01-01
By using the works, Spiridonov (Phys Rev A 52:1909, 1995), and Wang et al. (J Phys A Math Gen 33:7451, 2000), we propose an approach to obtain genuine three-partite entangled coherent states in which the permutation symmetry and the parity one play crucial roles. We exploit the permutation and parity symmetry to construct entanglement in the standard coherent states of a system composed of three-mode bosonic field and three identical atoms. It is shown that by making use of entanglement witnesses (EW) based on GHZ-states the reduced density matrices of the three-mode bosonic field and three-atomic subsystems, after encoding as three-qubit systems, in some range of their respective parameters, are genuinely entangled.
Entanglement degradation in depolarizing light scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aiello, A.; Woerdman, J.P.
2005-01-01
Full text: In the classical regime, when a beam of light is scattered by a medium, it may emerge partially or completely depolarized depending on the optical properties of the medium. Correspondingly, in the quantum regime, when an entangled two-photon pair is scattered, the classical depolarization may result in an entanglement degradation. Here, relations between photon scattering, entanglement and multi-mode detection are investigated. We establish a general framework in which one- and two-photon elastic scattering processes can be discussed, and we focus on the study of the intrinsic entanglement degradation caused by a multi-mode detection. We show that any multi-mode scattered state cannot maximally violate the Bell-CHSH inequality because of the momentum spread. The results presented here have general validity and can be applied to both deterministic and random scattering processes. (author)
Wu, Hao; Zha, Xin-Wei; Yang, Yu-Quan
2018-01-01
We propose a new protocol of implementing four-party controlled joint remote state preparation and meanwhile realizing controlled quantum teleportation via a seven-qubit entangled state. That is to say, Alice wants to teleport an arbitrary single-qubit state to Bob and Bob wants to remotely prepare a known state for Alice via the control of supervisors Fred and David. Compared with previous studies for the schemes of solely bidirectional quantum teleportation and remote state preparation, the new protocol is a kind of hybrid approach of information communication which makes the quantum channel multipurpose.
Charcterization of multipartite entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chong, Bo
2006-01-01
In this thesis, we discuss several aspects of the characterization of entanglement in multipartite quantum systems, including detection, classification and quantification of entanglement. First, we discuss triqubit pure entanglement and propose a special true tripartite entanglement, the mixed entanglement, besides the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement and the W entanglement. Then, based on quantitative complementarity relations, we draw entanglement Venn diagrams for triqubit pure states with different entanglements and introduce the total tangle τ (T) to quantify total entanglement of triqubit pure states by defining the union I that is equivalent to the total tangle τ (T) from the mathematical point of view. The generalizations of entanglement Venn diagrams and the union I to N-qubit pure states are also discussed. Finally, based on the ranks of reduced density matrices, we discuss the separability of multiparticle arbitrary-dimensional pure and mixed states, respectively. (orig.)
Charcterization of multipartite entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chong, Bo
2006-06-23
In this thesis, we discuss several aspects of the characterization of entanglement in multipartite quantum systems, including detection, classification and quantification of entanglement. First, we discuss triqubit pure entanglement and propose a special true tripartite entanglement, the mixed entanglement, besides the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement and the W entanglement. Then, based on quantitative complementarity relations, we draw entanglement Venn diagrams for triqubit pure states with different entanglements and introduce the total tangle {tau}{sup (T)} to quantify total entanglement of triqubit pure states by defining the union I that is equivalent to the total tangle {tau}{sup (T)} from the mathematical point of view. The generalizations of entanglement Venn diagrams and the union I to N-qubit pure states are also discussed. Finally, based on the ranks of reduced density matrices, we discuss the separability of multiparticle arbitrary-dimensional pure and mixed states, respectively. (orig.)
Quantum critical phase with infinite projected entangled paired states
Poilblanc, Didier; Mambrini, Matthieu
2017-07-01
A classification of SU(2)-invariant projected entangled paired states (PEPS) on the square lattice, based on a unique site tensor, has been recently introduced by Mambrini et al. [M. Mambrini, R. Orús, and D. Poilblanc, Phys. Rev. B 94, 205124 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.205124]. It is not clear whether such SU(2)-invariant PEPS can either (i) exhibit long-range magnetic order (such as in the Néel phase) or (ii) describe a genuine quantum critical point (QCP) or quantum critical phase (QCPh) separating two ordered phases. Here, we identify a specific family of SU(2)-invariant PEPS of the classification which provides excellent variational energies for the J1-J2 frustrated Heisenberg model, especially at J2=0.5 , corresponding to the approximate location of the QCP or QCPh separating the Néel phase from a dimerized phase. The PEPS are built from virtual states belonging to the 1/2⊗N⊕0 SU(2) representation, i.e., with N "colors" of virtual spin-1/2 . Using a full-update infinite-PEPS approach directly in the thermodynamic limit, based on the corner transfer matrix renormalization algorithm supplemented by a conjugate gradient optimization scheme, we provide evidence of (i) the absence of magnetic order and of (ii) diverging correlation lengths (i.e., showing no sign of saturation with increasing environment dimension) in both the singlet and triplet channels, when the number of colors N ≥3 . We argue that such a PEPS gives a qualitative description of the QCP or QCPh of the J1-J2 model.
Storage of multiple single-photon pulses emitted from a quantum dot in a solid-state quantum memory.
Tang, Jian-Shun; Zhou, Zong-Quan; Wang, Yi-Tao; Li, Yu-Long; Liu, Xiao; Hua, Yi-Lin; Zou, Yang; Wang, Shuang; He, De-Yong; Chen, Geng; Sun, Yong-Nan; Yu, Ying; Li, Mi-Feng; Zha, Guo-Wei; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Niu, Zhi-Chuan; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2015-10-15
Quantum repeaters are critical components for distributing entanglement over long distances in presence of unavoidable optical losses during transmission. Stimulated by the Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller protocol, many improved quantum repeater protocols based on quantum memories have been proposed, which commonly focus on the entanglement-distribution rate. Among these protocols, the elimination of multiple photons (or multiple photon-pairs) and the use of multimode quantum memory are demonstrated to have the ability to greatly improve the entanglement-distribution rate. Here, we demonstrate the storage of deterministic single photons emitted from a quantum dot in a polarization-maintaining solid-state quantum memory; in addition, multi-temporal-mode memory with 1, 20 and 100 narrow single-photon pulses is also demonstrated. Multi-photons are eliminated, and only one photon at most is contained in each pulse. Moreover, the solid-state properties of both sub-systems make this configuration more stable and easier to be scalable. Our work will be helpful in the construction of efficient quantum repeaters based on all-solid-state devices.
Storage of multiple single-photon pulses emitted from a quantum dot in a solid-state quantum memory
Tang, Jian-Shun; Zhou, Zong-Quan; Wang, Yi-Tao; Li, Yu-Long; Liu, Xiao; Hua, Yi-Lin; Zou, Yang; Wang, Shuang; He, De-Yong; Chen, Geng; Sun, Yong-Nan; Yu, Ying; Li, Mi-Feng; Zha, Guo-Wei; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Niu, Zhi-Chuan; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2015-01-01
Quantum repeaters are critical components for distributing entanglement over long distances in presence of unavoidable optical losses during transmission. Stimulated by the Duan–Lukin–Cirac–Zoller protocol, many improved quantum repeater protocols based on quantum memories have been proposed, which commonly focus on the entanglement-distribution rate. Among these protocols, the elimination of multiple photons (or multiple photon-pairs) and the use of multimode quantum memory are demonstrated to have the ability to greatly improve the entanglement-distribution rate. Here, we demonstrate the storage of deterministic single photons emitted from a quantum dot in a polarization-maintaining solid-state quantum memory; in addition, multi-temporal-mode memory with 1, 20 and 100 narrow single-photon pulses is also demonstrated. Multi-photons are eliminated, and only one photon at most is contained in each pulse. Moreover, the solid-state properties of both sub-systems make this configuration more stable and easier to be scalable. Our work will be helpful in the construction of efficient quantum repeaters based on all-solid-state devices. PMID:26468996
Tensor Renormalization of Quantum Many-Body Systems Using Projected Entangled Simplex States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Y. Xie
2014-02-01
Full Text Available We propose a new class of tensor-network states, which we name projected entangled simplex states (PESS, for studying the ground-state properties of quantum lattice models. These states extend the pair-correlation basis of projected entangled pair states to a simplex. PESS are exact representations of the simplex solid states, and they provide an efficient trial wave function that satisfies the area law of entanglement entropy. We introduce a simple update method for evaluating the PESS wave function based on imaginary-time evolution and the higher-order singular-value decomposition of tensors. By applying this method to the spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice, we obtain accurate and systematic results for the ground-state energy, which approach the lowest upper bounds yet estimated for this quantity.
High-fidelity teleportation of continuous-variable quantum States using delocalized single photons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ulrik L; Ralph, Timothy C
2013-01-01
Traditional continuous-variable teleportation can only approach unit fidelity in the limit of an infinite (and unphysical) amount of squeezing. We describe a new method for continuous-variable teleportation that approaches unit fidelity with finite resources. The protocol is not based on squeezed...... states as in traditional teleportation but on an ensemble of single photon entangled states. We characterize the teleportation scheme with coherent states, mesoscopic superposition states, and two-mode squeezed states and we find several situations in which near-unity teleportation fidelity can...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kramer, O. (Univ. of Copenhagen); Ferry, J.D.
1977-04-01
It has been suggested that the efficiency of entanglements depends on the type of deformation and that in large deformations deviations from the predictions of Gaussian statistics should be less serious for biaxial than for simple extension. The results presented were obtained by ..beta.. irradiation of 1,2-polybutadiene entanglement networks in states of equibiaxial extension. These results indicate that the apparent concentrations of entanglement strands as calculated from Gaussian statistics in simple extension (small deformations) and equibiaxial (large deformations) are the same. This contrasts with simple extension in large deformations where Gaussian statistics give a smaller apparent concentration. The difference may be attributed to different types of entanglement restraints in networks deformed in different ways.
Schrodinger's catapult II: entanglement between stationary and flying fields
Pfaff, W.; Axline, C.; Burkhart, L.; Vool, U.; Reinhold, P.; Frunzio, L.; Jiang, L.; Devoret, M.; Schoelkopf, R.
Entanglement between nodes is an elementary resource in a quantum network. An important step towards its realization is entanglement between stationary and flying states. Here we experimentally demonstrate entanglement generation between a long-lived cavity memory and traveling mode in circuit QED. A large on/off ratio and fast control over a parametric mixing process allow us to realize conversion with tunable magnitude and duration between standing and flying mode. In the case of half-conversion, we observe correlations between the standing and flying state that confirm the generation of entangled states. We show this for both single-photon and multi-photon states, paving the way for error-correctable remote entanglement. Our system could serve as an essential component in a modular architecture for error-protected quantum information processing.
Satellite-to-Ground Entanglement-Based Quantum Key Distribution
Yin, Juan; Cao, Yuan; Li, Yu-Huai; Ren, Ji-Gang; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Zhang, Liang; Cai, Wen-Qi; Liu, Wei-Yue; Li, Bo; Dai, Hui; Li, Ming; Huang, Yong-Mei; Deng, Lei; Li, Li; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Nai-Le; Chen, Yu-Ao; Lu, Chao-Yang; Shu, Rong; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Yu; Pan, Jian-Wei
2017-11-01
We report on entanglement-based quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite equipped with a space borne entangled-photon source and a ground observatory. One of the entangled photons is measured locally at the satellite, and the other one is sent via a down link to the receiver in the Delingha ground station. The link attenuation is measured to vary from 29 dB at 530 km to 36 dB at 1000 km. We observe that the two-photon entanglement survives after being distributed between the satellite and the ground, with a measured state fidelity of ≥0.86 . We then perform the entanglement-based quantum key distribution protocol and obtain an average final key rate of 3.5 bits /s at the distance range of 530-1000 km.
Local Hidden Variable Models for Entangled Quantum States Using Finite Shared Randomness
Bowles, Joseph; Hirsch, Flavien; Quintino, Marco Túlio; Brunner, Nicolas
2015-03-01
The statistics of local measurements performed on certain entangled states can be reproduced using a local hidden variable (LHV) model. While all known models make use of an infinite amount of shared randomness, we show that essentially all entangled states admitting a LHV model can be simulated with finite shared randomness. Our most economical model simulates noisy two-qubit Werner states using only log2(12 )≃3.58 bits of shared randomness. We also discuss the case of positive operator valued measures, and the simulation of nonlocal states with finite shared randomness and finite communication. Our work represents a first step towards quantifying the cost of LHV models for entangled quantum states.
Robust Concurrent Remote Entanglement Between Two Superconducting Qubits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Narla
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Entangling two remote quantum systems that never interact directly is an essential primitive in quantum information science and forms the basis for the modular architecture of quantum computing. When protocols to generate these remote entangled pairs rely on using traveling single-photon states as carriers of quantum information, they can be made robust to photon losses, unlike schemes that rely on continuous variable states. However, efficiently detecting single photons is challenging in the domain of superconducting quantum circuits because of the low energy of microwave quanta. Here, we report the realization of a robust form of concurrent remote entanglement based on a novel microwave photon detector implemented in the superconducting circuit quantum electrodynamics platform of quantum information. Remote entangled pairs with a fidelity of 0.57±0.01 are generated at 200 Hz. Our experiment opens the way for the implementation of the modular architecture of quantum computation with superconducting qubits.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Centini, M.; Peřina ml., Jan; Sciscione, L.; Sibilia, C.; Scalora, M.; Bloemer, M.J.; Bertolotti, M.
2005-01-01
Roč. 72, 03 (2005), 033806/1-033806/11 ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC P11.003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : photon pair * photonic crystals * spontaneous parametric down-conversion Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.997, year: 2005
Generation of Werner states and preservation of entanglement in a noisy environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jakobczyk, Lech; Jamroz, Anna
2005-01-01
We study the influence of noisy environment on the evolution of two-atomic system in the presence of collective damping. Generation of Werner states as asymptotic stationary states of evolution is described. We also show that for some initial states the amount of entanglement is preserved during the evolution
Generation of Werner states and preservation of entanglement in a noisy environment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jakobczyk, Lech [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Pl. M. Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)]. E-mail: ljak@ift.uni.wroc.pl; Jamroz, Anna [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Pl. M. Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)
2005-12-05
We study the influence of noisy environment on the evolution of two-atomic system in the presence of collective damping. Generation of Werner states as asymptotic stationary states of evolution is described. We also show that for some initial states the amount of entanglement is preserved during the evolution.
Dissipative preparation of entanglement in quantum optical and solid state systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reiter, Florentin
Quantum mechanics is an immensely successful theory which is essential for the explanation of numerous phenomena in atomic physics, solid state physics, nuclear physics and elementary particle physics. Quantum theory also involves effects which have no analogy in the classical world. In particular......, quantum entanglement is a correlation predicted by quantum mechanics, but not by classical physics. As an observable property it is indispensable for our understanding of nature. In addition, entangled states are important in quantum computation, quantum communication and quantum measurement protocols......-particle entangled states in several concrete physical systems such as optical cavities, trapped ions, and superconducting qubits. To study the dynamics of open quantum systems, we first develop an operator formalism which allows us to identify the effective interactions. Eliminating the decaying states from...
High entanglement generation and high fidelity quantum state transfer in a non-Markovian environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Yan-Ling; Fang Mao-Fa
2011-01-01
This paper analyses a system of two independent qubits off-resonantly coupled to a common non-Markovian reservoir at zero temperature. Compared with the results in Markovian reservoirs, we find that much higher values of entanglement can be obtained for an initially factorized state of the two-qubit system. The maximal value of the entanglement increases as the detuning grows. Moreover, the entanglement induced by non-Markovian environments is more robust against the asymmetrical couplings between the two qubits and the reservoir. Based on this system, we also show that quantum state transfer can be implemented for arbitrary input states with high fidelity in the non-Markovian regime rather than the Markovian case in which only some particular input states can be successfully transferred. (general)
Huber, Felix; Eltschka, Christopher; Siewert, Jens; Gühne, Otfried
2018-04-01
A pure multipartite quantum state is called absolutely maximally entangled (AME), if all reductions obtained by tracing out at least half of its parties are maximally mixed. Maximal entanglement is then present across every bipartition. The existence of such states is in many cases unclear. With the help of the weight enumerator machinery known from quantum error correction and the shadow inequalities, we obtain new bounds on the existence of AME states in dimensions larger than two. To complete the treatment on the weight enumerator machinery, the quantum MacWilliams identity is derived in the Bloch representation. Finally, we consider AME states whose subsystems have different local dimensions, and present an example for a 2×3×3×3 system that shows maximal entanglement across every bipartition.
Efficient generation of random multipartite entangled states using time-optimal unitary operations
Borras, A.; Majtey, A. P.; Casas, M.
2008-08-01
We review the generation of random pure states using a protocol of repeated two-qubit gates. We study the dependence of the convergence to states with Haar multipartite entanglement distribution. We investigate the optimal generation of such states in terms of the physical (real) time needed to apply the protocol, instead of the gate complexity point of view used in other works. This physical time can be obtained, for a given Hamiltonian, within the theoretical framework offered by the quantum brachistochrone formalism, the quantum analogue to the brachistochrone problem in classical mechanics [Carlini , Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 060503 (2006)]. Using an anisotropic Heisenberg Hamiltonian as an example, we find that different optimal quantum gates arise according to the optimality point of view used in each case. We also study how the convergence to random entangled states depends on different entanglement measures.
Long-range order and symmetry breaking in projected entangled-pair state models
Rispler, Manuel; Duivenvoorden, Kasper; Schuch, Norbert
2015-10-01
Projected entangled-pair states (PEPS) provide a framework for the construction of models where a single tensor gives rise to both Hamiltonian and ground state wave function on the same footing. A key problem is to characterize the behavior which emerges in the system in terms of the properties of the tensor, and thus of the Hamiltonian. In this paper, we consider PEPS models with Z2 on-site symmetry and study the occurrence of long-range order and spontaneous symmetry breaking. We show how long-range order is connected to a degeneracy in the spectrum of the PEPS transfer operator, and how the latter gives rise to spontaneous symmetry breaking under perturbations. We provide a succinct characterization of the symmetry-broken states in terms of the PEPS tensor, and find that using the symmetry-broken states we can derive a local entanglement Hamiltonian, thereby restoring locality of the entanglement Hamiltonian for all gapped phases.
Experimental implementation of the Bacon-Shor code with 10 entangled photons
Gimeno-Segovia, Mercedes; Sanders, Barry C.
The number of qubits that can be effectively controlled in quantum experiments is growing, reaching a regime where small quantum error-correcting codes can be tested. The Bacon-Shor code is a simple quantum code that protects against the effect of an arbitrary single-qubit error. In this work, we propose an experimental implementation of said code in a post-selected linear optical setup, similar to the recently reported 10-photon GHZ generation experiment. In the procedure we propose, an arbitrary state is encoded into the protected Shor code subspace, and after undergoing a controlled single-qubit error, is successfully decoded. BCS appreciates financial support from Alberta Innovates, NSERC, China's 1000 Talent Plan and the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, which is an NSF Physics Frontiers Center(NSF Grant PHY-1125565) with support of the Moore Foundation(GBMF-2644).
Quantum information processing with mesoscopic photonic states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Lars Skovgaard
2012-01-01
The thesis is built up around a versatile optical experimental setup based on a laser, two optical parametric ampliers, a few sets of modulators and two sets of homodyne detectors, which together with passive linear optics generate, process and characterize various types of Gaussian quantum states....... Using this setup we have experimentally and theoretically investigated Gaussian quantum discord, continuous variable quantum key distribution and quantum polarization. The Gaussian discord broadens the definition of non-classical correlations from entanglement, to all types of correlations which cannot...... in the mixture of coherent states. Further we investigate the robustness of the discord of a broader range of states and suggest a toolbox of states which can be used to test if a protocol is discord based, before performing a rigid proof. Gaussian quantum key distribution can be implemented with current...
Emergence of entanglement with temperature and time in factorization-surface states
Chanda, Titas; Das, Tamoghna; Sadhukhan, Debasis; Pal, Amit Kumar; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2018-01-01
There exist zero-temperature states in quantum many-body systems that are fully factorized, thereby possessing vanishing entanglement, and hence being of no use as resource in quantum information processing tasks. Such states can become useful for quantum protocols when the temperature of the system is increased, and when the system is allowed to evolve under either the influence of an external environment, or a closed unitary evolution driven by its own Hamiltonian due to a sudden change in the system parameters. Using the one-dimensional anisotropic XY model in a uniform and an alternating transverse magnetic field, we show that entanglement of the thermal states, corresponding to the factorization points in the space of the system parameters, revives once or twice with increasing temperature. We also study the closed unitary evolution of the quantum spin chain driven out of equilibrium when the external magnetic fields are turned off, and show that considerable entanglement is generated during the dynamics, when the initial state has vanishing entanglement. Interestingly, we find that creation of entanglement for a pair of spins is possible when the system is made open to an external heat bath, interacting with the system through that spin-pair via a repetitive quantum interaction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chien-Hao Lin
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In the present work, we report an investigation on quantum entanglement in the doubly excited 2s2 1Se resonance state of the positronium negative ion by using highly correlated Hylleraas type wave functions, determined by calculation of the density of resonance states with the stabilization method. Once the resonance wave function is obtained, the spatial (electron-electron orbital entanglement entropies (von Neumann and linear can be quantified using the Schmidt decomposition method. Furthermore, Shannon entropy in position space, a measure for localization (or delocalization for such a doubly excited state, is also calculated.
Remote entanglement distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanders, B.C.; Gour, G.; Meyer, D.A.
2005-01-01
Full text: Shared bipartite entanglement is a crucial shared resource for many quantum information tasks such as teleportation, entanglement swapping, and remote state preparation. In general different nodes of a quantum network share an entanglement resource, such as ebits, that are consumed during the task. In practice, generating entangled states is expensive, but here we establish a protocol by which a quantum network requires only a single supplier of entanglement to all nodes who, by judicious measurements and classical communication, provides the nodes with a unique pair wise entangled state independent of the measurement outcome. Furthermore, we extend this result to a chain of suppliers and nodes, which enables an operational interpretation of concurrence. In the special case that the supplier shares bipartite states with two nodes, and such states are pure and maximally entangled, our protocol corresponds to entanglement swapping. However, in the practical case that initial shared entanglement between suppliers and nodes involves partially entangled or mixed states, we show that general local operations and classical communication by all parties (suppliers and nodes) yields distributions of entangled states between nodes. In general a distribution of bipartite entangled states between any two nodes will include states that do not have the same entanglement; thus we name this general process remote entanglement distribution. In our terminology entanglement swapping with partially entangled states is a particular class of remote entanglement distribution protocols. Here we identify which distributions of states that can or cannot be created by remote entanglement distribution. In particular we prove a powerful theorem that establishes an upper bound on the entanglement of formation that can be produced between two qubit nodes. We extend this result to the case of a linear chain of parties that play the roles of suppliers and nodes; this extension provides
Edge-state inner products and real-space entanglement spectrum of trial quantum Hall states
Dubail, J.; Read, N.; Rezayi, E. H.
2012-12-01
We consider the trial wave functions for the fractional quantum Hall effect that are given by conformal blocks, and construct their associated edge excited states in full generality. The inner products between these edge states are computed in the thermodynamic limit, assuming generalized screening (i.e., short-range correlations only) inside the quantum Hall droplet and using the language of boundary conformal field theory (boundary CFT). These inner products take universal values in this limit: they are equal to the corresponding inner products in the bulk two-dimensional chiral CFT which underlies the trial wave function. This is a bulk/edge correspondence; it shows the equality between equal-time correlators along the edge and the correlators of the bulk CFT up to a Wick rotation. This approach is then used to analyze the entanglement spectrum of the ground state obtained with a bipartition A∪B in real space. Starting from our universal result for inner products in the thermodynamic limit, we tackle corrections to scaling using standard field-theoretic and renormalization-group arguments. We prove that generalized screening implies that the entanglement Hamiltonian HE=-lnρA is isospectral to an operator that is local along the cut between A and B. We also show that a similar analysis can be carried out for particle partition. We discuss the close analogy between the formalism of trial wave functions given by conformal blocks and tensor product states, for which results analogous to ours have appeared recently. Finally, the edge theory and entanglement spectrum of px±ipy paired superfluids are treated in a similar fashion in the Appendixes.
Influence of classic noise on entangled state formation in parametric systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martynov, V O; Mironov, V A; Smirnov, L A
2017-01-01
A study of ‘high temperature’ entangled states in a system of two parametrically coupled quantum oscillators placed into independent thermal baths is performed taking into account partially coherent parametric pump. Processes in an open system are considered based on the Heisenberg–Langevin formalism. We obtain a closed system of equations for the averaged quadratic correlation functions in quantum stochastic problem as a result of Markov processes approximation. On the basis of numerical calculations the dynamics of the logarithmic negativity, which is the measure of entanglement in the system, is investigated. It is shown that the partial coherence of the parametric pump makes the lifetime of the entangled states finite. The threshold characteristics of the formation and existence of these states are specified. (paper)
Optimal dynamics for quantum-state and entanglement transfer through homogeneous quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banchi, L.; Apollaro, T. J. G.; Cuccoli, A.; Vaia, R.; Verrucchi, P.
2010-01-01
The capability of faithfully transmit quantum states and entanglement through quantum channels is one of the key requirements for the development of quantum devices. Different solutions have been proposed to accomplish such a challenging task, which, however, require either an ad hoc engineering of the internal interactions of the physical system acting as the channel or specific initialization procedures. Here we show that optimal dynamics for efficient quantum-state and entanglement transfer can be attained in generic quantum systems with homogeneous interactions by tuning the coupling between the system and the two attached qubits. We devise a general procedure to determine the optimal coupling, and we explicitly implement it in the case of a channel consisting of a spin-(1/2)XY chain. The quality of quantum-state and entanglement transfer is found to be very good and, remarkably, almost independent of the channel length.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koga, Tadanori; Li Chunhua; Endoh, Maya K; Narayanan, Suresh; Lurio, Laurence; Sinha, Sunil K
2011-01-01
The dynamics of polymer chains near the surface of a melt and within thin films remains a subject of inquiry along with the nature of the glass transition in these systems. Recent studies show that the properties of the free surface region are crucial in determining the anomalous glass transition temperature (T g ) reduction of polymer thin films. In this study, by embedding 'dilute' gold nanoparticles in polystyrene (PS) thin films as 'markers', we could successfully probe the diffusive Brownian motion which tracks the local viscosity both at the free surface and within the rest of the single PS thin film far above bulk T g . The technique used was X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy with resonance-enhanced X-rays that allows us to independently measure the motion in the regions of interest at the nanometer scale. We found the presence of the surface reduced viscosity layer in entangled PS thin films at T>>T g .
Experimental tomography of NOON states with large photon numbers
Israel, Y.; Afek, I.; Rosen, S.; Ambar, O.; Silberberg, Y.
2012-02-01
We have performed experimental quantum state tomography of NOON states with up to four photons. The measured states are generated by mixing photons from a classical coherent state with down-converted photon pairs. We show that the fidelity between the produced states and the ideal NOON states is high. The fidelity is limited by the overlap of the two-photon down-converted state with any two photons originating from the coherent state, for which we introduce and measure a figure of merit. A second limitation on the fidelity set by the total setup transmission is discussed. We also apply the same tomography procedure for characterizing correlated photon hole states.
Cao, Jingming; Xiaver, Jolly
2017-10-01
We manipulated the simulation and apparatus to generate the entangled quantum photons by the enhanced higher quality factor in waveguide of whispering gallery mode resonator in silica microsphere. As the several nonlinear optics effects have been validated in micro-disk (lithium niobate materials based), others micro-cavity (microfiber and micro ring on the chip) and second harmonic generation (SHG) on the surface of silica microsphere because of the characterization of enhanced higher quality factor Q and smaller volume mode in these resonator. However until now for the second third nonlinearity of spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC), third order nonlinearity of spontaneous parametric down conversion (TOSPDC) and spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) in whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator of silica microsphere rarely have not been fully investigated and verified to generate the triple and pair entangled photons where are widely applied on the applications of biosensor, quantum communications and spectroscopy, respectively. Specially, the features of silica microsphere have attracted many applications due to the simple fabrication, simplified materials melted by silica fiber. The work we demonstrated in this paper based on the breaking of the dispersion rules to make perfect phase matching in normal dispersion in silica microsphere depending on the blue laser spectrum in visible spectrum, then manipulated the modified size of microsphere to detune the pump laser of free spectral range (FSR) and both shift the geometrical dispersion are characterized in the variation of FSR given by (see PDF for equation), where n is refractive index, R is the microspheres radius and m is mode numbers in resonator, to compensate the materials dispersion given by (see PDF for equation), where c is the speed of light and λ is pump laser wavelength to fulfill the perfect phase matching in parametric down conversion regimes and the modeling fabrication coupling results also
Efficient quantum secret sharing scheme with two-particle entangled states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Zhen-Chao; Fu An-Min; Zhang Yu-Qing
2011-01-01
This paper proposes a protocol for multi-party quantum secret sharing utilizing four non-orthogonal two-particle entangled states following some ideas in the schemes proposed by Liu et al. (2006 Chin. Phys. Lett. 23 3148) and Zhang et al. (2009 Chin. Phys. B 18 2149) respectively. The theoretical efficiency for qubits of the new protocol is improved from 50% to approaching 100%. All the entangled states can be used for generating the private key except those used for the eavesdropping check. The validity of a probable attack called opaque cheat attack to this kind of protocols is considered in the paper for the first time. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thapliyal, Ashish V.; Smolin, John A.
2003-01-01
Reversible state transformations under entanglement nonincreasing operations give rise to entanglement measures. It is well known that asymptotic local operations and classical communication (LOCC) are required to get a simple operational measure of bipartite pure state entanglement. For bipartite mixed states and multipartite pure states it is likely that a more powerful class of operations will be needed. To this end more powerful versions of state transformations (or reducibilities), namely, LOCCq (asymptotic LOCC with a sublinear amount of quantum communication) and CLOCC (asymptotic LOCC with catalysis) have been considered in the literature. In this paper we show that LOCCq state transformations are only as powerful as asymptotic LOCC state transformations for multipartite pure states. The basic tool we use is multipartite entanglement gambling: Any pure multipartite entangled state can be transformed to an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pair shared by some pair of parties and any irreducible m-party pure state (m≥2) can be used to create any other state (pure or mixed) using LOCC. We consider applications of multipartite entanglement gambling to multipartite distillability and to characterizations of multipartite minimal entanglement generating sets. We briefly consider generalizations of this result to mixed states by defining the class of cat-distillable states, i.e., states from which cat states (vertical bar 0 xm >+vertical bar 1 xm >) may be distilled
Two-Party Quantum Private Comparison with Five-Qubit Entangled States
Ye, Tian-Yu; Ji, Zhao-Xu
2017-05-01
In this paper, a two-party quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol is proposed by using five-qubit entangled states as the quantum resource. The proposed protocol needs the help from a semi-honest third party (TP), who is allowed to misbehave on his own but not allowed to conspire with the adversary including the dishonest user. The proposed protocol has the following distinct features: (1) One five-qubit entangled state can be used to achieve the equality comparison of two bits in each round of comparison; (2) Neither unitary operations nor quantum entanglement swapping technology is needed, both of which may consume expensive quantum devices; (3) Only Bell measurements and single-particle measurements are employed, both of which can be realized with current quantum technologies; (4) The security toward both the outside attack and the participant attack can be guaranteed; (5) The private information of two parties is not leaked out to TP.
Quantum entanglement at high temperatures? Bosonic systems in nonequilibrium steady state
Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Hu, B. L.
2015-11-01
This is the second of a series of three papers examining how viable it is for entanglement to be sustained at high temperatures for quantum systems in thermal equilibrium (Case A), in nonequilibrium (Case B) and in nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) conditions (Case C). The system we analyze here consists of two coupled quantum harmonic oscillators each interacting with its own bath described by a scalar field, set at temperatures T 1 > T 2. For constant bilinear inter-oscillator coupling studied here (Case C1) owing to the Gaussian nature, the problem can be solved exactly at arbitrary temperatures even for strong coupling. We find that the valid entanglement criterion in general is not a function of the bath temperature difference, in contrast to thermal transport in the same NESS setting [1]. Thus lowering the temperature of one of the thermal baths does not necessarily help to safeguard the entanglement between the oscillators. Indeed, quantum entanglement will disappear if any one of the thermal baths has a temperature higher than the critical temperature T c, defined as the temperature above which quantum entanglement vanishes. With the Langevin equations derived we give a full display of how entanglement dynamics in this system depends on T 1, T 2, the inter-oscillator coupling and the system-bath coupling strengths. For weak oscillator-bath coupling the critical temperature T c is about the order of the inverse oscillator frequency, but for strong oscillator-bath coupling it will depend on the bath cutoff frequency. We conclude that in most realistic circumstances, for bosonic systems in NESS with constant bilinear coupling, `hot entanglement' is largely a fiction.
Atomic Memory for Correlated Photon States
Wal, C.H. van der; Eisaman, M.D.; André, A.; Walsworth, R.L.; Phillips, D.F.; Zibrov, A.S.; Lukin, M.D.
2003-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate emission of two quantum-mechanically correlated light pulses with a time delay that is coherently controlled via temporal storage of photonic states in an ensemble of rubidium atoms. The experiment is based on Raman scattering, which produces correlated pairs of
Probabilistic teleportation via multi-parameter measurements and partially entangled states
Wei, Jiahua; Shi, Lei; Han, Chen; Xu, Zhiyan; Zhu, Yu; Wang, Gang; Wu, Hao
2018-04-01
In this paper, a novel scheme for probabilistic teleportation is presented with multi-parameter measurements via a non-maximally entangled state. This is in contrast to the fact that the measurement kinds for quantum teleportation are usually particular in most previous schemes. The detail implementation producers for our proposal are given by using of appropriate local unitary operations. Moreover, the total success probability and classical information of this proposal are calculated. It is demonstrated that the success probability and classical cost would be changed with the multi-measurement parameters and the entanglement factor of quantum channel. Our scheme could enlarge the research range of probabilistic teleportation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the possibility of observing quantum nonlocality using the so-called mode entanglement, analyzing the differences between different types of particles in this context. We first discuss the role of coherent states in such experiments, and we comment on the existence of coherent states in nature. The discussion of coherent states naturally raises questions about the role of particle statistics in this problem. Although the Pauli exclusion principle precludes coherent states with a large number of fermionic particles, we find that a large number of fermionic coherent states, each containing at most one particle, can be used to achieve the same effect as a bosonic coherent state for the purposes of this problem. The discussion of superselection rules arises naturally in this context, because their applicability to a given situation prohibits the use of coherent states. This limitation particularly affects the scenario that we propose for detecting the mode entanglement of fermionic particles
Error Distributions on Large Entangled States with Non-Markovian Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
McCutcheon, Dara; Lindner, Netanel H.; Rudolph, Terry
2014-01-01
We investigate the distribution of errors on a computationally useful entangled state generated via the repeated emission from an emitter undergoing strongly non-Markovian evolution. For emitter-environment coupling of pure-dephasing form, we show that the probability that a particular patten...
Resonating-valence-bond superconductors with fermionic projected entangled pair states
Poilblanc, D.; Corboz, P.; Schuch, N.; Cirac, J.I.
2014-01-01
We construct a family of simple fermionic projected entangled pair states (fPEPS) on the square lattice with bond dimension D=3 which are exactly hole-doped resonating valence bond (RVB) wave functions with short-range singlet bonds. Under doping the insulating RVB spin liquid evolves immediately
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan Hongyi; Wang Yong
2006-01-01
With the help of Bose operator identities and entangled state representation and based on our previous work [Phys. Lett. A 325 (2004) 188] we derive some new generalized Bessel equations which also have Bessel function as their solution. It means that for these intricate higher-order differential equations, we can get Bessel function solutions without using the expatiatory power-series expansion method.
Controlled dense coding for continuous variables using three-particle entangled states
Jing Zhang; Kun Chi Peng; 10.1103/PhysRevA.66.032318
2002-01-01
A simple scheme to realize quantum controlled dense coding with a bright tripartite entangled state light generated from nondegenerate optical parametric amplifiers is proposed in this paper. The quantum channel between Alice and Bob is controlled by Claire. As a local oscillator and balanced homodyne detector are not needed, the proposed protocol is easy to be realized experimentally. (15 refs)
Exclusive final states from photon-photon collisions at SPEAR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burke, D.L.
1981-05-01
Studies of exclusive final states produced by the two-photon process have been made at SPEAR by the Mark II and by the Crystal Ball Collaborations. Measurements of π + π - and π 0 π 0 production in the mass region 500 MeV/c 2 2 are presented. These data include strong signals from the well-known f(1270) meson. The A 2 (1310) has been observed via its π 0 eta decay mode and its partial width to γγ has been determined. A measurement of the cross section for the reaction γγ → π + π - π + π - is reported. This channel is found to be small just above the four pion threshold, but exhibits a large enhancement near the rho 0 rho 0 threshold
Wang, Fei; Nie, Wei; Feng, Xunli; Oh, C. H.
2016-07-01
The correlated emission lasing (CEL) is experimentally demonstrated in harmonic oscillators coupled via a single three-level artificial atom [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 223603 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.223603] in which two-mode entanglement only exists in a certain time period when the harmonic oscillators are resonant with the atomic transitions. Here we examine this system and show that it is possible to obtain the steady-state entanglement when the two harmonic oscillators are resonant with Rabi sidebands. Applying dressed atomic states and Bogoliubov-mode transformation, we obtain the analytical results of the variance sum of a pair of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR)-like operators. The stable entanglement originates from the dissipation process of the Bogoliubov modes because the atomic system can act as a reservoir in dressed state representation. We also show that the entanglement is robust against the dephasing rates of the superconducing atom, which is expected to have important applications in quantum information processing.
Qin, Wei; Miranowicz, Adam; Li, Peng-Bo; Lü, Xin-You; You, J. Q.; Nori, Franco
2018-03-01
We propose an experimentally feasible method for enhancing the atom-field coupling as well as the ratio between this coupling and dissipation (i.e., cooperativity) in an optical cavity. It exploits optical parametric amplification to exponentially enhance the atom-cavity interaction and, hence, the cooperativity of the system, with the squeezing-induced noise being completely eliminated. Consequently, the atom-cavity system can be driven from the weak-coupling regime to the strong-coupling regime for modest squeezing parameters, and even can achieve an effective cooperativity much larger than 100. Based on this, we further demonstrate the generation of steady-state nearly maximal quantum entanglement. The resulting entanglement infidelity (which quantifies the deviation of the actual state from a maximally entangled state) is exponentially smaller than the lower bound on the infidelities obtained in other dissipative entanglement preparations without applying squeezing. In principle, we can make an arbitrarily small infidelity. Our generic method for enhancing atom-cavity interaction and cooperativities can be implemented in a wide range of physical systems, and it can provide diverse applications for quantum information processing.
Magnetic Field Effects on Pure-state and Thermal Entanglement of Anisotropic Magnetic Nanodots
Istomin, Andrei Y.
2005-05-01
Anisotropic magnetic nanodots have recently been proposed as promising candidates for qubits for scalable quantum computing [1,2]. The main advantages of such magnetic qubits are their well-separated energy levels (which may allow operation at temperature of the order of a few K), nanometer size (which simplifies fabrication), and large spin values (which facilitates measurement of qubit states). The entanglement properties of eigenstates of a pair of Heisenberg-interacting nanodots have been analyzed in [2], where we have shown that ferromagnetic (FM) coupling produces two significantly entangled excited states. Here we investigate the magnetic field effects on the entanglement of these and other states. We show that entanglement of excited FM eigenstates of two non-identical nanodots can be tuned to its maximum value by applying a relatively weak non-uniform magnetic field. [1] J. Tejada, E.M. Chudnovsky, E. del Barco, J.M. Hernandez, and T.P. Spiller, Nanotechnology 12, 181 (2001). [2] R. Skomski, A.Y. Istomin, A.F. Starace, and D.J. Sellmyer, Phys. Rev. A 70, 062307 (2004).
Correlations, Nonlocality and Usefulness of an Efficient Class of Two-Qubit Mixed Entangled States
Singh, Parvinder; Kumar, Atul
2018-02-01
We establish an analytical relation between the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (Bell-CHSH) inequality and weak measurement strengths under noisy conditions. We show that the analytical results obtained in this article are of utmost importance for proposing a new class of two-qubit mixed states for quantum information processing. Our analysis further shows that the states proposed here are better resources for quantum information in comparison to other two-qubit mixed entangled states.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orús, Román, E-mail: roman.orus@uni-mainz.de
2014-10-15
This is a partly non-technical introduction to selected topics on tensor network methods, based on several lectures and introductory seminars given on the subject. It should be a good place for newcomers to get familiarized with some of the key ideas in the field, specially regarding the numerics. After a very general introduction we motivate the concept of tensor network and provide several examples. We then move on to explain some basics about Matrix Product States (MPS) and Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS). Selected details on some of the associated numerical methods for 1d and 2d quantum lattice systems are also discussed. - Highlights: • A practical introduction to selected aspects of tensor network methods is presented. • We provide analytical examples of MPS and 2d PEPS. • We provide basic aspects on several numerical methods for MPS and 2d PEPS. • We discuss a number of applications of tensor network methods from a broad perspective.
Andrews, David L
2015-01-01
Discusses the basic physical principles underlying the technology instrumentation of photonics This volume discusses photonics technology and instrumentation. The topics discussed in this volume are: Communication Networks; Data Buffers; Defense and Security Applications; Detectors; Fiber Optics and Amplifiers; Green Photonics; Instrumentation and Metrology; Interferometers; Light-Harvesting Materials; Logic Devices; Optical Communications; Remote Sensing; Solar Energy; Solid-State Lighting; Wavelength Conversion Comprehensive and accessible coverage of the whole of modern photonics Emphas
Quantum Interference and Entanglement Induced by Multiple Scattering of Light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Mortensen, Asger; Lodahl, Peter
2010-01-01
We report on the effects of quantum interference induced by the transmission of an arbitrary number of optical quantum states through a multiple-scattering medium. We identify the role of quantum interference on the photon correlations and the degree of continuous variable entanglement between two...... output modes. It is shown that quantum interference survives averaging over all ensembles of disorder and manifests itself as increased photon correlations due to photon antibunching. Furthermore, the existence of continuous variable entanglement correlations in a volume speckle pattern is predicted. Our...... results suggest that multiple scattering provides a promising way of coherently interfering many independent quantum states of light of potential use in quantum information processing....
Quantum entanglement at high temperatures? Bosonic systems in nonequilibrium steady state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsiang, Jen-Tsung [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, Fudan University,Shanghai 200433 (China); Hu, B.L. [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, Fudan University,Shanghai 200433 (China); Joint Quantum Institute and Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)
2015-11-13
This is the second of a series of three papers examining how viable it is for entanglement to be sustained at high temperatures for quantum systems in thermal equilibrium (Case A), in nonequilibrium (Case B) and in nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) conditions (Case C). The system we analyze here consists of two coupled quantum harmonic oscillators each interacting with its own bath described by a scalar field, set at temperatures T{sub 1}>T{sub 2}. For constant bilinear inter-oscillator coupling studied here (Case C1) owing to the Gaussian nature, the problem can be solved exactly at arbitrary temperatures even for strong coupling. We find that the valid entanglement criterion in general is not a function of the bath temperature difference, in contrast to thermal transport in the same NESS setting http://arxiv.org/abs/1405.7642. Thus lowering the temperature of one of the thermal baths does not necessarily help to safeguard the entanglement between the oscillators. Indeed, quantum entanglement will disappear if any one of the thermal baths has a temperature higher than the critical temperature T{sub c}, defined as the temperature above which quantum entanglement vanishes. With the Langevin equations derived we give a full display of how entanglement dynamics in this system depends on T{sub 1}, T{sub 2}, the inter-oscillator coupling and the system-bath coupling strengths. For weak oscillator-bath coupling the critical temperature T{sub c} is about the order of the inverse oscillator frequency, but for strong oscillator-bath coupling it will depend on the bath cutoff frequency. We conclude that in most realistic circumstances, for bosonic systems in NESS with constant bilinear coupling, ‘hot entanglement’ is largely a fiction.
Manipulating quantum states with aspheric lenses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Zhiwei; Ren Xifeng; Huang Yunfeng; Zhang Yongsheng; Guo Guangcan
2005-01-01
We present an experimental demonstration to manipulate the width and position of the down-converted beam waist. Our results can be used to engineer the two-photon orbital angular momentum (OAM) entangled states (such as concentrating OAM entangled states) and generate Hermite-Gaussian (HG) modes entangled states
Convex Optimization over Classes of Multiparticle Entanglement
Shang, Jiangwei; Gühne, Otfried
2018-02-01
A well-known strategy to characterize multiparticle entanglement utilizes the notion of stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC), but characterizing the resulting entanglement classes is difficult. Given a multiparticle quantum state, we first show that Gilbert's algorithm can be adapted to prove separability or membership in a certain entanglement class. We then present two algorithms for convex optimization over SLOCC classes. The first algorithm uses a simple gradient approach, while the other one employs the accelerated projected-gradient method. For demonstration, the algorithms are applied to the likelihood-ratio test using experimental data on bound entanglement of a noisy four-photon Smolin state [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 130501 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.130501].
Dissipative preparation of entanglement in quantum optical and solid state systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reiter, Florentin
. Entangled states are, however, sensitive to interactions with the environment, which are present in any open system. Here, in particular decoherence, i.e. loss of coherence, and dissipation, i.e. loss of energy, destroy the desired correlations. The novel approach of “dissipative quantum computing......-particle entangled states in several concrete physical systems such as optical cavities, trapped ions, and superconducting qubits. To study the dynamics of open quantum systems, we first develop an operator formalism which allows us to identify the effective interactions. Eliminating the decaying states from......Quantum mechanics is an immensely successful theory which is essential for the explanation of numerous phenomena in atomic physics, solid state physics, nuclear physics and elementary particle physics. Quantum theory also involves effects which have no analogy in the classical world. In particular...
Two-party quantum key agreement protocol with four-particle entangled states
He, Yefeng; Ma, Wenping
2016-09-01
Based on four-particle entangled states and the delayed measurement technique, a two-party quantum key agreement protocol is proposed in this paper. In the protocol, two participants can deduce the measurement results of each other’s initial quantum states in terms of the measurement correlation property of four-particle entangled states. According to the corresponding initial quantum states deduced by themselves, two parties can extract the secret keys of each other by using the publicly announced value or by performing the delayed measurement, respectively. This guarantees the fair establishment of a shared key. Since each particle in quantum channel is transmitted only once, the protocol is congenitally free from the Trojan horse attacks. The security analysis shows that the protocol not only can resist against both participant and outsider attacks but also has no information leakage problem. Moreover, it has high qubit efficiency.
Octavian Dănilă; Paul E. Sterian; Andreea Rodica Sterian
2012-01-01
Entanglement between two quantum elements is a phenomenon which presents a broad application spectrum, being used largely in quantum cryptography schemes and in physical characterisation of the universe. Commonly known entangled states have been obtained with photons and electrons, but other quantum elements such as quarks, leptons, and neutrinos have shown their informational potential. In this paper, we present the perspective of exploiting the phenomenon of entanglement that appears in nuc...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seevinck, Michael; Uffink, Jos
2007-01-01
By introducing a quantitative 'degree of commutativity' in terms of the angle between spin observables we present two tight quantitative trade-off relations in the case of two qubits. First, for entangled states, between the degree of commutativity of local observables and the maximal amount of violation of the Bell inequality: if both local angles increase from zero to π/2 (i.e., the degree of local commutativity decreases), the maximum violation of the Bell inequality increases. Secondly, a converse trade-off relation holds for separable states: if both local angles approach π/2 the maximal value obtainable for the correlations in the Bell inequality decreases and thus the non-violation increases. As expected, the extremes of these relations are found in the case of anticommuting local observables where, respectively, the bounds of 2√(2) and √(2) hold for the expectation value of the Bell operator. The trade-off relations show that noncommmutativity gives ''a more than classical result'' for entangled states, whereas ''a less than classical result'' is obtained for separable states. The experimental relevance of the trade-off relation for separable states is that it provides an experimental test for two qubit entanglement. Its advantages are twofold: in comparison to violations of Bell inequalities it is a stronger criterion and in comparison to entanglement witnesses it needs to make less strong assumptions about the observables implemented in the experiment
High-capacity quantum secure direct communication with two-photon six-qubit hyperentangled states
Wu, FangZhou; Yang, GuoJian; Wang, HaiBo; Xiong, Jun; Alzahrani, Faris; Hobiny, Aatef; Deng, FuGuo
2017-12-01
This study proposes the first high-capacity quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) with two-photon six-qubit hyper-entangled Bell states in two longitudinal momentum and polarization degrees of freedom (DOFs) of photon pairs, which can be generated using two 0.5 mm-thick type-I β barium borate crystal slabs aligned one behind the other and an eight-hole screen. The secret message can be independently encoded on the photon pairs with 64 unitary operations in all three DOFs. This protocol has a higher capacity than previous QSDC protocols because each photon pair can carry 6 bits of information, not just 2 or 4 bits. Our QSDC protocol decreases the influence of decoherence from environment noise by exploiting the decoy photons to check the security of the transmission of the first photon sequence. Compared with two-way QSDC protocols, our QSDC protocol is immune to an attack by an eavesdropper using Trojan horse attack strategies because it is a one-way quantum communication. The QSDC protocol has good applications in the future quantum communication because of all these features.
A novel quantum information hiding protocol based on entanglement swapping of high-level Bell states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Shu-Jiang; Wang Lian-Hai; Chen Xiu-Bo; Niu Xin-Xin; Yang Yi-Xian
2015-01-01
Using entanglement swapping of high-level Bell states, we first derive a covert layer between the secret message and the possible output results of the entanglement swapping between any two generalized Bell states, and then propose a novel high-efficiency quantum information hiding protocol based on the covert layer. In the proposed scheme, a covert channel can be built up under the cover of a high-level quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) channel for securely transmitting secret messages without consuming any auxiliary quantum state or any extra communication resource. It is shown that this protocol not only has a high embedding efficiency but also achieves a good imperceptibility as well as a high security. (paper)
Entanglement properties of the two-dimensional SU(3) Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki state
Gauthé, Olivier; Poilblanc, Didier
2017-09-01
Two-dimensional (spin-2) Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki (AKLT) type valence bond solids on a square lattice are known to be symmetry-protected topological (SPT) gapped spin liquids [S. Takayoshi, P. Pujol, and A. Tanaka Phys. Rev. B 94, 235159 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.235159]. Using the projected entangled pair state framework, we extend the construction of the AKLT state to the case of SU(3 ) , relevant for cold atom systems. The entanglement spectrum is shown to be described by an alternating SU(3 ) chain of "quarks" and "antiquarks", subject to exponentially decaying (with distance) Heisenberg interactions, in close similarity with its SU(2 ) analog. We discuss the SPT feature of the state.
Two-party quantum key agreement with five-particle entangled states
He, Ye-Feng; Ma, Wen-Ping
A two-party quantum key agreement protocol is proposed with five-particle entangled states and the delayed measurement technique. According to the measurement correlation property of five-particle entangled states, two participants can deduce the measurement results of each other’s initial quantum states. As a result, two parties can extract the secret keys of each other by using the publicly announced value or by performing the delayed measurement, respectively. Thus, a shared key is fairly established. Since each particle is transmitted only once in quantum channel, the protocol is congenitally free from the Trojan horse attacks. It is shown that the protocol not only is secure against both participant and outsider attacks but also has no information leakage problem. Moreover, it has high qubit efficiency.
Tang, Jingwu; Peng, Zhaohui
2010-01-01
We propose teleporting a specific family of tripartite entangled pure states, which include both the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state and the W-class state, with the five-qubit cluster state. In this scheme, two different measurement strategies are introduced and the successful probability of both is one theoretically. In cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED), we propose generating the five-qubit cluster state and discuss the local measurement of the Bell state and the five-qubit cluster state. It is shown that our scheme may be realizable based on present cavity QED technology. In future, our scheme may be useful for establishing general tripartite entanglement in remote nodes of the communication network.
Cooperative single-photon subradiant states
Jen, H. H.; Chang, M.-S.; Chen, Y.-C.
2016-07-01
We propose a set of subradiant states which can be prepared and detected in a one-dimensional optical lattice. We find that the decay rates are highly dependent on the spatial phases imprinted on the atomic chain, which allows systematic investigations of the subradiance in fluorescence experiments. The time evolution of these states can have a long decay time where up to 100 ms of lifetime is predicted for 100 atoms. They can also show decayed Rabi-like oscillations with a beating frequency determined by the difference of the cooperative Lamb shift in the subspace. Experimental requirements are also discussed for practical implementation of the subradiant states. Our proposal provides a scheme for quantum storage of photons in arrays of two-level atoms through the preparation and detection of subradiant states, which offers opportunities for quantum many-body state preparation and quantum information processing in optical lattices.
Entanglement entropy in quantum many-particle systems and their simulation via ansatz states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barthel, Thomas
2009-12-10
A main topic of this thesis is the development of efficient numerical methods for the simulation of strongly correlated quantum lattice models. For one-dimensional systems, the density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) is such a very successful method. The physical states of interest are approximated within a certain class of ansatz states. These ansatz states are designed in a way that the number of degrees of freedom are prevented from growing exponentially. They are the so-called matrix product states. The first part of the thesis, therefore, provides analytical and numerical analysis of the scaling of quantum nonlocality with the system size or time in different, physically relevant scenarios. For example, the scaling of Renyi entropies and their dependence on boundary conditions is derived within the 1+1-dimensional conformal field theory. Conjectures and analytical indications concerning the properties of entanglement entropy in critical fermionic and bosonic systems are confirmed numerically with high precision. For integrable models in the thermodynamic limit, general preconditions are derived under which subsystems converge to steady states. These steady states are non-thermal and retain information about the initial state. It is shown that the entanglement entropy in such steady states is extensive. For short times, the entanglement entropy grows typically linearly with time, causing an exponential increase in computation costs for the DMRG method. The second part of the thesis focuses on the development and improvement of the abovementioned numerical techniques. The time-dependent DMRG is complemented with an extrapolation technique for the evaluated observables. In this way, the problem of the entropy increase can be circumvented, allowing for a precise determination of spectral functions. The method is demonstrated using the example of the Heisenberg antiferromagnet and results are compared to Bethe-Ansatz data for T=0 and quantum Monte Carlo data
Entanglement entropy in quantum many-particle systems and their simulation via ansatz states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barthel, Thomas
2009-01-01
A main topic of this thesis is the development of efficient numerical methods for the simulation of strongly correlated quantum lattice models. For one-dimensional systems, the density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) is such a very successful method. The physical states of interest are approximated within a certain class of ansatz states. These ansatz states are designed in a way that the number of degrees of freedom are prevented from growing exponentially. They are the so-called matrix product states. The first part of the thesis, therefore, provides analytical and numerical analysis of the scaling of quantum nonlocality with the system size or time in different, physically relevant scenarios. For example, the scaling of Renyi entropies and their dependence on boundary conditions is derived within the 1+1-dimensional conformal field theory. Conjectures and analytical indications concerning the properties of entanglement entropy in critical fermionic and bosonic systems are confirmed numerically with high precision. For integrable models in the thermodynamic limit, general preconditions are derived under which subsystems converge to steady states. These steady states are non-thermal and retain information about the initial state. It is shown that the entanglement entropy in such steady states is extensive. For short times, the entanglement entropy grows typically linearly with time, causing an exponential increase in computation costs for the DMRG method. The second part of the thesis focuses on the development and improvement of the abovementioned numerical techniques. The time-dependent DMRG is complemented with an extrapolation technique for the evaluated observables. In this way, the problem of the entropy increase can be circumvented, allowing for a precise determination of spectral functions. The method is demonstrated using the example of the Heisenberg antiferromagnet and results are compared to Bethe-Ansatz data for T=0 and quantum Monte Carlo data
Protecting unknown two-qubit entangled states by nesting Uhrig's dynamical decoupling sequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhtar, Musawwadah; Soh, Wee Tee; Saw, Thuan Beng; Gong, Jiangbin
2010-01-01
Future quantum technologies rely heavily on good protection of quantum entanglement against environment-induced decoherence. A recent study showed that an extension of Uhrig's dynamical decoupling (UDD) sequence can (in theory) lock an arbitrary but known two-qubit entangled state to the Nth order using a sequence of N control pulses [Mukhtar et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 012331 (2010)]. By nesting three layers of explicitly constructed UDD sequences, here we first consider the protection of unknown two-qubit states as superposition of two known basis states, without making assumptions of the system-environment coupling. It is found that the obtained decoherence suppression can be highly sensitive to the ordering of the three UDD layers and can be remarkably effective with the correct ordering. The detailed theoretical results are useful for general understanding of the nature of controlled quantum dynamics under nested UDD. As an extension of our three-layer UDD, it is finally pointed out that a completely unknown two-qubit state can be protected by nesting four layers of UDD sequences. This work indicates that when UDD is applicable (e.g., when the environment has a sharp frequency cutoff and when control pulses can be taken as instantaneous pulses), dynamical decoupling using nested UDD sequences is a powerful approach for entanglement protection.
{ Z}_N symmetry breaking in projected entangled pair state models
Rispler, Manuel; Duivenvoorden, Kasper; Schuch, Norbert
2017-09-01
We consider projected entangled pair state (PEPS) models with a global { Z}N symmetry, which are constructed from { Z}N -symmetric tensors and are thus { Z}N -invariant wavefunctions, and study the occurence of long-range order and symmetry breaking in these systems. First, we show that long-range order in those models is accompanied by a degeneracy in the so-called transfer operator of the system. We subsequently use this degeneracy to determine the nature of the symmetry broken states, i.e. those stable under arbitrary perturbations, and provide a succinct characterization in terms of the fixed points of the transfer operator (i.e. the different boundary conditions) in the individual symmetry sectors. We verify our findings numerically through the study of a { Z}3 -symmetric model, and show that the entanglement Hamiltonian derived from the symmetry broken states is quasi-local (unlike the one derived from the symmetric state), reinforcing the locality of the entanglement Hamiltonian for gapped phases.
Kao, Shih-Hung; Lin, Jason; Tsai, Chia-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih
2018-03-01
In early 2009, Xiu et al. (Opt. Commun. 282(2) 333-337 2009) presented a controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC) protocol via a newly constructed five-qubit entangled quantum state. Later, Qin et al. (Opt. Commun. 282(13), 2656-2658 2009) pointed out two security loopholes in Xiu et al.'s protocol: (1) A correlation-elicitation (CE) attack can reveal the entire secret message; (2) A leakage of partial information for the receiver is noticed. Then, Xiu et al. (Opt. Commun. 283(2), 344-347 2010) presented a revised CDSQC protocol to remedy the CE attack problem. However, the information leakage problem still remains open. This work proposes a new CDSQC protocol using the same five-qubit entangled state which can work without the above mentioned security problems. Moreover, the Trojan Horse attacks can be automatically avoided without using detecting devices in the new CDSQC.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang ShengLi; Zou Xubo; Li Ke; Jin Chenhui; Guo Guangcan
2008-01-01
We give a direct derivation for the information-disturbance tradeoff in estimating a maximally entangled state, which was first obtained by Sacchi (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 220502) in terms of the covariant positive operator valued measurement (POVM) and Jamiolkowski's isomorphism. We find that, the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, which is one of the most powerful tools in deriving the tradeoff for a single-particle pure state still plays a key role in the case of the maximal entanglement estimation. Our result shows that the inequality becomes equality when the optimal tradeoff is achieved. Moreover, we demonstrate that such a tradeoff is physically achievable with a quantum circuit that only involves single- and two-particle logic gates and single-particle measurements
Strings, Projected Entangled Pair States, and variational Monte Carlo methods
Schuch, Norbert; Wolf, Michael M.; Verstraete, Frank; Cirac, J. Ignacio
2007-01-01
We introduce string-bond states, a class of states obtained by placing strings of operators on a lattice, which encompasses the relevant states in Quantum Information. For string-bond states, expectation values of local observables can be computed efficiently using Monte Carlo sampling, making them suitable for a variational abgorithm which extends DMRG to higher dimensional and irregular systems. Numerical results demonstrate the applicability of these states to the simulation of many-body s...
Heo, Jino; Kang, Min-Sung; Hong, Chang-Ho; Choi, Seong-Gon; Hong, Jong-Phil
2017-08-01
We propose quantum information processing schemes to generate and swap entangled states based on the interactions between flying photons and quantum dots (QDs) confined within optical cavities for quantum communication. To produce and distribute entangled states (Bell and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger [GHZ] states) between the photonic qubits of flying photons of consumers (Alice and Bob) and electron-spin qubits of a provider (trust center, or TC), the TC employs the interactions of the QD-cavity system, which is composed of a charged QD (negatively charged exciton) inside a single-sided cavity. Subsequently, the TC constructs an entanglement channel (Bell state and 4-qubit GHZ state) to link one consumer with another through entanglement swapping, which can be realized to exploit a probe photon with interactions of the QD-cavity systems and single-qubit measurements without Bell state measurement, for quantum communication between consumers. Consequently, the TC, which has quantum nodes (QD-cavity systems), can accomplish constructing the entanglement channel (authenticated channel) between two separated consumers from the distributions of entangled states and entanglement swapping. Furthermore, our schemes using QD-cavity systems, which are feasible with a certain probability of success and high fidelity, can be experimentally implemented with technology currently in use.
Shekhar Dhar, Himadri; Chatterjee, Arpita; Ghosh, Rupamanjari
2015-09-01
We investigate the states generated in continuous variable (CV) optical fields by operating them with a number-conserving operator of the type s\\hat{a}{\\hat{a}}\\dagger +t{\\hat{a}}\\dagger \\hat{a}, formed by the generalized superposition of products of field annihilation (\\hat{a}) and creation ({\\hat{a}}\\dagger ) operators, with {s}2+{t}2=1. Such an operator is experimentally realizable and can be suitably manipulated to generate nonclassical optical states when applied on single- and two-mode coherent, thermal and squeezed input states. At low intensities, these nonclassical states can interact with a secondary mode via a linear optical device to generate two-mode discrete entangled states, which can serve as a resource in quantum information protocols. The advantage of these operations are tested by applying the generated entangled states as quantum channels in CV quantum teleportation, under the Braunstein and Kimble protocol. We observe that, under these operations, while the average fidelity of CV teleportation is enhanced for the nonclassical channel formed using input squeezed states, it remains at the classical threshold for input coherent and thermal states. This is due to the fact that though these operations can introduce discrete entanglement in all input states, it enhances the Einstein-Podolosky-Rosen correlations only in the nonclassical squeezed state inputs, leading to an advantage in CV teleportation. This shows that nonclassical optical states generated using the above operations on classical coherent and thermal state inputs are not useful for CV teleportation. This investigation could prove useful for the efficient implementation of noisy non-Gaussian channels, formed by linear operations, in future teleportation protocols.
Anyonic entanglement and topological entanglement entropy
Bonderson, Parsa; Knapp, Christina; Patel, Kaushal
2017-10-01
We study the properties of entanglement in two-dimensional topologically ordered phases of matter. Such phases support anyons, quasiparticles with exotic exchange statistics. The emergent nonlocal state spaces of anyonic systems admit a particular form of entanglement that does not exist in conventional quantum mechanical systems. We study this entanglement by adapting standard notions of entropy to anyonic systems. We use the algebraic theory of anyon models (modular tensor categories) to illustrate the nonlocal entanglement structure of anyonic systems. Using this formalism, we present a general method of deriving the universal topological contributions to the entanglement entropy for general system configurations of a topological phase, including surfaces of arbitrary genus, punctures, and quasiparticle content. We analyze a number of examples in detail. Our results recover and extend prior results for anyonic entanglement and the topological entanglement entropy.
A New Quantum Proxy Multi-signature Scheme Using Maximally Entangled Seven-Qubit States
Cao, Hai-Jing; Zhang, Jia-Fu; Liu, Jian; Li, Zeng-You
2016-02-01
In this paper, we propose a new secure quantum proxy multi-signature scheme using seven-qubit entangled quantum state as quantum channels, which may have applications in e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc. This scheme is based on controlled quantum teleportation. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to guarantee its anonymity, verifiability, traceability, unforgetability and undeniability.
Daoud, M.; Jellal, A.; Choubabi, E. B.; El Kinani, E. H.
2011-08-01
We introduce a special class of truncated Weyl-Heisenberg algebra and discuss the corresponding Hilbertian and analytical representations. Subsequently, we study the effect of a quantum network of beam splitting on coherent states of this nonlinear class of harmonic oscillators. We particularly focus on quantum networks involving one and two beam splitters and examine the degree of bipartite as well as tripartite entanglement using the linear entropy.
Daoud, M.; Jellal, A.; Choubabi, E. B.; Kinani, E. H. El
2012-01-01
We introduce a special class of truncated Weyl-Heisenberg algebra and discuss the corresponding Hilbertian and analytical representations. Subsequently, we study the effect of a quantum network of beam splitting on coherent states of this nonlinear class of harmonic oscillators. We particularly focus on quantum networks involving one and two beam splitters and examine the degree of bipartite as well as tripartite entanglement using the linear entropy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fortes, Raphael; Rigolin, Gustavo, E-mail: rigolin@ifi.unicamp.br
2013-09-15
We push the limits of the direct use of partially pure entangled states to perform quantum teleportation by presenting several protocols in many different scenarios that achieve the optimal efficiency possible. We review and put in a single formalism the three major strategies known to date that allow one to use partially entangled states for direct quantum teleportation (no distillation strategies permitted) and compare their efficiencies in real world implementations. We show how one can improve the efficiency of many direct teleportation protocols by combining these techniques. We then develop new teleportation protocols employing multipartite partially entangled states. The three techniques are also used here in order to achieve the highest efficiency possible. Finally, we prove the upper bound for the optimal success rate for protocols based on partially entangled Bell states and show that some of the protocols here developed achieve such a bound. -- Highlights: •Optimal direct teleportation protocols using directly partially entangled states. •We put in a single formalism all strategies of direct teleportation. •We extend these techniques for multipartite partially entangle states. •We give upper bounds for the optimal efficiency of these protocols.
Liao, Qing-Hong; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Juan; Yan, Qiu-Rong; Liu, Ye; Chen, An
2016-06-01
We have studied the dynamics and transfer of the entanglement of the two identical atoms simultaneously interacting with vacuum field by employing the dressed-state representation. The two atoms are driven by classical fields. The influence of the initial entanglement degree of two atoms, the coupling strength between the atom and the classical field and the detuning between the atomic transition frequency and the frequency of classical field on the entanglement and atomic linear entropy is discussed. The initial entanglement of the two atoms can be transferred into the entanglement between the atom and cavity field when the dissipation is neglected. The maximally entangled state between the atoms and cavity field can be obtained under some certain conditions. The time of disentanglement of two atoms can be controlled and manipulated by adjusting the detuning and classical driving fields. Moreover, the larger the cavity decay rate is, the more quickly the entanglement of the two atoms decays. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11247213, 61368002, 11304010, 11264030, 61168001, China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No. 2013M531558, Jiangxi Postdoctoral Research Project under Grant No. 2013KY33, the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province under Grant No. 20142BAB217001, the Foundation for Young Scientists of Jiangxi Province (Jinggang Star) under Grant No. 20122BCB23002, the Research Foundation of the Education Department of Jiangxi Province under Grant Nos. GJJ13051, GJJ13057, and the Graduate Innovation Special Fund of Nanchang University under Grant No. cx2015137
Experimental Optimal Cloning of Four-Dimensional Quantum States of Photons
Nagali, E.; Giovannini, D.; Marrucci, L.; Slussarenko, S.; Santamato, E.; Sciarrino, F.
2010-08-01
Optimal quantum cloning is the process of making one or more copies of an arbitrary unknown input quantum state with the highest possible fidelity. All reported demonstrations of quantum cloning have so far been limited to copying two-dimensional quantum states, or qubits. We report the experimental realization of the optimal quantum cloning of four-dimensional quantum states, or ququarts, encoded in the polarization and orbital angular momentum degrees of freedom of photons. Our procedure, based on the symmetrization method, is also shown to be generally applicable to quantum states of arbitrarily high dimension—or qudits—and to be scalable to an arbitrary number of copies, in all cases remaining optimal. Furthermore, we report the bosonic coalescence of two single-particle entangled states.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mônica Pontalti
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Right whales (Eubalaena australis have been suffering with anthropogenic activities such as pollution, marine traffic and entanglement in fishing nets. The entanglement of right whales grows each breeding season on the southern coast of Santa Catarina state, and can cause strands and even death. During the 2010 breeding season, six entanglements among immature and adult whales were recorded. In most of the cases, the whales kept swimming slowly and didn’t want to approximate the whale watching boat. Fishing activities in the area during the right whale breeding season need to be regularized to avoid conflicts and injuries to the whales.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed Daoud
2018-04-01
Full Text Available A relation is established in the present paper between Dicke states in a d-dimensional space and vectors in the representation space of a generalized Weyl–Heisenberg algebra of finite dimension d. This provides a natural way to deal with the separable and entangled states of a system of N = d − 1 symmetric qubit states. Using the decomposition property of Dicke states, it is shown that the separable states coincide with the Perelomov coherent states associated with the generalized Weyl–Heisenberg algebra considered in this paper. In the so-called Majorana scheme, the qudit (d-level states are represented by N points on the Bloch sphere; roughly speaking, it can be said that a qudit (in a d-dimensional space is describable by a N-qubit vector (in a N-dimensional space. In such a scheme, the permanent of the matrix describing the overlap between the N qubits makes it possible to measure the entanglement between the N qubits forming the qudit. This is confirmed by a Fubini–Study metric analysis. A new parameter, proportional to the permanent and called perma-concurrence, is introduced for characterizing the entanglement of a symmetric qudit arising from N qubits. For d = 3 ( ⇔ N = 2 , this parameter constitutes an alternative to the concurrence for two qubits. Other examples are given for d = 4 and 5. A connection between Majorana stars and zeros of a Bargmmann function for qudits closes this article.
Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states-based blind quantum computation with entanglement concentration.
Zhang, Xiaoqian; Weng, Jian; Lu, Wei; Li, Xiaochun; Luo, Weiqi; Tan, Xiaoqing
2017-09-11
In blind quantum computation (BQC) protocol, the quantum computability of servers are complicated and powerful, while the clients are not. It is still a challenge for clients to delegate quantum computation to servers and keep the clients' inputs, outputs and algorithms private. Unfortunately, quantum channel noise is unavoidable in the practical transmission. In this paper, a novel BQC protocol based on maximally entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states is proposed which doesn't need a trusted center. The protocol includes a client and two servers, where the client only needs to own quantum channels with two servers who have full-advantage quantum computers. Two servers perform entanglement concentration used to remove the noise, where the success probability can almost reach 100% in theory. But they learn nothing in the process of concentration because of the no-signaling principle, so this BQC protocol is secure and feasible.
Quasiparticle statistics and braiding from ground state entanglement
Zhang, Y.; Grover, T.; Turner, A.; Oshikawa, M.; Vishwanath, A.
2012-01-01
Topologically ordered phases are gapped states, defined by the properties of excitations when taken around one another. Here we demonstrate a method to extract the statistics and braiding of excitations, given just the set of ground-state wave functions on a torus. This is achieved by studying the
Isacsson, A.; Syljuasen, O. F.
2006-01-01
We have applied a variational algorithm based on Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS) to a two dimensional frustrated spin system, the spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the Shastry-Sutherland lattice. We use the class of PEPS with internal tensor dimension D=2, the first step beyond product states (D=1 PEPS). We have found that the D=2 variational PEPS algorithm is able to capture the physics in both the valence-bond crystal and the Neel ordered state. Also the spin-textures gi...
Distribution of quantum information between an atom and two photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weber, Bernhard
2008-11-03
The construction of networks consisting of optically interconnected processing units is a promising way to scale up quantum information processing systems. To store quantum information, single trapped atoms are among the most proven candidates. By placing them in high finesse optical resonators, a bidirectional information exchange between the atoms and photons becomes possible with, in principle, unit efficiency. Such an interface between stationary and ying qubits constitutes a possible node of a future quantum network. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate the prospects of a quantum interface consisting of a single atom trapped within the mode of a high-finesse optical cavity. In a two-step process, we distribute entanglement between the stored atom and two subsequently emitted single photons. The long atom trapping times achieved in the system together with the high photon collection efficiency of the cavity make the applied protocol in principle deterministic, allowing for the creation of an entangled state at the push of a button. Running the protocol on this quasi-stationary quantum interface, the internal state of the atom is entangled with the polarization state of a single emitted photon. The entanglement is generated by driving a vacuum-stimulated Raman adiabatic passage between states of the coupled atom-cavity system. In a second process, the atomic part of the entangled state is mapped onto a second emitted photon using a similar technique and resulting in a polarization-entangled two-photon state. To verify and characterize the photon-photon entanglement, we measured a violation of a Bell inequality and performed a full quantum state tomography. The results prove the prior atom-photon entanglement and demonstrate a quantum information transfer between the atom and the two emitted photons. This reflects the advantages of a high-finesse cavity as a quantum interface in future quantum networks. (orig.)
Distribution of quantum information between an atom and two photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weber, Bernhard
2008-01-01
The construction of networks consisting of optically interconnected processing units is a promising way to scale up quantum information processing systems. To store quantum information, single trapped atoms are among the most proven candidates. By placing them in high finesse optical resonators, a bidirectional information exchange between the atoms and photons becomes possible with, in principle, unit efficiency. Such an interface between stationary and ying qubits constitutes a possible node of a future quantum network. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate the prospects of a quantum interface consisting of a single atom trapped within the mode of a high-finesse optical cavity. In a two-step process, we distribute entanglement between the stored atom and two subsequently emitted single photons. The long atom trapping times achieved in the system together with the high photon collection efficiency of the cavity make the applied protocol in principle deterministic, allowing for the creation of an entangled state at the push of a button. Running the protocol on this quasi-stationary quantum interface, the internal state of the atom is entangled with the polarization state of a single emitted photon. The entanglement is generated by driving a vacuum-stimulated Raman adiabatic passage between states of the coupled atom-cavity system. In a second process, the atomic part of the entangled state is mapped onto a second emitted photon using a similar technique and resulting in a polarization-entangled two-photon state. To verify and characterize the photon-photon entanglement, we measured a violation of a Bell inequality and performed a full quantum state tomography. The results prove the prior atom-photon entanglement and demonstrate a quantum information transfer between the atom and the two emitted photons. This reflects the advantages of a high-finesse cavity as a quantum interface in future quantum networks. (orig.)
López-Rosa, S.; Esquivel, R. O.; Plastino, A. R.; Dehesa, J. S.
2015-09-01
In this work we have performed state-of-the-art configuration-interaction (CI) calculations to determine the linear and von Neumann entanglement entropies for the helium-like systems with varying nuclear charge Z in the range 1≤slant Z≤slant 10. The focus of the work resides on determining accurate entanglement values for 2-electron systems with the lowest computational cost through compact CI-wave functions. Our entanglement results for the helium atom fully agree with the results obtained with higher quality wave functions of the Kinoshita type (Dehesa [5]). We find that the correlation energy is linearly related to the entanglement measures associated with the linear and von Neumann entropies of the single-particle reduced density matrizes, which sheds new light on the physical implications of entanglement in helium-like systems. Moreover, we report CI-wave-function-based benchmark results for the entanglement values for all members of the helium isoelectronic series with an accuracy similar to that of Kinoshita-type wave functions. Finally, we give parametric expressions of the linear and von Neumann entanglement measures for two-electron systems as Z varies from 1 to 10.
Efficient deterministic secure quantum communication protocols using multipartite entangled states
Joy, Dintomon; Surendran, Supin P.; Sabir, M.
2017-06-01
We propose two deterministic secure quantum communication protocols employing three-qubit GHZ-like states and five-qubit Brown states as quantum channels for secure transmission of information in units of two bits and three bits using multipartite teleportation schemes developed here. In these schemes, the sender's capability in selecting quantum channels and the measuring bases leads to improved qubit efficiency of the protocols.
High heralding-efficiency of near-IR fiber coupled photon pairs for quantum technologies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dixon, P. Ben [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Murphy, Ryan [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Rosenberg, Danna [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Grein, Matthew E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Stelmakh, Veronika [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Bennink, Ryan S [ORNL; Wong, Franco N. C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
2015-01-01
We report on the development and use of a high heralding-efficiency, single-mode-fiber coupled telecom-band source of entangled photons for quantum technology applications. The source development efforts consisted of theoretical and experimental efforts and we demonstrated a correlated-mode coupling efficiency of 97% 2%, the highest efficiency yet achieved for this type of system. We then incorporated these beneficial source development techniques in a Sagnac configured telecom-band entangled photon source that generates photon pairs entangled in both time/energy and polarization degrees of freedom. We made use of these highly desirable entangled states to investigate several promising quantum technologies.
Preparing projected entangled pair states on a quantum computer
Schwarz, Martin; Temme, Kristan; Verstraete, Frank
2011-01-01
We present a quantum algorithm to prepare injective PEPS on a quantum computer, a class of open tensor networks representing quantum states. The run-time of our algorithm scales polynomially with the inverse of the minimum condition number of the PEPS projectors and, essentially, with the inverse of the spectral gap of the PEPS' parent Hamiltonian.
Entanglement evolution for quantum trajectories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vogelsberger, S; Spehner, D
2011-01-01
Entanglement is a key resource in quantum information. It can be destroyed or sometimes created by interactions with a reservoir. In recent years, much attention has been devoted to the phenomena of entanglement sudden death and sudden birth, i.e., the sudden disappearance or revival of entanglement at finite times resulting from a coupling of the quantum system to its environment. We investigate the evolution of the entanglement of noninteracting qubits coupled to reservoirs under monitoring of the reservoirs by means of continuous measurements. Because of these measurements, the qubits remain at all times in a pure state, which evolves randomly. To each measurement result (or 'realization') corresponds a quantum trajectory in the Hilbert space of the qubits. We show that for two qubits coupled to independent baths subjected to local measurements, the average of the qubits' concurrence over all quantum trajectories is either constant or decays exponentially. The corresponding decay rate depends on the measurement scheme only. This result contrasts with the entanglement sudden death phenomenon exhibited by the qubits' density matrix in the absence of measurements. Our analysis applies to arbitrary quantum jump dynamics (photon counting) as well as to quantum state diffusion (homodyne or heterodyne detections) in the Markov limit. We discuss the best measurement schemes to protect the entanglement of the qubits. We also analyze the case of two qubits coupled to a common bath. Then, the average concurrence can vanish at discrete times and may coincide with the concurrence of the density matrix. The results explained in this article have been presented during the 'Fifth International Workshop DICE2010' by the first author and have been the subject of a prior publication.
Detecting nonlocal Cooper pair entanglement by optical Bell inequality violation
Nigg, Simon E.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Walter, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas L.
2015-03-01
Based on the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity, the coherent splitting of Cooper pairs from a superconductor to two spatially separated quantum dots has been predicted to generate nonlocal pairs of entangled electrons. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a scheme to transfer the spin state of a split Cooper pair onto the polarization state of a pair of optical photons. We show that the photon pairs produced can be used to violate a Bell inequality, unambiguously demonstrating the entanglement of the split Cooper pairs.
Detecting nonlocal Cooper pair entanglement by optical Bell inequality violation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nigg, Simon E.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Walter, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas L. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)
2015-07-01
Based on the Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity, the coherent splitting of Cooper pairs from a superconductor to two spatially separated quantum dots has been predicted to generate nonlocal pairs of entangled electrons. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a scheme to transfer the spin state of a split Cooper pair onto the polarization state of a pair of optical photons. We show that the produced photon pairs can be used to violate a Bell inequality, unambiguously demonstrating the entanglement of the split Cooper pairs.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Giovannini, D
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Efficient quantum state reconstruction of a high-dimensional multi-partite quantum system can be performed by considering mutually unbiased measurements of the individual parts. We illustrate this approach experimentally using a bipartite photonic...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dong, Li; Xiu, Xiao-Ming, E-mail: xiuxiaomingdl@126.com [Dalian University of Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology (China); Ren, Yuan-Peng [Bohai University, Higher Professional Technical Institute (China); Gao, Ya-Jun [Bohai University, College of Mathematics and Physics (China); Yi, X. X. [Dalian University of Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology (China)
2013-01-15
We propose a protocol transferring an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state using the quantum channel of a four-qubit genuine entangled state. Simplifying the four-qubit joint measurement to the combination of Bell-state measurements, it can be realized more easily with currently available technologies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boche, H.; Janßen, G.
2014-01-01
We consider one-way quantum state merging and entanglement distillation under compound and arbitrarily varying source models. Regarding quantum compound sources, where the source is memoryless, but the source state an unknown member of a certain set of density matrices, we continue investigations begun in the work of Bjelaković et al. [“Universal quantum state merging,” J. Math. Phys. 54, 032204 (2013)] and determine the classical as well as entanglement cost of state merging. We further investigate quantum state merging and entanglement distillation protocols for arbitrarily varying quantum sources (AVQS). In the AVQS model, the source state is assumed to vary in an arbitrary manner for each source output due to environmental fluctuations or adversarial manipulation. We determine the one-way entanglement distillation capacity for AVQS, where we invoke the famous robustification and elimination techniques introduced by Ahlswede. Regarding quantum state merging for AVQS we show by example that the robustification and elimination based approach generally leads to suboptimal entanglement as well as classical communication rates
Transformation of bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
1Key Laboratory of Opto-electronic Information Acquisition and Manipulation, .... product state |e1g2〉, are sent to the vacuum cavity A for an interaction time tA. In the ... an interaction time t. The evolution of the total system can be expressed as. |ψ12〉|ψ34〉 = (a|e1g2〉 + b|g1e2〉) ⊗ (c|e3g4〉 + d|g3e4〉). −→ e−iλt [bce.
Infinite projected entangled-pair state algorithm for ruby and triangle-honeycomb lattices
Jahromi, Saeed S.; Orús, Román; Kargarian, Mehdi; Langari, Abdollah
2018-03-01
The infinite projected entangled-pair state (iPEPS) algorithm is one of the most efficient techniques for studying the ground-state properties of two-dimensional quantum lattice Hamiltonians in the thermodynamic limit. Here, we show how the algorithm can be adapted to explore nearest-neighbor local Hamiltonians on the ruby and triangle-honeycomb lattices, using the corner transfer matrix (CTM) renormalization group for 2D tensor network contraction. Additionally, we show how the CTM method can be used to calculate the ground-state fidelity per lattice site and the boundary density operator and entanglement entropy (EE) on an infinite cylinder. As a benchmark, we apply the iPEPS method to the ruby model with anisotropic interactions and explore the ground-state properties of the system. We further extract the phase diagram of the model in different regimes of the couplings by measuring two-point correlators, ground-state fidelity, and EE on an infinite cylinder. Our phase diagram is in agreement with previous studies of the model by exact diagonalization.
Corboz, Philippe; Orús, Román; Bauer, Bela; Vidal, Guifré
2010-04-01
We explain how to implement, in the context of projected entangled-pair states (PEPSs), the general procedure of fermionization of a tensor network introduced in P. Corboz and G. Vidal, Phys. Rev. B 80, 165129 (2009). The resulting fermionic PEPS, similar to previous proposals, can be used to study the ground state of interacting fermions on a two-dimensional lattice. As in the bosonic case, the cost of simulations depends on the amount of entanglement in the ground state and not directly on the strength of interactions. The present formulation of fermionic PEPS leads to a straightforward numerical implementation that allowed us to recycle much of the code for bosonic PEPS. We demonstrate that fermionic PEPS are a useful variational ansatz for interacting fermion systems by computing approximations to the ground state of several models on an infinite lattice. For a model of interacting spinless fermions, ground state energies lower than Hartree-Fock results are obtained, shifting the boundary between the metal and charge-density wave phases. For the t-J model, energies comparable with those of a specialized Gutzwiller-projected ansatz are also obtained.
Wave function and strange correlator of short-range entangled states.
You, Yi-Zhuang; Bi, Zhen; Rasmussen, Alex; Slagle, Kevin; Xu, Cenke
2014-06-20
We demonstrate the following conclusion: If |Ψ⟩ is a one-dimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) nontrivial short-range entangled state and |Ω⟩ is a trivial disordered state defined on the same Hilbert space, then the following quantity (so-called "strange correlator") C(r,r('))=⟨Ω|ϕ(r)ϕ(r('))|Ψ⟩/⟨Ω|Ψ⟩ either saturates to a constant or decays as a power law in the limit |r-r(')|→+∞, even though both |Ω⟩ and |Ψ⟩ are quantum disordered states with short-range correlation; ϕ(r) is some local operator in the Hilbert space. This result is obtained based on both field theory analysis and an explicit computation of C(r,r(')) for four different examples: 1D Haldane phase of spin-1 chain, 2D quantum spin Hall insulator with a strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling, 2D spin-2 Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki state on the square lattice, and the 2D bosonic symmetry-protected topological phase with Z(2) symmetry. This result can be used as a diagnosis for short-range entangled states in 1D and 2D.
Recovery of maximally entangled quantum states by weak-measurement reversal
Maleki, Yusef; Zheltikov, Aleksei M.
2018-05-01
Maximal quantum entanglement provided by N00N states is a unique resource in the quest for the ultimate precision in physical measurements. Such states, however, are fragile and prone to decoherence. Even in weak-measurement schemes, as we demonstrate in this work, the phase super-resolution provided by N00N states is achieved at a cost of an N-fold enhancement of amplitude damping. Still, as the analysis presented here shows, a partial collapse of N00N states induced by weak measurements can be reversed, despite the dramatic, N-fold enhancement of amplitude damping, through appropriate reversal operations on the post-measurement state, enabling a full restoration of the Heisenberg-limit phase super-resolution of N00N states.
Preparation and measurement of three-qubit entanglement in a superconducting circuit.
Dicarlo, L; Reed, M D; Sun, L; Johnson, B R; Chow, J M; Gambetta, J M; Frunzio, L; Girvin, S M; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J
2010-09-30
Traditionally, quantum entanglement has been central to foundational discussions of quantum mechanics. The measurement of correlations between entangled particles can have results at odds with classical behaviour. These discrepancies grow exponentially with the number of entangled particles. With the ample experimental confirmation of quantum mechanical predictions, entanglement has evolved from a philosophical conundrum into a key resource for technologies such as quantum communication and computation. Although entanglement in superconducting circuits has been limited so far to two qubits, the extension of entanglement to three, eight and ten qubits has been achieved among spins, ions and photons, respectively. A key question for solid-state quantum information processing is whether an engineered system could display the multi-qubit entanglement necessary for quantum error correction, which starts with tripartite entanglement. Here, using a circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture, we demonstrate deterministic production of three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states with fidelity of 88 per cent, measured with quantum state tomography. Several entanglement witnesses detect genuine three-qubit entanglement by violating biseparable bounds by 830 ± 80 per cent. We demonstrate the first step of basic quantum error correction, namely the encoding of a logical qubit into a manifold of GHZ-like states using a repetition code. The integration of this encoding with decoding and error-correcting steps in a feedback loop will be the next step for quantum computing with integrated circuits.
Efficient quantum entanglement distribution over an arbitrary collective-noise channel
Sheng, Yu-Bo; Deng, Fu-Guo
2010-04-01
We present an efficient quantum entanglement distribution over an arbitrary collective-noise channel. The basic idea in the present scheme is that two parties in quantum communication first transmit the entangled states in the frequency degree of freedom which suffers little from the noise in an optical fiber. After the two parties share the photon pairs, they add some operations and equipments to transfer the frequency entanglement of pairs into the polarization entanglement with the success probability of 100%. Finally, they can get maximally entangled polarization states with polarization independent wavelength division multiplexers and quantum frequency up-conversion which can erase distinguishability for frequency. Compared with conventional entanglement purification protocols, the present scheme works in a deterministic way in principle. Surprisingly, the collective noise leads to an additional advantage.
Atom-field entanglement at the collapse region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Retamal, J.C.; Delgado, A.; Saavedra, C.
2006-01-01
It is shown that the atom-field interaction, in the context of the Jaynes-Cummings model, leads periodically to a Schmidt decomposition of the atom-field state at times within the first collapse region. For some initial average photon number maximally entangled atom-field state are generated
Relativistic and noise effects on multiplayer Prisoners' dilemma with entangling initial states
Goudarzi, H.; Rashidi, S. S.
2017-11-01
Three-players Prisoners' dilemma (Alice, Bob and Colin) is studied in the presence of a single collective environment effect as a noise. The environmental effect is coupled with final states by a particular form of Kraus operators K_0 and K_1 through amplitude damping channel. We introduce the decoherence parameter 0≤p≤1 to the corresponding noise matrices, in order to controling the rate of environment influence on payoff of each players. Also, we consider the Unruh effect on the payoff of player, who is located at a noninertial frame. We suppose that two players (Bob and Colin) are in Rindler region I from Minkowski space-time, and move with same uniform acceleration (r_b=r_c) and frequency mode. The game is begun with the classical strategies cooperation ( C) and defection ( D) accessible to each player. Furthermore, the players are allowed to access the quantum strategic space ( Q and M). The quantum entanglement is coupled with initial classical states by the parameter γ \\in [0,π /2]. Using entangled initial states by exerting an unitary operator \\hat{J} as entangling gate, the quantum game (competition between Prisoners, as a three-qubit system) is started by choosing the strategies from classical or quantum strategic space. Arbitrarily chosen strategy by each player can lead to achieving profiles, which can be considered as Nash equilibrium or Pareto optimal. It is shown that in the presence of noise effect, choosing quantum strategy Q results in a winning payoff against the classical strategy D and, for example, the strategy profile ( Q, D, C) is Pareto optimal. We find that the unfair miracle move of Eisert from quantum strategic space is an effective strategy for accelerated players in decoherence mode (p=1) of the game.
Baiesi, Marco; Orlandini, Enzo; Seno, Flavio; Trovato, Antonio
2017-12-01
The folding of a protein towards its native state is a rather complicated process. However, there is empirical evidence that the folding time correlates with the contact order, a simple measure of the spatial organization of the native state of the protein. Contact order is related to the average length of the main chain loops formed by amino acids that are in contact. Here we argue that folding kinetics can also be influenced by the entanglement that loops may undergo within the overall three-dimensional protein structure. In order to explore such a possibility, we introduce a novel descriptor, which we call ‘maximum intrachain contact entanglement’. Specifically, we measure the maximum Gaussian entanglement between any looped portion of a protein and any other non-overlapping subchain of the same protein, which is easily computed by discretized line integrals on the coordinates of the Cα atoms. By analyzing experimental data sets of two-state and multi-state folders, we show that the new index is also a good predictor of the folding rate. Moreover, being only partially correlated with previous methods, it can be integrated with them to yield more accurate predictions.
Ket-Bra entangled state method for solving master equation of finite-level system
Ren, Yi-Chong; Wang, Shu; Fan, Hong-Yi; Chen, Feng
2017-11-01
In this paper, we first introduce Ket-Bra entangled state method to solve master equation of finite-level system, which can convert master equation into Schrödinger-like equation and solve it with the mature methodology of Schrödinger equation. Then, several physical models include a radioactivity damped 2-level atom driven by classical field, a J- C model with cavity damping, a V-type qutrit under amplitude damping and N-qubits open Heisenberg chain have been solved with KBES method. Furthermore, the dynamic evolution and decoherence process of these models are investigated.
A New Proxy Electronic Voting Scheme Achieved by Six-Particle Entangled States
Cao, Hai-Jing; Ding, Li-Yuan; Jiang, Xiu-Li; Li, Peng-Fei
2018-03-01
In this paper, we use quantum proxy signature to construct a new secret electronic voting scheme. In our scheme, six particles entangled states function as quantum channels. The voter Alice, the Vote Management Center Bob, the scrutineer Charlie only perform two particles measurements on the Bell bases to realize the electronic voting process. So the scheme reduces the technical difficulty and increases operation efficiency. We use quantum key distribution and one-time pad to guarantee its unconditional security. The significant advantage of our scheme is that transmitted information capacity is twice as much as the capacity of other schemes.
A New Proxy Electronic Voting Scheme Achieved by Six-Particle Entangled States
Cao, Hai-Jing; Ding, Li-Yuan; Jiang, Xiu-Li; Li, Peng-Fei
2017-12-01
In this paper, we use quantum proxy signature to construct a new secret electronic voting scheme. In our scheme, six particles entangled states function as quantum channels. The voter Alice, the Vote Management Center Bob, the scrutineer Charlie only perform two particles measurements on the Bell bases to realize the electronic voting process. So the scheme reduces the technical difficulty and increases operation efficiency. We use quantum key distribution and one-time pad to guarantee its unconditional security. The significant advantage of our scheme is that transmitted information capacity is twice as much as the capacity of other schemes.
Entanglement negativity in the multiverse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013, Bilbao (Spain); Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)
2015-03-10
We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.
Entanglement negativity in the multiverse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity and Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro, E-mail: sugumi.kanno@ehu.es, E-mail: jonathan.shock@uct.ac.za, E-mail: jiro@phys.sci.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)
2015-03-01
We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.
Photon-pair generation in random nonlinear layered structures
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peřina ml., Jan; Centini, M.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.
2009-01-01
Roč. 80, č. 3 (2009), 033844/1-033844/10 ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC09026; GA AV ČR IAA100100713; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : parametric down conversion * production of entangled photons * nonclassical states of the electromagnetic field * including entangled photon states Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.866, year: 2009
A quick and easy test for deciding entanglement status of an N-qubit pure quantum state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehendale, D.P.; Joag, P.S.
2018-01-01
We develop a simple criterion in terms of a necessary-sufficient condition (NS condition) for deciding separability of an arbitrary n-qubit pure quantum state. This NS condition provides a quick and easy test procedure to determine the entanglement status of a pure quantum state. We normalize the given quantum state and using this normalized state we can easily build a simplest system of equations containing trigonometric functions by making use of the well known Bloch Sphere representation for single qubit states and check whether or not this system of equations is consistent. According to proposed NS condition the given pure quantum state is separable (entangled) if and only if the above mentioned system of equations is consistent (inconsistent). We build this system of equations by equating the coefficients of computational basis states in the superposition representing the given pure quantum state with certain products of trigonometric functions obtained using standard Bloch Sphere representation for single qubit states. To establish separability of given state one requires to find a valid solution of the above mentioned system of equations but entanglement on the other hand follows when any two equations in this system of equations are mutually inconsistent. Thus, entanglement of the state can follow easily if one succeeds in finding any two mutually inconsistent equations in the above mentioned system of equations.
Detecting nonlocal Cooper pair entanglement by optical Bell inequality violation
Nigg, Simon E.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Walter, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas L.
2014-01-01
Based on the Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity, the coherent splitting of Cooper pairs from a superconductor to two spatially separated quantum dots has been predicted to generate nonlocal pairs of entangled electrons. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a scheme to transfer the spin state of a split Cooper pair onto the polarization state of a pair of optical photons. We show that the produced photon pairs can be used to violate a Bell inequality, unambiguo...
Twisted injectivity in projected entangled pair states and the classification of quantum phases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buerschaper, Oliver, E-mail: obuerschaper@perimeterinstitute.ca
2014-12-15
We introduce a class of projected entangled pair states (PEPS) which is based on a group symmetry twisted by a 3-cocycle of the group. This twisted symmetry is expressed as a matrix product operator (MPO) with bond dimension greater than 1 and acts on the virtual boundary of a PEPS tensor. We show that it gives rise to a new standard form for PEPS from which we construct a family of local Hamiltonians which are gapped, frustration-free and include fixed points of the renormalization group flow. Based on this insight, we advance the classification of 2D gapped quantum spin systems by showing how this new standard form for PEPS determines the emergent topological order of these local Hamiltonians. Specifically, we identify their universality class as DIJKGRAAF–WITTEN topological quantum field theory (TQFT). - Highlights: • We introduce a new standard form for projected entangled pair states via a twisted group symmetry which is given by nontrivial matrix product operators. • We construct a large family of gapped, frustration-free Hamiltonians in two dimensions from this new standard form. • We rigorously show how this new standard form for low energy states determines the emergent topological order.
Kerr nonlinear coupler and entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leonski, Wieslaw; Miranowicz, Adam
2004-01-01
We discuss a model comprising two coupled nonlinear oscillators (Kerr-like nonlinear coupler) with one of them pumped by an external coherent excitation. Applying the method of nonlinear quantum scissors we show that the quantum evolution of the coupler can be closed within a finite set of n-photon Fock states. Moreover, we show that the system is able to generate Bell-like states and, as a consequence, the coupler discussed behaves as a two-qubit system. We also analyse the effects of dissipation on entanglement of formation parametrized by concurrence
Projected Entangled Pair States with non-Abelian gauge symmetries: An SU(2) study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zohar, Erez, E-mail: erez.zohar@mpq.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Wahl, Thorsten B. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, Oxford, 1 Keble Road, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Burrello, Michele, E-mail: michele.burrello@mpq.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cirac, J. Ignacio [Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)
2016-11-15
Over the last years, Projected Entangled Pair States have demonstrated great power for the study of many body systems, as they naturally describe ground states of gapped many body Hamiltonians, and suggest a constructive way to encode and classify their symmetries. The PEPS study is not only limited to global symmetries, but has also been extended and applied for local symmetries, allowing to use them for the description of states in lattice gauge theories. In this paper we discuss PEPS with a local, SU(2) gauge symmetry, and demonstrate the use of PEPS features and techniques for the study of a simple family of many body states with a non-Abelian gauge symmetry. We present, in particular, the construction of fermionic PEPS able to describe both two-color fermionic matter and the degrees of freedom of an SU(2) gauge field with a suitable truncation.
Two local observables are sufficient to characterize maximally entangled states of N qubits
Yan, Fengli; Gao, Ting; Chitambar, Eric
2011-02-01
Maximally entangled states (MES) represent a valuable resource in quantum information processing. In N-qubit systems the MES are N-GHZ states [i.e., the collection of |GHZN>=(1)/(2)(|00…0>+|11…1>)] and its local unitary (LU) equivalences. While it is well known that such states are uniquely stabilized by N commuting observables, in this article we consider the minimum number of noncommuting observables needed to characterize an N-qubit MES as the unique common eigenstate. Here, we prove, rather surprisingly, that in this general case any N-GHZ state can be uniquely stabilized by only two observables. Thus, for the task of MES certification, only two correlated measurements are required with each party observing the spin of his or her system along one of two directions.
Facets of tripartite entanglement
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Tripartite entangled states of systems 1, 2 and 3 involving nonorthogonal states are used to reveal two hitherto unexplored quantum effects. The ﬁrst shows that kinematic entanglement between the states of 1 and 2 can affect the result of dynamical interaction between 2 and 3, though 1 and 2 may be spatially separated so ...
Three-photon coherence of Rydberg atomic states
Kwak, Hyo Min; Jeong, Taek; Lee, Yoon-Seok; Moon, Han Seb
2016-05-01
We investigated three-photon coherence effects of the Rydberg state in a four-level ladder-type atomic system for the 5 S1/2 (F = 3) - 5 P3/2 (F' = 4) - 50 D5/2 - 51 P3/2 transition of 85 Rb atoms. By adding a resonant electric field of microwave (MW) at electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in Rydberg state scheme, we observed experimentally that splitting of EIT signal appears under the condition of three-photon resonance in the Doppler-broadened atomic system. Discriminating the two- and three-photon coherence terms from the calculated spectrum in a simple four-level ladder-type Doppler-broadened atomic system, we found that the physical origin of splitting of EIT was three-photon coherence effect, but not three-photon quantum interference phenomena such as three-photon electromagnetically induced absorption (TPEIA).
Quantum dual signature scheme based on coherent states with entanglement swapping
Liu, Jia-Li; Shi, Rong-Hua; Shi, Jin-Jing; Lv, Ge-Li; Guo, Ying
2016-08-01
A novel quantum dual signature scheme, which combines two signed messages expected to be sent to two diverse receivers Bob and Charlie, is designed by applying entanglement swapping with coherent states. The signatory Alice signs two different messages with unitary operations (corresponding to the secret keys) and applies entanglement swapping to generate a quantum dual signature. The dual signature is firstly sent to the verifier Bob who extracts and verifies the signature of one message and transmits the rest of the dual signature to the verifier Charlie who verifies the signature of the other message. The transmission of the dual signature is realized with quantum teleportation of coherent states. The analysis shows that the security of secret keys and the security criteria of the signature protocol can be greatly guaranteed. An extensional multi-party quantum dual signature scheme which considers the case with more than three participants is also proposed in this paper and this scheme can remain secure. The proposed schemes are completely suited for the quantum communication network including multiple participants and can be applied to the e-commerce system which requires a secure payment among the customer, business and bank. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272495, 61379153, and 61401519) and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130162110012).
Quantum dual signature scheme based on coherent states with entanglement swapping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Jia-Li; Shi Rong-Hua; Shi Jin-Jing; Lv Ge-Li; Guo Ying
2016-01-01
A novel quantum dual signature scheme, which combines two signed messages expected to be sent to two diverse receivers Bob and Charlie, is designed by applying entanglement swapping with coherent states. The signatory Alice signs two different messages with unitary operations (corresponding to the secret keys) and applies entanglement swapping to generate a quantum dual signature. The dual signature is firstly sent to the verifier Bob who extracts and verifies the signature of one message and transmits the rest of the dual signature to the verifier Charlie who verifies the signature of the other message. The transmission of the dual signature is realized with quantum teleportation of coherent states. The analysis shows that the security of secret keys and the security criteria of the signature protocol can be greatly guaranteed. An extensional multi-party quantum dual signature scheme which considers the case with more than three participants is also proposed in this paper and this scheme can remain secure. The proposed schemes are completely suited for the quantum communication network including multiple participants and can be applied to the e-commerce system which requires a secure payment among the customer, business and bank. (paper)
Bounds on the entanglement entropy of droplet states in the XXZ spin chain
Beaud, V.; Warzel, S.
2018-01-01
We consider a class of one-dimensional quantum spin systems on the finite lattice Λ ⊂Z , related to the XXZ spin chain in its Ising phase. It includes in particular the so-called droplet Hamiltonian. The entanglement entropy of energetically low-lying states over a bipartition Λ = B ∪ Bc is investigated and proven to satisfy a logarithmic bound in terms of min{n, |B|, |Bc|}, where n denotes the maximal number of down spins in the considered state. Upon addition of any (positive) random potential, the bound becomes uniformly constant on average, thereby establishing an area law. The proof is based on spectral methods: a deterministic bound on the local (many-body integrated) density of states is derived from an energetically motivated Combes-Thomas estimate.
Entanglement of distant atoms by projective measurement: the role of detection efficiency
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zippilli, Stefano; Olivares-Renteria, Georgina A; Morigi, Giovanna [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Schuck, Carsten; Rohde, Felix; Eschner, Juergen [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, E-08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: stefano.zippilli@uab.es
2008-10-15
We assess proposals for entangling two distant atoms by measurement of emitted photons, analyzing how their performance depends on the photon detection efficiency. We consider schemes based on measurement of one or two photons and compare them in terms of the probability to obtain the detection event and of the conditional fidelity with which the desired entangled state is created. Based on an unraveling of the master equation, we quantify the parameter regimes in which one or the other scheme is more efficient, including the possible combination of the one-photon scheme with state purification. In general, protocols based on one-photon detection are more efficient in setups characterized by low photon detection efficiency, while at larger values two-photon protocols are preferable. We give numerical examples based on current experiments.
Entanglement of distant atoms by projective measurement: the role of detection efficiency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zippilli, Stefano; Olivares-Renteria, Georgina A; Morigi, Giovanna; Schuck, Carsten; Rohde, Felix; Eschner, Juergen
2008-01-01
We assess proposals for entangling two distant atoms by measurement of emitted photons, analyzing how their performance depends on the photon detection efficiency. We consider schemes based on measurement of one or two photons and compare them in terms of the probability to obtain the detection event and of the conditional fidelity with which the desired entangled state is created. Based on an unraveling of the master equation, we quantify the parameter regimes in which one or the other scheme is more efficient, including the possible combination of the one-photon scheme with state purification. In general, protocols based on one-photon detection are more efficient in setups characterized by low photon detection efficiency, while at larger values two-photon protocols are preferable. We give numerical examples based on current experiments.
Why I am optimistic about the silicon-photonic route to quantum computing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Terry Rudolph
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This is a short overview explaining how building a large-scale, silicon-photonic quantum computer has been reduced to the creation of good sources of 3-photon entangled states (and may simplify further. Given such sources, each photon needs to pass through a small, constant, number of components, interfering with at most 2 other spatially nearby photons, and current photonics engineering has already demonstrated the manufacture of thousands of components on two-dimensional semiconductor chips with performance that, once scaled up, allows the creation of tens of thousands of photons entangled in a state universal for quantum computation. At present the fully integrated, silicon-photonic architecture we envisage involves creating the required entangled states by starting with single-photons produced non-deterministically by pumping silicon waveguides (or cavities combined with on-chip filters and nanowire superconducting detectors to herald that a photon has been produced. These sources are multiplexed into being near-deterministic, and the single photons then passed through an interferometer to non-deterministically produce small entangled states—necessarily multiplexed to near-determinism again. This is followed by a “ballistic” scattering of the small-scale entangled photons through an interferometer such that some photons are detected, leaving the remainder in a large-scale entangled state which is provably universal for quantum computing implemented by single-photon measurements. There are a large number of questions regarding the optimum ways to make and use the final cluster state, dealing with static imperfections, constructing the initial entangled photon sources and so on, that need to be investigated before we can aim for millions of qubits capable of billions of computational time steps. The focus in this article is on the theoretical side of such questions.
Plugge, Stephan; Zazunov, Alex; Sodano, Pasquale; Egger, Reinhold
2015-06-01
We study the concurrence of entanglement between two quantum dots in contact to Majorana bound states on a floating superconducting island. The distance between the Majorana states, the charging energy of the island, and the average island charge are shown to be decisive parameters for the efficiency of entanglement generation. We find that long-range entanglement with basically distance-independent concurrence is possible over wide parameter regions, where the proposed setup realizes a "Majorana entanglement bridge." We also study the time-dependent concurrence obtained after one of the tunnel couplings is suddenly switched on, which reveals the time scales for generating entanglement. Accurate analytical expressions for the concurrence are derived both for the static and the time-dependent cases. Our results indicate that entanglement formation in interacting Majorana devices can be fully understood in terms of an interplay of elastic cotunneling (also referred to as "teleportation") and crossed Andreev reflection processes.
Knights, Patrick; Ryburn, Finlay; Tungate, Garry; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos
2018-01-01
An experiment for the advanced undergraduate laboratory which allows students to study the effect of photon polarisation in Compton scattering and to explore q\\ uantum entanglement is described. The quantum entangled photons are produced through electron-positron annihilation in the $S$-state, and their polarisations a\\ re analysed using the Compton scattering cross-section dependence on the photon polarisation. The equipment necessary for this experiment is available at a typ\\ ical undergrad...
Entangling power of the quantum baker's map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, A J; Caves, Carlton M
2003-01-01
We investigate entanglement production in a class of quantum baker's maps. The dynamics of these maps is constructed using strings of qubits, providing a natural tensor-product structure for application of various entanglement measures. We find that, in general, the quantum baker's maps are good at generating entanglement, producing multipartite entanglement amongst the qubits close to that expected in random states. We investigate the evolution of several entanglement measures: the subsystem linear entropy, the concurrence to characterize entanglement between pairs of qubits and two proposals for a measure of multipartite entanglement. Also derived are some new analytical formulae describing the levels of entanglement expected in random pure states
Local indistinguishability of orthogonal pure states by using a bound on distillable entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, Sibasish; Kar, Guruprasad; Roy, Anirban; Sarkar, Debasis; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2002-01-01
We show that the four states a vertical bar 00>+b vertical bar 11>, b-bar vertical bar 00>-a-bar vertical bar 11>, c vertical bar 01>+d vertical bar 10>, and d-bar vertical bar 01>-c-bar vertical bar 10> cannot be discriminated with certainty if only local operations and classical communication (LOCC) are allowed and if only a single copy is provided, except in the case when they are simply vertical bar 00>, vertical bar 11>, vertical bar 01>, and vertical bar 10> (in which case they are trivially distinguishable with LOCC). We go on to show that there exists a continuous range of values of a, b, c, and d such that even three states among the above four are not locally distinguishable, if only a single copy is provided. The proof follows from the fact that logarithmic negativity is an upper bound of distillable entanglement
A characterization of positive linear maps and criteria of entanglement for quantum states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hou Jinchuan, E-mail: jinchuanhou@yahoo.com.c, E-mail: houjinchuan@tyut.edu.c [Department of Mathematics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)
2010-09-24
Let H and K be (finite- or infinite-dimensional) complex Hilbert spaces. A characterization of positive completely bounded normal linear maps from B(H) into B(K) is given, which particularly gives a characterization of positive elementary operators including all positive linear maps between matrix algebras. This characterization is then applied to give a representation of quantum channels (operations) between infinite-dimensional systems. A necessary and sufficient criterion of separability is given which shows that a state {rho} on HxK is separable if and only if ({Phi}xI){rho} {>=} 0 for all positive finite-rank elementary operators {Phi}. Examples of NCP and indecomposable positive linear maps are given and are used to recognize some entangled states that cannot be recognized by the PPT criterion and the realignment criterion.
Symmetric minimally entangled typical thermal states for canonical and grand-canonical ensembles
Binder, Moritz; Barthel, Thomas
2017-05-01
Based on the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG), strongly correlated quantum many-body systems at finite temperatures can be simulated by sampling over a certain class of pure matrix product states (MPS) called minimally entangled typical thermal states (METTS). When a system features symmetries, these can be utilized to substantially reduce MPS computation costs. It is conceptually straightforward to simulate canonical ensembles using symmetric METTS. In practice, it is important to alternate between different symmetric collapse bases to decrease autocorrelations in the Markov chain of METTS. To this purpose, we introduce symmetric Fourier and Haar-random block bases that are efficiently mixing. We also show how grand-canonical ensembles can be simulated efficiently with symmetric METTS. We demonstrate these approaches for spin-1 /2 X X Z chains and discuss how the choice of the collapse bases influences autocorrelations as well as the distribution of measurement values and, hence, convergence speeds.
A characterization of positive linear maps and criteria of entanglement for quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hou Jinchuan
2010-01-01
Let H and K be (finite- or infinite-dimensional) complex Hilbert spaces. A characterization of positive completely bounded normal linear maps from B(H) into B(K) is given, which particularly gives a characterization of positive elementary operators including all positive linear maps between matrix algebras. This characterization is then applied to give a representation of quantum channels (operations) between infinite-dimensional systems. A necessary and sufficient criterion of separability is given which shows that a state ρ on HxK is separable if and only if (ΦxI)ρ ≥ 0 for all positive finite-rank elementary operators Φ. Examples of NCP and indecomposable positive linear maps are given and are used to recognize some entangled states that cannot be recognized by the PPT criterion and the realignment criterion.
A characterization of positive linear maps and criteria of entanglement for quantum states
Hou, Jinchuan
2010-09-01
Let H and K be (finite- or infinite-dimensional) complex Hilbert spaces. A characterization of positive completely bounded normal linear maps from {\\mathcal B}(H) into {\\mathcal B}(K) is given, which particularly gives a characterization of positive elementary operators including all positive linear maps between matrix algebras. This characterization is then applied to give a representation of quantum channels (operations) between infinite-dimensional systems. A necessary and sufficient criterion of separability is given which shows that a state ρ on HotimesK is separable if and only if (ΦotimesI)ρ >= 0 for all positive finite-rank elementary operators Φ. Examples of NCP and indecomposable positive linear maps are given and are used to recognize some entangled states that cannot be recognized by the PPT criterion and the realignment criterion.
An integrated processor for photonic quantum states using a broadband light–matter interface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saglamyurek, E; Sinclair, N; Slater, J A; Heshami, K; Oblak, D; Tittel, W
2014-01-01
Faithful storage and coherent manipulation of quantum optical pulses are key for long distance quantum communications and quantum computing. Combining these functions in a light–matter interface that can be integrated on-chip with other photonic quantum technologies, e.g. sources of entangled photons, is an important step towards these applications. To date there have only been a few demonstrations of coherent pulse manipulation utilizing optical storage devices compatible with quantum states, and that only in atomic gas media (making integration difficult) and with limited capabilities. Here we describe how a broadband waveguide quantum memory based on the atomic frequency comb (AFC) protocol can be used as a programmable processor for essentially arbitrary spectral and temporal manipulations of individual quantum optical pulses. Using weak coherent optical pulses at the few photon level, we experimentally demonstrate sequencing, time-to-frequency multiplexing and demultiplexing, splitting, interfering, temporal and spectral filtering, compressing and stretching as well as selective delaying. Our integrated light–matter interface offers high-rate, robust and easily configurable manipulation of quantum optical pulses and brings fully practical optical quantum devices one step closer to reality. Furthermore, as the AFC protocol is suitable for storage of intense light pulses, our processor may also find applications in classical communications. (paper)
Quantum entanglement for systems of identical bosons: I. General features
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dalton, B J; Goold, J; Garraway, B M; Reid, M D
2017-01-01
These two accompanying papers are concerned with two mode entanglement for systems of identical massive bosons and the relationship to spin squeezing and other quantum correlation effects. Entanglement is a key quantum feature of composite systems in which the probabilities for joint measurements on the composite sub-systems are no longer determined from measurement probabilities on the separate sub-systems. There are many aspects of entanglement that can be studied. This two-part review focuses on the meaning of entanglement, the quantum paradoxes associated with entangled states, and the important tests that allow an experimentalist to determine whether a quantum state—in particular, one for massive bosons is entangled. An overall outcome of the review is to distinguish criteria (and hence experiments) for entanglement that fully utilize the symmetrization principle and the super-selection rules that can be applied to bosonic massive particles. In the first paper (I), the background is given for the meaning of entanglement in the context of systems of identical particles. For such systems, the requirement is that the relevant quantum density operators must satisfy the symmetrization principle and that global and local super-selection rules prohibit states in which there are coherences between differing particle numbers. The justification for these requirements is fully discussed. In the second quantization approach that is used, both the system and the sub-systems are modes (or sets of modes) rather than particles, particles being associated with different occupancies of the modes. The definition of entangled states is based on first defining the non-entangled states—after specifying which modes constitute the sub-systems. This work mainly focuses on the two mode entanglement for massive bosons, but is put in the context of tests of local hidden variable theories, where one may not be able to make the above restrictions. The review provides the detailed
Entanglement in random pure states: spectral density and average von Neumann entropy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Santosh; Pandey, Akhilesh, E-mail: skumar.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: ap0700@mail.jnu.ac.in [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)
2011-11-04
Quantum entanglement plays a crucial role in quantum information, quantum teleportation and quantum computation. The information about the entanglement content between subsystems of the composite system is encoded in the Schmidt eigenvalues. We derive here closed expressions for the spectral density of Schmidt eigenvalues for all three invariant classes of random matrix ensembles. We also obtain exact results for average von Neumann entropy. We find that maximum average entanglement is achieved if the system belongs to the symplectic invariant class. (paper)
Xiong, Pei-Ying; Yu, Xu-Tao; Zhang, Zai-Chen; Zhan, Hai-Tao; Hua, Jing-Yu
2017-08-01
Quantum multi-hop teleportation is important in the field of quantum communication. In this study, we propose a quantum multi-hop communication model and a quantum routing protocol with multihop teleportation for wireless mesh backbone networks. Based on an analysis of quantum multi-hop protocols, a partially entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state is selected as the quantum channel for the proposed protocol. Both quantum and classical wireless channels exist between two neighboring nodes along the route. With the proposed routing protocol, quantum information can be transmitted hop by hop from the source node to the destination node. Based on multi-hop teleportation based on the partially entangled GHZ state, a quantum route established with the minimum number of hops. The difference between our routing protocol and the classical one is that in the former, the processes used to find a quantum route and establish quantum channel entanglement occur simultaneously. The Bell state measurement results of each hop are piggybacked to quantum route finding information. This method reduces the total number of packets and the magnitude of air interface delay. The deduction of the establishment of a quantum channel between source and destination is also presented here. The final success probability of quantum multi-hop teleportation in wireless mesh backbone networks was simulated and analyzed. Our research shows that quantum multi-hop teleportation in wireless mesh backbone networks through a partially entangled GHZ state is feasible.
Ma, Chen-Te
2016-01-01
Entanglement is a physical phenomenon that each state cannot be described individually. Entanglement entropy gives quantitative understanding to the entanglement. We use decomposition of the Hilbert space to discuss properties of the entanglement. Therefore, partial trace operator becomes important to define the reduced density matrix from different centers, which commutes with all elements in the Hilbert space, corresponding to different entanglement choices or different observations on entangling surface. Entanglement entropy is expected to satisfy the strong subadditivity. We discuss decomposition of the Hilbert space for the strong subadditivity and other related inequalities. The entanglement entropy with centers can be computed from the Hamitonian formulations systematically, provided that we know wavefunctional. In the Hamitonian formulation, it is easier to obtain symmetry structure. We consider massless p-form theory as an example. The massless p-form theory in (2 p + 2)-dimensions has global symmetry, similar to the electric-magnetic duality, connecting centers in ground state. This defines a duality structure in centers. Because it is hard to exactly compute the entanglement entropy from partial trace operator, we propose the Lagrangian formulation from the Hamitonian formulation to compute the entanglement entropy with centers. From the Lagrangian method and saddle point approximation, the codimension two surface term (leading order) in the Einstein gravity theory or holographic entanglement entropy should correspond to non-tensor product decomposition (center is not identity). Finally, we compute the entanglement entropy of the SU( N) Yang-Mills lattice gauge theory in the fundamental representation using the strong coupling expansion in the extended lattice model to obtain spatial area term in total dimensions larger than two for N > 1.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ma, Chen-Te [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China)
2016-01-13
Entanglement is a physical phenomenon that each state cannot be described individually. Entanglement entropy gives quantitative understanding to the entanglement. We use decomposition of the Hilbert space to discuss properties of the entanglement. Therefore, partial trace operator becomes important to define the reduced density matrix from different centers, which commutes with all elements in the Hilbert space, corresponding to different entanglement choices or different observations on entangling surface. Entanglement entropy is expected to satisfy the strong subadditivity. We discuss decomposition of the Hilbert space for the strong subadditivity and other related inequalities. The entanglement entropy with centers can be computed from the Hamitonian formulations systematically, provided that we know wavefunctional. In the Hamitonian formulation, it is easier to obtain symmetry structure. We consider massless p-form theory as an example. The massless p-form theory in (2p+2)-dimensions has global symmetry, similar to the electric-magnetic duality, connecting centers in ground state. This defines a duality structure in centers. Because it is hard to exactly compute the entanglement entropy from partial trace operator, we propose the Lagrangian formulation from the Hamitonian formulation to compute the entanglement entropy with centers. From the Lagrangian method and saddle point approximation, the codimension two surface term (leading order) in the Einstein gravity theory or holographic entanglement entropy should correspond to non-tensor product decomposition (center is not identity). Finally, we compute the entanglement entropy of the SU(N) Yang-Mills lattice gauge theory in the fundamental representation using the strong coupling expansion in the extended lattice model to obtain spatial area term in total dimensions larger than two for N>1.
Resolving photon number states in a superconducting circuit.
Schuster, D I; Houck, A A; Schreier, J A; Wallraff, A; Gambetta, J M; Blais, A; Frunzio, L; Majer, J; Johnson, B; Devoret, M H; Girvin, S M; Schoelkopf, R J
2007-02-01
Electromagnetic signals are always composed of photons, although in the circuit domain those signals are carried as voltages and currents on wires, and the discreteness of the photon's energy is usually not evident. However, by coupling a superconducting quantum bit (qubit) to signals on a microwave transmission line, it is possible to construct an integrated circuit in which the presence or absence of even a single photon can have a dramatic effect. Such a system can be described by circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED)-the circuit equivalent of cavity QED, where photons interact with atoms or quantum dots. Previously, circuit QED devices were shown to reach the resonant strong coupling regime, where a single qubit could absorb and re-emit a single photon many times. Here we report a circuit QED experiment in the strong dispersive limit, a new regime where a single photon has a large effect on the qubit without ever being absorbed. The hallmark of this strong dispersive regime is that the qubit transition energy can be resolved into a separate spectral line for each photon number state of the microwave field. The strength of each line is a measure of the probability of finding the corresponding photon number in the cavity. This effect is used to distinguish between coherent and thermal fields, and could be used to create a photon statistics analyser. As no photons are absorbed by this process, it should be possible to generate non-classical states of light by measurement and perform qubit-photon conditional logic, the basis of a logic bus for a quantum computer.
Experimental distribution of entanglement with separable carriers
Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Zuppardo, Margherita; Gillett, Geoff; Broome, Matthew; de Almeida, Marcelo; Paternostro, Mauro; White, Andrew; Paterek, Tomasz
2014-03-01
Quantum networks will allow us to overcome distance limitations in quantum communication, and to share quantum computing tasks between remote quantum processors. The key requirement for quantum networking is the distribution of entanglement between nodes. Surprisingly, entanglement can be generated across a network without directly being communicated between nodes. In contrast to information gain, which cannot exceed the communicated information, the entanglement gain is bounded by the communicated quantum discord, a more general measure of quantum correlation that includes but is not limited to entanglement. Here we report an experiment in which two communicating parties who share three initially separable photonic qubits are entangled by exchange of a carrier photon that is not entangled with either party at all times. We show that distributing entanglement with separable carriers is resilient to noise and in some cases becomes the only way of distributing entanglement over noisy environments.
Spin quantum tunneling via entangled states in a dimer of exchange coupled single-molecule magnets
Tiron, R.; Wernsdorfer, W.; Aliaga-Alcalde, N.; Foguet-Albiol, D.; Christou, G.
2004-03-01
A new family of supramolecular, antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled dimers of single-molecule magnets (SMMs) has recently been reported [W. Wernsdorfer, N. Aliaga-Alcalde, D.N. Hendrickson, and G. Christou, Nature 416, 406 (2002)]. Each SMM acts as a bias on its neighbor, shifting the quantum tunneling resonances of the individual SMMs. Hysteresis loop measurements on a single crystal of SMM-dimers have now established quantum tunneling of the magnetization via entangled states of the dimer. This shows that the dimer really does behave as a quantum-mechanically coupled dimer. The transitions are well separated, suggesting long coherence times compared to the time scale of the energy splitting. This result is of great importance if such systems are to be used for quantum computing. It also allows the measurement of the longitudinal and transverse superexchange coupling constants [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227203 (2003)].
Twisted injectivity in projected entangled pair states and the classification of quantum phases
Buerschaper, Oliver
2014-12-01
We introduce a class of projected entangled pair states (PEPS) which is based on a group symmetry twisted by a 3-cocycle of the group. This twisted symmetry is expressed as a matrix product operator (MPO) with bond dimension greater than 1 and acts on the virtual boundary of a PEPS tensor. We show that it gives rise to a new standard form for PEPS from which we construct a family of local Hamiltonians which are gapped, frustration-free and include fixed points of the renormalization group flow. Based on this insight, we advance the classification of 2D gapped quantum spin systems by showing how this new standard form for PEPS determines the emergent topological order of these local Hamiltonians. Specifically, we identify their universality class as DIJKGRAAF-WITTEN topological quantum field theory (TQFT).
Three-photon resonances due to autoionizing states in calcium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zawadzka, A.; Dygdala, R.S.; Raczynski, A.; Zaremba, J.; Kobus, J. [Instytut Fizyki, Uniwersytet M Kopernika w Toruniu, Torun (Poland)
2002-04-28
In the present study we have investigated three-photon ionization in Ca in which autoionizing states are engaged. The two-photon resonant process (from the Ca ground state 4s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0}) occurred through or at least in the vicinity of one of the following states: 4s4d {sup 1}D{sub 2}, 4p{sup 2} {sup 3}P{sub 2}, 4s6s {sup 1}S{sub 0}, 4p{sup 2} {sup 1}D{sub 2} and 4p{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0}, with the third photon either reaching the continuum directly or one of the autoionizing states. The three-photon resonant transitions to 3dmp, mf: {sup 1}P{sub 1}, {sup 3}P{sub 1} and {sup 3}D{sub 1} autoionizing states for m up to 21 have been observed. Some of the autoionizing resonances which we have found had not been observed before in a high-resolution one-photon absorption experiment (for J=1) and in multiphoton experiments (for J=3). We have compared the ionization signal as a function of the laser detuning and the laser intensity with theoretical curves obtained within a simple model (three-level atom + one-mode laser field). This gives information about the order of magnitude of the three-photon ionization probability through autoionizing states. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fan Hongyi [CCAST (World Laboratory) PO Box 8730, Beijing 100080 (China); Jiang Zhonghua [Special Class for the Gifted Young, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)
2004-02-13
By virtue of the entangled state representation |{xi} rang rang, we solve the dynamics of a generalized parametric amplifier whose Hamiltonian is composed of two forced quantum oscillators plus a parametric down-conversion interaction in the resonant case. The solutions and state vectors of the Schroedinger equation are derived, of which the simplest solution is a squeezed coherent state. The method of characteristics is employed.
Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics.
Wang, Jianwei; Paesani, Stefano; Ding, Yunhong; Santagati, Raffaele; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Salavrakos, Alexia; Tura, Jordi; Augusiak, Remigiusz; Mančinska, Laura; Bacco, Davide; Bonneau, Damien; Silverstone, Joshua W; Gong, Qihuang; Acín, Antonio; Rottwitt, Karsten; Oxenløwe, Leif K; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Laing, Anthony; Thompson, Mark G
2018-04-20
The ability to control multidimensional quantum systems is central to the development of advanced quantum technologies. We demonstrate a multidimensional integrated quantum photonic platform able to generate, control, and analyze high-dimensional entanglement. A programmable bipartite entangled system is realized with dimensions up to 15 × 15 on a large-scale silicon photonics quantum circuit. The device integrates more than 550 photonic components on a single chip, including 16 identical photon-pair sources. We verify the high precision, generality, and controllability of our multidimensional technology, and further exploit these abilities to demonstrate previously unexplored quantum applications, such as quantum randomness expansion and self-testing on multidimensional states. Our work provides an experimental platform for the development of multidimensional quantum technologies. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Jianwei; Paesani, Stefano; Ding, Yunhong
2018-01-01
-dimensional entanglement. A programmable bipartite entangled system is realized with dimension up to 15 × 15 on a large-scale silicon-photonics quantum circuit. The device integrates more than 550 photonic components on a single chip, including 16 identical photon-pair sources. We verify the high precision, generality......The ability to control multidimensional quantum systems is key for the investigation of fundamental science and for the development of advanced quantum technologies. We demonstrate a multidimensional integrated quantum photonic platform able to generate, control and analyze high...... and controllability of our multidimensional technology, and further exploit these abilities to demonstrate key quantum applications experimentally unexplored before, such as quantum randomness expansion and self-testing on multidimensional states. Our work provides an experimental platform for the development...
Quantum Statistics and Entanglement Problems
Trainor, L. E. H.; Lumsden, Charles J.
2002-01-01
Interpretations of quantum measurement theory have been plagued by two questions, one concerning the role of observer consciousness and the other the entanglement phenomenon arising from the superposition of quantum states. We emphasize here the remarkable role of quantum statistics in describing the entanglement problem correctly and discuss the relationship to issues arising from current discussions of intelligent observers in entangled, decohering quantum worlds.
Generic entangling through quantum indistinguishability
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We show that this entanglement generation procedure works for completely random initial states of the variable to be entangled. We also demonstrate a curious complementarity exhibited by our scheme and its applications in estimating the generated entanglement as a function of wave packet overlap at the beamsplitter.
Universal entanglement transformations without communication
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dam, Wim van; Hayden, Patrick
2003-01-01
We show that in the presence of finite catalysts, any pure bipartite entangled state can be converted into any other, to unlimited accuracy, without the use of any communication, quantum or classical. We call this process embezzling entanglement because it involves removing a small amount of entanglement from the catalyst in a physically unnoticeable way
State Operator Correspondence and Entanglement in AdS2/CFT1
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashoke Sen
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Since Euclidean global AdS2 space represented as a strip has two boundaries, the state-operator correspondence in the dual CFT1 reduces to the standard map from the operators acting on a single copy of the Hilbert space to states in the tensor product of two copies of the Hilbert space. Using this picture we argue that the corresponding states in the dual string theory living on AdS2 × K are described by the twisted version of the Hartle–Hawking states, the twists being generated by a large unitary group of symmetries that this string theory must possess. This formalism makes natural the dual interpretation of the black hole entropy—as the logarithm of the degeneracy of ground states of the quantum mechanics describing the low energy dynamics of the black hole, and also as an entanglement entropy between the two copies of the same quantum theory living on the two boundaries of global AdS2 separated by the event horizon.
Entanglement in the Bogoliubov vacuum
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Meyer, T.; Lewenstein, M.
2005-01-01
We analyze the entanglement properties of the Bogoliubov vacuum, which is obtained as a second-order approximation to the ground state of an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate. We work in one- and two-dimensional lattices and study the entanglement between two groups of sites as a function...... and to be favoured by strong interactions. Conversely, long-range entanglement is favoured by relatively weak interactions. No examples of bound entanglement are found....
Multi-particle entanglement via two-party entanglement
Brassard, Gilles; Mor, Tal
2001-09-01
Entanglement between n particles is a generalization of the entanglement between two particles, and a state is considered entangled if it cannot be written as a mixture of tensor products of the n particles' states. We present the key notion of semi-separability, used to investigate n-particle entanglement by looking at two-party entanglement between its various subsystems. We provide necessary conditions for n-particle separability (that is, sufficient conditions for n-particle entanglement). We also provide necessary and sufficient conditions in the case of pure states. By surprising examples, we show that such conditions are not sufficient for separability in the case of mixed states, suggesting entanglement of a strange type.
Entanglement transfer from microwaves to diamond NV centers
Gomez, Angela V.; Rodriguez, Ferney J.; Quiroga, Luis
2014-03-01
Strong candidates to create quantum entangled states in solid-state environments are the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. By the combination of radiation from different wavelength (optical, microwave and radio-frequency), several protocols have been proposed to create entangled states of different NVs. Recently, experimental sources of non-classical microwave radiation have been successfully realized. Here, we consider the entanglement transfer from spatially separated two-mode microwave squeezed (entangled) photons to a pair of NV centers by exploiting the fact that the spin triplet ground state of a NV has a natural splitting with a frequency on the order of GHz (microwave range). We first demonstrate that the transfer process in the simplest case of a single pair of spatially separated NVs is feasible. Moreover, we proceed to extend the previous results to more realistic scenarios where 13C nuclear spin baths surrounding each NV are included, quantifying the degradation of the entanglement transfer by the dephasing/dissipation effects produced by the nuclear baths. Finally, we address the issue of assessing the possibility of entanglement transfer from the squeezed microwave light to two nuclear spins closely linked to different NV center electrons. Facultad de Ciencias Uniandes.
Efficiency of entanglement of distant atoms by projective measurement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olivares Renteria, Georgina; Zippilli, Stefano; Morigi, Giovanna [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Rohde, Felix; Schuck, Carsten; Eschner, Juergen [ICFO - Institut de CIencies Fotoniques, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain)
2008-07-01
We compare the efficiency of two schemes for the preparation of entangled states of distant atoms. In these proposals the atoms do not interact and the entanglement is realized by means of the measurement of the scattered field which project the two atoms into the desired state. We quantify the efficiency of the schemes using the fidelity between the state of the system after the detection of a photon and an ideal entangled state of the two atoms. In the first scheme the atoms interact with two optical cavities and the enhanced probability of emission into the cavities allows for high detection efficiency. This scheme is limited by the finite probability of emission of two photons. Thus, even under the assumption of perfect detection efficiency, the fidelity of the scheme never reaches unity. In the second scheme emission of two photons is suppressed by low excitation strength, but the detection efficiency is low since the atoms scatter into free space and only a small fraction of the photons is measured. In this case the fidelity is conditioned on single-photon detection and results to be higher. The comparison is quantitatively evaluated for an ongoing experiment with two distant trapped single Ca+ ions.
Exact stabilization of entangled states in finite time by dissipative quantum circuits
Johnson, Peter D.; Ticozzi, Francesco; Viola, Lorenza
2017-07-01
Open quantum systems evolving according to discrete-time dynamics are capable, unlike continuous-time counterparts, to converge to a stable equilibrium in finite time with zero error. We consider dissipative quantum circuits consisting of sequences of quantum channels subject to specified quasi-locality constraints, and determine conditions under which stabilization of a pure multipartite entangled state of interest may be exactly achieved in finite time. Special emphasis is devoted to characterizing scenarios where finite-time stabilization may be achieved robustly with respect to the order of the applied quantum maps, as suitable for unsupervised control architectures. We show that if a decomposition of the physical Hilbert space into virtual subsystems is found, which is compatible with the locality constraint and relative to which the target state factorizes, then robust stabilization may be achieved by independently cooling each component. We further show that if the same condition holds for a scalable class of pure states, a continuous-time quasi-local Markov semigroup ensuring rapid mixing can be obtained. Somewhat surprisingly, we find that the commutativity of the canonical parent Hamiltonian one may associate to the target state does not directly relate to its finite-time stabilizability properties, although in all cases where we can guarantee robust stabilization, a (possibly noncanonical) commuting parent Hamiltonian may be found. Aside from graph states, quantum states amenable to finite-time robust stabilization include a class of universal resource states displaying two-dimensional symmetry-protected topological order, along with tensor network states obtained by generalizing a construction due to Bravyi and Vyalyi [Quantum Inf. Comput. 5, 187 (2005)]. Extensions to representative classes of mixed graph-product and thermal states are also discussed.
Density of photonic states in cholesteric liquid crystals
Dolganov, P. V.
2015-04-01
Density of photonic states ρ (ω ) , group vg, and phase vph velocity of light, and the dispersion relation between wave vector k , and frequency ω (k ) were determined in a cholesteric photonic crystal. A highly sensitive method (measurement of rotation of the plane of polarization of light) was used to determine ρ (ω ) in samples of different quality. In high-quality samples a drastic increase in ρ (ω ) near the boundaries of the stop band and oscillations related to Pendellösung beatings are observed. In low-quality samples photonic properties are strongly modified. The maximal value of ρ (ω ) is substantially smaller, and density of photonic states increases near the selective reflection band without oscillations in ρ (ω ) . Peculiarities of ρ (ω ) , vg, and ω (k ) are discussed. Comparison of the experimental results with theory was performed.
Investigation of the chiral antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model using projected entangled pair states
Poilblanc, Didier
2017-09-01
A simple spin-1/2 frustrated antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model (AFHM) on the square lattice—including chiral plaquette cyclic terms—was argued [A. E. B. Nielsen, G. Sierra, and J. I. Cirac, Nat. Commun. 4, 2864 (2013), 10.1038/ncomms3864] to host a bosonic Kalmeyer-Laughlin (KL) fractional quantum Hall ground state [V. Kalmeyer and R. B. Laughlin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2095 (1987), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.59.2095]. Here, we construct generic families of chiral projected entangled pair states (chiral PEPS) with low bond dimension (D =3 ,4 ,5 ) which, upon optimization, provide better variational energies than the KL Ansatz. The optimal D =3 PEPS exhibits chiral edge modes described by the Wess-Zumino-Witten SU(2) 1 model, as expected for the KL spin liquid. However, we find evidence that, in contrast to the KL state, the PEPS spin liquids have power-law dimer-dimer correlations and exhibit a gossamer long-range tail in the spin-spin correlations. We conjecture that these features are genuine to local chiral AFHM on bipartite lattices.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Gangat
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Multipartite entanglement of large numbers of physically distinct linear resonators is of both fundamental and applied interest, but there have been no feasible proposals to date for achieving it. At the same time, the Bose-Hubbard model with attractive interactions (ABH is theoretically known to have a phase transition from the superfluid phase to a highly entangled nonlocal superposition, but observation of this phase transition has remained out of experimental reach. In this theoretical work, we jointly address these two problems by (1 proposing an experimentally accessible quantum simulation of the ABH phase transition in an array of tunably coupled superconducting circuit microwave resonators and (2 incorporating the simulation into a highly scalable protocol that takes as input any microwave-resonator state with negligible occupation of number states |0⟩ and |1⟩ and nonlocally superposes it across the whole array of resonators. The large-scale multipartite entanglement produced by the protocol is of the W type, which is well known for its robustness. The protocol utilizes the ABH phase transition to generate the multipartite entanglement of all of the resonators in parallel, and is therefore deterministic and permits an increase in resonator number without any increase in protocol complexity; the number of resonators is limited instead by system characteristics such as resonator-frequency disorder and inter-resonator coupling strength. Only one local and two global controls are required for the protocol. We numerically demonstrate the protocol with realistic system parameters and estimate that current experimental capabilities can realize the protocol with high fidelity for greater than 40 resonators. Because superconducting-circuit microwave resonators are capable of interfacing with other devices and platforms such as mechanical resonators and (potentially optical fields, this proposal provides a route toward large-scale W
Remote quantum entanglement between two micromechanical oscillators.
Riedinger, Ralf; Wallucks, Andreas; Marinković, Igor; Löschnauer, Clemens; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Hong, Sungkun; Gröblacher, Simon
2018-04-01
Entanglement, an essential feature of quantum theory that allows for inseparable quantum correlations to be shared between distant parties, is a crucial resource for quantum networks 1 . Of particular importance is the ability to distribute entanglement between remote objects that can also serve as quantum memories. This has been previously realized using systems such as warm 2,3 and cold atomic vapours 4,5 , individual atoms 6 and ions 7,8 , and defects in solid-state systems 9-11 . Practical communication applications require a combination of several advantageous features, such as a particular operating wavelength, high bandwidth and long memory lifetimes. Here we introduce a purely micromachined solid-state platform in the form of chip-based optomechanical resonators made of nanostructured silicon beams. We create and demonstrate entanglement between two micromechanical oscillators across two chips that are separated by 20 centimetres . The entangled quantum state is distributed by an optical field at a designed wavelength near 1,550 nanometres. Therefore, our system can be directly incorporated in a realistic fibre-optic quantum network operating in the conventional optical telecommunication band. Our results are an important step towards the development of large-area quantum networks based on silicon photonics.
Hwang, W. Y.; Lee, J.; Ahn, D.; Hwang, S. W.
2000-01-01
It has recently been suggested that various entanglement measures for bipartite mixed states do not in general give the same ordering even in the asymptotic cases [S. Virmani and M. B. Plenio, Phys. Lett. A {\\bf 268}, 31 (2000)]. That is, for two certain mixed states, the order of the degree of entanglement depends on the measures. Therefore, incomparable pairs of mixed states which cannot be transformed to each other with unit efficiency by any combinations of local quantum operations and cl...
Engineering two-photon high-dimensional states through quantum interference
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Zhang, YI
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Many protocols in quantum science, for example, linear optical quantum computing, require access to large-scale entangled quantum states. Such systems can be realized through many-particle qubits, but this approach often suffers from scalability...
Controlling entangled spin-orbit coupling of 5 d states with interfacial heterostructure engineering
Kim, J.-W.; Choi, Y.; Chun, S. H.; Haskel, D.; Yi, D.; Ramesh, R.; Liu, J.; Ryan, P. J.
2018-03-01
The combination of strong electron correlations in 3 d transition-metal oxides and spin-orbit interactions in the 5 d counterpart can give rise to exotic electronic and magnetic properties. Here, the nature of emerging phenomena at the interface between SrIr O3 (SIO) and L a2 /3S r1 /3Mn O3 (LSMO) is presented. Nominally, SIO with strong spin-orbit interaction is metallic and nonmagnetic on the verge of a metal-insulator transition, whereas LSMO is metallic and ferromagnetic with itinerant character and high spin polarization. In the 1:1 LSMO/SIO superlattice, we observe ferromagnetic Mn moments with an insulating behavior, accompanied by antiferromagnetic ordering in SIO. Element-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroism proves that there is a weak net ferromagnetic Ir moment aligned antiparallel to the Mn counterpart. The branching ratio shows the formation of molecular orbitals between the Mn and Ir layers modifying the Ir 5 d electronic configuration through the mixture of t2 g and eg states, resulting in a deviation from Jeff=1 /2 . This result demonstrates a pathway to manipulate the spin-orbit entanglement in 5 d states with two-dimensional 3 d spin-polarized electrons through heterostructure design.
Fermionic projected entangled pair states and local U(1) gauge theories
Zohar, Erez; Burrello, Michele; Wahl, Thorsten B.; Cirac, J. Ignacio
2015-12-01
Tensor networks, and in particular Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS), are a powerful tool for the study of quantum many body physics, thanks to both their built-in ability of classifying and studying symmetries, and the efficient numerical calculations they allow. In this work, we introduce a way to extend the set of symmetric PEPS in order to include local gauge invariance and investigate lattice gauge theories with fermionic matter. To this purpose, we provide as a case study and first example, the construction of a fermionic PEPS, based on Gaussian schemes, invariant under both global and local U(1) gauge transformations. The obtained states correspond to a truncated U(1) lattice gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions, involving both the gauge field and fermionic matter. For the global symmetry (pure fermionic) case, these PEPS can be studied in terms of spinless fermions subject to a p-wave superconducting pairing. For the local symmetry (fermions and gauge fields) case, we find confined and deconfined phases in the pure gauge limit, and we discuss the screening properties of the phases arising in the presence of dynamical matter.
Generation and control of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entanglement in superconducting circuits.
Wei, L F; Liu, Yu-xi; Nori, Franco
2006-06-23
Going beyond the entanglement of microscopic objects (such as photons, spins, and ions), here we propose an efficient approach to produce and control the quantum entanglement of three macroscopic coupled superconducting qubits. By conditionally rotating, one by one, selected Josephson-charge qubits, we show that their Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states can be deterministically generated. The existence of GHZ correlations between these qubits could be experimentally demonstrated by effective single-qubit operations followed by high-fidelity single-shot readouts. The possibility of using the prepared GHZ correlations to test the macroscopic conflict between the noncommutativity of quantum mechanics and the commutativity of classical physics is also discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Octavian Dănilă
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Entanglement between two quantum elements is a phenomenon which presents a broad application spectrum, being used largely in quantum cryptography schemes and in physical characterisation of the universe. Commonly known entangled states have been obtained with photons and electrons, but other quantum elements such as quarks, leptons, and neutrinos have shown their informational potential. In this paper, we present the perspective of exploiting the phenomenon of entanglement that appears in nuclear particle interactions as a resource for quantum key distribution protocols.
Transverse correlations in triphoton entanglement: Geometrical and physical optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen Jianming; Rubin, Morton H.; Shih Yanhua; Xu, P.
2007-01-01
The transverse correlation of triphoton entanglement generated within a single crystal is analyzed. Among many interesting features of the transverse correlation, they arise from the spectral function F of the triphoton state produced in the parametric processes. One consequence of transverse effects of entangled states is quantum imaging, which is theoretically studied in photon counting measurements. Klyshko's two-photon advanced-wave picture is found to be applicable to the multiphoton entanglement with some modifications. We found that in the two-photon coincidence counting measurement by using triphoton entanglement, although the Gaussian thin lens equation (GTLE) holds, the imaging shown in coincidences is obscure and has a poor quality. This is because of tracing the remaining transverse modes in the untouched beam. In the triphoton imaging experiments, two kinds of cases have been examined. For the case that only one object with one thin lens is placed in the system, we found that the GTLE holds as expected in the triphoton coincidences and the effective distance between the lens and imaging plane is the parallel combination of two distances between the lens and two detectors weighted by wavelengths, which behaves as the parallel combination of resistors in the electromagnetism theory. Only in this case, a point-point correspondence for forming an image is well-accomplished. However, when two objects or two lenses are inserted in the system, though the GTLEs are well-satisfied, in general a point-point correspondence for imaging cannot be established. Under certain conditions, two blurred images may be observed in the coincidence counts. We have also studied the ghost interference-diffraction experiments by using double slits as apertures in triphoton entanglement. It was found that when two double slits are used in two optical beams, the interference-diffraction patterns show unusual features compared with the two-photon case. This unusual behavior is a
Entanglement Swapping in the Presence of White and Color Noise
Dotsenko, Ivan S.; Korobka, R.
2018-02-01
The influence of white and color noise on the outcome of the entanglement swapping process is investigated in a four-qubit system. Critical degree of noise in initial state, that could destroy entanglement in a result state is presented. The entanglement characteristics, such as concurrence, tangle, etc. are compared. Results could be helpful for experiments regarding entanglement swapping as conditions for initial quantum entangled states, to obtain entangled result state.
PURE STATE ENTANGLEMENT ENTROPY IN NONCOMMUTATIVE 2D DE SITTER SPACE TIME
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.F Ghiti
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Using the general modified field equation, a general noncommutative Klein-Gordon equation up to the second order of the noncommutativity parameter is derived in the context of noncommutative 2D De Sitter space-time. Using Bogoliubov coefficients and a special technics called conformal time; the boson-antiboson pair creation density is determined. The Von Neumann boson-antiboson pair creation quantum entanglement entropy is presented to compute the entanglement between the modes created presented.
Characterizing Genuine Multilevel Entanglement
Kraft, Tristan; Ritz, Christina; Brunner, Nicolas; Huber, Marcus; Gühne, Otfried
2018-02-01
Entanglement of high-dimensional quantum systems has become increasingly important for quantum communication and experimental tests of nonlocality. However, many effects of high-dimensional entanglement can be simulated by using multiple copies of low-dimensional systems. We present a general theory to characterize those high-dimensional quantum states for which the correlations cannot simply be simulated by low-dimensional systems. Our approach leads to general criteria for detecting multilevel entanglement in multiparticle quantum states, which can be used to verify these phenomena experimentally.
Fan, Hong-yi; Chen, Jun-hua; Low, Sen-yue
2014-08-01
By virtue of two mutually conjugate bipartite entangled state representations | η> and | ξ> (Fan and Klauder, Phys Rev A 49:704, 1994) we find new canonical operator realization (COR) of angular momentum. As its two applications, we point out that the COR helps to develop Schwinger bosonic realization theory, and can generalize the concept of FrFT, i.e., constructing new 2-dimensioanl fractional Fourier transformation with additivity.
Quantum interference and manipulation of entanglement in silicon wire waveguide quantum circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonneau, D; Engin, E; O'Brien, J L; Thompson, M G; Ohira, K; Suzuki, N; Yoshida, H; Iizuka, N; Ezaki, M; Natarajan, C M; Tanner, M G; Hadfield, R H; Dorenbos, S N; Zwiller, V
2012-01-01
Integrated quantum photonic waveguide circuits are a promising approach to realizing future photonic quantum technologies. Here, we present an integrated photonic quantum technology platform utilizing the silicon-on-insulator material system, where quantum interference and the manipulation of quantum states of light are demonstrated in components orders of magnitude smaller than previous implementations. Two-photon quantum interference is presented in a multi-mode interference coupler, and the manipulation of entanglement is demonstrated in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, opening the way to an all-silicon photonic quantum technology platform. (paper)
Quantum coherence and entanglement control for atom-cavity systems
Shu, Wenchong
Coherence and entanglement play a significant role in the quantum theory. Ideal quantum systems, "closed" to the outside world, remain quantum forever and thus manage to retain coherence and entanglement. Real quantum systems, however, are open to the environment and are therefore susceptible to the phenomenon of decoherence and disentanglement which are major hindrances to the effectiveness of quantum information processing tasks. In this thesis we have theoretically studied the evolution of coherence and entanglement in quantum systems coupled to various environments. We have also studied ways and means of controlling the decay of coherence and entanglement. We have studied the exact qubit entanglement dynamics of some interesting initial states coupled to a high-Q cavity containing zero photon, one photon, two photons and many photons respectively. We have found that an initially correlated environmental state can serve as an enhancer for entanglement decay or generation processes. More precisely, we have demonstrated that the degree of entanglement, including its collapse as well as its revival times, can be significantly modified by the correlated structure of the environmental modes. We have also studied dynamical decoupling (DD) technique --- a prominent strategy of controlling decoherence and preserving entanglement in open quantum systems. We have analyzed several DD control methods applied to qubit systems that can eliminate the system-environment coupling and prolong the quantum coherence time. Particularly, we have proposed a new DD sequence consisting a set of designed control operators that can universally protected an unknown qutrit state against colored phase and amplitude environment noises. In addition, in a non-Markovian regime, we have reformulated the quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to incorporate the effect of the external control fields. Without any assumptions on the system-environment coupling and the size of environment, we have
The Heisenberg picture for single photon states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pienaar, Jacques; Myers, Casey; Ralph, Timothy C.
2011-01-01
In the context of quantum field theory, the Heisenberg picture has a distinct advantage over the Schrodinger picture because the Schrodinger picture requires us to transform the vacuum state itself, which can be intractable in the case of non-inertial reference frames, whereas the Heisenberg picture allows us to keep the same vacuum state and only transform the operators. However, the Heisenberg calculation requires the operators to already be expressed as a function of creation and annihilation operators acting on the original vacuum, whereas calculations in quantum information and quantum computation use operators that act on qubit states, necessarily containing particles. The relationship between the operators acting on these states and the operators acting on the vacuum state has remained elusive. We derive such an expression using an explicit model for single-particle production from the vacuum.
Pakniat, R.; Soltani, M.; Tavassoly, M. K.
2018-03-01
Recently we studied the effect of photon addition in the initial coherent field on the entanglement swapping which causes some improvements in the process [Soltani et al., Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 31, 1750198 (2017)]. In this paper, we investigate the influence of multiphoton transitions in the atom-field interaction based on the cavity quantum electrodynamics on the entanglement swapping and show its considerable constructive effect on this process. The presented model consists of two two-level atoms namely A1 and A2 and two distinct cavity fields F1 and F2. Initially, the atoms are prepared in a maximally entangled state and the fields in the cavities are prepared in hybrid entangled state of number and coherent states, separately. Making the atom A2 to interact with the field F1 (via the generalized Jaynes-Cummings model which allows m-photon transitions between atomic levels in the emission and absorption processes) followed by their detection allows us to arrive at the entanglement swapping from the two atoms A1, A2 and the two fields F1, F2 to the atom-field A1-F2 system. Then, we pay our attention to the time evolution of success probability of detecting processes and fidelity. Also, to determine the amount of entanglement of the generated entangled state in the swapping process, the linear entropy is evaluated and the effect of parameter m concerning the multiphoton transitions on these quantities is investigated, numerically. It is observed that, by increasing the number of photons in the transition process, one may obtain considerable improvement in the relevant quantities of the entanglement swapping. In detail, the satisfactorily acceptable values 1 and 0.5 corresponding to success probability and fidelity are obtained for most of the times during observing of the above-mentioned procedure. We concluded that the presented formalism in this paper is much more advantageous than our presentation model in our earlier work mentioned above.
Simulation of continuous variable quantum games without entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Shangbin
2011-01-01
A simulation scheme of quantum version of Cournot's duopoly is proposed, in which there is a new Nash equilibrium that may also be Pareto optimal without any entanglement involved. The unique property of this simulation scheme is decoherence-free against the symmetric photon loss. Furthermore, we analyze the effects of the asymmetric information on this simulation scheme and investigate the case of asymmetric game caused by asymmetric photon loss. A second-order phase transition-like behavior of the average profits of firms 1 and 2 in a Nash equilibrium can be observed with the change of the degree of asymmetry of the information or the degree of 'virtual cooperation'. It is also found that asymmetric photon loss in this simulation scheme plays a similar role as that with the asymmetric entangled states in the quantum game.
Manipulation of a two-photon pump in superconductor - semiconductor heterostructures
Orth, Peter P.; Baireuther, Paul; Vekhter, Ilya; Schmalian, Joerg
2014-03-01
We investigate the photon statistics, entanglement and squeezing of a pn-junction sandwiched between two superconducting leads, and show that such an electrically-driven photon pump generates correlated and entangled pairs of photons. In particular, we demonstrate that the squeezing of the fluctuations in the quadrature amplitudes of the emitted light can be manipulated by changing the relative phase of the order parameters of the superconductors. This reveals how macroscopic coherence of the superconducting state can be used to tailor the properties of a two-photon state.
Decoherence of Two-qubits Coupled with Reservoirs Studied with New Ket-Bra Entangled State Method
Ren, Yi-Chong; Fan, Hong-Yi
2016-04-01
For the first time we define a so-called Ket-Bra Entangled State (KBES) for two-qubits coupled with reservoirs by introduce an extra fictitious mode vector, and convert the corresponding master equation into Schrödinger-like equation by virtue of this state. Via this approach we concisely obtain the dynamic evolution of two uncoupled qubits each immersed in local thermal noise. Based on this, the decoherence evolution for the extended Werner-like states is derived and how purity and temperature influence the concurrence is analyzed. This KBES method may also be applied to tackling master equations of limited atomic level systems.
Quantum state propagation in linear photonic bandgap structures
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Severini, S.; Tricca, S.; Sibilia, C.; Peřina, Jan
2004-01-01
Roč. 6, - (2004), s. 110-114 ISSN 1464-4266 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : photonic crystals * coupled mode theory * decoherence * quantum states propagation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.746, year: 2004
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Tang-Kun; Zhang Kang-Long; Tao Yu; Shan Chuan-Jia; Liu Ji-Bing
2016-01-01
The temporal evolution of the degree of entanglement between two atoms in a system of the binomial optical field interacting with two arbitrary entangled atoms is investigated. The influence of the strength of the dipole–dipole interaction between two atoms, probabilities of the Bernoulli trial, and particle number of the binomial optical field on the temporal evolution of the atomic entanglement are discussed. The result shows that the two atoms are always in the entanglement state. Moreover, if and only if the two atoms are initially in the maximally entangled state, the entanglement evolution is not affected by the parameters, and the degree of entanglement is always kept as 1. (paper)
Multi-dimensional photonic states from a quantum dot
Lee, J. P.; Bennett, A. J.; Stevenson, R. M.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.
2018-04-01
Quantum states superposed across multiple particles or degrees of freedom offer an advantage in the development of quantum technologies. Creating these states deterministically and with high efficiency is an ongoing challenge. A promising approach is the repeated excitation of multi-level quantum emitters, which have been shown to naturally generate light with quantum statistics. Here we describe how to create one class of higher dimensional quantum state, a so called W-state, which is superposed across multiple time bins. We do this by repeated Raman scattering of photons from a charged quantum dot in a pillar microcavity. We show this method can be scaled to larger dimensions with no reduction in coherence or single-photon character. We explain how to extend this work to enable the deterministic creation of arbitrary time-bin encoded qudits.
Effect of decoherence on fidelity in teleportation using entangled coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prakash, H; Chandra, N; Prakash, R; Shivani
2007-01-01
A scheme of teleporting a superposition of coherent states (α) and ( - α) using a beam splitter and two phase shifters was proposed by van Enk and Hirota (2001 Phys. Rev. A 64 022313). The authors concluded that the probability for successful teleportation is 1/2. In this paper, it is shown that the authors' scheme can be altered slightly so as to obtain an almost perfect teleportation for an appreciable value of (α) 2 . For (α) 2 = 5, the minimum of average fidelity, which is the minimum of the sum of the product of probability of occurrence of any case, and the corresponding fidelity is less than 1 by a quantity ∼10 -4 . We also discuss the effect of decoherence on teleportation fidelity. We find that if no photons are counted in both final outputs, the minimum assured fidelity is still non-zero except when there is no decoherence and the information is an even coherent state. For non-zero photon counts, minimum assured fidelity decreases with an increase in (α) 2 for low noise. For high noise, however, it increases, attains a maximum value and then decreases with (α) 2 . The average fidelity depends appreciably on the information for low values of (α) 2 only
Vacuum state of the Dirac field in de Sitter space and entanglement entropy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science,University of the Basque Country,48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science,Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013, Bilbao (Spain); Sasaki, Misao [Center for Gravitational Physics,Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tanaka, Takahiro [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Center for Gravitational Physics,Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2017-03-13
We compute the entanglement entropy of a free massive Dirac field between two causally disconnected open charts in de Sitter space. We first derive the Bunch-Davies vacuum mode functions of the Dirac field. We find there exists no supercurvature mode for the Dirac field. We then give the Bogoliubov transformation between the Bunch-Davies vacuum and the open chart vacua that makes the reduced density matrix diagonal. We find that the Dirac field becomes more entangled than a scalar field as m{sup 2}/H{sup 2} becomes small, and the difference is maximal in the massless limit.
Binder, Moritz; Barthel, Thomas
Based on DMRG, strongly correlated quantum many-body systems at finite temperatures can be simulated by sampling over a certain class of pure matrix product states (MPS) called minimally entangled typical thermal states (METTS). Here, we show how symmetries of the system can be exploited to considerably reduce computation costs in the METTS algorithm. While this is straightforward for the canonical ensemble, we introduce a modification of the algorithm to efficiently simulate the grand-canonical ensemble under utilization of symmetries. In addition, we construct novel symmetry-conserving collapse bases for the transitions in the Markov chain of METTS that improve the speed of convergence of the algorithm by reducing autocorrelations.
Klyachko, Alexander A.; Shumovsky, Alexander S
2005-01-01
The paper contains a brief review of an approach to quantum entanglement based on analysis of dynamic symmetry of systems and quantum uncertainties, accompanying the measurement of mean value of certain basic observables. The latter are defined in terms of the orthogonal basis of Lie algebra, corresponding to the dynamic symmetry group. We discuss the relativity of entanglement with respect to the choice of basic observables and a way of stabilization of robust entanglement in physical systems.
Dynamics of pairwise entanglement between two Tavis-Cummings atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Jinliang; Song Heshan
2008-01-01
We investigate the time evolution of pairwise entanglement between two Tavis-Cummings atoms for various entangled initial states, including pure and mixed states. We find that the phenomenon of entanglement sudden death behaviors is distinct in the evolution of entanglement for different initial states. What deserves mentioning here is that the initial portion of the excited state in the initial state is responsible for the sudden death of entanglement, and the degree of this effect also depends on the initial states
Borghi, M.; Castellan, C.; Signorini, S.; Trenti, A.; Pavesi, L.
2017-09-01
Silicon photonics is a technology based on fabricating integrated optical circuits by using the same paradigms as the dominant electronics industry. After twenty years of fervid development, silicon photonics is entering the market with low cost, high performance and mass-manufacturable optical devices. Until now, most silicon photonic devices have been based on linear optical effects, despite the many phenomenologies associated with nonlinear optics in both bulk materials and integrated waveguides. Silicon and silicon-based materials have strong optical nonlinearities which are enhanced in integrated devices by the small cross-section of the high-index contrast silicon waveguides or photonic crystals. Here the photons are made to strongly interact with the medium where they propagate. This is the central argument of nonlinear silicon photonics. It is the aim of this review to describe the state-of-the-art in the field. Starting from the basic nonlinearities in a silicon waveguide or in optical resonator geometries, many phenomena and applications are described—including frequency generation, frequency conversion, frequency-comb generation, supercontinuum generation, soliton formation, temporal imaging and time lensing, Raman lasing, and comb spectroscopy. Emerging quantum photonics applications, such as entangled photon sources, heralded single-photon sources and integrated quantum photonic circuits are also addressed at the end of this review.
On-chip generation of photon-triplet states.
Krapick, Stephan; Brecht, Benjamin; Herrmann, Harald; Quiring, Viktor; Silberhorn, Christine
2016-02-08
Efficient sources of many-partite non-classical states are key for the advancement of quantum technologies and for the fundamental testing of quantum mechanics. We demonstrate the generation of time-correlated photon triplets at telecom wavelengths via pulsed cascaded parametric down-conversion in a monolithically integrated source. By detecting the generated states with success probabilities of (6.25 ± 1.09) × 10(-11) per pump pulse at injected powers as low as 10 μW, we benchmark the efficiency of the complete system and deduce its high potential for scalability. Our source is unprecedentedly long-term stable, it overcomes interface losses intrinsically due to its monolithic architecture, and the photon-triplet states dominate uncorrelated noise significantly. These results mark crucial progress towards the proliferation of robust, scalable, synchronized and miniaturized quantum technology.
Temporal and spectral manipulations of correlated photons using a time-lens
Mittal, Sunil; Orre, Venkata Vikram; Restelli, Alessandro; Salem, Reza; Goldschmidt, Elizabeth A.; Hafezi, Mohammad
2017-01-01
A common challenge in quantum information processing with photons is the limited ability to manipulate and measure correlated states. An example is the inability to measure picosecond scale temporal correlations of a multi-photon state, given state-of-the-art detectors have a temporal resolution of about 100 ps. Here, we demonstrate temporal magnification of time-bin entangled two-photon states using a time-lens, and measure their temporal correlation function which is otherwise not accessibl...
Antibunching dynamics of plasmonically mediated entanglement generation
Dumitrescu, Eugene; Lawrie, Benjamin
2017-11-01
Dissipative entanglement-generation protocols embrace environmental interactions to generate long-lived entangled states. In this paper, we report on the antibunching dynamics for a pair of actively driven quantum emitters coupled to a shared dissipative plasmonic reservoir. We find that antibunching is a universal signature for entangled states generated by dissipative means and examine its use as an entanglement diagnostic. We discuss the experimental validation of plasmonically mediated entanglement generation by Hanbury Brown-Twiss interferometry with picosecond timing resolution determined by an effective two-qubit Rabi frequency, and we analyze the robustness of entanglement generation with respect to perturbations in local detunings, couplings, and driving fields.
Nonlinear Tamm states and surface effects in periodic photonic structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kivshar, Yu S
2008-01-01
We present a brief overview of the basic concepts and important experimental observations of the effect of light localization near the surfaces of truncated periodic photonic structures. In particular, we discuss the formation of nonlinear localized modes and discrete surface solitons near the edges of nonlinear optical waveguide arrays and two-dimensional photonic lattices. We draw an analogy between the nonlinear surface optical modes and the surface Tamm states known in the electronic theory. We discuss the crossover between discrete solitons in the array and surface solitons at the edge of the array by analyzing the families of even and odd nonlinear localized modes located at finite distances from the edge of a waveguide array. We discuss various generalization of this concept including surface solitons in chirped lattices, multi-gap vector surface solitons, polychromatic surface states generated by a supercontinuum source, surface modes in two-dimensional photonic lattices, and spatiotemporal surface solitons. Finally, we discuss briefly several other related concepts including the enhanced beaming of light from subwavelength waveguides in photonic crystals
Andrews, David L
2015-01-01
Discusses the basic physical principles underlying thescience and technology of nanophotonics, its materials andstructures This volume presents nanophotonic structures and Materials.Nanophotonics is photonic science and technology that utilizeslight/matter interactions on the nanoscale where researchers arediscovering new phenomena and developing techniques that go wellbeyond what is possible with conventional photonics andelectronics.The topics discussed in this volume are: CavityPhotonics; Cold Atoms and Bose-Einstein Condensates; Displays;E-paper; Graphene; Integrated Photonics; Liquid Cry
Andrews, David L
2015-01-01
Discusses the basic physical principles underlying Biomedical Photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy This volume discusses biomedical photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy, the basic physical principles underlying the technology and its applications. The topics discussed in this volume are: Biophotonics; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Medical Photonics; Microscopy; Nonlinear Optics; Ophthalmic Technology; Optical Tomography; Optofluidics; Photodynamic Therapy; Image Processing; Imaging Systems; Sensors; Single Molecule Detection; Futurology in Photonics. Comprehensive and accessible cov
Andrews, David L
2015-01-01
This book covers modern photonics accessibly and discusses the basic physical principles underlying all the applications and technology of photonicsThis volume covers the basic physical principles underlying the technology and all applications of photonics from statistical optics to quantum optics. The topics discussed in this volume are: Photons in perspective; Coherence and Statistical Optics; Complex Light and Singular Optics; Electrodynamics of Dielectric Media; Fast and slow Light; Holography; Multiphoton Processes; Optical Angular Momentum; Optical Forces, Trapping and Manipulation; Pol
Continuous-variable sampling from photon-added or photon-subtracted squeezed states
Chabaud, U.; Douce, T.; Markham, D.; van Loock, P.; Kashefi, E.; Ferrini, G.
2017-12-01
We introduce a family of quantum circuits in continuous variables and we show that, relying on the widely accepted conjecture that the polynomial hierarchy of complexity classes does not collapse, their output probability distribution cannot be efficiently simulated by a classical computer. These circuits are composed of input photon-subtracted (or photon-added) squeezed states, passive linear optics evolution, and eight-port homodyne detection. We address the proof of hardness for the exact probability distribution of these quantum circuits by exploiting mappings onto different architectures of subuniversal quantum computers. We obtain both a worst-case and an average-case hardness result. Hardness of boson sampling with eight-port homodyne detection is obtained as the zero squeezing limit of our model. We conclude with a discussion on the relevance and interest of the present model in connection to experimental applications and classical simulations.
Quasi-lattices of qubits for generating inequivalent multipartite entanglements
Ian, Hou
2016-06-01
The mesoscopic scale of superconducting qubits makes their inter-spacings comparable to the scale of wavelength of a circuit cavity field to which they commonly couple. This comparability results in inhomogeneous coupling strengths for each qubit and hence asynchronous Rabi excitation cycles among the qubits that form a quasi-lattice. We find that such inhomogeneous coupling benefits the formation of multi-photon resonances between the single-mode cavity field and the quasi-lattice. The multi-photon resonances lead, in turn, to the simultaneous generation of inequivalent |\\text{GHZ}> and |W> types of multipartite entanglement states, which are not transformable to each other through local operations with classical communications. Applying the model on the 3-qubit quasi-lattice and using the entanglement measures of both concurrence and 3-tangle, we verify that the inhomogeneous coupling specifically promotes the generation of the totally inseparable |\\text{GHZ}> state.
Su, Wan-Jun; Yang, Zhen-Biao; Zhong, Zhi-Rong
2018-01-01
We propose an effective scheme for realizing a Jaynes-Cummings model with the collective nitrogen-vacancy-center ensemble (NVE) bosonic modes in a hybrid system. Specifically, the controllable transmon qubit can alternatively interact with one of the two NVEs, which results in the production of N -particle entangled states. Arbitrary N -particle entangled states, NOON states, N -dimensional entangled states, and entangled coherent states are demonstrated. Realistic imperfections and decoherence effects are analyzed via numerical simulation. Since no cavity photons or excited levels of the NV center are populated during the whole process, our scheme is insensitive to cavity decay and the spin dephasing effect of the NVE. The idea provides a scalable way to realize NVE-circuit cavity quantum information processing with current technology.
Universal distortion-free entanglement concentration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsumoto, Keiji; Hayashi, Masahito
2007-01-01
We propose a new protocol of universal entanglement concentration, which converts many copies of an unknown pure state to an exact maximally entangled state. The yield of the protocol, which is outputted as a classical information, is probabilistic, and achieves the entropy rate with high probability, just as nonuniversal entanglement concentration protocols do
Spin Quantum Tunneling via Entangled States in a Dimer of Exchange-Coupled Single-Molecule Magnets
Tiron, R.; Wernsdorfer, W.; Foguet-Albiol, D.; Aliaga-Alcalde, N.; Christou, G.
2003-11-01
A new family of supramolecular, antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled dimers of single-molecule magnets (SMMs) has recently been reported. Each SMM acts as a bias on its neighbor, shifting the quantum tunneling resonances of the individual SMMs. Hysteresis loop measurements on a single crystal of SMM dimers have now established quantum tunneling of the magnetization via entangled states of the dimer. This shows that the dimer really does behave as a quantum mechanically coupled dimer, and also allows the measurement of the longitudinal and transverse superexchange coupling constants.
Entangled Light Emission From a Diode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stevenson, R. M.; Shields, A. J.; Salter, C. L.; Farrer, I.; Nicoll, C. A.; Ritchie, D. A.
2011-01-01
Electrically-driven entangled photon generation is demonstrated for the first time using a single semiconductor quantum dot embedded in a light emitting diode structure. The entanglement fidelity is shown to be of sufficient quality for applications such as quantum key distribution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chrzanowski, H. M.; Bernu, J.; Sparkes, B. M.; Hage, B.; Lam, P. K.; Symul, T.; Lund, A. P.; Ralph, T. C.
2011-01-01
The nonlinearity of a conditional photon-counting measurement can be used to ''de-Gaussify'' a Gaussian state of light. Here we present and experimentally demonstrate a technique for photon-number resolution using only homodyne detection. We then apply this technique to inform a conditional measurement, unambiguously reconstructing the statistics of the non-Gaussian one- and two-photon-subtracted squeezed vacuum states. Although our photon-number measurement relies on ensemble averages and cannot be used to prepare non-Gaussian states of light, its high efficiency, photon-number-resolving capabilities, and compatibility with the telecommunications band make it suitable for quantum-information tasks relying on the outcomes of mean values.