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Sample records for enrichment enables quantitative

  1. SCRY: Enabling quantitative reasoning in SPARQL queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, A.; Stringer, Bas; Loizou, Antonis; Abeln, Sanne; Heringa, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    The inability to include quantitative reasoning in SPARQL queries slows down the application of Semantic Web technology in the life sciences. SCRY, our SPARQL compatible service layer, improves this by executing services at query time and making their outputs query-accessible, generating RDF data on

  2. Informatics methods to enable sharing of quantitative imaging research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Mia A; Freymann, John B; Kirby, Justin S; Fedorov, Andriy; Fennessy, Fiona M; Eschrich, Steven A; Berglund, Anders E; Fenstermacher, David A; Tan, Yongqiang; Guo, Xiaotao; Casavant, Thomas L; Brown, Bartley J; Braun, Terry A; Dekker, Andre; Roelofs, Erik; Mountz, James M; Boada, Fernando; Laymon, Charles; Oborski, Matt; Rubin, Daniel L

    2012-11-01

    The National Cancer Institute Quantitative Research Network (QIN) is a collaborative research network whose goal is to share data, algorithms and research tools to accelerate quantitative imaging research. A challenge is the variability in tools and analysis platforms used in quantitative imaging. Our goal was to understand the extent of this variation and to develop an approach to enable sharing data and to promote reuse of quantitative imaging data in the community. We performed a survey of the current tools in use by the QIN member sites for representation and storage of their QIN research data including images, image meta-data and clinical data. We identified existing systems and standards for data sharing and their gaps for the QIN use case. We then proposed a system architecture to enable data sharing and collaborative experimentation within the QIN. There are a variety of tools currently used by each QIN institution. We developed a general information system architecture to support the QIN goals. We also describe the remaining architecture gaps we are developing to enable members to share research images and image meta-data across the network. As a research network, the QIN will stimulate quantitative imaging research by pooling data, algorithms and research tools. However, there are gaps in current functional requirements that will need to be met by future informatics development. Special attention must be given to the technical requirements needed to translate these methods into the clinical research workflow to enable validation and qualification of these novel imaging biomarkers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of glycoproteins combined with enrichment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yeong Hee; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has been a core technology for high sensitive and high-throughput analysis of the enriched glycoproteome in aspects of quantitative assays as well as qualitative profiling of glycoproteins. Because it has been widely recognized that aberrant glycosylation in a glycoprotein may involve in progression of a certain disease, the development of efficient analysis tool for the aberrant glycoproteins is very important for deep understanding about pathological function of the glycoprotein and new biomarker development. This review first describes the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies mainly employing solid-phase extraction methods such as hydrizide-capturing, lectin-specific capturing, and affinity separation techniques based on porous graphitized carbon, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, or immobilized boronic acid. Second, MS-based quantitative analysis strategies coupled with the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies, by using a label-free MS, stable isotope-labeling, or targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS, are summarized with recent published studies. © 2014 The Authors. Mass Spectrometry Reviews Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Aptamer based peptide enrichment for quantitative analysis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, S L; Cawley, A T; Cavicchioli, R; Suann, C J; Pickford, R; Raftery, M J

    2016-04-01

    Over recent years threats to racing have expanded to include naturally occurring biological molecules, such as peptides and proteins, and their synthetic analogues. Traditionally, antibodies have been used to enable detection of these compounds as they allow purification and concentration of the analyte of interest. The rapid expansion of peptide-based therapeutics necessitates a similarly rapid development of suitable antibodies or other means of enrichment. Potential alternative enrichment strategies include the use of aptamers, which offer the significant advantage of chemical synthesis once the nucleic acid sequence is known. A method was developed for the enrichment, detection and quantitation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in equine urine using aptamer-based enrichment and LC-MS/MS. The method achieved comparable limits of detection (1 pg/mL) and quantification (2.5 pg/mL) to previously published antibody-based enrichment methods. The intra- and inter-assay precision achieved was less than 10% at both 5 and 20 pg/mL, and displayed a working dynamic range of 2.5-100 pg/mL. Significant matrix enhancement (170 ± 8%) and low analytical recovery (29 ± 15%) was observed, although the use of an isotopically heavy labelled GnRH peptide, GnRH (Pro(13)C5,(15)N), as the internal standard provides compensation for these parameters. Within the current limits of detection GnRH was detectable up to 1h post administration in urine and identification of a urinary catabolite extended this detection window to 4h. Based on the results of this preliminary investigation we propose the use of aptamers as a viable alternative to antibodies in the enrichment of peptide targets from equine urine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Centrifugal partition chromatography enables selective enrichment of trimeric and tetrameric proanthocyanidins for biomaterial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phansalkar, Rasika S; Nam, Joo-Won; Chen, Shao-Nong; McAlpine, James B; Leme, Ariene A; Aydin, Berdan; Bedran-Russo, Ana-Karina; Pauli, Guido F

    2018-02-02

    Proanthocyanidins (PACs) find wide applications for human use including food, cosmetics, dietary supplements, and pharmaceuticals. The chemical complexity associated with PACs has triggered the development of various chromatographic techniques, with countercurrent separation (CCS) gaining in popularity. This study applied the recently developed DESIGNER (Depletion and Enrichment of Select Ingredients Generating Normalized Extract Resources) approach for the selective enrichment of trimeric and tetrameric PACs using centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). This CPC method aims at developing PAC based biomaterials, particularly for their application in restoring and repairing dental hard tissue. A general separation scheme beginning with the depletion of polymeric PACs, followed by the removal of monomeric flavan-3-ols and a final enrichment step produced PAC trimer and tetramer enriched fractions. A successful application of this separation scheme is demonstrated for four polyphenol rich plant sources: grape seeds, pine bark, cinnamon bark, and cocoa seeds. Minor modifications to the generic DESIGNER CCS method were sufficient to accommodate the varying chemical complexities of the individual source materials. The step-wise enrichment of PAC trimers and tetramers was monitored using normal phase TLC and Diol-HPLC-UV analyses. CPC proved to be a reliable tool for the selective enrichment of medium size oligomeric PACs (OPACs). This method plays a key role in the development of dental biomaterials considering its reliability and reproducibility, as well as its scale-up capabilities for possible larger-scale manufacturing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Toward quantitative prediction of charge mobility in organic semiconductors: tunneling enabled hopping model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Hua; Peng, Qian; Wang, Linjun; Li, Haijiao; Liao, Yi; Ma, Zhiying; Shuai, Zhigang

    2012-07-10

    A tunneling-enabled hopping mechanism is proposed, providing a pratical tool to quantitatively assess charge mobility in organic semiconductors. The paradoxical phenomena in TIPS-pentacene is well explained in that the optical probe indicates localized charges while transport measurements show bands of charge. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Hammond Postulate Mirroring Enables Enantiomeric Enrichment of Phosphorus Compounds via Two Thermodynamically Interconnected Sequential Stereoselective Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Kamalraj V; Nikitin, Kirill V; Gilheany, Declan G

    2015-07-29

    The dynamic resolution of tertiary phosphines and phosphine oxides was monitored by NMR spectroscopy. It was found that the stereoselectivity is set during the formation of the diastereomeric alkoxyphosphonium salts (DAPS), such that their initial diastereomeric excess (de) limits the final enantiomeric excess (ee) of any phosphorus products derived from them. However, (31)P NMR monitoring of the spontaneous thermal decomposition of the DAPS shows consistent diastereomeric self-enrichment, indicating a higher rate constant for decomposition of the minor diastereomer. This crucial observation was confirmed by reductive trapping of the unreacted enriched DAPS with lithium tri-sec-butylborohydride (commercially distributed as L-Selectride reagent) at different time intervals after the start of reaction, which gives progressively higher ee of the phosphine product with time. It is proposed that the Hammond postulate operates for both formation and decomposition of DAPS intermediate so that the lower rate of formation and faster subsequent collapse of the minor isomer are thermodynamically linked. This kinetic enhancement of kinetic resolution furnishes up to 97% ee product.

  8. Mitochondrial capture enriches mito-DNA 100 fold, enabling PCR-free mitogenomics biodiversity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Shanlin; Wang, Xin; Xie, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity analyses based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms have developed by leaps and bounds in recent years. A PCR-free strategy, which can alleviate taxonomic bias, was considered as a promising approach to delivering reliable species compositions of targeted environments...... data is highly demanding on computing resources. Here, we present a mitogenome enrichment pipeline via a gene capture chip that was designed by virtue of the mitogenome sequences of the 1000 Insect Transcriptome Evolution project (1KITE, www.1kite.org). A mock sample containing 49 species was used...... in abundance. However, the frequencies of input taxa were largely maintained after capture (R2 = 0.81). We suggest that our mitogenome capture approach coupled with PCR-free shotgun sequencing could provide ecological researchers an efficient NGS method to deliver reliable biodiversity assessment....

  9. Quantitative Secretome Analysis of Activated Jurkat Cells Using Click Chemistry-Based Enrichment of Secreted Glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzke, Kathrin E; Rosowski, Kristin; Müller, Christian; Ahrens, Maike; Eisenacher, Martin; Megger, Dominik A; Knobloch, Jürgen; Koch, Andrea; Bracht, Thilo; Sitek, Barbara

    2017-01-06

    Quantitative secretome analyses are a high-performance tool for the discovery of physiological and pathophysiological changes in cellular processes. However, serum supplements in cell culture media limit secretome analyses, but serum depletion often leads to cell starvation and consequently biased results. To overcome these limiting factors, we investigated a model of T cell activation (Jurkat cells) and performed an approach for the selective enrichment of secreted proteins from conditioned medium utilizing metabolic marking of newly synthesized glycoproteins. Marked glycoproteins were labeled via bioorthogonal click chemistry and isolated by affinity purification. We assessed two labeling compounds conjugated with either biotin or desthiobiotin and the respective secretome fractions. 356 proteins were quantified using the biotin probe and 463 using desthiobiotin. 59 proteins were found differentially abundant (adjusted p-value ≤0.05, absolute fold change ≥1.5) between inactive and activated T cells using the biotin method and 86 using the desthiobiotin approach, with 31 mutual proteins cross-verified by independent experiments. Moreover, we analyzed the cellular proteome of the same model to demonstrate the benefit of secretome analyses and provide comprehensive data sets of both. 336 proteins (61.3%) were quantified exclusively in the secretome. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004280.

  10. Dendrite-free Li metal anode enabled by a 3D free-standing lithiophilic nitrogen-enriched carbon sponge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Guangmei; Ren, Xiaohua; Ma, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Le; Zhai, Wei; Ai, Qing; Xu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Lin; Si, Pengchao; Feng, Jinkui; Ding, Fei; Ci, Lijie

    2018-05-01

    Lithium metal is considered as the ultimate anode material for high-energy Li battery systems. However, the commercial application of lithium anode is impeded by issues with safety and low coulombic efficiency induced by Li dendrite growth. Herein, a free-standing three-dimensional nitrogen-enriched graphitic carbon sponge with a high nitrogen content is proposed as a multifunctional current collect for Lithium accommodation. The abundant lithiophilic N-containing functional groups are served as preferred nucleation sites to guide a uniform Li deposition. In addition, the nitrogen-enriched graphitic carbon sponge with a high specific surface area can effectively reduce the local current density. As a result of the synergistic effect, the nitrogen-enriched graphitic carbon sponge electrode realizes a long-term stable cycling without dendrites formation. Notably, the as-obtained composite electrode can deliver an ultra-high specific capacity of ∼3175 mA h g-1. The nitrogen-enriched graphitic carbon sponge might provide innovative insights to design a superior matrix for dendrite-free Li anode.

  11. Real Time Control of CO2 Enrichment Experiments on the Sea Floor Enabled by the MARS Cabled Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, P. G.; Mbari Foce Team

    2010-12-01

    We report on progress on FOCE (Free Ocean CO2 Enrichment) techniques designed to accomplish realistic (that is not contained within land-based aquaria) experiments on the response of deep-sea animals and biogeochemical cycles to ocean acidification. Such experiments have long been carried out on ecosystems on land, and the outcome has differed significantly from CO2 enrichment in enclosed greenhouse systems, thereby undoing much of the hope for an increase in the large-scale biosphere draw down of atmospheric CO2. It is a far bigger step if deep-sea animals and systems are removed from their cold, dark, high pressure and low oxygen native habitat. The equivalent problem in the ocean is far more difficult because of (1) the very different physical forcing; (2) the complex reaction rates between CO2 and water require delay times between addition and entry to the experimental space; (3) the lack of supporting infrastructure and of adequate sensors; and (4) the need for sophisticated and robust control techniques in both hardware and software. We have overcome almost all of these challenges, and related working systems have already been successfully deployed on the Great Barrier Reef coralline flats with Australian colleagues. We have used the MBARI MARS (Monterey Accelerated Research System) cabled observatory to carry out deep-ocean (880m depth) experiments. The basic experimental unit is a 1m x 1m x 50cm chamber with side arms of ~ 3m length to provide the required chemical delay times for the reaction between admixed CO2 enriched sea water and emergence of the flow into the main chamber. Controllable thrusters, operated by user commands, help maintain a steady flow of seawater through the experiment. The site is slightly below the depth of the O2 minimum where small changes in either O2 from ocean warming, or CO2 from ocean acidification can lead to the formation of dead zones. Shallow (near shore) experiments are now also in the late planning stages. We have

  12. SigWin-detector: a Grid-enabled workflow for discovering enriched windows of genomic features related to DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, Márcia A; van Batenburg, Marinus F; Roos, Marco; Belloum, Adam S Z; Vasunin, Dmitry; Wibisono, Adianto; van Kampen, Antoine H C; Breit, Timo M

    2008-08-08

    Chromosome location is often used as a scaffold to organize genomic information in both the living cell and molecular biological research. Thus, ever-increasing amounts of data about genomic features are stored in public databases and can be readily visualized by genome browsers. To perform in silico experimentation conveniently with this genomics data, biologists need tools to process and compare datasets routinely and explore the obtained results interactively. The complexity of such experimentation requires these tools to be based on an e-Science approach, hence generic, modular, and reusable. A virtual laboratory environment with workflows, workflow management systems, and Grid computation are therefore essential. Here we apply an e-Science approach to develop SigWin-detector, a workflow-based tool that can detect significantly enriched windows of (genomic) features in a (DNA) sequence in a fast and reproducible way. For proof-of-principle, we utilize a biological use case to detect regions of increased and decreased gene expression (RIDGEs and anti-RIDGEs) in human transcriptome maps. We improved the original method for RIDGE detection by replacing the costly step of estimation by random sampling with a faster analytical formula for computing the distribution of the null hypothesis being tested and by developing a new algorithm for computing moving medians. SigWin-detector was developed using the WS-VLAM workflow management system and consists of several reusable modules that are linked together in a basic workflow. The configuration of this basic workflow can be adapted to satisfy the requirements of the specific in silico experiment. As we show with the results from analyses in the biological use case on RIDGEs, SigWin-detector is an efficient and reusable Grid-based tool for discovering windows enriched for features of a particular type in any sequence of values. Thus, SigWin-detector provides the proof-of-principle for the modular e-Science based concept

  13. Qualitative Methods Can Enrich Quantitative Research on Occupational Stress: An Example from One Occupational Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Farrell, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The chapter examines the ways in which qualitative and quantitative methods support each other in research on occupational stress. Qualitative methods include eliciting from workers unconstrained descriptions of work experiences, careful first-hand observations of the workplace, and participant-observers describing "from the inside" a…

  14. Fluorescent nanodiamonds enable quantitative tracking of human mesenchymal stem cells in miniature pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Long-Jyun; Wu, Meng-Shiue; Hui, Yuen Yung; Chang, Be-Ming; Pan, Lei; Hsu, Pei-Chen; Chen, Yit-Tsong; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Huang, Yen-Hua; Ling, Thai-Yen; Hsu, Hsao-Hsun; Chang, Huan-Cheng

    2017-03-01

    Cell therapy is a promising strategy for the treatment of human diseases. While the first use of cells for therapeutic purposes can be traced to the 19th century, there has been a lack of general and reliable methods to study the biodistribution and associated pharmacokinetics of transplanted cells in various animal models for preclinical evaluation. Here, we present a new platform using albumin-conjugated fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) as biocompatible and photostable labels for quantitative tracking of human placenta choriodecidual membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (pcMSCs) in miniature pigs by magnetic modulation. With this background-free detection technique and time-gated fluorescence imaging, we have been able to precisely determine the numbers as well as positions of the transplanted FND-labeled pcMSCs in organs and tissues of the miniature pigs after intravenous administration. The method is applicable to single-cell imaging and quantitative tracking of human stem/progenitor cells in rodents and other animal models as well.

  15. Advances in Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging enable quantitative measurement of laterally heterogeneous coatings of nanoscale thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raegen, Adam; Reiter, Kyle; Clarke, Anthony; Lipkowski, Jacek; Dutcher, John

    2013-03-01

    The Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) phenomenon is routinely exploited to qualitatively probe changes to the optical properties of nanoscale coatings on thin metallic surfaces, for use in probes and sensors. Unfortunately, extracting truly quantitative information is usually limited to a select few cases - uniform absorption/desorption of small biomolecules and films, in which a continuous ``slab'' model is a good approximation. We present advancements in the SPR technique that expand the number of cases for which the technique can provide meaningful results. Use of a custom, angle-scanning SPR imaging system, together with a refined data analysis method, allow for quantitative kinetic measurements of laterally heterogeneous systems. We first demonstrate the directionally heterogeneous nature of the SPR phenomenon using a directionally ordered sample, then show how this allows for the calculation of the average coverage of a heterogeneous sample. Finally, the degradation of cellulose microfibrils and bundles of microfibrils due to the action of cellulolytic enzymes will be presented as an excellent example of the capabilities of the SPR imaging system.

  16. Deep Proteomics of Mouse Skeletal Muscle Enables Quantitation of Protein Isoforms, Metabolic Pathways, and Transcription Factors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Atul S.; Murgia, Marta; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Treebak, Jonas T.; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle constitutes 40% of individual body mass and plays vital roles in locomotion and whole-body metabolism. Proteomics of skeletal muscle is challenging because of highly abundant contractile proteins that interfere with detection of regulatory proteins. Using a state-of-the art MS workflow and a strategy to map identifications from the C2C12 cell line model to tissues, we identified a total of 10,218 proteins, including skeletal muscle specific transcription factors like myod1 and myogenin and circadian clock proteins. We obtain absolute abundances for proteins expressed in a muscle cell line and skeletal muscle, which should serve as a valuable resource. Quantitation of protein isoforms of glucose uptake signaling pathways and in glucose and lipid metabolic pathways provides a detailed metabolic map of the cell line compared with tissue. This revealed unexpectedly complex regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin signaling in muscle tissue at the level of enzyme isoforms. PMID:25616865

  17. Characterization and quantitation of concanavalin A binding by plasma membrane enriched fractions from soybean root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, R.L.; Travis, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The binding of concanavalin A (Con A) to soybean root membranes in plasma membrane enriched fractions (recovered from the 34/45% interface of simplified discontinuous sucrose density gradients) was studied using a radiochemical assay employing tritated ( 3 H)-Con A. The effect of lectin concentration, time, and membrane protein concentration on the specific binding of 3 H-Con A by the membranes was evaluated. Kinetic analyses showed that Con A will react with membranes in that fraction in a characteristic and predictable manner. The parameters for an optimal and standard binding assay were established. Maximal binding occurred with Con A concentrations in the range of 8 to 16% of the total membrane protein with incubation times greater than 40 min at 22 C. Approximately 10 15 molecules of 3 H-Con A were bound per microgram of membrane protein at saturation. Binding was reversible. Greater than 92% of the total Con A bound at saturation was released by addition of α-methyl mannoside. A major peak of 3 H-Con A binding was also observed in fractions recovered from the 25/30% interface of a complex discontinuous sucrose density gradient when membranes were isolated in the absence of Mg 2+ . When high Mg 2+ was present in the isolation and gradient media, the peak was shifted to a fraction recovered from the 34/38% sucrose interface. These results suggest that Con A binding sites are also present on membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. The amount of Con A bound by endoplasmic reticulum membranes was at least twice the amount bound by membranes in plasma membrane enriched fractions when binding was compared on a per unit membrane protein basis. In contrast, mitochondrial inner membranes, which equilibrate at the same density as plasma membranes, had little ability to bind the lectin

  18. Quantitative Analyses of Core Promoters Enable Precise Engineering of Regulated Gene Expression in Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ede, Christopher; Chen, Ximin; Lin, Meng-Yin; Chen, Yvonne Y.

    2016-01-01

    Inducible transcription systems play a crucial role in a wide array of synthetic biology circuits. However, the majority of inducible promoters are constructed from a limited set of tried-and-true promoter parts, which are susceptible to common shortcomings such as high basal expression levels (i.e., leakiness). To expand the toolbox for regulated mammalian gene expression and facilitate the construction of mammalian genetic circuits with precise functionality, we quantitatively characterized a panel of eight core promoters, including sequences with mammalian, viral, and synthetic origins. We demonstrate that this selection of core promoters can provide a wide range of basal gene expression levels and achieve a gradient of fold-inductions spanning two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, commonly used parts such as minimal CMV and minimal SV40 promoters were shown to achieve robust gene expression upon induction, but also suffer from high levels of leakiness. In contrast, a synthetic promoter, YB_TATA, was shown to combine low basal expression with high transcription rate in the induced state to achieve significantly higher fold-induction ratios compared to all other promoters tested. These behaviors remain consistent when the promoters are coupled to different genetic outputs and different response elements, as well as across different host-cell types and DNA copy numbers. We apply this quantitative understanding of core promoter properties to the successful engineering of human T cells that respond to antigen stimulation via chimeric antigen receptor signaling specifically under hypoxic environments. Results presented in this study can facilitate the design and calibration of future mammalian synthetic biology systems capable of precisely programmed functionality. PMID:26883397

  19. SigWin-detector: a Grid-enabled workflow for discovering enriched windows of genomic features related to DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibisono Adianto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosome location is often used as a scaffold to organize genomic information in both the living cell and molecular biological research. Thus, ever-increasing amounts of data about genomic features are stored in public databases and can be readily visualized by genome browsers. To perform in silico experimentation conveniently with this genomics data, biologists need tools to process and compare datasets routinely and explore the obtained results interactively. The complexity of such experimentation requires these tools to be based on an e-Science approach, hence generic, modular, and reusable. A virtual laboratory environment with workflows, workflow management systems, and Grid computation are therefore essential. Findings Here we apply an e-Science approach to develop SigWin-detector, a workflow-based tool that can detect significantly enriched windows of (genomic features in a (DNA sequence in a fast and reproducible way. For proof-of-principle, we utilize a biological use case to detect regions of increased and decreased gene expression (RIDGEs and anti-RIDGEs in human transcriptome maps. We improved the original method for RIDGE detection by replacing the costly step of estimation by random sampling with a faster analytical formula for computing the distribution of the null hypothesis being tested and by developing a new algorithm for computing moving medians. SigWin-detector was developed using the WS-VLAM workflow management system and consists of several reusable modules that are linked together in a basic workflow. The configuration of this basic workflow can be adapted to satisfy the requirements of the specific in silico experiment. Conclusion As we show with the results from analyses in the biological use case on RIDGEs, SigWin-detector is an efficient and reusable Grid-based tool for discovering windows enriched for features of a particular type in any sequence of values. Thus, SigWin-detector provides the

  20. Deep proteomics of mouse skeletal muscle enables quantitation of protein isoforms, metabolic pathways, and transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Atul S; Murgia, Marta; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Treebak, Jonas T; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Skeletal muscle constitutes 40% of individual body mass and plays vital roles in locomotion and whole-body metabolism. Proteomics of skeletal muscle is challenging because of highly abundant contractile proteins that interfere with detection of regulatory proteins. Using a state-of-the art MS workflow and a strategy to map identifications from the C2C12 cell line model to tissues, we identified a total of 10,218 proteins, including skeletal muscle specific transcription factors like myod1 and myogenin and circadian clock proteins. We obtain absolute abundances for proteins expressed in a muscle cell line and skeletal muscle, which should serve as a valuable resource. Quantitation of protein isoforms of glucose uptake signaling pathways and in glucose and lipid metabolic pathways provides a detailed metabolic map of the cell line compared with tissue. This revealed unexpectedly complex regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin signaling in muscle tissue at the level of enzyme isoforms. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Enabling Quantitative Optical Imaging for In-die-capable Critical Dimension Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, B.M.; Henn, M.-A.; Sohn, M. Y.; Zhou, H.; Silver, R. M.

    2017-01-01

    Dimensional scaling trends will eventually bring semiconductor critical dimensions (CDs) down to only a few atoms in width. New optical techniques are required to address the measurement and variability for these CDs using sufficiently small in-die metrology targets. Recently, Qin et al. [Light Sci Appl, 5, e16038 (2016)] demonstrated quantitative model-based measurements of finite sets of lines with features as small as 16 nm using 450 nm wavelength light. This paper uses simulation studies, augmented with experiments at 193 nm wavelength, to adapt and optimize the finite sets of features that work as in-die-capable metrology targets with minimal increases in parametric uncertainty. A finite element based solver for time-harmonic Maxwell's equations yields two- and three-dimensional simulations of the electromagnetic scattering for optimizing the design of such targets as functions of reduced line lengths, fewer number of lines, fewer focal positions, smaller critical dimensions, and shorter illumination wavelength. Metrology targets that exceeded performance requirements are as short as 3 μm for 193 nm light, feature as few as eight lines, and are extensible to sub-10 nm CDs. Target areas measured at 193 nm can be fifteen times smaller in area than current state-of-the-art scatterometry targets described in the literature. This new methodology is demonstrated to be a promising alternative for optical model-based in-die CD metrology. PMID:28757674

  2. Cell wall staining with Trypan Blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eLiesche

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yeast cells are protected by a cell wall that plays an important role in the exchange of substances with the environment. The cell wall structure is dynamic and can adapt to different physiological states or environmental conditions. For the investigation of morphological changes, selective staining with fluorescent dyes is a valuable tool. Furthermore, cell wall staining is used to facilitate sub-cellular localization experiments with fluorescently-labeled proteins and the detection of yeast cells in non-fungal host tissues. Here, we report staining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall with Trypan Blue, which emits strong red fluorescence upon binding to chitin and yeast glucan; thereby, it facilitates cell wall analysis by confocal and super-resolution microscopy. The staining pattern of Trypan Blue was similar to that of the widely used UV-excitable, blue fluorescent cell wall stain Calcofluor White. Trypan Blue staining facilitated quantification of cell size and cell wall volume when utilizing the optical sectioning capacity of a confocal microscope. This enabled the quantification of morphological changes during growth under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of chemicals, demonstrating the potential of this approach for morphological investigations or screening assays.

  3. Cell wall staining with Trypan blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesche, Johannes; Marek, Magdalena; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Yeast cells are protected by a cell wall that plays an important role in the exchange of substances with the environment. The cell wall structure is dynamic and can adapt to different physiological states or environmental conditions. For the investigation of morphological changes, selective staining with fluorescent dyes is a valuable tool. Furthermore, cell wall staining is used to facilitate sub-cellular localization experiments with fluorescently-labeled proteins and the detection of yeast cells in non-fungal host tissues. Here, we report staining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall with Trypan Blue, which emits strong red fluorescence upon binding to chitin and yeast glucan; thereby, it facilitates cell wall analysis by confocal and super-resolution microscopy. The staining pattern of Trypan Blue was similar to that of the widely used UV-excitable, blue fluorescent cell wall stain Calcofluor White. Trypan Blue staining facilitated quantification of cell size and cell wall volume when utilizing the optical sectioning capacity of a confocal microscope. This enabled the quantification of morphological changes during growth under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of chemicals, demonstrating the potential of this approach for morphological investigations or screening assays.

  4. Discovery of prognostic biomarker candidates of lacunar infarction by quantitative proteomics of microvesicles enriched plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Datta

    Full Text Available Lacunar infarction (LACI is a subtype of acute ischemic stroke affecting around 25% of all ischemic stroke cases. Despite having an excellent recovery during acute phase, certain LACI patients have poor mid- to long-term prognosis due to the recurrence of vascular events or a decline in cognitive functions. Hence, blood-based biomarkers could be complementary prognostic and research tools.Plasma was collected from forty five patients following a non-disabling LACI along with seventeen matched control subjects. The LACI patients were monitored prospectively for up to five years for the occurrence of adverse outcomes and grouped accordingly (i.e., LACI-no adverse outcome, LACI-recurrent vascular event, and LACI-cognitive decline without any recurrence of vascular events. Microvesicles-enriched fractions isolated from the pooled plasma of four groups were profiled by an iTRAQ-guided discovery approach to quantify the differential proteome. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000748. Bioinformatics analysis and data mining revealed up-regulation of brain-specific proteins including myelin basic protein, proteins of coagulation cascade (e.g., fibrinogen alpha chain, fibrinogen beta chain and focal adhesion (e.g., integrin alpha-IIb, talin-1, and filamin-A while albumin was down-regulated in both groups of patients with adverse outcome.This data set may offer important insight into the mechanisms of poor prognosis and provide candidate prognostic biomarkers for validation on larger cohort of individual LACI patients.

  5. Quantitative membrane proteomics reveals a role for tetraspanin enriched microdomains during entry of human cytomegalovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasinath Viswanathan

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV depends on and modulates multiple host cell membrane proteins during each stage of the viral life cycle. To gain a global view of the impact of HCMV-infection on membrane proteins, we analyzed HCMV-induced changes in the abundance of membrane proteins in fibroblasts using stable isotope labeling with amino acids (SILAC, membrane fractionation and protein identification by two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. This systematic approach revealed that CD81, CD44, CD98, caveolin-1 and catenin delta-1 were down-regulated during infection whereas GRP-78 was up-regulated. Since CD81 downregulation was also observed during infection with UV-inactivated virus we hypothesized that this tetraspanin is part of the viral entry process. Interestingly, additional members of the tetraspanin family, CD9 and CD151, were also downregulated during HCMV-entry. Since tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEM cluster host cell membrane proteins including known CMV receptors such as integrins, we studied whether TEMs are required for viral entry. When TEMs were disrupted with the cholesterol chelator methyl-β-cylcodextrin, viral entry was inhibited and this inhibition correlated with reduced surface levels of CD81, CD9 and CD151, whereas integrin levels remained unchanged. Furthermore, simultaneous siRNA-mediated knockdown of multiple tetraspanins inhibited viral entry whereas individual knockdown had little effect suggesting essential, but redundant roles for individual tetraspanins during entry. Taken together, our data suggest that TEM act as platforms for receptors utilized by HCMV for entry into cells.

  6. Development of batch electrolytic enrichment cells with 100-fold volume reduction, control electronic units and neutralization/distillation unit, to enable better sensitivity to be achieved in low-level tritium measurements when liquid scintillation counting follows the enrichment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.

    1980-06-01

    Full details of the batch-cell tritium enrichment system design are provided including electronic control circuits specially developed for these cells. The system incorporates a new type of concentric electrode cell (outer cathode of mild steel, anode of stainless steel, inner cathode of mild steel) with volume reduction capability 1 l to ca 9 ml. Electrolysis of 20 cells is performed in 2 steps. Down to sample volume ca 20 ml, the cells are series connected at constant currents up to 14.5 A, in the 2nd step, each cell is connected to its own individual current supply (2A) and control circuit. Automatic shut-off at the desired final volume is achieved by sensing the drop in current through the inner cathode as the electrolyte level falls below a PTFE insulator. The large electrode surface area and careful dimensioning at the foot of the cell allow operation with low starting electrolyte concentration 1.5 g Na 2 O 2 .l -1 . After electrolysis, quantitative recovery as distilled water of all hydrogen from the enriched residue is achieved by CO 2 -neutralisation and vacuum distillation at 100 0 C in a distillation unit which handles 20 cells simultaneously

  7. Preclinical evaluation of spatial frequency domain-enabled wide-field quantitative imaging for enhanced glioma resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibai, Mira; Fisher, Carl; Veilleux, Israel; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Leblond, Frederic; Roberts, David W.; Wilson, Brian C.

    2017-07-01

    5-Aminolevelunic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence-guided resection (FGR) enables maximum safe resection of glioma by providing real-time tumor contrast. However, the subjective visual assessment and the variable intrinsic optical attenuation of tissue limit this technique to reliably delineating only high-grade tumors that display strong fluorescence. We have previously shown, using a fiber-optic probe, that quantitative assessment using noninvasive point spectroscopic measurements of the absolute PpIX concentration in tissue further improves the accuracy of FGR, extending it to surgically curable low-grade glioma. More recently, we have shown that implementing spatial frequency domain imaging with a fluorescent-light transport model enables recovery of two-dimensional images of [PpIX], alleviating the need for time-consuming point sampling of the brain surface. We present first results of this technique modified for in vivo imaging on an RG2 rat brain tumor model. Despite the moderate errors in retrieving the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients in the subdiffusive regime of 14% and 19%, respectively, the recovered [PpIX] maps agree within 10% of the point [PpIX] values measured by the fiber-optic probe, validating its potential as an extension or an alternative to point sampling during glioma resection.

  8. A BLUEPRINT OF SOFTWARE ENABLED QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT OF PROGRAMME OUTCOMES: A CASE STUDY FOR TAYLOR’S UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REYNATO ANDAL GAMBOA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lecturers are fully occupied with many tasks including preparing teaching materials, exam papers, lab sheets, markings, research, and administrative support tasks required of them to maintain high standard teaching delivery and good quality management system in the school. Aside from these, they are now required to do intensive Outcome-Based Education (OBE assessments, and Continual Quality Improvement (CQI planning and implementation. An automated OBE assessment tool is therefore required to ease the burden among the lecturers and provide a standard method of assessment. To assist in this process, this paper presents a blueprint of a software-enabled quantitative measurement of the Learning Outcomes (LO and the Programme Outcomes (PO in the module level. The blueprint consists of macro-enabled worksheets that automatically calculate the students’ individual LO and PO attainments based on their respective module assessment marks whereby the lecturer only need to key-in the subject details of assessments-LO mapping, LO-PO mapping and the students’ assessment marks. Once the marks are in place, LO and PO attainments are calculated automatically to provide the corresponding bar charts based on the individual attainments of the students. A LO or a PO is said to be attained when the number of students achieved the Key Performance Index (KPI set by the department. The results will then be used by the lecturer to prepare an annual module review and prepare a CQI plan for the next semester.

  9. 17O solid-state NMR spectroscopy of A2B2O7 oxides: quantitative isotopic enrichment and spectral acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Arantxa; Moran, Robert F; Sneddon, Scott; Dawson, Daniel M; McKay, David; Bignami, Giulia P M; Blanc, Frédéric; Whittle, Karl R; Ashbrook, Sharon E

    2018-02-13

    The potential of 17 O NMR spectroscopy for the investigation of A 2 B 2 O 7 ceramic oxides important in the encapsulation of radioactive waste is demonstrated, with post-synthetic enrichment by exchange with 17 O 2 gas. For Y 2 Sn 2 O 7 , Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 and La 2 Sn 2 O 7 pyrochlores, enrichment of the two distinct O species is clearly non quantitative at lower temperatures (∼700 °C and below) and at shorter times, despite these being used in prior work, with preferential enrichment of OA 2 B 2 favoured over that of OA 4 . At higher temperatures, the 17 O NMR spectra suggest that quantitative enrichment has been achieved, but the integrated signal intensities do not reflect the crystallographic 1 : 6 (O1 : O2) ratio until corrected for differences in T 1 relaxation rates and, more importantly, the contribution of the satellite transitions. 17 O NMR spectra of Y 2 Zr 2 O 7 and Y 2 Hf 2 O 7 defect fluorites showed little difference with any variation in enrichment temperature or time, although an increase in the absolute level of enrichment (up to ∼7.5%) was observed at higher temperature. DFT calculations show that the six distinct resonances observed cannot be assigned unambiguously, as each has contributions from more than one of the five possible next nearest neighbour environments. For La 2 Ti 2 O 7 , which adopts a layered perovskite-like structure, little difference in the spectral intensities is observed with enrichment time or temperature, although the highest absolute levels of enrichment (∼13%) were obtained at higher temperature. This work demonstrates that 17 O NMR has the potential to be a powerful probe of local structure and disorder in oxides, but that considerable care must be taken both in choosing the conditions for 17 O enrichment and the experimental acquisition parameters if the necessary quantitative measurements are to be obtained for more complex systems.

  10. Multiplex enrichment quantitative PCR (ME-qPCR): a high-throughput, highly sensitive detection method for GMO identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Zhu, Pengyu; Wei, Shuang; Zhixin, Du; Wang, Chenguang; Wu, Xiyang; Li, Feiwu; Zhu, Shuifang

    2017-04-01

    Among all of the high-throughput detection methods, PCR-based methodologies are regarded as the most cost-efficient and feasible methodologies compared with the next-generation sequencing or ChIP-based methods. However, the PCR-based methods can only achieve multiplex detection up to 15-plex due to limitations imposed by the multiplex primer interactions. The detection throughput cannot meet the demands of high-throughput detection, such as SNP or gene expression analysis. Therefore, in our study, we have developed a new high-throughput PCR-based detection method, multiplex enrichment quantitative PCR (ME-qPCR), which is a combination of qPCR and nested PCR. The GMO content detection results in our study showed that ME-qPCR could achieve high-throughput detection up to 26-plex. Compared to the original qPCR, the Ct values of ME-qPCR were lower for the same group, which showed that ME-qPCR sensitivity is higher than the original qPCR. The absolute limit of detection for ME-qPCR could achieve levels as low as a single copy of the plant genome. Moreover, the specificity results showed that no cross-amplification occurred for irrelevant GMO events. After evaluation of all of the parameters, a practical evaluation was performed with different foods. The more stable amplification results, compared to qPCR, showed that ME-qPCR was suitable for GMO detection in foods. In conclusion, ME-qPCR achieved sensitive, high-throughput GMO detection in complex substrates, such as crops or food samples. In the future, ME-qPCR-based GMO content identification may positively impact SNP analysis or multiplex gene expression of food or agricultural samples. Graphical abstract For the first-step amplification, four primers (A, B, C, and D) have been added into the reaction volume. In this manner, four kinds of amplicons have been generated. All of these four amplicons could be regarded as the target of second-step PCR. For the second-step amplification, three parallels have been taken for

  11. Assessment of beating parameters in human induced pluripotent stem cells enables quantitative in vitro screening for cardiotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirenko, Oksana, E-mail: oksana.sirenko@moldev.com [Molecular Devices LLC, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 (United States); Cromwell, Evan F., E-mail: evan.cromwell@moldev.com [Molecular Devices LLC, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 (United States); Crittenden, Carole [Molecular Devices LLC, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 (United States); Wignall, Jessica A. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Wright, Fred A. [Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Rusyn, Ivan [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes show promise for screening during early drug development. Here, we tested a hypothesis that in vitro assessment of multiple cardiomyocyte physiological parameters enables predictive and mechanistically-interpretable evaluation of cardiotoxicity in a high-throughput format. Human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes were exposed for 30 min or 24 h to 131 drugs, positive (107) and negative (24) for in vivo cardiotoxicity, in up to 6 concentrations (3 nM to 30 uM) in 384-well plates. Fast kinetic imaging was used to monitor changes in cardiomyocyte function using intracellular Ca{sup 2+} flux readouts synchronous with beating, and cell viability. A number of physiological parameters of cardiomyocyte beating, such as beat rate, peak shape (amplitude, width, raise, decay, etc.) and regularity were collected using automated data analysis. Concentration–response profiles were evaluated using logistic modeling to derive a benchmark concentration (BMC) point-of-departure value, based on one standard deviation departure from the estimated baseline in vehicle (0.3% dimethyl sulfoxide)-treated cells. BMC values were used for cardiotoxicity classification and ranking of compounds. Beat rate and several peak shape parameters were found to be good predictors, while cell viability had poor classification accuracy. In addition, we applied the Toxicological Prioritization Index (ToxPi) approach to integrate and display data across many collected parameters, to derive “cardiosafety” ranking of tested compounds. Multi-parameter screening of beating profiles allows for cardiotoxicity risk assessment and identification of specific patterns defining mechanism-specific effects. These data and analysis methods may be used widely for compound screening and early safety evaluation in drug development. - Highlights: • Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are promising in vitro models. • We tested if evaluation

  12. Assessment of beating parameters in human induced pluripotent stem cells enables quantitative in vitro screening for cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirenko, Oksana; Cromwell, Evan F.; Crittenden, Carole; Wignall, Jessica A.; Wright, Fred A.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes show promise for screening during early drug development. Here, we tested a hypothesis that in vitro assessment of multiple cardiomyocyte physiological parameters enables predictive and mechanistically-interpretable evaluation of cardiotoxicity in a high-throughput format. Human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes were exposed for 30 min or 24 h to 131 drugs, positive (107) and negative (24) for in vivo cardiotoxicity, in up to 6 concentrations (3 nM to 30 uM) in 384-well plates. Fast kinetic imaging was used to monitor changes in cardiomyocyte function using intracellular Ca 2+ flux readouts synchronous with beating, and cell viability. A number of physiological parameters of cardiomyocyte beating, such as beat rate, peak shape (amplitude, width, raise, decay, etc.) and regularity were collected using automated data analysis. Concentration–response profiles were evaluated using logistic modeling to derive a benchmark concentration (BMC) point-of-departure value, based on one standard deviation departure from the estimated baseline in vehicle (0.3% dimethyl sulfoxide)-treated cells. BMC values were used for cardiotoxicity classification and ranking of compounds. Beat rate and several peak shape parameters were found to be good predictors, while cell viability had poor classification accuracy. In addition, we applied the Toxicological Prioritization Index (ToxPi) approach to integrate and display data across many collected parameters, to derive “cardiosafety” ranking of tested compounds. Multi-parameter screening of beating profiles allows for cardiotoxicity risk assessment and identification of specific patterns defining mechanism-specific effects. These data and analysis methods may be used widely for compound screening and early safety evaluation in drug development. - Highlights: • Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are promising in vitro models. • We tested if evaluation of

  13. Evaluation of phosphopeptide enrichment strategies for quantitative TMT analysis of complex network dynamics in cancer-associated cell signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Lombardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Defining alterations in signalling pathways in normal and malignant cells is becoming a major field in proteomics. A number of different approaches have been established to isolate, identify and quantify phosphorylated proteins and peptides. In the current report, a comparison between SCX prefractionation versus an antibody based approach, both coupled to TiO2 enrichment and applied to TMT labelled cellular lysates, is described. The antibody strategy was more complete for enriching phosphopeptides and allowed the identification of a large set of proteins known to be phosphorylated (715 protein groups with a minimum number of not previously known phosphorylated proteins (2.

  14. Quantitative Imaging of Turbulent Mixing Dynamics in High-Pressure Fuel Injection to Enable Predictive Simulations of Engine Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Jonathan H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Reacting Flows Dept.; Pickett, Lyle M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.; Bisson, Scott E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Remote Sensing and Energetic Materials Dept.; Patterson, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). combustion Chemistry Dept.; Ruggles, Adam J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Reacting Flows Dept.; Skeen, Scott A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.; Manin, Julien Luc [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.; Huang, Erxiong [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Reacting Flows Dept.; Cicone, Dave J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.; Sphicas, Panos [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.

    2015-09-01

    In this LDRD project, we developed a capability for quantitative high - speed imaging measurements of high - pressure fuel injection dynamics to advance understanding of turbulent mixing in transcritical flows, ignition, and flame stabilization mechanisms, and to provide e ssential validation data for developing predictive tools for engine combustion simulations. Advanced, fuel - efficient engine technologies rely on fuel injection into a high - pressure, high - temperature environment for mixture preparation and com bustion. Howe ver, the dynamics of fuel injection are not well understood and pose significant experimental and modeling challenges. To address the need for quantitative high - speed measurements, we developed a Nd:YAG laser that provides a 5ms burst of pulses at 100 kHz o n a robust mobile platform . Using this laser, we demonstrated s patially and temporally resolved Rayleigh scattering imaging and particle image velocimetry measurements of turbulent mixing in high - pressure gas - phase flows and vaporizing sprays . Quantitativ e interpretation of high - pressure measurements was advanced by reducing and correcting interferences and imaging artifacts.

  15. Cytolytic T lymphocyte precursor cells in congenitally athymic C57BL/6 nu/nu mice: Quantitation, enrichment, and specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maryanski, J.L. (Ludwig Inst. for Cancer Research, Epalinges, Switzerland); MacDonald, H.R.; Sordat, B.; Cerottini, J.C.

    1981-03-01

    A sensitive limiting dilution microculture system was used to obtain minimal estimates of the frequency of CTL precursor cells (CTL-P) in spleens from 5- to 14-mo-old C57BL/6 nu/nu mice. Frequency determinations of CTL-P directed against H-2delta alloantigens ranged from 1/159,000 to 1/12,400. The relatively low frequency of CTL-P was enriched nearly 10-fold (to 1/2300) by passage of nude spleen cells over a column of nylon wool. After priming nude spleen cells for 7 days in conventional MLC, 1 to 3% of the MLC cells could be operationally identified as CTL-P. Furthermore, the progeny of MLC-primed nude CTL-P were specifically cytolytic for target cells of the strain used for priming. Such a system may be useful for analyzing the specificity repertoires of cells of the T cell lineage that have not undergone thymic influence.

  16. Quantitative amino acid profiling and stable isotopically labeled amino acid tracer enrichment used for in vivo human systemic and tissue kinetics measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornø, Andreas; van Hall, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    An important area within clinical functional metabolomics is in vivo amino acid metabolism and protein turnover measurements for which accurate amino acid concentrations and stable isotopically labeled amino acid enrichments are mandatory not the least when tissue metabolomics is determined....... The present study describes a new sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry method quantifying 20 amino acids and their tracer(s) ([ring-(13)C6]/D5Phenylalanine) in human plasma and skeletal muscle specimens. Before analysis amino acids were extracted and purified via deprotonization....../ion exchange, derivatized using a phenylisothiocyanate reagent and each amino acid was quantitated with its own stable isotopically labeled internal standard (uniformly labeled-(13)C/(15)N). The method was validated according to general recommendations for chromatographic analytical methods. The calibration...

  17. A non-parametric mixture model for genome-enabled prediction of genetic value for a quantitative trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianola, Daniel; Wu, Xiao-Lin; Manfredi, Eduardo; Simianer, Henner

    2010-10-01

    A Bayesian nonparametric form of regression based on Dirichlet process priors is adapted to the analysis of quantitative traits possibly affected by cryptic forms of gene action, and to the context of SNP-assisted genomic selection, where the main objective is to predict a genomic signal on phenotype. The procedure clusters unknown genotypes into groups with distinct genetic values, but in a setting in which the number of clusters is unknown a priori, so that standard methods for finite mixture analysis do not work. The central assumption is that genetic effects follow an unknown distribution with some "baseline" family, which is a normal process in the cases considered here. A Bayesian analysis based on the Gibbs sampler produces estimates of the number of clusters, posterior means of genetic effects, a measure of credibility in the baseline distribution, as well as estimates of parameters of the latter. The procedure is illustrated with a simulation representing two populations. In the first one, there are 3 unknown QTL, with additive, dominance and epistatic effects; in the second, there are 10 QTL with additive, dominance and additive × additive epistatic effects. In the two populations, baseline parameters are inferred correctly. The Dirichlet process model infers the number of unique genetic values correctly in the first population, but it produces an understatement in the second one; here, the true number of clusters is over 900, and the model gives a posterior mean estimate of about 140, probably because more replication of genotypes is needed for correct inference. The impact on inferences of the prior distribution of a key parameter (M), and of the extent of replication, was examined via an analysis of mean body weight in 192 paternal half-sib families of broiler chickens, where each sire was genotyped for nearly 7,000 SNPs. In this small sample, it was found that inference about the number of clusters was affected by the prior distribution of M. For a

  18. Determination of reliability of express forecasting evaluation of radiometric enriching ability of non-ferrous ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirpishchikov, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Use of the data of nuclear physical methods of sampling and logging enables to improve reliability of evaluation of radiometric enriching ability of ores, as well as to evaluate quantitatively this reliability. This problem may be solved by using some concepts of geostatistics. The presented results enable to conclude, that the data of nuclear-physical methods of sampling and logging can provide high reliability of evaluation of radiometric enriching ability of non-ferrous ores and their geometrization by technological types

  19. Non-biased enrichment does not improve quantitative proteomic delineation of reovirus T3D-infected HeLa cell protein alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyuan eJiang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry-based methods have allowed elucidation of alterations in complex proteomes, such as eukaryotic cells. Such studies have identified and measured relative abundances of thousands of host proteins after cells are infected with a virus. One of the potential limitations in such studies is that generally only the most abundant proteins are identified, leaving the deep richness of the cellular proteome largely unexplored. We differentially labeled HeLa cells with light and heavy stable isotopic forms of lysine and arginine (SILAC and infected cells with reovirus strain T3D. Cells were harvested at 24 hours post-infection. Heavy-labeled infected and light-labeled mock-infected cells were mixed together 1:1. Cells were then divided into cytosol and nuclear fractions and each fraction analyzed, both by standard 2D-HPLC/MS, and also after each fraction had been reacted with a random hexapeptide library (Proteominer® beads to attempt to enrich for low-abundance cellular proteins. A total of 2736 proteins were identified by 2 or more peptides at >99% confidence, of which 66 were significantly up-regulated and 67 were significantly down-regulated. Up-regulated proteins included those involved in antimicrobial and antiviral responses, GTPase activity, nucleotide binding, interferon signaling, and enzymes associated with energy generation. Down-regulated proteins included those involved in cell and biological adhesion, regulation of cell proliferation, structural molecule activity, and numerous molecular binding activities. Comparisons of the r2 correlations, degree of dataset overlap, and numbers of peptides detected suggest that non-biased enrichment approaches may not provide additional data to allow deeper quantitative and comparative mining of complex proteomes.

  20. An integrated sample pretreatment platform for quantitative N-glycoproteome analysis with combination of on-line glycopeptide enrichment, deglycosylation and dimethyl labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Yejing; Qu, Yanyan; Jiang, Hao; Wu, Qi [National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Lihua, E-mail: lihuazhang@dicp.ac.cn [National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Yuan, Huiming [National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Zhou, Yuan [National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Yukui [National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2014-06-23

    Highlights: • An integrated platform for quantitative N-glycoproteome analysis was established. • On-line enrichment, deglycosylation and labeling could be achieved within 160 min. • A N{sub 2}-assisted interface was applied to improve the compatibility of the platform. • The platform exhibited improved quantification accuracy, precision and throughput. - Abstract: Relative quantification of N-glycoproteomes shows great promise for the discovery of candidate biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The traditional protocol for quantitative analysis of glycoproteomes is usually off-line performed, and suffers from long sample preparation time, and the risk of sample loss or contamination due to manual manipulation. In this study, a novel integrated sample preparation platform for quantitative N-glycoproteome analysis was established, with combination of online N-glycopeptide capture by a HILIC column, sample buffer exchange by a N{sub 2}-assisted HILIC–RPLC interface, deglycosylation by a hydrophilic PNGase F immobilized enzymatic reactor (hIMER) and solid dimethyl labeling on a C18 precolumn. To evaluate the performance of such a platform, two equal aliquots of immunoglobulin G (IgG) digests were sequentially pretreated, followed by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The signal intensity ratio of heavy/light (H/L) labeled deglycosylated peptides with the equal aliquots was 1.00 (RSD = 6.2%, n = 3), much better than those obtained by the offline protocol, with H/L ratio as 0.76 (RSD = 11.6%, n = 3). Additionally, the total on-line sample preparation time was greatly shortened to 160 min, much faster than that of offline approach (24 h). Furthermore, such an integrated pretreatment platform was successfully applied to analyze the two kinds of hepatocarcinoma ascites syngeneic cell lines with high (Hca-F) and low (Hca-P) lymph node metastasis rates. For H/L labeled Hca-P lysates with the equal aliquots, 99.6% of log 2 ratios (H/L) of quantified glycopeptides ranged from −1

  1. Uranium enrichment. Enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, M.; Quaegebeur, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the remarkable progresses made in the diversity and the efficiency of the different uranium enrichment processes, only two industrial processes remain today which satisfy all of enriched uranium needs: the gaseous diffusion and the centrifugation. This article describes both processes and some others still at the demonstration or at the laboratory stage of development: 1 - general considerations; 2 - gaseous diffusion: physical principles, implementation, utilisation in the world; 3 - centrifugation: principles, elementary separation factor, flows inside a centrifuge, modeling of separation efficiencies, mechanical design, types of industrial centrifuges, realisation of cascades, main characteristics of the centrifugation process; 4 - aerodynamic processes: vortex process, nozzle process; 5 - chemical exchange separation processes: Japanese ASAHI process, French CHEMEX process; 6 - laser-based processes: SILVA process, SILMO process; 7 - electromagnetic and ionic processes: mass spectrometer and calutron, ion cyclotron resonance, rotating plasmas; 8 - thermal diffusion; 9 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  2. Comprehensive and quantitative profiling of lipid species in human milk, cow milk and a phospholipid-enriched milk formula by GC and MS/MSALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Elena; Ulven, Trond; Færgeman, Nils J; Ejsing, Christer S

    2015-06-01

    Here we present a workflow for in-depth analysis of milk lipids that combines gas chromatography (GC) for fatty acid (FA) profiling and a shotgun lipidomics routine termed MS/MS ALL for structural characterization of molecular lipid species. To evaluate the performance of the workflow we performed a comparative lipid analysis of human milk, cow milk, and Lacprodan® PL-20, a phospholipid-enriched milk protein concentrate for infant formula. The GC analysis showed that human milk and Lacprodan have a similar FA profile with higher levels of unsaturated FAs as compared to cow milk. In-depth lipidomic analysis by MS/MS ALL revealed that each type of milk sample comprised distinct composition of molecular lipid species. Lipid class composition showed that the human and cow milk contain a higher proportion of triacylglycerols (TAGs) as compared to Lacprodan. Notably, the MS/MS ALL analysis demonstrated that the similar FA profile of human milk and Lacprodan determined by GC analysis is attributed to the composition of individual TAG species in human milk and glycerophospholipid species in Lacprodan. Moreover, the analysis of TAG molecules in Lacprodan and cow milk showed a high proportion of short-chain FAs that could not be monitored by GC analysis. The results presented here show that complementary GC and MS/MS ALL analysis is a powerful approach for characterization of molecular lipid species in milk and milk products. : Milk lipid analysis is routinely performed using gas chromatography. This method reports the total fatty acid composition of all milk lipids, but provides no structural or quantitative information about individual lipid molecules in milk or milk products. Here we present a workflow that integrates gas chromatography for fatty acid profiling and a shotgun lipidomics routine termed MS/MS ALL for structural analysis and quantification of molecular lipid species. We demonstrate the efficacy of this complementary workflow by a comparative analysis of

  3. Prediction of Molar Extinction Coefficients of Proteins and Peptides Using UV Absorption of the Constituent Amino Acids at 214 nm To Enable Quantitative Reverse Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.J.H.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    The molar extinction coefficients of 20 amino acids and the peptide bond were measured at 214 nm in the presence of acetonitrile and formic acid to enable quantitative comparison of peptides eluting from reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, once identified with mass spectrometry

  4. Isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydtin, H-J.; Wilden, R.J.; Severin, P.J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The isotope enrichment method described is based on the recognition that, owing to mass diffusion and thermal diffusion in the conversion of substances at a heated substrate while depositing an element or compound onto the substrate, enrichment of the element, or a compound of the element, with a lighter isotope will occur. The cycle is repeated for as many times as is necessary to obtain the degree of enrichment required

  5. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report looks at the following issues: How much Soviet uranium ore and enriched uranium are imported into the United States and what is the extent to which utilities flag swap to disguise these purchases? What are the U.S.S.R.'s enriched uranium trading practices? To what extent are utilities required to return used fuel to the Soviet Union as part of the enriched uranium sales agreement? Why have U.S. utilities ended their contracts to buy enrichment services from DOE?

  6. Multi-element sewer slime impact pattern--a quantitative characteristic enabling identification of the source of heavy metal discharges into sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintrup, J; Wünsch, G

    2001-11-01

    The capability of sewer slime to accumulate heavy metals from municipal wastewater can be exploited to identify the sources of sewage sludge pollution. Former investigations of sewer slime looked for a few elements only and could, therefore, not account for deviations of the enrichment efficiency of the slime or for irregularities from sampling. Results of ICP-MS multi element determinations were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. A new dimensionless characteristic "sewer slime impact" is proposed, which is zero for unloaded samples. Patterns expressed in this data format specifically extract the information required to identify the type of pollution and polluter quicker and with less effort and cost than hitherto.

  7. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    GAO was asked to address several questions concerning a number of proposed uranium enrichment bills introduced during the 100th Congress. The bill would have restructured the Department of Energy's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation to allow it to compete more effectively in the domestic and international markets. Some of GAO's findings discussed are: uranium market experts believe and existing market models show that the proposed DOE purchase of a $750 million of uranium from domestic producers may not significantly increase production because of large producer-held inventories; excess uranium enrichment production capacity exists throughout the world; therefore, foreign producers are expected to compete heavily in the United States throughout the 1990s as utilities' contracts with DOE expire; and according to a 1988 agreement between DOE's Offices of Nuclear Energy and Defense Programs, enrichment decommissioning costs, estimated to total $3.6 billion for planning purposes, will be shared by the commercial enrichment program and the government

  8. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, H.K.; Melvin, J.G.

    1988-06-01

    Canada is the world's largest producer and exporter of uranium, most of which is enriched elsewhere for use as fuel in LWRs. The feasibility of a Canadian uranium-enrichment enterprise is therefore a perennial question. Recent developments in uranium-enrichment technology, and their likely impacts on separative work supply and demand, suggest an opportunity window for Canadian entry into this international market. The Canadian opportunity results from three particular impacts of the new technologies: 1) the bulk of the world's uranium-enrichment capacity is in gaseous diffusion plants which, because of their large requirements for electricity (more than 2000 kW·h per SWU), are vulnerable to competition from the new processes; 2) the decline in enrichment costs increases the economic incentive for the use of slightly-enriched uranium (SEU) fuel in CANDU reactors, thus creating a potential Canadian market; and 3) the new processes allow economic operation on a much smaller scale, which drastically reduces the investment required for market entry and is comparable with the potential Canadian SEU requirement. The opportunity is not open-ended. By the end of the century the enrichment supply industry will have adapted to the new processes and long-term customer/supplier relationships will have been established. In order to seize the opportunity, Canada must become a credible supplier during this century

  9. Multi-element sewer slime impact pattern - a quantitative characteristic enabling identification of the source of heavy metal discharges into sewer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kintrup, J. [Chemistry Lab., Wessling GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Wuensch, G. [Lehrgebiet Analytische Chemie, Univ. Hannover (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    The capability of sewer slime to accumulate heavy metals from municipal wastewater can be exploited to identify the sources of sewage sludge pollution. Former investigations of sewer slime looked for a few elements only and could, therefore, not account for deviations of the enrichment efficiency of the slime or for irregularities from sampling. Results of ICP-MS multi element determinations were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. A new dimensionless characteristic ''sewer slime impact'' is proposed, which is zero for unloaded samples. Patterns expressed in this data format specifically extract the information required to identify the type of pollution and polluter quicker and with less effort and cost than hitherto. (orig.)

  10. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrhauer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The separation of uranium isotopes in order to enrich the fuel for light water reactors with the light isotope U-235 is an important part of the nuclear fuel cycle. After the basic principals of isotope separation the gaseous diffusion and the centrifuge process are explained. Both these techniques are employed on an industrial scale. In addition a short review is given on other enrichment techniques which have been demonstrated at least on a laboratory scale. After some remarks on the present situation on the enrichment market the progress in the development and the industrial exploitation of the gas centrifuge process by the trinational Urenco-Centec organisation is presented. (orig.)

  11. Semi-quantitative analysis of solid waste flows from nano-enabled consumer products in Europe, Denmark and the United Kingdom - Abundance, distribution and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggelund, Laura; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Boldrin, Alessio

    2016-10-01

    Many nano-enabled consumer products are known to be in the global market. At the same, little is known about the quantity, type, location etc. of the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) inside the products. This limits the scientific investigations of potential environmental effects of these materials, and especially the knowledge of ENM behaviour and potential effects at the end-of-life stage of the products is scarce. To gain a better understanding of the end-of-life waste treatment of nano-enabled consumer product, we provide an overview of the ENMs flowing into and throughout waste systems in Europe, Denmark and the United Kingdom. Using a nanoproduct inventory (nanodb.dk), we performed a four-step analysis to estimate the most abundant ENMs and in which waste fractions they are present. We found that in terms of number of products: (i) nano silver is the most used ENM in consumer products, and (ii) plastic from used product containers is the largest waste fraction also comprising a large variety of ENMs, though possibly in very small masses. Also, we showed that the local waste management system can influence the distribution of ENMs. It is recommended that future research focus on recycling and landfilling of nano-enabled products since these compartments represent hot spots for end-of-life nanoproducts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel strategy to obtain quantitative data for modelling: Combined enrichment and real-time PCR for enumeration of salmonellae from pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malorny, Burkhard; Krämer, Nadine; Vigre, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    The primary sources for the major zoonotic pathogen Salmonella are food-producing animals such as pigs and poultry. For risk assessment and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) concepts, it is essential to produce large amounts of quantitative data, which is currently not achievable...

  13. Strategy for Extracting DNA from Clay Soil and Detecting a Specific Target Sequence via Selective Enrichment and Real-Time (Quantitative) PCR Amplification ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankson, Kweku K.; Steck, Todd R.

    2009-01-01

    We present a simple strategy for isolating and accurately enumerating target DNA from high-clay-content soils: desorption with buffers, an optional magnetic capture hybridization step, and quantitation via real-time PCR. With the developed technique, μg quantities of DNA were extracted from mg samples of pure kaolinite and a field clay soil. PMID:19633108

  14. Comprehensive and quantitative profiling of lipid species in human milk, cow milk and a phospholipid-enriched milk formula by GC and MS/MSALL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokol, Olena; Ulven, Trond; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2015-01-01

    a comparative lipid analysis of human milk, cow milk, and Lacprodan® PL-20, a phospholipid-enriched milk protein concentrate for infant formula. The GC analysis showed that human milk and Lacprodan have a similar FA profile with higher levels of unsaturated FAs as compared to cow milk. In-depth lipidomic...... analysis by MS/MSALL revealed that each type of milk sample comprised distinct composition of molecular lipid species. Lipid class composition showed that the human and cow milk contain a higher proportion of triacylglycerols (TAGs) as compared to Lacprodan. Notably, the MS/MSALL analysis demonstrated...... that the similar FA profile of human milk and Lacprodan determined by GC analysis is attributed to the composition of individual TAG species in human milk and glycerophospholipid species in Lacprodan. Moreover, the analysis of TAG molecules in Lacprodan and cow milk showed a high proportion of short-chain FAs...

  15. Semi-quantitative analysis of solid waste flows from nano-enabled consumer products in Europe, Denmark and the United Kingdom - Abundance, distribution and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heggelund, Laura Roverskov; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    ) plastic from used product containers is the largest waste fraction also comprising a large variety of ENMs, though possibly in very small masses. Also, we showed that the local waste management system can influence the distribution of ENMs. It is recommended that future research focus on recycling......, and especially the knowledge of ENM behaviour and potential effects at the end-of-life stage of the products is scarce. To gain a better understanding of the end-of-life waste treatment of nano-enabled consumer product, we provide an overview of the ENMs flowing into and throughout waste systems in Europe......, Denmark and the United Kingdom. Using a nanoproduct inventory (nanodb.dk), we performed a four-step analysis to estimate the most abundant ENMs and in which waste fractions they are present. We found that in terms of number of products: (i) nano silver is the most used ENM in consumer products, and (ii...

  16. Isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbuny, M.

    1979-01-01

    The invention discloses a method for deriving, from a starting material including an element having a plurality of isotopes, derived material enriched in one isotope of the element. The starting material is deposited on a substrate at less than a critical submonatomic surface density, typically less than 10 16 atoms per square centimeter. The deposit is then selectively irradiated by a laser (maser or electronic oscillator) beam with monochromatic coherent radiation resonant with the one isotope causing the material including the one istope to escape from the substrate. The escaping enriched material is then collected. Where the element has two isotopes, one of which is to be collected, the deposit may be irradiated with radiation resonant with the other isotope and the residual material enriched in the one isotope may be evaporated from the substrate and collected

  17. A novel strategy to obtain quantitative data for modelling: Combined enrichment and real-time PCR for enumeration of salmonellae from pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkhard, Malorny; Krämer, Nadine; Vigre, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    The primary sources for the major zoonotic pathogen Salmonella are food-producing animals such as pigs and poultry. For risk assessment and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) concepts, it is essential to produce large amounts of quantitative data, which is currently not achievable....../sample. The precision was similar to the standard reference most probable number (MPN) method. A screening of 200 potentially naturally contaminated cork borer samples obtained over seven weeks in a slaughterhouse resulted in 25 Salmonella-positive samples. The analysis of salmonellae within these samples showed...

  18. Structural Analysis of PTM Hotspots (SAPH-ire)--A Quantitative Informatics Method Enabling the Discovery of Novel Regulatory Elements in Protein Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Henry M; Choudhury, Shilpa; Torres, Matthew P

    2015-08-01

    Predicting the biological function potential of post-translational modifications (PTMs) is becoming increasingly important in light of the exponential increase in available PTM data from high-throughput proteomics. We developed structural analysis of PTM hotspots (SAPH-ire)--a quantitative PTM ranking method that integrates experimental PTM observations, sequence conservation, protein structure, and interaction data to allow rank order comparisons within or between protein families. Here, we applied SAPH-ire to the study of PTMs in diverse G protein families, a conserved and ubiquitous class of proteins essential for maintenance of intracellular structure (tubulins) and signal transduction (large and small Ras-like G proteins). A total of 1728 experimentally verified PTMs from eight unique G protein families were clustered into 451 unique hotspots, 51 of which have a known and cited biological function or response. Using customized software, the hotspots were analyzed in the context of 598 unique protein structures. By comparing distributions of hotspots with known versus unknown function, we show that SAPH-ire analysis is predictive for PTM biological function. Notably, SAPH-ire revealed high-ranking hotspots for which a functional impact has not yet been determined, including phosphorylation hotspots in the N-terminal tails of G protein gamma subunits--conserved protein structures never before reported as regulators of G protein coupled receptor signaling. To validate this prediction we used the yeast model system for G protein coupled receptor signaling, revealing that gamma subunit-N-terminal tail phosphorylation is activated in response to G protein coupled receptor stimulation and regulates protein stability in vivo. These results demonstrate the utility of integrating protein structural and sequence features into PTM prioritization schemes that can improve the analysis and functional power of modification-specific proteomics data. © 2015 by The American

  19. Structural Analysis of PTM Hotspots (SAPH-ire) – A Quantitative Informatics Method Enabling the Discovery of Novel Regulatory Elements in Protein Families*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Henry M.; Choudhury, Shilpa; Torres, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the biological function potential of post-translational modifications (PTMs) is becoming increasingly important in light of the exponential increase in available PTM data from high-throughput proteomics. We developed structural analysis of PTM hotspots (SAPH-ire)—a quantitative PTM ranking method that integrates experimental PTM observations, sequence conservation, protein structure, and interaction data to allow rank order comparisons within or between protein families. Here, we applied SAPH-ire to the study of PTMs in diverse G protein families, a conserved and ubiquitous class of proteins essential for maintenance of intracellular structure (tubulins) and signal transduction (large and small Ras-like G proteins). A total of 1728 experimentally verified PTMs from eight unique G protein families were clustered into 451 unique hotspots, 51 of which have a known and cited biological function or response. Using customized software, the hotspots were analyzed in the context of 598 unique protein structures. By comparing distributions of hotspots with known versus unknown function, we show that SAPH-ire analysis is predictive for PTM biological function. Notably, SAPH-ire revealed high-ranking hotspots for which a functional impact has not yet been determined, including phosphorylation hotspots in the N-terminal tails of G protein gamma subunits—conserved protein structures never before reported as regulators of G protein coupled receptor signaling. To validate this prediction we used the yeast model system for G protein coupled receptor signaling, revealing that gamma subunit–N-terminal tail phosphorylation is activated in response to G protein coupled receptor stimulation and regulates protein stability in vivo. These results demonstrate the utility of integrating protein structural and sequence features into PTM prioritization schemes that can improve the analysis and functional power of modification-specific proteomics data. PMID:26070665

  20. High sensitivity and selectivity in quantitative analysis of drugs in biological samples using 4-column multidimensional micro-UHPLC-MS enabling enhanced sample loading capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Ronald; Vereyken, Liesbeth; François, Isabelle; Dillen, Lieve; Vreeken, Rob J; Cuyckens, Filip

    2017-10-09

    Sensitivity is often a critical parameter in quantitative bioanalyses in drug development. For liquid-chromatography-based methods, sensitivity can be improved by reducing the column diameter, but practical sensitivity gains are limited by the reduced sample loading capacity on small internal diameter (I.D.) columns. We developed a set-up that has overcome these limitations in sample loading capacity. The set-up uses 4 columns with gradually decreasing column diameters along the flow-path (2.1 → 1 → 0.5 → 0.15 mm). Samples are pre-concentrated on-line on a 2.1 mm I.D. trapping column and back flushed to a 1 mm I.D. UHPLC analytical column and separated. The peak(s) of interest are transferred using heartcutting to a second trapping column (0.5 mm I.D.), which is back-flushed to a 0.15 mm I.D. micro-UHPLC analytical column for orthogonal separation. The proof of concept of the set-up was demonstrated by the simultaneous analysis of midazolam and 1'-hydroxy midazolam in plasma by injection of 80 μL of protein precipitated plasma. The 4-column funnel set-up proved to be robust and resulted in a 10-50 times better sensitivity compared to a trap-elute approach and 250-500 fold better compared to direct micro-UHPLC analysis. A lower limit of quantification of 100 fg/mL in plasma was obtained for both probe compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that in 1990 the Department of Energy began a two-year project to illustrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new uranium enrichment technology-the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. GAO believes that completing the AVLIS demonstration project will provide valuable information about the technical viability and cost of building an AVLIS plant and will keep future plant construction options open. However, Congress should be aware that DOE still needs to adequately demonstrate AVLIS with full-scale equipment and develop convincing cost projects. Program activities, such as the plant-licensing process, that must be completed before a plant is built, could take many years. Further, an updated and expanded uranium enrichment analysis will be needed before any decision is made about building an AVLIS plant. GAO, which has long supported legislation that would restructure DOE's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation, encourages DOE's goal of transferring AVLIS to the corporation. This could reduce the government's financial risk and help ensure that the decision to build an AVLIS plant is based on commercial concerns. DOE, however, has no alternative plans should the government corporation not be formed. Further, by curtailing a planned public access program, which would have given private firms an opportunity to learn about the technology during the demonstration project, DOE may limit its ability to transfer AVLIS to the private sector

  2. New generation enrichment monitoring technology for gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianakiev, Kiril D.; Alexandrov, Boian S.; Boyer, Brian D.; Hill, Thomas R.; Macarthur, Duncan W.; Marks, Thomas; Moss, Calvin E.; Sheppard, Gregory A.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2008-01-01

    The continuous enrichment monitor, developed and fielded in the 1990s by the International Atomic Energy Agency, provided a go-no-go capability to distinguish between UF 6 containing low enriched (approximately 4% 235 U) and highly enriched (above 20% 235 U) uranium. This instrument used the 22-keV line from a 109 Cd source as a transmission source to achieve a high sensitivity to the UF 6 gas absorption. The 1.27-yr half-life required that the source be periodically replaced and the instrument recalibrated. The instrument's functionality and accuracy were limited by the fact that measured gas density and gas pressure were treated as confidential facility information. The modern safeguarding of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant producing low-enriched UF 6 product aims toward a more quantitative flow and enrichment monitoring concept that sets new standards for accuracy stability, and confidence. An instrument must be accurate enough to detect the diversion of a significant quantity of material, have virtually zero false alarms, and protect the operator's proprietary process information. We discuss a new concept for advanced gas enrichment assay measurement technology. This design concept eliminates the need for the periodic replacement of a radioactive source as well as the need for maintenance by experts. Some initial experimental results will be presented.

  3. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This paper analyzes under four different scenarios the adequacy of a $500 million annual deposit into a fund to pay for the cost of cleaning up the Department of Energy's (DOE) three aging uranium enrichment plants. These plants are located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. In summary the following was found: A fixed annual $500 million deposit made into a cleanup fund would not be adequate to cover total expected cleanup costs, nor would it be adequate to cover expected decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) costs. A $500 million annual deposit indexed to an inflation rate would likely be adequate to pay for all expected cleanup costs, including D and D costs, remedial action, and depleted uranium costs

  4. Juvenile psittacine environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth; Rupley, Agnes E

    2015-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is of great import to the emotional, intellectual, and physical development of the juvenile psittacine and their success in the human home environment. Five major types of enrichment include social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional. Occupational enrichment includes exercise and psychological enrichment. Physical enrichment includes the cage and accessories and the external home environment. Sensory enrichment may be visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or taste oriented. Nutritional enrichment includes variations in appearance, type, and frequency of diet, and treats, novelty, and foraging. Two phases of the preadult period deserve special enrichment considerations: the development of autonomy and puberty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Motif enrichment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatti, Charles; Sinha, Saurabh

    2014-07-01

    The Motif Enrichment Tool (MET) provides an online interface that enables users to find major transcriptional regulators of their gene sets of interest. MET searches the appropriate regulatory region around each gene and identifies which transcription factor DNA-binding specificities (motifs) are statistically overrepresented. Motif enrichment analysis is currently available for many metazoan species including human, mouse, fruit fly, planaria and flowering plants. MET also leverages high-throughput experimental data such as ChIP-seq and DNase-seq from ENCODE and ModENCODE to identify the regulatory targets of a transcription factor with greater precision. The results from MET are produced in real time and are linked to a genome browser for easy follow-up analysis. Use of the web tool is free and open to all, and there is no login requirement. ADDRESS: http://veda.cs.uiuc.edu/MET/. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Other enrichment related contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to long-term enrichment contracts, DOE has other types of contracts: (1) short-term, fixed-commitment enrichment contract; (2) emergency sales agreement for enriched uranium; (3) feed material lease agreement; (4) enriched uranium storage agreement; and (5) feed material usage agreement

  7. Derived enriched uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-01-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market

  8. Uranium enrichment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.C.; Gagne, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are covered: the status of the Government's existing uranium enrichment services contracts, natural uranium requirements based on the latest contract information, uncertainty in predicting natural uranium requirements based on uranium enrichment contracts, and domestic and foreign demand assumed in enrichment planning

  9. Uranium Enrichment, an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    This general presentation on uranium enrichment will be followed by lectures on more specific topics including descriptions of enrichment processes and assessments of the prevailing commercial and industrial situations. I shall therefore avoid as much as possible duplications with these other lectures, and rather dwell on: some theoretical aspects of enrichment in general, underlying the differences between statistical and selective processes, a review and comparison between enrichment processes, remarks of general order regarding applications, the proliferation potential of enrichment. It is noteworthy that enrichment: may occur twice in the LWR fuel cycle: first by enriching natural uranium, second by reenriching uranium recovered from reprocessing, must meet LWR requirements, and in particular higher assays required by high burn up fuel elements, bears on the structure of the entire front part of the fuel cycle, namely in the conversion/reconversion steps only involving UF 6 for the moment. (author). tabs., figs., 4 refs

  10. Utilizing ion-pairing hydrophilic interaction chromatography solid phase extraction for efficient glycopeptide enrichment in glycoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysling, Simon; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Højrup, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Glycopeptide enrichment is a prerequisite to enable structural characterization of protein glycosylation in glycoproteomics. Here we present an improved method for glycopeptide enrichment based on zwitter-ionic hydrophilic interaction chromatography solid phase extraction (ZIC-HILIC SPE...

  11. Advanced enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.

    1988-01-01

    BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century

  12. Advanced enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.

    1987-01-01

    BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century. (author)

  13. How to Be Both Rich and Happy: Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Strategic Reasoning about Multi-Player Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulling, Nils; Goranko, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    We propose a logical framework combining a game-theoretic study of abilities of agents to achieve quantitative objectives in multi-player games by optimizing payoffs or preferences on outcomes with a logical analysis of the abilities of players for achieving qualitative objectives of players, i.......e., reaching or maintaining game states with desired properties. We enrich concurrent game models with payoffs for the normal form games associated with the states of the model and propose a quantitative extension of the logic ATL* enabling the combination of quantitative and qualitative reasoning....

  14. How to Be Both Rich and Happy: Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Strategic Reasoning about Multi-Player Games (Extended Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Bulling

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a logical framework combining a game-theoretic study of abilities of agents to achieve quantitative objectives in multi-player games by optimizing payoffs or preferences on outcomes with a logical analysis of the abilities of players for achieving qualitative objectives of players, i.e., reaching or maintaining game states with desired properties. We enrich concurrent game models with payoffs for the normal form games associated with the states of the model and propose a quantitative extension of the logic ATL* enabling the combination of quantitative and qualitative reasoning.

  15. Uranium enrichment: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazalet, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is a general presentation of uranium enrichment processes and assessments of the prevailing commercial and industrial situations. It gives first some theoretical aspects of enrichment in general and explains the differences between statistical and selective processes in particular. Then a review of the different processes is made with a comparison between them. Finally, some general remarks concerning applications are given and the risks of proliferation related to enrichment are mentioned. (J.S.). 4 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  16. The enrichment secondary market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einbund, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper will addresses two topics: the background to the present status of the enrichment secondary market and the future outlook of the secondary market in enrichment services, and the viability of the nuclear fuel brokerage industry. These two topics are inevitably connected, as most secondary market activity, not only in enrichment but also in natural uranium, has traditionally been conducted with the participation of brokers. Therefore, the author interrelates these topics

  17. Uranium enrichment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, R.W.; Thomas, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    The status of existing uranium enrichment contracts in the US is reviewed and expected natural uranium requirements for existing domestic uranium enrichment contracts are evaluated. Uncertainty in natural uranium requirements associated with requirements-type and fixed-commitment type contracts is discussed along with implementation of variable tails assay

  18. Developments in uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrhauer, H.

    1995-01-01

    The enrichment services market is still characterized by overcapacities. While consumption worldwide will rise by some 15% to 39,000 t SWU/a over the next ten years, capacities amount to nearly 50,000 t SWU/a. The price for enrichment services probably has reached its all time low. Prices below U.S. $ 100/kg SWU are not likely to cover costs even of the economically most advanced enrichment processes. Urenco has prepared for the difficult enrichment business in the years to come by streamlining and cost cutting measures. The company intends to hold and increase its share of more than 10% in the world market. The uranium enrichment plant of Gronau will be expanded further. Expansion beyond 1000 t is subject to another permit being granted under the Atomic Energy Act, an application for which was filed in December 1994. Centrifuge technology is the superior enrichment technology, i.e., there is still considerable potential for further development. Construction of enrichment plants employing the centrifuge technology in the United States and in France is being pursued in various phases, from feasibility studies to licensing procedures. Before these plants could be implemented, however, considerable problems of organization would have to be solved, and the market would have to change greatly, respectively. The laser process, at the present time, does not seem to be able to develop into a major industrial competitor. (orig.) [de

  19. TRIGA low enrichment fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gietzen, A.

    1993-01-01

    Sixty TRIGA reactors have been sold and the earliest of these are now passing twenty years of operation. All of these reactors use the uranium zirconium hydride fuel (UZrH) which provides certain unique advantages arising out of its large prompt negative temperature coefficient, very low fission product release, and high temperature capability. Eleven of these Sixty reactors are conversions from plate fuel to TRIGA fuel which were made as a result of these advantages. With only a few exceptions, TRIGA reactors have always used low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel with an enrichment of 19.9%. The exceptions have either been converted from the standard low-enriched fuel to the 70% enriched FLIP fuel in order to achieve extended lifetime, or are higher powered reactors which were designed for long life using 93%-enriched uranium during the time when the use and export of highly enriched uranium (HEU) was not restricted. The advent of international policies focusing attention on nonproliferation and safeguards made the HEU fuels obsolete. General Atomic immediately undertook a development effort (nearly two years ago) in order to be in a position to comply with these policies for all future export sales and also to provide a low-enriched alternative to fully enriched plate-type fuels. This important work was subsequently partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The laboratory and production tests have shown that higher uranium densities can be achieved to compensate for reducing the enrichment to 20%, and that the fuels maintain the characteristics of the very thoroughly proven standard TRIGA fuels. In May of 1978, General Atomic announced that these fuels were available for TRIGA reactors and for plate-type reactors with power levels up to 15 MW with General Atomic's standard commercial warranty

  20. TRIGA low enrichment fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gietzen, A.

    1993-01-01

    Sixty TRIGA reactors have been sold and the earliest of these are now passing twenty years of operation. All of these reactors use the uranium-zirconium hydride fuel (UZrH) which provides certain unique advantages arising out of its large prompt negative temperature coefficient, very low fission product release, and high temperature capability. Eleven of these Sixty reactors are conversions from plate fuel to TRIGA fuel which were made as a result of these advantages. With only a few exceptions, TRIGA reactors have always used low-enriched-uranium (LEU) fuel with an enrichment of 19.9%. The exceptions have either been converted from the standard low-enriched fuel to the 70% enriched FLIP fuel in order to achieve extended lifetime, or are higher powered reactors which were designed for long life using 93%-enriched uranium during the time when the use and export of highly enriched uranium (HEU) was not restricted. The advent of international policies focusing attention on nonproliferation and safeguards made the HEU fuels obsolete. General Atomic immediately undertook a development effort (nearly two years ago) in order to be in a position to comply with these policies for all future export sales and also to provide a low-enriched alternative to fully enriched plate-type fuels. This important work was subsequently partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The laboratory and production tests have shown that higher uranium densities can be achieved to compensate for reducing the enrichment to 20%, and that the fuels maintain the characteristics of the very thoroughly proven standard TRIGA fuels. In May of 1978, General Atomic announced that these fuels were available for TRIGA reactors and for plate-type reactors with power levels up to 15 MW with GA's standard commercial warranty

  1. Environmental enrichment choices of shelter cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J J; Stryhn, H; Spears, J; Cockram, M S

    2017-08-01

    Choices made by cats between different types of environmental enrichment may help shelters to prioritize how to most effectively enrich cat housing, especially when limited by space or funds. This study investigates the environmental enrichment use of cats in a choice test. Twenty-six shelter cats were kept singularly in choice chambers for 10days. Each chamber had a central area and four centrally-linked compartments containing different types of environmental enrichment: 1) an empty control, 2) a prey-simulating toy, 3) a perching opportunity, and 4) a hiding opportunity. Cat movement between compartments was quantitatively recorded using a data-logger. Enriched compartments were visited significantly more frequently during the light period than during the dark period. Cats spent a significantly greater percentage of time in the hiding compartment (median=55%, IQR=46) than in the toy compartment (median=2%, IQR=9), or in the empty control compartment (median=4%, IQR=4). These results provide additional evidence to support the value of a hiding box to cats housed in a novel environment, in that they choose hiding relative to other types of environmental enrichment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Enriching Orphans’ Potentials through Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Intelligence Enrichment Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurulwahida Hj Azid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orphans are considered a minority and they should be given a greater emphasis so that they do not feel left out and can build their own lives without a sense of humility. This does not mean that the orphans should be pampered instead they should be given the confidence and motivation to strive for success in later life. Humility among orphans can be associated with interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of problem-solving activity treatment based on the interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. 46 students from two orphanages were involved as the treatment group. The research design used was a one-group pretest-posttest design applied through a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Enrichment activities that provided interpersonal and intrapersonal skills as evidenced in this study should be carried out regularly at orphanages. Our study has proven that orphans‟ rights to learn cannot be neglected and „no child left behind „policy needs to be carried through by everybody involved with orphans‟ well-being. Teachers and carers need to be trained to use these enrichment activities at their orphanages to help maximize the orphans‟ potentials.

  3. Evaluating biomarkers for prognostic enrichment of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Kathleen F; Roth, Jeremy; Zhu, Kehao; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Meisner, Allison; Wilson, Francis Perry; Coca, Steven; Parikh, Chirag R

    2017-12-01

    A potential use of biomarkers is to assist in prognostic enrichment of clinical trials, where only patients at relatively higher risk for an outcome of interest are eligible for the trial. We investigated methods for evaluating biomarkers for prognostic enrichment. We identified five key considerations when considering a biomarker and a screening threshold for prognostic enrichment: (1) clinical trial sample size, (2) calendar time to enroll the trial, (3) total patient screening costs and the total per-patient trial costs, (4) generalizability of trial results, and (5) ethical evaluation of trial eligibility criteria. Items (1)-(3) are amenable to quantitative analysis. We developed the Biomarker Prognostic Enrichment Tool for evaluating biomarkers for prognostic enrichment at varying levels of screening stringency. We demonstrate that both modestly prognostic and strongly prognostic biomarkers can improve trial metrics using Biomarker Prognostic Enrichment Tool. Biomarker Prognostic Enrichment Tool is available as a webtool at http://prognosticenrichment.com and as a package for the R statistical computing platform. In some clinical settings, even biomarkers with modest prognostic performance can be useful for prognostic enrichment. In addition to the quantitative analysis provided by Biomarker Prognostic Enrichment Tool, investigators must consider the generalizability of trial results and evaluate the ethics of trial eligibility criteria.

  4. Energy consumption of chemical uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, T.; Takeda, K.; Obanawa, H.

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative study of chemical separation energy for enriching uranium-235 by the redox chromatography was conducted. Isotope exchange reactions between U 4+ -UO 2 2+ ions in the enrichment column are maintained by the redox reactions. The chemical separation energy is ultimately supplied by hydrogen and oxygen gas for regenerating redox agents. The redox energy for the isotope separation is theoretically predicted as a function of the dynamic enrichment factor observed in the chromatographic development of uranium adsorption band. Thermodynamic treatments of the equilibrium reactions implies and inverse redox reaction which can be enhanced by the chemical potential of the ion-exchange reaction of oxidant. Experimental results showed 30 to 90% recovery of the redox energy by the inverse reaction. These results will devise a simplified redox chromatography process where a number of columns in one module is reduced

  5. The competitive enrichment market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, J.W.; Huffman, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    With the enactment of the ''Private Ownership of Special Nuclear Materials Act'' in 1964, the U.S. Government made provisions to enter into the uranium enrichment services business. Since nuclear power was in its infancy and the Government was promoting its growth as well as trying to help U.S. industry sell reactors overseas, the initial contracts (Requirements Contracts) for enrichment services placed most of the risks associated with the supplying of the services on the Government. Projections of nuclear power additions continued to grow and in 1972 the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) stopped contracting under Requirements Contracts in order to study which mode of contracting best suited the commercial development of the industry. In mid-1973, the AEC introduced the Long-Term Fixed Commitment (LTFC) contract which shifted the risk to the customer. By mid-1974, AEC had contracts which completely used the enrichment capacity of its complex and refused to accept requests for additional contracts. This action further convinced European nations that they should continue to develop their own enrichment capacity and resulted in the EURODIF and URENCO projects. Before this time the U.S. supplied 100% of the world market for enriching services

  6. Enrichment: Dealing with overcapacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, C.H.

    1989-01-01

    Today's surplus of enrichment capacity will continue until at least the end of this century. This will challenge the ingenuity of the separative work unit (SWU) suppliers as they attempt to keep market share and remain profitable in a very competitive marketplace. The utilities will be faced with attractive choices, but making the best choice will require careful analysis and increased attention to market factors. Current demand projections will probably prove too high to the extent that more reactors are canceled or delayed. The DOE has the vast majority of the unused capacity, so it will feel the most immediate impact of this large surplus in productive capacity. The DOE has responded to these market challenges by planning another reorganization of its enriching operations. Without a major agreement among the governments affected by the current surplus in enrichment capacity, the future will see lower prices, more competitive terms, and the gradual substitution of centrifuge or laser enrichment for the gaseous diffusion plants. The competition that is forcing the gaseous diffusion prices down to marginal cost will provide the long-term price basis for the enrichment industry

  7. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, Olli [Senior Fellow, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  8. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  9. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  10. Centrifuge enrichment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astley, E.R.

    1976-01-01

    Exxon Nuclear has been active in privately funded research and development of centrifuge enrichment technology since 1972. In October of 1975, Exxon Nuclear submitted a proposal to design, construct, and operate a 3000-MT SWU/yr centrifuge enrichment plant, under the provisions of the proposed Nuclear Fuel Assurance Act of 1975. The U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) accepted the proposal as a basis for negotiation. It was proposed to build a 1000-MT SWU/yr demonstration increment to be operational in 1982; and after successful operation for about one year, expand the facilities into a 3000-MT SWU/yr plant. As part of the overall centrifuge enrichment plant, a dedicated centrifuge manufacturing plant would be constructed; sized to support the full 3000-MT SWU/yr plant. The selection of the centrifuge process by Exxon Nuclear was based on an extremely thorough evaluation of current and projected enrichment technology; results show that the technology is mature and the process will be cost effective. The substantial savings in energy (about 93%) from utilization of the centrifuge option rather than gaseous diffusion is a compelling argument. As part of this program, Exxon Nuclear has a large hardware R and D program, plus a prototype centrifuge manufacturing capability in Malta, New York. To provide a full-scale machine and limited cascade test capability, Exxon Nuclear is constructing a $4,000,000 Centrifuge Test Facility in Richland, Washington. This facility was to initiate operations in the Fall of 1976. Exxon Nuclear is convinced that the centrifuge enrichment process is the rational selection for emergence of a commercial enrichment industry

  11. US enrichment reduction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    A major national program, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, is currently under way in the U.S., centered at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), to reduce the potential of research and test reactor fuels for increasing the proliferation of nuclear explosive devices. The main objective of the program is to provide the technical means by which the uranium enrichment to be used in these reactors can be reduced to less than 20% without significant economic and performance penalties. The criteria, basis and goals of the program are consistent with the results of a number of case studies which have been performed as part of the program

  12. Advanced uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerc, M.; Plurien, P.

    1986-01-01

    Three advanced Uranium enrichment processes are dealt with in the report: AVLIS (Atomic Vapour LASER Isotope Separation), MLIS (Molecular LASER Isotope Separation) and PSP (Plasma Separation Process). The description of the physical and technical features of the processes constitutes a major part of the report. If further presents comparisons with existing industrially used enrichment technologies, gives information on actual development programmes and budgets and ends with a chapter on perspectives and conclusions. An extensive bibliography of the relevant open literature is added to the different subjects discussed. The report was drawn up by the nuclear research Centre (CEA) Saclay on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities

  13. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  14. Organising to Enable Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to reveal how organising can enable innovation across organisational layers and organisational units. This approach calls for a cross-disciplinary literature review. The aim is to provide an integrated understanding of innovation in an organisational approach....... The findings reveal a continous organising process between individual/ team creativity and organisational structures/control to enable innovation at firm level. Organising provides a dynamic approach and contains the integrated reconstruction of creativity, structures and boundaries for enhanced balance...... of explorative and exploitative learning in uncertain environments. Shedding light on the cross-disciplinary theories to organise innovation provides a contribution at the firm level to enable innovation....

  15. Quantitative Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jean; van der Beek, Peter; Batt, Geoffrey

    2006-05-01

    Thermochronology, the study of the thermal history of rocks, enables us to quantify the nature and timing of tectonic processes. Quantitative Thermochronology is a robust review of isotopic ages, and presents a range of numerical modeling techniques to allow the physical implications of isotopic age data to be explored. The authors provide analytical, semi-analytical, and numerical solutions to the heat transfer equation in a range of tectonic settings and under varying boundary conditions. They then illustrate their modeling approach built around a large number of case studies. The benefits of different thermochronological techniques are also described. Computer programs on an accompanying website at www.cambridge.org/9780521830577 are introduced through the text and provide a means of solving the heat transport equation in the deforming Earth to predict the ages of rocks and compare them directly to geological and geochronological data. Several short tutorials, with hints and solutions, are also included. Numerous case studies help geologists to interpret age data and relate it to Earth processes Essential background material to aid understanding and using thermochronological data Provides a thorough treatise on numerical modeling of heat transport in the Earth's crust Supported by a website hosting relevant computer programs and colour slides of figures from the book for use in teaching

  16. An Enriching Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Nancy A.; Burroughs, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Successful school-community partnerships in Volusia (Florida) Public Schools are the results of marketing creatively, meeting community members' needs, and bringing the right people together. The 3-year old program now offers students of all ages an expanding list of enrichment classes on many subjects for a nominal fee. (MLH)

  17. Uranium enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdoun, N.A.

    2007-01-01

    This article includes an introduction about the isotopes of natural uranium, their existence and the difficulty of the separation between them. Then it goes to the details of a number of methods used to enrich uranium: Gaseous Diffusion method, Electromagnetic method, Jet method, Centrifugal method, Chemical method, Laser method and Plasma method.

  18. Requirements for enrichment tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; Winkels, R.; Trompper, M.

    2016-01-01

    This report gives a high level overview of requirements for Enrichment tools in the Openlaws.eu project. Openlaws.eu aims to initiate a platform and develop a vision for Big Open Legal Data (BOLD): an open framework for legislation, case law, and legal literature from across Europe.

  19. Enriching the Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Roy

    2004-01-01

    After decades of costly and time-consuming effort, nearly all libraries have completed the retrospective conversion of their card catalogs to electronic form. However, bibliographic systems still are really not much more than card catalogs on wheels. Enriched content that Amazon.com takes for granted--such as digitized tables of contents, cover…

  20. Availability of enrichment services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svenke, E.

    1977-01-01

    The report summarizes major uncertainties which are likely to influence future demands for uranium isotopic enrichment. Since for the next decade the development of nuclear power will be largely concerned with the increment in demand the timely need for enrichment capacity will be particularly sensitive to assumptions about growth rates. Existing worldwide capacity together with capacities under construction will be sufficient well into the 1980's. However, long decision and construction leadtime, uncertainty as to future demand as well as other factors, specifically high capital need, all of which entail financial risks, create hindrances to a timely development of increment. The adequacy of current technology is well demonstrated in plant operation and new technology is under way. Technology is, however, not freely available on a purely commercial basis. Commercial willingness, which anticipates a limited degree of financial risk, is requesting both long term back-up from the utilities that would parallel their firm decisions on the acquisition of nuclear power units, and a protective government umbrella. This situation depends on the symbiotic relationship that exists between the nuclear power generating organizations, the enrichment undertakings and the governments involved. The report accordingly stresses the need for a more cooperative approach and this, moreover, at the multinational level. There is otherwise a risk that proper resources and financing means will not be allocated to the enrichment sector. Export limitations that request the highest degree of industrial processing of nuclear fuel, i.e. the compulsory enrichment of natural uranium, do not serve the interests of overall industrial efficiency

  1. Promotion of uranium enrichment business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurushima, Morihiro

    1981-01-01

    The Committee on Nuclear Power has studied on the basic nuclear power policy, establishing its five subcommittees, entrusted by the Ministry of Nternational Trade and Industry. The results of examination by the subcommittee on uranium enrichment business are given along with a report in this connection by the Committee. In order to establish the nuclear fuel cycle, the aspect of uranium enrichment is essential. The uranium enrichment by centrifugal process has proceeded steadily in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The following matters are described: the need for domestic uranium enrichment, the outlook for overseas enrichment services and the schedule for establishing domestic enrichment business, the current state of technology development, the position of the prototype enrichment plant, the course to be taken to establish enrichment business the main organization operating the prototype and commercial plants, the system of supplying centrifuges, the domestic conversion of natural uranium the subsidies for uranium enrichment business. (J.P.N.)

  2. United States uranium enrichment policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    ERDA's uranium enrichment program policies governing the manner in which ERDA's enrichment complex is being operated and expanded to meet customer requirements for separative work, research and development activities directed at providing technology alternatives for future enrichment capacity, and establishing the framework for additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity to meet the domestic and foreign nuclear industry's growing demand for enrichment services are considered. The ERDA enrichment complex consists of three gaseous diffusion plants located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. Today, these plants provide uranium enrichment services for commercial nuclear power generation. These enrichment services are provided under contracts between the Government and the utility customers. ERDA's program involves a major pilot plant cascade, and pursues an advanced isotope separation technique for the late 1980's. That the United States must develop additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity is discussed

  3. Integrating molecular QTL data into genome-wide genetic association analysis: Probabilistic assessment of enrichment and colocalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoquan Wen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel statistical framework for integrating the result from molecular quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping into genome-wide genetic association analysis of complex traits, with the primary objectives of quantitatively assessing the enrichment of the molecular QTLs in complex trait-associated genetic variants and the colocalizations of the two types of association signals. We introduce a natural Bayesian hierarchical model that treats the latent association status of molecular QTLs as SNP-level annotations for candidate SNPs of complex traits. We detail a computational procedure to seamlessly perform enrichment, fine-mapping and colocalization analyses, which is a distinct feature compared to the existing colocalization analysis procedures in the literature. The proposed approach is computationally efficient and requires only summary-level statistics. We evaluate and demonstrate the proposed computational approach through extensive simulation studies and analyses of blood lipid data and the whole blood eQTL data from the GTEx project. In addition, a useful utility from our proposed method enables the computation of expected colocalization signals using simple characteristics of the association data. Using this utility, we further illustrate the importance of enrichment analysis on the ability to discover colocalized signals and the potential limitations of currently available molecular QTL data. The software pipeline that implements the proposed computation procedures, enloc, is freely available at https://github.com/xqwen/integrative.

  4. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Slaug, Bjørn; Brandt, Åse

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients and their home environments. The instrument was translated...... from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently from each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  5. Pilot project as enabler?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neisig, Margit; Glimø, Helle; Holm, Catrine Granzow

    This article deals with a systemic perspective on transition. The field of study addressed is a pilot project as enabler of transition in a highly complex polycentric context. From a Luhmannian systemic approach, a framework is created to understand and address barriers of change occurred using...... pilot projects as enabler of transition. Aspects of how to create trust and deal with distrust during a transition are addressed. The transition in focus is the concept of New Public Management and how it is applied in the management of the Employment Service in Denmark. The transition regards...

  6. Future of uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosmer, C.

    1981-01-01

    The increasing amount of separative work being done in government facilities to produce low-enriched uranium fuel for nuclear utilities again raises the question: should this business-type, industrial function be burned over the private industry. The idea is being looked at by the Reagan administration, but faces problems of national security as well as from the unique nature of the business. This article suggests that a joint government-private venture combining enriching, reprocessing, and waste disposal could be the answer. Further, a separate entity using advanced laser technology to deplete existing uranium tails and lease them for fertile blankets in breeder reactors might earn substantial revenues to help reduce the national debt

  7. South Australia, uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    The Report sets out the salient data relating to the establishment of a uranium processing centre at Redcliff in South Australia. It is conceived as a major development project for the Commonwealth, the South Australian Government and Australian Industry comprising the refining and enrichment of uranium produced from Australian mines. Using the data currently available in respect of markets, demand, technology and possible financial return from overseas sales, the project could be initiated immediately with hexafluoride production, followed rapidly in stages by enrichment production using the centrifuge process. A conceptual development plan is presented, involving a growth pattern that would be closely synchronised with the mining and production of yellowcake. The proposed development is presented in the form of an eight-and-half-year programme. Costs in this Report are based on 1975 values, unless otherwise stated. (Author)

  8. Enabling distributed collaborative science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, T.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Maglaughlin, K.

    2000-01-01

    To enable collaboration over distance, a collaborative environment that uses a specialized scientific instrument called a nanoManipulator is evaluated. The nanoManipulator incorporates visualization and force feedback technology to allow scientists to see, feel, and modify biological samples bein...

  9. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, T.; Nygren, C.; Slaug, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument was transla......This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument...... was translated from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers, and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently of each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  10. Unattended safeguards instrumentation at centrifuge enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L. Eric; Lebrun, Alain R.; Labella, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    As global uranium enrichment capacity under international safeguards expands, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is challenged to develop effective safeguards approaches at gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants, particularly high‑capacity plants, while working within budgetary constraints. New safeguards approaches should meet the high‑level verification objectives for such facilities (i.e., timely detection of: diversion of declared material, excess production beyond declared amounts, and production of enrichment levels higher than declared), but should also strive for efficiency advantages in implementation, for both the IAEA and operators. Under the Agency’s State- level approach to safeguards implementation, the Agency needs a flexible toolbox of technologies, allowing tailoring of safeguards measures for each individual enrichment facility. In this paper, the potential roles and development status for three different types of unattended measurement instrumentation are discussed. On‑Line Enrichment Monitors (OLEM) could provide continuous enrichment measurement for 100% of the declared gas flowing through unit header pipes. Unattended Cylinder Verification Stations (UCVS) could provide unattended verification of the declared uranium mass and enrichment of 100% of the cylinders moving through the plant, but also apply and verify an ‘NDA Fingerprint’ to preserve verification knowledge on the contents of each cylinder throughout its life in the facility. Sharing of the operator’s load cell signals from feed and withdrawal stations could count all cylinders introduced to the process and provide periodic monitoring of the uranium mass balance for in‑process material. The integration of load cell, OLEM and UCVS data streams offers the possibility for 100% verification of declared cylinder flow, and enables the periodic verification of the declared 235 U mass balance in the plant. These new capabilities would enhance the IAEA

  11. Spatially enabled land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    enabling of land administration systems managing tenure, valuation, planning, and development will allow the information generated by these activities to be much more useful. Also, the services available to private and public sectors and to community organisations should commensurably improve. Knowledge....... In other words: Good governance and sustainable development is not attainable without sound land administration or - more broadly – sound land management. The paper presents a land management vision that incorporates the benefits of ICT enabled land administration functions. The idea is that spatial...... the communication between administrative systems and also establish more reliable data due to the use the original data instead of copies. In Denmark, such governmental guidelines for a service-oriented ITarchitecture in support of e-government are recently adopted. Finally, the paper presents the role of FIG...

  12. Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse

    Development and reliability testing of the Nordic Housing Enabler – an instrument for accessibility assessment of the physical housing. Tina Helle & Åse Brandt University of Lund, Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine (SE) and University College Northern Jutland, Occupational Therapy department (DK......). Danish Centre for Assistive Technology. Abstract. For decades, accessibility to the physical housing environment for people with functional limitations has been of interest politically, professionally and for the users. Guidelines and norms on accessible housing design have gradually been developed......, however, the built environment shows serious deficits when it comes to accessibility. This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of inter-rater reliability, when used in occupational therapy practice. The instrument was translated from...

  13. Enabling Wind Power Nationwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose Zayas, Michael Derby, Patrick Gilman and Shreyas Ananthan,

    2015-05-01

    Leveraging this experience, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has evaluated the potential for wind power to generate electricity in all 50 states. This report analyzes and quantifies the geographic expansion that could be enabled by accessing higher above ground heights for wind turbines and considers the means by which this new potential could be responsibly developed.

  14. Progress in ultra-centrifuge enrichment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul Dawson

    2006-01-01

    Urenco have undertaken a continuous development programme in centrifuge technology for over 35 years. This has seen development from sub-critical machines in the mid 1970's through to the company's world leading TC12 supercritical centrifuge, which has been deployed on a large-scale basis over the last decade. The latest centrifuge to emerge from this programme is Urenco's sixth generation centrifuge, the TC21, which will be commercially deployed from mid-2007 onwards. In recent times Urenco has vested its centrifuge technology in Enrichment Technology Company (ETC) as a vehicle to enable the use of this advanced technology by other operators for commercial purposes. This paper reviews why Urenco and ETC believe this technology represents the best choice for creating new global commercial enrichment capacity and its future development prospects. (author)

  15. Beta activity of enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambiar, P.P.V.J.; Ramachandran, V.

    1975-01-01

    Use of enriched uranium as reactor fuel necessitates its handling in various forms. For purposes of planning and organising radiation protection measures in enriched uranium handling facilities, it is necessary to have a basic knowledge of the radiation status of enriched uranium systems. The theoretical variations in beta activity and energy with U 235 enrichment are presented. Depletion is considered separately. Beta activity build up is also studied for two specific enrichments, in respect of which experimental values for specific alpha activity are available. (author)

  16. Blueprint for domestic uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The AEC advisory committee on domestic production of uranium enrichment has studied for more than a year how to achieve the domestic enrichment of uranium by the construction and operation of a commercial enriching plant using centrifugal separation method, and the report was submitted to the Atomic Energy Commission on August 18, 1980. Japan has depended wholly on overseas services for her uranium enrichment needs, but the development of domestic enrichment has been carried on in parallel. The AEC decided to construct a uranium enrichment pilot plant using centrifuges, and it has been forwarded as a national project. The plant is operated by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. since 1979. The capacity of the plant will be raised to approximately 75 ton SWU a year. The centrifuges already operated have provided the first delivery of fuel of about 1 ton for the ATR ''Fugen''. The demand-supply balance of uranium enrichment service, the significance of the domestic enrichment of uranium, the evaluation of uranium enrichment technology, the target for domestic enrichment plan, the measures to promote domestic uranium enrichment, and the promotion of the construction of a demonstration plant are reported. (Kako, I.)

  17. Uranium enrichment by gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriot, I.D.

    1988-01-01

    After recalling the physical principles and the techniques of centrifuge enrichment the report describes the centrifuge enrichment programmes of the various countries concerned and compares this technology with other enrichment technologies like gaseous diffusion, laser, aerodynamic devices and chemical processes. The centrifuge enrichment process is said to be able to replace with advantage the existing enrichment facilities in the short and medium term. Future prospects of the process are also described, like recycled uranium enrichment and economic improvements; research and development needs to achieve the economic prospects are also indicated. Finally the report takes note of the positive aspect of centrifuge enrichment as far as safeguards and nuclear safety are concerned. 27 figs, 113 refs

  18. Radiometric enrichment of nonradioactive ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokrousov, V.A.; Lileev, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    Considered are the methods of mineral enrichment based on the use of the radioation of various types. The physical essence of enrichment processes is presented, their classification is given. Described are the ore properties influencing the efficiency of radiometric enrichment, methods of the properties study and estimation of ore enrichment. New possibilities opened by radiometric enrichment in the technology of primary processing of mineral raw materials are elucidated. A considerable attention is paid to the main and auxiliary equipment for radiometric enrichment. The foundations of the safety engineering are presented in a brief form. Presented are also results of investigations and practical works in the field of enrichment of ores of non-ferrous, ferrous and non-metallic minerals with the help of radiometric methods

  19. Enrichment measurement in TRIGA type fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar H, F.; Mazon R, R.

    2001-05-01

    The Department of Energy of the United States of North America, through the program 'Idaho Operations Nuclear Spent Fuel Program' of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), in Idaho Falls; Idaho USA, hires to Global Technologies Inc. (GTI) to develop a prototype device of detection enrichment uranium (DEU Detection of Enrichment of Uranium) to determine quantitatively the enrichment in remainder U-235 in a TRIGA fuel element at the end of it useful life. The characteristics of the prototype developed by GTI are the following ones: It allows to carry out no-destructive measurements of TRIGA type fuel. Easily transportable due to that reduced of it size. The determination of the enrichment (in grams of U-235) it is obtained with a precision of 5%. The National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ), in its facilities of the Nuclear Center of Mexico, it has TRIGA type fuel of high and low enrichment (standard and FLIP) fresh and with burnt, it also has the infrastructure (hot cells, armor-plating of transport, etc) and qualified personnel to carry out the necessary maneuvers to prove the operation of the DEU prototype. For this its would be used standard type fuel elements and FLIP, so much fresh as with certain burnt one. In the case of the fresh fuels the measurement doesn't represent any risk, the fuels before and after the measurement its don't contain a quantity of fission products that its represent a radiological risk in its manipulation; but in the case of the fuels with burnt the handling of the same ones represents an important radiological risk reason why for its manipulation it was used the transport armor-plating and the hot cells. (Author)

  20. The world enrichment market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, L.; McCants, C.; Rutkowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The enrichment market can be divided into two periods: the near-term market (1991 to 1995) and the long-term market (1995 and beyond). The near-term market is characterized by limited unfilled requirements of 4% per year, to be supplied by national stockpiles and excess inventories. This low-cost material will be drawn down by about 1993, causing a subsequent price rise. As the price rises, primary supplier activity is expected to increase. In the near-term, two contracting activities are apparent: spot; and intermediate-term. The current spot market is expected to last until available low cost inventories are drawn down. Recently, in attempts to gain market share, suppliers have offered attractively priced intermediate-term (3 year) contracts for 1996 to 1998. While a small spot market will continue after 1995, it is anticipated that utilities will prefer a mix of medium- and long-term (5 to 10 year) contracts from primary suppliers for most of their enrichment requirements. As national stockpiles and utility inventories are consumed, low-cost supply available to the spot market is expected to diminish. Consequently, with little low-cost supply available, the only apparent source of material will be from primary suppliers, and the resulting competition over market share is expected to be intense. (author)

  1. Quantitative secondary electron detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Joy, David C.; Nayak, Subuhadarshi

    2018-05-08

    Quantitative Secondary Electron Detection (QSED) using the array of solid state devices (SSD) based electron-counters enable critical dimension metrology measurements in materials such as semiconductors, nanomaterials, and biological samples (FIG. 3). Methods and devices effect a quantitative detection of secondary electrons with the array of solid state detectors comprising a number of solid state detectors. An array senses the number of secondary electrons with a plurality of solid state detectors, counting the number of secondary electrons with a time to digital converter circuit in counter mode.

  2. EnableATIS strategy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Enabling Advanced Traveler Information Systems (EnableATIS) is the traveler information component of the Dynamic Mobility Application (DMA) program. The objective of : the EnableATIS effort is to foster transformative traveler information application...

  3. Enabling Digital Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Georgsen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    There are some tensions between high-level policy definitions of “digital literacy” and actual teaching practice. We need to find workable definitions of digital literacy; obtain a better understanding of what digital literacy might look like in practice; and identify pedagogical approaches, which...... support teachers in designing digital literacy learning. We suggest that frameworks such as Problem Based Learning (PBL) are approaches that enable digital literacy learning because they provide good settings for engaging with digital literacy. We illustrate this through analysis of a case. Furthermore......, these operate on a meso-level mediating between high-level concepts of digital literacy and classroom practice....

  4. CtOS Enabler

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo Cepeda, Rodrigo; El Yamri El Khatibi, Meriem; Carrera García, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Las Smart Cities son, indudablemente, el futuro próximo de la tecnología al que nos acercamos cada día, lo que se puede observar en la abundancia de dispositivos móviles entre la población, que informatizan la vida cotidiana mediante el uso de la geolocalización y la información. Pretendemos unir estos dos ámbitos con CtOS Enabler para crear un estándar de uso que englobe todos los sistemas de Smart Cities y facilite a los desarrolladores de dicho software la creación de nuevas herramientas. ...

  5. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-12

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  6. Modular enrichment measurement system for in-situ enrichment assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    A modular enrichment measurement system has been designed and is in operation within General Electric's Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facility for the in-situ enrichment assay of uranium-bearing materials in process containers. This enrichment assay system, which is based on the ''enrichment meter'' concept, is an integral part of the site's enrichment control program and is used in the in-situ assay of the enrichment of uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) powder in process containers (five gallon pails). The assay system utilizes a commercially available modular counting system and a collimnator designed for compatability with process container transport lines and ease of operator access. The system has been upgraded to include a microprocessor-based controller to perform system operation functions and to provide data acquisition and processing functions. Standards have been fabricated and qualified for the enrichment assay of several types of uranium-bearing materials, including UO 2 powders. The assay system has performed in excess of 20,000 enrichment verification measurements annually and has significantly contributed to the facility's enrichment control program

  7. Enrichment of boron 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, C.M.M.; Rodrigues Filho, J.S.R.; Umeda, K.; Echternacht, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    A isotopic separation pilot plant with five ion exchange columns interconnected in series were designed and built in the IEN. The columns are charged with a strong anionic resin in its alkaline form. The boric acid solution is introduced in the separation columns until it reaches a absorbing zone length which is sufficient to obtain the desired boron-10 isotopic concentration. The boric acid absorbing zone movement is provided by the injection of a diluted hydrochloric acid solution, which replace the boric acid throughout the columns. The absorbing zone equilibrium length is proportional to its total length. The enriched boron-10 and the depleted boron are located in the final boundary and in the initial position of the absorbing zones, respectively. (author)

  8. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capossela, H.J.; Dwyer, J.R.; Luce, R.G.; McCoy, D.F.; Merriman, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect. 1 figure

  9. Advanced Neutron Source enrichment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.; Ludewig, H.; Weeks, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    A study has been performed of the impact on performance of using low-enriched uranium (20% 235 U) or medium-enriched uranium (35% 235 U) as an alternative fuel for the Advanced Neutron Source, which was initially designed to use uranium enriched to 93% 235 U. Higher fuel densities and larger volume cores were evaluated at the lower enrichments in terms of impact on neutron flux, safety, safeguards, technical feasibility, and cost. The feasibility of fabricating uranium silicide fuel at increasing material density was specifically addressed by a panel of international experts on research reactor fuels. The most viable alternative designs for the reactor at lower enrichments were identified and discussed. Several sensitivity analyses were performed to gain an understanding of the performance of the reactor at parametric values of power, fuel density, core volume, and enrichment that were interpolations between the boundary values imposed on the study or extrapolations from known technology

  10. Enabling graphene nanoelectronics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei; Ohta, Taisuke; Biedermann, Laura Butler; Gutierrez, Carlos; Nolen, C. M.; Howell, Stephen Wayne; Beechem Iii, Thomas Edwin; McCarty, Kevin F.; Ross, Anthony Joseph, III

    2011-09-01

    Recent work has shown that graphene, a 2D electronic material amenable to the planar semiconductor fabrication processing, possesses tunable electronic material properties potentially far superior to metals and other standard semiconductors. Despite its phenomenal electronic properties, focused research is still required to develop techniques for depositing and synthesizing graphene over large areas, thereby enabling the reproducible mass-fabrication of graphene-based devices. To address these issues, we combined an array of growth approaches and characterization resources to investigate several innovative and synergistic approaches for the synthesis of high quality graphene films on technologically relevant substrate (SiC and metals). Our work focused on developing the fundamental scientific understanding necessary to generate large-area graphene films that exhibit highly uniform electronic properties and record carrier mobility, as well as developing techniques to transfer graphene onto other substrates.

  11. Application of enriched stable isotopes as tracers in biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stürup, Stefan; Hansen, Helle Rüsz; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2008-01-01

    The application of enriched stable isotopes of minerals and trace elements as tracers in biological systems is a rapidly growing research field that benefits from the many new developments in inorganic mass spectrometric instrumentation, primarily within inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...... (ICP-MS) instrumentation, such as reaction/collision cell ICP-MS and multicollector ICP-MS with improved isotope ratio measurement and interference removal capabilities. Adaptation and refinement of radioisotope tracer experiment methodologies for enriched stable isotope experiments......, and the development of new methodologies coupled with more advanced compartmental and mathematical models for the distribution of elements in living organisms has enabled a broader use of enriched stable isotope experiments in the biological sciences. This review discusses the current and future uses of enriched...

  12. Quinone-Enriched Gold Nanoparticles in Bioelectrochemistry and Charge Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michal; Qvortrup, Katrine; Tanner, David Ackland

    for merging gold nanoparticles with resultant anthraquinones include one-pot microwave assisted synthesis or after-mixing of separately prepared gold nanoparticles with selected compounds. The quinone-enriched gold nanoparticles can be transferred onto different electrode surfaces, thus enabling facile...

  13. Development of a versatile enrichment analysis tool reveals associations between the maternal brain and mental health disorders, including autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A recent study of lateral septum (LS) suggested a large number of autism-related genes with altered expression in the postpartum state. However, formally testing the findings for enrichment of autism-associated genes proved to be problematic with existing software. Many gene-disease association databases have been curated which are not currently incorporated in popular, full-featured enrichment tools, and the use of custom gene lists in these programs can be difficult to perform and interpret. As a simple alternative, we have developed the Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET), a minimal tool that enables one to easily evaluate expression data for enrichment of any conceivable gene list of interest. Results The MSET approach was validated by testing several publicly available expression data sets for expected enrichment in areas of autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and arthritis. Using nine independent, unique autism gene lists extracted from association databases and two recent publications, a striking consensus of enrichment was detected within gene expression changes in LS of postpartum mice. A network of 160 autism-related genes was identified, representing developmental processes such as synaptic plasticity, neuronal morphogenesis, and differentiation. Additionally, maternal LS displayed enrichment for genes associated with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, ADHD, and depression. Conclusions The transition to motherhood includes the most fundamental social bonding event in mammals and features naturally occurring changes in sociability. Some individuals with autism, schizophrenia, or other mental health disorders exhibit impaired social traits. Genes involved in these deficits may also contribute to elevated sociability in the maternal brain. To date, this is the first study to show a significant, quantitative link between the maternal brain and mental health disorders using large scale gene expression data. Thus, the

  14. Enrichment plants. A survey of major new uranium enriching projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovan, D.

    1976-01-01

    The work enrichment situation is reported. The development of enrichment in the U.S. and in Europe is outlined. A brief description is given of the technology of separation by diffusion and by centrifugation and the advantages and disadvantages of the two processes are compared. Finally the supply and demand situation is briefly considered. (U.K.)

  15. Enriching Students’ Vocabulary Mastery Using Graphic Organizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaifudin Latif Darmawan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This action research is carried out to (1 identify whether graphic organizers enrich student’s vocabulary mastery; and (2 to describe the classroom situation when graphic organizers are employed in instructional process of vocabulary. The research is conducted in two cycles from March to May 2016/2017 in the eight years of SMP Muhammadiyah Sekampung, East lampung. The procedure of the research consists of identifying the problem, planning the action, implementing the action, observing the action, and reflecting the result of the research. Qualitative data are collected through interview, observation, questionnaire, and research diary. Quantitative data are collected through test. To analyze qualitative data, the researcher used constant comparative method. It consists of four steps: (1 comparing incidents applicable to each category; (2 Integrating categories and their properties; (3 delimiting the theory; (4 Writing the theory. Meanwhile, to analyze quantitative data, the researcher employed descriptive statistic.    The result of the research shows that using graphic organizers can enrich students’ vocabulary mastery and classroom situation. The improvement on students’ vocabulary included; a the students are able to speak English; b the students are able to understand the meaning of the text as they have a lot of vocabularies. The improvement of the classroom situation; (a students come on time in the class (b students are more motivated to join the class (c Students pay more attention in the instructional process (d students’ participation in responding the questions are high.

  16. Summer Enrichment Programs to Foster Interest in STEM Education for Students with Blindness or Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supalo, Cary A.; Hill, April A.; Larrick, Carleigh G.

    2014-01-01

    Hands-on science enrichment experiences can be limited for students with blindness or low vision (BLV). This manuscript describes recent hands-on summer enrichment programs held for BLV students. Also presented are innovative technologies that were developed to provide spoken quantitative feedback for BLV students engaged in hands-on science…

  17. Grid-Enabled Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Richard P.; Hesse, Bradford W.; Shaikh, Abdul R.; Courtney, Paul; Morgan, Glen; Augustson, Erik; Kobrin, Sarah; Levin, Kerry; Helba, Cynthia; Garner, David; Dunn, Marsha; Coa, Kisha

    2011-01-01

    Scientists are taking advantage of the Internet and collaborative web technology to accelerate discovery in a massively connected, participative environment —a phenomenon referred to by some as Science 2.0. As a new way of doing science, this phenomenon has the potential to push science forward in a more efficient manner than was previously possible. The Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database has been conceptualized as an instantiation of Science 2.0 principles by the National Cancer Institute with two overarching goals: (1) Promote the use of standardized measures, which are tied to theoretically based constructs; and (2) Facilitate the ability to share harmonized data resulting from the use of standardized measures. This is done by creating an online venue connected to the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) where a virtual community of researchers can collaborate together and come to consensus on measures by rating, commenting and viewing meta-data about the measures and associated constructs. This paper will describe the web 2.0 principles on which the GEM database is based, describe its functionality, and discuss some of the important issues involved with creating the GEM database, such as the role of mutually agreed-on ontologies (i.e., knowledge categories and the relationships among these categories— for data sharing). PMID:21521586

  18. Enabling distributed petascale science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranovski, Andrew; Bharathi, Shishir; Bresnahan, John

    2007-01-01

    Petascale science is an end-to-end endeavour, involving not only the creation of massive datasets at supercomputers or experimental facilities, but the subsequent analysis of that data by a user community that may be distributed across many laboratories and universities. The new SciDAC Center for Enabling Distributed Petascale Science (CEDPS) is developing tools to support this end-to-end process. These tools include data placement services for the reliable, high-performance, secure, and policy-driven placement of data within a distributed science environment; tools and techniques for the construction, operation, and provisioning of scalable science services; and tools for the detection and diagnosis of failures in end-to-end data placement and distributed application hosting configurations. In each area, we build on a strong base of existing technology and have made useful progress in the first year of the project. For example, we have recently achieved order-of-magnitude improvements in transfer times (for lots of small files) and implemented asynchronous data staging capabilities; demonstrated dynamic deployment of complex application stacks for the STAR experiment; and designed and deployed end-to-end troubleshooting services. We look forward to working with SciDAC application and technology projects to realize the promise of petascale science

  19. Enabling immersive simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Josh (University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA); Mateas, Michael (University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA); Hart, Derek H.; Whetzel, Jonathan; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Glickman, Matthew R.; Abbott, Robert G.

    2009-02-01

    The object of the 'Enabling Immersive Simulation for Complex Systems Analysis and Training' LDRD has been to research, design, and engineer a capability to develop simulations which (1) provide a rich, immersive interface for participation by real humans (exploiting existing high-performance game-engine technology wherever possible), and (2) can leverage Sandia's substantial investment in high-fidelity physical and cognitive models implemented in the Umbra simulation framework. We report here on these efforts. First, we describe the integration of Sandia's Umbra modular simulation framework with the open-source Delta3D game engine. Next, we report on Umbra's integration with Sandia's Cognitive Foundry, specifically to provide for learning behaviors for 'virtual teammates' directly from observed human behavior. Finally, we describe the integration of Delta3D with the ABL behavior engine, and report on research into establishing the theoretical framework that will be required to make use of tools like ABL to scale up to increasingly rich and realistic virtual characters.

  20. Displays enabling mobile multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Jyrki

    2007-02-01

    With the rapid advances in telecommunications networks, mobile multimedia delivery to handsets is now a reality. While a truly immersive multimedia experience is still far ahead in the mobile world, significant advances have been made in the constituent audio-visual technologies to make this become possible. One of the critical components in multimedia delivery is the mobile handset display. While such alternatives as headset-style near-to-eye displays, autostereoscopic displays, mini-projectors, and roll-out flexible displays can deliver either a larger virtual screen size than the pocketable dimensions of the mobile device can offer, or an added degree of immersion by adding the illusion of the third dimension in the viewing experience, there are still challenges in the full deployment of such displays in real-life mobile communication terminals. Meanwhile, direct-view display technologies have developed steadily, and can provide a development platform for an even better viewing experience for multimedia in the near future. The paper presents an overview of the mobile display technology space with an emphasis on the advances and potential in developing direct-view displays further to meet the goal of enabling multimedia in the mobile domain.

  1. Industrial aspects in uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezin, M.

    1982-05-01

    Characteristics of isotope separation processes in operation and under development are discussed. These include the number of stages in series, the number of components, the component unit capacity and enery requirements. The implementation of an enrichment process and the question of an enrichment plant in Australia are also considered

  2. City model enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Philip D.; Quinn, Jonathan A.; Jones, Christopher B.

    The combination of mobile communication technology with location and orientation aware digital cameras has introduced increasing interest in the exploitation of 3D city models for applications such as augmented reality and automated image captioning. The effectiveness of such applications is, at present, severely limited by the often poor quality of semantic annotation of the 3D models. In this paper, we show how freely available sources of georeferenced Web 2.0 information can be used for automated enrichment of 3D city models. Point referenced names of prominent buildings and landmarks mined from Wikipedia articles and from the OpenStreetMaps digital map and Geonames gazetteer have been matched to the 2D ground plan geometry of a 3D city model. In order to address the ambiguities that arise in the associations between these sources and the city model, we present procedures to merge potentially related buildings and implement fuzzy matching between reference points and building polygons. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of the presented methods.

  3. Influence of environmental enrichment techniques in improvement of welfare of Callithrix penicillata (E. Geoffroy, 1812 (Primates: Callitrichidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Prado Borges

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study applied environmental enrichment techniques to a captive Callithrix penicillata group aiming to improve the welfare of these animals. Enrichment was carried out with six animals, three males and three females, of Sabiá Municipal Park zoo (Uberlândia, MG, Brazil. Data were collected in three phases, before enrichment, during enrichment and after enrichment, each phase with 40h of quantitative observations. We used two sensorial and four feeding enrichment devices. The animals’ responses to the enrichment were positive. We observed an increase in some of the behavioral categories, such as “exploring”, “foraging”, “social” and “territorial”. On the other hand, other behaviors decreased, e.g. “stereotypic” (a behavior that indicates stress. During and after the application of enrichment, new behaviors appeared particularly reproductive behaviors, which we had not seen previously. The behavioral changes observed indicate that the enrichment promoted an increase in welfare.

  4. Enabling cleanup technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditmars, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    Technology transfer in the environmental restoration, or cleanup, area has been challenging. While there is little doubt that innovative technologies are needed to reduce the times, risks, and costs associated with the cleanup of federal sites, particularly those of the Departments of Energy (DOE) and Defense, the use of such technologies in actual cleanups has been relatively limited. There are, of course, many reasons why technologies do not reach the implementation phase or do not get transferred from developing entities to the user community. For example, many past cleanup contracts provided few incentives for performance that would compel a contractor to seek improvement via technology applications. While performance-based contracts are becoming more common, they alone will not drive increased technology applications. This paper focuses on some applications of cleanup methodologies and technologies that have been successful and are illustrative of a more general principle. The principle is at once obvious and not widely practiced. It is that, with few exceptions, innovative cleanup technologies are rarely implemented successfully alone but rather are implemented in the context of enabling processes and methodologies. And, since cleanup is conducted in a regulatory environment, the stage is better set for technology transfer when the context includes substantive interactions with the relevant stakeholders. Examples of this principle are drawn from Argonne National Laboratory's experiences in Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Programs (ASAPs), Precise Excavation, and the DOE Technology Connection (TechCon) Program. The lessons learned may be applicable to the continuing challenges posed by the cleanup and long-term stewardship of radioactive contaminants and unexploded ordnance (UXO) at federal sites

  5. AEC determines uranium enrichment policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Uranium Enrichment of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) has submitted a report to AEC chairman concerning the promotion of the introduction of advanced material, high performance centrifuges to replace conventional metallic drum centrifuges, and the development of next generation advanced centrifuges. The report also called for the postponement until around 1997 of the decision whether the development should be continued or not on atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) and molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) processes, as well as the virtual freezing of the construction of a chemical process demonstration plant. The report was approved by the AEC chairman in August. The uranium enrichment service market in the world will continue to be characterized by oversupply. The domestic situation of uranium enrichment supply-demand trend, progress of the expansion of Rokkasho enrichment plant, the trend in the development of gas centrifuge process and the basic philosophy of commercializing domestic uranium enrichment are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Hydrogen-enriched fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, R. [NRG Technologies, Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    1998-08-01

    NRG Technologies, Inc. is attempting to develop hardware and infrastructure that will allow mixtures of hydrogen and conventional fuels to become viable alternatives to conventional fuels alone. This commercialization can be successful if the authors are able to achieve exhaust emission levels of less than 0.03 g/kw-hr NOx and CO; and 0.15 g/kw-hr NMHC at full engine power without the use of exhaust catalysts. The major barriers to achieving these goals are that the lean burn regimes required to meet exhaust emissions goals reduce engine output substantially and tend to exhibit higher-than-normal total hydrocarbon emissions. Also, hydrogen addition to conventional fuels increases fuel cost, and reduces both vehicle range and engine output power. Maintaining low emissions during transient driving cycles has not been demonstrated. A three year test plan has been developed to perform the investigations into the issues described above. During this initial year of funding research has progressed in the following areas: (a) a cost effective single-cylinder research platform was constructed; (b) exhaust gas speciation was performed to characterize the nature of hydrocarbon emissions from hydrogen-enriched natural gas fuels; (c) three H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} fuel compositions were analyzed using spark timing and equivalence ratio sweeping procedures and finally; (d) a full size pick-up truck platform was converted to run on HCNG fuels. The testing performed in year one of the three year plan represents a baseline from which to assess options for overcoming the stated barriers to success.

  7. PCR-Free Enrichment of Mitochondrial DNA from Human Blood and Cell Lines for High Quality Next-Generation DNA Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meetha P Gould

    Full Text Available Recent advances in sequencing technology allow for accurate detection of mitochondrial sequence variants, even those in low abundance at heteroplasmic sites. Considerable sequencing cost savings can be achieved by enriching samples for mitochondrial (relative to nuclear DNA. Reduction in nuclear DNA (nDNA content can also help to avoid false positive variants resulting from nuclear mitochondrial sequences (numts. We isolate intact mitochondrial organelles from both human cell lines and blood components using two separate methods: a magnetic bead binding protocol and differential centrifugation. DNA is extracted and further enriched for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA by an enzyme digest. Only 1 ng of the purified DNA is necessary for library preparation and next generation sequence (NGS analysis. Enrichment methods are assessed and compared using mtDNA (versus nDNA content as a metric, measured by using real-time quantitative PCR and NGS read analysis. Among the various strategies examined, the optimal is differential centrifugation isolation followed by exonuclease digest. This strategy yields >35% mtDNA reads in blood and cell lines, which corresponds to hundreds-fold enrichment over baseline. The strategy also avoids false variant calls that, as we show, can be induced by the long-range PCR approaches that are the current standard in enrichment procedures. This optimization procedure allows mtDNA enrichment for efficient and accurate massively parallel sequencing, enabling NGS from samples with small amounts of starting material. This will decrease costs by increasing the number of samples that may be multiplexed, ultimately facilitating efforts to better understand mitochondria-related diseases.

  8. FOILFEST :community enabled security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Whitley, John B.; Drayer, Darryl Donald; Cummings, John C., Jr. (.,; .)

    2005-09-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group of Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop, ''FOILFest: Community Enabled Security'', on July 18-21, 2005, in Albuquerque, NM. This was a far-reaching look into the future of physical protection consisting of a series of structured brainstorming sessions focused on preventing and foiling attacks on public places and soft targets such as airports, shopping malls, hotels, and public events. These facilities are difficult to protect using traditional security devices since they could easily be pushed out of business through the addition of arduous and expensive security measures. The idea behind this Fest was to explore how the public, which is vital to the function of these institutions, can be leveraged as part of a physical protection system. The workshop considered procedures, space design, and approaches for building community through technology. The workshop explored ways to make the ''good guys'' in public places feel safe and be vigilant while making potential perpetrators of harm feel exposed and convinced that they will not succeed. Participants in the Fest included operators of public places, social scientists, technology experts, representatives of government agencies including DHS and the intelligence community, writers and media experts. Many innovative ideas were explored during the fest with most of the time spent on airports, including consideration of the local airport, the Albuquerque Sunport. Some provocative ideas included: (1) sniffers installed in passage areas like revolving door, escalators, (2) a ''jumbotron'' showing current camera shots in the public space, (3) transparent portal screeners allowing viewing of the screening, (4) a layered open/funnel/open/funnel design where open spaces are used to encourage a sense of ''communitas'' and take advantage of citizen ''sensing'' and funnels are technological

  9. Quantitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Roger

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the basic tenets of quantitative research. The concepts of dependent and independent variables are addressed and the concept of measurement and its associated issues, such as error, reliability and validity, are explored. Experiments and surveys – the principal research designs in quantitative research – are described and key features explained. The importance of the double-blind randomised controlled trial is emphasised, alongside the importance of longitudinal surveys, as opposed to cross-sectional surveys. Essential features of data storage are covered, with an emphasis on safe, anonymous storage. Finally, the article explores the analysis of quantitative data, considering what may be analysed and the main uses of statistics in analysis.

  10. High enrichment to low enrichment core's conversion. Technical securities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, P.; Madariaga, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    This work presents the fulfillment of the technical securities subscribed by INVAP S.E. for the conversion of a high enriched uranium core. The reactor (of 5 thermal Mw), built in the 50's and 60's, is of the 'swimming pool' type, with light water and fuel elements of the curve plates MTR type, enriched at 93.15 %. These are neutronic and thermohydraulic securities. (Author) [es

  11. Safety of uranium enrichment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekawa, Shigeru; Morikami, Yoshio; Morita, Minoru; Takahashi, Tsukasa; Tokuyasu, Takashi.

    1991-01-01

    With respect to safety evaluation of the gas centrifuge enrichment facility, several characteristic problems are described as follows. Criticality safety in the cascade equipments can be obtained to maintain the enrichment of UF 6 below 5 %. External radiation dose equivalent rate of the 30B cylinder is low enough, the shield is not necessary. Penetration ratio of the two-stage HEPA filters for UF 6 aerosol is estimated at 10 -9 . From the experimental investigation, vacuum tightness is not damaged by destruction of gas centrifuge rotor. Carbon steel can be used for uranium enrichment equipments under the condition below 100degC. (author)

  12. Environmental enrichment for aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Aquatic animals are the most popular pets in the United States based on the number of owned pets. They are popular display animals and are increasingly used in research settings. Enrichment of captive animals is an important element of zoo and laboratory medicine. The importance of enrichment for aquatic animals has been slower in implementation. For a long time, there was debate over whether or not fish were able to experience pain or form long-term memories. As that debate has reduced and the consciousness of more aquatic animals is accepted, the need to discuss enrichment for these animals has increased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. World enrichment requirements to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The primary enrichment suppliers-Eurodif, Techsnabexport, Urenco, and the US DOE - are positioning themselves to take advantage of the post - 1995 market. Overall, unfilled requirements represent about 40 percent of world requirements in the year 2000. The USA will be the primary market, as US utilities' unfilled enrichment requirements account for over 60 percent of the world's total unfilled requirements. The enrichment market is moving toward more global competition, as each supplier tries to maintain its current regional market base and then to capture additional market share in other regions

  14. Quantitative habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Everett L; Holland, Melanie E

    2007-12-01

    A framework is proposed for a quantitative approach to studying habitability. Considerations of environmental supply and organismal demand of energy lead to the conclusions that power units are most appropriate and that the units for habitability become watts per organism. Extreme and plush environments are revealed to be on a habitability continuum, and extreme environments can be quantified as those where power supply only barely exceeds demand. Strategies for laboratory and field experiments are outlined that would quantify power supplies, power demands, and habitability. An example involving a comparison of various metabolisms pursued by halophiles is shown to be well on the way to a quantitative habitability analysis.

  15. Centar's gas centrifuge enrichment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abajian, V.V.; Fishman, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Plans for the building and operating of Centar Associates gas centrifuge uranium enrichment plant are described. Operating costs and machine manufacture are considered. Commitments with the utilities are summarised. (U.K.)

  16. Extraosseus enrichments in bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochens, R.; Schumacher, T.; Amthauer, H.; Wolter, M.; Stock, W.; Stroszczynski, C.; Moersler, J.P.; Eichstaedt, H.

    1996-01-01

    Extraosseus enrichments are common findings in bone scintigraphy. Main causes are artifacts by skin or cloth contamination, paravenous and subcutaneous injection. Physical examination, removal of cloths, skin cleaning or further images in differing projections lead to the correct diagnosis artefact or extraosseous enrichments. Further on, extraosseous enrichments are seen in physiological variants. In different diseases extraosseous enrichments are common, especially in urinary tract, liver and extremities. Further diagnostics, e.g. conventional radiologic procedures, sonography and CT scans, have to be performed. In individual cases side results in bone scintigraphy lead to formerly unknown diagnosis, further diagnostic procedure is influenced decisively. Own cases show for example a cerebral apoplectic insult, formerly unknown liver metastasis or metastasis in extraosseous Ewings's sarcoma. (orig.) [de

  17. Uranium enrichment: an evolving market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longenecker, J.; Witzel, R.

    1997-01-01

    With over half of the world uranium enrichment market uncommitted to any supplier early in the next century, competition is certain to be fierce. In the meantime the outlood remains unclear, with the market dominated by a number of developments -privatisation of the United States Enrichment Corp (USEC), increasing availability of Russian and US military inventories, the deployment of advanced technology and the closure of nuclear power plants due to deregulation. (author)

  18. Unjust enrichment in business law

    OpenAIRE

    Vydrová, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    This thesis analyses the concept of unjust enrichment under the business law. First of all the thesis explains the term of business law. Business law is a complex of legal rules concerning the contractual relationships between entrepreneurs arising from their business activities. Business law is a comprehensive field of law which extends into many other fields of law, both private and public law. Equally the regulation of unjust enrichment within the business law expands into many other laws ...

  19. How Enterprise Architecture Maturity Enables Post-merger IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törmer, Robert Lorenz; Henningsson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    advances the argument that a company’s pre-existing Enterprise Architecture decisively shapes the capability to implement post-merger IT integration and subsequently realize benefits from M&A. Our multiple-case study investigates three acquisition cases and develops an explanatory theory of how Enterprise...... Architecture maturity enables the implementation of distinct integration strategies. The results do not only enrich the academic literature on M&A, but also show the strategic value of Enterprise Architecture maturity....

  20. Comparing Multi-Step IMAC and Multi-Step TiO2 Methods for Phosphopeptide Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaoshan; Schunter, Alissa; Hummon, Amanda B.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphopeptide enrichment from complicated peptide mixtures is an essential step for mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic studies to reduce sample complexity and ionization suppression effects. Typical methods for enriching phosphopeptides include immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) or titanium dioxide (TiO2) beads, which have selective affinity and can interact with phosphopeptides. In this study, the IMAC enrichment method was compared with the TiO2 enrichment method, using a multi-step enrichment strategy from whole cell lysate, to evaluate their abilities to enrich for different types of phosphopeptides. The peptide-to-beads ratios were optimized for both IMAC and TiO2 beads. Both IMAC and TiO2 enrichments were performed for three rounds to enable the maximum extraction of phosphopeptides from the whole cell lysates. The phosphopeptides that are unique to IMAC enrichment, unique to TiO2 enrichment, and identified with both IMAC and TiO2 enrichment were analyzed for their characteristics. Both IMAC and TiO2 enriched similar amounts of phosphopeptides with comparable enrichment efficiency. However, phosphopeptides that are unique to IMAC enrichment showed a higher percentage of multi-phosphopeptides, as well as a higher percentage of longer, basic, and hydrophilic phosphopeptides. Also, the IMAC and TiO2 procedures clearly enriched phosphopeptides with different motifs. Finally, further enriching with two rounds of TiO2 from the supernatant after IMAC enrichment, or further enriching with two rounds of IMAC from the supernatant TiO2 enrichment does not fully recover the phosphopeptides that are not identified with the corresponding multi-step enrichment. PMID:26237447

  1. Quantitative Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative finance is a field that has risen to prominence over the last few decades. It encompasses the complex models and calculations that value financial contracts, particularly those which reference events in the future, and apply probabilities to these events. While adding greatly to the flexibility of the market available to corporations and investors, it has also been blamed for worsening the impact of financial crises. But what exactly does quantitative finance encompass, and where did these ideas and models originate? We show that the mathematics behind finance and behind games of chance have tracked each other closely over the centuries and that many well-known physicists and mathematicians have contributed to the field.

  2. PWR fuel of high enrichment with erbia and enriched gadolinia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejmer, Klaes-Håkan; Malm, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Today standard PWR fuel is licensed for operation up to 65-70 MWd/kgU, which in most cases corresponds to an enrichment of more than 5 w/o "2"3"5U. Due to criticality safety reason of storage and transportation, only fuel up to 5 w/o "2"3"5U enrichment is so far used. New fuel storage installations and transportation casks are necessary investments before the reactivity level of the fresh fuel can be significantly increased. These investments and corresponding licensing work takes time, and in the meantime a solution that requires burnable poisons in all pellets of the fresh high-enriched fuel might be used. By using very small amounts of burnable absorber in every pellet the initial reactivity can be reduced to today's levels. This study presents core calculations with fuel assemblies enriched to almost 6 w/o "2"3"5U mixed with a small amount of erbia. Some of the assemblies also contain gadolinia. The results are compared to a reference case containing assemblies with 4.95 w/o "2"3"5U without erbia, utilizing only gadolinia as burnable poison. The comparison shows that the number of fresh fuel assemblies can be reduced by 21% (which increases the batch burnup by 24%) by utilizing the erbia fuel concept. However, increased cost of uranium due to higher enrichment is not fully compensated for by the cost gain due to the reduction of the number assemblies. Hence, the fuel cycle cost becomes slightly higher for the high enrichment erbia case than for the reference case. (author)

  3. High enrichment to low enrichment core's conversion. Accidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, P.; Rubio, R.; Doval, A.; Lovotti, O.

    1990-01-01

    This work analyzes the different accidents that may occur in the reactor's facility after the 20% high-enriched uranium core's conversion. The reactor (of 5 thermal Mw), built in the 50's and 60's, is of the 'swimming pool' type, with light water and fuel elements of the curve plates MTR type, enriched at 93.15 %. This analysis includes: a) accidents by reactivity insertion; b) accidents by coolant loss; c) analysis by flow loss and d) fission products release. (Author) [es

  4. Gaseous diffusion -- the enrichment workhorse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoemaker, J.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Construction of the first large-scale gaseous diffusion facility was started as part of the Manhattan Project in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, in 1943. This facility, code named ''K-25,'' began operation in January 1945 and was fully on stream by September 1945. Four additional process buildings were later added in Oak Ridge as the demand for enriched uranium escalated. New gaseous diffusion plants were constructed at Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, during this period. The three gaseous diffusion plants were the ''workhorses'' which provided the entire enriched uranium demand for the United States during the 1950s and 1960s. As the demand for enriched uranium for military purposes decreased during the early 1960s, power to the diffusion plants was curtailed to reduce production. During the 1960s, as plans for the nuclear power industry were formulated, the role of the diffusion plants gradually changed from providing highly-enriched uranium for the military to providing low-enriched uranium for power reactors

  5. Uranium enrichment. Technology, economics, capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, W.R. Jr.; Saire, D.E.; Gestson, D.K.; Peske, S.E.; Vanstrum, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R+D efforts on various processes. (author)

  6. Uranium enrichment: technology, economics, capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Jr., W. R.; Vanstrum, P. R.; Saire, D. E.; Gestson, D. K.; Peske, S. E.

    1982-08-01

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R and D efforts on various processes.

  7. Uranium enrichment: technology, economics, capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, W.R. Jr.; Vanstrum, P.R.; Saire, D.E.; Gestson, D.K.; Peske, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R and D efforts on various processes

  8. Geo-Enabled, Mobile Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    We are witnessing the emergence of a global infrastructure that enables the widespread deployment of geo-enabled, mobile services in practice. At the same time, the research community has also paid increasing attention to data management aspects of mobile services. This paper offers me...

  9. Toward genome-enabled mycology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbett, David S; Stajich, Jason E; Spatafora, Joseph W

    2013-01-01

    Genome-enabled mycology is a rapidly expanding field that is characterized by the pervasive use of genome-scale data and associated computational tools in all aspects of fungal biology. Genome-enabled mycology is integrative and often requires teams of researchers with diverse skills in organismal mycology, bioinformatics and molecular biology. This issue of Mycologia presents the first complete fungal genomes in the history of the journal, reflecting the ongoing transformation of mycology into a genome-enabled science. Here, we consider the prospects for genome-enabled mycology and the technical and social challenges that will need to be overcome to grow the database of complete fungal genomes and enable all fungal biologists to make use of the new data.

  10. A Systematic Approach to Marital Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkmeyer, Don; Carlson, Jon

    1986-01-01

    Presents a systematic approach to enriching marital relationships. The history and current status of marital enrichment is reviewed. An Adlerian approach to marital enrichment is described. Applications of the program in enrichment groups, marriage therapy and couple groups are included. (Author)

  11. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang,; Dali, [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  12. PC based uranium enrichment analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madan, V.K.; Gopalakrishana, K.R.; Bairi, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    It is important to measure enrichment of unirradiated nuclear fuel elements during production as a quality control measure. An IBM PC based system has recently been tested for enrichment measurements for Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), Hyderabad. As required by NFC, the system has ease of calibration. It is easy to switch the system from measuring enrichment of fuel elements to pellets and also automatically store the data and the results. The system uses an IBM PC plug in card to acquire data. The card incorporates programmable interval timers (8253-5). The counter/timer devices are executed by I/O mapped I/O's. A novel algorithm has been incorporated to make the system more reliable. The application software has been written in BASIC. (author). 9 refs., 1 fig

  13. Advances in uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, H.K.; Melvin, J.G.; Slater, J.B.

    1986-05-01

    Advances in gas centrifuges and development of the atomic vapour laser isotope separation process promise substantial reductions in the cost of enriched uranium. The resulting reduction in LWR fuel costs could seriously erode the economic advantage of CANDU, and in combination with LWR design improvements, shortened construction times and increased operational reliability could allow the LWR to overtake CANDU. CANDU's traditional advantages of neutron economy and high reliability may no longer be sufficient - this is the challenge. The responses include: combining neutron economy and dollar economy by optimizing CANDU for slightly enriched uranium fuel; developing cost-reducing improvements in design, manufacture and construction; and reducing the cost of heavy water. Technology is a renewable resource which must be continually applied to a product for it to remain competitive in the decades to come. Such innovation is a prerequisite to Canada increasing her share of the international market for nuclear power stations. The higher burn-up achievable with enriched fuel in CANDU can reduce the fuel cycle costs by 20 to 40 percent for a likely range of costs for yellowcake and separative work. Alternatively, some of the benefits of a higher fissile content can take the form of a cheaper reactor core containing fewer fuel channels and less heavy water, and needing only a single fuelling machine. An opportunity that is linked to this need to introduce an enriched uranium fuel cycle into CANDU is to build an enrichment business in Canada. This could offer greater value added to our uranium exports, security of supply for enriched CANDUs, technological growth in Canada and new employment opportunities. AECL has a study in progress to define this opportunity

  14. Uranium enriched granites in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.R.; Aakerblom, G.

    1980-01-01

    Granites with uranium contents higher than normal occur in a variety of geological settings in the Swedish Precambrian, and represent a variety of granite types and ages. They may have been generated by (1) the anatexis of continental crust (2) processes occurring at a much greater depth. They commonly show enrichement in F, Sn, W and/or Mo. Only in one case is an important uranium mineralization thought to be directly related to a uranium-enriched granite, while the majority of epigenetic uranium mineralizations with economic potential are related to hydrothermal processes in areas where the bedrock is regionally uranium-enhanced. (Authors)

  15. Uranium enrichment. 1980 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    This report contains data and related information on the production of enriched uranium at the gaseous diffusion plants and an update on the construction and project control center for the gas centrifuge plant. Power usage at the gaseous diffusion plants is illustrated. The report contains several glossy color pictures of the plants and processes described. In addition to gaseous diffusion and the centrifuge process, three advanced isotope separation process are now being developed. The business operation of the enrichment plants is described; charts on revenue, balance sheets, and income statements are included

  16. Prospects and problems of uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Ryukichi

    1974-01-01

    The problem of uranium enrichment now concerns principally peaceful nuclear power generation. With the current oil crisis, energy resources assume unprecedented importance. However, the requirements for enriched uranium vary with the vicissitude of the world situation in nuclear power generation; the enterprise of uranium enrichment is related to economic aspect. The following matters are described: dimension of enrichment problem, political factors, changes in requirements, projects in each country, and strategy of enrichment in Japan. (Mori, K.)

  17. Uranium enrichment in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.H.; Parks, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    History, improvement programs, status of electrical power availability, demands for uranium enrichment, operating plan for the U. S. enriching facilities, working inventory of enriched uranium, possible factors affecting deviations in the operating plan, status of gaseous diffusion technology, status of U. S. gas centrifuge advances, transfer of enrichment technology, gaseous diffusion--gas centrifuge comparison, new enrichment capacity, U. S. separative work pricing, and investment in nuclear energy are discussed. (LK)

  18. Computer Security Systems Enable Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggen, Gary

    1989-01-01

    A good security system enables access and protects information from damage or tampering, but the most important aspects of a security system aren't technical. A security procedures manual addresses the human element of computer security. (MLW)

  19. How GNSS Enables Precision Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Precision farming: Feeding a Growing Population Enables Those Who Feed the World. Immediate and Ongoing Needs - population growth (more to feed) - urbanization (decrease in arable land) Double food production by 2050 to meet world demand. To meet thi...

  20. Enriched uranium recovery flowsheet improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Savannah River uses 7.5% TBP to recover and purify enriched uranium. Adequate decontamination from fission products is necessary to reduce personnel exposure and to ensure that the enriched uranium product meets specifications. Initial decontamination of the enriched uranium from the fission products is carried out in the 1A bank, 16 stages of mixer-settlers. Separation of the enriched uranium from the fission product, 95 Zr, has been adequate, but excessive solvent degradation caused by the long phase contact times in the mixer-settlers has limited the 95 Zr decontamination factor (DF). An experimental program is investigating the replacement of the current 1A bank with either centrifugal contactors or a combination of centrifugal contactors and mixer-settlers. Experimental work completed has compared laboratory-scale centrifugal contactors and mixer-settlers for 95 Zr removal efficiencies. Feed solutions spiked with actual plant solutions were used. The 95 Zr DF was significantly better in the mixer-settlers than in the centrifugal contactors. As a result of this experimental study, a hybrid equipment flowsheet has been proposed for plant use. The hybrid equipment flowsheet combines the advantages of both types of solvent extraction equipment. Centrifugal contactors would be utilized in the extraction and initial scrub sections, followed by additional scrub stages of mixer-settlers

  1. Enrichment plant management and safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurt, N.H.

    1978-01-01

    The next increment of enrichment at Portsmouth will be gas centrifuge. The safeguards program at Portsmouth is discussed, including the DYMCAS system, the computerization, and the detectors. Control of the material access areas is discussed. The licensee material surveillance and verification program is also described

  2. The changing face of enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunckel, E.

    1981-01-01

    The AIS techniques considered are atomic vapour laser isotope separation, molecular laser isotope separation and plasma separation. The future of the AIS technique and their advantages over the gas centrifuge method are discussed in terms of economics, power consideration, and possible enrichment contracts. (U.K.)

  3. Environmental Development Plan: uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This Environmental Development Plan identifies and examines the environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns and corresponding requirements associated with the DOE research, development, demonstration, and operation of the Uranium Enrichment program, including the gaseous diffusion process, the centrifuge process, centrifuge rotor fabrication, and related research and development activities

  4. Quantitative radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brase, J.M.; Martz, H.E.; Waltjen, K.E.; Hurd, R.L.; Wieting, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic techniques have been used in nondestructive evaluation primarily to develop qualitative information (i.e., defect detection). This project applies and extends the techniques developed in medical x-ray imaging, particularly computed tomography (CT), to develop quantitative information (both spatial dimensions and material quantities) on the three-dimensional (3D) structure of solids. Accomplishments in FY 86 include (1) improvements in experimental equipment - an improved microfocus system that will give 20-μm resolution and has potential for increased imaging speed, and (2) development of a simple new technique for displaying 3D images so as to clearly show the structure of the object. Image reconstruction and data analysis for a series of synchrotron CT experiments conducted by LLNL's Chemistry Department has begun

  5. Quantitative lymphography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostbeck, A.; Lofferer, O.; Kahn, P.; Partsch, H.; Koehn, H.; Bialonczyk, Ch.; Koenig, B.

    1984-01-01

    Labelled colloids and macromolecules are removed lymphatically. The uptake of tracer in the regional lymphnodes is a parameter of lymphatic flow. Due to great variations in patient shape - obesity, cachexia - and accompanying variations in counting efficiencies quantitative measurements with reasonable accuracy have not been reported to date. A new approach to regional absorption correction is based on the combination of transmission and emission scans for each patient. The transmission scan is used for calculation of an absorption correction matrix. Accurate superposition of the correction matrix and the emission scan is achieved by computing the centers of gravity of point sources and - in the case of aligning opposite views - by cross correlation of binary images. In phantom studies the recovery was high (98.3%) and the coefficient of variation of repeated measurement below 1%. In patient studies a standardized stress is a prerequisite for reliable and comparable results. Discrimination between normals (14.3 +- 4.2D%) and patients with lymphedema (2.05 +- 2.5D%) was highly significant using praefascial lymphography and sc injection. Clearence curve analysis of the activities at the injection site, however, gave no reliable data for this purpose. In normals, the uptake in lymphnodes after im injection is by one order of magnitude lower then the uptake after sc injection. The discrimination between normals and patients with postthromboic syndrome was significant. Lymphography after ic injection was in the normal range in 2/3 of the patients with lymphedema and is therefore of no diagnostic value. The difference in uptake after ic and sc injection demonstrated for the first time by our quantitative method provides new insights into the pathophysiology of lymphedema and needs further investigation. (Author)

  6. Defining glycoprotein cancer biomarkers by MS in conjunction with glycoprotein enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ehwang; Mechref, Yehia

    2015-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is an important and common post-translational modification. More than 50% of human proteins are believed to be glycosylated to modulate the functionality of proteins. Aberrant glycosylation has been correlated to several diseases, such as inflammatory skin diseases, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's and prion diseases, and cancer. Many approved cancer biomarkers are glycoproteins which are not highly abundant proteins. Therefore, effective qualitative and quantitative assessment of glycoproteins entails enrichment methods. This chapter summarizes glycoprotein enrichment methods, including lectin affinity, immunoaffinity, hydrazide chemistry, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, and click chemistry. The use of these enrichment approaches in assessing the qualitative and quantitative changes of glycoproteins in different types of cancers are presented and discussed. This chapter highlights the importance of glycoprotein enrichment techniques for the identification and characterization of new reliable cancer biomarkers.

  7. Quantitative FDG in depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chua, P.; O`Keefe, G.J.; Egan, G.F.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; Mckay, W.J.; Morris, P.L.P.; Burrows, G.D. [Austin Hospital, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Dept of Psychiatry and Centre for PET

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Studies of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRGlu) using positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with affective disorders have consistently demonstrated reduced metabolism in the frontal regions. Different quantitative and semi-quantitative rCMRGlu regions of interest (ROI) comparisons, e.g. absolute metabolic rates, ratios of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to ipsilateral hemisphere cortex, have been reported. These studies suffered from the use of a standard brain atlas to define ROls, whereas in this case study, the individual``s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan was registered with the PET scan to enable accurate neuroanatomical ROI definition for the subject. The patient is a 36-year-old female with a six-week history of major depression (HAM-D = 34, MMSE = 28). A quantitative FDG PET study and an MRI scan were performed. Six MRI-guided ROls (DLPFC, PFC, whole hemisphere) were defined. The average rCMRGlu in the DLPFC (left = 28.8 + 5.8 mol/100g/min; right = 25.6 7.0 mol/100g/min) were slightly reduced compared to the ipsilateral hemispherical rate (left = 30.4 6.8 mol/100g/min; right = 29.5 7.2 mol/100g/min). The ratios of DLPFC to ipsilateral hemispheric rate were close to unity (left = 0.95 0.29; right 0.87 0.32). The right to left DLPFC ratio did not show any significant asymmetry (0.91 0.30). These results do not correlate with earlier published results reporting decreased left DLPFC rates compared to right DLPFC, although our results will need to be replicated with a group of depressed patients. Registration of PET and MRI studies is necessary in ROI-based quantitative FDG PET studies to allow for the normal anatomical variation among individuals, and thus is essential for accurate comparison of rCMRGlu between individuals.

  8. Quantitative FDG in depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, P.; O'Keefe, G.J.; Egan, G.F.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; Mckay, W.J.; Morris, P.L.P.; Burrows, G.D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Studies of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRGlu) using positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with affective disorders have consistently demonstrated reduced metabolism in the frontal regions. Different quantitative and semi-quantitative rCMRGlu regions of interest (ROI) comparisons, e.g. absolute metabolic rates, ratios of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to ipsilateral hemisphere cortex, have been reported. These studies suffered from the use of a standard brain atlas to define ROls, whereas in this case study, the individual''s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan was registered with the PET scan to enable accurate neuroanatomical ROI definition for the subject. The patient is a 36-year-old female with a six-week history of major depression (HAM-D = 34, MMSE = 28). A quantitative FDG PET study and an MRI scan were performed. Six MRI-guided ROls (DLPFC, PFC, whole hemisphere) were defined. The average rCMRGlu in the DLPFC (left = 28.8 + 5.8 mol/100g/min; right = 25.6 7.0 mol/100g/min) were slightly reduced compared to the ipsilateral hemispherical rate (left = 30.4 6.8 mol/100g/min; right = 29.5 7.2 mol/100g/min). The ratios of DLPFC to ipsilateral hemispheric rate were close to unity (left = 0.95 0.29; right 0.87 0.32). The right to left DLPFC ratio did not show any significant asymmetry (0.91 0.30). These results do not correlate with earlier published results reporting decreased left DLPFC rates compared to right DLPFC, although our results will need to be replicated with a group of depressed patients. Registration of PET and MRI studies is necessary in ROI-based quantitative FDG PET studies to allow for the normal anatomical variation among individuals, and thus is essential for accurate comparison of rCMRGlu between individuals

  9. The commercial role for centrifuge enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Readle, P.H.; Wilcox, P.

    1987-01-01

    The enrichment market is extremely competitive and capacity greatly exceeds demand. BNFL [British Nuclear Fuels Ltd.] is in a unique position in having commercial experience of the two enrichment technologies currently used industrially: diffusion, and centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition, BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme. The paper describes the enrichment market, briefly discusses the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment and concludes that the gas centrifuge will be best able to respond to market needs for at least the remainder of the century. (author)

  10. Enrichment into the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, E.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the future of the enrichment services market into the next century. It is estimated that demand for enrichment services will reach 31 million SWU by the end of the century and remain constant for the following 10 years. The current world enrichment capacity is 44 million SWU, or some 50% ahead of the demand. This oversupply is projected to continue into the next century, but in spite of this, several suppliers are planning new enrichment facilities. HEU as a source of enriched uranium is examined. Overall, long-term prices for enrichment services are expected to decline in the coming decade

  11. Physician communication via Internet-enabled technology: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Neil G; Randall, Glen E; Archer, Norman P; Musson, David M

    2017-10-01

    The use of Internet-enabled technology (information and communication technology such as smartphone applications) may enrich information exchange among providers and, consequently, improve health care delivery. The purpose of this systematic review was to gain a greater understanding of the role that Internet-enabled technology plays in enhancing communication among physicians. Studies were identified through a search in three electronic platforms: the Association for Computing Machinery Digital Library, ProQuest, and Web of Science. The search identified 5140 articles; of these, 21 met all inclusion criteria. In general, physicians were satisfied with Internet-enabled technology, but consensus was lacking regarding whether Internet-enabled technology improved efficiency or made a difference to clinical decision-making. Internet-enabled technology can play an important role in enhancing communication among physicians, but the extent of that benefit is influenced by (1) the impact of Internet-enabled technology on existing work practices, (2) the availability of adequate resources, and (3) the nature of institutional elements, such as privacy legislation.

  12. The uranium enrichment market and long-term technological options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider-Maunoury, A.

    1992-01-01

    The world enrichment market situation is clearly delineated up to the year 2000. Including the East European countries, worldwide enriched uranium requirements should reach 40 million separative work units (SWUs) a year and production capacity should reach 44 millions SWUs. Two-thirds of this capacity will be supplied by the gaseous diffusion process and one-third by the centrifuge process. The enrichment processes currently considered are: (i) the gaseous diffusion process, (ii) the centrifuge process, (iii) the chemical treatment process and (iv) the laser processes, long-term assessment of the enrichment market up to the year 2015. Two scenarios may be envisioned for the (i) Public opinion will continue to block the development of nuclear power, and requirements will level off at 40 million SWUs. (ii) Changing attitudes will favor a reasonable approach enabling a revival of nuclear power expansion around 1995. Requirements should then increase starting in 2005 and would readily attain 60 million SWUs a year by 2015. Depending on market conditions, enrichment process options will be influenced either entirely by cost considerations, without allowance for the time factor, or by need to meet demand. Demonstrations of the industrial validity of laser processes are expected by 1992 - 1995 and, if interest in nuclear power makes a comeback, decisions should be made between 1995 and 2000 to build new large-capacity enrichment plants. The gaseous diffusion process may still be used for a long time if nuclear power is judiciously employed. The centrifuge process will be fully mature by the year 2000. The uranium vapor laser processes offer the most promise and should ultimately prevail. the chemical processes, though outsiders, deserve watching. (author)

  13. Enabling Semantic Queries Against the Spatial Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PENG, X.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial database based upon the object-relational database management system (ORDBMS has the merits of a clear data model, good operability and high query efficiency. That is why it has been widely used in spatial data organization and management. However, it cannot express the semantic relationships among geospatial objects, making the query results difficult to meet the user's requirement well. Therefore, this paper represents an attempt to combine the Semantic Web technology with the spatial database so as to make up for the traditional database's disadvantages. In this way, on the one hand, users can take advantages of ORDBMS to store and manage spatial data; on the other hand, if the spatial database is released in the form of Semantic Web, the users could describe a query more concisely with the cognitive pattern which is similar to that of daily life. As a consequence, this methodology enables the benefits of both Semantic Web and the object-relational database (ORDB available. The paper discusses systematically the semantic enriched spatial database's architecture, key technologies and implementation. Subsequently, we demonstrate the function of spatial semantic queries via a practical prototype system. The query results indicate that the method used in this study is feasible.

  14. OGC® Sensor Web Enablement Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Percivall

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a high-level overview of and architecture for the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC standards activities that focus on sensors, sensor networks, and a concept called the “Sensor Web”. This OGC work area is known as Sensor Web Enablement (SWE. This article has been condensed from "OGC® Sensor Web Enablement: Overview And High Level Architecture," an OGC White Paper by Mike Botts, PhD, George Percivall, Carl Reed, PhD, and John Davidson which can be downloaded from http://www.opengeospatial.org/pt/15540. Readers interested in greater technical and architecture detail can download and read the OGC SWE Architecture Discussion Paper titled “The OGC Sensor Web Enablement Architecture” (OGC document 06-021r1, http://www.opengeospatial.org/pt/14140.

  15. UF6 test loop for evaluation and implementation of international enrichment plant safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, J.N.; Fields, L.W.; Swindle, D.W. Jr.

    1987-06-01

    A functional test loop capable of simulating UF 6 flows, pressures, and pipe deposits characteristic of gas centrifuge enrichment plant piping has been designed and fabricated by the Enrichment Safeguards Program of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for use by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at its Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. Purpose of the test loop is twofold: (1) to enable the IAEA to evaluate and to calibrate enrichment safeguards measurement instrumentation to be used in limited frequency-unannounced access (LFUA) inspection strategy measurements at gas centrifuge enrichment plants and (2) to train IAEA inspectors in the use of such instrumentation. The test loop incorporates actual sections of cascade header pipes from the centrifuge enrichment plants subject to IAEA inspections. The test loop is described, applications for its use by the IAEA are detailed, and results from an initial demonstration session using the test loop are summarized

  16. Enrichment demand boosts SWU prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The enrichment market is picking up significantly on very brisk demand. US utilities, which normally purchase material nine months to a year ahead of time, are already hitting the market to fill their 1996 requirements. In June, two non-US utilities, one European entity and a US utility bought SWUs, the entity in an off-market deal. But that doesn't tell the whole story. Three other US utilities entered the market during the month. Meanwhile, we count 13 more utilities getting ready to hit the market for more than 4 million SWUs. Why the surge in demand? Utilities, uncertain of the role to be played by the new US Enrichment Corp. and seeking to take advantage of low interest rates, are implementing buy and hold strategies. As a result, the upper end of NUKEM's SWU price range inched up to $78. The lower end dipped to $67 based on the European deal

  17. The quantitative Morse theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Loi, Ta Le; Phien, Phan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we give a proof of the quantitative Morse theorem stated by {Y. Yomdin} in \\cite{Y1}. The proof is based on the quantitative Sard theorem, the quantitative inverse function theorem and the quantitative Morse lemma.

  18. Enrichment techniques employed in phosphoproteomics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fíla, Jan; Honys, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 3 (2012), s. 1025-1047 ISSN 0939-4451 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/11/1462; GA ČR GA522/09/0858; GA ČR GA525/09/0994; GA MŠk OC08011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Phosphoproteomics * Enrichment * IMAC Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.914, year: 2012

  19. Uranium enrichment plans and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwennesen, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in US efforts to expand its enrichment capacity. The Cascade Improvement Program (CIP) and Cascade Upgrading Program (CUP) are now complete at Oak Ridge and Paducah and almost complete at Portsmouth. Considerable progress has also been made in constructing the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP), and physical construction of the first process building is well under way. Current plans are to have two process buildings on-line by 1989 with the remaining six buildings to be added sequentially as needed to meet demand. The status of DOE enrichment services contracts is essentially unchanged from that reported at last year's seminar. The OUEA latest forecast of nuclear power growth, however, is considerably lower than reported last year, although a leveling trend is becoming apparent. The Variable Tails Assay Option (VTAO) of the AFC contract was made available for the third time for FY 1983. The DOE inventories of natural uranium still remain high. The Department of Energy will dispose of this material by using it for Government programs and for enrichment plant operations. It appears that Government inventories of uranium are adequate through at least the mid-1990s. It remains DOE policy not to dispose of its natural uranium stocks through direct sales in the marketplace, except for very small quantities or if an emergency situation would exist and all reasonable attempts had been made, without success, to obtain natural uranium from commercial sources. Finally, with regard to DOE plans on future transaction tails assays, it still appears likely that the current 0.20 percent uranium-235 reference tails assay will be maintained until well into the 1990s, at which time it might be increased up to 0.25 percent uranium-235

  20. Selenium Enrichment of Horticultural Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinelli, Martina; Malorgio, Fernando; Pezzarossa, Beatrice

    2017-06-04

    The ability of some crops to accumulate selenium (Se) is crucial for human nutrition and health. Selenium has been identified as a cofactor of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which is a catalyzer in the reduction of peroxides that can damage cells and tissues, and can act as an antioxidant. Plants are the first link in the food chain, which ends with humans. Increasing the Se quantity in plant products, including leafy and fruity vegetables, and fruit crops, without exceeding the toxic threshold, is thus a good way to increase animal and human Se intake, with positive effects on long-term health. In many Se-enriched plants, most Se is in its major organic form. Given that this form is more available to humans and more efficient in increasing the selenium content than inorganic forms, the consumption of Se-enriched plants appears to be beneficial. An antioxidant effect of Se has been detected in Se-enriched vegetables and fruit crops due to an improved antioxidative status and to a reduced biosynthesis of ethylene, which is the hormone with a primary role in plant senescence and fruit ripening. This thus highlights the possible positive effect of Se in preserving a longer shelf-life and longer-lasting quality.

  1. Selenium Enrichment of Horticultural Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Puccinelli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of some crops to accumulate selenium (Se is crucial for human nutrition and health. Selenium has been identified as a cofactor of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which is a catalyzer in the reduction of peroxides that can damage cells and tissues, and can act as an antioxidant. Plants are the first link in the food chain, which ends with humans. Increasing the Se quantity in plant products, including leafy and fruity vegetables, and fruit crops, without exceeding the toxic threshold, is thus a good way to increase animal and human Se intake, with positive effects on long-term health. In many Se-enriched plants, most Se is in its major organic form. Given that this form is more available to humans and more efficient in increasing the selenium content than inorganic forms, the consumption of Se-enriched plants appears to be beneficial. An antioxidant effect of Se has been detected in Se-enriched vegetables and fruit crops due to an improved antioxidative status and to a reduced biosynthesis of ethylene, which is the hormone with a primary role in plant senescence and fruit ripening. This thus highlights the possible positive effect of Se in preserving a longer shelf-life and longer-lasting quality.

  2. The isotopic enrichment of uranium in 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, M.

    1979-01-01

    The Eurodif uranium enrichment plant built on the Tricastin site is described. The uranium isotope separation plants in service abroad are presented. The main characteristics of the international enrichment market are defined [fr

  3. Uranium enrichment (a strategy analysis overview)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blahnik, C.

    1979-08-01

    An analysis of available information on enrichment technology, separative work supply and demand, and SWU cost is presented. Estimates of present and future enrichment costs are provided for use in strategy analyses of alternate nuclear fuel cycles and systems. (auth)

  4. Curriculum enrichment through indigenous Zulu games | Roux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Curriculum enrichment through indigenous Zulu games. ... 1997). The aim of the study was to document and analyze indigenous Zulu games for possible curriculum enrichment of physical ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  5. Enrichment Assay Methods Development for the Integrated Cylinder Verification System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Leon E.; Misner, Alex C.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Curtis, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility's entire product-cylinder inventory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a concept to automate the verification of enrichment plant cylinders to enable 100 percent product-cylinder verification and potentially, mass-balance calculations on the facility as a whole (by also measuring feed and tails cylinders). The Integrated Cylinder Verification System (ICVS) could be located at key measurement points to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the collected data in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until IAEA inspector arrival. The three main objectives of this FY09 project are summarized here and described in more detail in the report: (1) Develop a preliminary design for a prototype NDA system, (2) Refine PNNL's MCNP models of the NDA system, and (3) Procure and test key pulse-processing components. Progress against these tasks to date, and next steps, are discussed.

  6. Enrichment Assay Methods Development for the Integrated Cylinder Verification System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Leon E.; Misner, Alex C.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Curtis, Michael M.

    2009-10-22

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors currently perform periodic inspections at uranium enrichment plants to verify UF6 cylinder enrichment declarations. Measurements are typically performed with handheld high-resolution sensors on a sampling of cylinders taken to be representative of the facility's entire product-cylinder inventory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a concept to automate the verification of enrichment plant cylinders to enable 100 percent product-cylinder verification and potentially, mass-balance calculations on the facility as a whole (by also measuring feed and tails cylinders). The Integrated Cylinder Verification System (ICVS) could be located at key measurement points to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the collected data in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until IAEA inspector arrival. The three main objectives of this FY09 project are summarized here and described in more detail in the report: (1) Develop a preliminary design for a prototype NDA system, (2) Refine PNNL's MCNP models of the NDA system, and (3) Procure and test key pulse-processing components. Progress against these tasks to date, and next steps, are discussed.

  7. Network-based functional enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirel Christopher L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many methods have been developed to infer and reason about molecular interaction networks. These approaches often yield networks with hundreds or thousands of nodes and up to an order of magnitude more edges. It is often desirable to summarize the biological information in such networks. A very common approach is to use gene function enrichment analysis for this task. A major drawback of this method is that it ignores information about the edges in the network being analyzed, i.e., it treats the network simply as a set of genes. In this paper, we introduce a novel method for functional enrichment that explicitly takes network interactions into account. Results Our approach naturally generalizes Fisher’s exact test, a gene set-based technique. Given a function of interest, we compute the subgraph of the network induced by genes annotated to this function. We use the sequence of sizes of the connected components of this sub-network to estimate its connectivity. We estimate the statistical significance of the connectivity empirically by a permutation test. We present three applications of our method: i determine which functions are enriched in a given network, ii given a network and an interesting sub-network of genes within that network, determine which functions are enriched in the sub-network, and iii given two networks, determine the functions for which the connectivity improves when we merge the second network into the first. Through these applications, we show that our approach is a natural alternative to network clustering algorithms. Conclusions We presented a novel approach to functional enrichment that takes into account the pairwise relationships among genes annotated by a particular function. Each of the three applications discovers highly relevant functions. We used our methods to study biological data from three different organisms. Our results demonstrate the wide applicability of our methods. Our algorithms are

  8. Enriched uranium sales: effect on supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction (combined effect of low-enriched uranium (LEU) inventory sales and utility services enrichment contract terms); enrichment market overview; enrichment market dynamics; the reaction of the US Department of Energy; elimination of artificial demand; draw down of inventories; purchase and sale of LEU inventories; tails assay option; unfulfilled requirements for U 3 O 8 ; conclusions. (U.K.)

  9. Nanopore density effect of polyacrylamide gel plug on electrokinetic ion enrichment in a micro-nanofluidic chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-yao; Xu, Zheng; Li, Yong-kui; Liu, Chong; Liu, Jun-shan; Chen, Li; Du, Li-qun; Wang, Li-ding

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the nanopore density effect on ion enrichment is quantitatively described with the ratio between electrophoresis flux and electroosmotic flow flux based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations. A polyacrylamide gel plug is integrated into a microchannel to form a micro-nanofluidic chip. With the chip, electrokinetic ion enrichment is relatively stable and enrichment ratio of fluorescein isothiocyanate can increase to 600-fold within 120 s at the electric voltage of 300 V. Both theoretical research and experiments show that enrichment ratio can be improved through increasing nanopore density. The result will be beneficial to the design of micro-nanofluidic chips.

  10. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section 540.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process of...

  11. Gas-phase UF6 enrichment monitor for enrichment plant safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strittmatter, R.B.; Tape, J.W.

    1980-03-01

    An in-line enrichment monitor is being developed to provide real-time enrichment data for the gas-phase UF 6 feed stream of an enrichment plant. The nondestructive gamma-ray assay method can be used to determine the enrichment of natural UF 6 with a relative precision of better than 1% for a wide range of pressures

  12. 76 FR 11523 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of... Governmental Entities Regarding Environmental Portion of Enrichment Facility Licensing Proceeding February 24.... White. In this 10 CFR part 70 proceeding regarding the request of applicant AREVA Enrichment Services...

  13. The reduced enrichment program for JRR-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayanagi, M.

    1992-01-01

    Japan Research Reactor No. 4(JRR-4) with the rated power of 3.5 MW, swimming pool type research reactor, 93 % enriched uranium ETR-type fuel used, light water moderated and cooled. The first criticality reached on 28th January, 1965. The reactor has operated for about 26 years. However, it was planed to the reduced enrichment of the fuels to low enrichment according to the International Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. This paper describes the program for conversion of the enrichment of fuel from 93 % to less than 20 %. (author)

  14. Enrichment planting without soil treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, Mats

    1998-12-31

    Where enrichment planting had been carried out with either of the two species Picea abies and Pinus contorta, the survival of the planted seedlings was at least as good as after planting in a normal clear cut area treated with soil scarification. This was in spite of the fact that the seedlings were placed shallow in the humus layer without any soil treatment. However, they were sheltered from insects by treatment before planting. Where enrichment planting was carried out with Pinus sylvestris the survival in dense forest was poor, but in open forest the survival was good. The growth of planted seedlings was enhanced by traditional clearing and soil treatment. However, this was for Pinus sylvestris not enough to compensate for the loss of time, 1-2 years, caused by arrangement of soil scarification. The growth of seedlings planted under crown cover was directly related to basal area of retained trees. However, the variation in height growth among individual seedlings was very big, which meant that some seedlings grow well also under a fairly dense forest cover. The pioneer species Pinus sylvestris reacted more strongly to basal area of retained trees than did the shade tolerant species Picea abies. Enrichment planting seems to be a necessary tool for preserving volume productivity, at places where fairly intensive harvest of mature trees has been carried out in stands of ordinary forest type in central Sweden. If double seedlings, with one Picea abies and one Pinus sylvestris, are used, the probability for long term establishment is enhanced 13 refs, 20 figs, 4 tabs

  15. Organizational Enablers for Project Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Ralf; Shao, Jingting; Pemsel, Sofia

    and their relationships to organizational success. Based on these results, the authors discovered that organizational enablers (including key factors such as leadership, governance, and influence of project managers) have a critical impact on how organizations operate, adapt to market fluctuations and forces, and make......While corporate culture plays a significant role in the success of any corporation, governance and “governmentality” not only determine how business should be conducted, but also define the policies and procedures organizations follow to achieve business functions and goals. In their book......, Organizational Enablers for Project Governance, Ralf Müller, Jingting Shao, and Sofia Pemsel examine the interaction of governance and governmentality in various types of companies and demonstrate how these factors drive business success and influence project work, efficiency, and profitability. The data...

  16. [Hydroxylamine conversion by anammox enrichment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anhui; Zheng, Ping; Lu, Huifeng; Ding, Shuang; Wang, Caihua

    2010-04-01

    Hydroxylamine is an important intermediate product of anammox. This study was focused on the characteristics of hydroxylamine and nitrite conversions by anammox enrichment. The changes of nitrogenous substrates and related products with time were measured using batch tests with anammox enrichment as inoculum. Since hydroxylamine didn't react with nitrite in uninoculated control culture, these two compounds were chemically stable. Both of them decreased with time in anammox enrichment inoculated cultures, in which ammonia as intermediate product would be produced and converted with the maximum concentration being 0.338 mg/L. The total nitrogen concentration decreased from 4.694 mmol/L to 0.812 mmol/L with conversion rate 82.7% in the end. When hydroxylamine and nitrite concentrations were about 2.5 mmol/L respectively, the maximum specific sludge conversion rates of hydroxylamine was 0.535 mmol/(gVSS.h), which was 1.81 times bigger than that of ammonia in ammonia reaction system; the maximum specific sludge rate of total nitrogen was slightly higher than that in ammonia reaction system. When hydroxylamine concentration increased to 5.0 mmol/L, the hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates promoted by 26.7% and 120.7% respectively; and the maximum ammonia accumulated was 1.810 mmol/L. When nitrite concentration increased to 5.0 mmol/L, the hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates promoted by 6.9% and 9.0% respectively; and the maximum ammonia accumulated was 0.795 mmol/L. Anammox enrichment was capable of converting hydroxylamine and nitrite simultaneously and had the higher conversion rate of hydroxylamine than ammonia conversion rate. Hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates were less affected by increase in nitrite concentration, but more significantly influenced by increase in hydroxylamine. The maximum ammonia concentration accumulated would rise as the result of increasing both hydroxylamine and nitrite. The result of experiment was consistent with pathway

  17. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Stephenson

    Full Text Available We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration.

  18. Producing deuterium-enriched products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of producing an enriched deuterium product from a gaseous feed stream of mixed hydrogen and deuterium, comprises: (a) combining the feed stream with gaseous bromine to form a mixture of the feed stream and bromine and exposing the mixture to an electrical discharge effective to form deuterium bromide and hydrogen bromide with a ratio of D/H greater than the ratio of D/H in the feed stream; and (b) separating at least a portion of the hydrogen bromide and deuterium bromide from the mixture. (author)

  19. 'Ethos' Enabling Organisational Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Yoshito

    This paper examines knowledge creation in relation to improvements on the production line in the manufacturing department of Nissan Motor Company and aims to clarify embodied knowledge observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation will be clarified. For that purpose, this study adopts an approach that adds a first, second, and third-person's viewpoint to the theory of knowledge creation. Embodied knowledge, observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation, is the continued practice of 'ethos' (in Greek) founded in Nissan Production Way as an ethical basis. Ethos is knowledge (intangible) assets for knowledge creating companies. Substantiated analysis classifies ethos into three categories: the individual, team and organisation. This indicates the precise actions of the organisational members in each category during the knowledge creation process. This research will be successful in its role of showing the indispensability of ethos - the new concept of knowledge assets, which enables knowledge creation -for future knowledge-based management in the knowledge society.

  20. Calibration Phantom for Quantitative Tomography Analysis of Biodistribution of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, Helen; Kettering, Melanie; Richter, Heike; Hilger, Ingrid; Trahms, Lutz; Odenbach, Stefan

    2010-12-01

    Ferrofluids are being investigated for cancer treatments such as magnetic drug targeting (MDT) and magnetic heating treatments with the aim of treating the cancer locally, since magnetic nanoparticles with attached drugs are concentrated within the target region. Thus, the side effects are considerably reduced. One of the crucial factors for the success of these therapies is the magnetic nanoparticle distribution. Microcomputed X-ray tomography (XμCT) has been introduced as adequate technique for non-destructive three-dimensional analysis of biological samples enriched with magnetic nanoparticles. The biological tissue specimens, in this case tumor bearing mice after intra-tumoral magnetic nanoparticle injection, have been analyzed by means of XμCT. Complementary measurements have been performed by magnetorelaxometry (MRX). This technique enables a sensitive quantification of magnetic nanoparticles down to few nanograms. For multi-phase samples, such as biological tissue enriched with magnetic nanoparticles the polychromasy and beam hardening artifacts occurring in XμCT with conventional X-ray tubes cause severe problems for quantitative density determination. This problem requires an appropriate calibration of the polychromatic tomography equipment enabling a semi-quantitative analysis of the data. For this purpose a phantom system has been implemented. These phantoms consist of a tissue substitute containing different amounts of magnetic nanoparticles. Since the attenuation of the beam also depends on the thickness i.e. the path length of the beam transmitting the object, the reference sample has been defined to a cone shape. Thus, with one phantom the information about the magnetic nanoparticle concentration as well as the attenuation in dependence of the path length can be determined. Two phantom systems will be presented, one based on agarose-gel and one based on soap.

  1. Present state of development of uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The pilot plant for uranium enrichment started the operation on September 12, 1979. The pilot plant has been constructed by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. in Ningyo Pass, Okayama Prefecture. 7000 centrifugal separators will be installed by mid 1981, and yearly production of 70 t SWU is expected. The Uranium Enrichment Committee of Japan Atomic Industrial Forum has made the proposal on the method of forwarding the development of uranium enrichment in Japan to Atomic Energy Commission and related government offices in December, 1978. This survey summarized the trends of uranium enrichment in Japan and foreign countries and the problems about nuclear non-proliferation, and provides with the reference materials. The demand and supply of uranium enrichment in the world, the present states and plans in USA, Europe, USSR and others, the demand and supply of uranium enrichment and the measures for securing it in Japan, the present state and future plan of uranium enrichment project in Japan, the international regulation of uranium enrichment, the recent policy of USA and INFCE, and the trend of the regulation of utilizing enriched uranium are described. Moreover, the concept of separation works in uranium enrichment and the various technologies of separation are explained. (Kako, I.)

  2. Smart Grid enabled heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Detlefsen, Nina; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2014-01-01

    The transition towards a 100 % fossil-free energy system, while achieving extreme penetration levels of intermittent wind and solar power in electricity generation, requires demand-side technologies that are smart (intermittency-friendly) and efficient. The integration of Smart Grid enabling...... with an empirical study in order to achieve a number of recommendations with respect to technology concepts and control strategies that would allow residential vapor-compression heat pumps to support large-scale integration of intermittent renewables. The analysis is based on data gathered over a period of up to 3...

  3. Quantitative mass spectrometry: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Pawel L.

    2016-10-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is a mainstream chemical analysis technique in the twenty-first century. It has contributed to numerous discoveries in chemistry, physics and biochemistry. Hundreds of research laboratories scattered all over the world use MS every day to investigate fundamental phenomena on the molecular level. MS is also widely used by industry-especially in drug discovery, quality control and food safety protocols. In some cases, mass spectrometers are indispensable and irreplaceable by any other metrological tools. The uniqueness of MS is due to the fact that it enables direct identification of molecules based on the mass-to-charge ratios as well as fragmentation patterns. Thus, for several decades now, MS has been used in qualitative chemical analysis. To address the pressing need for quantitative molecular measurements, a number of laboratories focused on technological and methodological improvements that could render MS a fully quantitative metrological platform. In this theme issue, the experts working for some of those laboratories share their knowledge and enthusiasm about quantitative MS. I hope this theme issue will benefit readers, and foster fundamental and applied research based on quantitative MS measurements. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  4. Insights from quantitative metaproteomics and protein-stable isotope probing into microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bergen, Martin; Jehmlich, Nico; Taubert, Martin; Vogt, Carsten; Bastida, Felipe; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Schmidt, Frank; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Seifert, Jana

    2013-10-01

    The recent development of metaproteomics has enabled the direct identification and quantification of expressed proteins from microbial communities in situ, without the need for microbial enrichment. This became possible by (1) significant increases in quality and quantity of metagenome data and by improvements of (2) accuracy and (3) sensitivity of modern mass spectrometers (MS). The identification of physiologically relevant enzymes can help to understand the role of specific species within a community or an ecological niche. Beside identification, relative and absolute quantitation is also crucial. We will review label-free and label-based methods of quantitation in MS-based proteome analysis and the contribution of quantitative proteome data to microbial ecology. Additionally, approaches of protein-based stable isotope probing (protein-SIP) for deciphering community structures are reviewed. Information on the species-specific metabolic activity can be obtained when substrates or nutrients are labeled with stable isotopes in a protein-SIP approach. The stable isotopes ((13)C, (15)N, (36)S) are incorporated into proteins and the rate of incorporation can be used for assessing the metabolic activity of the corresponding species. We will focus on the relevance of the metabolic and phylogenetic information retrieved with protein-SIP studies and for detecting and quantifying the carbon flux within microbial consortia. Furthermore, the combination of protein-SIP with established tools in microbial ecology such as other stable isotope probing techniques are discussed.

  5. Summary of the Effort to Use Active-induced Time Correlation Techniques to Measure the Enrichment of HEU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConchie, Seth M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Crye, Jason Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Pena, Kirsten [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sword, Eric [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mihalczo, John T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This document summarizes the effort to use active-induced time correlation techniques to measure the enrichment of bulk quantities of enriched uranium. In summary, these techniques use an external source to initiate fission chains, and the time distribution of the detected fission chain neutrons is sensitive to the fissile material enrichment. The number of neutrons emitted from a chain is driven by the multiplication of the item, and the enrichment is closely coupled to the multiplication of the item. As the enrichment increases (decreases), the multiplication increases (decreases) if the geometry is held constant. The time distribution of fission chain neutrons is a complex function of the enrichment and material configuration. The enrichment contributes to the probability of a subsequent fission in a chain via the likelihood of fissioning on an even-numbered isotope versus an odd-numbered isotope. The material configuration contributes to the same probability via solid angle effects for neutrons inducing subsequent fissions and the presence of any moderating material. To simplify the ability to accurately measure the enrichment, an associated particle imaging (API) D-T neutron generator and an array of plastic scintillators are used to simultaneously image the item and detect the fission chain neutrons. The image is used to significantly limit the space of enrichment and material configuration and enable the enrichment to be determined unambiguously.

  6. Gasket for uranium enrichment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, S; Aiyoshi, H

    1977-02-08

    A gasket to be inserted between flange joints in the equipments and pipe lines of an uranium enrichment plant having neither permeability nor adsorptivity to water while maintaining mechanical, physical and chemical properties of an elastomer gasket is described. A gasket made of an elastomeric material such as a polymer is integratedly formed at its surface with anti-slip projections. The gasket is further surrounded at its upper and lower peripheral sides, as well as outer circumferential portion with a U-sectioned cover (enclosure) made of fluoro-plastics. In this arrangement, the gasket main body shows a gas-tightness for uranium hexafluoride gas and the cover exhibits a gas-tightness for other component gases such as moisture to thereby prevent degradation of the gasket due to absorption and permeation of the moisture.

  7. Uranium enrichment in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, A.J.A.; Grant, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the South African process is of an aerodynamic type, the separating element being in effect a high performance stationary-walled centrifuge using UF 6 in hydrogen as process fluid. Some details of the very low uranium inventory and high separation factor achievable are given. A new cascade technique is described, based on the principle that an axial flow compressor can simultaneously transmit several streams of different isotopic composition without there being significant mixing between them. The research and development programme is discussed. It is expected that an enrichment plant of 5000 t/a SW capacity, with provision for expansion up to 10,000 t/a SW capacity, will come into operation by 1984. (U.K.)

  8. Stable isotope enrichment: Current and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates the Isotope Enrichment Facility for the purpose of providing enriched stable isotopes, selected radioactive isotopes (including the actinides), and isotope-related materials and services for use in various research applications. ORNL is responsible for isotope enrichment and the distribution of approximately 225 nongaseous stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. Many enriched isotope products are of prime importance in the fabrication of nuclear targets and the subsequent production of special radionuclides. State-of-the-art techniques to achieve special isotopic, chemical, and physical requirements are performed at ORNL This report describes the status and capabilities of the Isotope Enrichment Facility and the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory as well as emphasizing potential advancements in enrichment capabilities

  9. Considering the post-1995 enrichment market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, L.

    1994-01-01

    World demand for uranium enrichment services is likely to grow only a little over the next decade, from the current 28 million separative work units (SWU) per year to 33 MSWU per year. Much of the growth will come from Asia where nuclear generating capacity is still increasing. The current situation of the primary enrichment companies is summarized. The primary Western suppliers, Cogema, United States Enrichment Corporation and Urenco, are competing for increased market share in the USA, Europe and Asia as utilities purchase their post-1995 requirements. Entry of the Russian enrichment company, Tenex, into Western markets has been limited by trade restrictions. As a consequence of disarmament, blended weapons material has resulted in a surplus of low-enriched uranium. Together with over-capacity amongst the primary enrichers this has led to an expectation that reduced prices will be negotiable in the medium term. (3 figures). (UK)

  10. Noble gas enrichment studies at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, M.; Andrew, P.; Fundamenski, W.; Guo, H.Y.; Hillis, D.L.; Hogan, J.T.; Horton, L.D.; Matthews, G.F.; Meigs, A.G.; Morgan, P.M.; Stamp, M.F.; Hellermann, M. von

    2001-01-01

    Adequate helium exhaust has been achieved in reactor-relevant ELMy H-mode plasmas in JET performed in the MKII AP and MKII GB divertor geometry. The divertor-characteristic quantities of noble gas compression and enrichment have been experimentally inferred from Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy measurements in the core plasma, and from spectroscopic analysis of a Penning gauge discharge in the exhaust gas. The retention of helium was found to be satisfactory for a next-step device, with enrichment factors exceeding 0.1. The helium enrichment decreases with increasing core plasma density, while the neon enrichment has the opposite behaviour. Analytic and numerical analyses of these plasmas using the divertor impurity code package DIVIMP/NIMBUS support the explanation that the enrichment of noble gases depends significantly on the penetration depth of the impurity neutrals with respect to the fuel atoms. Changes of the divertor plasma configuration and divertor geometry have no effect on the enrichment

  11. Stable isotope enrichment - current and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates the Isotope Enrichment Facility for the purpose of providing enriched stable isotopes, selected radioactive isotopes (including the actinides), and isotope-related materials and services for use in various research applications. ORNL is responsible for isotope enrichment and the distribution of approximately 225 nongaseous stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. Many enriched isotope products are of prime importance in the fabrication of nuclear targets and the subsequent production of special radionuclides. State-of-the-art techniques to achieve special isotopic, chemical, and physical requirements are performed at ORNL. This report describes the status and capabilities of the Isotope Enrichment Facility and the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory as well as emphasizing potential advancements in enrichment capabilities. (orig.)

  12. Separation/enrichment of trace Zinc using potassium bromide-dimethylglyoxime-thymolphthalein system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Changqing; Wen, Xinrong

    2018-02-01

    A new method for the separation enrichment of trace Zn2+ using microcrystalline thymolphthalein as an adsorbent was established. The separation enrichment behaviour of Zn2+ and the conditions for the separation quantitatively of Zn2+ with other metal ions were investigated. The possible separation enrichment mechanism of Zn2+ was discussed in detail. The results showed that by controlling pH 10.0, in KBr-diacetydioxime(DMG)-thymolphthalein(TP) system, chelate settlement of Zn(DMG)2 which formed by Zn2+ and DMG was quantitatively adsorbed on the surface of microcrystalline thymolphthalein,and the liquid-solid phases were formed with clear interface, while Cu2+, Bi3+, Al3+, Hg2+ could not be adsorbed. The quantitative separation of Zn2+ from those metal ions was achieved. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the quantitative separation of trace Zn2+ in synthetic water samples with enrichment yield of 93.5%∼99.3%.

  13. Turkey's regulatory plans for high enriched to low enriched conversion of TR-2 reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelol Oezdere, Oya

    2003-01-01

    Turkey is a developing country and has three nuclear facilities two of which are research reactors and one pilot fuel production plant. One of the two research reactors is TR-2 which is located in Cekmece site in Istanbul. TR-2 Reactor's core is composed of both high enriched and low enriched fuel and from high enriched to low enriched core conversion project will take place in year 2005. This paper presents the plans for drafting regulations on the safety analysis report updates for high enriched to low enriched core conversion of TR-2 reactor, the present regulatory structure of Turkey and licensing activities of nuclear facilities. (author)

  14. EURODIF: the uranium enrichment by gaseous diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougeau, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    During the seventies the nuclear power programme had an extremely rapid growth rate which entailed to increase the world uranium enrichment capacity. EURODIF is the largest undertaking in this field. This multinational joint venture built and now operates and enrichment plant using the gaseous diffusion process at Tricastin (France). This plant is delivering low enriched uranium since two years and has contracted about 110 million SWU's till 1990. Description, current activity and prospects are given in the paper. (Author) [pt

  15. The future cost of uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouris, A.

    1986-01-01

    The cost of uranium enrichment is the most important factor determining the fuel cost of nuclear energy. This paper attempts to forecast the future direction of the price of separative work by examining the forces that determine it. It is argued that the interplay among the characteristics of enrichment technologies, the structure of the international market, and the balance of supply and demand determine the enrichment price. The analysis indicates that all forces point towards a price much lower than the current one. It is predicted that, depending on the technological advances, the price of separative work unit for uranium enrichment will range between $40 and $90 by the year 2000. (author)

  16. Cyber-Enabled Scientific Discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Tony; Jameson, Leland

    2007-01-01

    It is often said that numerical simulation is third in the group of three ways to explore modern science: theory, experiment and simulation. Carefully executed modern numerical simulations can, however, be considered at least as relevant as experiment and theory. In comparison to physical experimentation, with numerical simulation one has the numerically simulated values of every field variable at every grid point in space and time. In comparison to theory, with numerical simulation one can explore sets of very complex non-linear equations such as the Einstein equations that are very difficult to investigate theoretically. Cyber-enabled scientific discovery is not just about numerical simulation but about every possible issue related to scientific discovery by utilizing cyberinfrastructure such as the analysis and storage of large data sets, the creation of tools that can be used by broad classes of researchers and, above all, the education and training of a cyber-literate workforce

  17. Simulation enabled safeguards assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Robert; Bjornard, Trond; Larson, Tom

    2007-01-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wire-frame construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed. (authors)

  18. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert Bean; Trond Bjornard; Thomas Larson

    2007-01-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology (SESAME) has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wireframe construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed

  19. Context-Enabled Business Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2012-04-01

    To truly understand context and apply it in business intelligence, it is vital to understand what context is and how it can be applied in addressing organizational needs. Context describes the facets of the environment that impact the way that end users interact with the system. Context includes aspects of location, chronology, access method, demographics, social influence/ relationships, end-user attitude/ emotional state, behavior/ past behavior, and presence. To be successful in making Business Intelligence content enabled, it is important to be able to capture the context of use user. With advances in technology, there are a number of ways in which this user based information can be gathered and exposed to enhance the overall end user experience.

  20. Informatics enables public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. N McNabb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the world has radically changed. New advances in information and communication technologies (ICT connect the world in ways never imagined. Public health informatics (PHI leveraged for public health surveillance (PHS, can enable, enhance, and empower essential PHS functions (i.e., detection, reporting, confirmation, analyses, feedback, response. However, the tail doesn't wag the dog; as such, ICT cannot (should not drive public health surveillance strengthening. Rather, ICT can serve PHS to more effectively empower core functions. In this review, we explore promising ICT trends for prevention, detection, and response, laboratory reporting, push notification, analytics, predictive surveillance, and using new data sources, while recognizing that it is the people, politics, and policies that most challenge progress for implementation of solutions.

  1. Uncertainty enabled Sensor Observation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Dan; Williams, Matthew; Bastin, Lucy

    2010-05-01

    Almost all observations of reality are contaminated with errors, which introduce uncertainties into the actual observation result. Such uncertainty is often held to be a data quality issue, and quantification of this uncertainty is essential for the principled exploitation of the observations. Many existing systems treat data quality in a relatively ad-hoc manner, however if the observation uncertainty is a reliable estimate of the error on the observation with respect to reality then knowledge of this uncertainty enables optimal exploitation of the observations in further processes, or decision making. We would argue that the most natural formalism for expressing uncertainty is Bayesian probability theory. In this work we show how the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Observation Service can be implemented to enable the support of explicit uncertainty about observations. We show how the UncertML candidate standard is used to provide a rich and flexible representation of uncertainty in this context. We illustrate this on a data set of user contributed weather data where the INTAMAP interpolation Web Processing Service is used to help estimate the uncertainty on the observations of unknown quality, using observations with known uncertainty properties. We then go on to discuss the implications of uncertainty for a range of existing Open Geospatial Consortium standards including SWE common and Observations and Measurements. We discuss the difficult decisions in the design of the UncertML schema and its relation and usage within existing standards and show various options. We conclude with some indications of the likely future directions for UncertML in the context of Open Geospatial Consortium services.

  2. Imaging enabled platforms for development of therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Jonathan; Rizvi, Imran; Blanden, Adam R.; Evans, Conor L.; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O.; Spring, Bryan Q.; Muzikansky, Alona; Pogue, Brian W.; Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2011-03-01

    Advances in imaging and spectroscopic technologies have enabled the optimization of many therapeutic modalities in cancer and noncancer pathologies either by earlier disease detection or by allowing therapy monitoring. Amongst the therapeutic options benefiting from developments in imaging technologies, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is exceptional. PDT is a photochemistry-based therapeutic approach where a light-sensitive molecule (photosensitizer) is activated with light of appropriate energy (wavelength) to produce reactive molecular species such as free radicals and singlet oxygen. These molecular entities then react with biological targets such as DNA, membranes and other cellular components to impair their function and lead to eventual cell and tissue death. Development of PDT-based imaging also provides a platform for rapid screening of new therapeutics in novel in vitro models prior to expensive and labor-intensive animal studies. In this study we demonstrate how an imaging platform can be used for strategizing a novel combination treatment strategy for multifocal ovarian cancer. Using an in vitro 3D model for micrometastatic ovarian cancer in conjunction with quantitative imaging we examine dose and scheduling strategies for PDT in combination with carboplatin, a chemotherapeutic agent presently in clinical use for management of this deadly form of cancer.

  3. Highly Selective Enrichment of Glycopeptides Based on Zwitterionically Functionalized Soluble Nanopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weiqian; Huang, Jiangming; Jiang, Biyun; Gao, Xing; Yang, Pengyuan

    2016-07-01

    Efficient glycopeptides enrichment prior to mass spectrometry analysis is essential for glycoproteome study. ZIC-HILIC (zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography) based glycopeptides enrichment approaches have been attracting more attention for several benefits like easy operating, high enrichment specificity and intact glycopeptide retained. In this study, Poly (amidoamine) dendrimer (PAMAM) was adopted for the synthesis of zwitterionically functionalized (ZICF) materials for glycopeptide enrichment. The multiple branched structure and good solubility of ZICF-PAMAM enables a sufficient interaction with glycopeptides. The ZICF-PAMAM combined with the FASP-mode enrichment strategy exhibits more superior performance compared with the existing methods. It has the minimum detectable concentration of femtomolar level and high recovery rate of over 90.01%, and can efficiently enrich glycopeptides from complex biological samples even for merely 0.1 μL human serum. The remarkable glycopeptides enrichment capacity of ZICF-PAMAM highlights the potential application in in-depth glycoproteome research, which may open up new opportunities for the development of glycoproteomics.

  4. FEMO, A FLOW AND ENRICHMENT MONITOR FOR VERIFYING COMPLIANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL SAFEGUARDS REQUIREMENTS AT A GAS CENTRIFUGE ENRICHMENT FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunning, John E.; Laughter, Mark D.; March-Leuba, Jose A.

    2008-01-01

    A number of countries have received construction licenses or are contemplating the construction of large-capacity gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The capability to independently verify nuclear material flows is a key component of international safeguards approaches, and the IAEA does not currently have an approved method to continuously monitor the mass flow of 235U in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) gas streams. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is investigating the development of a flow and enrichment monitor, or FEMO, based on an existing blend-down monitoring system (BDMS). The BDMS was designed to continuously monitor both 235U mass flow and enrichment of UF6 streams at the low pressures similar to those which exists at GCEPs. BDMSs have been installed at three sites-the first unit has operated successfully in an unattended environment for approximately 10 years. To be acceptable to GCEP operators, it is essential that the instrument be installed and maintained without interrupting operations. A means to continuously verify flow as is proposed by FEMO will likely be needed to monitor safeguards at large-capacity plants. This will enable the safeguards effectiveness that currently exists at smaller plants to be maintained at the larger facilities and also has the potential to reduce labor costs associated with inspections at current and future plants. This paper describes the FEMO design requirements, operating capabilities, and development work required before field demonstration.

  5. 76 FR 387 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility) December 17, 2010... construction and operation of a gas centrifuge uranium enrichment facility--denoted as the Eagle Rock... site at http://www.nrc.gov/materials/fuel-cycle-fac/arevanc.html . These and other documents relating...

  6. Study on the radiotoxicology of enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Zheng Siying; Wang Guolin; Wang Chongdao; Cao Genfa

    1987-12-01

    A study on the retentive peculiarity of soluble enriched uranium UO 2 F 2 were observed after iv once or consecutive ip qd x 3d to Wistar male rats. The dynamic retention of radioactivity in the body showed that the enriched uranium UO 2 F 2 was chiefly localized in kidney, and then in skeleton and liver. The radioactivity of the enriched uranium UO 2 F 2 in skeleton rose steadily while the concentratoin in kidney and liver droped. When enriched uranium UO 2 F 2 was accumulated in organism, it caused chromosome aberrations on bone marrow cells. Results indicated that the chromosome aberration rates were elevated when the dose of the enriched uranium UO 2 F 2 was increased, at the same time, the cell division was depressed. Accumulation of insoluble enriched uranium U 3 O 8 in gastrointestinal tract was well described by a two exponential expression. Values of retention estimate for fast component, T 1 = 0.34 d, and for relatively long term component, T 2 = 4.05 d. The deposition of UO 2 F 2 in the intact skin was only 0.16 to 0.18% of the total contaminated UO 2 F 2 . Penetration of the enriched uranium UO 2 F 2 was dominantly increased in abraded skin. This value is about 25 to 32 times as compaired with that in intact skin. Retention of the enriched uranium UO 2 F 2 through abraded skins was dominantly localized in kidney and skeleton

  7. Uranium enrichment: a vital new industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    The energy problem facing the nation and the need for nuclear power are pointed out. Uranium enrichment and the demand for it are discussed. Reasons for, and obstacles to, private enrichment are outlined. The President's plan (including the Nuclear Fuel Assurance Act) is summarized

  8. Inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofton, Elizabeth J; Zhang, Yafang; Green, Thomas A

    2015-02-01

    One hallmark of psychiatric conditions is the vast continuum of individual differences in susceptibility vs. resilience resulting from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The environmental enrichment paradigm is an animal model that is useful for studying a range of psychiatric conditions, including protective phenotypes in addiction and depression models. The major question is how environmental enrichment, a non-drug and non-surgical manipulation, can produce such robust individual differences in such a wide range of behaviors. This paper draws from a variety of published sources to outline a coherent hypothesis of inoculation stress as a factor producing the protective enrichment phenotypes. The basic tenet suggests that chronic mild stress from living in a complex environment and interacting non-aggressively with conspecifics can inoculate enriched rats against subsequent stressors and/or drugs of abuse. This paper reviews the enrichment phenotypes, mulls the fundamental nature of environmental enrichment vs. isolation, discusses the most appropriate control for environmental enrichment, and challenges the idea that cortisol/corticosterone equals stress. The intent of the inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment is to provide a scaffold with which to build testable hypotheses for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these protective phenotypes and thus provide new therapeutic targets to treat psychiatric/neurological conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perspectives for the uranium enrichment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senna, J.G.S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Through an analysis of the electrical energy future in Brazil, the needs for enriched uranium are discussed, and therefore the importance of developing local capability for self-production. A description of the production processes that are well established is given first, then the analysis itself is performed and finally a visualization of the International Market for enriched uranium is shown. (author)

  10. Uranium enrichment : global view and Brazilian perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, D.M.; Sakamoto, L.H.

    1981-12-01

    A global view of isotope enrichment involving a general description of process (technical-economical aspects and policy) and status in developing countries is done. An enrichment demand in function of the Brazilian Nuclear Program is evaluated, analyzing a probable market and a low market. The perspectives to attend this demand, are studied. (E.G.) [pt

  11. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose and...

  12. Providing incentives to buy US enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, J.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is making a series of commercial and technological decisions crucial to its future as an enriching enterprise. The state of US enrichment, as revealed in this years AIF Fuel Cycle conference, is reported. (U.K.)

  13. Enrichment technology. Dependable vendor of gas centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    Enrichment Technology is an innovative, high-tech company that develops, manufactures and installs gas centrifuges for enriching uranium. In addition, Enrichment Technology designs enrichment plants that use gas centrifuge technology. This technology offers the most efficient and cost-effective method for enriching uranium yet: high-performance, safe technology that dominates the market with a global share of 45 percent. A determining factor in Enrichment Technology's success is its mission: supplying its customers with safe, reliable technology. Production of the centrifuges requires versatile know-how and collaboration between different departments as well as interdisciplinary teams at the various sites. More than 2000 operators at 8 sites in 5 countries contribute their individual knowledge and personal skills in order to produce this exceptional technology. The head office is in Beaconsfield near London and the operational headquarters are in Almelo in the Netherlands. There are other sites in Germany (Juelich und Gronau), Great Britain (Capenhurst) as well as project sites in the USA and France. Capenhurst is where experienced engineers design new enrichment plants and organise their construction. Centrifuge components are manufactured in Almelo and Juelich, while the pipework needed to connect up the centrifuges is produced at the site in Gronau. In Juelich, highly qualified scientists in interdisciplinary teams are continuously researching ways of improving the current centrifuges. Communication between specialists in the fields of chemistry, physics and engineering forms the basis for the company's success and the key to extending this leading position in the global enrichment market. (orig.)

  14. Student science enrichment training program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, S.S.

    1994-08-01

    This is a report on the Student Science Enrichment Training Program, with special emphasis on chemical and computer science fields. The residential summer session was held at the campus of Claflin College, Orangeburg, SC, for six weeks during 1993 summer, to run concomitantly with the college`s summer school. Fifty participants selected for this program, included high school sophomores, juniors and seniors. The students came from rural South Carolina and adjoining states which, presently, have limited science and computer science facilities. The program focused on high ability minority students, with high potential for science engineering and mathematical careers. The major objective was to increase the pool of well qualified college entering minority students who would elect to go into science, engineering and mathematical careers. The Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics and engineering at Claflin College received major benefits from this program as it helped them to expand the Departments of Chemistry, Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science as a result of additional enrollment. It also established an expanded pool of well qualified minority science and mathematics graduates, which were recruited by the federal agencies and private corporations, visiting Claflin College Campus. Department of Energy`s relationship with Claflin College increased the public awareness of energy related job opportunities in the public and private sectors.

  15. High-Purity Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: A Key Enabling Material in Emerging Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Jacques; Ding, Jianfu; Li, Zhao; Finnie, Paul; Lopinski, Gregory; Malenfant, Patrick R L

    2017-10-17

    polymers with a π-conjugated backbone, sc-SWCNTs with >99.9% purity can be dispersed in organic solvents via a simple sonication and centrifugation process. With 1000 times less excipient and the flexibility to accommodate a broad range of solvents via diverse polymer constructs, inks are readily deployable in solution-based fabrication processes such as aerosol spray, inkjet, and gravure. Further gains in sc-SWCNT purity, among other attributes, are possible with a better understanding of the structure-property relationships that govern conjugated polymer extraction. This Account covers three interlinked topics in SWCNT electronics: metrology, enrichment, and SWCNT transistors fabricated via solution processes. First, we describe how spectroscopic techniques such as optical absorption, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy are applied for sc-SWCNT purity assessment. Stringent requirements for sc-SWCNTs in electronics are pushing the techniques to new levels while serving as an important driver toward the development of quantitative metrology. Next, we highlight recent progress in understanding the sc-SWCNT enrichment process using conjugated polymers, with special consideration given to the effect of doping on the mechanism. Finally, developments in sc-SWCNT-based electronics are described, with emphasis on the performance of transistors utilizing random networks of sc-SWCNTs as the semiconducting channel material. Challenges and advances associated with using polymer-based dielectrics in the unique context of sc-SWCNT transistors are presented. Such transistor packages have enabled the realization of fully printed transistors as well as transparent and even stretchable transistors as a result of the unique and excellent electrical and mechanical properties of sc-SWCNTs.

  16. Uranium enrichment capacity: public versus private ownership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Continual growth of conventional nuclear capacity requires an assured supply of enriched uranium and, hence, potential expansion of domestic uranium enrichment capacity. The question of ownership of new enrichment capacity, i.e., public or private, entails not only the social-opportunity costs of alternative investments but also technical parameters of uranium utilization and advanced reactor development. Inclusion of risk preferences in both the public and private sectors produces interesting results in terms of optimal investment strategies with respect to choice of technology and scale of investment. Utilization of a nuclear fuel cycle requirements process model allows explicit specification of production technology. Integration of process model output with a least-cost investment model permits flexibility in parametric analysis. Results indicate minimum incentive for Government subsidy of a private enrichment sector through 2000 given moderate to low nuclear growth assumptions. The long-run scenario, to 2020, exhibits potentially greater incentives for private enrichment investment

  17. Enriching an effect calculus with linear types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egger, Jeff; Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Simpson, Alex

    2009-01-01

    We define an ``enriched effect calculus'' by conservatively extending  a type theory for computational effects with primitives from linear logic. By doing so, we obtain a generalisation of linear type theory, intended as a formalism for expressing linear aspects of effects. As a worked example, we...... formulate  linearly-used continuations in the enriched effect calculus. These are captured by a fundamental translation of the enriched effect calculus into itself, which extends existing call-by-value and call-by-name linearly-used CPS translations. We show that our translation is involutive. Full...... completeness results for the various linearly-used CPS translations  follow. Our main results, the conservativity of enriching the effect calculus with linear primitives, and the involution property of the fundamental translation, are proved using a category-theoretic semantics for the enriched effect calculus...

  18. Review of environmental enrichment for broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Van de Weerd, H.A.; de Jong, I.C.

    2018-01-01

    to improvements of the biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects, as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms and thus never...... benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broilers often has the purpose of satisfying behavioral needs and/or stimulating the broilers to an increased level of activity, which among others will reduce the occurrence of leg problems. Potentially successful environmental enrichments for broiler...... chickens are elevated resting-places, panels, barriers, and bales of straw (“point-source enrichment”), as well as covered verandas and outdoor ranges (“complex enriched environments”). Many of the ideas for environmental enrichment for broilers need to be further developed and studied, preferably...

  19. Current perspective of the uranium enrichment market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughon, K.O.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past several years, developments in the uranium enrichment market have required the Department of Energy (DOE) to make a number of changes in the U.S. enrichment enterprise. These changes have been made to allow DOE to conduct our enrichment business so as to be more responsive to changing market forces. Needless to say, some of these changes have been difficult, but they have been necessary if they are to conduct a healthy and competitive uranium enrichment business in the United States. This paper discusses several topics, including: The Uranium Enrichment Market, Utility Services (US) Contracts, Reduced Prices, Incentive Pricing, Better Customer Services, and Advanced Technology. In addition to these topics, information is provided on the recent court action regarding the US Contracts and the viability finding on the uranium mining industry

  20. IPAD: the Integrated Pathway Analysis Database for Systematic Enrichment Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Drabier, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies and Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) generate millions of reads and hundreds of datasets, and there is an urgent need for a better way to accurately interpret and distill such large amounts of data. Extensive pathway and network analysis allow for the discovery of highly significant pathways from a set of disease vs. healthy samples in the NGS and GWAS. Knowledge of activation of these processes will lead to elucidation of the complex biological pathways affected by drug treatment, to patient stratification studies of new and existing drug treatments, and to understanding the underlying anti-cancer drug effects. There are approximately 141 biological human pathway resources as of Jan 2012 according to the Pathguide database. However, most currently available resources do not contain disease, drug or organ specificity information such as disease-pathway, drug-pathway, and organ-pathway associations. Systematically integrating pathway, disease, drug and organ specificity together becomes increasingly crucial for understanding the interrelationships between signaling, metabolic and regulatory pathway, drug action, disease susceptibility, and organ specificity from high-throughput omics data (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics). We designed the Integrated Pathway Analysis Database for Systematic Enrichment Analysis (IPAD, http://bioinfo.hsc.unt.edu/ipad), defining inter-association between pathway, disease, drug and organ specificity, based on six criteria: 1) comprehensive pathway coverage; 2) gene/protein to pathway/disease/drug/organ association; 3) inter-association between pathway, disease, drug, and organ; 4) multiple and quantitative measurement of enrichment and inter-association; 5) assessment of enrichment and inter-association analysis with the context of the existing biological knowledge and a "gold standard" constructed from reputable and reliable sources; and 6) cross-linking of

  1. The low-enrichment fuel development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, D.

    1993-01-01

    In the 1950s and 1960s, low-power research reactors were built around the world utilized MTR-type fuel elements containing 20% enriched uranium. However, the demand for higher specific power created a need for greater uranium-235 concentrations. Early difficulties in increasing uranium content led to the substitution of highly enriched uranium in place of the 20% enriched fuel previously utilized. The highly enriched material also yielded other benefits including longer core residence time, higher specific reactivity, and somewhat lower cost. Highly enriched material then became readily available and was used for high-power reactors as well as in low-power reactors where 20% enriched material would have sufficed. The trend toward higher and higher specific power also led to the development of the dispersion-type fuels which utilized highly enriched uranium at a concentration of about 40 wt%. In the 1970's, however, concerns were raised about the proliferation resistance of fuels and fuel cycles. As a consequence, the U.S. Department of State has recently prohibited the foreign shipment of highly enriched material, except where prior contractual obligation or special merit exists. This will impact on the availability and utilization of highly enriched uranium for research and test reactor fuel. It has also stimulated development programs on fuels with higher uranium content which would allow the use of uranium of lower enrichment. The purpose of this report is to briefly describe the overall fuel-development program which is coordinated by Argonne National Laboratory for the Department of Energy, and to indicate the current and potential uranium loadings. Other reports will address the individual fuel-development activities in greater detail

  2. Quantitative grading of store separation trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jamison, Kevin A

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available . This paper describes the development of an automated analysis process and software that can run a multitude of separation scenarios. A key enabler for this software is the development of a quantitative grading algorithm that scores the outcome of each release...

  3. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, W.; Arnold, F.; Stoelinga, M.I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Therefore, penetration testing has thus far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management,

  4. Quantitative Penetration Testing with Item Response Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2014-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including

  5. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including

  6. GOrilla: a tool for discovery and visualization of enriched GO terms in ranked gene lists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinfeld Israel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the inception of the GO annotation project, a variety of tools have been developed that support exploring and searching the GO database. In particular, a variety of tools that perform GO enrichment analysis are currently available. Most of these tools require as input a target set of genes and a background set and seek enrichment in the target set compared to the background set. A few tools also exist that support analyzing ranked lists. The latter typically rely on simulations or on union-bound correction for assigning statistical significance to the results. Results GOrilla is a web-based application that identifies enriched GO terms in ranked lists of genes, without requiring the user to provide explicit target and background sets. This is particularly useful in many typical cases where genomic data may be naturally represented as a ranked list of genes (e.g. by level of expression or of differential expression. GOrilla employs a flexible threshold statistical approach to discover GO terms that are significantly enriched at the top of a ranked gene list. Building on a complete theoretical characterization of the underlying distribution, called mHG, GOrilla computes an exact p-value for the observed enrichment, taking threshold multiple testing into account without the need for simulations. This enables rigorous statistical analysis of thousand of genes and thousands of GO terms in order of seconds. The output of the enrichment analysis is visualized as a hierarchical structure, providing a clear view of the relations between enriched GO terms. Conclusion GOrilla is an efficient GO analysis tool with unique features that make a useful addition to the existing repertoire of GO enrichment tools. GOrilla's unique features and advantages over other threshold free enrichment tools include rigorous statistics, fast running time and an effective graphical representation. GOrilla is publicly available at: http://cbl-gorilla.cs.technion.ac.il

  7. Enabling individualized therapy through nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jason H; van de Ven, Anne L; Godin, Biana; Blanco, Elvin; Serda, Rita E; Grattoni, Alessandro; Ziemys, Arturas; Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Tony; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I; De Rosa, Enrica; Martinez, Jonathan O; Smid, Christine A; Buchanan, Rachel M; Lee, Sei-Young; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Landry, Matthew; Meyn, Anne; Tasciotti, Ennio; Liu, Xuewu; Decuzzi, Paolo; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-08-01

    Individualized medicine is the healthcare strategy that rebukes the idiomatic dogma of 'losing sight of the forest for the trees'. We are entering a new era of healthcare where it is no longer acceptable to develop and market a drug that is effective for only 80% of the patient population. The emergence of "-omic" technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and advances in systems biology are magnifying the deficiencies of standardized therapy, which often provide little treatment latitude for accommodating patient physiologic idiosyncrasies. A personalized approach to medicine is not a novel concept. Ever since the scientific community began unraveling the mysteries of the genome, the promise of discarding generic treatment regimens in favor of patient-specific therapies became more feasible and realistic. One of the major scientific impediments of this movement towards personalized medicine has been the need for technological enablement. Nanotechnology is projected to play a critical role in patient-specific therapy; however, this transition will depend heavily upon the evolutionary development of a systems biology approach to clinical medicine based upon "-omic" technology analysis and integration. This manuscript provides a forward looking assessment of the promise of nanomedicine as it pertains to individualized medicine and establishes a technology "snapshot" of the current state of nano-based products over a vast array of clinical indications and range of patient specificity. Other issues such as market driven hurdles and regulatory compliance reform are anticipated to "self-correct" in accordance to scientific advancement and healthcare demand. These peripheral, non-scientific concerns are not addressed at length in this manuscript; however they do exist, and their impact to the paradigm shifting healthcare transformation towards individualized medicine will be critical for its success. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Enabling individualized therapy through nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jason H.; van de Ven, Anne L.; Godin, Biana; Blanco, Elvin; Serda, Rita E.; Grattoni, Alessandro; Ziemys, Arturas; Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Tony; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I.; De Rosa, Enrica; Martinez, Jonathan O.; Smid, Christine A.; Buchanan, Rachel M.; Lee, Sei-Young; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Landry, Matthew; Meyn, Anne; Tasciotti, Ennio; Liu, Xuewu; Decuzzi, Paolo; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Individualized medicine is the healthcare strategy that rebukes the idiomatic dogma of ‘losing sight of the forest for the trees’. We are entering a new era of healthcare where it is no longer acceptable to develop and market a drug that is effective for only 80% of the patient population. The emergence of “-omic” technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and advances in systems biology are magnifying the deficiencies of standardized therapy, which often provide little treatment latitude for accommodating patient physiologic idiosyncrasies. A personalized approach to medicine is not a novel concept. Ever since the scientific community began unraveling the mysteries of the genome, the promise of discarding generic treatment regimens in favor of patient-specific therapies became more feasible and realistic. One of the major scientific impediments of this movement towards personalized medicine has been the need for technological enablement. Nanotechnology is projected to play a critical role in patient-specific therapy; however, this transition will depend heavily upon the evolutionary development of a systems biology approach to clinical medicine based upon “-omic” technology analysis and integration. This manuscript provides a forward looking assessment of the promise of nanomedicine as it pertains to individualized medicine and establishes a technology “snapshot” of the current state of nano-based products over a vast array of clinical indications and range of patient specificity. Other issues such as market driven hurdles and regulatory compliance reform are anticipated to “self-correct” in accordance to scientific advancement and healthcare demand. These peripheral, non-scientific concerns are not addressed at length in this manuscript; however they do exist, and their impact to the paradigm shifting healthcare transformation towards individualized medicine will be critical for its success. PMID:20045055

  9. Comments on applications of reduced enrichment fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    Full text: I will briefly describe the experience gained using different fuels in the SAPHIR reactor in Switzerland. The SAPHIR has been operating since 1957 and was the first swimming pool reactor built outside of the United States, which was originally known as the Geneva Conference Reactor. The first core was loaded with 20 percent enriched high density UO 2 fuel with a density of about 2.5 grams per cc, fabricated in 1955 by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. After a few years of operation at a power level of one MW, more than one batch of the elements released small amounts of fission products mainly Xe and Kr. When these releases were discovered, high enriched fuel was becoming available so that the fuel fabricators began to produce the lower density high enriched fuels. During this transition from fabrication of low to high enriched fuels no one could foresee that the stone age of nuclear fuel fabrication would come back again. Therefore, we did not investigate the reasons for the fission product release from the high density low enriched UO 2 fuel. The second fuel type used in the SAPHIR was the 90 percent enriched low density U 3 O 8 fuel fabricated by NUKEM. This high enriched fuel has performed satisfactorily over the years. Since 1968, the core has been using improved 23 plate fuel elements with a loading of 280 grams of uranium. The reactor power has been recently increased to five MW. An additional increase in the power level to 10 MW is planned at the end of next year so that heavier loaded elements will be needed. In order to follow the recommendations of the INFCE working group 8C and in cooperation with the reduced enrichment program, we intend to initially reduce the fuel enrichment to 45 percent. Last year we ordered five fuel elements with a loading of 320 grams 235 U/element and 45 percent enrichment for full power tests. Unfortunately, the delivery of the necessary enriched fuel uranium has been delayed and it is not available at this time. If

  10. Enrichment allows identification of diverse, rare elements in metagenomic resistome-virulome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Noelle R; Weinroth, Maggie E; Parker, Jennifer K; Dean, Chris J; Lakin, Steven M; Raymond, Robert A; Rovira, Pablo; Doster, Enrique; Abdo, Zaid; Martin, Jennifer N; Jones, Kenneth L; Ruiz, Jaime; Boucher, Christina A; Belk, Keith E; Morley, Paul S

    2017-10-17

    Shotgun metagenomic sequencing is increasingly utilized as a tool to evaluate ecological-level dynamics of antimicrobial resistance and virulence, in conjunction with microbiome analysis. Interest in use of this method for environmental surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and pathogenic microorganisms is also increasing. In published metagenomic datasets, the total of all resistance- and virulence-related sequences accounts for enrichment system that incorporates unique molecular indices to count DNA molecules and correct for enrichment bias. The use of the bait-capture and enrichment system significantly increased on-target sequencing of the resistome-virulome, enabling detection of an additional 1441 gene accessions and revealing a low-abundance portion of the resistome-virulome that was more diverse and compositionally different than that detected by more traditional metagenomic assays. The low-abundance portion of the resistome-virulome also contained resistance genes with public health importance, such as extended-spectrum betalactamases, that were not detected using traditional shotgun metagenomic sequencing. In addition, the use of the bait-capture and enrichment system enabled identification of rare resistance gene haplotypes that were used to discriminate between sample origins. These results demonstrate that the rare resistome-virulome contains valuable and unique information that can be utilized for both surveillance and population genetic investigations of resistance. Access to the rare resistome-virulome using the bait-capture and enrichment system validated in this study can greatly advance our understanding of microbiome-resistome dynamics.

  11. DOE enrichment plants-safeguards means business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, R.

    1987-01-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., is a full service enrichment plant. Its long enriching cascade can process uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) feeds at almost any 235 U level and can produce UF 6 over the complete spectrum from depleted to very highly enriched uranium. The DOE uranium enrichment program is a government-owned enterprise operating as a business. The operating concerns of the DOE uranium enrichment plants and their safeguards programs have evolved together over the past three decades, and that evolution will likely continue. As the risk associated with possession, processing, and shipment of strategic nuclear material increased, the protection and control of it increased; as the value of the product grew with time, better ways were found to measure and conserve it. In each of these areas, safeguards objectives and the business requirements of the plant are complementary, and the progress made in one area has been reflected by progress in the other. The plant's material control and accountability program has become crucial to such business requirements as quantifying the enriched uranium (separative work units) produced in each monthly period and convincing financial auditors that the multibillion dollar enriched uranium assets located at the Portsmouth plant are properly stated

  12. Multinational uranium enrichment in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Ali; Salahieh, Sidra; Snyder, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) agreed to by Iran and the P5+1 in July 2015 placed restrictions on Iran’s nuclear program while other Middle Eastern countries– Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates–are planning to build their own nuclear power plants to meet increasing electricity demands. Although the JCPOA restricts Iran's uranium enrichment program for 10–15 years, Iran's neighbors may choose to develop their own national enrichment programs giving them a potential nuclear weapons capability. This paper argues that converting Iran's national enrichment program to a more proliferation-resistant multinational arrangement could offer significant economic benefits–reduced capital and operational costs–due to economies of scale and the utilization of more efficient enrichment technologies. In addition, the paper examines policy aspects related to financing, governance, and how multinational enrichment could fit into the political and security context of the Middle East. A multinational enrichment facility managed by regional and international partners would provide more assurance that it remains peaceful and could help build confidence between Iran and its neighbors to cooperate in managing other regional security challenges. - Highlights: • Freezing Iran's nuclear program is an opportunity to launch joint initiatives in ME. • A joint uranium enrichment program in the Middle East offers economic benefits. • Other benefits include improved nuclear security and transparency in the region.

  13. Uranium enrichment: heading for a cliff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, C.

    1987-01-01

    Thanks to drastic cost cutting in the past 2 years, US enrichment plants now have the lowest cost production in the world, but US prices are still higher than those of overseas competitors because the business is paying for past mistakes. The most serious difficulty is that the Department of Energy (DOE), which owns and operates the US enrichment enterprise, is paying more than $500 million a year to the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for electricity it once thought it would need but no longer requires. Another is that billions of dollars were spent in the 1970s and early 1980s to build new capacity that is now not needed. As a result, the enrichment enterprise has accumulated a debt to the US Treasury that the General Accounting Office (GAO) estimates at $8.8 billion. This paper presents the background and current debate in Congress about the difficulties facing the enrichment industry. In the midst of this debate over the future of the enterprise, the development of the next generation of enrichment technology is being placed in jeopardy. Known as atomic vapor laser isotope separation, or AVLIS, the process was viewed as the key to the long-term competitiveness of US enrichment. As the federal deficit mounted, however, funding for the AVLIS program was cut back and the timetable was stretched out. The US enrichment program has reached the point at which Congress will be forced to make some politically difficult decisions

  14. Enrichment of Acinetobacter spp. from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheira, Ana; Ferreira, Vânia; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of foods in the chain of transmission of acinetobacters and the occurrence of different Acinetobacter spp. in foods. Currently, there is no standard procedure to recover acinetobacters from food in order to gain insight into the food-related ecology and epidemiology of acinetobacters. This study aimed to assess whether enrichment in Dijkshoorn enrichment medium followed by plating in CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium is a useful method for the isolation of Acinetobacter spp. from foods. Recovery of six Acinetobacter species from food spiked with these organisms was compared for two selective enrichment media (Baumann's enrichment and Dijkshoorn's enrichment). Significantly (p enrichment. Next, the Dijkshoorn's enrichment followed by direct plating on CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter was applied to detect Acinetobacter spp. in different foods. Fourteen different presumptive acinetobacters were recovered and assumed to represent nine different strains on the basis of REP-PCR typing. Eight of these strains were identified by rpoB gene analysis as belonging to the species Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter gandensis. It was not possible to identify the species level of one strain which may suggests that it represents a distinct species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Review of environmental enrichment for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, A B; van de Weerd, H A; de Jong, I C; Steenfeldt, S

    2018-02-01

    Welfare problems are commonly found in both conventional and organic production of broiler chickens. In order to reduce the extent of welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating, enriched environments. The aim of the present paper is to provide a review of the effect on behavior and welfare of the different kinds of environmental enrichments in the production of broilers that have been described in the scientific literature. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements of the biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects, as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms and thus never benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broilers often has the purpose of satisfying behavioral needs and/or stimulating the broilers to an increased level of activity, which among others will reduce the occurrence of leg problems. Potentially successful environmental enrichments for broiler chickens are elevated resting-places, panels, barriers, and bales of straw ("point-source enrichment"), as well as covered verandas and outdoor ranges ("complex enriched environments"). Many of the ideas for environmental enrichment for broilers need to be further developed and studied, preferably in commercial trials, with respect to the use, the effect on behavior and on other welfare aspects such as leg health, and the interaction with genotype, production system, stocking density, light, and flock size. In addition, information on the practical application and the economics of the production system is often lacking, although it is important for application in practice. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Quantitative investment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    DeFusco, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In the "Second Edition" of "Quantitative Investment Analysis," financial experts Richard DeFusco, Dennis McLeavey, Jerald Pinto, and David Runkle outline the tools and techniques needed to understand and apply quantitative methods to today's investment process.

  17. A data transmission system for the centrifuge enrichment plant safeguards project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, E.W.

    1987-04-01

    A novel data transmission system was developed to enable the Australian Safeguards Office (ASO) in Sydney to monitor remotely the running of an experimental enrichment facility at the Lucas Heights Reserch Laboratories, using Telecom telephone lines. The system allowed ASO to monitor the enrichment, flows and activity in sensitive areas of the plant by means of a master computer at ASO and a slave computer at Lucas Heights. The slave computer sent requested data and scanned video pictures to determine intrusive changes to the plant. Detailed descriptions of the transmission system and method of operation are given, together with an outline of experience obtained during a three-month surveillance of the facility

  18. UF/sub 6/ test loop for evaluation and implementation of international enrichment plant safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, J.N.; Fields, L.W.; Swindle, D.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A functional test loop capable of simulating UF/sub 6/ flows, pressures, and pipe deposits characteristic of gas centrifuge enrichment plant piping has been designed and fabricated by the Enrichment Safeguards Program of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for use by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at its Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. The purpose of the test loop is twofold: (1) to enable the IAEA to evaluate and to calibrate enrichment safeguards measurement instrumentation to be used in limited frequency-unannounced access (LFUA) inspection strategy measurements at gas centrifuge enrichment plants and (2) to train IAEA inspectors in the use of such instrumentation. The test loop incorporates actual sections of cascade header pipes from the centrifuge enrichment plants subject to IAEA inspections. The test loop is described, applications for its use by the IAEA are detailed, and results from an initial demonstration session using the test loop are summarized. By giving the IAEA the in-house capability to evaluate LFUA inspection strategy approaches, to develop inspection procedures, to calibrate instrumentation, and to train inspectors, the UF/sub 6/ cascade header pipe test loop will contribute to the IAEA's success in implementing LFUA strategy inspections at gas centrifuge enrichment facilities subject to international safeguards inspections

  19. Atrazine and its metabolites degradation in mineral salts medium and soil using an enrichment culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anup; Singh, Neera

    2016-03-01

    An atrazine-degrading enrichment culture was used to study degradation of atrazine metabolites viz. hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine in mineral salts medium. Results suggested that the enrichment culture was able to degrade only hydroxyatrazine, and it was used as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Hydroxyatrazine degradation slowed down when sucrose and/or ammonium hydrogen phosphate were supplemented as the additional sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. The enrichment culture could degrade high concentrations of atrazine (up to 110 μg/mL) in mineral salts medium, and neutral pH was optimum for atrazine degradation. Further, except in an acidic soil, enrichment culture was able to degrade atrazine in three soil types having different physico-chemical properties. Raising the pH of acidic soil to neutral or alkaline enabled the enrichment culture to degrade atrazine suggesting that acidic pH inhibited atrazine-degrading ability. The study suggested that the enrichment culture can be successfully utilized to achieve complete degradation of atrazine and its persistent metabolite hydroxyatrazine in the contaminated soil and water.

  20. Profile of World Uranium Enrichment Programs - 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughter, Mark D.

    2007-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is acquiring weapons grade fissile material, either plutonium or highly enriched uranium (HEU). Plutonium is produced in a nuclear reactor, while HEU is produced using a uranium enrichment process. Enrichment is also an important step in the civil nuclear fuel cycle, in producing low enriched uranium (LEU) for use in fuel for nuclear reactors. However, the same equipment used to produce LEU for nuclear fuel can also be used to produce HEU for weapons. Safeguards at an enrichment plant are the array of assurances and verification techniques that ensure uranium is only enriched to LEU, no undeclared LEU is produced, and no uranium is enriched to HEU or secretly diverted. There are several techniques for enriching uranium. The two most prevalent are gaseous diffusion, which uses older technology and requires a lot of energy, and gas centrifuge separation, which uses more advanced technology and is more energy efficient. Gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) provide about 40% of current world enrichment capacity, but are being phased out as newer gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) are constructed. Estimates of current and future enrichment capacity are always approximate, due to the constant upgrades, expansions, and shutdowns occurring at enrichment plants, largely determined by economic interests. Currently, the world enrichment capacity is approximately 53 million kg-separative work units (SWU) per year, with 22 million in gaseous diffusion and 31 million in gas centrifuge plants. Another 23 million SWU/year of capacity are under construction or planned for the near future, almost entirely using gas centrifuge separation. Other less-efficient techniques have also been used in the past, including electromagnetic and aerodynamic separations, but these are considered obsolete, at least from a commercial perspective. Laser isotope separation shows promise as a possible enrichment technique

  1. Development and applications of quantitative NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Taichi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, quantitative NMR spectroscopy has attracted attention as an analytical method which can easily secure traceability to SI unit system, and discussions about its accuracy and inaccuracy are also started. This paper focuses on the literatures on the advancement of quantitative NMR spectroscopy reported between 2009 and 2016, and introduces both NMR measurement conditions and actual analysis cases in quantitative NMR. The quantitative NMR spectroscopy using an internal reference method enables accurate quantitative analysis with a quick and versatile way in general, and it is possible to obtain the precision sufficiently applicable to the evaluation of pure substances and standard solutions. Since the external reference method can easily prevent contamination to samples and the collection of samples, there are many reported cases related to the quantitative analysis of biologically related samples and highly scarce natural products in which NMR spectra are complicated. In the precision of quantitative NMR spectroscopy, the internal reference method is superior. As the quantitative NMR spectroscopy widely spreads, discussions are also progressing on how to utilize this analytical method as the official methods in various countries around the world. In Japan, this method is listed in the Pharmacopoeia and Japanese Standard of Food Additives, and it is also used as the official method for purity evaluation. In the future, this method will be expected to spread as the general-purpose analysis method that can ensure traceability to SI unit system. (A.O.)

  2. Rigour in quantitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claydon, Leica Sarah

    2015-07-22

    This article which forms part of the research series addresses scientific rigour in quantitative research. It explores the basis and use of quantitative research and the nature of scientific rigour. It examines how the reader may determine whether quantitative research results are accurate, the questions that should be asked to determine accuracy and the checklists that may be used in this process. Quantitative research has advantages in nursing, since it can provide numerical data to help answer questions encountered in everyday practice.

  3. 76 FR 34103 - In the Matter of Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    .... 10-899-02-ML-BD01] In the Matter of Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility...'' portion of this proceeding regarding the December 2008 application by AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (AES... gas centrifuge uranium enrichment facility--denoted as the Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF)--in...

  4. Enriching the Web Processing Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosniok, Christoph; Bensmann, Felix; Wössner, Roman; Kohlus, Jörn; Roosmann, Rainer; Heidmann, Carsten; Lehfeldt, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    The OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) provides a standard for implementing geospatial processes in service-oriented networks. In its current version 1.0.0 it allocates the operations GetCapabilities, DescribeProcess and Execute, which can be used to offer custom processes based on single or multiple sub-processes. A large range of ready to use fine granular, fundamental geospatial processes have been developed by the GIS-community in the past. However, modern use cases or whole workflow processes demand specifications of lifecycle management and service orchestration. Orchestrating smaller sub-processes is a task towards interoperability; a comprehensive documentation by using appropriate metadata is also required. Though different approaches were tested in the past, developing complex WPS applications still requires programming skills, knowledge about software libraries in use and a lot of effort for integration. Our toolset RichWPS aims at providing a better overall experience by setting up two major components. The RichWPS ModelBuilder enables the graphics-aided design of workflow processes based on existing local and distributed processes and geospatial services. Once tested by the RichWPS Server, a composition can be deployed for production use on the RichWPS Server. The ModelBuilder obtains necessary processes and services from a directory service, the RichWPS semantic proxy. It manages the lifecycle and is able to visualize results and debugging-information. One aim will be to generate reproducible results; the workflow should be documented by metadata that can be integrated in Spatial Data Infrastructures. The RichWPS Server provides a set of interfaces to the ModelBuilder for, among others, testing composed workflow sequences, estimating their performance and to publish them as common processes. Therefore the server is oriented towards the upcoming WPS 2.0 standard and its ability to transactionally deploy and undeploy processes making use of a WPS

  5. Quantitation: clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Single photon emission tomography may be used quantitatively if its limitations are recognized and quantitation is made in relation to some reference area on the image. Relative quantitation is discussed in outline in relation to the liver, brain and pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, and heart. (U.K.)

  6. A Guide to Job Enrichment and Redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, J. Barton; Eberle, Ted

    1990-01-01

    Describes job design alternatives--job enrichment, the job characteristics model, Japanese style management, and quality-of-worklife approaches. Focuses on the problems that human resources professionals may encounter when attempting to implement these approaches. (Author/JOW)

  7. Mercury enrichment in sediments of Amba estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    of anthropogenic metal to the estuary. Geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor support Hg contamination of the estuarine sediment to a varying degree. Hg is not significantly correlated with TOC, Al, Fe and Mn in these sediments...

  8. Safety criteria of uranium enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardocci, A.C.; Oliveira Neto, J.M. de

    1994-01-01

    The applicability of nuclear reactor safety criteria applied to uranium enrichment plants is discussed, and a new criterion based on the soluble uranium compounds and hexafluoride chemical toxicities is presented. (L.C.J.A.). 21 refs, 4 tabs

  9. Management's Ecstasy and Disparity Over Job Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Albert S.

    1976-01-01

    A case study analyzing job enrichment schemes and manager expectations of increased productivity is presented. It was found that it was the managers' expectations of increased productivity, not the reorganization of work, that led to higher productivity. (EC)

  10. Safety aspects of gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Uranium enrichment by gas centrifuge is a commercially proven, viable technology. Gas centrifuge enrichment plant operations pose hazards that are also found in other industries as well as unique hazards as a result of processing and handling uranium hexafluoride and the handling of enriched uranium. Hazards also found in other industries included those posed by the use of high-speed rotating equipment and equipment handling by use of heavy-duty cranes. Hazards from high-speed rotating equipment are associated with the operation of the gas centrifuges themselves and with the operation of the uranium hexafluoride compressors in the tail withdrawal system. These and related hazards are discussed. It is included that commercial gas centrifuge enrichment plants have been designed to operate safely

  11. (+)- 10-camphorsulfonic acid and enrichment of enantiomeric

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    . The partially resolved enriched sample of (S,S)-(–)-2,3-diphenylpiperazine with 73% ee was purified to obtain samples of 97% ee using different achiral acids via the preparation of either homochiral or heterochiral hydrogen bonded.

  12. Boron isotopic enrichment by displacement chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, K.K.; Bose, Arun

    2014-01-01

    10 B enriched boron is used in applications requiring high volumetric neutron absorption (absorption cross section- 3837 barn for thermal and 1 barn for 1 MeV fast neutron). It is used in fast breeder reactor (as control rod material), in neutron counter, in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy etc. Owing to very small separation factor, boron isotopic enrichment is a complex process requiring large number of separation stages. Heavy Water Board has ventured in industrial scale production of 10 B enriched boron using Exchange Distillation Process as well as Ion Displacement Chromatography Process. Ion Displacement Chromatography process is used in Boron Enrichment Plant at HWP, Manuguru. It is based on isotopic exchange between borate ions (B(OH) 4 - ) on anion exchange resin and boric acid passing through resin. The isotopic exchange takes place due to difference in zero point energy of 10 B and 11 B

  13. Process for recovering water enriched with deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, H.

    1975-01-01

    By the process proposed herewith, enrichment of deuterium in water by cooling water recirculation through series-connection of several cooling ciruits in the form of columns is obtained. With this method, conventional, open-type cooling towers without special installations can be applied, which is an important advantage as compared with a formerly proposed single-stage process with specially designed, complicated cooling towers. Series-connection of the cooling towers is carried out in such a way that the circulating water of a certain cooling circuit, which has a corresponding output value of deuterium enrichment, is conveyed to a succeeding circuit where further enrichment is achieved. The water enriched with deuterium is removed from the last cooling circuit of the series while an amount of fresch water equivalent to the water removed or evaporated altogether is fed to the first circuit of the series. (RB) [de

  14. Next-generation phage display: integrating and comparing available molecular tools to enable cost-effective high-throughput analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Dias-Neto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Combinatorial phage display has been used in the last 20 years in the identification of protein-ligands and protein-protein interactions, uncovering relevant molecular recognition events. Rate-limiting steps of combinatorial phage display library selection are (i the counting of transducing units and (ii the sequencing of the encoded displayed ligands. Here, we adapted emerging genomic technologies to minimize such challenges.We gained efficiency by applying in tandem real-time PCR for rapid quantification to enable bacteria-free phage display library screening, and added phage DNA next-generation sequencing for large-scale ligand analysis, reporting a fully integrated set of high-throughput quantitative and analytical tools. The approach is far less labor-intensive and allows rigorous quantification; for medical applications, including selections in patients, it also represents an advance for quantitative distribution analysis and ligand identification of hundreds of thousands of targeted particles from patient-derived biopsy or autopsy in a longer timeframe post library administration. Additional advantages over current methods include increased sensitivity, less variability, enhanced linearity, scalability, and accuracy at much lower cost. Sequences obtained by qPhage plus pyrosequencing were similar to a dataset produced from conventional Sanger-sequenced transducing-units (TU, with no biases due to GC content, codon usage, and amino acid or peptide frequency. These tools allow phage display selection and ligand analysis at >1,000-fold faster rate, and reduce costs approximately 250-fold for generating 10(6 ligand sequences.Our analyses demonstrates that whereas this approach correlates with the traditional colony-counting, it is also capable of a much larger sampling, allowing a faster, less expensive, more accurate and consistent analysis of phage enrichment. Overall, qPhage plus pyrosequencing is superior to TU-counting plus Sanger

  15. Yersinia enterocolitica in slaughter pig tonsils: enumeration and detection by enrichment versus direct plating culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Inge; Habib, Ihab; De Zutter, Lieven

    2010-02-01

    Tonsil samples from 139 slaughter pigs were examined for the presence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica by enrichment procedures based on the standard method ISO 10273:2003. In addition, samples were tested by direct plating method to evaluate its efficiency compared to the enrichment culture methods and to quantify the level of contamination in porcine tonsils. In total, 52 samples (37.4%) were positive for pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, all belonging to bioserotype 4/O:3. Fifty out of the 52 positive samples (96.2%) were detected by direct plating. Enumeration showed an average concentration of 4.5 log(10) CFU g(-1) and 4.4 log(10) CFU g(-1) tonsil on Salmonella-Shigella-desoxycholate-calcium chloride (SSDC) and cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar plates, respectively. The enrichment procedures recommended by the ISO 10273:2003 method were not optimal for the isolation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from pig tonsils: two days enrichment in irgasan-ticarcillin-potassium chlorate (ITC) broth resulted in an isolation rate of 84.6%, while 5 days enrichment in peptone-sorbitol-bile (PSB) broth recovered only 59.6% of positive samples. Reducing the enrichment time in PSB from 5 to 2 days resulted in a significantly higher recovery rate (94.2%) and might serve as an appropriate enrichment protocol for the isolation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from pig tonsils. Compared to enrichment culture methods, results based on direct plating can be obtained in a shorter time course and provide quantitative data that might be needed for further risk assessment studies.

  16. Quantitative proteomic characterization of redox-dependent post-translational modifications on protein cysteines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Jicheng; Gaffrey, Matthew J.; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Protein cysteine thiols play a crucial role in redox signaling, regulation of enzymatic activity and protein function, and maintaining redox homeostasis in living systems. The unique chemical reactivity of thiol groups makes cysteine susceptible to oxidative modifications by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to form a broad array of reversible and irreversible protein post-translational modifications (PTMs). The reversible modifications in particular are one of the major components of redox signaling and are involved in regulation of various cellular processes under physiological and pathological conditions. The biological significance of these redox PTMs in health and diseases has been increasingly recognized. Herein, we review the recent advances of quantitative proteomic approaches for investigating redox PTMs in complex biological systems, including the general considerations of sample processing, various chemical or affinity enrichment strategies, and quantitative approaches. We also highlight a number of redox proteomic approaches that enable effective profiling of redox PTMs for addressing specific biological questions. Although some technological limitations remain, redox proteomics is paving the way towards a better understanding of redox signaling and regulation in human health and diseases.

  17. Quantitative proteomics and terminomics to elucidate the role of ubiquitination and proteolysis in adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Theo; Viner, Rosa I; Overall, Christopher M

    2016-10-28

    Adaptive immunity is the specialized defence mechanism in vertebrates that evolved to eliminate pathogens. Specialized lymphocytes recognize specific protein epitopes through antigen receptors to mount potent immune responses, many of which are initiated by nuclear factor-kappa B activation and gene transcription. Most, if not all, pathways in adaptive immunity are further regulated by post-translational modification (PTM) of signalling proteins, e.g. phosphorylation, citrullination, ubiquitination and proteolytic processing. The importance of PTMs is reflected by genetic or acquired defects in these pathways that lead to a dysfunctional immune response. Here we discuss the state of the art in targeted proteomics and systems biology approaches to dissect the PTM landscape specifically regarding ubiquitination and proteolysis in B- and T-cell activation. Recent advances have occurred in methods for specific enrichment and targeted quantitation. Together with improved instrument sensitivity, these advances enable the accurate analysis of often rare PTM events that are opaque to conventional proteomics approaches, now rendering in-depth analysis and pathway dissection possible. We discuss published approaches, including as a case study the profiling of the N-terminome of lymphocytes of a rare patient with a genetic defect in the paracaspase protease MALT1, a key regulator protease in antigen-driven signalling, which was manifested by elevated linear ubiquitination.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'. © 2016 The Authors.

  18. U.S. forms uranium enrichment corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, R.

    1993-01-01

    After almost 40 years of operation, the federal government is withdrawing from the uranium enrichment business. On July 1, the Department of Energy turned over to a new government-owned entity--the US Enrichment Corp. (USEC)--both the DOE enrichment plants at Paducah, Ky., and Portsmouth, Ohio, and domestic and international marketing of enriched uranium from them. Pushed by the inability of DOE's enrichment operations to meet foreign competition, Congress established USEC under the National Energy Policy Act of 1992, envisioning the new corporation as the first step to full privatization. With gross revenues of $1.5 billion in fiscal 1992, USEC would rank 275th on the Fortune 500 list of top US companies. USEC will lease from DOE the Paducah and Portsmouth facilities, built in the early 1950s, which use the gaseous diffusion process for uranium enrichment. USEC's stock is held by the US Treasury, to which it will pay annual dividends. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, which has operated Paducah since 1984 and Portsmouth since 1986 for DOE, will continue to operate both plants for USEC. Closing one of the two facilities will be studied, especially in light of a 40% world surplus of capacity over demand. USEC also will consider other nuclear-fuel-related ventures. USEC will produce only low-enriched uranium, not weapons-grade material. Indeed, USEC will implement a contract now being completed under which the US will purchase weapons-grade uranium from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons and convert it into low-enriched uranium for power reactor fuel

  19. Comparative proteomic assessment of matrisome enrichment methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, Lukas; Paul, Angela; Wai, Patty; Howard, Beatrice A.; Natrajan, Rachael C.; Huang, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    The matrisome is a complex and heterogeneous collection of extracellular matrix (ECM) and ECM-associated proteins that play important roles in tissue development and homeostasis. While several strategies for matrisome enrichment have been developed, it is currently unknown how the performance of these different methodologies compares in the proteomic identification of matrisome components across multiple tissue types. In the present study, we perform a comparative proteomic assessment of two widely used decellularisation protocols and two extraction methods to characterise the matrisome in four murine organs (heart, mammary gland, lung and liver). We undertook a systematic evaluation of the performance of the individual methods on protein yield, matrisome enrichment capability and the ability to isolate core matrisome and matrisome-associated components. Our data find that sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) decellularisation leads to the highest matrisome enrichment efficiency, while the extraction protocol that comprises chemical and trypsin digestion of the ECM fraction consistently identifies the highest number of matrisomal proteins across all types of tissue examined. Matrisome enrichment had a clear benefit over non-enriched tissue for the comprehensive identification of matrisomal components in murine liver and heart. Strikingly, we find that all four matrisome enrichment methods led to significant losses in the soluble matrisome-associated proteins across all organs. Our findings highlight the multiple factors (including tissue type, matrisome class of interest and desired enrichment purity) that influence the choice of enrichment methodology, and we anticipate that these data will serve as a useful guide for the design of future proteomic studies of the matrisome. PMID:27589945

  20. Modeling of Transients in an Enrichment Circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandino, Maria; Delmastro, Dario; Brasnarof, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    In the present work a mathematical model is presented in order to describe the dynamic behavior inside a closed enrichment loop, the latter representing a single stage of an uranium gaseous diffusion enrichment cascade.The analytical model is turned into a numerical model, and implemented through a computational code.Transients of two species separation were numerically analyzed, including setting times of each magnitude, behavior of each one of them during different transients, and redistribution of concentrations along the closed loop

  1. NRC licensing of uranium enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, B.W.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is preparing a rule making that establishes the licensing requirements for low-enriched uranium enrichment plants. Although implementation of this rule making is timed to correspond with receipt of a license application for the Louisiana Energy Services centrifuge enrichment plant, the rule making is applicable to all uranium enrichment technologies. If ownership of the US gaseous diffusion plants and/or atomic vapor laser isotope separation is transferred to a private or government corporation, these plants also would be licensable under the new rule making. The Safeguards Studies Department was tasked by the NRC to provide technical assistance in support of the rule making and guidance preparation process. The initial and primary effort of this task involved the characterization of the potential safeguards concerns associated with a commercial enrichment plant, and the licensing issues associated with these concerns. The primary safeguards considerations were identified as detection of the loss of special nuclear material, detection of unauthorized production of material of low strategic significance, and detection of production of uranium enriched to >10% 235 U. The primary safeguards concerns identified were (1) large absolute limit of error associated with the material balance closing, (2) the inability to shutdown some technologies to perform a cleanout inventory of the process system, and (3) the flexibility of some technologies to produce higher enrichments. Unauthorized production scenarios were identified for some technologies that could prevent conventional material control and accounting programs from detecting the production and removal of 5 kg 235 U as highly enriched uranium. Safeguards techniques were identified to mitigate these concerns

  2. Principles and techniques of uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frejacques, Claude; Mezin, Michel

    1975-01-01

    The main separation processes already used industrially or likely to be used before the end of century (gas diffusion, ultracentrifugation, laser, the nozzle process, a process developed in South Africa) are presented. Some data on the costs of the enrichment are clarified. The main characteristics of the enrichment market in which the Eurodif plant is called upon, on the expiration of five years, to take a foremost place are reported [fr

  3. A Resolution of the Paradox of Enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Z. C.; Li, Y. Charles

    2011-01-01

    The paradox of enrichment was observed by M. Rosenzweig in a class of predator-prey models. Two of the parameters in the models are crucial for the paradox. These two parameters are the prey's carrying capacity and prey's half-saturation for predation. Intuitively, increasing the carrying capacity due to enrichment of the prey's environment should lead to a more stable predator-prey system. Analytically, it turns out that increasing the carrying capacity always leads to an unstable predator-p...

  4. Paper Capillary Enables Effective Sampling for Microfluidic Paper Analytical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Jin-Wen; Liu, Yu; Wang, Sha; Hou, Yun-Xuan; Xu, Bi-Yi; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2018-06-06

    Paper capillary is introduced to enable effective sampling on microfluidic paper analytical devices. By coupling mac-roscale capillary force of paper capillary and microscale capillary forces of native paper, fluid transport can be flexibly tailored with proper design. Subsequently, a hybrid-fluid-mode paper capillary device was proposed, which enables fast and reliable sampling in an arrayed form, with less surface adsorption and bias for different components. The resulting device thus well supports high throughput, quantitative, and repeatable assays all by hands operation. With all these merits, multiplex analysis of ions, proteins, and microbe have all been realized on this platform, which has paved the way to level-up analysis on μPADs.

  5. Optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Wu, Yi; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Ito, Takuro; Yalikun, Yaxiaer; Lee, Sangwook; Isozaki, Akihiro; Li, Ming; Jiang, Yiyue; Yasumoto, Atsushi; Di Carlo, Dino; Tanaka, Yo; Yatomi, Yutaka; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2018-03-01

    Innovations in optical microscopy have opened new windows onto scientific research, industrial quality control, and medical practice over the last few decades. One of such innovations is optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy - an emerging method for high-throughput quantitative phase imaging that builds on the interference between temporally stretched signal and reference pulses by using dispersive properties of light in both spatial and temporal domains in an interferometric configuration on a microfluidic platform. It achieves the continuous acquisition of both intensity and phase images with a high throughput of more than 10,000 particles or cells per second by overcoming speed limitations that exist in conventional quantitative phase imaging methods. Applications enabled by such capabilities are versatile and include characterization of cancer cells and microalgal cultures. In this paper, we review the principles and applications of optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy and discuss its future perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reducing enrichment of fuel for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Keiji; Matsuura, Shojiro.

    1980-01-01

    In research reactors, highly enriched uranium (HEU) is used as fuel for their purposes of operation. However, the United States strongly required in 1977 that these HEU should be replaced by low enrichment uranium (LEU) of 20% or less, or even in unavoidable cases, it should be replaced by medium enrichment uranium (MEU). INFCE (International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation) which started its activity just at that time decided to discuss this problem in the research reactor group of No. 8 sectional committee. Japan has been able to forward the work, taking a leading part in the international opinion because she has taken the countermeasures quickly. INFCE investigated the problem along the lines of policy that the possibility of reducing the degree of enrichment should be limited to the degree in which the core structures and equipments of research reactors will be modified as little as possible, and the change of fuel element geometry will be done within the permissible thermohydrodynamic capacity, and concluded that it might be possible in near future to reduce the degree of enrichment to about 45% MEU, while the reduction to 20% LEU might require considerable research, development and verification. On the other hand, the joint researches by Kyoto University and ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) and by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and ANL are being continued. IAEA has edited the guidebook (IAEA-TECDOC-233) for reducing the degree of enrichment for developing countries. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Toward a predictive theory for environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Jason V

    2009-11-01

    There have been many applications of and successes with environmental enrichment for captive animals. The theoretical spine upon which much enrichment work hangs largely describes why enrichment should work. Yet, there remains no clear understanding of how enrichment should be applied to achieve the most beneficial results. This lack of understanding may stem in part from the assumptions that underlie the application of enrichment by practitioners. These assumptions are derived from an understanding that giving animals choice and control in their environment stimulates their motivation to perform behaviors that may indicate a heightened state of well-being. Learning theory provides a means to question the manner in which these constructs are routinely applied, and converting learning theory's findings to optimality predictions suggests a particularly vexing paradox-that motivation to perform appears to be maintained best when acquiring a payoff for expressing the behavior is uncertain. This effect occurs even when the actual value of the payoff is the same for all schedules of certainty of payoff acquisition. The paradox can be resolved by invoking rewards of an alternative type, such as cognitive rewards, or through an understanding of how the average payoff changes with changes in the probability of reward. This model, with measures of the average change of the payoff, suggests testable scenarios by which practitioners can measure the quality of environmental uncertainty in enrichment programs.

  8. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's isotope enrichment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Isotope Enrichment Program (IEP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is responsible for the production and distribution of ∼225 enriched stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. In addition, ORNL distributes enriched actinide isotopes and provides extensive physical- and chemical-form processing of enriched isotopes to meet customer requirements. For more than 50 yr, ORNL has been a major provider of enriched isotopes and isotope-related services to research, medical, and industrial institutions throughout the world. Consolidation of the Isotope Distribution Office (IDO), the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML), and the stable isotope inventories in the Isotope Enrichment Facility (IEF) have improved operational efficiencies and customer services. Recent changes in the IEP have included adopting policies for long-term contracts, which offer program stability and pricing advantages for the customer, and prorated service charges, which greatly improve pricing to the small research users. The former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Loan Program has been converted to a lease program, which makes large-quantity or very expensive isotopes available for nondestructive research at a nominal cost. Current efforts are being pursued to improve and expand the isotope separation capabilities as well as the extensive chemical- and physical-form processing that now exists. The IEF's quality management system is ISO 9002 registered and accredited in the United States, Canada, and Europe

  9. Enriching semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining in big data applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichselbraun, A; Gindl, S; Scharl, A

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a novel method for contextualizing and enriching large semantic knowledge bases for opinion mining with a focus on Web intelligence platforms and other high-throughput big data applications. The method is not only applicable to traditional sentiment lexicons, but also to more comprehensive, multi-dimensional affective resources such as SenticNet. It comprises the following steps: (i) identify ambiguous sentiment terms, (ii) provide context information extracted from a domain-specific training corpus, and (iii) ground this contextual information to structured background knowledge sources such as ConceptNet and WordNet. A quantitative evaluation shows a significant improvement when using an enriched version of SenticNet for polarity classification. Crowdsourced gold standard data in conjunction with a qualitative evaluation sheds light on the strengths and weaknesses of the concept grounding, and on the quality of the enrichment process.

  10. Mercury release from deforested soils triggered by base cation enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farella, N.; Lucotte, M.; Davidson, R.; Daigle, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon has experienced considerable colonization in the last few decades. Family agriculture based on slash-and-burn enables millions of people to live in that region. However, the poor nutrient content of most Amazonian soils requires cation-rich ashes from the burning of the vegetation biomass for cultivation to be successful, which leads to forest ecosystem degradation, soil erosion and mercury contamination. While recent studies have suggested that mercury present in soils was transferred towards rivers upon deforestation, little is known about the dynamics between agricultural land-use and mercury leaching. In this context, the present study proposes an explanation that illustrates how agricultural land-use triggers mercury loss from soils. This explanation lies in the competition between base cations and mercury in soils which are characterized by a low adsorption capacity. Since these soils are naturally very poor in base cations, the burning of the forest biomass suddenly brings high quantities of base cations to soils, destabilizing the previous equilibrium amongst cations. Base cation enrichment triggers mobility in soil cations, rapidly dislocating mercury atoms. This conclusion comes from principal component analyses illustrating that agricultural land-use was associated with base cation enrichment and mercury depletion. The overall conclusions highlight a pernicious cycle: while soil nutrient enrichment actually occurs through biomass burning, although on a temporary basis, there is a loss in Hg content, which is leached to rivers, entering the aquatic chain, and posing a potential health threat to local populations. Data presented here reflects three decades of deforestation activities, but little is known about the long-term impact of such a disequilibrium. These findings may have repercussions on our understanding of the complex dynamics of deforestation and agriculture worldwide

  11. Lanthanide-IMAC enrichment of carbohydrates and polyols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemeth, Dieter; Rainer, Matthias; Messner, Christoph B; Rode, Bernd M; Bonn, Günther K

    2014-03-01

    In this study a new type of immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography resin for the enrichment of carbohydrates and polyols was synthesized by radical polymerization reaction of vinyl phosphonic acid and 1,4-butandiole dimethacrylate using azo-bis-isobutyronitrile as radical initiator. Interaction between the chelated trivalent lanthanide ions and negatively charged hydroxyl groups of carbohydrates and polyols was observed by applying high pH values. The new method was evaluated by single standard solutions, mixtures of standards, honey and a more complex extract of Cynara scolymus. The washing step was accomplished by acetonitrile in excess volumes. Elution of enriched carbohydrates was successfully performed with deionized water. The subsequent analysis was carried out with matrix-free laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry involving a TiO2 -coated steel target, especially suitable for the measurement of low-molecular-weight substances. Quantitative analysis of the sugar alcohol xylitol as well as the determination of the maximal loading capacity was performed by gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometric detection after chemical derivatization. In a parallel approach quantum mechanical geometry optimizations were performed in order to compare the coordination behavior of various trivalent lanthanide ions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Robust de novo pathway enrichment with KeyPathwayMiner 5 [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Alcaraz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying functional modules or novel active pathways, recently termed de novo pathway enrichment, is a computational systems biology challenge that has gained much attention during the last decade. Given a large biological interaction network, KeyPathwayMiner extracts connected subnetworks that are enriched for differentially active entities from a series of molecular profiles encoded as binary indicator matrices. Since interaction networks constantly evolve, an important question is how robust the extracted results are when the network is modified. We enable users to study this effect through several network perturbation techniques and over a range of perturbation degrees. In addition, users may now provide a gold-standard set to determine how enriched extracted pathways are with relevant genes compared to randomized versions of the original network.

  13. Chicken microsatellite markers isolated from libraries enriched for simple tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, M; Dawson, D A; McCamley, C; Wardle, A F; Armour, J A; Burke, T

    1997-12-01

    The total number of microsatellite loci is considered to be at least 10-fold lower in avian species than in mammalian species. Therefore, efficient large-scale cloning of chicken microsatellites, as required for the construction of a high-resolution linkage map, is facilitated by the construction of libraries using an enrichment strategy. In this study, a plasmid library enriched for tandem repeats was constructed from chicken genomic DNA by hybridization selection. Using this technique the proportion of recombinant clones that cross-hybridized to probes containing simple tandem repeats was raised to 16%, compared with < 0.1% in a non-enriched library. Primers were designed from 121 different sequences. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of two chicken reference pedigrees enabled 72 loci to be localized within the collaborative chicken genetic map, and at least 30 of the remaining loci have been shown to be informative in these or other crosses.

  14. Counterflow Dielectrophoresis for Trypanosome Enrichment and Detection in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menachery, Anoop; Kremer, Clemens; Wong, Pui E.; Carlsson, Allan; Neale, Steven L.; Barrett, Michael P.; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    2012-10-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a deadly disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, caused by single-celled protozoan parasites. Although it has been targeted for elimination by 2020, this will only be realized if diagnosis can be improved to enable identification and treatment of afflicted patients. Existing techniques of detection are restricted by their limited field-applicability, sensitivity and capacity for automation. Microfluidic-based technologies offer the potential for highly sensitive automated devices that could achieve detection at the lowest levels of parasitemia and consequently help in the elimination programme. In this work we implement an electrokinetic technique for the separation of trypanosomes from both mouse and human blood. This technique utilises differences in polarisability between the blood cells and trypanosomes to achieve separation through opposed bi-directional movement (cell counterflow). We combine this enrichment technique with an automated image analysis detection algorithm, negating the need for a human operator.

  15. Training versus engagement as paths to cognitive enrichment with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L; Payne, Brennan R; Roberts, Brent W; Kramer, Arthur F; Morrow, Daniel G; Payne, Laura; Hill, Patrick L; Jackson, Joshua J; Gao, Xuefei; Noh, Soo Rim; Janke, Megan C; Parisi, Jeanine M

    2014-12-01

    While a training model of cognitive intervention targets the improvement of particular skills through instruction and practice, an engagement model is based on the idea that being embedded in an intellectually and socially complex environment can impact cognition, perhaps even broadly, without explicit instruction. We contrasted these 2 models of cognitive enrichment by randomly assigning healthy older adults to a home-based inductive reasoning training program, a team-based competitive program in creative problem solving, or a wait-list control. As predicted, those in the training condition showed selective improvement in inductive reasoning. Those in the engagement condition, on the other hand, showed selective improvement in divergent thinking, a key ability exercised in creative problem solving. On average, then, both groups appeared to show ability-specific effects. However, moderators of change differed somewhat for those in the engagement and training interventions. Generally, those who started either intervention with a more positive cognitive profile showed more cognitive growth, suggesting that cognitive resources enabled individuals to take advantage of environmental enrichment. Only in the engagement condition did initial levels of openness and social network size moderate intervention effects on cognition, suggesting that comfort with novelty and an ability to manage social resources may be additional factors contributing to the capacity to take advantage of the environmental complexity associated with engagement. Collectively, these findings suggest that training and engagement models may offer alternative routes to cognitive resilience in late life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. An Internet enabled impact limiter material database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wix, S.; Kanipe, F.; McMurtry, W.

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents a detailed explanation of the construction of an interest enabled database, also known as a database driven web site. The data contained in the internet enabled database are impact limiter material and seal properties. The technique used in constructing the internet enabled database presented in this paper are applicable when information that is changing in content needs to be disseminated to a wide audience.

  17. An internet enabled impact limiter material database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wix, S.; Kanipe, F.; McMurtry, W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents a detailed explanation of the construction of an internet enabled database, also known as a database driven web site. The data contained in the internet enabled database are impact limiter material and seal properties. The techniques used in constructing the internet enabled database presented in this paper are applicable when information that is changing in content needs to be disseminated to a wide audience. (authors)

  18. An internet enabled impact limiter material database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.; Kanipe, F.; McMurtry, W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed explanation of the construction of an internet enabled database, also known as a database driven web site. The data contained in the internet enabled database are impact limiter material and seal properties. The techniques used in constructing the internet enabled database presented in this paper are applicable when information that is changing in content needs to be disseminated to a wide audience. (authors)

  19. An Internet enabled impact limiter material database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.; Kanipe, F.; McMurtry, W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed explanation of the construction of an interest enabled database, also known as a database driven web site. The data contained in the internet enabled database are impact limiter material and seal properties. The technique used in constructing the internet enabled database presented in this paper are applicable when information that is changing in content needs to be disseminated to a wide audience

  20. Mammalian enabled (Mena) is a critical regulator of cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Frédérick; Belmonte, Stephen L; Ram, Rashmi; Noujaim, Sami F; Dunaevsky, Olga; Protack, Tricia L; Jalife, Jose; Todd Massey, H; Gertler, Frank B; Blaxall, Burns C

    2011-05-01

    Mammalian enabled (Mena) of the Drosophila enabled/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein gene family is a cytoskeletal protein implicated in actin regulation and cell motility. Cardiac Mena expression is enriched in intercalated discs (ICD), the critical intercellular communication nexus between adjacent muscle cells. We previously identified Mena gene expression to be a key predictor of human and murine heart failure (HF). To determine the in vivo function of Mena in the heart, we assessed Mena protein expression in multiple HF models and characterized the effects of genetic Mena deletion on cardiac structure and function. Immunoblot analysis revealed significant upregulation of Mena protein expression in left ventricle tissue from patients with end-stage HF, calsequestrin-overexpressing mice, and isoproterenol-infused mice. Characterization of the baseline cardiac function of adult Mena knockout mice (Mena(-/-)) via echocardiography demonstrated persistent cardiac dysfunction, including a significant reduction in percent fractional shortening compared with wild-type littermates. Electrocardiogram PR and QRS intervals were significantly prolonged in Mena(-/-) mice, manifested by slowed conduction on optical mapping studies. Ultrastructural analysis of Mena(-/-) hearts revealed disrupted organization and widening of ICD structures, mislocalization of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) to the lateral borders of cardiomyoycytes, and increased Cx43 expression. Furthermore, the expression of vinculin (an adherens junction protein) was significantly reduced in Mena(-/-) mice. We report for the first time that genetic ablation of Mena results in cardiac dysfunction, highlighted by diminished contractile performance, disrupted ICD structure, and slowed electrical conduction.

  1. Quantitative Determination of Aluminum in Deodorant Brands: A Guided Inquiry Learning Experience in Quantitative Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedwick, Victoria; Leal, Anne; Turner, Dea; Kanu, A. Bakarr

    2018-01-01

    The monitoring of metals in commercial products is essential for protecting public health against the hazards of metal toxicity. This article presents a guided inquiry (GI) experimental lab approach in a quantitative analysis lab class that enabled students' to determine the levels of aluminum in deodorant brands. The utility of a GI experimental…

  2. On-Line Enrichment Monitor for UF{sub 6} Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianakiev, K. D.; Boyer, B.; Favalli, A.; Goda, J. M.; Hill, T.; Keller, C.; Lombardi, M.; Paffett, M.; MacArthur, D. W.; McCluskey, C.; Moss, C. E.; Parker, R.; Smith, M. K.; Swinhoe, M. T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States)

    2012-06-15

    This paper is a continuation of the Advanced Enrichment Monitoring Technology for UF{sub 6} Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) work, presented in the 2010 IAEA Safeguards Symposium. Here we will present the system architecture for a planned side-by-side field trial test of passive (186-keV line spectroscopy and pressure-based correction for UF{sub 6} gas density) and active (186-keV line spectroscopy and transmission measurement based correction for UF{sub 6} gas density) enrichment monitoring systems in URENCO's enrichment plant in Capenhurst. Because the pressure and transmission measurements of UF{sub 6} are complementary, additional information on the importance of the presence of light gases and the UF{sub 6} gas temperature can be obtained by cross-correlation between simultaneous measurements of transmission, pressure and 186-keV intensity. We will discuss the calibration issues and performance in the context of accurate, on-line enrichment measurement. It is hoped that a simple and accurate on-line enrichment monitor can be built using the UF{sub 6} gas pressure provided by the Operator, based on online mass spectrometer calibration, assuming a negligible (a small fraction of percent) contribution of wall deposits. Unaccounted-for wall deposits present at the initial calibration will lead to unwanted sensitivity to changes in theUF{sub 6} gas pressure and thus to error in the enrichment results. Because the accumulated deposits in the cascade header pipe have been identified as an issue for Go/No Go measurements with the Cascade Header Enrichment Monitor (CHEM) and Continuous Enrichment Monitor (CEMO), it is important to explore their effect. Therefore we present the expected uncertainty on enrichment measurements obtained by propagating the errors introduced by deposits, gas density, etc. and will discuss the options for a deposit correction during initial calibration of an On-Line Enrichment Monitor (OLEM).

  3. Laser photochemical studies on di-isopropyl ether for oxygen-18 enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathi, P.; Kumar, Awadhesh; Ghosh, Ayan; Nayak, A.K.; Parthasarathy, V.; Nataraju, V.; Jadhav, K.A.; Babu, K.Rajendra; Sarkar, S.K.

    2013-05-01

    Oxygen-18 is needed for the production of Fluorine-18 in medical cyclotron for use in positron emission tomography. This report deals with our work on Oxygen-18 selective photo dissociation of natural di-isopropyl ether under various conditions leading to various oxygen bearing products having different levels of 18 O enrichment. Apart from obtaining 18 O enrichment in products 2-propanol and acetaldehyde, we have observed unusually high enrichment (about 39%) in another photoproduct, acetone, as measured by mass spectrometry. This new finding is attributed to 18 O selective secondary reaction channels which is supported by molecular orbital calculations. The investigation required characterization and quantitative estimation of various chemical species, viz., di-isopropyl ether, acetaldehyde, acetone and isopropanol by various instrumental methods of analysis. These methods include gas chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and quadrupole mass spectrometry. Detailed Gas Chromatographic (GC) studies summarize the interference problems encountered for quantitatively identifying different photo-products and establish the right experimental conditions for optimum separation. This exercise is extremely useful for an isotope enrichment scheme as it generates a valuable database to understand the processes involved for both selectivity enhancement and degradation. (author)

  4. Quantitative analysis chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Wansuk; Lee, Choongyoung; Jun, Kwangsik; Hwang, Taeksung

    1995-02-01

    This book is about quantitative analysis chemistry. It is divided into ten chapters, which deal with the basic conception of material with the meaning of analysis chemistry and SI units, chemical equilibrium, basic preparation for quantitative analysis, introduction of volumetric analysis, acid-base titration of outline and experiment examples, chelate titration, oxidation-reduction titration with introduction, titration curve, and diazotization titration, precipitation titration, electrometric titration and quantitative analysis.

  5. The enriched chromium neutrino source for GALLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, F.X.; Hahn, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The preparation and study of an intense source of neutrinos in the form of neutron irradiated materials which are enriched in Cr-50 for use in the GALLEX solar neutrino experiment are discussed. Chromyl fluoride gas is enriched in the Cr-50 isotope by gas centrifugation and subsequently converted to a very stable form of chromium oxide. The results of neutron activation analyses of such chromium samples indicate low levels of any long-lived activities, but show that short-lived activities, in particular Na-24, may be of concern. These results show that irradiating chromium oxide enriched in Cr-50 is preferable to irradiating either natural chromium or argon gas as a means of producing a neutrino source to calibrate the GALLEX detector. These results of the impurity level analysis of the enriched chromyl fluoride gas and its conversion to the oxide are also of interest to work in progress by other members of the Collaboration investigating an alternative conversion of the enriched gas to chromium metal. 35 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs

  6. How is uranium supply affecting enrichment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steve Kidd

    2007-01-01

    As a result of the enlivened uranium market, momentum has in turn picked up in the enrichment sector. What are the consequences of higher uranium prices? There is, of course, a link between uranium and enrichment supply to the extent that they are at least partial substitutes. On the enrichment supply side, the most obvious feature is the gradual replacement of the old gas diffusion facilities of Usec in the USA and EURODIF in France with more modern and economical centrifuge plants. Assuming Usec can overcome the financing and technical issues surrounding its plans, the last gas diffusion capacity should disappear around 2015 and the entire enrichment market should then be using centrifuges. On the commercial side, the key anticipated developments are mostly in Russia. Although there should still continue to be substantial quantities of surplus Russian HEU available for down blending in the period beyond 2013, it is now reasonable to expect that it will be mostly consumed by internal needs, to fuel Russian-origin reactors both at home and in export markets such as China and India. Finally, as a key sensitive area for the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, the enrichment sector is likely to be a central point of the new international arrangements which must be developed to support a buoyant nuclear sector throughout this century.

  7. The Helikon technique for isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haarhoff, P.C.

    1976-11-01

    The separating element employed in the UCOR process for uranium enrichment has an enriched stream which is much smaller than the depleted stream. To deal with this small cut and to exploit the full potential of the process, a new cascade technique has been developed, the so-called helikon technique. It is based on the principle that an axial flow compressor can simultaneously compress a number of streams of different isotopic composition, which flow through it in parallel, without any significant mixing between them. The technique makes it possible to achieve the desired enrichment with a relatively small number of separating units, by making the best use of the high enrichment factor available. A further feature of the helikon technique is that a module yields an enrichment factor which is not constant, but can vary. In this way a cascade can be built up from modules of a fixed size, which is a great advantage when compared to conventional cascade arrangements where several unit sizes are required. A general theoretical treatment of the helikon technique is given and the similarity between helikon and conventional cascades is pointed out. Practical helikon cascades are subsequently discussed on the basis of the UCOR process

  8. Linking nutrient enrichment, sediment erodibility and biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, B.; Mahon, R.; Sojka, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment movement in coastal lagoons affects nutrient flux and primary producer growth. Previous research has shown that sediment erodibility is affected by biofilm concentration and that growth of benthic organisms, which produce biofilm, is affected by nutrient enrichment. However, researchers have not examined possible links between nutrient addition and sediment erodibility. We manipulated nutrient levels in the water column of 16 microcosms filled with homogenized sediment from a shallow coastal lagoon and artificial seawater to determine the effects on biofilm growth, measured through chlorophyll a and colloidal carbohydrate concentrations. Erosion tests using a Gust microcosm were conducted to determine the relationship between sediment erodibility and biofilm concentration. Results show that carbohydrate levels decreased with increasing nutrient enrichment and were unrelated to chlorophyll concentrations and erodibility. The nutrient levels did not predictably affect the chlorophyll levels, with lower chlorophyll concentrations in the control and medium enrichment treatments than the low and high enrichment treatments. Controls on biofilm growth are still unclear and the assumed relationship between carbohydrates and erodibility may be invalid. Understanding how biofilms respond to nutrient enrichment and subsequent effects on sediment erodibility is essential for protecting and restoring shallow coastal systems.

  9. Profile of World Uranium Enrichment Programs-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughter, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is acquiring fissile material, either plutonium or highly enriched uranium (HEU). Plutonium is produced in a nuclear reactor, whereas HEU is produced using a uranium enrichment process. Enrichment is also an important step in the civil nuclear fuel cycle, in producing low enriched uranium (LEU) for use as fuel for nuclear reactors to generate electricity. However, the same equipment used to produce LEU for nuclear reactor fuel can also be used to produce HEU for weapons. Safeguards at an enrichment plant are the array of assurances and verification techniques that ensure uranium is not diverted or enriched to HEU. There are several techniques for enriching uranium. The two most prevalent are gaseous diffusion, which uses older technology and requires a lot of energy, and gas centrifuge separation, which uses more advanced technology and is more energy efficient. Gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) provide about 40% of current world enrichment capacity but are being phased out as newer gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) are constructed. Estimates of current and future enrichment capacity are always approximate, due to the constant upgrades, expansions, and shutdowns occurring at enrichment plants, largely determined by economic interests. Currently, the world enrichment capacity is approximately 56 million kilogram separative work units (SWU) per year, with 22.5 million in gaseous diffusion and more than 33 million in gas centrifuge plants. Another 34 million SWU/year of capacity is under construction or planned for the near future, almost entirely using gas centrifuge separation. Other less-efficient techniques have also been used in the past, including electromagnetic and aerodynamic separations, but these are considered obsolete, at least from a commercial perspective. Laser isotope separation shows promise as a possible enrichment technique of the future but has yet to be

  10. Quantitative Algebraic Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Panangaden, Prakash; Plotkin, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    We develop a quantitative analogue of equational reasoning which we call quantitative algebra. We define an equality relation indexed by rationals: a =ε b which we think of as saying that “a is approximately equal to b up to an error of ε”. We have 4 interesting examples where we have a quantitative...... equational theory whose free algebras correspond to well known structures. In each case we have finitary and continuous versions. The four cases are: Hausdorff metrics from quantitive semilattices; pWasserstein metrics (hence also the Kantorovich metric) from barycentric algebras and also from pointed...

  11. Quantitative autoradiography of neurochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbow, T.C.; Biegon, A.; Bleisch, W.V.

    1982-01-01

    Several new methods have been developed that apply quantitative autoradiography to neurochemistry. These methods are derived from the 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) technique of Sokoloff (1), which uses quantitative autoradiography to measure the rate of glucose utilization in brain structures. The new methods allow the measurement of the rate of cerbral protein synthesis and the levels of particular neurotransmitter receptors by quantitative autoradiography. As with the 2DG method, the new techniques can measure molecular levels in micron-sized brain structures; and can be used in conjunction with computerized systems of image processing. It is possible that many neurochemical measurements could be made by computerized analysis of quantitative autoradiograms

  12. Foraging-Based Enrichment Promotes More Varied Behaviour in Captive Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, David P.; Salverson, Marcia; Evans, Alistair R.

    2015-01-01

    During wild foraging, Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) encounter many different types of prey in a wide range of scenarios, yet in captive environments they are typically provided with a narrower range of opportunities to display their full repertoire of behaviours. This study aimed to quantitatively explore the effect of foraging-based enrichment on the behaviour and activity patterns displayed by two captive Australian fur seals at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. Food was presented as a scatter in open water, in a free-floating ball device, or in a static box device, with each treatment separated by control trials with no enrichment. Both subjects spent more time interacting with the ball and static box devices than the scatter feed. The total time spent pattern swimming was reduced in the enrichment treatments compared to the controls, while the time spent performing random swimming behaviours increased. There was also a significant increase in the total number of bouts of behaviour performed in all three enrichment treatments compared to controls. Each enrichment method also promoted a different suit of foraging behaviours. Hence, rather than choosing one method, the most effective way to increase the diversity of foraging behaviours, while also increasing variation in general activity patterns, is to provide seals with a wide range of foraging scenarios where food is encountered in different ways. PMID:25946412

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of TCE-dechlorinating consortia enriched on a variety of electron donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeborn, Ryan A; West, Kimberlee A; Bhupathiraju, Vishvesh K; Chauhan, Sadhana; Rahm, Brian G; Richardson, Ruth E; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2005-11-01

    Two rapidly fermented electron donors, lactate and methanol, and two slowly fermented electron donors, propionate and butyrate, were selected for enrichment studies to evaluate the characteristics of anaerobic microbial consortia that reductively dechlorinate TCE to ethene. Each electron donor enrichment subculture demonstrated the ability to dechlorinate TCE to ethene through several serial transfers. Microbial community analyses based upon 16S rDNA, including terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library/sequencing, were performed to assess major changes in microbial community structure associated with electron donors capable of stimulating reductive dechlorination. Results demonstrated that five phylogenic subgroups or genera of bacteria were present in all consortia, including Dehalococcoides sp., low G+C Gram-positives (mostly Clostridium and Eubacterium sp.), Bacteroides sp., Citrobacter sp., and delta Proteobacteria (mostly Desulfovibrio sp.). Phylogenetic association indicates that only minor shifts in the microbial community structure occurred between the four alternate electron donor enrichments and the parent consortium. Inconsistent detection of Dehalococcoides spp. in clone libraries and T-RFLP of enrichment subcultures was resolved using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Q-PCR with primers specific to Dehalococcoides 16S rDNA resulted in positive detection of this species in all enrichments. Our results suggest that TCE-dechlorinating consortia can be stably maintained on a variety of electron donors and that quantities of Dehalococcoides cells detected with Dehalococcoides specific 16S rDNA primer/probe sets do not necessarily correlate well with solvent degradation rates.

  14. 31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low enriched...

  15. Development of on-line uranium enrichment monitor of gaseous UF6 for uranium enrichment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xuesheng; Liu Guorong; Jin Huimin; Zhao Yonggang; Li Jinghuai; Hao Xueyuan; Ying Bin; Yu Zhaofei

    2013-01-01

    An on-line enrichment monitor was developed to measure the enrichment of UF 6 , flowing through the processing pipes in uranium enrichment plant. A Nal (Tl) detector was used to measure the count rates of the 185.7 keV γ-ray emitted from 235 U, and the total quantity of uranium was determined from thermodynamic characteristics of gaseous uranium hexafluoride. The results show that the maximum relative standard deviation is less than 1% when the measurement time is 120 s or more and the pressure is more than 2 kPa in the measurement chamber. Uranium enrichment of gaseous uranium hexafluoride in the output end of cascade can be monitored continuously by using the device. It should be effective for nuclear materials accountability verifications and materials balance verification at uranium enrichment plant. (authors)

  16. The enabling approach for housing supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Farouk Hassan

    2011-12-01

    The paper attempts to highlight prerequisites needed to improve the success of the enabling approach in achieving adequate housing provision. Then the paper revisits the Egyptian experiences in the application of the enabling approach from 2005 till 2010. Finally, the paper highlights the main drops and lessons must be considered as promising approach after the revolution.

  17. The Effect of Mangrove Leaf Litter Enrichment on Macrobenthic Colonization of Defaunated Sandy Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. Y.

    1999-11-01

    The importance of exported mangrove materials to nearshore macrobenthos has largely been predicted based upon decomposition and utilization studies conducted within the mangrove environment, and from quantitative measurements of export. The present study evaluated the impact of mangrove leaf litter enrichment on non-mangrove substrates in a high-salinity microcosm experiment. Fortnightly addition of Kandelia candel leaf detritus at levels equivalent to 0·66 and 0·33 mg cm -2day -1in defaunated sand in microcosms maintained under high salinity conditions and on a sandy substrate resulted in no significant differences from the control in total faunal dry biomass or ash-free dry weight (AFDW) after 28, 73, 137 and 217 days of experiment. Duration of experiment was significant in determining the biomass (both dry weight and AFDW) of the macrofaunal assemblage in the microcosms, but neither enrichment nor its interaction with time had an effect. Species richness, Shannon diversity and evenness, and the total number of individuals, however, decreased in the order control>low enrichment>high enrichment for almost all sampling dates. By contrast, soluble tannins in the microcosm sediment demonstrated the reverse pattern. Both duration of experiment and enrichment were significant in determining species richness and the total number of individuals. The interaction between time and enrichment level was significant in the former but not the latter case. Discriminant analysis performed on the species abundance data indicated distinct animal assemblages characteristic of the three enrichment levels. These findings suggest that mangrove organic matter may not necessarily result in enhancement effects on marine benthos but high concentrations of tannins may hamper colonization by the macrobenthos.

  18. Uranium enrichment management review: summary of analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    In May 1980, the Assistant Secretary for Resource Applications within the Department of Energy requested that a group of experienced business executives be assembled to review the operation, financing, and management of the uranium enrichment enterprise as a basis for advising the Secretary of Energy. After extensive investigation, analysis, and discussion, the review group presented its findings and recommendations in a report on December 2, 1980. The following pages contain background material on which that final report was based. This report is arranged in chapters that parallel those of the uranium enrichment management review final report - chapters that contain summaries of the review group's discussion and analyses in six areas: management of operations and construction; long-range planning; marketing of enrichment services; financial management; research and development; and general management. Further information, in-depth analysis, and discussion of suggested alternative management practices are provided in five appendices.

  19. Uranium enrichment management review: summary of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    In May 1980, the Assistant Secretary for Resource Applications within the Department of Energy requested that a group of experienced business executives be assembled to review the operation, financing, and management of the uranium enrichment enterprise as a basis for advising the Secretary of Energy. After extensive investigation, analysis, and discussion, the review group presented its findings and recommendations in a report on December 2, 1980. The following pages contain background material on which that final report was based. This report is arranged in chapters that parallel those of the uranium enrichment management review final report - chapters that contain summaries of the review group's discussion and analyses in six areas: management of operations and construction; long-range planning; marketing of enrichment services; financial management; research and development; and general management. Further information, in-depth analysis, and discussion of suggested alternative management practices are provided in five appendices

  20. Method of deuterium isotope separation and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for separating and enriching deuterium containing molecules comprising the steps of: providing a source of organic molecules containing a normal abundance of deuterium atoms, the organic molecules having a structural formula RX, in which R is an organic radical selected from ethyl, isopropyl, t-butyl and 3-cyclopentenyl, and in which X is selected from F, Cl, Br and OH, and wherein R represents 3-cyclopentenyl, X may additionally represent H; exposing the molecules to the radiation of at least one pulsed infrared laser source which has been specifically tuned and focussed to selectively decompose RX molecules containing deuterium to form an enriched olefin specie containing deuterium, and HX; and separating the deuterium enriched olefin specie from the undecomposed deuterium depleted RX molecules and HX. (author)

  1. Method of deuterium isotope separation and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1978-01-01

    A method of separating deuterium, i.e., heavy hydrogen, from certain naturally occurring sources using tuned infrared lasers to selectively decompose specified classes of organic molecules (i.e., RX) into enriched molecular products containing deuterium atoms is described. The deuterium containing molecules are easily separated from the starting material by absorption, distillation or other simple chemical separation techniques and methods. After evaporation such deuterium containing molecules can be burned to form water with an enriched deuterium content or pyrolyzed to form hydrogen gas with an enriched deuterium content. The undecomposed molecules and the other reaction products which are depleted of their deuterium containing species can be catalytically treated, preferably using normal water, to restore the natural abundance of deuterium and such restored molecules can then be recycled

  2. A consideration on laser enrichment module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisawa, Takashi; Shiba, Koreyuki

    1983-09-01

    Several problems are discussed for designing a simplified enrichment module based on Atomic Laser Isotope Separation Method, which involve the vaporization of metal, laser excitation, laser ionization and ion recovery. The conditions at which the consumed energy has the minimum value are obtained by calculating the specific energy consumption for producing unit amount of enriched products. It is found that there should be an appropriate relationship between the processing atomic density and the electrode gap in order to avoid the enrichment loss caused by the charge exchange during the ion recovery. Moreover it is also found that this relation depends on the electrode length measured along both the atomic beam direction and the laser beam direction. (author)

  3. Method of deuterium isotope separation and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1980-01-01

    A method of deuterium isotope separation and enrichment using infrared laser technology in combination with chemical processes for treating and recycling the unreacted and deuterium-depleted starting materials is described. Organic molecules of the formula RX (where R is an ethyl, isopropyl, t-butyl, or cyclopentenyl group and X is F, Cl, Br or OH) containing a normal abundance of hydrogen and deuterium are exposed to intense laser infrared radiation. An olefin containing deuterium (olefin D) will be formed, along with HX. The enriched olefin D can be stripped from the depleted stream of RX and HX, and can be burned to form enriched water or pyrolyzed to produce hydrogen gas with elevated deuterium content. The depleted RX is decomposed to olefins and RX, catalytically exchanged with normal water to restore the deuterium content to natural levels, and recombined to form RX which can be recycled. (LL)

  4. The evolution of the enriched uranium markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaiz, J.; Moleres, C.; Tarin, F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the evolution of the enriched uranium component markets (uranium concentrates, conversion and enrichment), starting with the situation of historically low prices that occurred during 2000. The situation that has been reached as on December 2003, when the concentrates and conversion markets were 44% and 70% (current US$) respectively, and the enrichment prices 30%, higher, is analysed. Finally, the negative impact of the 90's depressed prices, due to abundant alternative sources of uranium components, on the primary production of all three components and, as a conclusion, the impact of the new situation on the transport logistics, and the need of appropriate economic conditions to make the future primary production sustainable, is commented. (Author)

  5. Nutrient enrichment increases mortality of mangroves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients.

  6. Comparing Differences in Math Achievement and Attitudes toward Math in a Sixth Grade Mathematics Enrichment Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tow, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    High-stakes assessments have encouraged educators to ignore the needs of the top performers. Therefore, the Oakwood School District decided to implement a mathematics pilot enrichment program in order to meet the needs of the advanced mathematics students. As a result, this study used quantitative data to determine if there was a significant…

  7. Quantitative variation in natural populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, P.A.

    1975-01-01

    Quantitative variation is considered in natural populations using Drosophila as the example. A knowledge of such variation enables its rapid exploitation in directional selection experiments as shown for scutellar chaeta number. Where evidence has been obtained, genetic architectures are in qualitative agreement with Mather's concept of balance for traits under stabilizing selection. Additive genetic control is found for acute environmental stresses, but not for less acute stresses as shown by exposure to 60 Co-γ rays. D. simulans probably has a narrower ecological niche than its sibling species D. melanogaster associated with lower genetic heterogeneity. One specific environmental stress to which D. simulans is sensitive in nature is ethyl alcohol as shown by winery data. (U.S.)

  8. Stable isotope enrichment by thermal diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasaru, Gheorghe

    2003-01-01

    Thermal diffusion (TD) in both gaseous and liquid phase has been the subject of extensive experimental and theoretical investigations, especially after the invention by K. Clusius and G. Dickel of the thermal diffusion column, sixty years ago. This paper gives a brief overview of the most important applications and developments of this transport phenomenon for enrichment of 13 C and of some noble gases isotopes in our institute. The results of calculations of the transport coefficients H and K for a concentric tube type TD column, operated with methane as process gas, are presented. Static separation factor at equilibrium vs gas pressure has been calculated for various molecular models. The experimental separation factors for different gas pressure were found to be consistent with those calculated for the inverse power repulsion model and the Lennard-Jones model. The most important characteristics of a seven-stage cascade consisting of 19 TD columns of concentric tube type are given. This system has been constructed and successfully operated at a temperature of 673 K and produces an enrichment of methane of natural isotopic 13 C abundance, up to the concentration of 25% 13 CH 4 . Enrichment of the noble gases isotopes implies: - a . Enrichment of 20 Ne and 22 Ne in a eight-stage cascade consisting of 8 TD columns; - b. enrichment of 46 Ar in a seven-stage cascade consisting of TD columns and finally; - c. enrichment of 78 Kr and 86 Kr in a fifteen-stage cascade, consisting of 35 TD columns. For all these installations we have adopted TD columns of hot wire type (4 m in length), operated at a temperature of 1073 K. (author)

  9. Uranium enrichment by centrifuge in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Murase, T.

    1977-01-01

    The demand for enriched uranium is on the increase with nuclear power capacity in which the LWR predominates and is estimated to exceed the supply from the present facilities in the world in less than ten years. Therefore, the basic strategy for enriched uranium is investigated on the following three-point long-range program in Japan: 1. To continue negotiations to extend the current allocation by the long-term contract; 2. To seek active participation in international enrichment projects; and 3. To make efforts to develop uranium enrichment technology and to construct inland facilities. On this basis, a vigorous development program of gas centrigue process for industrialization was launched out in 1972 as a national project. Ever since substantial progress in this field has been made and development works have been increased year after year. At present, a concrete plan of a pilot plant is taking shape. Up to now, several types of centrifuges were developed, of which some were completed as prototype models, and subjected to life tests and also to extensive earthquake-resistivity tests for the characteristics of Japanese geological condition. An enrichment plant is composed of so many centrifuges that the installation and piping system of centrifuges is an important factor which has an effect on plant economy and reliability. Two types of the experimental cascade were constructed in Japan. One has been in operation since 1973, and the other since 1975. Valuable empirical data have been accumulated on cascade characteristics, maintenance scheme and so on. It will be important for the coming plants to have a flexibility to escalation of labor and energy cost, or to variation of the separative work requirement and further. An economic prospect of centrifuge enrichment process is presented

  10. Proteolytic Digestion and TiO2 Phosphopeptide Enrichment Microreactor for Fast MS Identification of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jingren; Lazar, Iulia M.

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of phosphorylation state(s) of a protein is best accomplished by using isolated or enriched phosphoprotein samples or their corresponding phosphopeptides. The process is typically time-consuming as, often, a combination of analytical approaches must be used. To facilitate throughput in the study of phosphoproteins, a microreactor that enables a novel strategy for performing fast proteolytic digestion and selective phosphopeptide enrichment was developed. The microreactor was fabricated using 100 μm i.d. fused-silica capillaries packed with 1-2 mm beds of C18 and/or TiO2 particles. Proteolytic digestion-only, phosphopeptide enrichment-only, and sequential proteolytic digestion/phosphopeptide enrichment microreactors were developed and tested with standard protein mixtures. The protein samples were adsorbed on the C18 particles, quickly digested with a proteolytic enzyme infused over the adsorbed proteins, and further eluted onto the TiO2 microreactor for enrichment in phosphopeptides. A number of parameters were optimized to speed up the digestion and enrichments processes, including microreactor dimensions, sample concentrations, digestion time, flow rates, buffer compositions, and pH. The effective time for the steps of proteolytic digestion and enrichment was less than 5 min. For simple samples, such as standard protein mixtures, this approach provided equivalent or better results than conventional bench-top methods, in terms of both enzymatic digestion and selectivity. Analysis times and reagent costs were reduced ~10- to 15-fold. Preliminary analysis of cell extracts and recombinant proteins indicated the feasibility of integration of these microreactors in more advanced workflows amenable for handling real-world biological samples.

  11. Report of the Subcommittee on Domestic Uranium Enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A report by the Subcommittee on Domestic Uranium Enrichment to the Atomic Energy Commission is described; which covers the procedure of the domestic uranium enrichment by centrifugal process up to the commercial production, reviewing the current situation in this field. Domestic uranium enrichment is important in the aspects of securing stable enrichment service, establishing sound fuel cycle, and others. As the future target, the production around the year 2000 is set at 3,000 tons SWU per year at least. The business of uranium enrichment, which is now developed in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, is to be carried out by private enterprise. The contents are as follows: demand and supply balance of uranium enrichment service, significance of domestic uranium enrichment, evaluation of centrifugal uranium enrichment technology, the target of domestic uranium enrichment, the policy of domestic uranium enrichment promotion. (J.P.N.)

  12. Enrichment situation outside the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Different enrichment technologies are briefly characterized which include gaseous diffusion, which is presently the production mainstay of the United States and France; the gaseous centrifuge which is the production plant for Urenco and the technology for future United States enrichment expansion; the aero-dynamic processes which include the jet nozzle (also known as the Becker process) and the fixed-wall centrifuge (also known as the Helikon process); chemical processes; laser isotope separation processes (also referred to in the literature as LIS); and plasma technology

  13. Phosphopeptide enrichment by immobilized metal affinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E.; Larsen, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) has been the method of choice for phosphopeptide enrichment prior to mass spectrometric analysis for many years and it is still used extensively in many laboratories. Using the affinity of negatively charged phosphate groups towards positively...... charged metal ions such as Fe3+, Ga3+, Al3+, Zr4+, and Ti4+ has made it possible to enrich phosphorylated peptides from peptide samples. However, the selectivity of most of the metal ions is limited, when working with highly complex samples, e.g., whole-cell extracts, resulting in contamination from...

  14. Isotopic enrichment in a plasma centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Bosco, E.; Dallaqua, R.S.; Ludwig, G.O.; Bittencourt, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    A rotating fully ionized plasma column was produced in a vacuum-arc centrifuge. The apparatus is described and new results for the rotational velocity and isotope enrichment of carbon and metal plasmas are shown. The ion rotation velocity is derived from electrostatic probes measurents and from the azimuthal displacement of the material deposited behind of a narrow slit. The isotope enrichment is measured with a modified quadrupole mass spectrometer, which determines, in situ, the relative abundance of the isotopes at the end of the plasm column at various radil positions. (Author) [pt

  15. Uranium-enriched granites in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.R.; Aakerblom, G.

    1980-01-01

    Granites with uranium contents higher than normal occur in a variety of geological settings in the Swedish Precambrian, and represent a variety of granite types and ages. They may have been generated by the anatexis of continental crust or processes occurring at a much greater depth. They commonly show enrichment in F, Sn, W and/or Mo. Only in one case is an important uranium mineralization thought to be directly related to a uranium-enriched granite, while the majority of epigenetic uranium mineralizations with economic potential are related to hydrothermal processes in areas where the bedrock is regionally uranium-enhanced. (author)

  16. Enrichment and Preservation of Architectural Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beetz, Jakob; Blümel, Ina; Dietze, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the EU FP7 DURAARK project (2013–2016), inter-disciplinary methods, technologies and tools have been researched and developed, that support the Long Term Preservation of semantically enriched digital representations of built structures. The results of the research efforts include...... approaches of semi-automatically deriving building models from point cloud data sets acquired from laser scans and the integration and overlay of such representations with explicit Building Information Models (BIM). We introduce novel ways for the further semantic enrichment of such hybrid building models...

  17. Uranium enrichment: heading for the abyss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, C.

    1983-01-01

    This article discusses the federal government's $2.3 billion a year business enriching uranium for nuclear power plants which is heading toward a major crisis. Due to miscalculations by the Department of Energy, it is caught with billions of dollars of construction in progress just as projected demand for enriched uranium is decreasing. At the center of the controversy is the Gas Centrifuge Plant at Portsmouth, Ohio - estimated to cost $10 billion dollars. A review of how DOE got into this situation and how they plan to solve it is presented

  18. Slightly enriched uranium fuel for a PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notari, C.; Marajofsky, A.

    1997-01-01

    An improved fuel element design for a PHWR using slightly enriched uranium fuel is presented. It maintains the general geometric disposition of the currently used in the argentine NPP's reactors, replacing the outer ring of rods by rods containing annular pellets. Power density reduction is achieved with modest burnup losses and the void volume in the pellets can be used to balance these two opposite effects. The results show that with this new design, the fuel can be operated at higher powers without violating thermohydraulic limits and this means an improvement in fuel management flexibility, particularly in the transition from natural uranium to slightly enriched uranium cycle. (author)

  19. Enriched lithium collection from lithium plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevsky, A.I.; Laz'ko, V.S.; Muromkin, Y.A.; Pashkovsky, V.G.; Ustinov, A.L.; Dolgolenko, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    In order to understand the physical processes concerned with the selective heating by ion cyclotron resonance and with the subsequent collection of heated particles, experiments were carried out with the extraction of lithium samples, enriched with 6 Li isotopes. Probe and integral extractors allow to collect enriched Li at the end of the selective heating region. Surface density distribution on the collector and local isotopic content of lithium are measured, as a function of the screen height and the retarding potential. Dependence of the collected amount of lithium and of its isotopic content on the value of the magnetic field is also measured. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  20. Uranium enrichment services in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinek, P.; Lenders, M.

    1994-01-01

    The United States of America is the world's largest market for uranium enrichment services. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Russian uranium is entering the world market on an increasing scale. The U.S. tries to protect its market and, in this connection, also the European market from excessive price drops by taking anti-dumping measures. In order to become more competitive, American companies have adapted modern enrichment techniques from Europe. European - U.S. joint ventures are to help, also technically and economically, to integrate military uranium, accumulating as a consequence of worldwide disarmament, into the commercial fuel cycle for the peaceful use of nuclear power. (orig.) [de

  1. Uranium enrichment. Industrial and commercial aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamorlette, G.

    1983-01-01

    The uranium enrichment, a key stage in the fuel cycle of light-water nuclear power stations, applies sophisticated and protected techniques in installations on a very large scale. This article shows how there was a sudden change from a monopoly position in production to a severe competition in a market which is depressed today but offers good prospects for the future. It indicates how the enrichment industrialist have adapted themselves to the fluctuations of the demand, while safeguarding the reliability of the rendered service and the necessary security of supplies for the proper development of the nuclear electric power [fr

  2. Deep proteomics of mouse skeletal muscle enables quantitation of protein isoforms, metabolic pathways and transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul S; Murgia, Marta; Nagaraja, Nagarjuna

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle constitutes 40% of individual body mass and plays vital roles in locomotion and whole-body metabolism. Proteomics of skeletal muscle is challenging due to highly abundant contractile proteins that interfere with detection of regulatory proteins. Using a state-of-the art mass...

  3. Cell wall staining with Trypan blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liesche, Johannes; Marek, Magdalena; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    staining with fluorescent dyes is a valuable tool. Furthermore, cell wall staining is used to facilitate sub-cellular localization experiments with fluorescently-labeled proteins and the detection of yeast cells in non-fungal host tissues. Here, we report staining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall......Yeast cells are protected by a cell wall that plays an important role in the exchange of substances with the environment. The cell wall structure is dynamic and can adapt to different physiological states or environmental conditions. For the investigation of morphological changes, selective...... with Trypan Blue, which emits strong red fluorescence upon binding to chitin and yeast glucan; thereby, it facilitates cell wall analysis by confocal and super-resolution microscopy. The staining pattern of Trypan Blue was similar to that of the widely used UV-excitable, blue fluorescent cell wall stain...

  4. Automated analysis of aircraft configurations for safe separation enabled by quantitative grading of results; presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jamison, Kevin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available perturbations of: • store mass and physical properties • ejector rack performance • aircraft release flight conditions • stations on aircraft • neighbouring stores – MIL-HDBK 1763: 271.4 – Results in a very large analysis matrix! From: Tutty, M...

  5. Tagging CO2 to Enable Quantitative Inventories of Geological Carbon Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Klaus; Matter, Juerg; Park, Ah-Hyung; Stute, Martin; Carson, Cantwell; Ji, Yinghuang

    2014-06-30

    In the wake of concerns about the long term integrity and containment of sub-surface CO2 sequestration reservoirs, many efforts have been made to improve the monitoring, verification, and accounting methods for geo-sequestered CO2. Our project aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of a system designed to tag CO2 with carbon isotope 14C immediately prior to sequestration to a level that is normal on the surface (one part per trillion). Because carbon found at depth is naturally free of 14C, this tag would easily differentiate pre-existing carbon from anthropogenic injected carbon and provide an excellent handle for monitoring its whereabouts in the subsurface. It also creates an excellent handle for adding up anthropogenic carbon inventories. Future inventories in effect count 14C atoms. Accordingly, we have developed a 14C tagging system suitable for use at the part-per-trillion level. This system consists of a gas-exchange apparatus to make disposable cartridges ready for controlled injection into a fast flowing stream of pressurized CO2. We built a high-pressure injection and tagging system, and a 14C detection system. The disposable cartridge and injection system have been successfully demonstrated in the lab with a high-pressure flow reactor, as well as in the field at the CarbFix CO2 sequestration site in Iceland. The laser-based 14C detection system originally conceived has been shown to possess inadequate sensitivity for ambient levels. Alternative methods for detecting 14C, such as saturated cavity absorption ringdown spectroscopy and scintillation counting, may still be suitable. KEYWORDS

  6. Nanotag-enabled photonic crystal fiber as quantitative surface-enhanced Raman scattering optofluidic platform

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pinkhasova, P.; Chen, H.; Kaňka, Jiří; Mergo, P.; Du, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 7 (2015), 0711061-0711064 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11038 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Photonic crystal fibers * Raman scattering * Crystal whiskers Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.142, year: 2015

  7. Investigation towards link-enriched video: user information needs for environmental opinion-forming and decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Palumbo

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractLink-enriched video can support users in processes of environmental opinion-forming and decision-making. For this, audiovisual content must be represented and annotated to enable automatic link generation and computer manipulation. Given the time and budget constraints of

  8. User Information Needs for Environmental Opinion-forming and Decision-making in Link-enriched Video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Palumbo; L. Hardman (Lynda)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractLink-enriched video can support users in informative processes of environmental opinion-forming and decision-making. To enable this, we need to specify the information that should be captured in an annotation schema for describing the video. We conducted expert interviews to elicit

  9. Low-enriched uranium holdup measurements in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barham, M.A.; Ceo, R.; Smith, S.E.

    1998-01-01

    Quantification of the residual nuclear material remaining in process equipment has long been a challenge to those who work with nuclear material accounting systems. Fortunately, nuclear material has spontaneous radiation emissions that can be measured. If gamma-ray measurements can be made, it is easy to determine what isotope a deposit contains. Unfortunately, it can be quite difficult to relate this measured signal to an estimate of the mass of the nuclear deposit. Typically, the measurement expert must work with incomplete or inadequate information to determine a quantitative result. Simplified analysis models, the distribution of the nuclear material, any intervening attenuation, background(s), and the source-to-detector distance(s) can have significant impacts on the quantitative result. This presentation discusses the application of a generalized-geometry holdup model to the low-enriched uranium fuel pellet fabrication plant in Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan. Preliminary results will be presented. Software tools have been developed to assist the facility operators in performing and documenting the measurements. Operator feedback has been used to improve the user interfaces

  10. The density of GM1-enriched lipid rafts correlates inversely with the efficiency of transfection mediated by cationic liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Tamás; Kárász, Andrea; Szöllosi, János; Nagy, Peter

    2009-08-01

    Although cationic liposome-mediated transfection has become a standard procedure, the mechanistic details of the process are unknown. It has been suggested that endocytic uptake of lipoplexes is efficient, and transfectability is largely determined by later steps. In this article, we stained GM1-enriched membrane microdomains, a subclass of lipid rafts, with subunit B of cholera toxin and correlated transfection efficiency with their density by quantitatively evaluating microscopic images. We found a strong anticorrelation between the density of GM1-enriched membrane microdomains and the efficacy of transfection monitored by measuring the expression level of GFP in different cell lines transfected by lipofection using two different transfection agents. These findings imply that GM1-enriched membrane microdomains interfere with the process of lipofection. The blocked step must be endocytosis since the accumulation of fluorescently labeled plasmids was lower in cells with high content of GM1-enriched membrane microdomains. Such a correlation was not observed in cells transfected by electroporation. By comparing the efficiency of lipofection in several cell lines we found that those with a high density of GM1-enriched membrane microdomains were the most resistant to transfection. We conclude that the inhibition of lipofection by GM1-enriched membrane microdomains is a general rule, and that endocytosis of lipoplexes can be rate limiting in cells with high density of GM1-enriched membrane rafts. Copyright 2009 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  11. 75 FR 10525 - In the Matter of: AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility) and All Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ...: AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility) and All Other Persons Who Seek or Obtain... for the Implementation of a Safeguards Information Program (Effective Immediately) I AREVA Enrichment... it to construct and operate a uranium enrichment facility in Bonneville County, Idaho. AES submitted...

  12. 77 FR 14838 - General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC, Commercial Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... Laser Enrichment LLC, Commercial Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment Facility, Wilmington, North Carolina... a license to General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC (GLE or the applicant) to authorize construction of a laser-based uranium enrichment facility and possession and use of byproduct...

  13. Method and platform standardization in MRM-based quantitative plasma proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Andrew J; Chambers, Andrew G; Yang, Juncong; Jackson, Angela M; Domanski, Dominik; Burkhart, Julia; Sickmann, Albert; Borchers, Christoph H

    2013-12-16

    There exists a growing demand in the proteomics community to standardize experimental methods and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) platforms in order to enable the acquisition of more precise and accurate quantitative data. This necessity is heightened by the evolving trend of verifying and validating candidate disease biomarkers in complex biofluids, such as blood plasma, through targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based approaches with stable isotope-labeled standards (SIS). Considering the lack of performance standards for quantitative plasma proteomics, we previously developed two reference kits to evaluate the MRM with SIS peptide approach using undepleted and non-enriched human plasma. The first kit tests the effectiveness of the LC/MRM-MS platform (kit #1), while the second evaluates the performance of an entire analytical workflow (kit #2). Here, these kits have been refined for practical use and then evaluated through intra- and inter-laboratory testing on 6 common LC/MS platforms. For an identical panel of 22 plasma proteins, similar concentrations were determined, regardless of the kit, instrument platform, and laboratory of analysis. These results demonstrate the value of the kit and reinforce the utility of standardized methods and protocols. The proteomics community needs standardized experimental protocols and quality control methods in order to improve the reproducibility of MS-based quantitative data. This need is heightened by the evolving trend for MRM-based validation of proposed disease biomarkers in complex biofluids such as blood plasma. We have developed two kits to assist in the inter- and intra-laboratory quality control of MRM experiments: the first kit tests the effectiveness of the LC/MRM-MS platform (kit #1), while the second evaluates the performance of an entire analytical workflow (kit #2). In this paper, we report the use of these kits in intra- and inter-laboratory testing on 6 common LC/MS platforms. This

  14. Digital radiography: a quantitative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retraint, F.

    2004-01-01

    'Full-text:' In a radiograph the value of each pixel is related to the material thickness crossed by the x-rays. Using this relationship, an object can be characterized by parameters such as depth, surface and volume. Assuming a locally linear detector response and using a radiograph of reference object, the quantitative thickness map of object can be obtained by applying offset and gain corrections. However, for an acquisition system composed of cooled CCD camera optically coupled to a scintillator screen, the radiographic image formation process generates some bias which prevent from obtaining the quantitative information: non uniformity of the x-ray source, beam hardening, Compton scattering, scintillator screen, optical system response. In a first section, we propose a complete model of the radiographic image formation process taking account of these biases. In a second section, we present an inversion scheme of this model for a single material object, which enables to obtain the thickness map of the object crossed by the x-rays. (author)

  15. Low-enriched fuel particle performance review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, F.; Nabielek, H.; Yang, L.

    1978-08-01

    The available data on low-enriched (LEU) fuel particles were reviewed under the United States-Federal Republic of Germany Agreement. The most influential factors controlling the irradiation performance of LEU fuel particles were found to be plutonium transport, fission product transport, fuel particle mechanical performance and fuel particle chemical performande. (orig.) [de

  16. Low-enriched fuel particle performance review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, F.; Nabielek, H.; Yang, L.

    1978-08-01

    The available data on low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel particles were reviewed under the United States-Federal Republic of Germany Agreement. The most influential factors controlling the irradiation performance of LEU fuel particles were found to be plutonium transport, fission product transport, fuel particle mechanical performance, and fuel particle chemical performance

  17. GRAN SASSO: Enriched germanium in action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-12-15

    Two large crystals of carefully enriched germanium, one weighing 1 kilogram and the other 2.9 kilograms, and worth many millions of dollars, are being carefully monitored in the Italian Gran Sasso Laboratory in the continuing search for neutrinoless double beta decay.

  18. Isotope enrichment by photolysis on ordered surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epling, G.A.; Florio, E.

    1981-01-01

    A surface was prepared as a micelle model which could be altered, by reacting trichlorododecylsilane with silica gel. Adsorption of dibenzyl ketone onto this surface followed by irradiation resulted in a recovered dibenzyl ketone enriched in 13 C. The plot of log S vs -log (1-f) had a slope of 1.66

  19. Isotope enrichment by photolysis on ordered surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epling, G.A.; Florio, E.

    1981-03-11

    A surface was prepared as a micelle model which could be altered, by reacting trichlorododecylsilane with silica gel. Adsorption of dibenzyl ketone onto this surface followed by irradiation resulted in a recovered dibenzyl ketone enriched in /sup 13/C. The plot of log S vs -log (1-f) had a slope of 1.66. (DLC)

  20. Isotopic enrichment in a plasma centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Bosco, E.; Dallaqua, R.S.; Ludwig, G.O.; Bittencourt, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    High rotational velocity and centrifugal isotopic separation of carbon in a vacuum-arc plasma centrifuge are presented. Enrichments of up to 390% for 13 C are measured at 6 cm radius with angular rotation frequencies in excess of 1.0 x 10 5 rad/s in an axial magnetic field of 0.12 T

  1. Drama in English: An Enriching Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffen, Mitzi

    1998-01-01

    Examines the rationale behind using musical drama in English-as-a-Second-Language classes, explaining that it is an enjoyable experience that enriches students' English while they are relaxed, working as a team, and having fun with their imaginations. The article explains the process of putting on a play and evaluates the effect such a project had…

  2. GRAN SASSO: Enriched germanium in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Two large crystals of carefully enriched germanium, one weighing 1 kilogram and the other 2.9 kilograms, and worth many millions of dollars, are being carefully monitored in the Italian Gran Sasso Laboratory in the continuing search for neutrinoless double beta decay

  3. Genetic enrichment of cardiomyocytes derived from mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic enrichment of cardiomyocytes derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. WJ He, SC Li, LL Ye, H Liu, QW Wang, WD Han, XB Fu, ZL Chen. Abstract. Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESC) have the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell lineages in vitro, including cardiomyocytes. Successful applications of ...

  4. Recommendations based on semantically enriched museum collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Stash, N.; Aroyo, L.M.; Gorgels, P.; Rutledge, L.W.; Schreiber, G.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the CHIP demonstrator1 for providing personalized access to digital museum collections. It consists of three main components: Art Recommender, Tour Wizard, and Mobile Tour Guide. Based on the semantically enriched Rijksmuseum Amsterdam2 collection, we show how Semantic Web

  5. Review of environmental enrichment for broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riber, A.B.; De Weerd, Van H.A.; Jong, De I.C.; Steenfeldt, S.

    2018-01-01

    Welfare problems are commonly found in both conventional and organic production of broiler chickens. In order to reduce the extent of welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating, enriched environments. The aim of the present paper is to provide a review of the effect on behavior

  6. Feasibility of uranium enrichment in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The Council considered that provided the balance between costs and markets was found to be acceptable, there was no valid reason against the Government proceeding with a study on the feasibility of, and perhaps participating in the establishment of a commercial uranium enrichment industry in Australia. Areas covered include technical expertise and industrial structure in Australia, environmental aspects and safeguards

  7. 21 CFR 137.165 - Enriched flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched flour. 137.165 Section 137.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... riboflavin, 24 milligrams of niacin, 0.7 milligrams of folic acid, and 20 milligrams of iron. (b) It may...

  8. Gas Enrichment at Liquid-Wall Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dammer, S.M.; Lohse, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of Lennard-Jones systems are performed to study the effects of dissolved gas on liquid-wall and liquid-gas interfaces. Gas enrichment at walls, which for hydrophobic walls can exceed more than 2 orders of magnitude when compared to the gas density in the bulk liquid,

  9. Metacognitive Enrichment for Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyre, Steven H.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research was conducted to explore how introducing metacognitive enrichment into courses containing implicit or explicit critical thinking goals would affect the students' personal epistemological maturity. At the beginning of a fall semester at a moderate sized community college in the southeastern United States, 733 students were divided…

  10. Status report on uranium enrichment associates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, R.A. Jr.; O'Donnell, A.J.; Garrett, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    Uranium Enrichment Associates (UEA) had as its priority project financing, an approach in which the total project is financially self-liquidating. UEA worked with financial institutions to define the combination of assurances and guarantees required by lenders in order to provide the required debt funding. UEA's assets against which the debt liability for the plant would be balanced would be the facilities under construction and the equipment on order. On the customer side, there was major concern on the part of the utilities of whether private industry would be able to complete and operate the plant owing to many of the same possibilities which concerned financial institutions. The disparity between the conditions under which financing could be obtained and the terms acceptable to utilities was a significant element in EUA's choice of process to use for its enrichment plants. UEA's technical staff then began to parallel conceptual designs of gaseous diffusion and gas cenrifuge plants. UEA negotiated with ERDA on the terms of a Cooperative Arrangement, within the provisions of the NFAA, providing the minimum conditions necessary to obtain financing and contracts with utilities for enrichment sources. The UEA plant has several features different from the ERDA plants. The UEA plant used only two basic stage sizes. The UEA design employed four main process buildings. The partners in UEA have mutually agreed to follow the private uranium enrichment project to a logical conclusion. 6 figures

  11. PROTEIN ENRICHMENT OF SPENT SORGHUM RESIDUE USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    The optimum concentration of spent sorghum for protein enrichment with S. cerevisiae was 7.Sg/100 ml. Th.: protein ... production of single sell protein using Candida utilis and cassava starch effluem as substrate. ... wastes as substrates, Kluyveromyces fragilis and milk whey coconut water as substrate (Rahmat et al.,. 1995 ...

  12. Challenges when developing omega-3 enriched foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    the influence of important factors such as oil quality, delivery systems for omega-3 fatty acids, processing conditions, composition of the food matrix on lipid oxidation in different omega-3 enriched foods (milk, yoghurt, mayonnaise and mayonnaise-based salads, dressing, energy bar and fish paté). Moreover...

  13. Uranium enrichment management review. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellett, J.D.; Rieke, W.B.; Simpson, J.W.; Sullivan, P.E.

    1980-01-01

    The uranium enrichment enterprise of the US Department of Energy (DOE) provides enriched nuclear fuel for private and government utilities domestically and abroad. The enterprise, in effect, provides a commercial service and represents a signficant business operation within the US government: more than $1 billion in revenues annually and future capital expenditures estimated at several billions of dollars. As a result, in May 1980, the Assistant Secretary for Resource Applications within DOE requested that a group of experienced business executives be assembled to review the operation, financing, and management of the uranium enrichment enterprise as a basis for advising the Secretary of Energy. The review group was specifically asked to focus on the management activities to which sound business practices could be applied. The group developed findings and recommendations in six areas: management of operations and construction; long-range planning; marketing of enrichment services; financial management; research and development; and general management. The chapters of this report present first the management review group's recommendations in the six areas evaluated and then the findings and issues in each area. An appendix provides the group's calendar of meetings. A list of major reference sources used in the course of the study is also included. 12 references

  14. Books to Expand and Enrich Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Evelyn T.

    1983-01-01

    Books are briefly described that parents can read and discuss with their children to enrich travel and cultural activities. Books on the nation's capital city, the Liberty Bell, the Statue of Liberty, architecture, zoos, dinosaurs, and other subjects are included. (PP)

  15. Laser enrichment: a new path to proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casper, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    The use of lasers to obtain enriched uranium is an easier and cheaper method than methods currently in use. The immediate concern is that it could promote easy access to nuclear weapons by countries that do not presently have them. Mr. Casper feels that the U.S. government is working against itself; while the State Department is seeking to block one path to proliferation, ERDA laboratories are developing new technology that could open another. The proliferation implications have not been factored in a serious way into the decisions to proceed with this research. It is also clear that the United States does not now have a comprehensive policy that deals with all potentially important paths to proliferation, including laser enrichment. Mr. Casper states that there is still time to stop and consider whether laser enrichment should be developed, in light of its broader consequences. But this will not happen if the decisions are left exclusively in the hands of those promoting the technology, the author says. It is just this sort of situation that prompted the creation of several government institutions to provide independent assessments of new technologies. The Office of Technology Assessment, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency all have the authority to intervene. Laser enrichment provides a good test of these institutions and of the viability of the concept of technology assessment. The status, benefits and risks, and the policy needed on laser research are discussed

  16. Topical papers on uranium conversion and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium conversion and enrichment are discussed in 5 papers by representatives of the USA, Great Britain and Switzerland. The state of the art is reviewed, and future prospects are given. Supply assurance is directly related to the necessary production capacities and the supply agreements

  17. SigWin-detector: A Grid-enabled workflow for discovering enriched windows of genomic features related to DNA sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inda, M.A.; van Batenburg, M.F.; Roos, M.; Belloum, A.S.Z.; Vasunin, D.; Wibisono, A.; van Kampen, A.H.C.; Breit, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Chromosome location is often used as a scaffold to organize genomic information in both the living cell and molecular biological research. Thus, ever-increasing amounts of data about genomic features are stored in public databases and can be readily visualized by genome browsers. To

  18. SigWin-detector: a Grid-enabled workflow for discovering enriched windows of genomic features related to DNA sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inda, Marcia A.; van Batenburg, Marinus F.; Roos, Marco; Belloum, Adam Sz; Vasunin, Dmitry; Wibisono, Adianto; van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; Breit, Timo M.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chromosome location is often used as a scaffold to organize genomic information in both the living cell and molecular biological research. Thus, ever-increasing amounts of data about genomic features are stored in public databases and can be readily visualized by genome

  19. Isotopically enriched structural materials in nuclear devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, L.W.G., E-mail: Lee.Morgan@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Shimwell, J. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Gilbert, M.R. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • C-B analysis of isotopic enrichment of structural materials is presented. • Some, previously, prohibited elements could be used as alloying elements in LAM's. • Adding enriched molybdenum and nickel, to EUROFER, could increase availability. • Isotope enrichment for EUROFER could be cost-effective. • Isotopically enriching copper, in CuCrZr, can reduce helium production by 50%. - Abstract: A large number of materials exist which have been labeled as low activation structural materials (LAM). Most often, these materials have been designed in order to substitute-out or completely remove elements that become activated and contribute significantly to shut-down activity after being irradiated by neutrons in a reactor environment. To date, one of the fundamental principles from which LAMs have been developed is that natural elemental compositions are the building blocks of LAMs. Thus, elements such as Co, Al, Ni, Mo, Nb, N and Cu that produce long-lived decay products are significantly reduced or removed from the LAM composition. These elements have an important part to play in the composition of steels and the removal/substitution can have a negative impact on materials properties such as yield stress and fracture toughness. This paper looks in more detail at whether using isotopic selection of the more mechanically desirable, but prohibited due to activation, elements can improve matters. In particular, this paper focuses on the activation of Eurofer. Carefully chosen isotopically enriched elements, which are normally considered to be on the prohibited element list, are added to EUROFER steel as potential alloying elements. The EUROFER activation results show that some prohibited elements can be used as alloying elements in LAM steels, providing the selected isotopes do not have a significant impact on waste disposal rating or shut-down dose. The economic implications of isotopically enriching elements and the potential implications for

  20. Optical Coherent Receiver Enables THz Wireless Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Liu, Kexin; Zhang, Hangkai

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a 45 Gbit/s 400 GHz photonic wireless communication system enabled by an optical coherent receiver, which has a high potential in fast recovery of high data rate connections, for example, in disaster....

  1. Web Enabled DROLS Verity TopicSets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tong, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this effort has been the design and development of automatically generated TopicSets and HTML pages that provide the basis of the required search and browsing capability for DTIC's Web Enabled DROLS System...

  2. Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business Environment in the ... the scope of operations of private sector enterprises in the West Bank and Gaza. ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  3. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  4. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Karen; Vasquez, Deb

    2017-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program's 'Utility Energy Service Contracts: Enabling Documents' provide legislative information and materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy service contracts, or UESCs.

  5. 5G-Enabled Tactile Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Simsek, Meryem; Aijaz, Adnan; Dohler, Mischa; Sachs, Joachim; Fettweis, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The long-term ambition of the Tactile Internet is to enable a democratization of skill, and how it is being delivered globally. An integral part of this is to be able to transmit touch in perceived real-time, which is enabled by suitable robotics and haptics equipment at the edges, along with an unprecedented communications network. The fifth generation (5G) mobile communications systems will underpin this emerging Internet at the wireless edge. This paper presents the most important technolo...

  6. Integrated Photonics Enabled by Slow Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Chen, Yuntian; Ek, Sara

    2012-01-01

    In this talk we will discuss the physics of slow light in semiconductor materials and in particular the possibilities offered for integrated photonics. This includes ultra-compact slow light enabled optical amplifiers, lasers and pulse sources.......In this talk we will discuss the physics of slow light in semiconductor materials and in particular the possibilities offered for integrated photonics. This includes ultra-compact slow light enabled optical amplifiers, lasers and pulse sources....

  7. Quantitative phosphoproteomics applied to the yeast pheromone signaling pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruhler, Albrecht; Olsen, Jesper Velgaard; Mohammed, Shabaz

    2005-01-01

    of a detailed molecular view of complex biological processes. We present a quantitative modification-specific proteomic approach that combines stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) for quantitation with IMAC for phosphopeptide enrichment and three stages of mass spectrometry (MS....... Phosphopeptide fractions were analyzed by LC-MS using a linear ion trap-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. MS/MS and neutral loss-directed MS/MS/MS analysis allowed detection and sequencing of phosphopeptides with exceptional accuracy and specificity. Of more than 700 identified...

  8. Quantitative film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, G.; Dobie, D.; Fugina, J.; Hernandez, J.; Logan, C.; Mohr, P.; Moss, R.; Schumacher, B.; Updike, E.; Weirup, D.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a system of quantitative radiography in order to produce quantitative images displaying homogeneity of parts. The materials that we characterize are synthetic composites and may contain important subtle density variations not discernible by examining a raw film x-radiograph. In order to quantitatively interpret film radiographs, it is necessary to digitize, interpret, and display the images. Our integrated system of quantitative radiography displays accurate, high-resolution pseudo-color images in units of density. We characterize approximately 10,000 parts per year in hundreds of different configurations and compositions with this system. This report discusses: the method; film processor monitoring and control; verifying film and processor performance; and correction of scatter effects

  9. Enrichment from birth accelerates the functional and cellular development of a motor control area in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Simonetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence that sensory experience in early life has a profound influence on the development of sensory circuits. Very little is known, however, about the role of experience in the early development of striatal networks which regulate both motor and cognitive function. To address this, we have investigated the influence of early environmental enrichment on motor development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were raised in standard or enriched housing from birth. For animals assessed as adults, half of the mice had their rearing condition reversed at weaning to enable the examination of the effects of pre- versus post-weaning enrichment. We found that exclusively pre-weaning enrichment significantly improved performance on the Morris water maze compared to non-enriched mice. The effects of early enrichment on the emergence of motor programs were assessed by performing behavioural tests at postnatal day 10. Enriched mice traversed a significantly larger region of the test arena in an open-field test and had improved swimming ability compared to non-enriched cohorts. A potential cellular correlate of these changes was investigated using Wisteria-floribunda agglutinin (WFA staining to mark chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs. We found that the previously reported transition of CSPG staining from striosome-associated clouds to matrix-associated perineuronal nets (PNNs is accelerated in enriched mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first demonstration that the early emergence of exploratory as well as coordinated movement is sensitive to experience. These behavioural changes are correlated with an acceleration of the emergence of striatal PNNs suggesting that they may consolidate the neural circuits underlying these behaviours. Finally, we confirm that pre-weaning experience can lead to life long changes in the learning ability of mice.

  10. Enrichment technology. Dependable vendor of gas centrifuges; Enrichment Technology. Zuverlaessiger Lieferant von Gaszentrifugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-10-15

    Enrichment Technology is an innovative, high-tech company that develops, manufactures and installs gas centrifuges for enriching uranium. In addition, Enrichment Technology designs enrichment plants that use gas centrifuge technology. This technology offers the most efficient and cost-effective method for enriching uranium yet: high-performance, safe technology that dominates the market with a global share of 45 percent. A determining factor in Enrichment Technology's success is its mission: supplying its customers with safe, reliable technology. Production of the centrifuges requires versatile know-how and collaboration between different departments as well as interdisciplinary teams at the various sites. More than 2000 operators at 8 sites in 5 countries contribute their individual knowledge and personal skills in order to produce this exceptional technology. The head office is in Beaconsfield near London and the operational headquarters are in Almelo in the Netherlands. There are other sites in Germany (Juelich und Gronau), Great Britain (Capenhurst) as well as project sites in the USA and France. Capenhurst is where experienced engineers design new enrichment plants and organise their construction. Centrifuge components are manufactured in Almelo and Juelich, while the pipework needed to connect up the centrifuges is produced at the site in Gronau. In Juelich, highly qualified scientists in interdisciplinary teams are continuously researching ways of improving the current centrifuges. Communication between specialists in the fields of chemistry, physics and engineering forms the basis for the company's success and the key to extending this leading position in the global enrichment market. (orig.)

  11. Synthesis of 15N-enriched fertilizers. Pt. II. Synthesis of 15N-enriched urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondassolli, J.A.; Trivelin, P.C.O.; Mortatti, J.; Victoria, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The results of studies on the production of 15 N-urea through the reaction between 15 N-enriched anhidrous ammonia, carbon monoxide and sulfur, using hydrogen sulfite as a auto catalizers and methyl alcohol as a liquid reaction medium is presented. The influence of the quantities of reagents on final yield of synthesised urea were studied. Analysis of the cost of 5 Atoms % 15 N-enriched urea were made. (M.A.C.) [pt

  12. The sea surface microlayer: biology, chemistry and anthropogenic enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, J T

    1982-01-01

    Recent studies increasingly point to the interface between the world's atmosphere and hydrosphere (the sea-surface microlayer) as an important biological habitat and a collection point for anthropogenic materials. Newly developed sampling techniques collect different qualitative and quantitative fractions of the upper sea surface from depths of less than one micron to several centimeters. The microlayer provides a habitat for a biota, including the larvae of many commercial fishery species, which are often highly enriched in density compared to subsurface water only a few cm below. Common enrichments for bacterioneuston, phytoneuston, and zooneuston are 10/sup 2/-10/sup 4/, 1-10/sup 2/, and 1-10, respectively. The trophic relationships or intergrated functioning of these neustonic communities have not been examined. Surface tension forces provide a physically stable microlayer, but one which is subjected to greater environmental and climatic variation than the water column. A number of poorly understood physical processes control the movement and flux of materials within and through the microlayer. The microlayer is generally coated with a natural organic film of lipid and fatty acid material overlying a polysaccharide protein complex. The microlayer serves as both a source and a sink for materials in the atmosphere and the water column. Among these materials are large quantities of anthropogenic substances which frequently occur at concentrations 10/sup 2/-10/sup 4/ greater than those in the water column. These include plastics, tar lumps, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and potentially toxic metals, such as, lead, copper, zinc, and nickel. How the unique processes occurring in the microlayer affect the fate of anthropogenic substances is not yet clear.

  13. Modeling and Analysis Methods for an On-line Enrichment Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Leon E.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Wittman, Richard S.; Zalavadia, Mital A.; March-Leuba, Jose A.

    2016-05-30

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has developed an On-Line Enrichment Monitor (OLEM) as one possible component in a new generation of safeguards measures for uranium enrichment plants. The OLEM measures 235U emissions from the UF6 gas flowing through a unit header pipe using NaI(Tl) spectrometers, and corrects for gas density changes using pressure and temperature sensors in order to determine the enrichment of the gas as a function of time. In parallel with the OLEM instrument development, a Virtual OLEM (VOLEM) software tool has been developed that is capable of producing synthetic gamma-ray, pressure, and temperature data representative of a wide range of enrichment plant operating conditions. VOLEM complements instrument development activities and allows the study of OLEM for scenarios that will be difficult or impossible to evaluate empirically. Uses of VOLEM include: investigation of hardware design options; inter-comparison of candidate gamma-ray spectral analysis and enrichment estimation algorithms; uncertainty budget analysis and performance prediction for typical and atypical operational scenarios; and testing of the OLEM data acquisition, analysis and reporting software. This paper describes the technical foundations of VOLEM and illustrates how it can be used. An overview of the nominal instrument design and deployment scenario for OLEM is provided, with emphasis on the key online-assay measurement challenge: accurately determining the portion of the total 235U signal that comes from a background that includes solid uranium deposits on the piping walls. Monte Carlo modeling tools, data analysis algorithms and uncertainty quantification methods are described. VOLEM is then used to quantitatively explore the uncertainty budgets and predicted instrument performance for a plausible range of typical plant operating parameters, and one set of candidate analysis algorithms. Additionally, a series of VOLEM case studies illustrates how an online

  14. Anaerobic degradation of benzene by enriched consortia with humic acids as terminal electron acceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, Francisco J., E-mail: fjcervantes@ipicyt.edu.mx [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi, SLP, 78216 Mexico (Mexico); Mancilla, Ana Rosa; Toro, E. Emilia Rios-del [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi, SLP, 78216 Mexico (Mexico); Alpuche-Solis, Angel G.; Montoya-Lorenzana, Lilia [Division de Biologia Molecular, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi, SLP, 78216 Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Enriched consortia were able to couple the anaerobic degradation of benzene to the reduction of humic acids. {yields} Electron-equivalents derived from anaerobic benzene oxidation were highly recovered as reduced humic acids. {yields} Several species from classes {beta}-, {delta}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria were enriched during the anaerobic degradation of benzene. - Abstract: The anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of humic acids (HA) was demonstrated in two enriched consortia. Both inocula were able to oxidize benzene under strict anaerobic conditions when the humic model compound, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), was supplied as terminal electron acceptor. An enrichment culture originated from a contaminated soil was also able to oxidize benzene linked to the reduction of highly purified soil humic acids (HPSHA). In HPSHA-amended cultures, 9.3 {mu}M of benzene were degraded, which corresponds to 279 {+-} 27 micro-electron equivalents ({mu}Eq) L{sup -1}, linked to the reduction of 619 {+-} 81 {mu}Eq L{sup -1} of HPSHA. Neither anaerobic benzene oxidation nor reduction of HPSHA occurred in sterilized controls. Anaerobic benzene oxidation did not occur in soil incubations lacking HPSHA. Furthermore, negligible reduction of HPSHA occurred in the absence of benzene. The enrichment culture derived from this soil was dominated by two {gamma}-Proteobacteria phylotypes. A benzene-degrading AQDS-reducing enrichment originated from a sediment sample showed the prevalence of different species from classes {beta}-, {delta}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria. The present study provides clear quantitative demonstration of anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of HA.

  15. Anaerobic degradation of benzene by enriched consortia with humic acids as terminal electron acceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes, Francisco J.; Mancilla, Ana Rosa; Toro, E. Emilia Rios-del; Alpuche-Solis, Angel G.; Montoya-Lorenzana, Lilia

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Enriched consortia were able to couple the anaerobic degradation of benzene to the reduction of humic acids. → Electron-equivalents derived from anaerobic benzene oxidation were highly recovered as reduced humic acids. → Several species from classes β-, δ- and γ-Proteobacteria were enriched during the anaerobic degradation of benzene. - Abstract: The anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of humic acids (HA) was demonstrated in two enriched consortia. Both inocula were able to oxidize benzene under strict anaerobic conditions when the humic model compound, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), was supplied as terminal electron acceptor. An enrichment culture originated from a contaminated soil was also able to oxidize benzene linked to the reduction of highly purified soil humic acids (HPSHA). In HPSHA-amended cultures, 9.3 μM of benzene were degraded, which corresponds to 279 ± 27 micro-electron equivalents (μEq) L -1 , linked to the reduction of 619 ± 81 μEq L -1 of HPSHA. Neither anaerobic benzene oxidation nor reduction of HPSHA occurred in sterilized controls. Anaerobic benzene oxidation did not occur in soil incubations lacking HPSHA. Furthermore, negligible reduction of HPSHA occurred in the absence of benzene. The enrichment culture derived from this soil was dominated by two γ-Proteobacteria phylotypes. A benzene-degrading AQDS-reducing enrichment originated from a sediment sample showed the prevalence of different species from classes β-, δ- and γ-Proteobacteria. The present study provides clear quantitative demonstration of anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of HA.

  16. From high enriched to low enriched uranium fuel in research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Den Berghe, S.; Leenaers, A.; Koonen, E.; Moons, F.; Sannen, L. [Nuclear Materials Science Institute, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    Since the 1970's, global efforts have been going on to replace the high-enriched (>90% {sup 235}U), low-density UAlx research reactor fuel with high-density, low enriched (<20% {sup 235}U) replacements. This search is driven by the attempt to reduce the civil use of high-enriched material because of proliferation risks and terrorist threats. American initiatives, such as the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) and the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program have triggered the development of reliable low-enriched fuel types for these reactors, which can replace the high enriched ones without loss of performance. Most success has presently been obtained with U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion fuel, which is currently used in many research reactors in the world. However, efforts to search for a replacement with even higher density, which will also allow the conversion of some high flux research reactors that currently cannot change to U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} (eg. BR2 in Belgium), have continued and are for the moment mainly directed towards the U(Mo) alloy fuel (7-10 w% Mo). This paper provides an overview of the past efforts and presents the current status of the U(Mo) development. (authors)

  17. From high enriched to low enriched uranium fuel in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Berghe, S.; Leenaers, A.; Koonen, E.; Moons, F.; Sannen, L.

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1970's, global efforts have been going on to replace the high-enriched (>90% 235 U), low-density UAlx research reactor fuel with high-density, low enriched ( 235 U) replacements. This search is driven by the attempt to reduce the civil use of high-enriched material because of proliferation risks and terrorist threats. American initiatives, such as the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) and the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program have triggered the development of reliable low-enriched fuel types for these reactors, which can replace the high enriched ones without loss of performance. Most success has presently been obtained with U 3 Si 2 dispersion fuel, which is currently used in many research reactors in the world. However, efforts to search for a replacement with even higher density, which will also allow the conversion of some high flux research reactors that currently cannot change to U 3 Si 2 (eg. BR2 in Belgium), have continued and are for the moment mainly directed towards the U(Mo) alloy fuel (7-10 w% Mo). This paper provides an overview of the past efforts and presents the current status of the U(Mo) development. (authors)

  18. PULSTAR fuel, low enrichment, long lifetime, economical, proven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, Robert E.; Leonard, Bobby E.

    1993-01-01

    sufficiently low enrichment to preclude use as nuclear weapons material. Although Pu is produced, its continuous burnup precludes the use of the fuel to produce Pu for nuclear weapons material. The fuel is readily available on the world-wide market, and therefore purchasers do not have to depend on one sole-source fuel supplier. The fuel is inherently safe against any conceivable accident condition. Unlike other research reactor fuel, the fuel can be reprocessed with present technology and present reprocessing facilities. Due to the similarity to power reactor fuel, the fuel facilitates research related to fuel and core development for power reactors. The under moderated neutron fluence spectrum enables studies of fast neutron effects and provides high thermal neutron fluence peaking at the core boundary and in 'flux traps'. The long fuel burnup cycle provides a fuel lifetime at least a factor of 4 greater than competitive low enrichment 20%) fuels. The cost per megawatt day of operation is a factor of 2 less than competitive low enrichment 20% fuel

  19. PULSTAR fuel, low enrichment, long lifetime, economical, proven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Robert E; Leonard, Bobby E [Institute for Resource Management, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1993-08-01

    is of sufficiently low enrichment to preclude use as nuclear weapons material. Although Pu is produced, its continuous burnup precludes the use of the fuel to produce Pu for nuclear weapons material. The fuel is readily available on the world-wide market, and therefore purchasers do not have to depend on one sole-source fuel supplier. The fuel is inherently safe against any conceivable accident condition. Unlike other research reactor fuel, the fuel can be reprocessed with present technology and present reprocessing facilities. Due to the similarity to power reactor fuel, the fuel facilitates research related to fuel and core development for power reactors. The under moderated neutron fluence spectrum enables studies of fast neutron effects and provides high thermal neutron fluence peaking at the core boundary and in 'flux traps'. The long fuel burnup cycle provides a fuel lifetime at least a factor of 4 greater than competitive low enrichment 20%) fuels. The cost per megawatt day of operation is a factor of 2 less than competitive low enrichment 20% fuel.

  20. Enabling Open Innovation: Lessons from Haier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arie Y.Lewin; Liisa V(a)likangas; Jin Chen

    2017-01-01

    Open innovation has become a dominant innovation paradigm.However,the actual adoption of open innovation organizational designs and practices remains elusive,and ongoing examples of large companies practicing open innovation in mature industries or beyond R&D activities are rare.Despite the continuing interest in open innovation and the surging research on the topic,not much is documented about how,in particular,large companies interpret and implement open innovation or develop and sustain an innovation-enabling culture.This paper reports on a study of Haier's adoption of six radical innovations as it implements an open innovation organization over a period of seven years.The study is unique in that the cases reveal how open innovation is enabled by the socially enabling mechanisms developed under Chairman Ruimin Zhang's leadership.These varied enabling mechanisms open the organization to serendipity at every level,from the bottom up to suppliers.Most importantly,the mechanisms imprint and sustain an open innovation culture recognized as important-yet often left unarticulated in terms of how it is practiced-in the prior literature.The paper contributes to and highlights the centrality of socially enabling mechanisms underlying an organization's innovation absorptive capacity.

  1. Enriched uranium recovery at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrick, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    Graphite casting scrap, fuel elements and nongraphite combustibles are calcined to impure oxides. These materials along with zircaloy fuel elements and refractory solids are leach-dissolved separately in HF-HNO 3 acid to solubilize the contained enriched uranium. The resulting slurry is filtered and the clear filtrate (to which mineral acid solutions bearing enriched uranium may be added) are passed through solvent extraction. The solvent extraction product is filtered, precipitated with H 2 O 2 and the precipitate calcined to U 3 O 8 . Metal is made from U 3 O 8 by conversion to UO 2 , hydrofluorination and reduction to metal. Throughput is 150 to 900 kg uranium per year depending on the type of scrap

  2. Simulating Isotope Enrichment by Gaseous Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Cameron

    2015-04-01

    A desktop-computer simulation of isotope enrichment by gaseous diffusion has been developed. The simulation incorporates two non-interacting point-mass species whose members pass through a cascade of cells containing porous membranes and retain constant speeds as they reflect off the walls of the cells and the spaces between holes in the membranes. A particular feature is periodic forward recycling of enriched material to cells further along the cascade along with simultaneous return of depleted material to preceding cells. The number of particles, the mass ratio, the initial fractional abundance of the lighter species, and the time between recycling operations can be chosen by the user. The simulation is simple enough to be understood on the basis of two-dimensional kinematics, and demonstrates that the fractional abundance of the lighter-isotope species increases along the cascade. The logic of the simulation will be described and results of some typical runs will be presented and discussed.

  3. IAEA statement on Iranian enrichment announcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The following is a statement attributable to IAEA Spokesperson Gill Tudor: 'The IAEA can confirm that it has received a letter from the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) on 8 February 2010, in which the AEOI informed the Agency that production of less than 20% enriched uranium is being foreseen at the Pilot Fuel Enrichment Plant at Natanz for fuel for the Tehran Research Reactor'. 'IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano noted with concern this decision, as it may affect, in particular, ongoing international efforts to ensure the availability of nuclear fuel for the Tehran Research Reactor.' 'The Director General reiterated the Agency's readiness to play an intermediary role on the issue of the Tehran Research Reactor.' (IAEA)

  4. Market implications of advanced enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougeau, J.-P.

    1987-01-01

    The only commercial outlet for uranium is for nuclear reactors and the uranium market will be closely linked to the nuclear power market for the forseeable future. Any production cost saving in the uranium cycle clearly, therefore, increases the chances for world-wide expansion of the nuclear industry. Thus, although there is overcapacity in enrichment, development of cheaper, new or more efficient established techniques, is important. The atomic vapour laser isotope separation process is considered and discussed against this background. Separative work units are explained for this technique. The problems of integrating laser isotope separation into the fuel cycle are discussed. The effects on the amount of natural uranium required for different recycling strategies, and for different laser tails assay and time schedules are illustrated. Over the next twenty years laser-based enrichment will have an important effect on the fuel cycle industry. COGEMA is expected to play a part in developing these new techniques. (U.K.)

  5. Uranium enrichment: an activity for the riches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundim, S.G.

    1985-01-01

    The United States in the first place, the European countries next, have begun to maintain strict control of the technology transfer of the methods of enrichment, helped largely by the International Atomic Energy Agency which creates additional obstacles with is so-called 'safeguards'. So that it can possess a complete energy cycle, Brazil needs to have access to the techniques of enrichment. The methods are many and still extremely costly. Committed to signing a risk contract with Germany in the scope of its nuclear treaty with the intention of implementing here the jetcentrofuge method, Brazil should, nevertheless, make an effort to cause to emerge from its laboratories a new procedure which would permit it to become independent in this sector. (Author) [pt

  6. Fair value enrichment pricing: is it fair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (Public Law 83-702), requires the Department of Energy to recover all costs for its enrichment activities over a reasonable period of time. The proposed legislation would allow the Department to recover its costs plus a percentage of these costs. Six major factors are examined to determine whether the legislation should be adopted: What effect will the legislation have on the prices paid by ultimate consumers of electricity; will the increase in price resulting from the legislation help promote the establishment of a private uranium enrichment industry; how will the price increase impact on the administration's nuclear non-proliferation goals; what additional revenues will be generated from domestic and foreign customers; should the United States continue to perpetuate a subsidy to the U.S. nuclear industry; what effect, if any, will the new price have on the U.S. supply and demand situation for energy

  7. Uranium enrichment activities: the SILVA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, J.; Cazalet, J.; Camarcat, N.; Figuet, J.

    1994-01-01

    Through its commitment to a nuclear electricity generation policy, France holds today a specific position in the uranium enrichment market thanks to the modern multinational EURODIF gaseous diffusion plant. France has, altogether, a long-term goal in developing SILVA, a laser uranium enrichment process, based on the selective photo-ionization of U-235. After reviewing the fundamentals of SILVA (the laser system with copper vapor lasers and dye lasers and the separator system), a description of the general organization of the R and D program is provided going through basic research, subsystems assessment, production demonstrations and simulations (with the LACAN code), plant design and economics. The general schedule of SILVA is outlined, leading to the possible construction of a commercial plant. 7 figs., 11 refs

  8. Enrichment of high ammonia tolerant methanogenic culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Proietti, Nicolas

    Ammonia is the major toxicant in full scale anaerobic digesters of animal wastes which are rich in proteins and/or urea, such as pig or poultry wastes. Ammonia inhibition decreases methane production rates, increases volatile fatty acids concentration and leads to economic losses for the biogas...... was derived from a full scale biogas reactor (Hashøj, Denmark), fed with 75% animal manure and 25% food industries organic waste. Basal anaerobic medium was used for the enrichment along with sodium acetate (1 g HAc L-1) as a carbon source. Fluorescence insitu hybridization (FISH) was used to determine...... exclusively to strict aceticlastic methanogens. Results obtained in this study, demonstrated for the first time that strictly aceticlastic methanogens, derived from an enriched culture, can efficiently produce methane under high ammonia levels....

  9. Research on aerodynamic means of isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattolica, R.J.; Gallagher, R.J.; Talbot, L.; Willis, D.R.; Hurlbut, F.C.; Fiszdon, W.; Anderson, J.B.

    1978-03-01

    The results of a research program directed toward the understanding of the fundamental gas dynamics involved in aerodynamic isotope enrichment are summarized. The specific aerodynamic isotope enrichment method which was examined in this research is based on a velocity slip phenomenon which occurs in the rarefied hypersonic expansion of a heavy molecular weight gas and a light carrier gas in a nozzle or free jet. This particular aerodynamic method was chosen for study because it contains the fundamental molecular physics of other more complex techniques within the context of a one-dimensional flow without boundary effects. From both an experimental and theoretical modeling perspective this provides an excellent basis for testing the experimental and numerical tools with which to investigate more complex aerodynamic isotope enrichment processes. This report consists of three separate parts. Part I contains a theoretical analysis of the velocity slip effect in free jet expansions of binary and ternary gas mixtures. The analysis, based on a source flow model and using moment equations is derived from the Boltzmann equation using the hypersonic approximation. Part II contains the experimental measurements of velocity slip. The numerical simulation of the slip process was carried out by using a Monte-Carlo numerical technique. In addition, comparisons between the theoretical analysis of Part I and the experiments are presented. Part III describes impact pressure measurements of free jet expansions from slot shaped two dimensional nozzles. At least two methods of aerodynamic isotope enrichment (opposed jet and velocity slip) would depend on the use of this type of two dimensional expansion. Flow surveys of single free jet and the interferene of crossed free jets are presented

  10. Automated Information Enrichment for a Better Search

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Preza

    2016-01-01

    The process of adding the Metadata when uploading a digital object onto a repository is usually manual. This means that the user has to have already at hand the keywords and all the other information about the asset. This paper addresses the possibility of enriching the “manual metadata” by generating automated metadata using the cognitive services provided by technologies like IBM Watson platform. The cognitive computing services offered by IBM Watson automatically generate Semantic Data (in...

  11. Uranium enrichment export control guide: Gaseous diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    This document was prepared to serve as a guide for export control officials in their interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws that relate to the Zangger International Trigger List for gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment process components, equipment, and materials. Particular emphasis is focused on items that are especially designed or prepared since export controls are required for these by States that are party to the International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.

  12. Experience with a fuel rod enrichment scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubik, R.N.; Pettus, W.G.

    1975-01-01

    This enrichment scanner views all fuel rods produced at B and W's Commercial Nuclear Fuel Plant. The scanner design is derived from the PAPAS System reported by R. A. Forster, H. D. Menlove, and their associates at Los Alamos. The spatial resolution of the system and smoothing of the data are discussed in detail. The cost-effectiveness of multi-detector versus single detector scanners of this general design is also discussed

  13. 21 CFR 137.305 - Enriched farina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched farina. 137.305 Section 137.305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... riboflavin, not less than 16.0 mg and not more than 20.0 mg of niacin or niacinamide, not less than 0.7 mg...

  14. Method for separation and enrichment of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakihana, H.; Miyamatsu, T.

    1977-01-01

    Boron or uranium isotopes can be chemically separated and enriched with high speed and with high separating efficiency by using weakly basic anion exchange fibers having a diameter of not more than 100 μ, an aspect ratio of at least 5 and an exchange capacity of at least 2 meq/g-dry fiber, which are packed in a column at a specific volume of 2.0 to 20.0 ml/g-dry fiber

  15. SimPhospho: a software tool enabling confident phosphosite assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suni, Veronika; Suomi, Tomi; Tsubosaka, Tomoya; Imanishi, Susumu Y; Elo, Laura L; Corthals, Garry L

    2018-03-27

    Mass spectrometry combined with enrichment strategies for phosphorylated peptides has been successfully employed for two decades to identify sites of phosphorylation. However, unambiguous phosphosite assignment is considered challenging. Given that site-specific phosphorylation events function as different molecular switches, validation of phosphorylation sites is of utmost importance. In our earlier study we developed a method based on simulated phosphopeptide spectral libraries, which enables highly sensitive and accurate phosphosite assignments. To promote more widespread use of this method, we here introduce a software implementation with improved usability and performance. We present SimPhospho, a fast and user-friendly tool for accurate simulation of phosphopeptide tandem mass spectra. Simulated phosphopeptide spectral libraries are used to validate and supplement database search results, with a goal to improve reliable phosphoproteome identification and reporting. The presented program can be easily used together with the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline and integrated in a phosphoproteomics data analysis workflow. SimPhospho is available for Windows, Linux and Mac operating systems at https://sourceforge.net/projects/simphospho/. It is open source and implemented in C ++. A user's manual with detailed description of data analysis using SimPhospho as well as test data can be found as supplementary material of this article. Supplementary data are available at https://www.btk.fi/research/ computational-biomedicine/software/.

  16. Supply of enriched uranium for research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H. [NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Since the RERTR-meeting In Newport/USA in 1990 the author delivered a series of papers in connection with the fuel cycle for research reactors dealing with its front-end. In these papers the author underlined the need for unified specifications for enriched uranium metal suitable for the production of fuel elements and made proposals with regard to the re-use of in Europe reprocessed highly enriched uranium. With regard to the fuel cycle of research reactors the research reactor community was since 1989 more concentrating on the problems of its back-end since the USA stopped the acceptance of spent research reactor fuel on December 31, 1988. Now, since it is apparent that these back-end problem have been solved by AEA`s ability to reprocess and the preparedness of the USA to again accept physically spent research reactor fuel the author is focusing with this paper again on the front-end of the fuel cycle on the question whether there is at all a safe supply of low and high enriched uranium for research reactors in the future.

  17. Integrated design of SIGMA uranium enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivarola, Martin E.; Brasnarof, Daniel O.

    1999-01-01

    In the present work, we describe a preliminary analysis of the design feedbacks in a Uranium Enrichment Plant, using the SIGMA concept. Starting from the result of this analysis, a computer code has been generated, which allows finding the optimal configurations of plants, for a fixed production rate. The computer code developed includes the model of the Thermohydraulic loop of a SIGMA module. The model contains numerical calculations of the main components of the circuit. During the calculations, the main components are dimensioned, for a posterior cost compute. The program also makes an estimation of the enrichment gain of the porous membrane, for each separation stage. Once the dimensions of the main components are known, using the enrichment cascade calculation, the capital and operation costs of the plant could be determined. At this point it is simple to calculate a leveled cost of the Separative Work Unit (SWU). A numerical optimizer is also included in the program. This optimizer finds the optimal cascade configuration, for a given set of design parameters. The whole-integrated program permits to investigate in detail the feedback in the component design. Therefore, the sensibility of the more relevant parameters can be computed, with respect of the economical variables of the plant. (author)

  18. Tellurium Enrichment in Jurassic Coal, Brora, Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Bullock

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mid-Jurassic pyritic coals exposed at the village of Brora, northern Scotland, UK, contain a marked enrichment of tellurium (Te relative to crustal mean, average world coal compositions and British Isles Carboniferous coals. The Te content of Brora coal pyrite is more than one order of magnitude higher than in sampled pyrite of Carboniferous coals. The Te enrichment coincides with selenium (Se and mercury (Hg enrichment in the rims of pyrite, and Se/Te is much lower than in pyrites of Carboniferous coals. Initial pyrite formation is attributed to early burial (syn-diagenesis, with incorporation of Te, Se, Hg and lead (Pb during later pyrite formation. The source of Te may have been a local hydrothermal system which was responsible for alluvial gold (Au in the region, with some Au in Brora headwaters occurring as tellurides. Anomalous Te is not ubiquitous in coal, but may occur locally, and is detectable by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS.

  19. Criticality analysis in uranium enrichment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Tsuyoshi; Kiyose, Ryohei

    1977-01-01

    In a large scale uranium enrichment plant, uranium inventory in cascade rooms is not very large in quantity, but the facilities dealing with the largest quantity of uranium in that process are the UF 6 gas supply system and the blending system for controlling the product concentration. When UF 6 spills out of these systems, the enriched uranium is accumulated, and the danger of criticality accident is feared. If a NaF trap is placed at the forestage of waste gas treatment system, plenty of UF 6 and HF are adsorbed together in the NaF trap. Thus, here is the necessity of checking the safety against criticality. Various assumptions were made to perform the computation surveying the criticality of the system composed of UF 6 and HF adsorbed on NaF traps with WIMS code (transport analysis). The minimum critical radius resulted in about 53 cm in case of 3.5% enriched fuel for light water reactors. The optimum volume ratio of fissile material in the double salt UF 6 .2NaF and NaF.HF is about 40 vol. %. While, criticality survey computation was also made for the annular NaF trap having the central cooling tube, and it was found that the effect of cooling tube radius did not decrease the multiplication factor up to the cooling tube radius of about 5 cm. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. Update on international uranium and enrichment supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Commercial nuclear power generation came upon us in the late 1950s and should have been relatively uneventful due to its similarities to fossil-powered electrical generation. Procurement of nuclear fuel appears to have been treated totally different from the procurement of fossil fuel, however, and only recently have these practices started to change. The degree of utility reliance on US-mined uranium and US Dept. of Energy (DOE)-produced enrichment services has changed since the 1970s as federal government uncertainty, international fuel market opportunity, and public service commission scrutiny has increased. Accordingly, the uranium and enrichment market has recognized that it is international just like the fossil fuel market. There is now oversupply-driven competition in the international nuclear fuel market. Competition is increasing daily, as third-world countries develop their own nuclear resources. American utilities are now diversifying their fuel supply arrangements, as they do with their oil, coal, and gas supply. The degree of foreign fuel arrangements depends on each utility's risk posture and commitment to long-term contracts. In an era of rising capital, retrofit, operating, and maintenance costs, economical nuclear fuel supply is even more important. This economic advantage, however, may be nullified by congressional and judicial actions limiting uranium importation and access to foreign enrichment. Such artificial trade barriers will only defeat US nuclear generation and the US nuclear fuel industry in the long term

  1. DOE and the United States enrichment market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, E.E.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have exerted a predominant influence in the uranium enrichment services industry since 1969, when it began to sell its services to private industry under a Requirement-Type Contract (RTC). After almost 25 years of providing these services to utilities throughout the world, DOE is now preparing to hand over responsibility to the emerging US Enrichment Corporation (USEC), which was created by the 1992 Energy Bill and will begin its tenure on July 1, 1993. DOE has had some notable successes, including revenue generation of about $25 billion from its domestic and foreign sales since 1969. Annual revenues from civilian dollars over the next several years. However, most of the sales attributed to these revenues took place in 1986-more than six years ago. Presently, US utility commitments are decreasing significantly; to date, US utilities have committed less than two percent of their total FY2002 enrichment requirements to DOE. In spite of the fact that DOE has enjoyed some success, its past actions, or sometimes inactions, have often been steeped in controversy that resulted in customer alienation and dissatisfaction. It is the legacy of past DOE contracting practices, increased competition, and massive contractual terminations, that USEC will inherit from DOE. Therefore, it is relevant to consider the major issues that have fashioned the current US market and resulted in USEC's initial position in the marketplace

  2. URENCO. Uranium enrichment with advanced technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    URENCO Deutschland is a subsidiary of URENCO Enrichment Company Limited, an international enterprise founded in 1970 in the State Treaty of Almelo, which offers uranium enrichment for nuclear power plants all over the world with the use of advanced technology. URENCO facilities at present are operated in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, USA, and in Germany. The German URENCO location is Gronau, Westphalia, where cascades have been in operation since 1985 using centrifuge technology to enrich nuclear fuel to up to 5% uranium-235. The URENCO Group supplies nuclear power plants in Europe and overseas countries with a world market share, at present, of more than 25% with a rising tendency. The first uranium separation plant in Gronau (UTA-1) attained its full separation performance of 1,800 t USW/a in late 2005. In February 2005, construction and operation of another plant had been licensed, which can raise the aggregate capacity on site to 4,500 t USW per annum. Construction of the new plant (UTA-2) was begun in summer 2005. UTA-2 will use the latest, most powerful URENCO centrifuge. URENCO has more than 3,500 visitors a year at its German location alone, thus demonstrating its pro-active information policy and offering to the public a maximum of opportunities to acquire information by attending presentations and tours of the plant. (orig.)

  3. Technical status study of heavy water enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukarsono; Imam Dahroni; Didik Herhady

    2007-01-01

    Technical status study of heavy water enrichment in Indonesia and also in the world has been done. Heavy water enrichment processes have been investigated were water distillation, hydrogen distillation, laser enrichment, electrolysis and isotop exchange. For the isotop exchange, the chemical pair can be used were water-hydrogen sulphite, ammonium-hydrogen, aminomethane-hydrogen, and water-hydrogen. For the isotope exchange, there was carried out by mono thermal or bi thermal. The highest producer of heavy water is Canada, and the other producer is USA, Norwegian and India. The processes be used in the world are isotope exchange Girdler Sulphide (GS), distillation and electrolysis. Research of heavy water carried out in Batan Yogyakarta, has a purpose to know the characteristic of heavy water purification. Several apparatus which has erected were 3 distillation column: Pyrex glass of 2 m tall, stainless steel column of 3 m tall and steel of 6 m tall. Electrolysis apparatus is 50 cell electrolysis and an isotope exchange unit which has catalyst: Ni- Cr 2 O 3 and Pt-Carbon. These apparatus were not ready to operate. (author)

  4. Supply of enriched uranium for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    1997-01-01

    Since the RERTR-meeting In Newport/USA in 1990 the author delivered a series of papers in connection with the fuel cycle for research reactors dealing with its front-end. In these papers the author underlined the need for unified specifications for enriched uranium metal suitable for the production of fuel elements and made proposals with regard to the re-use of in Europe reprocessed highly enriched uranium. With regard to the fuel cycle of research reactors the research reactor community was since 1989 more concentrating on the problems of its back-end since the USA stopped the acceptance of spent research reactor fuel on December 31, 1988. Now, since it is apparent that these back-end problem have been solved by AEA's ability to reprocess and the preparedness of the USA to again accept physically spent research reactor fuel the author is focusing with this paper again on the front-end of the fuel cycle on the question whether there is at all a safe supply of low and high enriched uranium for research reactors in the future

  5. Comments on Smith Barney's uranium enrichment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1990-07-01

    In a May 1990 report, Smith Barney, Harris Upham and Co. concluded that DOE's uranium enrichment program should be restructured as a government corporation; all past costs have been recovered, and DOE's customers have been overcharged about $1.2 billion; the government should retain responsibility for environment and decommissioning costs associated with enriched uranium production before the corporation's formation; and at some future time the corporation could be sold to the private sector. This report agrees with Smith Barney's recommendation to restructure the enrichment program as a government corporation, but disagrees that DOE's customers have paid for all past costs. According to the author, Smith Barney did not identify the total environmental or decommissioning costs between the government and the corporation. Since these costs are largely undefined, but could amount to billions, Congress should immediately require the program to begin setting aside funds for these costs. DOE estimates that government purchases are responsible for 50 percent of the decommissioning costs; therefore, the government should share these costs by matching the corporation's fund contributions. This requirement should continue until the existing plants have been decommissioned

  6. R and D on laser uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    An AEC Advisory Committee on Uranium Enrichment has completed investigations into the actual condition of laser isotope separation. The working group set up for the purpose has issued a report on the series of investigations made on its development and measures for promoting it. The report says that the development of the process in Japan is at a fundamental stage. Noting that further efforts are needed before its future can be predicted, the report proposes a cource of research and development for the immediate future. For the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), government organizations are engaged in data base buildup and conducting basis engineering tests, and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute will consider the re-enrichment of uranium recovered from reprocessing. Non-governmental unions of researchers will promote the combination of copper-vapor laser and dye laser. For the molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS), the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research will take up studies with the cooperation of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. In chapters covering the philosophy of laser uranium enrichment technology development, the report deals with its significance, actual conditions and tasks, and goals and measures for its promotion. (Nogami, K.)

  7. NAA analysis of enriched Zn-68 by

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii, H.; Mirzaei, M.; Mirzajani, N.; Sardari, D.; Shahabi, I.; Majedi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Excessive application of enriched isotopes in various fields of sciences and industry necessitates measuring their abundant by a precise and rapid methos. Beside the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, the thermal neutron activation analysis, NAA, is an alternative method, which is capable to determine trace amounts of elements as well as the elemental abundance. In this article the enrichment of Zn-68 in two different samples has been studied by mean of NAA. One sample was separated by an electromagnetic system in our center and the other was purchased from a French company, Cortecnet. The neutron irradiation was took place in MNSR reactor by flux 10 1 1n/cm 2 sec. for 30 min. and the produced radioactivity from Zn-69 m was measured one day after irradiation by HPGe detector. The results shows a good agreement with the reported ones and its low derivation of about ±3.05 indicates that the NAA is a precise, rapid, and supplemental method for analyzing enriched Zn-68

  8. The effects of auditory enrichment on gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lindsey; Margulis, Susan W

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that auditory enrichment can reduce stereotypic behaviors in captive animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of three different types of auditory enrichment-naturalistic sounds, classical music, and rock music-in reducing stereotypic behavior displayed by Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Three gorillas (one adult male, two adult females) were observed at the Buffalo Zoo for a total of 24 hr per music trial. A control observation period, during which no sounds were presented, was also included. Each music trial consisted of a total of three weeks with a 1-week control period in between each music type. The results reveal a decrease in stereotypic behaviors from the control period to naturalistic sounds. The naturalistic sounds also affected patterns of several other behaviors including locomotion. In contrast, stereotypy increased in the presence of classical and rock music. These results suggest that auditory enrichment, which is not commonly used in zoos in a systematic way, can be easily utilized by keepers to help decrease stereotypic behavior, but the nature of the stimulus, as well as the differential responses of individual animals, need to be considered. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Nanomaterial-Enabled Wearable Sensors for Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shanshan; Swetha, Puchakayala; Zhu, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Highly sensitive wearable sensors that can be conformably attached to human skin or integrated with textiles to monitor the physiological parameters of human body or the surrounding environment have garnered tremendous interest. Owing to the large surface area and outstanding material properties, nanomaterials are promising building blocks for wearable sensors. Recent advances in the nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors including temperature, electrophysiological, strain, tactile, electrochemical, and environmental sensors are presented in this review. Integration of multiple sensors for multimodal sensing and integration with other components into wearable systems are summarized. Representative applications of nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors for healthcare, including continuous health monitoring, daily and sports activity tracking, and multifunctional electronic skin are highlighted. Finally, challenges, opportunities, and future perspectives in the field of nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors are discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The ENABLER - Based on proven NERVA technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, J.M.; Pierce, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    The ENABLER reactor for use in a nuclear thermal propulsion engine uses the technology developed in the NERVA/Rover program, updated to incorporate advances in the technology. Using composite fuel, higher power densities per fuel element, improved radiation resistant control components and the advancements in use of carbon-carbon materials; the ENABLER can provide a specific impulse of 925 seconds, an engine thrust to weight (excluding reactor shield) approaching five, an improved initial mass in low Earth orbit and a consequent reduction in launch costs and logistics problems. This paper describes the 75,000 lbs thrust ENABLER design which is a low cost, low risk approach to meeting tommorrow's space propulsion needs

  11. The ENABLER - Based on proven NERVA technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Julie M.; Pierce, Bill L.

    The ENABLER reactor for use in a nuclear thermal propulsion engine uses the technology developed in the NERVA/Rover program, updated to incorporate advances in the technology. Using composite fuel, higher power densities per fuel element, improved radiation resistant control components and the advancements in use of carbon-carbon materials; the ENABLER can provide a specific impulse of 925 seconds, an engine thrust to weight (excluding reactor shield) approaching five, an improved initial mass in low Earth orbit and a consequent reduction in launch costs and logistics problems. This paper describes the 75,000 lbs thrust ENABLER design which is a low cost, low risk approach to meeting tommorrow's space propulsion needs.

  12. The supply of the European community countries with enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    A discussion is given of a survey regarding the supply of enriched uranium to the countries of the European Community. Costs of enriched uranium imports were not available but import values were calculated using world market prices. (R.L.)

  13. Civilian inventories of plutonium and highly enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.

    1987-01-01

    In the future, commercial laser isotope enrichment technologies, currently under development, could make it easier for national to produce highly enriched uranium secretly. The head of a US firm that is developing a laser enrichment process predicts that in twenty years, major utilities and small countries will have relatively small, on-site, laser-based uranium enrichment facilities. Although these plants will be designed for the production of low enriched uranium, they could be modified to produce highly enriched uranium, an option that raises the possibility of countries producing highly enriched uranium in small, easily hidden facilities. Against this background, most of this report describes the current and future quantities of plutonium and highly enriched uranium in the world, their forms, the facilities in which they are produced, stored, and used, and the extent to which they are transported. 5 figures, 10 tables

  14. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony Wayne Dr., Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing, E-mail: hanqing.jiang@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Yu, Hongyu, E-mail: hongyu.yu@asu.edu [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  15. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing; Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong; Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing; Yu, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics

  16. Enabling Routes as Context in Mobile Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brilingaite, Agne; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Zokaite, Nora

    2004-01-01

    With the continuing advances in wireless communications, geo-positioning, and portable electronics, an infrastructure is emerging that enables the delivery of on-line, location-enabled services to very large numbers of mobile users. A typical usage situation for mobile services is one characterized...... by a small screen and no keyboard, and by the service being only a secondary focus of the user. It is therefore particularly important to deliver the "right" information and service at the right time, with as little user interaction as possible. This may be achieved by making services context aware.Mobile...

  17. Efficiency of tritium measurement in the environmental water by electrolysis enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koganezawa, T.; Iida, T. [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Sakuma, Y.; Yamanishi, H. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Ogata, Y. [Nagoya Univ., School of Health Sciences, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Tsuji, N. [Japan Air-conditioning Service Co. and Ltd., Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Kakiuchi, M. [Gakushuin Univ., Faculty of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Satake, H. [Toyama Univ., Faculty of Science, Toyama (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Now tritium concentration in the environmental water is 0.5-2 Bq{center_dot}L{sup -1} in Japan. Tritium concentration cannot be measured accurately by liquid scintillation method, because the minimum detectable limits of liquid scintillation method is 0.5 Bq{center_dot}L{sup -1}. Therefore, one needs to enrich tritium concentration in the environmental water. Although the most popular method for tritium enrichment is electrolysis, the electrolysis takes much time and labor for distilling sample water at before and after the electrolysis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of more convenient method for tritium measurement. The method substitutes filtration for distillation at before electrolysis and omits distillation at after electrolysis. The method enables by using the electrolysis with solid polymer electrode. We performed two kinds of experiment to confirm the possibility of the method. First, impurities eluted from electrolysis installation with ultra pure water as sample was measured. Some impurities were eluted into the sample, but they brought noneffective quenching. Secondly, we applied new method to the environmental waters. Substituting for distillation, two filtration, 0.1 {mu}m filtration and reverse osmosis method, were investigated. Impurities in the samples by the filtrations were somewhat higher than that by the distillation, they brought noneffective quenching. We, however, observed distemper of the electrolysis happened by electrolysing filtered sample. Distillation is substituted filtration at before enrichment and omitted at after enrichment, leaving the influence of quenching out of consideration. (author)

  18. Efficiency of tritium measurement in the environmental water by electrolysis enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koganezawa, T.; Iida, T.; Sakuma, Y.; Yamanishi, H.; Ogata, Y.; Tsuji, N.; Kakiuchi, M.; Satake, H.

    2002-01-01

    Now tritium concentration in the environmental water is 0.5-2 Bq·L -1 in Japan. Tritium concentration cannot be measured accurately by liquid scintillation method, because the minimum detectable limits of liquid scintillation method is 0.5 Bq·L -1 . Therefore, one needs to enrich tritium concentration in the environmental water. Although the most popular method for tritium enrichment is electrolysis, the electrolysis takes much time and labor for distilling sample water at before and after the electrolysis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of more convenient method for tritium measurement. The method substitutes filtration for distillation at before electrolysis and omits distillation at after electrolysis. The method enables by using the electrolysis with solid polymer electrode. We performed two kinds of experiment to confirm the possibility of the method. First, impurities eluted from electrolysis installation with ultra pure water as sample was measured. Some impurities were eluted into the sample, but they brought noneffective quenching. Secondly, we applied new method to the environmental waters. Substituting for distillation, two filtration, 0.1 μm filtration and reverse osmosis method, were investigated. Impurities in the samples by the filtrations were somewhat higher than that by the distillation, they brought noneffective quenching. We, however, observed distemper of the electrolysis happened by electrolysing filtered sample. Distillation is substituted filtration at before enrichment and omitted at after enrichment, leaving the influence of quenching out of consideration. (author)

  19. Study on Characteristics of Co-firing Ammonia/Methane Fuels under Oxygen Enriched Combustion Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hua; Wang, Zhaolin; Valera-Medina, Agustin; Bowen, Philip J.

    2018-06-01

    Having a background of utilising ammonia as an alternative fuel for power generation, exploring the feasibility of co-firing ammonia with methane is proposed to use ammonia to substitute conventional natural gas. However, improvement of the combustion of such fuels can be achieved using conditions that enable an increase of oxygenation, thus fomenting the combustion process of a slower reactive molecule as ammonia. Therefore, the present study looks at oxygen enriched combustion technologies, a proposed concept to improve the performance of ammonia/methane combustion. To investigate the characteristics of ammonia/methane combustion under oxygen enriched conditions, adiabatic burning velocity and burner stabilized laminar flame emissions were studied. Simulation results show that the oxygen enriched method can help to significantly enhance the propagation of ammonia/methane combustion without changing the emission level, which would be quite promising for the design of systems using this fuel for practical applications. Furthermore, to produce low computational-cost flame chemistry for detailed numerical analyses for future combustion studies, three reduced combustion mechanisms of the well-known Konnov's mechanism were compared in ammonia/methane flame simulations under practical gas turbine combustor conditions. Results show that the reduced reaction mechanisms can provide good results for further analyses of oxygen enriched combustion of ammonia/methane. The results obtained in this study also allow gas turbine designers and modellers to choose the most suitable mechanism for further combustion studies and development.

  20. Fast Enrichment Screening for Safeguards Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, A.; McElhaney, S.

    2010-01-01

    Methods for rapid non-destructive uranium enrichment classification of large containers are of importance to safeguards and counter-terrorism agencies. There is a need to quickly categorize and segregate suspect items as 'depleted' or 'enriched' on a 'Go/No Go' basis. Recent improvements in gamma spectroscopy technologies have provided the capability to perform rapid field analysis using portable and hand-held devices such as battery-operated medium and high resolution detectors (including lanthanum halide and high purity germanium). Furthermore a new generation of portal monitors are currently under development with advanced spectroscopic capabilities. Instruments and technologies that were previously the domain of complex lab systems are now widely available as touch-screen 'off-the-shelf' units. Despite such advances, the task of enrichment analysis remains a complex exercise. This is particularly so when surveying large items such as drums and crates containing debris of unknown density and composition contaminated with uranium. The challenge is equally applicable to safeguards inspectors evaluating large items and for interdiction of illicit special nuclear materials in mass transport e.g. shipping containers at ports and borders. The variable shielding, container size, lack of matrix knowledge, wall thickness and self-shielding compound this problem. Performing an accurate assessment within the short count time window demanded of the field operative, leads to the need for a reliable method that can adapt to such conditions and is robust to a wide dynamic range of counting statistics. Several methods are evaluated with reference to the performance metrics defined in applicable standards. The primary issue is to minimize the bias that can result from attenuation effects, particularly as the gamma emissions from U235 are low energy and therefore highly susceptible to absorption in large containers with metal scrap. Use of other radiometric signatures such as

  1. A Resolution of the Paradox of Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z. C.; Li, Y. Charles

    2015-06-01

    The paradox of enrichment was observed by Rosenzweig [1971] in a class of predator-prey models. Two of the parameters in the models are crucial for the paradox. These two parameters are the prey's carrying capacity and prey's half-saturation for predation. Intuitively, increasing the carrying capacity due to enrichment of the prey's environment should lead to a more stable predator-prey system. Analytically, it turns out that increasing the carrying capacity always leads to an unstable predator-prey system that is susceptible to extinction from environmental random perturbations. This is the so-called paradox of enrichment. Our resolution here rests upon a closer investigation on a dimensionless number H formed from the carrying capacity and the prey's half-saturation. By recasting the models into dimensionless forms, the models are in fact governed by a few dimensionless numbers including H. The effects of the two parameters: carrying capacity and half-saturation are incorporated into the number H. In fact, increasing the carrying capacity is equivalent (i.e. has the same effect on H) to decreasing the half-saturation which implies more aggressive predation. Since there is no paradox between more aggressive predation and instability of the predator-prey system, the paradox of enrichment is resolved. The so-called instability of the predator-prey system is characterized by the existence of a stable limit cycle in the phase plane, which gets closer and closer to the predator axis and prey axis. Due to random environmental perturbations, this can lead to extinction. We also further explore spatially dependent models for which the phase space is infinite-dimensional. The spatially independent limit cycle which is generated by a Hopf bifurcation from an unstable steady state, is linearly stable in the infinite-dimensional phase space. Numerical simulations indicate that the basin of attraction of the limit cycle is riddled. This shows that spatial perturbations can

  2. Competing for the non-US enrichment markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The article discusses three basic steps: first, the historical perspectives; second, where the enrichment industry and the non-US markets for enrichment stand today (the present situation); and third, the likely future developments, which, for practical purposes, are dealt with in two parts: the non-US enrichment markets in the 1980s; and the non-US enrichment markets beyond the 1980s;

  3. Method and apparatus for enrichment or upgrading heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.P.; Hammerli, M.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for upgrading and final enrichment of heavy water are described, comprising means for contacting partially enriched heavy water feed in a catalyst column with hydrogen gas (essentially D 2 ) originating in an electrolysis cell so as to enrich the feed water with deuterium extracted from the electrolytic hydrogen gas and means for passing the deuterium enriched water to the electrolysis cell. (author)

  4. Automated Planning Enables Complex Protocols on Liquid-Handling Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Ellis; Rudolf, Fabian; Kaltenbach, Hans-Michael; Stelling, Jörg

    2018-03-16

    Robotic automation in synthetic biology is especially relevant for liquid handling to facilitate complex experiments. However, research tasks that are not highly standardized are still rarely automated in practice. Two main reasons for this are the substantial investments required to translate molecular biological protocols into robot programs, and the fact that the resulting programs are often too specific to be easily reused and shared. Recent developments of standardized protocols and dedicated programming languages for liquid-handling operations addressed some aspects of ease-of-use and portability of protocols. However, either they focus on simplicity, at the expense of enabling complex protocols, or they entail detailed programming, with corresponding skills and efforts required from the users. To reconcile these trade-offs, we developed Roboliq, a software system that uses artificial intelligence (AI) methods to integrate (i) generic formal, yet intuitive, protocol descriptions, (ii) complete, but usually hidden, programming capabilities, and (iii) user-system interactions to automatically generate executable, optimized robot programs. Roboliq also enables high-level specifications of complex tasks with conditional execution. To demonstrate the system's benefits for experiments that are difficult to perform manually because of their complexity, duration, or time-critical nature, we present three proof-of-principle applications for the reproducible, quantitative characterization of GFP variants.

  5. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly...

  6. A theory of surface enrichment in ordered alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santen, van R.A.; Sachtler, W.M.H.

    1974-01-01

    A simple theory was developed to explain exptl. data on surface enrichment in Pt3Sn. The computed surface enrichment is in accord with exptl. findings. The theory predicts that in the Pt3Sn system enrichment occurs by interchange of atoms of the element with the lower heat of sublimation from the

  7. Enrichment of sub-milligram size carbon samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kitagawa, H; vanderPlicht, J

    We have developed a carbon isotope enrichment system for use in conjunction with the Groningen Accelerator Mass Spectrometer. Using thermal diffusion of CO, we obtained an enrichment factor of about 3 for C-13 for half-gram carbon in 5 days. This means we expect for C-14 an enrichment factor of 6,

  8. 75 FR 21680 - GE-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Global Laser Enrichment LLC; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Pursuant to delegation by... over the following proceeding: GE-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC (GLE Commercial Facility) This... application of GE-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC for a license to possess and use source, byproduct, and...

  9. Long term assurance of supply of uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    After elaborating a number of key questions on uranium enrichment, the representatives of 10 countries and of the EC commission present their answers. Attention is paid to the assurance of uranium supply, to uranium enrichment, market trends and flexibility in enrichment agreements

  10. Some exercises in quantitative NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, C.J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The articles represented in this thesis result from a series of investigations that evaluate the potential of NMR imaging as a quantitative research tool. In the first article the possible use of proton spin-lattice relaxation time T 1 in tissue characterization, tumor recognition and monitoring tissue response to radiotherapy is explored. The next article addresses the question whether water proton spin-lattice relaxation curves of biological tissues are adequately described by a single time constant T 1 , and analyzes the implications of multi-exponentiality for quantitative NMR imaging. In the third article the use of NMR imaging as a quantitative research tool is discussed on the basis of phantom experiments. The fourth article describes a method which enables unambiguous retrieval of sign information in a set of magnetic resonance images of the inversion recovery type. The next article shows how this method can be adapted to allow accurate calculation of T 1 pictures on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The sixth article, finally, describes a simulation procedure which enables a straightforward determination of NMR imaging pulse sequence parameters for optimal tissue contrast. (orig.)

  11. [Methods of quantitative proteomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylov, A T; Zgoda, V G

    2007-01-01

    In modern science proteomic analysis is inseparable from other fields of systemic biology. Possessing huge resources quantitative proteomics operates colossal information on molecular mechanisms of life. Advances in proteomics help researchers to solve complex problems of cell signaling, posttranslational modification, structure and functional homology of proteins, molecular diagnostics etc. More than 40 various methods have been developed in proteomics for quantitative analysis of proteins. Although each method is unique and has certain advantages and disadvantages all these use various isotope labels (tags). In this review we will consider the most popular and effective methods employing both chemical modifications of proteins and also metabolic and enzymatic methods of isotope labeling.

  12. Nanotechnologv Enabled Biological and Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica; Meyyappan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an enabling technology that will impact almost all economic sectors: one of the most important and with great potential is the health/medical sector. - Nanomaterials for drug delivery - Early warning sensors - Implantable devices - Artificial parts with improved characteristics Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers show promise for use in sensor development, electrodes and other biomedical applications.

  13. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  14. Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business Environment in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The prospect of indefinite Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, and their extreme dependence on foreign assistance and Israeli-controlled customs revenues, had led to the conclusion that the Palestinian ...

  15. Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business Environment in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The prospect of indefinite Israeli occupation of the ... Impact of implementing the Palestinian banking law on the performance of the private sector [Arabic language]. Documents. Impact of the commercial agents law ...

  16. Enabling DRM-preserving Digital content Redistribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan Nair, S.; Popescu, B.C.; Gamage, C.D.; Crispo, B.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, the process of online digital content distribution has involved a limited number of centralised distributors selling protected contents and licenses authorising the use of the se contents, to consumers. In this paper, we extend this model by introducing a security scheme that enables

  17. Enablements and constraints to school leadership practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are many schools in developing countries which, despite the challenges they face, defy the odds and continue to perform at exceptionally high levels. We cast our gaze on one of these resilient schools in South Africa, and sought to learn about the leadership practices prevalent in this school and the enablements and ...

  18. Sustainable Venture Capital Investments: An Enabler Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Antarciuc

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Investing in sustainable projects can help tackle the current sustainability challenges. Venture capital investments can contribute significantly to the growth of sustainable start-ups. Sustainable venture capital (SVC research is just emerging. This paper identifies enablers for sustainable venture capital investments in Saudi Arabia taking into account different stakeholders and firm’s tangible and intangible resources. Using perspectives from venture capital experts in Saudi Arabia and the grey-based Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL method, this study pinpoints the most critical enablers and investigates their causal and effect interconnections. The methodological process consists of reviewing the SVC literature and consulting the experts to identify the SVC enablers, creating a questionnaire, acquiring the answers from four experts, analyzing the data with grey-based DEMATEL and performing a sensitivity analysis. The government use of international standards, policies and regulations for sustainable investments, the commitment of the venture capitalists to sustainability and their deep understanding of sustainable business models are the most influential enablers. The paper concludes with implications for different actors, limitations and prospective directions for the sustainable venture capital research.

  19. 75 FR 13235 - IP-Enabled Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 63 [WC Docket No. 04-36; FCC 09-40] IP-Enabled Services AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission ACTION: Final rule; announcement of effective date... Internet Protocol (VoIP) service the discontinuance obligations that apply to domestic non-dominant...

  20. Extreme Networks' 10-Gigabit Ethernet enables

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    " Extreme Networks, Inc.'s 10-Gigabit switching platform enabled researchers to transfer one Terabyte of information from Vancouver to Geneva across a single network hop, the world's first large-scale, end-to-end transfer of its kind" (1/2 page).

  1. Supply of low enriched (LEU) and highly enriched uranium (HEU) for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    1997-01-01

    Enriched uranium for research reactors in the form of LEU /= low enriched uranium at 19.75% U-235) and HEU (= highly enriched uranium at 90 to 93% U-235) was and is - due to its high U-235 enrichment - a political fuel other than enriched uranium for power reactors. The sufficient availability of LEU and HEU is a vital question for research reactors, especially in Europe, in order to perform their peaceful research reactor programs. In the past the USA were in the Western hemisphere sole supplier of LEU and HEU. Today the USA have de facto stopped the supply of LEU and HEU, for HEU mainly due to political reasons. This paper deals, among others, with the present availability of LEU and HEU for European research reactors and touches the following topics: - historical US supplies, - influence of the RERTR-program, - characteristics of LEU and HEU, - military HEU enters the civil market, -what is the supply situation for LEU and HEU today? - outlook for safe supplies of LEU and HEU. (author)

  2. Quantitative Decision Support Requires Quantitative User Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    Is it conceivable that models run on 2007 computer hardware could provide robust and credible probabilistic information for decision support and user guidance at the ZIP code level for sub-daily meteorological events in 2060? In 2090? Retrospectively, how informative would output from today’s models have proven in 2003? or the 1930’s? Consultancies in the United Kingdom, including the Met Office, are offering services to “future-proof” their customers from climate change. How is a US or European based user or policy maker to determine the extent to which exciting new Bayesian methods are relevant here? or when a commercial supplier is vastly overselling the insights of today’s climate science? How are policy makers and academic economists to make the closely related decisions facing them? How can we communicate deep uncertainty in the future at small length-scales without undermining the firm foundation established by climate science regarding global trends? Three distinct aspects of the communication of the uses of climate model output targeting users and policy makers, as well as other specialist adaptation scientists, are discussed. First, a brief scientific evaluation of the length and time scales at which climate model output is likely to become uninformative is provided, including a note on the applicability the latest Bayesian methodology to current state-of-the-art general circulation models output. Second, a critical evaluation of the language often employed in communication of climate model output, a language which accurately states that models are “better”, have “improved” and now “include” and “simulate” relevant meteorological processed, without clearly identifying where the current information is thought to be uninformative and misleads, both for the current climate and as a function of the state of the (each) climate simulation. And thirdly, a general approach for evaluating the relevance of quantitative climate model output

  3. Volatile behaviour of enrichment uranium in the total nuclear fuel price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaiz, J.; Inchausti, J. M.; Tarin, F.

    2004-01-01

    In this article the historical high volatile behaviour of the total nuclear fuel price is evaluated quantitatively and it is concluded that it has been due mainly to the fluctuations of the price of the principal components of enriched uranium (concentrates and enrichment). In order to avoid the negative effects of this volatiles behaviour as far as possible, a basic strategy in the uranium procurement activities is recommended (union of buyers, diversification of supplier, stock management, optimisation of contract portfolio and suitable currency management that guarantees a reliable uranium supply at reasonable prices. These guidelines are those that ENUSA has been following on behalf of the Spanish Utilities in the Commission of Uranium Procurement (CAU in Spanish). (Author) 11 refs

  4. Development of IAEA safeguards at low enrichment uranium fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, I.

    1988-01-01

    In this report the nuclear material at low enrichment uranium fuel fabrication plants under IAEA safeguards is studied. The current verification practices of the nuclear material and future improvements are also considered. The problems met during the implementation of the the verification measures of the nuclear material - particularly for the fuel assemblies are discussed. The additional verification activities as proposed for future improvements are also discussed including the physical inventory verification and the verification of receipts and shipments. It is concluded that the future development of the present IAEA verification practices at low enrichment uranium fuel fabrication plants would necessitate the application of quantitative measures of the nuclear material and the implementation of advanced measurement techniques and instruments. 2 fig., 4 tab

  5. 77 FR 13367 - General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC, Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2009-0157] General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC, Proposed Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment Facility, Wilmington, NC AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed General Electric- Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment, LLC (GLE...

  6. Analysis of organizational options for the uranium enrichment enterprise in relation to asset divesture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrer, B.J.; Hattrup, M.P.; Dase, J.E.; Nicholls, A.K.

    1986-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of the characteristics of some prominent examples of independent government corporations and agencies with respect to the Department of Energy's (DOE) uranium enrichment enterprise. The six examples studied were: the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA); the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); the Synthetic Fuels Corporation (SYNFUELS); the Consolidated Rail Corporation (CONRAIL); the British Telecommunications Corporation (British TELECOM); and the Communications Satellite Organization (COMSAT), in order of decreasing levels of government ownership and control. They range from BPA, which is organized as an agency within DOE, to COMSAT, which is privately owned and free from almost all regulations common to government agencies. Differences in the degree of government involvement in these corporations and in many other characteristics serve to illustrate that there are no accepted standards for defining the characteristics of government corporations. Thus, historical precedent indicates considerable flexibility would be available in the development of enabling legislation to reorganize the enrichment enterprise as a government corporation or independent government agency

  7. Extending Quantitative Easing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes; Fiedler, Salomon; Kooths, Stefan

    The notes in this compilation address the pros and cons associated with the extension of ECB quantitative easing programme of asset purchases. The notes have been requested by the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs as an input for the February 2017 session of the Monetary Dialogue....

  8. Quantitative Moessbauer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of Moessbauer data, as in the measurement of Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ concentration, has not been possible because of the different mean square velocities (x 2 ) of Moessbauer nuclei at chemically different sites. A method is now described which, based on Moessbauer data at several temperatures, permits the comparison of absorption areas at (x 2 )=0. (Auth.)

  9. Measurement of the enrichment of uranium in the pipework of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, T.W.; Lees, E.W.; Close, D.; Nixon, K.V.; Pratt, J.C.; Strittmatter, R.

    1985-01-01

    The US and UK have been separately working on the development of a NDA instrument to determine the enrichment of gaseous UF 6 at low pressures in cascade header pipework in line with the conclusions of the Hexapartite Safeguards Project viz. the instrument is capable of making a ''go/no go'' decision of whether the enrichment is less than/greater than 20%. Recently, there has been a series of very useful technical exchanges of ideas and information between the two countries. This has led to a technical formulation for such an instrumentation based on γ-ray spectrometry which, although plant-specific in certain features, nevertheless is based on the same physical principles. Experimental results from commercially operating enrichment plants are very encouraging and indicate that a complete measurement including set up time on the pipe should be attainable in about 30 minutes when measuring pipes of diameter around 110 mm. 5 refs., 4 figs

  10. Safeguards for reprocessing and enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Agency safeguards are entering a new phase with the coming under active safeguards for the first time of reprocessing plants in several regions of the world. This is taking place at a time when not only the safeguards aspect itself is coming under international scrutiny, but also at a time when the necessity of reprocessing plants is being called into question. Attracting less attention at the moment, but potentially of equal significance, are the enrichment plants that soon will be coming under Agency safeguards. It is not unreasonable in view of the present controversies to ask what is the significance of these reprocessing and enrichment plants, what are the problems concerning safeguards that appear to have given rise to the controversies, and how these problems are to be solved. The question of significance is an easy one to answer. The output of these plants is material which some people consider can be used directly for military purposes, whereas the output from other plants, for instance, reactors, would require long and extensive processing before it could be used for military purposes. Like most short answers, this one is an over-simplification which requires some elaboration to make it strictly accurate. For example, the material output of a power reactor is in the form of irradiate assemblies containing plutonium which is potentially of military use if the irradiation had been within a certain range. However, to utilize this plutonium under clandestine conditions, the highly radioactive material would have to be secretly transported to a reprocessing plant and there would have to be simultaneous falsification of the reactor material accounts and the plant records. Such falsification would be difficult to conceal. The total time required to obtain usable plutonium would be many months. Diversion of material from a uranium fabrication plant making fuel for power reactors would be easier physically but strategically it would be of little value. The

  11. Optimal set of selected uranium enrichments that minimizes blending consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachlas, J.A.; Kurstedt, H.A. Jr.; Lobber, J.S. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Identities, quantities, and costs associated with producing a set of selected enrichments and blending them to provide fuel for existing reactors are investigated using an optimization model constructed with appropriate constraints. Selected enrichments are required for either nuclear reactor fuel standardization or potential uranium enrichment alternatives such as the gas centrifuge. Using a mixed-integer linear program, the model minimizes present worth costs for a 39-product-enrichment reference case. For four ingredients, the marginal blending cost is only 0.18% of the total direct production cost. Natural uranium is not an optimal blending ingredient. Optimal values reappear in most sets of ingredient enrichments

  12. Characterization of highly enriched uranium in a nuclear forensic exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Marcos R.L. do; Quinelato, Antonio L.; Silva, Nivaldo C. da, E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.br [Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Sarkis, Jorge E.S., E-mail: jesarkis@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the characterization of two metal samples of highly enriched uranium as a contribution of Pocos de Caldas Laboratory, LAPOC, a branch of Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy, CNEN, to the Round Robin 3, R R3, coordinated by the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group. A scenario was constructed in which two separate seizures of nuclear material occurred and forensics analysis was requested to help discern whether these incidents were related and whether these incidents exceeded country statutes. Laboratories were instructed to submit assessment reports in 24 hours, one week, and two month time frames. Besides preliminary evaluations for categorization of the material, our laboratory applied high resolution gamma spectrometry, optical emission spectrometry by inductively coupled plasma, and potentiometric titration for quantitative characterization of the samples. Concerning our technical reports answers for the three main forensics questions formulated by R R3, one of them was inconclusive, considering that LAPOC does not yet have all essential equipment for a fully satisfactory forensics nuclear analysis. (author)

  13. Characterization of highly enriched uranium in a nuclear forensic exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Marcos R.L. do; Quinelato, Antonio L.; Silva, Nivaldo C. da; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the characterization of two metal samples of highly enriched uranium as a contribution of Pocos de Caldas Laboratory, LAPOC, a branch of Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy, CNEN, to the Round Robin 3, R R3, coordinated by the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group. A scenario was constructed in which two separate seizures of nuclear material occurred and forensics analysis was requested to help discern whether these incidents were related and whether these incidents exceeded country statutes. Laboratories were instructed to submit assessment reports in 24 hours, one week, and two month time frames. Besides preliminary evaluations for categorization of the material, our laboratory applied high resolution gamma spectrometry, optical emission spectrometry by inductively coupled plasma, and potentiometric titration for quantitative characterization of the samples. Concerning our technical reports answers for the three main forensics questions formulated by R R3, one of them was inconclusive, considering that LAPOC does not yet have all essential equipment for a fully satisfactory forensics nuclear analysis. (author)

  14. Assessing video presentations as environmental enrichment for laboratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Coulon

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of video presentations of natural landscapes on European starlings' (Sturnus vulgaris stereotypic behaviours (SBs and other abnormal repetitive behaviours (ARBs and to evaluate the impact of past experience by comparing wild-caught and hand-reared starlings' reactions. Ten wild-caught and five hand-reared starlings were presented 1-hour videos of landscapes twice a day for five successive days, while a control group of eight wild-caught and four hand-reared starlings was presented a grey screen for the same amount of time. The analysis of the starlings' behaviour revealed that the video presentations of landscapes appeared to have a positive but limited and experience-dependent effect on starlings' SBs and other ARBs compared to the controls. Indeed, whereas video presentations seemed to modulate high rates of SBs and ARBs, they did not appear to be enriching enough to prevent the emergence or the development of SBs and ARBs in an impoverished environment. They even appeared to promote a particular type of SB (somersaulting that is thought to be linked to escape motivation. The fact that this effect was observed in hand-reared starlings suggests that videos of landscapes could elicit motivation to escape even in birds that never experienced outdoor life. These results highlight the importance of investigating stereotypic behaviour both quantitatively and qualitatively in order to provide crucial clues on animal welfare.

  15. Modeling Profiles and Signatures of Enrichments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A.; Qualls, C.; Lucas, S. G.; Lombari, G.; Appenzeller, O.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic and geochemical enrichment of soils and living matter have been well documented 1, 2, 3.Here we report on geochemical, anthropogenic and biological enrichments with heavy metals in Modern Peru and compared this to Modern and ancient data from New Mexico, USA. We established a signature derived from the quantities of 25 metals in various biological, fossil and soil materials. We also speculate that human adaptation to mercury toxicity may occur in remarkably short time spans during the Holocene. We found mercury concentrations in Modern pigeon feathers and llama wool from free foraging birds and animals in Albuquerque, NM, ranging from 0.006 to 0.019 mg/Kg of tissue. The values for Modern Peru ranged from 22.0 to 556 mg/Kg for the same tissues. We discovered, in 64 million-year-old fossilized plants from New Mexico (Paleocene Nacimiento Formation, San Juan Basin), a mercury concentration of 1.11 mg/Kg of fossil, whereas Modern plant material from the Rio Grande Basin in New Mexico contained no mercury. Profiling of metal content of these samples suggests that mercury is a proxy for anthropogenic rather than geochemical enrichment in the localities we examined. We found no overt signs of mercury toxicity in contemporaneous inhabitants of Huancavelica4, Peru; one of the ten most mercury-polluted places in the world and the mercury concentration in their hair is well below modern admissible levels. However, assessment of their annual scalp hair growth-rate showed marked reduction in growth (~ 5cm/yr) versus ~ 16cm/year for normal scalp hair from other continents4. This is consistent with a toxic effect of heavy metals on human metabolism and especially autonomic nervous system function in Huancavelica, Peru. Contemporaneous anthropogenic activities are known to increase heavy metal content in the biosphere with potentially toxic effects on humans. However, signs of human evolutionary adaptation to such toxins might already be evident in Peru4.

  16. Nitrogen enrichment regulates calcium sources in forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynicka, Justin D.; Pett-Ridge, Julie C.; Perakis, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a key nutrient that shapes cycles of other essential elements in forests, including calcium (Ca). When N availability exceeds ecosystem demands, excess N can stimulate Ca leaching and deplete Ca from soils. Over the long term, these processes may alter the proportion of available Ca that is derived from atmospheric deposition vs. bedrock weathering, which has fundamental consequences for ecosystem properties and nutrient supply. We evaluated how landscape variation in soil N, reflecting long-term legacies of biological N fixation, influenced plant and soil Ca availability and ecosystem Ca sources across 22 temperate forests in Oregon. We also examined interactions between soil N and bedrock Ca using soil N gradients on contrasting basaltic vs. sedimentary bedrock that differed 17-fold in underlying Ca content. We found that low-N forests on Ca-rich basaltic bedrock relied strongly on Ca from weathering, but that soil N enrichment depleted readily weatherable mineral Ca and shifted forest reliance toward atmospheric Ca. Forests on Ca-poor sedimentary bedrock relied more consistently on atmospheric Ca across all levels of soil N enrichment. The broad importance of atmospheric Ca was unexpected given active regional uplift and erosion that are thought to rejuvenate weathering supply of soil minerals. Despite different Ca sources to forests on basaltic vs. sedimentary bedrock, we observed consistent declines in plant and soil Ca availability with increasing N, regardless of the Ca content of underlying bedrock. Thus, traditional measures of Ca availability in foliage and soil exchangeable pools may poorly reflect long-term Ca sources that sustain soil fertility. We conclude that long-term soil N enrichment can deplete available Ca and cause forests to rely increasingly on Ca from atmospheric deposition, which may limit ecosystem Ca supply in an increasingly N-rich world.

  17. Cheese bread enriched with biofortified cowpea flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barbosa Monteiro Cavalcante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development and enrichment of food are of great importance not only for the industry but also to improve the population's nutrition, where you can create new products or optimize existing ones. The consumption of fortified products in the diet is an option for the control of deficiency diseases. This study aimed to develop enriched cheese bread with whole biofortified cowpea flour and evaluate their acceptance and chemical composition. Two formulations, F1 and F2, were prepared containing 5.6 and 8% of cowpea flour as a substitute for starch, respectively. To check acceptance, three sensory tests were used (Hedonic Scale, Purchase Intent, and Paired Comparison, F1 being sensory viable according to assessors, being chemically analyzed. Minerals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source. The moisture was determined by drying at 105 °C, ash by calcination in muffle at 550 °C, proteins by the macro-Kjeldahl method, and lipids by hot extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. Carbohydrates were obtained by difference and the calories were calculated. The addition of cowpea increased the amounts of copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, as well as protein and carbohydrate values. On the other hand, there was a reduction of the moisture concerning lipids and the total caloric value compared to the standard formulation. It was concluded , therefore, that the cowpea, a regional raw material in market expansion is presented as an option for the enrichment of baked foods that do not contain gluten, such as cheese bread.

  18. Critical Quantitative Inquiry in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, Frances K.; Wells, Ryan S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter briefly traces the development of the concept of critical quantitative inquiry, provides an expanded conceptualization of the tasks of critical quantitative research, offers theoretical explanation and justification for critical research using quantitative methods, and previews the work of quantitative criticalists presented in this…

  19. Introducing Clicker Training as a Cognitive Enrichment for Laboratory Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, Charlotte; Herrmann, Felix; Thöne-Reineke, Christa; Baumgart, Nadine; Baumgart, Jan

    2017-03-06

    Establishing new refinement strategies in laboratory animal science is a central goal in fulfilling the requirements of Directive 2010/63/EU. Previous research determined a profound impact of gentle handling protocols on the well-being of laboratory mice. By introducing clicker training to the keeping of mice, not only do we promote the amicable treatment of mice, but we also enable them to experience cognitive enrichment. Clicker training is a form of positive reinforcement training using a conditioned secondary reinforcer, the "click" sound of a clicker, which serves as a time bridge between the strengthened behavior and an upcoming reward. The effective implementation of the clicker training protocol with a cohort of 12 BALB/c inbred mice of each sex proved to be uncomplicated. The mice learned rather quickly when challenged with tasks of the clicker training protocol, and almost all trained mice overcame the challenges they were given (100% of female mice and 83% of male mice). This study has identified that clicker training for mice strongly correlates with reduced fear in the mice during human-mice interactions, as shown by reduced anxiety-related behaviors (e.g., defecation, vocalization, and urination) and fewer depression-like behaviors (e.g., floating). By developing a reliable protocol that can be easily integrated into the daily routine of the keeping of laboratory mice, the lifetime experience of welfare in the mice can be improved substantially.

  20. A Geospatial Semantic Enrichment and Query Service for Geotagged Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Andrew; Nugent, Chris; Morrow, Philip; Chen, Liming; Ioannidis, George; Stan, Alexandru; Rachev, Preslav

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing abundance of technologies and smart devices, equipped with a multitude of sensors for sensing the environment around them, information creation and consumption has now become effortless. This, in particular, is the case for photographs with vast amounts being created and shared every day. For example, at the time of this writing, Instagram users upload 70 million photographs a day. Nevertheless, it still remains a challenge to discover the “right” information for the appropriate purpose. This paper describes an approach to create semantic geospatial metadata for photographs, which can facilitate photograph search and discovery. To achieve this we have developed and implemented a semantic geospatial data model by which a photograph can be enrich with geospatial metadata extracted from several geospatial data sources based on the raw low-level geo-metadata from a smartphone photograph. We present the details of our method and implementation for searching and querying the semantic geospatial metadata repository to enable a user or third party system to find the information they are looking for. PMID:26205265