Sample records for ent final technical

  1. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasser, Alan H. [Fusion Theory and Computation Inc., Kingston, WA (United States)


    Final technical report on DE-SC0016106. This is the final technical report for a portion of the multi-institutional CEMM project. This report is centered around 3 publications and a seminar presentation, which have been submitted to E-Link.

  2. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Mike, J., P.E.


    The STI product is the Final Technical Report from ReliOn, Inc. for contract award DE-EE0000487: Recovery Act PEM Fuel Cell Systems Providing Emergency Reserve and Backup Power. The program covered the turnkey deployment of 431 ReliOn fuel cell systems at 189 individual sites for AT&T and PG&E with ReliOn functioning as the primary equipment supplier and the project manager. The Final Technical Report provides an executive level summary, a comparison of the actual accomplishments vs. the goals and objectives of the project, as well as a summary of the project activity from the contract award date of August 1, 2009 through the contract expiration date of December 31, 2011. Two photos are included in the body of the report which show hydrogen storage and bulk hydrogen refueling technologies developed as a result of this program.

  3. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobecky, Patricia A; Taillefert, Martial


    This final technical report describes results and findings from a research project to examine the role of microbial phosphohydrolase enzymes in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of the radionuclide uranium through the production of insoluble uranium phosphate minerals. The research project investigated the microbial mechanisms and the physical and chemical processes promoting uranium biomineralization and sequestration in oxygenated subsurface soils. Uranium biomineralization under aerobic conditions can provide a secondary biobarrier strategy to immobilize radionuclides should the metal precipitates formed by microbial dissimilatory mechanisms remobilize due to a change in redox state.

  4. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Tanis


    This document comprises the final technical report for atomic collisions research supported by DOE grant No. DE-FG02-87ER13778 from September 1, 2001 through August 31, 2004. The research involved the experimental investigation of excitation and charge-changing processes occurring in ion-atom and ion-molecule collisions. Major emphases of the study were: (1) interference effects resulting from coherent electron emission in H2, (2) production of doubly vacant K-shell (hollow ion) states due to electron correlation, and (3) formation of long-lived metastable states in electron transfer processes. During the period of the grant, this research resulted in 23 publications, 12 invited presentations, and 39 contributed presentations at national and international meetings and other institutions. Brief summaries of the completed research are presented below.

  5. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriy Y. Anistratov; Marvin L. Adams; Todd S. Palmer; Kord S. Smith; Kevin Clarno; Hikaru Hiruta; Razvan Nes


    OAK B202 Final Technical Report. The present generation of reactor analysis methods uses few-group nodal diffusion approximations to calculate full-core eigenvalues and power distributions. The cross sections, diffusion coefficients, and discontinuity factors (collectively called ''group constants'') in the nodal diffusion equations are parameterized as functions of many variables, ranging from the obvious (temperature, boron concentration, etc.) to the more obscure (spectral index, moderator temperature history, etc.). These group constants, and their variations as functions of the many variables, are calculated by assembly-level transport codes. The current methodology has two main weaknesses that this project addressed. The first weakness is the diffusion approximation in the full-core calculation; this can be significantly inaccurate at interfaces between different assemblies. This project used the nodal diffusion framework to implement nodal quasidiffusion equations, which can capture transport effects to an arbitrary degree of accuracy. The second weakness is in the parameterization of the group constants; current models do not always perform well, especially at interfaces between unlike assemblies. The project developed a theoretical foundation for parameterization and homogenization models and used that theory to devise improved models. The new models were extended to tabulate information that the nodal quasidiffusion equations can use to capture transport effects in full-core calculations.

  6. AIMES Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Daniel S [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA); Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Weissman, Jon [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Turilli, Matteo [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)


    This is the final technical report for the AIMES project. Many important advances in science and engineering are due to large-scale distributed computing. Notwithstanding this reliance, we are still learning how to design and deploy large-scale production Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCI). This is evidenced by missing design principles for DCI, and an absence of generally acceptable and usable distributed computing abstractions. The AIMES project was conceived against this backdrop, following on the heels of a comprehensive survey of scientific distributed applications. AIMES laid the foundations to address the tripartite challenge of dynamic resource management, integrating information, and portable and interoperable distributed applications. Four abstractions were defined and implemented: skeleton, resource bundle, pilot, and execution strategy. The four abstractions were implemented into software modules and then aggregated into the AIMES middleware. This middleware successfully integrates information across the application layer (skeletons) and resource layer (Bundles), derives a suitable execution strategy for the given skeleton and enacts its execution by means of pilots on one or more resources, depending on the application requirements, and resource availabilities and capabilities.

  7. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristos Aristidou Natureworks); Robert Kean (NatureWorks); Tom Schechinger (IronHorse Farms, Mat); Stuart Birrell (Iowa State); Jill Euken (Wallace Foundation & Iowa State)


    The two main objectives of this project were: 1) to develop and test technologies to harvest, transport, store, and separate corn stover to supply a clean raw material to the bioproducts industry, and 2) engineer fermentation systems to meet performance targets for lactic acid and ethanol manufacturers. Significant progress was made in testing methods to harvest corn stover in a “single pass” harvest mode (collect corn grain and stover at the same time). This is technically feasible on small scale, but additional equipment refinements will be needed to facilitate cost effective harvest on a larger scale. Transportation models were developed, which indicate that at a corn stover yield of 2.8 tons/acre and purchase price of $35/ton stover, it would be unprofitable to transport stover more than about 25 miles; thus suggesting the development of many regional collection centers. Therefore, collection centers should be located within about 30 miles of the farm, to keep transportation costs to an acceptable level. These collection centers could then potentially do some preprocessing (to fractionate or increase bulk density) and/or ship the biomass by rail or barge to the final customers. Wet storage of stover via ensilage was tested, but no clear economic advantages were evident. Wet storage eliminates fire risk, but increases the complexity of component separation and may result in a small loss of carbohydrate content (fermentation potential). A study of possible supplier-producer relationships, concluded that a “quasi-vertical” integration model would be best suited for new bioproducts industries based on stover. In this model, the relationship would involve a multiyear supply contract (processor with purchase guarantees, producer group with supply guarantees). Price will likely be fixed or calculated based on some formula (possibly a cost plus). Initial quality requirements will be specified (but subject to refinement).Producers would invest in harvest

  8. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brizard, Alain J


    Final Technical Report for U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-09ER55005 Nonlinear FLR Effects in Reduced Fluid Models Alain J. Brizard, Saint Michael's College The above-mentioned DoE grant was used to support research activities by the PI during a sabbatical leave from Saint Michael's College in 2009. The major focus of the work was the role played by guiding-center and gyrocenter (linear and nonlinear) polarization and magnetization effects in understanding transport processes in turbulent magnetized plasmas. The theoretical tools used for this work include Lie-transform perturbation methods and Lagrangian (variational) methods developed by the PI in previous work. The present final technical report lists (I) the peer-reviewed publications that were written based on work funded by the Grant; (II) invited and contributed conference presentations during the period funded by the Grant; and (III) seminars presented during the period funded by the Grant. I. Peer-reviewed Publications A.J. Brizard and N. Tronko, 2011, Exact momentum conservation for the gyrokinetic Vlasov- Poisson equations, Physics of Plasmas 18 , 082307:1-14 [ ]. J. Decker, Y. Peysson, A.J. Brizard, and F.-X. Duthoit, 2010, Orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator for numerical applications, Physics of Plasmas 17, 112513:1-12 []. A.J. Brizard, 2010, Noether derivation of exact conservation laws for dissipationless reduced fluid models, Physics of Plasmas 17, 112503:1-8 []. F.-X. Duthoit, A.J. Brizard, Y. Peysson, and J. Decker, 2010, Perturbation analysis of trapped particle dynamics in axisymmetric dipole geometry, Physics of Plasmas 17, 102903:1-9 []. A.J. Brizard, 2010, Exact energy conservation laws for full and truncated nonlinear gyrokinetic equations, Physics of Plasmas 17, 042303:1-11 []. A

  9. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuur, Edward [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Luo, Yiqi [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)


    This final grant report is a continuation of the final grant report submitted for DE-SC0006982 as the Principle Investigator (Schuur) relocated from the University of Florida to Northern Arizona University. This report summarizes the original project goals, as well as includes new project activities that were completed in the final period of the project.

  10. Final Technical Report

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tommy Ngai


    Mar 31, 2014 ... capacity building activities) to upgrade the technical and management capacities of governments and NGOs .... Furthermore, as described in the original proposal, CAWST provided practical perspectives in ..... when a funder or manager refuses to include important and central issues in the evaluation.

  11. Final technical report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    This project entails research with the goal to extend laser cutting of steel based metals to thickness above 20 mm and laser powers in the 10 kW range, with adequate accuracy and economically viable cutting speeds. The technical approach is to develop mirror based cutting heads with truly coaxial...

  12. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Chris [Altamont Environmental, Inc.


    The project, Capital Investment to Fund Equipment Purchases and Facility Modifications to Create a Sustainable Future for EnergyXchange served to replace landfill gas energy with alternative energy resources, primarily solar and wood waste. This is the final project closeout report.

  13. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeman, Tim [ZeaChem Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States); O' Neill, Brian [ZeaChem Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States)


    ZeaChem Inc. and US DOE successfully demonstrated the ZeaChem process for producing sugars and ethanol from high-impact biomass feedstocks. The project was executed over a 5-year period under a $31.25 million cooperative agreement (80:20 Federal:ZeaChem cost share). The project was managed by dividing it into three budget periods. Activities during Budget Period 1 were limited to planning, permitting, and other pre-construction planning. Budget Period 2 activities included engineering, procurement, construction, commissioning, start-up and initial operations through the Independent Engineer Test Runs. The scope of construction was limited to the Chem Frac and Hydrogenolysis units, as the Core Facility was already in place. Construction was complete in December 2012, and the first cellulosic ethanol was produced in February 2013. Additional operational test runs were conducted during Budget Period 3 (completed June 2015) using hybrid poplar, corn stover, and wheat straw feedstocks, resulting in the production of cellulosic ethanol and various other biorefinery intermediates. The research adds to the understanding of the Chem Frac and Hydrogenolysis technologies in that the technical performance of each unit was measured, and the resulting data and operational experience can be used as the basis for engineering designs, thus mitigating risks for deployment in future commercial facilities. The Chem Frac unit was initially designed to be operated as two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis, with first stage conditions selected to remove the hemicellulose fraction of the feedstock, and the second stage conditions selected to remove the cellulose fraction. While the Chem Frac unit met or exceeded the design capacity of 10 ton(dry)/day, the technical effectiveness of the Chem Frac unit was below expectations in its initial two-stage dilute acid configuration. The sugars yields were low, the sugars were dilute, and the sugars had poor fermentability caused by excessive inhibitors


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    High-resolution tracking detectors based on Active Pixel Sensor (APS) have been valuable tools in Nuclear Physics and High-Energy Physics research, and have contributed to major discoveries. Their integration time, radiation length and readout rate is a limiting factor for the planed luminosity upgrades in nuclear and high-energy physics collider-based experiments. The goal of this program was to demonstrate and develop high-gain, high-resolution tracking detector arrays with faster readout, and shorter radiation length than APS arrays. These arrays may operate as direct charged particle detectors or as readouts of high resolution scintillating fiber arrays. During this program, we developed in CMOS large, high-resolution pixel sensor arrays with integrated readout, and reset at pixel level. Their intrinsic gain, high immunity to surface and moisture damage, will allow operating these detectors with minimal packaging/passivation requirements and will result in radiation length superior to APS. In Phase I, we designed and fabricated arrays with calorimetric output capable of sub-pixel resolution and sub-microsecond readout rate. The technical effort was dedicated to detector and readout structure development, performance verification, as well as to radiation damage and damage annealing.

  15. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoessel, Chris


    This project developed a new high-performance R-10/high SHGC window design, reviewed market positioning and evaluated manufacturing solutions required for broad market adoption. The project objectives were accomplished by: identifying viable technical solutions based on modeling of modern and potential coating stacks and IGU designs; development of new coating material sets for HM thin film stacks, as well as improved HM IGU designs to accept multiple layers of HM films; matching promising new coating designs with new HM IGU designs to demonstrate performance gains; and, in cooperation with a window manufacturer, assess the potential for high-volume manufacturing and cost efficiency of a HM-based R-10 window with improved solar heat gain characteristics. A broad view of available materials and design options was applied to achieve the desired improvements. Gated engineering methodologies were employed to guide the development process from concept generation to a window demonstration. The project determined that a slightly de-rated window performance allows formulation of a path to achieve the desired cost reductions to support end consumer adoption.

  16. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan Camilo Serrano


    New and novel material and process technologies applied in wind blade designs and production are critical to increasing the competitiveness of wind power generation against traditional sources of energy. In this project, through collaboration between PPG Industries and MAG Industrial Automation Systems, the potential of using automated manufacturing for the production of fiber glass composite wind blades was evaluated from both technical and economic points of view. Further, it was demonstrated that by modifying the standard blade raw material forms through the use of cost effective pre-impregnated rovings coupled with using an automated fiber placement machine to lay up the parts, it is possible to produce state of the art composite laminates with significantly improved mechanical performance and with higher processing rates than standard blade production technology allows for today, thereby lowering the cost of energy over turbine blades made using traditional processes and materials. In conformity with the scope of work of the submitted proposal, the project team completed each task and documented and reported its findings on the appropriate quarterly report submitted to the DOE project team. The activities and this report are divided into 5 subtasks: (1) Material Investigation - Reviews traditional materials and key specifications and testing methods; (2) Manufacturing and Automation - Identifies new candidate material forms and automated layup processes; (3) Process Development - Performs trials of candidate materials and processes; (4) Predictive Analysis - Assesses impact of new material forms and automated processes on a model blade design; and (5) Feasibility Assessment - Compares traditional manufacturing processes and materials to new candidate material forms and automated processes.

  17. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Junker; Greg Wheeler


    Since 1986 the Oregon State University Industrial Assessment Center (OSU IAC) has worked to increase the energy efficiency, productivity, sustainability, and competitiveness of US manufacturers; provide engineering students an education not available in the classroom; keep engineering faculty in contact with technology and challenges in Northwest industry; and reduce dependence on nonrenewable energy resources, both imported and domestic. Project Objective: Over the duration of this project (2002-2006), the OSU IAC worked to directly support and influence industrial decisions primarily regarding energy but also regarding sustainability and profitability through: Assessments & Follow-up: The OSU IAC performed 111 Industrial Assessments in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Nevada to help industry identify and implement opportunities to increase energy efficiency, productivity, sustainability, and competitiveness Workshops Seminars Forums Etc: OSU IAC staff worked with regional peers to offer appropriate workshops and trainings as opportunities availed themselves. Graduating Excellent Energy Aware Professional Alumni: As technically capable, skilled written and verbal communicators, our alumni contributed to OSU IAC influence from their positions within industry, consulting organizations, utilities, and governmental and non governmental agencies. Tool Development: Analysis tools and guides originated at the OSU IAC extended our reach. The center continually worked to develop computer based analysis tools, evaluation checklists, analysis guide sheets for internal use and general sharing with industry, energy, and other professionals to assist them in efforts to improve US Industry. Impact: Over 20 years of activity the OSU IAC has typically performed 25 Industrial Assessments a year. On average, each year of 25 assessments has resulted in implemented projects that saved industry a total of: 25.3 TBTU in annual energy and $4.5 Million annually, with an average investment

  18. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander Fridman


    This DOE project DE-FC36-04GO14052 ''Plasma Pilot Plant Test for Treating VOC Emissions from Wood Products Plants'' was conducted by Drexel University in cooperation with Georgia-Pacific (G-P) and Kurchatov Institute (KI). The objective of this project was to test the Plasma Pilot Plant capabilities in wood industry. The final goal of the project was to replace the current state-of-the-art, regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology by Low-Temperature Plasma Technology (LTPT) in paper and wood industry for Volatile Organic Components (VOC) destruction in High Volume Low Concentration (HVLC) vent emissions. MetPro Corporation joined the team as an industrial partner from the environmental control business and a potential leader for commercialization. Concurrent Technology Corporation (CTC) has a separate contract with DOE for this technology evaluation. They prepared questionnaires for comparison of this technology and RTO, and made this comparison. These data are presented in this report along with the description of the technology itself. Experiments with the pilot plant were performed with average plasma power up to 3.6 kW. Different design of the laboratory and pilot plant pulsed coronas, as well as different analytical methods revealed many new peculiarities of the VOC abatement process. The work reported herein describes the experimental results for the VOCs removal efficiency with respect to energy consumption, residence time, water effect and initial concentration.

  19. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Isaac [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Balaji, V. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Fueglistaler, Stephan [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)


    We have constructed and analyzed a series of idealized models of tropical convection interacting with large-scale circulations, with 25-50km resolution and with 1-2km cloud resolving resolution to set the stage for rigorous tests of convection closure schemes in high resolution global climate models. Much of the focus has been on the climatology of tropical cyclogenesis in rotating systems and the related problem of the spontaneous aggregation of convection in non-rotating systems. The PI (Held) will be delivering the honorary Bjerknes lecture at the Fall 2016 AGU meeting in December on this work. We have also provided new analyses of long-standing issues related to the interaction between convection and the large-scale circulation: Kelvin waves in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, water vapor transport into the stratosphere, and upper tropospheric temperature trends. The results of these analyses help to improve our understanding of processes, and provide tests for future high resolution global modeling. Our final goal of testing new convections schemes in next-generation global atmospheric models at GFDL has been left for future work due to the complexity of the idealized model results meant as tests for these models uncovered in this work and to computational resource limitations. 11 papers have been published with support from this grant, 2 are in review, and another major summary paper is in preparation.

  20. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, Mayda [Northwestern University


    This work is focused on the design and construction of novel beam diagnostic and instrumentation for charged particle accelerators required for the next generation of linear colliders. Our main interest is in non-invasive techniques. The Northwestern group of Velasco has been a member of the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) collaboration since 2003, and the beam instrumentation work is developed mostly at this facility1. This 4 kW electron beam facility has a 25-170 MeV electron LINAC. CTF3 performed a set of dedicated measurements to finalize the development of our RF-Pickup bunch length detectors. The RF-pickup based on mixers was fully commissioned in 2009 and the RF-pickup based on diodes was finished in time for the 2010-11 data taking. The analysis of all the data taken in by the summer of 2010 was finish in time and presented at the main conference of the year, LINAC 2010 in Japan.

  1. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Gary; Albritton, John; Denton, David; Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir


    -based gasification at increased efficiency and at significantly lower capital and operating costs than conventional syngas cleanup technologies. However, before the technology can be deemed ready for scale-up to a full commercial-scale demonstration, additional R&D testing is needed at the site to address the following critical technical risks: WDP sorbent stability and performance; Impact of WDP on downstream cleanup and conversion steps; Metallurgy and refractory; Syngas cleanup performance and controllability; Carbon capture performance and additional syngas cleanup The proposed plan to acquire this additional R&D data involves: Operation of the units to achieve an additional 3,000 hours of operation of the system within the performance period, with a target of achieving 1,000 hours of those hours via continuous operation of the entire integrated pre-commercial demonstration system; Rapid turnaround of repairs and/or modifications required as necessary to return any specific unit to operating status with documentation and lessons learned to support technology maturation, and; Proactive performance of maintenance activities during any unplanned outages and if possible while operating.

  2. CEEM Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, John [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)


    concentrating photovoltaic applications thathave substantially higher efficiency than single substrate cells made of elemental semiconductors such as silicon. This task required the development of new cell bonding methods with excellent coupling of both photons and electrons between the sub-cells. To accomplish this, we developed (1) GaInN solar cells with enhanced performance by using quantum-well absorbers and front-surface optical texturing, (2) a hybrid "pillar-array" bond which uses an array of metal pillars for electrical coupling, and (3) a "hybrid moth-eye" optical coating which combines the benefits of nano-imprinted moth-eye coatings and traditional multilayer coatings. The technical effectiveness was assessed by measurement of the photovoltaic efficiency of solar cells made using these techniques; the ultrahigh efficiencies targeted by this work are of compelling economic value for concentrating photovoltaics.

  3. Technical planning activity: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In April 1985, the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Fusion Energy commissioned the Technical Planning Activity (TPA). The purpose of this activity was to develop a technical planning methodology and prepare technical plans in support of the strategic and policy framework of the Magnetic Fusion Program Plan issued by DOE in February 1985. Although this report represents the views of only the US magnetic fusion community, it is international in scope in the sense that the technical plans contained herein describe the full scope of the tasks that are prerequisites for the commercialization of fusion energy. The TPA has developed a well-structured methodology that includes detailed definitions of technical issues, definitions of program areas and elements, statements of research and development objectives, identification of key decision points and milestones, and descriptions of facility requirements.

  4. Guidelines for Preparing Final Technical Reports

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Digital Library ( 2. Considerations for Final Technical Reports. The requirements for all reports, including the Final Technical Report, are agreed to during project development. The Application for an IDRC Research Grant, requires an open access dissemination plan for the expected reports and publications ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The City of Georgetown Utility Systems (GUS) patnered with the private sector, the American Public Power Association (APPA) and Southwestern University to design, construct, test and monitor a solar co-generation system directly connected to the GUS electric distribution system. This report consists of the Primary Technical Report and 3 attachments.

  6. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yale [Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD (United States). Applied Physics Laboratory; Thomas, Michael E. [Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD (United States). Applied Physics Laboratory; Siegrist, Karen M. [Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD (United States). Applied Physics Laboratory; Lennon, Andrew M. [Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD (United States). Applied Physics Laboratory; Hunter, Lawrence W. [Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD (United States). Applied Physics Laboratory; Oguz, Hasan O. [Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD (United States). Applied Physics Laboratory


    JHU/APL conducted solid propellant fire characterization tests in warm, humid, ambient conditions near sea level. Yttria and ceria surrogate materials were placed in the fires. The substrates simulating ground surfaces were concrete from a Kennedy Space Center launch pad, and steel covered with a protective ablative material representing a launch platform. In-situ instrumentation consisted of witness materials, thermocouples, air handlers, filters, and cascade impactors; remote instrumentation consisted of optical cameras and spectrometers. Test and analysis team members included the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Alliant Techsystems, and the Johns Hopkins University. Test data were analyzed, reported, and delivered, including plume rise and transport captured on video. Derivation of the alumina particle size distributions formed the basis for condensing vapor and agglomeration estimates. Assessment of alumina mass in the plume, along with the surrogate fraction from filter forensics, provided an estimate of airborne surrogate mass. Technical interchange meetings were held with SNL and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Specifications for the fire environment were developed and delivered. A thermochemistry model that simultaneously provides the maximum temperature and heat flux was developed and delivered. An SPIE paper on 3D pyrometry of the fire was written and presented.

  7. IRIS Final Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. D. Carelli


    OAK-B135 This NERI project, originally started as the Secure Transportable Autonomous Light Water Reactor (STAR-LW) and currently known as the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) project, had the objective of investigating a novel type of water-cooled reactor to satisfy the Generation IV goals: fuel cycle sustainability, enhanced reliability and safety, and improved economics. The research objectives over the three-year (1999-2002) program were as follows: First year: Assess various design alternatives and establish main characteristics of a point design; Second year: Perform feasibility and engineering assessment of the selected design solutions; Third year: Complete reactor design and performance evaluation, including cost assessment These objectives were fully attained and actually they served to launch IRIS as a full fledged project for eventual commercial deployment. The program did not terminate in 2002 at the end of the NERI program, and has just entered in its fifth year. This has been made possible by the IRIS project participants which have grown from the original four member, two-countries team to the current twenty members, nine countries consortium. All the consortium members work under their own funding and it is estimated that the value of their in-kind contributions over the life of the project has been of the order of $30M. Currently, approximately 100 people worldwide are involved in the project. A very important constituency of the IRIS project is the academia: 7 universities from four countries are members of the consortium and five more US universities are associated via parallel NERI programs. To date, 97 students have worked or are working on IRIS; 59 IRIS-related graduate theses have been prepared or are in preparation, and 41 of these students have already graduated with M.S. (33) or Ph.D. (8) degrees. This ''final'' report (final only as far as the NERI program is concerned) summarizes the work performed


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satish Mohapatra


    Dynalene Inc has developed and patented a fuel cell coolant with the help of DOE SBIR Phase I and Phase II funding (Project DE-FG02-04ER83884). However, this coolant could only be produced in lab scale (500 ml to 2 L) due to problems in the optimization and scale-up of a nanoparticle ingredient. This project optimized the nanoparticle production process in 10 L and 100 L reactors (which translates to about 5000 gallons of coolant), optimized the filtration process for the nanoparticles, and develop a high throughput production as well as quality control method for the final coolant formulation. Scale-up of nanoparticle synthesis (using emulsion polymerization) is an extremely challenging task. Dynalene researchers, in collaboration with a university partner, identified all the parameters affecting the size, charge density and coagulation characteristics of the nanoparticles and then optimized these parameters to achieve the goals and the objectives of this project. Nanoparticle synthesis was demonstrated to be reproducible in the 10 L and 100 L scales.

  9. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R. C.; McCarley, T. M.


    . Platform teams organize faculty and students for cross-disciplinary, systems-oriented research and collaborative learning. To date, nine platforms have been developed, although these will most likely be reorganized into a smaller number of broader topics. In the spring of 2004, BRT faculty initiated a regional partnership and collaborative learning program with colleagues at the University of Minnesota, Kansas State University, and South Dakota State University to develop distance education courses in biorenewable resources and technology. As a fledgling graduate program, the BRT graduate program didn’t have the breadth of resources to offer a large number of courses in biorenewables. Other schools faced a similar problem. The academic consortium as first conceived would allow students from the member schools to enroll in biorenewables courses from any of the participating schools, which would assure the necessary enrollment numbers to offer specialized course work. Since its inception, the collaborative curriculum partnership has expanded to include Louisiana State University and the University of Wisconsin. A second international curriculum development campaign was also initiated in the spring of 2004. In particular, several BRT faculty teamed with colleagues at the University of Arkansas, University of Washington, University of Gent (Belgium), National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse (France), and Technical University of Graz (Austria) to develop an EU-US exchange program in higher education and vocational education/training (entitled “Renewable Resources and Clean Technology”).

  10. Santa Barbara Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, Angela; Hansen, Sherman; Watkins, Ashley


    This report serves as the Final Report for Santa Barbara County’s Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) BetterBuildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) award from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report explains how DOE BBNP funding was invested to develop robust program infrastructure designed to help property owners complete energy improvements, thereby generating substantial outcomes for the local environment and economy. It provides an overview of program development and design within the grant period, program accomplishments and challenges to date, and a plan for the future sustainability of emPower, the County’s innovative clean energy and building efficiency program. During the grant period, Santa Barbara County’s emPower program primarily targeted 32,000 owner occupied, single family, detached residential homes over 25 years old within the County. In order to help these homeowners and their contractors overcome market barriers to completing residential energy improvements, the program developed and promoted six voluntary, market-based service areas: 1) low cost residential financing (loan loss reserve with two local credit unions), 2) residential rebates, 3) local customer service, 4) expert energy advising, 5) workforce development and training, and 6) marketing, education and outreach. The main goals of the program were to lower building energy use, create jobs and develop a lasting regional building performance market. These services have generated important early outcomes and lessons after the program’s first two years in service. The DOE BBNP funding was extended through October 2014 to enable Santa Barbara County to generate continued outcomes. In fact, funding related to residential financing remains wholly available for the foreseeable future to continue offering Home Upgrade Loans to approximately 1,300 homeowners. The County’s investment of DOE BBNP funding was used to build a lasting, effective, and innovative

  11. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeder, Richard [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Phillips, Brian [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)


    A variety of calcifying organisms produce a transient or metastable amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) precursor phase that is assembled and subsequently transformed into a crystalline biomineral, typically calcite or aragonite. The complex shapes, hierarchical structures, and unique physical properties of the biominerals that result from this calcification pathway have stimulated interest in adapting these concepts for the design and creation of bio-inspired functional materials in the laboratory. ACC also forms as a reactive precursor in diverse inorganic systems and is likely to play a much broader role in calcium carbonate formation. Knowledge of the structure, composition, and behavior of this metastable phase is critical for establishing a structural and mechanistic framework for calcium carbonate formation and its role in biogeochemical processes, including carbon cycling. Minor additives, such as magnesium, phosphorus, and organic macromolecules, are known to play important roles in controlling ACC stability, transformation kinetics, and selection of final crystalline polymorph. Molecular water also occurs in many types of ACC and is thought to play a structural role in its stability and transformation behavior. One of the major challenges that remain unresolved is identification of the structural basis for the role of these minor additives and molecular water. The absence of long-range order in ACC, and other amorphous phases, has posed a challenge for study by techniques commonly used for crystalline solids. Preliminary studies in our group show that the combination of two techniques, synchrotron X-ray-based pair distribution function (PDF) analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can provide entirely new insight to structural properties of synthetic ACC over length scales that are most relevant for understanding its transformation properties. Building on preliminary experiments, we propose a systematic study of synthesis, structure, and

  12. Sequencing of megabase plus DNA by hybridization: Method development ENT. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.


    Sequencing by hybridization (SBH) is the only sequencing method based on the experimental determination of the content of oligonucleotide sequences. The data acquisition relies on the natural process of base pairing. It is possible to determine the content of complementary oligosequences in the target DNA by the process of hybridization with oligonucleotide probes of known sequences.

  13. Final Technical Report for ARRA Funding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusack, Roger [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Mans, Jeremiah [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Poling, Ronald [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Cushman, Priscilla [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    Final technical report of the University of Minnesota experimental high energy physics group for ARRA support. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Experiment (CDMS) used the funds received to construct a new passive shield to protect a high-purity germanium detector located in the Soudan mine in Northern Minnesota from cosmic rays. The BESIII and the CMS groups purchased computing hardware to assemble computer farms for data analysis and to generate large volumes of simulated data for comparison with the data collected.

  14. Clean Energy Works Oregon Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Andria [City of Portland; Cyr, Shirley [Clean Energy Works


    In April 2010, the City of Portland received a $20 million award from the U.S. Department of Energy, as part of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant program. This award was appropriated under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), passed by President Obama in 2009. DOE’s program became known as the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The BBNP grant objectives directed the City of Portland Bureau of Planning and Sustainability (BPS) as the primary grantee to expand the BPS-led pilot program, Clean Energy Works Portland, into Clean Energy Works Oregon (CEWO), with the mission to deliver thousands of home energy retrofits, create jobs, save energy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions.The Final Technical Report explores the successes and lessons learned from the first 3 years of program implementation.

  15. Influence of a revision course and the gender of examiners on the grades of the final ENT exam--a retrospective review of 3961 exams. (United States)

    Grasl, Matthäus C; Seemann, Rudolf; Hanisch, Michael; Heiduschka, Gregor; Kremser, Karl; Thurnher, Dietmar


    Revision courses should repeat already acquired knowledge and skills and mostly provide a basis for passing the following exam. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of a previously attended revision course on the grades achieved in a final exam (Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases). Additionally we ask the question whether the gender of the examiners plays a role concerning the marks or not. 3961 exams at the Department of Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Diseases in Vienna were investigated, 725 with revision course (experimental group) and 3236 without previous revision course (comparison group). The revision courses were performed in a standardized way concerning form and content, interactive and case based. Both groups were examined uniform in regard to topics and time duration. 16 male and 6 female examiners were involved. The grading followed a five-level scale. The examination marks were calculated in the arithmetic mean and median value for the entire sample, gender dependence was calculated according to the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney-Test. The inferential statistics included single- and multiple factorial analyses of variance as well as uni- and multivariate regression models. The experimental group achieved a grade average of 2.54 compared with 2.46 for the comparison group. Splitting up into male and female examiners, an average of 2.54 and 2.58 resp. for the experimental group and 2.44 and 2.61 resp. for the comparison group resulted. Female examiner marked significantly lower grades in comparison to their male colleagues (P= 0.001926). The ENT revision course did not improve the grade averages of the final ENT exam. Female examiners grade stricter than male examiners. There was no difference concerning grades 4 (pass) and 5 (fail) but female examiners grade less with mark 1.

  16. Influence of a revision course and the gender of examiners on the grades of the final ENT exam – a retrospective review of 3961 exams (United States)

    Grasl, Matthäus C.; Seemann, Rudolf; Hanisch, Michael; Heiduschka, Gregor; Kremser, Karl; Thurnher, Dietmar


    Revision courses should repeat already acquired knowledge and skills and mostly provide a basis for passing the following exam. Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of a previously attended revision course on the grades achieved in a final exam (Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases). Additionally we ask the question whether the gender of the examiners plays a role concerning the marks or not. Methods: 3961 exams at the Department of Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Diseases in Vienna were investigated, 725 with revision course (experimental group) and 3236 without previous revision course (comparison group). The revision courses were performed in a standardized way concerning form and content, interactive and case based. Both groups were examined uniform in regard to topics and time duration. 16 male and 6 female examiners were involved. The grading followed a five–level scale. The examination marks were calculated in the arithmetic mean and median value for the entire sample, gender dependence was calculated according to the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney-Test. The inferential statistics included single- and multiple factorial analyses of variance as well as uni- and multivariate regression models. Results: The experimental group achieved a grade average of 2.54 compared with 2.46 for the comparison group. Splitting up into male and female examiners, an average of 2.54 and 2.58 resp. for the experimental group and 2.44 and 2.61 resp. for the comparison group resulted. Female examiner marked significantly lower grades in comparison to their male colleagues (P= 0.001926). Conclusions: The ENT revision course did not improve the grade averages of the final ENT exam. Female examiners grade stricter than male examiners. There was no difference concerning grades 4 (pass) and 5 (fail) but female examiners grade less with mark 1. PMID:26483851

  17. Energy Impact Illinois - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Daniel [Senior Energy Efficiency Planner; Plagman, Emily [Senior Energy Planner; Silberhorn, Joey-Lin [Energy Efficiency Program Assistant


    Energy Impact Illinois (EI2) is an alliance of government organizations, nonprofits, and regional utility companies led by the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning (CMAP) that is dedicated to helping communities in the Chicago metropolitan area become more energy efficient. Originally organized as the Chicago Region Retrofit Ramp-Up (CR3), EI2 became part of the nationwide Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) in May 2010 after receiving a $25 million award from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) authorized through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). The program’s primary goal was to fund initiatives that mitigate barriers to energy efficiency retrofitting activities across residential, multifamily, and commercial building sectors in the seven-county CMAP region and to help to build a sustainable energy efficiency marketplace. The EI2 Final Technical Report provides a detailed review of the strategies, implementation methods, challenges, lessons learned, and final results of the EI2 program during the initial grant period from 2010-2013. During the program period, EI2 successfully increased direct retrofit activity in the region and was able to make a broader impact on the energy efficiency market in the Chicago region. As the period of performance for the initial grant comes to an end, EI2’s legacy raises the bar for the region in terms of helping homeowners and building owners to take action on the continually complex issue of energy efficiency.

  18. Southwest Region Experiment Station - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, A


    Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), an independent, university-based research institute, has been the operator of the Southwest Region Photovoltaic Experiment Station (SWRES) for almost 30 years. The overarching mission of SWTDI is to position PV systems and solar technologies to become cost-effective, major sources of energy for the United States. Embedded in SWTDI's general mission has been the more-focused mission of the SWRES: to provide value added technical support to the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP) to effectively and efficiently meet the R&D needs and targets specified in the SETP Multi-Year Technical Plan. : The DOE/SETP goals of growing U.S. PV manufacturing into giga-watt capacities and seeing tera-watt-hours of solar energy production in the U.S. require an infrastructure that is under development. The staff of the SWRES has supported DOE/SETP through a coherent, integrated program to address infrastructural needs inhibiting wide-scale PV deployment in three major technical categories: specialized engineering services, workforce development, and deployment facilitation. The SWRES contract underwent three major revisions during its five year period-of- performance, but all tasks and deliverables fell within the following task areas: Task 1: PV Systems Assistance Center 1. Develop a Comprehensive multi-year plan 2. Provide technical workforce development materials and workshops for PV stakeholder groups including university, professional installers, inspectors, state energy offices, Federal agencies 3. Serve on the NABCEP exam committee 4. Provide on-demand technical PV system design reviews for U.S. PV stakeholders 5. Provide PV system field testing and instrumentation, technical outreach (including extensive support for the DOE Market Transformation program) Task 2: Design-for-Manufacture PV Systems 1. Develop and install 18 kW parking carport (cost share) and PV-thermal carport (Albuquerque) deriving and publishing

  19. Hydrogen energy systems studies. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.; Kartha, S.; Iwan, L.


    The results of previous studies suggest that the use of hydrogen from natural gas might be an important first step toward a hydrogen economy based on renewables. Because of infrastructure considerations (the difficulty and cost of storing, transmitting and distributing hydrogen), hydrogen produced from natural gas at the end-user`s site could be a key feature in the early development of hydrogen energy systems. In the first chapter of this report, the authors assess the technical and economic prospects for small scale technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas (steam reformers, autothermal reformers and partial oxidation systems), addressing the following questions: (1) What are the performance, cost and emissions of small scale steam reformer technology now on the market? How does this compare to partial oxidation and autothermal systems? (2) How do the performance and cost of reformer technologies depend on scale? What critical technologies limit cost and performance of small scale hydrogen production systems? What are the prospects for potential cost reductions and performance improvements as these technologies advance? (3) How would reductions in the reformer capital cost impact the delivered cost of hydrogen transportation fuel? In the second chapter of this report the authors estimate the potential demand for hydrogen transportation fuel in Southern California.

  20. Study of gelled LNG. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnicki, M I; Cabeal, J A; Hoffman, L C; Newton, R A; Schaplowsky, R K; Vander Wall, E M


    Research involved the characterization of gelled LNG (GELNG) with respect to process, flow, and use properties and an examination of the degree of safety enhancement attainable by gelation. The investigation included (1) an experimental examination of gel properties and gel safety characteristics as well as (2) an analytical study involving the economics and preliminary design of an industrial scale gelation system. The safety-related criterion for successful application of gelled LNG is the substantial reduction of the Maximum Distance to the Lower Flammability Limit, MDLFL. This will be achieved by first, gel-inhibition of the hydrodynamic pooling and spreading of the spill, and second, the suppressed thermal transport properties of the GELNG relative to those of LNG. The industrial scale gelation study evaluated a design capable of producing 11,000 gallons (LNG tank truck) of gel in two hours. The increased cost of gelation using this equipment was estimated at $0.23/10/sup 6/ Btu for plants with liquefaction facilities. The technical results of this study are supportive of the conclusion that gelation of LNG will reduce, relative to ungelled LNG, the hazard associated with a given size spill. Parameters of interest to the LNG facility operator (such as pumpability) are not significantly affected by gelation, and the impact on LNG delivery cost appears to be small, about 5%. Thus, the initial assumption that gelation would provide a practical means to enhance safety is supported by the results of this study. Larger scale, comparative spill tests of LNG and GELNG are now required to confirm the safety aspects of use of the gelled material.

  1. AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aukrust, E.


    This final report deals with the results of a 5-yr project for developing a more energy-efficient, environmentally friendly, less costly process for producing hot metal than current coke ovens and blast furnaces. In the process, iron ore pellets are smelted in a foamy slag created by reaction of coal char with molten slag to produce CO. The CO further reacts with oxygen, which also reacts with coal volatile matter, to produce the heat necessary to sustain the endothermic reduction reaction. The uncombusted CO and H{sub 2} from the coal are used to preheat and prereduce hematite pellets for the most efficient use of the energy in the coal. Laboratory programs confirmed that the process steps worked. Pilot plant studies were successful. Economic analysis for a 1 million tpy plant is promising.

  2. Final Technical Progress Report NANOSTRUCTURED MAGNETIC MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M. Falco


    This report describes progress made during the final phase of our DOE-funded program on Nanostructured Magnetic Materials. This period was quite productive, resulting in the submission of three papers and presentation of three talks at international conferences and three seminars at research institutions. Our DOE-funded research efforts were directed toward studies of magnetism at surfaces and interfaces in high-quality, well-characterized materials prepared by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and sputtering. We have an exceptionally well-equipped laboratory for these studies, with: Thin film preparation equipment; Characterization equipment; Equipment to study magnetic properties of surfaces and ultra-thin magnetic films and interfaces in multi-layers and superlattices.

  3. Final Technical Report: Results of Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narang, David, J.; Hambrick, Joshua; Srinivasan, Devarajan; Ayyannar, Raja; O' Brien, Kathleen; Bebic, Jovan; Schelenz, Owen


    working, utility distribution feeder. To address the technical challenges related to the integration of distributed PV when PV penetration levels reach or exceed 30% of the total load, technologies and methods to ensure the stable and safe operation of the feeder will be evaluated. Lessons learned will enable APS to improve the framework for future PV integration on its system and may also aid other utilities across the United States energy sector in accelerating the adoption of distributed photovoltaic generation.

  4. Geothermal research, Oregon Cascades: Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priest, G.R.; Black, G.L.


    Previous USDOE-funded geothermal studies have produced an extensive temperature gradient and heat flow data base for the State of Oregon. One of the important features identified as a result of these studies is a rapid transition from heat flow values on the order of 40 mW/m/sup 2/ in the Willamette Valley and Western Cascades to values of greater than or equal to100 mW/m/sup 2/ in the High Cascades and the eastern portion of the Western Cascades. These data indicate that the Cascade Range in Oregon has potential as a major geothermal province and stimulated much of the later work completed by government agencies and private industry. Additional data generated as a result of this grant and published in DOGAMI Open-File Report 0-86-2 further define the location and magnitude of this transition zone. In addition, abundant data collected from the vicinity of Breitenbush and Austin Hot Springs have permitted the formulation of relatively detailed models of these hydrothermal systems. These models are published in DOGAMI Open-File Report 0-88-5. Task 1.2 of the Deliverables section of Amendment M001 is fulfilled by DOGAMI publication GMS-48, Geologic map of the McKenzie Bridge quadrangle, Lane County, Oregon. This map was printed in October, 1988, and is part of the final submission to USDOE. 8 refs.

  5. Final Technical Report - DE-EE0003542

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, James D


    Wind has provided energy for thousands of years: some of the earliest windmill engineering designs date back to ancient Babylonia and India where wind would be used as a source of irrigation. Today, wind is the quickest growing resource in Americas expanding energy infrastructure. However, to continue to positively diversify Americas energy portfolio and further reduce the countrys reliance of foreign oil, the industry must grow substantially over the next two decades in both turbine installations and skilled industrial manpower to support. The wind sector is still an emergent industry requiring maturation and development of its labor force: dedicated training is needed to provide the hard and soft skills to support the increasingly complex wind turbine generators as the technology evolves. Furthermore, the American workforce is facing a steep decline in available labor resources as the baby boomer generation enters retirement age. It is therefore vital that a process is quickly created for supporting the next generation of wind technicians. However, the manpower growth must incorporate three key components. First, the safety and technical training curriculum must be standardized across the industry - current wind educational programs are disparate and dedicated standardization programs must be further refined and implemented. Second, it is essential that the wind sector avoid disrupting other energy production industries by cannibalizing workers, which would indirectly affect the rest of Americas energy portfolio. The future wind workforce must be created organically utilizing either young people entering the workforce or train personnel emerging from careers outside of energy production. Third, the training must be quick and efficient as large amounts of wind turbines are being erected each year and this growth is expected to continue until at least 2035. One source that matches these three requirements is personnel transitioning from military service to the

  6. Solar Living House Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Bradley [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)


    permanent site constructions. This project suggest that high-performance buildings can be realized for more modest budgets. Public Benefits: Work on the Solar Living House and Solar Decathlon 2015 offered our student team unparalleled learning opportunities. Because of the duration of the project, a number of students participated at different points in their education, from first year undergraduates all the way through to advanced graduate students. The opportunity for collaboration with students and faculty from the National University of Singapore was also extraordinary, allowing for a sharing of technical knowledge and cultural exchange. The wider public has benefited from this work as its findings have been shared through public presentations and publications. It serves as a useful stepping stone along the path towards affordable, high-performance buildings.

  7. Final Technical Report 09 LW 112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenhoff, R J


    Since the development of new antibiotics is out-paced by the emergence of bacterial resistance to existing antibiotics, it is crucial to understand the genetic mechanisms underlying resistance existing antibiotics. At the center of this mystery is a poorly understood phenomenon, heteroresistance: the coexistence of multiple subpopulations with varying degrees of antibiotic resistance. A better understanding of the fundamental basis of heteroresistance could result in sorely needed breakthroughs in treatment options. This project proposed to leverage a novel microfluidic (microchemostat) technology to probe the heteroresistance phenomenon in bacteria, with the aim of restoring the efficacy of existing {beta}-lactam antibiotics. The clinically important bacteria Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was used as the test case of bacteria that exhibits antibiotic heteroresistance. MRSA is difficult to treat because it is resistant to all {beta}-lactam antibiotics, as well as other classes of antimicrobials. Whereas {beta}-lactams such as methicillin and oxacillin are the preferred antibiotics to treat S. aureus infections due to their efficacy and low side effects, accurate determination and use of oxacillin/methicillin dosage is hampered by heteroresistance. In fact, invasive MRSA infections now account for about 95,000 deaths per year, a number that exceeds the deaths due to either influenza or HIV (12). In some MRSA strains, two subpopulations of cells may coexist: both populations carry the mecA gene that confers resistance, but mecA is differentially expressed so that only a small number of cells are observed during in vitro testing. Why this occurs is not understood. Prior experiments have sought to explain this phenomenon with conflicting results, with technology being the primary barrier to test the system sufficiently. This is the final report on work accomplished under the Lab-wide LDRD project 09-LW-112. This project was awarded to Frederick Balagadde who

  8. High energy physics research. Final technical report, 1957--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.H.


    This is the final technical report to the Department of Energy on High Energy Physics at the University of Pennsylvania. It discusses research conducted in the following areas: neutrino astrophysics and cosmology; string theory; electroweak and collider physics; supergravity; cp violation and baryogenesis; particle cosmology; collider detector at Fermilab; the sudbury neutrino observatory; B-physics; particle physics in nuclei; and advanced electronics and detector development.

  9. Final Technical Report, Wind Generator Project (Ann Arbor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, Nathan [City of Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    A Final Technical Report (57 pages) describing educational exhibits and devices focused on wind energy, and related outreach activities and programs. Project partnership includes the City of Ann Arbor, MI and the Ann Arbor Hands-on Museum, along with additional sub-recipients, and U.S. Department of Energy/Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). Report relays key milestones and sub-tasks as well as numerous graphics and images of five (5) transportable wind energy demonstration devices and five (5) wind energy exhibits designed and constructed between 2014 and 2016 for transport and use by the Ann Arbor Hands-on Museum.

  10. Iowa Hill Pumped Storage Project Investigations - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, David [Sacramento Municipal Unitlity District, Sacramento, CA (United States)


    This Final Technical Report is a summary of the activities and outcome of the Department of Energy (DOE) Assistance Agreement DE-EE0005414 with the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). The Assistance Agreement was created in 2012 to support investigations into the Iowa Hill Pumped-storage Project (Project), a new development that would add an additional 400 MW of capacity to SMUD’s existing 688MW Upper American River Hydroelectric Project (UARP) in the Sierra Nevada mountains east of Sacramento, California.

  11. Technical and economic assessment of solar hybrid repowering. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM) has performed a Technical and Economic Assessment of Solar Hybrid Repowering under funding by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Western Energy Supply and Transmission (WEST) Associates, and a number of southwestern utilities. Solar hybrid repowering involves placement of solar hardware adjacent to and connected to existing gas- and oil-fueled electric generation units to displace some of or all the fossil fuel normally used during daylight hours. The subject study assesses the technical economic viability of the solar hybrid repowering concept within the southwestern United States and the PNM system. This document is a final report on the study and its results. The study was divided into the six primary tasks to allow a systematic investigation of the concept: (1) market survey and cost/benefit analysis, (2) study unit selection, (3) conceptual design and cost estimates, (4) unit economic analysis, (5) program planning, future phases, and (6) program management. Reeves Station No. 2 at Albuquerque, New Mexico, was selected for repowering with a design goal of 50 percent (25 MWe). The solar system design is based on the 10 MW solar central receiver pilot plant preliminary design for Barstow, California. SAN--1608-4-2 contains the technical drawings. (WHK)

  12. FERMI@Elettra FEL Design Technical Optimization Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawley, William; Penn, Gregory; Allaria, Enrico; De Ninno,Giovanni; Graves, William


    This is the final report of the FEL Design Group for the Technical Optimization Study for the FERMI{at}ELETTRA project. The FERMI{at}ELETTRA project is based on the principle of harmonic upshifting of an initial ''seed'' signal in a single pass, FEL amplifier employing multiple undulators. There are a number of FEL physics principles which underlie this approach to obtaining short wavelength output: (1) the energy modulation of the electron beam via the resonant interaction with an external laser seed (2) the use of a chromatic dispersive section to then develop a strong density modulation with large harmonic overtones (3) the production of coherent radiation by the microbunched beam in a downstream radiator. Within the context of the FERMI project, we discuss each of these elements in turn.

  13. Mathematics Intensive Summer Session (MISS). Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This final technical report appears in two parts: the report for the 1995 summer MISS program and the report for the 1996 summer MISS program. Copies of the US Department of Energy Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program 1995 Entry Form and 1996 Entry Form completed by all participants were sent to the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education in the fall of 1995 and 1996 respectively. Those forms are on file should they be needed. Attached also is a copy of the Summary of ideas for panel discussions, problem-solving sessions, or small group discussions presented at the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program Project Directors Meeting held in San Antonio, TX, November 12--14, 1995.

  14. Final Technical Report for SISGR: Ultrafast Molecular Scale Chemical Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersam, Mark C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Guest, Jeffrey R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials; Guisinger, Nathan P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials; Hla, Saw Wai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials; Schatz, George C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Seideman, Tamar [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Van Duyne, Richard P. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    The Northwestern-Argonne SISGR program utilized newly developed instrumentation and techniques including integrated ultra-high vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy/scanning tunneling microscopy (UHV-TERS/STM) and surface-enhanced femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering (SE-FSRS) to advance the spatial and temporal resolution of chemical imaging for the study of photoinduced dynamics of molecules on plasmonically active surfaces. An accompanying theory program addressed modeling of charge transfer processes using constrained density functional theory (DFT) in addition to modeling of SE-FSRS, thereby providing a detailed description of the excited state dynamics. This interdisciplinary and highly collaborative research resulted in 62 publications with ~ 48% of them being co-authored by multiple SISGR team members. A summary of the scientific accomplishments from this SISGR program is provided in this final technical report.

  15. 77 FR 47495 - Final Priority; Technical Assistance on State Data Collection, Analysis, and Reporting-National... (United States)


    ... August 8, 2012 Part II Department of Education 34 CFR Chapter III Final Priority; Technical Assistance on State Data Collection, Analysis, and Reporting--National IDEA Technical Assistance Center on Early...; Technical Assistance on State Data Collection, Analysis, and Reporting--National IDEA Technical Assistance...

  16. 48 CFR 252.235-7011 - Final scientific or technical report. (United States)


    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.235-7011 Final scientific or technical report. As prescribed in 235.072(d), use the following clause: Final Scientific or Technical Report (NOV 2004) The Contractor shall— (a) Submit two copies of the approved scientific or technical report delivered under this...

  17. 10 CFR 52.157 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report. (United States)


    ...; technical information in final safety analysis report. The application must contain a final safety analysis... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report. 52.157 Section 52.157 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES...

  18. Inventors Center of Michigan Technical Assessment Program. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Technical Assessment Program at the Inventors Center of Michigan is designed to provide independent inventors with a reliable assessment of the technical merits of their proposed inventions. Using faculty from within Ferris State University`s College of Technology an assessment process examines the inventor`s assumptions, documentation, and prototypes, as well as, reviewing patent search results and technical literature to provide the inventor with a written report on the technical aspects of the proposed invention. The forms for applying for a technical assessment of an invention are included.

  19. Energy-related inventions program invention 637. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The final technical report for the Pegasus plow, a stalk and root embedding apparatus, describes progress from the development stage to the product support stage. The US Department of Agriculture - Agriculture Research Service (ARS) is now in the second year of a three year study comparing the Pegasus to conventional tillage. So far, no downside has been with the Pegasus and the following benefits have been documented: (1) Energy savings of 65.0 kilowatt hours per hectare over conventional tillage. This is when the Pegasus plow is used to bury whole stalks, and represents a 70% savings over conventional tillage (92.5 kilowatt hours per hectare). (2) Four to seven fewer passes of tillage, depending on the particular situation. This represents a substantial time savings to farmers. (3) So far, no differences in cotton yields. Recent cotton boll counts in one study indicate a higher yield potential with the Pegasus. (4) No disease problems. (5) Significantly higher levels of organic matter in the soil. A hypothesis of the study is that whole stalk burial may reduce plant disease problems. This hypothesis has not yet been proven. (6) Significantly higher levels of nitrate nitrogen. Total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen trended higher but were not significantly different. This shows that whole stalk burial does not adversely affect the nitrogen cycle in the soil and may actually improve it. The marketing support stage of the project is also described in the report.

  20. Final Technical Report - Kotzebue Wind Power Project - Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana Zucchi, Global Energy Concepts, LLC; Brad Reeve, Kotzebue Electric Association; DOE Project Officer - Doug Hooker


    The Kotzebue Wind Power Project is a joint undertaking of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); Kotzebue Electric Association (KEA); and the Alaska Energy Authority (AEA). The goal of the project is to develop, construct, and operate a wind power plant interconnected to a small isolated utility grid in an arctic climate in Northwest Alaska. The primary objective of KEA’s wind energy program is to bring more affordable electricity and jobs to remote Alaskan communities. DOE funding has allowed KEA to develop a multi-faceted approach to meet these objectives that includes wind project planning and development, technology transfer, and community outreach. The first wind turbines were installed in the summer of 1997 and the newest turbines were installed in the spring of 2007. The total installed capacity of the KEA wind power project is 1.16 MW with a total of 17 turbines rated between 65 kW and 100 kW. The operation of the wind power plant has resulted in a wind penetration on the utility system in excess of 35% during periods of low loads. This document and referenced attachments are presented as the final technical report for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant agreement DE-FG36-97GO10199. Interim deliverables previously submitted are also referenced within this document and where reasonable to do so, specific sections are incorporated in the report or attached as appendices.

  1. AISI waste oxide recycling program. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aukrust, E.; Downing, K.B.; Sarma, B.


    In March 1995 AISI completed a five-year, $60 million collaborative development program on Direct Steelmaking cost-shared by DOE under the Metals Initiative. This program defined an energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly technology to produce hot metal for steelmaking directly from coal and iron ore pellets without incurring the high capital costs and environmental problems associated with traditional coke oven and blast furnace technology. As it becomes necessary to replace present capacity, this new technology will be favored because of reduced capital costs, higher energy efficiency, and lower operating costs. In April 1994, having failed to move forward with a demonstration plant for direct ironmaking, despite substantial efforts by both Stelco and Geneva Steel, an alternative opportunity was sought to commercialize this new technology without waiting until existing ironmaking capacity needed to be replaced. Recycling and resource recovery of steel plant waste oxides was considered an attractive possibility. This led to approval of a ten-month, $8.3 million joint program with DOE on recycling steel plant waste oxides utilizing this new smelting technology. This highly successful trial program was completed in December 1994. The results of the pilot plant work and a feasibility study for a recycling demonstration plant are presented in this final technical report.

  2. Final Technical Report - Kotzebue Wind Power Porject - Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana Zucchi, Global Energy Concepts, LLC; Brad Reeve, Kotzebue Electric Association; DOE Project Officer - Doug Hooker


    The Kotzebue Wind Power Project is a joint undertaking of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); Kotzebue Electric Association (KEA); and the Alaska Energy Authority (AEA). The goal of the project is to develop, construct, and operate a wind power plant interconnected to a small isolated utility grid in an arctic climate in Northwest Alaska. The primary objective of KEA’s wind energy program is to bring more affordable electricity and jobs to remote Alaskan communities. DOE funding has allowed KEA to develop a multi-faceted approach to meet these objectives that includes wind project planning and development, technology transfer, and community outreach. The first wind turbines were installed in the summer of 1997 and the newest turbines were installed in the spring of 2007. The total installed capacity of the KEA wind power project is 1.16 MW with a total of 17 turbines rated between 65 kW and 100 kW. The operation of the wind power plant has resulted in a wind penetration on the utility system in excess of 35% during periods of low loads. This document and referenced attachments are presented as the final technical report for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant agreement DE-FG36-97GO10199. Interim deliverables previously submitted are also referenced within this document and where reasonable to do so, specific sections are incorporated in the report or attached as appendices.

  3. NTRCI Legacy Engine Research and Development Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Holbert, Connie [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Petrolino, Joseph [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Watkins, Bart [Power Source Technologies Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Irick, David [Power Source Technologies Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)


    The Legacy engine is a completely new design, transitional diesel engine, replacing the reciprocating engine with a rotary engine. The Legacy engine offers significant advances over conventional internal combustion engines in 1) power to weight ratio; 2) multiple fuel acceptance; 3) fuel economy; and 4) environmental compliance. These advances are achieved through a combination of innovative design geometry, rotary motion, aspiration simplicity, and manufacturing/part simplicity. The key technical challenge to the Legacy engine's commercialization, and the focus of this project, was the development of a viable roton tip seal. The PST concept for the roton tip seal was developed into a manufacturable design. The design was evaluated using a custom designed and fabricated seal test fixture and further refined. This design was incorporated into the GEN2.5A prototype and tested for achievable compression pressure. The Decision Point at the end of Phase 1 of the project (described below) was to further optimize the existing tip seal design. Enhancements to the tip seal design were incorporated into the GEN2.5B prototype and tested and evaluated using the iterative research strategy described below. Compression pressures adequate for compression ignition of diesel fuel were achieved, although not consistently in all combustion volumes. The variation in compression pressures was characterized versus design features. As the roton tip seal performance was improved, results pointed toward inadequate performance of the housing side seals. Enhancement of the housing side seal system was accomplished using a custom designed side seal test fixture. The design enhancements developed with the test fixture were also incorporated into the GEN2.5B prototype and tested and evaluated using the iterative research strategy described below. Finally, to simplify the requirements for the roton tip seals and to enhance the introduction and combustion of fuel, a flush-mount fuel injector

  4. Final Technical/Scientific Report: Commodity Scale Thermostable Enzymatic Transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James J. Lalonde; Brian Davison


    The conversion of corn starch to high fructose corn-syrup sweetener is a commodity process, producing over 3 billion kg/y. In the last step of the process, an enzyme catalyst is used to convert glucose to the much sweeter sugar fructose. Due to incomplete conversion in the last step, the syrup must be purified using a chromatographic separation technique, which results in equal quantities of water being added to the syrup, and finally the water must be evaporated (up to 1 lb of water/lb of syrup). We have estimated the energy requirement in the evaporation step to be on the order of 13 billion BTU's/y. This process inefficiency could be eliminated if a thermostable form of glucose isomerase (GI), the enzyme catalyst used in the final step, was developed. Our chosen strategy was to develop an immobilized form of the enzyme in which the protein is first crystallized and then chemically cross-linked to form an insoluble particle. This so-called cross-linked enzyme crystal (CLE C(reg. sign)) technology had been shown to be a powerful method for enzyme stabilization for several other protein catalysts. In this work we have developed more than 30 CLEC preparations of glucose isomerase and tested them for activity and stability. We found these preparations to be highly active, with a 10-50 fold rate per gram of catalyst increase over existing commercial catalysts. The initial rates were also higher at higher temperatures as expected, however the efficiency of the CLEC GI preparations unexpectedly rapidly decreased to a low constant value with use at the higher temperatures. At this point, the source of this activity loss is unclear, however during this loss, the catalyst is found to form a solid mass indicating either breakage of the chemical cross-links or simple aggregation of the particles. It is likely that the increased mass transfer resistance due to this agglomeration is a major component of the activity loss. This research suggests that one potentially

  5. 48 CFR 1852.235-73 - Final Scientific and Technical Reports. (United States)


    ... XXXX.” Except for articles or papers published in scientific, technical or professional journals, the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Final Scientific and... Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-73 Final Scientific and Technical Reports. As prescribed in 1835.070(d...

  6. Final Technical Report Advanced Solar Resource Modeling and Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Clifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The SunShot Initiative coordinates research, development, demonstration, and deployment activities aimed at dramatically reducing the total installed cost of solar power. The SunShot Initiative focuses on removing critical technical and non-technical barriers to installing and integrating solar energy into the electricity grid. Uncertainty in projected power and energy production from solar power systems contributes to these barriers by increasing financial risks to photovoltaic (PV) deployment and by exacerbating the technical challenges to integration of solar power on the electricity grid.

  7. Final Technical Report: Hydrogen Codes and Standards Outreach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Karen I.


    This project contributed significantly to the development of new codes and standards, both domestically and internationally. The NHA collaborated with codes and standards development organizations to identify technical areas of expertise that would be required to produce the codes and standards that industry and DOE felt were required to facilitate commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and infrastructure. NHA staff participated directly in technical committees and working groups where issues could be discussed with the appropriate industry groups. In other cases, the NHA recommended specific industry experts to serve on technical committees and working groups where the need for this specific industry expertise would be on-going, and where this approach was likely to contribute to timely completion of the effort. The project also facilitated dialog between codes and standards development organizations, hydrogen and fuel cell experts, the government and national labs, researchers, code officials, industry associations, as well as the public regarding the timeframes for needed codes and standards, industry consensus on technical issues, procedures for implementing changes, and general principles of hydrogen safety. The project facilitated hands-on learning, as participants in several NHA workshops and technical meetings were able to experience hydrogen vehicles, witness hydrogen refueling demonstrations, see metal hydride storage cartridges in operation, and view other hydrogen energy products.

  8. Modular Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Program. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Section 2.0 of this report summarizes the MOD-RTG reference flight design, and Section 3.0 discusses the Ground Demonstration System design. Multicouple technology development is discussed in Section 4.0, and Section 5.0 lists all published technical papers prepared during the course of the contract.

  9. Technical Assistance for Southwest Solar Technologies Inc. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Ramos, Karina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Surety Engineering and Analysis; Brainard, James Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). National Security Applications; McIntyre, Annie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Surety Engineering and Analysis; Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics; Akin, Lili A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural and Thermal Analysis; Nicol, Katherine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Surety Engineering and Analysis; Hayden, Herb [Southwest Solar Technologies, Inc., Phoenix, AZ (United States)


    Southwest Solar Technologies Inc. is constructing a Solar-Fuel Hybrid Turbine energy system. This innovative energy system combines solar thermal energy with compressed air energy storage and natural gas fuel backup capability to provide firm, non-intermittent power. In addition, the energy system will have very little impact on the environment since, unlike other Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies, it requires minimal water. In 2008 Southwest Solar Technologies received a Solar America Showcase award from the Department of Energy for Technical Assistance from Sandia National Laboratories. This report details the work performed as part of the Solar America Showcase award for Southwest Solar Technologies. After many meetings and visits between Sandia National Labs and Southwest Solar Technologies, several tasks were identified as part of the Technical Assistance and the analysis and results for these are included here.

  10. Insulation from basaltic stamp sand. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, F. D.


    A Midwest Appropriate Technology Grant was awarded to determine the technical and economic feasibility of producing mineral-fiber insulation directly from extensive deposits of basaltic sand produced during former mining and milling operations in the Keweenaw Peninsula region of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The amounts of local basaltic sands available and representative chemical compositions were determined. The variation of viscosity with temperature and chemical composition was estimated. Samples were melted and either pulled or blown into fiber. In all cases fiber could be made with a reasonable tensile strength to ensure usefulness. It was concluded that it was technically feasible to produce fibers from basaltic stamp sands of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. A technical feasibility study using published data, a cost and design analysis of a basalt fiber production plant, a market survey of fiber needs, and an economic analysis for investing in a basalt fiber venture was undertaken. These studies concluded that the local production of basaltic insulation was both feasible and economically reasonable. It was suggested that the plant be located in a region of greater population density with lower utility costs. A representative one-third of these studies is included as appendices A, B, C, and D.

  11. Final Technical Report_Clean Energy Program_SLC-SELF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Glenn; Coward, Doug


    This is the Final Technical Report for DOE's Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant, Award No. DE-EE0003813, submitted by St. Lucie County, FL (prime recipient) and the Solar and Energy Loan Fund (SELF), the program's third-party administrator. SELF is a 501(c)(3) and a certified Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI). SELF is a community-based lending organization that operates the Clean Energy Loan Program, which focuses on improving the overall quality of life of underserved populations in Florida with an emphasis on home energy improvements and cost-effective renewable energy alternatives. SELF was launched in 2010 through the creation of the non-profit organization and with a $2.9 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block (EECBG) grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). SELF has its main office and headquarters in St. Lucie County, in the region known as the Treasure Coast in East-Central Florida. St. Lucie County received funding to create SELF as an independent non-profit institution, outside the control of local government. This was important for SELF to create its identity as an integral part of the business community and to help in its quest to become a Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI). This goal was accomplished in 2013, allowing SELF to focus on its mission to increase energy savings while serving markets that have struggled to find affordable financial assistance. These homeowners are most impacted by high energy costs. Energy costs are a disproportionate percentage of household expenses for low to moderate income (LMI) households. Electricity costs have been steadily rising in Florida by nearly 5% per year. Housing in LMI neighborhoods often includes older inefficient structures that further exacerbate the problem. Despite the many available clean energy solutions, most LMI property owners do not have the disposable income or equity in their homes necessary to afford the high upfront cost

  12. University of Maryland component of the Center for Multiscale Plasma Dynamics: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorland, William [University of Maryland


    The Center for Multiscale Plasma Dynamics (CMPD) was a five-year Fusion Science Center. The University of Maryland (UMD) and UCLA were the host universities. This final technical report describes the physics results from the UMD CMPD.

  13. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT: 20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Kaiserski; Dan Lloyd


    The funds allocated through the Wind Powering America (WPA) grant were utilized by the State of Montana to support broad outreach activities communicating the benefits and opportunities of increased wind energy and transmission development. The challenges to increased wind development were also clearly communicated with the understanding that a clearer comprehension of the challenges would be beneficial in overcoming the obstacles to further development. The ultimate purpose of these activities was to foster the increased development of Montana's rich wind resources through increased public acceptance and wider dissemination of technical resources.

  14. IBACOS 2001 Final Technical Report: Building-Scale Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The focus of the IBACOS Building America Builder Program activities is working with builders to construct homes on a widespread basis that perform significantly better than their contemporary version and that advance residential building products and technologies. As part of the activities, performance goals are set for all homes in the areas of energy efficiency, indoor air quality, comfort, and durability. Integrated design, engineering, and construction-related work are conducted for each project. This work focuses on meeting the established goals through technical solutions.

  15. Establishment of the International Power Institute. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julius E. Coles


    The International Power Institute, in collaboration with American industries, seeks to address technical, political, economic and cultural issues of developing countries in the interest of facilitating profitable transactions in power related infrastructure projects. IPI works with universities, governments and commercial organizations to render project-specific recommendations for private-sector investment considerations. IPI also established the following goals: Facilitate electric power infrastructure transactions between developing countries and the US power industry; Collaborate with developing countries to identify development strategies to achieve energy stability; and Encourage market driven solutions and work collaboratively with other international trade energy, technology and banking organizations.

  16. Psychological implications in ENT diseases. (United States)

    Sood, V P; Jain, Ajay


    We are sometimes faced with psychic derangement or overlay in some of the ENT diseases and the link between patient's psyche and any ENT disease at times becomes signifi cant and troublesome. The conditions in the fi eld between otorhinolaryngology and psychiatry can be classifi ed as psychiatric symptoms resulting from ENT diseases or interventions and those expressing themselves as ENT symptoms due to mental ailment. The former include hearing impairment, dizziness, tinnitus, choked airway, bad oral breath, stuffy nose, traumatic interventions and external nasal deformities. The later include exaggerated and diminished pharyngeal refl ex, globus hystericus, speech disorders, vasomotor rhinitis, nose picking, choked feeling, dizziness and headache. At times diseases originate in the human mind (consciousness), causing negative thoughts like jealousy, anger, and depression due to frustration. p ]A healthy mind in a healthy body generates sound and noble thoughts. Once a healthy body-mind relationship is established, we can be reasonably sure that greater happiness and success is within our reach. Patient seeking help from ENT surgeons to change their physical appearances and or function may not understand that the ultimate goal of surgery is to bring about psychological change by modifying the physical change, which is important aspect in septorhinoplastic surgery. At times patients asking for corrective rhinoplasty for minor external nasal deformities may have underlying psychological disturbance and use even slight external nasal deformity as scapegoat for psychological upset. Males are more diffi cult patients psychologically for any facial cosmetic surgery. These days some patients read about their diseases or treatment on the Internet and get more confused and psychologically disturbed due to rare causes of their illness, rare complications and diversity of treatment available.

  17. SIAM Conference on Geometric Design and Computing. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The SIAM Conference on Geometric Design and Computing attracted 164 domestic and international researchers, from academia, industry, and government. It provided a stimulating forum in which to learn about the latest developments, to discuss exciting new research directions, and to forge stronger ties between theory and applications. Final Report

  18. Final Technical Report, 15 September 1975-14 July 1980, (United States)


    on the Grant in 1979, but soon showed himself inadequate as a doctoral student. During its final months, the Grant aided Mr. Mohammad Mobed , who was...beginning his doctoral research. Mr. Mobed is pre- sently continuing his research on queueing networks with the prin- cipal investigator with support

  19. Beowawe Bottoming Binary Unit - Final Technical Report for EE0002856

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale Edward


    This binary plant is the first high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a butane based cycle are not necessary. The unit is modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. This project proves the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy for Nevada, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  20. Workshop on molecular methods for genetic diagnosis. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinchik, E.M.


    The Sarah Lawrence College Human Genetics Program received Department of Energy funding to offer a continuing medical education workshop for genetic counselors in the New York metropolitan area. According to statistics from the National Society of Genetic Counselors, there are approximately 160 genetic counselors working in the tri-state area (New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut), and many of them had been working in the field for more than 10 years. Thus, there was a real need to offer these counselors an in-depth opportunity to learn the specifics of the major advances in molecular genetics, and, in particular, the new approaches to diagnostic testing for genetic disease. As a result of the DOE Award DE-FG02-95ER62048 ($20,583), in July 1995 we offered the {open_quotes}Workshop on Molecular Methods for Genetic Diagnosis{close_quotes} for 24 genetic counselors in the New York metropolitan area. The workshop included an initial review session on the basics of molecular biology, lectures and discussions on past and current topics in molecular genetics and diagnostic procedures, and, importantly, daily laboratory exercises. Each counselor gained not only background, but also firsthand experience, in the major techniques of biochemical and molecular methods for diagnosing genetic diseases as well as in mathematical and computational techniques involved in human genetics analyses. Our goal in offering this workshop was not to make genetic counselors experts in these laboratory diagnostic techniques, but to acquaint them, by hands-on experience, about some of the techniques currently in use. We also wanted to provide them a technical foundation upon which they can understand and appreciate new technical developments arising in the near future.

  1. Final Technical Report for subcontract number B612144

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayali, X. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marcu, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The original statement of work stipulated that the Subcontractor shall perform bacterial and algal cultivation and manipulation, microbe isolation, preparation of samples for sequencing and isotopic analysis, data analysis, and manuscript preparation. The Subcontractor shall work closely with Dr. Mayali and other LLNL scientists, and shall participate in monthly SFA meetings (either in person or by telephone). The Subcontractor shall deliver a final report at the conclusion of the work.

  2. Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP). Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) was an EV propulsion system development program in which the technical effort was contracted by DOE to Ford Motor Company. The General Electric Company was a major subcontractor to Ford for the development of the electric subsystem. Sundstrand Power Systems was also a subcontractor to Ford, providing a modified gas turbine engine APU for emissions and performance testing as well as a preliminary design and producibility study for a Gas Turbine-APU for potential use in hybrid/electric vehicles. The four-year research and development effort was cost-shared between Ford, General Electric, Sundstrand Power Systems and DOE. The contract was awarded in response to Ford`s unsolicited proposal. The program objective was to bring electric vehicle propulsion system technology closer to commercialization by developing subsystem components which can be produced from a common design and accommodate a wide range of vehicles; i.e., modularize the components. This concept would enable industry to introduce electric vehicles into the marketplace sooner than would be accomplished via traditional designs in that the economies of mass production could be realized across a spectrum of product offerings. This would eliminate the need to dedicate the design and capital investment to a limited volume product offering which would increase consumer cost and/or lengthen the time required to realize a return on the investment.

  3. Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program : 2008 technical report : final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Regional Aquatic Monitoring Program (RAMP) is a multi-stakeholder environmental monitoring program comprised of representatives from industry; municipal, provincial and federal governments; local Aboriginal groups, and environmental organizations. This technical report presented an analysis of the effects of oil sands operations on watersheds located in the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo in northeastern Alberta in 2008. The focus study area included the lower Athabasca River and Athabasca River delta; tributary watersheds included the Clearwater-Christina rivers; Hangingstone River; Steepbank River; Muskeg River; Mackay River; Ells River; Tar River; Calumet River; and Firebag River. The study area included minor tributaries of the lower Athabasca River, wetlands and shallow lakes, and a selected group of 50 regional acid-sensitive lakes. The study included details of climate, hydrology, and water quality analyses conducted by RAMP as well as studies related to benthic invertebrate communities, sediment quality and fish populations. Analyses were conducted at the watershed basin and river levels, with an emphasis on watersheds where development has already occurred. A tabular summary of 2008 results by watershed was included. 217 tabs., 236 figs.

  4. Technical assessment of maglev system concepts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lever, J.H.


    The Government Maglev System Assessment Team operated from 1991 to 1993 as part of the National Maglev Initiative. They assessed the technical viability of four US Maglev system concepts, using the French TGV high speed train and the German TR07 Maglev system as assessment baselines. Maglev in general offers advantages that include high speed potential, excellent system control, high capacity, low energy consumption, low maintenance, modest land requirements, low operating costs, and ability to meet a variety of transportation missions. Further, the US Maglev concepts could provide superior performance to TR07 for similar cost or similar performance for less cost. They also could achieve both lower trip times and lower energy consumption along typical US routes. These advantages result generally from the use of large gap magnetic suspensions, more powerful linear synchronous motors and tilting vehicles. Innovative concepts for motors, guideways, suspension, and superconducting magnets all contribute to a potential for superior long term performance of US Maglev systems compared with TGV and TR07.

  5. Technical and economic feasibility of thermal storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelpuk, B.; Joy, P.; Crouthamel, M.


    The technical and economic feasibility of various thermal energy storage alternatives is determined by comparing the system performance and annualized cost which result from each storage alternative operating with the same solar collector model, the same building load model, and the same heating system and controls model. Performance and cost calculations are made on the basis of an hour-by-hour time step using actual weather bureau data for Albuquerque, N. M., and New York City for a single six-month heating season. The primary approach to comparing various storage alternatives is to allow the collector area and storage mass to vary until a minimum cost combination is achieved. In the Albuquerque location collector area of 325 ft/sup 2/, water storage mass of 12.5 lb/ft/sup 2/ of collector area, and phase change mass of 6.25 lb/ft/sup 2/ of collector area results in minimum cost systems, each of which delivers about 50% of the total building demand. The primary conclusion is that, using current costs for materials and containers, water is the cheapest storage alternative for heating applications in both Albuquerque and New York City. The cost of containing or encapsulating phase change materials, coupled with their small system performance advantage, is the main reason for this conclusion. The use of desiccant materials for thermal storage is considered to be impractical due to irreversibilities in thermal cycling.

  6. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Chagas Prevention in Central America

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Carlota Monroy

    INFORME FINAL: PROYECTO ID 106531 - 001. CORRESPONDIENTE AL PERIODO DEL 1 DE MARZO 2011 AL 31 DE MARZO 2014. CONTENIDO. 1. Información general ……………………………………………………………1. 2. Resumen del proyecto ………………………………………………………….2. 3. Metas objetivos ...

  7. Pressurized Oxidative Recovery of Energy from Biomass Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Misra


    This study was conducted to evaluate the technical feasibility of using pressurized oxyfuel, the ThermoEnergy Integrated Power System (TIPS), to recover energy from biomass. The study was focused on two fronts—computer simulation of the TIPS plant and corrosion testing to determine the best materials of construction for the critical heat exchanger components of the process. The goals were to demonstrate that a successful strategy of applying the TIPS process to wood waste could be achieved. To fully investigate the technical and economic benefits of using TIPS, it was necessary to model a conventional air-fired biomass power plant for comparison purposes. The TIPS process recovers and utilizes the latent heat of vaporization of water entrained in the fuel or produced during combustion. This latent heat energy is unavailable in the ambient processes. An average composition of wood waste based on data from the Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, and the South was used for the study. The high moisture content of wood waste is a major advantage of the TIPS process. The process can utilize the higher heating value of the fuel by condensing most of the water vapor in the flue gas and making the flue gas a useful source of heat. This is a considerable thermal efficiency gain over conventional power plants which use the lower heating value of the fuel. The elevated pressure also allows TIPS the option of recovering CO2 at near ambient temperatures with high purity oxygen used in combustion. Unlike ambient pressure processes which need high energy multi-stage CO2 compression to supply pipeline quality product, TIPS is able to simply pump the CO2 liquid using very little auxiliary power. In this study, a 15.0 MWe net biomass power plant was modeled, and when a CO2 pump was included it only used 0.1 MWe auxiliary power. The need for refrigeration is eliminated at such pressures resulting in significant energy, capital, and operating and maintenance savings. Since wood

  8. Team Massachusetts & Central America Solar Decathlon 2015 Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kenneth [Western New England Univ., Springfield, MA (United States)


    Our team was Team MASSCA (Massachusetts and Central America), which was a partnership of Western New England University (WNE) located in Massachusetts USA, The Technological University of Panama (UTP), and Central American Technological University (UNITEC) of Honduras. Together we had a group of 6 faculty members and approximately 30 undergraduate students. Our house is ‘The EASI’ House, which stands for Efficient, Affordable, Solar Innovation. The EASI house is rectangular with two bedrooms and one bath, and offers a total square footage of 680. Based on competition estimates, The EASI house costs roughly $121,000. The EASI house has a 5kW solar system. Faculty and students from all three institutions were represented at the competition in Irvine California. Team MASSCA did well considering this was our first entry in the Solar Decathlon competition. Team MASSCA won the following awards: First Place – Affordability Contest Second Place – Energy Balance Contest. The competition provided a great experience for our students (and faculty as well). This competition provided leadership, endurance, and technical knowledge/skills for our students, and was the single most important hands-on experience during their undergraduate years. We are extremely pleased with the awards we received. At the same time we have learned from our efforts and would do better if we were to compete in the future. Furthermore, as a result of our team’s Inter-Americas collaborative effort, UTP and WNE have partnered to form Team PANAMASS (PANAma and MASSachusetts) and have developed The 3 SMART House for the inaugural Solar Decathlon Latin America & Caribbean competition held in Colombia.

  9. Final Scientific Technical Report Crowder College MARET Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyt, Art [Crowder College, Neosho, MO (United States); Eberle, Dan [Crowder College, Neosho, MO (United States); Hudson, Pam [Crowder College, Neosho, MO (United States); Hopper, Russ [Crowder College, Neosho, MO (United States)


    , exploring and validating new applications of solar and other renewable technologies, the MARET Facility will house a wide variety of programs which will advance implementation of renewable energy throughout the region. These program goals include; Curriculum in renewable energy for pre-engineering transfer programs; Certification and degree programs for technical degrees for Energy Efficiency, Wind, Photovoltaic and Solar Thermal professionals; Short courses and workshops for building management and design professionals; Public education and demonstration projects in renewable energy through conferences and K-12 educational outreach; Technical degree offering in building construction incorporating “best practices” for energy efficiency and renewables; and Business incubators for new renewable energy businesses and new product development The new MARET facility will support the mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Program, “to improve America’s security, environmental quality, and economic prosperity through public-private partnerships that bring reliable and affordable solar energy technologies to the marketplace,” through a variety of educational and business assistance programs. Further, technical innovations planned for the MARET facility and its applied research activities will advance the Solar Program strategic goals to “reduce the cost of solar energy to the point it becomes competitive in relevant energy markets (e.g., buildings, power plants) and for solar technology to enable a sustainable solar industry.” Overarching Goals relative to program needs, future expansion, flexibility, quality of materials, and construction and operational costs:; Experimental: The structure and systems of the building operate as an educational resource. The systems are meant to be a source for data collection and study for building users and instructors; Educational: Part of the evolution of this building and its ongoing goals is to use the building as an

  10. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Winkelman; Tim Hargrave; Christine Vanderlan


    The authors conclude in this report that an upstream system would ensure complete regulatory coverage of transportation sector emissions in an efficient and feasible manner, and as such represents a key component of a national least-cost GHG emissions abatement strategy. The broad coverage provided by an upstream system recommends this approach over vehicle-maker based approaches, which would not cover emissions from heavy-duty vehicles and the aviation, marine and off-road sub-sectors. The on-road fleet approach unfairly and inefficiently burdens vehicle manufacturers with responsibility for emissions that they cannot control. A new vehicles approach would exclude emissions from vehicles on the road prior to program inception. The hybrid approach faces significant technical and political complications, and it is not clear that the approach would actually change behavior among vehicle makers and users, which is its main purpose. They also note that a trading system would fail to encourage many land use and infrastructure measures that affect VMT growth and GHG emissions. They recommend that this market failure be addressed by complementing the trading system with a program specifically targeting land use- and infrastructure-related activities. A key issue that must be addressed in designing a national GHG control strategy is whether or not it is necessary to guarantee GHG reductions from the transport sector. Neither an upstream system nor a downstream approach would do so, since both would direct capital to the least-cost abatement opportunities wherever they were found. They review two reasons why it may be desirable to force transportation sector reductions: first, that the long-term response to climate change will require reductions in all sectors; and second, the many ancillary benefits associated with transportation-related, and especially VMT-related, emissions reduction activities. If policy makers find it desirable to establish transportation

  11. High-Intensity Plasma Glass Melter Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonterman, J. Ronald; Weinstein, Michael A.


    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the energy efficiency and reduced emissions that can be obtained with a dual torch DC plasma transferred arc-melting system. Plasmelt Glass Technologies, LLC was formed to solicit and execute the project, which utilize a full-scale test melter system. The system is similar to the one that was originally constructed by Johns Manville, but Plasmelt has added significant improvements to the torch design and melter system that has extended the original JM short torch lives. The original JM design has been shown to achieve melt rates 5 to 10 times faster than conventional gas or electric melting, with improved energy efficiency and reduced emissions. This project began on 7/28/2003 and ended 7/27/06. A laboratory scale melter was designed, constructed, and operated to conduct multiple experimental melting trials on various glass compositions. Glass quality was assessed. Although the melter design is generic and equally applicable to all sectors within the glass industry, the development of this melter has focused primarily on fiberglass with additional exploratory melting trials of frits, specialty, and minerals-melting applications. Throughput, energy efficiency, and glass quality have been shown to be heavily dependent on the selected glass composition. During this project, Plasmelt completed the proof-of-concept work in our Boulder, CO Lab to show the technical feasibility of this transferred-arc plasma melter. Late in the project, the work was focused on developing the processes and evaluating the economic viability of plasma melting aimed at the specific glasses of interest to specific client companies. Post project work is on going with client companies to address broader non-glass materials such as refractories and industrial minerals. Exploratory melting trials have been conducted on several glasses of commercial interest including: C-glass, E-glass, S-Glass, AR-Glass, B-glass, Lighting Glass, NE-Glass, and various

  12. Development of an AC Module System: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suparna Kadam; Miles Russell


    The GreenRay Inc. program focused on simplifying solar electricity and making it affordable and accessible to the mainstream population. This was accomplished by integrating a solar module, micro-inverter, mounting and monitoring into a reliable, 'plug and play' AC system for residential rooftops, offering the following advantages: (1) Reduced Cost: Reduction in installation labor with fewer components, faster mounting, faster wiring. (2) Maximized Energy Production: Each AC Module operates at its maximum, reducing overall losses from shading, mismatch, or module downtime. (3) Increased Safety. Electrical and fire safety experts agree that AC Modules have significant benefits, with no energized wiring or live connections during installation, maintenance or emergency conditions. (4) Simplified PV for a Broader Group of Installers. Dramatic simplification of design and installation of a solar power system, enabling faster and more efficient delivery of the product into the market through well-established, mainstream channels. This makes solar more accessible to the public. (5) Broadened the Rooftop Market: AC Modules enable solar for many homes that have shading, split roofs, or obstructions. In addition, due to the smaller building block size of 200W vs. 1000W, homeowners with budget limitations can start small and add to their systems over time. Through this DOE program GreenRay developed the all-in-one AC Module system with an integrated PV Module and microinverter, custom residential mounting and performance monitoring. Development efforts took the product from its initial concept, through prototypes, to a commercial product sold and deployed in the residential market. This pilot deployment has demonstrated the technical effectiveness of the AC Module system in meeting the needs and solving the problems of the residential market. While more expensive than the traditional central inverter systems at the pilot scale, the economics of AC Modules become

  13. Texas Hydrogen Education Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, David; Bullock, Dan


    , and hydrogen fueling) are effective for engaging target audiences, and (3) a clear path forward is needed for state and local agencies interested in project implementation (funding, financing, preliminary design, technical assistance, etc.).

  14. Development of High-Performance Cast Crankshafts. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Mark E [General Motors, Detroit, MI (United States)


    The objective of this project was to develop technologies that would enable the production of cast crankshafts that can replace high performance forged steel crankshafts. To achieve this, the Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) of the new material needs to be 850 MPa with a desired minimum Yield Strength (YS; 0.2% offset) of 615 MPa and at least 10% elongation. Perhaps more challenging, the cast material needs to be able to achieve sufficient local fatigue properties to satisfy the durability requirements in today’s high performance gasoline and diesel engine applications. The project team focused on the development of cast steel alloys for application in crankshafts to take advantage of the higher stiffness over other potential material choices. The material and process developed should be able to produce high-performance crankshafts at no more than 110% of the cost of current production cast units, perhaps the most difficult objective to achieve. To minimize costs, the primary alloy design strategy was to design compositions that can achieve the required properties with minimal alloying and post-casting heat treatments. An Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) based approach was utilized, rather than relying only on traditional trial-and-error methods, which has been proven to accelerate alloy development time. Prototype melt chemistries designed using ICME were cast as test specimens and characterized iteratively to develop an alloy design within a stage-gate process. Standard characterization and material testing was done to validate the alloy performance against design targets and provide feedback to material design and manufacturing process models. Finally, the project called for Caterpillar and General Motors (GM) to develop optimized crankshaft designs using the final material and manufacturing processing path developed. A multi-disciplinary effort was to integrate finite element analyses by engine designers and geometry-specific casting

  15. Final Technical Report for DE-SC0012297

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell' Antonio, Ian [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)


    This is the final report on the work performed in award DE-SC0012297, Cosmic Frontier work in support of the LSST Dark Energy Science Collaboration's work to develop algorithms, simulations, and statistical tests to ensure optimal extraction of the dark energy properties from galaxy clusters observed with LSST. This work focused on effects that could produce a systematic error on the measurement of cluster masses (that will be used to probe the effects of dark energy on the growth of structure). These effects stem from the deviations from pure ellipticity of the gravitational lensing signal and from the blending of light of neighboring galaxies. Both these effects are expected to be more significant for LSST than for the stage III experiments such as the Dark Energy Survey. We calculate the magnitude of the mass error (or bias) for the first time and demonstrate that it can be treated as a multiplicative correction and calibrated out, allowing mass measurements of clusters from gravitational lensing to meet the requirements of LSST's dark energy investigation.

  16. Verification of Steelmaking Slags Iron Content Final Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.Y. Hwang


    The steel industry in the United States generates about 30 million tons of by-products each year, including 6 million tons of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slag. The recycling of BF (blast furnace) slag has made significant progress in past years with much of the material being utilized as construction aggregate and in cementitious applications. However, the recycling of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slags still faces many technical, economic, and environmental challenges. Previous efforts have focused on in-plant recycling of the by-products, achieving only limited success. As a result, large amounts of by-products of various qualities have been stockpiled at steel mills or disposed into landfills. After more than 50 years of stockpiling and landfilling, available mill site space has diminished and environmental constraints have increased. The prospect of conventionally landfilling of the material is a high cost option, a waste of true national resources, and an eternal material liability issue. The research effort has demonstrated that major inroads have been made in establishing the viability of recycling and reuse of the steelmaking slags. The research identified key components in the slags, developed technologies to separate the iron units and produce marketable products from the separation processes. Three products are generated from the technology developed in this research, including a high grade iron product containing about 90%Fe, a medium grade iron product containing about 60% Fe, and a low grade iron product containing less than 10% Fe. The high grade iron product contains primarily metallic iron and can be marketed as a replacement of pig iron or DRI (Direct Reduced Iron) for steel mills. The medium grade iron product contains both iron oxide and metallic iron and can be utilized as a substitute for the iron ore in the blast furnace. The low grade iron product is rich in calcium, magnesium and iron oxides and silicates. It has a sufficient lime value and

  17. Final Technical Report: Development of Post-Installation Monitoring Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polagye, Brian [University of Washington


    The development of approaches to harness marine and hydrokinetic energy at large-scale is predicated on the compatibility of these generation technologies with the marine environment. At present, aspects of this compatibility are uncertain. Demonstration projects provide an opportunity to address these uncertainties in a way that moves the entire industry forward. However, the monitoring capabilities to realize these advances are often under-developed in comparison to the marine and hydrokinetic energy technologies being studied. Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County has proposed to deploy two 6-meter diameter tidal turbines manufactured by OpenHydro in northern Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington. The goal of this deployment is to provide information about the environmental, technical, and economic performance of such turbines that can advance the development of larger-scale tidal energy projects, both in the United States and internationally. The objective of this particular project was to develop environmental monitoring plans in collaboration with resource agencies, while simultaneously advancing the capabilities of monitoring technologies to the point that they could be realistically implemented as part of these plans. In this, the District was joined by researchers at the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center at the University of Washington, Sea Mammal Research Unit, LLC, H.T. Harvey & Associates, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Over a two year period, the project team successfully developed four environmental monitoring and mitigation plans that were adopted as a condition of the operating license for the demonstration project that issued by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in March 2014. These plans address nearturbine interactions with marine animals, the sound produced by the turbines, marine mammal behavioral changes associated with the turbines, and changes to benthic habitat associated with colonization

  18. Final Technical Report - Photovoltaics for You (PV4You) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, J. M. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States); Sherwood, L. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States); Pulaski, J. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States); Cook, C. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States); Kalland, S. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States); Haynes, J. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), New York, NY (United States)


    position in developing quality and competency standards for solar professionals and for training programs critical components to bring the solar industry into step with other recognized craft labor forces. IREC's objective was to provide consumer assurances and assist the states and the solar industry in building a strong and qualified workforce. IREC's Schools Going Solar Clearinghouse provided channels of information to educate students, teachers, parents and the community at large about the benefits of solar energy. Solar school projects enhance science and math education while creating an initial entry market for domestic PV. And, IREC's community and outreach network got the right information out to capture the interest and met the needs of different audiences and reached groups that weren't traditionally part of the solar community. IREC's PV4You project was effective because it resulted in reduced costs through easier interconnection and better net metering agreements and by raising the competency standards for solar practitioners. The project provided ways to eliminate barriers and constraints by providing technical assistance, offering model agreements based on industry consensus that were used by state and local decision makers. And, the project increased public acceptance by providing information, news and guidelines for different audiences.

  19. Technical assistance for Meharry Medical College Energy Efficiency Project. Final project status and technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report presents the results of a program to provide technical assistance to Meharry Medical College. The purpose of the program is to facilitate Meharry`s effort to finance a campus-wide facility retrofit. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) funded the program through a grant to the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development (TECD). The University of Memphis-Technology and Energy Services (UM-TES), under contract to TECD, performed program services. The report has three sections: (1) introduction; (2) project definition, financing, and participants; and (3) opportunities for federal participation.

  20. OTEC Advanced Composite Cold Water Pipe: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Alan Miller; Matthew Ascari


    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion can exploit natural temperature gradients in the oceans to generate usable forms of energy (for example, cost-competitive baseload electricity in tropical regions such as Hawaii) free from fossil fuel consumption and global warming emissions.The No.1 acknowledged challenge of constructing an OTEC plant is the Cold Water Pipe (CWP), which draws cold water from 1000m depths up to the surface, to serve as the coolant for the OTEC Rankine cycle. For a commercial-scale plant, the CWP is on the order of 10m in diameter.This report describes work done by LMSSC developing the CWP for LM MS2 New Ventures emerging OTEC business. The work started in early 2008 deciding on the minimum-cost CWP architecture, materials, and fabrication process. In order to eliminate what in previous OTEC work had been a very large assembly/deployment risk, we took the innovative approach of building an integral CWP directly from theOTEC platform and down into the water. During the latter half of 2008, we proceeded to a successful small-scale Proof-of-Principles validation of the new fabrication process, at the Engineering Development Lab in Sunnyvale. During 2009-10, under the Cooperative Agreement with the US Dept. of Energy, we have now successfully validated key elements of the process and apparatus at a 4m diameter scale suitable for a future OTEC Pilot Plant. The validations include: (1) Assembly of sandwich core rings from pre-pultruded hollow 'planks,' holding final dimensions accurately; (2) Machine-based dispensing of overlapping strips of thick fiberglass fabric to form the lengthwise-continuous face sheets, holding accurate overlap dimensions; (3) Initial testing of the fabric architecture, showing that the overlap splices develop adequate mechanical strength (work done under a parallel US Naval Facilities Command program); and (4) Successful resin infusion/cure of 4m diameter workpieces, obtaining full wet-out and a non-discernable knitline

  1. Final Technical Report for DE-SC0005467

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broccoli, Anthony J. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)


    The objective of this project is to gain a comprehensive understanding of the key atmospheric mechanisms and physical processes associated with temperature extremes in order to better interpret and constrain uncertainty in climate model simulations of future extreme temperatures. To achieve this objective, we first used climate observations and a reanalysis product to identify the key atmospheric circulation patterns associated with extreme temperature days over North America during the late twentieth century. We found that temperature extremes were associated with distinctive signatures in near-surface and mid-tropospheric circulation. The orientations and spatial scales of these circulation anomalies vary with latitude, season, and proximity to important geographic features such as mountains and coastlines. We next examined the associations between daily and monthly temperature extremes and large-scale, recurrent modes of climate variability, including the Pacific-North American (PNA) pattern, the northern annular mode (NAM), and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The strength of the associations are strongest with the PNA and NAM and weaker for ENSO, and also depend upon season, time scale, and location. The associations are stronger in winter than summer, stronger for monthly than daily extremes, and stronger in the vicinity of the centers of action of the PNA and NAM patterns. In the final stage of this project, we compared climate model simulations of the circulation patterns associated with extreme temperature days over North America with those obtained from observations. Using a variety of metrics and self-organizing maps, we found the multi-model ensemble and the majority of individual models from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) generally capture the observed patterns well, including their strength and as well as variations with latitude and season. The results from this project indicate that current models are capable

  2. [Additional qualification in health economics--a pre-condition for ENT leadership positions?]. (United States)

    Lehnerdt, G; Schöffski, O; Mattheis, S; Hoffmann, T K; Lang, S


    The increasing medical-technical progress as well as the dramatic demographic changes cause problems with regard to rapid enlargement of medical service offers, allocation of resources and a financing shortfall in the German public health system. The economization in the German Health System can also be perceived in ENT departments. After performing an internet search about the rapidly growing market for qualifications measures in health economics, we hence conducted an anonymous survey for ENT senior doctors and directors of the 34 German University Departments to evaluate their attitude towards, as well as their expectation of such an add-on qualification. Since the German government finalized the health care reform in the year 2000 such qualification measures rapidly developed: amongst others, 26 postgraduate, extra-occupational master programs have been inaugurated. The anonymous survey was answered by 105 ENT doctors (63 senior doctors, 27 vice professors and 15 directors). 63% out of these 105 colleagues considered such an add-on qualification to be mandatory. 41% of the colleagues were already "add-on qualified" in that field, only 10 of them by means of a study program. 71 of 105 colleagues (68%) considered the add-on qualification to be advantageous for their future personal career. With regard to the designated contents of the study program, "Staff Management" was even prioritized to "Hospital Financing" and "Cost Accounting". Aspects of management and a (health-) economical basic knowledge became an integral part of the daily routine for "first-line management doctors" also in (University) ENT-departments. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Final priority. Rehabilitation Training: Job-Driven Vocational Rehabilitation Technical Assistance Center. Final priority. (United States)


    The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Rehabilitation Training program to establish a Job-Driven Vocational Rehabilitation Technical Assistance Center (JDVRTAC). The Assistant Secretary may use this priority for competitions in fiscal year (FY) 2014 and later years. We take this action to focus on training in an area of national need. Specifically, this priority responds to the Presidential Memorandum to Federal agencies directing them to take action to address job-driven training for the Nation's workers. The JDVRTAC will provide technical assistance (TA) to State vocational rehabilitation (VR) agencies to help them develop for individuals with disabilities training and employment opportunities that meet the needs of today's employers.

  4. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornetti, Micheal [Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States); Freeman, Douglas [Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States)


    The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation fuel of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesis gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could

  5. "Type Ia Supernovae: Tools for Studying Dark Energy" Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woosley, Stan [Lick Observatory, San Jose, CA (United States); Kasen, Dan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Final technical report for project "Type Ia Supernovae: Tools for the Study of Dark Energy" awarded jointly to scientists at the University of California, Santa Cruz and Berkeley, for computer modeling, theory and data analysis relevant to the use of Type Ia supernovae as standard candles for cosmology.

  6. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS): Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, Gijs [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Lawrence, Dale [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Palo, Scott [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Argrow, Brian [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); LoDolce, Gabriel [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Curry, Nathan [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Weibel, Douglas [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Finamore, William [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); D' Amore, Phillip [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Borenstein, Steven [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Nichols, Tevis [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Elston, Jack [Blackswift Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States); Ivey, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bendure, Albert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schmid, Beat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Long, Charles [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Telg, Hagen [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Gao, Ru-Shan [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Hock, Terry [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Bland, Geoff [NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA (United States)


    This final technical report details activities undertaken as part of the referenced project. Included is information on the preparation of aircraft for deployment to Alaska, summaries of the three deployments covered under this project, and a brief description of the dataset and science directions pursued. Additionally, we provide information on lessons learned, publications, and presentations resulting from this work.

  7. Manpower and portfolio of European ENT. (United States)

    Luxenberger, W; Lahousen, T; Mollenhauer, H; Freidl, W


    The aim of this study is to evaluate highly variable ENT manpower among European countries. A descriptive study design is used. Manpower in medicine is highly variable among European countries. EU and associated countries are keeping officially appointed representatives to the European Union of medical specialists--otorhinolaryngology section (UEMS--ORL section). UEMS--ORL section is running a working group for manpower in ENT collecting data regarding demographics and ENT manpower in European countries. These ENT manpower data are presented in this paper and compared to available data concerning manpower in European medicine in general. To further evaluate these huge differences, representatives of the particular countries were also asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning specifics of ENT healthcare in their country. Furthermore, typical tasks of ENT doctors based on the official UEMS logbook for ENT training were listed and could be rated regarding their frequency, performed in everyday routine of an average ENT doctor of the country. Divergences in doctors/inhabitants ratios were remarkable within European countries, but disparities in ENT manpower were even more so. The ratio of ENT doctors/inhabitants was the lowest in Ireland (1:80,000) and Great Britain (1:65,000). Greece (1:10,000), Italy, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Poland and Slovakia (1:12,000) were--at the time of the study--the countries with the highest density of ENT doctors. The EU average for 2009 was (1:21,000). The presence of non-surgical working ENT doctors was significantly associated with higher densities of ENT doctors, whereas the necessity of being referred to an ENT doctor (gatekeeping or similar measures) was not. Estimated average waiting times for an appointment in non-urgent, chronic conditions, respectively, diseases were highly variable and predominantly showed a significant correlation to the ENT doctors/inhabitants ratio in the investigated countries. But also for acute

  8. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; DeWitt, L.M. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Darnell, R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others


    The Final Waste Forms (FWF) Technical Area Status Report (TASR) Working Group, the Vitrification Working Group (WG), and the Performance Standards Working Group were established as subgroups to the FWF Technical Support Group (TSG). The FWF TASR WG is comprised of technical representatives from most of the major DOE sites, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the EPA Office of Solid Waste, and the EPA`s Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The primary activity of the FWF TASR Working Group was to investigate and report on the current status of FWFs for LLNM in this TASR. The FWF TASR Working Group determined the current status of the development of various waste forms described above by reviewing selected articles and technical reports, summarizing data, and establishing an initial set of FWF characteristics to be used in evaluating candidate FWFS; these characteristics are summarized in Section 2. After an initial review of available information, the FWF TASR Working Group chose to study the following groups of final waste forms: hydraulic cement, sulfur polymer cement, glass, ceramic, and organic binders. The organic binders included polyethylene, bitumen, vinyl ester styrene, epoxy, and urea formaldehyde. Section 3 provides a description of each final waste form. Based on the literature review, the gaps and deficiencies in information were summarized, and conclusions and recommendations were established. The information and data presented in this TASR are intended to assist the FWF Production and Assessment TSG in evaluating the Technical Task Plans (TTPs) submitted to DOE EM-50, and thus provide DOE with the necessary information for their FWF decision-making process. This FWF TASR will also assist the DOE and the MWIP in establishing the most acceptable final waste forms for the various LLMW streams stored at DOE facilities.

  9. Characterization of the radon source in North-Central Florida. Final report part 1 -- Final project report; Final report part 2 -- Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report contains two separate parts: Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (final report part 1 -- final project report); and Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (technical report). The objectives were to characterize the radon 222 source in a region having a demonstrated elevated indoor radon potential and having geology, lithology, and climate that are different from those in other regions of the U.S. where radon is being studied. Radon availability and transport in this region were described. Approaches for predicting the radon potential of lands in this region were developed.

  10. BPA-Solicited Technical Review of "Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge: Final Report for 2001 Baseline", Technical Report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, David


    The purpose of this report was to provide, at BPA's request, a technical review of interim products received for Project 2001-015-00 under contract 6925. BPA sometimes solicits technical reviews for Fish and Wildlife products or issues where outside expertise is required. External review of complex project deliverables assures BPA as a funding agency that the contractor is continuing with scientifically-credible experimental techniques envisioned in the original proposal. If the project's methodology proves feasible, there could be potential applications beyond the project area to similar situations in the Columbia Basin. The Experiment involves artificial flooding during high flow periods and a determination of the portion of the return flows that end up in the Umatilla River during low flow months and within acceptable water quality parameters (e.g., low temperature, few contaminants). Flooding could be a critical water source for aquatic organisms at times of the year when flows in the lower reaches of the Umatilla River are low and water is warmer than would be desired. The experiment was proposed to test whether 'this process, recharges the shallow aquifers of the old flood plain, for natural filtration through the alluvial soils as it returns to the Umatilla River, cleaner and cooler (about 50 degree Fahrenheit) five to six month later (about July and August) substantially cooling the river and [making it] more beneficial to anadromous [fish]'. A substantial amount of preliminary data had been collected and preliminary results were submitted in an interim report 'Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge: Final Report for 2001 Baseline (December 2002)'. A substantial amount of addition funding was provided for the last cycle of flooding (Phases II) and final analyses of the full compliment of data collected over the life of the contract (Phase III). Third party scientific review may assist the contractor in producing a

  11. Technical Support Services to the Office of Major Project Management. Final report. [DOE demonstration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    This document represents the final report on Contract No. DE-AC01-76ET13053, Technical Support Services to the Office of Major Project Management. The report provides brief technical summaries of contract activities. The purpose was for Radian Corporation to provide the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) with environmental technical support for the development of fossil fuel demonstration plants. Since that time, Radian has provided environmental technical support services to ERDA, and now to DOE, in a variety of areas supporting the fossil fuel demonstration programs. Also Radian provided DOE with quick reviews of environmental documents, technology transfer requests, and/or quick studies to provide timely technical input to a DOE decision-making process. Because some task orders were expressly designed to provide quick-response, as-needed assistance, they did not generate any major reports. Task orders are listed and brief descriptions of work done are given; seventeen report titles in response to these task orders are listed.

  12. Final Technical Report for contract number DE-FG02-05ER15670

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glazebrook, Jane [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    This is the final technical report for contract number DE-FG02-05ER15670. The project is now complete, and results of the project have been published. Two papers were published based on work done in the last three-year funding period. The DOIs of these papers are included below. The abstracts of the papers, providing summaries of the work, are included in the body of the report.

  13. Experimental Program Final Technical Progress Report: 15 February 2007 to 30 September 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Edward R. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO


    This is the final technical report of the grant DE-FG02-04ER41301 to the University of Colorado at Boulder entitled "Intermediate Energy Nuclear Physics" and describes the results of our funded activities during the period 15 February 2007 to 30 September 2012. These activities were primarily carried out at Fermilab, RHIC, and the German lab DESY. Significant advances in these experiments were carried out by members of the Colorado group and are described in detail.

  14. Metabolic engineering of the Stevia rebaudiana ent-kaurene biosynthetic pathway in recombinant Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Kong, Min Kyung; Kang, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Jin Ho; Oh, Soon Hwan; Lee, Pyung Cheon


    The ent-kaurene is a dedicated precursor pool and is responsible for synthesizing natural sweeteners such as steviol glycosides. In this study, to produce ent-kaurene in Escherichia coli, we modularly constructed and expressed two ent-kaurene genes encoding ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPPS) and ent-kaurene synthase (KS) from Stevia rebaudiana known as a typical plant producing steviol glycoside. The CPPS and KS from S. rebaudiana were functionally expressed in a heterologous host E. coli. Furthermore, in order to enhance ent-kaurene production in E. coli, six geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases (GGPPS) from various microorganisms and eight strains of E. coli as host were compared by measuring ent-kaurene production. The highest ent-kaurene production of approximately 41.1mg/L was demonstrated in E. coli strain MG1655 co-expressing synthetic CPPS-KS module and GGPPS from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The ent-kaurene production was further increased up to 179.6 mg/L by overexpression of the three key enzymes for isoprenoid precursor, 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS), farnesyl diphosphate synthase (IspA) and isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI) from E. coli. Finally, the highest titer of ent-kaurene (578 mg/L) with a specific yield of ent-kaurene of 143.5mg/g dry cell weight was obtained by culturing E. coli strain MG1655 co-expressing the ent-kaurene module, DXS, IDI and IspA in 1L bioreactor containing 20 g/L glycerol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fiber-optic, anti-cycling, high pressure sodium street light control. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is the Final Technical Progress Report on a project to develop and market a Fiber-Optic Anti-Cycling High Pressure Sodium Street Light Control. The field test units are now being made with a single vertical PC board design and contains a computer-on-a-chip or PROM IC to take the place of the majority of the components previously contained on the upper logic board. This will reduce the final costs of the unit when it is in production and increase the control`s flexibility. The authors have finished the soft tooling and have made the 400 plastic cases for the field test units. The new configuration of the cases entails a simplified design of the control shell which will have the lenses cast in place. The shell and base plastics are now finished and in final assembly awaiting the completion of the PC boards.

  16. NEET-AMM Final Technical Report on Laser Direct Manufacturing (LDM) for Nuclear Power Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Scott [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Denver, CO (United States). Space Systems Company; Baca, Georgina [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Denver, CO (United States). Space Systems Company; O' Connor, Michael [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Denver, CO (United States). Space Systems Company


    Final technical report summarizes the program progress and technical accomplishments of the Laser Direct Manufacturing (LDM) for Nuclear Power Components project. A series of experiments varying build process parameters (scan speed and laser power) were conducted at the outset to establish the optimal build conditions for each of the alloys. Fabrication was completed in collaboration with Quad City Manufacturing Laboratory (QCML). The density of all sample specimens was measured and compared to literature values. Optimal build process conditions giving fabricated part densities close to literature values were chosen for making mechanical test coupons. Test coupons whose principal axis is on the x-y plane (perpendicular to build direction) and on the z plane (parallel to build direction) were built and tested as part of the experimental build matrix to understand the impact of the anisotropic nature of the process.. Investigations are described 316L SS, Inconel 600, 718 and 800 and oxide dispersion strengthed 316L SS (Yttria) alloys.

  17. DE-FG02-04ER63746 FinalTechnicalReport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidstrom, M.E.


    This is the final technical report for a project involving the study of stress response systems in the radiation-resistant bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans. Three stresses of importance for a mixed waste treatment strain were studied, heat shock, solvent shock, and phosphate starvation. In each case, specific genes involved in the ability to survive the stress were identified using a systems biology approach, and analysis of mutants was used to understand mechanisms. This study has led to increased understanding of the ways in which a potential treatment strain could be manipulated to survive multiple stresses for treatment of mixed wastes.

  18. Alumina reinforced tetragonal zirconia (TZP) composites. Final technical report, July 1, 1993--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, D.K.


    This final technical report summarizes the significant research results obtained during the period July 1, 1993 through December 31, 1996 in the DOE-supported research project entitled, {open_quotes}Alumina Reinforced Tetragonal Zirconia (TZP) Composites{close_quotes}. The objective of the research was to develop high-strength and high-toughness ceramic composites by combining mechanisms of platelet, whisker or fiber reinforcement with transformation toughening. The approach used included reinforcement of Celia- or yttria-partially-stabilized zirconia (Ce-TZP or Y-TZP) with particulates, platelets, or continuous filaments of alumina.

  19. [Tampa Electric Company IGCC project]. Final public design report; Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This final Public Design Report (PDR) provides completed design information about Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, which will demonstrate in a commercial 250 MW unit the operating parameters and benefits of the integration of oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification with advanced combined cycle technology. Pending development of technically and commercially viable sorbent for the Hot Gas Cleanup System, the HGCU also is demonstrated. The report is organized under the following sections: design basis description; plant descriptions; plant systems; project costs and schedule; heat and material balances; general arrangement drawings; equipment list; and miscellaneous drawings.

  20. ent-Kaurane diterpenoids from Croton tonkinensis stimulate osteoblast differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Trong-Tuan; Lee, Kwang-Youl; Jeong, Hyung-Min


    Four new ent-kaurane diterpenoids (1-4) were isolated from the leaves of Croton tonkinensis by bioactivity-guided fractionation using an in vitro osteoblast differentiation assay. Their structures were identified as ent-11β-acetoxykaur-16-en-18-ol (1), ent-11α-hydroxy-18-acetoxykaur-16-ene (2), ent...

  1. Effects of risk on prices and quantities of energy supplies. Volume 4. Technical reports. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R.J.; Stiglitz, J.E.


    This volume is a collection of technical reports written in the course of the research program. The technical reports describe new results in a particular area of research. Two of the reports deal with the theory of contracting for research and development, and address questions such as contractual incentives and the distribution of gains between the contractor and contractee. Another report addresses the economic incentives for vertical integration, i.e., the replacement of a market for an intermediate factor by an internal-transfer mechanism. The fourth report deals with the effect of potential competition on the profit-maximizing pricing policy of a resource monopolist. The fifth report examines the degree of flexibility in response to uncertain input prices afforded by the choice of production technology by firms, and the effects of this flexibility on the distribution of prices. The sixth and final report concerns the efficiency of the stock market as an institution for sharing the risk associated with the total supply of exhaustible resources.

  2. Final technical report; Mercury Release from Organic matter (OM) and OM-Coated Mineral Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiken, George


    This document is the final technical report for a project designed to address fundamental processes controlling the release of mercury from flood plain soils associated with East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee near the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge facility. The report summarizes the activities, findings, presentations, and publications resulting from an award to the U.S. Geological that were part of a larger overall effort including Kathy Nagy (University of Illinois, Chicago, Ill) and Joseph Ryan (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO). The specific charge for the U.S.G.S. portion of the study was to provide analytical support for the larger group effort (Nagy and Ryan), especially with regard to analyses of Hg and dissolved organic matter, and to provide information about the release of mercury from the floodplain soils.

  3. Final Technical Report for Grant DE-FG02-04ER54795

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlino, Robert L [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)


    This is the final technical report for DOE Grant #DE-FG02-04ER54795-Experimental Investigations of Fundamental Processes in Dusty Plasmas. A plasma is an ionized gas, and a dusty plasmas is a plasma that contains, in addition to electrons and ions, micron-sized dust particles. The dust particles acquire and electric charge in the plasma by collecting electrons and ions. The electrons move more rapidly than the ions, so the dust charge is negative. A 1 micron dust particle in a typical low temperature plasma has a charge corresponding to approximately 2000 electrons. Dusty plasmas are naturally found in astrophysical plasmas, planetary rings, technological plasmas, and magnetic fusion plasmas. The goal of this project was to study in the laboratory, the basic physical processes that occur in dusty plasmas. This report provides a summary of the major scientific products and activities of this award.

  4. Final technical evaluation report for the proposed revised reclamation plan for the Atlas Corporation Moab Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This final Technical Evaluation Report (TER) summarizes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff`s review of Atlas Corporation`s proposed reclamation plan for its uranium mill tailings pile near Moab, Utah. The proposed reclamation would allow Atlas to (1) reclaim the tailings pile for permanent disposal and long-term custodial care by a government agency in its current location on the Moab site, (2) prepare the site for closure, and (3) relinquish responsibility of the site after having its NRC license terminated. The NRC staff concludes that, subject to license conditions identified in the TER, the proposed reclamation plan meets the requirements identified in NRC regulations, which appear primarily in 10 CFR Part 40. 112 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. [E-learning in ENT: Usage in University Medical Centers in Germany]. (United States)

    Freiherr von Saß, Peter; Klenzner, Thomas; Scheckenbach, Kathrin; Chaker, Adam


    E-learning is an essential part of innovative medical teaching concepts. The challenging anatomy and physiology in ENT is considered particularly suitable for self-assessed and adaptive e-learning. Usage and data on daily experience with e-learning in German ENT-university hospitals are currently unavailable and the degree of implementation of blended learning including feed-back from medical students are currently not known. We investigated the current need and usage of e-learning in academic ENT medical centers in Germany. We surveyed students and chairs for Otorhinolaryngology electronically and paperbased during the summer semester 2015. Our investigation revealed an overall heterogenous picture on quality and quantity of offered e-learning applications. While the overall amount of e-learning in academic ENT in Germany is rather low, at least half of the ENT-hospitals in medical faculties reported that e-learning had improved their own teaching activities. More collaboration among medical faculties and academic ENT-centers may help to explore new potentials, overcome technical difficulties and help to realize more ambitious projects. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Charles [Delta Products, Triangle Park, NC (United States)


    In the 2nd quarter of 2012, a program was formally initiated at Delta Products to develop smart-grid-enabled Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) product for residential use. The project was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under award DE-OE0000590. Delta products was the prime contractor to DOE during the three year duration of the project. In addition to Delta Products, several additional supplier-partners were engaged in this research and development (R&D) program, including Detroit Edison DTE, Mercedes Benz Research and Development North America, and kVA. This report summarizes the program and describes the key research outcomes of the program. A technical history of the project activities is provided, which describes the key steps taken in the research and the findings made at successive stages in the multi-stage work. The evolution of an EVSE prototype system is described in detail, culminating in prototypes shipped to Department of Energy Laboratories for final qualification. After the program history is reviewed, the key attributes of the resulting EVSE are described in terms of functionality, performance, and cost. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of this EVSE to meet or exceed DOE's targets for this program, including: construction of a working product-intent prototype of a smart-grid-enabled EVSE, with suitable connectivity to grid management and home-energy management systems, revenue-grade metering, and related technical functions; and cost reduction of 50% or more compared to typical market priced EVSEs at the time of DOE's funding opportunity announcement (FOA), which was released in mid 2011. In addition to meeting all the program goals, the program was completed within the original budget and timeline established at the time of the award. The summary program budget and timeline, comparing plan versus actual values, is provided for reference, along with several supporting explanatory notes. Technical

  7. Final Technical Report: "Representing Endogenous Technological Change in Climate Policy Models: General Equilibrium Approaches"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Sue Wing


    The research supported by this award pursued three lines of inquiry: (1) The construction of dynamic general equilibrium models to simulate the accumulation and substitution of knowledge, which has resulted in the preparation and submission of several papers: (a) A submitted pedagogic paper which clarifies the structure and operation of computable general equilibrium (CGE) models (C.2), and a review article in press which develops a taxonomy for understanding the representation of technical change in economic and engineering models for climate policy analysis (B.3). (b) A paper which models knowledge directly as a homogeneous factor, and demonstrates that inter-sectoral reallocation of knowledge is the key margin of adjustment which enables induced technical change to lower the costs of climate policy (C.1). (c) An empirical paper which estimates the contribution of embodied knowledge to aggregate energy intensity in the U.S. (C.3), followed by a companion article which embeds these results within a CGE model to understand the degree to which autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) is attributable to technical change as opposed to sub-sectoral shifts in industrial composition (C.4) (d) Finally, ongoing theoretical work to characterize the precursors and implications of the response of innovation to emission limits (E.2). (2) Data development and simulation modeling to understand how the characteristics of discrete energy supply technologies determine their succession in response to emission limits when they are embedded within a general equilibrium framework. This work has produced two peer-reviewed articles which are currently in press (B.1 and B.2). (3) Empirical investigation of trade as an avenue for the transmission of technological change to developing countries, and its implications for leakage, which has resulted in an econometric study which is being revised for submission to a journal (E.1). As work commenced on this topic, the U.S. withdrawal

  8. Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications: electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. Final Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonergan, Mark [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)


    Final technical report for Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications, electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. The central goal of the work we completed was been to understand the photochemical and photovoltaic properties of ionically functionalized conjugated polymers (conjugated ionomers or polyelectrolytes) and energy conversion systems based on them. We primarily studied two classes of conjugated polymer interfaces that we developed based either upon undoped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in ionic composition (the ionic junction) or doped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in doping type (the p-n junction). The materials used for these studies have primarily been the polyacetylene ionomers. We completed a detailed study of p-n junctions with systematically varying dopant density, photochemical creation of doped junctions, and experimental and theoretical work on charge transport and injection in polyacetylene ionomers. We have also completed related work on the use of conjugated ionomers as interlayers that improve the efficiency or organic photovoltaic systems and studied several important aspects of the chemistry of ionically functionalized semiconductors, including mechanisms of so-called "anion-doping", the formation of charge transfer complexes with oxygen, and the synthesis of new polyfluorene polyelectrolytes. We also worked worked with the Haley group at the University of Oregon on new indenofluorene-based organic acceptors.

  9. A configuration space toolkit for automated spatial reasoning: Technical results and LDRD project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, P.G.; LaFarge, R.A.


    A robot`s configuration space (c-space) is the space of its kinematic degrees of freedom, e.g., the joint-space of an arm. Sets in c-space can be defined that characterize a variety of spatial relationships, such as contact between the robot and its environment. C-space techniques have been fundamental to research progress in areas such as motion planning and physically-based reasoning. However, practical progress has been slowed by the difficulty of implementing the c-space abstraction inside each application. For this reason, we proposed a Configuration Space Toolkit of high-performance algorithms and data structures meeting these needs. Our intent was to develop this robotics software to provide enabling technology to emerging applications that apply the c-space abstraction, such as advanced motion planning, teleoperation supervision, mechanism functional analysis, and design tools. This final report presents the research results and technical achievements of this LDRD project. Key results and achievements included (1) a hybrid Common LISP/C prototype that implements the basic C-Space abstraction, (2) a new, generic, algorithm for constructing hierarchical geometric representations, and (3) a C++ implementation of an algorithm for fast distance computation, interference detection, and c-space point-classification. Since the project conclusion, motion planning researchers in Sandia`s Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center have been using the CSTk C++ library. The code continues to be used, supported, and improved by projects in the ISRC.

  10. Final Scientific/Technical Report: Low Cost, Structurally Advanced Novel Electrode and Cell Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodford, William [24M Technologies, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)


    This document is the final technical report from 24M Technologies on the project titled: Low Cost, Structurally Advanced Novel Electrode and Cell Manufacturing. All of the program milestones and deliverables were completed during the performance of the award. Specific accomplishments are 1) 24M demonstrated the processability and electrochemical performance of semi-solid electrodes with active volume contents increased by 10% relative to the program baseline; 2) electrode-level metrics, quality, and yield were demonstrated at an 80 cm2 electrode footprint; 3) these electrodes were integrated into cells with consistent capacities and impedances, including cells delivered to Argonne National Laboratory for independent testing; 4) those processes were scaled to a large-format (> 260 cm2) electrode footprint and quality and yield were demonstrated; 5) a high-volume manufacturing approach for large-format electrode fabrication was demonstrated; and 6) large-format cells (> 100 Ah capacity) were prototyped with consistent capacity and impedance, including cells which were delivered to Argonne National Laboratory for independent testing.

  11. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 1: Transmittal documents; Executive summary; Project summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described.

  12. An Approach to Developing Independent Learning and Non-Technical Skills Amongst Final Year Mining Engineering Students (United States)

    Knobbs, C. G.; Grayson, D. J.


    There is mounting evidence to show that engineers need more than technical skills to succeed in industry. This paper describes a curriculum innovation in which so-called "soft" skills, specifically inter-personal and intra-personal skills, were integrated into a final year mining engineering course. The instructional approach was…

  13. Final Technical Progress Report: Development of Low-Cost Suspension Heliostat; December 7, 2011 - December 6, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, W.


    Final technical progress report of SunShot Incubator Solaflect Energy. The project succeeded in demonstrating that the Solaflect Suspension Heliostat design is viable for large-scale CSP installations. Canting accuracy is acceptable and is continually improving as Solaflect improves its understanding of this design. Cost reduction initiatives were successful, and there are still many opportunities for further development and further cost reduction.

  14. Ent-Abietanoids Isolated from Isodon serra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wan


    Full Text Available Four new ent-abietane diterpenoids, along with four known ones were isolated from the aerial parts of Isodon serra, a traditional Chinese folk medicine. The new diterpenoids were named as serrin K (1, xerophilusin XVII (2, and enanderianins Q and R (3 and 4, while the known ones were identified as rubescansin J (5, (3α,14β-3,18-[(1-methylethane-1,1-diyldioxy]-ent-abieta-7,15(17-diene-14,16-diol (6, xerophilusin XIV (7, and enanderianin P (8, respectively. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with the literature. Compound 1 showed remarkable inhibitory activity towards NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells (IC50 = 1.8 μM and weak cytotoxicity towards five human tumor cell lines (HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, SW480.

  15. Xylitol and its usage in ENT practice. (United States)

    Sakallioğlu, Ö; Güvenç, I Adadan; Cingi, C


    Xylitol is a five-carbon sugar alcohol. Natural sources of xylitol include plums, strawberries and raspberries. Xylitol is commercially available in chewing gums, lozenges, syrups, nasal sprays, toothpastes, mouthwashes and other products in some countries. It has gained relative prominence in the past decade as a naturally occurring antibacterial agent. A review of contemporary literature was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of xylitol usage in ENT practice. The English-language literature was searched using the following terms: xylitol, otitis media, nasal, sinusitis, dental caries and preventive therapy. The articles identified were included in this review. Xylitol has no antibacterial properties of its own; rather, it appears to enhance the body's own innate immunity. Xylitol has anti-adhesive effects on micro-organisms like Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans, inhibiting their growth. Xylitol has already been used for preventing otitis media, rhinosinusitis and dental caries. The worldwide spread of drug-resistant strains of pneumococci substantiates the need for new approaches to prevent ENT-related infectious diseases. Xylitol may be a promising agent for this purpose in ENT practice, but further experimental and clinical studies are required.

  16. Functional characterization of ent-kaurene oxidase, MtKO, from Montanoa tomentosa (Zoapatle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa-Ruano Nemesio


    Full Text Available Kaurene oxidases are P450 proteins that catalyze the conversion of ent-kaurene into kaurenoic acid, the final enzymatic product with a wide range of pharmacological properties. We describe the functional characterization of an ent-kaurene oxidase (EC isolated from Montanoa tomentosa after heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as the detection of the enzymatic activity in the plant itself. In the presence of NADPH and FAD, the microsomal fraction from transformed INVSc1 cells, ent-kaurene produced ent-kaurenoic acid, which was confirmed by GC-MS analyses. The kinetic parameters for ent-kaurene using 0.5 mg of microsomal protein were Km app= 80.63±1.2 μM and V max app= 31.80±1.8 μmol-1mg-1h-1. Optimal temperature and pH were 30°C and 7.6, respectively. Similar kinetic parameters were observed when leaf microsomes from M. tomentosa were assayed under the same conditions as for yeast microsomes. This result strongly suggests that ent-kaurene oxidase activity is present in leaf microsomes. The enzymatic activity was competitively inhibited by paclobutrazol, with IC50=43.9 μM, implying that MtKO is resistant to inhibition by azolic-type compounds. This study confirmed the biochemical detection of ent-kaurene oxidase activity in the plant, and the heterologous functionality of a cDNA with an ent-kaurene oxidase identity from M. tomentosa (zoapatle.

  17. Final Technical Report - SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnack, Dalton D.


    Final technical report for research performed by Dr. Thomas G. Jenkins in collaboration with Professor Dalton D. Schnack on SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodyanics, DE-FC02-06ER54899, for the period of 8/15/06 - 8/14/11. This report centers on the Slow MHD physics campaign work performed by Dr. Jenkins while at UW-Madison and then at Tech-X Corporation. To make progress on the problem of RF induced currents affect magnetic island evolution in toroidal plasmas, a set of research approaches are outlined. Three approaches can be addressed in parallel. These are: (1) Analytically prescribed additional term in Ohm's law to model the effect of localized ECCD current drive; (2) Introduce an additional evolution equation for the Ohm's law source term. Establish a RF source 'box' where information from the RF code couples to the fluid evolution; and (3) Carry out a more rigorous analytic calculation treating the additional RF terms in a closure problem. These approaches rely on the necessity of reinvigorating the computation modeling efforts of resistive and neoclassical tearing modes with present day versions of the numerical tools. For the RF community, the relevant action item is - RF ray tracing codes need to be modified so that general three-dimensional spatial information can be obtained. Further, interface efforts between the two codes require work as well as an assessment as to the numerical stability properties of the procedures to be used.

  18. Final Technical Report. DeepCwind Consortium Research Program. January 15, 2010 - March 31, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagher, Habib [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Viselli, Anthony [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Goupee, Andrew [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Thaler, Jeffrey [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Brady, Damian [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Browne, Peter [HDR, Inc., Omaha, NE (United States); Browning, James [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Chung, Jade [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Coulling, Alexander [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Deese, Heather [Island Institute, Rockland, ME (United States); Fowler, Matthew [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Holberton, Rebecca [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Anant, Jain [Intertek, Duluth, GA (United States); Jalbert, Dustin [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Johnson, Theresa [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Jonkman, Jason [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Karlson, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kimball, Richard [Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, ME (United States); Koo, Bonjun [Technip, Paris (France); Lackner, Matthew [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Lambrakos, Kostas [Technip, Paris (France); Lankowski, Matthew [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Leopold, Adrienne [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Lim, Ho-Joon [Technip, Paris (France); Mangum, Linda [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Martin, Heather [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Masciola, Marco [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Maynard, Melissa [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); McCleave, James [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Mizrahi, Robert [New Jersey Audubon Society, Bernardsville, NJ (United States); Molta, Paul [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Pershing, Andrew [Gulf of Maine Research Institute, Portland, ME (United States); Pettigrew, Neal [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Prowell, Ian [MMI Engineering, Oakland, CA (United States); Qua, Andrew [Kleinschmidt Associates, Pittsfield, ME (United States); Sherwood, Graham [Gulf of Maine Research Institute, Portland, ME (United States); Snape, Thomas [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Steneck, Robert [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Stewart, Gordon [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Stockwell, Jason [Gulf of Maine Research Institute, Portland, ME (United States); Swift, Andrew H. P. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Thomas, Dale [Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, ME (United States); Viselli, Elizabeth [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Zydlewski, Gayle [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)


    This is the final technical report for the U.S. Department of Energy-funded program, DE-0002981: DeepCwind Consortium Research Program. The project objective was the partial validation of coupled models and optimization of materials for offshore wind structures. The United States has a great opportunity to harness an indigenous abundant renewable energy resource: offshore wind. In 2010, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) estimated there to be over 4,000 GW of potential offshore wind energy found within 50 nautical miles of the US coastlines (Musial and Ram, 2010). The US Energy Information Administration reported the total annual US electric energy generation in 2010 was 4,120 billion kilowatt-hours (equivalent to 470 GW) (US EIA, 2011), slightly more than 10% of the potential offshore wind resource. In addition, deep water offshore wind is the dominant US ocean energy resource available comprising 75% of the total assessed ocean energy resource as compared to wave and tidal resources (Musial, 2008). Through these assessments it is clear offshore wind can be a major contributor to US energy supplies. The caveat to capturing offshore wind along many parts of the US coast is deep water. Nearly 60%, or 2,450 GW, of the estimated US offshore wind resource is located in water depths of 60 m or more (Musial and Ram, 2010). At water depths over 60 m building fixed offshore wind turbine foundations, such as those found in Europe, is likely economically infeasible (Musial et al., 2006). Therefore floating wind turbine technology is seen as the best option for extracting a majority of the US offshore wind energy resource. Volume 1 - Test Site; Volume 2 - Coupled Models; and Volume 3 - Composite Materials

  19. Scalable data management, analysis and visualization (SDAV) Institute. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geveci, Berk [Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States)


    The purpose of the SDAV institute is to provide tools and expertise in scientific data management, analysis, and visualization to DOE’s application scientists. Our goal is to actively work with application teams to assist them in achieving breakthrough science, and to provide technical solutions in the data management, analysis, and visualization regimes that are broadly used by the computational science community. Over the last 5 years members of our institute worked directly with application scientists and DOE leadership-class facilities to assist them by applying the best tools and technologies at our disposal. We also enhanced our tools based on input from scientists on their needs. Many of the applications we have been working with are based on connections with scientists established in previous years. However, we contacted additional scientists though our outreach activities, as well as engaging application teams running on leading DOE computing systems. Our approach is to employ an evolutionary development and deployment process: first considering the application of existing tools, followed by the customization necessary for each particular application, and then the deployment in real frameworks and infrastructures. The institute is organized into three areas, each with area leaders, who keep track of progress, engagement of application scientists, and results. The areas are: (1) Data Management, (2) Data Analysis, and (3) Visualization. Kitware has been involved in the Visualization area. This report covers Kitware’s contributions over the last 5 years (February 2012 – February 2017). For details on the work performed by the SDAV institute as a whole, please see the SDAV final report.

  20. ent-Pimarane and ent-Kaurane Diterpenes from Aldama discolor (Asteraceae and Their Antiprotozoal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro S. Nogueira


    Full Text Available Aldama discolor (syn.Viguiera discolor is an endemic Asteraceae from the Brazilian “Cerrado”, which has not previously been investigated for its chemical constituents and biological activity. Diterpenes are common secondary metabolites found in Aldama species, some of which have been reported to present potential antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activities. In this study, the known ent-3-α-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-18-ol (1, as well as three new diterpenes, namely, ent-7-oxo-pimara-8,15-diene-18-ol (2, ent-2S,4S-2-19-epoxy-pimara-8(3,15-diene-7β-ol (3 and ent-7-oxo-pimara-8,15-diene-3β-ol (4, were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of A. discolor leaves and identified by means of MS and NMR. The compounds were assayed in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi and Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium falciparum and also tested for cytotoxicity against mammalian cells (L6 cell line. The ent-kaurane 1 showed significant in vitro activity against both P. falciparum (IC 50 = 3.5 μ M and L. donovani (IC 50 = 2.5 μ M and ent-pimarane 2 against P. falciparum (IC 50 = 3.8 μ M. Both compounds returned high selectivity indices (SI >10 in comparison with L6 cells, which makes them interesting candidates for in vivo tests. In addition to the diterpenes, the sesquiterpene lactone budlein A (5, which has been reported to possess a strong anti-T. b. rhodesiense activity, was identified as major compound in the A. discolor extract and explains its high activity against this parasite (100% growth inhibition at 2 μ g/mL.

  1. Medicine, ENT and music: a mythological approach. (United States)

    Tainmont, J


    Music and Medicine are united by Mythology. Apollo links them with his lyre and the snake that accompanies him. He has two sons, one called Asclepius, the Physician, and the other called Orpheus, the Musician. Elsewhere, poor taste in music, the occasional benefits of deafness, the charisma of music, the masking effect of noise and the echo effect are personified by mythical characters like Midas, Ulysses, the Sirens, Orpheus, the Maenads or the nymph Echo. And in all these cases, the ear or the voice are part of the fabric of their marvellous adventures. So ENT is involved at a fundamental level with the stuff of legend (Figure 1).

  2. Technical data. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This volume includes a description of the railway to transport the coal; possible unbalance in the electrical power supply is considered in detail, as well as communications, signalling, etc. The railway will also be used to transport ashes and sludges for waste disposal. Coal fines in the coal supply will be burned to generate power. A very brief description of the coal gasification plant and its components is accompanied by a printout of the dates final engineering is to be completed. Permit applications are listed and socio-economic factors are discussed. The financing plan is discussed in some detail: basically, a loan guarantee from the Synthetic Fuels Corporation; equity provided by investment tax credit, deferred taxes, AFUDC and the sponsors; price support; and gas purchase agreement (this whole section includes several legal details.). (LTN)

  3. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues.

  4. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  5. Technical assistance. Final report, 15 August 1978-14 July 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culver, G.


    Under the technical assistance program up to 100 man hours of consultation can be provided, at no cost, to private, public, or corporate entities intending the direct utilization of geothermal energy. Application areas include but are not limited to, space heating and cooling, district heating, aquaculture, food production and processing, drying, chemical and pharmaceutical processes, animal husbandry, etc. Assistance is given primarily for projects in the Pacific Region states of Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Nevada, Arizona, and Hawaii. Activities of the technical assistance program for the reporting period are listed by state.

  6. Final Technical Report Power through Policy: "Best Practices" for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads-Weaver, Heather; Gagne, Matthew; Sahl, Kurt; Orrell, Alice; Banks, Jennifer


    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The project's final products include the Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool, found at, and its accompanying documentation: Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook: User Instructions, Assumptions, and Case Studies. With only two initial user inputs required, the Policy Tool allows users to adjust and test a wide range of policy-related variables through a user-friendly dashboard interface with slider bars. The Policy Tool is populated with a variety of financial variables, including turbine costs, electricity rates, policies, and financial incentives; economic variables including discount and escalation rates; as well as technical variables that impact electricity production, such as turbine power curves and wind speed. The Policy Tool allows users to change many of the variables, including the policies, to gauge the expected impacts that various policy combinations could have on the cost of energy (COE), net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and the simple payback of distributed wind projects ranging in size from 2.4 kilowatts (kW) to 100 kW. The project conducted case studies to demonstrate how the Policy Tool can provide insights into 'what if' scenarios and also allow the current status of incentives to be examined or defended when

  7. Final Technical Progress Report Long term risk from actinides in the environment: Modes of mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas B. Kirchner


    The key source of uncertainty in assessing actinide mobility is the relative importance of transport by: (1) wind erosion, (2) water erosion, and (3) vertical migration. Each of these three processes depends on several environmental factors and they compete with one another. A scientific assessment of the long-term risks associated with actinides in surface soils depends on better quantifying each of these three modes of mobility. The objective from our EMSP study was to quantify the mobility of soil actinides by wind erosion, water erosion, and vertical migration at three semiarid sites where actinide mobility is a key technical, social and legal issue. This EMSP project was the first to evaluate all three factors at a site. The approach has been to investigate both short- and long-term issues based on field and lab studies and model comparisons. Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating threshold responses into a modeling framework that accounts for environmental factors and natural disturbances that trigger large changes in actinide mobility. The study measured erosional losses of sediment and fallout cesium (an actinide analogue) from field plots located near WIPP in 1998. The results highlight the large effect of burning as a disturbance on contaminant transport and mobility via runoff and erosion. The results show that runoff, erosion, and actinide transport are (1) strongly site specific-differences in radionuclide transport between WIPP and Rocky Flats differed by a factor of twelve because of soil and vegetation differences, and (2) are strongly impacted by disturbances such as fire, which can increase runoff, erosion, and actinide transport by more than an order of magnitude. In addition, a laboratory experiment using soil columns was conducted to investigate the vertical transport of contaminants in sandy soils. Nine columns of soil collected from the vicinity of the WIPP site were prepared. The column consisted of a piece of PVC pipe 20 cm

  8. UCLA Final Technical Report for the "Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation”.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Warren [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    The UCLA Plasma Simulation Group is a major partner of the “Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation”. This is the final technical report. We include an overall summary, a list of publications, progress for the most recent year, and individual progress reports for each year. We have made tremendous progress during the three years. SciDAC funds have contributed to the development of a large number of skeleton codes that illustrate how to write PIC codes with a hierarchy of parallelism. These codes cover 2D and 3D as well as electrostatic solvers (which are used in beam dynamics codes and quasi-static codes) and electromagnetic solvers (which are used in plasma based accelerator codes). We also used these ideas to develop a GPU enabled version of OSIRIS. SciDAC funds were also contributed to the development of strategies to eliminate the Numerical Cerenkov Instability (NCI) which is an issue when carrying laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) simulations in a boosted frame and when quantifying the emittance and energy spread of self-injected electron beams. This work included the development of a new code called UPIC-EMMA which is an FFT based electromagnetic PIC code and to new hybrid algorithms in OSIRIS. A new hybrid (PIC in r-z and gridless in φ) algorithm was implemented into OSIRIS. In this algorithm the fields and current are expanded into azimuthal harmonics and the complex amplitude for each harmonic is calculated separately. The contributions from each harmonic are summed and then used to push the particles. This algorithm permits modeling plasma based acceleration with some 3D effects but with the computational load of an 2D r-z PIC code. We developed a rigorously charge conserving current deposit for this algorithm. Very recently, we made progress in combining the speed up from the quasi-3D algorithm with that from the Lorentz boosted frame. SciDAC funds also contributed to the improvement and speed up of the quasi-static PIC

  9. 78 FR 12955 - Final Requirements, Definitions, and Selection Criteria-Native American Career and Technical... (United States)


    .... Analysis of Comments: Comment: Two comments we received were from current NACTEP grantees supporting our... clarification on challenging academic standards in reading/language arts and in mathematics, stating that the... content aligned with challenging academic standards and relevant technical knowledge and skills and...

  10. 10 CFR 52.79 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report. (United States)


    ... that have been historically reported for the site and surrounding area and with sufficient margin for... with emphasis upon performance requirements, the bases, with technical justification therefor, upon... evaluation of the design and performance of structures, systems, and components with the objective of...

  11. ent-Labdane diterpenes from the aquatic plant Potamogeton pectinatus. (United States)

    Waridel, Patrice; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Lachavanne, Jean-Bernard; Hostettmann, Kurt


    Four new ent-labdane diterpenes were isolated from the freshwater aquatic plant Potamogeton pectinatus, together with two known furano-ent-labdanes. The new compounds were assigned the structures methyl-15,16-epoxy-12(R)-acetoxy- 8(17), 13(16),14-ent-labdatrien-19-oate,15,16-epoxy-12(R)-acetoxy-8(17), 13(16),14-ent-labdatrien-19-oic acid, 8(17),13-ent-labdadien-15 --> 16-lactone-19-oic acid and 16-hydroxy-8(17),13-ent-labdadien-15,16-olid-19-oic acid by spectroscopic means. Some of these labdanes showed a strong algicidal activity against Raphidocelis subcapitata.

  12. Development of a Foam OTEC System. Final technical report for Fiscal Year 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Research on Development of a Foam OTEC System, as carried out at Carnegie-Mellon University from October 1, 1978 through September 30, 1979, is described. To a brief section summarizing highlights of research results are appended 12 technical reports which detail specific sections of the program. The work described is continuing and a proposal is currently being submitted to provide support in fiscal 1980.

  13. National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bio-Products Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, Jose A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baxter, Ivan [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA)., Washington, DC (United States); Brown, Judith [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Carleton, Michael [Matrix Genetics, Seattle, WA (United States); Cattolico, Rose Anne [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Taraka, Dale [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Detter, John C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Devarenne, Timothy P. [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Dutcher, Susan K. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Fox, David T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goodenough, Ursula [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Jaworski, Jan [Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); Kramer, David [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lipton, Mary S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McCormick, Margaret [Matrix Genetics, Seattle, WA (United States); Merchant, Sabeeha [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Molnar, Istvan [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Panisko, Ellen A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pellegrini, Matteo [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Polle, Juergen [City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States). Brooklyn College; Sabarsky, Martin [Cellana, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Sayre, Richard T. [New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Starkenburg,, Shawn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stormo, Gary [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Twary, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Unkefer, Clifford J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Unkefer, Pat J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yuan, Joshua S. [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Arnold, Bob [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Bai, Xuemei [Cellana, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Boeing, Wiebke [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Brown, Lois [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Gujarathi, Ninad [Reliance Industries Limited, Mumbai (India); Huesemann, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lammers, Pete [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Laur, Paul [Eldorado Biofuels, Santa Fe, NM (United States); Khandan, Nirmala [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Parsons, Ronald [Solix BioSystems, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Samocha, Tzachi [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Thomasson, Alex [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Unc, Adrian [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Waller, Pete [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Bonner, James [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States); Coons, Jim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fernando, Sandun [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Goodall, Brian [Valicor Renewables, Dexter, MI (United States); Kadam, Kiran [Valicor Renewables, Dexter, MI (United States); Lacey, Ronald [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Wei, Liu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marrone, Babs [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nikolov, Zivko [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Trewyn, Brian [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Albrecht, Karl [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Capareda, Sergio [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Cheny, Scott [Diversified Energy, Gilbert, AZ (United States); Deng, Shuguang [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Elliott, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cesar, Granda [Terrabon, LLC, Bryan, TX (United States); Hallen, Richard [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lupton, Steven [UOP Honeywell Co, LLC, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Lynch, Sharry [UOP Honeywell Co, LLC, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Marchese, Anthony [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Nieweg, Jennifer [Albemarle Catilin, Ames, IA (United States); Ogden, Kimberly [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Oyler, James [Genifuel, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Reardon, Ken [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Roberts, William [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Sams, David [Albemarle Catilin, Ames, IA (United States); Schaub, Tanner [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Silks, Pete [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Archibeque, Shawn [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Foster, James [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Gaitlan, Delbert [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Lawrence, Addison [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Lodge-Ivey, Shanna [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Wickersham, Tyron [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Blowers, Paul [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Downes, C. Meghan [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Dunlop, Eric [Pan Pacific Technologies Pty. Ltd., Adelaide (Australia); Frank, Edward [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Handler, Robert [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Newby, Deborah [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pienkos, Philip [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richardson, James [Texas Agrilife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Seider, Warren [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Shonnard, David [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Skaggs, Richard [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The main objective of NAABB was to combine science, technology, and engineering expertise from across the nation to break down critical technical barriers to commercialization of algae-based biofuels. The approach was to address technology development across the entire value chain of algal biofuels production, from selection of strains to cultivation, harvesting, extraction, fuel conversion, and agricultural coproduct production. Sustainable practices and financial feasibility assessments ununderscored the approach and drove the technology development.

  14. International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard


    This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at

  15. A Novel Slurry-Based Biomass Reforming Process Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerson, Sean C. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Davis, Timothy D. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Peles, A. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); She, Ying [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Sheffel, Joshua [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Willigan, Rhonda R. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Vanderspurt, Thomas H. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Zhu, Tianli [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)


    to hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide was repeatedly demonstrated in batch reactors varying in size from 50 mL to 7.6 L. The different wood sources (e.g., swamp maple, poplar, and commercial wood flour) were converted in the presence of a heterogeneous catalyst and base at relatively low temperatures (e.g., 310°C) at sub-critical pressures sufficient to maintain the liquid phase. Both precious metal and base metal catalysts were found to be active for the liquid phase hydrolysis and reforming of wood. Pt-based catalysts, particularly Pt-Re, were shown to be more selective toward breaking C-C bonds, resulting in a higher selectivity to hydrogen versus methane. Ni-based catalysts were found to prefer breaking C-O bonds, favoring the production of methane. The project showed that increasing the concentration of base (base to wood ratio) in the presence of Raney Ni catalysts resulted in greater selectivity toward hydrogen but at the expense of increasing the production of undesirable organic acids from the wood, lowering the amount of wood converted to gas. It was shown that by modifying Ni-based catalysts with dopants, it was possible to reduce the base concentration while maintaining the selectivity toward hydrogen and increasing wood conversion to gas versus organic acids. The final stage of the project was the construction and testing of a demonstration unit for H2 production. This continuous flow demonstration unit consisted of wood slurry and potassium carbonate feed pump systems, two reactors for hydrolysis and reforming, and a gas-liquid separation system. The technical challenges associated with unreacted wood fines and Raney Ni catalyst retention limited the demonstration unit to using a fixed bed Raney Ni catalyst form. The lower activity of the larger particle Raney Ni in turn limited the residence time and thus the wood mass flow feed rate to 50 g min-1 for a 1 wt% wood slurry. The project demonstrated continuous H2 yields with unmodified, fixed bed

  16. Subunit orientation in the Escherichia coli enterobactin biosynthetic EntA-EntE complex revealed by a two-hybrid approach. (United States)

    Pakarian, Paknoosh; Pawelek, Peter D


    The siderophore enterobactin is synthesized by the enzymes EntA-F and EntH in the Escherichia coli cytoplasm. We previously reported in vitro evidence of an interaction between tetrameric EntA and monomeric EntE. Here we used bacterial adenylate cyclase two-hybrid (BACTH) assays to demonstrate that the E. coli EntA-EntE interaction occurs intracellularly. Furthermore, to obtain information on subunit orientation in the EntA-EntE complex, we fused BACTH reporter fragments T18 and T25 to EntA and EntE in both N-terminal and C-terminal orientations. To validate functionality of our fusion proteins, we performed Chrome Azurol S (CAS) assays using E. coli entE(-) and entA(-) knockout strains transformed with our BACTH constructs. We found that transformants expressing N-terminal and C-terminal T18/T25 fusions to EntE exhibited CAS signals, indicating that these constructs could rescue the entE(-) phenotype. While expression of EntA with N-terminal T18/T25 fusions exhibited CAS signals, C-terminal fusions did not, presumably due to disruption of the EntA tetramer in vivo. Bacterial growth assays supported our CAS findings. Co-transformation of functional T18/T25 fusions into cya(-)E. coli BTH101 cells resulted in positive BACTH signals only when T18/T25 fragments were fused to the N-termini of both EntA and EntE. Co-expression of N-terminally fused EntA with C-terminally fused EntE resulted in no detectable BACTH signal. Analysis of protein expression by Western blotting confirmed that the loss of BACTH signal was not due to impaired expression of fusion proteins. Based on our results, we propose that the N-termini of EntA and EntE are proximal in the intracellular complex, while the EntA N-terminus and EntE C-terminus are distal. A protein-protein docking simulation using SwarmDock was in agreement with our experimental observations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  17. Final Technical Report of the project "Controlling Quantum Information by Quantum Correlations"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girolami, Davide [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The report describes hypotheses, aims, methods and results of the project 20170675PRD2, “Controlling Quantum Information by Quantum Correlations”, which has been run from July 31, 2017 to January 7, 2018. The technical work has been performed by Director’s Fellow Davide Girolami of the T-4 Division, Physics of Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, under the supervision of Wojciech Zurek (T-4), Lukasz Cincio (T-4), and Marcus Daniels (CCS-7). The project ended as Davide Girolami has been converted to J. R. Oppenheimer Fellow to work on the project 20180702PRD1, “Optimal Control of Quantum Machines”, started on January 8, 2018.

  18. Achieving Hydrogen Storage Goals through High-Strength Fiber Glass - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States); Johnson, Kenneth I. [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States); Newhouse, Norman L. [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States)


    Led by PPG and partnered with Hexagon Lincoln and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the team recently carried out a project “Achieving Hydrogen Storage Goals through High-Strength Fiber Glass”. The project was funded by DOE’s Fuel Cell Technologies office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, starting on September 1, 2014 as a two-year project to assess technical and commercial feasibilities of manufacturing low-cost, high-strength glass fibers to replace T700 carbon fibers with a goal of reducing the composite total cost by 50% of the existing, commercial 700 bar hydrogen storage tanks used in personal vehicles.

  19. Prevalence of tst, entC, entA and entA/C genes in staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from different foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltan Dallal MM


    Full Text Available "nBackground: Staphylococcus aureus is a major foodborne pathogen throughout the world. Enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 are important virulence factors and as pyrogenic toxin superantigens have profound effects on the ir host. Thus circulation of TSST1 producing S.aureus among people and food chain is a worrying issue. The present paper was conducted to study Prevalence of tst, entC, entA and entA/C genes in staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from different foods. "n"nMethods: Over 1040 food samples have been analyzed differentially according to Iran national standard (number= 1194 for S.aureus identification. After DNA extraction, PCR reactions were carried out by reference strain as positive control, adequate primers. "n"nResults: At present study, prevalence of foodstuffs contaminated by S.aureus isolates was about 9.5% (100 strains. Of 25% of isolates producing entC, 28% (seven strains had tst gene at the same time and of 8% of isolates producing entA, 12.5% (one strain were positive for tst genes simultaneously. Altogether of 9% isolates producing combination of entC and entA, 44.4% (four strains were also producer of tst gene. "n"nConclusion: Prevalence of TSST1 producing strains in combination with enterotoxin genes is considerable especially with entC and A plus C. On the other hand, circulation of these isolates in humans, animals, foods and environment has hazardous effect for general public health.

  20. Final report of the UMTRA independent technical review of TAC audit programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report details the findings of an Independent Technical Review (ITR) of practices and procedures for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project audit program. The audit program is conducted by Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the UMTRA Project. The purpose of the ITR was to ensure that the TAC audit program is effective and is conducted efficiently. The ITR was conducted from May 16-20, 1994. A review team observed audit practices in the field, reviewed the TAC audit program`s documentation, and discussed the program with TAC staff and management. The format of this report has been developed around EPA guidelines; they comprise most of the major section headings. Each section begins by identifying the criteria that the TAC program is measured against, then describing the approach used by the ITR team to measure each TAC audit program against the criteria. An assessment of each type of audit is then summarized for each component in the following order: Radiological audit summary; Health and safety audit summary; Environmental audit summary; Quality assurance audit summary.

  1. Final Technical Report, City of Brockton Solar Brightfield: Deploying a Solar Array on a Brockton Brownfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Lori


    The City of Brockton, Massachusetts sought to install New England’s largest solar array at a remediated brownfield site on Grove Street. The 425-kilowatt solar photovoltaic array – or “Brightfield” – was installed in an urban park setting along with interpretive displays to maximize the educational opportunities. The “Brightfield” project included 1,395 310-Watt solar panels connected in “strings” that span the otherwise unusable 3.7-acre site. The project demonstrated that it is both technically and economically feasible to install utility scale solar photovoltaics on a capped landfill site. The US Department of Energy conceived the Brightfields program in 2000, and Brockton’s Brightfield is the largest such installation nationwide. Brockton’s project demonstrated that while it was both technically and economically feasible to perform such a project, the implementation was extremely challenging due to the state policy barriers, difficulty obtaining grant funding, and level of sophistication required to perform the financing and secure required state approvals. This demonstration project can be used as a model for other communities that wish to implement “Brownfields to Brightfields” projects; 2) implementing utility scale solar creates economies of scale that can help to decrease costs of photovoltaics; 3) the project is an aesthetic, environmental, educational and economic asset for the City of Brockton.

  2. Final Scientific/Technical Report Solar America Initiative: Solar Outreach and Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, Jane M


    The purpose of the Solar America Initiative: Solar Outreach and Communications grant was to promote better communications among stakeholders; address infrastructure barriers to solar energy; and coordinate with industry, the U.S. Department of Energy, national laboratories, states, cities and counties. The Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), a non-profit organization formed in 1982, approached this grant project by establishing a wide range of communication and outreach activities including newsletters, workshops, webinars, model practices and publications; by advancing easy and fair hook-up rules to the utility grid; and by upgrading training based on industry competency standards. The Connecting to the Grid project and the Solar Codes and Standards Public Hearings project offered communication coupled with technical assistance to overcome interconnection, net metering and other regulatory and program barriers. The Workforce Development Project tackled building a strong workforce through quality training and competency assessment programs. IREC's web site, the semi-monthly state and stakeholder newsletter and the metrics report resulted in better communications among stakeholders. Workshops and phone seminars offered technical assistance and kept stakeholders up-to-date on key issues. All of these activities resulted in implementing sustainable solutions to institutional and market barriers to solar energy and getting the right information to the right people.

  3. Technical program plan for the transitioning, decommissioning, and final disposition focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Hundreds of aging nuclear materials processing facilities within the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Weapons Complex are now being shut down and deactivated. These facilities, situated throughout the United States, will require a monumental effort to clean up safely and with minimal environmental insult. Current cleanup technologies tend to be labor intensive and expensive, they produce an unacceptably large volume of waste, and they expose workers to radioactive and other hazardous substances. This document describes an emerging program designed to develop and demonstrate new technical approaches to the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) program for DOE`s nuclear materials processing facilities. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development within the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), the program seeks to integrate the strengths of DOE`s technical, managerial, and systems engineering capabilities with those of industry, universities, and other government agencies. Once developed, these technologies will help to provide US industry with a competitive edge in the worldwide market that exists for improved environmental restoration and D&D services.

  4. Harnessing Light: Capitalizing on Optical Science Trends and Challenges for Future Research. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svedberg, Erik


    The committee has during the earlier period finalized their work on the report, Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for Our Nation (2013) . The report did undergo review and initial editorial processing. The NRC released a pre-publication report on August 13, 2012. A final report is now available. The study director has been able to practice his skills in running a national academies committee. From a research perspective the grant has generated a report with recommendations to the government. The work itself is the meetings where the committee convened to hear presenters and to discuss the status of optics and photonics as well as writing the report.

  5. Clean ferrous casting technology research. Final technical report, September 29, 1993--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C.E.; Griffin, J.; Giese, S.R.; Lane, A.M. [and others


    This is the final report covering work performed on research into methods of attaining clean ferrous castings. In this program methods were developed to minimize the formation of inclusions in steel castings by using a variety of techniques which decreased the tendency for inclusions to form during melting, casting and solidification. In a second project, a reaction chamber was built to remove inclusions from molten steel using electromagnetic force. Finally, a thorough investigation of the causes of sand penetration defects in iron castings was completed, and a program developed which predicts the probability of penetration formation and indicates methods for avoiding it.

  6. Solar America Initiative State Working Group: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Julie


    Through the support from the Department of Energy, NARUC has educated thousands of stakeholders, including Public Utility Commissioners, commission staff, and State energy officials on solar energy technology, implementation, and policy. During the lifetime of this grant, NARUC staff engaged stakeholders in policy discussions, technical research, site visits, and educational meetings/webinars/materials that provided valuable education and coordination on solar energy technology and policy among the States. Primary research geared toward State decision-makers enabled stakeholders to be informed on current issues and created new solar energy leaders throughout the United States. Publications including a Frequently Asked Questions guide on feed-in tariffs and a legal analysis of state implementation of feed-in tariffs gave NARUC members the capacity to understand complex issues related to the economic impacts of policies supportive of solar energy, and potential paths for implementation of technology. Technical partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) instructed NARUC members on feed-in tariff policy for four States and solar PV resource assessment in seven States, as well as economic impacts of solar energy implementation in those States. Because many of the States in these technical partnerships had negligible amounts of solar energy installed, this research gave them new capacity to understand how policies and implementation could impact their constituency. This original research produced new data now available, not only to decision-makers, but also to the public at-large including educational institutions, NGOs, consumer groups, and other citizens who have an interest in solar energy adoption in the US. Under this grant, stakeholders engaged in several dialogs. These educational opportunities brought NARUC members and other stakeholders together several times each year, shared best practices with State decision-makers, fostered

  7. Assessment of control technology for stationary sources. Volume I: technical discussion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minicucci, D.; Herther, M.; Babb, L.; Kuby, W.


    The purpose of this project was to develop a reference document for use by the Air Resources Board, local air pollution control districts, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that describes technological options available for the control of emissions from stationary sources located in California. Control technologies were examined for 10 industry groups and six air pollutants. Volume I, Technical Discussion, includes an overall introduction to the project, descriptions of its major elements, background information for each industry group addressed, and the project bibliography. In Volume II, Control Technology Data Tables, qualitative descriptions of control options for the various sources and quantitative information on control technology cost, efficiency, reliability, energy consumption, other environmental impacts, and application status are presented in tabular format. Also included is a code list that classifies the stationary sources examined by industry, process and emission source.

  8. Final Technical Report: Residential Fuel Cell Demonstration by the Delaware County Electric Cooperative, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Hilson Schneider


    This demonstration project contributes to the knowledge base in the area of fuel cells in stationary applications, propane fuel cells, edge-of-grid applications for fuel cells, and energy storage in combination with fuel cells. The project demonstrated that it is technically feasible to meet the whole-house electrical energy needs of a typical upstate New York residence with a 5-kW fuel cell in combination with in-home energy storage without any major modifications to the residence or modifications to the consumption patterns of the residents of the home. The use of a fuel cell at constant output power through a 120-Volt inverter leads to system performance issues including: • relatively poor power quality as quantified by the IEEE-defined short term flicker parameter • relatively low overall system efficiency Each of these issues is discussed in detail in the text of this report. The fuel cell performed well over the 1-year demonstration period in terms of availability and efficiency of conversion from chemical energy (propane) to electrical energy at the fuel cell output terminals. Another strength of fuel cell performance in the demonstration was the low requirements for maintenance and repair on the fuel cell. The project uncovered a new and important installation consideration for propane fuel cells. Alcohol added to new propane storage tanks is preferentially absorbed on the surface of some fuel cell reformer desulfurization filters. The experience on this project indicates that special attention must be paid to the volume and composition of propane tank additives. Size, composition, and replacement schedules for the de-sulfurization filter bed should be adjusted to account for propane tank additives to avoid sulfur poisoning of fuel cell stacks. Despite good overall technical performance of the fuel cell and the whole energy system, the demonstration showed that such a system is not economically feasible as compared to other commercially available

  9. Final Technical Report for GO17004 Regulatory Logic: Codes and Standards for the Hydrogen Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakarado, Gary L. [Regulatory Logic LLC, Golden, CO (United States)


    The objectives of this project are to: develop a robust supporting research and development program to provide critical hydrogen behavior data and a detailed understanding of hydrogen combustion and safety across a range of scenarios, needed to establish setback distances in building codes and minimize the overall data gaps in code development; support and facilitate the completion of technical specifications by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for gaseous hydrogen refueling (TS 20012) and standards for on-board liquid (ISO 13985) and gaseous or gaseous blend (ISO 15869) hydrogen storage by 2007; support and facilitate the effort, led by the NFPA, to complete the draft Hydrogen Technologies Code (NFPA 2) by 2008; with experimental data and input from Technology Validation Program element activities, support and facilitate the completion of standards for bulk hydrogen storage (e.g., NFPA 55) by 2008; facilitate the adoption of the most recently available model codes (e.g., from the International Code Council [ICC]) in key regions; complete preliminary research and development on hydrogen release scenarios to support the establishment of setback distances in building codes and provide a sound basis for model code development and adoption; support and facilitate the development of Global Technical Regulations (GTRs) by 2010 for hydrogen vehicle systems under the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations and Working Party on Pollution and Energy Program (ECE-WP29/GRPE); and to Support and facilitate the completion by 2012 of necessary codes and standards needed for the early commercialization and market entry of hydrogen energy technologies.

  10. Advanced Power Ultra-Uprates of Existing Plants (APPU) Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubiolo, Pablo R. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; Conway, Lawarence E. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; Oriani, Luca [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; Lahoda, Edward J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; DeSilva, Greg [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; Hu, Min H. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Hartz, Josh [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Bachrach, Uriel [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Smith, Larry [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Dudek, Daniel F. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Toman, Gary J. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Feng, Dandong [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hejzlar, Pavel [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Kazimi, Mujid S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)


    This project assessed the feasibility of a Power Ultra-Uprate on an existing nuclear plant. The study determined the technical and design limitations of the current components, both inside and outside the containment. Based on the identified plant bottlenecks, the design changes for major pieces of equipment required to meet the Power Ultra-Uprate throughput were determined. Costs for modified pieces of equipment and for change-out and disposal of the replaced equipment were evaluated. These costs were then used to develop capital, fuel and operating and maintenance cost estimates for the Power Ultra-Uprate plant. The cost evaluation indicates that the largest cost components are the replacement of power (during the outage required for the uprate) and the new fuel loading. Based on these results, the study concluded that, for a standard 4-loop plant, the proposed Power Ultra-Uprate is technically feasible. However, the power uprate is likely to be more expensive than the cost (per Kw electric installed) of a new plant when large capacity uprates are considered (>25%). Nevertheless, the concept of the Power Ultra-Uprate may be an attractive option for specific nuclear power plants where a large margin exists in the steam and power conversion system or where medium power increases (~600 MWe) are needed. The results of the study suggest that development efforts on fuel technologies for current nuclear power plants should be oriented towards improving the fuel performance (fretting-wear, corrosion, uranium load, manufacturing, safety) required to achieve higher burnup rather focusing on potential increases in the fuel thermal output.

  11. A Novel High-Heat Transfer Low-NO{sub x} Natural Gas Combustion System. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, H.


    technical and economic analyses, energy savings and waste reduction predictions, evaluation of environmental effects, and outline issues concerning manufacturing, marketing, and financing. Combustion Tec, Owens Corning, and GTI will all take active roles in defining this Plan. During Phase I, the first three objectives were addressed and completed along with the design component of the fourth objective. In Phase II, the fabrication component of the fourth objective was completed along with objectives five and six. Results of the Phase I work were reported in the Phase I Final Report and are summarized in this Final Technical Report. Work for Phase II was divided in four specific Tasks. Results of the Phase II work were reported in the Phase II Final Report and are also summarized in this Final Technical Report. No Phase III Final Report was prepared, so this Final Technical Report presents the results of Phase III commercial demonstration efforts. A description of each Task in Phases I, II, and III is presented in this report.

  12. 'Advancement of KHPS to DOE TRL 7/8' Project - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adonizio, Mary Ann [Verdant Power Inc., New York, NY (United States); Corren, Dean [Verdant Power Inc., New York, NY (United States); Smith, Ron [Verdant Power Inc., New York, NY (United States); Colby, Jonathan [Verdant Power Inc., New York, NY (United States); Hernandez, Aaron [Verdant Power Inc., New York, NY (United States)


    Final Report describing activities performed under the 'Advancement of the KHPS to DOE TRL 7/8' project, including the development of critical component test protocols, testing and analysis of the Gen5 KHPS main shaft seal, and continuing compliance work on approved operational environmental monitoring plans in anticipation of KHPS turbine installation at Verdant Power's Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy (RITE) Project site in New York, NY.

  13. The Institute for Sustained Performance, Energy, and Resilience, University of North Carolina, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Robert [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)


    This is the final report for the UNC component of the SciDAD Institute for Sustained Performance, Energy, and Resilience. In this report, we describe activities on the SUPER project at RENCI at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. While we focus particularly on UNC, we touch on project-wide activities as well as, on interactions with, and impacts on, other projects.

  14. Final Technical Report - DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER46424

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroud, David [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)


    We present a final report on the activities undertaken under DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER46424, titled "Interaction effects in quasi one-dimensional electronic systems," originally under the direction of Prof. Julia Meyer. The report includes an overview of the grant and the personnel involved, a list of publications acknowledging the grant, and a summary of the results and conclusions drawn from research supported by the grant.

  15. 1993-1994 Final technical report for establishing the SECME Model in the District of Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickers, R.G.


    This is the final report for a program to establish the SECME Model in the District of Columbia. This program has seen the development of a partnership between the District of Columbia Public Schools, the University of the District of Columbia, the Department of Energy, and SECME. This partnership has demonstrated positive achievement in mathematics and science education and learning in students within the District of Columbia.

  16. Final Technical Report for "High Energy Physics at The University of Iowa"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, Usha; Meurice, Yannick; Nachtman, Jane; Onel, Yasar; Reno, Mary


    Particle Physics explores the very fundamental building blocks of our universe: the nature of forces, of space and time. By exploring very energetic collisions of sub-nuclear particles with sophisticated detectors at the colliding beam accelerators (as well as others), experimental particle physicists have established the current theory known as the Standard Model (SM), one of the several theoretical postulates to explain our everyday world. It explains all phenomena known up to a very small fraction of a second after the Big Bang to a high precision; the Higgs boson, discovered recently, was the last of the particle predicted by the SM. However, many other phenomena, like existence of dark energy, dark matter, absence of anti-matter, the parameters in the SM, neutrino masses etc. are not explained by the SM. So, in order to find out what lies beyond the SM, i.e., what conditions at the earliest fractions of the first second of the universe gave rise to the SM, we constructed the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN after the Tevatron collider at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Each of these projects helped us push the boundary further with new insights as we explore a yet higher energy regime. The experiments are extremely complex, and as we push the boundaries of our existing knowledge, it also requires pushing the boundaries of our technical knowhow. So, not only do we pursue humankind’s most basic intellectual pursuit of knowledge, we help develop technology that benefits today’s highly technical society. Our trained Ph.D. students become experts at fast computing, manipulation of large data volumes and databases, developing cloud computing, fast electronics, advanced detector developments, and complex interfaces in several of these areas. Many of the Particle physics Ph.D.s build their careers at various technology and computing facilities, even financial institutions use some of their skills of simulation and statistical prowess. Additionally, last

  17. Regular Recycling of Wood Ash to Prevent Waste Production (RecAsh). Technical Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars E-mail:


    At present, the extraction of harvest residues is predicted to increase in Sweden and Finland. As an effect of the intensified harvesting, the export of nutrients and acid buffering substances from the growth site is also increased. Wood ash could be used to compensate forest soils for such losses. Most wood fuel ash is today often deposited in landfills. If the wood ash is recycled, wood energy is produced without any significant waste production. Ash recycling would therefore contribute to decreasing the production of waste, and to maintaining the chemical quality of forest waters and biological productivity of forest soils in the long term. The project has developed, analysed and demonstrated two regular ash-recycling systems. It has also distributed knowledge gathered about motives for ash recycling as well as technical and administrative solutions through a range of media (handbooks, workshops, field demonstrations, reports, web page and information videos). Hopefully, the project will contribute to decreasing waste problems related to bio-energy production in the EU at large. The project has been organised as a separate structure at the beneficiary and divided in four geographically defined subprojects, one in Finland and three in Sweden (Central Sweden, Northern Sweden, and South-western Sweden). The work in each subproject has been lead by a subproject leader. Each subproject has organised a regional reference group. A project steering committee has been established consisting of senior officials from all concerned partners. The project had nine main tasks with the following main expected deliverables and output: 1. Development of two complete full-scale ash-recycling systems; 2. Production of handbooks of the ash recycling system; 3. Ash classification study to support national actions for recommendations; 4. Organise regional demonstrations of various technical options for ash treatment and spreading; 5. Organise national seminars and demonstrations of

  18. STTR Phase 1 Final Technical Report for Project Entitled "Developing a Mobile Torrefaction Machine"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Joseph J. [President, ATP


    The goal of this project, sponsored by Agri-Tech Producers, LLC (ATP), the small business grantee, was to determine if the torrefaction technology, developed by North Carolina State University (NCSU), which ATP has licensed, could be feasibly deployed in a mobile unit. The study adds to the area investigated, by having ATP’s STTR Phase I team give thoughtful consideration to how to use NCSU’s technology in a mobile unit. The findings by ATP’s team were that NCSU’s technology would best perform in units 30’ by 80’ (See Spec Sheet for the Torre-Tech 5.0 Unit in the Appendix) and the technical effectiveness and economic feasibility investigation suggested that such units were not easily, efficiently or safely utilized in a forest or farm setting. (Note rendering of possible mobile system in the Appendix) Therefore, the findings by ATP’s team were that NCSU’s technology could not feasibly be deployed as a mobile unit.

  19. Final Scientific/Technical Report for Program Title: Solar Powered Dewvaporation Desalination System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, Shashidhar [Polestar Technologies Inc., Needham Heights, MA (United States)


    Desalination technologies have been used increasingly throughout the world to produce the drinking water from the brackish ground and sea water for the past few decades. Among the commercially available desalination technologies, reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash distillation are the most widely used technologies globally. However, these technologies are difficult to be directly integrated with green energies without converting them to electricity. Dewvaporation, a desalination process, uses saturated steam as a carrier-gas to evaporate water from saline feeds and form pure condensate. It has the major technical benefit of reusing energy, released from vapor condensation, multiple times. The current proposal has been planned to address this issue. In Phase I, we have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of a new plasmonic nanoparticle based approach through fabrication and evaluation of a solar powered water vapor generation module. The water vapor generation module allows generation of high temperature plasmon on a fiber bundle end, where strong water and plasmon interaction occurs generating water vapor. Plasmon enhanced water evaporation has been realized on plasmonic nanoparticle immobilized substrate with an energy conversion efficiency of over 50%.

  20. Final Technical Report: "New Tools for Physics with Low-energy Antimatter"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surko, Clifford M. [U. C. San Diego


    The objective of this research is to develop new tools to manipulate antimatter plasmas and to tailor them for specific scientific and technical uses. The work has two specific objectives. One is establishing the limits for positron accumulation and confinement in the form of single-component plasmas in Penning-Malmberg traps. This technique underpins a wealth of antimatter applications. A second objective is to develop an understanding of the limits for formation of cold, bright positron beams. The research done in this grant focused on particular facets of these goals. One focus was extracting tailored beams from a high-field Penning-Malmberg trap from the magnetic field to form new kinds of high-quality electrostatic beams. A second goal was to develop the technology for colder trap-based beams using a cryogenically cooled buffer gas. A third objective was to conduct the basic plasma research to develop a new high-capacity multicell trap (MCT) for research with antimatter. Progress is reported here in all three areas. While the goal of this research is to develop new tools for manipulating positrons (i.e., the antiparticles of electrons), much of the work was done with test electron plasmas for increased data rate. Some of the techniques developed in the course of this work are also relevant to the manipulation and use of antiprotons.

  1. Final Technical Report: Thermoelectric-Enhanced Cookstove Add-on (TECA) for Clean Biomass Cookstoves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokes, David [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)


    This program seeks to demonstrate a solution to enhance existing biomass cookstove performance through the use of RTI’s Thermoelectric Enhanced Cookstove Add-on (TECA) device. The self-powered TECA device captures a portion of heat from the stove and converts it to electricity through a thermoelectric (TE) device to power a blower. Colorado State University and Envirofit International are partners to support the air injection design and commercialization to enhance combustion in the stove and reduce emissions. Relevance: By demonstrating a proof of concept of the approach with the Envirofit M-5000 stove and TECA device, we hope to apply this technology to existing stoves that are already in use and reduce emissions for stoves that have already found user acceptance to provide a true health benefit. Challenges: The technical challenges include achieving Tier 4 emissions from a biomass stove and for such a stove to operate reliably in the harsh field environment. Additional challenges include the fact that it is difficult to develop a cost effective solution and insure adoption and proper use in the field. Outcomes: In this program we have demonstrated PM emissions at 82 mg/MJd, a 70% reduction as compared to baseline stove operation. We have also developed a stove optimization approach that reduces the number of costly experiments. We have evaluated component-level reliability and will be testing the stove prototype in the field for performance and reliability.

  2. CIS Modules Process R&D: Final Technical Report, October 2005 - June 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrant, D. E.; Gay, R. R.


    The primary objectives of this subcontract were to: address key near-term technical R&D issues for continued improvement in thin-film PV products; continue process development for increased production capacity; pursue long-term R&D contributing to progress toward the MYTP goals for 2020 to increase the conversion efficiency to 15% and reduce module manufacturing costs to less than $50/m2, thus enabling PV systems with a 30-year lifetime at an installed cost of under $2.00/W; and advance the understanding of the requirements needed to achieve better thin-film PV cell and module performance, greater reliability and market acceptance, and investigate materials systems and new devices that can improve the cost/performance ratio of future thin-film PV factories. The demonstrated and maintained high production yield is a major accomplishment supporting attractive cost projections for CIS. Process R&D at successive levels of CIS production has led to the continued demonstration of the prerequisites for commitment to large-scale commercialization. Process and packaging R&D during this and previous subcontracts has demonstrated the potential for further cost and performance improvements.

  3. Final Report for the Development of the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.


    The author performed a variety of research, development and consulting tasks for NASA Langley Research Center in the area of digital libraries (DLs) and supporting technologies, such as the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH). In particular, the development focused on the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) and its transition from a distributed searching model to one that uses the OAI-PMH. The Open Archives Initiative (OAI) is an international consortium focused on furthering the interoperability of DLs through the use of "metadata harvesting". The OAI-PMH version of NTRS went into public production on April 28, 2003. Since that time, it has been extremely well received. In addition to providing the NTRS user community with a higher level of service than the previous, distributed searching version of NTRS, it has provided more insight into how the user community uses NTRS in a variety of deployment scenarios. This report details the design, implementation and maintenance of the NTRS. Source code is included in the appendices.

  4. An exploratory investigation of personality types attracted to ENT. (United States)

    Vijendren, A; Yung, M; Sanchez, J; Shiralkar, U; Weigel, L


    Careers in medicine are embarked on by people with various personalities, with highly strung and motivated characters usually drawn to surgery. This study was conducted to identify the personality types of ENT surgeons in comparison to a control group of foundation doctors. A validated personality questionnaire was distributed to ENT specialty trainees and two cohorts of foundation doctors between October 2013 and November 2015. The questionnaires were scored and individuals were categorised as having either type A or type B personalities. Response rates were 90 per cent (26 out of 29) for ENT specialty trainees and 76 per cent (79 out of 104) for foundation doctors. There was a significantly higher proportion of type A personalities in the ENT specialty trainees compared to the foundation doctors (18 out of 26 ENT specialty trainees vs 32 out of 79 foundation doctors; p = 0.01, chi-square = 6.4708). There were no associations between personality type and grade, gender or subspecialty of interest. ENT surgeons are more likely to be of type A personality in comparison to foundation doctors. This could be a reflection of the recruitment process into the specialty or a characteristic of individuals that get drawn to ENT.

  5. Ventures in science Truman College. Final technical report, September 15, 1991--August 14, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrick, W.C.


    This is the final report for a Venture in Science program begun in the summer of 1992 for a group of students just finishing the eighth grade, in the greater Chicago area. Students were chosen to participate in the program, and to serve as part of control groups as part of the evaluation of the effectiveness of the program. The program met on Saturdays throughout the school year, and had more extensive activities in the summer. Following almost a two year no-cost extension, students are still involved with each other, and with program teachers on a regular basis, pursuing development of the general program goals.

  6. Gastroenterology-Urology Devices; Manual Gastroenterology-Urology Surgical Instruments and Accessories. Final rule; technical amendment. (United States)


    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the identification of manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instruments and accessories to reflect that the device does not include specialized surgical instrumentation for use with urogyencologic surgical mesh specifically intended for use as an aid in the insertion, placement, fixation, or anchoring of surgical mesh during urogynecologic procedures ("specialized surgical instrumentation for use with urogynecologic surgical mesh"). These amendments are being made to reflect changes made in the recently issued final reclassification order for specialized surgical instrumentation for use with urogynecologic surgical mesh.

  7. [Conception, realization and analysis of a modern operating theatre workplace for ENT surgery]. (United States)

    Strauss, G; Aries, F; Abri, O; Dietz, A; Meixensberger, J; Lüth, T


    The requirements of ENT (ear, nose and throat) surgery, i. e. operating theatre, have changed dramatically in recent years, e. g. by high definition video endoscopy, navigation, neuromonitoring, intraoperative imaging, navigated and navigation-controlled instruments and intraoperative imaging and video documentation. For this reason a specialized operating theatre is necessary for ENT. The aim of this work was to compare this operating theatre with the previous standard. The scientific basis of this work represents a surgical workflow analysis. Over 200 completely documented operations in conventional operating theatres were available for comparison. In addition the log files of the medical technical devices, software analysis modules of the clinical documentation and ergonomics questionnaires (NASA TLX standard) were available. In the period from 1(st) June 2009 to 31(st) September 2009 a total of 139 standard procedures (9 different ENT surgeons) were analyzed in the new ly integrated operating theatre system "Surgical Deck1-ENT". In the newly developed operating theatre system four work areas are specified: preparation area, technical cockpit, surgical cockpit and anesthesia cockpit. The medical technical components are permanently installed. The surgical cockpit incorporates five permanently arranged monitors, two main screens, two navigation screens and a surgical dashboard. A suitable high definition video routing system is installed and procedure-specific light profiles are developed. Documentation is automatically carried out in the picture archive and communication system (PACS). The comparison to the conventional operating theatre system the slot time was reduced from 73.8 min to 65.6 min (-11%), the preoperative time was reduced on average by 31% (8 min) per case and the documentation time was decreased on average by 6 min (67%). The interaction steps of the surgeon with the system were reduced by 70% (from 17 to 5 steps). No significant differences in

  8. Management support services to the Office of Utility Technologies. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Office of Utility Technologies works cooperatively with industry and the utility sector to realize the market potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Under this contract, BNF has provided management support services for OUT R&D activities for the following Program offices: (1) Office of Energy Management; (2) Office of Solar Energy Conversion; (3) Office of Renewable Energy Conversion; and (4) Deputy Assistant Secretary. During the period between 4/17/91 and 9/17/93, BNF furnished the necessary personnel, equipment, materials, facilities and travel required to provide management support services for each of the above Program Offices. From 9/18/93 to 12/17/93, BNF has been involved in closeout activities, including final product deliverables. Research efforts that have been supported in these Program Offices are: (1) for Energy Management -- Advanced Utility Concepts Division; Utility Systems Division; Integrated Planning; (2) for Solar Energy Conversion -- Photovoltaics Division; Solar Thermal and Biomass Power Division; (3) for Renewable Energy Conversion -- Geothermal Division; Wind, Hydroelectric and Ocean Systems Division; (4) for the Deputy Assistant Secretary -- support as required by the Supporting Staff. This final report contains summaries of the work accomplished for each of the Program Offices listed above.

  9. Development of the helical reaction hydraulic turbine. Final technical report, July 1, 1996--June 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorlov, A.


    The present report contains the final results obtained during July 1996--July 1998. This report should be considered in association with the Annual Progress Report submitted in July 1997 due to the fact that not all of the intermediate results reflected in the Progress Report have been included in the Final Report. The aim of the project was to build a helical hydraulic turbine prototype and demonstrate its suitability and advantages as a novel apparatus to harness hydropower from ultra low-head rivers and other free water streams such as ocean currents or rivers without dams. The research objectives of the project are: Design, optimization and selection of the hydro foil section for the helical turbine; Design of the turbine for demonstration project; Construction and testing of the turbine module; Assessing test results and determining scale-up feasibility. The research conducted under this project has substantially exceeded the original goals including designing, constructing and testing of a scaled-up triple-helix turbine, as well as developing recommendations for application of the turbine for direct water pumping in irrigation systems and for future use in wind farms. Measurements collected during two years of turbine testing are kept in the PI files.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicon Ungur


    Full Text Available A relatively simple method for isolation of the mixture of ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic (1 and ent-trachiloban-19-oic (2 acids from dry waste of sunflower processing has been elaborated, and it has been shown that the waste can serve as an accessible source of ent-kauranic and ent-trachilobanic diterpenoids.

  11. Microalgae as a source of liquid fuels. Final technical report. [200 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R.; Goebel, R.P.; Weissman, J.C.; Augenstein, D.C.


    The economics of liquid-fuels production from microalgae was evaluated. A detailed review of published economic analyses of microalgae biomass production revealed wide variations in the published costs, which ranged from several dollars per pound for existing commercial health-food production in the Far East, to less than .05/lb costs projected for microalgae biomass for fuel conversion. As little design information or specific cost data has been published, a credible cost estimate required the conceptual engineering design and cost estimating of microalgae to liquid-fuels processes. Two systems were analyzed, shallow (2 to 3'') covered ponds and deeper (1 ft) open ponds. Only the latter was selected for an in-depth analysis due to the many technical shortcomings of the former approach. Based on the cost analysis of a very simple and low cost process, the most optimistic costs extrapolated were about $60/barrel. These were based on many optimistic assumptions. Additional, more detailed, engieering and cost analyses would be useful. However, the major emphasis in future work in this area should be on demonstrating the basic premises on which this design was based: high productivity and oil content of microalgae strains that can dominate in open ponds and which can be harvested by a simple bioflocculation process. Several specific basic research needs were identified: (1) Fundamentals of species selection and control in open pond systems. Effects of environmental variables on species dominance is of particular interest. (2) Mechanisms of algae bioflocculation. (3) Photosynthetic pathways and efficiency under conditions of high lipid production. (4) Effects of non-steady state operating conditions, particularly pH (CO/sub 2/ availability), on productivity. 18 figures, 47 tables.

  12. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  13. Final Technical Report - Advanced Optical Sensors to Minimize Energy Consumption in Polymer Extrusion Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan J. Foulk


    Project Objective: The objectives of this study are to develop an accurate and stable on-line sensor system to monitor color and composition on-line in polymer melts, to develop a scheme for using the output to control extruders to eliminate the energy, material and operational costs of off-specification product, and to combine or eliminate some extrusion processes. Background: Polymer extrusion processes are difficult to control because the quality achieved in the final product is complexly affected by the properties of the extruder screw, speed of extrusion, temperature, polymer composition, strength and dispersion properties of additives, and feeder system properties. Extruder systems are engineered to be highly reproducible so that when the correct settings to produce a particular product are found, that product can be reliably produced time after time. However market conditions often require changes in the final product, different products or grades may be processed in the same equipment, and feed materials vary from lot to lot. All of these changes require empirical adjustment of extruder settings to produce a product meeting specifications. Optical sensor systems that can continuously monitor the composition and color of the extruded polymer could detect process upsets, drift, blending oscillations, and changes in dispersion of additives. Development of an effective control algorithm using the output of the monitor would enable rapid corrections for changes in materials and operating conditions, thereby eliminating most of the scrap and recycle of current processing. This information could be used to identify extruder systems issues, diagnose problem sources, and suggest corrective actions in real-time to help keep extruder system settings within the optimum control region. Using these advanced optical sensor systems would give extruder operators real-time feedback from their process. They could reduce the amount of off-spec product produced and

  14. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Huebner, T.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ross, W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nakaoka, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Schumacher, R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Cunnane, J.; Singh, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Darnell, R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)


    This report presents information on low-level mixed waste forms.The descriptions of the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) streams that are considered by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) are given in Appendix A. This information was taken from descriptions generated by the Mixed Waste Treatment Program (MWTP). Appendix B provides a list of characteristic properties initially considered by the Final Waste Form (FWF) Working Group (WG). A description of facilities available to test the various FWFs discussed in Volume I of DOE/MWIP-3 are given in Appendix C. Appendix D provides a summary of numerous articles that were reviewed on testing of FWFS. Information that was collected by the tests on the characteristic properties considered in this report are documented in Appendix D. The articles reviewed are not a comprehensive list, but are provided to give an indication of the data that are available.

  15. Final Scientific/Technical Report Carbon Capture and Storage Training Northwest - CCSTNW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Workman, James


    This report details the activities of the Carbon Capture and Storage Training Northwest (CCSTNW) program 2009 to 2013. The CCSTNW created, implemented, and provided Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) training over the period of the program. With the assistance of an expert advisory board, CCSTNW created curriculum and conducted three short courses, more than three lectures, two symposiums, and a final conference. The program was conducted in five phases; 1) organization, gap analysis, and form advisory board; 2) develop list serves, website, and tech alerts; 3) training needs survey; 4) conduct lectures, courses, symposiums, and a conference; 5) evaluation surveys and course evaluations. This program was conducted jointly by Environmental Outreach and Stewardship Alliance (dba. Northwest Environmental Training Center – NWETC) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL).

  16. DOE SBIR Phase II Final Technical Report - Assessing Climate Change Effects on Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, Cameron [Vertum Partners LP, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Capps, Scott [Vertum Partners LP, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    Specialized Vertum Partners software tools were prototyped, tested and commercialized to allow wind energy stakeholders to assess the uncertainties of climate change on wind power production and distribution. This project resulted in three commercially proven products and a marketing tool. The first was a Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) based resource evaluation system. The second was a web-based service providing global 10m wind data from multiple sources to wind industry subscription customers. The third product addressed the needs of our utility clients looking at climate change effects on electricity distribution. For this we collaborated on the Santa Ana Wildfire Threat Index (SAWTi), which was released publicly last quarter. Finally to promote these products and educate potential users we released “Gust or Bust”, a graphic-novel styled marketing publication.

  17. Technical Report (Final): Development of Solid State Reagents for Preparing Radiolabeled Imaging Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, George W


    The goal of this research was on the development of new, rapid, and efficient synthetic methods for incorporating short-lived radionuclides into agents of use in measuring dynamic processes. The initial project period (Year 1) was focused on the preparation of stable, solid state precursors that could be used to efficiently incorporate short-lived radioisotopes into small molecules of use in biological applications (environmental, plant, and animal). The investigation included development and evaluation of new methods for preparing carbon-carbon and carbon-halogen bonds for use in constructing the substrates to be radiolabeled. The second phase (Year 2) was focused on developing isotope incorporation techniques using the stable, boronated polymeric precursors. The final phase (Year 3), was focused on the preparation of specific radiolabeled agents and evaluation of their biodistribution using micro-PET and micro-SPECT. In addition, we began the development of a new series of polymeric borane reagents based on polyethylene glycol backbones.

  18. Sensor guided control and navigation with intelligent machines. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Bijoy K.


    This item constitutes the final report on ''Visionics: An integrated approach to analysis and design of intelligent machines.'' The report discusses dynamical systems approach to problems in robust control of possibly time-varying linear systems, problems in vision and visually guided control, and, finally, applications of these control techniques to intelligent navigation with a mobile platform. Robust design of a controller for a time-varying system essentially deals with the problem of synthesizing a controller that can adapt to sudden changes in the parameters of the plant and can maintain stability. The approach presented is to design a compensator that simultaneously stabilizes each and every possible mode of the plant as the parameters undergo sudden and unexpected changes. Such changes can in fact be detected by a visual sensor and, hence, visually guided control problems are studied as a natural consequence. The problem here is to detect parameters of the plant and maintain st ability in the closed loop using a ccd camera as a sensor. The main result discussed in the report is the role of perspective systems theory that was developed in order to analyze such a detection and control problem. The robust control algorithms and the visually guided control algorithms are applied in the context of a PUMA 560 robot arm control where the goal is to visually locate a moving part on a mobile turntable. Such problems are of paramount importance in manufacturing with a certain lack of structure. Sensor guided control problems are extended to problems in robot navigation using a NOMADIC mobile platform with a ccd and a laser range finder as sensors. The localization and map building problems are studied with the objective of navigation in an unstructured terrain.

  19. An approach to developing independent learning and non-technical skills amongst final year mining engineering students (United States)

    Knobbs, C. G.; Grayson, D. J.


    There is mounting evidence to show that engineers need more than technical skills to succeed in industry. This paper describes a curriculum innovation in which so-called 'soft' skills, specifically inter-personal and intra-personal skills, were integrated into a final year mining engineering course. The instructional approach was designed to promote independent learning and to develop non-technical skills, essential for students on the threshold of becoming practising engineers. Three psychometric tests were administered at the beginning of the course to make students aware of their own and their classmates' characteristics. Substantial prescribed reading assignments preceded weekly group discussions. Several projects during the course required team work skills and application of content knowledge to real-world contexts. Results obtained from students' reflection papers, assignments related to 'soft' skills and end of course evaluations suggest that students' appreciation of the need for these skills, as well as their own perceived competence, increased during the course. Their ability to function as independent learners also increased.

  20. Final Technical Report for "Feature Extraction, Characterization, and Visualization for Protein Interaction via Geometric and Topological Methods"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yusu


    Shape analysis plays an important role in many applications. In particular, in molecular biology, analyzing molecular shapes is essential to the fundamental problem of understanding how molecules interact. This project aims at developing efficient and effective algorithms to characterize and analyze molecular structures using geometric and topological methods. Two main components of this project are (1) developing novel molecular shape descriptors; and (2) identifying and representing meaningful features based on those descriptors. The project also produces accompanying (visualization) software. Results from this project (09/2006-10/2009) include the following publications. We have also set up web-servers for the software developed in this period, so that our new methods are accessible to a broader scientific community. The web sites are given below as well. In this final technical report, we first list publications and software resulted from this project. We then briefly explain the research conducted and main accomplishments during the period of this project.

  1. Recovery Act: Alpena Biorefinery and Alpena Biorefinery Lignin Separation Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retsina, Theodora [American Process Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)


    The Alpena Biorefinery (AB) was constructed in Alpena, Michigan, at the Decorative Panels International hardboard manufacturing facility. The goal of the AB was to demonstrate a modular, technically successful, and financially viable process of making cellulosic ethanol from woody biomass extract at wood processing facilities. At full capacity, the AB can produce 894,200 gallons per year of cellulosic ethanol and 696,000 gallons per year of aqueous potassium acetate, using extract from northern hardwood and aspen woodchips feedstock. The project objectives and the value proposition of AB promote the national goals of energy independence, greenhouse gas reduction, and green job creation and retention. A successful outcome of the Alpena Biorefinery project has been commercial sales of the first ever cellulosic ethanol RINS generated from woody biomass in the US, under the EPA’s Renewable Fuels Standard Program. We believe that American Process is also likely the first company in the world to produce commercial quantities of cellulosic ethanol from mixed forest residue. Life Cycle Analysis performed by Michigan Institute of Technology found that the entire life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from the plant’s cellulosic ethanol were only 25 percent that of petroleum-based gasoline. They found the potassium acetate runway de-icer coproduct generates up to 45 percent less greenhouse gases than the production of conventional potassium acetate. The Alpena Biorefinery project created 31 permanent jobs for direct employees and helped retain 200 jobs associated with the existing Decorative Panels International facility, by increasing its economic viability through significant savings in waste water treatment costs. The AB project has been declared a Michigan Center of Energy Excellence and was awarded a $4 million State of Michigan grant. The project also received New Market Tax Credit financing for locating in an economically distressed community. All other equity funds

  2. Exascale Virtualized and Programmable Distributed Cyber Resource Control: Final Scientific Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, S.J.Ben [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Lauer, Gregory S. [Raytheon BBN Technologies, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    file transfers within a single domain. Adding support for IP traffic changes the nature of the RSA problem: instead of choosing to accept or deny each request for network support, IP traffic is inherently elastic and thus lends itself to a bandwidth maximization formulation. We developed a number of algorithms that could be easily deployed within existing and new FlexGrid networks, leading to networks that better support scientific collaboration. Cross-domain RSA research is essential to support large-scale FlexGrid networks, since configuration information is generally not shared or coordinated across domains. The results presented here are in their early stages. They are technically feasible and practical, but still require coordination among organizations and equipment owners and a higher-layer framework for managing network requests.

  3. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Life Cycle Cost Assessment, Final Technical Report, 30 May 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel, Laura [Lockheed Martin, Manassas, VA (United States); Smith, Paul [John Halkyard and Associates: Glosten Associates, Houston, TX (United States); Rizea, Steven [Makai Ocean Engineering, Waimanalo, HI (United States); Van Ryzin, Joe [Makai Ocean Engineering, Waimanalo, HI (United States); Morgan, Charles [Planning Solutions, Inc., Vancouver, WA (United States); Noland, Gary [G. Noland and Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Pavlosky, Rick [Lockheed Martin, Manassas, VA (United States); Thomas, Michael [Lockheed Martin, Manassas, VA (United States); Halkyard, John [John Halkyard and Associates: Glosten Associates, Houston, TX (United States)


    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Life Cycle Cost Assessment (OLCCA) is a study performed by members of the Lockheed Martin (LM) OTEC Team under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-EE0002663, dated 01/01/2010. OLCCA objectives are to estimate procurement, operations and maintenance, and overhaul costs for two types of OTEC plants: -Plants moored to the sea floor where the electricity produced by the OTEC plant is directly connected to the grid ashore via a marine power cable (Grid Connected OTEC plants) -Open-ocean grazing OTEC plant-ships producing an energy carrier that is transported to designated ports (Energy Carrier OTEC plants) Costs are developed using the concept of levelized cost of energy established by DOE for use in comparing electricity costs from various generating systems. One area of system costs that had not been developed in detail prior to this analysis was the operations and sustainment (O&S) cost for both types of OTEC plants. Procurement costs, generally referred to as capital expense and O&S costs (operations and maintenance (O&M) costs plus overhaul and replacement costs), are assessed over the 30 year operational life of the plants and an annual annuity calculated to achieve a levelized cost (constant across entire plant life). Dividing this levelized cost by the average annual energy production results in a levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, for the OTEC plants. Technical and production efficiency enhancements that could result in a lower value of the OTEC LCOE were also explored. The thermal OTEC resource for Oahu, Hawaii and projected build out plan were developed. The estimate of the OTEC resource and LCOE values for the planned OTEC systems enable this information to be displayed as energy supplied versus levelized cost of the supplied energy; this curve is referred to as an Energy Supply Curve. The Oahu Energy Supply Curve represents initial OTEC deployment starting in 2018 and demonstrates the

  4. Recovery Act: Energy Efficiency of Data Networks through Rate Adaptation (EEDNRA) - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Andrews; Spyridon Antonakopoulos; Steve Fortune; Andrea Francini; Lisa Zhang


    This Concept Definition Study focused on developing a scientific understanding of methods to reduce energy consumption in data networks using rate adaptation. Rate adaptation is a collection of techniques that reduce energy consumption when traffic is light, and only require full energy when traffic is at full provisioned capacity. Rate adaptation is a very promising technique for saving energy: modern data networks are typically operated at average rates well below capacity, but network equipment has not yet been designed to incorporate rate adaptation. The Study concerns packet-switching equipment, routers and switches; such equipment forms the backbone of the modern Internet. The focus of the study is on algorithms and protocols that can be implemented in software or firmware to exploit hardware power-control mechanisms. Hardware power-control mechanisms are widely used in the computer industry, and are beginning to be available for networking equipment as well. Network equipment has different performance requirements than computer equipment because of the very fast rate of packet arrival; hence novel power-control algorithms are required for networking. This study resulted in five published papers, one internal report, and two patent applications, documented below. The specific technical accomplishments are the following: • A model for the power consumption of switching equipment used in service-provider telecommunication networks as a function of operating state, and measured power-consumption values for typical current equipment. • An algorithm for use in a router that adapts packet processing rate and hence power consumption to traffic load while maintaining performance guarantees on delay and throughput. • An algorithm that performs network-wide traffic routing with the objective of minimizing energy consumption, assuming that routers have less-than-ideal rate adaptivity. • An estimate of the potential energy savings in service-provider networks

  5. Concentrating Solar Power - Molten Salt Pump Development, Final Technical Report (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael McDowell; Alan Schwartz


    The purpose of this project is to develop a long shafted pump to operate at high temperatures for the purpose of producing energy with renewable resources. In Phase I of this three phase project we developed molten salt pump requirements, evaluated existing hardware designs for necessary modifications, developed a preliminary design of the pump concept, and developed refined cost estimates for Phase II and Phase III of the project. The decision has been made not to continue the project into Phases II and III. There is an ever increasing world-wide demand for sources of energy. With only a limited supply of fossil fuels, and with the costs to obtain and produce those fuels increasing, sources of renewable energy must be found. Currently, capturing the sun's energy is expensive compared to heritage fossil fuel energy production. However, there are government requirements on Industry to increase the amount of energy generated from renewable resources. The objective of this project is to design, build and test a long-shafted, molten salt pump. This is the type of pump necessary for a molten salt thermal storage system in a commercial-scale solar trough plant. This project is under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program, managed by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. To reduce the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and to meet the requirements of 'tomorrows' demand, technical innovations are needed. The DOE is committed to reducing the LCOE to 7-10 cents/kWh by 2015, and to 5-7 cents/kWh by 2020. To accomplish these goals, the performance envelope for commercial use of long-shafted molten salt pumps must be expanded. The intent of this project is to verify acceptable operation of pump components in the type of molten salt (thermal storage medium) used in commercial power plants today. Field testing will be necessary to verify the integrity of the pump design, and thus reduce the risk to industry. While the primary

  6. Fundamental studies of the chemical vapor deposition of diamond. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nix, W.D.


    We submit here a final technical report for the research program entitled: Fundamental Studies of the Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond, DOE Grant No. DE-FG05-88ER45345-M006. This research program was initiated in 1988 under the direction of the late Professor David A. Stevenson and was renewed in 1992. Unfortunately, at the end of 1992, just as the last phase of this work was getting underway, Professor Stevenson learned that he had developed mesothelioma, a form of cancer based on asbestos. Professor Stevenson died from that disease in February of 1994. Professor William D. Nix, the Chairman of the Materials Science department at Stanford was named the Principal Investigator. Professor Nix has assembled this final technical report. Much of the work of this grant was conducted by Mr. Paul Dennig, a graduate student who will receive his Ph.D. degree from Stanford in a few months. His research findings are described in the chapters of this report and in the papers published over the past few years. The main discovery of this work was that surface topology plays a crucial role in the nucleation of diamond on silicon. Dennig and his collaborators demonstrated this by showing that diamond nucleates preferentially at the tips of asperities on a silicon surface rather than in the re-entrant comers at the base of such asperities. Some of the possible reasons for this effect are described in this report. The published papers listed on the next page of this report also describe this research. Interested persons can obtain copies of these papers from Professor Nix at Stanford. A full account of all of the research results obtained in this work is given in the regular chapters that follow this brief introduction. In addition, interested readers will want to consult Mr. Dennig`s Ph.D. dissertation when it is made available later this year.

  7. Puget Sound Tidal Energy In-Water Testing and Development Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collar, Craig W


    others. All required permit and license applications were completed and submitted under this award, including a Final License Application for a pilot hydrokinetic license from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The tasks described above have brought the project through all necessary requirements to construct a tidal pilot project in Admiralty Inlet with the exception of final permit and license approvals, and the selection of a general contractor to perform project construction.

  8. Final Technical Report: Magnetic Reconnection in High-Energy Laser-Produced Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germaschewski, Kai [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Fox, William [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Bhattacharjee, Amitava [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)


    This report describes the final results from the DOE Grant DE-SC0007168, “Fast Magnetic Reconnection in HED Laser-Produced Plasmas.” The recent generation of laboratory high-energy-density physics facilities has opened significant physics opportunities for experimentally modeling astrophysical plasmas. The goal of this proposal is to use these new tools to study fundamental problems in plasma physics and plasma astrophysics. Fundamental topics in this area involve study of the generation, amplification, and fate of magnetic fields, which are observed to pervade the plasma universe and govern its evolution. This project combined experiments at DOE laser facilities with kinetic plasma simulation to study these processes. The primary original goal of the project was to study magnetic reconnection using a new experimental platform, colliding magnetized laser-produced plasmas. However through a series of fortuitous discoveries, the work broadened out to allow significant advancement on multiple topics in laboratory astrophysics, including magnetic reconnection, Weibel instability, and collisionless shocks.

  9. Final Technical Report for the Net-Zero Energy Commercial Buildings Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazeli, Sandy [National Association of State Energy Officials, Arlington, VA (United States)


    The Commercial Buildings Consortium (CBC) was established in 2009, under the chairmanship of the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO), as a supporting organization to the Commercial Buildings Initiative (CBI). The CBI was created by Congress through the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) and launched by the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 with the goal to “develop and disseminate technologies, practices, and policies for establishment of zero net energy commercial buildings.”. The impact of the CBC since 2009 has been multifold, resulting in increased collaboration, increased innovation, and increased demonstration and deployment. During the project performance period of 2009-2014, the CBC provided an organizational framework for sustained public-private collaboration among more than 600 commercial building professionals, researchers and educators, utilities, and government agencies at federal, state, and local level. The CBC’s research has identified emerging technologies, market strategies, and innovative public and corporate policies to help advance CBI’s zero-net-energy. Finally, the CBC worked in close partnership with DOE’s commercial building teams and the Better Buildings Alliances to identify opportunities for proving out and deploying energy-saving technologies and practices.

  10. Advanced in-duct sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} control. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stouffer, M.R.; Withium, J.A.; Rosenhoover, W.A.; Maskew, J.T.


    The objective of this research project was to develop a second generation duct sorbent injection technology as a cost-effective compliance option for the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Research and development work was focused on the Advanced Coolside process, which showed the potential for exceeding the original performance targets of 90% SO{sub 2} removal and 60% sorbent utilization. Process development was conducted in a 1000 acfm pilot plant. The pilot plant testing showed that the Advanced Coolside process can achieve 90% SO{sub 2} removal at sorbent utilizations up to 75%. The testing also showed that the process has the potential to achieve very high removal efficiency (90 to >99%). By conducting conceptual process design and economic evaluations periodically during the project, development work was focused on process design improvements which substantially lowered process capital and operating costs, A final process economic study projects capital costs less than one half of those for limestone forced oxidation wet FGD. Projected total SO{sub 2} control cost is about 25% lower than wet FGD for a 260 MWe plant burning a 2.5% sulfur coal. A waste management study showed the acceptability of landfill disposal; it also identified a potential avenue for by-product utilization which should be further investigated. Based on the pilot plant performance and on the above economic projections, future work to scale up the Advanced Coolside process is recommended.

  11. Phase equilibrium properties of coal-derived liquids. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesavage, V.F.; Kidnay, A.J.


    An experimental apparatus capable of making accurate high temperature, high pressure vapor-liquid equilibria measurements was designed, constructed, and evaluated. The basic system is a flow equilibrium flash vaporization apparatus similar to those used for petroleum liquids. The final equilibrium cell is a visual cell using a sapphire window with a gold o-ring for sealing. Vapor pressures of pure water were measured from 126 to 307/sup 0/C to test the equipment. The system was next evaluated using the ethanol-water binary system. Data were obtained at 150, 200, and 250/sup 0/C. At 150/sup 0/C and 200/sup 0/C or at low ethanol concentrations there was substantial agreement between our data and data in the literature. At higher ethanol concentrations approaching the azeotrope there was some disagreement which was later found to be due to inconsistencies in the literature data. These results established the reliability of the equipment for binary mixture vapor liquid equilibrium measurements. The first system studied of relevance to coal-derived liquid properties was the m-cresol/quinoline binary system. This system was selected since these compounds are typical of the hetero-atomic species present in coal-derived liquids. Numerous difficulties were encountered. After resolving the experimental difficulties, reliable data were obtained for the system at 250/sup 0/C. An azeotrope was found in the system at a m-cresol composition in the region of 5 mole percent. 47 references, 19 figures, 16 tables.

  12. Deep Geothermal Drilling Using Millimeter Wave Technology. Final Technical Research Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oglesby, Kenneth [Impact Technologies LLC, Tulsa, OK (United States); Woskov, Paul [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Einstein, Herbert [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Livesay, Bill [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Conventional drilling methods are very mature, but still have difficulty drilling through very deep,very hard and hot rocks for geothermal, nuclear waste entombment and oil and gas applications.This project demonstrated the capabilities of utilizing only high energy beams to drill such rocks,commonly called ‘Direct Energy Drilling’, which has been the dream of industry since the invention of the laser in the 1960s. A new region of the electromagnetic spectrum, millimeter wave (MMW) wavelengths at 30-300 giga-hertz (GHz) frequency was used to accomplish this feat. To demonstrate MMW beam drilling capabilities a lab bench waveguide delivery, monitoring and instrument system was designed, built and tested around an existing (but non-optimal) 28 GHz frequency, 10 kilowatt (kW) gyrotron. Low waveguide efficiency, plasma generation and reflected power challenges were overcome. Real-time monitoring of the drilling process was also demonstrated. Then the technical capability of using only high power intense millimeter waves to melt (with some vaporization) four different rock types (granite, basalt, sandstone, limestone) was demonstrated through 36 bench tests. Full bore drilling up to 2” diameter (size limited by the available MMW power) was demonstrated through granite and basalt samples. The project also demonstrated that MMW beam transmission losses through high temperature (260°C, 500oF), high pressure (34.5 MPa, 5000 psi) nitrogen gas was below the error range of the meter long path length test equipment and instruments utilized. To refine those transmission losses closer, to allow extrapolation to very great distances, will require a new test cell design and higher sensitivity instruments. All rock samples subjected to high peak temperature by MMW beams developed fractures due to thermal stresses, although the peak temperature was thermodynamically limited by radiative losses. Therefore, this limited drill rate and rock strength data were not able to be

  13. Knowledge Boosting Curriculum for New Wind Industry Professionals Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, Ruth H; Rogers, Anthony L


    DNV Renewables (USA) Inc. (DNV KEMA) received a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop the curriculum for a series of short courses intended to address Topic Area 5 Workforce Development, one of the focus areas to achieve the goals outlined in 20% Wind by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to Electricity Supply. The aim of the curriculum development project was to provide material for instructors to use in a training program to help professionals transition into careers in wind energy. Under this grant DNV KEMA established a knowledge boosting program for the wind energy industry with the following objectives: 1. Develop technical training curricula and teaching materials for six key topic areas that can be implemented in a flexible format by a knowledgeable instructor. The topic areas form a foundation that can be leveraged for subsequent, more detailed learning modules (not developed in this program). 2. Develop an implementation guidance document to accompany the curricula outlining key learning objectives, implementation methods, and guidance for utilizing the curricula. This curriculum is intended to provide experienced trainers course material that can be used to provide course participants with a basic background in wind energy and wind project development. The curriculum addresses all aspects of developing a wind project, that when implemented can be put to use immediately, making the participant an asset to U.S. wind industry employers. The curriculum is comprised of six short modules, together equivalent in level of content to a one-semester college-level course. The student who completes all six modules should be able to understand on a basic level what is required to develop a wind project, speak with a reasonable level of confidence about such topics as wind resource assessment, energy assessment, turbine technology and project economics, and contribute to the analysis and review of project information. The content of

  14. Hawaii Utility Integration Initiatives to Enable Wind (Wind HUI) Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dora Nakafuji; Lisa Dangelmaier; Chris Reynolds


    help guide Hawaii and the nation toward more reliable adoption of clean energy resources. Results from these efforts are helping to inform Hawaiian utilities continue to Transform infrastructure, Incorporate renewable considerations and priorities into new processes/procedures, and Demonstrate the technical effectiveness and feasibility of new technologies to shape our pathways forward. Lessons learned and experience captured as part of this effort will hopefully provide practical guidance for others embarking on major legacy infrastructure transformations and renewable integration projects.

  15. Enzymology of acetone-butanol-isopropanol formation. Final technical report, June 1, 1985--July 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiann-Shin


    Several species of anaerobic bacteria within the genus Clostridium produce acetone, n-butanol, and isopropanol (solvents), which are important industrial chemicals and fuel additives. Commercial production of solvents by the clostridia is a classical example of largescale chemical production by bacterial fermentation. Although the fermentation has been in use for decades, it still faces problems that include strain degeneration, a relatively low final product concentration due to butanol toxicity, and a need to fine-tune the growth conditions to achieve a high yield. The long-term goal of this project was to understand the fundamental properties of bacterial solvent production for the purpose of achieving a positive control on the metabolic switch leading to solvent production and on the proportion of useful products formed as well as of developing strategies for preventing the degeneration of producing strains. The objectives for the project included those approved in 1985 for the initial project period and those approved in 1988, 1991, and 1994 when the project was renewed. The objectives for the entire project period may be summarized as (1) To purify and characterize the enzymes that are specifically required for the formation of acetone, butanol, and isopropanol by the clostridia, (2) To clone and characterize the genes that encode enzymes or regulatory proteins for the production of solvents, and the emphasis was to determine the control mechanism for the transcription of the solvent-production genes, (3) To characterize the onset of solvent production and the intra- and extra-cellular parameters surrounding the metabolic switch to solvent production, and (4) To determine the genetic identity of the strains of solvent-producing clostridia that are currently in use by investigators around the world.

  16. Advanced wind turbine near-term product development. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In 1990 the US Department of Energy initiated the Advanced Wind Turbine (AWT) Program to assist the growth of a viable wind energy industry in the US. This program, which has been managed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has been divided into three phases: (1) conceptual design studies, (2) near-term product development, and (3) next-generation product development. The goals of the second phase were to bring into production wind turbines which would meet the cost goal of $0.05 kWh at a site with a mean (Rayleigh) windspeed of 5.8 m/s (13 mph) and a vertical wind shear exponent of 0.14. These machines were to allow a US-based industry to compete domestically with other sources of energy and to provide internationally competitive products. Information is given in the report on design values of peak loads and of fatigue spectra and the results of the design process are summarized in a table. Measured response is compared with the results from mathematical modeling using the ADAMS code and is discussed. Detailed information is presented on the estimated costs of maintenance and on spare parts requirements. A failure modes and effects analysis was carried out and resulted in approximately 50 design changes including the identification of ten previously unidentified failure modes. The performance results of both prototypes are examined and adjusted for air density and for correlation between the anemometer site and the turbine location. The anticipated energy production at the reference site specified by NREL is used to calculate the final cost of energy using the formulas indicated in the Statement of Work. The value obtained is $0.0514/kWh in January 1994 dollars. 71 figs., 30 tabs.

  17. Improved methods for water shutoff. Final technical progress report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, R.S.; Liang, J.T.; Schrader, R.; Hagstrom, J. II; Liu, J.; Wavrik, K.


    In the United States, more than 20 billion barrels of salt water are produced each year during oilfield operations. A tremendous economic incentive exists to reduce water production if that can be accomplished without significantly sacrificing hydrocarbon production. This three-year research project had three objectives. The first objective was to identify chemical blocking agents that will (a) during placement, flow readily through fractures without penetrating significantly into porous rock and with screening out or developing excessive pressure gradients and (b) at a predictable and controllable time, become immobile and resistant breakdown upon exposure to moderate to high pressure gradients. The second objective was to identify schemes that optimize placement of the above blocking agents. The third objective was to explain why gels and other chemical blocking agents reduce permeability to one phase (e.g., water) more than that to another phase (e.g., oil or gas). The authors also wanted to identify conditions that maximize this phenomenon. This project consisted of three tasks, each of which addressed one of the above objectives. This report describes work performed during the third and final period of the project. During this three-year project, they: (1) Developed a procedure and software for sizing gelant treatments in hydraulically fractured production wells; (2) Developed a method (based on interwell tracer results) to determine the potential for applying gel treatments in naturally fractured reservoirs; (3) Characterized gel properties during extrusion through fractures; (4) Developed a method to predict gel placement in naturally fractured reservoirs; (5) Made progress in elucidating the mechanism for why some gels can reduce permeability to water more than that to oil; (6) Demonstrated the limitations of using water/oil ratio diagnostic plots to distinguish between channeling and coning; and (7) Proposed a philosophy for diagnosing and attacking water

  18. Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.


    Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

  19. Friction of self-lubricating surfaces by ion beam techniques. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, R.S.; Rai, A.K.


    UES, Inc. conducted a research and development program designed to establish conditions for ion implantation/mixing of suitable additives into the surfaces of bulk ceramics and metals for obtaining self-lubricating low friction and wear characteristics. The substrates considered were ZrO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, steel and Ni-base superalloy. The lubricant additives chosen were BaF{sub 2}/CaF{sub 2}Ag, MoS{sub 2}, WS{sub 2}and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The initial tasks of the program were to synthesis these lubricant compounds by co-implantation of constituent elements if sufficient beams of desired elements were obtained. The final tasks were to investigate high energy (MeV) ion mixing of deposited coatings as well as to investigate ion beam assisted deposition using low energy ion beams. It was shown that MoS{sub 2} can be synthesized by co-implantation of Mo{sup +} and S{sup +} in ceramic materials with appropriate choice of energies to obtain nearly overlapping depth profiles. The sliding life of DC magnetron sputtered MoS{sub 2} films of thicknesses {approximately}7500{Angstrom} on ceramic materials such as sapphire, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and ZrO{sub 3} were improved by ten to thousand fold after 2 Mev Ag{sup +} ion mixing. Ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) and ion beam mixing were utilized to fabricate self-lubricating coatings of CaF{sub 2}/Ag and BaF/CaF{sub 2}/Ag composites.

  20. 3X compound parabolic concentrating (CPC) solar energy collector. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballheim, R.W.


    Chamberlain engineers designed a 3X compound parabolic concentrating (CPC) collector for the subject contract. The collector is a completely housed, 105.75 x 44.75 x 10.23-inch, 240-pound unit with six each evacuated receiver assemblies, a center manifold and a one-piece glass cover. A truncated version of a CPC trough reflector system and the General Electric Company tubular evacuated receiver have been integrated with a mass producible collector design suitable for operation at 250 to 450/sup 0/F. The key criterion for optimization of the design was minimization of the cost per Btu collected annually at an operating temperature of 400/sup 0/F. The reflector is a 4.1X design truncated to a total height of 8.0 inches with a resulting actual concentration ratio of 2.6 to 1. The manifold is an insulated area housing the fluid lines which connect the six receivers in series with inlet and outlet tubes extending from one side of the collector at the center. The reflectors are polished, anodized aluminum which are shaped by the roll form process. The housing is painted, galvanized steel, and the cover glass is 3/16-inch thick tempered, low iron glass. The collector requires four slope adjustments per year for optimum effectiveness. Chamberlain produced ten 3X CPC collectors for the subject contract. Two collectors were used to evaluate assembly procedures, six were sent to the project officer in Albuquerque, New Mexico, one was sent to Argonne National Laboratory for performance testing and one remained with the Company. A manufacturing cost study was conducted to estimate limited mass production costs, explore cost reduction ideas and define tooling requirements. The final effort discussed shows the preliminary design for application of a 3X CPC solar collector system for use in the Iowa State Capitol complex.

  1. Semiconductor electrochemistry of coal pyrite. Final technical report, September 1990--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Wei, Dawei


    This project seeks to advance the fundamental understanding of the physico-chemical processes occurring at the pyrite/aqueous interface, in the context of coal cleaning, coal desulfurization, and acid mine drainage. Central to this research is the use of synthetic microsize particles of pyrite as model microelectrodes to investigate the semiconductor electrochemistry of pyrite. The research focuses on: (a) the synthesis of microsize particles of pyrite in aqueous solution at room temperature, (b) the formation of iron sulfide complex, the precursor of FeS or FeS{sub 2}, and (c) the relationship between the semiconductor properties of pyrite and its interfacial electrochemical behavior in the dissolution process. In Chapter 2, 3 and 4, a suitable protocol for preparing microsize particles of pyrite in aqueous solution is given, and the essential roles of the precursors elemental sulfur and ``FeS`` in pyrite formation are investigated. In Chapter 5, the formation of iron sulfide complex prior to the precipitation of FeS or FeS{sub 2} is investigated using a fast kinetics technique based on a stopped-flow spectrophotometer. The stoichiometry of the iron sulfide complex is determined, and the rate and formation constants are also evaluated. Chapter 6 provides a summary of the semiconductor properties of pyrite relevant to the present study. In Chapters 7 and 8, the effects of the semiconductor properties on pyrite dissolution are investigated experimentally and the mechanism of pyrite dissolution in acidic aqueous solution is examined. Finally, a summary of the conclusions from this study and suggestions for future research are presented in Chapter 9.

  2. Strengthening the fission reactor nuclear science and engineering program at UCLA. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrent, D.


    This is the final report on DOE Award No. DE-FG03-92ER75838 A000, a three year matching grant program with Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) to support strengthening of the fission reactor nuclear science and engineering program at UCLA. The program began on September 30, 1992. The program has enabled UCLA to use its strong existing background to train students in technological problems which simultaneously are of interest to the industry and of specific interest to PG and E. The program included undergraduate scholarships, graduate traineeships and distinguished lecturers. Four topics were selected for research the first year, with the benefit of active collaboration with personnel from PG and E. These topics remained the same during the second year of this program. During the third year, two topics ended with the departure o the students involved (reflux cooling in a PWR during a shutdown and erosion/corrosion of carbon steel piping). Two new topics (long-term risk and fuel relocation within the reactor vessel) were added; hence, the topics during the third year award were the following: reflux condensation and the effect of non-condensable gases; erosion/corrosion of carbon steel piping; use of artificial intelligence in severe accident diagnosis for PWRs (diagnosis of plant status during a PWR station blackout scenario); the influence on risk of organization and management quality; considerations of long term risk from the disposal of hazardous wastes; and a probabilistic treatment of fuel motion and fuel relocation within the reactor vessel during a severe core damage accident.

  3. Final Technical Report: Hawaii Hydrogen Center for Development and Deployment of Distributed Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, Richard E.


    -efficiency CIGS and a-Si:H with operating features compatible with high-efficiency photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting. The objective of one activity under the hydrogen production from biomass task was to conduct parametric testing of the Pearson gasifier and to determine the effects of gasifier operating conditions on the gas yields and quality. The hydrogen yield from this gasifier was evaluated in a parametric test series over a range of residence times from 0.8 to 2.2 seconds. H2 concentrations as high as 55% (volume) were measured in the product gas at the longer residence times and this corresponds to a hydrogen yield of 90 kg per tonne of bagasse without gas upgrading. The objective of another activity was to develop hot gas clean-up capabilities for the HNEI gasifier test facility to support hydrogen-from-biomass research. The product gas stream at the outlet of the hot gas filter was characterized for concentrations of permanent gas species and contaminants. Biomass feedstock processing activity included a preliminary investigation into methods for processing sugar cane trash at the Puunene Sugar Factory on the island of Maui, Hawaii. The objective of the investigation was to explore treatment methods that would enable the successful use of cane trash as fuel for the production of hydrogen via gasification. Analyses were completed for the technical and economic feasibility of producing biofuel from photosynthetic marine microbes on a commercial scale. Results included estimates for total costs, energy efficiency, and return on investment. The biohydrogen team undertook a comprehensive review of the field and came to what is considered a realistic conclusion. To summarize, continued research is recommended in the fundamentals of the science related to genetic engineering and specific topics to cover knowledge gaps. In the meantime, the team also advocates continued development of related processes which can be linked to pollution control and other real world

  4. A Systems Approach to Bio-Oil Stabilization - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C; Meyer, Terrence; Fox, Rodney; Submramaniam, Shankar; Shanks, Brent; Smith, Ryan G


    The objective of this project is to develop practical, cost effective methods for stabilizing biomass-derived fast pyrolysis oil for at least six months of storage under ambient conditions. The U.S. Department of Energy has targeted three strategies for stabilizing bio-oils: (1) reducing the oxygen content of the organic compounds comprising pyrolysis oil; (2) removal of carboxylic acid groups such that the total acid number (TAN) of the pyrolysis oil is dramatically reduced; and (3) reducing the charcoal content, which contains alkali metals known to catalyze reactions that increase the viscosity of bio-oil. Alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM), are known to catalyze decomposition reactions of biomass carbohydrates to produce light oxygenates that destabilize the resulting bio-oil. Methods envisioned to prevent the AAEM from reaction with the biomass carbohydrates include washing the AAEM out of the biomass with water or dilute acid or infusing an acid catalyst to passivate the AAEM. Infusion of acids into the feedstock to convert all of the AAEM to salts which are stable at pyrolysis temperatures proved to be a much more economically feasible process. Our results from pyrolyzing acid infused biomass showed increases in the yield of anhydrosugars by greater than 300% while greatly reducing the yield of light oxygenates that are known to destabilize bio-oil. Particulate matter can interfere with combustion or catalytic processing of either syngas or bio-oil. It also is thought to catalyze the polymerization of bio-oil, which increases the viscosity of bio-oil over time. High temperature bag houses, ceramic candle filters, and moving bed granular filters have been variously suggested for syngas cleaning at elevated temperatures. High temperature filtration of bio-oil vapors has also been suggested by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory although there remain technical challenges to this approach. The fast pyrolysis of biomass yields three main organic

  5. Final Technical Report: Intensive Quenching Technology for Heat Treating and Forging Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronov, Michael A.


    standard dies by at least 50%. Dies provided by an AST customer, made of plain carbon 1045 steel and used for pellet manufacturing outperformed the standard dies by more than 100%. Concrete crusher liner wear plates provided by an EHT customer and made of 1045 steel, had the same surface hardness as the plates made of more expensive, pre-hardened high alloy HARDOX-500 material supplied by a Swedish company and used currently by the EHT customer. The 1045 material intensively quenched wear plates are currently in the field. Concrete block molding machine wear plates provided by an IQT customer and made of 8620 steel were processed at the AST production IQ system using a 40% reduced carburization cycle. An effective case depth in the intensively quenched wear plates was the same as in the standard, oil quenched parts. Base keys provided by an EHT customer and made of 8620 steel were processed using a 40% reduced carburization cycle. The intensively quenched parts showed the same performance as standard parts. IQT introduced the IQ process in heat treat practices of three commercial heat-treating shops: Akron Steel Treating Co., Summit Heat Treating Co. and Euclid Heat Treating Co. CWRU conducted a material characterization study for a variety of steels to develop a database to support changing/modification of recognized standards for quenching steel parts. IQT conducted a series of IQ workshops, published seven technical papers and participated in ASM Heat Treating Society conference and exposition and in Furnace North America Show. IQT designed and built a fully automated new IQ system installed at the Center for Intensive Quenching. This system includes the following major components: a stand-alone 1,900-gallon IQ water system, a 24'' x 24'' atmosphere pit furnace, and an automated load transfer mechanism. IQT established a ''Center for Intensive Quenching'' at the AST facilities. The 4,000 square feet Center includes the following

  6. DE-FG02-08ER64658 (OASIS) - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharman, Jonathan


    Project OASIS (Operation of Advanced Structures, Interfaces and Sub-components for MEAs) was a 12 month project that ran from 1st September 2008 to 31st August 2009, and was managed by the Department of Energy Office of Science, Chicago Office, as Award No DE-FG02-08ER64658, with Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells Inc. as the sole contractor. The project was completed on schedule, with technical successes (details below) and payment of the full grant award made by DOE. The aim of the project was the development of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for H2/air polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells that would give higher performance under hot/dry and dry operating conditions, ideally with no loss of performance under wet conditions. Reducing or eliminating the need for humidifying the incoming gases will allow significant system cost and size reduction for many fuel cell applications including automotive, stationary and back-up power, and portable systems. Portable systems are also of particular interest in military markets. In previous work Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells had developed very stable, corrosion-resistant catalysts suitable for resisting degradation by carbon corrosion in particular. These materials were applied within the OASIS project as they are considered necessary for systems such as automotive where multiple start-stop events are experienced. These catalysts were contrasted with more conventional materials in the design of catalyst layers and novel microporous layers (MPLs) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) combinations were also explored. Early on in the work it was shown how much more aggressive high temperature operation is than dry operation. At the same humidity, tests at 110?C caused much more dehydration than tests at 80?C and the high temperature condition was much more revealing of improvements made to MEA design. Alloy catalysts were introduced and compared with Pt catalysts with a range of particle sizes. It was apparent that the larger

  7. Final Scientific/Technical Report. A closed path methane and water vapor gas analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Liukang [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); McDermitt, Dayle [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Anderson, Tyler [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Riensche, Brad [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Komissarov, Anatoly [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Howe, Julie [LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States)


    utilized to randomize the noise introduced from potential etalons. It is expected that all original specifications contained within the initial proposal will be met. We are currently in the beginning stages of assembling the first generation prototypes and finalizing the remaining design elements. The first prototypes will initially be tested in our environmental calibration chamber in which specific gas concentrations, temperature and humidity levels can be controlled. Once operation in this controlled setting is verified, the prototypes will be deployed at LI-COR's Experimental Research Station (LERS). Deployment at the LERS site will test the instrument's robustness in a real-world situation.

  8. Solar 2 Green Energy, Arts & Education Center. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, Jamie C; Collins, Christopher J


    was provided to assist with the ongoing design work of Solar 2, including architecture, engineering and the development of construction specifications. The work performed during the project period brought this process as far along as it could go pending the raising of funds to begin construction of the building. Once those funds are secured, we will finalize any additional details needed before beginning the bidding process and then moving into construction. DOE's funding was extremely valuable in helping Solar One determine the feasibility of a net-zero construction on the site and allowed for the design to project to meet the high standards necessary for LEED Platinum status.

  9. Final Technical Report: Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Grasman


    This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-FC36-04GO14285 by Mercedes-Benz & Research Development, North America (MBRDNA), Chrysler, Daimler, Mercedes Benz USA (MBUSA), BP, DTE Energy and NextEnergy to validate fuel cell technologies for infrastructure, transportation as well as assess technology and commercial readiness for the market. The Mercedes Team, together with its partners, tested the technology by operating and fueling hydrogen fuel cell vehicles under real world conditions in varying climate, terrain and driving conditions. Vehicle and infrastructure data was collected to monitor the progress toward the hydrogen vehicle and infrastructure performance targets of $2.00 to 3.00/gge hydrogen production cost and 2,000-hour fuel cell durability. Finally, to prepare the public for a hydrogen economy, outreach activities were designed to promote awareness and acceptance of hydrogen technology. DTE, BP and NextEnergy established hydrogen filling stations using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage and dispensing. DTE established a hydrogen station in Southfield, Michigan while NextEnergy and BP worked together to construct one hydrogen station in Detroit. BP constructed another fueling station in Burbank, California and provided a full-time hydrogen trailer at San Francisco, California and a hydrogen station located at Los Angeles International Airport in Southern, California. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2011. The Team deployed 30 Gen I Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) in the beginning of the project. While 28 Gen I F-CELLs used the A-Class platform, the remaining 2 were Sprinter delivery vans. Fuel cell vehicles were operated by external customers for real-world operations in various regions (ecosystems) to capture various driving patterns and climate conditions (hot, moderate and cold). External operators consisted of F-CELL partner organizations in California and Michigan

  10. Final Technical Report of project: "Contactless Real-Time Monitoring of Paper Mechanical Behavior During Papermaking"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel Lafond; Paul Ridgway; Ted Jackson; Rick Russo; Ken Telschow; Vance Deason; Yves Berthelot; David Griggs; Xinya Zhang; Gary Baum


    The early precursors of laser ultrasonics on paper were Prof. Y. Berthelot from the Georgia Institute of Technology/Mechanical Engineering department, and Prof. P. Brodeur from the Institute of Paper Science and Technology, both located in Atlanta, Georgia. The first Ph.D. thesis that shed quite some light on the topic, but also left some questions unanswered, was completed by Mont A. Johnson in 1996. Mont Johnson was Prof. Berthelot's student at Georgia Tech. In 1997 P. Brodeur proposed a project involving himself, Y. Berthelot, Dr. Ken Telschow and Mr. Vance Deason from INL, Honeywell-Measurex and Dr. Rick Russo from LBNL. The first time the proposal was not accepted and P. Brodeur decided to re-propose it without the involvement from LBNL. Rick Russo proposed a separate project on the same topic on his side. Both proposals were finally accepted and work started in the fall of 1997 on the two projects. Early on, the biggest challenge was to find an optical detection method which could detect laser-induced displacements of the web surface that are of the order of .1 micron in the ultrasonic range. This was to be done while the web was having an out-of-plane amplitude of motion in the mm range due to web flutter; while moving at 10 m/s to 30 m/s in the plane of the web, on the paper machine. Both teams grappled with the same problems and tried similar methods in some cases, but came up with two similar but different solutions one year later. The IPST, GT, INL team found that an interferometer made by Lasson Technologies Inc. using the photo-induced electro-motive force in Gallium Arsenide was able to detect ultrasonic waves up to 12-15 m/s. It also developed in house an interferometer using the Two-Wave Mixing effect in photorefractive crystals that showed good promises for on-line applications, and experimented with a scanning mirror to reduce motion-induced texture noise from the web and improve signal to noise ratio. On its side, LBNL had the idea to

  11. Lake Granbury and Lake Whitney Assessment Initiative Final Scientific/Technical Report Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. L. [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Roelke, Daniel [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Brooks, Bryan [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Grover, James [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States)


    blooms. Our numerical modeling results support the idea that cyanobacteria, through allelopathy, control the timing of golden algae blooms in Lake Granbury. The in-lake experiments in Lake Whitney and Lake Waco also revealed that as golden algae blooms develop, there are natural enemies (a species of rotifer, and a virus) that help slow the population growth. Again, better characterization of these organisms is a high priority as it may be key to managing golden algae blooms. Our laboratory and in-lake experiments and field monitoring have shown that nutrient additions will remove toxicity and prevent golden algae from blooming. In fact, other algae displace the golden algae after nutrient additions. Additions of ammonia are particularly effective, even at low doses (much lower than what is employed in fish hatchery ponds). Application of ammonia in limited areas of lakes, such as in coves, should be explored as a management option. The laboratory experiments and field monitoring also show that the potency of toxins produced by P. parvum is greatly reduced when water pH is lower, closer to neutral levels. Application of mild acid to limited areas of lakes (but not to a level where acidic conditions are created), such as in coves, should be explored as a management option. Finally, our field monitoring and mathematical modeling revealed that flushing/dilution at high enough levels could prevent P. parvum from forming blooms and/or terminate existing blooms. This technique could work using deeper waters within a lake to flush the surface waters of limited areas of the same lakes, such as in coves and should be explored as a management option. In this way, water releases from upstream reservoirs would not be necessary and there would be no addition of nutrients in the lake.

  12. Pyrite Iron Sulfide Solar Cells Made from Solution Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Matt [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)


    This document summarizes research done under the SunShot Next Generation PV II project entitled, “Pyrite Iron Sulfide Solar Cells Made from Solution,” award number DE-EE0005324, at the University of California, Irvine, from 9/1/11 thru 11/30/16. The project goal was to develop iron pyrite (cubic FeS2) as an absorber layer for solution-processible p-n heterojunction solar cells with a pathway to >20% power conversion efficiency. Project milestones centered around seven main Tasks: (1) make device-quality pyrite thin-films from solar ink; (2) develop an ohmic bottom contact with suitable low resistivity; (3) produce a p-n heterojunction with VOC > 400 mV; (4) make a solar cell with >5% power conversion efficiency; (5) use alloying to increase the pyrite band gap to ~1.2-1.4 eV; (6) produce a p-n heterojunction with VOC > 500 mV; and finally (7) make a solar cell with >10% power conversion efficiency. In response to project findings, the Tasks were amended midway through the project to focus particular effort on passivating the surface of pyrite in order to eliminate excessively-strong surface band bending believed to be responsible for the low VOC of pyrite diodes. Major project achievements include: (1) development and detailed characterization of several new solution syntheses of high-quality thin-film pyrite, including two “molecular ink” routes; (2) demonstration of Mo/MoS2 bilayers as good ohmic bottom contacts to pyrite films; (3) fabrication of pyrite diodes with a glass/Mo/MoS2/pyrite/ZnS/ZnO/AZO layer sequence that show VOC values >400 mV and as high as 610 mV at ~1 sun illumination, although these high VOC values ultimately proved irreproducible; (4) established that ZnS is a promising n-type junction partner for pyrite; (5) used density functional theory to show that the band gap of pyrite can be increased from ~1.0 to a more optimal 1.2-1.3 eV by alloying with oxygen; (6) through extensive measurements of ultrahigh

  13. Advancing Renewable Materials by Integrated Light and X-ray Scattering - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpalu, Yvonne A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    Polyhydroxyalkanotes (PHAs), a group of newly developed, commercially available biopolymers, and their composites have the potential to replace petroleum-based amorphous and semicrystalline polymers currently in use for consumer packaging, adhesives, and coating applications and to have significant advantages in medical applications such as tissue engineering. While the potential of PHAs is recognized in the literature and has even been realized in some cases, knowledge of these systems is decades behind that of synthetic polymers. Composites based on PHAs, furthermore, are just emerging in the research community. We argue that widespread adoption of nano-enhanced PHA materials can only be achieved through a proper characterization of the nanofiller morphology and its impact on the polymer matrix. Our goal is to build a robust understanding of the structure-processing relationships of PHAs to make it possible to achieve fundamental control over the final properties of these biopolymers and their bionanocomposites and to develop cost-effective manufacturing technologies for them. With the ultimate goal to design PHA polymer nanocomposites with tailored properties, we have performed a systematic study of the influence of cooling rate on the thermal properties and morphology of linear PHAs (PHB Mw = 690,000 g/mol; PHBV Mw = 407,000 g/mol, 8 mol % HV) and branched (PHBHx, Mw = 903, 000 g/mol, 7.2 mol % Hx) copolymers. Structure-property relations for silica/PHBHx nanocomposites were also investigated. Our studies show that simple two-phase composite models do not account for the molecular weight dependent enhancement in the modulus. Although improvement of the mechanical properties (stiffness/modulus and toughness) must be due to alteration of the matrix by the nanoparticle filler, the observed improvement was not caused by the change of crystallinity or spherulitic morphology. Since the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites can be affected by many factors

  14. DECREASE Final Technical Report: Development of a Commercial Ready Enzyme Application System for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teter, Sarah A


    Conversion of biomass to sugars plays a central in reducing our dependence on petroleum, as it allows production of a wide range of biobased fuels and chemicals, through fermentation of those sugars. The DECREASE project delivers an effective enzyme cocktail for this conversion, enabling reduced costs for producing advanced biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol. Benefits to the public contributed by growth of the advanced biofuels industry include job creation, economic growth, and energy security. The DECREASE primary project objective was to develop a two-fold improved enzyme cocktail, relative to an advanced cocktail (CZP00005) that had been developed previously (from 2000- 2007). While the final milestone was delivery of all enzyme components as an experimental mixture, a secondary objective was to deploy an improved cocktail within 3 years following the close of the project. In February 2012, Novozymes launched Cellic CTec3, a multi-enzyme cocktail derived in part from components developed under DECREASE. The externally validated performance of CTec3 and an additional component under project benchmarking conditions indicated a 1.8-fold dose reduction in enzyme dose required for 90% conversion (based on all available glucose and xylose sources) of NREL dilute acid pretreated PCS, relative to the starting advanced enzyme cocktail. While the ability to achieve 90% conversion is impressive, targeting such high levels of biomass digestion is likely not the most cost effective strategy. Novozymes techno economic modeling showed that for NREL's dilute acid pretreated corn stover (PCS), 80% target conversion enables a lower total production cost for cellulosic ethanol than for 90% conversion, and this was also found to be the case when cost assumptions were based on the NREL 2002 Design Report. A 1.8X dose-reduction was observed for 80% conversion in the small scale (50 g) DECREASE benchmark assay for CTec3 and an additional component. An upscaled experiment (in 0

  15. Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy Fuels for TRU-Burning Reactors Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean M


    Overview Fast reactors were evaluated to enable the transmutation of transuranic isotopes generated by nuclear energy systems. The motivation for this was that TRU isotopes have high radiotoxicity and relatively long half-lives, making them unattractive for disposal in a long-term geologic repository. Fast reactors provide an efficient means to utilize the energy content of the TRUs while destroying them. An enabling technology that requires research and development is the fabrication metallic fuel containing TRU isotopes using powder metallurgy methods. This project focused upon developing a powder metallurgical fabrication method to produce U-Zr-transuranic (TRU) alloys at relatively low processing temperatures (500ºC to 600ºC) using either hot extrusion or alpha-phase sintering for charecterization. Researchers quantified the fundamental aspects of both processing methods using surrogate metals to simulate the TRU elements. The process produced novel solutions to some of the issues relating to metallic fuels, such as fuel-cladding chemical interactions, fuel swelling, volatility losses during casting, and casting mold material losses. Workscope There were two primary tasks associated with this project: 1. Hot working fabrication using mechanical alloying and extrusion • Design, fabricate, and assemble extrusion equipment • Extrusion database on DU metal • Extrusion database on U-10Zr alloys • Extrusion database on U-20xx-10Zr alloys • Evaluation and testing of tube sheath metals 2. Low-temperature sintering of U alloys • Design, fabricate, and assemble equipment • Sintering database on DU metal • Sintering database on U-10Zr alloys • Liquid assisted phase sintering on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Appendices Outline Appendix A contains a Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D) poster and contact presentation where TAMU made primary contributions. Appendix B contains MSNE theses and final defense presentations by David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich

  16. Final Technical Report: Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Hector Colon-Mercado; Kitiya Hongsirikarn; and Jack Z. Zhang


    accessible for hydrogen activation. Of the impurities studied, CO, NH3, perchloroethylene (also known as tetrachloroethylene), tetrahydrofuran, diborane, and metal cations had significant negative effects on the components in a fuel cell. While CO has no effect on the Nafion, it significantly poisons the Pt catalyst by adsorbing and blocking hydrogen activation. The effect can be reversed with time once the flow of CO is stopped. NH3 has no effect on the Pt catalyst at fuel cell conditions; it poisons the proton sites on Nafion (by forming NH4+ cations), decreasing drastically the proton conductivity of Nafion. This poisoning can slowly be reversed once the flow of NH3 is stopped. Perchloroethylene has a major effect on fuel cell performance. Since it has little/no effect on Nafion conductivity, its poisoning effect is on the Pt catalyst. However, this effect takes place primarily for the Pt catalyst at the cathode, since the presence of oxygen is very important for this poisoning effect. Tetrahydrofuran was shown not to impact Nafion conductivity; however, it does affect fuel cell performance. Therefore, its primary effect is on the Pt catalyst. The effect of THF on fuel cell performance is reversible. Diborane also can significant affect fuel cell performance. This effect is reversible once diborane is removed from the inlet streams. H2O2 is not an impurity usually present in the hydrogen or oxygen streams to a fuel cell. However, it is generated during fuel cell operation. The presence of Fe cations in the Nafion due to system corrosion and/or arising from MEA production act to catalyze the severe degradation of the Nafion by H2O2. Finally, the presence of metal cation impurities (Na+, Ca 2+, Fe3+) in Nafion from MEA preparation or from corrosion significantly impacts its proton conductivity due to replacement of proton sites. This effect is not reversible. Hydrocarbons, such as ethylene, might be expected to affect Pt or Nafion but do not at a typical fuel cell

  17. Biotransformation of ent-13-epi-manoyl oxides difunctionalized at C-3 and C-12 by filamentous fungi. (United States)

    García-Granados, Andrés; Fernández, Antonia; Gutiérrez, María C; Martínez, Antonio; Quirós, Raquel; Rivas, Francisco; Arias, José M


    Biotransformation of ent-3beta,12alpha-dihydroxy-13-epi-manoyl oxide with Fusarium moniliforme gave the regioselective oxidation of the hydroxyl group at C-3 and the ent-7beta-hydroxylation. The action of Gliocladium roseum in the 3,12-diketoderivative originated monohydroxylations at C-1 and C-7, both by the ent-beta face, while Rhizopus nigricans produced hydroxylation at C-7 or C-18, epoxidation of the double bond, reduction of the keto group at C-3, and combined actions as biohydroxylation at C-2/epoxidation of the double bond and hydroxylation at C-7/reduction of the keto group at C-3. In the ent-3-hydroxy-12-keto epimers, G. roseum originated monohydroxylations at C-1 and C-7 and R. nigricans originated the oxidation at C-3 as a major transformation, epoxidation of double bond and hydroxylation at C-2. Finally, in the ent-3beta-hydroxy epimer R. nigricans also originated minor hydroxylations at C-1, C-6, C-7 and C-20 and F. moniliforme produced an hydroxylation at C-7 and a dihydroxylation at C-7/C-11.

  18. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cheng-Po [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Andarawis, Emad [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Shaddock, David [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Yin, Liang [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Ghandi, Reza [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Srikrishnan, Kashyap [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Saia, Richard [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Patil, Amita [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Fang, Kun [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Shen, Zhenzhen [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)


    The development and demonstration in this digital telemetry project has brought SiC-based high temperature electronics to a new level of complexity and integration with the active electronic devices and the packaging materials operating at 300°C for greater than 2000 hours. Our highest level of integration is a 6x6mm die with 474 transistors with the most complex functionality to date. Advances were made in the area of device modeling and fabrication, circuit simulation and design, device testing, and packaging. The technologies developed here would help enable sensor systems in enhanced geothermal systems, as well as other applications with high temperature requirements.

  19. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivey, James J. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)


    The research summarized here has the goal of developing a fundamental understanding of how catalysts work. These materials are demonstrably essential to our daily life, from the cars we drive to the clothes we wear. Our Center advances the science behind how we prepare, analyze, and describe catalysts. This has been identified by one of the documents guiding Federal research objectives (Directing Matter and Energy: Five Challenges for Science and the Imagination): “Major challenges in heterogeneous catalysis are to more clearly define the nature of the active sites, to engineer at the molecular level catalysis with designed properties in three dimensions, and to create new catalysts for new transformations.” This directly addresses this objective.

  20. SHIELDS Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordanova, Vania Koleva [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Predicting variations in the near-Earth space environment that can lead to spacecraft damage and failure, i.e. “space weather”, remains a big space physics challenge. A new capability was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to understand, model, and predict Space Hazards Induced near Earth by Large Dynamic Storms, the SHIELDS framework. This framework simulates the dynamics of the Surface Charging Environment (SCE), the hot (keV) electrons representing the source and seed populations for the radiation belts, on both macro- and micro-scale. In addition to using physics-based models (like RAM-SCB, BATS-R-US, and iPIC3D), new data assimilation techniques employing data from LANL instruments on the Van Allen Probes and geosynchronous satellites were developed. An order of magnitude improvement in the accuracy in the simulation of the spacecraft surface charging environment was thus obtained. SHIELDS also includes a post-processing tool designed to calculate the surface charging for specific spacecraft geometry using the Curvilinear Particle-In-Cell (CPIC) code and to evaluate anomalies' relation to SCE dynamics. Such diagnostics is critically important when performing forensic analyses of space-system failures.

  1. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Ives; Eric Montgomery; Zhigang Pan; Blake Riddick; Donald Feldman; Lou Falce


    This program applied reservoir cathode technology to increase the lifetime of cesiated tungsten photocathodes. Cesiated tungsten photocathodes provide a quantum efficiency of approximately 0.08% when cesium is initially applied to the surface. During operation, however, the cesium evaporates from the surface, resulting in a gradual decrease in quantum efficiency. After 4-6 hours of operation, the efficiency drop to below useful levels, requiring recoating on the emission surface. This program developed a cathode geometry where cesium could be continuously diffused to the surface at a rate matching the evaporation rate. This results in constant current emission until the cesium in the reservoir is depleted. Measurements of the evaporation rate indicated that the reservoir should provide cesium for more than 30,000 hours of continuous operation. This is orders of magnitude longer operation then previously available. Experiments also demonstrated that the photocathode could be rejuvenated following contamination from a vacuum leak. Recoating of the emission surface demonstrated that the initial quantum efficiency could be recovered.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fargione, Joseph


    The United States has abundant wind resources, such that only about 3% of the resource would need to be developed to achieve the goal of producing 20% of electricity in the United States by 2030. Inappropriately sited wind development may result in conflicts with wildlife that can delay or derail development projects, increase projects costs, and may degrade important conservation values. The most cost-effective approach to reducing such conflicts is through landscape-scale siting early in project development. To support landscape scale siting that avoids sensitive areas for wildlife, we compiled a database on species distributions, wind resource, disturbed areas, and land ownership. This database can be viewed and obtained via Wind project developers can use this web tool to identify potentially sensitive areas and areas that are already disturbed and are therefore likely to be less sensitive to additional impacts from wind development. The United States goal of producing 20% of its electricity from wind energy by the year 2030 would require 241 GW of terrestrial nameplate capacity. We analyzed whether this goal could be met by using lands that are already disturbed, which would minimize impacts to wildlife. Our research shows that over 14 times the DOE goal could be produced on lands that are already disturbed (primarily cropland and oil and gas fields), after taking into account wind resource availability and areas that would be precluded from wind development because of existing urban development or because of development restrictions. This work was published in the peer reviewed science journal PLoS ONE (a free online journal) and can be viewed here: Even projects that are sited appropriately may have some impacts on wildlife habitat that can be offset with offsite compensatory mitigation. We demonstrate one approach to mapping and quantifying mitigation costs, using the state of Kansas as a case study. Our approach considers a range of conservation targets (species and habitat) and calculates mitigation costs based on actual costs of the conservation actions (protection and restoration) that would be needed to fully offset impacts. This work was published in the peer reviewed science journal PLoS ONE (a free online journal) and can be viewed here:

  3. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmarker, Marc; Campbell, Mark


    Design, validate at prototype level, and then demonstrate a full size, 800 MWht Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system based on Phase Changing Material (PCM) TES modules with round trip efficiency in excess of 93%. The PCM TES module would be the building block of a TES system which can be deployed at costs inline with the DOE benchmark of 2020. The development of a reliable, unsophisticated, modular, and scalable TES system designed to be massmanufactured utilizing advanced automated fabrication and assembly processes and field installed in the most cost-effective configuration could facilitate the attainment of a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of $.07/kWh by 2015. It was believed that the DOE targets can be attained by finding the best combinationTES module size, its optimal integration in the power cycle, and readily available PCM. Work under this project ultimately focused on the development and performance evaluation of a 100kWht prototype heat exchanger. The design utilizes a commercially available heat exchanger product to create a unique latent heat PCM storage module. The novel ideal associated with this technology is the inclusion of an agitation mechanism that is activated during the discharge process to improve heat transfer. The prototype unit did not meet the performance goals estimated through modeling, nor did the estimated costs of the system fall in line with the goals established by DOE.

  4. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.


    DOE has funded our work in three areas: (1) reactions of sea salt aerosols to form photochemically labile halogen gases that help to drive tropospheric chemistry; (2) oxidation of organics at interfaces and formation of SOA driven by oxides of nitrogen photochemistry; and (3) nucleation and growth of new particles in the troposphere from reactions of methanesulfonic acid with amines.

  5. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Davis


    The forest products industry consumes large amounts of energy. Understanding how genetic variation in trees actually controls the characteristics of wood, the major raw material utilized by the industry, is an opportunity for energy savings. For companies that are vertically integrated (i.e., have both tree production and processing operations), energy savings can accrue for both production and processing. Tree production demands nitrogen fertilizers, the manufacture of which is highly energy intensive. Wood processing for paper product manufacturing requires digestion and bleaching, both of which are more efficient when the lignin content of wood is reduced. This project identified genes involved in utilization of nitrogen from fertilizer, and the coupling of nitrogen demand to lignin content, establishing a framework for reducing tree nitrogen demand per unit carbon gained. This creates opportunities for genetic manipulation of trees for greater energy efficiency.

  6. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, David B.


    This grant provided the basic funding that enabled me to carry out a detailed characterization of the proteins used by the aerobic soil bacterium, Thermobifida fusca, to degrade cellulose and to study the mechanisms used by T. fusca to regulate cellulase synthesis. This work resulted in 53 publications and led to the decision by The DOE Joint Genome Institute to sequence the T. fusca genome. T. fusca is now recognized as one of the best studied cellulolytic microorganisms and our work led to the discovery of a novel class of cellulases, processive endoglucanases, which are found in many cellulolytic bacteria including both aerobes and anaerobes. In addition, we were able to determine the mechanism by which Cel9A caused processive hydrolysis of cellulose. This research also helped to explain why many cellulolytic microorganisms produce two different exocellulases, as we showed that these enzymes have different specificities, with one attacking the reducing end of a cellulose chain and the other attacking the nonreducing end. Our work also provided additional evidence for the importance of a cellulose binding domain (carbohydrate binding module) [CBM] in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose.

  7. Final Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.Y. Hwang; R.C. Greenlund


    Michigan Technological University has demonstrated major inroads in establishing the viability of utilizing aluminum smelting by-product waste materials in lightweight concrete product applications. The research identified key elements of producing various forms of lightweight concrete products through utilizing various procedures and mixture components with the by-product materials. A process was developed through pilot plant testing that results in additional aluminum recovery at finer sizes, a clean returnable salt product through spray drying technology, and a low-salt-content oxide product with enough aluminum metal content that it can be used to form lightweight cementitious mixtures. Having three distinct products aids in generating favorable process economics. Revenue projections from aluminum recovery and salt recovery are enough to cover processing costs and create a cost-free oxide product to market for lightweight concrete applications. This supply side commercialization strategy offers aluminum by-product recyclers a potentially no cost product, which has been demonstrated through this project to create desirable and marketable lightweight concrete products of various forms. Environmental benefits to the public are tremendous. At best, all dross and salt cake materials have the potential to be completely recycled and utilized. At worst, disposal sites would see a reduced amount of material: a post processed oxide product with little salt and no hydrogen sulfide or ammonia gas generating capability, which, if isolated from high alkali conditions, would pose no reactivity concerns. The US aluminum industry has historically, along with the steel industry, been a leader in recycling metal. The findings from this project, increased metal recovery, improved salt recycling, and demonstrated end uses for oxide residues, will go a long way in helping the aluminum industry obtain 100% material utilization and zero discharge.

  8. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon Silver


    The work done with DOE support during this 15 year period was extensive and successful. It is best summarized by the list of 58 publications (below) which reported progress made with DOE support. These are from the grant period and a few more recent reporting on grant research. Mostly these are primary research reports in reviewed journals. There are also, however, many summary reviews in review journals and in scientific monographs, as they also are key places for reporting research progress. What we did during this grant period (and much longer) was to characterize genetic determinants for bacterial resistances to additional toxic heavy metals of DOE concern, through starting with phenotypic properties of the resistant bacteria to DNA sequence determination and characterization of the genes involved. Over the years (and as shown in the list of publications), the toxic metal-forming elements we have studied included Ag, As, Cd, Cr, and Hg. In each case, we started with basically nothing (or very little) known, progressed through quite detailed understanding, until other laboratory groups also became strongly involved in related studies. More recently, with DOE support, we were the first laboratory group in the world to identify genes for bacterial resistance to silver salts (sil genes) and the closely related silver-and-copper resistance genes cus. This was initially reported in detail in Gupta et al. (1999; see publications list below). We also identified the first toxic metal 'gene island' (multiple transcripts and perhaps 25 genes each in need of detailed study) which encodes the subunits of arsenite oxidase (which we called aso; Silver and Phung, 2005; but most other researchers have subsequently settled on aox for the gene mnemonic). Both of these systems were firsts. Now a few years later, a search on GenBank shows that each is now represented by gene families with more than a dozen examples that have been identified and sequenced. Most of the additional representative systems are from total bacterial genomes without specific gene characterization.

  9. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. C. Griffith


    In this project we provide an example of how to develop multi-tiered models to go across levels of biological organization to provide a framework for relating results of studies of low doses of ionizing radiation. This framework allows us to better understand how to extrapolate laboratory results to policy decisions, and to identify future studies that will increase confidence in policy decisions. In our application of the conceptual Model we were able to move across multiple levels of biological assessment for rodents going from molecular to organism level for in vitro and in vivo endpoints and to relate these to human in vivo organism level effects. We used the rich literature on the effects of ionizing radiation on the developing brain in our models. The focus of this report is on disrupted neuronal migration due to radiation exposure and the structural and functional implications of these early biological effects. The cellular mechanisms resulting in pathogenesis are most likely due to a combination of the three mechanisms mentioned. For the purposes of a computational model, quantitative studies of low dose radiation effects on migration of neuronal progenitor cells in the cerebral mantle of experimental animals were used. In this project we were able to show now results from studies of low doses of radiation can be used in a multidimensional framework to construct linked models of neurodevelopment using molecular, cellular, tissue, and organ level studies conducted both in vitro and in vivo in rodents. These models could also be linked to behavioral endpoints in rodents which can be compared to available results in humans. The available data supported modeling to 10 cGy with limited data available at 5 cGy. We observed gradual but non-linear changes as the doses decreased. For neurodevelopment it appears that the slope of the dose response decreases from 25 cGy to 10 cGy. Future studies of neurodevelopment should be able to better define the dose response in this range.

  10. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnuson, Timothy S. [Idaho State University


    The biochemistry of bacterial proteins involved in redox transformations of metals and minerals is, without dispute, an important area of research. Nevertheless, most studies on bacterial metal transformation have focused not on biochemistry but on genetics and genomics. The objective of this research is to better understand the role of conformation change in electron transfer from cytochromes to minerals, a process that underpins respiratory metal reduction by bacteria in nature and in bioremediation strategies, including reductive immobilization of radioactive contaminants. Our DOE-funded work is specifically focused on answering long-standing questions about the biochemical behavior of these very interesting proteins, and our findings thus far have already made impacts in the fields of environmental microbiology and biogeochemistry. Among the key findings from the project are 1) Successful large-scale production of biomass for protein isolation; 2) Purification of several c-type cytochromes for biochemical study; 3) Characterization of these proteins using spectrophotometric and electrochemical techniques; 4) Examination of protein conformational change and redox activity towards metal oxides using a small mass cytochrome c from Acidiphilium cryptum; 5) Proteomic characterization of A. cryptum biofilms; 6) Training of 2 undergraduate research assistants; 7) Publications and several meeting presentations.

  11. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loveland, Walter David [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)


    This report describes the research carried out under this grant for the period from 1997 to 2014. This work has been previously described in annual progress reports and renewal applications. As a result of this project, ~100 papers were published in open refereed journals and 107 invited talks were given by the PI. The research subjects covered by this project included the synthesis and characterization of super-heavy nuclei, the critical study of the reaction mechanisms used in these synthesis reactions, the mechanism(s) of intermediate energy and relativistic nuclear collisions, the study of reactions induced by radioactive nuclear beams, and general properties of the heaviest elements.

  12. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter McIntyre


    This document presents an annual report on our long-term R&D grant for development of new technology for future colliders. The organizing theme of our development is to develop a compact high-field collider dipole, utilizing wind-and-react Nb3Sn coil fabrication, stress man-agement, conductor optimization, bladder preload, and flux plate suppression of magnetization multipoles . The development trail for this new technology began over four years ago with the successful testing of TAMU12, a NbTi model in which we put to a first test many of the construction details of the high-field design. We have built TAMU2, a mirror-geometry dipole containing a single coil module of the 3-module set required for the 14 Tesla design. This first Nb3Sn model was built using ITER conductor which carries much less current than high-performance conductor but enables us to prove in practice our reaction bake and impregnation strategies with ‘free’ su-perconductor. TAMU2 has been shipped to LBNL for testing. Work is beginning on the con-struction of TAMU3, which will contain two coil modules of the 14 Tesla design. TAMU3 has a design field of 13.5 Tesla, and will enable us to fully evaluate the issues of stress management that will be important to the full design. With the completion of TAMU2 and the construction of TAMU3 the Texas A&M group ‘comes of age’ in the family of superconducting magnet R&D laboratories. We have completed the phase of developing core technologies and fixtures and entered the phase of building and testing a succession of TAMU3 model dipoles that each build incrementally upon a proven core design. TAMU3 provides a testbed in which we can build a succession of model dipoles in which each new model uses one new winding module coupled with one module from the previ-ous model, and uses all of the same structural elements in successive models. This incremental development should enable us to keep to a minimum the time between the completion and test-ing of successive models. Each new model will incorporate a particular design element that we wish to evaluate: first the basic TAMU3 structure, then substitute one pancake using high-performance superconductor (3,000 A/mm2 @ 12 T, 4.2 K), then substitute one pancake using mixed-strand cable, then insert a steel nose to reduce the peak field in the end region of a single-pancake coil. While we are building and testing this succession of TAMU3 models we will de-velop the tooling and evaluate strategies for flaring the ends of the center double-pancake coil needed for.TAMU4. TAMU4 is a full implementation of the design, culminating in 14 Tesla performance. Pending the proposed increase of budget from the present 3-year-flat budget and providing that the tests of each model dipole do not lead to substantial modifications of the de-sign, the time to build and test each succeeding model could be ~9 months. During the present funding year we made a sequence of innovations that have major poten-tial benefit for the commissioning of LHC, upgrade of its luminosity, and its long-term future: • An electrode assembly, suitable for integration within the existing LHC dipoles, ca-pable of killing the electron cloud effect – an effect that threatens to limit the lumi-nosity that could be attained in LHC; • A Nb3Sn structured cable, which makes it possible to design very high gradient quadrupoles for upgrade of the interaction regions of LHC to enhance its luminosity; • A Nb3Sn/NbTi levitated-pole dipole for use in the D1 bends that combine and sepa-rate the beams at the intersection regions. The levitated-pole design uniquely solves the problems of radiation damage and heating from particles swept from the beam. • A hybrid dipole technology, in which inner windings of Bi-2212 are integrated in a Nb3Sn block-coil dipole to push to 24 Tesla, opening the possibility of a future trip-ler upgrade of LHC .

  13. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasure, John, et. al.


    Through past DOE funding, the MIND Research network has funded a national consortium effort that used multi-modal neuroimaging, genetics, and clinical assessment of subjects to study schizophrenia in both first episode and persistently ill patients. Although active recruitment of research participants is complete, this consortium remains active and productive in terms of analysis of this unique multi-modal data collected on over 320 subjects.

  14. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, M. Jules


    The best summary of our results is probably provided by the list of publications based on work supported by this grant, which is given below. In general, the objectives were realized, and we have demonstrated, for the first time, that radiolabeled Abs can kill single tumor cells very effectively, and that they can also be effective in treating models of human tumors growing as xenografts in SCID mice. Our original work, as proposed in the application, was with Abs to B-lymphoma cells, namely anti-CD20 and anti-HLA-DR. After our successful efforts with these Abs, we decided to extend the results to other tumor types. Accordingly, carcinomas of the breast, ovary and other tissues were treated with radiolabeled Abs to EGFr and HER-2. These tumors cells were also effectively killed in vitro with radiolabeled Abs. This is significant because these Abs are widely used, and successful, in the clinic (unlabeled) and because the flattened shape of the cells, in vitro, is expected to make them considerably more difficult to kill than the spherical lymphoma cells. A major goal was to compare radionuclides emitting different types of radiation, namely low energy electrons (Auger and conversion electrons), {beta}-particles, and {alpha}-particles. All three types could effectively kill cells in vitro with considerable specificity. However, the low energy electrons, which we abbreviate LEEs, have significant advantages, mainly due to their lower level of non-specific toxicity. This was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, {beta}-particle emitters conjugated to anti-CD20 could protect mice against the growth of B-lymphoma tumor cells, but the therapeutic effect was limited by the maximum dose that could be administered, without killing the mouse. In contrast, the LEE emitters were more effective, largely because the toxicity was much less, allowing an approximately 10-fold higher {mu}Ci dose to be injected. Conjugates with {alpha}-particle emitters were also less effective than the LEE emitters, probably because of the much shorter half-life of the available {alpha}-particle emitter (less than 1 hr). Of the LEE emitters tested, {sup 67}Ga was considerably more potent than {sup 111}In, per decay, but {sup 111}In has major advantages due to the fact that better chelators are available, and the purity of the commercial radionuclide is much higher. Both were better than {sup 125}I because of their more suitable half-lives. Therefore, 111In remains the optimal LEE emitter at the current time, although it is useful to continue to consider the use of other radionuclides. In fact, we have emphasized that there are many LEE-emitting radionuclides that would be much more potent than {sup 111}In; these are not available at all, or not available carrier-free, or suitable conjugation methods have not been developed. Our results indicate that the development of such radionuclides, at the DOE reactors or at other facilities, would be likely to have substantial medical applications. In therapy, we have thus far been able to treat micrometastatic tumors (injected i.v.) and only small s.c. tumors, barely visible by eye, thin disks with a diameter of 1-2 mm. Because some of the tumors used grow slowly, we are able to obtain effective therapy as late as one month after tumor injection. While this is a limitation, perhaps due to the short tissue path-length of the LEEs, it does not mean that they are not clinically useful: many patients have microscope disease, and such tumors are probably the most difficult, and important, to treat. If we can effectively eliminate such micrometastases, there is a prospect of curing patients in whom the tumor would otherwise recur. Also, it is still possible that we could use this approach to treat larger tumor, if multiple doses are administered. It should also be pointed out that my laboratory is virtually the only one doing experiments of this type. Previous theoretical calculations had suggested that it should be possible to kill single cells with Abs conjugated to LEE emitters, and that the level of Ab binding, with high-density antigens, should be sufficient to achieve this effect. But we were the first to put this idea into practice. Therefore, we feel that we have essentially opened up a new area of research, and that future investigators will be able to build on the solid foundation than we have laid.

  15. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitelegge, JP; Faull, KF


    Two primary technologies have been employed for analysis and measurement of the Synechocystis proteome. (1) 2D-gel electrophoresis. Currently one of the most reliable options in quantitative proteomics, typical 2D-gel experiments use isoelectric focusing (IEF) in the first dimension. In the case of membrane proteins, detergents must be added to maintain their solubility though only neutral/zwitterionic surfactants are compatible with the IEF process. We have optimized 2D gel separations for Synechocystis proteins extracted and separated into soluble and membrane subfractions. The resolution and coverage of integral membrane proteins is only marginally satisfactory and alternatives to the first dimension are being considered. Size-exclusion chromatography under non-denaturing conditions was one option that was explored but resolution was insufficient for subfractionation of the membrane-bound proteome. A more highly resolving technique, the ''Blue-native gel'' has proven excellent for Synechocystis and we plan to set up this technology in the near future. Proteins with altered expression are being identified through standard LCMSMS technologies. The analysis of PSI, PSII and SDH deficient mutants is completed, establishing the comparative aspect of the project for integration with the ultrastructural and metabolomic experiments at ASU. We are also looking forward to receiving ftsZ and VIPP1 interruption mutants to explore the effects on the proteome of cell enlargement and disruption of thylakoid biogenesis, respectively. (2) 2D liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry of intact proteins. Early experiments with total membrane protein extracts of Synechocystis showed that the spatial resolution of the reverse-phase separation used in front of the mass spectrometer limited detection to the one hundred or so most abundant proteins. The intact mass tags (IMTs) measured in this experiment represent the first of these measurements that will ultimately define the entire proteome. While some of the IMTs were matched to masses calculated from translations of genomic open-reading frames allowing reasonably confident identification of about half of them (hypothetical IMTs), we are currently validating identifications using a combination of peptide mass fingerprinting after cyanogen bromide cleavage and LC-MSMS after trypsin, of protein in fractions collected during LC-MS+. In order to gain more complete proteome coverage we are applying a liquid separation in front of the LC-MS+ experiment. Size-exclusion chromatography is the first separation technology to be employed, yielding immediate benefits, while still not satisfactory for overall resolution of complexes. Total membranes were solubilized with dodecyl maltoside (1.5%) and separated on deactivated silica (G 4000 SW). LC-MS+ analysis of less-retained chlorophyll-containing fractions, using reverse-phase and size-exclusion technologies, yielded intact protein mass spectra of the two large photosystem I subunits PsaA and PsaB as well as many other IMTs (Figures 1 & 2). These integral membrane proteins have eleven transmembrane helices and, at 81 and 83 kDa, represented one of the most significant challenges to the intact protein molecular weight approach. The identities of the proteins were confirmed by peptide mass fingerprinting and while there is good general agreement between measured and calculated masses it is noted that modest post-translational modifications are necessary to account for the measured molecular weights of the intact proteins. Whether these discrepancies are due to genuine post-translational modifications or DNA sequence errors remains to be determined. The data have been published allowing us to claim to be the first to have completed high-resolution electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry of the core subunits of Photosystem II, Photosystem I and the cytochrome b{sub 6}f complex providing effective proof-of-principle for application of the intact mass approach to the integral membrane proteome. Significantly, we reported greater integral membrane proteome coverage than a colleague studying thylakoids of Arabidopsis illustrating the benefits of the technique over sequential organic extraction of membrane proteins and 1D-gel analysis. The homogeneity of the PsaA and PsaB protein mass spectra attest to the quality of material grown at ASU and the viability of extraction and work up of the material after transport to UCLA.

  16. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Champion


    During the contract period, our experimental activities concentrated on ion-surface collision studies, gas phase collisions, the effects of adsorbates on field emission, and the origin of H3O+ in mass spectroscopy. In the area of ion-surface collisions we have measured sputtering yields for negative ions and electrons arising from collisions of ions and photons with a variety of metallic substrates upon which is known amount of adsorbate, which drastically alters the emission characteristics. Kinetic energy distributions of the ejected anions and electrons have also been determined. We have developed a theoretical model which, to a large degree, describes the process and elucidates the role of the adsorbate in the emission processes. In the category of gas-phase collisions, we reported work on proton transfer and ion-molecule reactions for reactants involving H3+ and D3+, measured absolute cross sections for a variety inelastic channels for reactants involving CH4+ and CF4, and measured electron detachment and decomposition cross sections for collisions of SF6- with N2. Additionally, we reported absolute cross sections for various reactive collisions involving collisional decomposition of SF6- and the reactants CF3+ and CHF3. The idea here was to use these measured cross sections to model and understand the salient features of the popular gaseous dielectric, SF6 , and the etching discharge which utilizes CHF3. A somewhat different set of experiments explored the role of adsorbates on the process of electron field emission and the nature and origin of the anomalous cation signal often seen at mass 19 amu in mass spectroscopy. The laboratory collision energies for these experiments ranged from a few electron volts up to 500 eV. The goal of all the studies was to develop an understanding of the collisional dynamics and pathways for systems which are both intellectually interesting and of some potential importance to various areas of applied physics.

  17. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Jerry; Giese, Scott R; Beckermann, Christoph; Combi, Joan; Yavorsky, James; Cannon, Fred


    The Center for Advanced Biobased was created with funding supplied by the Department of Energy to study biobased alternatives to petroleum based materials used in the manufacture of foundry sand binders. The project was successful in developing two new biobased polymers that are based on renewable agricultural materials or abundant naturally occurring organic materials. The technology has the potential of replacing large amounts of chemicals produced from oil with environmentally friendly alternatives.

  18. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Malte


    The objective of the research is the reduction of emissions of NOx and carbon from wood waste combustion and dryer systems. Focus in on suspension (dust) burners, especially the cyclone burners that are widely used in the industry. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to help understand the details of combustion and pollutant formation in wood waste combustion systems, and to help determine the potential of combustion modification for reducing emissions. Field burners are examined with the modeling.

  19. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shayya, Walid


    The state of New York through the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) has developed a suite of digester projects throughout the state to assess the potential for anaerobic digestion systems to improve manure management and concurrently produce energy through the production of heat and electrical power using the biogas produced from the digesters. Dairies comprise a significant part of the agribusiness and economy of the state of New York. Improving the energy efficiency and environmental footprint of dairies is a goal of NYSERDA. SUNY Morrisville State College (MSC) is part of a collection of state universities, dairy farms, cooperatives, and municipalities examining anaerobic digestion systems to achieve the goals of NYSERDA, the improvement of manure management, and reducing emissions to local dairy animal sites. The process for siting a digester system at the MSC’s free-stall Dairy Complex was initiated in 2002. The project involved the construction of an anaerobic digester that can accommodate the organic waste generated at Dairy complex located about a mile southeast of the main campus. Support for the project was provided through funding from the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets. The DOE contribution to the project provided additional resources to construct an expanded facility to handle waste generated from the existing free-stall dairy and the newly-constructed barns. Construction on the project was completed in 2006 and the production of biogas started soon after the tanks were filled with the effluent generated at the Dairy Complex. The system has been in operation since December 17, 2006. The generated biogas was consistently flared starting from December 20, 2006, and until the operation of the internal combustion engine/generator set were first tested on the 9th of January, 2007. Flaring the biogas continued until the interconnect with the power grid was approved by NYSEG (the electrical power provider) and the combined heat and power generation (CHP) system was authorized to start on February 27, 2007. The system has been in operation since February 28, 2007, and is generating 45 to 50 kW of electrical power on continuous basis. The completed project will ultimately allow for investigating the facility of utilizing organic waste from a dairy operation in a hard-top plug-flow methane digester with the ultimate goal of reducing environmental risk, increasing economic benefits, and demonstrating the viability of an anaerobic methane digestion system. Many benefits are expected as a result of the completed project including our better understanding of the anaerobic digestion process and its management as well as the facility to utilize the methane digester as a demonstration site for dairy producers, farmers, and organic waste producers in New York State and the Northeast. Additional benefits include helping current and future students in dairy science and technology, agricultural business, environmental sciences, agricultural engineering, and other disciplines develop better understanding of underutilized biomass alternative energy technologies, environmental conservation, environmental stewardship, and sustainable agriculture.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loren F. Goodrich


    NIST has played a key role in many of the one-on-one, domestic, and international interlaboratory comparisons of measurements on superconductors. The history of interlaboratory comparisons of measurements on superconductors tells us that careful measurement methods are needed to obtain consistent results. Inconsistent results can lead to many problems including: a mistrust of the results of others, unfair advantages in commerce, and erroneous feedback in the optimization of conductor performance. NIST has experience in many interlaboratory comparisons; a long-term commitment to measurement accuracy; and independent, third-party laboratory status. The principal investigator's direct involvement in the measurements and daily supervision of sample mounting is the unique situation that has allowed important discoveries and evolution of our capabilities over the last 30 years. The principal investigator's research and metrology has helped to improve the accuracy of critical-current (I{sub c}) measurements in laboratories throughout the world. As conductors continue to improve and design limits are tested, the continuation of the long-term commitment to measurement accuracy could be vitally important to the success of new conductor development programs. It is extremely important to the U.S. wire manufacturers to get accurate (high certainty) I{sub c} measurements in order to optimize conductor performance. The optimization requires the adjustment of several fabrication parameters (such as reaction time, reaction temperature, conductor design, doping, diffusion barrier, Cu to non-Cu ratio, and twist pitch) based on the I{sub c} measurement of the conductor. If the I{sub c} measurements are made with high variability, it may be unclear whether or not the parameters are being adjusted in the optimal direction or whether or not the conductor meets the target specification. Our metrology is vital to the U.S. wire manufacturers in the highly competitive international arena and to meet the aggressive performance goals. The latest high-performance Nb{sub 3}Sn wires are being designed with higher current densities, larger effective filament diameter, less Cu stabilizer, and, in some cases, larger wire diameters than ever before. In addition, some of the conductor designs and heat treatments cause the residual resistivity ratio (RRR, ratio of room temperature resistivity to the resistivity at 20 K) of the stabilizer to be less than 20. These parameters are pushing the conductors towards less intrinsic stability, into a region we call marginally stable. These parameters also create a whole series of challenges for routine I{sub c} testing on short-samples, even when tested with the sample immersed in liquid helium. High-current, variable-temperature I{sub c} measurements are even more difficult than those made in liquid helium because the sample is only cooled by flowing helium gas. Providing accurate I{sub c} results under these conditions requires a complex system that provide adequate cooling as well as uniform sample temperature. We have been make variable-temperature measurements for about 15 years, but we started to design the first high-current (at least 500 A), variable-temperature, variable-strain apparatus in late 2006. Our first critical-current measurements as a function of strain, temperature, and magnetic field, I{sub c}(B,T,{var_epsilon}), in a new single, unified apparatus (full matrix characterization) were made in the summer of 2008. This is the only such facility in the U.S. and it has some unique components that are not duplicated anywhere in the world. The compounding of all three variables (H, T, {var_epsilon}) makes an already labor and time intensive characterization very formidable; however, the results cannot be generated any other way and are needed to answer key questions about strain and temperature safety margins and about the reliability of using scaling laws based on small data sets to predict performance. In the future, this new apparatus will allow NIST to create a database on strands that would benefit U.S. superconductor wire manufacturers, national research laboratories, and programs using superconductor strands such as HEP and International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER).

  1. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Brenizer


    The Consortium of Big-10 University Research and Training Reactors was by design a strategic partnership of seven leading institutions. We received the support of both our industry and DOE laboratory partners. Investiments in reactor, laboratory and program infrastructure, allowed us to lead the national effort to expand and improve the education of engineers in nuclear science and engineering, to provide outreach and education to pre-college educators and students and to become a key resource of ideas and trained personnel for our U.S. industrial and DOE laboratory collaborators.

  2. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis L. Eggleston


    The purpose of this grant was to experimentally investigate asymmetry-induced radial transport in a non-neutral (Penning-Malmberg) plasma trap. These traps provide an excellent platform for transport studies since the plasmas are generally well confined. One can then study transport in a controlled manner: the plasma is perturbed and the resulting transport measured. The focus of this research is the transport produced by applied asymmetric electric fields. The main results of our research concern (1) the theory of asymmetry-induced transport, (2) an absolute comparison of theory predictions with experimental results, (3) the amplitude scaling of the transport, (4) the frequency dependence of the transport, (5) the development of techniques to determine the relative contribution of mobility and diffusion to the transport, and (6) measuring the effect of small axial magnetic variations on the transport.

  3. Technical Report: Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueking, Angela D.; Wang, Cheng-Yu


    The objective of this work was to develop catalyzed nanoporous materials that have superior hydrogen uptake between 300K and 400K and moderate pressures. Platinum nanoparticles were introduced to both activated carbons (ACs) and microporous metal organic frameworks (MMOFs) in order to dissociate molecular hydrogen into an active hydrogen species that diffuses from the catalyst to weakly chemisorbs to the AC/MMOF support; this combined sequence is referred to as the hydrogen spillover mechanism. For all materials studied, maximum excess hydrogen uptake was 1-1.4 wt% (excess) at 300K, falling short of DOE storage goals (5.5 wt% by 2015). Select Pt/AC materials (after in situ catalyst activation) had high uptake (up to 1.4 wt%) at low pressure which significantly exceeded that expected for physisorption. The uptake was not correlated to size of Pt catalyst, but appeared to be associated with high surface activity of the AC support and the methodology of catalyst doping. Multiple techniques were explored to introduce Pt nanoparticles into MMOFs, but most led to significant structural degradation. Ultimately, a ‘pre-bridge’ (PB) technique was used to introduce Pt/AC catalysts into MMOFs, as the PB technique led to virtually non-detectable changes in structure. At high pressure, hydrogen spillover of ~1 wt% (excess) to a PB-MMOF was very slow (i.e. >80 hours at 70-80 bar), which can be attributed to high diffusion barriers in a complex three-surface domain material (Pt, AC, MMOF) as well as unexpected evidence for mechanical instability of the undoped MMOF precursor. In a low-pressure comparison study of three PB-MMOFs, we found evidence that the doping technique may introduce defects which may contribute to enhanced adsorption at 300K. However, we could not rule out the effect of active Pt sites, as common predictors of adsorption generally favored the materials without Pt. Furthermore, spectroscopic evidence provided definitive evidence of weak hydrogen chemisorption to two MMOFs and AC, and was found only for materials containing Pt catalyst. Overall, high uptake via hydrogen spillover requires high catalytic activity and an energy neutral surface landscape for ready diffusion, with little to no correlation to the size of the Pt nanoparticle or textural properties (i.e. surface area or porosity) of the AC or MMOF support.

  4. AIMES Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)


    Many important advances in science and engineering are due to large-scale distributed computing. Notwithstanding this reliance, we are still learning how to design and deploy large-scale production Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCI). The AIMES project was conceived against this backdrop, following on the heels of a comprehensive survey of scienti c distributed applications [1]. The survey established, arguably for the rst time, the relationship between infrastructure and scienti c distributed applications. It examined well known contributors to the complexity associated with infrastructure, such as inconsistent internal and external interfaces, and demonstrated the correlation with application brittleness. It discussed how infrastructure complexity reinforces the challenges inherent in developing distributed applications.

  5. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Long, S.; Li, Binsheng; Lamke, A.J.


    The overall goal of the contract is to provide general support and advice to the DOE, Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/EF) on the opportunities for coal and Clean Coal Technology trade in the Asia-Pacific region. The report which follows is divided into six subsections, each pertaining to separate subtasks the U.S. Department of Energy requested. Subtask A includes two reports, one which outlines important coal and clean coal technology news events which occurred during the second half of 1993, and another which outlines the potential for Clean Coal Technology in the Asia-Pacific Region. Subtask B and the first paper in Subtask C contain advisories and briefing papers that present and explain the coal, electricity and Clean Coal Technology situation in China. The second paper in Subtask C is an overview of the coal supply, demand and trade situation in the Asian region with coal projections to the year 2010. Subtask D is an overview of meetings with Asian energy and policy representatives which were carried out to (1) gather key information relevant to this contract, and (2) examine areas for closer cooperation on important coal/CCT-related energy issues. The tasks listed in the contract proposal as Subtasks E and F are summarized in respective sections of this report. Subtask E specifies the activities carried out under the APEC Experts` Group on Clean Coal Technologies, and Subtask F explains the work done by the Coal Project in building contacts and working relationships with key energy and technology planners in China (including The State Science and Technology Commission, the Ministry of Electric Power and Tsinghua University, and the State Planning Commission). The Subtask E section also includes activities to develop and strengthen the role of the APEC Experts Group on Clean Coal Activities.

  6. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquelyn Yanch


    This project involved the development of a method for in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for the investigation of Boron-10 distribution in a rabbit knee. The overall objective of this work was a robust approach for rapid screening of new {sup 10}B-labelled compounds to determine their suitability for use in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis via Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS). For BNCS it is essential to obtain a compound showing high uptake levels in the synovium and long residence time in the joints. Previously the in vivo uptake behavior of potential compounds was evaluated in the arthritic knee joints of rabbits via extensive dissection studies. These studies are very labor-intensive and involve sacrificing large numbers of animals. An in vivo {sup 10}B screening approach was developed to provide initial evaluation of potential compounds. Only those compounds showing positive uptake and retention characteristics will be evaluated further via dissection studies. No further studies will be performed with compounds showing rapid clearance and/or low synovial uptake. Two approaches to in vivo screening were investigated using both simulation methods and experimentation. Both make use of neutron beams generated at the MIT Research Reactor. The first, Transmission Computed Tomography (TCT) was developed and tested but was eventually rejected due to very limited spatial resolution using existing reactor beams. The second, in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (IVPGNAA) was much more promising. IVPGNAA was developed using computer simulation and physical measurement coupled with image reconstruction techniques. The method was tested in arthritic New Zealand rabbits previously injected intra-articularly with three boron labeled compounds and shown to be effective in providing information regarding uptake level and residence time of {sup 10}B in the joint.

  7. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Asok K. Ray


    During the past decades, considerable theoretical efforts have been devoted to studying the electronic and geometric structures and related properties of surfaces. Such efforts are particularly important for systems like the actinides for which experimental work is relatively difficult to perform due to material problems and toxicity. The actinides are characterized by a gradual filling of the 5f-electron shell with the degree of localization increasing with the atomic number Z along the last series of the periodic table. The open shell of the 5f electrons determines the atomic, molecular, and solid state properties of the actinide elements and their compounds and understanding the quantum mechanics of the 5f electrons is the defining issue in the chemistry and physics of actinide elements. These elements are also characterized by the increasing prominence of relativistic effects and their studies can, in fact, help us understand the role of relativity throughout the periodic table. However, the electronic and geometric structures of the actinides, specifically the trans-uranium actinides and the roles of the 5f electrons in chemical bonding are still not well understood. This is crucial not only for our understanding of the actinides but also for the fact that the actinides constitute 'the missing link' between the d transition elements and the lanthanides. The 5f orbitals have properties intermediate between those of localized 4f and delocalized 3d orbitals. Thus, a proper understanding of the actinides will help us understand the behavior of the lanthanides and transition metals as well. In fact, there is an urgent need for continued extensive and detailed theoretical research in this area to provide significant and deep understandings of the electronic and geometric structures of the actinides. In this work, we have performed electronic structure studies for plutonium (Pu), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) surfaces, and molecular adsorptions on Pu and Am surfaces. In particular, the region at the boundary of Pu and Am, is widely believed to be the crossover region between d-like itinerant and f-like localized behavior The eventual goal is a complete understanding of the surface chemistry and physics processes of all actinide surfaces, defining the chemistry and physics of such heavy elements. Among the actinides, plutonium, with five 5f electrons in the solid state, is arguably the most complex, fascinating, and enigmatic element known to mankind and has attracted extraordinary scientific and technological interests because of its unique properties, generating a significant body of research in diverse areas, including superconductivity. Pu has, at least, six stable allotropes between room temperature and melting at atmospheric pressure, indicating that the valence electrons can hybridize into a number of complex bonding arrangements. Central and critical questions relate to the electronic structure, localization of the 5f electrons and the magnetism of Pu. For the light-actinides, from Th to Pu, the 5f electrons are believed to be delocalized, hybridizing with the 6d and 7s electrons. For the heavier actinides, Am and beyond, the 5f electrons are localized with the 5f orbitals progressively lower in energy relative to the 6d configuration. Hence, Pu is in a position where the 5f electronic behavior changes from itinerant to localized. As far as magnetism is concerned, a majority of the theoretical calculations continues to claim the existence of magnetism while almost all the experimental results do not find any support for such claims. The second element of interest to us, namely americium, occupies a central position in the actinide series with respect to the involvement of 5f electrons in metallic bonding. It is widely believed that the 5f electrons in Am are localized and that Am undergoes a series of crystallographic phase changes with pressure. Fully-relativistic all electron surface studies of the different phases of Am, initially for the dhcp and the fcc surfaces, can and have provided us with valuable information about chemical bonding in Am and the transitions from f-electron delocalization to f-electron localization in trans-uranium compounds. In particular, a comparative study of the electronic structures of the Pu and Am surfaces using the techniques of all-electron modern density functional theory and beyond can provide significant information about the role of 5f electrons in bond formation as also the localization of the 5f electrons, matters of considerable controversies. The change from metallic 5f bonding into local-moment nonbonding configurations that takes place between Pu and Am is rather unique in the periodic table and is at the very heart of our understanding of electronic structure. We believe that, considering the narrow bandwidth of surface states, any transition from itinerant to localized behavior first takes place at the actinide surfaces with possible reconstructions.

  8. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Rial; J. Lees


    As proposed, the main effort in this project is the development of software capable of performing real-time monitoring of micro-seismic activity recorded by an array of sensors deployed around an EGS. The main milestones are defined by the development of software to perform the following tasks: • Real-time micro-earthquake detection and location • Real-time detection of shear-wave splitting • Delayed-time inversion of shear-wave splitting These algorithms, which are discussed in detail in this report, make possible the automatic and real-time monitoring of subsurface fracture systems in geothermal fields from data collected by an array of seismic sensors. Shear wave splitting (SWS) is parameterized in terms of the polarization of the fast shear wave and the time delay between the fast and slow shear waves, which are automatically measured and stored. The measured parameters are then combined with previously measured SWS parameters at the same station and used to invert for the orientation (strike and dip) and intensity of cracks under that station. In addition, this grant allowed the collection of seismic data from several geothermal regions in the US (Coso) and Iceland (Hengill) to use in the development and testing of the software.

  9. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, Bruce W


    Most prokaryotes of interest to DOE are poorly understood. Even when full genomic sequences are available, the function of only a small number of gene products are clear. The critical question is how to best infer the most probable network architectures in cells that are poorly characterized. The project goal is to create a computational hypothesis testing (CHT) framework that combines large-scale dynamical simulation, a database of bioinformatics-derived probable interactions, and numerical parallel architecture data-fitting routines to explore many “what if ?” hypotheses about the functions of genes and proteins within pathways and their downstream effects on molecular concentration profiles and corresponding phenotypes. From this framework we expect to infer signal transduction pathways and gene expression networks in prokaryotes. Detailed mechanistic models of E. Coli have been developed that directly incorporate DNA sequence information. The CHT framework is implemented in the NIEngine network inference software. NIEngine has been applied to recover gene regulatory networks in E. coli to assess performance. Application to Shewanel la oneidensi and other organism of interest DOE will be conducted in partnership with Jim Collin's Lab at Boston University and other academic partners. The CHT framework has also found broad application in the automated learning of biology for purposes of improving human health.

  10. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lian [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)


    Our BES supported program integrates molecular beam epitaxy growth with in situ atomic scale imaging using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Aided by density functional theory calculations, we explore enhanced functionalities emerging from the interplay of strain, proximity, and spin-orbit interactions in heterostructures of wide band gap semiconductors, graphene, and Dirac materials, focusing on three thrusts: 1) doping wide bandgap semiconductors and graphene; 2) graphene nanoribbons and graphene-semiconductor heterostructures; and 3) Dirac materials. Our findings and discoveries have led to the publication of one book chapter and twenty-three refereed journal articles, including several in high impact journals such as Nature Communications, Physical Review Letters, and Nano Letters. Highlights of each thrust are provided in the report.

  11. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald L. Phillips; Mark G. Johnson, David T. Tingey


    OAK-B135 This study took place at the Nevada Desert FACE (Free Air CO2 Enrichment) Facility at the Nevada Test Site, where effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on a desert ecosystem are being studied. One hundred sixty-eight minirhizotrons (clear plastic tubes) were installed to a depth of 1m in the soil in the control and elevated CO2 plots. Tubes were installed from a suspended platform to avoid soil compaction and disturbance. Tubes were placed under individuals of two dominant shrub species, Larrea tridentata and Ambrosia dumosa, and along systematic transects across the plots. Specialized video cameras were inserted down the tubes at 4 week intervals to provide images of plant root systems on the upper side of the tube. A ratcheting mechanism assured consistent imaging of the same precise locations during each sampling period. Images were collected every 4 weeks from December 1997 to January 2001, after which the images were too degraded from repeated camera abrasion on the tubes for adequate analysis. Over 100,000 video images were analyzed and the appearance, growth, and disappearance of 23,634 individual fine roots (<2 mm diameter) were tracked over time, totaling 125,679 root observations and measurements. Elevated CO2 did not have an effect on the timing of seasonal patterns of fine root growth or turnover (mortality). There were no consistent effects of elevated CO2 on fine root length standing crop, production, or turnover except standing crop was consistently lower under the elevated CO2 treatment across the community transects. The specific root length (m/g of root dry weight) found to be higher for Larrea and Ambrosia under elevated CO2 treatments. Procedures were developed to translate the length measurements taken from minirhizotron images to biomass estimates per unit soil volume, utilizing these specific root length measurements. While few differences in fine root length were apparent as a result of elevated CO2 treatment, conversion to biomass units indicated that elevated CO2 led to decreases in fine root biomass, production, and turnover. This was an unexpected result since many elevated CO2 studies have shown increases in below ground biomass allocation. No differences were found in fine root carbon or nitrogen concentrations, but lower biomass turnover under elevated CO2 implies lower rates of C and N cycling through fine root turnover. Funds from this interagency agreement also allowed the development of improved software for image analysis, which will benefit other researchers using minirhizotrons to study below ground responses to elevated CO2 or other treatments.

  12. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijewardhana, Rohana; Argyres, Philip


    Task A - Theory Research in theoretical physics in the Department of Physics at the University of Cincinnati has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy starting in 1984. Professors Peter Suranyi, Louis Witten, Fred Mansouri, L.C.R. Wijewardhana, Alexander Kagan and Philip Argyres have served as P.I.'s of the Cincinnati DOE theory task. Task B - Heavy Flavor Physics Research in experimental particle physics in the Department of Physics at the University of Cincinnati has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy since 1999. Professor Kay Kinoshita has served as P.I. on Task B since its inception. Task C - Neutrinos Over the past three years, Task C has been measuring the properties of neutrinos with the MiniBooNE and Daya Bay detectors and building two new neutrino experiments: MicroBooNE and LArIAT. In addition, the PI (Randy Johnson) has joined the long leadtime experiment, LBNE, and has participated in the R&D report for CHiPs. Results and progress on each of these experiments will be summarized below.

  13. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resasco, Daniel [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Lobban, Lance [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Crossley, Steven [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Khanna, Vikas [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Maravelias, Christos [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Petkovic, Lucia [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Duong, Nhung [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)


    The goal was to develop a biomass conversion process that optimizes fractionation and conversion to maximize Carbon efficiency and Hydrogen consumption to obtain drop-in fuels. Selective fractionation of raw biomass was obtained via multi-stage thermal fractionation to produce different streams that are enriched in a particular chemical family (acids, furanics or phenolics). These streams were later catalytically upgraded in both liquid and vapor phase to perform C-C bond formation and hydrodeoxygenation. Among various upgrading strategies investigated we have identified an effective path in which cyclopentanone is a crucial intermediate that can be derived from furfural and other furanics obtained in high concentrations from this thermal staged process. Cyclopentanone is a very versatile molecule, which can couple with itself to product high quality jet-fuel, or couple with phenolic or furanics to create long chain molecules. These (mono-oxygenated) compounds in the correct molecular weight fuel range can be hydrotreated to direct drop-in fuels. Interestingly, we have found that the conversion of furfural to cyclopentanone is not affected by the presence of acetic acid, and, more interestingly, it is enhanced by the presence of water. These are very significant findings, since water and acetic acid are always present in all streams from the primary conversion stage. These results have allowed to complete detailed life-cycle assessment and techno-economic analysis that have been back-fed to the experimentalists to refine the catalyst selection and process operations with the objective of maximizing C efficiency at minimum H utilization. These combined investigations have opened the possibility of an economically and technologically effective process that could result in commercial fuels produced from renewable sources at a cost that might be competitive with fossil fuels.

  14. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward DeLong


    Our overarching goals in this project were to: Develop and improve high-throughput sequencing methods and analytical approaches for quantitative analyses of microbial gene expression at the Hawaii Ocean Time Series Station and the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series Station; Conduct field analyses following gene expression patterns in picoplankton microbial communities in general, and Prochlorococcus flow sorted from that community, as they respond to different environmental variables (light, macronutrients, dissolved organic carbon), that are predicted to influence activity, productivity, and carbon cycling; Use the expression analyses of flow sorted Prochlorococcus to identify horizontally transferred genes and gene products, in particular those that are located in genomic islands and likely to confer habitat-specific fitness advantages; Use the microbial community gene expression data that we generate to gain insights, and test hypotheses, about the variability, genomic context, activity and function of as yet uncharacterized gene products, that appear highly expressed in the environment. We achieved the above goals, and even more over the course of the project. This includes a number of novel methodological developments, as well as the standardization of microbial community gene expression analyses in both field surveys, and experimental modalities. The availability of these methods, tools and approaches is changing current practice in microbial community analyses.

  15. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helen Cunning


    Hackensack University Medical Center's major initiative to create a cleaner healthier and safer environment for patients, employees and the community served by the medical center is built on its commitment to protect the environment and conserve precious energy resources. Since 2004 the Medical Center launched a long term campaign to temper the negative environmental impact of proposed and existing new construction at the medical center and to improve campus wide overall energy efficiency. The plan was to begin by implementing a number of innovative and eco-friendly enhancements to the Gabrellian Women's and Children's Pavilion, in construction at the time, which would lead to Certification by the US Green Building Councils Leadership & Environmental Design (LEED) program. In addition the medical center would evaluate the feasibility of implementing a photovoltaic system in the new construction (in development and planned) to provide clean pollution free electricity. The steps taken to achieve this included conducting a feasibility study complete with architectural and engineering assessments to determine the potential for implementation of a photovoltaic system on the campus and also to conduct an energy survey that would focus on determining specific opportunities and upgrades that would lead to a healthier energy efficient interior environment at the medical center. The studies conducted by the medical center to determine the viability of installing a photovoltaic system identified two key issues that factored into leaderships decision not to implement the solar powered system. These factors were related to the advanced phase of construction of the women's and children's pavilion and the financial considerations to redesign and implement in the ambulatory cancer center. The medical center, in spite of their inability to proceed with the solar aspect of the project upheld their commitment to create a healthier environment for the patients and the community. To achieve a healthier energy efficient interior environment the medical center made substantive upgrades and improvements to the HVAC, plumbing electrical and other operating systems. Measures that were implemented range from use of lighting and plumbing fixture sensors , to reduce electrical and water usage, to use of refrigerants containing hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) which cause significantly less depletion of the ozone layer than the refrigerants more commonly used. Additional appropriate energy efficiency component upgrades include the installation of Chiller plants with variable frequency drives (VFDs) and harmonic filters, high efficiency motors, solar window glazing, and lighting/motion sensors.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmarker, Marc; Campbell, Mark


    Work under this project has ultimately focused on the development of a modular packed bed based thermal energy storage system. The design assumes the use of standard segments of carbon steel pipe filled with spherical materials creating a packed bed. These materials are assumed to be manufactured in such a way that the spherical shape is uniform throughout the packed bed. Out of 32 candidate materials evaluated, 8 materials remain. Each material meets the Phase I milestones that were specified for this storage system: a round trip efficiency in excess of 93%, and a required volume of packed bed material that does not exceed the volume of molten salt used in a two-tank storage system with equivalent thermal performance.

  17. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sara Bergan, Executive Director; Brendan Jordan, Program Manager; Subcontractors as listed on the report.


    The following report contributes to our knowledge of how to economically produce wildlife-friendly grass mixtures for future fuel feedstocks in the northern plains. It investigates northern-adapted cultivars; management and harvest regimes that are good for yields, soils and wildlife; comparative analysis of monocultures and simple mixtures of native grasses; economic implications of growing grasses for fuel feedstocks in specific locations in the northern plains; and conversion options for turning the grasses into useful chemicals and fuels. The core results of this study suggest the following; Native grasses, even simple grass mixtures, can be produced profitably in the northern plains as far west as the 100th meridian with yields ranging from 2 to 6 tons per acre; Northern adapted cultivars may yield less in good years, but have much greater long-term sustainable yield potential than higher-yielding southern varieties; Grasses require very little inputs and stop economically responding to N applications above 56kg/hectare; Harvesting after a killing frost may reduce the yield available in that given year but will increase overall yields averaged throughout multiple years; Harvesting after a killing frost or even in early spring reduces the level of ash and undesirable molecules like K which cause adverse reactions in pyrolysis processing. Grasses can be managed for biomass harvest and maintain or improve overall soil-health and carbon sequestration benefits of idled grassland; The carbon sequestration activity of the grasses seems to follow the above ground health of the biomass. In other words plots where the above ground biomass is regularly removed can continue to sequester carbon at the rate of 2 tons/acre/year if the stand health is strong and yielding significant amounts of biomass; Managing grasses for feedstock quality in a biomass system requires some of the same management strategies as managing for wildlife benefit. We believe that biomass development can be done in such a way that also maximizes or improves upon conservation and other environmental goals (in some cases even when compared to idled land); Switchgrass and big bluestem work well together in simple mixture plots where big bluestem fills in around the switchgrass which alone grows in bunches and leaves patches of bare soil open and susceptible to erosion; Longer-term studies in the northern plains may also find that every other year harvest schemes produce as much biomass averaged over the years as annual harvests; Grasses can be grown for between $23 and $54/ton in the northern plains at production rates between 3 and 5 tons/acre; Land costs, yields, and harvest frequency are the largest determining factors in the farm scale economics. Without any land rent offset or incentive for production, and with annual harvesting, grass production is likely to be around $35/ton in the northern plains (farm gate); Average transportation costs range from $3 to $10/ton delivered to the plant gate. Average distance from the plant is the biggest factor - $3/ton at 10 miles, $10/ton at 50 miles; There is a substantial penalty paid on a per unit of energy produced basis when one converts grasses to bio-oil, but the bio-oil can then compete in higher priced fuel markets whereas grasses alone compete directly with relatively cheap coal; Bio oil or modified bio-oil (without the HA or other chemical fraction) is a suitable fuel for boiler and combustion turbines that would otherwise use residual fuel oil or number 2 diesel; Ensyn has already commercialized the use of HA in smokey flavorants for the food industry but that market is rather small. HA, however, is also found to be a suitable replacement for the much larger US market for ethanolamines and ethalyne oxides that are used as dispersants; Unless crude oil prices rise, the highest and best use of grass based bio-oil is primarily as a direct fuel. As prices rise, HA, phenol and other chemical fractions may become more attractive; Although we were able to create available glucose from the AHG fraction in the bio-oil it proved recalcitrant to fermentation by yeast. Although fermentation results were much more positive with wood based bio-oil sugars, ethanol does not appear to be a likely product from grass based bio-oil; and A package of policy recommendations has been developed with roughly 75 key stakeholders from throughout the region that would support the transition to greater development of advanced biofuels and products in the region, as well as a strong role for native grass agriculture to support those industries.

  18. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintenlang, David E.


    This project was designed to develop tools that would permit an accurate assessment of the patient doses that are received in screening mammography, and to subsequently demonstrate those tools to perform an objective evaluation of patient doses. The project also provides an educational component through the integration of multiple aspects of applied radiological engineering to provide students with realistic applications of many of the theoretical principles that are studied as part of their graduate curriculum.

  19. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, Douglas C.; Restani, Marco, Ph.D


    The Center of Excellence for Hazardous Materials Management award was used to establish the organization and initiate investigations of hazardous waste issues along the U.S.-Mexico border. Scientific investigations conducted during the execution of this grant contributed significant data and established new sampling protocols to the dimension, frequency and severity of hazardous materials (e.g., heavy metals) along the U.S.-Mexico border. Additionally, new protocols and assessments with distinct Homeland Security implications were embedded thus establishing a baseline that will be significant for related investigations in the future.

  20. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Xiaoxing [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    The objective of this project is to develop a MgB2 superconducting RF (SRF) cavity technology. Compared to the currently-used SRF material niobium, MgB2 has a much higher Tc of 40 K, a lower residual resistivity (< 0.1 µΩcm), and a higher thermodynamic critical field Hc. SRF cavities with MgB2 coatings have the potentials for higher Q, higher gradient, and higher operation temperatures. A MgB2 SRF technology can significantly reduce the operating costs of particle accelerators when these potentials are realized. In this project, we have made significant progresses in the deposition of large-area (2” diameter) MgB2 films for RF characterizations, deposition of MgB2 films on metal substrates including Nb, Mo, Ta, and stainless steel, enhancement of Hc1 with decreasing MgB2 film thickness, fabrication and characterization of MgB2/MgO multilayers, and deposition of MgB2 films of excellent superconducting properties on the wall of a 6-GHz RF cavity. These results have laid foundation for a MgB2 superconducting SRF cavity technology.

  1. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselkorn, Robert


    The genome of Rhodobacter capsulatus has been almost completely sequenced. It consists of a single chromosome containing 3.5 Mb and a circular plasmid of 134 kb. This effort, started in 1992, began with a fine-structure restriction map of an overlapping set of cosmids that covered the genome. Cosmid sequencing led to a gapped genome that was filled by primer walking on the chromosome and by using lambda clones. Methods had to be developed to handle strong stops in the high GC (68%) inserts. Annotation was done with the ERGO system at Integrated Genomics, as was the reconstruction of the cell's metabolism. It was possible to recognize 3709 orfs, of which functional assignments could be made with high confidence to 2392 (65%). Unusual features include the presence of numerous cryptic phage genomes embedded in the chromosome.

  2. Radiation-disorder and aperiodicity in irradiated ceramics. Final technical report, 22 June 1989--21 June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, L.W.


    This final technical report documents the accomplishments of the program of research entitled ``Radiation Disorder and Aperiodicity in Irradiated Ceramics`` for the period June 22, 1989--June 21, 1992. This research forms the latest part on an on-going program, begun at MIT in 1983 under DOE support, which has had as its objectives investigation of the responses in radiation environments of ceramics heavily-irradiated with electrons, neutrons and ions, with potential applications to fusion energy technology and high-level nuclear waste storage. Materials investigated have included SiO{sub 2}, MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Al{sub 23}O{sub 27}N{sub 5}, SiC, BeO, LiAlO{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, CaTiO{sub 3}KTaO{sub 3} and Ca(Zr, Pu)Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The program initially proposed for 1989 had as its major objectives two main thrusts: (1) research on defect aggregation in irradiated non-oxide ceramics, and (2) research on irradiation-induced amorphization of network silicas and phosphates.

  3. Flow in porous media, phase behavior and ultralow interfacial tensions: mechanisms of enhanced petroleum recovery. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, H.T.; Scriven, L.E.


    A major program of university research, longer-ranged and more fundamental in approach than industrial research, into basic mechanisms of enhancing petroleum recovery and into underlying physics, chemistry, geology, applied mathematics, computation, and engineering science has been built at Minnesota. The 1982 outputs of the interdisciplinary team of investigators were again ideas, instruments, techniques, data, understanding and skilled people: forty-one scientific and engineering papers in leading journals; four pioneering Ph.D. theses; numerous presentations to scientific and technical meetings, and to industrial, governmental and university laboratories; vigorous program of research visits to and from Minnesota; and two outstanding Ph.D.'s to research positions in the petroleum industry, one to a university faculty position, one to research leadership in a governmental institute. This report summarizes the 1982 papers and theses and features sixteen major accomplishments of the program during that year. Abstracts of all forty-five publications in the permanent literature are appended. Further details of information transfer and personnel exchange with industrial, governmental and university laboratories appear in 1982 Quarterly Reports available from the Department of Energy and are not reproduced here. The Minnesota program continues in 1983, notwithstanding earlier uncertainty about the DOE funding which finally materialized and is the bulk of support. Supplemental grants-in-aid from nine companies in the petroleum industry are important, as are the limited University and departmental contributions. 839 references, 172 figures, 29 tables.

  4. Final Technical Report for Quantum Embedding for Correlated Electronic Structure in Large Systems and the Condensed Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)


    This is the final technical report. We briefly describe some selected results below. Developments in density matrix embedding. DMET is a quantum embedding theory that we introduced at the beginning of the last funding period, around 2012-2013. Since the first DMET papers, which demonstrated proof-of- principle calculations on the Hubbard model and hydrogen rings, we have carried out a number of different developments, including: Extending the DMET technology to compute broken symmetry phases, including magnetic phases and super- conductivity (Pub. 13); Calibrating the accuracy of DMET and its cluster size convergence against other methods, and formulation of a dynamical cluster analog (Pubs. 4, 10) (see Fig. 1); Implementing DMET for ab-initio molecular calculations, and exploring different self-consistency criteria (Pubs. 9, 14); Using embedding to defi ne quantum classical interfaces Pub. 2; Formulating DMET for spectral functions (Pub. 7) (see Fig. 1); Extending DMET to coupled fermion-boson problems (Pub. 12). Together with these embedding developments, we have also implemented a wide variety of impurity solvers within our DMET framework, including DMRG (Pub. 3), AFQMC (Pub. 10), and coupled cluster theory (CC) (Pub. 9).

  5. Forecasting the Future Food Service World of Work. Final Report. Volume III. Technical Papers on the Future of the Food Service Industry. Service Management Reports. (United States)

    Powers, Thomas F., Ed.; Swinton, John R., Ed.

    This third and final volume of a study on the future of the food service industry contains the technical papers on which the information in the previous two volumes was based. The papers were written by various members of the Pennsylvania State University departments of economics, food science, nutrition, social psychology, and engineering and by…

  6. Physical Medicine Devices; Reclassification of Shortwave Diathermy for All Other Uses, Henceforth To Be Known as Nonthermal Shortwave Therapy. Final order; technical correction. (United States)


    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to reclassify shortwave diathermy (SWD) for all other uses, a preamendments class III device, into class II (special controls), and to rename the device "nonthermal shortwave therapy'' (SWT). FDA is also making a technical correction in the regulation for the carrier frequency for SWD and SWT devices.

  7. Minor ent-abietane diterpenoids from Euphorbia guyoniana. (United States)

    Haba, Hamada; Marcourt, Laurence; Benkhaled, Mohammed; Long, Christophe


    Three new abietane-type diterpenoids: ent-abieta-8,11,13-trien-16-ol (1), ent-abieta-8,11,13-trien-11,16-diol (2) and 11,12-dihydroxy-7-oxo-ent-abieta-8,11,13-trien-16-oic acid methyl ester (3), in addition to three known triterpenoids: euphol (4), 24,25-epoxycycloartanol (5) and beta-sitosterol O-beta-D-glucoside (6) were isolated from the chloroform extract of the roots of Euphorbia guyoniana. Structures of the isolated compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D homo and heteronuclear NMR experiments and ESIMS, and comparison with literature data.

  8. 1988 Underground Storage Tanks; Technical Requirements; Final Rule and Underground Storage Tanks Containing Petroleum-Financial Responsibility Requirements and State Program Approval Objective; Final Rule (United States)

    EPA's 1988 regulations concerning USTs are contained in 40 CFR Part 280, 40 CFR Part 281 and 40 CFR Parts 282.50-282.105 and divided into three sections: technical requirements, financial responsibility requirements, and state program approval objectives.

  9. Four new ent-kaurane diterpenoids from the fruits of Annona cherimola. (United States)

    Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Nishida, Makiko; Okawa, Masafumi; Nohara, Toshihiro; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi


    Four new ent-kaurane diterpenoids (16R)-ent-kauran-17,19-diol (1), (16R)-17-hydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (2), (16S)-17-hydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (3), and (16R)-17-dimethoxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (4) have been isolated from the fresh fruits of Annona cherimola together with eight known compounds. Their structures are determined on the basis of spectroscopic data and optical rotation.

  10. An Analysis of Characteristics Which Most Enable Low Income Heads of Household Women to Complete Technical Training Programs. Final Report. (United States)

    Nelson, Susan L.

    A study analyzed the characteristics that are most responsible for enabling low-income female heads of household to complete technical training programs. The research project was undertaken for the purpose of developing a comprehensive assessment and support system (CASS) to aid women enrolling at one of three target technical programs at San…

  11. Management of twenty patients with neck trauma in Khartoum ENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Neck trauma is a great surgical challenge, because there are multi organ and systems involved. Objective: To study the clinical presentation, management and outcome of twenty patients presented to Khartoum ENT Hospital with neck trauma. Methods: This is a prospective study conducted in Khartoum ENT ...

  12. Social marginalization reduces use of ENT physicians in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lous, J.; Friis, K.; Vinding, A. L.


    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the association between social marginalization of the mothers and their children's use of the healthcare system and ear-nose-throat (ENT) physicians in the year 2009 in a region of Denmark. Methods: A regional register-based cross-sectional study...... with a marginalized mother had more chronic medical diagnoses (OR = 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.17-1.28), they had more frequently been in contact with their general practitioner during the year, and they used the healthcare system more often than children of non-marginalized mothers, except in the case of ENT...... specialists (OR = 0.90, 0.85-0.95), and they had more seldom tympanostomy tubes inserted (OR = 0.75, 0.66-0.87). The distance between ENT-clinic and place of residence of the patients had only a small effect on the use of ENT-physician, and only significant in the non-marginalized. Conclusions: Children...

  13. Three New Cytotoxic ent-Kaurane Diterpenes from Isodon excisoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ping Dai


    Full Text Available Three types of ent-kaurane diterpenoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Isodon excisoides, including three new diterpenoids, 1α,7α,14β-trihydroxy-20-acetoxy-ent-kaur-15-one (1; 1α,7α,14β,18-tetrahydroxy-20-acetoxy-ent-kaur-15-one (2; and 1α-acetoxy-14β-hydroxy-7α,20-epoxy-ent-kaur-16-en-15-one (3; together with six known diterpenes henryin (4; kamebanin (5; reniformin C (6; kamebacetal A (7; kamebacetal B (8; and oridonin (9. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry in conjunction with published data for their analogs, as well as their fragmentation patterns. Compounds 5 and 9 were isolated from Isodon excisoides for the first time. To explore the structure-activity relationships of the isolated compounds, they were tested for their cytotoxic effects against five human cancer cell lines: HCT-116, HepG2, A2780, NCI-H1650, and BGC-823. Most of the isolated compounds showed certain cytotoxic activity against the five cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 1.09–8.53 µM. Among the tested compounds, compound 4 exhibited the strongest cytotoxic activity in the tested cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 1.31–2.07 µM. Compounds 1, 6, and 7 exhibited selective cytotoxic activity.

  14. ent-Beyerane diterpenoids from the heartwood of Excoecaria parvifolia. (United States)

    Grace, Mary H; Faraldos, Juan A; Lila, Mary Ann; Coates, Robert M


    Chromatographic fractionations of the toluene extract of the heartwood of Excoecaria parvifolia collected in Australia resulted in the isolation of 12 beyerane diterpenes (1-12), and the triterpene, lupeol. Four of the isolated diterpenoids (5-7 and 12) have unusual structures: ent-3-oxa-beyer-15-en-2-one, (5); ent-15,16-epoxy-2-hydroxy-19-norbeyer-1,4-dien-3-one (6); methyl ent-2,4-seco-15,16-epoxy-4-oxo-3,19-dinorbeyer-15-en-2-oate (7); and ent-2,17-dihydroxy-19-norbeyer-1,4,15-trien-3-one (12). The structures were established by spectroscopic analyses, NMR data comparisons with similar diterpenes, and chemical correlations. All the diterpenes are assumed to have the same absolute configuration as the co-occurring (+)-stachenol (4). Diosphenol 2 and nor-lactone 5 exhibited significant potency in bioassays for cytotoxic activity against leukemia cells (L1210). Plausible biosynthetic pathways are proposed to explain the origin of the diterpene metabolites.

  15. IEA Wind Task 23, offshore wind technology and deployment. Subtask 1: Experience with critical deployment issues. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J.


    The final report for IEA Wind Task 23, Offshore Wind Energy Technology and Deployment, is made up of two separate reports: Subtask 1: Experience with Critical Deployment Issues and Subtask 2: Offshore Code Comparison Collaborative (OC3). The Subtask 1 report included here provides background information and objectives of Task 23. It specifically discusses ecological issues and regulation, electrical system integration and offshore wind, external conditions, and key conclusions for Subtask 1. A comprehensive approach to planning is needed that integrates impacts on ecology, the effects of electrical infrastructure, and the layout of wind farms. Governments, which usually finance ecological research, should disclose results for wide dissemination as they become available. As example the workshop held suggested that documents covering the issues like offshore wind energy legislation, Guidelines for EIAs and SEAs and best practices need to be produced and distributed on a regular basis, as ecological research progresses and experience from the planning and operation of existing wind farms emerges. Research should help strike the balance between optimum regulation and the need to get projects up and running. Such research is needed to increase understanding of offshore wind metrology and its impact on electrical power fluctuations. More work is needed to develop special grid code and standards for offshore. The transient behavior of large cable installations (switching / harmonic/ Behavior and modeling of large HV cable systems) must be better understood. Connection and control systems must be developed for large offshore wind farms. Work is needed to develop the technical architecture of offshore wind grid systems. Public access to measurements (e.g., turbine power output, meteorological masts, buoys) is important, especially for model validation. Determining wake effects is currently the most important challenge in wind engineering. Emphasis should be put into

  16. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini RTG Program. Addendum to the final technical report, May 1--December 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Addendum to the Cassini GPHS-RTG Program Final Technical Progress Report describes activities performed during the period 1 May 1998 through 31 December 1998, including effort reflecting contract modification M058. These activities include Earth Gravity Assist (EGA) reentry and related analyses which are detailed in Part A, and effort related to the installation of CAGO equipment within Lockheed Martin`s Building 100 facility in Valley Forge, PA, which is detailed in Part B.

  17. Dental devices: classification of dental amalgam, reclassification of dental mercury, designation of special controls for dental amalgam, mercury, and amalgam alloy; technical amendment. Final rule; technical amendment. (United States)


    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a final rule in the Federal Register of August 4, 2009 (74 FR 38686) which classified dental amalgam as a class II device, reclassified dental mercury from class I to class II, and designated special controls for dental amalgam, mercury, and amalgam alloy. The effective date of the rule was November 2, 2009. The final rule was published with an inadvertent error in the codified section. This document corrects that error. This action is being taken to ensure the accuracy of the agency's regulations.

  18. [A practically orientated clinical HIV update for ENT physicians]. (United States)

    Unnewehr, M; Sieling, C; Schaaf, B


    Basic knowledge concerning the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is useful for ENT physicians. Although HIV patients are usually stably asymptomatic nowadays due to modern therapy, HIV often manifests in ENT symptoms, such as neck lumps, sore throat, difficulty swallowing and dysgeusia. After infection, an initial increase in viral load can cause, among other symptoms, oral ulcers and pharyngitis. Once the immune system is compromised by the attack on CD4 lymphocyte cells, HIV-related diseases can occur: oral mycoses (particularly candidosis) and viral infections (including warts), aphthous ulcers, gingivitis, salivary gland diseases and malignancies (e. g. intraoral Kaposi's sarcoma). Neck lymphadenopathy is frequent. Markers of disease severity are the clinical symptoms, viral load and CD4 helper cell count. HIV treatment (antiretroviral therapy, ART) is a combination of at least three antiviral drugs.

  19. An ent-kaurane diterpenoid from Isodon japonica var. glaucocalyx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ping Bai


    Full Text Available The title compound, 14β-acetoxy-7α-hydroxy-ent-kaur-16-ene-3,15-dione or glaucocalyxin B, C22H30O5, a natural ent-kaurane diterpenoid, is composed of four rings with the expected cis and trans ring junctions. In the crystal structure, there are two molecules in the asymmetric unit related by a noncrystallographic twofold screw axis, and ring A is disordered [ratio occupancies 0.829 (19:0.171 (19], such that both chair and boat conformations are present, but with the boat conformation as the major component. In the crystal, molecules are linked by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  20. ent-Rosane and abietane diterpenoids as cancer chemopreventive agents. (United States)

    Núñez, Marvin J; Reyes, Carolina P; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Hayashi, Hirotaka; Tokuda, Harukuni; Bazzocchi, Isabel L


    Two ent-rosane- (cuzcol, 1 and 6-dehydroxycuzcol, 2) and a abietatriene- (salvadoriol, 3) type diterpenoids have been isolated from Maytenus cuzcoina and Crossopetalum uragoga, respectively, along with five known diterpene compounds (4-8). Their stereostructures have been elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, and computational data. The absolute configuration of cuzcol was determined by application of Riguera ester procedure. This is the first instance of isolation of ent-rosane diterpenoids from species of the Celastraceae. The isolated diterpenes were found to be potent anti-tumour-promoter agents, and carnosol (7) also showed a remarkable chemopreventive effect in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and Sensory Evaluation of ent-Kaurane Diterpene Glycosides


    Venkata Sai Prakash Chaturvedula; Rafael Ignacio San Miguel; Indra Prakash; Mary Campbell


    Catalytic hydrogenation of the three ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides isolated from Stevia rebaudiana, namely rubusoside, stevioside, and rebaudioside-A has been carried out using Pd(OH)2 and their corresponding dihydro derivatives have been isolated as the products. Synthesis of reduced steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward chemistry and their structures were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral...

  2. Complications of ent foreign bodies: a retrospective study. (United States)

    Figueiredo, Ricardo Rodrigues; Azevedo, Andréia Aparecida de; Kós, Arthur Octavio de Avila; Tomita, Shiro


    Foreign bodies are one of the most common ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat) urgencies. Serious complications may occur, like tympanic perforations and bronchoaspiration, but they are uncommon. To analyze a 1356 foreign body series and establish causes for the complications, looking at prevention. 1356 patients with ear, nose and throat foreign bodies from the ENT Department of Souza Aguiar Hospital, in Rio de Janeiro, between 1992 and 2000, were analyzed in a retrospective study for parameters like age, gender, type and localization of the foreign body, time span between introduction and removal of the foreign body and complications. The most common foreign bodies were beans and the most frequent age was between 1 and 4 years old. Ear foreign bodies were the most common, followed by nasal foreign bodies. Complications were statistically related to time, childs age and practical experience of the physician. Most of the situations related to ENT foreign bodies are avoidable. Improvements in Public Health Assistance and otolaryngologists training are essential to avoid serious complications.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Martynova


    Full Text Available Traditional approach to cystic fibrosis patients treatment doesn’t involve upper respiratory tract assessment, though abnormal changes — consequences of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductivity regulator gene mutation- do affect nasal and paranasal mucosa to the same extent. Approximately half of cystic fibrosis patients suffer from chronic rhinosinusitis and/or nasal polyposis that worsens the clinical course of already severe disease. Chronic hyperplasia in paranasal cavities can be quite extensive, recurrent and can lead to destruction of osseous walls of the cavity and of nasal septum. Thus increasing the amount of hospital admissions and and their duration. Low awareness of ENT-specialists working in polyclinics and in hospitals of ENT-pathology in cystic fibrosis patients leads to belated diagnostics, excessive manipulations, ineffective treatment, including surgery. All these lays grounds to implication of the early screening diagnostic program and development of proper treatment methods of ENT-complications of cystic fibrosis — therapeutic as well as surgical, with strict specification of indications and contraindications. Key words: cystic fibrosis, chronic rhino sinusitis, nasal polyposis. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (5: 49–53.

  4. Exponential Families and MaxEnt Calculations for Entropy Measures of Statistical Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topsøe, Flemming


    Game theoretical treatment of MaxEnt-optimization for non-extensive entropy measures of statistical physics.......Game theoretical treatment of MaxEnt-optimization for non-extensive entropy measures of statistical physics....

  5. A disease activity score for ENT involvement in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Pero, Marcos Martinez; Chaudhry, Afzal; Rasmussen, Niels


    Accurate assessment of disease activity in patients with otorhinolaryngological manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) (ENT/GPA) is necessary for treatment decisions and clinical trials. We have designed a disease activity score (ENT/GPA DAS) for this purpose....

  6. Implementation, Test and Evaluation of a Selective Dissemination System for NASA Scientific and Technical Information. Final Report. (United States)

    International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY.

    The development of a large scale selective dissemination of information program, its experimental operation, and program evaluation is reported. An IBM 7090/94 computer program compared user interest profiles with the subject indexes of reports announced in "Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports." Users were provided with selected…

  7. 78 FR 72641 - Request for Public Comments on Draft Final Report on the Technical Investigation of the May 22... (United States)


    ... Technical Investigation of the May 22, 2011 Tornado in Joplin, Missouri AGENCY: National Institute of... conducted by NIST into the tornado that impacted Joplin, Missouri on May 22, 2011. NIST will consider all... copy of the draft report may be found on the Joplin Investigation Web page

  8. Technical-economic assessment of the production of methanol from biomass. Conversion process analysis. Final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, E.I.; Simmons, J.A.; Price, J.D.; Nguyen, T.D.


    A comprehensive engineering system study was conducted to assess various thermochemical processes suitable for converting biomass to methanol. A summary of the conversion process study results is presented here, delineating the technical and economic feasibilities of producing methanol fuel from biomass utilizing the currently available technologies. (MHR)

  9. Research in Fiber Optics: Implications for Fiber Optics in Vocational-Technical Education. Final Report 1984-85. (United States)

    Bergen County Vocational-Technical High School, Hackensack, NJ.

    This project was conducted to determine the vocational, technical, and scientific skills and knowledge needed to work with the fiber optics applications that are in all areas of technology. A research assistant was hired by the project director to collect data and develop a research base for the project. Information was gathered through a…

  10. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  11. Minnesota River at Chaska, Minnesota. Technical Appendixes. Limited Reevaluation Report and Final Supplement to the Final Environmental Impact Statement for Flood Control and Related Purposes. (United States)


    following formula , found in Soil Conservation Service Technical Release Nc. (TB) C5 preference G) as equation 3-2: 4C-5 L S+1) 1)00 y where: L = Lag in...applying the following drainage area formula f-.r &,ac- Sortributing sutbasi n: ’,,]s A Q where: "s = Discharge of subarea ,Design = u:O-year peak discharge...nctrons unc ze r ths Con tr ac t and neie r pa r, % i s t o be cons ide red the o-;f ft e r, a gent, -Tr em7-o’ee of the oth)er. AM’ Ci, 1 -I N I TO

  12. Technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage. Thermal energy storage application to the brick/ceramic industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, D.R.


    An initial project to study the technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage (TES) in the three major consumer markets, namely, the residential, commercial and industrial sectors is described. A major objective of the study was to identify viable TES applications from which a more concise study could be launched, leading to a conceptual design and in-depth validation of the TES energy impacts. This report documents one such program. The brick/ceramic industries commonly use periodic kilns which by their operating cycle require time-variant energy supply and consequently variable heat rejection. This application was one of the numerous TES opportunities that emerged from the first study, now available from the ERDA Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identified as Report No. COO-2558-1.

  13. Processing development for ceramic structural components: the influence of a presintering of silicon on the final properties of reaction bonded silicon nitride. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The influence of a presintering of silicon on the final properties of reaction bonded silicon nitride has been studied using scanning electron and optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, 4 pt. bend test, and mecury intrusion porosimetry. It has been shown that presintering at 1050/sup 0/C will not affect the final nitrided properties. At 1200/sup 0/C, the oxide layer is removed, promoting the formation of B-phase silicon nitride. Presintering at 1200/sup 0/C also results in compact weight loss due to the volatilization of silicon, and the formation of large pores which severely reduce nitrided strength. The development of the structure of sintered silicon compacts appears to involve a temperature gradient, with greater sintering observed near the surface.

  14. Synthesis and sensory evaluation of ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides. (United States)

    Prakash, Indra; Campbell, Mary; San Miguel, Rafael Ignacio; Chaturvedula, Venkata Sai Prakash


    Catalytic hydrogenation of the three ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides isolated from Stevia rebaudiana, namely rubusoside, stevioside, and rebaudioside-A has been carried out using Pd(OH)₂ and their corresponding dihydro derivatives have been isolated as the products. Synthesis of reduced steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward chemistry and their structures were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data and chemical studies. Also, we report herewith the sensory evaluation of all the reduced compounds against their corresponding original steviol glycosides and sucrose for the sweetness property of these molecules.

  15. [Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis: an imported illness with ENT repercussions]. (United States)

    González, Myriam; Benito, Fernando; García, Laura; Iglesias, Alicia


    We report a case of mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis, an uncommon illness in our area. Leishmaniasis covers a group of diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania with several pathogenic species transmitted by Phlebotomus mosquitoes. Leishmania braziliensis is endemic in parts of South America and is responsible for the mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis reported here. The initial lesion is cutaneous and appears as an ulcer on arms or legs, leaving a scar. In some untreated cases, a late phase may affect the ENT area with hard to treat chronic destructive and mutilating lesions.

  16. Technical measures to decrease heat energy consumption of final customer in multi-apartment buildings according to Energy Efficiency Directive

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romanas Savickas; Lauryna Savickienė; Juozas Bielskus


    .... This article presents the analysis how these targets could be achieved by the means of individual heat metering by heat cost allocators for every flat thus decreasing an energy consumption for a final consumer...

  17. DOEGO85004_1: Final Non-proprietary Technical Report, Generating Process and Economic Data for Preliminary Design of PureVision Biorefineries DOEGO85004_2: One Original Final Proprietary Technical Report to be mailed to DOE Golden.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadam, Kiran L., Ph.D; Lehrburger, Ed


    The overall objective of the project was to define a two-stage reactive fractionation process for converting corn stover into a solid cellulose stream and two liquid streams containing mostly hemicellulosic sugars and lignin, respectively. Toward this goal, biomass fractionation was conducted using a small continuous pilot unit with a nominal capacity of 100 pounds per day of dry biomass to generate performance data using primarily corn stover as feedstock. In the course of the program, the PureVision process was optimized for efficient hemicellulose hydrolysis in the first stage employing autohydrolysis and delignification in the second stage using sodium hydroxide as a catalyst. The remaining cellulose was deemed to be an excellent substrate for producing fermentation sugars, requiring 40% less enzymes for hydrolysis than conventional pretreatment systems using dilute acid. The fractionated cellulose was also determined to have potential higher-value applications as a pulp product. The lignin coproduct was determined to be substantially lower in molecular weight (MW) compared to lignins produced in the kraft or sulfite pulping processes. This low-MW lignin can be used as a feed and concrete binder and as an intermediate for producing a range of high-value products including phenolic resins. This research adds to the understanding of the biomass conversion area in that a new process was developed in the true spirit of biorefineries. The work completed successfully demonstrated the technical effectiveness of the process at the pilot level indicating the technology is ready to advance to a 2–3 ton per day scale. No technical showstoppers are anticipated in scaling up the PureVision fractionation process to commercial scale. Also, economic feasibility of using the PureVision process in a commercial-scale biorefinery was investigated and the minimum ethanol selling price for the PureVision process was calculated to be $0.94/gal ethanol vs. $1.07/gal ethanol for the

  18. Geology of the Terra Cimmeria-Utopia Planitia Highland Lowland Transitional Zone: Final Technical Approach and Scientific Results (United States)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Tanaka, K. L.


    The southern Utopia highland-lowland transitional zone extends from northern Terra Cimmeria to southern Utopia Planitia and contains broad, bench-like platforms with depressions, pitted cones, tholi, and lobate flows. The locally occurring geologic units and landforms contrast other transitional regions and record a spatially partitioned geologic history. We systematically delineated and described the geologic units and landforms of the southern Utopia-Cimmeria highland-lowland transitional zone for the production of a 1:1,000,000-scale geologic map (MTMs 10237, 15237, 20237, 10242, 15242, 20242, 10247, 15247, and 20247). Herein, we present technical and scientific results of this mapping project.

  19. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell skin cancer ENT-organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Volgin


    Full Text Available Results of photodynamic therapy in 96 patients with primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs are represented. For photodynamic therapy the Russian-made photosensitizer Photoditazine at dose of 0.6–1.4 mg/kg was used. Parameters were selected taking into account type and extent of tumor and were as follows: output power – 0.1–3.0 W, power density – 0.1–1.3 W/cm2, light dose – 100–400 J/cm2. The studies showed high efficacy of treatment for primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of nose, ear and external auditory canal – from 87.5 to 94.7% of complete regression. Examples of efficacy of the method are represented in the article. High efficacy and good cosmetic effects allowed to make a conclusion about perspectivity of photodynamic therapy for recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs. 

  20. Vitamin d deficiency in e.N.T. Patients. (United States)

    Taneja, M K; Taneja, Vivek


    A prospective study to observe the prevalence of deficiency of vitamin D in out patients of otolaryngology clinic at Indian Institute of ear diseases, Muzaffarnagar. The patients attending outpatient of otolaryngology clinic with various complaints and not responding to conventional treatment were advised for assessment of vitamin D [25 (OH)D] level in blood. The age, sex, occupation, colour of skin, chief complaints, obesity, provisional diagnosis, and incidence of sun exposure was noted in all cases. A total of 86 patients were examined, maximum patients were in the age group of 7-15 years. The chief complaints in majority of the patients were sore throat with recurrent upper respiratory tract infection. Only in three patient's vitamin D level was found to be with in normal limits. In rest 83 (96.51 %) it was either deficient 57 (66.28 %) or insufficient 21 (24.42 %). The incidence of vitamin D deficiency is extremely common in Ear Nose Throat disease (E.N.T.) patients. The results of vitamin supplementation were promising in cases of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo with cervical spondylosis and URTI with asthma, empirical supplementation of vitamin D in all E.N.T. patients not responding to conventional treatment is worth trying. At place of sun screen, use of pomegranates and blueberries may be encouraged to prevent sunburn and eliminate Vitamin D deficiency.

  1. Final Technical Progress Report; Closeout Certifications; CSSV Newsletter Volume I; CSSV Newsletter Volume II; CSSV Activity Journal; CSSV Final Financial Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, Johnny L [PI; Geter, Kerry [Division of Business and Finance


    This Project?s third year of implementation in 2007-2008, the final year, as designated by Elizabeth City State University (ECSU), in cooperation with the National Association of Mathematicians (NAM) Inc., in an effort to promote research and research training programs in computational science ? scientific visualization (CSSV). A major goal of the Project was to attract the energetic and productive faculty, graduate and upper division undergraduate students of diverse ethnicities to a program that investigates science and computational science issues of long-term interest to the Department of Energy (DoE) and the nation. The breadth and depth of computational science?scientific visualization and the magnitude of resources available are enormous for permitting a variety of research activities. ECSU?s Computational Science-Science Visualization Center will serve as a conduit for directing users to these enormous resources.

  2. Entrained-flow gasification at elevated pressure: Volume 1: Final technical report, March 1, 1985-April 30,1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedman, P.O.; Smoot, L.D.; Smith, P.J.; Blackham, A.U.


    The general purpose of this research program was to develop a basic understanding of the physical and chemical processes in entrained coal gasification and to use the results to improve and evaluate an entrained gasification computer model. The first task included the collection and analysis of in-situ gasifier data at elevated pressures with three coal types (North Dakota lignite, Wyoming subbituminous and Illinois bituminous), the design, construction, and testing of new coal/oxygen/steam injectors with a fourth coal type (Utah bituminous), the collection of supporting turbulent fluid dynamic (LDV) data from cold-flow studies, and the investigation of the feasibility of using laser-based (CARS) daignostic instruments to make measurements in coal flames. The second task included improvements to the two-dimensional gasifier submodels, tabulation and evaluation of new coal devolatilization and char oxidation data for predictions, fundamental studies of turbulent particle dispersion, the development of improved numerical methods, and validation of the comprehensive model through comparison of predictions with experimental results. The third task was to transfer technical advances to industry and to METC through technical seminars, production of a detailed data book, code placement, and publication of results. Research results for these three tasks are summarized briefly here and presented in detail in the body of the report and in supporting references. 202 refs., 73 figs., 23 tabs.

  3. The effects of ball possession status on physical and technical indicators during the 2014 FIFA World Cup Finals. (United States)

    da Mota, Gustavo Ribeiro; Thiengo, Carlos Rogério; Gimenes, Samuel Valencia; Bradley, Paul S


    This study examined the effect of high- (HPBPT) and low-percentage ball possession (LPBPT) on physical and technical indicators during 2014 FIFA World Cup matches. This would enable a regression model to be constructed to further understand the impact of different ball possession (BP) strategies on match performance. Data were collected from 346 international soccer players using a multiple-camera computerised tracking system. Although players in HPBPT covered lower distances (P 0.05) at medium and high speeds. Players in LPBPT covered more distance without BP but less with BP than HPBPT (P < 0.01; ES large). All positions in LPBPT spent less time in the opposing half and attacking third than the players in HPBPT (P < 0.01; ES small-moderate), but all positions in HPBPT completed more short and medium passes than LPBPT (P < 0.01; ES moderate). Players in HPBPT produced more solo runs into the attacking third and penalty area than LPBPT (P < 0.05, ES small). The equation to predict BP from physical and technical indicators highlighted the importance of distances covered (total, with and without BP), time spent in the attacking third and successful short passes during matches. In practical terms, high or low BP does not influence the activity patterns of international matches although HPBPT spend more time in offensive areas of the pitch.

  4. Final Technical Report for Years 1-4 of the Early Career Research Project "Viscosity and equation of state of hot and dense QCD matter" - ARRA portion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, Denes [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)


    The Section below summarizes research activities and achievements during the first four years of the PI’s Early Career Research Project (ECRP). Two main areas have been advanced: i) radiative 3 ↔ 2 radiative transport, via development of a new computer code MPC/Grid that solves the Boltzmann transport equation in full 6+1D (3X+3V+time) on both single-CPU and parallel computers; ii) development of a self-consistent framework to convert viscous fluids to particles, and application of this framework to relativistic heavy-ion collisions, in particular, determination of the shear viscosity. Year 5 of the ECRP is under a separate award number, and therefore it has its own report document ’Final Technical Report for Year 5 of the Early Career Research Project “Viscosity and equation of state of hot and dense QCDmatter”’ (award DE-SC0008028). The PI’s group was also part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration, a multi-institution project that overlapped in time significantly with the ECRP. Purdue achievements as part of the JET Topical Collaboration are in a separate report “Final Technical Report summarizing Purdue research activities as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration” (award DE-SC0004077).

  5. The evaluation of a framework for measuring the non-technical ward round skills of final year nursing students: An observational study. (United States)

    Murray, Kara; McKenzie, Karen; Kelleher, Michael


    The importance of non-technical skills (NTS) to patient outcomes is increasingly being recognised, however, there is limited research into how such skills can be taught and evaluated in student nurses in relation toward rounds. This pilot study describes an evaluation of a NTS framework that could potentially be used to measure ward round skills of student nurses. The study used an observational design. Potential key NTS were identified from existing literature and NTS taxonomies. The proposed framework was then used to evaluate whether the identified NTS were evident in a series of ward round simulations that final year general nursing students undertook as part of their training. Finally, the views of a small group of qualified nurse educators, qualified nurses and general nursing students were sought about whether the identified NTS were important and relevant to practice. The proposed NTS framework included seven categories: Communication, Decision Making, Situational Awareness, Teamwork and Task Management, Student Initiative and Responsiveness to Patient. All were rated as important and relevant to practice. The pilot study suggests that the proposed NTS framework could be used as a means of evaluating student nurse competencies in respect of many non-technical skills required for a successful ward round. Further work is required to establish the validity of the framework in educational settings and to determine the extent to which it is of use in a non-simulated ward round setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of Ultra-Efficient Electric Motors Final Technical Report Covering work from April 2002 through September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich Schiferl


    High temperature superconducting (HTS) motors offer the potential for dramatic volume and loss reduction compared to conventional, high horspower, industrial motors. This report is the final report on the results of eight research tasks that address some of the issues related to HTS motor development that affect motor efficiency, cost, and reliability.

  7. Imagining Technicities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liboriussen, Bjarke; Plesner, Ursula


    to the elements of taste and skill. In the final analysis those references were synthesized as five imagined technicities: the architect, the engineer, the client, the Chinese, and the Virtual World native. Because technicities are often assumed and rarely discussed as actants who influence practice, their role......, this article focuses on innovative uses of virtual worlds in architecture. We interviewed architects, industrial designers and other practitioners. Conceptually supported by an understanding of technicity found in Cultural Studies, the interviews were then coded with a focus on interviewees’ references...

  8. Oridonin, a Promising ent-Kaurane Diterpenoid Lead Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahong Li


    Full Text Available Oridonin belongs to ent-kaurane tetracyclic diterpenoid and was first isolated from Isodon species. It exhibits inhibitory activities against a variety of tumor cells, and pharmacological study shows that oridonin could inhibit cell proliferation, DNA, RNA and protein synthesis of cancer cells, induce apoptosis and exhibit an antimutagenic effect. In addition, the large amount of the commercially-available supply is also very important for the natural lead oridonin. Moreover, the good stability, suitable molecular weight and drug-like property guarantee its further generation of a natural-like compound library. Oridonin has become the hot molecule in recent years, and from the year 2010, more than 200 publications can be found. In this review, we summarize the synthetic medicinal chemistry work of oridonin from the first publication 40 years ago and share our research experience of oridonin for about 10 years, which may provide useful information to those who are interested in this research field.

  9. Patterns of ENT injuries in sports-related accidents. (United States)

    Suggs, Bradley J; Cannon, C Ron


    To evaluate sports-related ENT injuries regarding demographical trends of patients, location and mechanism of injuries, treatments required, and ability to return to sports activities, an observational study of patients was conducted. Each of the 120 participants in the study was evaluated in a private practice clinic. Males were injured more frequently, and the most common ages affected were 12 to 15-year-olds. Most injuries were the result of collision with other players or from impact of game balls, and most injuries occurred during sporting competitions. The most commonly injured structure was the nose. Most patients were managed medically and able to return to sporting activities quickly. While the most frequent mechanisms for sports injuries are not always preventable, health care providers should be aware of these trends described regarding types of sports commonly producing injuries and the predominant sites of injury to provide optimal care for athletic participants.

  10. [Use of the internet for health information by ENT patients]. (United States)

    Gurr, A; Schwaab, M; Hansen, S; Noack, V; Dazert, S


    The internet is becoming increasingly more important as a source of information for patients, so that nowadays internet-based information must be more frequently considered in the dialogue with patients. This study is based on an analysis of ENT patients' habits in acquiring information from the internet. The data were collected by a questionnaire for in-patients over a period of 9 months during 2006 and 2007. A total of 503 patients with different family backgrounds were interviewed and the answers analyzed with respect to the illness, age, gender, education and information acquisition from the internet. The younger generation was found to use the internet in general more than older patients and there were no differences between males and females. Middle aged patients in particular used the internet for answering questions on health. Patients with complex elective surgery used the internet more often than patients undergoing simple elective surgery and patients with tumors and private patients used the internet more often than those with social health insurance. Among the questioned patients it was noticeable that a high proportion of those using internet to obtain information were well educated. Despite the high quality of information available for ENT patients on the internet, information obtained from the treating physician is still preferred by many patients. Due to demographic changes an increased use of the internet for patient information is to be expected in the future. The correlation found in this study between education, insurance status and the use of the internet might play a role in a target group oriented improvement of information supply.

  11. Final Technical Report: Sparse Grid Scenario Generation and Interior Algorithms for Stochastic Optimization in a Parallel Computing Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrotra, Sanjay [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)


    The support from this grant resulted in seven published papers and a technical report. Two papers are published in SIAM J. on Optimization [87, 88]; two papers are published in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems [77, 78]; one paper is published in Smart Grid [79]; one paper is published in Computational Optimization and Applications [44] and one in INFORMS J. on Computing [67]). The works in [44, 67, 87, 88] were funded primarily by this DOE grant. The applied papers in [77, 78, 79] were also supported through a subcontract from the Argonne National Lab. We start by presenting our main research results on the scenario generation problem in Sections 1–2. We present our algorithmic results on interior point methods for convex optimization problems in Section 3. We describe a new ‘central’ cutting surface algorithm developed for solving large scale convex programming problems (as is the case with our proposed research) with semi-infinite number of constraints in Section 4. In Sections 5–6 we present our work on two application problems of interest to DOE.

  12. Final Technical Report - 300°C Capable Electronics Platform and Temperature Sensor System For Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cheng-Po; Shaddock, David; Sandvik, Peter; Saia, Rich; Amita Patil, Alexey Vert; Zhang, Tan


    A silicon carbide (SiC) based electronic temperature sensor prototype has been demonstrated to operate at 300°C. We showed continuous operation of 1,000 hours with SiC operational amplifier and surface mounted discreet resistors and capacitors on a ceramic circuit board. This feasibility demonstration is a major milestone in the development of high temperature electronics in general and high temperature geothermal exploration and well management tools in particular. SiC technology offers technical advantages that are not found in competing technologies such as silicon-on-insulator (SOI) at high temperatures of 200°C to 300°C and beyond. The SiC integrated circuits and packaging methods can be used in new product introduction by GE Oil and Gas for high temperature down-hole tools. The existing SiC fabrication facility at GE is sufficient to support the quantities currently demanded by the marketplace, and there are other entities in the United States and other countries capable of ramping up SiC technology manufacturing. The ceramic circuit boards are different from traditional organic-based electronics circuit boards, but the fabrication process is compatible with existing ceramic substrate manufacturing. This project has brought high temperature electronics forward, and brings us closer to commercializing tools that will enable and reduce the cost of enhanced geothermal technology to benefit the public in terms of providing clean renewable energy at lower costs.

  13. Process R&D for CIS-Based Thin-Film PV: Final Technical Report, April 2002 - April 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrant, D. E.; Gay, R. R.


    The primary objectives of this Shell Solar Industries subcontract are to address key near-term technical R&D issues for continued CIS product improvement; continue process development for increased production capacity; develop processes capable of significantly contributing to DOE 2020 PV shipment goals; advance mid- and longer-term R&D needed by industry for future product competitiveness including improving module performance, decreasing production process costs per watt produced, and improving reliability; and perform aggressive module lifetime R&D directed at developing packages that address the DOE goal for modules that will last up to 30 years while retaining 80% of initial power. These production R&D results, production volume, efficiency, high line yield, and advances in understanding are major accomplishments. The demonstrated and maintained high production yield is a major accomplishment supporting attractive cost projections for CIS. Process R&D at successive levels of CIS production has led to the continued demonstration of the prerequisites for commitment to large-scale commercialization. Process and packaging R&D during this and previous subcontracts has demonstrated the potential for further cost and performance improvements.

  14. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization- Final Technical Report on Award DE-EE0002664. October 28, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascari, Matthew B.; Hanson, Howard P.; Rauchenstein, Lynn; Van Zwieten, James; Bharathan, Desikan; Heimiller, Donna; Langle, Nicholas; Scott, George N.; Potemra, James; Nagurny, N. John; Jansen, Eugene


    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world's ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today's state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources. The OTEEV project leverages existing NREL renewable energy GIS technologies and integrates extractable energy estimated from quality-controlled data and projected optimal achievable energy conversion rates. Input data are synthesized from a broad range of existing in-situ measurements and ground-truthed numerical models with temporal and spatial resolutions sufficient to reflect the local resource. Energy production rates are calculated for regions based on conversion rates estimated for current technology, local energy density of the resource, and sustainable resource extraction. Plant spacing and maximum production rates are then estimated based on a default plant size and transmission mechanisms. The resulting data are organized, displayed, and accessed using a multi-layered GIS mapping tool, with a user-friendly graphical user interface.

  15. Solar powered hydrogen generating facility and hydrogen powered vehicle fleet. Final technical report, August 11, 1994--January 6, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, J.J.


    This final report describes activities carried out in support of a demonstration of a hydrogen powered vehicle fleet and construction of a solar powered hydrogen generation system. The hydrogen generation system was permitted for construction, constructed, and permitted for operation. It is not connected to the utility grid, either for electrolytic generation of hydrogen or for compression of the gas. Operation results from ideal and cloudy days are presented. The report also describes the achievement of licensing permits for their hydrogen powered trucks in California, safety assessments of the trucks, performance data, and information on emissions measurements which demonstrate performance better than the Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle levels.

  16. Oxidative Degradations of the Side Chain of Unsaturated Ent-labdanes. Part I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Catalán Marín


    Full Text Available A selective route for the degradation of the unsaturated side chain of ent-labdanes has been devised, giving two useful synthons: 2β-acetoxy-14,15,17-trinor-ent-labdane-8,13- dione (5 and 2β-acetoxy-14,15-dinor-ent-labd-8(17-en-13-one (7, the use of which for the preparation of terpenylquinone derivatives shall be reported elsewhere.

  17. Nucleobase Transport by Human Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 (hENT1)* (United States)

    Yao, Sylvia Y. M.; Ng, Amy M. L.; Cass, Carol E.; Baldwin, Stephen A.; Young, James D.


    The human equilibrative nucleoside transporters hENT1 and hENT2 (each with 456 residues) are 40% identical in amino acid sequence and contain 11 putative transmembrane helices. Both transport purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and are distinguished functionally by a difference in sensitivity to inhibition by nanomolar concentrations of nitrobenzylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside (NBMPR), hENT1 being NBMPR-sensitive. Previously, we used heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes to demonstrate that recombinant hENT2 and its rat ortholog rENT2 also transport purine and pyrimidine bases, h/rENT2 representing the first identified mammalian nucleobase transporter proteins (Yao, S. Y., Ng, A. M., Vickers, M. F., Sundaram, M., Cass, C. E., Baldwin, S. A., and Young, J. D. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 24938–24948). The same study also revealed lower, but significant, transport of hypoxanthine by h/rENT1. In the present investigation, we have used the enhanced Xenopus oocyte expression vector pGEMHE to demonstrate that hENT1 additionally transports thymine and adenine and, to a lesser extent, uracil and guanine. Fluxes of hypoxanthine, thymine, and adenine by hENT1 were saturable and inhibited by NBMPR. Ratios of Vmax (pmol/oocyte·min−1):Km (mm), a measure of transport efficiency, were 86, 177, and 120 for hypoxantine, thymine, and adenine, respectively, compared with 265 for uridine. Hypoxanthine influx was competitively inhibited by uridine, indicating common or overlapping nucleobase and nucleoside permeant binding pockets, and the anticancer nucleobase drugs 5-fluorouracil and 6-mercaptopurine were also transported. Nucleobase transport activity was absent from an engineered cysteine-less version hENT1 (hENT1C−) in which all 10 endogenous cysteine residues were mutated to serine. Site-directed mutagenesis identified Cys-414 in transmembrane helix 10 of hENT1 as the residue conferring nucleobase transport activity to the wild-type transporter. PMID:21795683

  18. Rock Melt Borehole Sealing System, Final Technical Report for SBIR Phase I Grant No. DE-SC0011888

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osnes, John D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Argonne, IL (United States); Vining, Cody A. [RE/SPEC Inc., Argonne, IL (United States); Nopola, Jay R. [RE/SPEC Inc., Argonne, IL (United States); Roggenthen, William M. [South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States)


    Purpose of Research Deep borehole disposal is one option that has received attention in recent years as a possible strategy for long-term disposal of the tens of thousands of tons of spent nuclear fuel. The feasibility of the deep borehole option relies upon designing and constructing an effective seal within the borehole to ensure that the waste package does not communicate with the shallow subsurface biosphere through the borehole itself. Some of the uncertainty associated with the long-term suitability of the deep borehole option is related to (1) the degradation of traditional sealing materials over time and (2) the inability of traditional sealing methods to adequately seal a Disturbed Rock Zone surrounding the borehole. One possible system to address these concerns consists of encapsulating the waste in a melt generated from either the waste itself or a plug above the waste. This current project expanded on previous work to further advance the deep borehole disposal concept. Research Objectives & Findings The overarching objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of constructing a downhole heater that is capable of meeting the technical and logistical requirements to melt rock. This ultimate objective was accomplished by two primary approaches. The first approach was to define the heater requirements and conceptually design a system that is capable of melting rock. The second approach was to determine the feasibility of conducting an in situ, field-scale melting experiment to validate the suitability of the rock melt seal concept. The evaluation and conceptual design of the heater system resulted in the following primary findings: • Borehole wall temperatures capable of producing a partial melt are achievable under most expected thermal conductivities with a 12-kilowatt heater. • Commercially available components have been identified that meet the requirements of the heater system, including resistive elements that are capable of providing the

  19. Final Technical Report: The Incubation of Next-Generation Radar Technologies to Lower the Cost of Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Hirth, Brian [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Guynes, Jerry [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)


    The National Wind Institute (NWI) at Texas Tech University (TTU) has had an impressive and well documented 46-year history of wind related research activities ( In 2011 with funding from the United States Department of Energy (DOE), an NWI team applied radar technologies and techniques to document the complex flows occurring across a wind plant. The resulting efforts yielded measurements that exceeded the capabilities of commercial lidar technologies with respect to maximum range, range resolution and scan speed. The NWI team was also the first to apply dual-Doppler synthesis and objective analysis techniques to resolve the full horizontal wind field (i.e. not just the line-of-sight wind speeds) to successfully define turbine inflow and wake flows across large segments of wind plants. While these successes advanced wind energy interests, the existing research radar platforms were designed to serve a diversity of meteorological applications, not specifically wind energy. Because of this broader focus and the design choices made during their development, the existing radars experienced technical limitations that inhibited their commercial viability and wide spread adoption. This DOE project enabled the development of a new radar prototype specifically designed for the purpose of documenting wind farm complex flows. Relative to other “off the shelf” radar technologies, the specialized transmitter and receiver chains were specifically designed to enhance data availability in non-precipitating atmospheres. The new radar prototype was integrated at TTU using components from various suppliers across the world, and installed at the Reese Technology Center in May 2016. Following installation, functionality and performance testing were completed, and subsequent comparative analysis indicated that the new prototype greatly enhances data availability by a factor of 3.5-50 in almost all atmospheric conditions. The new prototype also provided

  20. Mathematical and numerical studies of nonstandard difference equation models of differential equations. Final technical report, September 1995--September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickens, R.E.


    The major thrust of this proposal was to continue our investigations of so-called non-standard finite-difference schemes as formulated by other authors. These schemes do not follow the standard rules used to model continuous differential equations by discrete difference equations. The two major aspects of this procedure consist of generalizing the definition of the discrete derivative and using a nonlocal model (on the computational grid or lattice) for nonlinear terms that may occur in the differential equations. Our aim was to investigate the construction of nonstandard finite-difference schemes for several classes of ordinary and partial differential equations. These equations are simple enough to be tractable, yet, have enough complexity to be both mathematically and scientifically interesting. It should be noted that all of these equations differential equations model some physical phenomena under an appropriate set of experimental conditions. The major goal of the project was to better understand the process of constructing finite-difference models for differential equations. In particular, it demonstrates the value of using nonstandard finite-difference procedures. A secondary goal was to construct and study a variety of analytical techniques that can be used to investigate the mathematical properties of the obtained difference equations. These mathematical procedures are of interest in their own right and should be a valuable contribution to the mathematics research literature in difference equations. All of the results obtained from the research done under this project have been published in the relevant research/technical journals or submitted for publication. Our expectation is that these results will lead to improved finite difference schemes for the numerical integration of both ordinary and partial differential equations. Section G of the Appendix gives a concise summary of the major results obtained under funding by the grant.

  1. Removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases by algae. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akin, C.; Maka, A.; Patel, S.; Conrad, J. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Benemann, J.


    The objective of this research program is to determine the feasibility of the alga Botryococcus braunii as a biocatalyst for the photosynthetic conversion of flue gas CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons. Free and immobilized cells of Botryococcus braunii were grown in aqueous medium supplemented with nitrogen, phosphorus and mineral nutrients. Air and CO{sub 2} enriched air [10% to 15% (V/V) CO{sub 2}] in the gas phase and 0.2% to 2% NaHCO{sub 3} in the liquid medium served as the carbon source. Growth and hydrocarbon formation characteristics of free and immobilized cultures of Botryococcus braunii were determined in bench-scale photobioreactors. Technical and economic feasibility of the conversion of flue gas CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons by Botryococcus braunii culture systems was evaluated. In free cell systems, the hexane extractable oil productivity was about 15 to 37 grams of oil per 100 grams of cell dry weight. In immobilized cell systems, the oil production ranged between 5% and 47% at different immobilization systems and immobilized surface locations, with an average of 19% of cell biomass dry weight. The feasibility and economic evaluation estimated the cost of oil produced from flue gas CO{sub 2} by algae to range between $45 and $75 per barrel assuming that a hydrocarbon yield of about 50% of the biomass weight is achievable and a credit of $60 per ton of carbon removed is available. A future research program leading to development of a multistage process, consisting of closed systems for heavy inoculum buildup followed by lower cost open systems for oil production is recommended.

  2. ent-Kaurane diterpenes from the stem bark of Annona vepretorum (Annonaceae) and cytotoxic evaluation. (United States)

    Dutra, Lívia M; Bomfim, Larissa M; Rocha, Suellen L A; Nepel, Angelita; Soares, Milena B P; Barison, Andersson; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P


    This work describes a novel ent-kaurane diterpene, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-al along with five known ent-kaurane diterpenes, ent-3β,19-dihydroxy-kaur-16-eno, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-eno, ent-3β-acetoxy-kaur-16-eno, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaurenoic acid and kaurenoic acid, as well as caryophyllene oxide, humulene epoxide II, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol from the stem bark of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae). Cytotoxic activities towards tumor B16-F10, HepG2, K562 and HL60 and non-tumor PBMC cell lines were evaluated for ent-kaurane diterpenes. Among them, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-al was the most active compound with higher cytotoxic effect over K562 cell line (IC50 of 2.49 μg/mL) and lower over B16-F10 cell line (IC50 of 21.02 μg/mL). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Benchmarking of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis practice with ENT.UK guidelines. (United States)

    Al-Qahtani, Ali S


    The aim of this study was to benchmark our guidelines of prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in ENT surgical population against ENT.UK guidelines, and also to encourage healthcare providers to utilize benchmarking as an effective method of improving performance. The study design is prospective descriptive analysis. The setting of this study is tertiary referral centre (Assir Central Hospital, Abha, Saudi Arabia). In this study, we are benchmarking our practice guidelines of the prevention of VTE in the ENT surgical population against that of ENT.UK guidelines to mitigate any gaps. ENT guidelines 2010 were downloaded from the ENT.UK Website. Our guidelines were compared with the possibilities that either our performance meets or fall short of ENT.UK guidelines. Immediate corrective actions will take place if there is quality chasm between the two guidelines. ENT.UK guidelines are evidence-based and updated which may serve as role-model for adoption and benchmarking. Our guidelines were accordingly amended to contain all factors required in providing a quality service to ENT surgical patients. While not given appropriate attention, benchmarking is a useful tool in improving quality of health care. It allows learning from others' practices and experiences, and works towards closing any quality gaps. In addition, benchmarking clinical outcomes is critical for quality improvement and informing decisions concerning service provision. It is recommended to be included on the list of quality improvement methods of healthcare services.

  4. IEA Wind Task 23 Offshore Wind Technology and Deployment. Subtask 1 Experience with Critical Deployment Issues. Final Technical Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    The final report for IEA Wind Task 23, Offshore Wind Energy Technology and Deployment, is made up of two separate reports: Subtask 1: Experience with Critical Deployment Issues and Subtask 2: Offshore Code Comparison Collaborative (OC3). The Subtask 1 report included here provides background...... information and objectives of Task 23. It specifically discusses ecological issues and regulation, electrical system integration and offshore wind, external conditions, and key conclusions for Subtask 1. The Subtask 2 report covers OC3 background information and objectives of the task, OC3 benchmark exercises...... of aero-elastic offshore wind turbine codes, monopile foundation modeling, tripod support structure modeling, and Phase IV results regarding floating wind turbine modeling....

  5. Large-area Silicon-Film{trademark} panels and solar cells. Final technical report, July 1995--March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rand, J.A.; Bai, Y.; Barnett, A.M.; Culik, J.S.; Ford, D.H.; Hall, R.B.; Kendall, C.L. [AstroPower, Inc., Newark, DE (US)


    This report will detail substantial improvements in each of the task areas. A number of new products were developed, including a 130 kW array built using a new panel design. Improvements in laboratory-scale solar cell processing resulted in a confirmed efficiency of 16.6%. A new Silicon-Film{trademark} production sheet machine was built which increased throughput by 70%. Three solar cell fabrication processes were converted from low throughout batch processes to high throughput, continuous, belt processes. These new processes are capable of processing sheet over 31 cm in width. Finally, a new Silicon-Film{trademark} sheet machine was built that demonstrated a sheet width of 38 cm. This tool enabled AstroPower to demonstrate a wide range of solar cell sizes, many of which have generated considerable market interest.

  6. Final Technical Report [Scalable methods for electronic excitations and optical responses of nanostructures: mathematics to algorithms to observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, Yousef


    The master project under which this work is funded had as its main objective to develop computational methods for modeling electronic excited-state and optical properties of various nanostructures. The specific goals of the computer science group were primarily to develop effective numerical algorithms in Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT). There were essentially four distinct stated objectives. The first objective was to study and develop effective numerical algorithms for solving large eigenvalue problems such as those that arise in Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. The second objective was to explore so-called linear scaling methods or Methods that avoid diagonalization. The third was to develop effective approaches for Time-Dependent DFT (TDDFT). Our fourth and final objective was to examine effective solution strategies for other problems in electronic excitations, such as the GW/Bethe-Salpeter method, and quantum transport problems.

  7. Dissolution rates and surface chemistry of feldspar glass and crystal. Final technical report, June 15, 1995 - August 14, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantley, S.; Pantano, C.


    Final report summarizing the completed work of the project entitled 'Dissolution of Feldspar in the Field and Laboratory.' One of the highly debated questions today in low-temperature geochemical kinetics centers upon the rate and mechanism of dissolution of feldspar, the most common mineral in the crust. In this project, the mechanisms of feldspar dissolution were investigated by emphasizing experiments with feldspar glass and crystal while comparing surface and solution chemistry. Specifically, laboratory work focused on the structure of altered surface layers on feldspars, the rate of dissolution of feldspar crystal and glass, and the presence of porosity and surface coatings on feldspars. In a complementary field project, the use of Sr concentrations and isotopic ratios were used to calculate feldspar dissolution rates.

  8. ALINET: a model for assessing energy conservation opportunities in the food processing industry. Final technical report, September 1977-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levis, A H; Ducot, E R; Levis, I S; Webster, T F


    ALINET is a network model designed for the analysis of energy use in the food processing and distribution sector and for the evaluation of the potential effectiveness of energy conserving technologies. The conceptual framework of the model, as well as the design and implementation of the computer software are described. The wheat system at the national, state, and facility-specific level is used to illustrate the model's operation and use. A pilot project, carried out in cooperation with industry, is described in which energy use in (a) hard wheat milling, and (b) durum milling and pasta manufacture is analyzed. Finally, the introduction of an alternative technology for pasta drying is assessed in terms of energy conservation and cost. Recommendation for further applications and institutionalization of the model are made.

  9. The influence of deep-seabed CO2 sequestration on small metazoan (meiofaunal) viability and community structure: final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thistle, D


    Since the industrial revolution, the burning of fossil fuel has produced carbon dioxide at an increasing rate. Present atmospheric concentration is about ~1.5 times the preindustrial level and is rising. Because carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, its increased concentration in the atmosphere is thought to be a cause of global warming. If so, the rate of global warming could be slowed if industrial carbon dioxide were not released into the atmosphere. One suggestion has been to sequester it in the deep ocean, but theory predicts that deep-sea species will be intolerant of the increased concentrations of carbon dioxide and the increased acidity it would cause. The aim of our research was to test for consequences of carbon dioxide sequestration on deep-sea, sediment-dwelling meiofauna. Recent technical advances allowed us to test for effects in situ at depths proposed for sequestration. The basic experimental unit was an open-topped container into which we pumped ~20 L of liquid carbon dioxide. The liquid carbon dioxide mixed with near-bottom sea water, which produced carbon dioxide-rich sea water that flowed out over the near-by seabed. We did 30-day experiments at several locations and with different numbers of carbon dioxide-filled containers. Harpacticoid copepods (Crustacea) were our test taxon. In an experiment we did during a previous grant period, we found that large numbers of individuals exposed to carbon dioxide-rich sea water had been killed (Thistle et al. 2004). During the present grant period, we analyzed the species-level data in greater detail and discovered that, although individuals of many species had been killed by exposure to carbon dioxide-rich sea water, individuals of some species had not (Thistle et al. 2005). This result suggests that seabed sequestration of carbon dioxide will not just reduce the abundance of the meiofauna but will change the composition of the community. In another experiment, we found that some harpacticoid species swim

  10. Final Technical Report on Quantifying Dependability Attributes of Software Based Safety Critical Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidts, Carol [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Huang, Funqun [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Li, Boyuan [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Li, Xiang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)


    -- measures and methods are needed to assess dependability attributes early on, as well as throughout the life-cycle process of software development. In this research, extensive expert opinion elicitation is used to identify the measures and methods for assessing software dependability. Semi-structured questionnaires were designed to elicit expert knowledge. A new notation system, Causal Mechanism Graphing, was developed to extract and represent such knowledge. The Causal Mechanism Graphs were merged, thus, obtaining the consensus knowledge shared by the domain experts. In this report, we focus on how software contributes to dependability. However, software dependability is not discussed separately from the context of systems or socio-technical systems. Specifically, this report focuses on software dependability, reliability, safety, security, availability, and maintainability. Our research was conducted in the sequence of stages found below. Each stage is further examined in its corresponding chapter. Stage 1 (Chapter 2): Elicitation of causal maps describing the dependencies between dependability attributes. These causal maps were constructed using expert opinion elicitation. This chapter describes the expert opinion elicitation process, the questionnaire design, the causal map construction method and the causal maps obtained. Stage 2 (Chapter 3): Elicitation of the causal map describing the occurrence of the event of interest for each dependability attribute. The causal mechanisms for the “event of interest” were extracted for each of the software dependability attributes. The “event of interest” for a dependability attribute is generally considered to be the “attribute failure”, e.g. security failure. The extraction was based on the analysis of expert elicitation results obtained in Stage 1. Stage 3 (Chapter 4): Identification of relevant measurements. Measures for the “events of interest” and their causal mechanisms were obtained from expert opinion

  11. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, David


    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  12. Investigation of a rotary valving system with variable valve timing for internal combustion engines: Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, P.C.; Hansen, C.N.


    The objective of the program was to provide a functional demonstration of the Hansen Rotary Valving System with Variable Valve timing (HRVS/VVT), capable of throttleless inlet charge control, as an alternative to conventional poppet-valves for use in spark ignited internal combustion engines. The goal of this new technology is to secure benefits in fuel economy, broadened torque band, vibration reduction, and overhaul accessibility. Additionally, use of the variable valve timing capability to vary the effective compression ratio is expected to improve multi-fuel tolerance and efficiency. Efforts directed at the design of HRVS components proved to be far more extensive than had been anticipated, ultimately requiring that proof-trial design/development work be performed. Although both time and funds were exhausted before optical or ion-probe types of in-cylinder investigation could be undertaken, a great deal of laboratory data was acquired during the course of the design/development work. This laboratory data is the basis for the information presented in this Final Report.

  13. GPHS RTGs in Support of the Cassini RTG Program. Final Technical Report, January 11, 1991 - April 30, 1998 (United States)


    As noted in the historical summary, this program encountered a number of changes in direction, schedule, and scope over the period 11 January 1991 to 31 December 1998. The report provides a comprehensive summary of all the varied aspects of the program over its seven and a quarter years, and highlights those aspects that provide information beneficial to future radioisotope programs. In addition to summarizing the scope of the Cassini GPHS RTG Program provided as background, the introduction includes a discussion of the scope of the final report and offers reference sources for information on those topics not covered. Much of the design heritage of the GPHS RTG comes from the Multi Hundred Watt (MHW) RTGs used on the Lincoln Experimental Satellites (LES) 8/9 and Voyager spacecraft. The design utilized for the Cassini program was developed, in large part, under the GPHS RTG program which produced the Galileo and Ulysses RTGs. Reports from those programs included detailed documentation of the design, development, and testing of converter components and full converters that were identical to, or similar to, components used in the Cassini program.

  14. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Volume 1. Integrated report. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This burn test program was conducted during the period of August 1982 to February 1983 to demonstrate that Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) products can displace petroleum as a boiler fuel in oil- and gas-designed boilers. The test program was performed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Three forms of SRC (pulverized SRC, a solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates, and a slurry of SRC and water) and No. 6 Fuel Oil were evaluated in the 700-hp (30 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hour) watertube, oil-designed boiler facility at PETC. The test program was managed by the International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) and sponsored by the Department of Energy. Other organizations were involved as necessary to provide the expertise required to execute the test program. This final report represents an integrated overview of the test program conducted at PETC. More detailed information with preliminary data can be obtained from separate reports prepared by PETC, Southern Research Institute, Wheelabrator-Frye, Babcock and Wilcox, and Combustion Engineering. These are presented as Annex Volumes A-F. 25 references, 41 figures, 15 tables.

  15. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini RTG Program. Final technical report, January 11, 1991--April 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    As noted in the historical summary, this program encountered a number of changes in direction, schedule, and scope over the period 11 January 1991 to 31 December 1998. The report provides a comprehensive summary of all the varied aspects of the program over its seven and a quarter years, and highlights those aspects that provide information beneficial to future radioisotope programs. In addition to summarizing the scope of the Cassini GPHS-RTG Program provided as background, the introduction includes a discussion of the scope of the final report and offers reference sources for information on those topics not covered. Much of the design heritage of the GPHS-RTG comes from the Multi-Hundred Watt (MHW) RTGs used on the Lincoln Experimental Satellites (LES) 8/9 and Voyager spacecraft. The design utilized for the Cassini program was developed, in large part, under the GPHS-RTG program which produced the Galileo and Ulysses RTGs. Reports from those programs included detailed documentation of the design, development, and testing of converter components and full converters that were identical to, or similar to, components used in the Cassini program. Where such information is available in previous reports, it is not repeated here.

  16. Mechanisms underlying the adaptive response against spontaneous neoplastic transformation induced by low doses of low LET radiation, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Leslie Redpath, Ph.D.


    The goal of this project was to investigate mechanisms underlying the adaptive response seen following exposure of HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells to low doses of low LET radiation. It was proposed to investigate the contributions of three possible mechanisms. These were: 1. Upregulation of cellular antioxidant status. 2. Upregulation of DNA repair. 3. Upregulation of gap junction intracellular communication. We have completed the study of the role of upregulation of reduced glutathione (GSH) as a possible mechanism underlying our observed suppression of transformation frequency at low radiation doses. We have also completed our study of the possible role of upregulation of DNA repair in the observed adaptive response against neoplastic transformation. We concluded that upregulation of DNA repair may be more important in modulating transformation at the higher dose. A manuscript describing the above studies has been submitted published in Carcinogenesis 24:1961-1965, 2003. Finally, we have completed two studies of the possible role of upregulation of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in modulating transformation frequency at low doses of low LET radiation. This research was published in Radiation Research 162:646-654, 2004. In order to optimize the opportunity for GJIC, we then carried out a study where confluent cultures were irradiated. The results indicated, that while the degree of low dose suppression was somewhat reduced compared to that seen for subconfluent cultures, it was not completely absent. This research has been submitted for publication. Our research program was of sufficient interest to generate two invited reviews, and five invited presentations.

  17. Final technical report for Phenomic Analysis of Natural and Induced Variation in Brachypodium Distachyon DE-SC0001526

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, John P. [USDA ARS Western Regional Research Center, Albany, NY (United States)


    The goal of this project was to apply high-throughput, non-destructive phenotyping (phenomics) to collections of natural variants and induced mutants of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon and characterize a small subset of that material in detail. B. distachyon is well suited to this phenomic approach because its small size and rapid generation time allow researchers to grow many plants under carefully controlled conditions. In addition, the simple diploid genetics, high quality genome sequence and existence of numerous experimental tools available for B. distachyon allow us to rapidly identify genes affecting specific phenotypes. Our phenomic analysis revealed great diversity in biofuel-relevant traits like growth rate, biomass and photosynthetic rate. This clearly demonstrated the feasibility of applying a phenomic approach to the model grass B. distachyon. We also demonstrated the utility of B. distachyon for studying mature root system, something that is virtually impossible to do with biomass crops. We showed tremendous natural variation in root architecture that can potentially be used to design crops with superior nutrient and water harvesting capability. Finally, we demonstrated the speed with which we can link specific genes to specific phenotypes by studying two mutants in detail. Importantly, in both cases, the specific biological lessons learned were grass-specific and could not have been learned from a dicot model system. Furthermore, one of the genes affects cell wall integrity and thus may be a useful target in the context of biomass crop improvement. Ultimately, all this information can be used to accelerate the creation of improved biomass crops.

  18. Quantifying And Predicting Wood Quality Of Loblolly And Slash Pine Under Intensive Forest Management Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark III


    The forest industry will increasingly rely on fast-growing intensively managed southern pine plantations to furnish wood and fiber. Intensive silvicultural practices, including competition control, stand density control, fertilization, and genetic improvement are yielding tremendous gains in the quantity of wood production from commercial forest land. How these technologies affect wood properties was heretofore unknown, although there is concern about the suitability of fast-grown wood for traditional forest products. A four year study was undertaken to examine the effects of these intensive practices on the properties of loblolly and slash pine wood by applying a common sampling method over 10 existing field experiments. Early weed control gets young pines off to a rapid start, often with dramatically increased growth rates. This response is all in juvenile wood however, which is low in density and strength. Similar results are found with early Nitrogen fertilization at the time of planting. These treatments increase the proportion of juvenile wood in the tree. Later, mid-rotation fertilization with Nitrogen and Phosphorus can have long term (4-8 year) growth gains. Slight reductions in wood density are short-lived (1-2 years) and occur while the tree is producing dense, stiff mature wood. Impacts of mid-rotation fertilization on wood properties for manufacturing are estimated to be minimal. Genetic differences are evident in wood density and other properties. Single family plantings showed somewhat more uniform properties than bulk improved or unimproved seedlots. Selection of genetic sources with optimal wood properties may counter some of the negative impacts of intensive weed control and fertilization. This work will allow forest managers to better predict the effects of their practices on the quality of their final product.

  19. Hybrid solar thermal-photovoltaic systems demonstration, Phase I and II. Final technical progress report, July 5, 1979-December 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loferski, J.J. (ed.)


    The purpose of the project is to investigate a system based on combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels to supply the energy needs of a small single family residence. The system finally selected and constructed uses PV/T panels which utilize air as the heat transfer medium. Optimization of thermal performance was accomplished by attaching metal fins to the back surface of each cell which significantly increased the heat transfer coefficient from the solar cells to the air stream. The other major components of the selected system are an air-to-air heat pump, a rock bin thermal energy storage bin, a synchronous dc-to-ac converter, a microprocessor to control the system, a heat exchanger for the domestic hot water system and of course the building itself which is a one story, well insulated structure having a floor area of 1200 ft/sup 2/. A prototype collector was constructed and tested. Based on this experience, twenty collectors, containing 2860 four inch diameter solar cells, were constructed and installed on the building. Performance of the system was simulated using a TRNSYS-derived program, modified to accommodate PV/T panels and to include the particular components included in the selected system. Simulation of the performance showed that about 65 percent of the total annual energy needs of the building would be provided by the PV/T system. Of this total, about one half is produced at a time when it can be used in the building and one half must be sold back to the utility.

  20. [The Marketing of Healthcare Services in ENT-Clinics]. (United States)

    Teschner, M; Lenarz, T


    The provision of healthcare services in Germany is based on fundamental principles of solidarity and is highly regulated. The question arises which conditions exist for marketing for healthcare services in ENT-clinics in Germany. The marketing options will be elicited using environmentally analytical considerations. The objectives can be achieved using measures derived from external instruments (service policy, pricing policy, distribution policy or communications policy) or from an internal instrument (human resources policy). The policy environment is particularly influenced by the regulatory framework, which particularly restricts the scope for both the pricing and communications policies. All measures must, however, reflect ethical frameworks, which are regarded as the fundamental premise underlying healthcare services and may be at odds with economic factors. Scope for flexibility in pricing exists only within the secondary healthcare market, and even there only to a limited extent. The significance of price in the marketing of healthcare services is thus very low. If marketing activities are to succeed, a market analysis must be carried out exploring the relevant factors for each individual provider. However, the essential precondition for the marketing of healthcare services is trust. The marketing of healthcare services differs from that of business management-oriented enterprises in other branches of economy. In the future the importance of marketing activities will increase. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Fellow, Final Technical Report for DOE Award DE-FG02-03ER41267

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Gail G; Klier, Amit; Palmer, R; Alsharo' a, Mohammad M; Ozaki, S; Zisman, M S; Gallardo, J; Cline, D B; Holtkamp, N; Finley, D; Ankenbrandt, C M


    the U.S. [5, 6]. International design efforts are now under way. The International Neutrino Factory and Superbeam Scoping Study (ISS) [7] began at the NuFact05 Workshop in June 2005 with the goals of elaborating the physics case, defining the baseline options for such a facility and its neutrino detectors, and identifying the required R&D program to lay the foundations for a complete design study proposal, and an International Design Study of the Neutrino Factory is beginning. These studies entail iterative cost and technical difficulty evaluations, thereby providing guidelines for the advancing R&D program. One of the central subsystems of a neutrino factory or muon collider is the muon cooling system. The muon beam is cooled to increase the phase space density and allow the muons to pass through smaller apertures, thus reducing the cost of the following accelerator systems. This cooling is accomplished through ionization cooling, in which the beam is passed through liquid hydrogen absorbers and then accelerated in RF cavities to restore the longitudinal momentum. Ionization cooling was proposed more than twenty years ago [8] but has not yet been demonstrated in practice. The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) [9, 10] seeks to build and operate a muon-cooling device of a design proposed in Feasibility Study-II [6]. In addition to cooling the muons, MICE includes apparatus to measure the performance of the device. The experiment will be carried out by a collaboration of physicists from the U.S., Europe, and Japan at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the U.K. MICE will begin operation in late 2007. Successful performance of the MICE experiment will provide the understanding needed to design a complete neutrino factory, in which the muons are cooled, accelerated, circulated in a storage ring, and decay to produce the neutrino beam. The first neutrino factory might be built in the U.S., Europe, or Japan. A Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) has

  2. Final Technical Report for Year 5 Early Career Research Project "Viscosity and equation of state of hot and dense QCD matter"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, Denes [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)


    The Section below summarizes research activities and achievements during the fifth (last) year of the PI’s Early Career Research Project (ECRP). Unlike the first four years of the project, the last year was not funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The ECRP advanced two main areas: i) radiative 3 ↔ 2 radiative transport, via development of a new computer code MPC/Grid that solves the Boltzmann transport equation in full 6+1D (3X+3V+time); and ii) application of relativistic hydrodynamics, via development of a self-consistent framework to convert viscous fluids to particles. In Year 5 we finalized thermalization studies with radiative gg ↔ ggg transport (Sec. 1.1.1) and used nonlinear covariant transport to assess the accuracy of fluid-to-particle conversion models (Sec. 1.1.2), calculated observables with self-consistent fluid-to-particle conversion from realistic viscous hydrodynamic evolution (Secs. 1.2.1 and 1.2.2), extended the covariant energy loss formulation to heavy quarks (Sec. 1.4.1) and studied energy loss in small systems (Sec. 1.4.2), and also investigated how much of the elliptic flow could have non-hydrodynamic origin (Sec 1.3). Years 1-4 of the ECRP were ARRA-funded and, therefore, they have their own report document ’Final Technical Report for Years 1-4 of the Early Career Research Project “Viscosity and equation of state of hot and dense QCD matter”’ (same award number DE-SC0004035). The PI’s group was also part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration, a multi-institution project that overlapped in time significantly with the ECRP. Purdue achievements as part of the JET Top- ical Collaboration are in a separate report “Final Technical Report summarizing Purdue research activities as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration” (award DE-SC0004077).

  3. Aberrant bone density in aging mice lacking the adenosine transporter ENT1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Hinton

    Full Text Available Adenosine is known to regulate bone production and resorption in humans and mice. Type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1 is responsible for the majority of adenosine transport across the plasma membrane and is ubiquitously expressed in both humans and mice. However, the contribution of ENT1-mediated adenosine levels has not been studied in bone remodeling. With the recent identification of the importance of adenosine signaling in bone homeostasis, it is essential to understand the role of ENT1 to develop novel therapeutic compounds for bone disorders. Here we examined the effect of ENT1 deletion on bone density using X-ray, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computerized tomography analysis. Our results show that bone density and bone mineral density is reduced in the lower thoracic and lumbar spine as well as the femur of old ENT1 null mice (>7 months compared to wild-type littermates. Furthermore, we found increased mRNA expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, an osteoclast marker, in isolated long bones from 10 month old ENT1 null mice compared to wild-type mice. In addition, aged ENT1 null mice displayed severe deficit in motor coordination and locomotor activity, which might be attributed to dysregulated bone density. Overall, our study suggests that ENT1-regulated adenosine signaling plays an essential role in lumbar spine and femur bone density.

  4. ENT problems in Dutch children: trends in incidence rates, antibiotic prescribing and referrals 2002-2008.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijen, J.H.J.M.; Bindels, P.J.E.; Schellevis, F.G.; Wouden, J.C. van der


    BACKGROUND. Ear, nose, and throat (ENT) problems are common in childhood and are important reasons to visit the general practitioner. OBJECTIVE. To examine trends in incidence rates, antibiotic prescribing, and referrals of five common ENT problems in children. DESIGN. Netherlands Information

  5. ENT problems in Dutch Children: Trends in incidence rates, antibiotic prescribing and referrals 2002-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.J.M. Uijen (Hans); P.J.E. Bindels (Patrick); F.G. Schellevis (François); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans)


    textabstractBackground. Ear, nose, and throat (ENT) problems are common in childhood and are important reasons to visit the general practitioner. Objective. To examine trends in incidence rates, antibiotic prescribing, and referrals of five common ENT problems in children. Design. Netherlands

  6. Final Technical Report: Using Solid Particles as Heat Transfer Fluid for use in Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lattanzi, Aaron [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Hrenya, Christine [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)


    feedback on the efficiency and feasibility of various designs. Namely, a prototype design consisting of an array of heated hexagonal tubes was later supplanted by a vertical conduit with internal baffles. Due to low solids heat transfer on the bottom faces of the hexagonal tubes in the prototype, the predicted wall temperature gradients exceeded the design limitations. By contrast, the vertical conduit can be constructed to continually force particle-wall contacts, and thus, result in more desirable solids heat transfer and wall temperature gradients. Finally, a new heat flux boundary condition was developed for DEM simulations to assess the aforementioned wall temperature gradients. The new boundary condition advances current state-of-the-art techniques by allowing the heat fluxes to each phase to vary with space and time while the total flux remains constant. Simulations with the new boundary condition show that the total boundary heat flux is in good agreement with the imposed total boundary heat flux. While the methods we have utilized here are primarily numerical and fundamental by nature, they offer some key advantages of: (i) being robust and valid over a large range of conditions, (ii) able to quickly explore large parameter spaces, and (iii) aid in the construction of experiments. We have ultimately leveraged our computational capabilities to provide feedback on the design of a CSP which possesses great potential to become a cost effective source of clean and renewable electricity. Overall, ensuring that future energy demands are met in a responsible and efficient manner has far reaching impacts that span both ecologic and economic concerns. Regarding logistics, the project was successfully re-negotiated after the go/no-decisions of Years 1 and 2. All milestones were successfully completed.

  7. Protocols for the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds in coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bausch, M. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)


    Summarized in the final technical report for our project ``Protocols for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Sulfur Bonds in Coal`` are results of research pertaining to chemical reactions that aim to selectively cleave C-S bonds in model compounds as well as Illinois coal. Removal of the organic sulfur in coal constitutes one of the major challenges facing fossil fuel scientists today. A cost-effective means of desulfurizing Illinois coal is, at present, non-existent. Research in our group aims to develop a simple protocol for sulfur removal by gaining understanding of how various additives and reaction conditions, including solvents, bases, added reagents, catalysts, oxidizing agents, electron acceptors, temperature, pressure, and light energy, can enhance the rates of C-S bond cleavage in Illinois coal and coal model compounds. These experiments have been at the focus of our research effort for the past twelve months. Previous quarterly reports described research results in which simple aromatic and aliphatic sulfides were allowed to react with (a) Lewis Acids such as zinc chloride and tin chloride; (b) electron accepting substrates such as 9-fluorenone and benzoquinone; (c) strong bases such as NaOH and KOH; (d) radical initiators such as AIBN; (e) neat solvents at reflux temperatures and higher temperatures; (f) molecular oxygen in the presence of dyes or sensitizers such as anthracene. In this final report, we report on additional experiments involving the photooxidation of organic sulfides, as well as some experiments aimed at evaluating and comparing the reactivities of simple organic sulfones with their sulfidyl analogues. Also contained in this final report is a brief summary of the research described in the previous three quarterly reports for ``Protocols for the Selective Cleavage of Carbon-Sulfur Bonds in Coal.``

  8. Ultracoatings: Enabling Energy and Power Solutions in High Contact Stress Environments through next-generation Nanocoatings Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton B. Higdon III


    . Advancing this technology, called Ultracoatings, through initial development, scale up, and commercialization to a variety of markets would represent a transformative leap to surface engineering. Several application spaces were considered for immediate implementation of the Ultracoatings technology, including, but not limited to, a drive shaft for an aerospace fuel pump, engine timing components, and dry solids pump hardware for an innovative coal gasifier. The primary focus of the program was to evaluate and screen the performance of the selected (Ti, Zr)B2 Ultracoatings composition for future development. This process included synthesis of the material for physical vapor deposition, sputtering trials and coating characterization, friction and wear testing on sample coupons, and functional hardware testing. The main project deliverables used to gage the project's adherence to its original objective were: Development of a coating/substrate pairing that exhibits wear rate of 0.1 mg/hour or lower at a 1GPa contact pressure, while achieving a maximum coating cost of $0.10/cm2. Demonstrate the aforementioned wear rate in both lubricated and starved lubrication conditions. Although the (Ti, Zr) B2 coating was not tailored for low friction performance, friction and wear evaluations of the material demonstrated a coefficient of sliding friction as low as 0.09. This suggests that varying the percentage of TiB2 present in the composite could enhance the materials performance in water-based lubricants. In the aerospace drive shaft application, functional hardware coated with (Ti, Zr)B2 survived a variety of abuse and long-range durability tests, with contact pressures exceeding 2 GPa. For engine timing components, further work is planned to evaluate the Ultracoatings technology in direct injection and diesel engine conditions. In the final identified application space the dry solids pump hardware, discussions continue on the application of the Ultracoatings technology for those

  9. ent-Clerodane diterpenes and other constituents from the liverwort Adelanthus lindenbergianus (Lehm.) Mitt. (United States)

    Bläs, Barbara; Zapp, Josef; Becker, Hans


    Eleven ent-clerodanes, 13-hydroxy-cis-ent-cleroda-3,14-diene, 15-hydroxy-cis-ent-cleroda-3,13(E)-diene, 1beta,12:15,16-diepoxy-cis-ent-cleroda-13(16),14-dien-18alpha,6alpha-olide, 8beta,12:15, 16-diepoxy-cis-ent-cleroda-13(16),14-dien-18alpha,6alpha-olide, 1beta,16:15,16-diepoxy-cis-ent-cleroda-12,14-dien-18alpha,6alpha-olide, 7beta,12:8beta,12-diepoxy-15-hydroxy-cis-ent-cleroda-13-en-16,15:18alpha,6alpha-diolide, 7beta,12:8beta,12-diepoxy-16-hydroxy-cis-ent-cleroda-13-en-15,16:18alpha,6alpha-diolide, 1alpha-acetoxy-8beta,12-epoxy-15-hydroxy-cis-ent-cleroda-13-en-16,15:18alpha,6alpha-diolide, 1beta,12-epoxy-16-hydroxy-cis-ent-cleroda-13-en-15,16:18alpha,6alpha-diolide, 8beta,12-epoxy-15-hydroxy-trans-cleroda-13-en-16,15:18alpha,6alpha-diolide, 8beta,12-epoxy-16-hydroxy-trans-cleroda-13-en-15,16:18alpha,6alpha-diolide along with the known clerodane diterpenes anastreptin and orcadensin have been isolated from the liverwort Adelanthus lindenbergianus (Lehm.) Mitt. Furthermore, three eudesmane sesquiterpenes together with the known (-)-1beta,10-epoxyaristolan, 3,4-seco-4(23),20(29)-lupadien-3,28-dicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester and two acetophenone derivatives were identified by spectroscopic methods, essentially MS and NMR experiments.

  10. Final Technical Report Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macek, Robert J


    Low energy electrons (often referred to as "electron clouds") in the beam chambers of high intensity accelerators and storage rings can limit their performance. They can limit intensity by causing instabilities, unacceptable pressure increases or increases in beam size. Thus, reliable simulations of electron cloud generation in the Los Alamos high intensity Proton Storage Ring (PSR) and similar machines would be a most valuable tool for improving our understanding of its origin, the parameters that affect it and how it might be controlled. Such tools would provide cost-effective methods for designing mitigation measures and evaluating them before going to the expense of fabrication and experimental testing in an operating accelerator facility. In this project we have developed and tested several significant improvements to a widely used electron cloud simulation code, POSINST. In our version, LANLPOSINST V6, we have add several important features including the capability to model a multi-element section of the ring consisting of two quadrupole magnets with 3-dimensional magnetic fields, dipole magnet end fields, several drift spaces and various electron cloud diagnostics. Improvements were also added to the modeling of the initial primary or seed electrons from proton beam losses. One important conclusion from benchmarking these improvements was the need to include seed electrons produced from secondary particles resulting from the primary proton beam losses.

  11. Final Technical Report of Research (United States)

    Taube, H.


    The studies conducted embrace the following subject areas: ion solvation, mechanistic studies on substitution reactions in metal complexes, oxidation of coordinated ligands, mechanistic studies on electron transfer reactions, preparation and characterization of new species in the aquo and ammino systems.

  12. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seinfeld, John H. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)


    This project addressed the following research need in the Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science and Program Plan: "Measurements downwind of urban sources of aerosol particles and precursor gases have shown that the mass concentration of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can be several-fold greater than can be explained on the basis of current model calculations using observed precursor concentrations. ASR will continue conducting laboratory experiments on both gas-phase and aqueous-phase SOA formation to characterize the particle formation and the organic gases that react to form new organic aerosol material on aerosol seeds. ASR will use these experiments to guide the development of comprehensive chemical mechanisms... to guide the development of parameterizations that are simple enough to be applied to aerosol life cycle models."

  13. Alabama SEP Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Elizabeth M.


    Executive Summary In the fall of 2010, the Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs (ADECA) launched the Multi-State Model for Catalyzing the National Home Energy Retrofit Market Project (Multi-State Project). This residential energy efficiency pilot program was a collaborative effort among the states of Alabama, Massachusetts, Virginia, and Washington, and was funded by competitive State Energy Program (SEP) awards through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this project was to catalyze the home energy efficiency retrofit market in select areas within the state of Alabama. To achieve this goal, the project addressed a variety of marketplace elements that did not exist, or were underdeveloped, at the outset of the effort. These included establishing minimum standards and credentials for marketplace suppliers, educating and engaging homeowners on the benefits of energy efficiency and addressing real or perceived financial barriers to investments in whole-home energy efficiency, among others. The anticipated effect of the activities would be increased market demand for retrofits, improved audit to retrofit conversion rates and growth in overall community understanding of energy efficiency. The four-state collaborative was created with the intent of accelerating market transformation by allowing each state to learn from their peers, each of whom possessed different starting points, resources, and strategies for achieving the overall objective. The four partner states engaged the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) to oversee a project steering committee and to manage the project evaluation for all four states. The steering committee, comprised of key program partners, met on a regular basis to provide overall project coordination, guidance, and progress assessment. While there were variances in program design among the states, there were several common elements: use of the Energy Performance Score (EPS) platform; an audit and home energy rating tool; emphasis on community based coordination and partnerships; marketing and outreach to increase homeowner participation; training for market actors; access to financing options including rebates, incentives, and loan products; and an in depth process evaluation to support continual program improvement and analysis. In Alabama, Nexus Energy Center operated energy efficiency retrofit programs in Huntsville and Birmingham. In the Huntsville community the AlabamaWISE program was available in five Alabama counties: Cullman, Lawrence, Limestone, Madison, and Morgan. In Birmingham, the program was available to residents in Jefferson and Shelby Counties. In both communities, the program was similar in terms of program design but tailored marketing and partnerships to address the unique local conditions and population of each community. ADECA and the Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance (SEEA) provided overall project management services and common resources to the local program administrator Nexus Energy Center, including contracted services for contractor training, quality assurance testing, data collection and reporting, and compliance. The fundamental components of the AlabamaWISE program included a vertical contractor-based business model; comprehensive energy assessments; third-party quality assurance; rebates for installation of energy saving measures; accessible, low-interest financing; targeted and inbound marketing; Energy Performance Score (EPS) tool to engage and educate homeowners; training for auditors, contractors, and real estate professionals; and online resources for education and program enrollment. Program participants were eligible to receive rebates or financing toward the assessments and upgrades to their home provided they reached at least 20 percent deemed or modeled energy savings. The design of each program focused on addressing several known barriers including: limited homeowner knowledge on the benefits of energy efficiency, lack of financing options, lack of community support for energy efficiency programs, and lack of trained market actors including contractors and real estate professionals. The programs were able to make progress on addressing all of these barriers and were most successful in offering financing options and training market actors. The most challenging barriers proved to be the act of building a market for energy efficiency where none previously existed, convincing homeowners of the value in investing in energy efficiency (and therefore completing retrofits), engaging electric and natural gas utilities to partner on delivery, and achieving the overall project target of 1,365 completed retrofits. The components that proved to be the most valuable to program success were engaged contractor networks that could promote and endorse the program, partnerships with local business and organizations, and the access to rebates, incentives and financing mechanisms. The programs were successful in building relationships with a variety of community participants including: local contractors, Associations of REALTORS, home builders associations, universities, utilities, local and state governments, and other non-profit organizations. Throughout this program, 933 building audits and 795 building retrofits were completed making homes in Alabama more comfortable, less expensive to operate, more valuable to the marketplace, and safer and healthier for families. Continuing on this momentum, Nexus Energy Center plans to continue operating and expanding operations in Alabama as a Home Performance with ENERGY STAR sponsor and will continue to provide energy services and education to communities in Alabama.

  14. Final Environmental Planning Technical Report (United States)


    al. 1981) and thins to the south and east, where it is about 400 feet (120 meters) thick in Scotts Bluff County ( Darton 1903) and 500 feet (152 meters...Laramie. Darton , N.H. 1903 Preliminary report on the geology and water resources of Nebraska west of the one hundred and third meridan. U.S

  15. GOWind Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatton, Ian [CEO


    To obtain a permit, to construct, to connect 3x6MW permanent magnet direct drive wind power generators, and to deliver to the ERCOT grid 18MW of renewable energy from up to 5 miles offshore San Pedro Island, Texas. To further develop the site to accommodate up to 1000MW of productivity and thereby drive down the average cost of construction, making offshore wind power economically competitive with alternative sources of energy.

  16. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, Kenneth F.


    Led by James Madison University, Valley 25x?25 promotes using a diverse energy portfolio to achieve the goal of 25 percent renewable energy by 2025, including renewables like wind, biomass, solar, and geothermal. A primary emphasis is energy efficiency, which offers the best opportunities to decrease the use and impact of non-renewable energy sources. Endorsed by the national 25x?25 organization, Valley 25x?25 serves as an East Coast Demonstration Project, and as such, partners with regional businesses, local and state governments, institutions of higher education, and K-12 schools to explore how Valley resources can contribute to the development of innovative energy solutions.

  17. Unraveling photosystems. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report highlights four main points. (1) A residue substitution in phosphoribulokinase of Synechocystis PCC 6803 renders the mutant light-sensitive. The authors isolated a light-sensitive mutant (BRLS) of the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803 that does not survive exposure to bright light; 70% of BRLS cells die upon exposure to light of > 3000 lux for 2 hr. (2) Excitation energy transfer from phycocyanin to chlorophyll in an apcA-defective mutant of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. A greenish mutant of the normally bule-green cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PC 6803, designated UV6p, was isolated and characterized. UV6p possesses functional photosystems I and II but lacks normal light harvesting phycobilisomes because allophycocyanin is absent and core-specific linker proteins are almost entirely absent. (3) Deletion of the psbG1 gene of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 leads to the activation of the cryptic psbG2 gene. The genes psbG1 and psbG2 in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 are homologous. The psbG1 gene is located on the chromosome and is part of the ndhC-psbG1-ORF157 operon, while psbG2 is located on a plasmid and is not flanked by equivalent ndhC or ORF157 genes. (4) Deletion of the structural gene for the NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 4 of Synechocystis 6803 alters respiratory properties. Chloroplasts and cyanobacteria contain genes encoding polypeptides homologous to some subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory NADH-ubiquinol oxidoreductase complex (NADH dehydrogenase). Nothing is known of the role of the NADH dehydrogenase complex in photosynthesis, respiration, or other functions in chloroplasts, and little is known about their specific roles in the perhaps 42 subunits of this complex in the mitochondrion.

  18. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakrasi, Himadri B. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)


    The potential for developing commercially viable microbial H2-production systems as a renewable source of biofuel has been limited by the need for an anaerobic environment to enable photobiological H2-production in capable bacterial and algal species. In this project, we have shown that the cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 has the capacity for highly efficient H2-production under natural aerobic conditions. The marine cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 has a diurnal metabolic cycle; photosynthesis and carbon fixation occur during daylight hours and then at night, high rates of respiration create a suboxic intracellular environment that enables O2-sensitive processes to occur, including N2-fixation and H2-production. We developed a two-stage approach to monitor H2-production by Cyanothece 51142. In the first stage, we grew the bacteria aerobically in an alternating 12 hour light/dark cycle. A second ‘incubation’ stage was then carried out in which we took cells from the end of a 12 hour light growth period and incubated them in air-tight vials for a further 12 hours under continuous illumination. Analysis of the headspace in the vial revealed high specific rates of H2-production (>150 μmol of H2 per mg chlorophyll per hour) during this incubation period. Furthermore, the rate of H2-production could be enhanced by growing the cells in the presence of high levels of CO2 or glycerol. We also confirmed that H2-production was mediated by the nitrogenase system found in these Cyanothece cells. Interestingly, in the absence of molecular N2, nitrogenase systems channel all available electrons towards H2-production. Accordingly, when we incubated glycerol-supplemented Cyanothece 51142 cells in the absence of N2, the rate of H2-production increased up to 467 μmol of H2 per mg chlorophyll per hour, which is an order of magnitude greater than those rates previously observed in other wild type H2 producing model photosynthetic microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. As glycerol and CO2 are both abundantly available as industrial waste products, the fact that they substantially enhance aerobic H2-production suggests that Cyanothece 51142 is a potentially viable system for producing biohydrogen as a renewable fuel source. During this project, we have conducted a detailed systems level analysis of this interesting cyanobacterial system, and have created a rich knowledgebase for the use of Cyanothece cells as efficient biohydrogen producers in large scale.

  19. Technical Report --Final Work Accomplishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Heui


    The main goal of this project was to understand the solution structure of nonlinear boundary value problems arising in self-similar solutions of nonlinear systems of multidimensional conservation laws. This project further extended to study on biocomplex systems including Morphogen gradients systems (reaction-diffusion systems) and tumor growth and its treatment model problems (free boundary, conservation of mass and reaction-diffusion systems). The list of publications and the summary of those publications are listed.

  20. Extending a Single Residue Switch for Abbreviating Catalysis in Plant ent-Kaurene Synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirong Jia


    Full Text Available Production of ent-kaurene as a precursor for important signaling molecules such as the gibberellins seems to have arisen early in plant evolution, with corresponding cyclase(s present in all land plants (i.e., embryophyta. The relevant enzymes seem to represent fusion of the class II diterpene cyclase that produces the intermediate ent-copalyl diphosphate (ent-CPP and the subsequently acting class I diterpene synthase that produces ent-kaurene, although the bifunctionality of the ancestral gene is only retained in certain early diverging plants, with gene duplication and sub-functionalization leading to distinct ent-CPP synthases (CPSs and ent-kaurene synthases (KSs generally observed. This evolutionary scenario implies that plant KSs should have conserved structural features uniquely required for production of ent-kaurene relative to related enzymes that have alternative function. Notably, substitution of threonine for a conserved isoleucine has been shown to short-circuit the complex bicyclization and rearrangement reaction catalyzed by KSs after initial cyclization, leading to predominant production of ent-pimaradiene, at least in KSs from angiosperms. Here this effect is shown to extend to KSs from earlier diverging plants (i.e., bryophytes, including a bifunctional CPS/KS. In addition, attribution of the dramatic effect of this single residue switch on product outcome to electrostatic stabilization of the ent-pimarenyl carbocation intermediate formed upon initial cyclization by the hydroxyl introduced by threonine substitution has been called into question by the observation of similar effects from substitution of alanine. Here further mutational analysis and detailed product analysis is reported that supports the importance of electrostatic stabilization by a hydroxyl or water.

  1. Final technical report DOE award DE-SC0007206 Improving CESM Efficiency to Study Variable C:N:P Stoichiometry in the Oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primeau, Francois William [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)


    This report lists the accomplishments of the project, which includes: (1) analysis of inorganic nutrient concentration data as well as suspended particulate organic matter data in the ocean to demonstrate that the carbon to nitrogen to phosphorus ratios (C:N:P) of biological uptake and export vary on large spatial scales, (2) the development of a new computationally efficient method for simulating biogeochemical tracers in earth system models, (3) the application of the method to help calibrate an improved representation of dissolved organic matter in the ocean that includes variable C:N:P stoichiometry. This research is important because biological uptake of carbon and nutrients in the upper ocean and export by sinking particles and downward mixing of dissolved organic matter helps maintain a vertical gradient in the carbon dioxide concentration in the ocean. This gradient is key to understanding the partitioning of CO2 between the ocean and the atmosphere. The final report lists seven peer reviewed scientific publications, one Ph.D. thesis, one technical report and two papers in preparation.

  2. Control of nitrogen oxides: assessment of needs and options, technical support document. Volume 6. Applying NO/sub x/ air quality models. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, S.R.; Liu, C.; Holman, H.Y.; Souten, D.R.; Hillyer, M.J.; Killus, J.P.


    This is the final volume of a six-volume Technical Support Document which is designed to provide utilities with information needed to contend with several pending NO/sub x/-related regulatory changes. This volume examines the use and choice of air quality models to assess the impacts of power plant emissions of NO/sub x/. Simple Gaussian models and more refined reactive plume models are considered. The choice is seen to depend upon the specific circumstances and the regulatory issue being addressed as well as upon the resources required by the alternative models. Since general dicta for model choice are not possible, a case study approach is used to explain the choice through analogy. For each case study, four steps are outlined. Background material for basic reader orientation are presented, thus illustrating the types of information that must be assembled. The situation is visualized in air quality modeling terms. The selection of a suitable model or set of models is demonstrated with the use of a series of decision trees. Guidance is offered the reader in identifying data needs and assessing data availability. By examining the representative case studies, the reader should gain insight into the planning and conduct of the NO/sub x/ modeling process.

  3. Final report. Geothermal Energy Program: Information dissemination, public outreach, and technical analysis activities. April 1, 1999 to December 31, 2001. USDOE Grant No. DE-FG01-99-EE35098

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.


    This is the final report of the accomplishments of the geothermal energy program: information dissemination, public outreach, and technical analysis activities by the project team consisting of the Geo-Heat Center, Geothermal Resources Council, Geothermal Education Office, Geothermal Energy Association, and the Washington State University Energy Program.

  4. Final Technical Report for Award DESC0011912, "Trimodal Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy: Simultaneous 4D Mapping of Conservative and Dissipative Probe-Sample Interactions of Energy-Relevant Materials”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solares, Santiago D. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)


    The final project report covering the period 7/1/14-6/30/17 provides an overview of the technical accomplishments in the areas of (i) fundamental viscoelasticity, (ii) multifrequency atomic force microscopy, and (iii) characterization of energy-relevant materials with atomic force microscopy. A list of publications supported by the project is also provided.

  5. Oxidative Degradations of the Side Chain of Unsaturated Ent-labdanes. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Chamy


    Full Text Available A route for the degradation of the side chain of ent-labdane derivatives has beendevised, giving the useful synthon 2β,12-dihydroxy-13,14,15,16,17-pentanor-ent-labdane-8-one (8. The use of this compound in the preparation of terpenylquinone derivatives shallbe reported elsewhere. In addition we have synthesized the compound 2β,12-diacetoxy-8β,17-epoxy-13,14,15,16-tetranor-ent-labdane (10, which upon catalytic epoxide ringopening in alkaline or acid media gave rise in all cases to the formation of tricycliccompounds.

  6. Certifying a university ENT clinic using the ISO 9001:2000 international standard. (United States)

    Helbig, Matthias; Helbig, Silke; Kahla-Witzsch, Heike A; Kroll, Tobias; May, Angelika


    Against statutory duties to introduce quality management systems, the increased importance of this subject has led to numerous activities in various public health institutions. Following the International Standardization Organization (ISO 9001:2000) prerequisites, Frankfurt Goethe University Hospital ENT clinic staff introduced a quality management system. This paper aims to investigate this process. Designing, planning and implementing the quality management system is described. Under the supervision of an executive quality management board, clinic quality goals were defined. Thereafter, several quality management teams performed an actual state analysis as well as developing and realising improvement proposals. Finally a quality management manual containing binding standards and working instructions concerning all patient care, research and teaching aspects was written. Successful certification by a neutral body ascertained that the clinic's quality management system conformed to current national and international standards while restructuring and reform improved procedural efficiency. The paper shows that mplementing the quality management system requires considerable effort but patients as well as staff profit considerably from the innovation. On the whole, the positive impact on structure and workflow in a specialist clinic predominates. Therefore, implementing a quality management system in all the clinic's wards and departments is recommended.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains archival raw, partially processed, and ancillary/supporting radio science data acquired during the Extended Operations (ENT) phase of the...

  8. How We Do It: A DIY Smart Phone based ENT Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Duvvi


    Full Text Available We present a simple method of preparing a smart phone based ENT endoscopy for OPD clinic and for on call ENT to provide emergency ENT care in Accident and Emergency department when required. In our experience, this method is efficient, economical and ensures mobility and flexibility of remote visual inspection and documentation. This aids in better care for patients especially where there is no easy access to traditional ENT treatment room facility. This provides a fast and cost-effective solution to simultaneously view capture and save photos and videos with a smartphone and, if required, send these pictures to oncall Consultant. This enables quicker identification, documentation and support regardless of location.

  9. Ent-kaurane diterpenoids and other constituents from the stem of Xylopia laevigata (Annonaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dayanne Meneses; Costa, Emmanoel Vilaca; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Moraes, Valeria Regina de Souza [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Cavalcanti, Socrates Cabral de Holanda [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Salvador, Marcos Jose [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biologia Vegetal; Ribeiro, Luis Henrique Gonzaga; Gadelha, Fernanda Ramos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Bioquimica; Barison, Andersson [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica


    Phytochemical investigation of the hexane extract from the stem of Xylopia laevigata led to the isolation of the ent-kaurane diterpenoids, ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, 4-epi-kaurenic acid, ent-16{beta}-hydroxy-17-acetoxy-kauran-19-al, ent-3{beta}-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, and ent-16{beta},17-dihydroxy-kauran-19-oic acid, as well as spathulenol and a mixture of {beta}-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol. The identification of the compounds was performed on the basis of spectrometric methods including GC-MS, IR, and 1D and 2D NMR. Potent larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae with LC{sub 50} of 62.7 {mu}g mL{sup -1} was found for ent-3{beta}-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid. This compound also showed significant antifungal activity against Candida glabrata and Candida dubliniensis with MIC values of 62.5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}. (author)

  10. Program of technical assistance to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons - lessons learned from the U.S. program of technical assistance to IAEA safeguards. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Defense Nuclear Agency is sponsoring a technical study of the requirements of a vehicle to meet the OPCW`s future needs for enhanced chemical weapons verification capabilities. This report provides information about the proven mechanisms by which the U.S. provided both short- and long-term assistance to the IAEA to enhance its verification capabilities. Much of the technical assistance has generic application to international organizations verifying compliance with disarmament treaties or conventions. In addition, some of the equipment developed by the U.S. under the existing arrangements can be applied in the verification of other disarmament treaties or conventions. U.S. technical assistance to IAEA safeguards outside of the IAEA`s regular budget proved to be necessary. The U.S. technical assistance was successful in improving the effectiveness of IAEA safeguards for its most urgent responsibilities and in providing the technical elements for increased IAEA {open_quotes}readiness{close_quotes} for the postponed responsibilities deemed important for U.S. policy objectives. Much of the technical assistance was directed to generic subjects and helped to achieve a system of international verification. It is expected that the capabilities of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) to verify a state`s compliance with the {open_quotes}Chemical Weapons Convention{close_quotes} will require improvements. This report presents 18 important lessons learned from the experience of the IAEA and the U.S. Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), organized into three tiers. Each lesson is presented in the report in the context of the difficulty, need and history in which the lesson was learned. Only the most important points are recapitulated in this executive summary.

  11. Green-House-Gas-Reduced Coal-and-Biomass-to-Liquid-Based Jet Fuel (GHGR-CBTL) Process - Final Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Kenneth [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Imam, Thamina [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Chevanan, Nehru [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Namazian, Mehdi [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)


    This Final Technical Report describes the work and accomplishments of the project entitled, “Green-House-Gas-Reduced Coal-and-Biomass-to-Liquid-Based Jet Fuel (GHGR-CBTL) Process”. The main objective of the project was to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the GHGR-CBTL fuel-production technology from TRL 4 to TRL 5 by producing a drop-in synthetic Jet Propellant 8 (JP-8) with a greenhouse-gas footprint less than or equal to petroleum-based JP-8 by utilizing mixtures of coal and biomass as the feedstock. The system utilizes the patented Altex fuel-production technology, which incorporates advanced catalysts developed by Pennsylvania State University. While the system was not fabricated and tested, major efforts were expended to design the 1-TPD and a full-scale plant. The system was designed, a Block-Flow Diagram (BFD), a Process-Flow Diagram (PFD), and Piping-and-Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs) were produced, a Bill of Materials (BOM) and associated spec sheets were produced, commercially available components were selected and procured, custom components were designed and fabricated, catalysts were developed and screened for performance, and permitting activities were conducted. Optimization tests for JP-8 production using C2 olefin as the feed were performed over a range of temperatures, pressures and WHSVs. Liquid yields of between 63 to 65% with 65% JP-8 fraction (41-42% JP-8 yield) at 50 psig were achieved. Life-Cycle Analysis (LCA) was performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and a GHGR-CBTL module was added to the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model. Based upon the experimental results, the plant design was reconfigured for zero natural-gas imports and minimal electricity imports. The LCA analysis of the reconfigured process utilizing the GREET model showed that if the char from the process was utilized to produce combined heat and power (CHP) then a feed containing 23 wt% biomass and

  12. Organization of the 17th Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC16) Workshop by the IEEE. Final Scientific/Technical Report On AWARD NO. DE-SC0015635

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, David F. [Inst. of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Piscataway, NJ (United States)


    The 2016 Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts (AAC) was held at the Gaylord Hotel and Conference Center, National Harbor, Maryland, from July 31 through August 5, 2016. This workshop was the seventeenth in a biennial series that began at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1982 with a workshop on laser acceleration of particles (see AIP Conf. Proc. 91). AAC16 was organized under the sponsorship of the IEEE Council on Superconductivity with financial support from the U. S. Department of Energy Office of High Energy Physics and the National Science Foundation. The scope of the AAC Workshop has grown since 1982 to encompass a broad range of topics related to advancing accelerator science and technology beyond its current scientific and technical limits and is now an internationally acknowledged forum for interdisciplinary discussions on advanced accelerator and beam physics/technology concepts covering the widest possible range of applications. The Workshop continued the trend of growing worldwide participation, attracting world wide participation. The Workshop had a total of 256 attendees comprising (including the U.S.) representatives from 11 countries representing 65 different institutions. Each day’s schedule began with plenary sessions covering broad, cross disciplinary interests or general tutorial topics as selected by the Program Committee, followed by a break out into more narrowly focused working groups. The Workshop was organized into eight Working Groups each with a published statement of topical focus, scope of discussion and goals. A summary of the Working Group activities and conclusions is included in the American Institute of Physics’ (AIP) Conference Proceedings now available as an on line open source document. It has been a long tradition of the AAC workshops to encourage strong student participation. This is accomplished in part by subsidizing student attendance, done for this work shop by using funds from the DOE and National Science

  13. Ear Nose Throat (ENT disorders in Government Schools of Far-Western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Acharya


    Full Text Available Background: ENT disorders specially hearing impairment negatively impacts students’ development of academic, language and social skills. If left undiagnosed, these conditions may result in significant irreversible damage such as varying degree of hearing loss that can affect the social or professional performance of the individuals in later stages of life. Students going to government school in our country generally come from under privileged society. We investigated the occurrence of ENT diseases among various government school students in Kailali district. Methods: Nine government school of Kailai district were chosen at random. All students of those school present on the day of examination went routine ENT examinations. Brief history, if any, was recorded and findings were noted. The study was done throughout the month of September, 2013. Results: There were a total of 2256 students enrolled in the study. There were 1126 male and 1130 female students. Mean age of the students was 9.88 years. Forty One percent of students had ENT problems. Ear wax was the most common (17% findings followed by suppurative ear diseases, otittis media with effusion as so on in decreasing frequency. Conclusions: ENT diseases and specially ear diseases are important health problems among school children of Nepal. Regular school health services, screening program, public awareness, improvement of socioeconomic status, timely referral to a specialist doctor can help to reduce the disease-related burden.

  14. Involvement of an ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase in tissue-specific accumulation of specialized diterpenes in Andrographis paniculata. (United States)

    Misra, Rajesh Chandra; Garg, Anchal; Roy, Sudeep; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Vasudev, Prema G; Ghosh, Sumit


    Ent-labdane-related diterpene (ent-LRD) specialized (i.e. secondary) metabolites of the medicinal plant kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) have long been known for several pharmacological activities. However, our understanding of the ent-LRD biosynthetic pathway has remained largely incomplete. Since ent-LRDs accumulate in leaves, we carried out a comparative transcriptional analysis using leaf and root tissues, and identified 389 differentially expressed transcripts, including 223 transcripts that were preferentially expressed in leaf tissue. Analysis of the transcripts revealed various specialized metabolic pathways, including transcripts of the ent-LRD biosynthetic pathway. Two class II diterpene synthases (ApCPS1 and ApCPS2) along with one (ApCPS1') and two (ApCPS2' and ApCPS2″) transcriptional variants that were the outcomes of alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA and alternative transcriptional termination, respectively, were identified. ApCPS1 and ApCPS2 encode for 832- and 817-amino acids proteins, respectively, and are phylogenetically related to the dicotyledons ent-copalyl diphosphate synthases (ent-CPSs). The spatio-temporal patterns of ent-LRD metabolites accumulation and gene expression suggested a likely role for ApCPS1 in general (i.e. primary) metabolism, perhaps by providing precursor for the biosynthesis of phytohormone gibberellin (GA). However, ApCPS2 is potentially involved in tissue-specific accumulation of ent-LRD specialized metabolites. Bacterially expressed recombinant ApCPS2 catalyzed the conversion of (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), the general precursor of diterpenes to ent-copalyl diphosphate (ent-CPP), the precursor of ent-LRDs. Taken together, these results advance our understanding of the tissue-specific accumulation of specialized ent-LRDs of medicinal importance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. New Ent-Kaurane-Type Diterpene Glycosides and Benzophenone from Ranunculus muricatus Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-Ling Wu


    Full Text Available Two new ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides, ranunculosides A (1 and B (2, and a new benzophenone, ranunculone C (3, were isolated from the aerial part of Ranunculus muricatus Linn. The chemical structures of compounds 1–3 were established to be (2S-ent-kauran-2β-ol-15-en-14-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, (2S,4S-ent-kauran-2β,18-diol-15-en-14-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, and (R-3-[2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl]-2-hydroxylpropanoic acid, respectively, by spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by the combinational application of RP-HPLC analysis and Mosher’s method.

  16. Synthesis of Two New Hemisynthetic Diterpenylhydroquinones from Natural Ent-Labdanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Cuellar Fritis


    Full Text Available The synthesis and structural determination of two new diterpenylhydroquinones: 2β-acetoxy-15-phenyl-(22,25-dihydroxy-ent-labda-8(17,13(E-diene(1 and 2β-hydroxy-15-phenyl-(22,25-dihydroxy-ent-labda-8(17,13(E-dieneis reported (2. These compounds were obtained by coupling via Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution (EAS of 1,4-hydroquinone with primary or tertiary allyl alcohol derivatives of the natural ent-labdanes 3 and 4. With this new method, the best results were observed when mixtures of the primary alcohol derivatives 5-6 (26% yield of compound 1 and diol derivatives 9-10 (28% yield of compound 2 were used.

  17. Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Diterpenylhydroquinone Derivatives of Natural Ent-Labdanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Cuellar Fritis


    Full Text Available Two new compounds 2β-acetoxy-15-phenyl-(22,25-acetoxy-ent-labda-8(17, 13(E-diene (9 and 2β-hydroxy-15-phenyl-(22,24,26-trimethoxy-ent-labda-8(17,13(E-diene (10 have been prepared by an Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution (EAS reaction between diterpenyl allylic alcohols and 1,4-hydroquinone or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene using BF3.Et2O as a catalyst. These compounds, along with a series of natural ent-labdanes 3-8, have been evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activities against cultured human cancer cells of PC-3 and DU-145 human prostate cancer, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma and dermal human fibroblasts (DHF. Some compounds displayed inhibition at µM IC50 values.

  18. Using a MaxEnt Classifier for the Automatic Content Scoring of Free-Text Responses (United States)

    Sukkarieh, Jana Z.


    Criticisms against multiple-choice item assessments in the USA have prompted researchers and organizations to move towards constructed-response (free-text) items. Constructed-response (CR) items pose many challenges to the education community—one of which is that they are expensive to score by humans. At the same time, there has been widespread movement towards computer-based assessment and hence, assessment organizations are competing to develop automatic content scoring engines for such items types—which we view as a textual entailment task. This paper describes how MaxEnt Modeling is used to help solve the task. MaxEnt has been used in many natural language tasks but this is the first application of the MaxEnt approach to textual entailment and automatic content scoring.

  19. Do patients with chronic rhinosinusitis benefit from consultation with an ENT-doctor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Bibi; Thilsing, Trine; Baelum, Jesper


    CONCLUSION: By consulting an ENT-doctor, patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), in the general population, receive disease information and adjustment of treatment which can improve disease-specific Quality-of-Life and may improve objective measurements. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to follow...... persons with clinical diagnosed CRS from the general population, to evaluate their benefit from consultation with an ENT-doctor in terms of severity of symptoms and Quality-of-Life. METHODS: As part of a trans-European study, selected respondents to a survey questionnaire were invited for a clinical visit......, peak nasal inspiratory flow, smell test, and skin prick test. RESULTS: Out of 91 persons with CRS, only 42% had previously consulted an ENT-doctor, and 51% were in current treatment for CRS. Most patients were advised medical treatment and 20% underwent surgery. Disease-specific Quality-of-Life, peak...

  20. Semi-Empirical Predictions on the Structure and Properties of ent-Kaurenoic Acid and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Isagani B. Janairo


    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of ent- kaurenoic acid model derivatives, which possibly influence its therapeutic application, were calculated. Results revealed that the molecule possess favourable attributes which renders it possible to be considered as a drug lead only that its very hydrophobic nature can result to poor bioavailabilty, low absorption and poor systemic circulation. In silico simulations revealed that this setback can be overcome by introduction of hydroxyl group to the tertiary carbon of ent-kaurenoic acid employing m-CPBA catalyzed hydroxylation, thus, unleashing its full drug potency. Moreover, molecular similarity analyses derived from semi-empirical calculations between ent-kaurenoic acid and a set of kaurane diterpenoids showed differences in hydrophobic complementarity, size and electronic properties despite possessing nearly identical molecular frameworks, thus, arriving in a generalization for their observed mechanistic differences on acting on different targets.

  1. Ent-kaurane glycosides and sesquiterpene lactones of the hirsutinolide type from Vernonia triflosculosa. (United States)

    Kos, Olha; Castro, Víctor; Murillo, Renato; Poveda, Luis; Merfort, Irmgard


    Investigation of the aerial parts of Vernonia triflosculosa afforded three hirsutinolides of which 8alpha-(4alpha-hydroxymethacryloyloxy)-10alpha-hydroxy-1,13-dimethoxy-hirsutinolide is new, three ent-kaurane diterpenes, among which the 19-[alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] esters of 16beta-hydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid and of 16beta,17-hydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid are also new. Diterpenes are reported here for the first time in the large genus Vernonia. Their structures were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR measurement as well as ESI, CIMS, and HRMS analysis. Two hirsutinolides were studied for their NF-kappaB DNA binding activity in HaCaT cells (a human cell line similar to keratinocytes) and for their inhibition on IL-8 production in HeLa cells.

  2. A New ent-Clerodane Diterpene from Hymenaea courbaril var. altissima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira Raquel T.


    Full Text Available A new ent-clerodane and two known ent-labdanes were isolated from the barks of Hymenaea courbaril var. altissima (Ducke. The new diterpene was identified, after esterification with diazomethane, as methyl (--(5R,8S,9S,10R-clerod-3-en-15-oate and known diterpenes were identified as methyl (--copalate and methyl (--eperuate. From the EtOAc extract of seed pods a known methyl (--zanzibarate was isolated. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic studies.

  3. A New ent-Clerodane Diterpene from Hymenaea courbaril var. altissima


    Nogueira, Raquel T.; Giacomini, Rosana A.; Shepherd, George J.; Imamura, Paulo M.


    A new ent-clerodane and two known ent-labdanes were isolated from the barks of Hymenaea courbaril var. altissima (Ducke). The new diterpene was identified, after esterification with diazomethane, as methyl (-)-(5R,8S,9S,10R)-clerod-3-en-15-oate and known diterpenes were identified as methyl (-)-copalate and methyl (-)-eperuate. From the EtOAc extract of seed pods a known methyl (-)-zanzibarate was isolated. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic studies. ...

  4. To start w ith, a sim ple experim ent is considered here, in the form ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    In electronics practicalw ork (laboratory experi- m ent),m ost of the tim e the phase di®erence be- tw een any tw o p ort netw ork is m easured by form - in g L issa jou s ¯ gu re u sin g an oscilloscop e (C R O ). Such m easurem ents do not agree w ith the ex- p ected valu es at least for som e frequ en cy region s. T h is is a p ...

  5. Is children's use of ENT physicians in primary care related to social marginalization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lous, Jørgen; Vinding, Anker; Friis, Karina


    10 232 children of marginalized mothers have in Region North Denmark in 2009 used health care services more than children of non-marginalized mothers (N= 101 582) except of contact with ENT-physicians, and have significant less frequent inserted tympanostomy tubes (ventilation tube) in their tymp......10 232 children of marginalized mothers have in Region North Denmark in 2009 used health care services more than children of non-marginalized mothers (N= 101 582) except of contact with ENT-physicians, and have significant less frequent inserted tympanostomy tubes (ventilation tube...

  6. Hydroxylation at carbon-2 of ent-16-oxo-17-norkauran-19-oic acid by Fusarium proliferatum. (United States)

    Rocha, Alessandra Duarte; dos Santos, Geandson Coelho; Fernandes, Nelson Gonçalves; Pfenning, Ludwig Heinrich; Takahashi, Jacqueline Aparecida; Boaventura, Maria Amélia Diamantino


    A new product of biotransformation of ent-16-oxo-17-norkauran-19-oic acid (1) by Fusarium proliferatum was isolated and identified as a 2beta-hydroxy derivative (2). The structure of 2 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The allelopathic activity of compound 2 was evaluated on the growth of radicals and shoots of Lactuca sativa (lettuce). This is the first time that fungal hydroxylation at position C-2 has been reported on an ent-kaurane diterpene skeleton.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ron Moon


    This final scientific report documents the Industrial Technology Program (ITP) Stage 2 Concept Development effort on Data Center Energy Reduction and Management Through Real-Time Optimal Control (RTOC). Society is becoming increasingly dependent on information technology systems, driving exponential growth in demand for data center processing and an insatiable appetite for energy. David Raths noted, 'A 50,000-square-foot data center uses approximately 4 megawatts of power, or the equivalent of 57 barrels of oil a day1.' The problem has become so severe that in some cases, users are giving up raw performance for a better balance between performance and energy efficiency. Historically, power systems for data centers were crudely sized to meet maximum demand. Since many servers operate at 60%-90% of maximum power while only utilizing an average of 5% to 15% of their capability, there are huge inefficiencies in the consumption and delivery of power in these data centers. The goal of the 'Recovery Act: Decreasing Data Center Energy Use through Network and Infrastructure Control' is to develop a state of the art approach for autonomously and intelligently reducing and managing data center power through real-time optimal control. Advances in microelectronics and software are enabling the opportunity to realize significant data center power savings through the implementation of autonomous power management control algorithms. The first step to realizing these savings was addressed in this study through the successful creation of a flexible and scalable mathematical model (equation) for data center behavior and the formulation of an acceptable low technical risk market introduction strategy leveraging commercial hardware and software familiar to the data center market. Follow-on Stage 3 Concept Development efforts include predictive modeling and simulation of algorithm performance, prototype demonstrations with representative data center equipment to

  8. Final Technical Report: Metal—Organic Surface Catalyst for Low-temperature Methane Oxidation: Bi-functional Union of Metal—Organic Complex and Chemically Complementary Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tait, Steven L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)


    serve as easily tuned model systems for exploring the chemistry of single-site transition metals and tandem catalysts that could then be developed into a zeolite or other stable support structures. In this final technical report, three major advances our described that further these goals. The first is a study demonstrating the ability to tune the oxidation state of V single-site centers on a surface by design of the surrounding ligand field. The synthesis of the single-site centers was developed in a previous reporting period of this project and this new advance shows a distinct new ability of the systems to have a designed oxidation state of the metal center. Second, we demonstrate metal complexation at surfaces using vibrational spectroscopy and also show a metal replacement reaction on Ag surfaces. Third, we demonstrate a surface-catalyzed dehydrocyclization reaction important for metal-organic catalyst design at surfaces.

  9. Proteomics identifies Bacillus cereus EntD as a pivotal protein for the production of numerous virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène eOmer


    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive pathogen that causes a wide variety of diseases in humans. It secretes into the extracellular milieu proteins that may contribute directly or indirectly to its virulence. EntD is a novel exoprotein identified by proteogenomics of B. cereus ATCC 14579. We constructed a ΔentD mutant and analyzed the impact of entD disruption on the cellular proteome and exoproteome isolated from early, late and stationary-phase cultures. We identified 308 and 79 proteins regulated by EntD in the cellular proteome and the exoproteome, respectively. The contribution of these proteins to important virulence-associated functions, including central metabolism, cell structure, antioxidative ability, cell motility and toxin production, are presented. The proteomic data were correlated with the growth defect, cell morphology change, reduced motility and reduced cytotoxicity of the ΔentD mutant strain. We conclude that EntD is an important player in B. cereus virulence. The function of EntD and the putative EntD-dependent regulatory network are discussed. To our knowledge, this study is the first characterization of an Ent family protein in a species of the B. cereus group.

  10. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Final technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.


    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO{sub 2}) flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meeting, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals. Five activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization of carbonate mound buildups in the Paradox basin: (1) regional facies evaluation, (2) evaluation of outcrop analogues, (3) field-scale geologic analysis, (4) reservoir analysis, and (5) technology transfer.

  11. Final Technical Report on STTR Project DE-FG02-06ER86282 Development and Demonstration of 6-Dimensional Muon Beam Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muons, Inc.


    The overarching purpose of this project was to prepare a proposal for an experiment to demonstrate 6-dimensional muon beam cooling. The technical objectives were all steps in preparing the proposal, which was successfully presented to the Fermilab Accelerator Advisory Committee in February 2009. All primary goals of this project have been met.

  12. The Articulation of Occupational Education Programs between Secondary Schools and Community Colleges/Technical Institutes Project, 1 September 1974-31 Jul 1978. Final Report. (United States)

    Woelfer, Carlyle

    The purpose of this project was to develop a comprehensive model plan for the articulation of public high school vocational education programs with the occupational education programs of the community colleges/technical institutes in Duplin County, North Carolina. Such a plan would serve also as a guide for articulation efforts throughout the…

  13. Learning Styles of Females and Implications for Vocational-Technical Education: A Review of the Literature. Final Report from July 1, 1981 to June 30, 1982. (United States)

    Berthelot, Ronald J.

    Literature on female learning styles was reviewed to suggest implications for traditionally male vocational-technical education programs. The study focused on comparing and contrasting cognitive styles, a learning style dimension, between females and males. The field-dependent/independent distinction was found to be important for traditionally…

  14. Annual National Vocational-Technical Teacher Education Seminar Proceedings, Teaching Disadvantaged Youth (Third, Miami Beach, Fla., Oct. 20-23, 1969). Final Report. Leadership Series No. 24. (United States)

    Ferguson, Edward T., Ed.; Bice, Gary R., Ed.

    One of two volumes of the report of a seminar attended by 232 vocational-technical leaders from 37 states and the District of Columbia, this document covers the general sessions and the sub-seminar on teaching disadvantaged youth. General session presentations on teacher education by Martin W. Essex, Virgil S. Lagomarcino, and William G. Loomis…

  15. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome: guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of ent manifestations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vantrappen, G.; Rommel, N.; Swillen, A.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Fryns, J.P.; Devriendt, K.


    The Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome (VCFS), caused by a submicroscopic deletion in the long arm of chromosome 22, has a broad clinical spectrum of ENT manifestations including for instance velopharyngeal dysfunction, hearing problems and laryngotracheal anomalies. In the current report we present

  16. [The algorithm for the combined treatment of pyoinflammatory ENT diseases in the patients with diabetes mellitus]. (United States)

    Gurov, A V; Biryukova, E V; Yushkina, M A


    The objective of the present study was to determine the leading clinical and pathogenetic factors determining the clinical course of the pyoinflammatory ENT diseases in the patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and to develop the algorithm for the rational therapy of these conditions. A total of 145 patients presenting with pyoinflammatory ENT diseases and concomitant diabetes mellitus were available for the examination that included the microbiological and biochemical studies, determination of the total lipid spectrum, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, and glycemic profile. Also, the body mass index of the patients was estimated along with the type and severity of obesity. Moreover, the character of antibacterial and hypoglycemic therapy was evaluated. The mathematical analysis of the data obtained revealed the clinical and biochemical parameters determining the clinical picture of the pyoinflammatory ENT diseases in the patients with diabetes mellitus. These were localization of the pyogenic process in the larynx, abdominal obesity, fasting hyperglycemia in excess of 8.3 mmol/l, and dyslipidemia accompanied by the reduction in the amount of high density lipoproteins to below 40 mg/100 ml and the increase of low density lipoproteins to above 155 mg/100 ml. The results of the study were used to develop the differentialalgorithm for the combined treatment of pyoinflammatory ENT diseases in the patients with diabetes mellitus based on the proposed original scale for the prediction of pyogenic complications.

  17. Long-term damage to the ENT system in Wegener's granulomatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Del Pero, Marcos; Walsh, Michael; Luqmani, Raashid


    The objectives of the study are to describe long-term ENT damage and assess risk factors in patients with newly diagnosed and treated Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) using the vasculitis damage index (VDI). Data from four randomised controlled trials carried out by the European Vasculitis Study Group...

  18. A Facile Total Synthesis of ent-17β-Estradiol and Structurally–Related Analogues (United States)

    Cai, Zu Yun; Covey, Douglas F.


    A facile six-step synthesis (15.2% yield) of ent-17β-estradiol from readily accessible precursors is described. The preparation of analogues with 2-alkyl substitutents, double bond unsaturation in the C-ring, a cis C, D-ring fusion and modified substituents at C17 is also reported. PMID:17257636

  19. r Genet rice (Or tic ass ryza sp the sessme pp.) fo Gang ent of or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 5, 2015 ... varieties MTU ifferent enviro avidyalaya, Su. Bidhan Chand ions in yield ariances reve icle weight, g ariation (PCV he influences ere observed ritability coup grain length, low genetic a genotypic co ents. Path c evident from er panicle foll per panicle d panicle num n respect of g er panicle giv ariation, genet.

  20. Survey of ENT services in Africa: need for a comprehensive intervention. (United States)

    Fagan, Johan J; Jacobs, Marian


    Burden of disease (BOD) is greatest in resource-starved regions such as Africa. Even though hearing disability ranks third on the list of non-fatal disabling conditions in low- and middle-income countries, ear, nose, and throat (ENT) disorders are not specifically coded for within the framework governing global BOD estimates, and in discussions about health challenges, non-communicable diseases receive scant attention. Implementing cost-effective interventions to address conditions largely neglected by global estimates of BOD such as hearing loss are important contributors to health and economic development. Establish a database of ENT, audiology, and speech therapy services in Sub-Saharan Africa; create awareness about the status of these services; propose effective intervention; gather data to lobby African governments, donor countries, and aid organizations; determine need for Developing World Forum for ENT, Audiology, and Speech Therapy services. Survey of ENT, audiology, and speech therapy services and training in 18 Sub-Saharan Africa countries. There is an alarming paucity of services and training opportunities, and there is a large gap between higher technology, expensive health care in high-income countries and lower technology, low-cost practice in low-income countries. Lower technology and lower cost Developing World medical practice should be recognized and fostered as a field of medical practice, teaching, and research. Developing World centers of excellence must be fostered to take a lead in teaching, training, and research. A Developing World Forum for ENT Surgery, Audiology, and Speech Therapy, directed and driven by Africa and the Developing World, supported by the First World, should be established, to develop a comprehensive intervention to turn around the severe shortage of services and expertise in the Developing World. Global health policies and practices should include new norms and standards which serve the interests of the global community

  1. Synthesis of a New ent-Cyclozonarone Angular Analog, and Comparison of Its Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Effects with ent-Cyclozonarone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Cuellar Fritis


    Full Text Available The synthesis of a newangular analog 11 of cyclozonarone was achieved via Diels-Alder reaction between a sesquiterpene-1,3-diene and 1,4-benzoquinone. The cytotoxic activity of ent-cyclozonarone [(+-10] and the angular (−-cyclozonarone analog 11 has been determined in three human cancer cell lines and in normal fibroblasts using the sulforhodamine B assay. The analyzed isomers induce cell death in different cancer cell lines by eliciting nuclear condensation and fragmentation, decreasing mitochondrial membrane permeability and increasing caspase-3 activity, all traits indicating apoptosis, with the effects of (+-10 being stronger than those of 11 in all cases.

  2. A Study of Relationships among Technical, Tactical, Physical Parameters and Final Outcomes in Elite Soccer Matches as Analyzed by a Semiautomatic Video Tracking System. (United States)

    Filetti, Cristoforo; Ruscello, Bruno; D'Ottavio, Stefano; Fanelli, Vito


    The performance of a soccer team depends on many factors such as decision-making, cognitive and physical skills, and dynamic ever-changing space-time interactions between teammate and opponents in relation to the ball. Seventy ( n = 70) matches of the Italian SERIE A season 2013-2014 were investigated to analyze the mean performance of 360 players in terms of physical (physical efficiency index; PEI) and technical-tactical (technical efficiency index; TEI) standpoints. Using a semiautomatic video analysis system that has incorporated new parameters able to measure technical-tactical and physical efficiency (Patent IB2010/002593, 2011-ISA), the correlation between these new variables and how much it relates to the likelihood of winning were verified. Correlations between TEI and PEI were significant ( n = 140, r = .60, p < .001), and TEI showed a higher likelihood of winning than PEI factors ( p < .0001 vs. .0001, CI 95% [1.64, 3.00] vs. [1.28, 2.07]). Higher TEI and TEI + PEI differences between the teams were associated with a greater likelihood of winning, but PEI differences were not. Key performance indicators and this performance assessment method might be useful to better understand what determines winning and to assist the overall training process and match management.

  3. Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

  4. Otimização de entropia: implementação computacional dos princípios MaxEnt e MinxEnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos Rogério Silva de


    Full Text Available Os princípios de otimização de entropia MaxEnt de Jaynes (1957a,b e MinxEnt de Kullback (1959 encontram aplicações em várias áreas de investigação científica. Ambos envolvem a otimização condicionada de medidas de entropia que são funções intrinsecamente não-lineares de probabilidades. Como constituem problemas de programação não-linear, suas soluções demandam algoritmos de busca iterativa e, além disso, as condições de não-negatividade e de soma um para as probabilidades restringem de modo particular o espaço de soluções. O artigo apresenta em detalhe (com a ajuda de dois fluxogramas uma implementação computacional eficiente desses dois princípios no caso de restrições lineares com verificação prévia de existência de solução dos problemas de otimização. Os autores também disponibilizam rotinas de fácil uso desenvolvidas em linguagem MatLabâ .

  5. SAM Technical Review Committee Final Report: Summary and Key Recommendations from the Onsite TRC Meeting Held April 22-23, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, N.; Dobos, S.; Janzou, S.; Gilman, P.; Freeman, J.; Kaffine, L.


    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is a broad and robust set of models and frameworks for analyzing both system performance and system financing. It does this across a range of technologies dominated by solar technologies including photovoltaics (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technology Program requested the SAM development team to review the photovoltaic performance modeling with the development community and specifically, with the independent engineering community. The report summarizes the major effort for this technical review committee (TRC).

  6. Phase 0: goal study for the technical and economic evaluation of the Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) concept applied to solar thermal and photovoltaic collectors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report presents the results of a quick, six-week technical and economic evaluation of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) solar collector. The purpose of this effort was to provide an initial phase of a goals study that is directed toward recommending relative priorities for development of the compound parabolic concentrator concept. The findings of this study are of a very preliminary nature. Conclusions based on study findings at this depth should be considered preliminary and subject to revision and review in later phases.

  7. Identification and quantification of the water-soluble components of JP-4 and a determination of their biological effects upon selected freshwater organisms. Final technical report, September 30, 1978-February 27, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brammer, J.D.; Puyear, R.L.


    This final technical report includes a brief summary of research performed, results obtained, graduate students supported and theses written. One paper published was of a technical nature and describes the use of reversephase C-18 minicolumns for concentrating water-soluble hydrocarbons derived from JP-4 jet fuel. Another technical paper using the same technique as the first was used to concentrate water soluble hydrocarbons produced by running an outboard motor in water. Analytical methods used for hydrocarbon separation and identification was GC, GC/MS and HPLC. The toxicity of toluene on the fathead minnow was the basis of three papers and a Ph.D. thesis. It was found that the embryo was as sensitive to toluene than was the protolarvae or adult fish. This was determined using 96-hr LC50 tests. An MS thesis was written on the effects of toluene on gill structure in the fathead minnow adult. Little effect of toluene on gill structure was noted. A comparative study on the effects of administration of benzene, toluene and xylene isomeres on their in vitro metabolism and various drug metabolizing enzymes in rat liver, and the covalent binding of toluene to rat liver microsomes has resulted in one Ph.D. thesis and the preparation of three manuscripts for publication.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Sergeev


    Full Text Available This trial included 97 children with acute tonsillopharyngitis (angina, acute pharyngitis, laryngitis, otitis media. Ibubrofen suspension (Nurofen for Children was administrated in standard dose. Good and excellent analgetic and antipyretic result was registered in 75% of patients after 1 day, and satisfactory – in 25% of children. 44 children with different diseases of throat were treated with flurbiprofen as symptomatic anesthetic medication combined with other ones. Pain in throat and deglutitive problems were lessened after 2-3 hours after 1 administration of medication, and further reduction of symptoms was registered every 3 hours. Pain in throat was stopped in 38 children after 3 days of treatment. Thus, ibuprofen suspension and resorption tablets with flurbiprofen provide significant anesthetic effect in children, and they can be used in practice of children’s ENT specialist.Key words: children, ENT diseases, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory medications.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(1:81-84

  9. [ENT computerized medical history documentation. Report of experiences over 15 years]. (United States)

    Rasinger, G A; Neumann, H


    The results of 15 years of automated data processing are evaluated, and methods used in the beginning are compared with present-day procedures. The standardisation of E.N.T. case histories, and direct access to data files (34 500 case histories) created a well functioning base for scientific research. Nevertheless, many problems had to be solved first; such as loss of data through careless manipulation, inadequate coding (analog data), insufficiency of date definition, as well as a reluctance to fill in questionnaires properly. The advent of increasingly user-friendly hardware and software has done much to narrow the gap between physician and computer. This is clearly demonstrated by the increased use of the E.N.T. data bank for research in the last few years.




  11. PV String to 3-Phase Inverter with Highest Voltage Capabilities, Highest Efficiency and 25 Year Lifetime: Final Technical Report, November 7, 2011 - November 6, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, R.


    Final report for Renewable Power Conversion. The overall objective of this project was to develop a prototype PV inverter which enables a new utility-scale PV system approach where the cost, performance, reliability and safety benefits of this new approach have the potential to make all others obsolete.

  12. Enthalpy measurement of coal-derived liquids. Final technical progress report. [200 to 740/sup 0/F and 200 to 1500 psia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidnay, A.J.; Yesavage, V.F.


    This final report presents the results of the enthalpy measurements on the model compound m-cresol. The measurements cover the temperature range 200 to 740/sup 0/F and the pressure range 200 to 1500 psia. These data are compared with earlier data taken on m-cresol and with other thermophysical properties taken from the literature.

  13. Jobs and Self-Sufficiency: Goals of the Project, "Technical Support Services to the Developmentally Disabled, Region III." Final Report, October 1976 to September 1979. (United States)

    Mallik, Kalisankar; Shaver, Elaine M.

    The final report of a 3 year project to improve the quality of life of mentally retarded, cerebral palsied, and epileptic persons in Region III is presented. The first section details the efforts of the project staff in providing competitive employment opportunities or sheltered employment for 40 severely disabled persons. Equipment modification…

  14. Survey of ENT services in Africa: need for a comprehensive intervention


    Fagan, Johan J.; Jacobs, Marian


    Background: Burden of disease (BOD) is greatest in resource-starved regions such as Africa. Even though hearing disability ranks third on the list of non-fatal disabling conditions in low- and middle-income countries, ear, nose, and throat (ENT) disorders are not specifically coded for within the framework governing global BOD estimates, and in discussions about health challenges, non-communicable diseases receive scant attention. Implementing cost-effective interventions to address condition...

  15. [The ENT specialist's responsibility in the diagnosis of the olfactory meningeoma (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Schmitt, H E; Ahyai, A; Spoerri, O


    The principal symptoms associate with olfactory groove meningeomas are anosmia and headache which lead the patient to an ENT specialist. Frontal sinusitis, migraine and neuralgia are the most frequent incorrect diagnosis. Positive radiological changes are found frequently on the plain films of patients with these olfactory tumors, even up to 70% according to the literature. It is important to bear this in mind regarding olfactory groove meningeomas to avoid mistakes in diagnosis.

  16. A Prospective Evaluation of ENT Telemedicine in Remote Military Populations Seeking Specialty Care (United States)


    required specialty consultation, the pa- technicians, 1 nurse , and 1 physician’s assis- tient was referred to a telemedicine coordina- tant. Of the... postoperative , or follow-up sessions were ex- cluded because these sessions usually did not fornia includes 8 MTFs [Naval Medical Center, function to determine...spoke facilities received telemedicine consulta- * Reason for consultation (initial, preopera - tions from the ENT specialist at the hub in San tive

  17. ENT illuminated by literature. Gustave Flaubert and the glory of Gensoul. (United States)

    Tainmont, J


    Doctor Joseph Gensoul (1797-1858) has at least two claims to fame as an ENT physician: he was the first to practise the total resection of the superior maxillary bone, and he described a disease that was later to be known as "Ludwig's angina". In this paper, we try to project an original light on Gensoul by reference to Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880). We also look at how Flaubert's celebrity and Gensoul's glory fared differently.

  18. Final Report. SFAA No. DEFC02-98CH10961. Technical assistance for joint implementation and other supporting mechanisms and measures for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Denise


    IIEC, a division of CERF, has developed an extensive base of experience implementing activities that support climate action by developing USIJI projects in transitional countries within Asia, Latin America, Central and Eastern Europe, and southern Africa. IIEC has been able to provide a range of technical and policy assistance to governments and industry in support of sustainable energy use. IIEC continues to work in key countries with local partners to develop and implement energy efficiency policies and standards, develop site-specific projects, and assist governing bodies to establish national priorities and evaluation criteria for approving GHG-mitigation projects. As part of this project, IIEC focused on promoting a series of activities in Thailand and South Africa in order to identify GHG mitigation projects and work within the national approval process of those countries. The sections of this report outline the activities conducted in each country in order to achieve that goal.

  19. Hyaluronate effect on bacterial biofilm in ENT district infections: a review. (United States)

    Marcuzzo, Alberto Vito; Tofanelli, Margherita; Boscolo Nata, Francesca; Gatto, Annalisa; Tirelli, Giancarlo


    Bacterial resistance is a growing phenomenon which led the scientific community to search for new therapeutic targets, such as biofilm. A bacterial biofilm is a surface-associated agglomerate of microorganisms embedded in a self-produced extracellular polymeric matrix made of polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins. Scientific literature offers several reports on a biofilm's role in infections regarding various body districts. The presence of a bacterial biofilm is responsible for poor efficacy of antibiotic therapies along with bacterial infections in ear, nose, and throat (ENT) districts such as the oral cavity, ear, nasal cavities, and nasal sinuses. In particular, bacterial biofilms are associated with recalcitrant and symptomatically more severe forms of chronic rhinosinusitis. As of today, there are no therapeutic options for the eradication of bacterial biofilm in ENT districts. Hyaluronic acid is a glycosaminoglycan composed of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine disaccharide units. Its efficacy in treating rhinosinusitis, whether or not associated with polyposis, is well documented, as well as results from its effects on mucociliary clearance, free radical production and mucosal repair. This review's aim is to evaluate the role of bacterial biofilms and the action exerted on it by hyaluronic acid in ENT pathology, with particular attention to the rhinosinusal district. In conclusion, this paper underlines how the efficacy of hyaluronate as an anti-bacterial biofilm agent is well demonstrated by in vitro studies; it is, however, only preliminarily demonstrated by clinical studies. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Internet and e-mail use in ENT: a survey of patient usage and satisfaction. (United States)

    Shaw, B; Farboud, A; Trinidade, A; Kothari, P


    Nowadays, internet and e-mail are important modes of communication and information. This paper seeks to determine internet usage as a source of health information amongst ENT patients and to investigate whether patients prefer to communicate primarily with the hospital via e-mail. The method used is a questionnaire study and 201 patients attending an ENT clinic completed questionnaires over 2 weeks in December 2010. Of those with internet access (85%), 37% had used it for health information prior to their appointment; 90% rated the information between average and excellent; over half stated they would like doctor-recommended websites. Overall, 8% had previously used e-mail to communicate with healthcare professionals, but 50% stated that they wished to use e-mail in the future. ENT patients are becoming increasingly computer-literate. As healthcare professionals, we must do more to incorporate the internet as a source of reliable healthcare information. Properly implemented, e-mail can become an invaluable method of communication with patients.

  1. Are ENT surgeons in the UK at risk of stress, psychological morbidities and burnout? A national questionnaire survey. (United States)

    Vijendren, Ananth; Yung, Matthew; Shiralkar, Uttam


    Work-related stress, psychological disorders and burnout are common occupational disorders affecting UK doctors. To date, there are no studies looking at these psychosocial morbidities amongst ENT surgeons worldwide. The General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory (aMBI) were incorporated into a questionnaire on occupational diseases amongst ENT surgeons and distributed to the entire membership of ENT-UK. The survey study also acquired demographic data on grade of respondent, years of experience in ENT and subspecialty interest. We received 108 (8.1% response rate) appropriately filled GHQ-12 and 121 (9.0% response rate) aMBI questionnaires. 61 respondents (56.5%) on the GHQ-12 were at high risk of developing stress and psychological morbidity and 35 (28.9%) had high enough aMBI scores to suggested burnout. When comparing scores of both GHQ-12 and aMBI with grade of respondent, years of experience in ENT and subspecialty, statistical difference was only found on the risk of stress and psychiatric disorders amongst paediatric ENT surgeons (7 high risk vs 0 low risk, p = 0.02), however the number of these respondents was small (7 in total). Both questionnaires had been validated for use within our population. We found high incidence rates of stress and psychological morbidity (56.5%) and a burnout prevalence rate of 28.9% amongst our responding cohort of UK Oto-rhino-laryngologists. No meaningful differences were found between stress, psychological morbidity and burnout with grade of ENT surgeon, years of experience in ENT and subspecialty within ENT. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High Efficiency Thin Film CdTe and a-Si Based Solar Cells: Final Technical Report, 4 March 1998--15 October 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compaan, A. D.; Deng, X.; Bohn, R. G.


    This is the final report covering about 42 months of this subcontract for research on high-efficiency CdTe-based thin-film solar cells and on high-efficiency a-Si-based thin-film solar cells. Phases I and II have been extensively covered in two Annual Reports. For this Final Report, highlights of the first two Phases will be provided and then detail will be given on the last year and a half of Phase III. The effort on CdTe-based materials is led by Prof. Compaan and emphasizes the use of sputter deposition of the semiconductor layers in the fabrication of CdS/CdTe cells. The effort on high-efficiency a-Si materials is led by Prof. Deng and emphasizes plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for cell fabrication with major efforts on triple-junction devices.

  3. Final Technical Report on the Genome Sequence DataBase (GSDB): DE-FG03 95 ER 62062 September 1997-September 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harger, Carol A.


    Since September 1997 NCGR has produced two web-based tools for researchers to use to access and analyze data in the Genome Sequence DataBase (GSDB). These tools are: Sequence Viewer, a nucleotide sequence and annotation visualization tool, and MAR-Finder, a tool that predicts, base upon statistical inferences, the location of matrix attachment regions (MARS) within a nucleotide sequence. [The annual report for June 1996 to August 1997 is included as an attachment to this final report.

  4. Biomass and bio-fuel based poly-generation for off-grid and grid-connected operation. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The overall objective of this project was to design and build a combined heat and power plant based on an updraft gasifier and a 35 kW electrical output Stirling engine and further to test the flexibility of the plant with regards to fuel and application. In the project a containerized combined heat and power plant including a 200 kW updraft gasifier and a 35 kW electrical output Stirling engine was designed, the specified components were procured, the plant was installed in the three containers and the plant was erected at Amagerforbraendingen ready for the COP15 in November 2009. The potential of operating the Stirling engine in island-mode (without grid connection) was investigated by mathematical modelling. Using an absorption cooling plant connected to the Stirling CHP plant was also investigated. A technical feasibility study was undertaken and it was concluded that from the two available technologies (water/LiBr and Ammonia/water) the appropriate choice is depending on the required cooling temperature. Test runs focussed on investigating the fuel flexibility of two different configurations of Stirling engine CHP plants were carried out - respectively the updraft gasifier plant (the containerized plant and the DTU plant) and the pyrolysis plant (the plant situated at Barritskov). In order to perform these test runs a stable operation is required. On both the containerized plant and the pyrolysis plant this proved to be more challenging than expected and therefore the number of fuels tested was limited to willow chips at the containerized plant and dry wood residues, wood pellets and straw pellets on the pyrolysis plant. For all tested fuels it was possible to operate the plants, however different issues mainly related to the quality of the fuels were encountered. And so it can be concluded that the quality of the fuel is critical for the operation of both the updraft gasifier plant and the pyrolysis plant. A comprehensive desktop evaluation of the feasibility

  5. Spent Fuel Test-Climax: An evaluation of the technical feasibility of geologic storage of spent nuclear fuel in granite: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, W.C. (comp.)


    In the Climax stock granite on the Nevada Test Site, eleven canisters of spent nuclear reactor fuel were emplaced, and six electrical simulators were energized. When test data indicated that the test objectives were met during the 3-year storage phase, the spent-fuel canisters were retrieved and the thermal sources were de-energized. The project demonstrated the feasibility of packaging, transporting, storing, and retrieving highly radioactive fuel assemblies in a safe and reliable manner. In addition to emplacement and retrieval operations, three exchanges of spent-fuel assemblies between the SFT-C and a surface storage facility, conducted during the storage phase, furthered this demonstration. The test led to development of a technical measurements program. To meet these objectives, nearly 1000 instruments and a computer-based data acquisition system were deployed. Geotechnical, seismological, and test status data were recorded on a continuing basis for the three-year storage phase and six-month monitored cool-down of the test. This report summarizes the engineering and scientific endeavors which led to successful design and execution of the test. The design, fabrication, and construction of all facilities and handling systems are discussed, in the context of test objectives and a safety assessment. The discussion progresses from site characterization and experiment design through data acquisition and analysis of test data in the context of design calculations. 117 refs., 52 figs., 81 tabs.

  6. Phase 3 of a Brushless Doubly-Fed Machine System Development Program : Final Technical Report for Period January 1, 1992-June 30, 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Gerald C.; Spee, Rene; Wallace, Alan K.


    Since the inception of the BDFM development program in 1989, the value of BDFM technology has become apparent. The BDFM provides for adjustable speed, synchronous operation while keeping costs associated with the required power conversion equipment lower than in competing technologies. This provides for an advantage in initial as well as maintenance expenses over conventional drive system. Thus, the BDFM enables energy efficient, adjustable speed process control for applications where established drive technology has not been able to deliver satisfactory returns on investment. At the same time, the BDFM challenges conventional drive technologies in established markets by providing for improved performance at lower cost. BDFM converter rating is kept at a minimum, which significantly improves power quality at the utility interface over competing power conversion equipment. In summary, BDFM technology can be expected to provide significant benefits to utilities as well as their customers. This report discusses technical research and development activities related to Phase 3 of the Brushless Doubly-Fed Machine System Development Program, including work made possible by supplemental funds for laboratory improvement and prototype construction. Market research for the BDFM was provided by the College of Business at Oregon State University; market study results will be discussed in a separate report.

  7. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ particle generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The research conducted by Textron Defense Systems (TDS) represents a potential new and innovative concept for dispersed coal liquefaction. The technical approach is generation of ultra-fine catalyst particles from supercritical solutions by rapid expansion of either catalyst only, or mixtures of catalyst and coal material in supersaturated solvents. The process of rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions was developed at Battelle`s Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the intended purpose of providing a new analytical technique for characterizing supercritical fluids. The concept forming the basis of this research is that ultra-fine particles can be generated from supercritical solutions by rapid expansion of either catalyst or catalyst/coal-material mixtures in supersaturated solvents, such as carbon dioxide or water. The focal point of this technique is the rapid transfer of low vapor pressure solute (i.e., catalyst), dissolved in the supercritical fluid solvent, to the gas phase as the solution is expanded through an orifice. The expansion process is characterized by highly nonequilibrium conditions which cause the solute to undergo extremely rapid supersaturation with respect to the solvent, leading to nucleation and particle growth resulting in nanometer size catalyst particles. A supercritical expansion system was designed and built by TDS at their Haverhill facility.

  8. Recovery of valuable chlorosilane intermediates by a novel waste conversion process. Technical report for phase IIIA (final) and phase IIIB (progress)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K.E.


    From July 1994 through May 1998, direct process residue (DPR) hydrogenolysis has been studied in the laboratory, at a small Pilot Plant, and finally at a larger Pilot Plant within Dow Corning`s Carrollton, Kentucky plant. The system reacts filtered DPR with monomer at high temperature and pressure. The process demonstrates DPR conversion up to 86%. The reaction product contains high concentrations of valuable monomers such as dimethyldichlorosilane and methyldichlorosilane. A larger DPR hydrogenolysis reactor based on these results is being designed for operation in Europe at Dow Corning`s Barry, Wales site.

  9. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproductive Success of Kokanee in the Flathead System; Technical Addendum to the Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Will; Tohtz, Joel


    This addendum to the Final Report presents results of research on the zooplankton and fish communities of Flathead Lade. The intent of the Study has been to identify the impacts of hydroelectric operations at Kerr and Hungry Horse Dam on the reproductive success of kokanee an to propose mitigation for these impacts. Recent changes in the trophic ecology of the lake, have reduced the survival of kokanee. In the last three year the Study has been redirected to identify, if possible, the biological mechanisms which now limit kokanee survival, and to test methods of enhancing the kokanee fishery by artificial supplementation. These studies were necessary to the formulation of mitigation plans. The possibility of successfully rehabilitating the kokanee population, is the doubt because of change in the trophic ecology of the system. This report first presents the results of studies of the population dynamics of crustacean zooplankton, upon which planktivorous fish depend. A modest effort was directed to measuring the spawning escapement of kokanee in 1988. Because of its relevance to the study, we also report assessments of 1989 kokanee spawning escapement. Hydroacoustic assessment of the abundance of all fish species in Flathead Lake was conducted in November, 1988. Summary of the continued efforts to document the growth rates and food habits of kokanee and lake whitefish are included in this report. Revised kokanee spawning and harvest estimates, and management implications of the altered ecology of Flathead Lake comprise the final sections of this addendum. 83 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs.

  10. Technical and economical optimization of wood gasification in a circulating fluidized bed. Final report; Technische und wirtschaftliche Optimierung der Vergasung von Holz in der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ising, M.; Unger, C.; Heunemann, F.; Dinkelbach, L.


    The project's objective was the optimization of a novel process for high efficient combined heat and power production from solid biomass. The processed air blown wood gasification in a pilot scale circulating fluidized bed was added by a catalytic tar reformer which would yield a tar-free gas quality suitable for IC-engine operation. Major efforts were taken for technical improvement of the tar reformer, especially concerning temperature control and cleaning devices which is important for keeping constantly a high activity. Pure natural timber did not yield chemical deactivation at the catalyst whereas the gasification of waste wood yielded decreasing activity which could be partly reversed by special measures taken. Further optimization of the process considered a better automation and improvement of the engine's flue gas emissions. Also a detailed economic consideration and evaluation of the entire process has been carried out. As a result the novel process should have economic advantages compared with conventional technology. (orig.) [German] Gegenstand des Vorhabens war die Weiterentwicklung eines Verfahrens zur effizienteren Strom- und Waermegewinnung aus festen Biobrennstoffen. Durch luftgeblasene Vergasung von Holz im Pilotmassstab in einer zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht und anschliessender katalytischer Teerspaltung konnte ein niederkalorisches Brenngas erzeugt werden, welches zum Betrieb eines Motoren-Blockheizkraftwerks geeignet war. Im Rahmen der Verfahrensoptimierung wurde der katalytische Teer-Reformer, insbesondere in Bezug auf Temperaturfuehrung und die zum Aktivitaetserhalt wichtige Abreinigungsvorrichtung, verbessert. Bei der Vergasung von Naturholz wurde keine chemische Desaktivierung festgestellt. Beim Altholzeinsatz wurde ein ueberwiegend reversibler Aktivitaetsverlust verzeichnet und begruendet. Geeignete Gegenmassnahmen wurden untersucht und beschrieben. Weitere Optimierungen betrafen die Anlagensteuerungstechnik im Hinblick auf die

  11. Optimization of Phase-Engineered a-Si:H-Based Multi-Junction Solar Cells: Final Technical Report, October 2001-July 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wronski, C. R.; Collins, R. W.; Podraza, N. J.; Vlahos, V.; Pearce, J. M.; Deng, J.; Albert, M.; Ferreira, G. M.; Chen, C.


    The scope of the work under this subcontract has involved investigating engineered improvements in the performance and stability of solar cells in a systematic way, which included the following four tasks: (1) Materials research and device development; (2) Process improvement directed by real time diagnostics; (3) Device loss mechanisms; and (4) Characterization strategies for advanced materials Our work has resulted in new and important insights into the deposition of a-Si:H-based materials, as well as into the nature of the Staebler-Wronski Effect (SWE). Presumably, many of these insights will be used by industrial partners to develop more systematic approaches in optimizing solar cells for higher performance and stability. This effort also cleared up several serious misconceptions about the nature of the p-layer in cells and the SWE in materials and cells. Finally, the subcontract identified future directions that should be pursued for greater understanding and improvement.

  12. Final Technical Report for Collaborative Research: Regional climate-change projections through next-generation empirical and dynamical models, DE-FG02-07ER64429

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, Padhraic [University of California, Irvine


    This is the final report for a DOE-funded research project describing the outcome of research on non-homogeneous hidden Markov models (NHMMs) and coupled ocean-atmosphere (O-A) intermediate-complexity models (ICMs) to identify the potentially predictable modes of climate variability, and to investigate their impacts on the regional-scale. The main results consist of extensive development of the hidden Markov models for rainfall simulation and downscaling specifically within the non-stationary climate change context together with the development of parallelized software; application of NHMMs to downscaling of rainfall projections over India; identification and analysis of decadal climate signals in data and models; and, studies of climate variability in terms of the dynamics of atmospheric flow regimes.

  13. Impact of energy conservation policy measures on innovation, investment and long-term development of the Swiss economy. Results from the computable induced technical change and energy (CITE) model - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretschger, L.; Ramer, R.; Schwark, F.


    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the Computable Induced Technical Change and Energy (CITE) model. The authors note that, in the past two centuries, the Swiss economy experienced an unprecedented increase in living standards. At the same time, the stock of various natural resources declined and the environmental conditions changed substantially. The evaluation of the sustainability of a low energy and low carbon society as well as an optimum transition to this state is discussed. An economic analysis is made and the CITE and GCE (Computable General Equilibrium) numerical simulation models are discussed. The results obtained are presented and discussed.

  14. A Model for Provision of ENT Health Care Service at Primary and Secondary Hospital Level in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingamdenne Paul Emerson


    Full Text Available ENT problems are the most common reason for a visit to a doctor in both rural and urban communities. In many developing countries, there is a lack of ENT specialists and overburdened hospital facilities. To date, there is no comprehensive study that has evaluated the spectrum of ENT disorders in a rural community. Methods. A prospective study was done for a period of three years to profile the cases presenting to the outpatient clinic in a secondary care hospital and in the camps conducted in tribal areas in Vellore District of Tamil Nadu, India. Trained community volunteers were used to identify ENT conditions and refer patients. Results. A total of 2600 patients were evaluated and treated. Otological symptoms were the most commonly reported with allergic rhinitis being the second most commonly reported. Presbycusis was the most common disability reported in the rural community. The other symptoms presented are largely related to hygiene and nutrition. Conclusion. Using trained community workers to spread the message of safe ENT practices, rehabilitation of hearing loss through provision of hearing aids, and the evaluation and surgical management by ENT specialist helped the rural community to access the service.

  15. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Buddle, Stanlee [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Caraher, Joel [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Chen, Wei [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Doherty, Mark [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Farnum, Rachel [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Giammattei, Mark [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Hancu, Dan [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Miebach, Barbara [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Perry, Robert [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Rubinsztajn, Gosia; Spiry, Irina; Wilson, Paul; Wood, Benjamin


    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2-capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2-capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants. The U.S. Department of Energy’s goal for Transformational Carbon Capture Technologies is the development of technologies available for demonstration by 2025 that can capture 90% of emitted CO2 with at least 95% CO2 purity for less than $40/tonne of CO2 captured. In the first budget period of the project, the bench-scale phase-changing CO2 capture process was designed using data and operating experience generated under a previous project (ARPA-e project DE-AR0000084). Sizing and specification of all major unit operations was completed, including detailed process and instrumentation diagrams. The system was designed to operate over a wide range of operating conditions to allow for exploration of the effect of process variables on CO2 capture performance. In the second budget period of the project, individual bench-scale unit operations were tested to determine the performance of each of each unit. Solids production was demonstrated in dry simulated flue gas across a wide range of absorber operating conditions, with single stage CO2 conversion rates up to 75mol%. Desorber operation was demonstrated in batch mode, resulting in desorption performance consistent with the equilibrium isotherms for GAP-0/CO2 reaction. Important risks associated with gas humidity impact on solids consistency and desorber temperature impact on thermal degradation were explored, and adjustments to the bench-scale process were made to address those effects. Corrosion experiments were conducted to support selection of suitable materials of construction for the major

  16. Final Technical Report Advanced Anchoring Technology DOE Award Number DE-EE0003632 Project Period 09/10 - 09/12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meggitt, Dallas J


    anchor systems and the associated drilling and grouting systems to demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of micropile anchors. This report presents several conceptual system designs for different applications. This project has concluded that grouted marine micropile anchor technology is practical and very attractive technically and financially for marine renewable energy applications. This technology is considered to be at a Technology Readiness Level 5.

  17. ENT aspects of the mummification of the head in ancient Egypt: an imaging study. (United States)

    Motamed, M; Alusi, G; Campos, J; East, C


    This study of a mummified head from the British museum by high resolution computer tomography and 3D reconstruction illustrates, without mutilation of the specimen, some aspects of mummification of the head; namely the extraction of the brain through the nose and filling the cranium with linen like material, packing of the oral cavity and the presence of false eyes. These findings alone allow one to date the mummy to no sooner than the 20th dynasty, a time when this custom was at its peak. ENT aspects of the mummification of the head are discussed.

  18. Audit of GP Referrals for Tonsillectomy to the ENT Clinic Using Present HIQA Guidelines

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)


    Recurrent sore throat for possible tonsillectomy is the commonest clinical entity referred to the ENT outpatient department. The numbers involved represent a large clinical burden on the service. Not all of these patients require surgical intervention. Patients who fit the criteria for tonsillectomy are faced with two stage obstacles; the long waiting time until assessed by the Otolaryngologist at OPD and the time spent on long operative waiting lists. The aim of this study was to analyze the percentage of referred patients with sore throats requiring tonsillectomy versus those not needing surgery, using the present HIQA guidelines for this operation.

  19. Synthesis and Sensory Evaluation of ent-Kaurane Diterpene Glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Sai Prakash Chaturvedula


    Full Text Available Catalytic hydrogenation of the three ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides isolated from Stevia rebaudiana, namely rubusoside, stevioside, and rebaudioside-A has been carried out using Pd(OH2 and their corresponding dihydro derivatives have been isolated as the products. Synthesis of reduced steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward chemistry and their structures were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data and chemical studies. Also, we report herewith the sensory evaluation of all the reduced compounds against their corresponding original steviol glycosides and sucrose for the sweetness property of these molecules.

  20. Ear, nose and throat (ENT) involvement in zoonotic diseases : a systematic review


    Galletti, Bruno; Mannella, Valentina K.; Santoro, Roberto; Rodríguez Morales, Alfonso Javier; Freni, Francesco; Galleti, Claudio; Galleti, Francesco; Cascio, Antonio


    Introducción: Las zoonosis son infecciones de transmisión del animal al hombre, ya sea directamente (a través del contacto directo o contacto con productos de origen animal) o indirectamente (a través de un vector intermedio, tal como un artrópodo). Los agentes causales incluyen bacterias, parásitos, virus y hongos. El propósito de esta revisión es hacer un examen preciso de todas las enfermedades zoonóticas que pueden ser responsables de oído, nariz y garganta (ENT) participación. Metodologí...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Abashidze


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the nature of the sleep changes in children with various pathologies. The study included 103 children with diseases of the nervous system, ENT disorders and allergic diseases. Polysomnography was carried out to all children — the synchronous recording of various physiological parameters during sleep. The vast majority of patients in the studied groups had changed microstructure of sleep in comparison with the healthy children (control group. Disorders of breathing during sleep were manifested in the form of episodes of apnea/hypopnea. These changes were associated with the severity of somatic pathology.  

  2. Microtropiosides A-F: ent-Labdane diterpenoid glucosides from the leaves of Microtropis japonica (Celastraceae). (United States)

    Koyama, Yuka; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Shinzato, Takakazu; Takeda, Yoshio


    From a 1-BuOH-soluble fraction of a MeOH extract of the leaves of Microtropis japonica, collected in the Okinawa islands, six ent-labdane glucosides, named microtropiosides A-F, were isolated together with one known acyclic sesquiterpene glucoside. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic analyses, and their absolute configurations determined by application of the beta-D-glucopyranosylation-induced shift-trend rule in (13)C NMR spectroscopy and the modified Mosher's method. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.


    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  4. Final Scientific/Technical Report for project “Geomechanical Monitoring for CO2 Hub Storage: Production and Injection at Kevin Dome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, Thomas M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vasco, Don [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dobeck, Laura [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Spangler, Lee [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Leonti, Michelle [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)


    After learning that the TDS value in the target injection formation at the Kevin Dome site is too low to qualify for an EPA Class VI CO2 injection permit, the BSCSP project was re-scoped such that injection of CO2 is no longer planned. With no injection planned, the Geomechanics project was closed. In this final report, we describe the objective and approach of the project as proposed, and the limited results obtained before stopping work. The objective of the proposed research was the development & validation of an integrated monitoring approach for quantifying the interactions between large-scale geological carbon storage (GCS) and subsurface geomechanical state, particularly perturbations relevant to reservoir integrity such as fault reactivation and induced fracturing. In the short period of work before knowing the fate of the Kevin Dome project, we (1) researched designs for both the proposed InSAR corner reflectors as well as the near-surface 3C seismic stations; (2) developed preliminary elastic geomechanical models; (3) developed a second generation deformation prediction for the BSCSP Kevin Dome injection site; and (4) completed a preliminary map of InSAR monuments and shallow MEQ wells in the vicinity of the BSCSP injection pad.

  5. Relation of coal characteristics to liquefaction behavior. Part II. Continuous flow reactor studies by Gulf Research and Development Co. Final technical report, July 1976-February 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Given, P.H.; Spackman, W.; Davis, A.; Walker, P.L.; Lovell, H.L.; Coleman, M.M.; Painter, P.C.


    This part of the final report consists of an essentially verbatim transcription of a report by Ajay Sood and W.G. Moon on work performed by personnel of Gulf Research and Development Company under subcontract from this University, as part of the prime contract of the University with the US Department of Energy. Gulf's 1000 gm/h continuous flow reactor (the A-1 Unit) was to be used for all experiments, and a number of product analyses were to be performed. Although some of the results were included in Part I of this report, it has been thought worthwhile to reproduce in full the very detailed report, since it enables the interested reader to see exactly what raw data were collected and what options were selected in computing results from raw data. Generating data in a continuous flow liquefaction reactor operated with a process-derived solvent is a quite complicated process, and critical appraisal of the results requires an understanding of how they were obtained. Since the tasks performed by Gulf were conceived and planned by PSU staff as part of the whole DOE-supported program, it is proposed to comment briefly in this preface on the objectives and rationale of the tasks, and to describe some coals studied in some of the tasks (that is, those coals not already described in part I of this report. Some problems in duplicating the organic solvents used in the different equipments are described.

  6. Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals: Fifty selected seams from various coal fields: Final technical report, September 30, 1976-February 28, 1986. [50 coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, P.D.


    This final report is the result of a study initiated in 1976 to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals, to supplement the efforts of the US Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of US coals. Washability characteristics were determined for fifty coal samples from the Northern Alaska, Chicago Creek, Unalakleet, Nenana, Matanuska, Beluga, Yentna and Herendeen Bay coal fields. The raw coal was crushed to 1-1/2 inches, 3/8 inch, 14 mesh and 65 mesh top sizes, and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40 and 1.60 specific gravities. A limited number of samples were also crushed to 200 and 325 mesh sizes prior to float-sink testing. Samples crushed to 65 mesh top size were also separated at 1.60 specific gravity and the float and sink products were characterized for proximate and ultimate analyses, ash composition and ash fusibility. 72 refs., 79 figs., 57 tabs.

  7. Distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. Final report. Volume 2. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.W.; Fargion, G.S.


    The purpose of the study was to determine the distribution and abundance of cetaceans in areas potentially affected by future oil and gas activities along the continental slope of the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. This 3.75 year project commenced 1 October 1991 and finished 15 July 1995. The study area was bounded by the Florida-Alabama border, the Texas-Mexico border, and the 100 m and 2,000 m isobaths. Cetacean distribution and abundance were determined from seasonal aerial and shipboard visual surveys and shipboard acoustic surveys. In addition, hydrographic data were collected in situ and by satellite remote sensing to characterize cetacean habitat. Finally, tagging and tracking of sperm whales using satellite telemetry was attempted. This volume summarizes the results of the study. Cetaceans were observed throughout the study area during all four seasons. Nineteen species were identified, including two species (melon-headed whales and Fraser`s dolphins) previously thought to be rare in the Gulf. Pantropical spotted dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, clymene dolphins, striped dolphins, Atlantic spotted dolphins, and melon-headed whales were the most common small cetaceans and the sperm whale was the most common large cetacean. The mean annual abundance for all cetaceans was estimated to be 19,198. Although the study area had complex and dynamic oceanography, bottom depth was the only environmental variable which correlated to cetacean distribution.

  8. Final Technical Report: Role of Methanotrophs in Metal Mobilization, Metal Immobilization and Mineral Weathering: Effects on the In Situ Microbial Community and the Sustainability of Subsurface Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semrau, Jeremy D. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); DiSpirito, Alan A. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Activities from this DOE sponsored project can be divided into four broad areas: (1) investigations into the potential of methanobactin, a biogenic metal-binding agent produced by methanotrophs, in mitigating mercury toxicity; (2) elucidation of the genetic basis for methanobactin synthesis from methanotrophs; (3) examination of differential gene expression of M. trichosporium OB3b when grown in the presence of varying amounts of copper and/or cerium, and (4) collection and characterization of soil cores from Savannah River Test Site to determine the ubiquity of methanobactin producing methanotrophs. From these efforts, we have conclusively shown that methanobactin can strongly bind mercury as Hg[II], and in so doing significantly reduce the toxicity of this metal to microbes. Further, we have deduced the genetic basis of methanobactin production in methanotrophs, enabling us to construct mutants such that we can now ascribe function to different genes as well as propose a pathway for methanobactin biosynthesis. We have also clear evidence that copper and cerium (as an example of a rare earth element) dramatically affect gene expression in methanotrophs, and thus have an important impact on the activity and application of these microbes to a variety of environmental and industrial issues. Finally, we successfully isolated one methanotroph from the deep subsurface of the Savannah River Test Site and characterized the ability of different forms of methanobactin to mobilize copper and mercury from these soils.

  9. Final technical report for project titled Quantitative Characterization of Cell Aggregation/Adhesion as Predictor for Distribution and Transport of Microorganisms in Subsurface Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, April Z. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Wan, Kai-tak [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)


    -surface interactions is essential for the field. To tackle this, we have developed a number of new Bio-nanomechanical techniques, including reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM) and bio-AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy), for cell adhesion-detachment measurement of the long-range surface interactions, in combination with mathematical modeling, which would allow us to characterize the mechanical behavior from single cell to multi-cell aggregate, critical thresholds for large scale coaggregation and transportation of cells and aggregates in the presence of long range inter-surface forces etc. Although some technical and mathematical challenges remain, the preliminary results promise great breakthrough potential. In this study, we investigated the cellular surface characteristics of representative bio-remediating microorganisms relevant to DOE IFRC (Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenges) sites and their transport behaviors in porous media, aiming to draw a groundbreaking correlation between the micro-scale genetic and biological origin-based cell surface properties, the consequent mechanical adhesion and aggregation behaviors, and the macro-scale microbial mobility and retention in porous media, which are unavailable in the literature. The long-term goal is to significantly improve the mechanistic and quantitative understanding of microbial mobility, sorption, and transport within reactive transport models as needed to manipulate subsurface contaminant fate and transport predictions.

  10. Integration of Full Tensor Gravity and Z-Axis Tipper Electromagnetic Passive Low Frequency EM Instruments for Simultaneous Data Acquisition - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieberg, Scott [Bell Geospace, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)


    Ground gravity is a common and useful tool for geothermal exploration. Gravity surveys map density changes in the subsurface that may be caused by tectonic deformation such as faulting, fracturing, plutonism, volcanism, hydrothermal alteration, etc. Full Tensor Gravity Gradient (FTG) data has been used for over a decade in both petroleum and mining exploration to map changes in density associated with geologic structure. Measuring the gravity gradient, rather than the gravity field, provides significantly higher resolution data. Modeling studies have shown FTG data to be a viable tool for geothermal exploration, but no FTG data had been acquired for geothermal applications to date. Electromagnetic methods have been used for geothermal exploration for some time. The Z-Axis Tipper Electromagnetic (ZTEM) was a newer technology that had found success in mapping deep conductivity changes for mining applications. ZTEM had also been used in limited tests for geothermal exploration. This newer technology provided the ability to cost effectively map large areas whilst detailing the electrical properties of the geological structures at depths. The ZTEM is passive and it uses naturally occurring audio frequency magnetic (AFMAG) signals as the electromagnetic triggering source. These geophysical methods were to be tested over a known geothermal site to determine whether or not the data provided the information required for accurately interpreting the subsurface geologic structure associated with a geothermal deposit. After successful acquisition and analysis of the known source area, an additional survey of a “greenfield” area was to be completed. The final step was to develop a combined interpretation model and determine if the combination produced a higher confident geophysical model compared to models developed using each of the technologies individually.

  11. [Epithelial dysfunction associated with pyo-inflammatory diseases of the ENT organs]. (United States)

    Petukhova, N A


    The modern concept of epithelial-endothelial dysfunction and epithelial-endothelial distress-syndrome associated with pyo-inflammatory ENT diseases is presented. It has provided a basis for the analysis of the initial stages of etiopathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammation in the ENT system including the mucous and associated lymphoid tissues as well as the Pirogov-Waldeyer limphopharyngeal ring making up the first protective barrier. The leading role of dysbiosis of synanthropic microflora and endotoxins of the Gram-negative bacteria in the mechanisms of regional responsiveness of the organism to the infection and chronic endotoxic aggression is demonstrated. The regional and synthetic mechanisms underlying the interaction between the external and internal media of the organism are subjected to the analysis with special reference to those operating in epithelium. The possible variants of the outcome of these processes are considered including both the recovery and the development of chronic inflammation. It has been proved that the exhaustion of the internal reserves for the stabilization of the epithelium-associated lymphoid tissue system including the Pirogov-Waldeyer limphopharyngeal ring leads to the formation of epithelial dysfunction as the initial stage of epithelial-endothelial dysfunction and epithelial-endothelial distress-syndrome. It is concluded that the modern concept of epithelial-endothelial dysfunction and epithelial-endothelial distress-syndrome is a fundamental interdisciplinary phenomenon.

  12. Enteógenos e Inteligência Existencial: Plantas Mestres como Instrumentos Cognitivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Tupper


    Full Text Available DOI: 10.12957/periferia.2011.3946 A partir de recentes mudanças nas legislações em relação às drogasem diferentes países, investiguei o potencial dos enteógenos (i.e.,plantas psicoativas usadas como sacramentos espirituais comoinstrumentos para favorecer a inteligência existencial. PlantasMestres das Américas como a ayahuasca, os cogumelos depsilocibina, o peiote e o soma indo-ariano da Eurásia, são alguns dosexemplos de enteógenos que foram e continuam a ser utilizados, nopassado e no presente. Todas estas plantas foram reverenciadas porpessoas e culturas diferentes como instrumentos cognitivos quepromovem um mais rico entendimento cosmológico do mundo. Utilizoa teoria das múltiplas inteligências revisada por Gardner (1999 e suaformulação de uma inteligência “existencial” como uma lente teóricaatravés da qual se deve considerar as possibilidades cognitivas dosenteógenos e explorar potenciais caminhos na Educação.

  13. Synthetic nat- or ent-steroids in as few as five chemical steps from epichlorohydrin (United States)

    Kim, Wan Shin; Du, Kang; Eastman, Alan; Hughes, Russell P.; Micalizio, Glenn C.


    Today, more than 100 Food and Drug Administration-approved steroidal agents are prescribed daily for indications including heart failure, inflammation, pain and cancer. While triumphs in organic chemistry have enabled the establishment and sustained growth of the steroid pharmaceutical industry, the production of highly functionalized synthetic steroids of varying substitution and stereochemistry remains challenging, despite the numerous reports of elegant strategies for their de novo synthesis. Here, we describe an advance in chemical synthesis that has established an enantiospecific means to access novel steroids with unprecedented facility and flexibility through the sequential use of two powerful ring-forming reactions: a modern metallacycle-mediated annulative cross-coupling and a new acid-catalysed vinylcyclopropane rearrangement cascade. In addition to accessing synthetic steroids of either enantiomeric series, these steroidal products have been selectively functionalized within each of the four carbocyclic rings, a synthetic ent-steroid has been prepared on a multigram scale, the enantiomer of a selective oestrogen has been synthesized, and a novel ent-steroid with growth inhibitory properties in three cancer cell lines has been discovered.

  14. Scientific-technical cooperation with Russia. Transient analyses for alternative types of water-cooled reactors. Final report; WTZ mit Russland. Transientenanalysen fuer wassergekuehlte Kernreaktoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohde, Ulrich [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung; Kozmenkov, Yaroslav [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung; Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Pivovarov, Valeri; Matveev, Yurij [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)


    The recently developed multi-group version DYN3D-MG of the reactor dynamics code DYN3D has been qualified for applications to water-cooled reactor concepts different from industrial PWR and BWR. An extended DYN3D version was applied to the graphite-moderated pressure tube reactor EGP-6 (NPP Bilibino) and conceptual design studies of an advanced Boiling Water Reactor with reduced moderation (RMWR) as well as the RUTA-70 reactor for low temperature heat supply. Concerning the RUTA reactor, safe heat removal by natural circulation of the coolant at low pressure has to be shown. For the corresponding validation of thermo-hydraulic system codes like ATHLET and RELAP5, experiments on flashing-induced natural circulation instabilities performed at the CIRCUS test facility at the TU Delft were simulated using the RELAP5 code. For the application to alternative water-cooled reactors, DYN3D model extensions and modifications were implemented, in particular adaptations of heat conduction and heat transfer models. Performing code-to-code comparisons with the Russian fine-mesh neutron diffusion code ACADEM contributed to the verification of DYN3D-MG. Validation has been performed by calculating reactor dynamics experiments at the NPP Bilibino. For the reactors EGP-6, RMWR and RUTA, analyses of various protected and unprotected control rod withdrawal and ejection transients were performed. The beyond design basis accident (BDBA) scenario ''Coast-down of all main coolant pumps at nominal power without scram'' for the RUTA reactor was analyzed using the code complexes DYN3D/ATHLET and DYN3D/RELAP5. It was shown, that the reactor passes over to a save asymptotic state at reduced power with coolant natural circulation. Analyzing the BDBA ''Unprotected withdrawal of a control rod group'' for the RMWR, the safety against Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB) could not be shown with the necessary confidence. Finally, conclusions have been drawn


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In order to reduce the current excesses of plutonium (both weapon grade and reactor grade) and other transuranium elements, a concept of inert matrix fuel (IMF) has been proposed for an uranium free transmutation of fissile actinides which excludes continuous uranium-plutonium conversion in thermal reactors and advanced systems. Magnesium oxide (MgO) is a promising candidate for inert matrix (IM) materials due to its high melting point (2827 C), high thermal conductivity (13 W/K {center_dot} m at 1000 C), good neutronic properties, and irradiation stability However, MgO reacts with water and hydrates easily, which prevents it from being used in light water reactors (LWRs) as an IM. To improve the hydration resistance of MgO-based inert matrix materials, Medvedev and coworkers have recently investigated the introduction of a secondary phase that acts as a hydration barrier. An MgO-ZrO{sub 2} composite was specifically studied and the results showed that the composite exhibited improved hydration resistance than pure MgO. However, ZrO{sub 2} is insoluble in most acids except HF, which is undesirable for fuel reprocessing. Moreover, the thermal conductivity of ZrO{sub 2} is low and typically less than 3 W {center_dot} m{sup -1} {center_dot} K{sup -1} at 1000 C. In search for an alternative composite strategy, Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}, an oxide compound with pyrochlore structure, has been proposed recently as a corrosion resistant phase, and MgO-Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} composites have been investigated as potential IM materials. An adequate thermal conductivity of 6 W {center_dot} m{sup -} 1 {center_dot} K{sup -1} at 1000 C for the MgO-Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} composite with 90 vol% MgO was recently calculated and reported. Other simulations proposed that the MgO-pyrochlore composites could exhibit higher radiation stability than previously reported. Final optimization of the composite microstructure was performed on the 70 vol% MgO-Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7

  16. Polar source analysis : technical memorandum (United States)


    The following technical memorandum describes the development, testing and analysis of various polar source data sets. The memorandum also includes recommendation for potential inclusion in future releases of AEDT. This memorandum is the final deliver...

  17. Final Technical Report for "Ice nuclei relation to aerosol properties: Data analysis and model parameterization for IN in mixed-phase clouds" (DOE/SC00002354)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prenni, Anthony [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Kreidenweis, Sonia M. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)


    Clouds play an important role in weather and climate. In addition to their key role in the hydrologic cycle, clouds scatter incoming solar radiation and trap infrared radiation from the surface and lower atmosphere. Despite their importance, feedbacks involving clouds remain as one of the largest sources of uncertainty in climate models. To better simulate cloud processes requires better characterization of cloud microphysical processes, which can affect the spatial extent, optical depth and lifetime of clouds. To this end, we developed a new parameterization to be used in numerical models that describes the variation of ice nuclei (IN) number concentrations active to form ice crystals in mixed-phase (water droplets and ice crystals co-existing) cloud conditions as these depend on existing aerosol properties and temperature. The parameterization is based on data collected using the Colorado State University continuous flow diffusion chamber in aircraft and ground-based campaigns over a 14-year period, including data from the DOE-supported Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. The resulting relationship is shown to more accurately represent the variability of ice nuclei distributions in the atmosphere compared to currently used parameterizations based on temperature alone. When implemented in one global climate model, the new parameterization predicted more realistic annually averaged cloud water and ice distributions, and cloud radiative properties, especially for sensitive higher latitude mixed-phase cloud regions. As a test of the new global IN scheme, it was compared to independent data collected during the 2008 DOE-sponsored Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC). Good agreement with this new data set suggests the broad applicability of the new scheme for describing general (non-chemically specific) aerosol influences on IN number concentrations feeding mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds. Finally, the parameterization was implemented into a regional

  18. Combined Analyses of hENT1, TS, and DPD Predict Outcomes of Borderline-resectable Pancreatic Cancer. (United States)

    Yabushita, Yasuhiro; Mori, Ryutaro; Taniguchi, Koichi; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Kumamoto, Takafumi; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Kubota, Kensuke; Endo, Itaru


    Predicting chemosensitivity to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) in pancreatic cancer is desired. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between intratumoral expression of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1), thymidylate synthase (TS), and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) and the outcomes of NACRT with gemcitabine (GEM) combined with S-1 in patients with borderline-resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC). Forty-seven patients who underwent NACRT with GEM plus S-1, following curative surgery, were recruited in our Institution between 2009 and 2012. Immunohistochemical expressions of hENT1, TS, and DPD in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies and resected specimens were examined. The correlation between these enzyme expressions and long-term outcome was analyzed. In 21 FNA specimens, no relationship between clinical responses to NACRT and long-term survival was found. However, in 47 resected specimens, patients were classified according to the number of favorable hENT1, TS, and DPD expression factors (hENT1 positive/TS negative/DPD negative). The presence of three favorable factors was strongly associated with improved partial response rates to NACRT (p=0.002). Patients with 2 or more favorable factors showed a significantly longer overall survival than the other patients (p=0.002). Combined expression analyses of hENT1, TS, and DPD may predict long-term outcomes in patients with BRPC after NACRT. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. CYP701A26 is characterized as an ent-kaurene oxidase with putative involvement in maize gibberellin biosynthesis. (United States)

    Mao, Hongjie; Shen, Qinqin; Wang, Qiang


    To characterize the ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) involved in maize (Zea mays) gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. Two putative KO genes were identified in maize based on the homologous alignment. Biochemical characterization indicated that one of them encoded a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) CYP701A26, which reacted with ent-kaurene to form ent-kaurenoic acid, the key intermediate of GA biosynthesis. CYP701A26 showed constitutive expression in active growing tissues and no inducible expression, which led to putative designation of CYP701A26 as the ZmKO. CYP701A26 exhibited substrate promiscuity to catalyze oxidation of other labdane related diterpenes. Another maize KO homologue, CYP701A43 did not show any catalytic activities on ent-kaurene or other tested diterpenes. It exhibited inducible gene expression and might accept unknown substrates to play roles in specialized metabolism for stress response. CYP701A26 was characterized to exhibit ent-kaurene oxidase activity with substrate promiscuity and might be involved in maize GA biosynthesis, and its homologue CYP701A43 did not show such function and might play roles in stress response.

  20. ent-kaurene biosynthesis is enhanced by long photoperiods in the long-day plants Spinacia oleracea L. and Agrostemma githago L. (United States)

    Zeevaart, J A; Gage, D A


    The effect of photoperiod on ent-kaurene biosynthesis was determined in the long-day (LD) plants spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and Agrostemma githago L. Further metabolism of ent-kaurene was blocked by application of the growth retardant tetcyclacis, and ent-kaurene accumulation was measured by isotopic dilution using gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring (GC-SIM) (E. Grosselindemann, J.E. Graebe, D. Stöckl, P. Hedden [1991] Plant Physiol 96: 1099-1104). In spinach, the rate of ent-kaurene accumulation in shoots grown under LD conditions was 3 times higher than in shoots grown under short-day (SD) conditions. ent-Kaurene also accumulated in fully expanded leaves, but at a lower rate than in shoots (15 and 55 pmol g-1 dry weight h-1, respectively). In Agrostemma, ent-kaurene accumulated at a rate 2.5 times higher in plants grown under LD conditions than in those grown under SD conditions. In spinach, enhanced ent-kaurene accumulation was detectable after 1 long day, and with exposure to additional long days, the rate of ent-kaurene accumulation increased further. Conversely, when plants were exposed to LD conditions and then returned to SD conditions, the rate of ent-kaurene accumulation decreased. Following tetcyclacis application, ent-kaurene accumulation was observed in all parts of spinach that were analyzed, but there were large quantitative differences between organs of different ages. As the leaves matured, ent-kaurene biosynthesis declined. Petioles accumulated more ent-kaurene than the corresponding leaf blades. It is concluded that stimulation of ent-kaurene biosynthesis by LD conditions leads to a higher rate of gibberellin biosynthesis, which is essential for stem elongation in rosette plants. PMID:8278497

  1. Ent-Kaurene biosythesis is enhanced by long photoperiods in the long-day plants Spinacia oleracea L. and agrostemma githago L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaart, J.A.; Gage, D.A. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))


    The effect of photoperiod on ent-kaurene biosynthesis was determined in the long-day (LD) plants spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and Agrostemma githago L. Further metabolism of ent-kaurene was blocked by application of the growth retardant tetcyclacis, and ent-kaurene accumulation was measured by isotropic dilution using gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring (GC-SIM). In spinach, the rate of ent-kaurene accumulation in shoots grown under LD conditions was 3 times higher than in shoots grown under short-day (SD) conditions. ent-Kaurene also accumulated in fully expanded leaves, but at a lower rate than in shoots (15 and 55 pmol g[sup [minus]1] dry weight h[sup [minus]1], respectively). In Agrostemma, ent-kaurene accumulated at a rate 2.5 times higher in plants grown under LD conditions than in those grown under SD conditions. In spinach, enhanced ent-kaurene accumulation was detectable after 1 long day, and with exposure to additional long days, the rate of ent-kaurene accumulation increased further. Conversely, when plants were exposed to LD conditions and then to Sd conditions, the rate of ent-kaurene accumulation decreased. Following tetcyclais application, ent-kaurene accumulation was observed in all parts of spinach that were analyzed, but there were large quantitative differences between organs of different ages. As the leaves matured, ent-kaurene biosynthesis declined. Petioles accumulated more ent-kaurene than the corresponding leaf blades. It is concluded that stimulation of ent-kaurene biosynthesis by LD conditions leads to higher rate of gibberellin biosynthesis, which is essential for stem elongation in rosette plants. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Lornoxicam versus tramadol for post-operative pain relief in patients undergoing ENT procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A Abdelhalim


    Full Text Available Background: Pain following ear-nose and throat surgery is one of the most important complaints for which, several drugs are used. This prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial was designed to compare the analgesic effect of tramadol versus lornoxicam for post-operative pain relief in patients undergoing ENT surgical procedures. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients of ASA class I-II, who had undergone elective ENT surgical procedures under general anesthesia, were assigned in a randomized manner into three equal groups. Group L received lornoxicam8 mg IV, Group T received tramadol 1 mg/kg IV and Group C received IV saline after induction of anesthesia before the start of the surgery. Post-operative pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS and sedation level was evaluated during stay in the post-anesthesia care unit with a four-point sedation scale. Intraoperative blood loss was estimated using the Five-Point Scale. Adverse events in the first 24 h post-operative were recorded. Results: The VAS pain scores were significantly higher in Group C as compared with those in Groups L and T at 30 min and 1, 2, 4and 6 h post-operatively, with no significant difference between Group L and Group T. The amount of morphine consumption post-operatively was significantly lower in Group L (5.2 ± 2.5 mg and Group T (5.0 ± 2.0 mg as compared with that in Group C (7.4 ± 2.3 mg (P = 0.001. The time for the first analgesic requirement was significantly less in Group L (92.62 ± 24.23 min and Group T (88 ± 21.43 min as compared with that in Group C (42.82 ± 25.61 min, with no significant difference between the other two groups. Estimated intraoperative blood loss score by the surgeons showed no significant difference between the three groups. The most frequent side-effects in the three groups were nausea and vomiting, and their incidence was significantly higher in the placebo group as compared with the other two groups. Conclusion

  3. Inventory of greenhouse gas emissions from on-road vehicles in Midwestern USA States and integrated approach to achieving environmental sustainability in transportation : USDOT Region V Regional University Transportation Center final report : technical su (United States)


    Two project objectives one technical and one educational- were laid out in this project. The technical objective was to assess current inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the six Midwestern states of the nation and to estimate improvements as ...

  4. E-cigarettes in ENT: what do we need to know? (United States)

    Stobbs, N; Lillis, A; Kumar, N


    E-cigarette use in the UK is increasing and we are commonly encountering patients in the ENT clinic who are e-cigarette smokers. Currently, there is no regulatory body or licensing for e-cigarettes. This means that the contents, and therefore potential carcinogenic and toxic risks, can vary greatly from product to product. Patients are starting to ask about the risks of e-cigarettes and their use in smoking cessation. This review aimed to examine the regulations, trends, and carcinogenic and health risks of e-cigarettes, and summarise the evidence for their use in smoking cessation. It also aimed to provide a general awareness regarding the advice and information that can be safely given to patients.

  5. Isolation of two bioactive ent-kauranoids from the leaves of Isodon xerophilus. (United States)

    Weng, Zhi-Ying; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Li, Ma-Lin; Zeng, Yue-Qin; Han, Quan-Bin; Rios, Jose Luis; Sun, Han-Dong


    Isodon xerophilus has been used as a herbal cold tea for the prevention and treatment of sore throat and inflammation in southernwestern China. A phytochemical study on the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) soluble fraction of I. xerophilus leaves led to the isolation of two new ent-kauranoids, xerophinoids A (1) and B (2), together with 14 known diterpenoids. The structures of xerophinoids A (1) and B (2) were illustrated using spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR analyses. To study their biological activities, the effects of xerophinoids A (1) and B (2) on nitrite production, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1beta were examined. In addition, xerophinoids A (1) and B (2) also exhibited potent cytotoxicity against several human tumor cell lines (IC50 < 11 microM), but they had no toxicity on human T-lymphocyte (C8166).

  6. Isolation and absolute configuration of ent-Halimane diterpenoids from Hymenaea courbaril from the Suriname rain forest. (United States)

    Abdel-Kader, Maged; Berger, John M; Slebodnick, Carla; Hoch, Jeannine; Malone, Stan; Wisse, Jan H; Werkhoven, Marga C M; Mamber, Steven; Kingston, David G I


    Bioactivity-directed fractionation of a methanol extract of Hymenaea courbaril afforded the three new diterpenoids (13R)-13-hydroxy-1(10),14-ent-halimadien-18-oic acid (1), (2S,13R)-2,13-dihydroxy-1(10),14-ent-halimadien-18-oic acid (2), and (13R)-2-oxo-13-hydroxy-1(10),14-ent-halimadien-18-oic acid (3). The configurations of these compounds were determined from X-ray crystallography of 1, circular dichroism of 2 and 3, and spectral studies of prepared derivatives. Compound 1 exhibited weak cytotoxicity toward the 1138 mutant yeast strain and the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line.

  7. Testing the efficacy of downscaling in species distribution modelling: a comparison between MaxEnt and Favourability Function models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivero, J.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Skidmore, A.K.; Real, R.


    Statistical downscaling is used to improve the knowledge of spatial distributions from broad–scale to fine–scale maps with higher potential for conservation planning. We assessed the effectiveness of downscaling in two commonly used species distribution models: Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) and the Favourability Function (FF). We used atlas data (10 x 10 km) of the fire salamander Salamandra salamandra distribution in southern Spain to derive models at a 1 x 1 km resolution. Downscaled models were assessed using an independent dataset of the species’ distribution at 1 x 1 km. The Favourability model showed better downscaling performance than the MaxEnt model, and the models that were based on linear combinations of environmental variables performed better than models allowing higher flexibility. The Favourability model minimized model overfitting compared to the MaxEnt model. (Author)

  8. Testing the efficacy of downscaling in species distribution modelling: a comparison between MaxEnt and Favourability Function models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivero, J.


    Full Text Available Statistical downscaling is used to improve the knowledge of spatial distributions from broad–scale to fine–scale maps with higher potential for conservation planning. We assessed the effectiveness of downscaling in two commonly used species distribution models: Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt and the Favourability Function (FF. We used atlas data (10 x 10 km of the fire salamander Salamandra salamandra distribution in southern Spain to derive models at a 1 x 1 km resolution. Downscaled models were assessed using an independent dataset of the species’ distribution at 1 x 1 km. The Favourability model showed better downscaling performance than the MaxEnt model, and the models that were based on linear combinations of environmental variables performed better than models allowing higher flexibility. The Favourability model minimized model overfitting compared to the MaxEnt model.

  9. An appraisal of the utility or futility of ENT consultant postal questionnaires. (United States)

    Ryan, Stephen; Saunders, J; Clarke, E; Fenton, J E


    Despite an increase in ENT postal questionnaires, the quality of their methodology has been questioned (Ramphul et al. in J Laryngol Otol 119:175-178, 1). This retrospective study examined whether quality and utility of such questionnaires published since 2005 has improved. Seventeen consultant postal questionnaires published between 2005 and 2012 were reviewed. Quality of questionnaires was assessed using a 30-point score based on compliance with 15 criteria previously established to evaluate postal questionnaire study-design (Ramphul et al. in J Laryngol Otol 119:175-178, 1). Citation rates were used as an indicator of utility. The specific comments made in each citing paper was reviewed providing information on whether questionnaire findings (a) had an impact on clinical practice, (b) were the citing comments positive, (c) negative or (d) non-specific. Recurrent methodological flaws were identified in all questionnaires. The average score assigned was 44 %, versus 32 % previously reported (Ramphul et al. in J Laryngol Otol 119:175-178, 1) (P questionnaires. Citations were general non-specific referencing with no clear indication that questionnaire findings positively impacted clinical practice. In conclusion, although the quality of ENT postal questionnaire has improved since the original study (Ramphul et al. in J Laryngol Otol 119:175-178, 1), important recurring methodological flaws still exist. The poor utility, based on low citation rates, also reflects the continued deficiencies in design quality. It is recommended that authors of questionnaire-based research should ensure that guidelines for questionnaire design are adhered in order to improve the validity of findings and hence impact on clinical practice.

  10. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia


    In order to optimise the management of the Technical Network (TN), to facilitate understanding of the purpose of devices connected to the TN and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive e-mails from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database at "network-cern-ch". Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  11. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia


    In order to optimize the management of the Technical Network (TN), to ease the understanding and purpose of devices connected to the TN, and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive email notifications from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database. Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  12. Final Technical Report. Project Boeing SGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Thomas E. [The Boeing Company, Seattle, WA (United States)


    Boeing and its partner, PJM Interconnection, teamed to bring advanced “defense-grade” technologies for cyber security to the US regional power grid through demonstration in PJM’s energy management environment. Under this cooperative project with the Department of Energy, Boeing and PJM have developed and demonstrated a host of technologies specifically tailored to the needs of PJM and the electric sector as a whole. The team has demonstrated to the energy industry a combination of processes, techniques and technologies that have been successfully implemented in the commercial, defense, and intelligence communities to identify, mitigate and continuously monitor the cyber security of critical systems. Guided by the results of a Cyber Security Risk-Based Assessment completed in Phase I, the Boeing-PJM team has completed multiple iterations through the Phase II Development and Phase III Deployment phases. Multiple cyber security solutions have been completed across a variety of controls including: Application Security, Enhanced Malware Detection, Security Incident and Event Management (SIEM) Optimization, Continuous Vulnerability Monitoring, SCADA Monitoring/Intrusion Detection, Operational Resiliency, Cyber Range simulations and hands on cyber security personnel training. All of the developed and demonstrated solutions are suitable for replication across the electric sector and/or the energy sector as a whole. Benefits identified include; Improved malware and intrusion detection capability on critical SCADA networks including behavioral-based alerts resulting in improved zero-day threat protection; Improved Security Incident and Event Management system resulting in better threat visibility, thus increasing the likelihood of detecting a serious event; Improved malware detection and zero-day threat response capability; Improved ability to systematically evaluate and secure in house and vendor sourced software applications; Improved ability to continuously monitor and maintain secure configuration of network devices resulting in reduced vulnerabilities for potential exploitation; Improved overall cyber security situational awareness through the integration of multiple discrete security technologies into a single cyber security reporting console; Improved ability to maintain the resiliency of critical systems in the face of a targeted cyber attack of other significant event; Improved ability to model complex networks for penetration testing and advanced training of cyber security personnel

  13. Solar Cell Nanotechnology Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Biswajit [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    The objective of this project is to develop a low cost nonlithographic nanofabrication technology for the fabrication of thin film porous templates as well as uniform arrays of semiconductor nanostructures for the implementation of high efficiency solar cells. Solar cells based on semiconductor nanostructures are expected to have very high energy conversion efficiencies due to the increased absorption coefficients of semiconductor nanostructures. In addition, the thin film porous template can be used for optimum surface texturing of solar cells leading to additional enhancement in energy conversion efficiency. An important requirement for these applications is the ability to synthesize nanostructure arrays of different dimensions with good size control. This project employed nanoporous alumina templates created by the anodization of aluminum thin films deposited on glass substrates for the fabrication of the nanostructures and optimized the process parameters to obtain uniform pore diameters. An additional requirement is uniformity or regularity of the nanostructure arrays. While constant current anodization was observed to provide controlled pore diameters, constant voltage anodization was needed for regularity of the nanostructure arrays. Thus a two-step anodization process was investigated and developed in this project for improving the pore size distribution and pore periodicity of the nanoporous alumina templates. CdTe was selected to be the active material for the nanowires, and the process for the successful synthesis of CdTe nanowires was developed in this project. Two different synthesis approaches were investigated in this project, electrochemical and electrophoretic deposition. While electrochemical synthesis was successfully employed for the synthesis of nanowires inside the pores of the alumina templates, the technique was determined to be non-optimum due to the need of elevated temperature that is detrimental to the structural integrity of the nanoporous alumina templates. In order to eliminate this problem, electrophoretic deposition was selected as the more appropriate technique, which involves the guided deposition of semiconductor nanoparticles in the presence of ultrasonic energy to form the crystalline nanowires. Extensive experimental research was carried out to optimize the process parameters for formation of crystalline nanowires. It was observed that the environmental bath temperature plays a critical role in determining the structural integrity of the nanowires and hence their lengths. Investigation was carried out for the formation of semitransparent ohmic contacts on the nanowires to facilitate photocurrent spectroscopy measurements as well as for solar cell implementation. Formation of such ohmic contacts was found to be challenging and a process involving mechanical and electrochemical polishing was developed to facilitate such contacts. The use of nanoporous alumina templates for the surface texturing of mono- and multi-crystalline solar cells was extensively investigated by electrochemical etching of the silicon through the pores of the nanoporous templates. The processes for template formation as well as etching were optimized and the alumina/silicon interface was investigated using capacitance-voltage characterization. The process developed was found to be viable for improving solar cell performance.