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Sample records for enrichment selectively increases

  1. Nutrient enrichment increases mortality of mangroves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients.

  2. Highly selective enrichment of phosphorylated peptides using titanium dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Jensen, Ole N

    2006-01-01

    a protocol for selective phosphopeptide enrichment using titanium dioxide (TiO2) chromatography. The selectivity toward phosphopeptides is obtained by loading the sample in a 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) or phthalic acid solution containing acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) onto a TiO2 micro...

  3. Effect of Selected Azotobacter Bacterial Strains on the Enrichment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Selected Azotobacter Bacterial Strains on the Enrichment of Cassava Waste during Sold State Fermentation. ... The effect of three different strains of Azotobacter bacteria in solid substrate fermentation on cassava waste was evaluated. The substrate was incubated at 300c for 10 days inoculation with the ...

  4. Contribution of Selective Conditions to Microbial Competition in Four Listeria Selective Enrichment Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Ashley L; Hitchins, Anthony D; Smiley, R Derike

    2016-11-01

    Microbial competition during selective enrichment negatively affects Listeria monocytogenes populations and may hinder the subsequent detection or recovery of this organism. Competition assays among 10 selected strains of Listeria and Citrobacter braakii were performed in buffered Listeria enrichment broth, 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid-buffered Listeria enrichment broth, University of Vermont medium-modified Listeria enrichment broth, and Fraser broth. The individual contributions of each selective agent in these media were also assessed, as well as the contribution of incubation temperature. Acriflavine hydrochloride and sodium nalidixate were ineffective at preventing the overgrowth of C. braakii ; this resulted in substantially lower populations of Listeria than when the competitor was absent. At the higher levels, both of these selective agents were detrimental to Listeria populations. The highest enrichment populations of Listeria were observed when either NaCl or LiCl was present. In the absence of selective agents, the final populations of Listeria following competitive growth with C. braakii were not substantially affected by temperature; however, in the presence of selective agents, the Listeria populations were statistically higher at the higher incubation temperature. There are a limited number of selective agents available for use in Listeria -specific enrichment media, resulting in formulations that are only somewhat selective for this species. The optimization of current formulations may help researchers to improve Listeria recovery, particularly from products with a high microbial load. The understanding of the behavior and interactions between target and nontarget microorganisms in the presence of these available selective agents is a necessary step in the optimization of Listeria selective enrichment formulations.

  5. Increased predation of nutrient-enriched aposematic prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Christina G; Skelhorn, John; Rowe, Candy

    2014-04-22

    Avian predators readily learn to associate the warning coloration of aposematic prey with the toxic effects of ingesting them, but they do not necessarily exclude aposematic prey from their diets. By eating aposematic prey 'educated' predators are thought to be trading-off the benefits of gaining nutrients with the costs of eating toxins. However, while we know that the toxin content of aposematic prey affects the foraging decisions made by avian predators, the extent to which the nutritional content of toxic prey affects predators' decisions to eat them remains to be tested. Here, we show that European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) increase their intake of a toxic prey type when the nutritional content is artificially increased, and decrease their intake when nutritional enrichment is ceased. This clearly demonstrates that birds can detect the nutritional content of toxic prey by post-ingestive feedback, and use this information in their foraging decisions, raising new perspectives on the evolution of prey defences. Nutritional differences between individuals could result in equally toxic prey being unequally predated, and might explain why some species undergo ontogenetic shifts in defence strategies. Furthermore, the nutritional value of prey will likely have a significant impact on the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems.

  6. Loss of environmental enrichment increases vulnerability to cocaine addiction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nader, Joëlle; Chauvet, Claudia; Claudia, Chauvet; Rawas, Rana El; Favot, Laure; Jaber, Mohamed; Thiriet, Nathalie; Solinas, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    .... Early exposure to positive environmental conditions such as environmental enrichment (EE) has been shown to reduce the occurrence and the intensity of neurological and psychiatric disorders including drug addiction...

  7. Environmental Enrichment Therapy for Autism: Outcomes with Increased Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Aronoff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown in two randomized clinical trials that environmental enrichment is capable of ameliorating symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD, and in the present study, we determined whether this therapy could be effective under real-world circumstances. 1,002 children were given daily Sensory Enrichment Therapy, by their parents, using personalized therapy instructions given over the Internet. Parents were asked to assess the symptoms of their child every 2 weeks for up to 7 months. An intention-to-treat analysis showed significant overall gains for a wide range of symptoms in these children, including learning, memory, anxiety, attention span, motor skills, eating, sleeping, sensory processing, self-awareness, communication, social skills, and mood/autism behaviors. The children of compliant caregivers were more likely to experience a significant improvement in their symptoms. The treatment was effective across a wide age range and there was equal progress reported for males and females, for USA and international subjects, for those who paid and those who did not pay for the therapy, and for individuals at all levels of initial symptom severity. Environmental enrichment, delivered via an online system, therefore appears to be an effective, low-cost means of treating the symptoms of ASD.

  8. Bias in the Listeria monocytogenes enrichment procedure: Lineage 2 strains outcompete lineage 1 strains in University of Vermont selective enrichments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Gram, Lone

    2005-01-01

    of the present study was to investigate if the selective enrichment procedure results in a true representation of the subtypes of L. monocytogenes present in a sample. Eight L. monocytogenes strains (four lineage 1 strains and four lineage 2 strains) and one Listeria innocua strain grew with identical growth...... tested, indicating a bias in strains selected by the enrichment procedures. Bias also occurred when coinoculating two lineage 2 or lineage 1 strains; however, it did not appear to correlate with origin (clinical versus food). Identical coinoculation experiments in BHI suggested that the selective......Listeria monocytogenes can be isolated from a range of food products and may cause food-borne outbreaks or sporadic cases of listeriosis. L. monocytogenes is divided into three genetic lineages and 13 serotypes. Strains of three serotypes (1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b) are associated with most human cases...

  9. Selective Enrichment of Azide-Containing Peptides from Complex Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nessen, Merel A.; Kramer, Gertjan; Back, Jaapwillem; Baskin, Jeremy M.; Smeenk, Linde E. J.; de Koning, Leo J.; van Maarseveen, Jan H.; de Jong, Luitzen; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Hiemstra, Henk; de Koster, Chris G.

    2009-01-01

    A general method is described to sequester peptides containing azides from complex peptide mixtures, aimed at facilitating mass spectrometric analysis to study different aspects of proteome dynamics. The enrichment method is based on covalent capture of azide-containing peptides by the

  10. Selective enrichment of STRs for applications in forensic human identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadipally, Sreeja R; Sarkar, Anujit; Nandineni, Madhusudan R

    2015-08-01

    Forensic human identification (HID) is currently based on determining repeat length polymorphisms located in short tandem repeat regions in the human genome. Despite the great progress made in the area of multiplex PCR-based approaches, limitations associated with challenging forensic samples such as DNA degradation, cooccurrence of inhabited microbial DNA and PCR inhibitors significantly affect the success rate of human DNA profiling. We have developed a sequence-specific pre-PCR STR enrichment method and evaluated its efficacy using DNA samples doped with various contaminants in view of its application on compromised forensic samples. This strategy has enabled us to generate complete and reproducible DNA profiles from samples doped with fivefold excess of nonhuman DNA and three to fourfold excess of various potent PCR inhibitors than that is claimed to be tolerated by some of the widely used commercial multiplex STR kits, from as little as two nanograms of degraded human DNA. The "hybrid capture"-based STR enrichment strategy described in this study is easily adaptable and offers a sensitive, efficient, and economical approach for successful human DNA profiling from compromised and recalcitrant forensic samples that are usually encountered in mass disaster incidents and missing persons' identifications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Impact of selectively enriched microbial communities on long-term fermentative biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniah Goud, R; Arunasri, Kotakonda; Yeruva, Dileep Kumar; Krishna, K Vamshi; Dahiya, Shikha; Mohan, S Venkata

    2017-10-01

    The effect of selectively enriched inoculum for biohydrogen production and shifts in microbial communities was observed using anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (AnSBR). Significantly, combined pretreatment using acid and iodopropane resulted 3 fold increase in H2 production (8.65mol/kgCODR) over untreated control (2.63mol/kgCODR). Pretreatment showed significant shifts in the microbial communities which are thus accounted for enhanced H2 production. The high-throughput pyrosequence analysis depicted shifts in phylum Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. In the case of Proteobacteria, there was an increase in Betaproteobacterial, decrease in Epsilonproteobacterial and compositional variation in Alphaproteobacterial species. The decreased OTU number after pretreatment indicate, reduction of undesirable microbial populations while favouring conditions for microbiome that are involved in acidogenic, acetogenic and H2 production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

    2007-04-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  13. Economical Feedback of Increasing Fuel Enrichment on Electricity Cost for VVER-1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Saad Dwiddar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A methodology of evaluating the economics of the front-end nuclear fuel cycle with a price change sensitivity analysis for a VVER-1000 reactor core as a case study is presented. The effect of increasing the fuel enrichment and its corresponding reactor cycle length on the energy cost is investigated. The enrichment component was found to represent the highly expenses dynamic component affecting the economics of the front-end fuel cycle. Nevertheless, the increase of the fuel enrichment will increase the reactor cycle length, which will have a positive feedback on the electricity generation cost (cent/KWh. A long reactor operation time with a cheaper energy cost set the nuclear energy as a competitive alternative when compared with other energy sources.

  14. Development of Hf(4+)-immobilized polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene for highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haizhu; Deng, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we first designed and synthesized an IMAC material with Hf(4+) immobilized on polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene and applied it to phosphopeptides enrichment successfully. The newly prepared material gathered the advantages of large specific surface area of graphene, good hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of polydopamine and superparamagnetism of Fe3O4. We investigated the performance of Hf(4+)-immobilized polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene (denoted as magG@PDA-Hf(4+)) in phosphopeptides enrichment and the results showed high selectivity and sensitivity of the new material. Finally, we successfully applied magG@PDA-Hf(4+) to phosphopeptides enrichment from non-fat milk digests and human serum, further demonstrating excellent performance of this new material in phosphopeptides enrichment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Protein enrichment of familiar foods as an innovative strategy to increase protein intake in institutionalized elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, J.; Roos, de N.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective
    To increase the protein intake of older adults, protein enrichment of familiar foods and drinks might be an effective and attractive alternative for oral nutritional supplements (ONS). We performed a pilot study to test whether these products could help institutionalized elderly to

  16. Enrichment methodology to increase the positivity of cultures from body fluids

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    Alessandra Valle Daur

    Full Text Available Isolation and identification of etiological agents found in body fluids can be of critical importance for the recovery of patients suffering from potentially-severe infections, which are often followed by serious sequels. Eighty-two samples of different body fluids were analyzed using two different methods: (1 the conventional culture method (agar plating and (2 the enrichment culture technique, using the Bact/Alert® blood culture bottle. The number of positive cultures increased on average from 9.7% to 23.1% with the enrichment culture technique. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were the most frequently isolated bacteria. The enrichment method could provide a more accurate means the identifying etiological agents.

  17. A new selective enrichment procedure for isolating Pasteurella multocida from avian and environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M.K.; Cicnjak-Chubbs, L.; Gates, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    A selective enrichment procedure, using two new selective media, was developed to isolate Pasteurella multocida from wild birds and environmental samples. These media were developed by testing 15 selective agents with six isolates of P. multocida from wild avian origin and seven other bacteria representing genera frequently found in environmental and avian samples. The resulting media—Pasteurella multocida selective enrichment broth and Pasteurella multocida selective agar—consisted of a blood agar medium at pH 10 containing gentamicin, potassium tellurite, and amphotericin B. Media were tested to determine: 1) selectivity when attempting isolation from pond water and avian carcasses, 2) sensitivity for detection of low numbers of P. multocida from pure and mixed cultures, 3) host range specificity of the media, and 4) performance compared with standard blood agar. With the new selective enrichment procedure, P. multocida was isolated from inoculated (60 organisms/ml) pond water 84% of the time, whereas when standard blood agar was used, the recovery rate was 0%.

  18. Larval performance of aquacultured Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus L. fed rotifers enriched with selected commercial diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of larviculture methods for marine finfish has been a major bottleneck to ensure a consistent and reliable source of seed stock. This study examined the effect of selected rotifer enrichment diets on growth, survival, and fatty acid content of larval Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolin...

  19. Larval quality of aquacultured Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus L. fed rotifers enriched with selected commercial diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of larviculture methods for marine finfish has been a major bottleneck to ensure a consistent and reliable source of seed stock. This study examined the effect of selected rotifer enrichment diets on growth, survival, and fatty acid content of larval Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolin...

  20. Chronic nutrient enrichment increases prevalence and severity of coral disease and bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Thurber, Rebecca L; Burkepile, Deron E; Fuchs, Corinne; Shantz, Andrew A; McMinds, Ryan; Zaneveld, Jesse R

    2014-02-01

    Nutrient loading is one of the strongest drivers of marine habitat degradation. Yet, the link between nutrients and disease epizootics in marine organisms is often tenuous and supported only by correlative data. Here, we present experimental evidence that chronic nutrient exposure leads to increases in both disease prevalence and severity and coral bleaching in scleractinian corals, the major habitat-forming organisms in tropical reefs. Over 3 years, from June 2009 to June 2012, we continuously exposed areas of a coral reef to elevated levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. At the termination of the enrichment, we surveyed over 1200 scleractinian corals for signs of disease or bleaching. Siderastrea siderea corals within enrichment plots had a twofold increase in both the prevalence and severity of disease compared with corals in unenriched control plots. In addition, elevated nutrient loading increased coral bleaching; Agaricia spp. of corals exposed to nutrients suffered a 3.5-fold increase in bleaching frequency relative to control corals, providing empirical support for a hypothesized link between nutrient loading and bleaching-induced coral declines. However, 1 year later, after nutrient enrichment had been terminated for 10 months, there were no differences in coral disease or coral bleaching prevalence between the previously enriched and control treatments. Given that our experimental enrichments were well within the ranges of ambient nutrient concentrations found on many degraded reefs worldwide, these data provide strong empirical support to the idea that coastal nutrient loading is one of the major factors contributing to the increasing levels of both coral disease and coral bleaching. Yet, these data also suggest that simple improvements to water quality may be an effective way to mitigate some coral disease epizootics and the corresponding loss of coral cover in the future. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Detection of Salmonella spp. in veterinary samples by combining selective enrichment and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Laura B; McDonough, Patrick L; Anderson, Renee R; Franklin-Guild, Rebecca J; Ryan, James R; Perkins, Gillian A; Thachil, Anil J; Glaser, Amy L; Thompson, Belinda S

    2017-11-01

    Rapid screening for enteric bacterial pathogens in clinical environments is essential for biosecurity. Salmonella found in veterinary hospitals, particularly Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin, can pose unique challenges for culture and testing because of its poor growth. Multiple Salmonella serovars including Dublin are emerging threats to public health given increasing prevalence and antimicrobial resistance. We adapted an automated food testing method to veterinary samples and evaluated the performance of the method in a variety of matrices including environmental samples ( n = 81), tissues ( n = 52), feces ( n = 148), and feed ( n = 29). A commercial kit was chosen as the basis for this approach in view of extensive performance characterizations published by multiple independent organizations. A workflow was established for efficiently and accurately testing veterinary matrices and environmental samples by use of real-time PCR after selective enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis soya (RVS) medium. Using this method, the detection limit for S. Dublin improved by 100-fold over subculture on selective agars (eosin-methylene blue, brilliant green, and xylose-lysine-deoxycholate). Overall, the procedure was effective in detecting Salmonella spp. and provided next-day results.

  2. Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae

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    James A Nicholls

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown age of 2-10 MY, yet over 6kb of plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data gives only poor phylogenetic resolution among species. Here we explore the use of larger-scale nuclear gene data obtained though targeted enrichment to increase phylogenetic resolution within Inga. Transcriptome data from three Inga species were used to select 264 nuclear loci for targeted enrichment and sequencing. Following quality control to remove probable paralogs from these sequence data, the final dataset comprised 259,313 bases from 194 loci for 24 accessions representing 22 Inga species and an outgroup (Zygia. Bayesian phylogenies reconstructed using either all loci concatenated or a subset of 60 loci in a gene-tree/species-tree approach yielded highly resolved phylogenies. We used coalescent approaches to show that the same targeted enrichment data also have significant power to discriminate among alternative within-species population histories in the widespread species I. umbellifera. In either application, targeted enrichment simplifies the informatics challenge of identifying orthologous loci associated with de novo genome sequencing. We conclude that targeted enrichment provides the large volumes of phylogenetically-informative sequence data required to resolve relationships within recent plant species radiations, both at the species level and for within-species phylogeographic studies.

  3. Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, James A; Pennington, R Toby; Koenen, Erik J M; Hughes, Colin E; Hearn, Jack; Bunnefeld, Lynsey; Dexter, Kyle G; Stone, Graham N; Kidner, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae) is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown age of 2-10 MY, yet over 6 kb of plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data gives only poor phylogenetic resolution among species. Here we explore the use of larger-scale nuclear gene data obtained though targeted enrichment to increase phylogenetic resolution within Inga. Transcriptome data from three Inga species were used to select 264 nuclear loci for targeted enrichment and sequencing. Following quality control to remove probable paralogs from these sequence data, the final dataset comprised 259,313 bases from 194 loci for 24 accessions representing 22 Inga species and an outgroup (Zygia). Bayesian phylogenies reconstructed using either all loci concatenated or a gene-tree/species-tree approach yielded highly resolved phylogenies. We used coalescent approaches to show that the same targeted enrichment data also have significant power to discriminate among alternative within-species population histories within the widespread species I. umbellifera. In either application, targeted enrichment simplifies the informatics challenge of identifying orthologous loci associated with de novo genome sequencing. We conclude that targeted enrichment provides the large volumes of phylogenetically-informative sequence data required to resolve relationships within recent plant species radiations, both at the species level and for within-species phylogeographic studies.

  4. Phytosterol-enriched yogurt increases LDL affinity and reduces CD36 expression in polygenic hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiu, Gianluca; Pinach, Silvia; Veglia, Fabrizio; Gambino, Roberto; Marena, Saverio; Uberti, Barbara; Alemanno, Natalina; Burt, Davina; Pagano, Gianfranco; Cassader, Maurizio

    2009-02-01

    Dietary enrichment with phytosterols (plant sterols similar to cholesterol) is able to reduce plasma cholesterol levels due to reduced intestinal absorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of phytosterol-enriched yogurt consumption on the major serum lipid parameters, low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity, LDL-receptor affinity, and CD36 expression in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Fifteen patients affected by polygenic hypercholesterolemia were evaluated in a single-blind randomized crossover study after a 4 weeks treatment with a phytosterol-enriched yogurt containing 1.6 g esterefied phytosterols (equivalent to 1.0 g free phytosterol). Lipid parameters were compared with a phytosterol-free placebo-controlled diet. The effect of the two treatments on each variable, measured as percentage change, was compared by paired samples t test and covariance analysis. The treatment induced a modest but significant decrease in LDL-cholesterol levels (4.3%, P = 0.03) and a significant increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) 3-cholesterol (17.1%, P = 0.01). Phytosterol consumption had no effect on LDL-receptor activity whereas patient LDL-receptor affinity significantly increased (9.7%, P = 0.01) and CD36 expression showed a marked significant decrease (18.2%, P = 0.01) in the phytosterol-enriched yoghurt patients. Our data show that the oral administration of a phytosterol-enriched yogurt has modest but significant effects on commonly measured lipid parameters. The improvement of LDL-receptor affinity and the reduction in CD36 expression may reflect an important antiatherogenic effect.

  5. Dietary fatty acid enrichment increases egg size and quality of yellow seahorse Hippocampus kuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, M; Masdeu, M; Hale, P; Sibbons, C M; Holt, W V

    2014-02-01

    Seahorses populations in the wild have been declining and to restore them a better knowledge of seahorse reproduction is required. This study examines the effect of dietary quality on seahorse fecundity and egg quality. Two different diets were tested with Hippocampus kuda females: frozen mysis (control) and frozen mysis enriched with a liposome spray containing essential fatty acids. Diets were given to females (two groups of five) over a seven week period. After this period, males (fed the control diet) and females were paired and the eggs dropped by the females were collected. Fatty acid profile were analysed and eggs were counted and measured. Results showed that females fed on enriched mysis had larger eggs and that these had a higher content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids. The size of the egg was especially affected in the first spawn, where egg size for females fed the enriched diet was significantly higher than the egg size from control females. This effect was reduced in the following spawning where no significant differences were found. Egg size is an important quality descriptor as seahorse juveniles originating from smaller eggs and/or eggs of poor quality will have less chances of overcoming adverse conditions in the wild and consequently have lower survival and growth rates. This study shows that enriching frozen mysis with polyunsaturated fatty acids increases egg size and egg quality of H. kuda. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of immobilized Sn(4+) affinity chromatography material for highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haizhu; Deng, Chunhui

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we first immobilized tin(IV) ion on polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene (magG@PDA) to synthesize Sn(4+) -immobilized magG@PDA (magG@PDA-Sn(4+) ) and successfully applied the material to highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides. The material gathered the advantages of large surface area of graphene, superparamagnetism of Fe3 O4 , good hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of polydopamine, and strong interaction between Sn(4+) and phosphopeptides. The enrichment performance of magG@PDA-Sn(4+) toward phosphopeptides from digested β-casein at different concentrations, with and without added digested BSA was investigated and compared with magG@PDA-Ti(4+) . The results showed high selectivity and sensitivity of the Sn(4+) -IMAC material toward phosphopeptides, as good as the Ti(4+) -IMAC material. Finally, magG@PDA-Sn(4+) was applied to the analysis of endogenous phosphopeptides from a real sample, human saliva, with both MALDI-TOF MS and nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. The results indicated that the as-synthesized Sn(4+) -IMAC material not only has good enrichment performance, but also could serve as a supplement to the Ti(4+) -IMAC material and expand the phosphopeptide coverage enriched by the single Ti(4+) -IMAC material, demonstrating the broad application prospects of magG@PDA-Sn(4+) in phosphoproteome research. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Selective enrichment of catecholamines using iron oxide nanoparticles followed by CE with UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Hsiang; Lu, Chi-Yu; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the use of unmodified magnetite nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4) NPs) for selective extraction and enrichment of the catecholamines dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NE), and adrenaline (E), prior to analysis using capillary electrophoresis with UV detection. Coordination between Fe(3+) on-the-surface Fe(3)O(4) NPs and the catechol moiety of catecholamines enables Fe(3)O(4) NPs to capture catecholamines from an aqueous solution. We obtained maximum loading of catecholamines on the NP surface by adjusting the pH of the solution to 7.0. In addition, catecholamine loading on the Fe(3)O(4) NPs increased in conjunction with NP concentrations. H(3)PO(4) was found to be efficient for the removal of adsorbed catecholamines on the NP surface. Adding 1.2% poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) to the background electrolyte resulted in a baseline separation of the liberated catecholamines within 20 min. Under optimal extraction and separation conditions, the limit of detections at a S/N ratio of 3 for E, NE, and DA were 9, 8, and 10 nM, respectively. Significantly, the combination of a phenylboronate-containing spin column and the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of NE and DA in human urine and NE in Portulaca oleracea L. leaves. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. BDNF increases with behavioural enrichment and an antioxidant diet in the aged dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnestock, Margaret; Marchese, Monica; Head, Elizabeth; Pop, Viorela; Michalski, Bernadeta; Milgram, William N.; Cotman, Carl W.

    2010-01-01

    The aged canine (dog) is an excellent model for investigating the neurobiological changes that underlie cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration in humans, as canines and humans undergo similar pathological and behavioural changes with aging. Recent evidence indicates that a combination of environmental enrichment and antioxidant-fortified diet can be used to reduce the rate of age-dependent neuropathology and cognitive decline in aged dogs, although the mechanisms underlying these changes have not been established. We examined the hypothesis that an increase in levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the factors underlying improvements in learning and memory. Old, cognitively impaired animals that did not receive any treatment showed a significant decrease in BDNF mRNA in the temporal cortex when compared with the young group. Animals receiving either an antioxidant diet or environmental enrichment displayed intermediate levels of BDNF mRNA. However, dogs receiving both an antioxidant diet and environmental enrichment showed increased levels of BDNF mRNA when compared to untreated aged dogs, approaching levels measured in young animals. BDNF receptor TrkB mRNA levels did not differ between groups. BDNF mRNA levels were positively correlated with improved cognitive performance and inversely correlated with cortical Aβ(1–42) and Aβ(1–40) levels. These findings suggest that environmental enrichment and antioxidant diet interact to maintain brain levels of BDNF, which may lead to improved cognitive performance. This is the first demonstration in a higher animal that non-pharmacological changes in lifestyle in advanced age can up-regulate BDNF to levels approaching those in the young brain. PMID:20447733

  9. Selective enrichment media bias the types of Salmonella enterica strains isolated from mixed strain cultures and complex enrichment broths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    For foodborne outbreak investigations it can be difficult to isolate the relevant strain from food and/or environmental sources. If the sample is contaminated by more than one strain of the pathogen the relevant strain might be missed. In this study mixed cultures of Salmonella enterica were grown in one set of standard enrichment media to see if culture bias patterns emerged. Nineteen strains representing four serogroups and ten serotypes were compared in four-strain mixtures in Salmonella-only and in cattle fecal culture enrichment backgrounds using Salmonella enrichment media. One or more strain(s) emerged as dominant in each mixture. No serotype was most fit, but strains of serogroups C2 and E were more likely to dominate enrichment culture mixtures than strains of serogroups B or C1. Different versions of Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) medium gave different patterns of strain dominance in both Salmonella-only and fecal enrichment culture backgrounds. The fittest strains belonged to serogroups C1, C2, and E, and included strains of S. Infantis, S. Thompson S. Newport, S. 6,8:d:-, and S. Give. Strains of serogroup B, which included serotypes often seen in outbreaks such as S. Typhimurium, S. Saintpaul, and S. Schwarzengrund were less likely to emerge as dominant strains in the mixtures when using standard RV as part of the enrichment. Using a more nutrient-rich version of RV as part of the protocol led to a different pattern of strains emerging, however some were still present in very low numbers in the resulting population. These results indicate that outbreak investigations of food and/or other environmental samples should include multiple enrichment protocols to ensure isolation of target strains of Salmonella.

  10. A method for selectively enriching microbial DNA from contaminating vertebrate host DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R Feehery

    Full Text Available DNA samples derived from vertebrate skin, bodily cavities and body fluids contain both host and microbial DNA; the latter often present as a minor component. Consequently, DNA sequencing of a microbiome sample frequently yields reads originating from the microbe(s of interest, but with a vast excess of host genome-derived reads. In this study, we used a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD to separate methylated host DNA from microbial DNA based on differences in CpG methylation density. MBD fused to the Fc region of a human antibody (MBD-Fc binds strongly to protein A paramagnetic beads, forming an effective one-step enrichment complex that was used to remove human or fish host DNA from bacterial and protistan DNA for subsequent sequencing and analysis. We report enrichment of DNA samples from human saliva, human blood, a mock malaria-infected blood sample and a black molly fish. When reads were mapped to reference genomes, sequence reads aligning to host genomes decreased 50-fold, while bacterial and Plasmodium DNA sequences reads increased 8-11.5-fold. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was calculated for 149 bacterial species in saliva before and after enrichment. Unenriched saliva had an index of 4.72, while the enriched sample had an index of 4.80. The similarity of these indices demonstrates that bacterial species diversity and relative phylotype abundance remain conserved in enriched samples. Enrichment using the MBD-Fc method holds promise for targeted microbiome sequence analysis across a broad range of sample types.

  11. Borated titania, a new option for the selective enrichment of cis-diol biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-Ting; Chen, Di; Ding, Jun; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2013-01-07

    As low abundance cis-diol biomolecules are of great significance in biological organisms, preparation of materials for the selective enrichment of such compounds is highly favorable for the development of the related proteomics and metabolomics. To this end, we have prepared monolithic borated titania by a non-aqueous sol-gel strategy as a new inorganic affinity material for the specific capture of nucleosides, glycopeptides and glycoproteins. Benefiting from the inorganic framework, this material prevented the hydrophobic interference, which was somewhat inevitable for the mainstream organic-based boronate affinity materials. The prepared material was carefully characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nitrogen-sorption experiments to investigate the morphology and elemental composition. The excellent performance of borated titania on enrichment of cis-diol biomolecules was demonstrated by extracting the glycopeptides from horseradish peroxidase (HRP) digestion, standard glycoproteins, and nucleosides from a human-urine matrix. This kind of inorganic affinity material offers a new option for selective enrichment or separation of cis-diol biomolecules. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Pseudomorphic synthesis of monodisperse magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres for selective enrichment of endogenous peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Gang-Tian; Li, Xiao-Shui; Gao, Qiang; Zhao, Ning-Wei; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2012-02-10

    In this work, we describe a novel synthetic strategy of magnetic mesoporous silica spheres (Fe3O4@mSiO2) for the selective enrichment of endogenous peptides. Fe3O4 particles were coated with silica shell by a sol-gel method, followed by pseudomorphic synthesis to transform nonporous silica shell into ordered mesoporous silica shell. The core/shell structure and mesostructure were individually fabricated in two steps, which can be expedient to independently optimize the properties of monodispersion, magnetization and mesostructure. Actually, it was confirmed that the produced Fe3O4@mSiO2 particles possess good monodispersion, high magnetization, superparamagnetism, uniform accessible mesopores, and large surface area and pore volume. With these good properties, Fe3O4@mSiO2 spheres were applied to the rapid enrichment of peptides. Based on the size-exclusion mechanism and hydrophobic interaction with siloxane bridge group mainly on the surface of inside pores, Fe3O4@mSiO2 can selectively capture peptides and exclude high-MW proteins and salts. Furthermore, peptides in human plasma were successfully enriched by Fe3O4@mSiO2. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Increasing breeding behaviors in a captive colony of Northern Bald Ibis through conspecific acoustic enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J Alan; Haseley, Alison; Van Genderen, Garry; Hofling, Mark; Clum, Nancy J

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to increase reproductive behaviors in a captive colony of Northern Bald Ibis (Geronticus eremita) at the Bronx Zoo. The Northern Bald Ibis is classified as critically endangered by the IUCN, with only about 100 known breeding pairs in the wild. Our analysis of zoo breeding and colony size data confirmed earlier observations that small captive colonies of this species do not breed as well as larger colonies, possibly because of insufficient social cues. Using principles from social facilitation theory, we attempted to provide such social cues by presenting acoustic enrichment in the form of conspecific breeding vocalization playbacks. In May 2009, we tracked multiple breeding behaviors during playbacks and control periods. Although breeding behaviors increased in response to playbacks, the colony produced no eggs. We repeated this experiment in April 2010 using playbacks of higher quality recordings acquired from a semi-wild breeding colony of Northern Bald Ibis in Austria. Breeding behaviors again increased during playbacks. In addition, five pairs in this colony of 15 birds produced 13 eggs, and six chicks successfully fledged--the first reproductive success in this colony since 2007. The acoustic enrichment techniques we employed may encourage increased breeding activity in captive populations of colonial species as well as wild colonies with small populations. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The use of titanium dioxide for selective enrichment of phosphorylated peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E.; Larsen, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    acid (DHB), phthalic acid, lactic acid, or glycolic acid has been shown to improve selectivity significantly by reducing unspecific binding of non-phosphorylated peptides. The phosphopeptides bound to the TiO2 are subsequently eluted from the chromatographic material using an alkaline buffer. TiO2......Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has very high affinity for phosphopeptides and in recent years it has become one of the most popular methods for phosphopeptide enrichment from complex biological samples. Peptide loading onto TiO2 resin in a highly acidic environment in the presence of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic...... chromatography is extremely tolerant towards most buffers used in biological experiments, highly robust and as such it has become the method of choice in large-scale phosphoproteomics. Here we describe a batch mode protocol for phosphopeptide enrichment using TiO2 chromatographic material followed by desalting...

  15. [Selective enrichment of Pseudomonas spp. in the rhizoplane of different plant species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Mariana A; Agaras, Betina; Wall, Luis G; Valverde, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to rhizobia-legume symbiosis, the specificity for root colonization by pseudomonads seems to be less strict. However, several studies about bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere highlight the influence of plant species on the selective enrichment of certain microorganisms from the bulk soil community. In order to evaluate the effect that different crops have on the structure of pseudomonad community on the root surface, we performed plant trap experiments, using surface-disinfected maize, wheat or soybean seeds that were sown in pots containing the same pristine soil as substrate. Rhizoplane suspensions were plated on a selective medium for Pseudomonas, and pooled colonies served as DNA source to carry out PCR-RFLP community structure analysis of the pseudomonads-specific marker genes oprF and gacA. PCR-RFLP profiles were grouped by plant species, and were distinguished from those of bulk soil samples. Partial sequencing of 16S rDNA genes of some representative colonies of Pseudomonas confirmed the selective enrichment of distinctive genotypes in the rhizoplane of each plant species. These results support the idea that the root systems of agricultural crops such as soybean, maize and wheat, select differential sets of pseudomonads from the native microbial repertoire inhabiting the bulk soil. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Goat Milk Fat Naturally Enriched with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Increased Lipoproteins and Reduced Triacylglycerol in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaela Rodrigues

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Goat milk is source of different lipids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA. CLA reduces body fat and protect against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study fat from goat milk naturally enriched with CLA was used. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups that received during a 10 week diet with different lipid sources: soybean oil (CON, coconut oil (CO and goat milk fat naturally enriched with CLA (GM-CLA. We evaluated the effects of a GM-CLA on biochemistry parameters - high density lipoprotein (HDL, triacylglycerol (TAG, TAG/HDL ratio, total cholesterol and glucose -, body weight and histopathological aspects of the intestine and liver. GM-CLA increased body weight from the second to the fifth week of the experiment compared to CON. Feed intake differed between the CON group and GM-CLA early in the first to third week of the experiments and later between the ninth and tenth week. The CLA-diet group showed increased levels of HDL, reduced levels of TAG and TAG/HDL ratio and no effect on LDL, but enhanced total cholesterol. Serum glucose of the GM-CLA group showed no difference from the control group. Thus, a GM-CLA diet promoted growth in young rats and acted as protector of cardiovascular function, but further studies are still needed to clarify these effects.

  17. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan Moharana, Tushar; Byreddy, Avinesh R; Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2016-01-01

    Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1), which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL), as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids.

  18. Stable acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70ºC) mixed culture fermentation by selective enrichment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, F.; Zhang, Y.; Ding, J.; Dai, K.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Zeng, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    The control of metabolite production is difficult in mixed culture fermentation. This is particularly related to hydrogen inhibition. In this work, hydrogenotrophic methanogens were selectively enriched to reduce the hydrogen partial pressure and to realize efficient acetate production in

  19. A grape-enriched diet increases bone calcium retention and cortical bone properties in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Emily E; Weaver, Connie M

    2015-02-01

    Grapes and their associated phytochemicals have been investigated for beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, cancer prevention, and other chronic diseases, but the effect of grape consumption on bone health has not been fully determined. We previously found short-term benefits of grape products on reducing bone turnover in ovariectomized rats. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term benefits of a grape-enriched diet on bone in ovariectomized rats. Rats were ovariectomized at 3 mo of age and were administered a single dose of (45)Ca to prelabel bones at 4 mo of age. After a 1-mo equilibration period, baseline urinary (45)Ca excretion was determined. Rats (n = 22/group) were then randomly assigned to a modified AIN93M diet containing 25% freeze-dried grape powder or to a control diet for 8 wk. Urinary (45)Ca excretion was monitored throughout the study to determine changes in bone (45)Ca retention. Calcium balance was assessed after 1 and 8 wk of consuming the experimental diets, and a calcium kinetic study was performed at 8 wk. After 8 wk, femurs were collected for micro-computed tomographic imaging, 3-point bending, and reference point indentation. Rats fed the grape-enriched diet had 44% greater net bone calcium retention than did rats fed the control diet. There were no differences in calcium balance due to diet at either week 1 or week 8, but there was a significant increase in net calcium absorption (10.6%) and retention (5.7%) from week 1 to week 8 in the grape-enriched diet group only. Grape-enriched diet-fed rats had 3% greater cortical thickness and 11% greater breaking strength. There were no differences in femur bone mineral density, trabecular microarchitecture, or reference point indentation variables due to diet. This study of ovariectomized rats indicates that the consumption of grape products may improve calcium utilization and suppress bone turnover, resulting in improvements in bone quality. © 2015 American Society for

  20. Hemiparasite abundance in an alpine treeline ecotone increases in response to atmospheric CO(2) enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Zumbrunn, Thomas

    2006-02-01

    Populations of the annual hemiparasites Melampyrum pratense L. and Melampyrum sylvaticum L. were studied at the treeline in the Swiss Alps after 3 years of in situ CO(2) enrichment. The total density of Melampyrum doubled to an average of 44 individuals per square meter at elevated CO(2) compared to ambient CO(2). In response to elevated CO(2), the height of the more abundant and more evenly distributed M. pratense increased by 20%, the number of seeds per fruit by 21%, and the total seed dry mass per fruit by 27%, but the individual seed size did not change. These results suggest that rising atmospheric CO(2) may stimulate the reproductive output and increase the abundance of Melampyrum in the alpine treeline ecotone. Because hemiparasites can have important effects on community dynamics and ecosystem processes, notably the N cycle, changing Melampyrum abundance may potentially influence the functioning of alpine ecosystems in a future CO(2)-rich atmosphere.

  1. Polyethyleneimine-grafted boronate affinity materials for selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yun; Shi, Wenjun; Zhu, Bangjie; Gu, Xue; Wang, Yan; Yan, Chao

    2015-08-01

    Polyethyleneimine (PEI)-grafted and 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid (AAPBA)-functionalized SiO2 boronate affinity materials were synthesized for the selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing compounds. Characterization results of scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, zeta potential, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated the successful fabrication of SiO2@PEI-AAPBA materials. Chromatographic separation of test mixtures reveals that SiO2@PEI-AAPBA has high selective enrichment ability for cis-diol-containing compounds. The binding pH between SiO2@PEI-AAPBA and catechol was found to be as low as pH 4.5, while that between SiO2@PEI-AAPBA and adenosine was only ~7.5. This difference might be attributed to the strong electrostatic repulsion between the solid phase and analytes at a low pH. Furthermore, a diphasic separation column was fabricated based on boronate affinity chromatography, C18-reversed-phase chromatography and applied in pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC). Results showed that four polar nucleosides could be well captured by the boronate affinity chromatography (BAC) section and separated by reversed phase pCEC. Finally, SiO2@PEI600-AAPBA-based solid-phase extraction technology was applied to the purification of ribonucleosides in real urine samples, and results of UHPLC-MS/MS revealed that the intensities of the extracted ions (a neutral mass loss of m/z 132.04 Da) of the ribonucleosides were significantly enhanced after the enrichment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Maximizing power generation from dark fermentation effluents in microbial fuel cell by selective enrichment of exoelectrogens and optimization of anodic operational parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanasi, Jhansi L; Sinha, Pallavi; Das, Debabrata

    2017-05-01

    To selectively enrich an electrogenic mixed consortium capable of utilizing dark fermentative effluents as substrates in microbial fuel cells and to further enhance the power outputs by optimization of influential anodic operational parameters. A maximum power density of 1.4 W/m 3 was obtained by an enriched mixed electrogenic consortium in microbial fuel cells using acetate as substrate. This was further increased to 5.43 W/m 3 by optimization of influential anodic parameters. By utilizing dark fermentative effluents as substrates, the maximum power densities ranged from 5.2 to 6.2 W/m 3 with an average COD removal efficiency of 75% and a columbic efficiency of 10.6%. A simple strategy is provided for selective enrichment of electrogenic bacteria that can be used in microbial fuel cells for generating power from various dark fermentative effluents.

  3. Docosahexaenoic acid-enriched canola oil increases adiponectin concentrations: a randomized crossover controlled intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril-Gravel, L; Labonté, M-E; Couture, P; Vohl, M-C; Charest, A; Guay, V; Jenkins, D A; Connelly, P W; West, S; Kris-Etherton, P M; Jones, P J; Fleming, J A; Lamarche, B

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of various dietary fatty acids on pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. We investigated the effect of 5 oils containing various amounts of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), oleic acid (OA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on plasma inflammatory biomarkers and expression levels of key inflammatory genes and transcription factors in whole blood cells. In a randomized, crossover controlled nutrition intervention, 114 adult men and women with abdominal obesity and at least one other criterion for the metabolic syndrome consumed 5 experimental isoenergetic diets for 4 weeks each, separated by 4-week washout periods. Each diet provided 60 g/3000 kcal of different oils: 1) control corn/safflower oil blend (CornSaff; LA-rich), 2) flax/safflower oil blend (FlaxSaff; ALA-rich), 3) conventional canola oil (Canola; OA-rich), 4) high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic; highest OA content), 5) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (CanolaDHA; OA- and DHA-rich). Gene expression in whole blood cells was assessed in a subset of 62 subjects. CanolaDHA increased plasma adiponectin concentrations compared with the control CornSaff oil treatment (+4.5%, P = 0.04) and FlaxSaff (+6.9%, P = 0.0008). CanolaDHA also reduced relative expression levels of interleukin (IL)1B compared with CornSaff and Canola (-11% and -13%, respectively, both P = 0.03). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations were lower after Canola than after FlaxSaff (-17.8%, P = 0.047). DHA-enriched canola oil exerts anti-inflammatory effects compared with polyunsaturated fatty acids from plant sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. SHAPE Selection (SHAPES) enrich for RNA structure signal in SHAPE sequencing-based probing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Line Dahl; Kielpinski, Lukasz Jan; Salama, Sofie R.; Krogh, Anders; Vinther, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Selective 2′ Hydroxyl Acylation analyzed by Primer Extension (SHAPE) is an accurate method for probing of RNA secondary structure. In existing SHAPE methods, the SHAPE probing signal is normalized to a no-reagent control to correct for the background caused by premature termination of the reverse transcriptase. Here, we introduce a SHAPE Selection (SHAPES) reagent, N-propanone isatoic anhydride (NPIA), which retains the ability of SHAPE reagents to accurately probe RNA structure, but also allows covalent coupling between the SHAPES reagent and a biotin molecule. We demonstrate that SHAPES-based selection of cDNA–RNA hybrids on streptavidin beads effectively removes the large majority of background signal present in SHAPE probing data and that sequencing-based SHAPES data contain the same amount of RNA structure data as regular sequencing-based SHAPE data obtained through normalization to a no-reagent control. Moreover, the selection efficiently enriches for probed RNAs, suggesting that the SHAPES strategy will be useful for applications with high-background and low-probing signal such as in vivo RNA structure probing. PMID:25805860

  5. Enriched environment increases the total number of CNPase positive cells in the corpus callosum of middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan-Yu; Shi, Xiao-Yan; Qiu, Xuan; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Wei; Yang, Shu; Li, Chen; Cheng, Guo-Hua; Yang, Zheng-Wei; Tang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    It had been reported that enriched environment was beneficial for the brain cognition, neurons and synapses in cortex and hippocampus. With diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), several studies recently found the trained-induced larger corpus callosum. However, the effect of enriched environment on the oligodendrocytes in corpus callosum has not been explored with the unbiased stereological methods. In current study, the effect of enriched environment on the total number of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) positive cells in middle-aged rat corpus callosum was investigated by means of immunohistochemical techniques and the unbiased stereological methods. We found that, when compared to standard rats, the spatial learning capacity of enriched-environment rats was significantly increased. The total number of the CNPase positive cells in the corpus callosum of enriched-environment middle-aged rats was significantly increased when compared to standard rats. The present study provided, to the best of our knowledge, the first evidence of environmental enrichment-induced increases in the total number of CNPase positive cells in the corpus callosum of middle-aged rats.

  6. Selective enrichment of sialic acid-containing glycopeptides using titanium dioxide chromatography with analysis by HILIC and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giuseppe; Lendal, Sara Eun; Engholm-Keller, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    of glycosylation sites and the characterization of glycan structures. In this paper, we describe a protocol for the selective enrichment of SA-containing glycopeptides using a combination of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). The selectivity of TiO(2) toward SA...... and the entire procedure from protein isolation can be performed in...

  7. Positive selection of gene-modified cells increases the efficacy of pancreatic cancer suicide gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Quintanilla, Jordi; Cascallo, Manel; Gros, Alena; Fillat, Cristina; Alemany, Ramon

    2009-11-01

    Thymidine kinase (TK)-mediated suicide gene therapy has been considered for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. However, despite a bystander effect, the proportion of transduced tumor cells has proven too low to result in efficacy. We propose the use of a drug-selectable marker (MDR1) to enrich TK-expressing cells using chemotherapy. This enrichment or positive selection phase may increase the efficacy of suicide gene therapy. To test this strategy, we generated stable NP18MDR/TK-GFP transfectants and showed docetaxel resistance in vivo. Mixed tumors of MDR/TK-expressing cells and parental NP18 cells were established and docetaxel was used to increase the proportion of TK-expressing cells. After this positive selection phase, suicide gene therapy with ganciclovir was applied. Upon positive selection, the proportion of TK-expressing cells increased from 4% to 22%. Subsequent suicide gene therapy was more effective compared with a control group without positive selection. Starting with 10% of TK-expressing cells the positive-negative selection strategy completely inhibited tumor growth. Taken together, these results suggest that a positive-negative selection strategy based on MDR and TK genes represents an efficient way to increase the proportion of TK-expressing cells in the tumor and the efficacy of TK-mediated suicide gene therapy.

  8. Oxidation in fish oil enriched mayonnaise : Ascorbic acid and low pH increase oxidative deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Timm Heinrich, Maike; Meyer, Anne S.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of ascorbic acid (0-4000 ppm) and pH (3.8-6.2) on oxidation and levels of iron and copper in various fractions of mayonnaise enriched with 16% fish oil was investigated. Ascorbic acid induced release of iron from the assumed oil- water interface into the aqueous phase at all pH levels......, but this effect of ascorbic acid was strongest at low pH (pH 3.8- 4.2). Ascorbic acid generally promoted formation of volatile oxidation compounds and reduced the peroxide value in mayonnaises. Peroxide values and total volatiles generally increased with decreasing pH values, suggesting that low pH promoted...... oxidation. It is proposed that iron bridges between the egg yolk proteins low-density lipoproteins, lipovitellin, and phosvitin at the oil-water interface are broken at low pH values, whereby iron ions become accessible as oxidation initiators. In the presence of ascorbic acid, oxidation is further enhanced...

  9. Frequency-selective electrokinetic enrichment of biomolecules in physiological media based on electrical double-layer polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, Ali; Sanghavi, Bankim J; Salahi, Armita; Liao, Kuo-Tang; Chou, Chia-Fu; Swami, Nathan S

    2017-08-24

    Proteomic biomarkers of interest to the early diagnosis of diseases and infections are present at trace levels versus interfering species. Hence, their selective enrichment is needed within bio-assays for speeding binding kinetics with receptors and for reducing signal interferences. While DC fields can separate biomolecules based on their electrokinetic mobilities, they are unable to selectively enrich biomarkers versus interfering species, which may possess like-charges. We present the utilization of AC electrokinetics to enable frequency-selective enrichment of nanocolloidal biomolecules, based on the characteristic time constant for polarization of their electrical double-layer, since surface conduction in their ion cloud depends on colloidal size, shape and surface charge. In this manner, using DC-offset AC fields, differences in frequency dispersion for negative dielectrophoresis are balanced against electrophoresis in a nanoslit channel to enable the selective enrichment of prostate specific antigen (PSA) versus anti-mouse immunoglobulin antibodies that cause signal interferences to immunoassays. Through coupling enrichment to capture by receptors on graphene-modified surfaces, we demonstrate the elimination of false positives caused by anti-mouse immunoglobulin antibodies to the PSA immunoassay.

  10. High molecular weight dissolved organic matter enrichment selects for methylotrophs in dilution to extinction cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Oscar A; Gifford, Scott M; Repeta, Daniel J; DeLong, Edward F

    2015-12-01

    The role of bacterioplankton in the cycling of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is central to the carbon and energy balance in the ocean, yet there are few model organisms available to investigate the genes, metabolic pathways, and biochemical mechanisms involved in the degradation of this globally important carbon pool. To obtain microbial isolates capable of degrading semi-labile DOM for growth, we conducted dilution to extinction cultivation experiments using seawater enriched with high molecular weight (HMW) DOM. In total, 93 isolates were obtained. Amendments using HMW DOM to increase the dissolved organic carbon concentration 4x (280 μM) or 10x (700 μM) the ocean surface water concentrations yielded positive growth in 4-6% of replicate dilutions, whereas determine the phylogenetic identity of the isolates. Eleven percent of the isolates belonged to the gammaproteobacteria including Alteromonadales (the SAR92 clade) and Vibrio. Surprisingly, 85% of isolates belonged to the methylotrophic OM43 clade of betaproteobacteria, bacteria thought to metabolically specialize in degrading C1 compounds. Growth of these isolates on methanol confirmed their methylotrophic phenotype. Our results indicate that dilution to extinction cultivation enriched with natural sources of organic substrates has a potential to reveal the previously unsuspected relationships between naturally occurring organic nutrients and the microorganisms that consume them.

  11. [A multi-pathogen selective enrichment broth for simultaneous growth of Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Xinglong; Yu, Yigang; Chen, Gu; Li, Xiaofeng; Tang, Yuqian; Wu, Hui

    2009-10-01

    A selective enrichment broth (SSL) was formulated to allow simultaneous growth of Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogens. Suitable additive agents were selected by single factor experiment, the enrichment effect of the broth for the three pathogens were evaluated by conventional detection method and real-time PCR. A selective enrichment broth, SSL, was obtained by adding the selective agents, including nalidixic acid, lithium chloride, and potassium tellurite, in the basic broth, and sodium pyruvate and mannitol as the supplemented elements. Recovery of three target pathogens in SSL was obtained within 24 h of incubation at 37 degrees C, yielding cell dnesities of 10(7) - 10(8) CFU/mL. Meanwhile, SSL broth effectively inhibited the growth of non-target organisms. 710 samples were detected by SSL with real-time PCR, and there is no error report. SSL is demonstrated to be a promising new multiplex selective enrichment broth for simultaneous detection of the three most prominent foodborn pathogens by multipathogen detection on a single assay platform.

  12. Selective carbon 13 enrichment of side chain carbons of ginkgo lignin traced by carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Y. (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture); Robert, D.R. (CEA Centre d' Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Dept. de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee); Terashima, N. (Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States))

    Although carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ([sup 13]C-NMR) is widely used in lignin structural studies, serious difficulties are encountered in the assignments of [sup 13]C signals because of their extensive overlaps resulting from the complex structure of lignin and of delicate detection of minor structures. To overcome these difficulties, specifically [sup 13]C-enriched precursors of lignin biosynthesis, coniferin-[side chain-[beta]-[sup 13]C] and coniferin-[side chain-[gamma]-[sup 13]C], were administered to growing stems of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba). The NMR analysis of the milled wood lignins isolated from the newly formed xylem showed that selective enrichment of specific carbons of protolignin in the cell wall was achieved without seriously disturbing the lignin biosynthesis. The presence of saturated methylene side chains in the protolignin was shown for the first time by this selective enrichment technique in combination with NMR analysis. (authors). 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Sputum using Selective Enrichment Broth and Ashdown's Medium at Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhem, Somary; Letchford, Joanne; Meas, Chea; Thann, Sovanndeth; McLaughlin, James C; Baron, Ellen Jo; West, T Eoin

    2014-01-01

    Melioidosis, infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is increasingly reported in Cambodia. We hypothesized that implementation of an enhanced sputum testing protocol in a provincial hospital diagnostic microbiology laboratory would increase detection of B. pseudomallei. We tested 241 sputum specimens that were deemed acceptable for culture, comparing culture in selective enrichment broth followed by sub-culture on Ashdown's medium to standard culture methods. Two specimens (0.8%) were positive for B. pseudomallei using the enhanced protocol whereas one specimen (0.4%) was positive using standard methods. Given the low numbers of positive specimens, we could not conclusively determine the utility of the enhanced sputum testing protocol. However, the ramifications of identification of  B. pseudomallei are substantial, and the benefit of the enhanced testing protocol may be more apparent in patients selected based on risk factors and clinical presentation. Promoting clinician awareness of the infection and encouraging utilization of diagnostic microbiology services are also likely to be important factors in facilitating identification of melioidosis.

  14. Evaluation of four selective agars and two enrichment broths in screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcher, S; Smyth, R; Kahlmeter, G; Kerremans, J; Vos, M C; Skov, R

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus detection, we tested in vitro four selective agars and two enrichment broths apart and in combination. Tryptone soya broth with salt, aztreonam, and cefoxitin appeared to be the most sensitive medium. This broth was superior to a phenol red mannitol broth with aztreonam and ceftizoxime.

  15. Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment (FACE) increased respiration and humification in the mineral soil of a poplar plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoosbeek, M.R.; Vos, J.M.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Velthorst, E.J.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.

    2007-01-01

    Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment (FACE) studies conducted at the whole-tree and ecosystem scale indicate that there is a marked increase in primary production, mainly allocated into below-ground biomass. The enhanced carbon transfer to the root system may result in enhanced rhizodeposition and

  16. Gold nanoparticles immobilized hydrophilic monoliths with variable functional modification for highly selective enrichment and on-line deglycosylation of glycopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Wu, Ci; Zhao, Qun; Wu, Qi; Jiang, Bo; Weng, Yejing; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2015-11-05

    The poly (glycidyl methacrylate-co-poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate) monoliths modified with gold nanoparticles, with advantages of enhanced reactive sites, good hydrophilicity and facile modification, were prepared as the matrix, followed by variable functionalization with cysteine and PNGase F for glycopeptide enrichment and on-line deglycosylation respectively. By the cysteine functionalized monolithic column, glycopeptides could be efficiently and selectively enriched with good reproducibility based on hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). Furthermore, the enrichment was specially achieved in weak alkaline environment, with 10 mM NH4HCO3 as the elution buffer, compatible with deglycosylation conditions. Therefore, the glycopeptides could be on-line deglycosylated with high efficiency and throughput by directly coupling the PNGase F functionalized monolithic column with the enrichment column during elution without the requirement of buffer exchange and pH adjustment. By such a method, within only 70-min pretreatment, 196 N-linked glycopeptides, corresponding to 122 glycoproteins, could be identified from 5 μg of human plasma with 14 high-abundant proteins removed, and the N-linked glycopeptides occupied 81% of all identified peptides, achieving to the best of our knowledge, the highest selectivity of HILIC-based methods. All the results demonstrated the high efficiency, selectivity and throughput of our proposed strategy for the large scale glycoproteome analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. COLD-PCR enriches low-level variant DNA sequences and increases the sensitivity of genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Rizaldos, Elena; Milbury, Coren A; Guha, Minakshi; Makrigiorgos, G Mike

    2014-01-01

    Detection of low-level mutations is important for cancer biomarker and therapy targets discovery, but reliable detection remains a technical challenge. The newly developed method of CO-amplification at Lower Denaturation temperature PCR (COLD-PCR) helps to circumvent this issue. This PCR-based technology preferentially enriches minor known or unknown variants present in samples with a high background of wild type DNA which often hampers the accurate identification of these minority alleles. This is a simple process that consists of lowering the temperature at the denaturation step during the PCR-cycling protocol (critical denaturation temperature, T c) and inducing DNA heteroduplexing during an intermediate step. COLD-PCR in its simplest forms does not need additional reagents or specific instrumentation and thus, can easily replace conventional PCR and at the same time improve the mutation detection sensitivity limit of downstream technologies. COLD-PCR can be applied in two basic formats: fast-COLD-PCR that can enrich T m-reducing mutations and full-COLD-PCR that can enrich all mutations, though it requires an intermediate cross-hybridization step that lengthens the thermocycling program. An improved version of full-COLD-PCR (improved and complete enrichment, ice-COLD-PCR) has also been described. Finally, most recently, we developed yet another form of COLD-PCR, temperature-tolerant-COLD-PCR, which gradually increases the denaturation temperature during the COLD-PCR reaction, enriching diverse targets using a single cycling program. This report describes practical considerations for application of fast-, full-, ice-, and temperature-tolerant-COLD-PCR for enrichment of mutations prior to downstream screening.

  18. Enrichment of selective miRNAs in exosomes and delivery of exosomal miRNAs in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duo; Lee, Heedoo; Zhu, Ziwen; Minhas, Jasleen K; Jin, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Exosomes are nanovesicles secreted by cells and contain various molecules including protein, lipid, and DNA/RNA. They are crucial mediators of the intercellular communication and serve as promising vehicles for drug delivery and gene therapy. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) may serve as new and potentially powerful targets for therapeutic interventions against various human diseases. However, steadily and effectively delivering miRNA mimics or inhibitors to target cells remains a major obstacle. To enhance the efficacy of exosome-mediated delivery of miRNA molecules, it is crucial to develop a convenient and efficient method to enrich specific miRNAs or antisense oligos in isolated exosomes. Here we report a novel method to prepare specific miRNA molecule-loaded exosomes. Using a modified calcium chloride-mediated transfection method, we successfully enhanced the designated miRNA mimics or inhibitors in isolated exosomes directly, instead of transfecting their mother cells. We also compared this method with direct transfection of exosomes using electroporation. Both methods confirmed that exosomes can serve as cargos to deliver a robustly increased amount of selected miRNA mimic(s) or inhibitor(s) to the recipient cells. Delivery of these miRNA molecule enriched-exosomes subsequently results in highly efficient overexpression or deletion of the designated miRNAs in the recipient cells both in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, we confirmed that exosome-delivered miRNA mimics or inhibitors are functional in the recipient cells. Collectively, we developed a novel protocol to conveniently manipulate exosomal miRNAs with high efficiency and successfully deliver the exosomal miRNA molecules to recipient cells. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Ciprofloxacin Residues in Municipal Biosolid Compost Do Not Selectively Enrich Populations of Resistant Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Caitlin P.; Liu, Jinxin; Orfe, Lisa H.; Jones, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    Biosolids and livestock manure are valuable high-carbon soil amendments, but they commonly contain antibiotic residues that might persist after land application. While composting reduces the concentration of extractable antibiotics in these materials, if the starting concentration is sufficiently high then remaining residues could impact microbial communities in the compost and soil to which these materials are applied. To examine this issue, ciprofloxacin was added to biosolid compost feedstock to achieve a total concentration of 19 ppm, approximately 5-fold higher than that normally detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (1 to 3.5 ppm). This feedstock was placed into mesh bags that were buried in aerated compost bays. Once a week, a set of bags was removed and analyzed (treated and untreated, three replicates of each; 4 weeks). Addition of ciprofloxacin had no effect on the recovery of resistant bacteria at any time point (P = 0.86), and a separate bioassay showed that aqueous extractions from materials with an estimated 59 ppm ciprofloxacin had no effect on the growth of a susceptible strain of Escherichia coli (P = 0.28). Regression analysis showed that growth of the susceptible strain of E. coli can be reduced given a sufficiently high concentration of ciprofloxacin (P < 0.007), a result that is consistent with adsorption being the primary mechanism of sequestration. While analytical methods detected biologically significant concentrations of ciprofloxacin in the materials tested here, the culture-based methods were consistent with the materials having sufficient adsorptive capacity to prevent typical concentrations of ciprofloxacin residues from selectively enriching populations of resistant bacteria. PMID:25261519

  20. Selective enrichment of Geobacter sulfurreducens from anaerobic granular sludge with quinones as terminal electron acceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervantes-Carillo, F.J.; Duong Dac, T.; Ivanova, A.E.; Roest, de K.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Lettinga, G.; Field, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    A quinone-respiring, enrichment culture derived from methanogenic granular sludge was phylogenetically characterized by using a combined cloning-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method, which revealed that the consortium developed was dominated by a single microorganism: 97% related,

  1. Enrichments of Cellulolytic Communities from Diverse Natural Sources Using a Novel Selection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Evan Joel

    In order to ensure a sustainable future and curb carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels, it is imperative to develop a cost-competitive manufacturing process for an alternative liquid fuel with low life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. A potential route towards this sustainable future is the large-scale production of fuels derived from plant biomass, biofuels. A major step for the biological conversion of biomass to fuel is the solubilization and utilization of cellulose. However, lignocellulose is a recalcitrant material, and has evolved to resist microbial degradation. Studying cellulolytic communities from nature can reveal the mechanisms by which organisms can utilize lignocellulose, and also reveal the conditions that facilitate the fastest possible rates of cellulose utilization. This thesis used an Automated Repetitive Batch (ARB) system to perform enrichments of cellulolytic communities to test if cellulolytic communities from diverse sources could be reproducibly enriched for rapid cellulose utilization. This thesis first developed a robust method for reproducibly enriching cellulolytic communities in the ARB system with a single environmental source. Using this method, this research then investigated if cellulolytic communities could be enriched for rapid cellulose utilization from different inoculum sources. In all reproducible enrichments, this thesis then confirmed the use of carbon dioxide as a real time proxy for cellulose utilization based on end product analysis. This thesis showed that the ARB system could yield cellulolytic communities capable of rapid cellulose utilization from diverse environmental sources, and laid a strong foundation for determining whether or not these different sources can be enriched to yield functionally similar cellulolytic communities. The work from this thesis also suggests that fermentation conditions, rather than source material, play a more important role in determining enriched community

  2. Selection for niche differentiation in plant communities increases biodiversity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppinger-Dingley, Debra; Schmid, Bernhard; Petermann, Jana S; Yadav, Varuna; De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Flynn, Dan F B

    2014-11-06

    In experimental plant communities, relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning have been found to strengthen over time, a fact often attributed to increased resource complementarity between species in mixtures and negative plant-soil feedbacks in monocultures. Here we show that selection for niche differentiation between species can drive this increasing biodiversity effect. Growing 12 grassland species in test monocultures and mixtures, we found character displacement between species and increased biodiversity effects when plants had been selected over 8 years in species mixtures rather than in monocultures. When grown in mixtures, relative differences in height and specific leaf area between plant species selected in mixtures (mixture types) were greater than between species selected in monocultures (monoculture types). Furthermore, net biodiversity and complementarity effects were greater in mixtures of mixture types than in mixtures of monoculture types. Our study demonstrates a novel mechanism for the increase in biodiversity effects: selection for increased niche differentiation through character displacement. Selection in diverse mixtures may therefore increase species coexistence and ecosystem functioning in natural communities and may also allow increased mixture yields in agriculture or forestry. However, loss of biodiversity and prolonged selection of crops in monoculture may compromise this potential for selection in the longer term.

  3. Accelerating the design of molecularly imprinted nanocomposite membranes modified by Au@polyaniline for selective enrichment and separation of ibuprofen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiuling; Wu, Yilin; Dong, Hongjun; Zhao, Juan; Wang, Chen; Zhou, Shi; Lu, Jian; Yan, Yongsheng; Li, He

    2018-01-01

    A novel system for harvesting molecularly imprinted nanocomposite membranes (MINcMs) with Au-modified polyaniline (Au@polyaniline) nanocomposite structure was developed for selective enrichment and separation of ibuprofen. This unique nanocomposite structure obviously enhanced the adsorption capacity, perm-selectivity performance, and regeneration ability of MINcMs. The as-prepared MINcMs showed outstanding adsorption capacity (22.02 mg g-1) of ibuprofen, which was four times higher than that of non-imprinted nanocomposite membranes (NINcMs). Furthermore, the selectivity factor of MINcMs for ibuprofen reached up to 4.67 and the perm-selectivity factor β was about 8.74, which indicated MINcMs had a good selective separation performance of ibuprofen. We envision that this novel synthesis method will open a new direction to manipulation of molecularly imprinted membrane materials and provide a simple yet convenient way to selective separation of ibuprofen.

  4. Salmonella in foods: new enrichment procedure for TECRA Salmonella Visual Immunoassay using a single rv(R10) only, TT only, or dual rv(R10) and TT selective enrichment broths (AOAC official method 998.09): collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Denise; Dailianis, Angela E; Hill, Louise; Curiale, Michael S; Gangar, Vidhya

    2003-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to compare a new enrichment procedure for the TECRA Salmonella Visual Immunoassay (TSVIA) with the reference method given in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (7th Ed.). Three food types (milk powder, pepper, and soy flour) were analyzed in Australia and 3 food types (milk chocolate, dried egg, and raw turkey) were analyzed in the United States. Thirty-eight collaborators participated in the study. The TECRA method was evaluated using both Rappaport-Vassiliadis R10 (RV(R10)) and tetrathionate (TT) broths for selective enrichment. M broth cultures arising from each of the 2 selective enrichment broths were tested in the TSVIA using 2 individual wells, one for each selective broth, and a single well to test the pooled selective enrichment broths. The results for the pooled enrichment broths were reported elsewhere. This study presents the results for the use of single enrichment broths, i.e., RV(R10) only or TT only, with the TSVIA. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed for the pairwise comparison of the proportion of positive samples for either RV(R10) or TT used as a single enrichment broth for the TSVIA with that for the reference method.

  5. Designed synthesis of MOF-derived magnetic nanoporous carbon materials for selective enrichment of glycans for glycomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Nianrong; Zhang, Xiangmin; Deng, Chunhui

    2015-04-21

    In this work, magnetic nanoporous carbon (NPC) materials were synthesized by choosing a MOF as a sacrificial template and a carbon precursor. The obtained Co-ZIF-67 materials showed strong magnetic response, high surface area, a uniform size of mesopores and high carbon content. The Co-ZIF-67 materials were successfully applied to glycomics analysis by enriching N-linked glycans in bio-samples with high selectivity and efficiency.

  6. Nutritional enrichment increases courtship intensity and improves mating success in male spiders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomborg, Johannes Peter; Toft, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The development of male sexual ornaments and the intensity of male courtship behavior are often used by females as criteria for mate choice and by other males to evaluate the strength of a rival. We tested the hypotheses that courtship intensity and mating success depend on the males' nutritional...... status (enriched or deficient) and that courtship intensity predicts mating success in males of the same nutritional status. We used wolf spiders, Pardosa prativaga, which have an elaborate display of courtship behaviors, including encircling, palp vibrations, abdomen vibrations, hopping, etc. Viability...... indicated that diet effects on courtship intensity were indirect, through its effect on size. In competition tests between males of equal mass and the same diet treatment, the previously most active male (high levels of palp vibrating, abdomen vibrating, and hopping) had the highest mating success, though...

  7. Selenium and vitamin E enriched diet increases NK cell cytotoxicity in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia O. Latorre

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies has shown that antioxidants, fatty acids and trace minerals may modulate different immune cell activities, and that their deficiency may be associated with diseases and impaired immune responses. In innate immunity, natural killer (NK cells have a central role, killing virally infected and cancerous cells, and also secreting cytokines that shape adaptive immune responses. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of enriched diets in selenium plus vitamin E and/or canola oil on complete blood count and on NK cell cytotoxicity from blood lymphocytes of Nellore bulls. Bulls that received selenium plus vitamin E had (P=0.0091 higher NK cell cytotoxicity than control bulls. This result positively correlated with serum selenium levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that showed immunostimulatory effects of selenium plus vitamin E on NK cell cytotoxicity of Nellore bulls.

  8. Facile synthesis of titania nanoparticles coated carbon nanotubes for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides for mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yinghua; Lu, Jin; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2013-03-30

    In this work, titania nanoparticles coated carbon nanotubes (denoted as CNTs/TiO2 composites) were synthesized through a facile but effective solvothermal reaction using titanium isopropoxide as the titania source, isopropyl alcohol as the solvent and as the basic catalyst in the presence of hydrophilic carbon nanotubes. Characterizations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicate that the CNTs/TiO2 composites consist of CNT core and a rough outer layer formed by titania nanoparticles (5-10nm). Measurements using wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXRD), zeta potential and N2 sorption reveal that the titania shell is formed by anatase titania nanoparticles, and the composites have a high specific surface area of about 104 m(2)/g. By using their high surface area and affinity to phosphopeptides, the CNTs/TiO2 composites were applied to selectively enrich phosphopeptides for mass spectrometry analysis. The high selectivity and capacity of the CNTs/TiO2 composites have been demonstrated by effective enrichment of phosphopeptides from digests of phosphoprotein, protein mixtures of β-casein and bovine serum albumin, human serum and rat brain samples. These results foresee a promising application of the novel CNTs/TiO2 composites in the selective enrichment of phosphopeptides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficient and Selective Enrichment of Ultratrace Cytokinins in Plant Samples by Magnetic Perhydroxy-Cucurbit[8]uril Microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianchun; Li, Gongke; Xiao, Xiaohua; Zhan, Song; Cao, Yujuan

    2016-04-05

    Cytokinins play a critical role in controlling plant growth and development, but it is difficult to be determined in plant samples due to the extremely low concentration level of picomole/gram. So it is important for efficient sample preparation with selective enrichment and rapid separation for accurate analysis of cytokinins. Herein, a supramolecular perhydroxy-cucurbit[8]uril (PCB[8]) was fabricated into the Fe3O4 magnetic particles via chemical bonding assembly and magnetic perhydroxy-cucurbit[8]uril (MPC) materials were obtained. The MPC had good enrichment capability to cytokinins and the enrichment factors were more than 208. The interaction of MPC and cytokinins was investigated by adsorption test and density functional theory (DFT) calculation, the results showed that the main drive forces were the host-guest interaction and hydrogen-bonding interaction between the perhydroxy-cucurbit[8]uril with analytes. Combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), the MPC was used as a sorbent of magnetic solid-phase extraction for the analysis of cytokinins in plant samples. A sensitive and selective UPLC-MS/MS method was developed with low detection limits of 0.14-0.32 ng/L for cytokinins analysis. Five cytokinins including zeatin riboside, meta-topolin, kinetin, kinetin riboside, and zip with 6.12-87.3 ng/kg were determined in the soybean sprout and Arabidopsis thaliana. The recoveries were in the range of 76.2-110% with relative standard deviations (n = 5) of 2.3-9.7%. On the basis of these results, magnetic perhydroxy-cucurbit[8]uril materials with selective enrichment capability have good potential on the analysis of ultratrace targets from complicated sample matrixes.

  10. Sex reversal of red tilapia using 17α-methyltestosterone-enriched feed and increased temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safira Qisthina Ayuningtyas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The growth rate between male and female red tilapia Oreochromis sp. is different. Generally, the male red tilapia grows faster than the female. Furthermore, the maturation process of red tilapia is relatively fast which causes slower growth rate. One of solutions to this problem is by rearing all male population or mono-sex culture. The method used in this study was commercial feed enrichment with 17α-methyltestosterone at different dosages and water temperature manipulation. The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of commercial feed enrichment with different dosages of 17α-methyltestosterone and water temperature manipulation on success rate of sex reversal of red tilapia into all male population. This research consisted of different temperature treatments (with and without water heating and 17α- methyltestosterone dosages (0, 10, 20 mg/kg of commercial feed. The best dosage of 17α-methyltestosterone was 20 mg/kg of commercial feed with male to female sex ratio of 86.31%, daily growth rate of 8.18%, and feed conversion ratio of 1.53. In this study, the best treatment to produce the male seeds was the 17α-methyltestosterone treatment. Keywords: 17α-methyltestosterone, sex reversal, red tilapia, temperature  ABSTRAK Ikan nila merah Oreochromis sp. memiliki laju pertumbuhan yang berbeda antara ikan jantan dan betina. Umumnya ikan nila merah jantan lebih cepat tumbuh dibandingkan betinanya. Selain itu, ikan nila memiliki sifat cepat matang gonad dan mudah memijah sehingga akan menghambat pertumbuhan ikan. Salah satu cara untuk mengurangi masalah yang terjadi yakni dengan memelihara populasi ikan nila merah tunggal kelamin atau monoseks jantan. Metode yang dilakukan adalah pemberian hormon 17α-metiltestosteron dengan dosis berbeda melalui pakan buatan dan peningkatan suhu air. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dosis hormon 17α-metiltestosteron melalui pakan buatan dan peningkatan suhu air

  11. CO2 enrichment increases carbon and nitrogen input from fine roots in a deciduous forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iversen, Colleen M [ORNL; Childs, Joanne [ORNL; Norby, Richard J [ORNL

    2008-08-01

    Greater root production under elevated [CO2] may drive changes in soil C storage and N cycling. However, this depends on root population turnover and chemistry, and the soil depth at which the roots are produced. We assessed the effect of elevated [CO2] on root biomass and N inputs at several soil depths using a long-term minirhizotron data set combined with continuous, root-specific measurements of root mass per unit length and [N]. Our experiment was conducted in a Liquidambar styraciflua forest stand exposed to current or elevated atmospheric [CO2] for 9 years. CO2-enrichment had no effect on root tissue density or [N] within a given diameter class. Root biomass production, standing crop and mortality were doubled under elevated [CO2]. Over 9 years, root mortality resulted in 681 g m-2 of extra C and 9 g m-2 of extra N input to the soil system under elevated [CO2]. At least half of these inputs were below 30 cm soil depth. Quantification of the effects of elevated CO2 on root detritus, especially at depth in the soil, will provide critical information needed for predicting processes such as long-term soil C storage and N cycling.

  12. A novel enrichment program using cascading mentorship to increase diversity in the health care professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afghani, Behnoosh; Santos, Rosanne; Angulo, Marco; Muratori, Walter

    2013-09-01

    The authors describe an innovative summer enrichment program based on a cascading mentorship model to transfer knowledge and skills from faculty to medical students to undergraduate students and finally to high school students. The program was designed to give high school students a glimpse of life in medical school and enhance the teaching and leadership skills of underrepresented undergraduate and medical students. Started in 2010 with 30 high school students and 9 college and medical student coaches, the University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine Summer Premed Program expanded rapidly over the next two summers and enrolled a total of 253 high school students, 48 college students, and 12 medical students. The college and medical student coaches, the majority of whom were underrepresented in medicine (URIM), reported that the program enhanced their teaching and leadership skills and self-confidence, motivated them toward careers in academic medicine, and raised their awareness about the importance of cultural diversity. The authors present the details of this interactive, structured program and describe how URIM student empowerment, near-peer teaching, science socialization, and support from the institution's leadership and faculty members provided a climate that fostered belonging, a sense of personal transformation, and professional development among students from different levels of education and diverse backgrounds. Long-term follow-up of the participants' career choices is needed.

  13. Short Term CO2 Enrichment Increases Carbon Sequestration of Air-Exposed Intertidal Communities of a Coastal Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit K. Mishra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ production responses of air-exposed intertidal communities under CO2 enrichment are reported here for the first time. We assessed the short-term effects of CO2 on the light responses of the net community production (NCP and community respiration (CR of intertidal Z. noltei and unvegetated sediment communities of Ria Formosa lagoon, when exposed to air. NCP and CR were measured in situ in summer and winter, under present and CO2 enriched conditions using benthic chambers. Within chamber CO2 evolution measurements were carried out by a series of short-term incubations (30 min using an infra-red gas analyser. Liner regression models fitted to the NCP-irradiance responses were used to estimate the seasonal budgets of air-exposed, intertidal production as determined by the daily and seasonal variation of incident photosynthetic active radiation. High CO2 resulted in higher CO2 sequestration by both communities in both summer and winter seasons. Lower respiration rates of both communities under high CO2 further contributed to a potential negative climate feedback, except in winter when the CR of sediment community was higher. The light compensation points (LCP (light intensity where production equals respiration of Z. noltei and sediment communities also decreased under CO2 enriched conditions in both seasons. The seasonal community production of Z. noltei was 115.54 ± 7.58 g C m−2 season−1 in summer and 29.45 ± 4.04 g C m−2 season−1 in winter and of unvegetated sediment was 91.28 ± 6.32 g C m−2 season−1 in summer and 25.83 ± 4.01 g C m−2 season−1 in winter under CO2 enriched conditions. Future CO2 conditions may increase air-exposed seagrass production by about 1.5-fold and unvegetated sediments by about 1.2-fold.

  14. Selection based on indirect genetic effects for growth, environmental enrichment and coping style affect the immune status of pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inonge Reimert

    Full Text Available Pigs living in intensive husbandry systems may experience both acute and chronic stress through standard management procedures and limitations in their physical and social environment, which may have implications for their immune status. Here, the effect of a new breeding method where pigs were selected on their heritable influence on their pen mates' growth, and environmental enrichment on the immune status of pigs was investigated. Hereto, 240 pigs with a relatively positive genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (+SBV and 240 pigs with a relatively negative genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (-SBV were housed in barren or straw-enriched pens from 4 to 23 weeks of age (n  =  80 pens in total. A blood sample was taken from the pigs before, three days after a 24 h regrouping test, and at week 22. In addition, effects of coping style, as assessed in a backtest, and gender were also investigated. Mainly, +SBV were found to have lower leukocyte, lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations than -SBV pigs. Enriched housed pigs had a lower neutrophil to lymphocyte (N:L ratio and lower haptoglobin concentrations, but had higher antibody titers specific for Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH than barren housed pigs. No interactions were found between SBV class and housing. Furthermore, pigs with a proactive coping style had higher alternative complement activity and, in the enriched pens, higher antibody titers specific for KLH than pigs with a reactive coping style. Lastly, females tended to have lower leukocyte, but higher haptoglobin concentrations than castrated males. Overall, these results suggest that +SBV pigs and enriched housed pigs were less affected by stress than -SBV and barren housed pigs, respectively. Moreover, immune activation might be differently organized in individuals with different coping styles and to a lesser extent in individuals of opposite genders.

  15. Selection Based on Indirect Genetic Effects for Growth, Environmental Enrichment and Coping Style Affect the Immune Status of Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimert, Inonge; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Ursinus, Winanda W.; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Pigs living in intensive husbandry systems may experience both acute and chronic stress through standard management procedures and limitations in their physical and social environment, which may have implications for their immune status. Here, the effect of a new breeding method where pigs were selected on their heritable influence on their pen mates' growth, and environmental enrichment on the immune status of pigs was investigated. Hereto, 240 pigs with a relatively positive genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (+SBV) and 240 pigs with a relatively negative genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (−SBV) were housed in barren or straw-enriched pens from 4 to 23 weeks of age (n  =  80 pens in total). A blood sample was taken from the pigs before, three days after a 24 h regrouping test, and at week 22. In addition, effects of coping style, as assessed in a backtest, and gender were also investigated. Mainly, +SBV were found to have lower leukocyte, lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations than -SBV pigs. Enriched housed pigs had a lower neutrophil to lymphocyte (N:L) ratio and lower haptoglobin concentrations, but had higher antibody titers specific for Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) than barren housed pigs. No interactions were found between SBV class and housing. Furthermore, pigs with a proactive coping style had higher alternative complement activity and, in the enriched pens, higher antibody titers specific for KLH than pigs with a reactive coping style. Lastly, females tended to have lower leukocyte, but higher haptoglobin concentrations than castrated males. Overall, these results suggest that +SBV pigs and enriched housed pigs were less affected by stress than -SBV and barren housed pigs, respectively. Moreover, immune activation might be differently organized in individuals with different coping styles and to a lesser extent in individuals of opposite genders. PMID:25275507

  16. Mesoporous TiO2 aerogel for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides in rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyuan; Liang, Zhen; Yang, Kaiguang; Xia, Simin; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2012-06-04

    The enrichment of low abundance phosphopeptides before MS analysis is a critical step for in-depth phosphoproteome research. In this study, mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) aerogel was prepared by precipitation and supercritical drying. The specific surface area up to 490.7 m(2) g(-1) is achieved by TiO(2) aerogel, much higher than those obtained by commercial TiO(2) nanoparticles and by the latest reported mesoporous TiO(2) spheres. Due to the large specific surface area and the mesoporous structure of the aerogel, the binding capacity for phosphopeptides is six times higher than that of conventional TiO(2) microparticles (173 vs 28 μmol g(-1)). Because of the good compatibility of enrichment procedure with MALDI-TOF-MS and the large binding capacity of TiO(2) aerogel, a detection limit as low as 30 amol for analyzing phosphopeptides in β-casein digest was achieved. TiO(2) aerogel was further applied to enrich phosphopeptides from rat liver mitochondria, and 266 unique phosphopeptides with 340 phosphorylation sites, corresponding to 216 phosphoprotein groups, were identified by triplicate nanoRPLC-ESI-MS/MS runs, with false-positive rate less than 1% at the peptide level. These results demonstrate that TiO(2) aerogel is a kind of promising material for sample pretreatment in the large-scale phosphoproteome study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. SEL, a selective enrichment broth for simultaneous growth of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyochin; Bhunia, Arun K

    2008-08-01

    Multipathogen detection on a single-assay platform not only reduces the cost for testing but also provides data on the presence of pathogens in a single experiment. To achieve this detection, a multipathogen selective enrichment medium is essential to allow the concurrent growth of pathogens. SEL broth was formulated to allow the simultaneous growth of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. The results were compared to those obtained with the respective individual selective enrichment broths, Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) for S. enterica, modified E. coli broth with 20 mg of novobiocin/liter for E. coli O157:H7, and Fraser broth for L. monocytogenes, and a currently used universal preenrichment broth (UPB). The growth of each pathogen in SEL inoculated at 10(1) or 10(3) CFU/ml was superior to that in the respective individual enrichment broth, except in the case of RV, in which Salmonella cells inoculated at both concentrations grew equally well. In mixed-culture experiments with cells of the three species present in equal concentrations or at a 1:10:1,000 ratio, the overall growth was proportional to the initial inoculation levels; however, the growth of L. monocytogenes was markedly suppressed when cells of this species were present at lower concentrations than those of the other two species. Further, SEL was able to resuscitate acid- and cold-stressed cells, and recovery was comparable to that in nonselective tryptic soy broth containing 6% yeast extract but superior to that in the respective individual selective broths. SEL promoted the growth of all three pathogens in a mixture in ready-to-eat salami and in turkey meat samples. Moreover, each pathogen was readily detected by a pathogen-specific immunochromatographic lateral-flow or multiplex PCR assay. Even though the growth of each pathogen in SEL was comparable to that in UPB, SEL inhibited greater numbers of nontarget organisms than did UPB. In summary, SEL was demonstrated

  18. In vivo protein quality of selected cereal-based staple foods enriched with soybean proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Acevedo-Pacheco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: One way to diminish protein malnutrition in children is by enriching cereal-based flours for the manufacturing of maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, which are widely consumed among low socio-economic groups. Objective: The aim was to determine and compare the essential amino acid (EAA scores, protein digestibility corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS, and in vivo protein quality (protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio (PER, biological values (BV, and net protein utilization (NPU values of regular versus soybean-fortified maize tortillas, yeast-leavened bread, and wheat flour tortillas. Design: To comparatively assess differences in protein quality among maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, EAA compositions and in vivo studies with weanling rats were performed. The experimental diets based on regular or soybean-fortified food products were compared with a casein-based diet. Food intake, weight gains, PER, dry matter and protein digestibility, BV, NPU, and PDCAAS were assessed. The soybean-fortified tortillas contained 6% of defatted soybean flour, whereas the yeast-leavened bread flour contained 4.5% of soybean concentrate. Results: The soybean-fortified tortillas and bread contained higher amounts of lysine and tryptophan, which improved their EAA scores and PDCAAS. Rats fed diets based on soybean-fortified maize or wheat tortillas gained considerably more weight and had better BV and NPU values compared with counterparts fed with respective regular products. As a result, fortified maize tortillas and wheat flour tortillas improved PER from 0.73 to 1.64 and 0.69 to 1.77, respectively. The PER improvement was not as evident in rats fed the enriched yeast-leavened bread because the formulation contained sugar that decreased lysine availability possibly to Maillard reactions. Conclusions: The proposed enrichment of cereal-based foods with soybean proteins greatly

  19. Aptamer-functionalized solid phase microextraction-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for selective enrichment and determination of thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fuyou; Alam, Md Nazmul; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2014-10-03

    In this publication, a novel solid phase microextraction (SPME) coating functionalized with a DNA aptamer for selective enrichment of a low abundance protein from diluted human plasma is described. This approach is based on the covalent immobilization of an aptamer ligand on electrospun microfibers made with the hydrophilic polymer poly(acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid) (PANCMA) on stainless steel rods. A plasma protein, human α-thrombin, was employed as a model protein for selective extraction by the developed Apt-SPME probe, and the detection was carried out with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The SPME probe exhibited highly selective capture, good binding capacity, high stability and good repeatability for the extraction of thrombin. The protein selective probe was employed for direct extraction of thrombin from 20-fold diluted human plasma samples without any other purification. The Apt-SPME method coupled with LC-MS/MS provided a good linear dynamic range of 0.5-50 nM in diluted human plasma with a good correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.9923), and the detection limit of the proposed method was found to be 0.30 nM. Finally, the Apt-SPME coupled with LC-MS/MS method was successfully utilized for the determination of thrombin in clinical human plasma samples. One shortcoming of the method is its reduced efficiency in undiluted human plasma compared to the standard solution. Nevertheless, this new aptamer affinity-based SPME probe opens up the possibility of selective enrichment of a given targeted protein from complex sample either in vivo or ex vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of Six DNA Extraction Procedures and the Application of Plastid DNA Enrichment Methods in Selected Non-photosynthetic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yi Shyu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Genomic DNA was isolated using three DNA extraction commercial kits and three CTAB-based methods for two non-photosynthetic plants, Balanophora japonica and Mitrastemon kanehirai. The quality of the isolated DNA was evaluated and subjected to following restriction enzyme digestions. All six procedures yielded DNA of sufficient quality for PCR, and the method described by Barnwell et al. (1998 performed well in isolating DNA from both species for restriction enzyme digestion. In addition, we succeeded to enrich plastid DNA content by using the methods depending on a high salt buffer to deplete nuclear material. The ‘high salt’ methods based on protocol presented by Milligan (1989 were able to increase plastid DNA effectively and significantly reduce nuclear DNA from M. kanehirai. The plastid DNA enrichment protocols are inexpensive and not time-consuming, and may be applicable to other non-photosynthetic plants.

  1. Beyond HDL-cholesterol increase: phospholipid enrichment and shift from HDL3 to HDL2 in alcohol consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, C.; Parlesak, Alexandr; Eckoldt, J.

    2007-01-01

    The reduction of cardiovascular mortality associated with moderate alcohol consumption is chiefly thought to be mediated by an increase of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-CH). This study highlights additional qualitative changes of HDL that might augment this antiatherogenic effect....... In 279 healthy men, alcohol and nutrient consumption were evaluated. Groups 1 (n=62), 2 (n=172), and 3 (n=45) comprised subjects with alcohol consumption of 0-5.0, 5.1-30.0, and 30.1-75 g/day, respectively. Lipid analysis was performed in nonfractionated and fractionated plasma, including subfractions...... (increase of the HDL(2)-CH/HDL(3)-CH ratio). Moreover, phospholipid enrichment of HDL occurred in alcohol consumers, whereas the ratios between other HDL components remained constant. Multivariate analysis revealed alcohol to have the foremost statistical influence on changes of the HDL fraction, followed...

  2. A multipathogen selective enrichment broth for simultaneous growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Gang; Wu, Hui; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Su-Long; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Xiao, Xing-Long

    2010-07-01

    A selective enrichment broth (SSL) was formulated to allow concurrent growth of 3 prominent food-borne pathogens: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Nalidixic acid, lithium chloride, and potassium tellurite were added as the selective agents, while sodium pyruvate and mannitol were employed as the supplemented elements. In the individual growth trial, the target pathogens were capable of growing in SSL to as high as 7-8 log(10) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL after 24 h incubation at 37 degrees C when being inoculated at 50-100 CFU/mL. In the simultaneous growth trial, the 3 combined target pathogens showed similar growth rates. The results show that SSL could support the successful simultaneous enrichment of 3 pathogens; however, SSL inhibited the growth of nontarget bacteria. In the artificial contaminated raw beef and ready-to-eat chicken, a high recovery of these 3 target pathogens was obtained in SSL. Finally, Salmonella Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and L. monocytogenes were detected from 710 suspicious food samples by SSL with real-time PCR, and no false-positive or -negative results were reported. In summary, SSL has been shown to be a suitable broth for the simultaneous detection of the 3 prominent food-borne pathogens by multipathogen detection on a single-assay platform.

  3. Enrichment and oral bioaccessibility of selected trace elements in fly ash-derived magnetic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourliva, Anna; Papadopoulou, Lambrini; Aidona, Elina; Simeonidis, Konstantinos; Vourlias, George; Devlin, Eamonn; Sanakis, Yiannis

    2017-01-01

    The mineralogy, morphology, and chemical composition of magnetic fractions separated from fly ashes (FAs) originating from Greek lignite-burning power plants was investigated. The oral bioaccessibility of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) from the fly ash magnetic fractions (FAMFs) was also assessed using in vitro gastrointestinal extraction (BARGE Unified Bioaccessibility Method, UBM). The FAMFs isolated were in the range 4.6-18.4%, and their mass specific magnetic susceptibility ranged from 1138 × 10 -8 to 1682 × 10 -8  m 3 /kg. XRD analysis and Mossbauer spectroscopy indicated that the dominant iron species were Fe-rich aluminosilicate glass along with magnetite, hematite, and maghemite (in decreasing order). The raw FAs exhibited differences in their chemical composition, indicating the particularity of every lignite basin. The elemental contents of FAMFs presented trends with fly ash type; thus, the FAMFs of high-Ca FAs were enriched in siderophile (Cr, Co, Ni) and lithophile (Cs, Li, Rb) elements and those separated from low-Ca FAs were presented depleted in chalcophile elements. Based on UBM extraction tests, the PHEs were more bioaccessible from the non-magnetic components of the FAs compared to the magnetic ones; however, the bioaccessible fractions estimated for the FAMFs were exceeding 40 % in many cases. Arsenic was found to be significantly bioaccessible (median ~ 80 %) from FAMFs despite the lower As contents in the magnetic fraction.

  4. [Fabrication of acylsemicarbazide-based porous organic polymer for selective enrichment of glycopeptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Liu, Zhongshan; Peng, Xiaojun; Ou, Junjie; Ye, Mingliang

    2017-07-08

    An acylsemicarbazide-based porous organic polymer (POP) was facilely prepared by the polymerization of benzene-1,3,5-tricarbohydrazide (BTZ) and 1,4-phenylene diisocyanate (PDI). The physical properties of as-synthesized material were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), solid-state cross polarisation magic angle spinning carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS (13)C NMR), nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurement, water contact angle and so on. The specific surface area was 166 m(2)/g, and the water contact angle was 46.4°, exhibiting hydrophilic property of the porous material. Thus, POP-1 was tried to be used for glycopeptides enrichment from tryptic digest of standard protein and complex biosamples in hydrophilic mode. The 19 typical N-linked glycopeptides were identified from 500 fmol tryptic digest of immunoglobulin G (IgG) from human serum by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis, meanwhile, 1919 unique glycopeptides with 1350 N-glycosylation sites from 605 different N-linked glycoproteins were identified from 100 μ g mouse liver tryptic digest by capillary liquid chromatography (cLC)-MS/MS analysis. These results demonstrated the great potential of POP-1 for glycoproteome analysis.

  5. Selenium-Enriched Foods Are More Effective at Increasing Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) Activity Compared with Selenomethionine: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Emma N.; Hesketh, John E.; Sinclair, Bruce R.; Koolaard, John P.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2014-01-01

    Selenium may play a beneficial role in multi-factorial illnesses with genetic and environmental linkages via epigenetic regulation in part via glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. A meta-analysis was undertaken to quantify the effects of dietary selenium supplementation on the activity of overall GPx activity in different tissues and animal species and to compare the effectiveness of different forms of dietary selenium. GPx activity response was affected by both the dose and form of selenium (p selenium supplementation on GPx activity (p selenium supply include red blood cells, kidney and muscle. The meta-analysis identified that for animal species selenium-enriched foods were more effective than selenomethionine at increasing GPx activity. PMID:25268836

  6. Selective attention increases both gain and feature selectivity of the human auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaakko Kauramäki

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available An experienced car mechanic can often deduce what's wrong with a car by carefully listening to the sound of the ailing engine, despite the presence of multiple sources of noise. Indeed, the ability to select task-relevant sounds for awareness, whilst ignoring irrelevant ones, constitutes one of the most fundamental of human faculties, but the underlying neural mechanisms have remained elusive. While most of the literature explains the neural basis of selective attention by means of an increase in neural gain, a number of papers propose enhancement in neural selectivity as an alternative or a complementary mechanism.Here, to address the question whether pure gain increase alone can explain auditory selective attention in humans, we quantified the auditory cortex frequency selectivity in 20 healthy subjects by masking 1000-Hz tones by continuous noise masker with parametrically varying frequency notches around the tone frequency (i.e., a notched-noise masker. The task of the subjects was, in different conditions, to selectively attend to either occasionally occurring slight increments in tone frequency (1020 Hz, tones of slightly longer duration, or ignore the sounds. In line with previous studies, in the ignore condition, the global field power (GFP of event-related brain responses at 100 ms from the stimulus onset to the 1000-Hz tones was suppressed as a function of the narrowing of the notch width. During the selective attention conditions, the suppressant effect of the noise notch width on GFP was decreased, but as a function significantly different from a multiplicative one expected on the basis of simple gain model of selective attention.Our results suggest that auditory selective attention in humans cannot be explained by a gain model, where only the neural activity level is increased, but rather that selective attention additionally enhances auditory cortex frequency selectivity.

  7. Evaluation of novel supports for selective and efficient enrichment of phosphorylated peptides

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bensadek, D

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel emulsion based supports MagReSynTM TiO2 (A-D) were evaluated using 32P labelled phosphopeptides and nano LC-MS/MS. The performance of MagReSynTM TiO2 (D) was found to be significantly better in terms of selectivity and specificity...

  8. SHAPE selection (SHAPES) enrich for RNA structure signal in SHAPE sequencing-based probing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Line Dahl; Kielpinski, Lukasz Jan; Salama, Sofie R

    2015-01-01

    transcriptase. Here, we introduce a SHAPE Selection (SHAPES) reagent, N-propanone isatoic anhydride (NPIA), which retains the ability of SHAPE reagents to accurately probe RNA structure, but also allows covalent coupling between the SHAPES reagent and a biotin molecule. We demonstrate that SHAPES...

  9. Graphene-Templated Synthesis of Magnetic Metal Organic Framework Nanocomposites for Selective Enrichment of Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gong; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Denagamage, Sachira; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2016-04-27

    Successful control of homogeneous and complete coating of graphene or graphene-based composites with well-defined metal organic framework (MOF) layers is a great challenge. Herein, novel magnetic graphene MOF composites were constructed via a simple strategy for self-assembly of well-distributed, dense, and highly porous MOFs on both sides of graphene nanosheets. Graphene functionalized with magnetic nanoparticles and carboxylic groups on both sides was explored as the backbone and template to direct the controllable self-assembly of MOFs. The prepared composite materials have a relatively high specific surface area (345.4 m(2) g(-1)), and their average pore size is measured to be 3.2 nm. Their relatively high saturation magnetization (23.8 emu g(-1)) indicates their strong magnetism at room temperature. Moreover, the multifunctional composite was demonstrated to be a highly effective affinity material in selective extraction and separation of low-concentration biomolecules from biological samples, in virtue of the size-selection property of the unique porous structure and the excellent affinity of the composite materials. Besides providing a solution for the construction of well-defined functional graphene-based MOFs, this work could also contribute to selective extraction of biomolecules, in virtue of the universal affinity between immobilized metal ions and biomolecules.

  10. Selective enrichment and separation of phosphotyrosine peptides by thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Xia, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Novel thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers were successfully prepared using the epitope imprinting approach in the presence of the mimic template phenylphosphonic acid, the functional monomer vinylphosphonic acid-Ti(4+) , the temperature-sensitive monomer N-isopropylacrylamide and the crosslinker N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide. The ratio of the template/thermosensitive monomers/crosslinker was optimized, and when the ratio was 2:2:1, the prepared thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers had the highest imprinting factor. The synthetic thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to reveal the combination and elution processes of the template. Then, the adsorption capacity and thermosensitivity was measured. When the temperature was 28°C, the imprinting factor was the highest. The selectivity and adsorption capacity of the thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers for phosphotyrosine peptides from a mixture of three tailor-made peptides were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that the thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers have good selectivity for phosphotyrosine peptides. Finally, the imprinted hydrogels were applied to specifically adsorb phosphotyrosine peptides from a sample mixture containing phosphotyrosine and a tryptic digest of β-casein, which demonstrated high selectivity. After four rebinding cycles, 78.9% adsorption efficiency was still retained. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Substrate-based fragment identification for the development of selective, nonpeptidic inhibitors of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguley, Tyler D; Xu, Hai-Chao; Chatterjee, Manavi; Nairn, Angus C; Lombroso, Paul J; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2013-10-10

    High levels of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) activity are observed in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Overexpression of STEP results in the dephosphorylation and inactivation of many key neuronal signaling molecules, including ionotropic glutamate receptors. Moreover, genetically reducing STEP levels in AD mouse models significantly reversed cognitive deficits and decreased glutamate receptor internalization. These results support STEP as a potential target for drug discovery for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Herein, a substrate-based approach for the discovery and optimization of fragments called substrate activity screening (SAS) has been applied to the development of low molecular weight (<450 Da) and nonpeptidic, single-digit micromolar mechanism-based STEP inhibitors with greater than 20-fold selectivity across multiple tyrosine and dual specificity phosphatases. Significant levels of STEP inhibition in rat cortical neurons are also observed.

  12. Cognitive Load During Route Selection Increases Reliance on Spatial Heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunyé, Tad T; Martis, Shaina B; Taylor, Holly A

    2017-03-22

    Planning routes from maps involves perceiving the symbolic environment, identifying alternate routes, and applying explicit strategies and implicit heuristics to select an option. Two implicit heuristics have received considerable attention, the southern route preference and initial segment strategy. The current study tested a prediction from decision making theory, that increasing cognitive load during route planning will increase reliance on these heuristics. In two experiments, participants planned routes while under conditions of minimal (0-back) or high (2-back) working memory load. In Experiment 1, we examined how memory load impacts the southern route heuristic. In Experiment 2, we examined how memory load impacts the initial segment heuristic. Results replicated earlier results demonstrating a southern route preference (Experiment 1) and initial segment strategy (Experiment 2), and further demonstrated that evidence for heuristic reliance is more likely under conditions of concurrent working memory load. Furthermore, the extent to which participants maintained efficient route selection latencies in the 2-back condition predicted the magnitude of this effect. Together, results demonstrate that working memory load increases the application of heuristics during spatial decision making, particularly when participants attempt to maintain quick decisions while managing concurrent task demands.

  13. Consumption of selenium-enriched broccoli increases cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo, a preliminary human intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L; Chen, Ronan K-Y; Lill, Ross E; Hedderley, Duncan I; Herath, Thanuja D; Matich, Adam J; McKenzie, Marian J

    2014-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient essential for human health, including immune function. Previous research indicates that Se supplementation may cause a shift from T helper (Th)1- to Th2-type immune responses. We aim to test the potential health promoting effects of Se-enriched broccoli. In a human trial, 18 participants consumed control broccoli daily for 3 days. After a 3-day wash-out period, the participants were provided with Se-enriched broccoli containing 200 μg of Se per serving for 3 days. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected at the start and end of each broccoli feeding period for analysis of total Se and measurement of cytokine production from PBMC stimulated with antigens ex vivo. Plasma Se content remained consistent throughout the control broccoli feeding period and the baseline of the Se-enriched broccoli period (1.22 μmol/L) and then significantly increased following 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding. Interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-22) production from PBMC significantly increased after 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding compared with baseline. This study indicates that consumption of Se-enriched broccoli may increase immune responses toward a range of immune challenges. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Scalable and effective enrichment of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes by a dual selective naphthalene-based azo dispersant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundramoorthy, Ashok Kumar; Mesgari, Sara; Wang, Jing; Kumar, Raj; Sk, Mahasin Alam; Yeap, Siew Hooi; Zhang, Qing; Sze, Siu Kwan; Lim, Kok Hwa; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2013-04-17

    Semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) have emerged as a promising class of electronic materials, but the metallic (m)-SWNTs present in all as-synthesized nanotube samples must be removed for many applications. A high selectivity and high yield separation method has remained elusive. A separation process based on selective chemistry appears to be an attractive route since it is usually relatively simple, but more effective chemicals are needed. Here we demonstrate the first example of a new class of dual selective compounds based on polycyclic aromatic azo compounds, specifically Direct Blue 71 (I), for high-purity separation of s-SWNTs at high yield. Highly enriched (~93% purity) s-SWNTs are produced through the simple process of standing arc-discharge SWNTs with I followed by centrifugation. The s-SWNTs total yield is up to 41%, the highest yet reported for a solution-based separation technique that demonstrates applicability in actual transistors. 91% of transistor devices fabricated with these s-SWNTs exhibited on/off ratios of 10(3) to 10(5) with the best devices showing mobility as high as 21.8 cm(2)/V s with on/off ratio of 10(4). Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic shifts and ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) show that I preferentially complexes with s-SWNTs and preferentially suspends them. Preferential reaction of naphthyl radicals (generated from I with ultrasonication) with m-SWNTs is confirmed by changes in the D-band in the Raman spectroscopy, matrix-assisted desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and molecular simulation results. The high selectivity of I stems from its unique dual action as both a selective dispersion agent and the generator of radicals which preferentially attack unwanted metallic species.

  15. Branched-chain amino acid-enriched nutrient increases blood platelet count in patients after endoscopic injection sclerotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuichi, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yasuharu; Miyata, Yuki; Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Sano, Takatomo; Taira, Junichi; Kojima, Mayumi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Ikuo; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2016-10-01

    Protein and energy malnutrition is a severe problem for patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) and fasting often induces starvation which is a vitally important outcome. Dietary restriction is essential for endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) in patients with risky esophageal varices, thereby creating the possible exacerbation of nutritional state and inducing liver dysfunction. Whether EIS induces nutritional deficiency in LC patients and the effects of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-enriched nutrient are prospectively investigated. A total of 61 LC patients were randomly divided into an EIS monotherapy group (non-BCAA group, n = 31) and an EIS combined with BCAA therapy group (n = 30). Platelet count, blood chemistry and somatometry values were prospectively measured at five time points. The platelet counts before treatment were at the same level in both groups (P = 0.72). Three months after treatment, the counts decreased in the non-BCAA group; however, they increased in the BCAA group (P = 0.019). Body mass index, triceps skin fold thickness and arm muscle circumference significantly decreased in both groups. The BCAA and tyrosine ratio value increased only in the BCAA group (P BCAA group (P BCAA. Administration of BCAA had some effect in maintaining the nutritional state, and may improve the platelet count. Taking a greater amount of nutrients and shorter dietary restriction period or hospitalization was desirable. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  16. Characterisation and evaluation of metal-loaded iminodiacetic acid-silica of different porosity for the selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojer, L; Stecher, G; Feuerstein, I; Lubbad, S; Bonn, G K

    2005-06-24

    Silica particles of different porosity were functionalised with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) and loaded with Fe(III) to yield immobilised metal affinity chromatography stationary phases (Fe(III)-IDA-silica) for phosphopeptide enrichment. The elution step of bound phosphopeptides was optimised with a 32P radioactive labelled peptide by a comprehensive study. Several elution systems, including phosphate buffers of different pH and concentration and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solutions were employed. Furthermore the effect of support porosity on elution behaviour was investigated. Under best conditions recoveries higher than 90% were achieved. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) protocol was developed for fractionation of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated peptides and desalting of the fractions which is essential for subsequent mass spectrometric analysis by the combination of Fe(III)-IDA-silica and C18-silica particles. The pH of the loading buffer was found to be a critical parameter for the efficiency of the SPE protocol. As tryptic digests of alpha-lactalbumin, lysozyme and ribonuclease A mixed with three synthetic phosphopeptides were fractionated, pH 2.5 provided minimal proportion of unspecific bound peptides when comparing the fractions after mu-LC-electrospray ionization MS separation. The effect of a sample derivatisation reaction (methylation) on the efficiency of phosphopeptide enrichment was further investigated. Blocking carboxylate groups by methyl ester formation totally prevented unspecific interaction with the immobilised Fe(III) ions, but generated partially methylated phosphopeptides that increased the complexity of the phosphorylated fraction.

  17. Triticale crisp bread enriched with selected bioactive additives: volatile profile, physical characteristics, sensory and nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Agnieszka; Majcher, Małgorzata; Mildner-Szkudlarz, Sylwia; Jedrusek-Golinska, Anna; Przygoński, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    The effect of selected plant additives (couch grass, artichoke, kale, nettle, ground buckwheat husks, broad beans, fenugreek seeds, and extracts of yellow tea and mulberry leaf) on the volatile compounds, color, texture, sensory attributes, polyphenols, and antioxidant properties of triticale crisp bread was studied. The volatile profile of control bread was dominated by lipid oxidation products with hexanal and (E)-2-nonenal predominant. The additives strongly modified the volatile profile of the extruded crisp bread. The greatest differences were recorded in the case of products with artichoke and kale additions, which had respectively about 12 and 8 times higher levels of total volatile compounds than the control crisp bread. The samples containing kale, buckwheat, and fenugreek as well as yellow tea extract characterized high levels of sulfur compounds, with methanethiol predominant. The additives, especially kale, nettle, and artichoke affected the color of the crisp breads, in most cases making them darker. In terms of texture only the crisp bread with addition of buckwheat husk was significantly harder than the control sample. On the basis of sensory evaluation it was stated that among all the additives, the artichoke and fenugreek resulted in dramatic deterioration in the extruded product taste. The used additives also affected the antioxidant properties of triticale crisp bread. The greatest content of total phenolic compounds and the highest antioxidant activity were observed for the bread with yellow tea extract addition (3.5- and 6.5-fold higher, respectively, than in control sample).

  18. A linoleic acid enriched diet increases serum cholesterol esterification by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase in meal-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romijn, D; Wiseman, S A; Scheek, L M; de Fouw, N J; van Tol, A

    1998-01-01

    Dietary fats are known to influence the fatty acid profile of plasma lipids, including phospholipids which are substrates of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT; EC 2.3.1.43), an important enzyme in lipoprotein metabolism. We tested whether the dietary fatty acid profile has an effect on LCAT activity in an animal model. Rats were conditioned to eat two meals per day, which were enriched in either palmitic, oleic or linoleic acids, for 10 weeks. Serum was isolated from blood samples taken prior to the meal. The LCAT activity was determined in two ways: (1) by measuring serum cholesterol esterification rates, which are an estimate of LCAT action on endogenous lipoproteins, and (2) by measuring serum LCAT activity levels with excess exogenous substrates, an estimate of LCAT mass. Animals receiving the linoleic acid diet had lower serum concentrations of unesterified cholesterol and triglycerides, if compared with animals fed oleic acid or palmitic acid diets (p diet (p palmitic; p oleic and linoleic; p diet may cause increased metabolism of serum cholesterol by LCAT in rats. This effect is not due to elevated serum concentrations of LCAT or of its apolipoprotein activators, but most likely to changes in the chemical composition of endogenous lipoprotein substrates. It remains to be established whether the serum cholesterol esterification rates measured in vitro are related to in vivo rates of reverse cholesterol transport.

  19. Bottlenecks and selective sweeps during domestication have increased deleterious genetic variation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Clare D; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; O'Brien, Dennis P; Taylor, Jeremy F; Ramirez, Oscar; Vilà, Carles; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Schnabel, Robert D; Wayne, Robert K; Lohmueller, Kirk E

    2016-01-05

    Population bottlenecks, inbreeding, and artificial selection can all, in principle, influence levels of deleterious genetic variation. However, the relative importance of each of these effects on genome-wide patterns of deleterious variation remains controversial. Domestic and wild canids offer a powerful system to address the role of these factors in influencing deleterious variation because their history is dominated by known bottlenecks and intense artificial selection. Here, we assess genome-wide patterns of deleterious variation in 90 whole-genome sequences from breed dogs, village dogs, and gray wolves. We find that the ratio of amino acid changing heterozygosity to silent heterozygosity is higher in dogs than in wolves and, on average, dogs have 2-3% higher genetic load than gray wolves. Multiple lines of evidence indicate this pattern is driven by less efficient natural selection due to bottlenecks associated with domestication and breed formation, rather than recent inbreeding. Further, we find regions of the genome implicated in selective sweeps are enriched for amino acid changing variants and Mendelian disease genes. To our knowledge, these results provide the first quantitative estimates of the increased burden of deleterious variants directly associated with domestication and have important implications for selective breeding programs and the conservation of rare and endangered species. Specifically, they highlight the costs associated with selective breeding and question the practice favoring the breeding of individuals that best fit breed standards. Our results also suggest that maintaining a large population size, rather than just avoiding inbreeding, is a critical factor for preventing the accumulation of deleterious variants.

  20. Selection of progenitors for increase in oil content in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Isabela da Silva Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The low genetic diversity brings limitation to breeding, because genetically similar genotypes share alleles in common, causing little complementarity and low vigor due to the low levels of heterozygosity in crosses. The objective of this work was to analyze the oil content and genetic diversity of soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L. Merrill based on QTL regions of this trait for choice of progenitors for increase in oil content. Twenty-two genotypes with wide variation in oil content, including cultivars with high oil contents, were cultivated in different Brazilian conditions and the oil content of the grains was quantified by infrared spectrometry. Microsatellite markers selected based on QTL regions for oil content in soybean were analyzed to estimate the genetic diversity. In these studies, a wide variation in oil content (17.28-23.01% and a reasonable diversity among the genotypes were observed, being PI181544 the most divergent genotype, followed by Suprema. The genotypes PI371610/Suprema and Suprema/CD01RR8384 showed genetic distance and higher oil contents in the grains, while the cultivars Suprema and CD01RR8384 had the highest oil contents and proved to be little genetically related. These genotypes are promising progenitors for selection of high oil content in soybean.

  1. Growth differences and competition between Listeria monocytogenes strains determine their predominance on ham slices and lead to bias during selective enrichment with the ISO protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilelidou, Evangelia; Manthou, Evanthia; Skandamis, Panagiotis

    2016-10-17

    Listeria monocytogenes strains are widespread in the environment where they live well mixed, often resulting in multiple strains contaminating a single food sample. The occurrence of different strains in the same food might trigger strain competition, contributing to uneven growth of strains in food and to bias during selective procedures. We tested the growth of seven L. monocytogenes strains (C5, 6179, ScottA, PL24, PL25, PL26, PL27) on ham slices and on nutrient-rich agar at 10°C, singly and in combinations. Strains were made resistant to different antibiotics for their selective enumeration. In addition, growth of single strains (axenic culture) and competition between strains in xenic cultures of two strains was evaluated in enrichment broth and on selective agar. According to ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd 1:2004 standard protocol for detection of L. monocytogenes, two enrichment steps both followed by streaking on ALOA were performed. Strain cultures were directly added in the enrichment broth or used to inoculate minced beef and sliced hams which were then mixed with enrichment broth. 180-360 colonies were used to determine the relative percentage of each strain recovered on plates per enrichment step. The data showed a significant impact of co-cultivation on the growth of six out of seven strains on ham and a bias towards certain strains during selective enrichment. Competition was manifested by: (i) cessation of growth for the outcompeted strain when the dominant strain reached stationary phase, (ii) reduction of growth rates or (iii) total suppression of growth (both on ham and in enrichment broth or ALOA). Outgrowth of strains by their competitors on ALOA resulted in limited to no recovery, with the outcompeting strain accounting for up to 100% of the total recovered colonies. The observed bias was associated with the enrichment conditions (i.e. food type added to the enrichment broth) and the strain-combination. The outcome of growth competition on food or

  2. Strong Selection Significantly Increases Epistatic Interactions in the Long-Term Evolution of a Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gupta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epistatic interactions between residues determine a protein's adaptability and shape its evolutionary trajectory. When a protein experiences a changed environment, it is under strong selection to find a peak in the new fitness landscape. It has been shown that strong selection increases epistatic interactions as well as the ruggedness of the fitness landscape, but little is known about how the epistatic interactions change under selection in the long-term evolution of a protein. Here we analyze the evolution of epistasis in the protease of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 using protease sequences collected for almost a decade from both treated and untreated patients, to understand how epistasis changes and how those changes impact the long-term evolvability of a protein. We use an information-theoretic proxy for epistasis that quantifies the co-variation between sites, and show that positive information is a necessary (but not sufficient condition that detects epistasis in most cases. We analyze the "fossils" of the evolutionary trajectories of the protein contained in the sequence data, and show that epistasis continues to enrich under strong selection, but not for proteins whose environment is unchanged. The increase in epistasis compensates for the information loss due to sequence variability brought about by treatment, and facilitates adaptation in the increasingly rugged fitness landscape of treatment. While epistasis is thought to enhance evolvability via valley-crossing early-on in adaptation, it can hinder adaptation later when the landscape has turned rugged. However, we find no evidence that the HIV-1 protease has reached its potential for evolution after 9 years of adapting to a drug environment that itself is constantly changing. We suggest that the mechanism of encoding new information into pairwise interactions is central to protein evolution not just in HIV-1 protease, but for any protein adapting to a changing

  3. Inhibition of striatal-enriched tyrosine phosphatase 61 in the dorsomedial striatum is sufficient to increased ethanol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcq, Emmanuel; Hamida, Sami Ben; Wu, Su; Phamluong, Khanky; Kharazia, Viktor; Xu, Jian; Lombroso, Paul; Ron, Dorit

    2014-06-01

    The STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase 61 (STEP61 ) inhibits the activity of the tyrosine kinase Fyn and dephosphorylates the GluN2B subunit of the NMDA receptor, whereas the protein kinase A phosphorylation of STEP61 inhibits the activity of the phosphatase (Pharmacol. Rev., 64, , p. 65). Previously, we found that ethanol activates Fyn in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) leading to GluN2B phosphorylation, which, in turn, underlies the development of ethanol intake (J. Neurosci., 30, , p. 10187). Here, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of STEP61 by ethanol is upstream of Fyn/GluN2B. We show that exposure of mice to ethanol increased STEP61 phosphorylation in the DMS, which was maintained after withdrawal and was not observed in other striatal regions. Specific knockdown of STEP61 in the DMS of mice enhanced ethanol-mediated Fyn activation and GluN2B phosphorylation, and increased ethanol intake without altering the level of water, saccharine, quinine consumption or spontaneous locomotor activity. Together, our data suggest that blockade of STEP61 activity in response to ethanol is sufficient for the activation of the Fyn/GluN2B pathway in the DMS. Being upstream of Fyn and GluN2B, inactive STEP61 in the DMS primes the induction of ethanol intake. We show that ethanol-mediated inhibition of STEP61 in the DMS leads to Fyn activation and GluN2B phosphorylation. (a) Under basal conditions, active STEP61 inhibits Fyn activity and dephosphorylates GluN2B. (b) Ethanol leads to the phosphorylation of STEP61 on a specific inhibitory site. The inhibition of STEP61 activity contributes to the activation of Fyn in response to ethanol, which, in turn, phosphorylates GluN2B. These molecular adaptations in the DMS promote ethanol drinking. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  4. Evaluation of corn oil as an additive in the pre-enrichment step to increase recovery of Salmonella enterica from oregano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Flamer, Marie-Laure; Addy, Nicole; Ewing, Laura; Gopinath, Gopal; Jarvis, Karen; Grim, Chris; Hanes, Darcy E

    2016-08-01

    Phenolic compounds associated with essential oils of spices and herbs possess a variety of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties that interfere with Salmonella detection from fresh and dried products. Finding a compound to neutralize the effect of these antimicrobial compounds, while allowing Salmonella growth during pre-enrichment, is a crucial step in both traditional pathogen isolation and molecular detection from these foods. This study evaluated the effectiveness of corn oil as a component of the pre-enrichment broth to counteract antimicrobial compounds properties and increase the recovery of Salmonella from spices. Oregano samples artificially contaminated with Salmonella enterica were pre-enriched in modified Buffered Peptone Water (mBPW) supplemented with and without 2% (vol/vol) corn oil respectively. Samples were incubated overnight at 37 °C. The results showed that recovery of Salmonella from oregano samples was increased by ≥50% when pre-enriched with corn oil. Serovars were confirmed using a PCR serotyping method. In addition, shot-gun metagenomics analyses demonstrated bacterial diversity and the effect of corn oil on the relative prevalence of Salmonella in the oregano samples. Modifying pre-enrichment broths with corn oil improved the detection and isolation of Salmonella from oregano, and may provide an alternative method for pathogen detection in dried food matrices such as spices. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Selective trace enrichment of chlorotriazine pesticides from natural waters and sediment samples using terbuthylazine molecularly imprinted polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, I.; Lanza, F.; Tolokan, A.; Horvath, V.; Sellergren, B.; Horvai, G.; Barcelo, D.

    2000-01-01

    Two molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized using either dichloromethane or toluene as the porogen and terbuthylazine as the template and were used as solid-phase extraction cartridges for the enrichment of six chlorotriazines (deisopropylatrazine, deethylatrazine, simazine, atrazine, propazine, and terbuthylazine) in natural water and sediment samples. The extracted samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography/diode array detection (LC/DAD). Several washing solvents, as well as different volumes, were tested for their ability to remove the matrix components nonspecifically adsorbed on the sorbents. This cleanup step was shown to be of prime importance to the successful extraction of the pesticides from the aqueous samples. The optimal analytical conditions were obtained when the MIP imprinted using dichloromethane was the sorbent, 2 mL of dichloromethane was used in the washing step, and the preconcentrated analytes were eluted with 8 mL of methanol. The recoveries were higher than 80% for all the chlorotriazines except for propazine (53%) when 50- or 100-mL groundwater samples, spiked at 1 ??g/L level, were analyzed. The limits of detection varied from 0.05 to 0.2 ??g/L when preconcentrating a 100-mL groundwater sample. Natural sediment samples from the Ebre Delta area (Tarragona, Spain) containing atrazine and deethylatrazine were Soxhlet extracted and analyzed by the methodology developed in this work. No significant interferences from the sample matrix were noticed, thus indicating good selectivity of the MIP sorbents used.

  6. Sn surface-enriched Pt-Sn bimetallic nanoparticles as a selective and stable catalyst for propane dehydrogenation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Haibo

    2014-12-01

    A new one pot, surfactant-free, synthetic route based on the surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) concept has been developed for the synthesis of Sn surface-enriched Pt-Sn nanoparticles. Bu3SnH selectively reacts with [Pt]-H formed in situ at the surface of Pt nanoparticles, Pt NPs, obtained by reduction of K2PtCl4 by LiB(C2H5)3H. Chemical analysis, 1H MAS and 13C CP/MAS solid-state NMR as well as two-dimensional double-quantum (DQ) and triple-quantum (TQ) experiments show that organo-tin moieties Sn(n-C4H9) are chemically linked to the surface of Pt NPs to produce, in fine, after removal of most of the n-butyl fragment, bimetallic Pt-Sn nanoparticles. The Sn(n-CH2CH2CH2CH3) groups remaining at the surface are believed to stabilize the as-synthesized Pt-Sn NPs, enabling the bimetallic NPs to be well dispersed in THF. Additionally, the Pt-Sn nanoparticles can be supported on MgAl2O4 during the synthesis of the nanoparticles. Some of the Pt-Sn/MgAl2O4 catalyst thus prepared exhibits high activity in PROX of CO and an extremely high selectivity and stability in propane dehydrogenation to propylene. The enhanced activity in propane dehydrogenation is associated with the high concentration of inactive Sn at the surface of Pt nanoparticles which ”isolates” the active Pt atoms. This conclusion is confirmed by XRD, NMR, TEM, and XPS analysis.

  7. Environmental fluctuations do not select for increased variation or ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Little is known about the mechanisms that enable organisms to cope with unpredictable environments. To address this issue, we used replicate populations of Escherichia coli selected under complex, randomly changing environments. Under four novel stresses that had no known correlation with the selection environments ...

  8. Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment (FACE) increased labile and total carbon in the mineral soil of a short rotation Poplar plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoosbeek, M.R.; Li, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The global net terrestrial carbon sink was estimated to range between 0.5 and 0.7 Pg C y¿1 for the early 1990s. FACE (free atmospheric CO2 enrichment) studies conducted at the whole-tree and community scale indicate that there is a marked increase of primary production, mainly allocated into

  9. Hydrophilic Nb{sup 5+}-immobilized magnetic core–shell microsphere – A novel immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography material for highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xueni; Liu, Xiaodan; Feng, Jianan [Pharmaceutical Analysis Department, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China); Li, Yan, E-mail: yanli@fudan.edu.cn [Pharmaceutical Analysis Department, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China); Deng, Chunhui [Department of Chemistry and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Duan, Gengli [Pharmaceutical Analysis Department, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2015-06-23

    Highlights: • A new IMAC material (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@PD-Nb{sup 5+}) was synthesized. • The strong magnetic behaviors of the microspheres ensure fast and easy separation. • The enrichment ability was tested by human serum and nonfat milk. • The results were compared with other IMAC materials including the commercial kits. • All results proved the good enrichment ability, especially for multiphosphopeptides. - Abstract: Rapid and selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from complex biological samples is essential and challenging in phosphorylated proteomics. In this work, for the first time, niobium ions were directly immobilized on the surface of polydopamine-coated magnetic microspheres through a facile and effective synthetic route. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@polydopamine-Nb{sup 5+} (denoted as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@PD-Nb{sup 5+}) microspheres possess merits of high hydrophilicity and good biological compatibility, and demonstrated low limit of detection (2 fmol). The selectivity was also basically satisfactory (β-casein:BSA = 1:500) to capture phosphopeptides. They were also successfully applied for enrichment of phosphopeptides from real biological samples such as human serum and nonfat milk. Compared with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@PD-Ti{sup 4+} microspheres, the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@PD-Nb{sup 5+} microspheres exhibit superior selectivity to multi-phosphorylated peptides, and thus may be complementary to the conventional IMAC materials.

  10. Tailor-made magnetic Fe3O4@mTiO2 microspheres with a tunable mesoporous anatase shell for highly selective and effective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wan-Fu; Zhang, Ying; Li, Lu-Lu; You, Li-Jun; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Yu-Ting; Li, Ju-Mei; Yu, Meng; Guo, Jia; Lu, Hao-Jie; Wang, Chang-Chun

    2012-04-24

    Selective enrichment of phosphoproteins or phosphopeptides from complex mixtures is essential for MS-based phosphoproteomics, but still remains a challenge. In this article, we described an unprecedented approach to synthesize magnetic mesoporous Fe(3)O(4)@mTiO(2) microspheres with a well-defined core/shell structure, a pure and highly crystalline TiO(2) layer, high specific surface area (167.1 m(2)/g), large pore volume (0.45 cm(3)/g), appropriate and tunable pore size (8.6-16.4 nm), and high magnetic susceptibility. We investigated the applicability of Fe(3)O(4)@mTiO(2) microspheres in a study of the selective enrichment of phosphopeptides. The experiment results demonstrated that the Fe(3)O(4)@mTiO(2) possessed remarkable selectivity for phosphopeptides even at a very low molar ratio of phosphopeptides/non-phosphopeptides (1:1000), large enrichment capacity (as high as 225 mg/g, over 10 times as that of the Fe(3)O(4)@TiO(2) microspheres), extreme sensitivity (the detection limit was at the fmol level), excellent speed (the enrichment can be completed in less than 5 min), and high recovery of phosphopeptides (as high as 93%). In addition, the high magnetic susceptibility allowed convenient separation of the target peptides by magnetic separation. These outstanding features give the Fe(3)O(4)@mTiO(2) composite microspheres high benefit for mass spectrometric analysis of phosphopeptides.

  11. In vitro evaluation of marrow clot enrichment on microstructure decoration, cell delivery and proliferation of porous titanium scaffolds by selective laser melting three-dimensional printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qing-Qiang; Hu, Jun; Zheng, Peng-Fei; Li, Jia-Yi; Zhou, Jin; Tian, Shu-Chang; Wei, Bo; Xu, Yan; Wang, Li-Ming

    2017-10-30

    Titanium alloy is a clinically approved material for bone substitution. Although three-dimensional printing (3DP) fabrication technique can build up porous Ti scaffolds with the designed shape and microstructure, the biomechanical performance of 3DP Ti scaffolds still need to be improved to increase the reliability of osseointegration capacity. To address this issue, rabbit bone marrow clot (MC) is used to modify 3DP Ti scaffolds by stem cell delivery and microenvironment decoration inside the pores of these scaffolds. Moreover, 3DP Ti scaffolds were built up using selective laser melting, and 3DP MC-Ti scaffolds were constructed through the enrichment of MC with Ti scaffolds in vitro. Results demonstrated that the obtained 3DP Ti scaffolds in current study has an average modulus of elasticity (ME) at 1294.48 MPa with average yield strength of 33.154 MPa. For MC-Ti scaffolds, MC enrichment obstructs the pores of 3DP scaffolds due to the large amount of fibrin and erythrocytes and leads to a decrease in ratio of live cells at 1-week culture. Cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation performance of MC-Ti scaffolds were promoted with porous recanalization in the later 3 weeks. After 2 weeks in vitro culture, fivefold of cell number in MC-Ti scaffolds were observed than bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell-seeded Ti scaffolds. Compared to Ti scaffolds, fourfold of deoxyribonucleic acid content, type I collagen-α1, osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase expression in MC-Ti scaffolds were observed after 4 weeks in vitro culture. Results suggested that the combination with MC is a highly efficient method that improves the biological performance of Ti scaffolds. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Response surface methodology to design a selective co-enrichment broth of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus for simultaneous detection by multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiao Yan; Zhou, Wen Wu; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Xiao Fu; Xu, Jun Feng

    2012-07-25

    Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus are frequent co-visitors of contaminated foods to cause food-borne diseases. To achieve rapid detection of three organisms by multiplex PCR, a selective co-enrichment broth was considered to design using response surface methodology (RSM) in this work. NaCl, LiCl and KSCN as selective bacterial inhibitors were selected to optimize their concentrations for a matched composition of bacterial biomass with uniform amplification of three targets. Central composite design was employed to collect the data and fit the responses. Three quadratic polynomial models were derived by computer simulation. A statistical analysis was carried out to explore the effects of the variables on the composition of bacterial biomass and PCR amplification yields. In the end, a novel broth (ESS-3 broth) of NaCl 1.60%, LiCl 0.70%, KSCN 0.10% was formulated to allow co-enrichment of the target pathogens and suppress growth of some non-target pathogens. The simultaneous detection of E. coli, Salmonella spp. and S. aureus was developed on a rapid, convenient and sensitive method consisting of selective co-enrichment in ESS-3 broth, DNA extraction with the boiling method and robust test by multiplex PCR. Our work provided broader application of RSM for the simultaneous detection of other combinations of multiple pathogens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental enrichment increases doublecortin-associated new neurons and decreases neuronal death without modifying anxiety-like behavior in mice chronically exposed to toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez-Martinez, Nayeli; Flores-Serrano, Zoraida; Ortiz-Lopez, Leonardo; Ramirez-Rodriguez, Gerardo

    2013-11-01

    Toluene misuse is a health problem worldwide with broad effects at the level of the central nervous system; however, therapeutic alternatives for inhalant abusers are limited. Chronic use of volatile substances is associated with different neurological and cognitive alterations, being anxiety a psychiatric condition with high prevalence. At cellular level toluene reduces neurogenesis and induces neuronal death. On the other hand, environmental enrichment has demonstrated to produce positive effects at behavioral and neuronal levels. Thus, the aim of the present work was to model alterations occasioned after repeated exposure to toluene (anxiety, reduction in neurogenesis - measured as doublecortin-labeled cells - and neuronal death). Subsequently, the influence of environmental enrichment on these effects was evaluated. Adolescent mice were exposed to toluene vapors from 1 to 4 weeks. Effects on anxiety were evaluated with the burying behavior test, whereas neurogenesis and hippocampal cell death were analyzed with immunohistochemistry, using anti-doublecortin or anti-active-Caspase-3 antibodies, respectively. Results showed that chronic toluene exposure increased anxiety in the burying behavior test; additionally, toluene decreased neurogenesis and enhanced neuronal death. Environmental enrichment (EE) enhanced the anxiety like response in air-exposed mice but did not modify the toluene anxiety response. Additionally, EE enhanced neurogenesis in toluene-pretreated animals at the same level to that found in animals unexposed to toluene and decreased neuronal death. Overall, the present study showed that environmental enrichment positively impacts some effects produced by repeated exposure to toluene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Design and Selection of a Belt Conveyor System for Increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of the modifications could not be realised as any increase in plant capacity beyond 850 t/h resulted in increased spillage on belt conveyor CB among a series of conveyors in the plant flow sheet. In this paper, the causes of the spillage on conveyor CB were investigated and a belt conveyor system capable of

  15. The Impact of Carrot Enriched in Iodine through Soil Fertilization on Iodine Concentration and Selected Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątkowska, Ewa; Kopeć, Aneta; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Pysz, Mirosław; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Koronowicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Rakoczy, Roksana; Maślak, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    Iodine is one of the trace elements which are essential for mammalian life. The major objective of iodine biofortification of plants is to obtain food rich in this trace element, which may increase its consumption by various populations. Additionally, it may reduce the risk of iodine deficiency diseases. In this research for the first time we have assessed the bioavailability of iodine from raw or cooked carrot biofortified with this trace element on iodine concentration in selected tissues and various biochemical parameters as well as mRNA expression of some genes involved in iodine metabolism in Wistar rats. Statistically, a significantly higher iodine level was determined in urine, faeces and selected tissues of rats fed a diet containing biofortified raw carrot as compared to a diet without iodine and a diet containing control cooked carrot. Biofortified raw carrot significantly increased triiodothyronine concentration as compared to animals from other experimental groups. The highest thyroid stimulating hormone level was determined in rats fed control cooked carrots. mRNA expression of selected genes was affected by different dietary treatment in rats' hearts. Biofortified raw and cooked carrot could be taken into account as a potential source of iodine in daily diets to prevent iodine deficiency in various populations.

  16. Utilization of Cow Milk Enriched with Conjugated Linoleic Acid to Decrease Body Weight, Cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein and to Increase Blood High Density Lipoprotein

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartati, FM; Suryapratama, W; Rahayu, S

    2012-01-01

    An experiment to investigate the ability of cow milk enriched with conjugated linoleic acid to decrease body weight, total cholesterol, blood Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), and to increase blood High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) has been conducted using in vivo experimental method. Research material consisted of 40 8-week-old white female rats (Rattus norvegicus) of Wistar strain (as an animal model). The method used was an experimental method with a Completely Randomized Design. The treatments ...

  17. High Dietary Fat Selectively Increases Catalase Expression within Cardiac Mitochondria*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindler, Paul M.; Plafker, Scott M.; Szweda, Luke I.; Kinter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a predictor of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One consequence of obesity is dyslipidemia characterized by high blood triglycerides. It has been proposed that oxidative stress, driven by utilization of lipids for energy, contributes to these diseases. The effects of oxidative stress are mitigated by an endogenous antioxidant enzyme network, but little is known about its response to high fat utilization. Our experiments used a multiplexed quantitative proteomics method to measure antioxidant enzyme expression in heart tissue in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. This experiment showed a rapid and specific up-regulation of catalase protein, with subsequent assays showing increases in activity and mRNA. Catalase, traditionally considered a peroxisomal protein, was found to be present in cardiac mitochondria and significantly increased in content and activity during high fat feeding. These data, coupled with the fact that fatty acid oxidation enhances mitochondrial H2O2 production, suggest that a localized catalase increase is needed to consume excessive mitochondrial H2O2 produced by increased fat metabolism. To determine whether the catalase-specific response is a common feature of physiological conditions that increase blood triglycerides and fatty acid oxidation, we measured changes in antioxidant expression in fasted versus fed mice. Indeed, a similar specific catalase increase was observed in mice fasted for 24 h. Our findings suggest a fundamental metabolic process in which catalase expression is regulated to prevent damage while preserving an H2O2-mediated sensing of diet composition that appropriately adjusts insulin sensitivity in the short term as needed to prioritize lipid metabolism for complete utilization. PMID:23204527

  18. Evaluation of a multiplex selective enrichment broth SEL for simultaneous detection of injured Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Biao; Wang, Yuexia

    2013-01-01

    Although many rapid and high throughput molecular methods have been developed in the recent years for the multiplex detection of foodborne pathogens, the simultaneous recovery and enrichment of sublethally injured cells is still a problem that needs to be considered. Combined with previous established multiplex real-time PCR assay, the capability of simultaneous recovery and enrichment of sublethally injured Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes cells was evaluated in a multiplex selective enrichment broth SEL. The injured cells were obtained by heat shock. After evaluation of different procedures, 1 h of recovery period prior to 20 h of enrichment was proved to be necessary for the detection of less than 10 CFU/5 mL broth of injured L. monocytogenes. When the detection method was applied to artificially contaminated ground beef, all the three injured pathogens could be simultaneously detected without discrimination by real-time PCR combined with SEL broth, the detection limit was SEL broth herein appears to be a promising tool for high-throughput screening of a large number of processed food samples, which require either single or multiple pathogen detection. More important, the sublethally injured foodborne pathogen cells were also detectable.

  19. Environmental fluctuations do not select for increased variation or ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-02-13

    9592-2. 1. Introduction. The last few decades have witnessed a global increase in day-to-day climatic variability (Medvigy and Beaulieu. 2012). As a result of this, many organisms are now subjected to environmental changes at ...

  20. Selection for niche differentiation in plant communities increases biodiversity effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuppinger-Dingley, D.; Schmid, B.; Petermann, J.S.; Yadav, V.; Deyn, de G.B.; Flynn, D.F.B.

    2014-01-01

    In experimental plant communities, relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning have been found to strengthen over time1, 2, a fact often attributed to increased resource complementarity between species in mixtures3 and negative plant–soil feedbacks in monocultures4. Here we show

  1. Selection for niche differentiation in plant communities increases biodiversity effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuppinger-Dingley, D.; Schmid, B.; Petermann, J.S.; Yadav, V.; Deyn, de G.B.; Flynn, D.F.B.

    2014-01-01

    In experimental plant communities, relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning have been found to strengthen over time, a fact often attributed to increased resource complementarity between species in mixtures and negative plant–soil feedbacks in monocultures. Here we show that

  2. Multiplex Real-Time PCR for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) Genes from Selective Enrichments from Animals and Retail Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Valeria; Sherwood, Julie S.; Rojas-García, Pedro P.; Logue, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a real-time PCR assay, with a conventional culture/PCR method, to detect S. aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes in animals and retail meat, using a two-step selective enrichment protocol. A total of 234 samples were examined (77 animal nasal swabs, 112 retail raw meat, and 45 deli meat). The multiplex real-time PCR targeted the genes: nuc (identification of S. aureus), mecA (associated with methicillin resistance) and PVL (virulence factor), and the primary and secondary enrichment samples were assessed. The conventional culture/PCR method included the two-step selective enrichment, selective plating, biochemical testing, and multiplex PCR for confirmation. The conventional culture/PCR method recovered 95/234 positive S. aureus samples. Application of real-time PCR on samples following primary and secondary enrichment detected S. aureus in 111/234 and 120/234 samples respectively. For detection of S. aureus, the kappa statistic was 0.68–0.88 (from substantial to almost perfect agreement) and 0.29–0.77 (from fair to substantial agreement) for primary and secondary enrichments, using real-time PCR. For detection of mecA gene, the kappa statistic was 0–0.49 (from no agreement beyond that expected by chance to moderate agreement) for primary and secondary enrichment samples. Two pork samples were mecA gene positive by all methods. The real-time PCR assay detected the mecA gene in samples that were negative for S. aureus, but positive for Staphylococcus spp. The PVL gene was not detected in any sample by the conventional culture/PCR method or the real-time PCR assay. Among S. aureus isolated by conventional culture/PCR method, the sequence type ST398, and multi-drug resistant strains were found in animals and raw meat samples. The real-time PCR assay may be recommended as a rapid method for detection of S. aureus and the mecA gene, with further confirmation of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) using

  3. Preparation and application of a novel molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction monolith for selective enrichment of cholecystokinin neuropeptides in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiang; Li, Dan; Li, Hua

    2015-08-01

    A novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) monolith for highly selective extraction of cholecystokinin (CCK) neuropeptides was prepared in a micropipette tip. The MIPs were synthesized by epitope imprinting technique and the polymerization conditions were investigated and optimized. The synthesized MIPs were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analyzer and scanning electron microscope. A molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction (MI-μ-SPE) method was developed for the extraction of CCK neuropeptides in aqueous solutions. The parameters affecting MI-μ-SPE were optimized. The results indicated that this MIP monolith exhibited specific recognition capability and high enrichment efficiency for CCK neuropeptides. In addition, it showed excellent reusability. This MIP monolith was used for desalting and enrichment of CCK4, CCK5 and CCK8 from human cerebrospinal fluid prior to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis, and the results show that this MIP monolith can be a useful tool for effective purification and highly selective enrichment of multiple homologous CCK neuropeptides in cerebrospinal fluid simultaneously. By employing MI-μ-SPE combined with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis, endogenous CCK4 in human cerebrospinal fluid was quantified. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Families enriched for exceptional longevity also have increased health span: Findings from the Long Life Family Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eSebastiani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypothesizing that members of families enriched for longevity delay morbidity compared to population controls and approximate the health-span of centenarians, we compared the health spans of older generation subjects of the Long Life Family Study (LLFS to controls without family history of longevity and to centenarians of the New England Centenarian Study (NECS using Bayesian parametric survival analysis. We estimated hazard ratios, the ages at which specific percentiles of subjects had onsets of diseases, and the gain of years of disease-free survival in the different cohorts compared to referent controls. Compared to controls, LLFS subjects had lower hazards for cancer, cardiovascular disease, severe dementia, diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis and stroke. The age at which 20% of the LLFS siblings and probands had one or more age-related diseases was approximately 10 years later than NECS controls. While female NECS controls generally delayed the onset of age-related diseases compared with males controls, these gender differences became much less in the older generation of the LLFS and disappeared amongst the centenarians of the NECS. The analyses demonstrate extended health-span in the older subjects of the LLFS and suggest that this aging cohort provides an important resource to discover genetic and environmental factors that promote prolonged health-span in addition to longer life-span.

  5. Does anthropogenic nitrogen enrichment increase organic nitrogen concentrations in runoff from forested and human-dominated watersheds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, B.A.; Kaushal, S.S.; McDowell, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Although the effects of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) inputs on the dynamics of inorganic N in watersheds have been studied extensively, "the influence of N enrichment on organic N loss" is not as well understood. We compiled and synthesized data on surface water N concentrations from 348 forested and human-dominated watersheds with a range of N loads (from less than 100 to 7,100 kg N km-2 y-1) to evaluate the effects of N loading via atmospheric deposition, fertilization, and wastewater on dissolved organic N (DON) concentrations. Our results indicate that, on average, DON accounts for half of the total dissolved N (TDN) concentrations from forested watersheds, but it accounts for a smaller fraction of TDN in runoff from urban and agricultural watersheds with higher N loading. A significant but weak correlation (r 2 = 0.06) suggests that N loading has little influence on DON concentrations in forested watersheds. This result contrasts with observations from some plot-scale N fertilization studies and suggests that variability in watershed characteristics and climate among forested watersheds may be a more important control on DON losses than N loading from atmospheric sources. Mean DON concentrations were positively correlated, however, with N load across the entire land-use gradient (r 2 = 0.37, P Media, Inc.

  6. Knockout of striatal enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase in mice results in increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkitaramani, Deepa V; Paul, Surojit; Zhang, Yongfang; Kurup, Pradeep; Ding, Li; Tressler, Lyal; Allen, Melanie; Sacca, Rosalba; Picciotto, Marina R; Lombroso, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    STriatal Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP) is a brain-specific protein that is thought to play a role in synaptic plasticity. This hypothesis is based on previous findings demonstrating a role for STEP in the regulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2). We have now generated a STEP knockout mouse and investigated the effect of knocking out STEP in the regulation of ERK1/2 activity. Here, we show that the STEP knockout mice are viable and fertile and have no detectable cytoarchitectural abnormalities in the brain. The homozygous knockout mice lack the expression of all STEP isoforms, whereas the heterozygous mice have reduced STEP protein levels when compared with the wild-type mice. The STEP knockout mice show enhanced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the striatum, CA2 region of the hippocampus, as well as central and lateral nuclei of the amygdala. In addition, the cultured neurons from KO mice showed significantly higher levels of pERK1/2 following synaptic stimulation when compared with wild-type controls. These data demonstrate more conclusively the role of STEP in the regulation of ERK1/2 activity.

  7. Molecularly imprinted polymers with synthetic dummy template for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenhua; Ma, Xiuli; Xie, Hongkai; Chen, Lingxiao; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Hengqiang; Huang, Luqi

    2014-11-14

    Dummy molecularly imprinted polymers (DMIPs) for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids (GAs) during the processing of Ginkgo biloba leaves have been prepared. Two dummy template molecule with similar structural skeleton to GAs, 6-methoxysalicylic acid (MOSA, DT-1) and 6-hexadecyloxysalicylic acid (HOSA, DT-2), have been designed and synthesized. The performance of the DMIPs and NIPs were evaluated including selective recognition capacity, adsorption isotherm, and adsorption kinetics. The selective recognition capacity of the three GAs with four analogues on the sorbents illustrated that the DMIPs sorbents have high specificity for GAs. An efficient method based on DMIP-HOSA coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for simultaneously selective removal and enrichment of ginkgolic acids (GAs) during the processing of Ginkgo biloba leaves. The method showed excellent recoveries (82.5-88.7%) and precision (RSD 0.5-2.6%, n=5) for licorice extracts, Gastrodia elata extracts and pepper extracts spiked at three concentration levels each (50, 100, 200 μg mL(-1)). The results indicated that GAs and standardized Ginkgo biloba leaves extracts could be obtained simultaneously through the DMIP-SPE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Acquired expression of osteopontin selectively promotes enrichment of leukemia stem cells through AKT/mTOR/PTEN/β-catenin pathways in AML cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Saeed; Ghaffari, Seyed H; Shaiegan, Mojgan; Zarif, Mahin Nikougoftar; Nikbakht, Mohsen; Akbari Birgani, Shiva; Alimoghadam, Kamran; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2016-05-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) initiation and progression have been attributed to subpopulations of self-renewing leukemia stem cells (LSCs), which contribute to progression, recurrence and therapeutic resistance in leukemia. Osteopontin (OPN) plays an important role in promoting survival and drug resistance in LSCs. The aim of this study was to explore OPN roles in modulating curcumin-mediated LSC enrichment and survival in AML cell lines and primary CD34+/CD38- bone-marrow-derived AML cells. The growth inhibitory effects of curcumin (CUR) were evaluated by MTT assay in U937 and CD34+ KG-1 AML cell lines as well as primary CD34+/CD38- bone-marrow derived AML cells isolated by MACS technique. The proportion of LSC markers (CD34, CD38 and CD123) were evaluated by flow cytometry. The expression levels of OPN, AKT, mTOR, PTEN, β-catenin and NF-κB were investigated by qRT-PCR. Short interfering RNA (siRNA) against OPN was used in AML cells incubated with or without CUR. Proportions of CD34+/CD38-/CD123+ and CD34+/CD38+/CD123+ LSCs compartment co-expressing an increased level of OPN could be enriched in AML cell lines and in patient's primary cells by CUR treatment. The expression levels of AKT, mTOR, PTEN, and β-catenin and NF-κB1, were also significantly up-regulated concurrently with OPN in the enriched CD34+ AML cells. The increased in CUR-mediated OPN level is involved in a complex interplay of various signaling pathways resulting in cytoprotection and enrichment of CD34+ LSC compartment in CUR-treated AML cells. AKT/mTOR/PTEN/β-catenin/NF-kB signaling pathways may play roles in modulating OPN-mediated LSC cell survival and enrichment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Butter naturally enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA prevents hyperinsulinemia and increases both serum HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Mariana Macedo; Luquetti, Sheila Cristina Potente Dutra; Sabarense, Céphora Maria; do Amaral Corrêa, José Otávio; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; Santos da Conceição, Ellen Paula; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Gameiro, Jacy; da Gama, Marco Antônio Sundfeld; Lopes, Fernando César Ferraz; Garcia, Raúl Marcel González

    2014-12-22

    Evidence from in vitro and animal studies indicates that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) possesses anti-diabetic properties, which appear to be attributed to cis-9, trans-11 CLA, the major CLA isomer in ruminant fat. However, there is a shortage of studies addressing CLA from natural source. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of butter naturally enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA on parameters related to glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments (n=10/group), for 60 days: 1) Normal fat-Soybean oil (NF-So): diet containing 4.0% soybean oil (SO); 2) High Fat-Control Butter (HF-Cb): diet containing 21.7% control butter and 2.3% SO; 3) High Fat-CLA enriched Butter (HF-CLAb): diet containing 21.7% cis-9, trans-11 CLA-enriched butter and 2.3% SO; and 4) High fat-Soybean oil (HF-So): diet containing 24.0% SO. HF-Cb and HF-CLAb diets contained 0.075% and 0.235% of cis-9, trans-11 CLA, respectively. HF-CLAb-fed rats had lower serum insulin levels at fasting than those fed with the HF-Cb diet, while the PPARγ protein levels in adipose tissue was increased in HF-CLAb-fed rats compared to HF-Cb-fed rats. Furthermore, R-QUICK was lower in HF-Cb than in NF-So group, while no differences in R-QUICK were observed among NF-So, HF-CLAb and HF-So groups. Serum HDL cholesterol levels were higher in HF-CLAb-fed rats than in those fed NF-So, HF-Cb and HF-So diets, as well as higher in NF-So-fed rats than in HF-Cb and HF-So-fed rats. HF-CLAb, HF-Cb and HF-So diets reduced serum LDL cholesterol levels when compared to NF-So, whereas serum triacylglycerol levels were increased in HF-CLAb. Feeding rats on a high-fat diet containing butter naturally enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA prevented hyperinsulinemia and increased HDL cholesterol, which could be associated with higher levels of cis-9, trans-11 CLA, vaccenic acid, oleic acid and lower levels of short and medium

  10. Selective enrichment and determination of monoamine neurotransmitters by CU(II) immobilized magnetic solid phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Maofang; Wang, Chaozhan; Wei, Yinmao

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, iminodiacetic acid-Cu(II) functionalized Fe3O4@SiO2 magnetic nanoparticles were prepared and used as new adsorbents for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of six monoamine neurotransmitters (MNTs) from rabbit plasma. The selective enrichment of MNTs at pH 5.0 was motivated by the specific coordination interaction between amino groups of MNTs and the immobilized Cu(II). The employed weak acidic extraction condition avoided the oxidation of MNTs, and thus facilitated operation and ensured higher recoveries. Under optimal conditions, the recoveries of six MNTs from rabbit plasma were in the range of 83.9-109.4%, with RSD of 2.0-10.0%. When coupled the Cu(II) immobilized MSPE with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection, the method exhibited relatively lower detection limits than the previously reported methods, and the method was successfully used to determine the endogenous MNTs in rabbit plasma. The proposed method has potential application for the determination of MNTs in biological samples. Also, the utilization of coordination interaction to improve the selectivity might open another way to selectively enrich small alkaloids from complex samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Enrichment ratios of elements in selected plant species from black coal mine dumps in Lower Silesia (Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samecka-Cymerman, A.; Kempers, A.J. [University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2003-07-01

    Concentration of the metals Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Zn and V as well as N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and S were measured in soils and in two tree species (leaves of Betula pendula and Salix caprea) and two herbs (whole above-ground parts of Solidago canadensis and Tanacetum vulgare) sampled from dumps in the Walbrzych coal mine area (Lower Silesia, SW Poland). These plants, as used to evaluate the distribution of elements in the examined dumps, contained elevated levels of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Especially the highest levels of Mn in Betula pendula seriously exceed background values. Betula pendula characterized also the highest enrichment ratio for Mn, Salix caprea for Ni and Sr and Tanacetum vulgare for Cu. Test-t indicated that from both herbs Tanace-tum vulgare accumulated much more K, N, S and Zn than Solidago canadensis and of both trees Salix caprea accumulated significantly more Cd, Cu, K and Ca than Betula pendula, while this last species accumulated significantly more Fe and Mn than Salix caprea. A post hoc LSD test indicated that all examined plants had similar enrichment ratios for Al, Pb and V.

  12. Increasing dietary inclusions of camelina cake fed to pigs from weaning to slaughter: Safety, growth performance, carcass traits, and n-3 enrichment of pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, M N; Beltranena, E

    2017-07-01

    Feeding cake with remaining oil content not only provides additional dietary energy but may also enrich pork with -3 fatty acids. Limited information is available on feeding camelina cake to pigs relating to feeding safety (toxicity), growth performance, and efficacy of -3 enrichment of pork. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of feeding increasing camelina cake (12.2% crude fat) inclusions in diets for nursery and grower-finisher pigs. In total, 128 pigs (9.2 kg BW) were randomly allocated by sex to 32 nursery pens for 4 wk and were then moved and combined into 16 mixed-sex grower-finisher pens. Pigs were fed 1 of 4 wheat/barley-based diets including camelina variety 'Celine' cake (0%, 6%, 12%, or 18% in the nursery phase and 0%, 5%, 10%, or 15% in the grower-finisher phase) replacing soybean meal over 5 feeding phases (d 0 to 7, d 7 to 28, d 28 to 56, d 56 to 84, and d 84 to slaughter). Individual pigs and pen feed added were weighed. On d 106, a blood sample was collected from the pig with the lowest BW per pen, which was then euthanized. A pathologist conducted a gross clinical examination, and organs were weighed. Liver, back fat, and belly and jowl fat were sampled for fatty acid analysis. Pigs were slaughtered at approximately 125 kg BW. Increasing dietary camelina cake inclusion linearly decreased ( cake inclusion linearly increased days to slaughter ( cake inclusion linearly increased liver and pancreas weight ( cake inclusion did not result in gross clinical or serological findings that would indicate toxicity. Increasing dietary camelina cake inclusion linearly increased ( cake to pigs at up to 18% in the nursery phase and 15% in the grower, developer, and finisher phases did not result in clinical signs of toxicity and enriched carcass fat depots with -3 fatty acids. The observed decrease in ADFI and, consequently, ADG as camelina cake inclusion increased resulted in pigs fed 15% reaching slaughter weight 27 d later than controls.

  13. Facile synthesis of boronate-decorated polyethyleneimine-grafted hybrid magnetic nanoparticles for the highly selective enrichment of modified nucleosides and ribosylated metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Shan, Yuanhong; Qiao, Lizhen; Dou, Abo; Shi, Xianzhe; Xu, Guowang

    2013-12-03

    Ribosylated metabolites, especially modified nucleosides, have been extensively evaluated as cancer-related biomarkers. Boronate adsorbents are considered to be promising materials for extracting them from complex matrices. However, the enrichment of ribosylated metabolites in low abundance is still a challenge due to the limited capacity and selectivity of the existing boronate adsorbents. In this study, a novel type of magnetic nanoparticles named Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-FPBA was synthesized by grafting polyethyleneimine (PEI) onto the surface of Fe3O4@SiO2 before modification by boronate groups. The high density of the amino groups on the PEI chains supplied a large number of binding sites for boronate groups. Thus, the adsorption capacity (1.34 ± 0.024 mg/g) of the nanoparticles, which is 6- to 7-fold higher than that of analogous materials, was greatly improved. The unreacted secondary amines and tertiary amines of the PEI enhanced the aqueous solubility of the nanoparticles, which could efficiently reduce nonspecific adsorption. The nanoparticles were able to capture 1,2 cis-diol nucleosides from 1000-fold interferences. Moreover, the flexible chains of PEI were favorable for effective enrichment and quick equilibration (nanoparticles. Among them, 43 were identified to be nucleosides and other ribosylated metabolites. Nine low abundance modified nucleosides were detected for the first time. In conclusion, Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-FPBA is an attractive candidate material for the highly selective enrichment of 1,2-cis-diol compounds.

  14. Enrichment of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases the capsaicinoids content in Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garruña-Hernández, René; Monforte-González, Miriam; Canto-Aguilar, Azucena; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Orellana, Roger

    2013-04-01

    The effects of the increase of atmospheric CO2 on agricultural productivity have been mainly analyzed through its impact on biomass yield, and little attention has been directed to quality traits, such as nutritional or organoleptic attributes. For this study, plants of hot Habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were grown in growth chambers under three different CO2 levels: 380 (normal atmospheric value), 760 and 1140 µmol mol(-1), and their effects on pod yield, size, color and pungency, were monitored. The total number of pods per plant increased by 88.5% at the highest CO2 , in comparison to plants grown at normal CO2 conditions. Pod size and yield per plant also increased when plants were grown at the highest CO2 concentration (partial pressure). Furthermore, total capsaicinoids contents in ripe peppers under a high CO2 atmosphere were 27% higher than those from plants under lower concentrations, but it was not the case for immature pods. These data suggest that the increase of atmospheric CO2 could modify specific routes of secondary metabolism as well as others desirable traits, thus affecting the quality of Capsicum pepper products. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Selective Enrichment and MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Small Molecule Compounds with Vicinal Diols by Boric Acid-Functionalized Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Xiaoling; Ni, Yanli

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a 4-vinylphenylboronic acid-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) material was prepared via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method and applied for the first time as a novel matrix for the selective enrichment and analysis of small-molecule compounds with vicinal diols, which have been the focus of intense research in the field of life science, by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in positive-ion mode. There are two main factors playing a decisive role in assisting laser D/I process comparing to some traditional matrices: (1) GO provides π-conjugated system by itself for laser absorption and energy transfer; (2) the modified 4-vinylphenylboronic acid can selectively capture small-molecule compounds with vicinal diols. The results demonstrate that the novel material has distinct advantages over previously reported matrices in enriching and assisting the highly efficient ionization of target molecules for mass spectrometry analysis. This work indicates a new application branch for graphene-based matrices and provides an alternative solution for small-molecules analysis.

  16. Preparation and characterization of fluorophenylboronic acid-functionalized affinity monolithic columns for the selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qianjin; Liu, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Boronate affinity monolithic columns have been developed into an important means for the selective recognition and capture of cis-diol-containing biomolecules, such as glycoproteins, nucleosides and saccharides. The ligands of boronic acids are playing an important role in boronate affinity monolithic columns. Although several boronate affinity monoliths with high affinity toward cis-diol-containing biomolecules have been reported, only few publications are focused on their detailed procedures for preparation and characterization. This chapter describes in detail the preparation and characterization of a boronate affinity monolithic column applying 2,4-difluoro-3-formyl-phenylboronic acid (DFFPBA) as a ligand. The DFFPBA-functionalized monolithic column not only exhibited an ultrahigh boronate affinity toward cis-diol-containing biomolecules, but also showed great potential for the selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing biomolecules in real samples.

  17. Enriching the drinking water of rats with extracts of Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris increases their resistance to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváthová, Eva; Srančíková, Annamária; Regendová-Sedláčková, Eva; Melušová, Martina; Meluš, Vladimír; Netriová, Jana; Krajčovičová, Zdenka; Slameňová, Darina; Pastorek, Michal; Kozics, Katarína

    2016-01-01

    Nature is an attractive source of therapeutic compounds. In comparison to the artificial drugs, natural compounds cause less adverse side effects and are suitable for current molecularly oriented approaches to drug development and their mutual combining. Medicinal plants represent one of the most available remedy against various diseases. Proper examples are Salvia officinalis L. and Thymus vulgaris L. which are known aromatic medicinal plants. They are very popular and frequently used in many countries. The molecular mechanism of their biological activity has not yet been fully understood. The aim of this study was to ascertain if liver cells of experimental animals drinking extracts of sage or thyme will manifest increased resistance against oxidative stress. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. They drank sage or thyme extracts for 2 weeks. At the end of the drinking period, blood samples were collected for determination of liver biochemical parameters and hepatocytes were isolated to analyze (i) oxidatively generated DNA damage (conventional and modified comet assay), (ii) activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and (iii) content of glutathione. Intake of sage and thyme had no effect either on the basal level of DNA damage or on the activity of SOD in rat hepatocytes and did not change the biochemical parameters of blood plasma. Simultaneously, the activity of GPx was significantly increased and the level of DNA damage induced by oxidants was decreased. Moreover, sage extract was able to start up the antioxidant protection expressed by increased content of glutathione. Our results indicate that the consumption of S.officinalis and T.vulgaris extracts positively affects resistency of rat liver cells against oxidative stress and may have hepatoprotective potential. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved

  18. Ultrasound and phenotypic measures of the reproductive tract of prepubertal gilts selected for increased uterine capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct selection for uterine capacity (UC) increases litter size without altering ovulation rate. A method to estimate UC in developing gilts would be beneficial for commercial selection strategies. We tested the hypothesis that selection for UC alters phenotypic characteristics of the reproductiv...

  19. Moderate (20%) fructose-enriched diet stimulates salt-sensitive hypertension with increased salt retention and decreased renal nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordish, Kevin L; Kassem, Kamal M; Ortiz, Pablo A; Beierwaltes, William H

    2017-04-01

    Previously, we reported that 20% fructose diet causes salt-sensitive hypertension. In this study, we hypothesized that a high salt diet supplemented with 20% fructose (in drinking water) stimulates salt-sensitive hypertension by increasing salt retention through decreasing renal nitric oxide. Rats in metabolic cages consumed normal rat chow for 5 days (baseline), then either: (1) normal salt for 2 weeks, (2) 20% fructose in drinking water for 2 weeks, (3) 20% fructose for 1 week, then fructose + high salt (4% NaCl) for 1 week, (4) normal chow for 1 week, then high salt for 1 week, (5) 20% glucose for 1 week, then glucose + high salt for 1 week. Blood pressure, sodium excretion, and cumulative sodium balance were measured. Systolic blood pressure was unchanged by 20% fructose or high salt diet. 20% fructose + high salt increased systolic blood pressure from 125 ± 1 to 140 ± 2 mmHg (P salt than either high salt, or glucose + high salt (114.2 ± 4.4 vs. 103.6 ± 2.2 and 98.6 ± 5.6 mEq/Day19; P salt group compared to high salt only: 5.33 ± 0.21 versus 7.67 ± 0.31 mmol/24 h; P salt-fed rats, but reduced by 40% in the 20% fructose + high salt group (2139 ± 178 μmol /24 hrs P salt-sensitivity and, combined with a high salt diet, leads to sodium retention, increased blood pressure, and impaired renal nitric oxide availability. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  20. Listeria monocytogenes Strains Underrepresented during Selective Enrichment with an ISO Method Might Dominate during Passage through Simulated Gastric Fluid and In Vitro Infection of Caco-2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilelidou, Evangelia; Karmiri, Christina-Vasiliki; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Kletsas, Dimitris; Tsakalidou, Effie; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Drosinos, Eleftherios

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Various Listeria monocytogenes strains may contaminate a single food product, potentially resulting in simultaneous exposure of consumers to multiple strains. However, due to bias in strain recovery, L. monocytogenes strains isolated from foods by selective enrichment (SE) might not always represent those that can better survive the immune system of a patient. We investigated the effect of cocultivation in tryptic soy broth with 0.6% yeast extract (TSB-Y) at 10°C for 8 days on (i) the detection of L. monocytogenes strains during SE with the ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd 1:2004 protocol and (ii) the in vitro virulence of strains toward the Caco-2 human colon epithelial cancer cell line following exposure to simulated gastric fluid (SGF; pH 2.0)-HCl (37°C). We determined whether the strains which were favored by SE would be effective competitors under the conditions of challenges related to gastrointestinal passage of the pathogen. Interstrain competition of L. monocytogenes in TSB-Y determined the relative population of each strain at the beginning of SE. This in turn impacted the outcome of SE (i.e., favoring survival of competitors with better fitness) and the levels exposed subsequently to SGF. However, strong growth competitors could be outcompeted after SGF exposure and infection of Caco-2 cells by strains outgrown in TSB-Y and underdetected (or even missed) during enrichment. Our data demonstrate a preferential selection of certain L. monocytogenes strains during enrichments, often not reflecting a selective advantage of strains during infection. These findings highlight a noteworthy scenario associated with the difficulty of matching the source of infection (food) with the L. monocytogenes isolate appearing to be the causative agent during listeriosis outbreak investigations. IMPORTANCE This report is relevant to understanding the processes involved in selection and prevalence of certain L. monocytogenes strains in different environments (i.e., foods or

  1. Distribution, enrichment, and source identification of selected heavy metals in surface sediments of the Siran River, Mansehra, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Ahmed; Farooqi, Abida; Javed, Asif; Ali, Waqar

    2016-10-01

    To assess the trace metal pollution in the Siran River, sediments were collected from 12 sites, from the left and right banks of the river in 2013. The concentrations, accumulation, distribution pattern, and pollution status of heavy metals in sediments were investigated using geoaccumulation index (I geo) and enrichment factor (EF). The toxic risk of heavy metals was assessed using interim sediment quality guidelines (ISQGs), portable effect level (PEL), threshold effect level (TEL), and toxic effect threshold (TET). I geo and EF values showed that sediments were loaded with Ni, Cd, Pb, and Co and no obvious variations were found among the left and right banks of the river. The EF and I geo values were found in order of Co > Pb > Ni > As > Cd > Cu > Zn > Fe and Cd > Co > Pb > Ni > As > Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn, respectively. Furthermore, multivariate statistical analysis like inter-metal correlation, cluster analysis (CA), and principal component analysis (PCA) results revealed that geogenic and anthropogenic activities were major sources of sediment contamination in the study area. These results indicated that more attention should be paid to the inner loads of sediment in order to achieve improvements in reservoir water quality after the control of external pollution.

  2. Clustering based gene expression feature selection method: A computational approach to enrich the classifier efficiency of differentially expressed genes

    KAUST Repository

    Abusamra, Heba

    2016-07-20

    The native nature of high dimension low sample size of gene expression data make the classification task more challenging. Therefore, feature (gene) selection become an apparent need. Selecting a meaningful and relevant genes for classifier not only decrease the computational time and cost, but also improve the classification performance. Among different approaches of feature selection methods, however most of them suffer from several problems such as lack of robustness, validation issues etc. Here, we present a new feature selection technique that takes advantage of clustering both samples and genes. Materials and methods We used leukemia gene expression dataset [1]. The effectiveness of the selected features were evaluated by four different classification methods; support vector machines, k-nearest neighbor, random forest, and linear discriminate analysis. The method evaluate the importance and relevance of each gene cluster by summing the expression level for each gene belongs to this cluster. The gene cluster consider important, if it satisfies conditions depend on thresholds and percentage otherwise eliminated. Results Initial analysis identified 7120 differentially expressed genes of leukemia (Fig. 15a), after applying our feature selection methodology we end up with specific 1117 genes discriminating two classes of leukemia (Fig. 15b). Further applying the same method with more stringent higher positive and lower negative threshold condition, number reduced to 58 genes have be tested to evaluate the effectiveness of the method (Fig. 15c). The results of the four classification methods are summarized in Table 11. Conclusions The feature selection method gave good results with minimum classification error. Our heat-map result shows distinct pattern of refines genes discriminating between two classes of leukemia.

  3. Long term selection for reduced or increased pecking behaviour in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, A J; Kjaer, J B

    2008-01-01

    Feather pecking in laying hens is an important issue in animal welfare. Four studies in laying hens were selected which investigated increased or reduced pecking behaviour using direct or indirect measures of feather pecking behaviour. Direct comparison of the selected experiments is difficult......, as the selection criteria and even the selection procedures varied. Keeping these differences in mind, the results of the experiments showed that a) It is possible to change pecking behaviour in the desired direction using selection, b) Aggressive pecking is not related to feather pecking, c) There is no clear...... selection for reduced pecking behaviour changes the immune response. Feather pecking in laying hens is an important issue in animal welfare. Four studies in laying hens were selected which investigated increased or reduced pecking behaviour using direct or indirect measures of feather pecking behaviour...

  4. Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Sputum using Selective Enrichment Broth and Ashdown’s Medium at Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital, Cambodia [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4w7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somary Nhem

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis infection, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is increasingly reported in Cambodia. We hypothesized that implementation of an enhanced sputum testing protocol in a provincial hospital diagnostic microbiology laboratory would increase detection of B. pseudomallei. We tested 241 sputum specimens that were deemed acceptable for culture, comparing culture in selective enrichment broth followed by sub-culture on Ashdown’s medium to standard culture methods. Two specimens (0.8% were positive for B. pseudomallei using the enhanced protocol whereas one specimen (0.4% was positive using standard methods. These findings demonstrate that B. pseudomallei is rarely detected in sputum at this hospital. The low frequency of B. pseudomallei in sputum specimens precludes drawing any conclusions about the relative benefits of an enhanced sputum testing protocol at this site. Promoting clinician awareness of the infection and encouraging utilization of diagnostic microbiology services are likely to be important factors in facilitating identification of melioidosis.

  5. Precollaborative study of the GeneQuence Salmonella assay using 24-hour enrichment protocols for detection of Salmonella spp. in select foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alles, Susan; Peng, Xuan; Wendorf, Michael; Mozola, Mark

    2007-01-01

    New enrichment protocols are described for use with a DNA hybridization (DNAH) method for detection of Salmonella spp. in select foods. GeneQuence Salmonella, in its original version, utilized a 3-stage enrichment of minimum 42 h duration. New 2-stage procedures of 24-28 h duration are described for raw poultry, raw beef, pasteurized egg products, milk chocolate, and dry pet food. In the validation study described here, a total of 345 samples were tested by the abbreviated DNAH method in parallel with either the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA/BAM) or U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) reference culture procedures. Results showed an overall sensitivity for the DNAH method of 97.1% (false-negative rate 2.9%). There were no false-positive results by the DNAH method; therefore the specificity was 100%. Overall agreement between the DNAH and reference culture methods was 98.5%. There were no significant differences in performance between the DNAH and reference methods for any of the foods tested as determined by Chi-square analysis. It is recommended that the DNAH method be subjected to AOAC collaborative study.

  6. Evaluation of the GeneQuence DNA hybridization method in conjunction with 24-hour enrichment protocols for detection of Salmonella spp. in select foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozola, Mark A; Peng, Xuan; Wendorf, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A multilaboratory study was conducted to compare performance of the GeneQuence DNA hybridization (DNAH) method incorporating new 24 h enrichment protocols and reference culture procedures for detection of Salmonella spp. in select foods. Six food types (raw ground turkey, raw ground beef, dried whole egg, milk chocolate, walnuts, and dry pet food) were tested by the DNAH method and by the culture methods of either the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) or the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA/BAM). Fifteen laboratories participated in the study. Four of the foods tested (raw ground turkey, dried whole egg, milk chocolate, and dry pet food), showed no statistically significant differences in performance between the DNAH method and the reference procedure as determined by Chi square analysis. Sensitivity rates for the DNAH method ranged from 92 to 100%. The DNAH method, with the specific enrichment protocol evaluated, was found to be ineffective for detection of Salmonella spp. in walnuts. For raw ground beef, results from one trial showed a statistically significant difference in performance, with more positives obtained by the reference method. However, evidence suggests that the difference in the number of positives was likely due to lack of homogeneity of the test samples rather than to DNAH method performance.

  7. Thiol-yne click synthesis of boronic acid functionalized silica nanoparticle-graphene oxide composites for highly selective enrichment of glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingai; He, Xiwen; Chen, Langxing; Zhang, Yukui

    2017-09-01

    In this work, a facile novel strategy is developed for the preparation of 4-mercapto-phenylboronic acid functionalized silica nanoparticle-graphene oxide composite (GO@MPBA) via thiol-yne click reaction. The morphology, structure and composition of the resulting GO@MPBA was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. GO@MPBA exhibited the high binding capacity towards glycoproteins such as ovalbumin (1288.8mgg-1), immunoglobulin G (1144.1mgg-1), transferrin (592.1mgg-1) and horseradish peroxidase (392.4mgg-1), in contrast, the binding capacity of each non-glycoproteins (cytochrome c, deoxyribonuclease A, pepsin, trypsin, lysozyme and bovine serum albumin) is less than 50mgg-1. Furthermore, the GO@MPBA still remained a good binding capacity after the five times of adsorption-desorption cycles. The selective enrichment of glycoproteins from real egg white samples by GO@MPBA was demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. This work could present a facile novel approach of surface modification to design environmentally friendly and more efficient adsorbents for the isolation and enrichment of glycoprotein from complex biological samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ti(IV) carrying polydopamine-coated, monodisperse-porous SiO2 microspheres with stable magnetic properties for highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Kouroush; Usta, Duygu Deniz; Çelikbıçak, Ömür; Pinar, Asli; Salih, Bekir; Tuncel, Ali

    2017-05-01

    A marked decrease in the saturation magnetization by the formation of functional shells around the magnetic core is an important disadvantage of magnetic core-shell nanoparticles. Another drawback of Ti(IV)-functionalized immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) sorbents is the acidic character of the binding medium used for Ti4+ attachment onto composite magnetic nanoparticles, which causes an additional decrease in the saturation magnetization owing to the chemical interaction between the acidic moiety and the magnetic core. An IMAC sorbent in the form of magnetic microspheres with superior and stable magnetic properties with respect to magnetic core-shell nanoparticles was designed for phosphopeptide enrichment. Magnetic, monodisperse-porous silica microspheres (MagSiO2) 6μm in size were synthesized by a new staged-shape template hydrolysis-condensation protocol. A porous-silica shell layer was generated around the microspheres to protect the magnetic core from the acidic medium during Ti4+ attachment (MagSiO2@SiO2). The MagSiO2@SiO2 microspheres were coated with a polydopamine shell (MagSiO2@SiO2@PDA) and Ti4+ was attached onto the composite microspheres (MagSiO2@SiO2@PDA@Ti(IV)). Formation of the PDA layer and Ti4+ attachment did not cause any significant decrease in the saturation magnetization. The platform exhibited excellent performance for phosphopeptide enrichment from the digests of phosphorylated proteins. Selectivity was investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The detection limit for phosphopeptide enrichment by the MagSiO2@SiO2@PDA@Ti(IV) microspheres from the tryptic digests of β-casein was 50 fmol/mL. Usability of the proposed magnetic sorbent with complex biological samples was demonstrated by successful enrichment of four phosphopeptides from human serum. The proposed sorbent showed stable performance over five repeated uses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Adjustment of pH of enrichment media might improve selective isolation of MRSA from pig samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Agersø, Yvonne; Mordhorst, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have emerged in livestock in several countries worldwide in recent years. MRSA may colonise in low numbers which makes both epidemiological studies and the implementation of control programmes difficult. Methods for selective isolation of MRSA from...... animal samples have been developed. However, obtaining sufficient sensitivity has been a challenge. Staphylococcus aureus is normally found on the skin, surviving and growing under extreme conditions: dry environment with high salt and low pH. In the selective isolation so far used high salt...... pig swabs. Initially a total of seven strains, including: two MRSA, two enterococci, two CNS one Aerococcus viridans and one Proteus spp. strains, were tested for growth in Mueller Hinton II broth with pH ranging from 4 to 5.5 and salt addition of 4% to 7%. In the next step, these strains were tested...

  10. Fish oil LC-PUFAs do not affect blood coagulation parameters and bleeding manifestations: Analysis of 8 clinical studies with selected patient groups on omega-3-enriched medical nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeansen, Stephanie; Witkamp, Renger F; Garthoff, Jossie A; van Helvoort, Ardy; Calder, Philip C

    2017-03-29

    The increased consumption of fish oil enriched-products exposes a wide diversity of people, including elderly and those with impaired health to relatively high amounts of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs). There is an ongoing debate around the possible adverse effects of n-3 LC-PUFAs on bleeding risk, particularly relevant in people with a medical history of cardiovascular events or using antithrombotic drugs. This analysis of 8 clinical intervention studies conducted with enteral medical nutrition products containing fish oil as a source of n-3 LC-PUFAs addresses the occurrence of bleeding-related adverse events and effects on key coagulation parameters (Prothrombin Time [PT], (activated) and Partial Thromboplastin Time [(a)PTT]). In all the patients considered (over 600 subjects treated with the active product in total), with moderate to severe disease, with or without concomitant use of antithrombotic agents, at home or in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), no evidence of increased risk of bleeding with use of n-3 LC-PUFAs was observed. Furthermore there were no statistically significant changes from baseline in measured coagulation parameters. These findings further support the safe consumption of n-3 LC-PUFAs, even at short-term doses up to 10 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid (EPA + DHA) or consumed for up to 52 weeks above 1.5 g/day, in selected vulnerable and sensitive populations such as subjects with gastrointestinal cancer or patients in an ICU. We found no evidence to support any concern raised with regards to the application of n-3 LC-PUFAs and the potentially increased risk for the occurrence of adverse bleeding manifestations in these selected patient populations consuming fish oil enriched medical nutrition. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment increased above ground biomass but did not affect symbiotic N2-fixation and soil carbon dynamics in a mixed deciduous stand in Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Through increases in net primary production (NPP, elevated CO2 is hypothesized to increase the amount of plant litter entering the soil. The fate of this extra carbon on the forest floor or in mineral soil is currently not clear. Moreover, increased rates of NPP can be maintained only if forests can escape nitrogen limitation. In a Free atmospheric CO2 Enrichment (FACE experiment near Bangor, Wales, 4 ambient and 4 elevated [CO2] plots were planted with patches of Betula pendula, Alnus glutinosa and Fagus sylvatica on a former arable field. After 4 years, biomass averaged for the 3 species was 5497 (se 270 g m−2 in ambient and 6450 (se 130 g m−2 in elevated [CO2] plots, a significant increase of 17% (P = 0.018. During that time, only a shallow L forest floor litter layer had formed due to intensive bioturbation. Total soil C and N contents increased irrespective of treatment and species as a result of afforestation. We could not detect an additional C sink in the soil, nor were soil C stabilization processes affected by elevated [CO2]. We observed a decrease of leaf N content in Betula and Alnus under elevated [CO2], while the soil C/N ratio decreased regardless of CO2 treatment. The ratio of N taken up from the soil and by N2-fixation in Alnus was not affected by elevated [CO2]. We infer that increased nitrogen use efficiency is the mechanism by which increased NPP is sustained under elevated [CO2] at this site.

  12. Enriched Astaxanthin Extract from Haematococcus pluvialis Augments Growth Factor Secretions to Increase Cell Proliferation and Induces MMP1 Degradation to Enhance Collagen Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yu Chou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among many antioxidants that are used for the repairing of oxidative stress induced skin damages, we identified the enriched astaxanthin extract (EAE from Haematococcus pluvialis as a viable ingredient. EAE was extracted from the red microalgae through supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction. To compare the effectiveness, EAE wastreated on human dermal fibroblasts with other components, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, and doxycycline. With sirius red staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, we found that PMA decreased the collagen concentration and production while overall the addition of doxycycline and EAE increased the collagen concentration in a trial experiments. EAE increased collagen contents through inhibited MMP1 and MMP3 mRNA expression and induced TIMP1, the antagonists of MMPs protein, gene expression. As for when tested for various proteins through western blotting, it was seen that the addition of EAE increased the expression of certain proteins that promote cell proliferation. Testing those previous solutions using growth factor assay, it was noticeable that EAE had a positive impact on cell proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF than doxycycline, indicating that it was a better alternative treatment for collagen production. To sum up, the data confirmed the possible applications as medical cosmetology agentsand food supplements.

  13. SELECTION RESPONSE FOR INCREASED GRAIN YIELD IN TWO HIGH OIL MAIZE SYNTHETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made J. Mejaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Selection for increased oil level in maize showed the increase was associated with decrease in starch concentration, kernel weight, and grain yield. The study was conducted with the objectives: (1 to evaluate response to six cycles for increased grain yield in the high oil maize Alexho Elite (AE: 60-90 g kg-1 oil concentration and Ultra High Oil (UHO: 100-140 g kg-1 oil concentration using inbred tester B73; (2 to measure responses to selection for increased grain yield with changes in yield components; and (3 to determine a suitable tester. Previously the two synthetics had been selected for oil concentration. After six cycles, the six genotypes i.e. AE C0, AE C3, AE C6, UHO C0, UHO C3, and UHO C6 were testcrossed to B73, LH185, and LH202 inbreds (40 g kg-1 oil concentration to a total of 18 testcrosses. Two field experiments were used to evaluate selection in AE and UHO testcrosses. The study showed selection using inbred tester B73 in AE and UHO was effective in increasing grain yield of AE testcrosses without changing (i.e. decreasing oil and protein concentrations. AE testcrosses produced higher grain yield and greater selection response for grain yield than UHO testcrosses. LH185 was best for grain yield in AE and UHO testcrosses. Increase in grain yield in most of the testcrosses was associated with increases in starch concentration, kernel weight, kernel number, and grain weight.

  14. Prostate Cancer Heterogeneous High-Metastatic Multi-Organ-Colonizing Chemo-Resistant Variants Selected by Serial Metastatic Passage in Nude Mice Are Highly Enriched for Multinucleate Giant Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available In order to further understand the role of tumor heterogeneity in metastasis and chemo-resistance, high metastatic PC-3 human prostate cancer variants were selected by injecting parental PC-3 cells, expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP in the footpad of nude mice, which then metastasize to inguinal lymph nodes. The PC-3-GFP cells which metastasized to the inguinal lymph nodes were collected and were re-injected to the footpad. After 6 such cycles, the PC-3-GFP cells collected from inguinal lymph nodes (PC-3-GFP-LN were again injected to the footpad. PC-3-GFP-LN showed 100% metastasis to major lymph nodes (popliteal, inguinal, axillary, and cervical, and 100% metastasis to bone and lung. The percent of giant cell variants was enriched in PC-3-GFP-LN-6 compared to parental cells and increased with each cycle of selection, which in turn had increased metastasis. PC-3-GFP-LN-6 cells were resistant to 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin and cisplatinum, compared to parental PC-3. However, PC-3-GFP-LN-6 was sensitive to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM herbal mixture LQ, similar to the parental cells. These results suggest that PC-3 tumors are heterogenous and that subpopulations of highly metastatic, drug-resistant cells can be step-wise selected using a mouse model of tumor progression.

  15. Utilization of Cow Milk Enriched with Conjugated Linoleic Acid to Decrease Body Weight, Cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein and to Increase Blood High Density Lipoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FM Suhartati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An experiment to investigate the ability of cow milk enriched with conjugated linoleic acid to decrease body weight, total cholesterol, blood Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL, and to increase blood High Density Lipoprotein (HDL has been conducted using in vivo experimental method. Research material consisted of 40 8-week-old white female rats (Rattus norvegicus of Wistar strain (as an animal model. The method used was an experimental method with a Completely Randomized Design. The treatments tested were P1 = high-fat ration containing 27.66% fat (HF, P2 = HF + 5 ml of milk/head/day, P3 = HF + 10 ml of milk/head/day, P4 = low-fat ration containing 5% fat (LF. Each treatment was repeated five times to make 20 experiment units, each consisted of two rats. Body weight gain, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were observed. The data obtained were then analyzed using analysis of variance followed by orthogonal contrast test. Orthogonal polynomials tests was applied to evaluate the response variables. The results showed that 10 ml/head/day of cow milk was needed to decrease body weight of hypercholesterolemic rats and 5 ml/head/day of cow milk was needed to decrease total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and to increase blood HDL-cholesterol of hypercholesterolemic rats. Keywords: cow milk, conjugated linoleic acid, body weight gain, cholesterol.   Animal Production 14(2:70-76

  16. Selective enrichment and sequencing of whole mitochondrial genomes in the presence of nuclear encoded mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonci N Wolff

    Full Text Available Numts are an integral component of many eukaryote genomes offering a snapshot of the evolutionary process that led from the incorporation of an α-proteobacterium into a larger eukaryotic cell some 1.8 billion years ago. Although numt sequence can be harnessed as molecular marker, these sequences often remain unidentified and are mistaken for genuine mtDNA leading to erroneous interpretation of mtDNA data sets. It is therefore indispensable that during the process of amplifying and sequencing mitochondrial genes, preventive measures are taken to ensure the exclusion of numts to guarantee the recovery of genuine mtDNA. This applies to mtDNA analyses in general but especially to studies where mtDNAs are sequenced de novo as the launch pad for subsequent mtDNA-based research. By using a combination of dilution series and nested rolling circle amplification (RCA, we present a novel strategy to selectively amplify mtDNA and exclude the amplification of numt sequence. We have successfully applied this strategy to de novo sequence the mtDNA of the Black Field Cricket Teleogryllus commodus, a species known to contain numts. Aligning our assembled sequence to the reference genome of Teleogryllus emma (GenBank EU557269.1 led to the identification of a numt sequence in the reference sequence. This unexpected result further highlights the need of a reliable and accessible strategy to eliminate this source of error.

  17. Selective enrichment of Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) in N. oceanica CASA CC201 by natural auxin supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayan, Aswathy; Arumugam, Muthu

    2017-10-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effect of different concentration of natural auxin, Indole-3 acetic acid (IAA) on growth, lipid yield, PUFA and EPA accumulation in Nannochloropsis oceanica CASA CC201. It was observed that the, treatment with 10ppm concentration of IAA resulted in high cell number 579.5×106cells/ml than the control (215.5×106cells/ml). Treatment with IAA at a concentration of 40ppm gives the highest cellular lipid accumulation of 60.9% DCW than the control 31.05% DCW). Lipid yield is also found to be increased by the addition of 40ppm IAA (319.5mg/L) compared with the control (121.5mg/L). EPA percentage is increased to 10.76% by the addition of 40ppm IAA compared to the control (1.87%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Small Prizes Improve Food Selection in a School Cafeteria Without Increasing Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgens, Michelle E; Barnes, Allison S; Lockhart, Mary Kate; Ellsworth, Samantha C; Beckford, Monna; Siegel, Robert M

    2017-02-01

    We recently demonstrated that small prizes given for a "Power Plate" (plain fat-free milk, entrée, fruit and vegetable) can be used in an elementary school cafeteria to increase healthful food selection by over 300%. The purpose of this study was to measure changes in food waste when the Power Plate (PP) program is implemented. The PP intervention was conducted at an inner-city elementary school. Emoticons were placed next to the preferred foods and children were given a small prize if they selected the PP. Data were obtained by observation and cash register receipts. The trays of 111 students before the intervention and 96 after were examined for content and waste. PP selection increased from 2% to 73% ( P < .001). There was no significant change in waste. We conclude that small prizes as an incentive for better food selection does not lead to an increase food waste.

  19. Small prizes increased healthful school lunch selection in a Midwestern school district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Robert; Lockhart, Mary Kate; Barnes, Allison S; Hiller, Elizabeth; Kipp, Roger; Robison, Debora L; Ellsworth, Samantha C; Hudgens, Michelle E

    2016-04-01

    As obesity has become a pressing health issue for American children, greater attention has been focused on how schools can be used to improve how students eat. Previously, we piloted the use of small prizes in an elementary school cafeteria to improve healthful food selection. We hoped to increase healthful food selection in all the elementary schools of a small school district participating in the United States Department of Agriculture Lunch Program by offering prizes to children who selected a Power Plate (PP), which consisted of an entrée with whole grains, a fruit, a vegetable, and plain low-fat milk. In this study, the PP program was introduced to 3 schools sequentially over an academic year. During the kickoff week, green, smiley-faced emoticons were placed by preferred foods, and children were given a prize daily if they chose a PP on that day. After the first week, students were given a sticker or temporary tattoo 2 days a week if they selected a PP. Combining data from the 3 schools in the program, students increased PP selection from 4.5% at baseline to 49.4% (p < 0.0001) during an intervention period of 2.5 school weeks. The school with the longest intervention period, 6 months, showed a PP selection increase of from 3.9% to 26.4% (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, giving small prizes as rewards dramatically improves short-term healthful food selection in elementary school children.

  20. White bread enriched with polyphenol extracts shows no effect on glycemic response or satiety, yet may increase postprandial insulin economy in healthy participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Shelly; Ryan, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Extracts from different plant sources have been shown to modify starch digestion from carbohydrate-rich foods and lower resulting glycemia. It was hypothesized that extracts rich in polyphenols, added to white bread, would improve the glycemic response and insulin response and increase satiety in healthy participants. An in vitro dose-response analysis was performed to determine the optimal dose of a variety of extracts (baobab fruit extract, green tea extract, grape seed extract, and resveratrol) for reducing rapidly digestible starch in white bread. The 2 extracts with the greatest sugar reducing potential were then used for the human study in which 13 volunteers (9 female and 4 male) were recruited for a crossover trial of 3 different meals. On separate days, participants consumed a control white bread, white bread with green tea extract (0.4%), and white bread with baobab fruit extract (1.88%). Glycemic response, insulin response, and satiety were measured 3 hours postprandially. Although enriched breads did not reduce glycemic response or hunger, white bread with added baobab fruit extract significantly (P bread to improve insulin economy in healthy adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High fat diet enriched with saturated, but not monounsaturated fatty acids adversely affects femur, and both diets increase calcium absorption in older female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Dellatore, Peter; Douard, Veronique; Qin, Ling; Watford, Malcolm; Ferraris, Ronaldo P; Lin, Tiao; Shapses, Sue A

    2016-07-01

    Diet induced obesity has been shown to reduce bone mineral density (BMD) and Ca absorption. However, previous experiments have not examined the effect of high fat diet (HFD) in the absence of obesity or addressed the type of dietary fatty acids. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of different types of high fat feeding, without obesity, on fractional calcium absorption (FCA) and bone health. It was hypothesized that dietary fat would increase FCA and reduce BMD. Mature 8-month-old female C57BL/6J mice were fed one of three diets: a HFD (45% fat) enriched either with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or with saturated fatty acids (SFAs), and a normal fat diet (NFD; 10% fat). Food consumption was controlled to achieve a similar body weight gain in all groups. After 8wk, total body bone mineral content and BMD as well as femur total and cortical volumetric BMD were lower in SFA compared with NFD groups (Pdiet (P<.05). In conclusion, HFDs elevated FCA overtime; however, an adverse effect of HFD on bone was only observed in the SFA group, while MUFAs show neutral or beneficial effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutrient enrichment is associated with altered nectar and pollen chemical composition in Succisa pratensis Moench and increased larval mortality of its pollinator Bombus terrestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceulemans, Tobias; Hulsmans, Eva; Vanden Ende, Wim; Honnay, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Pollinators are declining worldwide and possible underlying causes include disease, invasive pest species and large scale land use changes resulting in habitat loss and degradation. One particular cause of habitat degradation is the increased inflow of nutrients due to anthropogenic combustion processes and large scale application of agricultural fertilizers. This nutrient pollution has been shown to affect pollinators through the loss of nectar and pollen-providing plant species. However, it may also affect pollinators through altering the nectar and pollen chemical composition of plant species, hence influencing pollinator food quality. Here, we experimentally investigated the effect of nutrient enrichment on amino acid and sugar composition of nectar and pollen in the grassland plant Sucissa pratensis, and the subsequent colony size and larval mortality of the pollinating bumblebee Bombus terrestris. We found less of the essential amino acids glycine and arginine in the pollen of fertilized plants, and more arginine, ornithine and threonine in the pollen of control plants. Nectar glucose and pollen fructose levels were lower in fertilized plants as compared to control plants. Furthermore, bumblebee colonies visiting fertilized plants showed more dead larvae than colonies visiting control plants. Our results suggest that the fitness of bumblebees can be negatively affected by changes in their food quality following nutrient pollution. If similar patterns hold for other plant and pollinator species, this may have far reaching implications for the maintenance of pollination ecosystem services, as nutrient pollution continues to rise worldwide.

  3. Enriched cultures of lactic acid bacteria from selected Zimbabwean fermented food and medicinal products with potential as therapy or prophylaxis against yeast infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Chabwinja

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antifungal activity of crude cultures of putative strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB from a selection of Zimbabwean traditional and commercial food/ medicinal products against yeasts (strains of environmental isolates of Candida albicans and Rhodotorula spp.. Methods: Cultures of putative LAB from our selection of fermented products were enriched in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe and isolated on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar. Results: The crude microbial cultures from the products that showed high antifungal activities (zone of inhibition, mm were as follows: supernatant-free microbial pellet (SFMP from an extract of Melia azedarach leaves [(27.0 ± 2.5 mm] > cell-free culture supernatants (CFCS from Maaz Dairy sour milk and Mnandi sour milk [approximately (26.0 ± 1.8/2.5 mm] > CFCS and SFMP from Amansi hodzeko [(25.0 ± 1.5 mm] > CFCS from Parinari curatellifolia fruit [(24.0 ± 1.5 mm], SFMP from Parinari curatellifolia fruit [(24.0 ± 1.4 mm] and SFMP from mahewu [(20.0 ± 1.5 mm]. These cultures also showed high tolerance to acidic conditions (pH 4.0 and pH 5.0. However, culture from WAYA LGG (shown elsewhere to harbour antimicrobial activities showed no antifungal activity. The LAB could have inhibited yeasts by either competitive exclusion or the release of antimicrobial metabolites. Conclusions: Our cultures of LAB from a selection of Zimbabwean fermented products, especially Ziziphus mauritiana and fermented milk products have great potential for use as antifungal probiotics against yeast infections. Studies are ongoing to determine the exact mechanisms that are employed by the putative LAB to inhibit Candida albicans.

  4. Correlated responses to selection for increased intramuscular fat in a Chinese quality chicken line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G P; Chen, J L; Zheng, M Q; Wen, J; Zhang, Y

    2007-11-01

    The correlated response in traits encompassing meat quality, carcass, sexual maturity, egg production, and egg quality traits arising from selection for increased intramuscular fat (IMF) content of breast muscle were investigated in the fifth generation of a selection experiment including a line (F) selected for increased IMF and a randombred control line (C). The results showed that breast muscle IMF content in the F line (4.25%) was significantly higher (P IMF content in thigh muscle (20.03 vs. 19.41%, P 0.05) in the following traits: drip loss, meat color (L*, a*, and b*), carcass percentage, thigh muscle weight, thigh muscle percentage, abdominal fat percentage, first egg weight, egg number (until 43 wk), Haugh units, shell thickness, and egg shape. The results of the present study demonstrated that selection for breast muscle IMF leads to desirable changes in meat quality, carcass, sexual maturity, and egg production traits.

  5. Sexual selection in true fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): transcriptome and experimental evidences for phytochemicals increasing male competitive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Nagalingam; Prentis, Peter J; Mangalam, Kalimuthu P; Schutze, Mark K; Clarke, Anthony R

    2014-09-01

    In male tephritid fruit flies of the genus Bactrocera, feeding on secondary plant compounds (sensu lato male lures = methyl eugenol, raspberry ketone and zingerone) increases male mating success. Ingested male lures alter the male pheromonal blend, normally making it more attractive to females and this is considered the primary mechanism for the enhanced mating success. However, the male lures raspberry ketone and zingerone are known, across a diverse range of other organisms, to be involved in increasing energy metabolism. If this also occurs in Bactrocera, then this may represent an additional benefit to males as courtship is metabolically expensive and lure feeding may increase a fly's short-term energy. We tested this hypothesis by performing comparative RNA-seq analysis between zingerone-fed and unfed males of Bactrocera tryoni. We also carried out behavioural assays with zingerone- and cuelure-fed males to test whether they became more active. RNA-seq analysis revealed, in zingerone-fed flies, up-regulation of 3183 genes with homologues transcripts to those known to regulate intermale aggression, pheromone synthesis, mating and accessory gland proteins, along with significant enrichment of several energy metabolic pathways and gene ontology terms. Behavioural assays show significant increases in locomotor activity, weight reduction and successful mating after mounting; all direct/indirect measures of increased activity. These results suggest that feeding on lures leads to complex physiological changes, which result in more competitive males. These results do not negate the pheromone effect, but do strongly suggest that the phytochemical-induced sexual selection is governed by both female preference and male competitive mechanisms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Increasing selectivity in coal flotation by controlling impeller speed and collector concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonmez, I.; Akdemir, U.; Sahbudak, K. [Cumhuriyet University, Sivas (Turkey)

    2005-03-01

    Abstract: Batch flotation experiments were conducted using a bituminous coal. It was found out that pulp density and especially impeller speed had significant influences on coal flotation performance, selectivity and rate. Products with lower ash content were obtained at lower speed-higher kerosene concentration levels at the same recovery. Increased flotation rates for coal at higher kerosene concentrations were probably the reason for better selectivity at lower impeller speeds.

  7. Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Sputum using Selective Enrichment Broth and Ashdown’s Medium at Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital, Cambodia [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5e9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somary Nhem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis, infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is increasingly reported in Cambodia. We hypothesized that implementation of an enhanced sputum testing protocol in a provincial hospital diagnostic microbiology laboratory would increase detection of B. pseudomallei. We tested 241 sputum specimens that were deemed acceptable for culture, comparing culture in selective enrichment broth followed by sub-culture on Ashdown’s medium to standard culture methods. Two specimens (0.8% were positive for B. pseudomallei using the enhanced protocol whereas one specimen (0.4% was positive using standard methods. Given the low numbers of positive specimens, we could not conclusively determine the utility of the enhanced sputum testing protocol. However, the ramifications of identification of B. pseudomallei are substantial, and the benefit of the enhanced testing protocol may be more apparent in patients selected based on risk factors and clinical presentation. Promoting clinician awareness of the infection and encouraging utilization of diagnostic microbiology services are also likely to be important factors in facilitating identification of melioidosis.

  8. Selective inbreeding does not increase gut microbiota similarity in BALB/c mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Wanyong; Stradiotto, Damiano; Krych, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases in mouse models are under strong impact from the gut microbiota. Therefore increased interindividual gut microbiota similarity may be seen as a way to reduce group sizes in mouse experiments. The composition of the gut microbiota is to a high extent defined by genetics......, and it is known that selecting siblings as mothers even in inbred colonies may increase the gut microbiota similarity among the mice with 3-4%. We therefore hypothesized that selective breeding of mice aiming at a high similarity in the gut microbiota would increase the interindividual similarity of the gut...... microbiota. BALB/cCrl mice were, however, found to have a mean heterozygosity of only 0.8% in their genome, and selection of breeders with a high similarity in the gut microbiota for three generations did not change the overall gut microbiota similarity, which was 66% in the P generation and 66%, 64% and 63...

  9. Resistance to Increasing Chemical Classes of Fungicides by Virtue of "Selection by Association" in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meng-Jun; Cox, Kerik D; Schnabel, Guido

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has shown that Botrytis cinerea isolates with resistance to multiple chemical classes of fungicides exist in eastern strawberry fields. In this study, the fungicide resistance profiles of 2,130 isolates from flowers of commercial strawberry fields located in multiple states was determined over four consecutive strawberry production seasons. Producers were asked to alternate single-site fungicides that were considered low risk in their specific location based on resistance monitoring results in their fields. This recommendation led to an increase of chemical class diversity used in the spray programs. Results indicated that simultaneous resistance in individual isolates to two, three, four, five, six, and seven classes of fungicides increased over time. The increase in chemical class resistances within isolates was likely due to a process we termed "selection by association", where fungicide resistance traits were often linked to the trait being selected rather than the selectable trait itself. Data analysis also indicated that the odds were highest for isolates resistant to one chemical class (1CCR) to be resistant to thiophanate-methyl; for 2CCR isolates to be resistant to thiophanate-methyl and pyraclostrobin; and for 3CCR isolates to be resistant to thiophanate-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and either cyprodinil or fenhexamid. We hypothesize that the more chemical classes are used in a spray program, the faster isolates will be selected with increasing numbers of chemical class resistances by virtue of selection by association if such isolates preexist in the population.

  10. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capossela, Harry J.; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Luce, Robert G.; McCoy, Daniel F.; Merriman, Floyd C.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect.

  11. Sexual selection can both increase and decrease extinction probability: reconciling demographic and evolutionary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ruiz, Carlos; Knell, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Previous theoretical models of the effect of sexual selection on average individual fitness in a population have mostly predicted that sexually selected populations should adapt faster and clear deleterious mutations more quickly than populations where sexual selection is not operating. While some laboratory studies have supported these predictions, others have not and studies of field systems have tended to find negative effects of sexual selection, or no effect. The negative effects of sexual selection found in field and other studies are usually ascribed to the costs associated with strong sexual selection acting on the population. Here, using an individual-based model that allows feedback between demographic and evolutionary processes, we find that sexual selection can lead to both increases and decreases in population-level fitness measures such as extinction probability and adaptation rate. Whether fitness increases or decreases depends on a variety of environmental and demographic factors including the nature of environmental change, the carrying capacity of the environment, the average fecundity of the population in question and the strength of condition dependence. In many cases, our model predicts that sexual selection leads to higher extinction probability in small populations because of an increased risk of demographic stochasticity, but lower extinction probability in larger populations because of faster adaptation rates. This is consistent with field studies that have mostly focussed on very small populations such as recently introduced birds, and tend to find negative effects, and also with laboratory studies that tend to use larger populations and have tended to find positive effects. These findings go at least some way towards an understanding of the apparent contradictions between theoretical predictions, laboratory studies and field data. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  12. Pyridinylboronic acid-functionalized organic-silica hybrid monolithic capillary for the selective enrichment and separation of cis-diol-containing biomolecules at acidic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daojin; Li, Qianjin; Wang, Shuangshou; Ye, Jin; Nie, Hongyuan; Liu, Zhen

    2014-04-25

    Boronate affinity chromatography (BAC) is a unique means for the selective separation and enrichment of 1,2 and 1,3 cis-diol-containing compounds. However, conventional boronate affinity materials require a basic binding pH (usually≥8.5), which gives rise to not only inconvenience in operation but also the risk of degradation of labile compounds. Although the applicable pH has been expanded to 5.0 in recent years, the current boronate affinity materials still fail to meet the acidic pH end of frequently used biosamples, particularly urine (pH 4.5). In this study, we report a 3-pyridylboronic acid-functionalized organic-silica hybrid monolithic capillary that exhibited a binding pH of 4.5, the lowest so far in BAC. Such a binding pH enabled direct extraction of cis-diol-containing biomolecules such as nucleosides from urine samples without pH adjustment. The boronate affinity monolithic capillary showed enhanced affinity toward negatively charged cis-diol-containing analytes such as ribonucleotides. Moreover, it could function as an anion exchanger at acidic pH (∼2). The column was found to retain multiple compounds from urine, which can be assumed to be at least mostly if not entirely cis-diol-containing compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Designed synthesis of Graphene @titania @mesoporous silica hybrid material as size-exclusive metal oxide affinity chromatography platform for selective enrichment of endogenous phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jizong; Sun, Nianrong; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangming

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a novel size-exclusive metal oxide affinity chromatography (SE-MOAC) platform was built for phosphoproteome research. The operation for preparing graphene @titania @mesoporous silica nanohybrids (denoted as G@TiO2@mSiO2) was facile and easy to conduct by grafting titania nanoparticles on polydopamine (PD)-covered graphene, following a layer of mesoporous silica was coated on the outermost layer. The G@TiO2@mSiO2 nanohybrids exhibited high sensitivity with a low detection limit of 5 amol/μL (a total amount of 1 fmol) and high selectivity for phosphopeptides at a mass ratio of phosphopeptides to non-phosphopeptides (1:1000). The size-exclusive capability of the nanohybrids were also demonstrated by enriching the phosphopeptides from the mixture of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), α-casein, and β-casein digests with a high mass ratio (β-casein digests: α-casein: BSA, 1:500:500), which was attributed to the large surface area and ordered mesoporous channels. In addition, the G@TiO2@mSiO2 nanohybrids were employed to capture the endogenous phosphopeptides from human serum successfully. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A facile and selective approach for enrichment of l-cysteine in human plasma sample based on zinc organic polymer: Optimization by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Sonia; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Ostovan, Abbas; Javadian, Hamedreza; Mansoorkhani, Mohammad Javad Khoshnood; Taghipour, Tahere

    2018-02-05

    In this research, a facile and selective method was described to extract l-cysteine (l-Cys), an essential α-amino acid for anti-ageing playing an important role in human health, from human blood plasma sample. The importance of this research was the mild and time-consuming synthesis of zinc organic polymer (Zn-MOP) as an adsorbent and evaluation of its ability for efficient enrichment of l-Cys by ultrasound-assisted dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (UA-DMSPE) method. The structure of Zn-MOP was investigated by FT-IR, XRD and SEM. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied for the experimental data to reach the best optimum conditions. The quantification of l-Cys was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection set at λ=230nm. The calibration graph showed reasonable linear responses towards l-Cys concentrations in the range of 4.0-1000μg/L (r 2 =0.999) with low limit of detection (0.76μg/L, S/N=3) and RSD≤2.18 (n=3). The results revealed the applicability and high performance of this novel strategy in detecting trace l-Cys by Zn-MOP in complicated matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Magnetic MSP@ZrO₂ microspheres with yolk-shell structure: designed synthesis and application in highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wan-Fu; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Ting; Yu, Meng; Guo, Jia; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Hao-Jie; Wang, Chang-Chun

    2014-06-10

    Magnetic yolk-shell MSP@ZrO2 microspheres consisting of a movable magnetic supraparticle (MSP) core and a crystalline ZrO2 shell were synthesized via a two-step controlled "sol-gel" approach for the first time. First, a large amount of the generated hydrolyzate Zr(OH)4 was firmly fixed onto the surface of the cross-linked polymethylacrylic acid matrix via a strong hydrogen-bonding interaction between Zr(OH)4 and the carboxyl groups. Then a calcination process was adopted to convert the Zr(OH)4 into a continuous ZrO2 shell and simultaneously make the ZrO2 shell crystallized. At the same time, the polymer matrix could be selectively removed to form a yolk-shell structure, which has better dispersibility and higher adsorbing efficiency of phosphopeptides than its solid counterpart. The formation mechanism of such yolk-shell microspheres could be reasonably proved by the results of TEM, TGA, VSM, XRD, and FT-IR characterization. By taking advantage of the unique properties, the yolk-shell MSP@ZrO2 exhibited high specificity and great capability in selective enrichment of phosphopeptides, and a total of 33 unique phosphopeptides mapped to 33 different phosphoproteins had been identified from 1 mL of human saliva. This result clearly demonstrated that the yolk-shell MSP@ZrO2 has great performance in purifying and identifying the low-abundant phosphopeptides from real complex biological samples. Moreover, the synthetic method can be used to produce hybrid yolk-shell MSP@ZrO2-TiO2.

  16. Down-regulation of BDNF in cell and animal models increases striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase 61 (STEP61 ) levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Kurup, Pradeep; Azkona, Garikoitz; Baguley, Tyler D; Saavedra, Ana; Nairn, Angus C; Ellman, Jonathan A; Pérez-Navarro, Esther; Lombroso, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates synaptic strengthening and memory consolidation, and altered BDNF expression is implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. BDNF potentiates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function through activation of Fyn and ERK1/2. STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP) is also implicated in many of the same disorders as BDNF but, in contrast to BDNF, STEP opposes the development of synaptic strengthening. STEP-mediated dephosphorylation of the NMDA receptor subunit GluN2B promotes internalization of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors, while dephosphorylation of the kinases Fyn, Pyk2, and ERK1/2 leads to their inactivation. Thus, STEP and BDNF have opposing functions. In this study, we demonstrate that manipulation of BDNF expression has a reciprocal effect on STEP61 levels. Reduced BDNF signaling leads to elevation of STEP61 both in BDNF(+/-) mice and after acute BDNF knockdown in cortical cultures. Moreover, a newly identified STEP inhibitor reverses the biochemical and motor abnormalities in BDNF(+/-) mice. In contrast, increased BDNF signaling upon treatment with a tropomyosin receptor kinase B agonist results in degradation of STEP61 and a subsequent increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of STEP substrates in cultured neurons and in mouse frontal cortex. These findings indicate that BDNF-tropomyosin receptor kinase B signaling leads to degradation of STEP61 , while decreased BDNF expression results in increased STEP61 activity. A better understanding of the opposing interaction between STEP and BDNF in normal cognitive functions and in neuropsychiatric disorders will hopefully lead to better therapeutic strategies. Altered expression of BDNF and STEP61 has been implicated in several neurological disorders. BDNF and STEP61 are known to regulate synaptic strengthening, but in opposite directions. Here, we report that reduced BDNF signaling leads to elevation of STEP61 both in

  17. Population Bottlenecks Increase Additive Genetic Variance But Do Not Break a Selection Limit in Rainforest Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Heerwaarden, Belinda; Willi, Yvonne; Kristensen, Torsten N

    2008-01-01

    According to neutral quantitative genetic theory, population bottlenecks are expected to decrease standing levels of additive genetic variance of quantitative traits. However, some empirical and theoretical results suggest that, if nonadditive genetic effects influence the trait, bottlenecks may...... effects were responsible for the divergence in desiccation resistance between the original control and a bottlenecked line exhibiting increased additive genetic variance for desiccation resistance. However, when bottlenecked lines were selected for increased desiccation resistance, there was only a small...... actually increase additive genetic variance. This has been an important issue in conservation genetics where it has been suggested that small population size might actually experience an increase rather than a decrease in the rate of adaptation. Here we test if bottlenecks can break a selection limit...

  18. Plant mortality and natural selection may increase biomass yield in switchgrass swards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is an important candidate for bioenergy feedstock production, prompting significant efforts to increase the number of breeding programs and the output of those programs. The objective of this experiment was to determine the potential utility of natural selection for...

  19. Employers’ demand for qualifications and skills: increased merit selection in Austria, 1985-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dörfler, L.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    The paper attempts to empirically test skill demand on the Austrian labour market between 1985 and 2005 by making use of job advertisements. We analyze job advertisements covering a time span of 20 years. This allows us to examine whether there is a trend towards increased merit selection. Our

  20. Does Tasting Local Sweet Potatoes Increase the Likelihood of Selection by High School Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Kelly; Jenkins, Steven; Kelly, Patrick; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Schools are offering more fruits and vegetables; yet consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents remains low. Many schools are implementing Farm-to-School programs to help generate excitement and increase selection of fruits and vegetables by students. The purpose of this research was to determine if a simple tasting…

  1. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  2. Arginine appearance and nitric oxide synthesis in critically ill infants can be increased with a protein-energy-enriched enteral formula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.T. de Betue (Carlijn); K.F.M. Joosten (Koen); N.E.P. Deutz (Nicolaas); A.C.E. Vreugdenhil; D.A. van Waardenburg (Dick)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Arginine is considered an essential amino acid during critical illness in children, and supplementation of arginine has been proposed to improve arginine availability to facilitate nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Protein-energy-enriched enteral formulas (PE-formulas) can improve

  3. A competitive trade-off limits the selective advantage of increased antibiotic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardin, Ylaine; Springer, Michael; Kishony, Roy

    2016-09-26

    In structured environments, antibiotic-producing microorganisms can gain a selective advantage by inhibiting nearby competing species 1 . However, despite their genetic potential 2,3 , natural isolates often make only small amounts of antibiotics, and laboratory evolution can lead to loss rather than enhancement of antibiotic production 4 . Here, we show that, due to competition with antibiotic-resistant cheater cells, increased levels of antibiotic production can actually decrease the selective advantage to producers. Competing fluorescently labelled Escherichia coli colicin producers with non-producing resistant and sensitive strains on solid media, we found that although producer colonies can greatly benefit from the inhibition of nearby sensitive colonies, this benefit is shared with resistant colonies growing in their vicinity. A simple model, which accounts for such local competitive and inhibitory interactions, suggests that the advantage of producers varies non-monotonically with the amount of production. Indeed, experimentally varying the amount of production shows a peak in selection for producers, reflecting a trade-off between benefit gained by inhibiting sensitive competitors and loss due to an increased contribution to resistant cheater colonies. These results help explain the low level of antibiotic production observed for natural species and can help direct laboratory evolution experiments selecting for increased or novel production of antibiotics.

  4. Differentially Expressed Genes in Endometrium and Corpus Luteum of Holstein Cows Selected for High and Low Fertility Are Enriched for Sequence Variants Associated with Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephen G; Pryce, Jennie E; Hayes, Ben J; Chamberlain, Amanda J; Kemper, Kathryn E; Berry, Donagh P; McCabe, Matt; Cormican, Paul; Lonergan, Pat; Fair, Trudee; Butler, Stephen T

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of fertility in humans and livestock, there has been little success dissecting the genetic basis of fertility. Our hypothesis was that genes differentially expressed in the endometrium and corpus luteum on Day 13 of the estrous cycle between cows with either good or poor genetic merit for fertility would be enriched for genetic variants associated with fertility. We combined a unique genetic model of fertility (cattle that have been selected for high and low fertility and show substantial difference in fertility) with gene expression data from these cattle and genome-wide association study (GWAS) results in ∼20,000 cattle to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions and sequence variants associated with genetic variation in fertility. Two hundred and forty-five QTL regions and 17 sequence variants associated primarily with prostaglandin F2alpha, steroidogenesis, mRNA processing, energy status, and immune-related processes were identified. Ninety-three of the QTL regions were validated by two independent GWAS, with signals for fertility detected primarily on chromosomes 18, 5, 7, 8, and 29. Plausible causative mutations were identified, including one missense variant significantly associated with fertility and predicted to affect the protein function of EIF4EBP3. The results of this study enhance our understanding of 1) the contribution of the endometrium and corpus luteum transcriptome to phenotypic fertility differences and 2) the genetic architecture of fertility in dairy cattle. Including these variants in predictions of genomic breeding values may improve the rate of genetic gain for this critical trait. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  5. Variants of sequence family B Thermococcus kodakaraensis DNA polymerase with increased mismatch extension selectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Huber

    Full Text Available Fidelity and selectivity of DNA polymerases are critical determinants for the biology of life, as well as important tools for biotechnological applications. DNA polymerases catalyze the formation of DNA strands by adding deoxynucleotides to a primer, which is complementarily bound to a template. To ensure the integrity of the genome, DNA polymerases select the correct nucleotide and further extend the nascent DNA strand. Thus, DNA polymerase fidelity is pivotal for ensuring that cells can replicate their genome with minimal error. DNA polymerases are, however, further optimized for more specific biotechnological or diagnostic applications. Here we report on the semi-rational design of mutant libraries derived by saturation mutagenesis at single sites of a 3'-5'-exonuclease deficient variant of Thermococcus kodakaraensis DNA polymerase (KOD pol and the discovery for variants with enhanced mismatch extension selectivity by screening. Sites of potential interest for saturation mutagenesis were selected by their proximity to primer or template strands. The resulting libraries were screened via quantitative real-time PCR. We identified three variants with single amino acid exchanges-R501C, R606Q, and R606W-which exhibited increased mismatch extension selectivity. These variants were further characterized towards their potential in mismatch discrimination. Additionally, the identified enzymes were also able to differentiate between cytosine and 5-methylcytosine. Our results demonstrate the potential in characterizing and developing DNA polymerases for specific PCR based applications in DNA biotechnology and diagnostics.

  6. Nine cycles of mass selection for increasing oil content in two maize (Zea mays L. synthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosulj Milorad

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate changes in oil content, grain yield, percentage of broken plants and changes in yield components in the maize populations DS7u and YuSSSu. As estimations were performed at C0 and C9 for both populations, it was possible to observe changes occurring following long-term mass selection for high oil content. The synthetic population DS7u population was developed by recombination of 29 inbred lines of Yugoslav, Canadian and US origin. The synthetic population YuSSSu population is an Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic - BSS(RC5. Progenies were derived according to the North Carolina Design II. Results indicated that nine cycles of selection led to statistically significant increase in oil content and statistically significant decrease for grain yield in both populations. Estimates of additive and dominance variances for grain oil content were highly significant in C0 and C9 of the population DS7u population. Dominance variance showed significance in the initial cycle of the population YuSSSu population, but it was not detected in the course of nine cycles of mass selection. Additive and dominance variances for grain yield were highly significant in both initial populations. Loss of significance did not result from selection, while the proportion of dominance vs. additive variance became greater. High narrow-sense heritability was detected for grain yield, oil content, moisture content, and cob percent in the initial cycles of both populations. Mass selection resulted in increased heritability for oil content and cob percent in the DS7u population and increased heritability for percentage of broken plants in the YuSSSu population. The strongest additive correlation between oil content and other traits was detected for grain moisture (r a = 0.90* in the C9 of the DS7u population.

  7. Laboratory selection for increased longevity in Drosophila melanogaster reduces field performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wit, Janneke; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Sarup, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    Drosophilamelanogaster is frequently used in ageing studies to elucidate whichmechanisms determine the onset and progress of senescence. Lines selected for increased longevity have often been shown to performaswell as or superior to control lines in life history, stress resistance and behavioural...... in performance. Control lines were better able to locate a resource compared to longevity selected lines of the same age, suggesting that longevity comes at a cost in early life field fitness, supporting the antagonistic pleiotropy theory of ageing.......Drosophilamelanogaster is frequently used in ageing studies to elucidate whichmechanisms determine the onset and progress of senescence. Lines selected for increased longevity have often been shown to performaswell as or superior to control lines in life history, stress resistance and behavioural...... traits when tested in the laboratory. Functional senescence in longevity selected lines has also been shown to occur at a slower rate. However, it is known that performance in a controlled laboratory setting is not necessarily representative of performance in nature. In this study the effect of ageing...

  8. Selective matrix metalloproteinase inhibition increases breaking strength and reduces anastomotic leakage in experimentally obstructed colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Peter-Martin; Eld, Mikkel; Jorgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Colonic obstruction causes loss of collagen and impairment of anastomotic integrity by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Unexpectedly, pharmacological MMP inhibition increased anastomotic leakage (AL) in obstructed colon possibly due to the non-selective nature of these compounds....... Isolated anastomotic wound tissue was analyzed on total collagen and pepsin-insoluble and pepsin-soluble collagen by hydroxyproline. The soluble collagens were further differentiated into native, measured by Sircol, and fragmented forms. RESULTS: Baseline breaking strength was maintained with AZD3342...

  9. Coupling of Phosphate-Imprinted Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles-Based Selective Enrichment with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for Highly Efficient Analysis of Protein Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Li, Daojin; Bie, Zijun; He, Xinpei; Liu, Zhen

    2016-01-19

    Protein phosphorylation is a major post-translational modification and represents a ubiquitous mechanism for the cellular signaling of many different biological processes. Selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from the complex biological samples is a key step for the mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of protein phosphorylation. Herein, we present phosphate-imprinted mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) as an ideal sorbent for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides and an off-line combination with matrix-asisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for highly efficient analysis of protein phosphorylation. The phosphate-imprinted MSNs were prepared according to a newly reported strategy called dual-template docking oriented molecular imprinting (DTD-OMI). The prepared molecularly imprinted mesoporous material exhibited several significant merits, such as excellent selectivity toward phosphopeptides, tolerance to interference, fast binding equilibrium, and large binding capacity, which made the molecularly imprinted mesoporous material an ideal sorbent for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides. Using β-casein as a representative phosphoprotein, highly efficient phosphorylation analysis by the off-line platform was verified. Phosphorylation analysis of a nonfat milk sample was also well demonstrated. Because of their highly desirable properties, the phosphate-imprinted MSNs could find more applications in the analysis of protein phosphorylation.

  10. Selection for increased spore efficacy by host genetic background in a wheat powdery mildew population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaréal, L M; Lannou, C

    2000-12-01

    ABSTRACT A field experiment was designed to test the hypothesis of for increased reproductive ability on different host genetic backgrounds within a wheat powdery mildew population. Studies have suggested that, in host mixtures, such selection could increase the reproduction rate of simple patho-types that always develop on the same host genetic background, whereas complex pathotypes should not be affected because they infect different host genotypes. In our experiment, the Erysiphe graminis population reproduced for successive generations on cvs. Orkis and Etecho, either grown as pure stands or in a mixture. In an additional treatment, the host cultivar changed after each generation. Isolates were sampled in April and, after seven pathogen generations, in July. At the second sampling date and for pure stands only, mean spore efficacy was greater on the host from which isolates were sampled than on the other one. This was attributed to selection within the pathogen population for better spore efficacy on the host genetic background. This selection was independent of the virulence genes carried by the isolates. The possibility of a phenotypic plasticity effect was tested and rejected.

  11. Cost Accounting as a Tool for Increasing Cost Transparency in Selective Hepatic Transarterial Chemoembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Osman; Patel, Mikin; Ward, Thomas; Sze, Daniel Y; Telischak, Kristen; Kothary, Nishita; Hofmann, Lawrence V

    2015-12-01

    To increase cost transparency and uncover potential areas for savings in patients receiving selective transarterial chemoembolization at a tertiary care academic center. The hospital cost accounting system charge master sheet for direct and total costs associated with selective transarterial chemoembolization in fiscal years 2013 and 2014 was queried for each of the four highest volume interventional radiologists at a single institution. There were 517 cases (range, 83-150 per physician) performed; direct costs incurred relating to care before, during, and after the procedure with respect to labor, supply, and equipment fees were calculated. A median of 48 activity codes were charged per selective transarterial chemoembolization from five cost centers, represented by the angiography suite, units for care before and after the procedure, pharmacy, and observation floors. The average direct cost of selective transarterial chemoembolization did not significantly differ among operators at $9,126.94, $8,768.77, $9,027.33, and $8,909.75 (P = .31). Intraprocedural costs accounted for 82.8% of total direct costs and provided the greatest degree in cost variability ($7,268.47-$7,691.27). The differences in intraprocedural expense among providers were not statistically significant (P = .09), even when separated into more specific procedure-related labor and supply costs. Cost accounting systems could effectively be interrogated as a method for calculating direct costs associated with selective transarterial chemoembolization. The greatest source of expenditure and variability in cost among providers was shown to be intraprocedural labor and supplies, although the effect did not appear to be operator dependent. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolution of the metabolome in response to selection for increased immunity in populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Navdeep Gogna

    Full Text Available We used NMR-based metabolomics to test two hypotheses-(i there will be evolved differences in the metabolome of selected and control populations even under un-infected conditions and (ii post infection, the metabolomes of the selected and control populations will respond differently. We selected replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster for increased survivorship (I against a gram-negative pathogen. We subjected the selected (I and their control populations (S to three different treatments: (1 infected with heat-killed bacteria (i, (2 sham infected (s, and (3 untreated (u. We performed 1D and 2D NMR experiments to identify the metabolic differences. Multivariate analysis of the metabolic profiles of the untreated (Iu and Su flies yielded higher concentrations of lipids, organic acids, sugars, amino acids, NAD and AMP in the Iu treatment as compared to the Su treatment, showing that even in the absence of infection, the metabolome of the I and S regimes was different. In the S and I regimes, post infection/injury, concentration of metabolites directly or indirectly associated with energy related pathways (lipids, organic acids, sugars declined while the concentration of metabolites that are probably associated with immune response (amino acids increased. However, in most cases, the I regime flies had a higher concentration of such metabolites even under un-infected conditions. The change in the metabolite concentration upon infection/injury was not always comparable between I and S regimes (in case of lactate, alanine, leucine, lysine, threonine indicating that the I and S regimes had evolved to respond differentially to infection and to injury.

  13. Evolution of the metabolome in response to selection for increased immunity in populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogna, Navdeep; Sharma, Rakesh; Gupta, Vanika; Dorai, Kavita; Prasad, N G

    2017-01-01

    We used NMR-based metabolomics to test two hypotheses-(i) there will be evolved differences in the metabolome of selected and control populations even under un-infected conditions and (ii) post infection, the metabolomes of the selected and control populations will respond differently. We selected replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster for increased survivorship (I) against a gram-negative pathogen. We subjected the selected (I) and their control populations (S) to three different treatments: (1) infected with heat-killed bacteria (i), (2) sham infected (s), and (3) untreated (u). We performed 1D and 2D NMR experiments to identify the metabolic differences. Multivariate analysis of the metabolic profiles of the untreated (Iu and Su) flies yielded higher concentrations of lipids, organic acids, sugars, amino acids, NAD and AMP in the Iu treatment as compared to the Su treatment, showing that even in the absence of infection, the metabolome of the I and S regimes was different. In the S and I regimes, post infection/injury, concentration of metabolites directly or indirectly associated with energy related pathways (lipids, organic acids, sugars) declined while the concentration of metabolites that are probably associated with immune response (amino acids) increased. However, in most cases, the I regime flies had a higher concentration of such metabolites even under un-infected conditions. The change in the metabolite concentration upon infection/injury was not always comparable between I and S regimes (in case of lactate, alanine, leucine, lysine, threonine) indicating that the I and S regimes had evolved to respond differentially to infection and to injury.

  14. Supplementation of arachidonic acid-enriched oil increases arachidonic acid contents in plasma phospholipids, but does not increase their metabolites and clinical parameters in Japanese healthy elderly individuals: a randomized controlled study

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    Kakutani Saki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of arachidonic acid (ARA among the elderly has recently gained increased attention. The effects of ARA supplementation in the elderly are not fully understood, although ARA is considered to be associated with various diseases. We investigate whether ARA supplementation to Japanese elderly subjects affects clinical parameters involved in cardiovascular, inflammatory, and allergic diseases. We also examine the levels of ARA metabolites such as prostanoids during intervention. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled parallel group intervention trial. ARA-enriched oil (240 or 720 mg ARA per day or placebo was administered to Japanese healthy men and women aged 55-70 years for 4 weeks followed by a 4-week washout period. The fatty acid contents of plasma phospholipids, clinical parameters, and ARA metabolites were determined at baseline, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Results The ARA content in plasma phospholipids in the ARA-administrated groups increased dose-dependently and was almost the same at 2 weeks and at 4 weeks. The elevated ARA content decreased to nearly baseline during a 4-week washout period. During the supplementation and washout periods, no changes were observed in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents. There were no changes in clinical blood parameters related to cardiovascular, inflammatory and allergic diseases. ARA supplementation did not alter the level of ARA metabolites such as urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B2, 2,3-dinor-6-keto prostaglandin (PG F1α and 9,15-dioxo-11α-hydroxy-13,14-dihydro-2,3,4,5-tetranor-prostan-1,20-dioic acid (tetranor-PGEM, and plasma PGE2 and lipoxin A4. ARA in plasma phospholipids was not correlated with ARA metabolite levels in the blood or urine. Conclusion These results indicate that ARA supplementation, even at a relatively high dose, does not increase ARA metabolites, and suggest that it does not induce cardiovascular

  15. A constant entropy increase model for the selection of parallel tempering ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Dubravko; Meuwly, Markus; Freeman, David L; Doll, J D

    2008-05-07

    The present paper explores a simple approach to the question of parallel tempering temperature selection. We argue that to optimize the performance of parallel tempering it is reasonable to require that the increase in entropy between successive temperatures be uniform over the entire ensemble. An estimate of the system's heat capacity, obtained either from experiment, a preliminary simulation, or a suitable physical model, thus provides a means for generating the desired tempering ensemble. Applications to the two-dimensional Ising problem indicate that the resulting method is effective, simple to implement, and robust with respect to its sensitivity to the quality of the underlying heat capacity model.

  16. Resource competition induces heterogeneity and can increase cohort survivorship: selection-event duration matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Jennifer L; Anderson, James J

    2013-12-01

    Determining when resource competition increases survivorship can reveal processes underlying population dynamics and reinforce the importance of heterogeneity among individuals in conservation. We ran an experiment mimicking the effects of competition in a growing season on survivorship during a selection event (e.g., overwinter starvation, drought). Using a model fish species (Poecilia reticulata), we studied how food availability and competition affect mass in a treatment stage, and subsequently survivorship in a challenge stage of increased temperature and starvation. The post-treatment mean mass was strongly related to the mean time to mortality and mass at mortality at all levels of competition. However, competition increased variance in mass and extended the right tail of the survivorship curve, resulting in a greater number of individuals alive beyond a critical temporal threshold ([Formula: see text]) than without competition. To realize the benefits from previously experienced competition, the duration of the challenge ([Formula: see text]) following the competition must exceed the critical threshold [Formula: see text] (i.e., competition increases survivorship when [Formula: see text]). Furthermore, this benefit was equivalent to increasing food availability by 20 % in a group without competition in our experiment. The relationship of [Formula: see text] to treatment and challenge conditions was modeled by characterizing mortality through mass loss in terms of the stochastic rate of loss of vitality (individual's survival capacity). In essence, when the duration of a selection event exceeds [Formula: see text], competition-induced heterogeneity buffers against mortality through overcompensation processes among individuals of a cohort. Overall, our study demonstrates an approach to quantify how early life stage heterogeneity affects survivorship.

  17. Does widowhood increase mortality risk?: testing for selection effects by comparing causes of spousal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Paul J; Feng, Zhiqiang; Raab, Gillian M

    2011-01-01

    We consider whether widowhood increases mortality risk. Although commonly observed, this "widowhood effect" could be due to selection effects, as married couples share various characteristics related to the risk of death. We therefore consider the widowhood effect by various causes of spousal death; some causes of death are correlated with shared characteristics in couples, while others are not. Using data from the Scottish Longitudinal Study, we compare outcomes for men and women by the causes of death of their spouse, controlling for a range of individual- and household-level characteristics. The widowhood effect in these data is greater than has been found in other recent studies, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.40 (95% confidence interval = 1.33-1.47) for men and 1.36 (1.30-1.44) for women. The risk is highest shortly after widowhood, but remains raised for at least 10 years. There was little evidence that these hazard ratios differed by any classification of the cause of death of the spouse, but interactions were found for those with pre-existing illness or other risk factors. The hazard ratios for widowhood were lower for persons with preexisting risks. Our analysis of the widowhood effect uses 3 methods of classifying the causes of spousal death in an attempt to control for potential selection effects. Our results are highly consistent and suggest that this is a causal effect, rather than a result of selection.

  18. Fast growth increases the selective advantage of a mutation arising recurrently during evolution under metal limitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hung Chou

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolution of biological systems requires untangling the molecular mechanisms that connect genetic and environmental variations to their physiological consequences. Metal limitation across many environments, ranging from pathogens in the human body to phytoplankton in the oceans, imposes strong selection for improved metal acquisition systems. In this study, we uncovered the genetic and physiological basis of adaptation to metal limitation using experimental populations of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 evolved in metal-deficient growth media. We identified a transposition mutation arising recurrently in 30 of 32 independent populations that utilized methanol as a carbon source, but not in any of the 8 that utilized only succinate. These parallel insertion events increased expression of a novel transporter system that enhanced cobalt uptake. Such ability ensured the production of vitamin B(12, a cobalt-containing cofactor, to sustain two vitamin B(12-dependent enzymatic reactions essential to methanol, but not succinate, metabolism. Interestingly, this mutation provided higher selective advantages under genetic backgrounds or incubation temperatures that permit faster growth, indicating growth-rate-dependent epistatic and genotype-by-environment interactions. Our results link beneficial mutations emerging in a metal-limiting environment to their physiological basis in carbon metabolism, suggest that certain molecular features may promote the emergence of parallel mutations, and indicate that the selective advantages of some mutations depend generically upon changes in growth rate that can stem from either genetic or environmental influences.

  19. Stress-induced colibacillosis and turkey osteomyelitis complex in turkeys selected for increased body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, G; Huff, W; Rath, N; Balog, J; Anthony, N B; Nestor, K

    2006-02-01

    Two stress models were used to induce colibacillosis and turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC): Escherichia coli challenge following dexamethasone injection (Dex) and E. coli challenge preceding transport stress (Transport). A total of 160 birds from 3 lines of turkeys: a slow-growing line selected for egg production (Egg), a line selected for 16-wk BW (F line), and a Commercial line (Comm), were studied in a 3 x 3 x 2 (line x treatment x sex) factorial design. At 14 wk, the Dex group was treated with 3 injections of 2 mg of Dex/kg of BW followed by airsac challenge with 100 cfu of E. coli. The Transport group was given 5,000 cfu of the same E. coli and 8 d later was transported for 3 h and held for an additional 9 h in the transport vehicle. Controls of each line were neither stressed nor challenged with E. coli. Birds were necropsied 2 wk postchallenge. All birds were sexed, scored for airsacculitis (AS) and TOC, and knee synovia were cultured for E. coli. Percent mortality was unaffected by sex, was increased by the Dex treatment, and was higher in Dex-treated male Comm-line birds and Dex-treated female F-line birds compared with their respective nonchallenged controls. Both treatments increased AS scores, and scores of Dex-treated male Comm-line birds and female F-line birds were also higher compared with their respective controls. Male Comm birds under Transport had higher AS scores as compared with nonchallenged males and challenged females. The TOC incidence was increased by Dex only. There was no TOC in Egg-line birds, whereas TOC incidence approached significance in both Comm and F lines compared with the Egg line (P = 0.06). Males had twice as much TOC as females, and this approached significance in the F line (P = 0.06). There was a low level of TOC in male Transport birds of both large-bodied lines, whereas no female Transport birds had TOC lesions. Dex-treated male birds of both the F line and Comm line had significantly higher incidence of TOC compared

  20. A combination of selected mapping and clipping to increase energy efficiency of OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Moo; Rim, You Seung

    2017-01-01

    We propose an energy efficient combination design for OFDM systems based on selected mapping (SLM) and clipping peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction techniques, and show the related energy efficiency (EE) performance analysis. The combination of two different PAPR reduction techniques can provide a significant benefit in increasing EE, because it can take advantages of both techniques. For the combination, we choose the clipping and SLM techniques, since the former technique is quite simple and effective, and the latter technique does not cause any signal distortion. We provide the structure and the systematic operating method, and show the various analyzes to derive the EE gain based on the combined technique. Our analysis show that the combined technique increases the EE by 69% compared to no PAPR reduction, and by 19.34% compared to only using SLM technique. PMID:29023591

  1. WEATHER CONDITIONS FAVOURABLE TO THE INCREASED INCIDENCE OF INFLUENZA VIRUS IN SELECTED REGIONS OF POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIARANEK DOMINIKA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Human health is affected by a variety of factors. Weather conditions are hardly ever the direct cause of illness, but they may be among the top underlying factors. This paper discusses the variation of incidence of influenza and influenza-like illnesses in Poland depending on the weather conditions prevalent in the 2010/11-2013/14 seasons, as compared to incidence data since 1974. In particular, it focuses on extreme cases and areas of increased rates of said infections. Medical statistics and meteorological data from 16 Polish provinces were used as input to the study. The flu season was defined as the period starting in October and ending in April. All months in the selected seasons were analyzed, with particular attention paid to those which stood out among others due to the high number of cases recorded. Increased incidence of influenza and influenza-like illnesses was evident in periods with severe weather changes.

  2. Selection for increased nitric oxide production does not increase resistance to Marek's disease in a primary broiler breeder line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscaglia, Celina; O'Connell, Priscilla H; Jarosinski, Keith W; Pevzner, Igal; Schat, Karel A

    2009-09-01

    Two primary broiler breeder lines, A and B, were examined for their potential to produce nitric oxide (NO) after stimulating splenocytes from 20-day-old embryos with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma. Significant differences were found between lines A and B. Overall, line A had a higher response than line B, but line A also had a large degree of variation between individual sire families. Selection for high and low responders within line A resulted in the segregation of high- and low-responder sire families. Offspring from sire families selected for high and low NO responses and from a nonselected control group from line A were challenged with RB-1B Marek's disease (MD) virus to determine whether these differences could be used to select for improved resistance to MD. Virus isolation rates at 6 and 10 days postinfection were not significantly different, but unexpectedly, the MD incidence in the high-responder group was significantly higher than in the other two groups.

  3. Effect of selection for increased body weight on mitogenic responses in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Nestor, K E; Saif, Y M; Bacon, W L; Anderson, J W

    1999-11-01

    Mitogenic responses were examined for purified peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and whole blood from individuals in a line (F) of turkeys selected for increased 16-wk BW and its corresponding randombred control (RBC2). The PBMC were isolated by centrifugation over Histopaque-1077 density gradient and tested for mitogenic responses to concanavalin A (Con A; 25 microg/mL) and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-M; 100 microg/mL). For the whole blood assay, 6-wk-old poults from both lines were injected with inactivated Pasteurella multocida. Heparinized blood samples were collected prior to injection (0 d) and at 2, 4, 7, and 14 d postinjection. The diluted whole blood was then tested for the mitogenic responses to Con A (25 microg/mL) and PHA-M (25 microg/mL). The cultures were then pulsed with 3H-thymidine, and incorporation was measured using a liquid scintillation counter. There was a line difference in the mitogenic responses to Con A for PBMC and whole blood assays, but no line difference was observed in the response to PHA-M for both assays. For the purified PBMC assay, the F line had a lower response than its randombred control line (P responses to Con A than the RBC2 line, with differences being significant at 0 and 2 d postinjection (P selection for increased BW might have affected the lymphoblastogenic potential of Line F that could affect disease resistance.

  4. Enriched Environment Increases PCNA and PARP1 Levels in Octopus vulgaris Central Nervous System: First Evidence of Adult Neurogenesis in Lophotrochozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertapelle, Carla; Polese, Gianluca; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2017-06-01

    Organisms showing a complex and centralized nervous system, such as teleosts, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, and among invertebrates, crustaceans and insects, can adjust their behavior according to the environmental challenges. Proliferation, differentiation, migration, and axonal and dendritic development of newborn neurons take place in brain areas where structural plasticity, involved in learning, memory, and sensory stimuli integration, occurs. Octopus vulgaris has a complex and centralized nervous system, located between the eyes, with a hierarchical organization. It is considered the most "intelligent" invertebrate for its advanced cognitive capabilities, as learning and memory, and its sophisticated behaviors. The experimental data obtained by immunohistochemistry and western blot assay using proliferating cell nuclear antigen and poli (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 as marker of cell proliferation and synaptogenesis, respectively, reviled cell proliferation in areas of brain involved in learning, memory, and sensory stimuli integration. Furthermore, we showed how enriched environmental conditions affect adult neurogenesis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Size-Based Enrichment of Exfoliated Tumor Cells in Urine Increases the Sensitivity for DNA-Based Detection of Bladder Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Elin; Steven, Kenneth; Guldberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    fractions and small numbers of tumor cells exfoliated into the urine from low-grade tumors. The purpose of this study was to improve the sensitivity for non-invasive detection of bladder cancer by size-based capture and enrichment of tumor cells in urine. In a split-sample set-up, urine from a consecutive......Bladder cancer is diagnosed by cystoscopy, a costly and invasive procedure that is associated with patient discomfort. Analysis of tumor-specific markers in DNA from sediments of voided urine has the potential for non-invasive detection of bladder cancer; however, the sensitivity is limited by low...... series of patients with primary or recurrent bladder tumors (N = 189) was processed by microfiltration using a membrane filter with a defined pore-size, and sedimentation by centrifugation, respectively. DNA from the samples was analyzed for seven bladder tumor-associated methylation markers using Methy...

  6. Environmental enrichment for aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Aquatic animals are the most popular pets in the United States based on the number of owned pets. They are popular display animals and are increasingly used in research settings. Enrichment of captive animals is an important element of zoo and laboratory medicine. The importance of enrichment for aquatic animals has been slower in implementation. For a long time, there was debate over whether or not fish were able to experience pain or form long-term memories. As that debate has reduced and the consciousness of more aquatic animals is accepted, the need to discuss enrichment for these animals has increased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intermittent hypoxia selects for genotypes and phenotypes that increase survival, invasion, and therapy resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Verduzco

    Full Text Available Hypoxia in tumors correlates with greater risk of metastases, increased invasiveness, and resistance to systemic and radiation therapy. The evolutionary dynamics that links specific adaptations to hypoxia with these observed tumor properties have not been well investigated. While some tumor populations may experience fixed hypoxia, cyclical and stochastic transitions from normoxia to hypoxia are commonly observed in vivo. Although some phenotypic adaptations to this cyclic hypoxia are likely reversible, we hypothesize that some adaptations may become fixed through mutations promoted by hypoxia-induced genomic instability. Here we seek to identify genetic alterations and corresponding stable phenotypes that emerge following cyclic hypoxia. Although these changes may originate as adaptations to this specific environmental stress, their fixation in the tumor genome may result in their observation in tumors from regions of normoxia, a condition known as pseudohypoxia. We exposed several epithelial cell lines to 50 cycles of hypoxia-normoxia, followed by culture in normoxia over a period of several months. Molecular analyses demonstrated permanent changes in expression of several oncogenes and tumor-suppressors, including p53, E-cadherin, and Hif-1α. These changes were associated with increased resistance to multiple cytotoxins, increased survival in hypoxia and increased anchorage-independent growth. These results suggest cycles of hypoxia encountered in early cancers can select for specific and stable genotypic and phenotypic properties that persist even in normoxic conditions, which may promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy.

  8. Teicoplanin Stress-Selected Mutations Increasing ςB Activity in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Markus; Berger-Bächi, Brigitte

    2001-01-01

    A natural rsbU mutant of Staphylococcus aureus, unable to activate the alternative transcription factor ςB via the RsbU pathway and therefore forming unpigmented colonies, produced first-step teicoplanin-resistant mutants upon selection for growth in the presence of teicoplanin, of which the majority were of an intense orange color. By using an asp23 promoter-luciferase fusion as an indicator, the pigmented mutants were shown to express increased ςB activity. Increased ςB activity was associated with point mutations in rsbW, releasing ςB from sequestration by the anti-sigma factor RsbW, or to promoter mutations increasing the ςB/RsbW ratio. Genetic manipulations involving the sigB operon suggested that the mutations within the operon were associated with the increase in teicoplanin resistance. The upregulation of ςB suggests that a ςB-controlled gene(s) is directly or indirectly involved in the development of teicoplanin resistance in S. aureus. Carotenoids do not contribute to teicoplanin resistance, since inactivation of the dehydrosqualene synthase gene crtM abolished pigment formation without affecting teicoplanin resistance. The relevant ςB-controlled target genes involved in teicoplanin resistance remain to be identified. PMID:11353616

  9. Antisense oligonucleotides targeting translation inhibitory elements in 5' UTRs can selectively increase protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Sun, Hong; Shen, Wen; Wang, Shiyu; Yao, Joyee; Migawa, Michael T; Bui, Huynh-Hoa; Damle, Sagar S; Riney, Stan; Graham, Mark J; Crooke, Rosanne M; Crooke, Stanley T

    2017-09-19

    A variety of diseases are caused by deficiencies in amounts or activity of key proteins. An approach that increases the amount of a specific protein might be of therapeutic benefit. We reasoned that translation could be specifically enhanced using trans-acting agents that counter the function of negative regulatory elements present in the 5' UTRs of some mRNAs. We recently showed that translation can be enhanced by antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) that target upstream open reading frames. Here we report the amount of a protein can also be selectively increased using ASOs designed to hybridize to other translation inhibitory elements in 5' UTRs. Levels of human RNASEH1, LDLR, and ACP1 and of mouse ACP1 and ARF1 were increased up to 2.7-fold in different cell types and species upon treatment with chemically modified ASOs targeting 5' UTR inhibitory regions in the mRNAs encoding these proteins. The activities of ASOs in enhancing translation were sequence and position dependent and required helicase activity. The ASOs appear to improve the recruitment of translation initiation factors to the target mRNA. Importantly, ASOs targeting ACP1 mRNA significantly increased the level of ACP1 protein in mice, suggesting that this approach has therapeutic and research potentials. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Synthesis of a new type of echinus-like Fe3O4@TiO2 core-shell-structured microspheres and their applications in selectively enriching phosphopeptides and removing phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Shi, Xianzhe; Qiao, Lizhen; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2013-02-01

    Some compounds of low abundance in biological samples play important roles in bioprocesses. However, the detection of these compounds at inherently trace concentrations with interference from a complex matrix is difficult. New materials for sample pretreatment are essential for the removal of interferences and for selective enrichment. In this study, echinus-like Fe(3)O(4)@TiO(2) core-shell-structured microspheres (echinus-like microspheres) have been synthesized for the first time. Rutile phase TiO(2) nanorods with a length of approximately 300 nm and width of approximately 60 nm are arranged regularly on the surface of the microspheres. This novel type of material exhibited good selectivity and adsorption capacity toward phosphate-containing compounds. In proteomics research, the echinus-like microspheres were used to selectively enrich phosphopeptides from complex peptide mixtures. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis showed that fourteen phosphopeptides were detected from α-casein tryptic digests after enrichment. Even in peptide mixtures that contained highly abundant nonphosphorylated peptides with interference from bovine serum albumin, these phospopeptides could still be selectively trapped with little nonspecific adsorption. In metabolomics studies, the echinus-like microspheres were further used to selectively remove phosphocholines (PCs) and lysophosphocholines (LPCs), which are the main matrix interferences for the detection of metabolites of low abundance in plasma. Liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to perform the metabolic profiling of plasma. The high concentrations of PCs and LPCs were effectively eliminated, and many endogenous metabolites of low abundance were enhanced or even observed for the first time. All of the results suggest that echinus-like microspheres have potential applications in proteomics and metabolomics to improve the

  11. Evidence of a Conserved Molecular Response to Selection for Increased Brain Size in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Peter W.; Caravas, Jason A.; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Phillips, Kimberley A.; Mundy, Nicholas I.

    2017-01-01

    The adaptive significance of human brain evolution has been frequently studied through comparisons with other primates. However, the evolution of increased brain size is not restricted to the human lineage but is a general characteristic of primate evolution. Whether or not these independent episodes of increased brain size share a common genetic basis is unclear. We sequenced and de novo assembled the transcriptome from the neocortical tissue of the most highly encephalized nonhuman primate, the tufted capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). Using this novel data set, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of orthologous brain-expressed protein coding genes to identify evidence of conserved gene–phenotype associations and species-specific adaptations during three independent episodes of brain size increase. We identify a greater number of genes associated with either total brain mass or relative brain size across these six species than show species-specific accelerated rates of evolution in individual large-brained lineages. We test the robustness of these associations in an expanded data set of 13 species, through permutation tests and by analyzing how genome-wide patterns of substitution co-vary with brain size. Many of the genes targeted by selection during brain expansion have glutamatergic functions or roles in cell cycle dynamics. We also identify accelerated evolution in a number of individual capuchin genes whose human orthologs are associated with human neuropsychiatric disorders. These findings demonstrate the value of phenotypically informed genome analyses, and suggest at least some aspects of human brain evolution have occurred through conserved gene–phenotype associations. Understanding these commonalities is essential for distinguishing human-specific selection events from general trends in brain evolution. PMID:28391320

  12. Evidence of a Conserved Molecular Response to Selection for Increased Brain Size in Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddy, Amy M; Harrison, Peter W; Montgomery, Stephen H; Caravas, Jason A; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Phillips, Kimberley A; Mundy, Nicholas I; Wildman, Derek E

    2017-03-01

    The adaptive significance of human brain evolution has been frequently studied through comparisons with other primates. However, the evolution of increased brain size is not restricted to the human lineage but is a general characteristic of primate evolution. Whether or not these independent episodes of increased brain size share a common genetic basis is unclear. We sequenced and de novo assembled the transcriptome from the neocortical tissue of the most highly encephalized nonhuman primate, the tufted capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). Using this novel data set, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of orthologous brain-expressed protein coding genes to identify evidence of conserved gene-phenotype associations and species-specific adaptations during three independent episodes of brain size increase. We identify a greater number of genes associated with either total brain mass or relative brain size across these six species than show species-specific accelerated rates of evolution in individual large-brained lineages. We test the robustness of these associations in an expanded data set of 13 species, through permutation tests and by analyzing how genome-wide patterns of substitution co-vary with brain size. Many of the genes targeted by selection during brain expansion have glutamatergic functions or roles in cell cycle dynamics. We also identify accelerated evolution in a number of individual capuchin genes whose human orthologs are associated with human neuropsychiatric disorders. These findings demonstrate the value of phenotypically informed genome analyses, and suggest at least some aspects of human brain evolution have occurred through conserved gene-phenotype associations. Understanding these commonalities is essential for distinguishing human-specific selection events from general trends in brain evolution. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  13. Shape-shift: semicircular canal morphology responds to selective breeding for increased locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, Heidi; Jamniczky, Heather A; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Garland, Theodore

    2014-11-01

    Variation in semicircular canal morphology correlates with locomotor agility among species of mammals. An experimental evolutionary mouse model was used to test the hypotheses that semicircular canal morphology (1) evolves in response to selective breeding for increased locomotor activity, (2) exhibits phenotypic plasticity in response to early-onset chronic exercise, and (3) is unique in individuals possessing the minimuscle phenotype. We examined responses in canal morphology to prolonged wheel access and selection in laboratory mice from four replicate lines bred for high voluntary wheel-running (HR) and four nonselected control (C) lines. Linear measurements and a suite of 3D landmarks were obtained from 3D reconstructions of μCT-scanned mouse crania (μCT is microcomputed tomography). Body mass was smaller in HR than C mice and was a significant predictor of both radius of curvature and 3D canal shape. Controlling for body mass, radius of curvature did not differ statistically between HR and C mice, but semicircular canal shape did. Neither chronic wheel access nor minimuscle affected radius of curvature or canal shape These findings suggest that semicircular canal morphology is responsive to evolutionary changes in locomotor behavior, but the pattern of response is potentially different in small- versus large-bodied species. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Oxytocin increases attention to the eyes and selectively enhances self-reported affective empathy for fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubble, Kelly; Daughters, Katie; Manstead, Antony S R; Rees, Aled; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2017-11-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) has previously been implicated in a range of prosocial behaviors such as trust and emotion recognition. Nevertheless, recent studies have questioned the evidence for this link. In addition, there has been relatively little conclusive research on the effect of OXT on empathic ability and such studies as there are have not examined the mechanisms through which OXT might affect empathy, or whether OXT selectively facilitates empathy for specific emotions. In the current study, we used eye-tracking to assess attention to socially relevant information while participants viewed dynamic, empathy-inducing video clips, in which protagonists expressed sadness, happiness, pain or fear. In a double-blind, within-subjects, randomized control trial, 40 healthy male participants received 24 IU intranasal OXT or placebo in two identical experimental sessions, separated by a 2-week interval. OXT led to an increase in time spent fixating upon the eye-region of the protagonist's face across emotions. OXT also selectively enhanced self-reported affective empathy for fear, but did not affect cognitive or affective empathy for other emotions. Nevertheless, there was no positive relationship between eye-gaze patterns and affective empathy, suggesting that although OXT influences eye-gaze and may enhance affective empathy for fear, these two systems are independent. Future studies need to further examine the effect of OXT on eye-gaze to fully ascertain whether this can explain the improvements in emotional behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Combinatorial approaches with selected phytochemicals to increase antibiotic efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Ana Cristina; Saavedra, Maria José; Simões, Lúcia C; Simões, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Combinations of selected phytochemicals (reserpine, pyrrolidine, quinine, morin and quercetin) with antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and erythromycin) were tested on the prevention and control of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. The phytochemicals were also studied for their ability to avoid antibiotic adaptation and to inhibit antibiotic efflux pumps. Morin, pyrrolidine and quercetin at subinhibitory concentrations had significant effects in biofilm prevention and/or control when applied alone and combined with antibiotics. Synergism between antibiotics and phytochemicals was found especially against biofilms of NorA overexpressing strain S. aureus SA1199B. This strain when growing with subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin developed increased tolerance to this antibiotic. However, this was successfully reversed by quinine and morin. In addition, reserpine and quercetin showed significant efflux pump inhibition. The overall results demonstrate the role of phytochemicals in co-therapies to promote more efficient treatments and decrease antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics, with substantial effects against S. aureus in both planktonic and biofilm states.

  16. By their words ye shall know them: evidence of genetic selection against general intelligence and concurrent environmental enrichment in vocabulary usage since the mid 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Anthony Woodley of Menie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been theorized that declines in g due to negative selection stemming from the inverse association between completed fertility and IQ, and the Flynn effect co-occur, with the effects of the latter being concentrated on less-heritable non-g sources of intelligence variance. Evidence for this comes from the observation that 19th Century populations were more intellectually productive, and also exhibited faster simple reaction times than modern ones, suggesting higher g. This co-occurrence model is tested via examination of historical changes in the utilization frequencies of words from the highly g-loaded WORDSUM test across 5.9 million texts spanning 1850 to 2005. Consistent with predictions, words with higher difficulties (δ parameters from Item Response Theory and stronger negative correlations between pass-rates and completed fertility presented a steeper decline in use over time, than less difficult and less negatively selected words, which increased in use over time, suggestive of a Flynn effect. These findings persisted when explicitly controlled for word age, literacy rates and temporal autocorrelation. These trends constitute compelling evidence that both producers and consumers of text have experienced declines in g since the mid-19th Century.

  17. Small Prizes Increased Plain Milk and Vegetable Selection by Elementary School Children without Adversely Affecting Total Milk Purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Emerson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Pediatric obesity continues to be a major public health issue. Poor food selection in the school cafeteria is a risk factor. Chocolate or strawberry flavored milk is favored by the majority of elementary school students. Previous health promotion efforts have led to increased selection of plain milk, but may compromise total milk purchased. In our study, we examined the effectiveness of small prizes as incentives to improve healthy food and beverage selection by elementary school students; (2 Methods: In a small Midwestern school district, small prizes were given to elementary school students who selected a “Power Plate” (PP, the healthful combination of a plain milk, a fruit, a vegetable and an entrée with whole grain over two academic school years; (3 Results: PP selection increased from 0.05 per student to 0.19, a 271% increase (p < 0.001. All healthful foods had increased selection with plain milk having the greatest increase, 0.098 per student to 0.255, a 159% increase (p < 0.001; (4 Total milk purchased increased modestly from 0.916 to 0.956 per student (p = 0.000331. Conclusion: Giving small prizes as a reward for healthful food selection substantially improves healthful food selection and the effect is sustainable over two academic years.

  18. Behavioral Traits are Affected by Selective Breeding for Increased Wheel-Running Behavior in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonas, I.; Schubert, K. A.; Reijne, A. C.; Scholte, J.; Garland, T.; Gerkema, M. P.; Scheurink, A. J. W.; Nyakas, C.; van Dijk, G.; Garland Jr., T.; Maxson, Stephen

    Voluntary physical activity may be related to personality traits. Here, we investigated these relations in two mouse lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior and in one non-selected control line. Selection lines were more explorative and "information gathering" in the

  19. Controlled Incremental Filtration: A simplified approach to design and fabrication of high-throughput microfluidic devices for selective enrichment of particles†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Sean C.; Spillane, Angela M.; Vignes, Seth M.; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S.

    2014-01-01

    The number of microfluidic strategies aimed at separating particles or cells of a specific size within a continuous flow system continues to grow. The wide array of biomedical and other applications that would benefit from successful development of such technology has motivated the extensive research in this area over the past 15 years. However, despite promising advancements in microfabrication capabilities, a versatile approach that is suitable for a large range of particle sizes and high levels of enrichment, with a volumetric throughput sufficient for large-scale applications, has yet to emerge. Here we describe a straightforward method that enables the rapid design of microfluidic devices that are capable of enriching/removing particles within a complex aqueous mixture, with an unprecedented range of potential cutoff diameter (below 1µm to above 100µm) and an easily scalable degree of enrichment/filtration (up to 10-fold and well beyond). A simplified model of a new approach to crossflow filtration – controlled incremental filtration – was developed and validated for its ability to generate microfluidic devices that efficiently separate particles on the order of 1–10µm, with throughputs of tens of µL/min, without the use of a pump. Precise control of the amount of fluid incrementally diverted at each filtration “gap” of the device allows for the gap size (~20µm) to be much larger than the particles of interest, while the simplicity of the model allows for many thousands of these filtration points to be readily incorporated into a desired device design. This new approach should enable truly high-throughput microfluidic particle-separation devices to be generated, even by users only minimally experienced in fluid mechanics and microfabrication techniques. PMID:25254358

  20. Controlled incremental filtration: a simplified approach to design and fabrication of high-throughput microfluidic devices for selective enrichment of particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Sean C; Spillane, Angela M; Vignes, Seth M; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2014-12-07

    The number of microfluidic strategies aimed at separating particles or cells of a specific size within a continuous flow system continues to grow. The wide array of biomedical and other applications that would benefit from successful development of such technology has motivated the extensive research in this area over the past 15 years. However, despite promising advancements in microfabrication capabilities, a versatile approach that is suitable for a large range of particle sizes and high levels of enrichment, with a volumetric throughput sufficient for large-scale applications, has yet to emerge. Here we describe a straightforward method that enables the rapid design of microfluidic devices that are capable of enriching/removing particles within a complex aqueous mixture, with an unprecedented range of potential cutoff diameter (below 1 μm to above 100 μm) and an easily scalable degree of enrichment/filtration (up to 10-fold and well beyond). A simplified model of a new approach to crossflow filtration - controlled incremental filtration - was developed and validated for its ability to generate microfluidic devices that efficiently separate particles on the order of 1-10 μm, with throughputs of tens of μL min(-1), without the use of a pump. Precise control of the amount of fluid incrementally diverted at each filtration "gap" of the device allows for the gap size (~20 μm) to be much larger than the particles of interest, while the simplicity of the model allows for many thousands of these filtration points to be readily incorporated into a desired device design. This new approach should enable truly high-throughput microfluidic particle-separation devices to be generated, even by users only minimally experienced in fluid mechanics and microfabrication techniques.

  1. Prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporinase (ESC)-producing Escherichia coli in Danish slaughter pigs and retail meat identified by selective enrichment and association with cephalosporin usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Pedersen, Karl

    2012-01-01

    (n = 786) were collected at slaughter, and 866 meat samples [Danish: pork (153), broiler meat (121) and beef (142); and imported: pork (173), broiler meat (193) and beef (84)] were randomly collected in retail stores and outlets. E. coli was isolated after enrichment in MacConkey broth......OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporinase (ESC)-producing Escherichia coli in pigs at slaughter and retail meat, and possible associations with the consumption of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. METHODS: During 2009, faecal samples from Danish pigs...

  2. Increasing the selectivity and sensitivity of gas sensors for the detection of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Daniel

    Over the past decade, the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) has increased, domestically and internationally, highlighting a growing need for a method to quickly and reliably detect explosive devices in both military and civilian environments before the explosive can cause damage. Conventional techniques have been successful in explosive detection, however they typically suffer from enormous costs in capital equipment and maintenance, costs in energy consumption, sampling, operational related expenses, and lack of continuous and real-time monitoring. The goal was thus to produce an inexpensive, portable sensor that continuously monitors the environment, quickly detects the presence of explosive compounds and alerts the user. In 2012, here at URI, a sensor design was proposed for the detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP). The design entailed a thermodynamic gas sensor that measures the heat of decomposition between trace TATP vapor and a metal oxide catalyst film. The sensor was able to detect TATP vapor at the part per million level (ppm) and showed great promise for eventual commercial use, however, the sensor lacked selectivity. Thus, the specific objective of this work was to take the original sensor design proposed in 2012 and to make several key improvements to advance the sensor towards commercialization. It was demonstrated that a sensor can be engineered to detect TATP and ignore the effects of interferent H2O2 molecules by doping SnO2 films with varying amounts of Pd. Compared with a pure SnO2 catalyst, a SnO2, film doped with 8 wt. % Pd had the highest selectivity between TATP and H2O2. Also, at 12 wt. % Pd, the response to TATP and H2O2 was enhanced, indicating that sensitivity, not only selectivity, can be increased by modifying the composition of the catalyst. An orthogonal detection system was demonstrated. The platform consists of two independent sensing mechanisms, one thermodynamic and one conductometric, which take measurements from

  3. Preparation of hydrophilic monolithic capillary column by in situ photo-polymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone and acrylamide for highly selective and sensitive enrichment of N-linked glycopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Yuan, Huiming; Qu, Yanyan; Liang, Yu; Jiang, Bo; Wu, Qi; Deng, Nan; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel kind of amide functionalized hydrophilic monolith was synthesized by the in situ photo-polymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NVP), acrylamide (AM), and N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) in a UV transparent capillary, and successfully applied for hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) based enrichment of N-linked glycopeptides. With 2 μg of the tryptic digests of IgG as the sample, after enrichment, 18 glycopeptides could be identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis. Furthermore, with the mixture of BSA and IgG digests (10,000:1, m/m) as the sample, 6 N-linked glycopeptides were unambiguously identified after enrichment, indicating the high selectivity and good specificity of such material. Moreover, such a monolithic capillary column was also applied for the N-glycosylation sites profiling of 6 μg protein digests from HeLa cells and 1 μL human serum. In total, 530 and 262 unique N-glycosylated peptides were identified, respectively, corresponding to 282 and 124N-glycoproteins, demonstrating its great potential for the large scale glycoproteomics analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Coupling of metal-organic frameworks-containing monolithic capillary-based selective enrichment with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for efficient analysis of protein phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daojin; Yin, Danyang; Chen, Yang; Liu, Zhen

    2017-05-19

    Protein phosphorylation is a major post-translational modification, which plays a vital role in cellular signaling of numerous biological processes. Mass spectrometry (MS) has been an essential tool for the analysis of protein phosphorylation, for which it is a key step to selectively enrich phosphopeptides from complex biological samples. In this study, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-based monolithic capillary has been successfully prepared as an effective sorbent for the selective enrichment of phosphopeptides and has been off-line coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for efficient analysis of phosphopeptides. Using š-casein as a representative phosphoprotein, efficient phosphorylation analysis by this off-line platform was verified. Phosphorylation analysis of a nonfat milk sample was also demonstrated. Through introducing large surface areas and highly ordered pores of MOFs into monolithic column, the MOFs-based monolithic capillary exhibited several significant advantages, such as excellent selectivity toward phosphopeptides, superb tolerance to interference and simple operation procedure. Because of these highly desirable properties, the MOFs-based monolithic capillary could be a useful tool for protein phosphorylation analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Experiments for practical education in process parameter optimization for selective laser sintering to increase workpiece quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutterer, Bernd; Traxler, Lukas; Bayer, Natascha; Drauschke, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is considered as one of the most important additive manufacturing processes due to component stability and its broad range of usable materials. However the influence of the different process parameters on mechanical workpiece properties is still poorly studied, leading to the fact that further optimization is necessary to increase workpiece quality. In order to investigate the impact of various process parameters, laboratory experiments are implemented to improve the understanding of the SLS limitations and advantages on an educational level. Experiments are based on two different workstations, used to teach students the fundamentals of SLS. First of all a 50 W CO2 laser workstation is used to investigate the interaction of the laser beam with the used material in accordance with varied process parameters to analyze a single-layered test piece. Second of all the FORMIGA P110 laser sintering system from EOS is used to print different 3D test pieces in dependence on various process parameters. Finally quality attributes are tested including warpage, dimension accuracy or tensile strength. For dimension measurements and evaluation of the surface structure a telecentric lens in combination with a camera is used. A tensile test machine allows testing of the tensile strength and the interpreting of stress-strain curves. The developed laboratory experiments are suitable to teach students the influence of processing parameters. In this context they will be able to optimize the input parameters depending on the component which has to be manufactured and to increase the overall quality of the final workpiece.

  6. The Importance of Knowledge Management in Terms of Increasing Social Capital in Selected Slovene Technology Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riko Novak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the importance of knowledge management (KM and how it is influencing social capital (SC in selected organisations that are members of Slovene technology parks. The purpose of this article is to point out statistical important characteristics between the dependant variable and several independent variables on the basis of preliminary studied empirical data based on a population of 667 organisations chosen from the subjects of the innovative environment database maintained by the Public Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Entrepreneurship and Foreign Investments (JAPTI. On the basis of a multivariate regression analysis we wanted to present empirical findings, namely, whether communication technologies and the capability (ability of the employed to access information sources influences KM. With this article we want to present the final findings which define the development of a conceptual framework for understanding the influence of KM in small and medium sized companies on the development of social capital. We came to the conclusion that in an organisation the importance of intellectual and social capital, intangible capital assets and their continuous measurement has to be emphasised in order to increase the importance (awareness of KM.

  7. Non-invasive brain stimulation targeting the right fusiform gyrus selectively increases working memory for faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunyé, Tad T; Moran, Joseph M; Holmes, Amanda; Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A

    2017-04-01

    The human extrastriate cortex contains a region critically involved in face detection and memory, the right fusiform gyrus. The present study evaluated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting this anatomical region would selectively influence memory for faces versus non-face objects (houses). Anodal tDCS targeted the right fusiform gyrus (Brodmann's Area 37), with the anode at electrode site PO10, and cathode at FP2. Two stimulation conditions were compared in a repeated-measures design: 0.5mA versus 1.5mA intensity; a separate control group received no stimulation. Participants completed a working memory task for face and house stimuli, varying in memory load from 1 to 4 items. Individual differences measures assessed trait-based differences in facial recognition skills. Results showed 1.5mA intensity stimulation (versus 0.5mA and control) increased performance at high memory loads, but only with faces. Lower overall working memory capacity predicted a positive impact of tDCS. Results provide support for the notion of functional specialization of the right fusiform regions for maintaining face (but not non-face object) stimuli in working memory, and further suggest that low intensity electrical stimulation of this region may enhance demanding face working memory performance particularly in those with relatively poor baseline working memory skills. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Improved detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in input and output samples of German biogas plants by a selective pre-enrichment procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schauss

    Full Text Available The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%, few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%. Sixty-four blaCTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85% and 9 (13%, and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71% and B1 (27%, only one to group D (2%. Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E

  9. Improved Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Escherichia coli in Input and Output Samples of German Biogas Plants by a Selective Pre-Enrichment Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauss, Thorsten; Glaeser, Stefanie P.; Gütschow, Alexandra; Dott, Wolfgang; Kämpfer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry) and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant) and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU) per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%), few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%). Sixty-four blaCTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85%) and 9 (13%), and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71%) and B1 (27%), only one to group D (2%). Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT) genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in

  10. Development of a real-time PCR method coupled with a selective pre-enrichment step for quantification of Morganella morganii and Morganella psychrotolerans in fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podeur, Gaetan; Dalgaard, Paw; Leroi, Francoise

    2015-01-01

    Histamine fish poisoning is common and due to toxic concentrations of histamine often produced by Gram-negative bacteria in fin-fish products with a high content of the free amino acid histidine. The genus Morganella includes two species previously reported to cause incidents of histamine fish...... poisoning. Morganella morganii and Morganella psychrotolerans are both strong producer of histamine. However, little is known about the occurrence and critical stages for fish contamination with these bacteria. To elucidate contamination routes of Morganella, specific real-time quantitative PCR (RTi q...... purified DNA from 23 other histamine producing bacteria and 26 isolates with no or limited histamine production. The efficiency of the qPCR reactions on artificially contaminated fish samples were 100.8% and 96.3% respectively. The limit of quantification (LOQ) without enrichment was 4 log CFU...

  11. A novel carbon material with nanopores prepared using a metal-organic framework as precursor for highly selective enrichment of N-linked glycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanan; Wang, Jiaxi; Gao, Mingxia; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2017-01-01

    Protein glycosylation plays a key role in many biological processes. In this study, a novel carbon material with nanopores was prepared by carbonization of metal-organic framework (MOF) Mil-101(Cr). The parent MOF assembled from metal ions with bridging organic linkers had many fascinating properties, such as ultrahigh surface area, suitable nanopore structure, and especially a large amount of carbon after being calcined. Due to the strong interactions between carbon and glycans as well as the size-exclusion effect of pore against protein, the N-linked glycans from standard glycoprotein or complex human serum proteins could be identified with high efficiency. The simple synthesis method as well as good enrichment efficiency made this novel carbon material a promising tool for glycosylation research.

  12. Direct and correlated responses to long-term selection for increased body weight and egg production in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, K E; Noble, D O; Zhu, N J; Moritsu, Y

    1996-10-01

    Lines of turkeys were selected long-term for increased egg production (E line; 34 generations) or increased 16-wk BW (F line; 28 generations). The E and F lines were started from randombred control populations (RBC1 and RBC2, respectively) that were also maintained to remove environmental variation among generations. Realized heritabilities (h2) +/- SE in the E line, based on regressions of response on cumulated actual selection differentials (selection differentials weighted for the number of offspring produced), for 180-d and 250-d egg production were 0.34 +/- 0.02 (17 generations) and 0.26 +/- 0.13 (8 generations), respectively. The realized h2 of 16-wk BW in the F line was 0.26 +/- 0.01. There was no consistent evidence of selection response reaching a plateau in either line. The genetic association of BW and egg production changed with selection in the E and F lines. The genetic correlation varied from near zero to strongly negative and fluctuated between these extremes in both lines even though they started from different base populations and selection criteria differed. Other correlated responses to selection for increased egg production were increased average clutch length (intensity of lay), and decreased broodiness (total days lost), egg weight, shell coloration, and rate of response to stimulatory lighting. Other correlated responses to selection for increased 16-wk BW in the F line included: increased egg weight (due to increased albumen), longer eating bouts, and decreased average clutch length, semen production, walking ability, and resistance to Pasteurella multocida and Newcastle disease virus. Selection within the E and F lines also changed the frequency of MHC haplotypes and the changes appeared to be in opposite directions in the two lines.

  13. Increased soil stable nitrogen isotopic ratio following phosphorus enrichment: historical patterns and tests of two hypotheses in a phosphorus-limited wetland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inglett, P.W.; Reddy, K.R.; Newmann, S.

    2007-01-01

    ) increased N mineralization/N loss, and (2) reduced isotopic discrimination during macrophyte N uptake. Spatial patterns of δ15N in surface litter and soil (0-10 cm) mimic those of the aboveground macrophytes (Typha domingensis Pers. and Cladium jamaicense Crantz). Peat profiles also show increased δ15N...... on the δ15N of NH4+ and significantly increased the δ15N of water-extractable organic N. Measurements of surface soils collected during a field mesocosm experiment also revealed no significant effect of P on δ15N even after 5 years of P addition. In contrast, δ15N of leaf and root tissues of hydroponically...

  14. Agricultural Capacity to Increase the Production of Select Fruits and Vegetables in the US: A Geospatial Modeling Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Zach; Peters, Christian J.; Chui, Kenneth; Jahns, Lisa; Griffin, Timothy S.

    2017-01-01

    The capacity of US agriculture to increase the output of specific foods to accommodate increased demand is not well documented. This research uses geospatial modeling to examine the capacity of the US agricultural landbase to increase the per capita availability of an example set of nutrient-dense fruits and vegetables. These fruits and vegetables were selected based on nutrient content and an increasing trend of domestic production and consumption. Geographic information system models were p...

  15. Listeria monocytogenes strains which are underrepresented during selective enrichment with the ISO method might dominate during passage through simulated gastric fluid and in vitro infection of Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilelidou, Evangelia; Karmiri, Christina-Vasiliki; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Kletsas, Dimitris; Tsakalidou, Effie; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Drosinos, Eleftherios; Skandamis, Panagiotis

    2016-09-16

    Various Listeria monocytogenes strains may contaminate a single food potentially resulting in simultaneous exposure of consumers to multiple strains. However, L. monocytogenes strains isolated from foods by selective enrichment (SE) might not always represent those that can better survive a patient immune system, due to bias in strain recovery. We investigated the effect of co-cultivation in TSB-Y at 10°C for 8 days on i) the detection of L. monocytogenes strains during SE with the ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd 1:2004 protocol and ii) the in vitro virulence of strains towards the human colon epithelial cancer cell line Caco-2 following exposure to simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 2.0/HCl, 37°C). We determined whether the strains, which were favoured by SE, would be effective competitors under challenges related to gastrointestinal passage of the pathogen. Inter-strain competition of L. monocytogenes in TSB-Y determined the relative population of each strain at the beginning of SE. This in turn impacted the outcome of SE (i.e., favoring survival of better fitness competitors) and the levels exposed subsequently to SGF. However, strong growth competitors could be outcompeted after SGF exposure and infection of Caco-2 cells by strains outgrown in TSB-Y and underdetected (or even missed) during enrichment. Our data demonstrate a preferential selection of certain L. monocytogenes strains during enrichments, often not reflecting a selective advantage of strains during infection. These findings highlight a considerable scenario associated with the difficulty to match the source of infection (food) with the L. monocytogenes isolate appearing as the causative agent during listeriosis outbreak investigations. This study is relevant to understanding the processes involved in selection and prevalence of certain L. monocytogenes strains under different environments (i.e foods or sites of humans exposed to the pathogen). It highlights the occurrence of multiple strains in the same food

  16. Increasing the resistance of common bean to white mold through recurrent selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monik Evelin Leite

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT White mold, caused by Sclerotinea sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary is one of the most important diseases of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. worldwide. Physiological resistance and traits related to disease avoidance such as architecture contribute to field resistance. The aim of this study was to verify the efficiency of recurrent selection in physiological resistance to white mold, “Carioca” grain type and upright habit in common bean. Thirteen common bean lines with partial resistance to white mold were intercrossed by means of a circulant diallel table, and seven recurrent selection cycles were obtained. Of these cycles, progenies of the S0:1, S0:2 and S0:3 generations of cycles III, IV, V and VI were evaluated. The best (8 to 10 progenies of the seven cycles were also evaluated, in two experiments, one in the greenhouse and one in the field. Lattice and/or randomized block experimental designs were used. The traits evaluated were: resistance to white mold by the straw test method, growth habit and grain type. The most resistant progenies were selected based on the average score of resistance to white mold. Subsequently, they were evaluated with regard to grain type and growth habit. Recurrent selection allowed for genetic progress of about 11 % per year for white mold resistance and about 15 % per year for the plant architecture. There was no gain among cycles for grain type. Progeny selection and recurrent selection were efficient for obtaining progenies with a high level of resistance to white mold with “Carioca” grain type and upright habit.

  17. Increase in growth, productivity and nutritional status of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711) and enrichment in soil fertility applied with organic matrix entrapped urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Bauddh, Kuldeep; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sainger, Manish; Sainger, Poonam A; Singh, Rana P

    2013-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during two consequent years in semi-arid, subtropical climate of Rohtak district situated in North-West Indian state Haryana to evaluate the effects of eco-friendly organic matrix entrapped urea (OMEU) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711). The OMEU prepared in granular form contained cow dung, rice bran (grain cover of Oryza sativa), neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves and clay soil (diameter of particles fertilizer (NF) application. The OMEU increased total soluble proteins, organic N and free ammonium content in the leaves at 45 and 60 days. The nutritional status of wheat grains in OMEU applied plants was almost similar to that observed for FU applied plants. An increase in organic carbon and available phosphorus (P) was observed in OMEU applied plots on harvest whereas pH was slightly decreased over FU applied plots. The microbial population and activity in terms of fungal and bacterial colony count and activities soil dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher in OMEU applied plots as compared to the FU applied plots. Our data indicate that OMEU which are low cost, biodegradable and non-toxic can be used to replace the expensive chemical fertilizers for wheat cultivation in semi-arid, subtropical climate.

  18. Student science enrichment training program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, S.S.

    1994-08-01

    This is a report on the Student Science Enrichment Training Program, with special emphasis on chemical and computer science fields. The residential summer session was held at the campus of Claflin College, Orangeburg, SC, for six weeks during 1993 summer, to run concomitantly with the college`s summer school. Fifty participants selected for this program, included high school sophomores, juniors and seniors. The students came from rural South Carolina and adjoining states which, presently, have limited science and computer science facilities. The program focused on high ability minority students, with high potential for science engineering and mathematical careers. The major objective was to increase the pool of well qualified college entering minority students who would elect to go into science, engineering and mathematical careers. The Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics and engineering at Claflin College received major benefits from this program as it helped them to expand the Departments of Chemistry, Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science as a result of additional enrollment. It also established an expanded pool of well qualified minority science and mathematics graduates, which were recruited by the federal agencies and private corporations, visiting Claflin College Campus. Department of Energy`s relationship with Claflin College increased the public awareness of energy related job opportunities in the public and private sectors.

  19. Abrogated thioredoxin system causes increased sensitivity to TNF-α-induced apoptosis via enrichment of p-ERK 1/2 in the nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hyuk Yoo

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin (Trx and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1 are among the major redox regulators in mammalian cells and have a wide variety of roles, including removal of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and prevention of cell death. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α induces cancer cell death. Although ROS have been proposed to participate in this process, the role of the thioredoxin system in TNF-α stimulated cell death remains unclear. We investigated the possibility that the thioredoxin system protects against TNF-α-induced cancer cell death by examining whether TR1/Trx1 status controls TNF-α-induced apoptosis in EMT6 murine breast cancer cells. TR1-deficient cells were more sensitive to TNF-α than control cells. Increased sensitivity to TNF-α was most pronounced in Trx1-deficient cells. TNF-α-induced nuclear localization of phosphorylated ERK 1/2 (p-ERK 1/2 correlated with increased apoptosis in TR1- and Trx1-deficient cells, suggesting a pro-apoptotic role for nuclear p-ERK 1/2 in TNF-α-induced apoptosis. In addition, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K inhibition dramatically reduced TNF-α-stimulated apoptosis and nuclear localization of p-ERK 1/2. In contrast, inhibition of ROS, MEK, JNK, or p38 did not significantly alter p-ERK 1/2 localization or apoptosis in TR1- and Trx1-deficient cells compared to control cells. Further, NF-κB p65 localization was not changed in TR1- and Trx1-deficient cells in response to TNF-α relative to control cells. Our data suggest that the thioredoxin system plays a critical role in protecting against TNF-α-induced apoptosis by regulating the levels of nuclear p-ERK 1/2 in a PI3K-dependent manner.

  20. Forage selection by mule deer: does niche breadth increase with population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.C. Nicholson; R.T. Bowyer; J.G. Kie

    2006-01-01

    Effects of population density of mule deer Odocoileus hemionus on forage selection were investigated by comparing diet characteristics of two subpopulations of deer in southern California, USA, that differed in population density during winter. Quality of diet for deer, as indexed by faecal crude protein, was higher at the low-density site than at...

  1. Student-selected components in surgery: providing practical experience and increasing student confidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Falk, G A

    2009-09-01

    Reviews of the medical school curriculum in the UK and Ireland have recommended the introduction of student-selected components (SSCs). The Department of Surgery in The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) has introduced a 6-week surgical SSC, which aims to develop practical clinical skills, provide mentorship and prepare students for internship.

  2. Selection of tRNA charging quality control mechanisms that increase mistranslation of the genetic code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yadavalli, Srujana S; Ibba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mistranslation can follow two events during protein synthesis: production of non-cognate amino acid:transfer RNA (tRNA) pairs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) and inaccurate selection of aminoacyl-tRNAs by the ribosome. Many aaRSs actively edit non-cognate amino acids, but editing mechanisms...

  3. Marker-assisted-selection (MAS): A fast track to increase genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping and tagging of agriculturally important genes have been greatly facilitated by an array of molecular markers in crop plants. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is gaining considerable importance as it would improve the efficiency of plant breeding through precise transfer of genomic regions of interest (foreground ...

  4. Do selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors acutely increase frontal cortex levels of serotonin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyer, Chad E.; Cremers, Thomas I. F. H.

    2008-01-01

    Selective serotonin uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) exert their effects by inhibiting serotonin (5-HT) re-uptake. Although blockade occurs almost immediately, the neurochemical effects on 5-HT, as measured by in vivo microdialysis, have been a matter of considerable debate. In particular, literature

  5. Self-selected or mandated, open access increases citation impact for higher quality research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Gargouri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Articles whose authors have supplemented subscription-based access to the publisher's version by self-archiving their own final draft to make it accessible free for all on the web ("Open Access", OA are cited significantly more than articles in the same journal and year that have not been made OA. Some have suggested that this "OA Advantage" may not be causal but just a self-selection bias, because authors preferentially make higher-quality articles OA. To test this we compared self-selective self-archiving with mandatory self-archiving for a sample of 27,197 articles published 2002-2006 in 1,984 journals. METHDOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The OA Advantage proved just as high for both. Logistic regression analysis showed that the advantage is independent of other correlates of citations (article age; journal impact factor; number of co-authors, references or pages; field; article type; or country and highest for the most highly cited articles. The OA Advantage is real, independent and causal, but skewed. Its size is indeed correlated with quality, just as citations themselves are (the top 20% of articles receive about 80% of all citations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The OA advantage is greater for the more citable articles, not because of a quality bias from authors self-selecting what to make OA, but because of a quality advantage, from users self-selecting what to use and cite, freed by OA from the constraints of selective accessibility to subscribers only. It is hoped that these findings will help motivate the adoption of OA self-archiving mandates by universities, research institutions and research funders.

  6. CLL Exosomes Modulate the Transcriptome and Behaviour of Recipient Stromal Cells and Are Selectively Enriched in miR-202-3p

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Mosavar; Rubbi, Carlos; Liu, Luning; Slupsky, Joseph R.; Kalakonda, Nagesh

    2015-01-01

    Bi-directional communication with the microenvironment is essential for homing and survival of cancer cells with implications for disease biology and behaviour. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the role of the microenvironment on malignant cell behaviour is well described. However, how CLL cells engage and recruit nurturing cells is poorly characterised. Here we demonstrate that CLL cells secrete exosomes that are nanovesicles originating from the fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane, to shuttle proteins, lipids, microRNAs (miR) and mRNAs to recipient cells. We characterise and confirm the size (50–100 nm) and identity of the CLL-derived exosomes by Electron microscopy (EM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), flow cytometry and western blotting using both exosome- and CLL-specific markers. Incubation of CLL-exosomes, derived either from cell culture supernatants or from patient plasma, with human stromal cells shows that they are readily taken up into endosomes, and induce expression of genes such as c-fos and ATM as well as enhance proliferation of recipient HS-5 cells. Furthermore, we show that CLL exosomes encapsulate abundant small RNAs and are enriched in certain miRs and specifically hsa-miR-202-3p. We suggest that such specific packaging of miR-202-3p into exosomes results in enhanced expression of ‘suppressor of fused’ (Sufu), a Hedgehog (Hh) signalling intermediate, in the parental CLL cells. Thus, our data show that CLL cells secrete exosomes that alter the transcriptome and behaviour of recipient cells. Such communication with microenvironment is likely to have an important role in CLL disease biology. PMID:26509439

  7. CLL Exosomes Modulate the Transcriptome and Behaviour of Recipient Stromal Cells and Are Selectively Enriched in miR-202-3p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Mosavar; Rubbi, Carlos; Liu, Luning; Slupsky, Joseph R; Kalakonda, Nagesh

    2015-01-01

    Bi-directional communication with the microenvironment is essential for homing and survival of cancer cells with implications for disease biology and behaviour. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the role of the microenvironment on malignant cell behaviour is well described. However, how CLL cells engage and recruit nurturing cells is poorly characterised. Here we demonstrate that CLL cells secrete exosomes that are nanovesicles originating from the fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane, to shuttle proteins, lipids, microRNAs (miR) and mRNAs to recipient cells. We characterise and confirm the size (50-100 nm) and identity of the CLL-derived exosomes by Electron microscopy (EM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), flow cytometry and western blotting using both exosome- and CLL-specific markers. Incubation of CLL-exosomes, derived either from cell culture supernatants or from patient plasma, with human stromal cells shows that they are readily taken up into endosomes, and induce expression of genes such as c-fos and ATM as well as enhance proliferation of recipient HS-5 cells. Furthermore, we show that CLL exosomes encapsulate abundant small RNAs and are enriched in certain miRs and specifically hsa-miR-202-3p. We suggest that such specific packaging of miR-202-3p into exosomes results in enhanced expression of 'suppressor of fused' (Sufu), a Hedgehog (Hh) signalling intermediate, in the parental CLL cells. Thus, our data show that CLL cells secrete exosomes that alter the transcriptome and behaviour of recipient cells. Such communication with microenvironment is likely to have an important role in CLL disease biology.

  8. Detection of Ralstonia solanacearum from asymptomatic tomato plants, irrigation water, and soil through non-selective enrichment medium with hrp gene-based bio-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dinesh; Sinha, Shweta; Yadav, D K; Chaudhary, Garima

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial wilt of tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi et al. (Microbiol Immunol 39:897-904, 1995) is a serious disease, which causes losses up to 60 % depending on environmental conditions, soil property, and cultivars. In present investigation, nucleotide sequences of virulence, hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) gene were used to design a pair of primer (Hrp_rs 2F: 5'-AGAGGTCGACGCGATACAGT-3' and Hrp_rs 2R: 5'-CATGAGCAAGGACGAAGTCA-3') for amplification of bacterial genome. The genomic DNA of 27 isolates of R. solanacearum race 1 biovar 3 & 4 was amplified at 323 bp. The specificity of primer was tested on 13 strains of R. solanacearum with other group of bacteria such as Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. campestris pv. campestris, and X. citri subsp. citri. Primer amplified DNA fragment of R. solanacearum at 323 bp. The sensitivity of the primer was 200 cfu/ml and improved further detection level by using non-specific enrichment medium casamino acids-pepton-glucose broth followed by PCR (BIO-PCR). Out of 130 samples of asymptomatic tomato plants, irrigation water, and soil collected from bacterial wilt infested field in different agro-climatic regions of India, R. solanacearum was detected from 86.9, 88.5, and 90.9 per cents samples using BIO-PCR, respectively. The primer was found specific for detecting viable and virulent strains of R. solanacearum and useful for the diagnosis of R. solanacearum in tomato seedlings and monitoring of pathogen in irrigation water and soil.

  9. Increasing litter size in a sheep breed by marker-assisted selection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    breed population (1.76±0.03) was significantly greater than. Dorper (1.16±0.06), F1 (1.65±0.03) and backcross popula- tions (1.37±0.04) (P < 0.01). The selective effect of the. BMPR1B gene slightly acted on the growth trait of the 12- month weight, and the ++ genotype presented faster growth gain than BB or B+ individuals ...

  10. A decade of free‐air CO2 enrichment increased the carbon throughput in a grass‐clover ecosystem but did not drastically change carbon allocation patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staddon, Philip Louis; Reinsch, Sabine; Olsson, Pål A.

    2014-01-01

    The response of the soil carbon cycle to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration has far reaching consequences for the ecosystem carbon balance under future climatic conditions. We report on work carried out in the Swiss free‐air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment, where we used in situ 13CO2...... labelling to determine whether elevated CO2 (+230 μL L−1) concentration changes the fate of recently assimilated carbon in the soil microbial community. Elevated CO2 (eCO2) concentration had an overall positive effect on microbial abundance (P ... assimilated carbon by the microbial community without changing the microbial community composition drastically. We conclude that a higher standing soil microbial biomass under eCO2 concentration was the key cause for the higher carbon flow through the plant–soil system. Carbon utilization by microbial...

  11. Speeding Up Microevolution: The Effects of Increasing Temperature on Selection and Genetic Variance in a Wild Bird Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Arild; Visser, Marcel E.; Kruuk, Loeske E. B.

    2011-01-01

    The amount of genetic variance underlying a phenotypic trait and the strength of selection acting on that trait are two key parameters that determine any evolutionary response to selection. Despite substantial evidence that, in natural populations, both parameters may vary across environmental conditions, very little is known about the extent to which they may covary in response to environmental heterogeneity. Here we show that, in a wild population of great tits (Parus major), the strength of the directional selection gradients on timing of breeding increased with increasing spring temperatures, and that genotype-by-environment interactions also predicted an increase in additive genetic variance, and heritability, of timing of breeding with increasing spring temperature. Consequently, we therefore tested for an association between the annual selection gradients and levels of additive genetic variance expressed each year; this association was positive, but non-significant. However, there was a significant positive association between the annual selection differentials and the corresponding heritability. Such associations could potentially speed up the rate of micro-evolution and offer a largely ignored mechanism by which natural populations may adapt to environmental changes. PMID:21408101

  12. Contribution of Nutrient-enriched Groundwater to Excessive Algal Growth along a Select Reach of the East Fork Carson River, West-Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, N. L.; Pahl, R. A.; Rosen, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    A study during the summers of 2010 and 2012 was conducted to determine if nutrient-enriched groundwater discharge contributed to excessive algal growth observed along a 5,800-foot reach of the East Fork Carson River in Carson Valley, west-central Nevada. Groundwater discharge to the river was determined using flow-net analysis, chloride-mass balance, and differences in measured streamflow. Water samples were collected from the river and shallow groundwater wells located in the river and along the banks for determination of nutrient concentrations and sources; algae samples were collected from the 5,800-foot river reach. Groundwater was found to be discharging to the river from both banks along a 405-foot sub-reach in the middle of the 5,800-foot study reach. High nitrate concentrations (2-3 milligrams per liter as nitrogen) were found in the groundwater along the right bank of the sub-reach. Within this sub-reach, river nitrate loads ranged from 1.3 to 7.9 pounds of nitrogen (N) per day; groundwater nitrate loads were estimated to be 0.07 pounds of N per day. Dissolved orthophosphate river loads ranged from 0.12 to 0.20 pounds of phosphorus (P) per day; groundwater orthophosphate loads were estimated to be 0.005 pounds of P per day. This sub-reach had the highest average algal biomass within the study reach. The data suggest that nutrient rich groundwater discharging to the river may create a favorable microenvironment for periphyton that assimilate available nutrients before the groundwater mixes with overlying river water. The source of nitrate in groundwater is likely anthropogenic as groundwater nitrate concentrations above background concentrations were only found along the right bank of the river adjacent to a housing development. Organic-wastewater compounds detected in groundwater samples collected from wells along the right bank within this sub-reach offer independent support that the elevated nitrate concentrations were human-derived.

  13. Neuroprotective effects of cognitive enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, Norton W; Siwak-Tapp, Christina T; Araujo, Joseph; Head, Elizabeth

    2006-08-01

    Cognitive enrichment early in life, as indicated by level of education, complexity of work environment or nature of leisure activities, appears to protect against the development of age-associated cognitive decline and also dementia. These effects are more robust for measures of crystallized intelligence than for measures of fluid intelligence and depend on the ability of the brain to compensate for pathological changes associated with aging. This compensatory ability is referred to as cognitive reserve. The cognitive reserve hypothesis suggests that cognitive enrichment promotes utilization of available functions. Alternatively, late life cognitive changes in cognition may be linked to a factor, such as cholinergic dysfunction, that is also present early in life and contributes to the reduced levels of early life cognitive enrichment. Beneficial effects of environmental enrichment early in life have also been observed in rodents and primates. Research with rodents indicates that these changes have structural correlates, which likely include increased synapses in specific brain regions. Dogs also show age-dependent cognitive decline, and both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies indicate that this decline can be attenuated by cognitive enrichment. Furthermore, cognitive enrichment has differential effects, improving some functions more than others. From a neurobiological perspective, behavioral enrichment in the dog may act to promote neurogenesis later in life. This can be distinguished from nutritional interventions with antioxidants, which appear to attenuate the development of neuropathology. These results suggest that a combination of behavioral and nutritional or pharmacological interventions may be optimal for reducing the rate of age-dependent cognitive decline.

  14. Isolation of a novel retinoic acid-responsive gene by selection of genomic fragments derived from CpG-island-enriched DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shago, M; Giguére, V

    1996-08-01

    One of the primary goals in transcription factor research is the elucidation of the genetic networks controlled by a factor or by members of a family of closely related factors. The pleiotropic effects of retinoic acid (PA) in the developing and adult animal are mediated by ligand-inducible transcription factors (RA receptors [RARs] and retinoid X receptors [RXRs]) that belong to the superfamily of nuclear receptors. Regulatory regions of PA effector genes contain RAR and RXR binding sites (RAR elements [RAREs] and RXR elements [RXREs]) that generally consist of direct or everted repeats of the core half-site motif, (A/G)G(G/T)TCA. In order to identify novel genes regulated by RA, we devised a selection strategy based on the premise that regulatory regions of a large number of housekeeping and tissue-specific genes are embodied within CpG island DNA. In this method, referred to as CpG-selected and amplified binding, fragments derived from the CpG island fraction of the murine genome are selected by a gel mobility shift assay using in vitro-transcribed and -translated RXR-RAR. Multiple rounds of selection coupled with amplification of the fragments by PCR enabled us to clone a population of CG-rich fragments of which approximately one-fifth contained consensus RAREs or RXREs. Twelve genomic fragments containing novel response elements are described, and the transcription unit associated with one of them, NN-84AG, was characterized in detail. The mouse NN-84AG transcript is upregulated by RA in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells and is homologous to an expressed sequence tag (EST41159) derived from a human infant brain cDNA library. Cloning of the murine NN8-4AG genomic sequence places the RXRE in the proximity of the transcription initiation sites of the gene. Although sequence analysis indicates that the EST41159 gene product is novel, a region of amino acid identity with sequences of a yeast polypeptide of, as yet, unknown function and the Drosophila trithorax protein

  15. Increased trapping efficiency with force-assisted velocity-selective coherent population trapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambon, Bruno [I.N.F.M. U.d.R. di Pisa and Dipartimento di Fisica E. Fermi Universita di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Nienhuis, Gerard [Huygens Laboratorium, Universiteit Leiden, Postbus 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2006-03-14

    We study a class of laser cooling schemes that combine velocity-selective coherent population trapping (VSCPT) with Doppler cooling mechanisms. The Doppler mechanism prevents the atoms from diffusing into the region of high momentum, thereby removing the characteristic long-time asymptotic behaviour of VSCPT where, in the end, all the atoms escape from the trap. It is shown that the transition J{sub g} = 2 to J{sub e} = 1 while maintaining the simple field configuration present in the original VSCPT case provides the additional Doppler mechanism and leads to virtually zero temperature without the loss of atoms that characterize the original VSCPT dynamics.

  16. The effect of chlorpyrifos on thermogenic capacity of bank voles selected for increased aerobic exercise metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheyongera, Geoffrey; Grzebyk, Katherine; Rudolf, Agata M; Sadowska, Edyta T; Koteja, Paweł

    2016-04-01

    Agro-chemicals potentially cause adverse effects in non-target organisms. The rate of animal energy metabolism can influence their susceptibility to pesticides by influencing food consumption, biotransformation and elimination rates of toxicants. We used experimental evolution to study the effects of inherent differences in energy metabolism rate and exposure to the organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF) on thermogenic capacity in a wild rodent, the bank vole (Myodes = Clethrionomys glareolus). The voles were sampled from four replicate lines selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism (A) and four unselected control (C) lines. Thermogenic capacity, measured as the maximum cold-induced rate of oxygen consumption (VO2cold), was higher in the A - than C lines, and it decreased after continuous exposure to CPF via food or after a single dose administered via oral gavage, but only when measured shortly after exposure. VO2cold measured 24 h after repeated exposure was not affected. In addition, gavage with a single dose led to decreased food consumption and loss in body mass. Importantly, the adverse effects of CPF did not differ between the selected and control lines. Therefore, exposure to CPF has adverse effects on thermoregulatory performance and energy balance in this species. The effects are short-lived and their magnitude is not associated with the inherent level of energy metabolism. Even without severe symptoms of poisoning, fitness can be compromised under harsh environmental conditions, such as cold and wet weather. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Genetics of growth and reproduction in the turkey. 9. Long-term selection for increased 16-week body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, K E

    1984-11-01

    Sixteen generations of selection of turkeys for increased 16-week body weight alone resulted in a large increase in body weight at 8, 16, 20, and 24 weeks of age of both males and females and at sexual maturity for females. The realized heritability for 16-week body weight was .29 +/- .02 for males and .24 +/- .01 for females. There was no significant effect on egg production during the first three generations of selection. However, egg production of the growth strain relative to the corresponding randombred control declined greatly during the next two generations. Eleven further generations of selection did not result in additional declines in egg production. These results suggest that the genetic correlation between 16-week body weight and egg production was zero initially, became strongly negative for Generations 4 and 5, and then ultimately returned to zero. Genetic increases in body weight were associated with decreases in intensity of lay with no effect on broodiness. Based on a subjective rating of deviation of legs and ability to walk, the legs of the growth strain were poorer than those of its corresponding randombred control in the last four generations of selection. This indicates that there is a positive genetic correlation between 16-week body weight and frequency of leg problems. Genetic increases in 16-week body weight were accompanied by increases in egg weight and a decrease in rate of response to stimulatory lighting. The effect on fertility was inconsistent. There was no effect on hatch of fertile eggs.

  18. Hydrophobic Amino Acid and Single-Atom Substitutions Increase DNA Polymerase Selectivity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rudinger, Nicolas Z; Kranaster, Ramon; Marx, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    .... Furthermore, a single-atom replacement within the DNA substrate through chemical modification, which leads to an altered acceptor potential and steric demand of the DNA substrate, further increased...

  19. Responses of selected species of marine phytoplankton to increasing carbon dioxide and light

    OpenAIRE

    Barcelos e Ramos, Joana

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations have been increasing since the industrial revolution and are expected to almost triple from pre-industrial values by the year 2100. CO2 enters the ocean by atmosphere-surface ocean gas exchange, decreasing carbonate ion (CO32-) concentrations and pH (ocean acidification). Additionally, the rise of CO2 concentrations and other green-house gases in the atmosphere, increase global average temperatures in the air and, consequently, in the surface oc...

  20. Stress-induced selection of a single species from an entire meiobenthic nematode assemblage: is this possible using iron enrichment and does pre-exposure affect the ease of the process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufahja, F; Semprucci, F

    2015-02-01

    The present work proposes a new experimental design using iron enrichment to select a single species from an entire meiobenthic nematode community. The high diversity of nematodes makes it impossible to study their responses to stressors in terms of chemical biomarkers, as this kind of research demands a single species as a form of biological material. Two assemblages, one from a control site (Canal) and one from an iron-contaminated site (Fouledh) in Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia), were used to validate the protocol and to study whether pre-exposure to iron could affect the ease of the selection process. Analyses of variance suggested that the abundance and species number of nematodes from the Canal and Fouledh sites decreased discernibly with exposure to iron. Multivariate analyses performed on nematode abundances revealed that Oncholaimus campylocercoides, Sabatieria granifer, Sabatieria punctata and Theristus flevensis were the most tolerant species, probably due to their deposit-feeding behaviour. Species with a restricted feeding spectrum showed a low tolerance potential. At the end of the experiment, O. campylocercoides became the unique component of the nematode community from both sites. The complete alteration of the community was achieved with more difficulty for nematodes from Fouledh than for those from Canal. The identity of the selected species was confirmed at both the morphological levels and by sequencing the nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA).

  1. INCREASING FOOD CHAIN SECURITY FOR SCRAPIE BY MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION IN SHEEP POPULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COŞIER VIORICA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania, by its genetic found made up of over 7.4 millions sheep and 1.8 millionsyoung sheep exported in EU countries, represents an important mark in bothEuropean and World sheep breeding sector, in last years marked by many ESSTcenters. The apparition of this disease and its high risk of danger for reared effectiveconstraint EEC countries to interfere by law regulations concerning scrapie controland stopping disease spreading. In our country, controls identified the presence ofscrapie in livestock. The international reference laboratories post mortem certifiedthe presence of disease. Immunohistochemical detection of PrPSc is a standarddiagnostic method for sheep scrapie. By immunohistochemistry (IHC, PrPSc isdetected in lymphoid tissues during preclinical and clinical disease. Aftergenotypization at PrnP locus, the marker assisted selection is compulsory, and flocksinclude only genotypes with high disease resistance.

  2. INCREASING FOOD CHAIN SECURITY FOR SCRAPIE BY MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION IN SHEEP POPULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIORICA COŞIER

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Romania, by its genetic found made up of over 7.4 millions sheep and 1.8 millionsyoung sheep exported in EU countries, represents an important mark in bothEuropean and World sheep breeding sector, in last years marked by many ESSTcenters. The apparition of this disease and its high risk of danger for reared effectiveconstraint EEC countries to interfere by law regulations concerning scrapie controland stopping disease spreading. In our country, controls identified the presence ofscrapie in livestock. The international reference laboratories post mortem certifiedthe presence of disease. Immunohistochemical detection of PrPSc is a standarddiagnostic method for sheep scrapie. By immunohistochemistry (IHC, PrPSc isdetected in lymphoid tissues during preclinical and clinical disease. Aftergenotypization at PrnP locus, the marker assisted selection is compulsory, and flocksinclude only genotypes with high disease resistance.

  3. Increasing the speed of tumour diagnosis during surgery with selective scanning Raman microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kenny; Rowlands, Christopher J.; Varma, Sandeep; Perkins, William; Leach, Iain H.; Koloydenko, Alexey A.; Pitiot, Alain; Williams, Hywel C.; Notingher, Ioan

    2014-09-01

    One of the main challenges in cancer surgery is ensuring that all tumour cells are removed during surgery, while sparing as much healthy tissue as possible. Histopathology, the gold-standard technique for cancer diagnosis, is often impractical for intra-operative use because of the time-consuming tissue preparation procedures (sectioning and staining). Raman micro-spectroscopy is a powerful technique that can discriminate between tumours and healthy tissues with high accuracy, based entirely on intrinsic chemical differences. However, raster-scanning Raman micro-spectroscopy is a slow imaging technique that typically requires data acquisition times as long as several days for typical tissue samples obtained during surgery (1 × 1 cm2) - in particular when high signal-to-noise ratio spectra are required to ensure accurate diagnosis. In this paper we present two techniques based on selective sampling Raman micro-spectroscopy that can overcome these limitations. In selective sampling, information regarding the spatial features of the tissue, either measured by an alternative optical technique or estimated in real-time from the Raman spectra, can be used to drastically reduce the number of Raman spectra required for diagnosis. These sampling strategies allowed diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma in skin tissue samples excised during Mohs micrographic surgery faster than frozen section histopathology, and two orders of magnitude faster than previous techniques based on raster-scanning Raman microscopy. Further development of these techniques may help during cancer surgery by providing a fast and objective way for surgeons to ensure the complete removal of tumour cells while sparing as much healthy tissue as possible.

  4. Selective breeding for deficient sensorimotor gating is accompanied by increased perseveration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, F; Dieckmann, M; Winter, S; Koch, M; Schwabe, K

    2007-09-07

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response is a measure of sensorimotor gating that is deficient in some neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and Tourette's syndrome. Experimentally induced PPI deficits in rats are regarded as endophenotype to study the biological mechanisms and therapeutic strategies of these disorders. We have recently shown that selectively breeding rats for high and low PPI levels, respectively, leads to groups with different PPI performance that remains stable from the second generation on. We here tested whether the low PPI is accompanied by other behavioral deficits. Different spatial and operant learning paradigms were used to assess rats' learning and memory abilities as well as their behavioral flexibility. In the delayed alternation T-maze task the two groups did not differ in task acquisition and working memory. Rats with low PPI showed enhanced perseveration during switching between an egocentric and allocentric radial maze task. Enhanced perseveration was also found in an operant behavioral task, where different demands, i.e. a different number of lever presses for a pellet-reward, were assigned to and switched between two levers of a Skinner box. Rats with low PPI stayed longer at the ineffective lever before switching, thus being less able to adjust their behavior to changing reward values. Additionally, PPI low rats had a higher breakpoint value during a progressive ratio-schedule of reinforcement. Rats selectively bred for low PPI showed some cognitive deficits that are apparent in a number of psychiatric disorders with deficient information processing. Specifically in both, spatial and operant behavioral paradigms, PPI low rats are deteriorated in their ability to modulate behavior based upon new changing information. They may thus provide a non-pharmacological model that can be used to evaluate new therapeutic strategies ranging from pharmacological treatment to functional neurosurgery.

  5. Musk shrews selectively bred for motion sickness display increased anesthesia-induced vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Charles C; Meyers, Kelly; Oberlies, Nicholas

    2014-01-30

    Susceptibility to motion sickness is a predictor of postoperative nausea and vomiting, and studies in humans suggest that genetic factors determine sensitivity to motion sickness. The aim of the current study was to determine if a preclinical model could be selectively bred for motion-induced emesis and to assess a potential relationship to anesthesia-induced emesis. Musk shrews were tested for motion-induced emesis using a shaker plate (10min, 1Hz, and 4cm of lateral displacement). Animals were rank ordered for motion-induced emesis and selectively bred to produce high and low response strains. Shrews were also tested with nicotine (5mg/kg, sc), copper sulfate (CuSO4; 120mg/kg, ig), and isoflurane anesthesia (10min; 3%) to measure responses to a panel of emetic stimuli. High response strain shrews demonstrated significantly more emetic episodes to motion exposure compared to low response strain animals in the F1 and F2 generations. In F2 animals, there were no significant differences in total emetic responses or emetic latency between strains after nicotine injection or CuSO4 gavage. However, isoflurane exposure stimulated more emesis in F1 and F2 high versus low strain animals, which suggests a relationship between vestibular- and inhalational anesthesia-induced emesis. Overall, these results indicate genetic determinants of motion sickness in a preclinical model and a potential common mechanism for motion sickness and inhalational anesthesia-induced emesis. Future work may include genetic mapping of potential "emetic sensitivity genes" to develop novel therapies or diagnostics for patients with high risk of nausea and vomiting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced selectivity of boron doped diamond electrodes for the detection of dopamine and ascorbic acid by increasing the film thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yao; Long, Hangyu; Ma, Li; Wei, Quiping; Li, Site; Yu, Zhiming; Hu, Jingyuan; Liu, Peizhi; Wang, Yijia; Meng, Lingcong

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, boron doped diamond (BDD) with different thickness were prepared by hot filament chemical vapor deposition. The performance of BDD electrodes for detecting dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectra reveal the grain size increases and the film quality improves with the increase of film thickness. Electrochemical test show that the transfer coefficient in [Fe3 (CN) 6]3-/4- redox system increases with the increase of the film thickness. The results of selectivity and sensitivity for DA mixed with AA detection show that 8h-BDD and 12h-BDD electrodes possess well selective separated oxidation peaks of DA and AA, and the 12h-BDD electrode exhibits optimal sensitivity until the DA concentration drops to 1 μ M.

  7. Diapause incidence in the two-spotted spider mite increases due to predator presence, not due to selective predation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, A.; Veenendaal, R.L.; Egas, C.J.M.; Bruin, J.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    We recently reported evidence for increased diapause incidence in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae in the presence of the predatory mite Typhlodromus pyri. This effect may arise from (1) selective predation on non-diapause spider mites, (2) predator-induced diapause in spider mites, or (3) both.

  8. Probucol selectively increases oxidation of atherogenic lipoproteins in cholesterol-fed mice and in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, S.T.; Mortensen, Alicja

    1999-01-01

    .7 +/- 1156.1 nmol/g vs. 455.0 +/- 207.8 nmol/g, P HDL from probucol treated animals was not statistically significantly increased, implying that probucol mediates a selective oxidation of atherogenic cholesterol-transporting lipoproteins. Quercetin treated...

  9. Augmenting a Microbial Selective Plugging Technique with Polymer Flooding to Increase the Efficiency of Oil Recovery - A Search for Synergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lewis R.; Pittman Jr., Charles U.; Lynch, F. Leo; Vadie, A. Alex

    2003-02-10

    The overall objective of this project was to improve the effectiveness of a microbial selective plugging technique of improving oil recovery through the use of polymer floods. More specifically, the intent was to increase the total amount of oil recovered and to reduce the cost per barrel of incremental oil.

  10. Target-dependent enrichment of virions determines the reduction of high-throughput sequencing in virus discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Holm Jensen

    Full Text Available Viral infections cause many different diseases stemming both from well-characterized viral pathogens but also from emerging viruses, and the search for novel viruses continues to be of great importance. High-throughput sequencing is an important technology for this purpose. However, viral nucleic acids often constitute a minute proportion of the total genetic material in a sample from infected tissue. Techniques to enrich viral targets in high-throughput sequencing have been reported, but the sensitivity of such methods is not well established. This study compares different library preparation techniques targeting both DNA and RNA with and without virion enrichment. By optimizing the selection of intact virus particles, both by physical and enzymatic approaches, we assessed the effectiveness of the specific enrichment of viral sequences as compared to non-enriched sample preparations by selectively looking for and counting read sequences obtained from shotgun sequencing. Using shotgun sequencing of total DNA or RNA, viral targets were detected at concentrations corresponding to the predicted level, providing a foundation for estimating the effectiveness of virion enrichment. Virion enrichment typically produced a 1000-fold increase in the proportion of DNA virus sequences. For RNA virions the gain was less pronounced with a maximum 13-fold increase. This enrichment varied between the different sample concentrations, with no clear trend. Despite that less sequencing was required to identify target sequences, it was not evident from our data that a lower detection level was achieved by virion enrichment compared to shotgun sequencing.

  11. A survey on breeding strategies and selection objectives for increased feed efficiency and decreased methane emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combined effects of world population growth, rising incomes and dietary changes have resulted in an increasing international demand for dairy and meat products. However, livestock can have negative impacts on the environment and the greater awareness of climate change has placed pressure on the ...

  12. Modeling of a water vapor selective membrane unit to increase the energy efficiency of humidity harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmair, D.; Metz, S. J.; de Lange, H. C.; van Steenhoven, A. A.

    2012-11-01

    Air humidity is a promising source of clean and safe drinking water. However, in conventional systems a lot of energy is wasted on the production of cold air, rather than the condensation of water vapor. This study examines the possibility of using a hollow fiber membrane module to make this process more energy efficient, by separating the vapor from other gases, prior to the cooling process with the help of selective membranes. The water vapor concentration within a fiber has been modeled using a random walker approach, and the membrane permeability has been implemented as a re-bounce probability for simulation particles interacting with the membrane. Considering the additional work requirement for driving a feed flow through the membrane section and the computed water vapor permeation it could be shown that the energy demand per unit water is lowest for slow flow speeds and favors short and thin fibers. The total energy requirement was estimated to be less than half of the conventional one. Comparison with other CFD simulations and a real life module has shown a good level of agreement, indicating that a membrane section could improve the energy efficiency of humidity harvesting significantly.

  13. Selective poisoning of Li-air batteries for increased discharge capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson; Vegge, Tejs

    2014-01-01

    this passivation by controlling the morphological growth directions of Li2O2 using directed poisoning of specific nucleation sites and steps. We show SO2 to bind preferentially on steps and kinks on the (1-00) facet and to effectively lower the discharge potential by 0.4 V, yielding a more facile discharge...... on the (0001) surface facet. Addition of a few percent SO2 in the O-2 stream may be used to control and limit growth of Li2O2 in specific directions and increase the electronic conduction through formation of interfaces between Li2O2 and Li-2(SO2)-type inclusions, which may ultimately lead to an increased...

  14. Atypical antipsychotic drugs selectively increase neurotensin efflux in dopamine terminal regions

    OpenAIRE

    Radke, James M.; Owens, Michael J.; Ritchie, James C.; Nemeroff, Charles B.

    1998-01-01

    Typical antipsychotic drugs, such as haloperidol and chlorpromazine, increase synthesis of the neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) in both the striatum and the nucleus accumbens, whereas atypical antipsychotic drugs, such as clozapine and olanzapine, do so only in the nucleus accumbens. By using in vivo microdialysis, we now report that acute administration of haloperidol, clozapine, or olanzapine failed to alter the release of NT in either the striatum or nucleus accumbens. In contrast, chronic ad...

  15. Do increases in selected fitness parameters affect the aesthetic aspects of classical ballet performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twitchett, Emily A; Angioi, Manuela; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Research has indicated that classical ballet dancers tend to have lower fitness levels and increased injury rates compared to other athletes with similar workloads. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of a specifically tailored fitness training programme on the incidence of injury and the aesthetic quality of performance of classical ballet dancers compared to a control group. Proficiency in performance was evaluated at the beginning and end of the intervention period for both groups through a 4-min dance sequence using previously ratified marking criteria. The intervention group (n = 8) partook in a weekly 1-hr training session that included aerobic interval training, circuit training, and whole body vibration. All dancers' performance proficiency scores increased from pre-intervention testing to post-intervention. The intervention group's overall performance scores demonstrated a significantly greater increase (p = 0.03) than the equivalent for the control group. It was concluded that supplementary fitness training has a positive effect on aspects related to aesthetic dance performance as studied herein; further research is recommended on a larger and more varied sample. Practical applications from this study suggest that supplemental training should be part of a ballet dancer's regime, and minimal intervention time is required to have observable effects.

  16. Increasing oxygen radicals and water temperature select for toxic Microcystis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Dziallas

    Full Text Available Pronounced rises in frequency of toxic cyanobacterial blooms are recently observed worldwide, particularly when temperatures increase. Different strains of cyanobacterial species vary in their potential to produce toxins but driving forces are still obscure. Our study examines effects of hydrogen peroxide on toxic and non-toxic (including a non-toxic mutant strains of M. aeruginosa. Here we show that hydrogen peroxide diminishes chlorophyll a content and growth of cyanobacteria and that this reduction is significantly lower for toxic than for non-toxic strains. This indicates that microcystins protect from detrimental effects of oxygen radicals. Incubation of toxic and non-toxic strains of M. aeruginosa with other bacteria or without (axenic at three temperatures (20, 26 and 32°C reveals a shift toward toxic strains at higher temperatures. In parallel to increases in abundance of toxic (i.e. toxin gene possessing strains and their actual toxin expression, concentrations of microcystins rise with temperature, when amounts of radicals are expected to be enhanced. Field samples from three continents support the influence of radicals and temperature on toxic potential of M. aeruginosa. Our results imply that global warming will significantly increase toxic potential and toxicity of cyanobacterial blooms which has strong implications for socio-economical assessments of global change.

  17. Negative Mood Increases Selective Attention to Negatively Valenced Body Parts in Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svaldi, Jennifer; Bender, Caroline; Caffier, Detlef; Ivanova, Viliana; Mies, Nina; Fleischhaker, Christian; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN), especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation. In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12) and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12) were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded. After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants' attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive) mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG. The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients' body image disturbance.

  18. What does anisotropy measure? Insights from increased and decreased anisotropy in selective fiber tracts in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A De Erausquin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a common, severe and chronically disabling mental illness of unknown cause. Recent MRI studies have focused attention on white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Indices commonly derived from DTI include (a mean diffusivity, independent of direction, (b fractional anisotropy (FA or relative anisotropy (RA, (c axial diffusivity, and (d radial diffusivity. In cerebral white matter, contributions to these indices come from fiber arrangements, degree of myelination, and axonal integrity. Relatively pure deficits in myelin result in a modest increase in radial diffusivity, without affecting axial diffusivity and with preservation of anisotropy. Although schizophrenia is not characterized by gross abnormalities of white matter, it does involve a profound dysregulation of myelin-associated gene expression, reductions in oligodendrocyte numbers, and marked abnormalities in the ultrastructure of myelin sheaths. Since each oligodendrocyte myelinates as many as 40 axon segments, changes in the number of oligodendrocytes, and/or in the integrity of myelin sheaths, and/or axoglial contacts can have a profound impact on signal propagation and the integrity of neuronal circuits. Whereas a number of studies have revealed inconsistent decreases in anisotropy in schizophrenia, we and others have found increased fractional anisotropy in key subcortical tracts associated with the circuits underlying symptom generation in schizophrenia. We review data revealing increased anisotropy in dopaminergic tracts in the mesencephalon of schizophrenics and their unaffected relatives, and discuss the possible biological underpinnings and physiological significance of this finding.

  19. Increased expression of Na,K-ATPase and a selective increase in phosphorylation at Ser-11 in the cortex of the 2-kidney, 1-clip hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kava, Lauren; Rossi, Noreen F; Mattingly, Raymond; Yingst, Douglas R

    2012-04-01

    The mechanism by which blood pressure increases during renovascular hypertension is incompletely understood. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that in the 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K-1C) rat, in which hypertension develops due to increased angiotensin II (Ang II) levels, there is increased expression and phosphorylation of Na,K-ATPase at Ser-11 and Ser-18 in the kidney cortex. The rationale is Ang II is reported to directly stimulate Na,K-ATPase activity in proximal tubules, which reabsorb 2/3 of filtered sodium, via increased phosphorylation at Ser-11 and Ser-18 and the Na,K-ATPase drives sodium reabsorption. Five-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats underwent unilateral or sham clipping of the right renal artery and placement of telemetry transmitters. Six weeks later blood pressure and plasma Ang II were measured and kidneys harvested. The amount of Na,K-ATPase, phosphorylation at Ser-11 and Ser-18, and the expression of β-actin in each kidney cortex were measured by quantitative immunoblotting. Clipping significantly increased mean arterial pressure from 110 ± 3 to 148 ± 13 mm Hg, plasma Ang II, cortical Na,K-ATPase in the unclipped kidney of 2K-1C compared to sham-clipped rats, the total cortical Na,K-ATPase in both kidneys compared to sham-clipped rats, and the extent to which the Na,K-ATPase was phosphorylated at Ser-11. Clipping did not significantly change phosphorylation at Ser-18, β-actin, or the total protein in the cortexes of both kidneys. Thus, in the kidney cortex of rats with renovascular hypertension there is increased expression of Na,K-ATPase and a selective increase in its phosphorylation at Ser-11 that could increase the capacity to reabsorb sodium and water.

  20. Increasing milk solids production across lactation through genetic selection and intensive pasture-based feed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J; Pierce, K M; Berry, D P; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the study was to quantify the effect of genetic improvement using the Irish total merit index, the Economic Breeding Index (EBI), on overall performance and lactation profiles for milk, milk solids, body weight (BW), and body condition score (BCS) within 2 pasture-based systems of milk production likely to be used in the future, following abolition of the European Union's milk quota system. Three genotypes of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle were established from within the Moorepark dairy research herd: LowNA, indicative of animals with North American origin and average or lower genetic merit at the time of the study; HighNA, North American Holstein-Friesians of high genetic merit; and HighNZ, New Zealand Holstein-Friesians of high genetic merit. Animals from within each genotype were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible pasture-based feeding systems (FS): 1) The Moorepark pasture (MP) system (2.64 cows/ha and 344 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare (HC) system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,056 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). Pasture was allocated to achieve similar postgrazing residual sward heights for both treatments. A total of 126, 128, and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genotype, FS, and the interaction between genotype and FS on milk production, BW, and BCS across lactation were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genotype and FS accounting for the repeated cow records across years. No significant genotype by FS interaction was observed for any of the variables measured. Results show that milk solids production of the national average dairy cow can be increased across lactation through increased EBI. High EBI genotypes (HighNA and HighNZ) produced more milk solids per cow and

  1. Deadwood stocks increase with selective logging and large tree frequency in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Ben S; Koerner, Sally E; Medjibe, Vincent P; White, Lee J T; Poulsen, John R

    2017-04-01

    Deadwood is a major component of aboveground biomass (AGB) in tropical forests and is important as habitat and for nutrient cycling and carbon storage. With deforestation and degradation taking place throughout the tropics, improved understanding of the magnitude and spatial variation in deadwood is vital for the development of regional and global carbon budgets. However, this potentially important carbon pool is poorly quantified in Afrotropical forests and the regional drivers of deadwood stocks are unknown. In the first large-scale study of deadwood in Central Africa, we quantified stocks in 47 forest sites across Gabon and evaluated the effects of disturbance (logging), forest structure variables (live AGB, wood density, abundance of large trees), and abiotic variables (temperature, precipitation, seasonality). Average deadwood stocks (measured as necromass, the biomass of deadwood) were 65 Mg ha-1 or 23% of live AGB. Deadwood stocks varied spatially with disturbance and forest structure, but not abiotic variables. Deadwood stocks increased significantly with logging (+38 Mg ha-1 ) and the abundance of large trees (+2.4 Mg ha-1 for every tree >60 cm dbh). Gabon holds 0.74 Pg C, or 21% of total aboveground carbon in deadwood, a threefold increase over previous estimates. Importantly, deadwood densities in Gabon are comparable to those in the Neotropics and respond similarly to logging, but represent a lower proportion of live AGB (median of 18% in Gabon compared to 26% in the Neotropics). In forest carbon accounting, necromass is often assumed to be a constant proportion (9%) of biomass, but in humid tropical forests this ratio varies from 2% in undisturbed forest to 300% in logged forest. Because logging significantly increases the deadwood carbon pool, estimates of tropical forest carbon should at a minimum use different ratios for logged (mean of 30%) and unlogged forests (mean of 18%). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of enrichment procedures for recovering Listeria monocytogenes from dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammerding, A M; Doyle, M P

    1989-11-01

    Six different enrichment media and five selective plating media were compared for their suitability for the recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from dairy products. These included media used to test milk products by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and media developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) for testing meat and poultry products. Test samples included naturally contaminated goat's milk, cultured milk products and ice cream manufactured with L. monocytogenes, and unpasteurized milk inoculated with heat- and freeze-injured cells of L. monocytogenes. Generally, the media and two-stage enrichment protocol developed by the USDA, with plating of samples after two consecutive 24-h incubation periods, yielded better recoveries than all other enrichment media incubated for 24 h. A modified USDA procedure, incorporating nonselective pre-enrichment of samples by omitting acriflavine and nalidixic acid from the primary USDA enrichment broth, and transfer of a larger volume of the initial culture broth to the secondary enrichment media, significantly increased recoveries of low numbers of sublethally stressed L. monocytogenes. Prolonged incubation of samples in the FDA enrichment broth, for 7 days, did not consistently improve recoveries over the initial 24-h incubation time of the medium. The selective plating medium developed by the USDA, lithium chloride-phenylethanol-moxalactam agar, was the most effective plating agar for isolation of L. monocytogenes following enrichment of samples in any broth culture, and increased recoveries of L. monocytogenes by 19-40% compared with other selective agar media tested.

  3. Breeding and Selection of New Switchgrass Varieties for Increased Biomass Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taliaferro, C.M.

    2003-05-27

    Switchgrass breeding and genetics research was conducted from 1992-2002 at the Oklahoma State University as part of the national DOE-Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) effort to develop the species as a bioenergy feedstock crop. The fundamental objective of the program was to implement and conduct a breeding program to increase biomass yield capability in switchgrass and develop cultivars for the central and southern United States. Supporting research objectives included: (1) switchgrass germplasm collection, characterization, and enhancement; (2) elucidation of cytogenetic and breeding behavior; and (3) identification of best breeding procedures.

  4. Scaling of metabolism in Helix aspersa snails: changes through ontogeny and response to selection for increased size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnołeski, Marcin; Kozłowski, Jan; Dumiot, Guillaume; Bonnet, Jean-Claude; Mallard, Jacques; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde

    2008-02-01

    Though many are convinced otherwise, variability of the size-scaling of metabolism is widespread in nature, and the factors driving that remain unknown. Here we test a hypothesis that the increased expenditure associated with faster growth increases metabolic scaling. We compare metabolic scaling in the fast- and slow-growth phases of ontogeny of Helix aspersa snails artificially selected or not selected for increased adult size. The selected line evolved larger egg and adult sizes and a faster size-specific growth rate, without a change in the developmental rate. Both lines had comparable food consumption but the selected snails grew more efficiently and had lower metabolism early in ontogeny. Attainment of lower metabolism was accompanied by decreased shell production, indicating that the increased growth was fuelled partly at the expense of shell production. As predicted, the scaling of oxygen consumption with body mass was isometric or nearly isometric in the fast-growing (early) ontogenetic stage, and it became negatively allometric in the slow-growing (late) stage; metabolic scaling tended to be steeper in selected (fast-growing) than in control (slow-growing) snails; this difference disappeared later in ontogeny. Differences in metabolic scaling were not related to shifts in the scaling of metabolically inert shell. Our results support the view that changes in metabolic scaling through ontogeny and the variability of metabolic scaling between organisms can be affected by differential growth rates. We stress that future approaches to this phenomenon should consider the metabolic effects of cell size changes which underlie shifts in the growth pattern.

  5. Using a descriptive social norm to increase vegetable selection in workplace restaurant settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jason M; Ursell, Amanda; Robinson, Eric L; Aveyard, Paul; Jebb, Susan A; Herman, C Peter; Higgs, Suzanne

    2017-11-01

    Recent work has shown that exposure to social norm messages may enhance the consumption of vegetables. However, the majority of this work has been conducted in laboratories, often with student populations. Little is known about whether this approach can be successfully used in other contexts. In this study, a poster featuring a message based on social norms was tested to examine whether it could increase and maintain the purchase of meals with vegetables in workplace restaurants. A pretest-posttest design with 3 phases was used in 3 workplace restaurants in the United Kingdom. The first 2 weeks formed the preintervention phase, the second 2 weeks the intervention phase, and the last 2 weeks the postintervention phase. During the intervention phase only, posters containing a social norm message relaying information about vegetable purchases of other diners were placed in each restaurant. The main outcome measure was the percentage of meals purchased with vegetables, which was analyzed using Pearson's chi-squared test. Participants were judged to be male (57%), not overweight (75%), and under the age of 60 (98%). The intervention was positively associated with the percentage of meals purchased with vegetables: baseline versus intervention (60% vs. 64% of meals purchased with vegetables; p Social norm messages may increase the purchase of vegetables in workplace settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. ELKS2α/CAST Deletion Selectively Increases Neurotransmitter Release at Inhibitory Synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Pascal S.; Deng, Lunbin; Chávez, Andrés E.; Liu, Xinran; Castillo, Pablo E.; Südhof, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The presynaptic active zone is composed of a protein-network that contains ELKS2α (a.k.a. CAST) as a central component. Here we demonstrate that in mice, deletion of ELKS2α caused a large increase in inhibitory but not excitatory neurotransmitter release, and potentiated the size, but not the properties, of the readily-releasable pool of vesicles at inhibitory synapses. Quantitative electron-microscopy revealed that the ELKS2α deletion did not change the number of docked vesicles or other ultrastructural parameters of synapses, except for a small decrease in synaptic vesicle numbers. The ELKS2α deletion did, however, alter the excitatory/inhibitory balance and exploratory behaviors, possibly as a result of the increased synaptic inhibition. Thus, different from previous studies indicating that ELKS2α is essential for mediating neurotransmitter release, our results suggest that ELKS2α normally restricts release and limits the size of the readily-releasable pool of synaptic vesicles at the active zone of inhibitory synapses. PMID:19874790

  7. ELKS2alpha/CAST deletion selectively increases neurotransmitter release at inhibitory synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Pascal S; Deng, Lunbin; Chávez, Andrés E; Liu, Xinran; Castillo, Pablo E; Südhof, Thomas C

    2009-10-29

    The presynaptic active zone is composed of a protein network that contains ELKS2alpha (a.k.a. CAST) as a central component. Here we demonstrate that in mice, deletion of ELKS2alpha caused a large increase in inhibitory, but not excitatory, neurotransmitter release, and potentiated the size, but not the properties, of the readily-releasable pool of vesicles at inhibitory synapses. Quantitative electron microscopy revealed that the ELKS2alpha deletion did not change the number of docked vesicles or other ultrastructural parameters of synapses, except for a small decrease in synaptic vesicle numbers. The ELKS2alpha deletion did, however, alter the excitatory/inhibitory balance and exploratory behaviors, possibly as a result of the increased synaptic inhibition. Thus, as opposed to previous studies indicating that ELKS2alpha is essential for mediating neurotransmitter release, our results suggest that ELKS2alpha normally restricts release and limits the size of the readily-releasable pool of synaptic vesicles at the active zone of inhibitory synapses.

  8. Strategies for increasing the efficiency of heterojunction organic solar cells: material selection and device architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heremans, Paul; Cheyns, David; Rand, Barry P

    2009-11-17

    Thin-film blends or bilayers of donor- and acceptor-type organic semiconductors form the core of heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells. Researchers measure the quality of photovoltaic cells based on their power conversion efficiency, the ratio of the electrical power that can be generated versus the power of incident solar radiation. The efficiency of organic solar cells has increased steadily in the last decade, currently reaching up to 6%. Understanding and combating the various loss mechanisms that occur in processes from optical excitation to charge collection should lead to efficiencies on the order of 10% in the near future. In organic heterojunction solar cells, the generation of photocurrent is a cascade of four steps: generation of excitons (electrically neutral bound electron-hole pairs) by photon absorption, diffusion of excitons to the heterojunction, dissociation of the excitons into free charge carriers, and transport of these carriers to the contacts. In this Account, we review our recent contributions to the understanding of the mechanisms that govern these steps. Starting from archetype donor-acceptor systems of planar small-molecule heterojunctions and solution-processed bulk heterojunctions, we outline our search for alternative materials and device architectures. We show that non-planar phthalocynanines have appealing absorption characteristics but also have reduced charge carrier transport. As a result, the donor layer needs to be ultrathin, and all layers of the device have to be tuned to account for optical interference effects. Using these optimization techniques, we illustrate cells with 3.1% efficiency for the non-planar chloroboron subphthalocyanine donor. Molecules offering a better compromise between absorption and carrier mobility should allow for further improvements. We also propose a method for increasing the exciton diffusion length by converting singlet excitons into long-lived triplets. By doping a polymer with a

  9. Selective Heart Rate Reduction With Ivabradine Increases Central Blood Pressure in Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Stefano F; Messerli, Franz H; Cerny, David; Gloekler, Steffen; Traupe, Tobias; Laurent, Stéphane; Seiler, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate (HR) lowering by β-blockade was shown to be beneficial after myocardial infarction. In contrast, HR lowering with ivabradine was found to confer no benefits in 2 prospective randomized trials in patients with coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that this inefficacy could be in part related to ivabradine's effect on central (aortic) pressure. Our study included 46 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease who were randomly allocated to placebo (n=23) or ivabradine (n=23) in a single-blinded fashion for 6 months. Concomitant baseline medication was continued unchanged throughout the study except for β-blockers, which were stopped during the study period. Central blood pressure and stroke volume were measured directly by left heart catheterization at baseline and after 6 months. For the determination of resting HR at baseline and at follow-up, 24-hour ECG monitoring was performed. Patients on ivabradine showed an increase of 11 mm Hg in central systolic pressure from 129±22 mm Hg to 140±26 mm Hg (P=0.02) and in stroke volume by 86±21.8 to 107.2±30.0 mL (P=0.002). In the placebo group, central systolic pressure and stroke volume remained unchanged. Estimates of myocardial oxygen consumption (HR×systolic pressure and time-tension index) remained unchanged with ivabradine.The decrease in HR from baseline to follow-up correlated with the concomitant increase in central systolic pressure (r=-0.41, P=0.009) and in stroke volume (r=-0.61, Pcoronary artery disease patients. CLINICAL TRIALSURL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier NCT01039389. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Phosphodiesterase inhibition increases CREB phosphorylation and restores orientation selectivity in a model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Krahe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are the leading cause of mental retardation in the western world and children with FASD present altered somatosensory, auditory and visual processing. There is growing evidence that some of these sensory processing problems may be related to altered cortical maps caused by impaired developmental neuronal plasticity.Here we show that the primary visual cortex of ferrets exposed to alcohol during the third trimester equivalent of human gestation have decreased CREB phosphorylation and poor orientation selectivity revealed by western blotting, optical imaging of intrinsic signals and single-unit extracellular recording techniques. Treating animals several days after the period of alcohol exposure with a phosphodiesterase type 1 inhibitor (Vinpocetine increased CREB phosphorylation and restored orientation selectivity columns and neuronal orientation tuning.These findings suggest that CREB function is important for the maturation of orientation selectivity and that plasticity enhancement by vinpocetine may play a role in the treatment of sensory problems in FASD.

  11. Selection for breed-specific long-bodied phenotypes is associated with increased expression of canine hip dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Taryn; McGreevy, Paul D

    2010-03-01

    Hip dysplasia (HD) is the most common skeletal disease in purebred dogs. Radiographic schemes developed to reduce prevalence through selective breeding have had limited success, but the role of selecting for morphological characteristics prized in the show-ring and dictated by breed standards has not been fully explored. This study correlated published scores of hip pathology with measurements of body length to height ratio from photographs of Best-of-Breed specimens from 30 breeds (n=12/breed) to establish whether selection criteria could be compromising welfare by increasing susceptibility to HD. Relative body length correlated strongly with higher rates of HD by breed data from the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (Spearman r=0.727, Pdogs to HD, suggesting that ambiguity in breed standards and extreme relative body length phenotypes can engender serious welfare consequences and need to be re-evaluated. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Negative mood increases selective attention to food cues and subjective appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Rebecca; Mogg, Karin; Brignell, Catherine; Bradley, Brendan P

    2010-02-01

    Following negative reinforcement and affect-regulation models of dysfunctional appetitive motivation, this study examined the effect of negative mood on objective and subjective cognitive indices of motivation for food; i.e., attentional bias for food cues and self-reported hunger/urge to eat, respectively. The study extended previous research on the effect of mood on food motivation by using (i) an experimental mood manipulation, (ii) an established index of attentional bias from the visual-probe task and (iii) pictorial food cues, which have greater ecological validity than word stimuli. Young female adults (n=80) were randomly allocated to a neutral or negative mood induction procedure. Attentional biases were assessed at two cue exposure durations (500 and 2000ms). Results showed that negative mood increased both attentional bias for food cues and subjective appetite. Attentional bias and subjective appetite were positively inter-correlated, suggesting a common mechanism, i.e. activation of the food-reward system. Attentional bias was also associated with trait eating style, such as external and restrained eating. Thus, current mood and trait eating style each influenced motivation for food (as reflected by subjective appetite and attentional bias). Findings relate to models of cognitive mechanisms underlying normal and dysfunctional appetitive motivation and eating behaviour. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Paternal alcohol exposure reduces alcohol drinking and increases behavioral sensitivity to alcohol selectively in male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegersh, Andrey; Homanics, Gregg E

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is heritable, but the genetic basis for this disease remains poorly understood. Although numerous gene variants have been associated with AUD, these variants account for only a small fraction of the total risk. The idea of inheritance of acquired characteristics, i.e. "epigenetic inheritance," is re-emerging as a proven adjunct to traditional modes of genetic inheritance. We hypothesized that alcohol drinking and neurobiological sensitivity to alcohol are influenced by ancestral alcohol exposure. To test this hypothesis, we exposed male mice to chronic vapor ethanol or control conditions, mated them to ethanol-naïve females, and tested adult offspring for ethanol drinking, ethanol-induced behaviors, gene expression, and DNA methylation. We found that ethanol-sired male offspring had reduced ethanol preference and consumption, enhanced sensitivity to the anxiolytic and motor-enhancing effects of ethanol, and increased Bdnf expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) compared to control-sired male offspring. There were no differences among ethanol- and control-sired female offspring on these assays. Ethanol exposure also decreased DNA methylation at the BdnfÆpromoter of sire's germ cells and hypomethylation was maintained in the VTA of both male and female ethanol-sired offspring. Our findings show that paternal alcohol exposure is a previously unrecognized regulator of alcohol drinking and behavioral sensitivity to alcohol in male, but not female, offspring. Paternal alcohol exposure also induces epigenetic alterations (DNA hypomethylation) and gene expression changes that persist in the VTA of offspring. These results provide new insight into the inheritance and development of alcohol drinking behaviors.

  14. Review of environmental enrichment for broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Van de Weerd, H.A.; de Jong, I.C.

    2018-01-01

    and welfare of the different kinds of environmental enrichments in the production of broilers that have been described in the scientific literature. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads...... to improvements of the biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects, as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms and thus never...... benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broilers often has the purpose of satisfying behavioral needs and/or stimulating the broilers to an increased level of activity, which among others will reduce the occurrence of leg problems. Potentially successful environmental enrichments for broiler...

  15. Enrichment Zoning Options for the Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce G. Schnitzler; Stanley K. Borowski

    2010-07-01

    Advancement of U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a robust space exploration program requires high performance propulsion systems to support a variety of robotic and crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit. In NASA’s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study (NASA-SP-2009-566, July 2009), nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) was again selected over chemical propulsion as the preferred in-space transportation system option because of its high thrust and high specific impulse (-900 s) capability, increased tolerance to payload mass growth and architecture changes, and lower total initial mass in low Earth orbit. An extensive nuclear thermal rocket technology development effort was conducted from 1955-1973 under the Rover/NERVA Program. The Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE) was the last engine design studied by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during the program. At the time, this engine was a state-of-the-art design incorporating lessons learned from the very successful technology development program. Past activities at the NASA Glenn Research Center have included development of highly detailed MCNP Monte Carlo transport models of the SNRE and other small engine designs. Preliminary core configurations typically employ fuel elements with fixed fuel composition and fissile material enrichment. Uniform fuel loadings result in undesirable radial power and temperature profiles in the engines. Engine performance can be improved by some combination of propellant flow control at the fuel element level and by varying the fuel composition. Enrichment zoning at the fuel element level with lower enrichments in the higher power elements at the core center and on the core periphery is particularly effective. Power flattening by enrichment zoning typically results in more uniform propellant exit temperatures and improved engine performance. For the SNRE, element enrichment zoning provided very flat radial power profiles with 551 of the 564

  16. An analysis of psychotropic drug sales. Increasing sales of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors anre closely related to number of products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Margrethe; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    by changes in sales of the benzodiazepines and SSRIs. We found a decline in the sales of benzodiazepines after a peak in 1986, likely due to the recognition that they cause dependence. From a low level in 1992, we found that the sales of SSRIs increased almost linearly by a factor of 18, up to 44 DDD per......BACKGROUND: Prescribing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has increased dramatically. OBJECTIVE: To compare the sales of benzodiazepines and SSRIs within the primary care sector in Denmark and relate changes in usage to number of indications and products on the market. METHODS: We...

  17. A new enrichment method for isolation of Bacillus thuringiensis from diverse sample types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ketan D; Bhanshali, Forum C; Chaudhary, Avani V; Ingle, Sanjay S

    2013-05-01

    New or more efficient methodologies having different principles are needed, as one method could not be suitable for isolation of organisms from samples of diverse types and from various environments. In present investigation, growth kinetics study revealed a higher germination rate, a higher growth rate, and maximum sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) compared to other Bacillus species. Considering these facts, a simple and efficient enrichment method was devised which allowed propagation of spores and vegetative cells of Bt and thereby increased Bt cell population proportionately. The new enrichment method yielded Bt from 44 out of 58 samples. Contrarily, Bt was isolated only from 16 and 18 samples by sodium acetate selection and dry heat pretreatment methods, respectively. Moreover, the percentages of Bt colonies isolated by the enrichment method were higher comparatively. Vegetative whole cell protein profile analysis indicated isolation of diverse population of Bt from various samples. Bt strains isolated by the enrichment method represented novel serovars and possibly new cry2 gene.

  18. Effect of the genetic selection of turkeys for increased body weight and egg production on immune and physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayyari, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C; Balog, J M; Newberry, L A; Villines, J D; Skeeles, J K; Anthony, N B; Nestor, K E

    1997-02-01

    Selection of poultry for fast growth rate is often accompanied by a reduction in specific immune responses or increased disease susceptibility. In this study, 17-wk-old male turkeys from each of four closed genetic lines, a randombred control (RBC) line and its subline (F) selected for increased 16-wk BW, and another RBC and its subline (E) selected for increased egg production, were tested for in vivo response to toe web inoculation with phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P), in vitro response of lymphocytes in whole blood to PHA-P and concanavalin A (Con A), hemolytic complement activity, differential white blood cell counts, hematology, and serum chemistry values. Fifteen male turkeys from each of two commercial lines, Com A and Com B, were also tested. The large-bodied F line birds had a lower toe web response to PHA-P, lower lymphocyte counts, and lower relative spleen weights than their smaller parent line. Body weights, total erythrocyte counts, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels, and in vitro mitogenic response to PHA-P and Con A were higher in the F line birds. Line E had lower hemolytic complement levels, lower relative spleen and relative bursal weights, and a higher in vitro mitogenic response to PHA-P than its parent line. The Com B line had a lower toe web response to PHA-P, and lower serum levels of gamma-glutamyltransferase and bilirubin than Com A. Line Com B had higher total RBC counts and higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) than Com A. These results support the concept that some changes in the cell-mediated immune response, as well as other physiological changes that may potentially affect immune response, appear to accompany selection for faster growth.

  19. Enhanced selectivity of boron doped diamond electrodes for the detection of dopamine and ascorbic acid by increasing the film thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yao; Long, Hangyu [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Ma, Li, E-mail: marycsupm@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wei, Quiping, E-mail: qiupwei@csu.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li, Site [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yu, Zhiming [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Hu, Jingyuan [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Peizhi [Key laboratory of interface science and engineering in advanced materials, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024,PR China (China); Wang, Yijia [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Meng, Lingcong [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, West Midlands CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • BDD electrodes with different thickness have been fabricated. • BDD electrodes are used for simultaneous detection of DA and AA. • Anodic pretreatment enhance the separation of DA and AA oxidation peak potential. • Thicker BDD electrode show better performance for DA detection coexisting with AA. - Abstract: In this paper, boron doped diamond (BDD) with different thickness were prepared by hot filament chemical vapor deposition. The performance of BDD electrodes for detecting dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectra reveal the grain size increases and the film quality improves with the increase of film thickness. Electrochemical test show that the transfer coefficient in [Fe{sub 3} (CN) {sub 6}]{sup 3−/4−} redox system increases with the increase of the film thickness. The results of selectivity and sensitivity for DA mixed with AA detection show that 8h-BDD and 12h-BDD electrodes possess well selective separated oxidation peaks of DA and AA, and the 12h-BDD electrode exhibits optimal sensitivity until the DA concentration drops to 1 μ M.

  20. Environmental enrichment causes a global potentiation of neuronal responses across stimulus complexity and lamina of sensory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasuni Sathsara Alwis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Enriched social and physical housing produces many molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological and behaviour benefits even in adult animals. Much less is known of its effects on cortical electrophysiology, especially in how sensory cortex encodes the altered environment, and extant studies have generally been restricted to neurons in input laminae in sensory cortex. To extend the understanding of how an enriched environment alters the way in which cortex views the world, we investigated enrichment-induced changes in neuronal encoding of sensory stimuli across all laminae of the rat barrel cortex receiving input from the face whisker tactile system. Animals were housed in Enriched (n=13 or Isolated housing (n=13 conditions for 8 weeks before extracellular recordings were obtained from barrel cortex in response to simple whisker deflections and whisker motions modelling movements seen in awake animals undertaking a variety of different tasks. Enrichment resulted in increases in neuronal responses to all stimuli, ranging from those modelling exploratory behaviour through to discrimination behaviours. These increases were seen throughout the cortex from supragranular layers through to input Layer 4 and for some stimuli, in infragranular Layer 5. The observed enrichment-induced effect is consistent with the postulate that enrichment causes shift in cortical excitatory/inhibitory balance, and we demonstrate this is greatest in supragranular layers. However we also report that the effects are non-selective for stimulus parameters across a range of stimuli except for one modelling the likely use of whiskers by the rats in the enriched housing.

  1. Selective increase of auditory cortico-striatal coherence during auditory-cued Go/NoGo discrimination learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas L. Schulz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal directed behavior and associated learning processes are tightly linked to neuronal activity in the ventral striatum. Mechanisms that integrate task relevant sensory information into striatal processing during decision making and learning are implicitly assumed in current reinforcementmodels, yet they are still weakly understood. To identify the functional activation of cortico-striatal subpopulations of connections during auditory discrimination learning, we trained Mongolian gerbils in a two-way active avoidance task in a shuttlebox to discriminate between falling and rising frequency modulated tones with identical spectral properties. We assessed functional coupling by analyzing the field-field coherence between the auditory cortex and the ventral striatum of animals performing the task. During the course of training, we observed a selective increase of functionalcoupling during Go-stimulus presentations. These results suggest that the auditory cortex functionally interacts with the ventral striatum during auditory learning and that the strengthening of these functional connections is selectively goal-directed.

  2. Efficiency of selection methods for increased ratio of pupal-larval to adult-larval weight gains in Tribolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, J L; Cobos, P

    1994-01-12

    Four lines of Tribolium castaneum were selected in each of three replicates for increased ratio of (pupal-larval) to (adult-larval) weight gains, using selection for increased (pupal-larval) weight gain (PL), selection for decreased (adult-larval) weight gain (AL), direct selection for the ratio (R) and linear selection index of larval, pupal and adult weights (I), respectively, for four generations. Linear index was calculated with economic weights of m(2) -m(3) , m(3) -m(1) and m(1) -m(2) , respectively, with m(1) , m(2) and m(3) being the means for larval, pupal and adult weights. Selection to increase the ratio is considered to be a method to maximize the mean response in (adult-larval) weight while controlling the response in (pupal-adult) weight, and as a form of antagonistic selection to increase the weight gain during a given age period relative to the gain at another age period. Larval, pupal and adult weights were measured at 14, 21 and 28 days after adult emergence, respectively. The selected proportion was 20 % in all lines. The response observed for the ratio differed significantly among lines (p adulto-peso de larva en Tribolium Cuatro líneas de Tribolium castaneum fueron seleccionadas en cada una de tres repeticiones para incrementar el cociente (peso de pupa-peso de larva)/(peso de adulto-peso de larva); la línea PL fue seleccionada para aumentar la diferencia (peso de pupa-pesp de larva), la línea AL fue seleccionada para disminuir la diferencia (peso de adulto-peso de larva), fa línea R fue seleccionada directamente para el cociente, y la línea I fue seleccionada por medio de un índice lineal basado en los pesos de larva, pupa y adulto, durante cuatro generaciones. El índice lineal se calculó con pesos económicos de (m(2) -m(3) ), (m(3) -m(1) ), y (m(1) -m(2) ) respectivamentee, siendo m(1) , m(2) , y m(3) los valores medios para el peso de larva, pupa y adulto. La selección para aumentar el cociente indicado es un método para maximizar

  3. Stress response differences and disease susceptibility reflected by heterophil to lymphocyte ratio in turkeys selected for increased body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Balog, J M; Rath, N C; Anthony, N B; Nestor, K E

    2005-05-01

    Three genetic lines of turkeys were compared for their responses to Escherichia coli challenge following dexamethasone injection (Dex) or E. coli challenge preceding transport stress (TS). The turkey lines were a slow growing line selected for increased egg production (Egg line), a fast growing line selected for increased 16-wk BW (F line), and a commercial line (Comm line). At 14 wk of age, the Dex group was treated with 3 injections of 2 mg of Dex/kg of BW followed by airsac challenge with 100 cfu of E. coli. The TS group was given the same E. coli challenge at 1 x 10(4) cfu/bird without Dex treatment, and was subjected to transport stress, including 12 h of holding time in a transport vehicle, 8 d after the challenge. All treated birds and untreated control birds were bled at the same time, which was 1 d after transport and 9 d after challenge with E. coli. The main effect mean (MEM) total leukocyte counts (WBC) and the percentages of eosinophils (Eos) and basophils (Baso) were the same for all 3 lines; however, the MEM percentages of heterophils (Het) and monocytes (Mono) and the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio (H/L) were lower and the percentage of lymphocytes (Lym) was higher in the Egg line compared with the 2 fast-growing lines. Both stress treatments increased WBC, Het, and H/L and decreased Lym in all 3 lines; however, these effects were significantly greater in both fast growing lines compared with the Egg line. Sixteen-week BW was unaffected by either treatment in the Egg line and was decreased by both treatments in the Comm line and by the Dex treatment in the F line. Main effect mean airsacculitis score (AS) was not affected by line and was significantly increased by TS and Dex treatments. Neither treatment affected AS of the Egg line birds, whereas Dex treatment increased AS of the F line, and both Dex and TS increased AS of the Comm line. Mortality was significantly higher in the Comm line compared with the Egg line and was intermediate in the F line

  4. Agricultural Capacity to Increase the Production of Select Fruits and Vegetables in the US: A Geospatial Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Zach; Peters, Christian J; Chui, Kenneth; Jahns, Lisa; Griffin, Timothy S

    2017-09-23

    The capacity of US agriculture to increase the output of specific foods to accommodate increased demand is not well documented. This research uses geospatial modeling to examine the capacity of the US agricultural landbase to increase the per capita availability of an example set of nutrient-dense fruits and vegetables. These fruits and vegetables were selected based on nutrient content and an increasing trend of domestic production and consumption. Geographic information system models were parameterized to identify agricultural land areas meeting crop-specific growing requirements for monthly precipitation and temperature; soil depth and type; cropland availability; and proximity to existing production centers. The results of these analyses demonstrate that crop production can be expanded by nearly 144,000 ha within existing national production centers, generating an additional 0.05 cup-equivalents of fruits and vegetables per capita per day, representing a 1.7% increase above current total F&V availability. Expanding the size of national crop production centers can further increase the availability of all F&V by 2.5%-5.4%, which is still less than the recommended amount. Challenges to increasing F&V production in the US include lack of labor availability, barriers to adoption among producers, and threats to crop yields from environmental concerns.

  5. Selenium Enrichment of Horticultural Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Puccinelli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of some crops to accumulate selenium (Se is crucial for human nutrition and health. Selenium has been identified as a cofactor of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which is a catalyzer in the reduction of peroxides that can damage cells and tissues, and can act as an antioxidant. Plants are the first link in the food chain, which ends with humans. Increasing the Se quantity in plant products, including leafy and fruity vegetables, and fruit crops, without exceeding the toxic threshold, is thus a good way to increase animal and human Se intake, with positive effects on long-term health. In many Se-enriched plants, most Se is in its major organic form. Given that this form is more available to humans and more efficient in increasing the selenium content than inorganic forms, the consumption of Se-enriched plants appears to be beneficial. An antioxidant effect of Se has been detected in Se-enriched vegetables and fruit crops due to an improved antioxidative status and to a reduced biosynthesis of ethylene, which is the hormone with a primary role in plant senescence and fruit ripening. This thus highlights the possible positive effect of Se in preserving a longer shelf-life and longer-lasting quality.

  6. Selenium Enrichment of Horticultural Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinelli, Martina; Malorgio, Fernando; Pezzarossa, Beatrice

    2017-06-04

    The ability of some crops to accumulate selenium (Se) is crucial for human nutrition and health. Selenium has been identified as a cofactor of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which is a catalyzer in the reduction of peroxides that can damage cells and tissues, and can act as an antioxidant. Plants are the first link in the food chain, which ends with humans. Increasing the Se quantity in plant products, including leafy and fruity vegetables, and fruit crops, without exceeding the toxic threshold, is thus a good way to increase animal and human Se intake, with positive effects on long-term health. In many Se-enriched plants, most Se is in its major organic form. Given that this form is more available to humans and more efficient in increasing the selenium content than inorganic forms, the consumption of Se-enriched plants appears to be beneficial. An antioxidant effect of Se has been detected in Se-enriched vegetables and fruit crops due to an improved antioxidative status and to a reduced biosynthesis of ethylene, which is the hormone with a primary role in plant senescence and fruit ripening. This thus highlights the possible positive effect of Se in preserving a longer shelf-life and longer-lasting quality.

  7. Mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated nano-magnets for selective adsorption and enrichment of illegal cationic dyes in food matrices prior to high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ping; Liang, Zhi-An; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Jian; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Qing-Qiong; Zheng, Chun-Hao; Luo, Li-Ni; Lin, Zi-Hao; Zhu, Fang; Zhang, Xue-Wu

    2016-03-11

    In this study, mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (MHSPE) based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated nano-magnets Fe3O4 was investigated as a novel method for the extraction and separation of four banned cationic dyes, Auramine O, Rhodamine B, Basic orange 21 and Basic orange 22, in condiments prior to HPLC detection. The main factors affecting the extraction of analysts, such as pH, surfactant and adsorbent concentrations and zeta potential were studied and optimized. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method was successful applied for the analysis of banned cationic dyes in food samples such as chili sauce, soybean paste and tomato sauce. Validation data showed the good recoveries in the range of 70.1-104.5%, with relative standard deviations less than 15%. The method limits of determination/quantification were in the range of 0.2-0.9 and 0.7-3μgkg(-1), respectively. The selective adsorption and enrichment of cationic dyes were achieved by the synergistic effects of hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic attraction between mixed hemimicelles and the cationic dyes, which also resulted in the removal of natural pigments interferences from sample extracts. When applied to real samples, RB was detected in several positive samples (chili powders) within the range from 0.042 to 0.177mgkg(-1). These results indicate that magnetic MHSPE is an efficient and selective sample preparation technique for the extraction of banned cationic dyes in a complex matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased fire frequency promotes stronger spatial genetic structure and natural selection at regional and local scales in Pinus halepensis Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Katharina B; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Navascués, Miguel; Burgarella, Concetta; Mosca, Elena; Lorenzo, Zaida; Zabal-Aguirre, Mario; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Verdú, Miguel; Pausas, Juli G; Heuertz, Myriam

    2017-04-01

    The recurrence of wildfires is predicted to increase due to global climate change, resulting in severe impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Recurrent fires can drive plant adaptation and reduce genetic diversity; however, the underlying population genetic processes have not been studied in detail. In this study, the neutral and adaptive evolutionary effects of contrasting fire regimes were examined in the keystone tree species Pinus halepensis Mill. (Aleppo pine), a fire-adapted conifer. The genetic diversity, demographic history and spatial genetic structure were assessed at local (within-population) and regional scales for populations exposed to different crown fire frequencies. Eight natural P. halepensis stands were sampled in the east of the Iberian Peninsula, five of them in a region exposed to frequent crown fires (HiFi) and three of them in an adjacent region with a low frequency of crown fires (LoFi). Samples were genotyped at nine neutral simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and at 251 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from coding regions, some of them potentially important for fire adaptation. Fire regime had no effects on genetic diversity or demographic history. Three high-differentiation outlier SNPs were identified between HiFi and LoFi stands, suggesting fire-related selection at the regional scale. At the local scale, fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) was overall weak as expected for a wind-pollinated and wind-dispersed tree species. HiFi stands displayed a stronger SGS than LoFi stands at SNPs, which probably reflected the simultaneous post-fire recruitment of co-dispersed related seeds. SNPs with exceptionally strong SGS, a proxy for microenvironmental selection, were only reliably identified under the HiFi regime. An increasing fire frequency as predicted due to global change can promote increased SGS with stronger family structures and alter natural selection in P. halepensis and in plants with similar life history traits.

  9. New Variants of Tomato Thymidine Kinase 1 Selected for Increased Sensitivity of E. coli KY895 towards Azidothymidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Slot Christiansen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nucleoside analogues (NA are prodrugs that are phosphorylated by deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs as the first step towards a compound toxic to the cell. During the last 20 years, research around dNKs has gone into new organisms other than mammals and viruses. Newly discovered dNKs have been tested as enzymes for suicide gene therapy. The tomato thymidine kinase 1 (ToTK1 is a dNK that has been selected for its in vitro kinetic properties and then successfully been tested in vivo for the treatment of malignant glioma. We present the selection of two improved variants of ToTK1 generated by random protein engineering for suicide gene therapy with the NA azidothymidine (AZT.We describe their selection, recombinant production and a subsequent kinetic and biochemical characterization. Their improved performance in killing of E. coli KY895 is accompanied by an increase in specificity for the NA AZT over the natural substrate thymidine as well as a decrease in inhibition by dTTP, the end product of the nucleoside salvage pathway for thymidine. The understanding of the enzymatic properties improving the variants efficacy is instrumental to further develop dNKs for use in suicide gene therapy.

  10. New Variants of Tomato Thymidine Kinase 1 Selected for Increased Sensitivity of E. coli KY895 towards Azidothymidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slot Christiansen, Louise [Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund 22362 (Sweden); Lund Protein Production Platform, Lund University, Lund 22362 (Sweden); Egeblad, Louise [Lund Protein Production Platform, Lund University, Lund 22362 (Sweden); Munch-Petersen, Birgitte [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, Roskilde 4000 (Denmark); Piškur, Jure [Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund 22362 (Sweden); Knecht, Wolfgang, E-mail: Louise.Slot_Christiansen@biol.lu.se [Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund 22362 (Sweden); Lund Protein Production Platform, Lund University, Lund 22362 (Sweden)

    2015-06-08

    Nucleoside analogues (NA) are prodrugs that are phosphorylated by deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs) as the first step towards a compound toxic to the cell. During the last 20 years, research around dNKs has gone into new organisms other than mammals and viruses. Newly discovered dNKs have been tested as enzymes for suicide gene therapy. The tomato thymidine kinase 1 (ToTK1) is a dNK that has been selected for its in vitro kinetic properties and then successfully been tested in vivo for the treatment of malignant glioma. We present the selection of two improved variants of ToTK1 generated by random protein engineering for suicide gene therapy with the NA azidothymidine (AZT). We describe their selection, recombinant production and a subsequent kinetic and biochemical characterization. Their improved performance in killing of E. coli KY895 is accompanied by an increase in specificity for the NA AZT over the natural substrate thymidine as well as a decrease in inhibition by dTTP, the end product of the nucleoside salvage pathway for thymidine. The understanding of the enzymatic properties improving the variants efficacy is instrumental to further develop dNKs for use in suicide gene therapy.

  11. A plant to plate pilot: a cold-climate high school garden increased vegetable selection but also waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Hanks, Andrew S; Just, David R

    2015-08-01

    Can high school gardens in cold climates influence vegetable intake in the absence of nutrition education? This study followed a before/after design where student tray-waste data were collected using the quarter-waste method. The study took place March-April 2012 in a high school in upstate New York. The subjects were 370 enrolled high school students that purchased lunch from the school cafeteria. Prior to the introduction of garden greens in the salad, salads were served as usual. On April 24, harvested greens were included in the salad, and changes in selection and plate waste were measured. When the salad bar contained garden produce, the percentage of students selecting salad rose from 2% to 10% (p school gardens increased selection and intake of school-raised produce. Although a third was not eaten, it is promising to see that still more produce was consumed compared to the past. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Short-term alpha- or gamma-delta-enriched tocopherol oil supplementation differentially affects the expression of proinflammatory mediators: selective impacts on characteristics of protein tyrosine nitration in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted H. Elsasser

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available While vitamin E has been used for decades in cattle diets, the principle form used traditionally is the synthetic α-isoform acetate or succinate and largely no data exist on the biological partitioning or functionality of the major naturally occurring γ- and δ-isoforms in cattle. Using tyrosine 3’-nitrated protein (pNT as a biomarker of nitrosative cell stress, we sought to evaluate the effectiveness of short-term feeding supplementation of high content natural α-tocopherol (α-T, 96% α-isomer compared to high content γ- and δ-enriched low α-content mixed tocopherol oils (γ-T, ~70% γ-, 20% δ-, <5% α-isoform to mitigate systemic and hepatic aspects of the proinflammatory response to endotoxin (LPS. Calves fed diets supplemented with α-T, γ-T for five days or no tocopherol supplement (T0E were challenged with a low-level of LPS (0.25 μg/kg, iv, E. coli 055:B5 sufficient to effect a liver nitration response. As fed, α-T or γ-T increased plasma and liver content of the respective tocopherols reflecting their relative abundance in the respective diets. Plasma or tissue mediators and biomarkers of the proinflammatory response [plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, P<0.001, nitrate+nitrite (NOx, P<0.01, and serum amyloid A (SAA, P<0.001], and general liver content of pNT (P<0.005 increased after LPS. LPS-mediated increases in TNF-α were not dif- ferent between diet treatments; both plasma NOx (P<0.05 and generalized liver pNT (P<0.03 responses were attenuated significantly in α-T and γ-T versus T0E calves. Plasma SAA was significantly decreased in γ-T calves at 24 h post-LPS relative to responses in α-T or T0E calves. The nitration of the mitochondrial proteins 24 h post-LPS was not only attenuated in α-T and γ-T vs T0E, but also the mitigating effect of γ-T on these specific nitration events was greater than that of α-T (P<0.01. Results are consistent with the concept that short-term α-T or

  13. Exercise training effects on hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses in mice selected for increased voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Scott A; Rezende, Enrico L; Chappell, Mark A; Gomes, Fernando R; Kolb, Erik M; Malisch, Jessica L; Rhodes, Justin S; Mitchell, Gordon S; Garland, Theodore

    2014-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? We used experimental evolution to determine how selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running and exercise training (7-11 weeks) affect ventilatory chemoreflexes of laboratory mice at rest. What is the main finding and its importance? Selective breeding, although significantly affecting some traits, did not systematically alter ventilation across gas concentrations. As with most human studies, our findings support the idea that endurance training attenuates resting ventilation. However, little evidence was found for a correlation between ventilatory chemoreflexes and the amount of individual voluntary wheel running. We conclude that exercise 'training' alters respiratory behaviours, but these changes may not be necessary to achieve high levels of wheel running. Ventilatory control is affected by genetics, the environment and gene-environment and gene-gene interactions. Here, we used an experimental evolution approach to test whether 37 generations of selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running (genetic effects) and/or long-term (7-11 weeks) wheel access (training effects) alter acute respiratory behaviour of mice resting in normoxic, hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions. As the four replicate high-runner (HR) lines run much more than the four non-selected control (C) lines, we also examined whether the amount of exercise among individual mice was a quantitative predictor of ventilatory chemoreflexes at rest. Selective breeding and/or wheel access significantly affected several traits. In normoxia, HR mice tended to have lower mass-adjusted rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Chronic wheel access increased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production in both HR and C mice during hypercapnia. Breathing frequency and minute ventilation were significantly reduced by chronic wheel access in both HR and C mice during hypoxia. Selection history, while significantly affecting some traits

  14. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with phenolic compounds from olive cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2010-10-13

    The recent information regarding the healthy properties of virgin olive oil phenols and the interest in increasing the value of byproducts from the oil extraction processs support the standardized development of phenol-enriched olive oil. Accordingly, the aim of this research work was to evaluate strategies for the development of a virgin olive oil enriched with phenolic compounds obtained from olive cake to increase phenolic ingestion without the drawback of a higher calorie intake. For this proposal, different combinations of phenolic extracts were evaluated at a range of concentrations to obtain the best prototype of enriched olive oil. To study the functionality of the phenol enrichments, the total phenolic content and the oxidative stability were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu and Rancimat tests, respectively. In addition, the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity (ORAC assay) of the oils were studied. Finally, the stability and potential bioaccesibility of the phenolic fraction of the enriched oils were tested by an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Results of the study showed different strategies to select the best prototype of enriched olive oil, taking into consideration not only their phenolic content but also other important factors such as the feasibility of implementing the preparation process in the food industry.

  15. Oxytocin selectively facilitates learning with social feedback and increases activity and functional connectivity in emotional memory and reward processing regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiehui; Qi, Song; Becker, Benjamin; Luo, Lizhu; Gao, Shan; Gong, Qiyong; Hurlemann, René; Kendrick, Keith M

    2015-06-01

    In male Caucasian subjects, learning is facilitated by receipt of social compared with non-social feedback, and the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) facilitates this effect. In this study, we have first shown a cultural difference in that male Chinese subjects actually perform significantly worse in the same reinforcement associated learning task with social (emotional faces) compared with non-social feedback. Nevertheless, in two independent double-blind placebo (PLC) controlled between-subject design experiments we found OXT still selectively facilitated learning with social feedback. Similar to Caucasian subjects this OXT effect was strongest with feedback using female rather than male faces. One experiment performed in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that during the response, but not feedback phase of the task, OXT selectively increased activity in the amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and putamen during the social feedback condition, and functional connectivity between the amygdala and insula and caudate. Therefore, OXT may be increasing the salience and reward value of anticipated social feedback. In the PLC group, response times and state anxiety scores during social feedback were associated with signal changes in these same regions but not in the OXT group. OXT may therefore have also facilitated learning by reducing anxiety in the social feedback condition. Overall our results provide the first evidence for cultural differences in social facilitation of learning per se, but a similar selective enhancement of learning with social feedback under OXT. This effect of OXT may be associated with enhanced responses and functional connectivity in emotional memory and reward processing regions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cost of oviposition site selection in a water strider Aquarius paludum insularis: egg mortality increases with oviposition depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Hiroyuki; Kasuya, Eiiti

    2010-06-01

    Females generally avoid selecting sites for oviposition which have a high predation risk to increase offspring survival. Previous studies have focused on costs to ovipositing females. However, although offspring may also incur costs by being oviposited at low predation risk sites, no studies have focused on costs to offspring. Such costs to offspring were examined by using Aquarius paludum insularis, females of which avoid eggs parasitism by ovipositing at deep sites. Deep sites are safe from egg parasitism but may be unsuitable for hatching due to environmental factors. We examined the costs to offspring at deep sites by comparing the hatching rate, the duration to hatching and the proportion of drowned larvae between eggs that were set at three levels of water depth (0 cm, 25 cm and 50 cm depth). While the hatching rate at 50 cm was lower than that at 0 cm, the rate at 25 cm did not differ from that at 0 cm. Duration to hatching and the proportion of drowned larvae did not differ between the three depths. It is suggested that the declining survival rate of A. paludum eggs was due to increased water pressure at greater depth. Such a cost may exist in other species and such an observation may aid in understanding oviposition site selection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The SPIRIT Action Framework: A structured approach to selecting and testing strategies to increase the use of research in policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Sally; Turner, Tari; Davies, Huw; Williamson, Anna; Haynes, Abby; Brennan, Sue; Milat, Andrew; O'Connor, Denise; Blyth, Fiona; Jorm, Louisa; Green, Sally

    2015-07-01

    The recent proliferation of strategies designed to increase the use of research in health policy (knowledge exchange) demands better application of contemporary conceptual understandings of how research shapes policy. Predictive models, or action frameworks, are needed to organise existing knowledge and enable a more systematic approach to the selection and testing of intervention strategies. Useful action frameworks need to meet four criteria: have a clearly articulated purpose; be informed by existing knowledge; provide an organising structure to build new knowledge; and be capable of guiding the development and testing of interventions. This paper describes the development of the SPIRIT Action Framework. A literature search and interviews with policy makers identified modifiable factors likely to influence the use of research in policy. An iterative process was used to combine these factors into a pragmatic tool which meets the four criteria. The SPIRIT Action Framework can guide conceptually-informed practical decisions in the selection and testing of interventions to increase the use of research in policy. The SPIRIT Action Framework hypothesises that a catalyst is required for the use of research, the response to which is determined by the capacity of the organisation to engage with research. Where there is sufficient capacity, a series of research engagement actions might occur that facilitate research use. These hypotheses are being tested in ongoing empirical work. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of different selective enrichment steps to isolate Salmonella sp. from feces of finishing swine Comparação de diferentes etapas de enriquecimento seletivo no isolamento de Salmonella sp. de fezes de suínos de terminação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Brenner Michael

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A two-phase study was conducted to compare the efficacy of several enrichment selective-broth steps associated to different plating media for recovery of Salmonella sp. from finishing swine feces. In a first phase, Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth (RV incubated at 42ºC, Tetrathionate Müller-Kauffmann broth at 37ºC (TMK37 and 42ºC (TMK42, and Selenite Cystine broth (SC at 37ºC, in combination with three selective plating media Rambach agar (RA, Xylose-Lysine-Tergitol 4 agar (XLT4, and Brilliant-Green Phenol-Red Lactose Sucrose agar (VB were compared for recovery of Salmonella from artificially contaminated swine feces. In a second phase, RV, TMK37, and TMK42, associated with XLT4 and VB , were tested with naturally contaminated swine feces. In this study RV, TMK42 and TMK37 were superior to SC for isolating Salmonella sp. from artificially contaminated feces. TMK42 and RV were more productive than TMK37 for recovery of Salmonella from naturally contaminated feces samples. Selectivity and indication capability of the plating media were remarkably affected by the selective enrichment step effectiveness. The TMK42/XLT4 association was the most sensitive and RV/XLT4 the most specific. The use of VB agar is also recommended to increase the likelihood of isolating atypical H2S-late producing/ non-producing Salmonella. In this study RV and TMK42 were the most efficient selective enrichment for recovery of Salmonella sp. from swine feces.Através de um estudo em duas fases comparou-se a eficiência de etapas de enriquecimento seletivo, associadas a diferentes meios seletivos, na recuperação de Salmonella sp. de fezes de suínos de terminação. Em uma primeira fase, as amostras foram contaminadas artificialmente e os caldos Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV incubado a 42ºC, Tetrationato Müller-Kauffmann a 37ºC (TMK37 e 42ºC (TMK42, e Selenito Cistina (SC a 37ºC foram testados, em associação com meios sólidos seletivos: ágar Rambach (RA, ágar Xilose

  19. Hydrogen-enriched fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, R. [NRG Technologies, Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    1998-08-01

    NRG Technologies, Inc. is attempting to develop hardware and infrastructure that will allow mixtures of hydrogen and conventional fuels to become viable alternatives to conventional fuels alone. This commercialization can be successful if the authors are able to achieve exhaust emission levels of less than 0.03 g/kw-hr NOx and CO; and 0.15 g/kw-hr NMHC at full engine power without the use of exhaust catalysts. The major barriers to achieving these goals are that the lean burn regimes required to meet exhaust emissions goals reduce engine output substantially and tend to exhibit higher-than-normal total hydrocarbon emissions. Also, hydrogen addition to conventional fuels increases fuel cost, and reduces both vehicle range and engine output power. Maintaining low emissions during transient driving cycles has not been demonstrated. A three year test plan has been developed to perform the investigations into the issues described above. During this initial year of funding research has progressed in the following areas: (a) a cost effective single-cylinder research platform was constructed; (b) exhaust gas speciation was performed to characterize the nature of hydrocarbon emissions from hydrogen-enriched natural gas fuels; (c) three H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} fuel compositions were analyzed using spark timing and equivalence ratio sweeping procedures and finally; (d) a full size pick-up truck platform was converted to run on HCNG fuels. The testing performed in year one of the three year plan represents a baseline from which to assess options for overcoming the stated barriers to success.

  20. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  1. Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls and ozone-resistant cultivar selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avnery, Shiri; Mauzerall, Denise L; Fiore, Arlene M

    2013-04-01

    Meeting the projected 50% increase in global grain demand by 2030 without further environmental degradation poses a major challenge for agricultural production. Because surface ozone (O3 ) has a significant negative impact on crop yields, one way to increase future production is to reduce O3 -induced agricultural losses. We present two strategies whereby O3 damage to crops may be reduced. We first examine the potential benefits of an O3 mitigation strategy motivated by climate change goals: gradual emission reductions of methane (CH4 ), an important greenhouse gas and tropospheric O3 precursor that has not yet been targeted for O3 pollution abatement. Our second strategy focuses on adapting crops to O3 exposure by selecting cultivars with demonstrated O3 resistance. We find that the CH4 reductions considered would increase global production of soybean, maize, and wheat by 23-102 Mt in 2030 - the equivalent of a ~2-8% increase in year 2000 production worth $3.5-15 billion worldwide (USD2000 ), increasing the cost effectiveness of this CH4 mitigation policy. Choosing crop varieties with O3 resistance (relative to median-sensitivity cultivars) could improve global agricultural production in 2030 by over 140 Mt, the equivalent of a 12% increase in 2000 production worth ~$22 billion. Benefits are dominated by improvements for wheat in South Asia, where O3 -induced crop losses would otherwise be severe. Combining the two strategies generates benefits that are less than fully additive, given the nature of O3 effects on crops. Our results demonstrate the significant potential to sustainably improve global agricultural production by decreasing O3 -induced reductions in crop yields. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Age-related deficits in selective attention during encoding increase demands on episodic reconstruction during context retrieval: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Taylor; Strunk, Jonathan; Arndt, Jason; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) and neuroimaging evidence suggests that directing attention toward single item-context associations compared to intra-item features at encoding improves context memory performance and reduces demands on strategic retrieval operations in young and older adults. In everyday situations, however, there are multiple event features competing for our attention. It is not currently known how selectively attending to one contextual feature while attempting to ignore another influences context memory performance and the processes that support successful retrieval in the young and old. We investigated this issue in the current ERP study. Young and older participants studied pictures of objects in the presence of two contextual features: a color and a scene, and their attention was directed to the object's relationship with one of those contexts. Participants made context memory decisions for both attended and unattended contexts and rated their confidence in those decisions. Behavioral results showed that while both groups were generally successful in applying selective attention during context encoding, older adults were less confident in their context memory decisions for attended features and showed greater dependence in context memory accuracy for attended and unattended contextual features (i.e., hyper-binding). ERP results were largely consistent between age groups but older adults showed a more pronounced late posterior negativity (LPN) implicated in episodic reconstruction processes. We conclude that age-related suppression deficits during encoding result in reduced selectivity in context memory, thereby increasing subsequent demands on episodic reconstruction processes when sought after details are not readily retrieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Selection for a Zinc-Finger Protein Contributes to Seed Oil Increase during Soybean Domestication1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Ma, Biao; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean (Glycine max) targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that the seed-preferred gene GmZF351, encoding a tandem CCCH zinc finger protein, is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRINKLED1, BIOTIN CARBOXYL CARRIER PROTEIN2, 3-KETOACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE III, DIACYLGLYCEROL O-ACYLTRANSFERASE1, and OLEOSIN2 in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. The ZF351 haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean (Glycine soja) subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. PMID:28184009

  4. Natural resistance to experimental feline infectious peritonitis virus infection is decreased rather than increased by positive genetic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Niels C; Liu, Hongwei; Durden, Monica; Lyons, Leslie A

    2016-03-01

    A previous study demonstrated the existence of a natural resistance to feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) among 36% of randomly bred laboratory cats. A genome wide association study (GWAS) on this population suggested that resistance was polygenic but failed to identify any strong specific associations. In order to enhance the power of GWAS or whole genome sequencing to identify strong genetic associations, a decision was made to positively select for resistance over three generations. The inbreeding experiment began with a genetically related parental (P) population consisting of three toms and four queens identified from among the survivors of the earlier study and belonging to a closely related subgroup (B). The subsequent effects of inbreeding were measured using 42 genome-wide STR markers. P generation cats produced 57 first filial (F1) kittens, only five of which (9.0%) demonstrated a natural resistance to FIPV infection. One of these five F1 survivors was then used to produce six F1/P-backcrosses kittens, only one of which proved resistant to FIP. Six of eight of the F1 and F1/P survivors succumbed to a secondary exposure 4-12 months later. Therefore, survival after both primary and secondary infection was decreased rather than increased by positive selection for resistance. The common genetic factor associated with this diminished resistance was a loss of heterozygosity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Variants of a Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase with increased selectivity for applications in allele- and methylation-specific amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Drum

    Full Text Available The selectivity of DNA polymerases is crucial for many applications. For example, high discrimination between the extension of matched versus mismatched primer termini is desired for the detection of a single nucleotide variation at a particular locus within the genome. Here we describe the generation of thermostable mutants of the large fragment of Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase (KlenTaq with increased mismatch extension selectivity. In contrast to previously reported much less active KlenTaq mutants with mismatch discrimination abilities, many of the herein discovered mutants show conserved wild-type-like high activities. We demonstrate for one mutant containing the single amino acid exchange R660V the suitability for application in allele-specific amplifications directly from whole blood without prior sample purification. Also the suitability of the mutant for methylation specific amplification in the diagnostics of 5-methyl cytosines is demonstrated. Furthermore, the identified mutant supersedes other commercially available enzymes in human leukocyte antigen (HLA analysis by sequence-specific primed polymerase chain reactions (PCRs.

  6. Selective pressure causes an RNA virus to trade reproductive fitness for increased structural and thermal stability of a viral enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Dessau

    Full Text Available The modulation of fitness by single mutational substitutions during environmental change is the most fundamental consequence of natural selection. The antagonistic tradeoffs of pleiotropic mutations that can be selected under changing environments therefore lie at the foundation of evolutionary biology. However, the molecular basis of fitness tradeoffs is rarely determined in terms of how these pleiotropic mutations affect protein structure. Here we use an interdisciplinary approach to study how antagonistic pleiotropy and protein function dictate a fitness tradeoff. We challenged populations of an RNA virus, bacteriophage Φ6, to evolve in a novel temperature environment where heat shock imposed extreme virus mortality. A single amino acid substitution in the viral lysin protein P5 (V207F favored improved stability, and hence survival of challenged viruses, despite a concomitant tradeoff that decreased viral reproduction. This mutation increased the thermostability of P5. Crystal structures of wild-type, mutant, and ligand-bound P5 reveal the molecular basis of this thermostabilization--the Phe207 side chain fills a hydrophobic cavity that is unoccupied in the wild-type--and identify P5 as a lytic transglycosylase. The mutation did not reduce the enzymatic activity of P5, suggesting that the reproduction tradeoff stems from other factors such as inefficient capsid assembly or disassembly. Our study demonstrates how combining experimental evolution, biochemistry, and structural biology can identify the mechanisms that drive the antagonistic pleiotropic phenotypes of an individual point mutation in the classic evolutionary tug-of-war between survival and reproduction.

  7. Children born by women with rheumatoid arthritis have increased susceptibility for selected chronic diseases – a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jølving, Line Riis; Nielsen, Jan; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2018-01-01

    on the Danish health registries and included data on all children born alive in Denmark from January 1st 1989 to December 31st 2013. The cohort comprised 2106 children born by women with RA (exposed), and 1 378 539 children born by women without RA (unexposed). Cox proportional hazard regression models were.......89 (95% CI, 2.06 - 4.05). The HR's for anxiety and personality disorders and chronic lung disease including asthma were in the range of 1.15 - 1.16, but these were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that in utero exposure to maternal RA is associated with an increased risk......OBJECTIVE: Fetal exposure to maternal rheumatoid arthritis (RA) might impact the long-term risk of disease in the offspring. We examined a possible association between maternal RA and 15 selected groups of chronic diseases in the offspring. METHODS: This nationwide cohort study was based...

  8. Selective Increase of Two ABC Drug Efflux Transporters at the Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier Suggests Induced Pharmacoresistance in ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Michael R.; Jacob, Dena A.; Campos, Christopher; Miller, David S.; Maragakis, Nicholas J.; Pasinelli, Piera; Trotti, Davide

    2012-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug efflux transporters in the CNS are predominantly localized to the luminal surface of endothelial cells in capillaries to impede CNS accumulation of xenobiotics. Inflammatory mediators and cellular stressors regulate their activity. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease of upper and lower motor neurons characterized by extensive neuroinflammation. Here we tested the hypothesis that disease-driven changes in ABC transporter expression and function occur in ALS. Given the multitude of ABC transporters with their widespread substrate recognition, we began by examining expression levels of several ABC transporters. We found a selective increase in only two transporters; P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) both at mRNA and protein levels, in the SOD1-G93A mouse model of ALS, specifically in disease-affected CNS regions. Detailed analysis revealed a similar disease-driven increase in P-gp and BCRP levels in spinal cord microvessels, indicating that their altered expression occurs at the blood spinal cord barrier. Transport activity of P-gp and BCRP increased with disease progression in spinal cord and cerebral cortex capillaries. Finally, P-gp and BCRP protein expression also increased in spinal cords of ALS patients. Preclinical drug trials in the mouse model of ALS have failed to decisively slow or arrest disease progression; pharmacoresistance imparted by ABC transporters is one possible explanation for these failures. Our observations have large implications for ALS therapeutics in humans and suggest that the obstacle provided by these transporters to drug treatments must be overcome to develop effective ALS pharmacotherapies. PMID:22521463

  9. Where to find omega-3 fatty acids and how feeding animals with diet enriched in omega-3 fatty acids to increase nutritional value of derived products for human: what is actually useful ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, J M

    2005-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have two major field of interest. The first lies in their quantitative abundance and their role in the development and maintenance of the brain. The second is their role in the prevention of different pathologies, mainly the cardiovascular diseases, and more lately some psychiatric disorders, from stress to depression and dementia. Thus, dietary omega-3 fatty acids are very important to ensure brain structure and function, more specifically during development and aging. However, concerning essential alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), most occidental diets contain about 50 % of the recommended dietary allowances. The problem is to know which foods are naturally rich in this fatty acid, and to determine the true impact of the formulations (enriched in omega-3 fatty acids, either ALA or EPA and DHA) in chows used on farms and breeding centres on the nutritional value of the products (meat, butter, milk and dairy products, cheese, and eggs, etc), and thus their effect on the health of consumers, especially to ensure adequate quantities in the diet of the aging people. The consequences (qualitative and quantitative) of modifications in the composition of animal foods on the value of derived products consumed by humans are more marked when single-stomach animals are concerned than multi-stomach animals. Because, for example, hydrogenating intestinal bacteria of the latter group transform a large proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids in their food into saturated fatty acids, among others, thus depriving them of any biological interest. Under the best conditions, by feeding animals with extracts of linseed and rapeseed grains for example, the level of ALA acid is increased approximately two-fold in beef and six-fold in pork, ten-fold in chicken, and forty-fold in eggs. By feeding animals with fish extracts or algae (oils) the level of DHA is increased about 2-fold in beef, 7-fold in chicken, 6-fold in eggs, and 20-fold in fish (salmon). To

  10. Oxytocin selectively increases perceptions of harm for victims but not the desire to punish offenders of criminal offenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuraman, Raja; Moody, Lara; Twieg, Peter; de Visser, Ewart; McCabe, Kevin; O’Hara, Martin; Lee, Mary R.

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin functions as a hormone and neurotransmitter and facilitates complex social cognition and approach behavior. Given that empathy is an essential ingredient for third-party decision-making in institutions of justice, we investigated whether exogenous oxytocin modulates empathy of an unaffected third-party toward offenders and victims of criminal offenses. Healthy male participants received intranasal oxytocin or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design. Participants were given a set of legal vignettes that described an event during which an offender engaged in criminal offenses against victims. As an unaffected third-party, participants were asked to rate those criminal offenses on the degree to which the offender deserved punishment and how much harm was inflicted on the victim. Exogenous oxytocin selectively increased third-party decision-makers’ perceptions of harm for victims but not the desire to punish offenders of criminal offenses. We argue that oxytocin promoted empathic concern for the victim, which in turn increased the tendency for prosocial approach behavior regarding the interpersonal relationship between an unaffected third-party and a fictional victim in the criminal scenarios. Future research should explore the context- and person-dependent nature of exogenous oxytocin in individuals with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, in whom deficits in empathy feature prominently. PMID:22368214

  11. A natural variant of NAL1, selected in high-yield rice breeding programs, pleiotropically increases photosynthesis rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Toshiyuki; Adachi, Shunsuke; Taguchi-Shiobara, Fumio; Sanoh-Arai, Yumiko; Iwasawa, Norio; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Hirose, Sakiko; Taniguchi, Yojiro; Yamanouchi, Utako; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Katsuhiko; Ikka, Takashi; Ando, Tsuyu; Kono, Izumi; Ito, Sachie; Shomura, Ayahiko; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Yano, Masahiro; Kondo, Motohiko; Yamamoto, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of leaf photosynthesis is an important strategy for greater crop productivity. Here we show that the quantitative trait locus GPS (GREEN FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) controls photosynthesis rate by regulating carboxylation efficiency. Map-based cloning revealed that GPS is identical to NAL1 (NARROW LEAF1), a gene previously reported to control lateral leaf growth. The high-photosynthesis allele of GPS was found to be a partial loss-of-function allele of NAL1. This allele increased mesophyll cell number between vascular bundles, which led to thickened leaves, and it pleiotropically enhanced photosynthesis rate without the detrimental side effects observed in previously identified nal1 mutants, such as dwarf plant stature. Furthermore, pedigree analysis suggested that rice breeders have repeatedly selected the high-photosynthesis allele in high-yield breeding programs. The identification and utilization of NAL1 (GPS) can enhance future high-yield breeding and provides a new strategy for increasing rice productivity. PMID:23985993

  12. Oxytocin selectively increases perceptions of harm for victims but not the desire to punish offenders of criminal offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Frank; Parasuraman, Raja; Moody, Lara; Twieg, Peter; de Visser, Ewart; McCabe, Kevin; O'Hara, Martin; Lee, Mary R

    2013-06-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin functions as a hormone and neurotransmitter and facilitates complex social cognition and approach behavior. Given that empathy is an essential ingredient for third-party decision-making in institutions of justice, we investigated whether exogenous oxytocin modulates empathy of an unaffected third-party toward offenders and victims of criminal offenses. Healthy male participants received intranasal oxytocin or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design. Participants were given a set of legal vignettes that described an event during which an offender engaged in criminal offenses against victims. As an unaffected third-party, participants were asked to rate those criminal offenses on the degree to which the offender deserved punishment and how much harm was inflicted on the victim. Exogenous oxytocin selectively increased third-party decision-makers' perceptions of harm for victims but not the desire to punish offenders of criminal offenses. We argue that oxytocin promoted empathic concern for the victim, which in turn increased the tendency for prosocial approach behavior regarding the interpersonal relationship between an unaffected third-party and a fictional victim in the criminal scenarios. Future research should explore the context- and person-dependent nature of exogenous oxytocin in individuals with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, in whom deficits in empathy feature prominently.

  13. Increased orbitofrontal brain activation after administration of a selective adenosine A2A antagonist in cocaine dependent subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gerard eMoeller

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Positron Emission Tomography imaging studies provide evidence of reduced dopamine function in cocaine dependent subjects in the striatum, which is correlated with prefrontal cortical glucose metabolism, particularly in the orbitofrontal cortex. However, whether enhancement of dopamine in the striatum in cocaine dependent subjects would be associated with changes in prefrontal cortical brain activation is unknown. One novel class of medications that enhance dopamine function via heteromer formation with dopamine receptors in the striatum is the selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonists. This study sought to determine the effects administration of the selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist SYN115 on brain function in cocaine dependent subjects. Methodology/Principle Findings: Twelve cocaine dependent subjects underwent two fMRI scans (one after a dose of placebo and one after a dose of 100 mg of SYN115 while performing a working memory task with 3 levels of difficulty (3, 5, and 7 digits. fMRI results showed that for 7-digit working memory activation there was significantly greater activation from SYN115 compared to placebo in portions of left (L lateral orbitofrontal cortex, L insula, and L superior and middle temporal pole. Conclusion/Significance: These findings are consistent with enhanced dopamine function in the striatum in cocaine dependent subjects via blockade of adenosine A2A receptors producing increased brain activation in the orbitofrontal cortex and other cortical regions. This suggests that at least some of the changes in brain activation in prefrontal cortical regions in cocaine dependent subjects may be related to altered striatal dopamine function, and that enhancement of dopamine function via adenosine A2A receptor blockade could be explored further for amelioration of neurobehavioral deficits associated with chronic cocaine use.

  14. Recent increases in nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired electric generating units equipped with selective catalytic reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNevin, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    The most effective control technology available for the reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from coal-fired boilers is selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Installation of SCR on coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs) has grown substantially since the onset of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) first cap and trade program for oxides of nitrogen in 1999, the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) NOx Budget Program. Installations have increased from 6 units present in 1998 in the states that encompass the current Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) ozone season program to 250 in 2014. In recent years, however, the degree of usage of installed SCR technology has been dropping significantly at individual plants. Average seasonal NOx emission rates increased substantially during the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) program. These increases coincided with a collapse in the cost of CAIR allowances, which declined to less than the cost of the reagent required to operate installed SCR equipment, and was accompanied by a 77% decline in delivered natural gas prices from their peak in June of 2008 to April 2012, which in turn coincided with a 390% increase in shale gas production between 2008 and 2012. These years also witnessed a decline in national electric generation which, after peaking in 2007, declined through 2013 at an annualized rate of -0.3%. Scaling back the use of installed SCR on coal-fired plants has resulted in the release of over 290,000 tons of avoidable NOx during the past five ozone seasons in the states that participated in the CAIR program. To function as designed, a cap and trade program must maintain allowance costs that function as a disincentive for the release of the air pollutants that the program seeks to control. If the principle incentive for reducing NOx emissions is the avoidance of allowance costs, emissions may be expected to increase if costs fall below a critical value, in the absence of additional state or federal

  15. Highly activated p53 contributes to selectively increased apoptosis of latently HIV-1 infected cells upon treatment of anticancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, YoungHyun; Lim, Hoyong; Choi, Byeong-Sun; Kim, Kyung-Chang; Kang, Chun; Bae, Yong-Soo; Yoon, Cheol-Hee

    2016-08-16

    was increased via the p53 activation pathway and may provide information for application of anticancer drugs to selectively eliminate HIV-1 reservoirs.

  16. Selenium enrichment of table eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D C; Cheng, K M

    2010-10-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element with a recommended dietary allowance for human adults of 55 μg/d. However, there is evidence that greater dietary intakes may have possible health benefits, including a reduction in the risk of cancer. Several studies have shown the feasibility of enriching eggs using organic Se and that Se-enriched eggs are an effective way to supplement human diets. However, few studies have examined the response of egg Se concentration to high (>1 μg/g) dietary organic Se intake by the laying hens. The objective of the current study is to examine the effect of higher dietary organic Se levels on production, egg mass, and egg Se levels. These were assessed by feeding 3 breeds of laying hens (Barred Plymouth Rock, Lohmann Brown, Lohmann White) a basal diet containing 0.3 μg of Se/g of diet as Na2SeO3. Into this diet, Se yeast (SelenoSource AF 600), an organic source of Se, was added at 1.0, 2.4, or 5.1 μg of Se/g of diet for 4 wk. Feed consumption, egg production, and egg mass were not affected by the dietary Se concentration in all 3 breeds. Within the range of Se levels employed in the laying hens' diet, egg Se content increased linearly as dietary levels of Se increased. The results of this study indicate that feeding up to 5.1 µg/g of Se will not affect egg production and the welfare of the laying hen and is a practical way of producing Se-enriched eggs for the consumers.

  17. Phosphopeptide enrichment by IEF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccarrone, Giuseppina; Kolb, Nikolaus; Teplytska, Larysa; Birg, Isabel; Zollinger, Richard; Holsboer, Florian; Turck, Christoph W

    2006-11-01

    In our efforts to improve the identification of phosphopeptides by MS we have used peptide IEF on IPG strips. Phosphopeptides derived from trypsin digests of single proteins as well as complex cellular protein mixtures can be enriched by IEF and recovered in excellent yields at the acidic end of an IPG strip. IPG peptide fractionation in combination with MS/MS analysis has allowed us to identify phosphopeptides from tryptic digests of a cellular protein extract.

  18. Genetics of growth and reproduction in the turkey. 14. Changes in genetic parameters over thirty generations of selection for increased body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, K E; Anderson, J W; Patterson, R A

    2000-04-01

    A line (F) of turkeys was selected over 30 generations for increased 16-wk BW. The base population for the F line was a randombred control population (RBC2) that was maintained without conscious selection and used to remove yearly environmental variation in the F line. Selection was effective in increasing 16-wk BW in the F line. Selection differentials based on the mean of selected parents minus mean of entire population (intended) and intended selection differentials weighted for number of offspring produced (actual) did not consistently differ, indicating that natural selection was not significantly opposing artificial selection. The realized heritability (h2) of 16-wk BW in the F line, based on the linear regression of the selection response on accumulated actual selection differentials, declined with selection; the decline appeared to be slightly different for males than females. For both sexes combined, the realized h2 was 0.309+/-0.022 (SE), 0.268+/-0.033, 0.242+/-0.026, and 0.254+/-0.007, respectively, for Generations 1 to 10, 11 to 20, 21 to 30, and 1 to 30. Genetic increases in 16-wk BW in the F line were positively associated with BW at other ages (8, 20, and 24 wk of age and at 50% production), days from stimulatory lighting to production of the first egg, and egg weight. Genetic increases were negatively associated with egg production, intensity of lay (maximum and average clutch length and rate of lay), and hatch of fertile eggs. There was no significant relationship between 16-wk BW and total days lost from broodiness or fertility. The genetic changes in some correlated traits were not consistent in all generation intervals studied, indicating that the genetic correlation between the selected trait (16 wk BW) and the correlated trait changed with selection.

  19. Effect of increased ovulation rate on embryo and foetal survival as a model for selection by ovulation rate in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Badawy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Selection for ovulation rate in prolific species has not improved litter size, due to an increase in prenatal mortality, with most mortality observed in the foetal period. The aim of this study was to investigate the magnitude and timing of embryo and early foetal survival in females with high ovulation rate using hormonal treatment as a model for selection by ovulation rate. Two groups of females (treated and untreated were used. Treated females were injected with 50 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin 48 h before mating. Females were slaughtered at 18 d of gestation. Ovulation rate (OR, number of implanted embryos (IE, number of live foetuses at 12 and 18 d (LF12 and LF18, respectively were recorded. In addition, embryo survival (ES=IE/OR, foetal survival at 18 d of gestation (FSLF18=LF18/IE, foetal survival between 12 and 18 d of gestation (FSLF18/LF12=LF18/LF12 and prenatal survival (PSLF18=LF18/OR were estimated. For each female, the mean and variability of the weight for live foetuses (LFWm and LFWv, respectively and their placentas (LFPWm and LFPWv, respectively were calculated. Treated females had a higher ovulation rate (+3.02 ova than untreated females, with a probability of 0.99. An increase in the differences (D between treated and untreated females was observed from implantation to 18 d of gestation (D=–0.33, –0.70 and –1.28 for IE, LF12 and LF18, respectively. These differences had a low accuracy and the probability that treated females would have a lower number of foetuses also increased throughout gestation (0.60, 0.70 and 0.86 for IE, LF12 and LF18, respectively. According to the previous results for OR and LF18, treated females showed a lower survival rate from ovulation to 18 d of gestation (D=–0.12, P=0.98 for PSLF18. Treated females also had lower embryo and foetal survival (D=–0.10 and P=0.94 for ES and D=–0.08 and P=0.93 for FSLF18. Main differences in foetal survival appeared from 12 to 18 d of gestation (D=–0

  20. Pregnancy in obese mice protects selectively against visceral adiposity and is associated with increased adipocyte estrogen signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia M A Pedroni

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity is linked with increased adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child. The metabolic impact of excessive fat within the context of pregnancy is not fully understood. We used a mouse model of high fat (HF feeding to induce maternal obesity to identify adipose tissue-mediated mechanisms driving metabolic dysfunction in pregnant and non-pregnant obese mice. As expected, chronic HF-feeding for 12 weeks preceding pregnancy increased peripheral (subcutaneous and visceral (mesenteric fat mass. However, unexpectedly at late gestation (E18.5 HF-fed mice exhibited a remarkable normalization of visceral but not peripheral adiposity, with a 53% reduction in non-pregnant visceral fat mass expressed as a proportion of body weight (P<0.001. In contrast, in control animals, pregnancy had no effect on visceral fat mass proportion. Obesity exaggerated glucose intolerance at mid-pregnancy (E14.5. However by E18.5, there were no differences, in glucose tolerance between obese and control mice. Transcriptomic analysis of visceral fat from HF-fed dams at E18.5 revealed reduced expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis (diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2--Dgat2 and inflammation (chemokine C-C motif ligand 20--Ccl2 and upregulation of estrogen receptor α (ERα compared to HF non pregnant. Attenuation of adipose inflammation was functionally confirmed by a 45% reduction of CD11b+CD11c+ adipose tissue macrophages (expressed as a proportion of all stromal vascular fraction cells in HF pregnant compared to HF non pregnant animals (P<0.001. An ERα selective agonist suppressed both de novo lipogenesis and expression of lipogenic genes in adipocytes in vitro. These data show that, in a HF model of maternal obesity, late gestation is associated with amelioration of visceral fat hypertrophy, inflammation and glucose intolerance, and suggest that these effects are mediated in part by elevated visceral adipocyte ERα signaling.

  1. Intravenous Laser Blood Irradiation Increases Efficacy of Etanercept in Selected Subtypes of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: An Innovative Clinical Research Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Andrei Chiran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This single-blind, placebo-controlled study assesses the efficacy of synergic administration of intravenous laser blood irradiation (ILBI and etanercept in selected subtypes of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Etanercept is a tumor necrosis factor alpha blocking agent with recognized importance in JIA. Laser radiation has immunomodulatory effects in animal and human studies. Fourteen patients (Group I received ILBI and 9 patients (Group II received placebo laser. ILBI was performed in addition to ongoing JIA medication, including etanercept. ILBI was administrated in 3 sets of 5 consecutive daily sessions, with a 7-week interval between every set of sessions. Evaluation was performed using ACR (American College of Rheumatology Pediatric Criteria (ACR Pedi at study enrollment and at 10 and 20 weeks, respectively. After 10 weeks, 85.7% of the patients in Group I fulfilled Pedi 30 criteria, compared to only 55.6% of the patients in Group II. After 20 weeks, all patients in both groups had a Pedi 30 response. In Group I, 92.8% of the subjects met the Pedi 50 response, compared to only 55.6% in the placebo group. One patient in Group I responded best, fulfilling Pedi 70 criteria. If applied synergistically, ILBI and etanercept would have an increased efficacy in promoting JIA remission.

  2. In vitro Increased Respiratory Activity of Selected Oral Bacteria May Explain Competitive and Collaborative Interactions in the Oral Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Slomka, Vera; Herrero, Esteban R.; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Zaidel, Lynette; Teughels, Wim; Boon, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the driving forces behind the shifts in the ecological balance of the oral microbiota will become essential for the future management and treatment of periodontitis. As the use of competitive approaches for modulating bacterial outgrowth is unexplored in the oral ecosystem, our study aimed to investigate both the associations among groups of functional compounds and the impact of individual substrates on selected members of the oral microbiome. We employed the Phenotype Microarray high-throughput technology to analyse the microbial cellular phenotypes of 15 oral bacteria. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to detect respiratory activity triggers and to assess similar metabolic activities. Carbon and nitrogen were relevant for the respiration of health-associated bacteria, explaining competitive interactions when grown in biofilms. Carbon, nitrogen, and peptides tended to decrease the respiratory activity of all pathobionts, but not significantly. None of the evaluated compounds significantly increased activity of pathobionts at both 24 and 48 h. Additionally, metabolite requirements of pathobionts were dissimilar, suggesting that collective modulation of their respiratory activity may be challenging. Flow cytometry indicated that the metabolic activity detected in the Biolog plates may not be a direct result of the number of bacterial cells. In addition, damage to the cell membrane may not influence overall respiratory activity. Our methodology confirmed previously reported competitive and collaborative interactions among bacterial groups, which could be used either as marker of health status or as targets for modulation of the oral environment. PMID:28638806

  3. In vitro Increased Respiratory Activity of Selected Oral Bacteria May Explain Competitive and Collaborative Interactions in the Oral Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Hernandez-Sanabria

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the driving forces behind the shifts in the ecological balance of the oral microbiota will become essential for the future management and treatment of periodontitis. As the use of competitive approaches for modulating bacterial outgrowth is unexplored in the oral ecosystem, our study aimed to investigate both the associations among groups of functional compounds and the impact of individual substrates on selected members of the oral microbiome. We employed the Phenotype Microarray high-throughput technology to analyse the microbial cellular phenotypes of 15 oral bacteria. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to detect respiratory activity triggers and to assess similar metabolic activities. Carbon and nitrogen were relevant for the respiration of health-associated bacteria, explaining competitive interactions when grown in biofilms. Carbon, nitrogen, and peptides tended to decrease the respiratory activity of all pathobionts, but not significantly. None of the evaluated compounds significantly increased activity of pathobionts at both 24 and 48 h. Additionally, metabolite requirements of pathobionts were dissimilar, suggesting that collective modulation of their respiratory activity may be challenging. Flow cytometry indicated that the metabolic activity detected in the Biolog plates may not be a direct result of the number of bacterial cells. In addition, damage to the cell membrane may not influence overall respiratory activity. Our methodology confirmed previously reported competitive and collaborative interactions among bacterial groups, which could be used either as marker of health status or as targets for modulation of the oral environment.

  4. Is the intake of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors associated with an increased risk of dental implant failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrcanovic, B R; Kisch, J; Albrektsson, T; Wennerberg, A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the association between the intake of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the risk of dental implant failure. Patients were included if they were taking SSRIs only and no other medication, did not present any other systemic condition or compromising habits (bruxism, smoking, snuff), and complied with the use of prophylactic antibiotics for implant surgery. The multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) method and multilevel mixed-effects parametric survival analysis were used to test the association between SSRI exposure (predictor variable) and the risk of implant failure (outcome variable), adjusting for several potential confounders (other variables). The total number of implants with information available and meeting the necessary eligibility criteria was 931 (35 failures). These were placed in 300 patients. The implant failure rate was 12.5% for SSRI users and 3.3% for non-users (P=0.007). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a statistically significant difference in the cumulative survival rate (Pimplant failure (P=0.530), nor did the multilevel model (P=0.125). It is suggested that the intake of SSRIs may not be associated with an increased risk of dental implant failure. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Differentiation of norm and pathology during selective biochemical skreening of lysosomal storage diseases with increased excretion of oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Mytsyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oligosaccharides are a class of polymeric carbohydrates, which are constituents of a glycoside portion of glycoprotein and glycolipid molecules. The lysosomal hydrolase dysfunction due to lysosomal storage disorders results in partial or complete failure of degradation of some glycoproteins and glycolipids, causing the accumulation of specific undegraded substrates in the lysosomes of cells, the formation of the great number of oligosaccharide chains and their increased excretion with urine. Our work was aimed at detailed study of the specificities of interpreting the results of thin-layer chromatography (TLC of urine oligosaccharides in healthy persons of different age groups with the purpose of further application of these data while differentiating the norm and pathology in the course of primary selective screening of lysosomal storage disorders. The results obtained demonstrated that TLC plates for the majority of healthy persons had insignificant excretion of a number of oligosaccharides (from monosaccharides to hexasaccharides with Rlac > 0.15, which can be characterized as physiological oligosacchariduria, conditioned by the metabolism specificities in lysosomes. Therefore while interpreting the urine samples of patients with the suspected lysosomal storage disorder it is diagnostically reasonable to examine the TLC plates for the presence of both oligosaccharide groups, absent in the samples of healthy persons, and all the fractions with Rlac < 0.15.

  6. Ways to Increase the Efficiency of Recruitment, Selection and Employment Strategies in Large Organizations from Dambovita County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel CROITORU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Those organizations developing team activities need to use new methods of analysis, recruitment and socializing activities. Thus, more concern for human resources (HR management implications upon labour force diversity is generated. The impact of organization structure upon HR management is more obvious within international and multinational organizations. Developing knowledge, abilities and skills becomes a long term task of the organization's employees and managers. Continuous development helps both employees and organizations to reach the targets. HR development is a key factor in motivating and keeping the good employees. It will give the employees the chance to hold high level responsabilities, to have more authority, to set targets and measurement indicators and to work in teams. HR development delegates the employees and increases their loyalty. Globalization and fast exchange of working environment determine organizations to invest more money in HR development. Knowing that HR are the fundamental element in the organization success, it has been considered that by analyzing the strategies of recruitment, selection, employment and integration of the new comers into organization, we will find the solution to acquire and keep the most suitable persons for organization in order to get organizational and individual performances.

  7. Soil bacterial community shifts after chitin enrichment: an integrative metagenomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Jacquiod

    Full Text Available Chitin is the second most produced biopolymer on Earth after cellulose. Chitin degrading enzymes are promising but untapped sources for developing novel industrial biocatalysts. Hidden amongst uncultivated micro-organisms, new bacterial enzymes can be discovered and exploited by metagenomic approaches through extensive cloning and screening. Enrichment is also a well-known strategy, as it allows selection of organisms adapted to feed on a specific compound. In this study, we investigated how the soil bacterial community responded to chitin enrichment in a microcosm experiment. An integrative metagenomic approach coupling phylochips and high throughput shotgun pyrosequencing was established in order to assess the taxonomical and functional changes in the soil bacterial community. Results indicate that chitin enrichment leads to an increase of Actinobacteria, γ-proteobacteria and β-proteobacteria suggesting specific selection of chitin degrading bacteria belonging to these classes. Part of enriched bacterial genera were not yet reported to be involved in chitin degradation, like the members from the Micrococcineae sub-order (Actinobacteria. An increase of the observed bacterial diversity was noticed, with detection of specific genera only in chitin treated conditions. The relative proportion of metagenomic sequences related to chitin degradation was significantly increased, even if it represents only a tiny fraction of the sequence diversity found in a soil metagenome.

  8. Soil Bacterial Community Shifts after Chitin Enrichment: An Integrative Metagenomic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquiod, Samuel; Franqueville, Laure; Cécillon, Sébastien; M. Vogel, Timothy; Simonet, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Chitin is the second most produced biopolymer on Earth after cellulose. Chitin degrading enzymes are promising but untapped sources for developing novel industrial biocatalysts. Hidden amongst uncultivated micro-organisms, new bacterial enzymes can be discovered and exploited by metagenomic approaches through extensive cloning and screening. Enrichment is also a well-known strategy, as it allows selection of organisms adapted to feed on a specific compound. In this study, we investigated how the soil bacterial community responded to chitin enrichment in a microcosm experiment. An integrative metagenomic approach coupling phylochips and high throughput shotgun pyrosequencing was established in order to assess the taxonomical and functional changes in the soil bacterial community. Results indicate that chitin enrichment leads to an increase of Actinobacteria, γ-proteobacteria and β-proteobacteria suggesting specific selection of chitin degrading bacteria belonging to these classes. Part of enriched bacterial genera were not yet reported to be involved in chitin degradation, like the members from the Micrococcineae sub-order (Actinobacteria). An increase of the observed bacterial diversity was noticed, with detection of specific genera only in chitin treated conditions. The relative proportion of metagenomic sequences related to chitin degradation was significantly increased, even if it represents only a tiny fraction of the sequence diversity found in a soil metagenome. PMID:24278158

  9. Enrichment of Acinetobacter spp. from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheira, Ana; Ferreira, Vânia; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of foods in the chain of transmission of acinetobacters and the occurrence of different Acinetobacter spp. in foods. Currently, there is no standard procedure to recover acinetobacters from food in order to gain insight into the food-related ecology and epidemiology of acinetobacters. This study aimed to assess whether enrichment in Dijkshoorn enrichment medium followed by plating in CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium is a useful method for the isolation of Acinetobacter spp. from foods. Recovery of six Acinetobacter species from food spiked with these organisms was compared for two selective enrichment media (Baumann's enrichment and Dijkshoorn's enrichment). Significantly (p Acinetobacter was applied to detect Acinetobacter spp. in different foods. Fourteen different presumptive acinetobacters were recovered and assumed to represent nine different strains on the basis of REP-PCR typing. Eight of these strains were identified by rpoB gene analysis as belonging to the species Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter gandensis. It was not possible to identify the species level of one strain which may suggests that it represents a distinct species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A pre-enrichment step is essential for detection of Campylobacter sp. in turbid pond water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulreesh, H H; Paget, T A; Goulder, R

    2014-06-01

    This work aimed to detect Campylobacter species from naturally contaminated turbid pond water by PCR. A total of 16 water samples were collected from a turbid village pond. Four methods of DNA extraction were applied to centrifuge pellets from eight 100 ml pond water samples prior to attempted detection of Campylobacter by PCR without an enrichment step. These methods were (1) Tris-HCl and sodium dodecyl sulfate followed by phenol:chloroform:isoamylalcohol extraction followed by treatment with DNA clean up kit, (2) proteinase K, (3) Chelex® 100, and (4) boiling. The other eight pond water samples (10 ml and 100 ml) were filtered and filters were incubated overnight in Preston enrichment broth. The centrifuge pellets obtained from enrichment cultures were treated by proteinase K for DNA extraction. Primers CF03 and CF04 for the flagellin genes (flaA and flaB) of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were used for amplifying the extracted DNA. The DNA extracted from eight-100 ml pond water samples that were not subject to selective enrichment was never amplified with primers CF03 and CF04, hence Campylobacter was not detected. In contrast, the DNA that was from samples that were subjected to a selective enrichment step in Preston broth prior to PCR assay always gave amplified bands of 340-380 bp, therefore the presence of Campylobacter was confirmed. Detection of campylobacters from naturally contaminated, turbid, environmental water may not be feasible by direct PCR assay because of low numbers and the presence of high concentration of humic matter and other PCR inhibitors. The enrichment of water samples in selective broth, however, facilitated PCR detection of Campylobacter probably by increasing cell number and by diluting PCR inhibitors.

  11. Optimized Enrichment of Phosphoproteomes by Fe-IMAC Column Chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruprecht, Benjamin; Koch, Heiner; Domasinska, Petra; Frejno, Martin; Kuster, Bernhard; Lemeer, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorylation is among the most important post-translational modifications of proteins and has numerous regulatory functions across all domains of life. However, phosphorylation is often substoichiometric, requiring selective and sensitive methods to enrich phosphorylated peptides from complex

  12. Speeding up microevolution: the effects of increasing temperature on selection and genetic variance in a wild bird population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husby, A.; Visser, M.E.; Kruuk, L.E.B.

    2011-01-01

    The amount of genetic variance underlying a phenotypic trait and the strength of selection acting on that trait are two key parameters that determine any evolutionary response to selection. Despite substantial evidence that, in natural populations, both parameters may vary across environmental

  13. The use of selective serotonin receptor inhibitors (SSRIs) is not associated with increased risk of endoscopy-refractory bleeding, rebleeding or mortality in peptic ulcer bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, S B; Leontiadis, Grigorios I; Stanley, Adrian J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational studies have consistently shown an increased risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in users of selective serotonin receptor inhibitors (SSRIs), probably explained by their inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, treatment with SSRIs is often temporarily withheld...

  14. Selective attenuation of norepinephrine release and stress-induced heart rate increase by partial adenosine A1 agonism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Bott-Flügel

    Full Text Available The release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE is modulated by presynaptic adenosine receptors. In the present study we investigated the effect of a partial activation of this feedback mechanism. We hypothesized that partial agonism would have differential effects on NE release in isolated hearts as well as on heart rate in vivo depending on the genetic background and baseline sympathetic activity. In isolated perfused hearts of Wistar and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR, NE release was induced by electrical stimulation under control conditions (S1, and with capadenoson 6 · 10(-8 M (30 µg/l, 6 · 10(-7 M (300 µg/l or 2-chloro-N(6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA 10(-6 M (S2. Under control conditions (S1, NE release was significantly higher in SHR hearts compared to Wistar (766+/-87 pmol/g vs. 173+/-18 pmol/g, p<0.01. Capadenoson led to a concentration-dependent decrease of the stimulation-induced NE release in SHR (S2/S1  =  0.90 ± 0.08 with capadenoson 6 · 10(-8 M, 0.54 ± 0.02 with 6 · 10(-7 M, but not in Wistar hearts (S2/S1  =  1.05 ± 0.12 with 6 · 10(-8 M, 1.03 ± 0.09 with 6 · 10(-7 M. CCPA reduced NE release to a similar degree in hearts from both strains. In vivo capadenoson did not alter resting heart rate in Wistar rats or SHR. Restraint stress induced a significantly greater increase of heart rate in SHR than in Wistar rats. Capadenoson blunted this stress-induced tachycardia by 45% in SHR, but not in Wistar rats. Using a [(35S]GTPγS assay we demonstrated that capadenoson is a partial agonist compared to the full agonist CCPA (74+/-2% A(1-receptor stimulation. These results suggest that partial adenosine A(1-agonism dampens stress-induced tachycardia selectively in rats susceptible to strong increases in sympathetic activity, most likely due to a presynaptic attenuation of NE release.

  15. Novel rat Alzheimer's disease models based on AAV-mediated gene transfer to selectively increase hippocampal Aβ levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicker Bridget L

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by a decline in cognitive function and accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ in extracellular plaques. Mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP and presenilins alter APP metabolism resulting in accumulation of Aβ42, a peptide essential for the formation of amyloid deposits and proposed to initiate the cascade leading to AD. However, the role of Aβ40, the more prevalent Aβ peptide secreted by cells and a major component of cerebral Aβ deposits, is less clear. In this study, virally-mediated gene transfer was used to selectively increase hippocampal levels of human Aβ42 and Aβ40 in adult Wistar rats, allowing examination of the contribution of each to the cognitive deficits and pathology seen in AD. Results Adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors encoding BRI-Aβ cDNAs were generated resulting in high-level hippocampal expression and secretion of the specific encoded Aβ peptide. As a comparison the effect of AAV-mediated overexpression of APPsw was also examined. Animals were tested for development of learning and memory deficits (open field, Morris water maze, passive avoidance, novel object recognition three months after infusion of AAV. A range of impairments was found, with the most pronounced deficits observed in animals co-injected with both AAV-BRI-Aβ40 and AAV-BRI-Aβ42. Brain tissue was analyzed by ELISA and immunohistochemistry to quantify levels of detergent soluble and insoluble Aβ peptides. BRI-Aβ42 and the combination of BRI-Aβ40+42 overexpression resulted in elevated levels of detergent-insoluble Aβ. No significant increase in detergent-insoluble Aβ was seen in the rats expressing APPsw or BRI-Aβ40. No pathological features were noted in any rats, except the AAV-BRI-Aβ42 rats which showed focal, amorphous, Thioflavin-negative Aβ42 deposits. Conclusion The results show that AAV-mediated gene transfer is a valuable tool to model aspects of AD pathology in

  16. Genetics of growth and reproduction in the Turkey. 17. Changes in genetic parameters over forty generations of selection for increased sixteen-week body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, K E; Anderson, J W; Patterson, R A; Velleman, S G

    2008-10-01

    A line (F) of turkeys was selected over 40 generations for increased 16-wk BW. The base population for the F line was a randombred control population that was maintained without conscious selection and used to remove yearly environmental variation in the F line. Selection was effective in increasing 16-wk BW in the F line. Selection differentials based on the mean of the selected parents minus the mean of the entire population (intended) and intended selection differentials weighted for number of offspring produced (actual) did not differ consistently, indicating that natural selection was not opposing artificial selection during the reproduction of the F line. The realized heritability of 16-wk BW in the F line, based on the linear regression of the selection response on accumulated actual selection differential, declined with selection. For both sexes combined, the realized heritability was 0.309 +/- 0.022 (SE), 0.268 +/- 0.033, 0.268 +/- 0.026, 0.166 +/- 0.016, and 0.242 +/- 0.004, respectively, for generations 1 to 10, 11 to 20, 21 to 30, 31 to 40, and 1 to 40. Genetic increases in 16-wk BW in the F line over 40 generations of selection were positively associated with BW at other ages (8 and 20 wk of age and at 50% production), shank length and width at 16 wk of age, days from stimulatory lighting to production of the first egg, and egg weight but were negatively associated with egg production, intensity of lay (maximum and average clutch length and rate of lay), and walking ability. Over the 40 generations of selection, genetic increases in BW in the F line were not associated with changes in broodiness or mortality to 8 wk of age. During generations 31 to 40, BW at 8 and 20 wk of age continued to increase in the F line, but there was no significant change in adult BW, and the only significant change in reproduction traits was for average clutch length (-0.030). Because the genetic changes in some correlated traits were not consistent in all generation

  17. Response to multi-generational selection under elevated [CO2] in two temperature regimes suggests enhanced carbon assimilation and increased reproductive output in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Brix, Hans; Jørgensen, Rikke Bagger

    2013-01-01

    Functional plant traits are likely to adapt under the sustained pressure imposed by environmental changes through natural selection. Employing Brassica napus as a model, a multi-generational study was performed to investigate the potential trajectories of selection at elevated [CO2] in two different temperature regimes. To reveal phenotypic divergence at the manipulated [CO2] and temperature conditions, a full-factorial natural selection regime was established in a phytotron environment over the range of four generations. It is demonstrated that a directional response to selection at elevated [CO2] led to higher quantities of reproductive output over the range of investigated generations independent of the applied temperature regime. The increase in seed yield caused an increase in aboveground biomass. This suggests quantitative changes in the functions of carbon sequestration of plants subjected to increased levels of CO2 over the generational range investigated. The results of this study suggest that phenotypic divergence of plants selected under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration may drive the future functions of plant productivity to be different from projections that do not incorporate selection responses of plants. This study accentuates the importance of phenotypic responses across multiple generations in relation to our understanding of biogeochemical dynamics of future ecosystems. Furthermore, the positive selection response of reproductive output under increased [CO2] may ameliorate depressions in plant reproductive fitness caused by higher temperatures in situations where both factors co-occur. PMID:23762504

  18. Prior Cocaine Self-Administration Increases Response-Outcome Encoding That Is Divorced from Actions Selected in Dorsal Lateral Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Amanda C; Bissonette, Gregory B; Zhao, Adam C; Patel, Pooja K; Roesch, Matthew R

    2017-08-09

    Dorsal lateral striatum (DLS) is a highly associative structure that encodes relationships among environmental stimuli, behavioral responses, and predicted outcomes. DLS is known to be disrupted after chronic drug abuse; however, it remains unclear what neural signals in DLS are altered. Current theory suggests that drug use enhances stimulus-response processing at the expense of response-outcome encoding, but this has mostly been tested in simple behavioral tasks. Here, we investigated what neural correlates in DLS are affected by previous cocaine exposure as rats performed a complex reward-guided decision-making task in which predicted reward value was independently manipulated by changing the delay to or size of reward associated with a response direction across a series of trial blocks. After cocaine self-administration, rats exhibited stronger biases toward higher-value reward and firing in DLS more strongly represented action-outcome contingencies independent from actions subsequently taken rather than outcomes predicted by selected actions (chosen-outcome contingencies) and associations between stimuli and actions (stimulus-response contingencies). These results suggest that cocaine self-administration strengthens action-outcome encoding in rats (as opposed to chosen-outcome or stimulus-response encoding), which abnormally biases behavior toward valued reward when there is a choice between two options during reward-guided decision-making.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Current theories suggest that the impaired decision-making observed in individuals who chronically abuse drugs reflects a decrease in goal-directed behaviors and an increase in habitual behaviors governed by neural representations of response-outcome (R-O) and stimulus-response associations, respectively. We examined the impact that prior cocaine self-administration had on firing in dorsal lateral striatum (DLS), a brain area known to be involved in habit formation and affected by drugs of abuse

  19. Short-term enrichment makes male rats more attractive, more defensive and alters hypothalamic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupshi Mitra

    Full Text Available Innate behaviors are shaped by contingencies built during evolutionary history. On the other hand, environmental stimuli play a significant role in shaping behavior. In particular, a short period of environmental enrichment can enhance cognitive behavior, modify effects of stress on learned behaviors and induce brain plasticity. It is unclear if modulation by environment can extend to innate behaviors which are preserved by intense selection pressure. In the present report we investigate this issue by studying effects of relatively short (14-days environmental enrichment on two prominent innate behaviors in rats, avoidance of predator odors and ability of males to attract mates. We show that enrichment has strong effects on both the innate behaviors: a enriched males were more avoidant of a predator odor than non-enriched controls, and had a greater rise in corticosterone levels in response to the odor; and b had higher testosterone levels and were more attractive to females. Additionally, we demonstrate decrease in dendritic length of neurons of ventrolateral nucleus of hypothalamus, important for reproductive mate-choice and increase in the same in dorsomedial nucleus, important for defensive behavior. Thus, behavioral and hormonal observations provide evidence that a short period of environmental manipulation can alter innate behaviors, providing a good example of gene-environment interaction.

  20. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF WARANKASHI ENRICHED BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Dudu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine the microbiological and nutritional quality, organoleptic, rheological and textural effect as well as the effect on the shelf life of wheat bread enriched with West African cottage cheese (warankashi at different substitution levels (1 %, 3 % and 5 %. The protein and fat content of wheat bread significantly increased but carbohydrate levels decreased significantly as enrichment with Warankashi increased. The amino acid profile of the wheat bread increased with increasing enrichment. The incorporation of Warankashi into wheat flour affected the rheological and textural properties of wheat flour; the rate of water absorption of the wheat flour decreased as Warankashi incorporation levels increased. Also, the dough stability time of the enriched flours was lesser than that of the wheat flour. The 3 % enrichment level had the highest dough consistency (520 BU. The extensibility of 1 % and 3 % wara bread dough were the same while that of wheat flour bread and 5 % Warankashi were the same. The 3 % wara bread dough had the highest resistance to extension. Shelf life of the bread remained unaffected by Warankashi incorporation but the rate of bacteria and fungi (yeast and mould growth decreased significantly (P < 0.05 as enrichment levels increased. There was no significant difference between the organoleptic properties of wheat bread to that of the enriched breads but the 3 % Warankshi enriched bread had the highest consumer acceptability.

  1. Activation of ATP/UTP-selective receptors increases blood flow and blunts sympathetic vasoconstriction in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yegutkin, G.G.; Gonzalez-Alonso, J.; Rosenmeier, Jaya Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    and sympatholytic effects of exogenous ATP in the skeletal muscle vasculature are largely mediated via ATP itself rather than its dephosphorylated metabolites, most likely via binding to endothelial ATP/UTP-selective P2Y(2) receptors. These data are consistent with a role of ATP in skeletal muscle hyperaemia...

  2. Effects of selective breeding for increased wheel-running behavior on circadian timing of substrate oxidation and ingestive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonas, I.; Vaanholt, L. M.; Doornbos, M.; Garland, T.; Scheurink, A. J. W.; Nyakas, C.; van Dijk, G.; Garland Jr., T.

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuations in substrate preference and utilization across the circadian cycle may be influenced by the degree of physical activity and nutritional status. In the present study, we assessed these relationships in control mice and in mice from a line selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running

  3. A short physical activity break from cognitive tasks increases selective attention in primary school children aged 10-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Rauh, S.P.; Toussaint, H.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Evidence for an acute effect of physical activity on cognitive performance within the school setting is limited. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into acute effects of a short physical activity bout on selective attention in primary school children, specifically in the school

  4. Response to multi-generational selection under elevated [CO2] in two temperature regimes suggests enhanced carbon assimilation and increased reproductive output in Brassica napus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    different temperature regimes. To reveal phenotypic divergence at the manipulated [CO2] and temperature conditions, a full-factorial natural selection regime was established in a phytotron environment over the range of four generations. It is demonstrated that a directional response to selection at elevated......Functional plant traits are likely to adapt under the sustained pressure imposed by environmental changes through natural selection. Employing Brassica napus as a model, a multi-generational study was performed to investigate the potential trajectories of selection at elevated [CO2] in two...... subjected to increased levels of CO2 over the generational range investigated. The results of this study suggest that phenotypic divergence of plants selected under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration may drive the future functions of plant productivity to be different from projections that do...

  5. New Variants of Tomato Thymidine Kinase 1 Selected for Increased Sensitivity of E. coli KY895 towards Azidothymidine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Louise Slot; Egeblad, Louise; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    Nucleoside analogues (NA) are prodrugs that are phosphorylated by deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs) as the first step towards a compound toxic to the cell. During the last 20 years, research around dNKs has gone into new organisms other than mammals and viruses. Newly discovered dNKs have been...... tested as enzymes for suicide gene therapy. The tomato thymidine kinase 1 (ToTK1) is a dNK that has been selected for its in vitro kinetic properties and then successfully been tested in vivo for the treatment of malignant glioma. We present the selection of two improved variants of ToTK1 generated...... for the NA AZT over the natural substrate thymidine as well as a decrease in inhibition by dTTP, the end product of the nucleoside salvage pathway for thymidine. The understanding of the enzymatic properties improving the variants efficacy is instrumental to further develop dNKs for use in suicide gene...

  6. Nitrotoga is selected over Nitrospira in newly assembled biofilm communities from a tap water source community at increased nitrite loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnunen, Marta; Gülay, Arda; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    a source community, present in the tap water, to determine the extent of selection and neutral processes in newly assembled biofilm communities at both the community and the functional guild (of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, NOB) levels. The community composition of biofilms assembled under low and high...... that can only be interrogated by observing multiple assemblies under controlled conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  7. Honey bee lines selected for high propolis production also have superior hygienic behavior and increased honey and pollen stores

    OpenAIRE

    Nicodemo, D. [UNESP; De Jong, D.; Couto, R. H. N. [UNESP; Malheiros, B. [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    Honey bees use propolis to defend against invaders and disease organisms. As some colonies produce much more propolis than others, we investigated whether propolis collecting is associated with disease resistance traits, including hygienic behavior and resistance to the parasitic bee mite, Varroa destructor. The three highest (HP) and three lowest propolis-producing (LP) colonies among 36 Africanized honey bee colonies were initially selected. Queens and drones from these colonies were crosse...

  8. Enriching rotifers with "premium" microalgae. Nannochloropsis gaditana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Martiña; Coutinho, Paula; Seixas, Pedro; Fábregas, Jaime; Otero, Ana

    2009-01-01

    The nutritive quality of Nannochloropsis gaditana cultured semicontinuously with different daily renewal rates was tested as a diet for short-term enrichment of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. After 24 h, dramatic differences in the survival, dry weight, and biochemical composition of the rotifers depending on the renewal rate of microalgal cultures were observed. Survival after the feeding period increased with increasing renewal rates. Rotifers fed microalgae from low renewal rate, nutrient-deficient cultures showed low dry weight and organic contents very similar to those of the initial rotifers that were starved for 12 h before the start of the feeding period. On the contrary, rotifers fed nutrient-sufficient microalgal cells underwent up to twofold increases of dry weight and protein, lipid, and carbohydrate contents with regard to rotifers fed nutrient-depleted N. gaditana. Consequently, feed conversion rate decreased in these conditions, indicating a better assimilation of the microalgal biomass obtained at high renewal rates. No single microalgal biochemical parameter among those studied can explain the response of the filter feeder. Similarly to gross composition, EPA and n-3 contents in rotifers fed microalgae from nutrient-sufficient cultures were double than the contents found in rotifers fed nutrient-limited microalgae. In addition, very high positive correlations between the contents of EPA and n-3 in N. gaditana and B. plicatilis were observed. These results demonstrate that selecting the appropriate conditions of semicontinuous culture can strongly enhance the nutritional value of microalgae that is reflected in the growth and biochemical composition of the filter-feeder even in short exposure periods.

  9. Muscle histochemical and biochemical properties in relation to meat quality during selection for increased lean tissue growth rate in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, A; Enfält, A C; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Lundström, K; Rydhmer, L; Stern, S

    1993-04-01

    The relationship between the histochemical and biochemical properties of muscle and the quality of meat during selection to improving the lean tissue growth rate was studied. Pigs (n = 82) from Generations 2 and 4 were randomly sampled in a selection experiment in which the genotype x protein interaction was studied. Comparisons were made of longissimus muscle (LM) and quadriceps femoris (QF) from Generations 2 and 4, and biceps femoris (BF) in the fourth generation from pigs fed a low- or high-protein diet. A higher total growth rate, lean tissue growth rate, and lean percentage were found in pigs fed the high-protein diet than in pigs fed the low-protein diet. Pigs fed the high-protein diet had a higher glycolytic capacity in all muscles than pigs fed the low-protein diet. When the meat quality traits were compared, pigs fed the high-protein diet had a lower intramuscular fat content, higher shear force value, higher protein extractability, lower light reflectance, and somewhat higher water-holding capacity. With selection, pigs became fatter on both diets. In Generation 4, glycolytic and oxidative capacity was somewhat higher in muscle tissue than in Generation 2. Muscle metabolic profile and meat quality traits differed among muscles (LM, BF, QF) but no pronounced differences were found between generations. No marked changes were observed in Type I, IIA, or IIB fibers, either between diets or between generations. The Type IIC fibers could only be identified in Generation 4.

  10. Deep Mutational Scanning: Calculating Enrichment Scores for Protein Variants from DNA Sequencing Output Files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starita, Lea M; Fields, Stanley

    2015-08-03

    During a deep mutational scanning experiment, a collection of variants of a given protein is subjected to high-throughput sequencing before and after selection. The variants that perform well during selection will increase in abundance, whereas those that perform poorly will decrease. Generating a sequence-function map of a protein from a deep mutational scan requires the calculation and comparison of the enrichment scores for each protein variant, based on the results of high-throughput DNA sequencing output files. Here we describe the use of the software program Enrich, which was written specifically for the data analysis phase of a deep mutational scanning experiment. © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. Bioconversion of rape straw into a nutritionally enriched substrate by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis and Candida utilis), into an enriched substrate with increased crude protein and digestibility. Orthogonal experiment showed that the optimal experimental condition for the crude protein enrichment was: 10% (v/w) C. utilis inoculum was added to the rape straw medium after ...

  12. Experimentally increased nutrient availability at the permafrost thaw front selectively enhances biomass production of deep-rooting subarctic peatland species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuper, Frida; Dorrepaal, Ellen; van Bodegom, Peter M.; van Logtestijn, Richard; Venhuizen, Gemma; van Hal, Jurgen; Aerts, Rien

    2017-01-01

    Climate warming increases nitrogen (N) mineralization in superficial soil layers (the dominant rooting zone) of subarctic peatlands. Thawing and subsequent mineralization of permafrost increases plant-available N around the thaw-front. Because plant production in these peatlands is N-limited, such

  13. Applying data mining techniques for increasing implantation rate by selecting best sperms for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirroshandel, Seyed Abolghasem; Ghasemian, Fatemeh; Monji-Azad, Sara

    2016-12-01

    Aspiration of a good-quality sperm during intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is one of the main concerns. Understanding the influence of individual sperm morphology on fertilization, embryo quality, and pregnancy probability is one of the most important subjects in male factor infertility. Embryologists need to decide the best sperm for injection in real time during ICSI cycle. Our objective is to predict the quality of zygote, embryo, and implantation outcome before injection of each sperm in an ICSI cycle for male factor infertility with the aim of providing a decision support system on the sperm selection. The information was collected from 219 patients with male factor infertility at the infertility therapy center of Alzahra hospital in Rasht from 2012 through 2014. The prepared dataset included the quality of zygote, embryo, and implantation outcome of 1544 injected sperms into the related oocytes. In our study, embryo transfer was performed at day 3. Each sperm was represented with thirteen clinical features. Data preprocessing was the first step in the proposed data mining algorithm. After applying more than 30 classifiers, 9 successful classifiers were selected and evaluated by 10-fold cross validation technique using precision, recall, F1, and AUC measures. Another important experiment was measuring the effect of each feature in prediction process. In zygote and embryo quality prediction, IBK and RandomCommittee models provided 79.2% and 83.8% F1, respectively. In implantation outcome prediction, KStar model achieved 95.9% F1, which is even better than prediction of human experts. All these predictions can be done in real time. A machine learning-based decision support system would be helpful in sperm selection phase of ICSI cycle to improve the success rate of ICSI treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased survival of western corn rootworm on transgenic corn within three generations of on-plant greenhouse selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meihls, Lisa N; Higdon, Matthew L; Siegfried, Blair D; Miller, Nicholas J; Sappington, Thomas W; Ellersieck, Mark R; Spencer, Terence A; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2008-12-09

    To delay evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins, nearby "refuges" of host plants not producing Bt toxins are required in many regions. Such refuges are expected to be most effective in slowing resistance when the toxin concentration in Bt crops is high enough to kill all or nearly all insects heterozygous for resistance. However, Bt corn, Zea mays, introduced recently does not meet this "high-dose" criterion for control of western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. A greenhouse method of rearing WCR on transgenic corn expressing the Cry3Bb1 protein was used in which approximately 25% of previously unexposed larvae survived relative to isoline survival (compared to 1-4% in the field). After three generations of full larval rearing on Bt corn (Constant-exposure colony), WCR larval survival was equivalent on Bt corn and isoline corn in greenhouse trials, and the LC(50) was 22-fold greater for the Constant-exposure colony than for the Control colony in diet bioassays with Cry3Bb1 protein on artificial diet. After six generations of greenhouse selection, the ratio of larval recovery on Bt corn to isoline corn in the field was 11.7-fold greater for the Constant-exposure colony than the Control colony. Removal from selection for six generations did not decrease survival on Bt corn in the greenhouse. The results suggest that rapid response to selection is possible in the absence of mating with unexposed beetles, emphasizing the importance of effective refuges for resistance management.

  15. Heterodimerization of Dibenzodiazepinone-Type Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Ligands Leads to Increased M2R Affinity and Selectivity

    OpenAIRE

    She, Xueke; Pegoli, Andrea; Mayr, Judith; Hübner, Harald; Bernhardt, Günther; Gmeiner, Peter; Keller, Max

    2017-01-01

    In search for selective ligands for the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (MR) subtype M2, the dimeric ligand approach, that is combining two pharmacophores in one and the same molecule, was pursued. Different types (agonists, antagonists, orthosteric, and allosteric) of monomeric MR ligands were combined by various linkers with a dibenzodiazepinone-type MR antagonist, affording five types of heterodimeric compounds (“DIBA-xanomeline,” “DIBA-TBPB,” “DIBA-77-LH-28-1,” “DIBA-propantheline,” and...

  16. Positive selection and increased antiviral activity associated with the PARP-containing isoform of human zinc-finger antiviral protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Kerns

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic immunity relies on specific recognition of viral epitopes to mount a cell-autonomous defense against viral infections. Viral recognition determinants in intrinsic immunity genes are expected to evolve rapidly as host genes adapt to changing viruses, resulting in a signature of adaptive evolution. Zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP from rats was discovered to be an intrinsic immunity gene that can restrict murine leukemia virus, and certain alphaviruses and filoviruses. Here, we used an approach combining molecular evolution and cellular infectivity assays to address whether ZAP also acts as a restriction factor in primates, and to pinpoint which protein domains may directly interact with the virus. We find that ZAP has evolved under positive selection throughout primate evolution. Recurrent positive selection is only found in the poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP-like domain present in a longer human ZAP isoform. This PARP-like domain was not present in the previously identified and tested rat ZAP gene. Using infectivity assays, we found that the longer isoform of ZAP that contains the PARP-like domain is a stronger suppressor of murine leukemia virus expression and Semliki forest virus infection. Our study thus finds that human ZAP encodes a potent antiviral activity against alphaviruses. The striking congruence between our evolutionary predictions and cellular infectivity assays strongly validates such a combined approach to study intrinsic immunity genes.

  17. Use of Selective Fungal Culture Media Increases Rates of Detection of Fungi in the Respiratory Tract of Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gina; Miller, Heather B; Allgood, Sarah; Lee, Richard; Lechtzin, Noah; Zhang, Sean X

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of fungi in the respiratory tracts of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients has risen. However, fungal surveillance is not routinely performed in most clinical centers in the United States, which may lead to an underestimation of the true prevalence of the problem. We conducted a prospective study comparing the rates of detection for clinically important fungi (CIF), defined as Aspergillus , Scedosporium , and Trichosporon species and Exophiala dermatitidis , in CF sputa using standard bacterial and selective fungal culture media, including Sabouraud dextrose agar with gentamicin (SDA), inhibitory mold agar (IMA), and brain heart infusion (BHI) agar with chloramphenicol and gentamicin. We described the prevalence of these fungi in an adult CF population. A total of 487 CF respiratory samples were collected from 211 unique participants. CIF were detected in 184 (37.8%) samples. Only 26.1% of CIF-positive samples were detected in bacterial culture medium, whereas greater rates of detection for fungi were found in IMA (65.8%; P culture media and longer incubation periods yielded higher rates of detection for CIF in CF sputum samples compared with that detected in bacterial culture medium, resulting in an underdetection of fungi by bacterial culture alone. The prevalence of fungi in CF may be better estimated by using selective fungal culture media, and this may translate to important clinical decisions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Methanogenesis from acetate: enrichment studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baresi, L; Mah, R A; Ward, D M; Kaplan, I R

    1978-01-01

    An acetate enrichment culture was initiated by inoculating anaerobic sludge from a mesophilic methane digestor into a mineral salts medium with calcium acetate as the sole carbon and energy source. This enrichment was maintained indefinitely by weekly transfer into medium of the same composition. A study of this enrichment disclosed an unexpected age-dependent inhibition of methanogenesis by H2 and formate which apparently differed from the inhibition by chloroform and benzyl viologen. This age-dependent inhibition indicated that microbial interactions of the mixed enrichment population may play a regulatory role in methane formation. Futhermore, stimulation of methanogenesis in the acetate enrichment by addition of yeast extract showed a nutrient limitation which indicated that syntrophic interactions leading to formation of growth factors may also occur. A model is presented to illustrate the possible interrelationships between methanogenic and nonmethanogenic bacteria in their growth and formation of methane and carbon dioxide from acetate. Images PMID:697356

  19. A Summary of Actinide Enrichment Technologies and Capability Gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Bradley D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robinson, Sharon M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation performed in this study indicates that a new program is needed to efficiently provide a national actinide radioisotope enrichment capability to produce milligram-to-gram quantities of unique materials for user communities. This program should leverage past actinide enrichment, the recent advances in stable isotope enrichment, and assessments of the future requirements to cost effectively develop this capability while establishing an experience base for a new generation of researchers in this vital area. Preliminary evaluations indicate that an electromagnetic isotope separation (EMIS) device would have the capability to meet the future needs of the user community for enriched actinides. The EMIS technology could be potentially coupled with other enrichment technologies, such as irradiation, as pre-enrichment and/or post-enrichment systems to increase the throughput, reduce losses of material, and/or reduce operational costs of the base EMIS system. Past actinide enrichment experience and advances in the EMIS technology applied in stable isotope separations should be leveraged with this new evaluation information to assist in the establishment of a domestic actinide radioisotope enrichment capability.

  20. The effect of increased fruit and vegetable consumption on selected macronutrient and micronutrient intakes in four randomised-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Sharon L; McKinley, Michelle C; Neville, Charlotte E; Baldrick, Francina R; Mulligan, Ciara; McCall, Damian O; McCance, David R; Edgar, J D; Elborn, J S; Young, Ian S; Patterson, Chris C; Woodside, Jayne V

    2017-05-01

    Fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is associated with reduced risk of a number of non-communicable diseases. Research tends to focus on antioxidants, flavonoids and polyphenols contained in FV as the main beneficial components to health; however, increasing FV may also alter overall diet profile. Extra FV may be substituted for foods thought to be less healthy, therefore altering the overall macronutrient and/or micronutrient content in the diet. This analysis merged dietary data from four intervention studies in participants with varying health conditions and examined the effect of increased FV consumption on diet profile. Dietary intake was assessed by either diet diaries or diet histories used in four FV randomised intervention studies. All food and drink intake recorded was analysed using WISP version 3.0, and FV portions were manually counted using household measures. Regression analysis revealed significant increases in intakes of energy (172 kJ (+41 kcal)), carbohydrate (+3·9 g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal)), total sugars (+6·0 g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal)) and fibre (+0·8 g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal)) and significant decreases in intakes of total fat (-1·4 g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal)), SFA (-0·6 g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal)), MUFA (-0·6 g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal)), PUFA (-0·1 g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal)) and starch (-2·1 g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal)) per one portion increase in FV. Significant percentage increases were also observed in vitamin C (+24 %) and -carotene (+20 %) intake, per one portion increase in FV. In conclusion, pooled analysis of four FV intervention studies, that used similar approaches to achieving dietary change, in participants with varying health conditions, demonstrated an increase in energy, total carbohydrate, sugars and fibre intake, and a decrease in fat intake alongside an expected increase in micronutrient intake.

  1. Increased risk of severe congenital heart defects in offspring exposed to selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors in early pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tanja Majbrit; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Garne, Ester

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest a possible association between maternal use of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during early pregnancy and congenital heart defects (CHD). The purpose of this study was to verify this association by using validated data from the Danish EUROCAT...... Register, and secondary, to investigate whether the risk differs between various socioeconomic groups. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study based on Danish administrative register data linked with the Danish EUROCAT Register, which includes all CHD diagnosed in live births, fetal deaths and in pregnancies...... of origin from Statistics Denmark was used as indicators of socioeconomic situation, and the CHD were studied in subgroups defined by EUROCAT. Logistic Regression was used to investigate the association between redeemed prescriptions for SSRIs and CHD. RESULTS: The risk of severe CHD in the offspring...

  2. Chapter 1. Target selection in structural genomics projects to increase knowledge of protein structure and function space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Phil; Lee, David; Orengo, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Structural genomics aims to solve the three-dimensional structures of proteins at a rapid rate and in a cost-effective manner, with the hope of significantly impacting on the life sciences, biotechnology, and drug discovery in the long-term. Structural genomics initiatives started in Japan in 1997 with the advent of the Protein Folds Project. Since then many new initiatives have begun worldwide, with diverse aims motivating the selection of proteins for structure determination. In this chapter, we consider the biological goals of high-throughput structural biology, while focusing on the Protein Structure Initiative in the United States. This is the most productive of the structural genomics initiatives, having solved 3,363 new structures between September 2000 and October 2008.

  3. Selective breeding can increase resistance of Atlantic salmon to furunculosis, infectious salmon anaemia and infectious pancreatic necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøglum, Sissel; Henryon, Mark; Aasmundstad, Torunn

    2008-01-01

    genetic variation, and that the resistances are weakly correlated genetically. We tested this reasoning by challenging Atlantic salmon from 920 (approximately) full-sib families with the causative agents of furunculosis and ISA, and fish from 265 of these families with the causative agent of IPN. Additive...... genetic variation and genetic correlations were estimated by fitting a threshold liability model to the resistances assessed as binary traits. Resistance to furunculosis, ISA and IPN was moderate â€"to highly heritable. The marginal posterior means for heritability on the underlying liability scale were 0.......37 for resistance to ISA, and 0.55 and 0.62 for resistance to IPN and furunculosis. Genetic correlations between the resistances were weak (âˆ'0.11 to 0.07). These levels of additive genetic variation indicate that resistance to furunculosis, ISA and IPN will respond to selection. The weak genetic correlations...

  4. Enhancing electrochemical intermediate solvation through electrolyte anion selection to increase nonaqueous Li-O$_2$ battery capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Burke, Colin M; Khetan, Abhishek; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; McCloskey, Bryan D

    2015-01-01

    Among the 'beyond Li-ion' battery chemistries, nonaqueous Li-O$_2$ batteries have the highest theoretical specific energy and as a result have attracted significant research attention over the past decade. A critical scientific challenge facing nonaqueous Li-O$_2$ batteries is the electronically insulating nature of the primary discharge product, lithium peroxide, which passivates the battery cathode as it is formed, leading to low ultimate cell capacities. Recently, strategies to enhance solubility to circumvent this issue have been reported, but rely upon electrolyte formulations that further decrease the overall electrochemical stability of the system, thereby deleteriously affecting battery rechargeability. In this study, we report that a significant enhancement (greater than four-fold) in Li-O$_2$ cell capacity is possible by appropriately selecting the salt anion in the electrolyte solution. Using $^7$Li nuclear magnetic resonance and modeling, we confirm that this improvement is a result of enhanced Li...

  5. Experimentally increased nutrient availability at the permafrost thaw front selectively enhances biomass production of deep-rooting subarctic peatland species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuper, Frida; Dorrepaal, Ellen; van Bodegom, Peter M; van Logtestijn, Richard; Venhuizen, Gemma; van Hal, Jurgen; Aerts, Rien

    2017-10-01

    Climate warming increases nitrogen (N) mineralization in superficial soil layers (the dominant rooting zone) of subarctic peatlands. Thawing and subsequent mineralization of permafrost increases plant-available N around the thaw-front. Because plant production in these peatlands is N-limited, such changes may substantially affect net primary production and species composition. We aimed to identify the potential impact of increased N-availability due to permafrost thawing on subarctic peatland plant production and species performance, relative to the impact of increased N-availability in superficial organic layers. Therefore, we investigated whether plant roots are present at the thaw-front (45 cm depth) and whether N-uptake ((15) N-tracer) at the thaw-front occurs during maximum thaw-depth, coinciding with the end of the growing season. Moreover, we performed a unique 3-year belowground fertilization experiment with fully factorial combinations of deep- (thaw-front) and shallow-fertilization (10 cm depth) and controls. We found that certain species are present with roots at the thaw-front (Rubus chamaemorus) and have the capacity (R. chamaemorus, Eriophorum vaginatum) for N-uptake from the thaw-front between autumn and spring when aboveground tissue is largely senescent. In response to 3-year shallow-belowground fertilization (S) both shallow- (Empetrum hermaphroditum) and deep-rooting species increased aboveground biomass and N-content, but only deep-rooting species responded positively to enhanced nutrient supply at the thaw-front (D). Moreover, the effects of shallow-fertilization and thaw-front fertilization on aboveground biomass production of the deep-rooting species were similar in magnitude (S: 71%; D: 111% increase compared to control) and additive (S + D: 181% increase). Our results show that plant-available N released from thawing permafrost can form a thus far overlooked additional N-source for deep-rooting subarctic plant species and increase their

  6. Use of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in high doses increases mortality and risk of reinfarction in patients with prior myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke; Abildstrøm, Steen Zabell; Torp-Pedersen, C.

    2008-01-01

    The selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors and other nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but the risk in patients with established cardiovascular disease is unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the risk of...

  7. Increased genetic gains in sheep, beef and dairy breeding programs from using female reproductive technologies combined with optimal contribution selection and genomic breeding values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granleese, Tom; Clark, Samuel A; Swan, Andrew A; van der Werf, Julius H J

    2015-09-14

    Female reproductive technologies such as multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) and juvenile in vitro embryo production and embryo transfer (JIVET) can boost rates of genetic gain but they can also increase rates of inbreeding. Inbreeding can be managed using the principles of optimal contribution selection (OCS), which maximizes genetic gain while placing a penalty on the rate of inbreeding. We evaluated the potential benefits and synergies that exist between genomic selection (GS) and reproductive technologies under OCS for sheep and cattle breeding programs. Various breeding program scenarios were simulated stochastically including: (1) a sheep breeding program for the selection of a single trait that could be measured either early or late in life; (2) a beef breeding program with an early or late trait; and (3) a dairy breeding program with a sex limited trait. OCS was applied using a range of penalties (severe to no penalty) on co-ancestry of selection candidates, with the possibility of using multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) and/or juvenile in vitro embryo production and embryo transfer (JIVET) for females. Each breeding program was simulated with and without genomic selection. All breeding programs could be penalized to result in an inbreeding rate of 1 % increase per generation. The addition of MOET to artificial insemination or natural breeding (AI/N), without the use of GS yielded an extra 25 to 60 % genetic gain. The further addition of JIVET did not yield an extra genetic gain. When GS was used, MOET and MOET + JIVET programs increased rates of genetic gain by 38 to 76 % and 51 to 81 % compared to AI/N, respectively. Large increases in genetic gain were found across species when female reproductive technologies combined with genomic selection were applied and inbreeding was managed, especially for breeding programs that focus on the selection of traits measured late in life or that are sex-limited. Optimal contribution selection was

  8. Beneficial effect of fluoxetine treatment aganist psychological stress is mediated by increasing BDNF expression in selected brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gongying; Jing, Ping; Liu, Zhidong; Li, Zhiruo; Ma, Hongxia; Tu, Wenzhen; Zhang, Wei; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2017-09-19

    SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine is widely used to treat psychological stress related disorders, however the underlying working mechanisms is not fully understood, as SSRIs can rapidly increase the extracellular serotonin levels but it normally takes weeks to reveal their therapeutic effect in the stress-related psychological disorders. Our previous study demonstrated that purely psychological stress without any physic stimuli induces a biphasic change in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which immediately decrease and then gradually increase after the stress; and that the latter BDNF increase in response to the psychological stress involves the activation of serotonin system. To investigate the role of BDNF in the fluoxetine treatment for stress-related psychological disorders, we examined the mRNA and protein levels of BDNF in the brain of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, which were pretreated with fluoxetine at 10 mg/kg or vehicle solution for 14 days, over 24 hour after an acute psychological stress exposure. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the expression of BDNF at different time points in various brain regions after the psychological stress. We found that fluoxetine treatment completely blocked the BDNF decrease induced by the psychological stress, and also enhanced the gradual increase in the expression of BDNF in most of the brain regions except VTA after the psychological stress. The results suggest that the enhancement in BDNF levels induced by chronic fluoxetine treatment mediates the therapeutic effect against psychological stress.

  9. Can selection of mechanical ventilation mode prevent increased intra-abdominal pressure in patients admitted to the intensive care unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, Mohammad Reza; Aghadavoudi, Omid; Shekarchi, Babak; Sajjadi, Seyed Sajed; Masoudifar, Mehrdad

    2013-05-01

    Increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) results in dysfunction of vital organs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of mechanical ventilation mode on IAP. In a cohort study, a total of 60 patients aged 20-70 years who were admitted to the ICU and underwent mechanical ventilation were recruited. Mechanical ventilation included one of the three modes: Biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP) group, synchronize intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) group, or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) group. For each patient, mechanical ventilation mode and its parameters, blood pressure, SpO2, and status of tube feeding and IAP were recorded. Our findings indicate that the study groups were not significantly different in terms of anthropometric characteristics including age (64.5 ± 4, P = 0.1), gender (male/female 31/29, P = 0.63), and body mass index (24 ± 1.2, P = 0.11). Increase IAP was related to the type of respiratory mode with the more increased IAP observed in SIMV mode, followed by BIPAP and CPAP modes (P = 0.01). There were significant correlations between increased IAP and respiratory variables including respiratory rate, pressure support ventilation, and inspiratory pressure (P mechanical ventilation like CPAP and BIPAP mode in patients who are prone to Intra-abdominal hypertension.

  10. Method for selective recovery of PET-usable quantities of [{sup 18}F] fluoride and [{sup 13}N] nitrate/nitrite from a single irradiation of low-enriched [{sup 18}O] water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Schlyer, D.J.; Shea, C.

    1995-06-13

    A process for simultaneously producing PET-usable quantities of [{sup 13}N]NH{sub 3} and [{sup 18}F]F{sup {minus}} for radiotracer synthesis is disclosed. The process includes producing [{sup 13}N]NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}and [{sup 18}F]F{sup {minus}} simultaneously by exposing a low-enriched (20%-30%) [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O target to proton irradiation, sequentially isolating the [{sup 13}N]NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and [{sup 18}F]F{sup {minus}} from the [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O target, and reducing the [{sup 13}N]NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to [{sup 13}N]NH{sub 3}. The [{sup 13}N]NH{sub 3} and [{sup 18}F]F{sup {minus}} products are then conveyed to a laboratory for radiotracer applications. The process employs an anion exchange resin for isolation of the isotopes from the [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O, and sequential elution of [{sup 13}N]NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and [{sup 18}F]F{sup {minus}} fractions. Also the apparatus is disclosed for simultaneously producing PET-usable quantities of [{sup 13}N]NH{sub 3} and [{sup 18}F]F{sup {minus}} from a single irradiation of a single low-enriched [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O target. 2 figs.

  11. Increased Multilayer Fabrication and RF Characterization of a High-Density Stacked MIM Capacitor Based on Selective Etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, VFG; Xie, HK

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of a high-density multilayer stacked metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor based on a novel process of depositing the MIM multilayer on pillars followed by polishing and selective etching steps to form a stacked capacitor with merely three photolithography steps. In this paper, the pillars were made of glass to prevent substrate loss, whereas an oxide-nitride-oxide dielectric was employed for lower leakage, better voltage/frequency linearity, and better stress compensation. MIM capacitors with six dielectric layers were successfully fabricated, yielding capacitance density of 3.8 fF/mu m(2), maximum capacitance of 2.47 nF, and linear and quadratic voltage coefficients of capacitance below 21.2 ppm/V and 2.31 ppm/V-2. The impedance was measured from 40 Hz to 3 GHz, and characterized by an analytically derived equivalent circuit model to verify the radio frequency applicability. The multilayer stacking-induced plate resistance mismatch and its effect on the equivalent series resistance (ESR) and effective capacitance was also investigated, which can be counteracted by a corrected metal thickness design. A low ESR of 800 m Omega was achieved, whereas the self-resonance frequency was >760 MHz, successfully demonstrating the feasibility of this method to scale up capacitance densities for high-quality-factor, high-frequency, and large-value MIM capacitors.

  12. Selective increase of intention-based economic decisions by noninvasive brain stimulation to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihonsugi, Tsuyoshi; Ihara, Aya; Haruno, Masahiko

    2015-02-25

    The intention behind another's action and the impact of the outcome are major determinants of human economic behavior. It is poorly understood, however, whether the two systems share a core neural computation. Here, we investigated whether the two systems are causally dissociable in the brain by integrating computational modeling, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and transcranial direct current stimulation experiments in a newly developed trust game task. We show not only that right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity is correlated with intention-based economic decisions and that ventral striatum and amygdala activity are correlated with outcome-based decisions, but also that stimulation to the DLPFC selectively enhances intention-based decisions. These findings suggest that the right DLPFC is involved in the implementation of intention-based decisions in the processing of cooperative decisions. This causal dissociation of cortical and subcortical backgrounds may indicate evolutionary and developmental differences in the two decision systems. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/53412-08$15.00/0.

  13. Effect of an increased intake of alpha-linolenic acid and group nutritional education on cardiovascular risk factors : the Mediterranean Alpha-linolenic Enriched Groningen Dietary Intervention (MARGARIN) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, W.J.; Broer, J.; Feskens, E.J.; Smit, A.J.; Muskiet, F.A.; Lefrandt, J.D.; Bom, V.J.; May, J.F.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.

    Background: The effect of long-term increased intakes of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) on cardiovascular risk factors is unknown. Objectives: Our objectives were to assess the effect of increased ALA intakes on cardiovascular risk factors and the estimated risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)

  14. Functional properties of pasta enriched with variable cereal brans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurkirat; Sharma, Savita; Nagi, H P S; Dar, Basharat N

    2012-08-01

    To explore the potentiality of cereal brans for preparation of fiber enriched pasta, various cereal brans (Wheat, Rice, Barley and Oat) were added at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 per cent to durum wheat semolina. The effect of cereal bran enrichment on the colour, cooking, sensory quality and shelf life of enriched pasta was assessed at ambient temperature. Pasta prepared with added fiber at 25 per cent level had the highest protein and dietary fiber content as compared to control. Enrichment with variable fiber sources improved the brightness of pasta, as colour of pasta enhanced significantly. Addition of cereal brans resulted an increase in the water absorption and cooking losses of pasta. This effect was dependent on the level and type of cereal brans. Significant correlation (r = 0.80) was obtained between water absorption and volume expansion in all types of bran enriched pasta. At 25 per cent level of supplementation, maximum solids were leached into cooking water. Bran enriched pasta required less cooking time for complete gelatinization of starch. Increasing level of cereal brans had significantly affected the overall acceptability of enriched pasta. Cooking quality of pasta remained constant during storage. Non significant effect of storage was found on water activity, free fatty acids. Enriched pasta (15 per cent level of wheat, rice and oat bran and 10 per cent barley bran) was highly acceptable upto 4 months of storage with respect to quality.

  15. The enrichment history of cosmic metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Robert P. C.; Schaye, Joop; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Booth, C. M.; Theuns, Tom; Aguirre, Anthony

    2010-11-01

    We use a suite of cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations to investigate the chemical enrichment history of the Universe. Specifically, we trace the origin of the metals back in time to investigate when various gas phases were enriched and by what halo masses. We find that the age of the metals decreases strongly with the density of the gas in which they end up. At least half of the metals that reside in the diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM) at z = 0 (z = 2) were ejected from galaxies above z = 2 (z = 3). The mass of the haloes that last contained the metals increases rapidly with the gas density. More than half of the mass in intergalactic metals was ejected by haloes with total masses less than 1011 Msolar and stellar masses less than 109 Msolar. The range of halo masses that contribute to the enrichment is wider for the hotter part of the IGM. By combining the `when' and `by what' aspects of the enrichment history, we show that metals residing in the lower density gas were typically ejected earlier and by lower mass haloes.

  16. Enhancement of select foods at breakfast and lunch increases energy intakes of nursing home residents with low meal intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Victoria H; Marra, Melissa Ventura; Johnson, Paulette

    2009-03-01

    Nursing facilities often provide enhanced or fortified foods as part of a "food-first" approach to increasing nutrient intakes in residents with inadequate intakes or who are experiencing weight loss. The study objective was to determine whether energy and protein enhancement of a small number of menu items would result in increased three-meal (breakfast, lunch, and supper) calorie and protein intakes in long-term care residents. A randomized cross-over design was used to compare investigator-weighed food intakes under three menu conditions: control (no meals enhanced); lunch only enhanced; and both breakfast and lunch enhanced. Two breakfast foods (juice and hot cereal) and two lunch foods (soup and potato side dish) were chosen for enhancement. Participants were 33 nursing home residents from a facility in South Florida (average age=87.3 years). Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test the effects of the within-subjects factor (control, lunch enhanced, breakfast and lunch enhanced conditions), the between-subjects factor (smaller vs bigger eater), and the interaction on intakes (gram, kilocalories, and protein). Results revealed that bigger eaters consumed considerably more calories when breakfast foods, but not lunch foods, were enhanced. Smaller eaters achieved an increase in energy intake when either breakfast or lunch was enhanced. Overall daily protein intakes were not substantially increased by food enhancement. These data suggest that for an enhanced food program to be most effective for smaller eaters, who are at greatest risk for undernutrition and weight loss, it should include several enhanced foods at more than one meal.

  17. Selection and optimization of transfection enhancer additives for increased virus-like particle production in HEK293 suspension cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, Laura; Fuenmayor, Javier; González-Domínguez, Irene; Gutiérrez-Granados, Sonia; Segura, Maria Mercedes; Gòdia, Francesc

    2015-12-01

    The manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals in mammalian cells typically relies on the use of stable producer cell lines. However, in recent years, transient gene expression has emerged as a suitable technology for rapid production of biopharmaceuticals. Transient gene expression is particularly well suited for early developmental phases, where several potential therapeutic targets need to be produced and tested in vivo. As a relatively new bioprocessing modality, a number of opportunities exist for improving cell culture productivity upon transient transfection. For instance, several compounds have shown positive effects on transient gene expression. These transfection enhancers either facilitate entry of PEI/DNA transfection complexes into the cell or nucleus or increase levels of gene expression. In this work, the potential of combining transfection enhancers to increase Gag-based virus-like particle production levels upon transfection of suspension-growing HEK 293 cells is evaluated. Using Plackett-Burman design of experiments, it is first tested the effect of eight transfection enhancers: trichostatin A, valproic acid, sodium butyrate, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), lithium acetate, caffeine, hydroxyurea, and nocodazole. An optimal combination of compounds exhibiting the highest effect on gene expression levels was subsequently identified using a surface response experimental design. The optimal consisted on the addition of 20 mM lithium acetate, 3.36 mM valproic acid, and 5.04 mM caffeine which increased VLP production levels 3.8-fold, while maintaining cell culture viability at 94%.

  18. Comparison of three targeted enrichment strategies on the SOLiD sequencing platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Dale J; Guettouche, Toumy; Yang, Shan; Bademci, Guney; Diaz, Ashley; Andersen, Ashley; Hulme, William F; Linker, Sara; Mehta, Arpit; Edwards, Yvonne J K; Beecham, Gary W; Martin, Eden R; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Zuchner, Stephan; Vance, Jeffery M; Gilbert, John R

    2011-04-29

    Despite the ever-increasing throughput and steadily decreasing cost of next generation sequencing (NGS), whole genome sequencing of humans is still not a viable option for the majority of genetics laboratories. This is particularly true in the case of complex disease studies, where large sample sets are often required to achieve adequate statistical power. To fully leverage the potential of NGS technology on large sample sets, several methods have been developed to selectively enrich for regions of interest. Enrichment reduces both monetary and computational costs compared to whole genome sequencing, while allowing researchers to take advantage of NGS throughput. Several targeted enrichment approaches are currently available, including molecular inversion probe ligation sequencing (MIPS), oligonucleotide hybridization based approaches, and PCR-based strategies. To assess how these methods performed when used in conjunction with the ABI SOLID3+, we investigated three enrichment techniques: Nimblegen oligonucleotide hybridization array-based capture; Agilent SureSelect oligonucleotide hybridization solution-based capture; and Raindance Technologies' multiplexed PCR-based approach. Target regions were selected from exons and evolutionarily conserved areas throughout the human genome. Probe and primer pair design was carried out for all three methods using their respective informatics pipelines. In all, approximately 0.8 Mb of target space was identical for all 3 methods. SOLiD sequencing results were analyzed for several metrics, including consistency of coverage depth across samples, on-target versus off-target efficiency, allelic bias, and genotype concordance with array-based genotyping data. Agilent SureSelect exhibited superior on-target efficiency and correlation of read depths across samples. Nimblegen performance was similar at read depths at 20× and below. Both Raindance and Nimblegen SeqCap exhibited tighter distributions of read depth around the mean, but

  19. Honey bee lines selected for high propolis production also have superior hygienic behavior and increased honey and pollen stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicodemo, D; De Jong, D; Couto, R H N; Malheiros, E B

    2013-12-19

    Honey bees use propolis to defend against invaders and disease organisms. As some colonies produce much more propolis than others, we investigated whether propolis collecting is associated with disease resistance traits, including hygienic behavior and resistance to the parasitic bee mite, Varroa destructor. The three highest (HP) and three lowest propolis-producing (LP) colonies among 36 Africanized honey bee colonies were initially selected. Queens and drones from these colonies were crossed through artificial insemination to produce five colonies of each of the following crosses: HP♀ X HP♂, LP♀ X HP♂, HP♀ X LP♂, and LP♀ X LP♂. Colonies headed by HP♀ X HP♂ queens produced significantly more propolis than those with HP♀ X LP♂ and LP♀ X HP♂ queens and these in turn produced significantly more propolis than those headed by LP♀ X LP♂ queens. The brood cell uncapping rate of the high-propolis-producing colonies in the hygienic behavior test was significantly superior to that of the other groups. The LP X LP group was significantly less hygienic than the two HP X LP crosses, based on the evaluation of the rate of removal of pin-killed pupae. The HP X HP colonies were significantly more hygienic than the other crosses. No significant differences were found in mite infestation rates among the groups of colonies; although overall, colony infestation rates were quite low (1.0 to 3.2 mites per 100 brood cells), which could have masked such effects. Honey and pollen stores were significantly and positively correlated with propolis production.

  20. Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.; Cole, Roger L.

    1997-01-01

    An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

  1. Environmental Enrichment for Broiler Breeders: An Undeveloped Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Jong, Ingrid de; van de Werd, Heleen A.

    2017-01-01

    of environmental enrichment for broiler breeders, which have been described in the scientific literature, on behavior and welfare. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements...... in biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals (e.g., environmental hygiene), or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms...... and thus never benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broiler breeders often has the purpose of satisfying the behavioral motivations for feeding and foraging, resting, and/or encouraging normal sexual behavior. Potentially successful enrichments for broiler breeders are elevated resting places...

  2. Enrichment of skin-derived neural precursor cells from dermal cell populations by altering culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Vahid; Gazor, Rohoullah; Nejatbakhsh, Reza; Negad Dehbashi, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    As stem cells play a critical role in tissue repair, their manipulation for being applied in regenerative medicine is of great importance. Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) may be good candidates for use in cell-based therapy as the only neural stem cells which can be isolated from an accessible tissue, skin. Herein, we presented a simple protocol to enrich neural SKPs by monolayer adherent cultivation to prove the efficacy of this method. To enrich neural SKPs from dermal cell populations, we have found that a monolayer adherent cultivation helps to increase the numbers of neural precursor cells. Indeed, we have cultured dermal cells as monolayer under serum-supplemented (control) and serum-supplemented culture, followed by serum free cultivation (test) and compared. Finally, protein markers of SKPs were assessed and compared in both experimental groups and differentiation potential was evaluated in enriched culture. The cells of enriched culture concurrently expressed fibronectin, vimentin and nestin, an intermediate filament protein expressed in neural and skeletal muscle precursors as compared to control culture. In addition, they possessed a multipotential capacity to differentiate into neurogenic, glial, adipogenic, osteogenic and skeletal myogenic cell lineages. It was concluded that serum-free adherent culture reinforced by growth factors have been shown to be effective on proliferation of skin-derived neural precursor cells (skin-NPCs) and drive their selective and rapid expansion.

  3. Selection for higher body weight in Nelore cattle is effective in achieving an increase of longissimus muscle area without reducing subcutaneous fat thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Roque Pinheiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations between carcass traits measured by ultrasound and other economically important traits generally used as selection criteria in beef cattle and to estimate the genetic changes in the carcass traits as a result of selection for post-yearling weight. Carcass traits measured by ultrasound at two ages (12 and 18 months and the correlation of these traits with weight, hip height and body condition score of males (yearling and females (post-yearling were analyzed. Multi-trait analysis was performed using the restricted maximum likelihood method under an animal model. To demonstrate the effect of selection for growth, phenotypic and expected breeding value means of the carcass traits and weights according to selection line (Nellore control line, selection line and traditional line were estimated using records from animals born in the last 3 years (2006 to 2008. The heritability estimates were high for longissimus muscle area (LMA at 12 and 18 months of age (0.47 and 0.40, respectively. For fat thickness measures, heritabilities ranged from 0.37 to 0.29. Genetic correlations of the same trait between the two ages were high for LMA (0.95. The Nellore breed shows medium to high genetic variability in carcass traits measured by ultrasound at 12 and 18 months of age, and a greater response is expected if selection for backfat thickness is performed at about 12 months of age. Selection for higher body weight will lead to an increase of LMA at the two ages without reducing subcutaneous fat thickness.

  4. Selective increase of dark phase water intake in neuropeptide-Y Y2 and Y4 receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wultsch, Thomas; Painsipp, Evelin; Donner, Sabine; Sperk, Günther; Herzog, Herbert; Peskar, Bernhard A; Holzer, Peter

    2006-04-03

    Neuropeptide-Y (NPY) is involved in the regulation of ingestive behaviour and energy homeostasis. Since deletion of the NPY Y2 and Y4 receptor gene increases and decreases food intake, respectively, we examined whether water intake during the light and dark phases is altered in Y2 and Y4 receptor knockout mice. The water consumption of mice staying in their home cages was measured by weighing the water bottles at the beginning and end of the light phase during 4 consecutive days. Control, Y2 and Y4 receptor knockout mice did not differ in their water intake during the light phase. However, during the dark phase Y2 and Y4 receptor knockout mice drank significantly more (46-63%, PNPY acting via Y2 and Y4 receptors plays a distinctive role in the regulation of nocturnal water consumption. While beta-adrenoceptors and angiotensin AT1 receptors do not seem to be involved, water intake in Y2 and Y4 receptor knockout mice may be enhanced because presynaptic autoinhibition of NPY release and inhibition of orexin neurons in the central nervous system are prevented.

  5. Genetics of growth and reproduction in the turkey. 15. Effect of long-term selection for increased egg production on the genetics of growth and egg production traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, D A; Velleman, S G; Nestor, K E

    2002-03-01

    A line (E) of turkeys selected long-term (37 generations) for increased egg production was reciprocally crossed with its randombred control population (RBC1) that served as the base population of the E line to study the influence of long-term selection on the development of nonadditive genetic variation for egg production and body weight traits. Heterosis was significant for BW at 8, 16, and 20 wk of age and at 50% production (females only). At 16 and 20 wk of age, heterosis for BW was significant only for male offspring. No heterosis was observed in the reciprocal crosses for egg production when measured for 84, 180, or 250 d. Heterosis was significant for rate of response to stimulatory lighting of 14 h light per day (days from stimulatory lighting to production of first egg). Based on data for a 250-d production period, heterosis was observed in average clutch length but not in total days lost from broodiness or the effective length of the laying period (250-d lost in periods of 5 or more consecutive d at the end of the laying period). The present results suggest that long-term selection for increased egg production and the correlated decrease in BW increased the relative nonadditive genetic variation in BW. Reciprocal effects were significant for BW at 8 and 16 wk of age, probably due to a large difference in egg weight between the E and RBC1 lines.

  6. Simulating Isotope Enrichment by Gaseous Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Cameron

    2015-04-01

    A desktop-computer simulation of isotope enrichment by gaseous diffusion has been developed. The simulation incorporates two non-interacting point-mass species whose members pass through a cascade of cells containing porous membranes and retain constant speeds as they reflect off the walls of the cells and the spaces between holes in the membranes. A particular feature is periodic forward recycling of enriched material to cells further along the cascade along with simultaneous return of depleted material to preceding cells. The number of particles, the mass ratio, the initial fractional abundance of the lighter species, and the time between recycling operations can be chosen by the user. The simulation is simple enough to be understood on the basis of two-dimensional kinematics, and demonstrates that the fractional abundance of the lighter-isotope species increases along the cascade. The logic of the simulation will be described and results of some typical runs will be presented and discussed.

  7. Semantic enrichment for medical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yugyung; Geller, James

    2006-04-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains two separate but interconnected knowledge structures, the Semantic Network (upper level) and the Metathesaurus (lower level). In this paper, we have attempted to work out better how the use of such a two-level structure in the medical field has led to notable advances in terminologies and ontologies. However, most ontologies and terminologies do not have such a two-level structure. Therefore, we present a method, called semantic enrichment, which generates a two-level ontology from a given one-level terminology and an auxiliary two-level ontology. During semantic enrichment, concepts of the one-level terminology are assigned to semantic types, which are the building blocks of the upper level of the auxiliary two-level ontology. The result of this process is the desired new two-level ontology. We discuss semantic enrichment of two example terminologies and how we approach the implementation of semantic enrichment in the medical domain. This implementation performs a major part of the semantic enrichment process with the medical terminologies, with difficult cases left to a human expert.

  8. Usage rate segmentation: enriching the US wine market profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley K

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen Kelley,1 Jeffrey Hyde,2 Johan Bruwer3 1Department of Plant Science, 2Department of Agricultural Economics, Sociology, and Education, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; 3School of Marketing, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: The purpose of this research is to enrich our knowledge of the US wine market and provide insights into how usage rate segmentation can be enhanced by select innovative perspectives of current offerings. Data were collected through a 15-minute online survey of 910 US wine drinkers randomly selected from a panel of consumers. It was found that the “super core” segment not only drank wine more frequently, but also were more likely to drink other types of alcohol presented (beer, distilled spirits, and ready-to-drink cocktails, and at a greater frequency, “at least once a week” and “about once a week”, than “marginal” drinkers. Differences between usage rate segments existed between sex and age generations. Female millennial “super core” consumers would increase wine consumption if the number of calories were reduced to fewer than 80 per 5 oz serving. Practical implications for a winery or wine retailer might include the potential to add these beverages to their product offering or bundling these beverages to create packages (allowing for mass customization, which is used often in retail and appropriately marketing these offerings to their customers. Changes that may invoke a positive response are wine made from “sustainably farmed” or “naturally farmed” grapes, and certified carbon-free wine. From an originality viewpoint, this study is the first to investigate how usage rate segmentation can be enriched by means of variable cross-extension and examination. Keywords: consumer behavior, market segmentation, usage rate, consumption frequency, USA

  9. ALGORITHM FOR CUMULATIVE CALCULATION OF GENE SET ENRICHMENT STATISTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sergushichev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods for gene set enrichment analysis, widely-used for analysis of gene expression data, were studied. A problem of cumulative calculation of enrichment statistic was considered. For this problem an algorithm based on square root decomposition heuristic was developed. An asymptotic run-time complexity of the algorithm was found. Practical implementation showed an order of magnitude increase in performance compared to a naïve algorithm when run on typical input sizes. The developed algorithm can be used to improve significantly the performance of gene set enrichment analysis.

  10. Blueberry anthocyanins at doses of 0.5 and 1 % lowered plasma cholesterol by increasing fecal excretion of acidic and neutral sterols in hamsters fed a cholesterol-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yintong; Chen, Jingnan; Zuo, Yuanyuan; Ma, Ka Ying; Jiang, Yue; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigated the underlying mechanism associated with the hypocholesterolemic activity of blueberry anthocyanins by examining its effect on fecal sterol excretion and gene expression of major receptors, enzymes, and transporters involved in cholesterol metabolism. Hamsters were divided into three groups and fed a 0.1 % cholesterol diet containing 0 % (CTL), 0.5 % (BL), and 1.0 % (BH) blueberry anthocyanins, respectively, for six weeks. Plasma total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG), and non-high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (non-HDL-C) were measured using the enzymatic kits, and the gene expression of transporters, enzymes, and receptors involved in cholesterol absorption and metabolism was quantified using the quantitative PCR. GC analysis was used to quantify hepatic cholesterol and fecal acidic and neutral sterols. Dietary supplementation of 0.5 and 1.0 % blueberry anthocyanins for 6 weeks decreased plasma TC concentration by 6-12 % in a dose-dependent manner. This was accompanied by increasing the excretion of fecal neutral and acidic sterols by 22-29 % and 41-74 %, respectively. Real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that incorporation of blueberry anthocyanins into diet down-regulated the genes of NPC1L1, ACAT-2, MTP, and ABCG 8. In addition, blueberry anthocyanins were also able to down-regulate the gene expression of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase. The cholesterol-lowering activity of blueberry anthocyanins was most likely mediated by enhancing the excretion of sterols accompanied with down-regulation on gene expression of intestinal NPC1L1, ACAT-2, MTP, and ABCG 8.

  11. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dali [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL

    2011-11-29

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  12. Deuterium enrichment of interstellar dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Majumdar, Liton; Sahu, Dipen

    2016-07-01

    High abundance of some abundant and simple interstellar species could be explained by considering the chemistry that occurs on interstellar dusts. Because of its simplicity, the rate equation method is widely used to study the surface chemistry. However, because the recombination efficiency for the formation of any surface species is highly dependent on various physical and chemical parameters, the Monte Carlo method is best suited for addressing the randomness of the processes. We carry out Monte-Carlo simulation to study deuterium enrichment of interstellar grain mantle under various physical conditions. Based on the physical properties, various types of clouds are considered. We find that in diffuse cloud regions, very strong radiation fields persists and hardly a few layers of surface species are formed. In translucent cloud regions with a moderate radiation field, significant number of layers would be produced and surface coverage is mainly dominated by photo-dissociation products such as, C, CH_3, CH_2D, OH and OD. In the intermediate dense cloud regions (having number density of total hydrogen nuclei in all forms ˜2 × 10^4 cm^{-3}), water and methanol along with their deuterated derivatives are efficiently formed. For much higher density regions (˜10^6 cm^{-3}), water and methanol productions are suppressed but surface coverage of CO, CO_2, O_2, O_3 are dramatically increased. We find a very high degree of fractionation of water and methanol. Observational results support a high fractionation of methanol but surprisingly water fractionation is found to be low. This is in contradiction with our model results indicating alternative routes for de-fractionation of water.

  13. Agricultural Extension Messages Using Video on Portable Devices Increased Knowledge about Seed Selection, Storage and Handling among Smallholder Potato Farmers in Southwestern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campenhout, Bjorn; Vandevelde, Senne; Walukano, Wilberforce; Van Asten, Piet

    2017-01-01

    To feed a growing population, agricultural productivity needs to increase dramatically. Agricultural extension information, with its public, non-rival nature, is generally undersupplied, and public provision remains challenging. In this study, simple agricultural extension video messages, delivered through Android tablets, were tested in the field to determine if they increased farmers’ knowledge of recommended practices on (i) potato seed selection and (ii) seed storage and handling among a sample of potato farmers in southwestern Uganda. Using a field experiment with ex ante matching in a factorial design, it was established that showing agricultural extension videos significantly increased farmers’ knowledge. However, results suggested impact pathways that went beyond simply replicating what was shown in the video. Video messages may have triggered a process of abstraction, whereby farmers applied insights gained in one context to a different context. PMID:28122005

  14. Agricultural Extension Messages Using Video on Portable Devices Increased Knowledge about Seed Selection, Storage and Handling among Smallholder Potato Farmers in Southwestern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campenhout, Bjorn; Vandevelde, Senne; Walukano, Wilberforce; Van Asten, Piet

    2017-01-01

    To feed a growing population, agricultural productivity needs to increase dramatically. Agricultural extension information, with its public, non-rival nature, is generally undersupplied, and public provision remains challenging. In this study, simple agricultural extension video messages, delivered through Android tablets, were tested in the field to determine if they increased farmers' knowledge of recommended practices on (i) potato seed selection and (ii) seed storage and handling among a sample of potato farmers in southwestern Uganda. Using a field experiment with ex ante matching in a factorial design, it was established that showing agricultural extension videos significantly increased farmers' knowledge. However, results suggested impact pathways that went beyond simply replicating what was shown in the video. Video messages may have triggered a process of abstraction, whereby farmers applied insights gained in one context to a different context.

  15. Fuento: functional enrichment for bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichselbaum, David; Zagrovic, Bojan; Polyansky, Anton A

    2017-08-15

    The currently available functional enrichment software focuses mostly on gene expression analysis, whereby server- and graphical-user-interface-based tools with specific scope dominate the field. Here we present an efficient, user-friendly, multifunctional command-line-based functional enrichment tool (fu-en-to), tailored for the bioinformatics researcher. Source code and binaries freely available for download at github.com/DavidWeichselbaum/fuento, implemented in C ++ and supported on Linux and OS X. newant@gmail.com or bojan.zagrovic@univie.ac.at.

  16. Solution-based targeted genomic enrichment for precious DNA samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shearer Aiden

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solution-based targeted genomic enrichment (TGE protocols permit selective sequencing of genomic regions of interest on a massively parallel scale. These protocols could be improved by: 1 modifying or eliminating time consuming steps; 2 increasing yield to reduce input DNA and excessive PCR cycling; and 3 enhancing reproducible. Results We developed a solution-based TGE method for downstream Illumina sequencing in a non-automated workflow, adding standard Illumina barcode indexes during the post-hybridization amplification to allow for sample pooling prior to sequencing. The method utilizes Agilent SureSelect baits, primers and hybridization reagents for the capture, off-the-shelf reagents for the library preparation steps, and adaptor oligonucleotides for Illumina paired-end sequencing purchased directly from an oligonucleotide manufacturing company. Conclusions This solution-based TGE method for Illumina sequencing is optimized for small- or medium-sized laboratories and addresses the weaknesses of standard protocols by reducing the amount of input DNA required, increasing capture yield, optimizing efficiency, and improving reproducibility.

  17. Detection of Listeria spp. using ACTERO listeria enrichment media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claveau, David; Olishevskyy, Sergiy; Giuffre, Michael; Martinez, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    ACTERO Listeria Enrichment Media (ACTERO Listeria) is a selective medium developed for a single-step recovery and enrichment of Listeria spp. from environmental samples. Robustness testing of the ACTERO Listeria medium demonstrated good performance when minor changes were introduced to the incubation temperature and time. All 54 Listeria strains tested, representing the most frequently isolated Listeria species from food (L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri, and L. grayi), were successfully enriched in ACTERO Listeria. None of the 30 nontarget strains tested in the exclusivity study was recovered after incubation in ACTERO Listeria. Recovery of Listeria was consistent across three independently produced lots of the ACTERO Listeria, and the prepared medium was stable for 45 days when stored at 4 degrees C in the dark. Matrix studies performed with environmental sponge samples from plastic and stainless steel surfaces demonstrated similar recovery of Listeria spp. in a single-step enrichment using ACTERO Listeria from plastic, and significantly better recovery from stainless steel surfaces when compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service reference method. The results of this study prove that ACTERO Listeria Enrichment Media can be effectively used in replacement of the two-step enrichment suggested by the reference method without affecting the recovery of Listeria spp. from environmental samples.

  18. Environmental Enrichment for Broiler Breeders: An Undeveloped Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, Anja B; de Jong, Ingrid C; van de Weerd, Heleen A; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    Welfare problems, such as hunger, frustration, aggression, and abnormal sexual behavior, are commonly found in broiler breeder production. To prevent or reduce these welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating enriched environments. We review the effect of the different types of environmental enrichment for broiler breeders, which have been described in the scientific literature, on behavior and welfare. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements in biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals (e.g., environmental hygiene), or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms and thus never benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broiler breeders often has the purpose of satisfying the behavioral motivations for feeding and foraging, resting, and/or encouraging normal sexual behavior. Potentially successful enrichments for broiler breeders are elevated resting places, cover panels, and substrate (for broiler breeders housed in cage systems). However, most of the ideas for environmental enrichment for broiler breeders need to be further developed and studied with respect to the use, the effect on behavior and welfare, and the interaction with genotype and production system. In addition, information on practical use and the economics of the production system is often lacking although it is important for application in practice.

  19. Transiently increasing cAMP levels selectively in hippocampal excitatory neurons during sleep deprivation prevents memory deficits caused by sleep loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havekes, Robbert; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Tudor, Jennifer C; Ferri, Sarah L; Baumann, Arnd; Meerlo, Peter; Abel, Ted

    2014-11-19

    The hippocampus is particularly sensitive to sleep loss. Although previous work has indicated that sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal cAMP signaling, it remains to be determined whether the cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation are caused by attenuated cAMP signaling in the hippocampus. Further, it is unclear which cell types are responsible for the memory impairments associated with sleep deprivation. Transgenic approaches lack the spatial resolution to manipulate specific signaling pathways selectively in the hippocampus, while pharmacological strategies are limited in terms of cell-type specificity. Therefore, we used a pharmacogenetic approach based on a virus-mediated expression of a Gαs-coupled Drosophila octopamine receptor selectively in mouse hippocampal excitatory neurons in vivo. With this approach, a systemic injection with the receptor ligand octopamine leads to increased cAMP levels in this specific set of hippocampal neurons. We assessed whether transiently increasing cAMP levels during sleep deprivation prevents memory consolidation deficits associated with sleep loss in an object-location task. Five hours of total sleep deprivation directly following training impaired the formation of object-location memories. Transiently increasing cAMP levels in hippocampal neurons during the course of sleep deprivation prevented these memory consolidation deficits. These findings demonstrate that attenuated cAMP signaling in hippocampal excitatory neurons is a critical component underlying the memory deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning tasks associated with sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415715-07$15.00/0.

  20. Influence of environmental enrichment on the behavior and physiology of mice infected by Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah Maria Moreira da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Enriched environments normally increase behavioral repertoires and diminish the expression of abnormal behaviors and stress-related physiological problems in animals. Although it has been shown that experimental animals infected with microorganisms can modify their behaviors and physiology, few studies have evaluated how environmental enrichment affects these parameters. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental enrichment on the behavior and physiology of confined mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. METHODS: The behaviors of 20 T. cruzi-infected mice and 20 non-infected mice were recorded during three treatments: baseline, enrichment, and post-enrichment. Behavioral data were collected using scan sampling with instantaneous recording of behavior every 30s, totaling 360h. Plasma TNF, CCL2, and IL-10 levels and parasitemia were also evaluated in infected enriched/non-enriched mice. Behavioral data were evaluated by Friedman’s test and physiological data by one-way ANOVA and area under the curve (AUC analysis. RESULTS: Results showed that environmental enrichment significantly increased exploratory behaviors and diminished inactivity. The use of environmental enrichment did not diminish circulating levels of TNF and IL-10 but diminished circulating levels of CCL2 and parasitemia. CONCLUSIONS: Positive behavioral and physiological effects of environmental enrichment were observed in mice living in enriched cages. Thus, environmental enrichment improved the welfare of these animals.

  1. Enrichment and isolation of microbial strains degrading bioplastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) degrading bacterial strains were isolated from various environmental sites rich in plastic wastes by using the enrichment culture technique. Among the various isolated strains, the selected potent PVA degrading bacterial strains were tentatively characterized as Bacillus and Pseudomonas sp.

  2. An Enrichment Program for Migrant Students: MENTE/UOP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael B.

    The report describes the objectives and accomplishments of a summer enrichment program, Migrantes Envueltos en Nuevos Temas de Educacion/Migrants Engaged in New Themes in Education (MENTE), for promising and talented migrant high schoolers. The program is a cooperative one with a university. Students selected by a review committee are tested for…

  3. Production of oxidatively stable fish oil enriched food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette

    Purpose: The objective of the project is to determine how a number of selected fish oil enriched foods can be protected against oxidation by the right choice of antioxidants, emulsifiers and optimal process conditions. Furthermore the influence of antioxidant addition to the fish oil it-self on t...

  4. Enrichment and isolation of microbial strains degrading bioplastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2015-07-08

    Jul 8, 2015 ... Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) degrading bacterial strains were isolated from various environmental sites rich in plastic wastes by using the enrichment culture technique. Among the various isolated strains, the selected potent PVA degrading bacterial strains were tentatively characterized as Bacillus and.

  5. Enrichment during transdominant genetic experiments using a flow sorter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrock, R; Karpilow, J; Richards, B; Maxfield, A; Wang, C; Risley, R; Rebentisch, M; Drees, B; Teng, D H; Caponigro, G; Kamb, A

    2001-10-01

    Flow cytometry, in combination with retroviral expression libraries, is a powerful tool for genetic experimentation in mammalian cells. Expression libraries are transduced into cells engineered with a fluorescent reporter. Sorting for either bright or dim cells allows enrichment for specific inhibitors that alter reporter activity. This strategy has been used to isolate peptides and RNAs that either activate or suppress defined biochemical pathways. Several variables contribute to the enrichment process: (1) the background of the fluorescence bioassay; (2) the mean fluorescence ratio between the induced and noninduced reporter cell populations; (3) the genetic penetrance, or strength, of the inhibitor; and (4) the multiplicity of infection (MOI). An experimental and theoretical analysis, including computer modeling, of these issues in the context of a mammalian cell bioassay was undertaken. MOI measurements were shown to be problematic. High MOI had little effect on enrichment early in the cycling process but a significant effect at later stages. Penetrance and background were critical throughout the process. Enrichments within about twofold of the theoretical maximum were observed. Caution should be exercised in MOI determination because of the danger of significant underestimation. High MOI is potentially advantageous early in the selection process but hinders enrichment in the later rounds. Modeling shows that MOI, assay background and clone penetrance are the principal variables that determine the success of transdominant selections by FACS. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Enrichment proteomics challenges and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is based on two technology projects from the Centre for BioSystems Genomics (CBSG), entitled ‘Comparative proteomics on Plant Pathogen interactions through enrichment of the N-glycoproteome and tagged-glycoproteome’ (TD7) and ‘Plasma Membrane proteomics for Plant

  7. Meadow enriched ACP process algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the notion of an ACP process algebra. The models of the axiom system ACP are the origin of this notion. ACP process algebras have to do with processes in which no data are involved. We also introduce the notion of a meadow enriched ACP process algebra, which is a simple generalization

  8. Nematode Indicators of Organic Enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferris, H.; Bongers, A.M.T.

    2006-01-01

    The organisms of the soil food web, dependent on resources from plants or on amendment from other sources, respond characteristically to enrichment of their environment by organic matter. Primary consumers of the incoming substrate, including bacteria, fungi, plant-feeding nematodes, annelids, and

  9. Rational selection and engineering of exogenous principal sigma factor (σHrdB) to increase teicoplanin production in an industrial strain of Actinoplanes teichomyceticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcriptional engineering has presented a strong ability of phenotypic improvement in microorganisms. However, it could not be directly applied to Actinoplanes teichomyceticus L-27 because of the paucity of endogenous transcription factors in the strain. In this study, exogenous transcription factors were rationally selected and transcriptional engineering was carried out to increase the productivity of teicoplanin in L-27. Results It was illuminated that the σHrdB molecules shared strong similarity of amino acid sequences among some genera of actinomycetes. Combining this advantage with the ability of transcriptional engineering, exogenous sigma factor σHrdB molecules were rationally selected and engineered to improve L-27. hrdB genes from Actinoplanes missouriensis 431, Micromonospora aurantiaca ATCC 27029 and Salinispora arenicola CNS-205 were selected based on molecular evolutionary analysis. Random mutagenesis, DNA shuffling and point mutation were subsequently performed to generate diversified mutants. A recombinant was identified through screening program, yielding 5.3 mg/ml of teicoplanin, over 2-fold compared to that of L-27. More significantly, the engineered strain presented a good performance in 500-l pilot scale fermentation, which meant its valuable potential application in industry. Conclusions Through rational selection and engineering of exogenous transcriptional factor, we have extended the application of transcriptional engineering. To our knowledge, it is the first time to focus on the related issue. In addition, possessing the advantage of efficient metabolic perturbation in transcription level, this strategy could be useful in analyzing metabolic and physiological mechanisms of strains, especially those with the only information on taxonomy. PMID:24428890

  10. Rational selection and engineering of exogenous principal sigma factor (σ(HrdB)) to increase teicoplanin production in an industrial strain of Actinoplanes teichomyceticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyong; Yang, Liu; Wu, Kuo; Li, Guanghui

    2014-01-16

    Transcriptional engineering has presented a strong ability of phenotypic improvement in microorganisms. However, it could not be directly applied to Actinoplanes teichomyceticus L-27 because of the paucity of endogenous transcription factors in the strain. In this study, exogenous transcription factors were rationally selected and transcriptional engineering was carried out to increase the productivity of teicoplanin in L-27. It was illuminated that the σ(HrdB) molecules shared strong similarity of amino acid sequences among some genera of actinomycetes. Combining this advantage with the ability of transcriptional engineering, exogenous sigma factor σ(HrdB) molecules were rationally selected and engineered to improve L-27. hrdB genes from Actinoplanes missouriensis 431, Micromonospora aurantiaca ATCC 27029 and Salinispora arenicola CNS-205 were selected based on molecular evolutionary analysis. Random mutagenesis, DNA shuffling and point mutation were subsequently performed to generate diversified mutants. A recombinant was identified through screening program, yielding 5.3 mg/ml of teicoplanin, over 2-fold compared to that of L-27. More significantly, the engineered strain presented a good performance in 500-l pilot scale fermentation, which meant its valuable potential application in industry. Through rational selection and engineering of exogenous transcriptional factor, we have extended the application of transcriptional engineering. To our knowledge, it is the first time to focus on the related issue. In addition, possessing the advantage of efficient metabolic perturbation in transcription level, this strategy could be useful in analyzing metabolic and physiological mechanisms of strains, especially those with the only information on taxonomy.

  11. Regadenoson, a selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist, causes dose-dependent increases in coronary blood flow velocity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Hsiao D; Shryock, John C; von Mering, Gregory O; Gordi, Toufigh; Blackburn, Brent; Olmsted, Ann W; Belardinelli, Luiz; Kerensky, Richard A

    2007-07-01

    Regadenoson is a selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist and vasodilator used to increase the heterogeneity of distribution of coronary blood flow during myocardial perfusion imaging. This study characterized the dose dependence of regadenoson-induced coronary hyperemia. An open-label, dose-escalation study of regadenoson (10-500 microg, rapid intravenous bolus) was performed in 34 subjects; in 4 additional subjects, the effect of aminophylline to reverse the response to regadenoson was determined. Intracoronary peak blood flow velocity in either the left anterior descending or left circumflex artery was measured by continuous Doppler signal recording, heart rate, central aortic blood pressure, and adverse effects were recorded. Regadenoson increased peak blood flow velocity by up to 3.4-fold in a dose-dependent manner. The mean duration of the increase in flow velocity of 2.5-fold or greater caused by 400 to 500 microg of regadenoson was 2.3 to 2.4 minutes. Regadenoson (400-500 microg) increased heart rate by up to 21 +/- 6 beats/min and decreased systolic blood pressure (-5 +/- 8 mm Hg to -24 +/- 16 mm Hg) and diastolic blood pressure (-8 +/- 4 mm Hg to -15 +/- 14 mm Hg). Aminophylline (100 mg) attenuated the increase in peak flow velocity but not tachycardia caused by 400 microg of regadenoson. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of regadenoson as a coronary vasodilator for myocardial perfusion imaging.

  12. Specific enrichment of glycoproteins with polymer monolith functionalized with glycocluster grafted β-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hai-Jiao; Ma, Jiu-Tong; Feng, Wei; Jia, Qiong

    2017-08-25

    The low abundance of glycoproteins in complex samples results in the prerequisite role of efficient and selective enrichment of them. In the present work, we designed a new kind of glycosylation poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-pentaerythritol triacrylate) monolith functionalized with glycocluster grafted β-cyclodextrin for the enrichment of glycoproteins. The introduced modifiers endowed the monolithic material with enhanced hydrophilicity and surface area, which benefitted to improve the enrichment selectivity and extraction efficiency for glycopeptides. By combining with MALDI-MS detections, 22 glycopeptides from horseradish peroxidase digest were captured with the developed monolith while 4 glycopeptides were enriched by commercially available agarose matrix column. LOD of 6.6pmol was attained. When applied to the enrichment of glycopeptides from complex protein samples and human lymphoma (U937) cell line, the prepared monolith exhibited high selectivity for glycopeptides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. ApoE promotes hepatic selective uptake but not RCT due to increased ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux to plasma[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annema, Wijtske; Dikkers, Arne; Freark de Boer, Jan; Gautier, Thomas; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Rader, Daniel J.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2012-01-01

    ApoE plays an important role in lipoprotein metabolism. This study investigated the effects of adenovirus-mediated human apoE overexpression (AdhApoE3) on sterol metabolism and in vivo reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). In wild-type mice, AdhApoE3 resulted in decreased HDL cholesterol levels and a shift toward larger HDL in plasma, whereas hepatic cholesterol content increased (P < 0.05). These effects were dependent on scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) as confirmed using SR-BI-deficient mice. Kinetic studies demonstrated increased plasma HDL cholesteryl ester catabolic rates (P < 0.05) and higher hepatic selective uptake of HDL cholesteryl esters in AdhApoE3-injected wild-type mice (P < 0.01). However, biliary and fecal sterol output as well as in vivo macrophage-to-feces RCT studied with 3H-cholesterol-loaded mouse macrophage foam cells remained unchanged upon human apoE overexpression. Similar results were obtained using hApoE3 overexpression in human CETP transgenic mice. However, blocking ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from hepatocytes in AdhApoE3-injected mice using probucol increased biliary cholesterol secretion (P < 0.05), fecal neutral sterol excretion (P < 0.05), and in vivo RCT (P < 0.01), specifically within neutral sterols. These combined data demonstrate that systemic apoE overexpression increases i) SR-BI-mediated selective uptake into the liver and ii) ABCA1-mediated efflux of RCT-relevant cholesterol from hepatocytes back to the plasma compartment, thereby resulting in unchanged fecal mass sterol excretion and overall in vivo RCT. PMID:22383685

  14. Nitrogen enrichment regulates calcium sources in forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynicka, Justin D; Pett-Ridge, Julie C; Perakis, Steven S

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a key nutrient that shapes cycles of other essential elements in forests, including calcium (Ca). When N availability exceeds ecosystem demands, excess N can stimulate Ca leaching and deplete Ca from soils. Over the long term, these processes may alter the proportion of available Ca that is derived from atmospheric deposition vs. bedrock weathering, which has fundamental consequences for ecosystem properties and nutrient supply. We evaluated how landscape variation in soil N, reflecting long-term legacies of biological N fixation, influenced plant and soil Ca availability and ecosystem Ca sources across 22 temperate forests in Oregon. We also examined interactions between soil N and bedrock Ca using soil N gradients on contrasting basaltic vs. sedimentary bedrock that differed 17-fold in underlying Ca content. We found that low-N forests on Ca-rich basaltic bedrock relied strongly on Ca from weathering, but that soil N enrichment depleted readily weatherable mineral Ca and shifted forest reliance toward atmospheric Ca. Forests on Ca-poor sedimentary bedrock relied more consistently on atmospheric Ca across all levels of soil N enrichment. The broad importance of atmospheric Ca was unexpected given active regional uplift and erosion that are thought to rejuvenate weathering supply of soil minerals. Despite different Ca sources to forests on basaltic vs. sedimentary bedrock, we observed consistent declines in plant and soil Ca availability with increasing N, regardless of the Ca content of underlying bedrock. Thus, traditional measures of Ca availability in foliage and soil exchangeable pools may poorly reflect long-term Ca sources that sustain soil fertility. We conclude that long-term soil N enrichment can deplete available Ca and cause forests to rely increasingly on Ca from atmospheric deposition, which may limit ecosystem Ca supply in an increasingly N-rich world. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Selective estrogen receptor modulator promotes weight loss in ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by decreasing food intake and increasing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Elinor L; Shearin, Jean; Koegler, Frank H; Cameron, Judy L

    2012-04-01

    The effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on body weight in postmenopausal women is controversial, with studies reporting an increase, a decrease, and no change in body weight. To examine estrogen receptor actions on body weight, we investigated the effects of treatment with a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) on body weight, food intake, and activity and metabolic rate in a nonhuman primate model. Eighteen ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys were treated with a nonsteroidal SERM (GSK232802A, 5 mg/kg po) for 3 mo. GSK232802A decreased lutenizing hormone (P weight loss (4.6 ± 1.0%, P Physical activity increased during the 3rd mo of treatment (P = 0.04). Baseline activity level and the change in activity due to treatment were correlated, with the most sedentary individuals exhibiting increased physical activity during the 1st mo of treatment (P = 0.02). Metabolic rate did not change (P = 0.58). These results indicate that GSK232802A treatment reduces body weight and adiposity in ovariectomized nonhuman primates by suppressing food intake and increasing activity, particularly in the most sedentary individuals. These findings suggest that SERM treatment may counteract weight gain in postmenopausal women.

  16. Evaluating the effect of increasing ceramic content on the mechanical properties, material microstructure and degradation of selective laser sintered polycaprolactone/β-tricalcium phosphate materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Heather; Lohfeld, Stefan; McHugh, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Orthopaedic scaffold materials were fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL) and composite PCL-β-tricalcium phosphate (PCL/β-TCP) powders using selective laser sintering (SLS). Incorporating β-TCP particles is desirable to promote osteogenesis. The effects of increasing β-TCP content on the material's mechanical properties and microstructure were evaluated. The wt% of β-TCP and PCL particle sizes were found to influence material microstructure and mechanical properties, with increasing ceramic content causing a small but significant increase in stiffness but significant reductions in strength. Degradation of materials was achieved using accelerated ageing methods. The influence of β-TCP content on degradation at 7 weeks was evaluated through changes in mechanical properties and microstructure, and the ceramic particles were found to reduce elastic modulus and increase strength. The results of this study highlight the influence of ceramic content on mechanical properties and degradation behaviour of PCL/β-TCP SLS materials, and indicate that these changes must be considered in the design of scaffolds for critical-sized defects. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Three-phase molecularly imprinted sol-gel based hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for enrichment and selective determination of a tentative lung cancer biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mohammad Mahdi; Javanbakht, Mehran; Karimi, Mohammad; Akbari-Adergani, Behrouz; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2015-07-15

    In the present study, the modification of a polysulfone hollow fiber membrane with in situ molecularly imprinted sol-gel process (as a novel and one-step method) was prepared and investigated. 3-(propylmethacrylate)trimethoxysilane (3PMTMOS) as an inorganic precursor was used for preparation of molecularly imprinted sol-gel. The modified molecularly imprinted sol-gel hollow fiber membrane (MSHM) was used for the liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) of hippuric acid (HA) in human plasma and urine samples. MSHM as a selective, robust, and durable tool was used for at least 50 extractions without significant decrease in the extraction efficiency. The non-molecularly imprinted sol-gel hollow fiber membrane (NSHM) as blank hollow fiber membrane was prepared by the same process, only without HA. To achieve the best condition, influential parameters on the extraction efficiency were thoroughly investigated. The capability of this robust, green, and simple method for extraction of HA was successfully accomplished with LC/MS/MS. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) in human plasma and urine samples were 0.3 and 1.0nmolL(-1), respectively. The standard calibration curves were obtained within the concentration range 1-2000nmolL(-1) for HA in human plasma and urine. The coefficients of determination (r(2)) were ≥0.998. The obtained data exhibited recoveries were higher than 89% for the extraction of HA in human plasma and urine samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Proposal of new 235U nuclear data to improve keff biases on 235U enrichment and temperature for low enriched uranium fueled lattices moderated by light water

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, H; 奥村 啓介; 柴田 恵一

    2005-01-01

    The under prediction of keff depending on 235U enrichment in low enriched uranium fueled systems was studied in this report. Benchmark testing was carried out with several evaluated nuclear data files, including the new uranium evaluations from preliminary ENDF/B-VII and CENDL-3.1. Another problem reviewed here was keff underestimation vs. temperature increase, which was observed in the slightly enriched system with recent JENDL and ENDF/B uranium evaluations. Through the substitute analysis ...

  19. A new, highly selective murine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ agonist increases responsiveness to thermogenic stimuli and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngala, R A; Stocker, C J; Roy, A G; Hislop, D; Wargent, E; Bell, R; Hassall, D G; Harling, J D; Billin, A N; Willson, T M; Arch, J R S; Cawthorne, M A

    2011-05-01

    We investigated how GW800644, the first pharmacologically selective murine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) agonist, affects energy balance, glucose homeostasis and fuel utilization by muscle in obese mice. Potencies were determined in transactivation assays. Oral glucose tolerance was determined after 14 and 22 days' administration (10 mg/kg body weight, twice daily) to Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mice. Food intake and energy expenditure were measured during a 26-day experiment, and plasma metabolites and 2-deoxyglucose uptake in vivo at termination. Palmitate oxidation and 2-deoxyglucose uptake by isolated soleus muscles were measured after 14 (in lean and obese mice) and 26 days. GW800644 activated murine PPARδ (EC(50) 2 nM), but caused little to no activation of PPARα or PPARγ up to 10 µM. It did not increase liver weight. GW800644 reduced food intake and body weight in obese mice after 8 days. It did not affect resting energy expenditure, but, compared to pair-fed mice, it increased the response to a β(3)-adrenoceptor agonist. It improved glucose tolerance. GW800644, but not pair-feeding, reduced plasma glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations. It increased 2-deoxyglucose uptake in vivo in adipose tissue, soleus muscle, heart, brain and liver, and doubled 2-deoxyglucose uptake and palmitate oxidation in isolated soleus muscle from obese but not lean mice. PPARδ agonism reduced food intake and independently elicited metabolic effects that included increased responsiveness to β(3)-adrenoceptor stimulation, increased glucose utilization and fat oxidation in soleus muscle of Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) but not lean mice and increased glucose utilization in vivo in Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Antibody responses to sheep red blood cell and Brucella abortus antigens in a turkey line selected for increased body weight and its randombred control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Nestor, K E; Saif, Y M; Anderson, J W

    2000-06-01

    Turkeys from a randombred control line (RBC2) and its subline (F) selected for increased 16-wk BW were tested for primary and secondary antibody responses to SRBC antigen and Brucella abortus antigen (BA). Previous studies have shown that the F line was more susceptible to Pasteurella multocida and Newcastle disease virus than was the RBC2 line. Individuals from the RBC2 and F lines were intravenously injected with 1 mL 5% SRBC antigen or 0.1 mL undiluted BA at 4 and 6 wk of age; blood samples were collected at 0, 4, 7, and 10 d post-immunization. Total, IgG, and IgM titers were measured by agglutination assays. Compared with the RBC2 line, the F line had generally higher total anti-SRBC titers; the differences were significant at 14 d postprimary immunization (PPI) (females); at 10 d postsecondary immunization (PSI) (males); and 4, 7, and 10 d PSI (females) (P response to BA in males, the F line had lower total and IgM titers at 10 d PPI (P response to the BA were found in total and IgM titers in female turkeys or in IgG titers in both sexes at any time. These results suggest that selection for fast growth rate of turkeys might have resulted in changes in humoral immunity to the SRBC antigen and BA.

  1. Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Haiqing

    2011-11-15

    The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions

  2. Maternal Use of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Lengthening of the Umbilical Cord: Indirect Evidence of Increased Foetal Activity-A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kivistö

    Full Text Available Antenatal depression affects up to 19% of pregnant women. Some of these women are also in need of antidepressant treatment. Nevertheless, the impact of maternal antidepressant treatment and prenatal depression on the course of pregnancy, foetal development and delivery outcomes is not fully understood.We analysed data from 24 818 women who gave birth at Kuopio University Hospital between 2002-2012. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations between the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs during pregnancy and the progression of pregnancy, development of the foetus and delivery outcomes.Altogether, 369 (1.5% women used SSRIs. A regression model adjusted for age, overweight, nulliparity, prior termination, miscarriages, smoking, maternal alcohol consumption, chronic illness and polyhydramnion showed that pregnant women exposed to SSRI medication had significantly lower Apgar scores at 1 minute (p < 0.0001 and 5 minutes (p < 0.0001 and more admissions to the neonatal intensive care unit (p < 0.0001 than unexposed pregnant women. In addition, exposed newborns had longer umbilical cords (p < 0.0001 than non-exposed newborns.In addition to the previously known associates with maternal SSRI exposure, such as lowered Apgar scores, SSRI exposure appeared to be associated with increased umbilical cord length. The observation related to increased umbilical cord length may be explained by an SSRI-induced increase in the movements of the developing foetus.

  3. Scoring functions and enrichment: a case study on Hsp90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell John BO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for fast and accurate scoring functions has been driven by the increased use of in silico virtual screening twinned with high-throughput screening as a method to rapidly identify potential candidates in the early stages of drug development. We examine the ability of some the most common scoring functions (GOLD, ChemScore, DOCK, PMF, BLEEP and Consensus to discriminate correctly and efficiently between active and non-active compounds among a library of ~3,600 diverse decoy compounds in a virtual screening experiment against heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90. Results Firstly, we investigated two ranking methodologies, GOLDrank and BestScorerank. GOLDrank is based on ranks generated using GOLD. The various scoring functions, GOLD, ChemScore, DOCK, PMF, BLEEP and Consensus, are applied to the pose ranked number one by GOLD for that ligand. BestScorerank uses multiple poses for each ligand and independently chooses the best ranked pose of the ligand according to each different scoring function. Secondly, we considered the effect of introducing the Thr184 hydrogen bond tether to guide the docking process towards a particular solution, and its effect on enrichment. Thirdly, we considered normalisation to account for the known bias of scoring functions to select larger molecules. All the scoring functions gave fairly similar enrichments, with the exception of PMF which was consistently the poorest performer. In most cases, GOLD was marginally the best performing individual function; the Consensus score usually performed similarly to the best single scoring function. Our best results were obtained using the Thr184 tether in combination with the BestScorerank protocol and normalisation for molecular weight. For that particular combination, DOCK was the best individual function; DOCK recovered 90% of the actives in the top 10% of the ranked list; Consensus similarly recovered 89% of the actives in its top 10%. Conclusion Overall, we

  4. Subfilter Scale Modelling for Large Eddy Simulation of Lean Hydrogen-Enriched Turbulent Premixed Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Perez, Francisco Emanuel

    Hydrogen (H2) enrichment of hydrocarbon fuels in lean premixed systems is desirable since it can lead to a progressive reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions, while paving the way towards pure hydrogen combustion. In recent decades, large-eddy simulation (LES) has emerged as a promising tool to computationally describe and represent turbulent combustion processes. However, a considerable complication of LES for turbulent premixed combustion is that chemical reactions occur in a thin reacting layer at small scales which cannot be entirely resolved on computational grids and need to be modelled. In this thesis, subfilter-scale (SFS) modelling for LES of lean H 2-enriched methane-air turbulent premixed combustion was investigated. Two- and three-dimensional fully-compressible LES solvers for a thermally perfect reactive mixture of gases were developed and systematically validated. Two modelling strategies for the chemistry-turbulence interaction were pursued: the artificially thickened flame model with a power-law SFS wrinkling approach and the presumed conditional moment (PCM) coupled with the flame prolongation of intrinsic low-dimensional manifold (FPI) chemistry tabulation technique. Freely propagating and Bunsen-type flames corresponding to stoichiometric and lean premixed mixtures were considered. Validation of the LES solvers was carried out by comparing predicted solutions with experimental data and other published numerical results. Head-to-head comparisons of different SFS approaches, including a transported flame surface density (FSD) model, allowed to identify weaknesses and strengths of the various models. Based on the predictive capabilities of the models examined, the PCM-FPI model was selected for the study of hydrogen-enrichment of methane. A new progress of reaction variable was proposed to account for NO. The importance of transporting species with different diffusion coefficients was demonstrated, in particular for H2. The proposed approach was

  5. Phytoplankton responses to aluminum enrichment in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linbin; Liu, Jiaxing; Xing, Shuai; Tan, Yehui; Huang, Liangmin

    2017-09-22

    Compared to extensive studies reporting the aluminum (Al) toxicity to terrestrial plants and freshwater organisms, very little is known about how marine phytoplankton responds to Al in the field. Here we report the marine phytoplankton responses to Al enrichment in the South China Sea (SCS) using on-deck bottle incubation experiments during eight cruises from May 2010 to November 2013. Generally, Al addition alone enhanced the growth of diatom and Trichodesmium, and nitrogen fixation, but it inhibited the growth of dinoflagellates and Synechococcus. Nevertheless, Al addition alone did not influence the chlorophyll a concentration of the entire phytoplankton assemblages. By adding nitrate and phosphate simultaneously, Al enrichment led to substantial increases in chlorophyll a concentration (especially that of the picophytoplankton<3μm), and cell abundances of diatom and photosynthetic picoeukaryotes. These results indicate varied responses of phytoplankton in different size fractions and taxonomic groups to Al enrichment. Further, by simultaneously adding different macronutrients and/or sufficient trace metals including iron, we found that the phytoplankton responses to Al enrichment were relevant to nutrients coexisting in the environment. Al enrichment may give some phytoplankton a competitive edge over using nutrients, especially the limited ones. The possible influences of Al on the competitors and grazers (predators) of some phytoplankton might indirectly contribute to the positive responses of the phytoplankton to Al enrichment. Our results indicate that Al may influence marine carbon cycle by impacting phytoplankton growth and structure in natural seawater. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Recovery of Three Arctic Stream Reaches From Experimental Nutrient Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A. C.; Benstead, J. P.; Deegan, L. A.; Peterson, B. J.; Bowden, W. B.; Huryn, A. D.; Slavik, K.; Hershey, A. E.

    2005-05-01

    We examined multi-year patterns in community recovery from experimental low-concentration nutrient (N+P and P only) enrichment in three reaches of two Arctic tundra streams (Kuparuk River and Oksrukuyik Creek) on the North Slope of Alaska (USA). Rates of recovery varied among community components and depended on duration of enrichment (2 to 13 consecutive growing seasons). Biomass and C:P ratio of epilithic algae returned to reference levels rapidly (within 2 years), regardless of enrichment duration. Bryophyte cover, which increased greatly after long-term enrichment (>8 years), recovered to reference levels only after 7 years, when a storm scoured most remnant moss in the recovering reach. Persistence of bryophytes slowed recovery rates of insect taxa that had either been positively (e.g., Ephemerella, most chironomid taxa) or negatively (e.g., Orthocladius rivulorum) affected by this shift in dominant primary producer and its consequence for benthic habitat. Growth of Arctic grayling (adults and young-of-year), the top predator, returned to reference rates within two years. Recovery of these Arctic stream ecosystems from nutrient enrichment was consequently controlled largely by interactions between duration of enrichment and physical disturbance, mediated through physical habitat shifts caused by bryophytes.

  7. Initial nitrogen enrichment conditions determines variations in nitrogen substrate utilization by heterotrophic bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Suchismita; Ayayee, Paul A; Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar J; Blackwood, Christopher B; Royer, Todd V; Leff, Laura G

    2017-04-04

    The nitrogen (N) cycle consists of complex microbe-mediated transformations driven by a variety of factors, including diversity and concentrations of N compounds. In this study, we examined taxonomic diversity and N substrate utilization by heterotrophic bacteria isolated from streams under complex and simple N-enrichment conditions. Diversity estimates differed among isolates from the enrichments, but no significant composition were detected. Substrate utilization and substrate range of bacterial assemblages differed within and among enrichments types, and not simply between simple and complex N-enrichments. N substrate use patterns differed between isolates from some complex and simple N-enrichments while others were unexpectedly similar. Taxonomic composition of isolates did not differ among enrichments and was unrelated to N use suggesting strong functional redundancy. Ultimately, our results imply that the available N pool influences physiology and selects for bacteria with various abilities that are unrelated to their taxonomic affiliation.

  8. Enrichment options for African painted dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Tammy L; Packard, Jane M

    2014-01-01

    Best practices for carnivore enrichment encourage the diversity of species-typical behaviors, increased activity, and reduced stereotypic behavior; ideally considering the life-history and behavior of each species. African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), or painted dogs, are social carnivores that have large home ranges and complex pack dynamics (e.g., variation in group size, relatedness, etc.). As there are relatively few studies on painted dog enrichment, the goal of this study was to compile a list of enrichment options used by institutions participating in the species survival plan (SSP). Representatives were asked to describe social groups (n = 45), enclosures (n = 21), enrichment practices (options, delivery frequency, perceived success), and overall best practices. Respondents (61%, n = 23) reported using options for all six enrichment categories recommended by the Canid Taxon Advisory Group: environmental enrichment devices, habitat, sensory, food, behavioral, and social. Perceived success was significantly higher for the food category, followed by the sensory and behavioral categories. All respondents reported delivering enrichment at least multiple times a month, and most reported multiple times per week. Enclosure size did not differ significantly for mixed-sex groups (n = 28) compared to single-sex groups (n = 17). We discuss respondents' suggestions for best practices and the need to record data to compare perceived success with actual behavioral effects, controlling for variation in group size and composition. Overall, respondents recommended a flexible approach, since not all painted dogs and groups respond in the same way to the enrichment options. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Enrichment and training improve cognition in rats with cortical malformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle R Jenks

    Full Text Available Children with malformations of cortical development (MCD frequently have associated cognitive impairments which reduce quality of life. We hypothesized that cognitive deficits associated with MCD can be improved with environmental manipulation or additional training. The E17 methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM exposure model bears many anatomical hallmarks seen in human MCDs as well as similar behavioral and cognitive deficits. We divided control and MAM exposed Sprague-Dawley rats into enriched and non-enriched groups and tested performance in the Morris water maze. Another group similarly divided underwent sociability testing and also underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI scans pre and post enrichment. A third group of control and MAM rats without enrichment were trained until they reached criterion on the place avoidance task. MAM rats had impaired performance on spatial tasks and enrichment improved performance of both control and MAM animals. Although MAM rats did not have a deficit in sociability they showed similar improvement with enrichment as controls. MRI revealed a whole brain volume decrease with MAM exposure, and an increase in both MAM and control enriched volumes in comparison to non-enriched animals. In the place avoidance task, MAM rats required approximately 3 times as long to reach criterion as control animals, but with additional training were able to reach control performance. Environmental manipulation and additional training can improve cognition in a rodent MCD model. We therefore suggest that patients with MCD may benefit from appropriate alterations in educational strategies, social interaction and environment. These factors should be considered in therapeutic strategies.

  10. Network-based functional enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirel Christopher L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many methods have been developed to infer and reason about molecular interaction networks. These approaches often yield networks with hundreds or thousands of nodes and up to an order of magnitude more edges. It is often desirable to summarize the biological information in such networks. A very common approach is to use gene function enrichment analysis for this task. A major drawback of this method is that it ignores information about the edges in the network being analyzed, i.e., it treats the network simply as a set of genes. In this paper, we introduce a novel method for functional enrichment that explicitly takes network interactions into account. Results Our approach naturally generalizes Fisher’s exact test, a gene set-based technique. Given a function of interest, we compute the subgraph of the network induced by genes annotated to this function. We use the sequence of sizes of the connected components of this sub-network to estimate its connectivity. We estimate the statistical significance of the connectivity empirically by a permutation test. We present three applications of our method: i determine which functions are enriched in a given network, ii given a network and an interesting sub-network of genes within that network, determine which functions are enriched in the sub-network, and iii given two networks, determine the functions for which the connectivity improves when we merge the second network into the first. Through these applications, we show that our approach is a natural alternative to network clustering algorithms. Conclusions We presented a novel approach to functional enrichment that takes into account the pairwise relationships among genes annotated by a particular function. Each of the three applications discovers highly relevant functions. We used our methods to study biological data from three different organisms. Our results demonstrate the wide applicability of our methods. Our algorithms are

  11. The metallicity of the intracluster medium over cosmic time: further evidence for early enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, Adam B.; Allen, Steven W.; Morris, R. Glenn; Simionescu, Aurora; Urban, Ondrej; Werner, Norbert; Zhuravleva, Irina

    2017-12-01

    We use Chandra X-ray data to measure the metallicity of the intracluster medium (ICM) in 245 massive galaxy clusters selected from X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect surveys, spanning redshifts 0 reflecting enhanced metal production in the lowest entropy gas. Within the cool-core/sharply peaked cluster population, there is a large intrinsic scatter in central metallicity and no overall evolution, indicating significant astrophysical variations in the efficiency of enrichment. The central metallicity in clusters with flat surface brightness profiles is lower, with a smaller intrinsic scatter, but increases towards lower redshifts. Our results are consistent with other recent measurements of ICM metallicity as a function of redshift. They reinforce the picture implied by observations of uniform metal distributions in the outskirts of nearby clusters, in which most of the enrichment of the ICM takes place before cluster formation, with significant later enrichment taking place only in cluster centres, as the stellar populations of the central galaxies evolve.

  12. NEAT : an efficient network enrichment analysis test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signorelli, Mirko; Vinciotti, Veronica; Wit, Ernst C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Network enrichment analysis is a powerful method, which allows to integrate gene enrichment analysis with the information on relationships between genes that is provided by gene networks. Existing tests for network enrichment analysis deal only with undirected networks, they can be

  13. Bupropion Increases Selection of High Effort Activity in Rats Tested on a Progressive Ratio/Chow Feeding Choice Procedure: Implications for Treatment of Effort-Related Motivational Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Patrick A.; Lee, Christie A.; Podurgiel, Samantha J.; Hart, Evan; Yohn, Samantha E.; Jones, Myles; Rowland, Margaret; López-Cruz, Laura; Correa, Mercè

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression and related disorders are characterized by deficits in behavioral activation, exertion of effort, and other psychomotor/motivational dysfunctions. Depressed patients show alterations in effort-related decision making and a bias towards selection of low effort activities. It has been suggested that animal tests of effort-related decision making could be useful as models of motivational dysfunctions seen in psychopathology. Methods: Because clinical studies have suggested that inhibition of catecholamine uptake may be a useful strategy for treatment of effort-related motivational symptoms, the present research assessed the ability of bupropion to increase work output in rats responding on a test of effort-related decision-making (ie, a progressive ratio/chow feeding choice task). With this task, rats can choose between working for a preferred food (high-carbohydrate pellets) by lever pressing on a progressive ratio schedule vs obtaining a less preferred laboratory chow that is freely available in the chamber. Results: Bupropion (10.0–40.0 mg/kg intraperitoneal) significantly increased all measures of progressive ratio lever pressing, but decreased chow intake. These effects were greatest in animals with low baseline levels of work output on the progressive ratio schedule. Because accumbens dopamine is implicated in effort-related processes, the effects of bupropion on markers of accumbens dopamine transmission were examined. Bupropion elevated extracellular dopamine levels in accumbens core as measured by microdialysis and increased phosphorylated dopamine and cyclic-AMP related phosphoprotein 32 kDaltons (pDARPP-32) immunoreactivity in a manner consistent with D1 and D2 receptor stimulation. Conclusion: The ability of bupropion to increase exertion of effort in instrumental behavior may have implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of effort-related motivational symptoms in humans. PMID:25575584

  14. Work-family enrichment and psychological health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameeta Jaga

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This study examines the beneficial aspects of the interface between work and family and its relationships with psychological health from a positive psychology perspective.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether work-family enrichment helps to predict psychological health, specifically increased subjective well-being and decreased feelings of emotional exhaustion and depression.Motivation for the study: The burgeoning literature on the work-family interface contains little on the potentially positive benefits of maintaining work and family roles.Research approach, design and method: The authors used a descriptive research design. Employees in two national organisations in the financial retail and logistics industries completed a self-administered survey questionnaire. The authors analysed responses from those who reported both family and work responsibilities (N = 160.Main findings: Consistent with previous research, factor analysis revealed two distinct directions of work-family enrichment: from work to family (W2FE and from family to work (F2WE. Multiple regression analysis showed that F2WE explained a significant proportion of the variance in subjective wellbeing, whilst W2FE explained a significant proportion of the variance in depression and emotional exhaustion.Practical/managerial implications: The findings of this study revealed the individual and organisational benefits of fostering work-family enrichment. Contributions/value add: This study presents empirical evidence for the need to focus on the positive aspects of the work-family interface, provides further support for a positive organisational psychology perspective in organisations and hopefully will encourage further research on interventions in organisations and families.

  15. Cheese bread enriched with biofortified cowpea flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barbosa Monteiro Cavalcante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development and enrichment of food are of great importance not only for the industry but also to improve the population's nutrition, where you can create new products or optimize existing ones. The consumption of fortified products in the diet is an option for the control of deficiency diseases. This study aimed to develop enriched cheese bread with whole biofortified cowpea flour and evaluate their acceptance and chemical composition. Two formulations, F1 and F2, were prepared containing 5.6 and 8% of cowpea flour as a substitute for starch, respectively. To check acceptance, three sensory tests were used (Hedonic Scale, Purchase Intent, and Paired Comparison, F1 being sensory viable according to assessors, being chemically analyzed. Minerals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source. The moisture was determined by drying at 105 °C, ash by calcination in muffle at 550 °C, proteins by the macro-Kjeldahl method, and lipids by hot extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. Carbohydrates were obtained by difference and the calories were calculated. The addition of cowpea increased the amounts of copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, as well as protein and carbohydrate values. On the other hand, there was a reduction of the moisture concerning lipids and the total caloric value compared to the standard formulation. It was concluded , therefore, that the cowpea, a regional raw material in market expansion is presented as an option for the enrichment of baked foods that do not contain gluten, such as cheese bread.

  16. Modeling Profiles and Signatures of Enrichments

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    Ali, A.; Qualls, C.; Lucas, S. G.; Lombari, G.; Appenzeller, O.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic and geochemical enrichment of soils and living matter have been well documented 1, 2, 3.Here we report on geochemical, anthropogenic and biological enrichments with heavy metals in Modern Peru and compared this to Modern and ancient data from New Mexico, USA. We established a signature derived from the quantities of 25 metals in various biological, fossil and soil materials. We also speculate that human adaptation to mercury toxicity may occur in remarkably short time spans during the Holocene. We found mercury concentrations in Modern pigeon feathers and llama wool from free foraging birds and animals in Albuquerque, NM, ranging from 0.006 to 0.019 mg/Kg of tissue. The values for Modern Peru ranged from 22.0 to 556 mg/Kg for the same tissues. We discovered, in 64 million-year-old fossilized plants from New Mexico (Paleocene Nacimiento Formation, San Juan Basin), a mercury concentration of 1.11 mg/Kg of fossil, whereas Modern plant material from the Rio Grande Basin in New Mexico contained no mercury. Profiling of metal content of these samples suggests that mercury is a proxy for anthropogenic rather than geochemical enrichment in the localities we examined. We found no overt signs of mercury toxicity in contemporaneous inhabitants of Huancavelica4, Peru; one of the ten most mercury-polluted places in the world and the mercury concentration in their hair is well below modern admissible levels. However, assessment of their annual scalp hair growth-rate showed marked reduction in growth (~ 5cm/yr) versus ~ 16cm/year for normal scalp hair from other continents4. This is consistent with a toxic effect of heavy metals on human metabolism and especially autonomic nervous system function in Huancavelica, Peru. Contemporaneous anthropogenic activities are known to increase heavy metal content in the biosphere with potentially toxic effects on humans. However, signs of human evolutionary adaptation to such toxins might already be evident in Peru4.

  17. Increased Urine IgM and IgG2 Levels, Indicating Decreased Glomerular Size Selectivity, Are Not Affected by Dalteparin Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Ole Torffvit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-four type 2 diabetic patients with neuroischemic foot ulcers were randomised to treatment with 5000 IU of dalteparin, (n=28, or physiological saline, (n=26, once daily until ulcer healing or for a maximum of 6 months. Thirty-three patients had normo-, 15 micro-, and 6 macroalbuminuria. The urinary levels of IgM and IgG2 were elevated in 47 and 50 patients, respectively. Elevated urinary levels of IgM and IgG2 indicate decreased glomerular size selectivity. Urine IgM levels were associated with IGF-1/IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-1 levels. Dalteparin treatment increased urinary levels of glycosaminoglycans (P<0.001 and serum IGFBP-1 (P<0.05 while no significant effects were seen in any of the other studied parameters. In conclusion, dalteparin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes had no effects on urinary levels of albumin, IgM, or IgG2 despite significantly increased glycosaminoglycans in urine. Elevated urinary levels of IgM and IgG2 might be more sensitive markers of renal disease than albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes and antihypertensive therapy.

  18. NSAID use selectively increases the risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction: a systematic review of randomised trials and observational studies.

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    Luis Alberto García Rodríguez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials and observational studies have reported increased coronary events associated with non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. There appeared to be a disproportionate increase in non-fatal versus fatal events, however, numbers of fatal events in individual studies were too small, and event rates too low, to be meaningful.We undertook a pooled analysis to investigate the effect of NSAIDs on myocardial infarction (MI risk with the specific aim to differentiate non-fatal from fatal events.We searched Pubmed (January, 1990 to March, 2010 for observational studies and randomised controlled trials that assessed the effect of NSAIDs (traditional or selective COX-2 inhibitors [coxibs] on MI incidence separately for fatal and non-fatal events. Summary estimates of relative risk (RR for non-fatal and fatal MIs were calculated with a random effects model.NSAID therapy carried a RR of 1.30 (95% CI, 1.20-1.41 for non-fatal MI with no effect on fatal MI (RR 1.02, 95% CI, 0.89-1.17 in six observational studies. Overall, the risk increase for non-fatal MI was 25% higher (95% CI, 11%-42% than for fatal MI. The two studies that included only individuals with prior cardiovascular disease presented risk estimates for non-fatal MI on average 58% greater (95% CI, 26%-98% than those for fatal MI. In nine randomised controlled trials, all investigating coxibs, the pooled RR estimate for non-fatal MI was 1.61 (95% CI, 1.04-2.50 and 0.86 (95% CI 0.51-1.47 for fatal MIs.NSAID use increases the risk of non-fatal MI with no substantial effect on fatal events. Such differential effects, with potentially distinct underlying pathology may provide insights into NSAID-induced coronary pathology. We studied the association between the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI, separating non-fatal from fatal events, summarizing the evidence from both observational studies and randomised controlled trials

  19. Enriching Orphans’ Potentials through Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Intelligence Enrichment Activities

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    Nurulwahida Hj Azid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orphans are considered a minority and they should be given a greater emphasis so that they do not feel left out and can build their own lives without a sense of humility. This does not mean that the orphans should be pampered instead they should be given the confidence and motivation to strive for success in later life. Humility among orphans can be associated with interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of problem-solving activity treatment based on the interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. 46 students from two orphanages were involved as the treatment group. The research design used was a one-group pretest-posttest design applied through a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Enrichment activities that provided interpersonal and intrapersonal skills as evidenced in this study should be carried out regularly at orphanages. Our study has proven that orphans‟ rights to learn cannot be neglected and „no child left behind „policy needs to be carried through by everybody involved with orphans‟ well-being. Teachers and carers need to be trained to use these enrichment activities at their orphanages to help maximize the orphans‟ potentials.

  20. 76 FR 11523 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility.... Craig M. White. In this 10 CFR part 70 proceeding regarding the request of applicant AREVA Enrichment... Safeguards Information for Contention Preparation; In the Matter of AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle...

  1. Auto-regulated exercise selection training regimen produces small increases in lean body mass and maximal strength adaptations in strength-trained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Jacob T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Barakat, Christopher I; Alvarez, Michael R; Brummert, David L; Aube, Daniel W; Barsuhn, Andrew S; Hayes, Daniel; Tricoli, Valmor; De Souza, Eduardo O

    2017-10-07

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of auto-regulatory exercise selection (AES) vs. fixed exercise selection (FES) on muscular adaptations in strength-trained individuals. Seventeen males (Mean ± SD; age = 24 ± 5.45 years; height = 180.3 ± 7.54cm, lean body mass [LBM] 66.44 ± 6.59kg; squat and bench press 1RM: body mass ratio 1.87, 1.38 respectively) were randomly assigned into either AES or FES. Both groups trained three times a week for 9 weeks. AES self-selected the exercises for each session, whereas FES was required to perform exercises in a fixed order. LBM was assessed via DEXA and maximum strength via 1RM testing, pre and post training intervention. Total volume load was significantly higher for AES than for FES (AES: 573,288kg ± 67,505, FES: 464,600 ± 95,595, p=0.0240). For LBM, there was a significant main time effect (p=0.009). However, confidence interval analysis (95%CIdiff) suggested that only AES significantly increased LBM (AES: 2.47%, ES: 0.35, 95% CIdiff [0.030kg: 3.197kg], FES: 1.37 %, ES: 0.21, 95% CIdiff [-0.500kg: 2.475kg]). There was a significant main time effect for maximum strength (p≤0.0001). However, 95% CIdiff suggested that only AES significantly improved Bench-press 1RM (AES: 6.48%, ES: 0.50, 95% CIdiff [0.312kg: 11.42kg; FES: 5.14%, ES: 0.43 95%CIdiff [-0.311kg: 11.42kg]. On the other hand for back squat 1RM similar responses were observed between groups, (AES: 9.55%, ES: 0.76 95% CIdiff [0.04kg: 28.37kg], FES: 11.54%, ES: 0.80, 95%CIdiff [1.8kg: 28.5kg]. Our findings, suggest AES may provide a small advantage in LBM and upper body maximal strength in strength-trained individuals.

  2. Combined inhibition of glycolysis, the pentose cycle, and thioredoxin metabolism selectively increases cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human breast and prostate cancer

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    Ling Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of glycolysis using 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG, 20 mM, 24–48 h combined with inhibition of the pentose cycle using dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 300 µM, 24–48 h increased clonogenic cell killing in both human prostate (PC-3 and DU145 and human breast (MDA-MB231 cancer cells via a mechanism involving thiol-mediated oxidative stress. Surprisingly, when 2DG+DHEA treatment was combined with an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH synthesis (l-buthionine sulfoximine; BSO, 1 mM that depleted GSH>90% of control, no further increase in cell killing was observed during 48 h exposures. In contrast, when an inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR activity (Auranofin; Au, 1 µM, was combined with 2DG+DHEA or DHEA-alone for 24 h, clonogenic cell killing was significantly increased in all three human cancer cell lines. Furthermore, enhanced clonogenic cell killing seen with the combination of DHEA+Au was nearly completely inhibited using the thiol antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 20 mM. Redox Western blot analysis of PC-3 cells also supported the conclusion that thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1 oxidation was enhanced by treatment DHEA+Au and inhibited by NAC. Importantly, normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC were not as sensitive to 2DG, DHEA, and Au combinations as their cancer cell counterparts (MDA-MB-231. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that inhibition of glycolysis and pentose cycle activity, combined with inhibition of Trx metabolism, may provide a promising strategy for selectively sensitizing human cancer cells to oxidative stress-induced cell killing.

  3. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

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    James D Stephenson

    Full Text Available We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration.

  4. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  5. Nanoslit design for ion conductivity gradient enhanced dielectrophoresis for ultrafast biomarker enrichment in physiological media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, Ali; Varhue, Walter; Liao, Kuo-Tang; Chou, Chia-Fu; Swami, Nathan S

    2016-05-01

    Selective and rapid enrichment of biomolecules is of great interest for biomarker discovery, protein crystallization, and in biosensing for speeding assay kinetics and reducing signal interferences. The current state of the art is based on DC electrokinetics, wherein localized ion depletion at the microchannel to nanochannel interface is used to enhance electric fields, and the resulting biomarker electromigration is balanced against electro-osmosis in the microchannel to cause high degrees of biomarker enrichment. However, biomarker enrichment is not selective, and the levels fall off within physiological media of high conductivity, due to a reduction in ion concentration polarization and electro-osmosis effects. Herein, we present a methodology for coupling AC electrokinetics with ion concentration polarization effects in nanoslits under DC fields, for enabling ultrafast biomarker enrichment in physiological media. Using AC fields at the critical frequency necessary for negative dielectrophoresis of the biomarker of interest, along with a critical offset DC field to create proximal ion accumulation and depletion regions along the perm-selective region inside a nanoslit, we enhance the localized field and field gradient to enable biomarker enrichment over a wide spatial extent along the nanoslit length. While enrichment under DC electrokinetics relies solely on ion depletion to enhance fields, this AC electrokinetic mechanism utilizes ion depletion as well as ion accumulation regions to enhance the field and its gradient. Hence, biomarker enrichment continues to be substantial in spite of the steady drop in nanostructure perm-selectivity within physiological media.

  6. DNA enrichment approaches to identify unauthorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulandhu, Alfred J; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Dobnik, David; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Shi, Jianxin; Zel, Jana; Kok, Esther J

    2016-07-01

    With the increased global production of different genetically modified (GM) plant varieties, chances increase that unauthorized GM organisms (UGMOs) may enter the food chain. At the same time, the detection of UGMOs is a challenging task because of the limited sequence information that will generally be available. PCR-based methods are available to detect and quantify known UGMOs in specific cases. If this approach is not feasible, DNA enrichment of the unknown adjacent sequences of known GMO elements is one way to detect the presence of UGMOs in a food or feed product. These enrichment approaches are also known as chromosome walking or gene walking (GW). In recent years, enrichment approaches have been coupled with next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis and implemented in, amongst others, the medical and microbiological fields. The present review will provide an overview of these approaches and an evaluation of their applicability in the identification of UGMOs in complex food or feed samples.

  7. Behavioral Effects of Enrichment and Nicotine in Male Sprague Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    activity, increased habituation to a novel environment, decreased voluntary exercise. Rats in the physically-enriched group had increased voluntary ... voluntary exercise. Environmental enrichment prolonged nicotine’s effects through nicotine cessation. Enrichment’s effects on body weight could not...68 Euthanasia ................................................................................................... 68 DATA ANALYTIC STRATEGY FOR

  8. Effect of Se-enriched Organic Fertilizers on Selenium Accumulation in Corn and Soil

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    LI Sheng-nan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two Se-enriched organic fertilizers (cow dung and rice straw biochar on selenium accumulation of corn growing in selenium deficient soil was studied with pot experiment. The results showed that corn accumulated more selenium and the selenium was much easier to convert from root to shoot in the corn plant with the application of Se-enriched cow dung than Se-enriched rice straw biochar. With the application of more organic fertilizer such as 25 t·hm-2 Se-enriched cow dung or 40 t·hm-2 Se-enriched rice straw biochar, the accumulation of selenium and growth status of corn were getting better than the other treatments. At the same time, as the application amount of Se-enriched organic fertilizers (cow dung and rice straw biochar increased, the total selenium content in the soil also increased, which positively correlated with each other.

  9. Behavioral Effects of an Enhanced Enrichment Program for Group-Housed Sooty Mangabeys (Cercocebus atys)

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