WorldWideScience

Sample records for enoxaparin effective dosage

  1. Enoxaparin, effective dosage for intensive care patients: double-blinded, randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Sian; Zincuk, Aleksander; Strøm, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Intensive care unit (ICU) patients are predisposed to thromboembolism. Routine prophylactic anticoagulation is widely recommended. Low-molecular-weight heparins, such as enoxaparin, are increasingly used because of predictable pharmacokinetics. This study aims to determine...

  2. Dose-dependent neuroprotective effect of enoxaparin on cold-induced traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ilknur; Gunal, M Yalcin; Ayturk, Nilufer; Kilic, Ulkan; Ozansoy, Mehmet; Kilic, Ertugrul

    2017-05-01

    Recent evidence exists that enoxaparin can reduce brain injury because of its anticoagulant activity. To investigate the potential therapeutic effect of enoxaparin on cold-induced traumatic brain injury, at 20 minutes after modeling, male BALB/c mouse models of cold-induced traumatic brain injury were intraperitoneally administered 3 and 10 mg/kg enoxaparin or isotonic saline solution. Twenty-four hours later, enoxaparin at 10 mg/kg greatly reduced infarct volume, decreased cell apoptosis in the cortex and obviously increased serum level of total antioxidant status. By contrast, administration of enoxaparin at 3 mg/kg did not lead to these changes. These findings suggest that enoxaparin exhibits neuroprotective effect on cold-induced traumatic brain injury in a dose-dependent manner.

  3. Effects of aspirin and enoxaparin in a rat model of liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen-Jie; Yang, Zhi-Hui; Shi, Xiao-Liu; Liu, De-Liang

    2017-09-21

    To examine the effects of aspirin and enoxaparin on liver function, coagulation index and histopathology in a rat model of liver fibrosis. METHODS Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the control group (n = 5) and model group (n = 40). Thioacetamide (TAA) was used to induce liver fibrosis in the model group. TAA-induced fibrotic rats received TAA continuously (n = 9), TAA + low-dose aspirin (n = 9), TAA + high-dose aspirin (n = 9) or TAA + enoxaparin (n = 9) for 4 wk. All rats were euthanized after 4 wk, and both hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining were performed to observe pathological changes in liver tissue. Liver fibrosis was assessed according to the METAVIR score. Compared with untreated cirrhotic controls, a significant improvement in fibrosis grade was observed in the low-dose aspirin, high-dose aspirin and enoxaparin treated groups, especially in the high-dose aspirin treated group. Alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin were higher, albumin was lower and both prothrombin time and international normalized ratio were prolonged in the four treatment groups compared to controls. No significant differences among the four groups were observed. Aspirin and enoxaparin can alleviate liver fibrosis in this rat model.

  4. Effect of low molecular weight heparin (enoxaparin) on congenital cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caça, Ihsan; Sahin, Alparslan; Cingü, Abdullah Kürsat; Ari, Seyhmus; Alakuş, Fuat; Cinar, Yasin

    2012-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of intracameral enoxaparin (a low-molecular-weight heparin) infusion, in variable doses on postoperative inflammatory response in congenital cataract surgery. It is a prospective, randomized controlled trial. Eighty eyes of 53 children with congenital cataract were enrolled in this study. Every eye had primary posterior capsulorrhexis and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation after lens aspiration. The eyes were divided into 4 equal groups. In group 1 balanced salt solution (BSS) without enoxaparin was used as an irrigation solution. Whereas in group 2, 3 and 4, 40mg, 20mg and 10mg enoxaparin in 500mL BSS was used respectively. The inflammatory response in the anterior chamber was compared among the groups with slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The mean follow-up period was (17.75±3.95) months in group 1, (18.00±5.15) months in group 2, (19.20±5.47) months in group 3 and (18.65±5.16) months in group 4. Mean number of inflammatory cells in the anterior chamber in group 1 was significantly higher than that of group 2, 3, 4 (P0.05). There were IOL precipitates in 4 eyes of group 1 and 2 eyes of group 4. IOL precipitate formation was significantly higher in group 1 than that of group 2 and 3 in which there was no IOL precipitate (P=0.048). There was IOL subluxation in only one eye of group 1, 3 and 4 while no subluxation was observed in group 2 (P>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference detected about IOL subluxation occurance in all 4 groups (P>0.05). Complications of cataract surgery in congenital cataract patients associated with postoperative inflammatory response found to be decreased with the use of enoxaparin in intraocular infusion solutions. Furthermore according to our results the anti-inflammatory effect of enoxaparin was dose dependant.

  5. Effects of enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin in prophylactic and therapeutic doses on the fertility of female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiró-Filho, Ernesto Antonio; Aydos, Ricardo Dutra; Senefonte, Flávio Renato de Almeida; Ferreira, Cristiane Munaretto; Pereira, Erica Freire de Vasconcelos; Oliveira, Vanessa Marcon de; Menezes, Giovanna Pádoa de; Bósio, Marco Antonio Costa

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of exposure of enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin (UFH) in prophylactic and therapeutic doses on the fertility rates of pregnant healthy Wistar rats. Enoxaparin and UFH were administered in prophylactic doses 1 mg/Kg/day 72 UI/Kg/day, and in therapeutic doses at 2 mg/kg/day 400UI/Kg/day. The rats were divided into five groups. The number of live and dead foetuses was quantified. The uterine horns were dissected and the presence of early and late reabsorptions (abortions) was determined. A peffect on fertility with the use of anticoagulant drugs in pregnant healthy Wistar rats.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Fondaparinux vs Enoxaparin in Non-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permsuwan, Unchalee; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Nathisuwan, Surakit; Sukonthasarn, Apichard

    2015-09-01

    Non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) imposes a significant health and economic burden on a society. Anticoagulants are recommended as standard therapy by various clinical practice guidelines. Fondaparinux was introduced and evaluated in a number of large randomised, controlled trials. This study therefore aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of fondaparinux versus enoxaparin in the treatment of NSTE-ACS in Thailand. A two-part construct model comprising a one-year decision tree and a Markov model was developed to capture short and long-term costs and outcomes from the perspective of provider and society. Effectiveness data were derived from OASIS-5 trial while bleeding rates were derived from the Thai Acute Coronary Syndrome Registry (TACSR). Costs data were based on a Thai database and presented in the year of 2013. Both costs and outcomes were discounted by 3% annually. A series of sensitivity analyses were performed. The results showed that compared with enoxaparin, fondaparinux was a cost-saving strategy (lower cost with slightly higher effectiveness). Cost of revascularisation with major bleeding had a greater impact on the amount of cost saved both from societal and provider perspectives. With a threshold of 160,000 THB ((4,857.3 USD) per QALY in Thailand, fondaparinux was about 99% more cost-effective compared with enoxaparin. Fondaparinux should be considered as a cost-effective alternative when compared to enoxaparin for NSTE-ACS based on Thailand's context, especially in the era of limited healthcare resources. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Does prior administration of enoxaparin influence the effects of levobupivacaine on blood clotting? Assessment using the Thrombelastograph.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, S A

    2012-02-03

    The low molecular weight heparin, enoxaparin (by inhibition of factors Xa and IIa) and amide local anaesthetics (by altering platelet function) exert anti-clotting effects. Although these agents are often used in combination during the perioperative period, their potential interactive effect on clotting has not been defined. Blood from 10 ASA I-II patients who received enoxaparin 0.5 mg kg(-1) s.c. was studied using a Thrombelastograph (TEG) either alone or in combination with levobupivacaine (2.5 mg ml(-1) or 2.5 microg ml(-1)) or saline (50% dilution). In blood from patients who had received enoxaparin 0.5 mg kg(-1) s.c. 12 h previously, levobupivacaine 2.5 mg ml(-1) (but not 2.5 microg ml(-1)) produced significant changes in TEG clotting parameters (mean (SD) 15.7 (4.8) mm, 29.6 (25.6) mm, 34.4 (14.6) mm, 34.3 (12.2) degrees compared with control values of 6.1 (1.3) mm, 2.5 (0.5) mm, 63.5 (6.4) mm and 74.1 (2.9) degrees for r, K, MA, and alpha angle respectively).

  8. Enoxaparin injection for the treatment of high-risk patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schmidt-Lucke

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Schmidt-Lucke, Heinz-Peter SchultheissCharité Medical University Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Dept. of Cardiology and Pulmology, GermanyAbstract: Non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS refers to a cardiovascular disorder characterized by intracoronary thrombus formation on a disrupted atherosclerotic plaque with partial or transient occlusion. Generation of thrombin resulting from exposure of collagen leads to activation of platelets and conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, thus forming a platelet-rich thrombus. The main therapeutic objective is to protect the patient from thrombotic complications, independent of the choice of antithrombotic agents. The management of NSTE myocardial infarction (MI is constantly evolving. For primarily conservative strategy, enoxaparin has been proven superior to unfractioned heparin (UFH. With early invasive strategy providing better clinical outcome compared with conservative strategy, the effectiveness of enoxaparin in reducing death and MI rates is now being reconsidered in the era of poly-pharmacotherapy, early percutaneous coronary interventions and drug eluting stents. Bleeding complications can be minimized by avoiding cross-over from UFH to enoxaparin or vice versa, or by reducing the dosage of enoxaparin. We review the studies of enoxaparin and discuss its current role in the contemporary treatment of NSTE-ACS.Keywords: low-molecular weight heparin, NSTEMI, treatment

  9. The effect of a new direct Factor Xa inhibitor on human osteoblasts: an in-vitro study comparing the effect of rivaroxaban with enoxaparin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Solayar, Gandhi N

    2011-10-28

    Abstract Background Current treatments for the prevention of thromboembolism include heparin and low-molecular weight heparins (LMWHs). A number of studies have suggested that long term administration of these drugs may adversely affect osteoblasts and therefore, bone metabolism. Xarelto™ (Rivaroxaban) is a new anti-thrombotic drug for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in adult patients undergoing elective hip and knee replacement surgery. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the possible effects of rivaroxaban on osteoblast viability, function and gene expression compared to enoxaparin, a commonly used LMWH. Methods Primary human osteoblast cultures were treated with varying concentrations of rivaroxaban (0.013, 0.13, 1.3 and 13 μg\\/ml) or enoxaparin (1, 10 and 100 μg\\/ml). The effect of each drug on osteoblast function was evaluated by measuring alkaline phosphatase activity. The MTS assay was used to assess the effect of drug treatments on cell proliferation. Changes in osteocalcin, Runx2 and BMP-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression following drug treatments were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Rivaroxaban and enoxaparin treatment did not adversely affect osteoblast viability. However, both drugs caused a significant reduction in osteoblast function, as measured by alkaline phosphatase activity. This reduction in osteoblast function was associated with a reduction in the mRNA expression of the bone marker, osteocalcin, the transcription factor, Runx2, and the osteogenic factor, BMP-2. Conclusions These data show that rivaroxaban treatment may negatively affect bone through a reduction in osteoblast function.

  10. Apixaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis in medically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Leizorovicz, Alain; Kakkar, Ajay K

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of prolonging prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism in medically ill patients beyond hospital discharge remain uncertain. We hypothesized that extended prophylaxis with apixaban would be safe and more effective than short-term prophylaxis with enoxaparin....

  11. Cost effectiveness of enoxaparin as prophylaxis against venous thromboembolic complications in acutely ill medical inpatients: modelling study from the hospital perspective in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädlich, Peter K; Kentsch, Michael; Weber, Manfred; Kämmerer, Wolfgang; Brecht, Josef Georg; Nadipelli, Vijay; Huppertz, Eduard

    2006-01-01

    To estimate, from the hospital perspective in Germany, the cost effectiveness of the low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) subcutaneous enoxaparin sodium 40 mg once daily (ENOX) relative to no pharmacological prophylaxis (NPP) and relative to subcutaneous unfractionated heparin (UFH) 5,000 IU three times daily (low-dose UFH [LDUFH]). Each is used in addition to elastic bandages/compression stockings and physiotherapy in the prevention of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) in immobilised acutely ill medical inpatients without impaired renal function or extremes of body weight. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of the 'additional cost for ENOX per clinical VTE avoided versus NPP' and 'additional cost for ENOX per episode of major bleeding avoided versus LDUFH' were chosen as target variables. The target variables were quantified using a modelling approach based on the decision-tree technique. Resource use during thromboprophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of VTEs, episode of major bleeding and secondary pneumonia after pulmonary embolism (PE) was collected from a hospital survey. Costs were exclusively those to hospitals incurred by staff expenses, drugs, devices, disposables, laboratory tests and equipment for diagnostic procedures. These costs were determined by multiplying utilised resource items by the price or tariff of each item as of the first quarter of 2003. Safety and efficacy values of the comparators were taken from the MEDENOX (prophylaxis in MEDical patients with ENOXaparin) and the THE-PRINCE (THromboEmbolism-PRevention IN Cardiac or respiratory disease with Enoxaparin) trials and from a meta-analysis. The evaluation encompassed 8 (6-14) days of thromboprophylaxis plus time to treat VTE and episode of major bleeding in hospital. Point estimates of all model parameters were applied exclusively in the base-case analysis. There were incremental costs of euro 1,106 for ENOX per clinical VTE avoided versus NPP (1 euro approximately equals 1

  12. Apixaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after knee replacement (ADVANCE-2): a randomised double-blind trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Michael Rud; Raskob, Gary E; Gallus, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-molecular-weight heparins such as enoxaparin are preferred for prevention of venous thromboembolism after major joint replacement. Apixaban, an orally active factor Xa inhibitor, might be as effective, have lower bleeding risk, and be easier to use than is enoxaparin. We assessed ...

  13. Economic impact of enoxaparin after acute ischemic stroke based on PREVAIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Graham; Lin, Jay; Stern, Lee; Subrahmanian, Tarun; Annemans, Lieven

    2011-04-01

    The efficacy and safety of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) versus unfractionated heparin (UFH) has been demonstrated for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after acute ischemic stroke. Few data exist regarding the economic impact of LMWHs versus UFH in this population. A decision-analytic model was constructed using clinical information from the Prevention of VTE after Acute Ischemic stroke with LMWH Enoxaparin (PREVAIL) study, and drug costs and mean Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services event costs. When considering the total cost of events and drugs, enoxaparin was associated with cost-savings of $895 per patient compared with UFH ($2018 vs $2913). Findings were retained within the univariate and multivariate analyses. From a payer perspective, enoxaparin was cost-effective compared with UFH in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The difference was driven by the lower clinical event rates with enoxaparin. Use of enoxaparin may help to reduce the clinical and economic burden of VTE.

  14. Apixaban or enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Michael Rud; Raskob, Gary E; Gallus, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal strategy for thromboprophylaxis after major joint replacement has not been established. Low-molecular-weight heparins such as enoxaparin predominantly target factor Xa but to some extent also inhibit thrombin. Apixaban, a specific factor Xa inhibitor, may provide effective...... (P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: As compared with enoxaparin for efficacy of thromboprophylaxis after knee replacement, apixaban did not meet the prespecified statistical criteria for noninferiority, but its use was associated with lower rates of clinically relevant bleeding and it had a similar adverse...

  15. Apixaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Michael Rud; Gallus, Alexander; Raskob, Gary E

    2010-01-01

    There are various regimens for thromboprophylaxis after hip replacement. Low-molecular-weight heparins such as enoxaparin predominantly inhibit factor Xa but also inhibit thrombin to some degree. Orally active, specific factor Xa inhibitors such as apixaban may provide effective thromboprophylaxis...

  16. Evaluation of the effect of torsemide on warfarin dosage requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Sophia; Momper, Jeremiah D; Yam, Felix K

    2017-08-01

    Background According to drug interaction databases, torsemide may potentiate the effects of warfarin. Evidence for this drug-drug interaction, however, is conflicting and the clinical significance is unknown. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of torsemide initiation on warfarin dosage requirements. Setting This study was conducted at the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System in San Diego, California. Method A retrospective cohort study was conducted using Veterans Affairs data from patients who were converted from bumetanide to torsemide between March 2014 and July 2014. Patients were also prescribed and taking warfarin during the observation period. Warfarin dosage requirements were evaluated to determine if any changes occurred within the first 3 months of starting torsemide. Main outcome measure The primary outcome was the average weekly warfarin dose before and after torsemide initiation. Results Eighteen patients met study inclusion criteria. The weekly warfarin dose before and after initiation of torsemide was not significantly different (34 ± 15 and 34 ± 13 mg, p > 0.05). Of those eighteen patients, only two experienced elevations in INR that required a decrease in warfarin dosage after torsemide initiation. Between those two patients, dosage reductions ranged from 5.3 to 18%. Conclusion These results indicated that most patients did not require any warfarin dosage adjustments after torsemide was initiated. The potential for interaction, however, still exists. While empiric warfarin dosage adjustments are not recommended when initiating torsemide, increased monitoring is warranted to minimize the risk of adverse effects.

  17. Effect of lead acetate administered orally at different dosage levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The project was conducted to evaluate the effect of lead administered as lead acetate at different dosage levels via drinking water in broiler chicks. Thirty-five healthy chicks were divided into seven groups (five chicks each) and one group was kept as un-medicated control. Groups A, B, C, D, E and F were medicated with ...

  18. A multi-perspective cost-effectiveness analysis comparing rivaroxaban with enoxaparin sodium for thromboprophylaxis after total hip and knee replacement in the German healthcare setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zindel Sonja

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients undergoing major orthopaedic surgery (MOS, such as total hip (THR or total knee replacement (TKR, are at high risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE. For thromboembolism prophylaxis, the oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban has recently been included in the German diagnosis related group (DRG system. However, the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban is still unclear from both the German statutory health insurance (SHI and the German hospital perspective. Objectives To assess the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban from the German statutory health insurance (SHI perspective and to analyse financial incentives from the German hospital perspective. Methods Based on data from the RECORD trials and German cost data, a decision tree was built. The model was run for two settings (THR and TKR and two perspectives (SHI and hospital per setting. Results Prophylaxis with rivaroxaban reduces VTE events (0.02 events per person treated after TKR; 0.007 after THR compared with enoxaparin. From the SHI perspective, prophylaxis with rivaroxaban after TKR is cost saving (€27.3 saving per patient treated. However, the cost-effectiveness after THR (€17.8 cost per person remains unclear because of stochastic uncertainty. From the hospital perspective, for given DRGs, the hospital profit will decrease through the use of rivaroxaban by €20.6 (TKR and €31.8 (THR per case respectively. Conclusions Based on our findings, including rivaroxaban for reimbursement in the German DRG system seems reasonable. Yet, adequate incentives for German hospitals to use rivaroxaban are still lacking.

  19. Orally Administered Enoxaparin Ameliorates Acute Colitis by Reducing Macrophage-Associated Inflammatory Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Ying Lean

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis, cause significant morbidity and decreased quality of life. The currently available treatments are not effective in all patients, can be expensive and have potential to cause severe side effects. This prompts the need for new treatment modalities. Enoxaparin, a widely used antithrombotic agent, is reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties and therefore we evaluated its therapeutic potential in a mouse model of colitis. Acute colitis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS. Mice were treated once daily with enoxaparin via oral or intraperitoneal administration and monitored for colitis activities. On termination (day 8, colons were collected for macroscopic evaluation and cytokine measurement, and processed for histology and immunohistochemistry. Oral but not intraperitoneal administration of enoxaparin significantly ameliorated DSS-induced colitis. Oral enoxaparin-treated mice retained their body weight and displayed less diarrhea and fecal blood loss compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon weight in enoxaparin-treated mice was significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and edema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice showed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and the presence of edema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral enoxaparin. Reduced number of macrophages in the colon of oral enoxaparin-treated mice was accompanied by decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Oral enoxaparin significantly reduces the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis in mice and could therefore represent a novel therapeutic option for the management of ulcerative colitis.

  20. Assessment of anti-factor Xa activity of enoxaparin for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in morbidly obese surgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouf Al Otaib

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Weight-based enoxaparin dose led to the anticipated peak anti-Xa levels (0.2–0.6 IU/mL in most of the morbidly obese study patients undergoing surgery without any evidence of major side effects. The weight-based dosing of enoxaparin was also effective in preventing VTE in all patients. Although these results are promising, further comparative trials are needed in the setting of morbidly obese surgical patients.

  1. Apixaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after knee replacement (ADVANCE-2): a randomised double-blind trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Michael Rud; Raskob, Gary E; Gallus, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    efficacy and safety of these drugs after elective total knee replacement. METHODS: In ADVANCE-2, a multicentre, randomised, double-blind phase 3 study, patients undergoing elective unilateral or bilateral total knee replacement were randomly allocated through an interactive central telephone system......BACKGROUND: Low-molecular-weight heparins such as enoxaparin are preferred for prevention of venous thromboembolism after major joint replacement. Apixaban, an orally active factor Xa inhibitor, might be as effective, have lower bleeding risk, and be easier to use than is enoxaparin. We assessed...

  2. The shaping and functional consequences of the dosage effect landscape in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samur, Mehmet K; Shah, Parantu K; Wang, Xujun; Minvielle, Stéphane; Magrangeas, Florence; Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Munshi, Nikhil C; Li, Cheng

    2013-10-02

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant proliferation of plasma B cells. Based on recurrent aneuploidy such as copy number alterations (CNAs), myeloma is divided into two subtypes with different CNA patterns and patient survival outcomes. How aneuploidy events arise, and whether they contribute to cancer cell evolution are actively studied. The large amount of transcriptomic changes resultant of CNAs (dosage effect) pose big challenges for identifying functional consequences of CNAs in myeloma in terms of specific driver genes and pathways. In this study, we hypothesize that gene-wise dosage effect varies as a result from complex regulatory networks that translate the impact of CNAs to gene expression, and studying this variation can provide insights into functional effects of CNAs. We propose gene-wise dosage effect score and genome-wide karyotype plot as tools to measure and visualize concordant copy number and expression changes across cancer samples. We find that dosage effect in myeloma is widespread yet variable, and it is correlated with gene expression level and CNA frequencies in different chromosomes. Our analysis suggests that despite the enrichment of differentially expressed genes between hyperdiploid MM and non-hyperdiploid MM in the trisomy chromosomes, the chromosomal proportion of dosage sensitive genes is higher in the non-trisomy chromosomes. Dosage-sensitive genes are enriched by genes with protein translation and localization functions, and dosage resistant genes are enriched by apoptosis genes. These results point to future studies on differential dosage sensitivity and resistance of pro- and anti-proliferation pathways and their variation across patients as therapeutic targets and prognosis markers. Our findings support the hypothesis that recurrent CNAs in myeloma are selected by their functional consequences. The novel dosage effect score defined in this work will facilitate integration of copy number and expression data for identifying driver

  3. Thromboprophylaxis after minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty: A comparison of rivaroxaban and enoxaparin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hsiang Yen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA carries a substantial rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE. The blood-saving of effect of tranexamic acid (TEA in TKA using enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis has been well known. However, the routine use of chemoprophylaxis in TKA remains controversial because of postoperative bleeding complications. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to retrospectively compare the incidence of VTE, and postoperative blood loss and wound-related complications in minimally invasive (MIS-TKA patients who received rivaroxaban or enoxaparin prophylaxis. Methods: A total of 113 patients who underwent primary unilateral MIS-TKA between 2009 and 2012 were studied. Of these, 61 patients (study group received rivaroxaban prophylaxis between 2011 and 2012 and a control group of 52 patients received enoxaparin prophylaxis between 2009 and 2010. All patients received one intraoperative injection of TEA (10 mg/kg. We compared the changes in hemoglobin (Hb level, postoperative drainage amount, total blood loss, transfusion rate, and incidence of postoperative wound complications and VTE between the two groups. Results: No differences in postoperative Hb levels, blood drainage amount, total blood loss, and transfusion rate were observed between the two groups. No deep-vein thrombosis of the leg or pulmonary embolism was noted in both groups. There were no major wound complications including hematoma and infection requiring surgical intervention for open irrigation or debridement. Conclusions: Our retrospective study demonstrated a low rate of VTE in MIS-TKA patients who received rivaroxaban or enoxaparin when TEA was used for bleeding prophylaxis. No increased perioperative bleeding or postoperative wound-related complications were observed in the rivaroxaban group compared with the enoxaparin group

  4. Effects of maternal psychotropic drug dosage on birth outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michielsen LA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Laura A Michielsen,1 Frank MMA van der Heijden,1 Paddy KC Janssen,2 Harold JH Kuijpers11Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venlo, the Netherlands; 2Department of Pharmacy, VieCuri Medical Centre, Venlo, the NetherlandsBackground: The aim of this retrospective study was to explore the relationship between psychotropic medication dosage and birth outcomes.Methods: A total of 136 women were enrolled, who had an active mental disorder, were taking medication to prevent a relapse, or had a history of postpartum depression or psychosis. Medication use was evaluated for the three trimesters and during labor. Based on the defined daily dose, medication use was classified into three groups. Primary outcome variables included the infant gestational age at birth, birth weight, and Apgar scores at one and 5 minutes.Results: Our study showed a significantly higher incidence of Apgar score ≤7 at 5 minutes in women taking psychotropic drugs as compared with the group taking no medication, respectively (16.3% versus 0.0%, P=0.01. There was no significant difference between the two groups in Apgar score at one minute or in gestational age and birth weight. The results showed no significant differences in gestational age, birth weight, or Apgar scores for a low–intermediate or high dose of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and for a low or intermediate dose of an antipsychotic.Conclusion: This study does not indicate a relationship between doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and antipsychotics and adverse neonatal outcomes.Keywords: pregnancy, psychotropic medication, dosage, birth outcomes

  5. Effects of pharmaceutical processing on pepsin activity during the formulation of solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristó, Katalin; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2013-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pharmaceutical technological methods on pepsin activity during the formulation of solid dosage forms. The circumstances of direct compression and wet granulation were modeled. During direct compression, the heat and the compression force must be taken into consideration. The effects of these parameters were investigated in three materials (pure pepsin, and 1:1 (w/w) pepsin-tartaric acid and 1:1 (w/w) pepsin-citric acid powder mixtures). It was concluded that direct compression is appropriate for the formulation of solid dosage forms containing pepsin through application without acids or with acids at low compression force. The effects of wet granulation were investigated with a factorial design for the same three materials. The factors were time, temperature and moisture content. There was no significant effect of the factors when acids were not applied. Temperature was a significant factor when acids were applied. The negative effect was significantly higher for citric acid than for tartaric acid. It was found that wet granulation can be utilized for the processing of pepsin into solid dosage forms under well-controlled circumstances. The application of citric acid is not recommended during the formulation of solid dosage forms through wet granulation. A mathematically based optimization may be necessary for preformulation studies of the preparation of dosage forms containing sensitive enzymes.

  6. Dosage-dependent non-linear effect of L-dopa on human motor cortex plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte-Silva, Katia; Liebetanz, David; Grundey, Jessica; Paulus, Walter; Nitsche, Michael A

    2010-09-15

    The neuromodulator dopamine affects learning and memory formation and their likely physiological correlates, long-term depression and potentiation, in animals and humans. It is known from animal experiments that dopamine exerts a dosage-dependent, inverted U-shaped effect on these functions. However, this has not been explored in humans so far. In order to reveal a non-linear dose-dependent effect of dopamine on cortical plasticity in humans, we explored the impact of 25, 100 and 200 mg of L-dopa on transcranial direct current (tDCS)-induced plasticity in twelve healthy human subjects. The primary motor cortex served as a model system, and plasticity was monitored by motor evoked potential amplitudes elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation. As compared to placebo medication, low and high dosages of L-dopa abolished facilitatory as well as inhibitory plasticity, whereas the medium dosage prolonged inhibitory plasticity, and turned facilitatory plasticity into inhibition. Thus the results show clear non-linear, dosage-dependent effects of dopamine on both facilitatory and inhibitory plasticity, and support the assumption of the importance of a specific dosage of dopamine optimally suited to improve plasticity. This might be important for the therapeutic application of dopaminergic agents, especially for rehabilitative purposes, and explain some opposing results in former studies.

  7. Effect of Calcium Ions on the Disintegration of Enteric-Coated Solid Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gousous, Jozef; Langguth, Peter

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effect of calcium ions on the disintegration of enteric-coated dosage forms, disintegration testing was performed on enteric-coated aspirin tablets in the presence and absence of calcium in the test media. The results show that the presence of calcium ions retards the disintegration of enteric-coated dosage forms. This finding, which has not been reported in scientific literature, sheds light on the importance of conducting well-designed detailed investigations into the potential of calcium from dietary sources, calcium supplements, antacids, and/or phosphate binders affecting the absorption of drugs formulated into enteric-coated dosage forms. Moreover, it shows the necessity to investigate the potential of the occurrence of additional nutrient-excipient interactions. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of different dosages of caffeine on endurance performance time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Baak, M.A. van; Jeukendrup, A.E.; Haan, A. de

    1995-01-01

    The effect of different dosages of caffeine (0 - 5 - 9 - 13 mg · kg body weight-1) on endurance performance was examined. Nine well-trained cyclists participated in this study (VO2max 65.1 + 2.6 ml · kg-1 · min-1). Caffeine capsules were administered in random order and double-blind. One hour after

  9. The effect of decreasing computed tomography dosage on radiostereometric analysis (RSA) accuracy at the glenohumeral joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Anne-Marie V; Kedgley, Angela E; Lalone, Emily A; Johnson, James A; Athwal, George S; Jenkyn, Thomas R

    2011-11-10

    Standard, beaded radiostereometric analysis (RSA) and markerless RSA often use computed tomography (CT) scans to create three-dimensional (3D) bone models. However, ethical concerns exist due to risks associated with CT radiation exposure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of decreasing CT dosage on RSA accuracy. Four cadaveric shoulder specimens were scanned using a normal-dose CT protocol and two low-dose protocols, where the dosage was decreased by 89% and 98%. 3D computer models of the humerus and scapula were created using each CT protocol. Bi-planar fluoroscopy was used to image five different static glenohumeral positions and two dynamic glenohumeral movements, of which a total of five static and four dynamic poses were selected for analysis. For standard RSA, negligible differences were found in bead (0.21±0.31mm) and bony landmark (2.31±1.90mm) locations when the CT dosage was decreased by 98% (p-values>0.167). For markerless RSA kinematic results, excellent agreement was found between the normal-dose and lowest-dose protocol, with all Spearman rank correlation coefficients greater than 0.95. Average root mean squared errors of 1.04±0.68mm and 2.42±0.81° were also found at this reduced dosage for static positions. In summary, CT dosage can be markedly reduced when performing shoulder RSA to minimize the risks of radiation exposure. Standard RSA accuracy was negligibly affected by the 98% CT dose reduction and for markerless RSA, the benefits of decreasing CT dosage to the subject outweigh the introduced errors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Unilateral brief-pulse electroconvulsive therapy and cognition: effects of electrode placement, stimulus dosage and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkovska, Maria; Keane, Deborah; Babalola, Oyemi; McLoughlin, Declan M

    2011-06-01

    To clarify advantages of unilateral electrode placement as an optimisation technique for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for depression, aims were to meta-analyse unilateral ECT effects on cognitive performance relative to: (1) bitemporal electrode placement, (2) electrical dosage, and (3) time interval between final treatment and cognitive reassessment. Relevant electronic databases were systematically searched through May 2009, using the terms: "electroconvulsive therapy" and ["cogniti∗", "neuropsycholog∗", "memory", "attention", "executive", "spatial", or "intellectual"]. Inclusion criteria were: independent study of depressed patients receiving unilateral or bitemporal brief-pulse ECT; within-subjects design; use of objective cognitive assessments; available mean electrical dosage for unilateral samples. Standardized pre-post ECT weighted effect sizes were computed and pooled within 16 cognitive domains by a mixed-effects model. Thirty-nine studies (1415 patients) were meta-analysed. Up to three days after final treatment, unilateral ECT was associated with significantly smaller decreases in global cognition, delayed verbal memory retrieval, and autobiographical memory, compared to bitemporal ECT. Significant publication bias was found for autobiographical memory, favouring reporting of larger percentage loss. Higher unilateral ECT electrical dosage predicted larger decreases in verbal learning, delayed verbal memory retrieval, visual recognition, and semantic memory retrieval. When retested more than three days after completing ECT, no significant differences remained between the two electrode placements; for unilateral ECT, electrical dosage no longer predicted cognitive performance whereas increasing interval between final treatment and retesting predicted growing improvement in some variables. This interval is a more useful long-term predictor of cognitive function than electrode placement or electrical dosage following unilateral ECT. Copyright © 2010

  11. Unilateral brief-pulse electroconvulsive therapy and cognition: Effects of electrode placement, stimulus dosage and time.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semkovska, Maria

    2010-11-23

    To clarify advantages of unilateral electrode placement as an optimisation technique for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for depression, aims were to meta-analyse unilateral ECT effects on cognitive performance relative to: (1) bitemporal electrode placement, (2) electrical dosage, and (3) time interval between final treatment and cognitive reassessment. Relevant electronic databases were systematically searched through May 2009, using the terms: "electroconvulsive therapy" and ["cogniti∗", "neuropsycholog∗", "memory", "attention", "executive", "spatial", or "intellectual"]. Inclusion criteria were: independent study of depressed patients receiving unilateral or bitemporal brief-pulse ECT; within-subjects design; use of objective cognitive assessments; available mean electrical dosage for unilateral samples. Standardized pre-post ECT weighted effect sizes were computed and pooled within 16 cognitive domains by a mixed-effects model. Thirty-nine studies (1415 patients) were meta-analysed. Up to three days after final treatment, unilateral ECT was associated with significantly smaller decreases in global cognition, delayed verbal memory retrieval, and autobiographical memory, compared to bitemporal ECT. Significant publication bias was found for autobiographical memory, favouring reporting of larger percentage loss. Higher unilateral ECT electrical dosage predicted larger decreases in verbal learning, delayed verbal memory retrieval, visual recognition, and semantic memory retrieval. When retested more than three days after completing ECT, no significant differences remained between the two electrode placements; for unilateral ECT, electrical dosage no longer predicted cognitive performance whereas increasing interval between final treatment and retesting predicted growing improvement in some variables. This interval is a more useful long-term predictor of cognitive function than electrode placement or electrical dosage following unilateral ECT.

  12. Apixaban or enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Michael Rud; Raskob, Gary E; Gallus, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    thromboprophylaxis with a low risk of bleeding and improved ease of use. METHODS: In a double-blind, double-dummy study, we randomly assigned patients undergoing total knee replacement to receive 2.5 mg of apixaban orally twice daily or 30 mg of enoxaparin subcutaneously every 12 hours. Both medications were started...... (P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: As compared with enoxaparin for efficacy of thromboprophylaxis after knee replacement, apixaban did not meet the prespecified statistical criteria for noninferiority, but its use was associated with lower rates of clinically relevant bleeding and it had a similar adverse...

  13. The effect of two dosage of BCAA supplementation on wrestlers’ serum indexes on cellular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Amirsasan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A few studies were done to examine the effect of different dosage of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA supplementation on serum indexes of muscle injury in wrestlers. The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of two dosage of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on muscle serumic damage indexes after heavy resistance exercise in wrestlers.Materials and Method: Twenty-nine young wrestlers were randomly selected and divided into three groups. All subjects were participated in heavy resistance exercise (3 sets, 10 repetitions, 80% 1RM. The BCAA was given at doses of 210 and 450 mg/kg for supplemental groups 1 and 2 respectively, 30 minutes before and after to exercise test and dextrin was given at dose of 210 mg/kg for control group. To identify enzymes activity (IU/L, venous blood samples were obtained 30 min prior to exercise and at 24 and 48 hrs after exercise. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA with repeated measures and Bonfferoni post hoc test (p≥ 0.05.Results: Based on this study results, CPK, LDH, CPKMB activity were significantly increased (p<0.05 in all groups. CPK, LDH, CPKMB indexes having the highest activity in the control group, but there were no significant differences between all groups. Conclusion: These results provide evidence that the use of two different dosage of BCAA could not decrease muscle damage associated with heavy resistance exercise

  14. Arsenic removal from groundwater using iron electrocoagulation: effect of charge dosage rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrose, Susan; Gadgil, Ashok; Srinivasan, Venkat; Kowolik, Kristin; Muller, Marc; Huang, Jessica; Kostecki, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that electrocoagulation (EC) using iron electrodes can reduce arsenic below 10 μg/L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater and in real groundwater from Bangladesh and Cambodia, while investigating the effect of operating parameters that are often overlooked, such as charge dosage rate. We measure arsenic removal performance over a larger range of current density than in any other single previous EC study (5000-fold: 0.02 - 100 mA/cm(2)) and over a wide range of charge dosage rates (0.060 - 18 Coulombs/L/min). We find that charge dosage rate has significant effects on both removal capacity (μg-As removed/Coulomb) and treatment time and is the appropriate parameter to maintain performance when scaling to different active areas and volumes. We estimate the operating costs of EC treatment in Bangladesh groundwater to be $0.22/m(3). Waste sludge (~80 - 120 mg/L), when tested with the Toxic Characteristic Leachate Protocol (TCLP), is characterized as non-hazardous. Although our focus is on developing a practical device, our results suggest that As[III] is mostly oxidized via a chemical pathway and does not rely on processes occurring at the anode. Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, to view the free supplemental file.

  15. Effects of music on psychophysiological responses and opioid dosage in patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Ji; Chen, Tsung-Ying; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Hsieh, Yuan-Mei; Lai, Hui-Ling

    2015-10-01

    The present authors examined the effects of listening to music on psychophysiological parameters (blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate) during preoperative and postoperative days and determined whether listening to music could lower pain intensity and opioid dosage during postoperative days in patients who underwent total knee replacements. This was a two group repeated measures design for 30 subjects aged 53-85 years who were scheduled for total knee replacement. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a music group or a control group. Psychophysiological parameters were obtained from patients' monitors. A visual analog scale was used to assess postoperative pain. Opioid dosage was recorded and converted to standardized units. Mann-Whitney U-test and generalized estimating equation analysis were used to compare groups. Respiratory rates while in the surgical waiting area were lower for the music group than for the control group (P = 0.02). There was no significant difference between these groups for blood pressure, heart rate, pain intensity, or opioid dosage. However, a within-group comparison showed that systolic blood pressure in the music group was significantly and consistently decreased during postoperative recovery (Wald = 9.21, P = 0.007). These results suggest that listening to music stabilized systolic blood pressure in patients during postoperative recovery. However, the effects of music on psychophysiological parameters, pain intensity, and opioid dosage in a surgical setting require further research. © 2015 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  16. Determination of the Minimum Effective Dosages of Praziquantel, Albendazole, and Mebendazole Against Clonorchis Sinensis Infection in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chin Fan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the minimum effective dosages of praziquantel, albendazole, and mebendazole against Clonorchis sinensis infection in Sprague-Dawley rats, each rat was infected with 30 metacercariae and treated with one of three drugs. The rats were killed and examined 25 days after praziquantel treatment or 11 days after albendazole or mebendazole treatment. The minimum effective dosages were a single dose of praziquantel 375 mg/kg, albendazole 150 mg/kg, and mebendazole 150 mg/kg. Trials are required to determine whether these dosages are useful in the treatment of human clonorchiasis.

  17. Effects of different dosages of propylene glycol in dry cows and cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Michaela; Peinhopf, Walter; Gottschalk, Jutta; Einspanier, Almut; Koeller, Gabor; Wittek, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    In this Research Paper we hypothesised that the temporary insulin resistance seen during the transition period in dairy cows may cause significant differences in the efficacy of PG at different sampling periods and that in some cases this effect will be dose dependent. Eighty four sampling sets were generated by studying 7 multiparous Holstein cows repeatedly at 4 sampling periods of 3 d length (dry cows: days 40, 39 and 38 antepartum; close up cows: days 10, 9 and 8 antepartum; fresh cows: days 3, 4 and 5 post-partum; lactating cows: days 38, 39 and 40 post-partum). On each of these days 3 h after morning feeding propylene glycol was drenched in different dosages of 100, 300 or 500 ml once per day (cross over study). The different doses were applied in an alternating order (Latin square). Blood samples were taken before, every 30 min up to 4 h, after 6 and 12 h after PG application. Following parameters have been measured: insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), betahydroxybutyrate (BHB), bilirubin, cholesterol, potassium, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH). Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (RQUICKI) was calculated. It was found that glucose, insulin, NEFA, BHB, bilirubin and potassium concentrations were influenced differently by the three defined dosages of propylene glycol at four different sampling periods. Whereas RQUICKI, cholesterol, AST and GLDH did not differ between the sampling periods and treatments. The major results of the study are that the effect of PG is dose-dependent and that the effect of PG is depending on the time of application according to calving. It can be concluded that in fresh cows higher dosages are necessary to provoke similar effects in comparison to dry, close up and lactating cows. Although the study did not compare to topdressing of PG from the results it is reasonable to believe that bolus application of a specific PG volume is necessary to provoke the effect.

  18. [The most effective dosage in the administration of PGF2-alpha for interruption of pregnancy during the 2d trimester].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herczeg, J; Szontágh, F

    1974-06-23

    Artificial interruption of pregnancy contains too many risks from the 12th week of pregnancy. The authors have been working at finding the most suitable and effective dosage of prostaglandin for the interruption of pregnancy during the 2nd trimester. The new dosage experimented was 25 mg of prostaglandin F2alpha, followed by another 25 mg 6 hours later. The clinical efficiency of this dosage was tested. This procedures was used in 45 cases. The efficiency of the method was compared to the efficiency of the previously used dosage, which was 25 mg of prostaglandin F2alpha, followed by 25 mg 24 hours later. The new dosage was evaluated 91% efficient, while the previous dosage was found to be 75% efficient. The side effects were rated as acceptable by the patients. There was no case of infection. Two undeniable advantages were found with this new dosage: the duration of the actual procedure is considerably reduced, and the method appears to be much safer. The authors conclude that this new procedure offers numerous clinical advantages.

  19. Dosage effect of a Phex mutation in a murine model of X-linked hypophosphatemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Gray, Amie K.; Bikorimana, Emmanuel; Econs, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is caused by mutations in the PHEX gene, which increase circulating levels of the phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). Since XLH is a dominant disease, one mutant allele is sufficient for manifestation of the disease. However, dosage effect of a PHEX mutation in XLH is not completely understood. To examine the effect of Phex genotypes, we compared serum biochemistries and skeletal measures between all five possible genotypes of a new murine model of XLH (PhexK496X or PhexJrt). Compared to sex-matched littermate controls, all Phex mutant mice had hypophosphatemia, mild hypocalcemia, and increased parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase levels. Furthermore, mutant mice had markedly elevated serum Fgf23 levels due to increased Fgf23 expression and reduced cleavage of Fgf23. Although females with a homozygous Phex mutation were slightly more hypocalcemic and hypophosphatemic than heterozygous females, the two groups had comparable intact Fgf23 levels. Similarly, there was no difference in intact Fgf23 or phosphorus concentrations between hemizygous males and heterozygous females. Compared to heterozygous females, homozygous counterparts were significantly smaller and had shorter femurs with reduced bone mineral density, suggesting the existence of dosage effect in the skeletal phenotype of XLH. However, overall phenotypic trends in regards to mineral ion homeostasis were mostly unaffected by the presence of one or two mutant Phex allele(s). The lack of gene dosage effect on circulating Fgf23 (and thus, phosphorus) levels suggests that a Phex mutation may create the lower set point for extracellular phosphate concentrations. PMID:23700148

  20. How useful is determination of anti-factor Xa activity to guide bridging therapy with enoxaparin? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstingl, Christoph; Omran, Heyder; Tripp, Christian; Poetzsch, Bernd

    2009-02-01

    Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) are commonly used as peri-procedural bridging anticoagulants. The usefulness of measurement of anti-factor Xa activity (anti-Xa) to guide bridging therapy with LMWH is unknown. It was the objective of this study to determine levels of anti-Xa during standard bridging therapy with enoxaparin, and to examine predictors for residual anti-Xa. Consecutive patients receiving enoxaparin at a dosage of 1 mg/kg body weight/12 hours for temporary interruption of phenprocoumon were prospectively enrolled to the study. Blood-samples were obtained 14 hours after LMWH-application immediately pre- procedurally. Procedural details, clinical and demographic data were collected and subsequently analyzed. Seventy patients were included (age 75.2 +/- 10.8 years, Cr Cl 55.7 +/- 21.7ml/min, body mass index [BMI] 27.1 +/- 4.9). LMWH- therapy was for a mean of 4.2 +/- 1.6 days; overall anti-Xa was 0.58 +/- 0.32 U/ml. In 37 (52.8%) of patients anti-Xa was > or U/ml, including 10 (14.3%) patients with anti-Xa > 1U/ml. Linear regression analysis of single variables and logistic multivariable regression analysis failed to prove a correlation between anti-Xa and single or combined factors. No major bleeding, no thromboembolism and four (5.7%) minor haemorrhages were observed. When bridging OAC with therapeutic doses of enoxaparin a high percentage of patients undergo interventions with high residual anti-Xa. The levels of anti-Xa vary largely and are independent of single or combined clinical variables. Since the anti-Xa-related outcome of patients receiving bridging therapy with LMWH is not investigated, no firm recommendation on the usefulness of monitoring of anti-Xa can be given at this stage.

  1. Effect of an increased dosage of statins on spinal degenerative joint disease: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan-Yang; Kao, Chung-Lan; Lin, Shih-Yi; Chang, Shin-Tsu; Wei, Tz-Shiang; Chang, Shih-Ni; Lin, Ching-Heng

    2018-02-08

    It has been proven that statin can protect synovial joints from developing osteoarthritis through its anti-inflammatory effects. However, studies on the effect of statins on spinal degenerative joint diseases are few and limited to in vitro studies. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between the statin dosage and the development of spinal degenerative joint diseases. A retrospective cohort study. Patients registered in Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients aged 40-65 years old from 2001 to 2010 were included. Those who received statin treatment before 2001, were diagnosed with spinal degenerative joint diseases or received any spinal surgery before 2004 or had any spinal trauma before 2011 were excluded. A total of 7238 statin users and 164 454 non-users were identified and followed up for the next 7 years to trace the development of spinal degenerative joint disease. The incident rate of spinal degenerative joint diseases and HRs among the groups treated with different statin dosages. A higher dosage of statins was associated with a significantly lower risk of developing spinal degenerative joint disease in patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Compared with the group receiving less than 5400 mg of a statin, the HR of the 11 900-28 000 mg group was 0.83 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.99), and that of the group receiving more than 28 000 mg was 0.81 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.97). Results of subgroup analysis showed a significantly lower risk in men, those aged 50-59 years and those with a monthly income less than US$600. Our study's findings clearly indicated that a higher dosage of statins can reduce the incidence of spinal degenerative joint disease in patients with hypercholesterolaemia, and it can be beneficial for people with a higher risk of spine degeneration. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  2. Effective Dosage of Midazolam to Erase the Memory of Vascular Pain During Propofol Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boku, Aiji; Inoue, Mika; Hanamoto, Hiroshi; Oyamaguchi, Aiko; Kudo, Chiho; Sugimura, Mitsutaka; Niwa, Hitoshi

    Intravenous sedation with propofol is often administered to anxious patients in dental practice. Pain on injection of propofol is a common adverse effect. This study aimed to determine the age-adjusted doses of midazolam required to erase memory of vascular pain of propofol administration and assess whether the Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS) after the pretreatment of midazolam was useful to predict amnesia of the vascular pain of propofol administration. A total of 246 patients with dental phobia requiring dental treatment under intravenous sedation were included. Patients were classified according to their age: 30s, 40s, 50s, and 60s. Three minutes after administration of a predetermined dose of midazolam, propofol was infused continuously. After completion of the dental procedure, patients were interviewed about the memory of any pain or discomfort in the injection site or forearm. The dosage of midazolam was determined using the Dixon up-down method. The first patient was administered 0.03 mg/kg, and if memory of vascular pain remained, the dosage was increased by 0.01 mg/kg for the next patient, and then if the memory was erased, the dosage was decreased by 0.01 mg/kg. The effective dosage of midazolam in 95% of each age group for erasing the memory of propofol vascular pain (ED95) was determined using logistic analysis. The accuracy of RSS to predict the amnesia of injection pain was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The ED95 of midazolam to erase the memory of propofol vascular pain was 0.061 mg/kg in patients in their 30s, 0.049 mg/kg in patients in their 40s, 0.033 mg/kg in patients in their 50s, and 0.033 mg/kg in patients in their 60s. The area under the ROC curve was 0.31. The ED95 of midazolam required to erase the memory of propofol vascular pain demonstrated a downward trend with age. On the other hand, it was impossible to predict the amnesia of propofol vascular pain using the RSS.

  3. [Development and effectiveness of a drug dosage calculation training program using cognitive loading theory based on smartphone application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung Soo; Park, Jung Ha; Park, Kyung Yeon

    2012-10-01

    This study was done to develop and evaluate a drug dosage calculation training program using cognitive loading theory based on a smartphone application. Calculation ability, dosage calculation related self-efficacy and anxiety were measured. A nonequivalent control group design was used. Smartphone application and a handout for self-study were developed and administered to the experimental group and only a handout was provided for control group. Intervention period was 4 weeks. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, χ²-test, t-test, and ANCOVA with the SPSS 18.0. The experimental group showed more 'self-efficacy for drug dosage calculation' than the control group (t=3.82, psmartphone application is effective in improving dosage calculation related self-efficacy and calculation ability. Further study should be done to develop additional interventions for reducing anxiety.

  4. Resveratrol Exerts Dosage and Duration Dependent Effect on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz, Lindsay; Gomez, Jessica; Marquez, Maribel; Alencastro, Frances; Atashpanjeh, Negar; Quang, Tara; Bach, Thuy; Zhao, Yuanxiang

    2012-01-01

    Studies in the past have illuminated the potential benefit of resveratrol as an anticancer (pro-apoptosis) and life-extending (pro-survival) compound. However, these two different effects were observed at different concentration ranges. Studies of resveratrol in a wide range of concentrations on the same cell type are lacking, which is necessary to comprehend its diverse and sometimes contradictory cellular effects. In this study, we examined the effects of resveratrol on cell self-renewal and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), a type of adult stem cells that reside in a number of tissues, at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 µM after both short- and long-term exposure. Our results reveal that at 0.1 µM, resveratrol promotes cell self-renewal by inhibiting cellular senescence, whereas at 5 µM or above, resveratrol inhibits cell self-renewal by increasing senescence rate, cell doubling time and S-phase cell cycle arrest. At 1 µM, its effect on cell self-renewal is minimal but after long-term exposure it exerts an inhibitory effect, accompanied with increased senescence rate. At all concentrations, resveratrol promotes osteogenic differentiation in a dosage dependent manner, which is offset by its inhibitory effect on cell self-renewal at high concentrations. On the contrary, resveratrol suppresses adipogenic differentiation during short-term exposure but promotes this process after long-term exposure. Our study implicates that resveratrol is the most beneficial to stem cell development at 0.1 µM and caution should be taken in applying resveratrol as an anticancer therapeutic agent or nutraceutical supplement due to its dosage dependent effect on hMSCs. PMID:22615926

  5. Effect of 18F-FDG dosage alternation on final PET image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Dayi; Yao Shulin; Chen Yingmao; Shao Mingzhe; Tian Jiahe

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess PET reconstructed image effected by different 18 F-FDG dosages with quantitative and qualitative analysis. Methods: To perform PET phantom acquisition by routine clinical parameters after filled with different doses of 18 F-FDG solution. An identical slice was extracted from reconstructed image for doing following analysis: the hot area standard uptake value (SUV), the ratio of hot area to cold area, the standard deviation on background area, the ratio of true coincidence to random. Results: 296 MBq: The image uniformity was terribly worse, T/R=0.83, other indexes were irregular. 148 MBq: The image presentation looked like the image without attenuation correction, T/R=1.64, other indexes were moderate. 74, 37 and 18.5 MBq: The images were with excellent uniformity, resolution and contrast, the background noise was suitable, all of the quantitative indexes were good. 9.25 and 4.625 MBq: The uniformity and resolution was degraded terribly because of the higher noise and lower information. Conclusion: Combining above results with other considerations, such as radiation exposure, information amount and acquisition time, the authors think the optimal dosage should be 4.625-11.1 MBq/kg

  6. An Allometric Analysis of Sex and Sex Chromosome Dosage Effects on Subcortical Anatomy in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Liv; Giedd, Jay N.; Blumenthal, Jonathan; Lerch, Jason P.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Raznahan, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Structural neuroimaging of humans with typical and atypical sex-chromosome complements has established the marked influence of both Yand X-/Y-chromosome dosage on total brain volume (TBV) and identified potential cortical substrates for the psychiatric phenotypes associated with sex-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA). Here, in a cohort of 354 humans with varying karyotypes (XX, XY, XXX, XXY, XYY, XXYY, XXXXY), we investigate sex and SCA effects on subcortical size and shape; focusing on the striatum, pallidum and thalamus. We find large effect-size differences in the volume and shape of all three structures as a function of sex and SCA. We correct for TBV effects with a novel allometric method harnessing normative scaling rules for subcortical size and shape in humans, which we derive here for the first time. We show that all three subcortical volumes scale sublinearly with TBV among healthy humans, mirroring known relationships between subcortical volume and TBV among species. Traditional TBV correction methods assume linear scaling and can therefore invert or exaggerate sex and SCA effects on subcortical anatomy. Allometric analysis restricts sex-differences to: (1) greater pallidal volume (PV) in males, and (2) relative caudate head expansion and ventral striatum contraction in females. Allometric analysis of SCA reveals that supernumerary X- and Y-chromosomes both cause disproportionate reductions in PV, and coordinated deformations of striatopallidal shape. Our study provides a novel understanding of sex and sex-chromosome dosage effects on subcortical organization, using an allometric approach that can be generalized to other basic and clinical structural neuroimaging settings. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sex and sex-chromosome dosage (SCD) are known to modulate human brain size and cortical anatomy, but very little is known regarding their impact on subcortical structures that work with the cortex to subserve a range of behaviors in health and disease. Moreover

  7. Effectiveness of different benfotiamine dosage regimens in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, G; Pál, B; Nagybéganyi, E; Ory, I; Porochnavec, M; Kempler, P

    1999-03-01

    The therapeutic effectiveness of a benfotiamine (CAS 22457-89-2)-vitamin B combination (Milgamma-N), administered in high (4 x 2 capsules/day, = 320 mg benfotiamine/day) and medium doses (3 x 1 capsules/day), was compared to a monotherapy with benfotiamine (Benfogamma) (3 x 1 tablets/day, = 150 mg benfotiamine/day) in diabetic patients suffering from painful peripheral diabetic neuropathy (DNP). In a 6-week open clinical trial, 36 patients (aged 40 to 70 yrs) having acceptable metabolic control (HbA1c benfotiamine (p benfotiamine is most effective in large doses, although even in smaller daily dosages, either in combination or in monotherapy, it is effective.

  8. Novel nanostructured enoxaparin sodium-PLGA hybrid carriers overcome tumor multidrug resistance of doxorubicin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Lei; Kou, Longfa; Xu, Meng; Sun, Jin; Wang, Yongjun; Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Peng; He, Zhonggui

    2016-11-20

    Novel enoxaparin sodium-PLGA hybrid nanocarries (EPNs) were successfully designed for sustained delivery of hydrophilic cationic doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR). By incorporation of the negative polymer of enoxaparin sodium (ES), DOX was highly encapsulated into EPNs with an encapsulation efficiency of 92.49%, and ES effectively inhibited the proliferation of HUVEC cell lines. The in vivo pharmacokinetics study after intravenous injection indicated that DOX-loaded EPNs (DOX-EPNs) exhibited a higher area under the curve (AUC) and a longer half-life (t 1/2 ) in comparison with DOX solution (DOX-Sol). The biodistribution study demonstrated that DOX-EPNs increased the DOX level in plasma and decreased the accumulation of DOX in liver and spleen. Compared with DOX-Sol, DOX-EPNs increased the cytotoxicity in P-gp over-expressing MCF-7/Adr cells, attributed to the higher intracellular efficiency of DOX produced by the EPNs. DOX-EPNs entered into resistant tumor cells by multiple endocytosis pathways, which resulted in overcoming the multidrug resistance of MCF-7/Adr cells by escaping the efflux induced by P-gp transporters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of High and Low Antiepileptic Drug Dosage on Simulated Driving Performance in Person's with Seizures: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Crizzle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prior studies examining driving performance have not examined the effects of antiepileptic drugs (AED’s or their dosages in persons with epilepsy. AED’s are the primary form of treatment to control seizures, but they are shown to affect cognition, attention, and vision, all which may impair driving. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of high and low AED dosages on simulated driving performance in persons with seizures. Method: Patients (N = 11; mean age 42.1 ± 6.3; 55% female; 100% Caucasian were recruited from the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit and had their driving assessed on a simulator. Results: No differences emerged in total or specific types of driving errors between high and low AED dosages. However, high AED drug dosage was significantly associated with errors of lane maintenance (r = .67, p < .05 and gap acceptance (r = .66, p < .05. The findings suggest that higher AED dosages may adversely affect driving performance, irrespective of having a diagnosis of epilepsy, conversion disorder, or other medical conditions. Conclusion: Future studies with larger samples are required to examine whether AED dosage or seizure focus alone can impair driving performance in persons with and without seizures.

  10. Mapping 22q11.2 Gene Dosage Effects on Brain Morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Amy; Ching, Christopher R K; Vajdi, Ariana; Sun, Daqiang; Jonas, Rachel K; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Kushan-Wells, Leila; Pacheco Hansen, Laura; Krikorian, Emma; Gutman, Boris; Dokoru, Deepika; Helleman, Gerhard; Thompson, Paul M; Bearden, Carrie E

    2017-06-28

    Reciprocal chromosomal rearrangements at the 22q11.2 locus are associated with elevated risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. The 22q11.2 deletion confers the highest known genetic risk for schizophrenia, but a duplication in the same region is strongly associated with autism and is less common in schizophrenia cases than in the general population. Here we conducted the first study of 22q11.2 gene dosage effects on brain structure in a sample of 143 human subjects: 66 with 22q11.2 deletions (22q-del; 32 males), 21 with 22q11.2 duplications (22q-dup; 14 males), and 56 age- and sex-matched controls (31 males). 22q11.2 gene dosage varied positively with intracranial volume, gray and white matter volume, and cortical surface area (deletion control > duplication). Widespread differences were observed for cortical surface area with more localized effects on cortical thickness. These diametric patterns extended into subcortical regions: 22q-dup carriers had a significantly larger right hippocampus, on average, but lower right caudate and corpus callosum volume, relative to 22q-del carriers. Novel subcortical shape analysis revealed greater radial distance (thickness) of the right amygdala and left thalamus, and localized increases and decreases in subregions of the caudate, putamen, and hippocampus in 22q-dup relative to 22q-del carriers. This study provides the first evidence that 22q11.2 is a genomic region associated with gene-dose-dependent brain phenotypes. Pervasive effects on cortical surface area imply that this copy number variant affects brain structure early in the course of development. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Probing naturally occurring reciprocal copy number variation in the genome may help us understand mechanisms underlying deviations from typical brain and cognitive development. The 22q11.2 genomic region is particularly susceptible to chromosomal rearrangements and contains many genes crucial for neuronal development and migration. Not surprisingly

  11. PDV2 has a dosage effect on chloroplast division in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ning; Sun, Qingqing; Li, Yiqiong; Mu, Yajuan; Hu, Jinglei; Feng, Yue; Liu, Xiaomin; Gao, Hongbo

    2017-03-01

    PDV2 has a dosage effect on chloroplast division in Arabidopsis thaliana , but this effect may vary in different plants. Chloroplasts have to be divided as plants grow to maintain an optimized number in the cell. Chloroplasts are divided by protein complexes across the double membranes from the stroma side to the cytosolic side. PDV2 is a chloroplast division protein on the chloroplast outer membrane. It recruits the dynamin-related GTPase ARC5 to the division site. The C-terminus of PDV2 and the C-terminus of ARC6 interact in the intermembrane space, which is important for the localization of PDV2. Previously, it was shown that overexpression of PDV2 can increase the division of chloroplasts in Arabidopsis and moss, so the authors concluded that PDV2 determines the rate of chloroplast division in land plants. PDV2 was also shown to inhibit the GTPase activity of ARC5 by in vitro experiment. These results look to be contradictory. Here, we identified a null allele of PDV2 in Arabidopsis and studied plants with different levels of PDV2. Our results suggested that the chloroplast division phenotype in Arabidopsis is sensitive to the level of PDV2, while this is not the case for ARC6. The level of PDV2 protein is reduced sharply in fast-growing leaves, while the level of ARC6 is not. The levels of PDV2 and ARC6 in several other plant species at different developmental stages were also investigated. The results indicated that their expression pattern varies in different species. Thus, PDV2 is an important positive factor of chloroplast division with an apparent dosage effect in Arabidopsis, but this effect for different chloroplast division proteins in different plants may vary.

  12. Effectiveness of a Clinical Skills Workshop for drug-dosage calculation in a nursing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugnetti, Anna Maria; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Rosa, Francesca; Sasso, Loredana

    2014-04-01

    Mathematical and calculation skills are widely acknowledged as being key nursing competences if patients are to receive care that is both effective and safe. Indeed, weaknesses in mathematical competence may lead to the administration of miscalculated drug doses, which in turn may harm or endanger patients' lives. However, little attention has been given to identifying appropriate teaching and learning strategies that will effectively facilitate the development of these skills in nurses. One such approach may be simulation. To evaluate the effectiveness of a Clinical Skills Workshop on drug administration that focused on improving the drug-dosage calculation skills of second-year nursing students, with a view to promoting safety in drugs administration. A descriptive pre-post test design. Educational. Simulation center. The sample population included 77 nursing students from a Northern Italian University who attended a 30-hour Clinical Skills Workshop over a period of two weeks. The workshop covered integrated teaching strategies and innovative drug-calculation methodologies which have been described to improve psychomotor skills and build cognitive abilities through a greater understanding of mathematics linked to clinical practice. Study results showed a significant improvement between the pre- and the post-test phases, after the intervention. Pre-test scores ranged between 0 and 25 out of a maximum of 30 points, with a mean score of 15.96 (SD 4.85), and a median score of 17. Post-test scores ranged between 15 and 30 out of 30, with a mean score of 25.2 (SD 3.63) and a median score of 26 (pstudy shows that Clinical Skills Workshops may be tailored to include teaching techniques that encourage the development of drug-dosage calculation skills, and that training strategies implemented during a Clinical skills Workshop can enhance students' comprehension of mathematical calculations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Beneficial and adverse effects of irradiation in patients repeatedly subjected to high-dosage treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeckelein, I.

    1986-01-01

    During the period between 1978 and 1983 a total of 156 patients showing different types of tumours were subjected to high-dosage radiotherapy. The patients were treated repeatedly for primary or recurrent tumours using a radiation dose of >79 Gy. Each of the three largest groups, which were mammary carcinomas (33), cerebral tumours (25) and orohypopharyngeal tumours (22), was analysed individually. In the majority of patients the local effects of this radiotherapy were such that total or at least partial remission of the primary or recurrent tumour appeared most likely. In the groups receiving doses in the lower range the results were just as good as those achieved in subjects exposed to high doses. The survival times determined here for bearers of mammary or cerebral carcinomas were better than the relevant values given in the literature. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Estimated Effect of Epoetin Dosage on Survival among Elderly Hemodialysis Patients in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yi; Thamer, Mae; Cotter, Dennis; Kaufman, James; Hernán, Miguel A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: The common finding that low achieved hemoglobin in observational studies and high target hemoglobin in randomized trials each were associated with increased mortality and high epoetin dosage has suggested the possibility that high epoetin dosage might explain the increased mortality risk.

  15. Comparison the Effect of Extra Corporeal Shockwave Therapy with Low Dosage Versus High Dosage in Treatment of the Patients with Lateral Epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Parisa; Emadi, Masoud; Poorghasemian, Jafar

    2017-01-01

    One of the most common reasons of elbow and forearm pain is lateral epicondylitis diagnosed based on clinical examination. The extracorporeal shock wave therapy is applied for less invasive treatments with different dosages. This study aimed to investigate the effects of high- and low-dose ESW in treating the lateral epicondylitis. This clinical trial was done in Al Zahra medical center on 40 patients who were selected randomly and divided into two groups. After VAS, the first group was treated by Duolith SD1 shock wave, energy of 0.25 mj/mm 2 , 1000 shocks; the second was treated by focus with the energy of 0.10 mj/mm 2 , 1000 shocks per session for 15 minutes with weekly intervals in three sessions. The patients were also treated with drugs (NSAIDs) and the visual analog scale (VAS) was reassessed 1 week after the last session and 12 weeks after finishing the treatment. The mean of pain intensity during study was decreased in the two groups but reduction of pain intensity in the low-dose groups was higher than the high-dose groups ( P = 0.001). Changes in other parameters including wrist extension test, middle finger extension test and PG was also similar. Extra corporeal shockwave therapy can be effective in treating lateral epicondylitis, but its effects usually appear in after 2 or 3 months and using the low dose of this treating method has more desirable therapeutic effects.

  16. Comparison the Effect of Extra Corporeal Shockwave Therapy with Low Dosage Versus High Dosage in Treatment of the Patients with Lateral Epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Taheri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common reasons of elbow and forearm pain is lateral epicondylitis diagnosed based on clinical examination. The extracorporeal shock wave therapy is applied for less invasive treatments with different dosages. This study aimed to investigate the effects of high- and low-dose ESW in treating the lateral epicondylitis. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was done in Al Zahra medical center on 40 patients who were selected randomly and divided into two groups. After VAS, the first group was treated by Duolith SD1 shock wave, energy of 0.25 mj/mm2, 1000 shocks; the second was treated by focus with the energy of 0.10 mj/mm2, 1000 shocks per session for 15 minutes with weekly intervals in three sessions. The patients were also treated with drugs (NSAIDs and the visual analog scale (VAS was reassessed 1 week after the last session and 12 weeks after finishing the treatment. Results: The mean of pain intensity during study was decreased in the two groups but reduction of pain intensity in the low-dose groups was higher than the high-dose groups (P = 0.001. Changes in other parameters including wrist extension test, middle finger extension test and PG was also similar. Conclusion: Extra corporeal shockwave therapy can be effective in treating lateral epicondylitis, but its effects usually appear in after 2 or 3 months and using the low dose of this treating method has more desirable therapeutic effects.

  17. Sedative and mechanical antinociceptive effects of four dosages of romifidine administered intravenously to donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarraga, Ignacio; Castillo-Alcala, Fernanda; Robinson, Lauren S

    2017-06-01

    Although romifidine is commonly used to provide sedation and analgesia for the facilitation of clinical procedures in donkeys, limited scientific information is available for this drug in this species. This randomized, controlled, crossover, Latin-square, blinded study compared the sedative and antinociceptive effects of four dosages of romifidine (40, 60, 80, and 100μg/kg IV; R40, R60, R80, and R100, respectively), acepromazine (0.1mg/kg IV; ACE) and saline (0.9%, 5mL IV) by assigning sedation scores (SS) and measuring head heights above ground (HHAG) and mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNT) in donkeys. Areas under the curve (AUC) from 0 to 30, 30-60, 60-120, and 120-180min after administration were computed for SS, HHAG, and MNT and compared among treatments. Romifidine and ACE, but not saline, induced clinical signs of sedation. SS-AUC 0-30 for R60, R80 and R100, and SS-AUC 30-60 for R100 were higher than corresponding values for saline. HHAG-AUC 30-60 for R40 and R80, and HHAG-AUC 60-120 for R40, R60, R80 and R100 were smaller than for saline. HHAG-AUC 60-120 for R100 were also smaller than those for ACE. Romifidine, but not saline or ACE, increased MNT. MNT-AUC 0-30 and MNT-AUC 30-60 for R40, R60, R80 and R100, and MNT-AUC 60-120 for R80 and R100 were higher than corresponding values for saline and ACE. MNT-AUC 60-120 for R100 were higher than for all other romifidine treatments. In donkeys, the degree of sedation was similar for the four dosages of romifidine, but antinociception was dose-dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sedation and mechanical antinociception after intravenous administration of detomidine in donkeys: a dosage-effect study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarraga, Ignacio; Castillo-Alcala, Fernanda; Varner, Kelley M; Robinson, Lauren S

    2015-02-21

    There is limited, useful, scientific information on detomidine in donkeys. This study compared the effects of intravenous saline, detomidine (10, 13.5, 17 and 20 μg/kg) and acepromazine (50 μg/kg) in donkeys by computing areas under the curve for 0-30, 30-60 and 60-120 minutes (AUC0-30, AUC30-60 and AUC60-120) for sedation scores, head heights and mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNTs). For sedation scores, all detomidine treatments, except 10 μg/kg, increased AUC0-30 values compared with saline, and AUC0-30 values were larger for 17 μg/kg detomidine than for acepromazine. All head height AUC values were lower for detomidine than for saline (except AUC60-120 for 10 μg/kg detomidine) and acepromazine (except AUC0-30 for 10 and 20 μg/kg detomidine, and AUC60-120 for 10 μg/kg detomidine). For MNTs, all detomidine treatments increased AUC0-30 and AUC30-60 values compared with saline and acepromazine; AUC30-60 values were smaller for 10 μg/kg than for 17 and 20 μg/kg detomidine. MNT AUC60-120 values were larger for 20 μg/kg detomidine than for saline, 10 μg/kg detomidine and acepromazine. Detomidine induced sedation and antinociception, but only antinociception was dosage dependent. Selection of detomidine dosage for donkeys may depend on the required duration of sedation and/or degree of analgesia. British Veterinary Association.

  19. Radiation dosage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finston, Roland [Health Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Radiation dosage at Bikini Atoll is the result of current soil contamination, a relic of the nuclear weapons testing program of some 30 years ago. The principal contaminants today and some of their physical properties are listed: cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium -239, 240 and americium-241. Cobalt-60 contributes less than 1 to the dose and is not considered significant. A resident of the atoll would accumulate radiation dose (rem) in two ways -- by exposure to radiation emanating from the ground and vegetation, and by exposure to radiation released in the spontaneous decay of radionuclides that have entered his body during the ingestion of locally grown foods. The latter process would account for some 90% of the dose; cesium-137 would be responsible for 0 90% of it. Since BARC's method of estimating dosage differs in some respects from that employed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (Ref.1, LLNL 1982) we are presenting our method in detail. The differences have two sources. First, the numbers used by BARC for the daily ingestion of radionuclides via the diet are higher than LLNL's. Second, BARC's calculation of dose from radionuclide intake utilizes the ICRP system. The net result is that BARC doses are consistently higher than LLNL doses, and in this respect are more conservative.

  20. Radiation dosage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finston, Roland

    1986-01-01

    Radiation dosage at Bikini Atoll is the result of current soil contamination, a relic of the nuclear weapons testing program of some 30 years ago. The principal contaminants today and some of their physical properties are listed: cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium -239, 240 and americium-241. Cobalt-60 contributes less than 1 to the dose and is not considered significant. A resident of the atoll would accumulate radiation dose (rem) in two ways -- by exposure to radiation emanating from the ground and vegetation, and by exposure to radiation released in the spontaneous decay of radionuclides that have entered his body during the ingestion of locally grown foods. The latter process would account for some 90% of the dose; cesium-137 would be responsible for 0 90% of it. Since BARC's method of estimating dosage differs in some respects from that employed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (Ref.1, LLNL 1982) we are presenting our method in detail. The differences have two sources. First, the numbers used by BARC for the daily ingestion of radionuclides via the diet are higher than LLNL's. Second, BARC's calculation of dose from radionuclide intake utilizes the ICRP system. The net result is that BARC doses are consistently higher than LLNL doses, and in this respect are more conservative

  1. Enoxaparin for the prevention of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction in women with a history: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Katie M; McCowan, Lesley M; Mackay, Laura K; Lee, Arier C; Said, Joanne M; Kane, Stefan C; Walker, Susan P; van Mens, Thijs E; Hannan, Natalie J; Tong, Stephen; Chamley, Larry W; Stone, Peter R; McLintock, Claire

    2017-03-01

    Preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age pregnancy are major causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Women with a previous pregnancy affected by these conditions are at an increased risk of recurrence in a future pregnancy. Past trials evaluating the effect of low-molecular-weight heparin for the prevention of recurrence of preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age pregnancy have shown conflicting results with high levels of heterogeneity displayed when trials were compared. We sought to assess the effectiveness of enoxaparin in addition to high-risk care for the prevention of preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age pregnancy in women with a history of these conditions. This was an open-label randomized controlled trial in 5 tertiary care centers in 3 countries. Women with a viable singleton pregnancy were invited to participate between >6 +0 and women with prior preeclampsia-calcium 1000-1500 mg daily until 36 +0 weeks. In a subgroup of participants serum samples were taken at recruitment and at 20 and 30 weeks' gestation and later analyzed for soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, soluble endoglin, endothelin-1, placental growth factor, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. The primary outcome was a composite of preeclampsia and/or small-for-gestational-age women who miscarried <16 weeks' gestation were excluded. The majority of participants (151/156, 97%) received aspirin. The addition of enoxaparin had no effect on the rate of preeclampsia and/or small-for-gestational-age <5th customized birthweight percentile: enoxaparin 18/72 (25%) vs no enoxaparin 17/77 (22.1%) (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.53-2.64). There was also no difference in any of the secondary outcome measures. Levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and soluble endoglin increased among those who developed preeclampsia, but there was no difference in levels of these antiangiogenic factors (nor any of the other serum analytes measured) among those

  2. The effects of different enrofloxacin dosages on clinical efficacy and resistance development in chickens experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Hao, Haihong; Cheng, Guyue; Wang, Xu; Ahmed, Saeed; Shabbir, Muhammad Abu Bakr; Liu, Zhenli; Dai, Menghong; Yuan, Zonghui

    2017-09-15

    To investigate the optimal dosage which can improve clinical efficacy and minimize resistance, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics model of enrofloxacin was established. Effect of enrofloxacin treatments on clearance of Salmonella in experimentally infected chickens and simultaneously resistance selection in Salmonella and coliforms were evaluated in three treatment groups (100, PK/PD designed dosage of 4, 0.1 mg/kg b.w.) and a control group. Treatment duration was three rounds of 7-day treatment alternated with 7-day withdrawal. Results showed that 100 mg/kg b.w. of enrofloxacin completely eradicated Salmonella, but resistant coliforms (4.0-60.8%) were selected from the end of the second round's withdrawal period till the end of the experiment (days 28-42). PK/PD based dosage (4 mg/kg b.w.) effectively reduced Salmonella for the first treatment duration. However upon cessation of medication, Salmonella repopulated chickens and persisted till the end with reduced susceptibility (MIC CIP  = 0.03-0.25 mg/L). Low frequency (5-9.5%) of resistant coliforms was selected (days 39-42). Enrofloxacin at dosage of 0.1 mg/kg b.w. was not able to eliminate Salmonella and selected coliforms with slight decreased susceptibility (MIC ENR  = 0.25 mg/L). In conclusion, short time treatment (7 days) of enrofloxacin at high dosage (100 mg/kg b.w.) could be effective in treating Salmonella infection while minimizing resistance selection in both Salmonella and coliforms.

  3. Evaluating dosage effects for the positive action program: How implementation impacts internalizing symptoms, aggression, school hassles, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Wu, Qi; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Bacallao, Martica

    2016-01-01

    Positive Action (PA) is a school-based intervention for elementary-, middle-, and high-school students that aims to decrease problem behaviors (e.g., violence, substance use) and increase positive behaviors (e.g., academic achievement, school engagement). PA has a long history of documented success achieving these aims, making it an Evidence Based Practice (EBP). Intervention research on EBP's has established the importance of implementation fidelity, especially with regard to program dosage; failure to properly implement an EBP can have negative consequences on targeted outcomes, especially if participants are exposed to a low dosage of the program (e.g., fewer lessons than specified). Much of the current research on PA has neglected to examine how program dosage impacts PA's effect on targeted outcomes. Using propensity score models, multiple imputation, and a 2-level hierarchical linear model, the current study fills this gap and examines how different dosages of PA as measured by years participating in PA and number of PA lessons, impacts adolescent internalizing symptoms, aggression, perceptions of school hassles, and self-esteem over a 3-year period. The current sample included middle school students in grades 6, 7, and 8 (N = 5,894). The findings indicate that students who received 3 years of the PA intervention and a high number of PA lessons had a significantly higher self-esteem score than those who received 0 years of PA or zero lessons. Participants who received 1 year of PA also reported significantly lower school hassle scores than those who received 0 years. Dosage had no statistically significant effects on aggression or internalizing score. Implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Minimum effective dosages of anti-TNF in rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Inmaculada; Valor, Lara; Nieto, Juan Carlos; Montoro, María; Carreño, Luis

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the modified dosages of anti-TNF in controlling disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) measured by DAS28-ESR. Cross-sectional study: RA patients treated with etanercept (ETN), adalimumab (ADA) or infliximab (IFX), at standard or modified doses. dosage, concomitant disease modifying drugs (DMARDs), DAS28-ESR. 195 RA patients included (79% women, mean age 58.1 years): ETN=81, ADA=56, IFX=58. Mean disease duration and time to first biological treatment was higher in IFX group (P=.01). Patients distribution by dosage: standard: ETN (72.8%), ADA (69.6%), IFX (27.6%); escalated: IFX (69%), ADA (5.4%), ETN (0%); reduced: ETN (27.1%), ADA (25%), IFX (3.4%). Concomitant DMARDs use was lower in ETN (58.2%) than ADA (66.07%) and IFX (79.31%). Higher proportion of responders (DAS28 ≤3.2) in ADA (65.3%) and ETN (61.7%) than IFX (48.3%). RA clinical control can be preserved with modified anti-TNF dosages. Controlled prospective studies should be performed to define when therapy can be tailored and for which patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of fixed or self-titrated dosages of Sativex on cannabis withdrawal and cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Jose M.; Lagzdins, Dina; Rehm, Jürgen; Selby, Peter; Gamaleddin, Islam; Fischer, Benedikt; Barnes, Allan J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Le Foll, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Background There is currently no pharmacological treatment approved for cannabis dependence. In this proof of concept study, we assessed the feasibility/effects of fixed and self-titrated dosages of Sativex (1:1, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD)) on craving and withdrawal from cannabis among nine community-recruited cannabis-dependent subjects. Methods Participants underwent an 8-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial (an ABACADAE design), with four smoke as usual conditions (SAU) (A) separated by four cannabis abstinence conditions (B–E), with administration of either self-titrated/fixed doses of placebo or Sativex (up to 108 mg THC/100 mg CBD). The order of medication administration during abstinence conditions was randomized and counterbalanced. Withdrawal symptoms and craving were assessed using the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale (CWS), Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (MWC) and Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ). Medication use was assessed during the study by means of self-reports, vial weight control, toxicology and metabolite analysis. Cannabis use was assessed by means of self-reports. Results High fixed doses of Sativex were well tolerated and significantly reduced cannabis withdrawal during abstinence, but not craving, as compared to placebo. Self-titrated doses were lower and showed limited efficacy as compared to high fixed doses. Participants reported a significantly lower “high” following Sativex or placebo as compared to SAU conditions. Cannabis/medication use along the study, as per self-reports, suggests compliance with the study conditions. Conclusions The results found in this proof of concept study warrant further systematic exploration of Sativex as a treatment option for cannabis withdrawal and dependence. PMID:26925704

  6. Effects of fixed or self-titrated dosages of Sativex on cannabis withdrawal and cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Jose M; Lagzdins, Dina; Rehm, Jürgen; Selby, Peter; Gamaleddin, Islam; Fischer, Benedikt; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A; Le Foll, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    There is currently no pharmacological treatment approved for cannabis dependence. In this proof of concept study, we assessed the feasibility/effects of fixed and self-titrated dosages of Sativex (1:1, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD)) on craving and withdrawal from cannabis among nine community-recruited cannabis-dependent subjects. Participants underwent an 8-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial (an ABACADAE design), with four smoke as usual conditions (SAU) (A) separated by four cannabis abstinence conditions (B-E), with administration of either self-titrated/fixed doses of placebo or Sativex (up to 108 mg THC/100 mg CBD). The order of medication administration during abstinence conditions was randomized and counterbalanced. Withdrawal symptoms and craving were assessed using the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale (CWS), Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (MWC) and Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ). Medication use was assessed during the study by means of self-reports, vial weight control, toxicology and metabolite analysis. Cannabis use was assessed by means of self-reports. High fixed doses of Sativex were well tolerated and significantly reduced cannabis withdrawal during abstinence, but not craving, as compared to placebo. Self-titrated doses were lower and showed limited efficacy as compared to high fixed doses. Participants reported a significantly lower "high" following Sativex or placebo as compared to SAU conditions. Cannabis/medication use along the study, as per self-reports, suggests compliance with the study conditions. The results found in this proof of concept study warrant further systematic exploration of Sativex as a treatment option for cannabis withdrawal and dependence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of dosages of microbial consortia formulation and synthetic fertilizer on the growth and yield of field-grown chili

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istifadah, N.; Sapta, D.; Krestini, H.; Natalie, B.; Suryatmana, P.; Nurbaity, A.; Hidersah, R.

    2018-03-01

    Chili (Capsicum annuum, L) is one of important horticultural crop in Indonesia. Formulation of microbial consortia containing Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas sp., Azotobacter chroococcum and Trichoderma harzianum has been developed. This study evaluated the effects of dosage of the microbial formulation combined with NPK fertilizer on growth and yield of chili plants in the field experiment. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design of factorial, in which the first factor was dosage of formulation (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10 g per plant) and the second factor was NPK fertilizer dosage (0, 25, 50 and 75% of the standard dosage). The treatments were replicated three times. For application, the formulation was mixed with chicken manure 1:10 (w/v). The results showed that application of microbial formulation solely improved the chili growth. There was interaction between dosages of the microbial formulation and NPK fertilizer in improving plant height, nitrogen availability and the chili yield, while there was no interaction between those dosages in improving the root length. Combination between microbial formulation at the dosage of 5.0-7.5 g per plant combined with NPK fertilizer with the dosage 50 or 75% of the standard dosage support relatively better growth and the chili yield.

  8. The efficacy and safety of enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin for prevention of deep vein thrombosis in elective cancer surgery. A double blind randomized multicentre trail with venographic assesment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergkvist, A; Eldor, A; Thorlacius-Ussing, O.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surgery for malignant disease carries a high risk of deep vein thrombosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prophylactic effect of a low molecular weight heparin, enoxaparin, 40 mg once daily, beginning 2 h before surgery, compared with that of unfractionated low-dose heparin...... three times daily. METHODS: Patients included were over 40 years of age and undergoing planned elective curative abdominal or pelvic surgery for cancer. The study was designed as a prospective double-blind randomized multicentre trial with participating departments from ten countries. Primary outcome...... severe thrombocytopenia. There were no differences in mortality at either 30 days or 3 months. CONCLUSION: Enoxaparin, 40 mg once daily, is as safe and effective as unfractionated heparin three times daily in preventing venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing major elective surgery for abdominal...

  9. The gene dosage effect of the rad52 mutation on X-ray survival curves of tetraploid yeast strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, K.S.Y.

    1975-01-01

    The mutation rad52 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae confers sensitivity to X-rays. The gene dosage effect of this mutation on X-ray survival curves of tetraploid yeast strains is shown. With increasing number of rad52 alleles, both a decrease in the survival for a given dose and a decrease in the survival curve shoulder width are observed. The generation of such a family of survival curves using three different mathematical models is discussed

  10. Retroperitoneal hematoma following rofecoxib and enoxaparin coadministration in a patient with atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Fahmi Y.; Hassan, Ibrahim F.; Allity, Mustafa H.; Khan, Saifatullah M.

    2005-01-01

    There are very few published reports implicating enoxaparin as a factor in retroperitoneal hematoma. We report a patient who developed a retroperitoneal hematoma after using enoxaparin for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. A 72 year old man was admitted with a history of low back pain, radiating beyond the back to the buttocks. His medical history was positive for bilateral knee osteoarthritis. On his physical examination his vital signs were: temperature 36.8, blood pressure 100/70 mm Hg, pulse 72/min, respiratory rate 16/min. X-ray of both the knees showed bilateral osteoarthritic changes. Computerized tomography scan of the spine showed lumbar spinal stenosis and he was referred to a Neurosurgeon, who finds the patient not fit surgical intervention. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. He was given enoxaparin one mg/kg every 12 hour and digoxin. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a right retroperitoneal hematoma and no aortic aneurysm was noted and enoxaparin and rofecoxib were discontinued. His general condition improved. The factors that increase the risk of bleeding in patients receiving enoxaparin are use of high doses of enxaparin, advanced stage, renal impairment, and the concomitant use of drugs affecting hemostasis. Retroperotoneal hematoma should be considered in the different diagnosis in patients receiving enoxaparin and experiencing unexplained decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit. In the order of precedence of radiologic diagnostic procedures for fast diagnosis of a retroperitoneal hematoma, abdominal CT-scan is the preferred method

  11. The effect of miscellaneous oral dosage forms on the environmental pollution of sulfonamides in pig holdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Jessica; Zessel, Katrin; Schulz, Jochen; Finke, Jan Henrik; Müller-Goymann, Christel Charlotte; Kietzmann, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Due to antibiotic treatment of humans and animals, the prevalence of bacterial resistances increases worldwide. Especially in livestock farming, large quantities of faeces contaminated with antibiotics pose a risk of the carryover of the active ingredient to the environment. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was the evaluation of the benefit of different oral dosage forms (powder, pellets, granula) in pigs concerning the environmental pollution of sulfadiazine. Two subtherapeutic dosages were evaluated in powder mixtures to gain information about their potential to pollute the pig barn. Furthermore, a new group of pigs was kept in the stable after powder feeding of another pig group to determine the possible absorption of environmentally distributed antibiotics. Pigs were orally treated with three dosage forms. Simultaneously, sedimentation and airborne dust were collected and plasma and urine levels were determined. All formulations result in comparable plasma and urine levels, but massive differences in environmental pollution (powder > pellets, granula). Pigs housing in a contaminated barn exhibit traces of sulfadiazine in plasma and urine. Using pharmaceutical formulations like pellets or granula, the environmental pollution of sulfonamides can significantly be diminished due to massive dust reduction during feeding.

  12. Effects of increasing age, dosage, and duration of PTH treatment on BMD increase--a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Peter; Jorgensen, Niklas Rye; Mosekilde, Leif

    2012-01-01

    were included. By metaregression analysis, we found that the increase in spine BMD (Z-score) after PTH treatment was blunted by increasing age (R (2) = 0.27; 2p = 0.01, slope -0.023 Z-scores per year, 11 studies). By increasing PTH dosage (μg/d), spine BMD increased significantly (2p = 0.......002) with a slope of +0.011 Z-scores/μg/d of teriparatide. Furthermore, the duration of treatment was positively correlated to spine BMD (P ......We studied the effects of increasing age, dosage, and duration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment on changes in bone mineral density (BMD). Randomized placebo controlled trials on PTH treatment in men or women were retrieved from PubMed (1951 to present), Web of Science (1945 to present...

  13. Effect of Slag Content and Hardening Accelerator Dosage on the Physico Mechanical Properties of Cement and Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derabla, R.; Mokrani, I.; Benmalek, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Our contribution consists at the study of the effect of (0 %, 0.2 % and 0.34 %) dosage of an hardening accelerating plasticizer (Plastocrete 160, produced by Sika Aldjazair) on the properties of normal mortar and concretes prepared with portland cement artificial of Hadjar Soud cement factory (Skikda - Algeria) with addition of (10 % and 20 %) of granulated blast furnace slag finely crushed of the El Hadjar blast furnace (Annaba - Algeria). The tests are focused to the physical and mechanical characteristics of elaborated materials to knowing: setting time, porosity, water absorption capacity and the test of compressive strength at 2, 7 and 28 days. The results obtained show clearly the reliability of the additive used to accelerate the hardening and to obtain high strengths at early age, which increase by increasing of the additive dosage. For the slag, its low hydraulic capacity does not make it profitable than at the long term (beyond 28 days). (author)

  14. Effect of low-molecular-weight beta-cyclodextrin polymer on release of drugs from mucoadhesive buccal film dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Yotaro; Kawakami, Shigeru; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2005-09-01

    We investigated the effect of low-molecular-weight beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CyD) polymer on in vitro release of two drugs with different lipophilicities (i.e., lidocaine and ketoprofen) from mucoadhesive buccal film dosage forms. When beta-CyD polymer was added to hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) or polyvinylalcohol (PVA) film dosage forms, the release of lidocaine into artificial saliva (pH 5.7) was reduced by 40% of the control. In contrast, the release of ketoprofen from the polymer film was enhanced by addition of beta-CyD polymer to the vehicle. When lidocaine and ketoprofen was incubated with beta-CyD polymer in the artificial saliva, concentration of free lidocaine molecules decreased in a beta-CyD polymer concentration-dependent manner. The association constant with beta-CyD polymer was 6.9+/-0.6 and 520+/-90 M(-1) for lidocaine and ketoprofen, respectively. Retarded release of the hydrophilic lidocaine by beta-CyD polymer might be due to the decrease in thermodynamic activity by inclusion complex formation, whereas enhanced release of the lipophilic ketoprofen by the beta-CyD polymer might be due to prevention of recrystallization occurring after contacting the film with aqueous solution. Thus, effects of low-molecular-weight beta-CyD polymer to the drug release rate from film dosage forms would vary according to the strength of interaction with and the solubility of active ingredient.

  15. Microstructural effects in drug release by solid and cellular polymeric dosage forms: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaesi, Aron H; Saka, Nannaji

    2017-11-01

    In recent studies, we have introduced melt-processed polymeric cellular dosage forms to achieve both immediate drug release and predictable manufacture. Dosage forms ranging from minimally-porous solids to highly porous, open-cell and thin-walled structures were prepared, and the drug release characteristics investigated as the volume fraction of cells and the excipient molecular weight were varied. In the present study, both minimally-porous solid and cellular dosage forms consisting of various weight fractions of Acetaminophen drug and polyethylene glycol (PEG) excipient are prepared and analyzed. Microstructures of the solid forms and the cell walls range from single-phase solid solutions of the excipient and a small amount of drug molecules to two-phase composites of the excipient and tightly packed drug particles. Results of dissolution experiments show that the minimally-porous solid forms disintegrate and release drug by slow surface erosion. The erosion rate decreases as the drug weight fraction is increased. By contrast, the open-cell structures disintegrate rapidly by viscous exfoliation, and the disintegration time is independent of drug weight fraction. Drug release models suggest that the solid forms erode by convective mass transfer of the faster-eroding excipient if the drug volume fraction is small. At larger drug volume fractions, however, the slower-eroding drug particles hinder access of the free-flowing fluid to the excipient, thus slowing down erosion of the composite. Conversely, the disintegration rate of the cellular forms is limited by diffusion of the dissolution fluid into the excipient phase of the thin cell walls. Because the wall thickness is of the order of the drug particle size, and the particles are enveloped by the excipient during melt-processing, the drug particles cannot hinder diffusion through the excipient across the walls. Thus the disintegration time of the cellular forms is mostly unaffected by the volume fraction of drug

  16. Effect of two dosages of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum against Rhammatocerus schistocercoides Rehn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria Marcos Rodrigues de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, strain CG 423, was tested under field conditions against the gregarious grasshopper Rhammatocerus schistocercoides (Rehn (Orthoptera: Acrididae. Conidia formulated in a racemic mixture of soybean oil and kerosene were sprayed under field conditions using an ultralow-volume hand-held atomizer Ulva Plus adjusted to deliver 2.9 L/ha. Bands composed of 2nd instar nymphs were treated with either 5.0x10(12 or 1.0x10(13 viable conidia/ha. The number of insects in each band was estimated at day one following spraying and by the end of the field trial (15 to 16 days post-treatment. Reductions in population size reached, in average, 65.8% and 80.4% for bands treated with the higher and lower dosage, respectively. For both dosages, total mortality rates of insects collected at two days post-application, and kept in cages for 14 days under lab conditions, showed no significant differences as compared to that obtained with insects collected immediately after spraying. Healthy insects were fed to native grasses sprayed on the field with 1.0x10(13 viable conidia/ha. Mortality levels of the nymphs fed on grasses collected two and four days post-application were not affected when compared to nymphs fed on grasses collected immediately following application.

  17. School-based early childhood education and age-28 well-being: effects by timing, dosage, and subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J; Temple, Judy A; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Arteaga, Irma A; White, Barry A B

    2011-07-15

    Advances in understanding the effects of early education have benefited public policy and developmental science. Although preschool has demonstrated positive effects on life-course outcomes, limitations in knowledge on program scale, subgroup differences, and dosage levels have hindered understanding. We report the effects of the Child-Parent Center Education Program on indicators of well-being up to 25 years later for more than 1400 participants. This established, publicly funded intervention begins in preschool and provides up to 6 years of service in inner-city Chicago schools. Relative to the comparison group receiving the usual services, program participation was independently linked to higher educational attainment, income, socioeconomic status (SES), and health insurance coverage, as well as lower rates of justice-system involvement and substance abuse. Evidence of enduring effects was strongest for preschool, especially for males and children of high school dropouts. The positive influence of four or more years of service was limited primarily to education and SES. Dosage within program components was mostly unrelated to outcomes. Findings demonstrate support for the enduring effects of sustained school-based early education to the end of the third decade of life.

  18. Effect of flocculating agent dosages on the performance of red mud flocculation under shear conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnon, M.J.; Simard, G.; Leclerc, A.; Peloquin, G.

    2002-01-01

    The performance of different polymers used to flocculate red mud particulate materials in the Bayer process can be evaluated on the basis of their efficiency to achieve adequate settling velocities and turbidity levels. In this study, three commercially available flocculants are evaluated under typical conditions found in the last washer of a Bayer plant. The different shear levels are produced by using a modified Couette flow system. Great differences are noticed in the performance of the polymers when they are compared at different dosages and at different shear rate levels. The data collected also suggests that conventional cylinder settling tests may not be adequate to measure the performance of certain types of polymers. (author)

  19. A multicenter study of the effect of dietary supplementation with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on carprofen dosage in dogs with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Dale A; Allen, Timothy A; Dodd, Chadwick E; Jewell, Dennis E; Sixby, Kristin A; Leventhal, Phillip S; Brejda, John; Hahn, Kevin A

    2010-03-01

    To determine the effects of feeding a diet supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on carprofen dosage in dogs with osteoarthritis. Randomized, controlled, multisite clinical trial. 131 client-owned dogs with stable chronic osteoarthritis examined at 33 privately owned veterinary hospitals in the United States. In all dogs, the dosage of carprofen was standardized over a 3-week period to approximately 4.4 mg/kg/d (2 mg/lb/d), PO. Dogs were then randomly assigned to receive a food supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids or a control food with low omega-3 fatty acid content, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks later, investigators made decisions regarding increasing or decreasing the carprofen dosage on the basis of investigator assessments of 5 clinical signs and owner assessments of 15 signs. Linear regression analysis indicated that over the 12-week study period, carprofen dosage decreased significantly faster among dogs fed the supplemented diet than among dogs fed the control diet. The distribution of changes in carprofen dosage for dogs in the control group was significantly different from the distribution of changes in carprofen dosage for dogs in the test group. Results suggested that in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis receiving carprofen because of signs of pain, feeding a diet supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids may allow for a reduction in carprofen dosage.

  20. Therapeutic dosages of aspirin counteract the IL-6 induced pro-tumorigenic effects by slowing down the ribosome biogenesis rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighenti, Elisa; Giannone, Ferdinando Antonino; Fornari, Francesca; Onofrillo, Carmine; Govoni, Marzia; Montanaro, Lorenzo; Treré, Davide; Derenzini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for the onset of cancer and the regular use of aspirin reduces the risk of cancer development. Here we showed that therapeutic dosages of aspirin counteract the pro-tumorigenic effects of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin(IL)-6 in cancer and non-cancer cell lines, and in mouse liver in vivo. We found that therapeutic dosages of aspirin prevented IL-6 from inducing the down-regulation of p53 expression and the acquisition of the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypic changes in the cell lines. This was the result of a reduction in c-Myc mRNA transcription which was responsible for a down-regulation of the ribosomal protein S6 expression which, in turn, slowed down the rRNA maturation process, thus reducing the ribosome biogenesis rate. The perturbation of ribosome biogenesis hindered the Mdm2-mediated proteasomal degradation of p53, throughout the ribosomal protein-Mdm2-p53 pathway. P53 stabilization hindered the IL-6 induction of the EMT changes. The same effects were observed in livers from mice stimulated with IL-6 and treated with aspirin. It is worth noting that aspirin down-regulated ribosome biogenesis, stabilized p53 and up-regulated E-cadherin expression in unstimulated control cells also. In conclusion, these data showed that therapeutic dosages of aspirin increase the p53-mediated tumor-suppressor activity of the cells thus being in this way able to reduce the risk of cancer onset, either or not linked to chronic inflammatory processes. PMID:27557515

  1. Therapeutic dosages of aspirin counteract the IL-6 induced pro-tumorigenic effects by slowing down the ribosome biogenesis rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighenti, Elisa; Giannone, Ferdinando Antonino; Fornari, Francesca; Onofrillo, Carmine; Govoni, Marzia; Montanaro, Lorenzo; Treré, Davide; Derenzini, Massimo

    2016-09-27

    Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for the onset of cancer and the regular use of aspirin reduces the risk of cancer development. Here we showed that therapeutic dosages of aspirin counteract the pro-tumorigenic effects of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin(IL)-6 in cancer and non-cancer cell lines, and in mouse liver in vivo. We found that therapeutic dosages of aspirin prevented IL-6 from inducing the down-regulation of p53 expression and the acquisition of the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypic changes in the cell lines. This was the result of a reduction in c-Myc mRNA transcription which was responsible for a down-regulation of the ribosomal protein S6 expression which, in turn, slowed down the rRNA maturation process, thus reducing the ribosome biogenesis rate. The perturbation of ribosome biogenesis hindered the Mdm2-mediated proteasomal degradation of p53, throughout the ribosomal protein-Mdm2-p53 pathway. P53 stabilization hindered the IL-6 induction of the EMT changes. The same effects were observed in livers from mice stimulated with IL-6 and treated with aspirin. It is worth noting that aspirin down-regulated ribosome biogenesis, stabilized p53 and up-regulated E-cadherin expression in unstimulated control cells also. In conclusion, these data showed that therapeutic dosages of aspirin increase the p53-mediated tumor-suppressor activity of the cells thus being in this way able to reduce the risk of cancer onset, either or not linked to chronic inflammatory processes.

  2. Synergistic Effect of Combining Plutella xylostella Granulovirus and Bacillus thuringiensis at Sublethal Dosages on Controlling of Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guangjie; Li, Chuanming; Liu, Qin; Xu, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Plutella xylostella granulovirus (PxGV) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are both entomo-pathogens to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). The purpose of the present study was to measure the effect of the combination of PxGV and Bt at sublethal dosages on the development and mortality of diamondback moth in a laboratory setting. Bt and PxGV exhibited synergistic effect on diamondback moth larval mortality and effectively controlled diamondback moth populations with low dose combination treatment. The combination of three parts per million Bt and 1.3 × 10(3) occlusion bodies per milliliter of PxGV revealed a higher larval mortality compared with the treatment of Bt or PxGV alone. Combination of Bt and PxGV at sublethal concentrations also increased larval duration, reduced oviposition and decreased adult longevity remarkably, resulting in the lowest population trend index among the treatments. The results suggested that the combination of Bt and PxGV at sublethal dosages might provide a valuable way to improve the control efficacy of diamondback moth compared with treatment of Bt or PxGV alone. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Clinical Effects of Lithospermum Ruderale Dosage and Using-time on Medicinal Abortion Induced by Mifepris tone and Misoprostol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The clinical effects of dosage during the period of treatment of Lithospermum Ruderale extract-a kind of Chinese traditional herbal medicine-on medicinal abor tion induced by mifepristone and misoprostol were studied. Lithospermum Ruderale extract was administrated 3 d before, 3 d after or 3 d before plus 3 d after the admin istration of misoprostol respectively. The dose of Lithospermum Ruderale extract was 50 g, 75 g or 100g respectively. Thus 1 350 women of early pregnancy were grouped into 9 groups and observed. The results showed that the effects of Lithospermum Rud erale used 3 d before, and 3 d before plus 3 d after (6 days misoprostol were signifi cantly better than those only used 3 d after misoprostol both for complete abortion and bleeding (P<0.05). The dosage between 50 g and l00 g made no significant differ ence in clinical effects. Therefore it is reasonable to use 50 g Lithospermum Ruderale before misoprostol to improve medicinal abortion.

  4. Enoxaparin-induced skin necrosis at injection site after total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Haffner, BS

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Enoxaparin is a widely used low-molecular-weight heparin for perioperative thromboembolic prophylaxis. Enoxaparin-induced skin necrosis in the setting of arthroplasty has been rarely reported in the literature with varying outcomes and management decisions. Our patient developed skin necrosis at his injection site and thrombocytopenia 10 days following left total knee arthroplasty surgery and after receiving subcutaneous Lovenox injections postoperatively. The patient was started on an alternative anticoagulation based on a high suspicion for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and the wound was monitored without surgical debridement. Our case highlights the key clinical management decisions when facing this potentially life-threatening adverse reaction. Keywords: Lovenox, Enoxaparin, Skin necrosis, Adverse reaction, Arthroplasty

  5. Characterization of very high gravity ethanol fermentation of corn mash. Effect of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and yeast strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devantier, Rasmus; Pedersen, S; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics such as the ......Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics...... such as the ethanol yield and volumetric and specific productivity were determined. It was shown that higher glucoamylase doses and/or pre-saccharification accelerated the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process and increased the final ethanol concentration from 106 to 126 g/kg although the maximal...... specific growth rate was decreased. Ethanol production was not only growth related, as more than half of the total saccharides were consumed and more than half of the ethanol was produced during the stationary phase. Furthermore, a high stress tolerance of the applied yeast strain was found to be crucial...

  6. Effect of low dose pre-irradiation on DNA damage and genetic material damage caused by high dosage of cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hongsheng; Zhu Jingjuan; Shang Qingjun; Wang Zhuomin; Cui Fuxian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of low dose γ-rays pre-irradiation on the induction of DNA damage and genetic material damage in peripheral lymphocytes by high dosage of cyclophosphamide (CTX). Methods: Male Kunming strain mice were randomly divided into five groups: control group, sham-irradiated group, low dose irradiated group(LDR group), cyclophosphamide chemotherapy group(CTX group) and low dose irradiation combined with chemotherapy group(LDR + CTX group). After being feeded for one week, all the mice were implanted subcutaneously with S180 cells in the left groin (control group excluded). On days 8 and 11, groups of LDR and LDR + CTX were administered with 75 mGy of whole-body irradiation, 30 h later groups CTX and LDR + CTX were injected intraperitoneally 3.0 mg cyclophosphamide. All the mice were sacrificed on day 13. DNA damage of the peripheral lymphocytes was analyzed using single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Genetic material damage was analyzed using micronucleus frequency(MNF) of polychromatoerythrocytes(PCE) in bone marrow. Results: (1) Compared with control group and sham-irradiated group, the DNA damage of peripheral lymphocytes in CTX group were increased significantly (P 0.05). Conclusions: (1) High- dosage of CTX chemotherapy can cause DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes. 75 mGy y-irradiation before chemotherapy may have certain protective effect on DNA damage. (2) CTX has potent mutagenic effect, giving remarkable rise to MNF of PCE. 75 mGy γ-ray pre-irradiation has not obvious protection against genetic toxicity of high-dose CTX chemotherapy. (authors)

  7. Assessment of HIT Antibody Complex in Hip Fracture Patients Receiving Enoxaparin or Unfractionated Heparin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffin, Justin W; Hopkinson, William J; Rud-Lassen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    of antiheparin-PF4 antibodies and a greater prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) subtype. Heparin and enoxaparin are capable of generating heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) antibodies in elderly patients undergoing orthopedic surgery but perhaps not to the same extent. When comparing low...

  8. Combined sub-threshold dosages of phenobarbital and low-frequency stimulation effectively reduce seizures in amygdala-kindled rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Azam; Semnanian, Saeed; Atapour, Nafiseh; Shojaei, Amir; Moradi, Homeira; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad

    2014-08-01

    Low-frequency stimulation (LFS) is a potential therapy utilized in patients who do not achieve satisfactory control of seizures with pharmacological treatments. Here, we investigated the interaction between anticonvulsant effects of LFS and phenobarbital (a commonly used medicine) on amygdala-kindled seizures in rats. Animals were kindled by electrical stimulation of basolateral amygdala in a rapid manner (12 stimulations/day). Fully kindled animals randomly received one of the three treatment choices: phenobarbital (1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 mg/kg; i.p.; 30 min before kindling stimulation), LFS (one or 4 packages contained 100 or 200 monophasic square wave pulses, 0.1-ms pulse duration at 1 Hz, immediately before kindling stimulation) or a combination of both (phenobarbital at 3 mg/kg and LFS). Phenobarbital alone at the doses of 1, 2 and 3 mg/kg had no significant effect on the main seizure parameters. LFS application always produced anticonvulsant effects unless applied with the pattern of one package of 100 pulses, which is considered as non-effective. All the seizure parameters were significantly reduced when phenobarbital (3 mg/kg) was administered prior to the application of the non-effective pattern of LFS. Phenobarbital (3 mg/kg) also increased the anticonvulsant actions of the effective LFS pattern. Our results provide an evidence of a positive cumulative anticonvulsant effect of LFS and phenobarbital, suggesting a potential combination therapy at sub-threshold dosages of phenobarbital and LFS to achieve a satisfactory clinical effect.

  9. Cost-utility of enoxaparin compared with unfractionated heparin in unstable coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milne Ruairidh

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low molecular weight heparins hold several advantages over unfractionated heparin including convenience of administration. Enoxaparin is one such heparin licensed in the UK for use in unstable coronary artery disease (unstable stable angina and non-Q wave myocardial infarction. In these patients, two large randomised controlled trials and their meta-analysis showed small benefits for enoxaparin over unfractionated heparin at 30–43 days and potentially at one year. We found no relevant published full economic evaluations, only cost studies, one of which was conducted in the UK. The other studies, from the US, Canada and France, are difficult to interpret since their resource use and costs may not reflect UK practice. Methods We aimed to compare the benefits and costs of short-term treatment (two to eight days with enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin in unstable coronary artery disease. We used published data sources to estimate the incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY, adopting a NHS perspective and using 1998 prices. Results The base case was a 0.013 QALY gain and net cost saving of £317 per person treated with enoxaparin instead of unfractionated heparin. All but one sensitivity analysis showed net savings and QALY gains, the exception (the worst case being a cost per QALY of £3,305. Best cases were a £495 saving and 0.013 QALY gain, or a £317 saving and 0.014 QALY gain per person. Conclusions Enoxaparin appears cost saving compared with unfractionated heparin in patients with unstable coronary artery disease. However, cost implications depend on local revascularisation practice.

  10. Enoxaparin for the prevention of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction in women with a prior history - an open-label randomised trial (the EPPI trial): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, K M; McCowan, L M; Stone, P R; Chamley, L C; McLintock, C

    2016-11-22

    Preeclampsia and intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) are two of the most common causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Current methods of predicting those at most risk of these conditions remain relatively poor, and in clinical practice past obstetric history remains the most commonly used tool. Aspirin and, in women at risk of preeclampsia only, calcium have been demonstrated to have a modest effect on risk reduction. Several observational studies and randomised trials suggest that low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) therapy may confer some benefit. This is a multicentre open label randomised controlled trial to determine the effect of the LMWH, enoxaparin, on the prevention of recurrence of preeclampsia and/or IUGR in women at high risk due to their past obstetric history in addition to standard high risk care for all participants. A singleton pregnancy >6 +0 and 12 weeks having; (1) preeclampsia delivered women are randomly assigned to 'standard high risk care' or 'standard high risk care' plus enoxaparin 40 mg from recruitment until 36 +0 weeks or delivery, whichever occurs sooner. Standard high risk care includes the use of aspirin 100 mg daily and calcium 1000-1500 mg daily (unless only had previous SGA with no preeclampsia). The primary outcome is preeclampsia and/or SGA restricted composite primary outcome. The inclusion of standard use of aspirin (and calcium) for all participants will help to ensure that any differences observed in outcome are likely to be related to enoxaparin use. These data will make a significant contribution to future meta-analyses and systematic reviews on the use of LMWH for the prevention of placental mediated conditions. ACTRN12609000699268 Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. Date registered 13/Aug/2009 (prospective registration).

  11. Effects of nitrendipine on sodium balance during changes in sodium intake and low-dosage ANP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, J. A.; Koomans, H. A.; Dorhout Mees, E. J.

    1991-01-01

    We found previously that calcium entry blockade with nitrendipine enhanced the natriuretic effect of high-dose atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). It is unknown whether nitrendipine also influences the effect of physiological changes in ANP. We therefore studied the effect of nitrendipine on

  12. Safety and efficacy of thromboprophylaxis using enoxaparin sodium after cesarean section: A multi-center study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Goto

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The current study demonstrates the safety and efficacy of enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after C/S. Further studies are required to determine the best method of preventing asymptomatic DVT.

  13. Effect of pH, Dosage and Concentration on the Adsorption of Congo Red onto Untreated and Treated Aluminium Dross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria Mohamad Zulfika, Hazielim B.; Baini, Rubiyah; Zauzi, Nur Syuhada Ahmad

    2017-06-01

    The adsorption of congo red onto aluminium dross was studied in batch process. The objective of this study is to adsorption capacity between untreated and treated aluminium dross in the removal of congo red. Aluminium dross was leached with 250 ml of 1% of NaOH and and precipitated with 30% H2O2. The treated aluminium dross being calcined at 600°C for 3 hours. The surface area for untreated and treated aluminium dross was 10.06 m2/g and 79.80 m2/g respectively. Then the adsorption process was carried out on an orbital shaker at 200 rpm for 4 hours. In the effect of pH, it was found that untreated removes more congo red compared to the treated while in the effect of concentration solution and dosage of adsorbent, treated aluminium dross removes more congo red. In conclusion, this adsorbent was found to be effective and economically viable in the removal of congo red in waste water treatment.

  14. Effectiveness of several dosage formula of oil and nano emulsion of citronella against vascular streak dieback (VSD) disease on cocoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noveriza, R.; Trisno, J.; Rahma, H.; Yuliani, S.; Reflin; Martinius

    2018-02-01

    The disease of Vascular streak dieback (VSD) is a deadly disease of cocoa plants, because it attacks the vascular tissue of cocoa at growing point of the plant. In West Sumatra the disease was first reported in 2015 with an incidence of disease range 58.82% - 100% and an intensity of disease range 24.29% - 44.7%. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of dosage application of oil formula and nano emulsion of citronella formula against Vascular streak dieback (VSD) disease on cocoa plants in West Sumatra (in Padang Pariaman District and Limapuluh Kota District). The results showed that the percentage of VSD disease attacks in both testing sites was 100%. The oil and nano emulsion of citronella formulas can reduce the intensity of VSD disease on cocoa plants in West Sumatra, particularly in Padang Pariaman District and Limapuluh Kota District. The reduction of VSD intensity in Padang Pariaman district ranged from 8.32 to 21.13%; while in Limapuluh Kota district ranged from 4.33 to 11.80%. The nano emulsion of citronella formulation is effective to suppress the intensity of VSD disease on cocoa plants at doses 0.1% (≥ 30% of effectiveness level).

  15. Mechanistic study of the azithromycin dosage-form-dependent food effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatolo, William; Foulds, George; Labadie, Robert

    2010-07-01

    Azithromycin capsules are known to exhibit a negative food effect, manifest as a decrease in azithromycin bioavailability in the fed state. Azithromycin tablets are known to be bioequivalent to capsules in the fasted state, but do not exhibit a food effect. In the present study, the involvement of gastric degradation of azithromycin to des-cladinose azithromycin (DCA) has been investigated as a possible mechanism for the observed capsule food effect. Healthy volunteers were dosed with azithromycin tablets and capsules, fasted and fed, in a four-way randomized crossover study. Serum levels of DCA were measured as a function of time post-dose. Natural log-transformed PK parameters were statistically analyzed using an ANOVA model appropriate for the study design. When capsules were dosed to fed subjects, the systemic AUC for DCA was 243% of the value observed after fasted-state dosing, and the DCA C(max) was 270% of the value observed after fasted-state dosing. When azithromycin tablets were dosed in the fasted and fed states, there was no significant difference in systemic DCA. Gastric degradation of azithromycin to DCA is the likely mechanism for the observed negative food effect observed for azithromycin capsules. This effect is not observed for tablets. These observations suggest that azithromycin capsules exhibit slow and/or delayed disintegration in the fed stomach, resulting in extended gastric residence and degradation of a portion of the gastrically retained azithromycin.

  16. Radiolabeling of intact dosage forms by neutron activation: effects on in vitro performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, A.; Jay, M.

    1987-01-01

    Compressed tablets containing various quantities of stable isotopes of Ba, Er, and Sm for use in neutron activation studies were evaluated for the effect of stable isotope incorporation on tablet hardness and disintegration times. At concentrations likely to be used in scintigraphic studies employing neutron activation as a radiolabeling method, no significant effect on in vitro parameters were observed. While the incorporation of stable isotopes influenced tablet hardness to a greater degree than disintegration time, irradiation of tablets in a neutron flux of 4.4 x 10(13) n/cm2 sec had a direct effect on tablet disintegration time. Thus, future neutron activation studies should focus on minimizing the amount of stable isotope to be incorporated with the formulation while using the shortest feasible irradiation time

  17. Effects of Urin Cow Dosage on Growth and Production of Sorgum Plant (Sorghum Bicolor L) on Peat Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami Lestari, Sri; Andrian, Andi

    2017-12-01

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L)), is a potential cultivated plant, especially in marginal and dry areas, sorghum has an important role as a source of carbohydrates, sorghum is expected as an alternative choice for peatland cultivation, with the use of peatlands is also expected Raising awareness of the environment by cultivating more environmentally friendly plants. The aim of this research is to know the influence and get the best dosage of cow urine on growth and production of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L) plant on peat soil. The experiment was conducted experimentally by using Completely Randomized Design (RAL), with one factor, namely: Cow urine administration, given in 5 treatments and 4 replications, resulting in 20 trials. Each experimental unit consists of 4 plants and 2 plants to be sampled. The factors studied were A0 = dose of cow urine 0 cc / 1, A1 = dose of cow urine 25 cc / 1, A2 = dose of cow urine 50 cc / 1, A3 = dose of cow urine 75 cc / 1, A4 = dose Cow urine 100 cc / 1. Conclusion Giving of cow urine has significant effect on growth and production of sorghum plant which is seen on the parameters of plant height, leaf length, leaf width. While wet weight 100 seeds and dry weight of 100 seeds of sorghum plants have no significant effect. The best dose is given by A4 treatment with the best dose of 100 cc / 1.

  18. The Interaction Effects of Program Training, Dosage, and Implementation Quality on Targeted Student Outcomes for The RULER Approach to Social and Emotional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Maria Regina; Brackett, Marc A.; Rivers, Susan E.; Elbertson, Nicole A.; Salovey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how training, dosage, and implementation quality of a social and emotional learning program, The RULER Approach, were related to students' social and emotional competencies. There were no main effects for any of the variables on student outcomes, but students had more positive outcomes when their teachers (a) attended more…

  19. Effect of Injection Minimal Dosages of Depot Medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA to Body Weight and Blood Chemistry Male Rat Strain Sprague-Dawley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nukman Moeloek

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Many family planning program focus more on men. Until now, vasectomy has been the commonly used method for male contraception. However, this method creates inconvenience such as irreversibility and psychological problems. One of the alternatives contraception is the combination of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA and androgen. The minimum dosage of DMPA could suppress testosterone level that leads to reduced spermatogenesis and sperm viability. Nevertheless, until now it is not known whether minimum dosages of DMPA have an effect to body weight and blood chemistry. Therefore, this research aimed at determinate the effect of minimal dosages of DMPA to body mass and blood chemistry using male rats (Rattus norvegicus L. strain Sprague-Dawley as model. This research using completely randomized design, unequal size sample, castration treatments and several doses DMPA (1.25, 0.625, and 0.313 milligram. Injecting of DMPA conducted intramuscularly on week 0 and week 12. Normality/homogeneity Data normality were analyzed before ANOVA test. Then, abnormal data were tested using Kruskal-Wallis test. The result shows that injection of DMPA in various doses do not have an effect on body weight and blood chemistry such as erytrocytes, haemoglobin, hematocrite, HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, SGOT, SGPT and triglyseride (p>0,05. Furthermore, it is concluded that that no effect of minimal dosages of DMPA to body mass and blood chemistry of rat.

  20. Biochar-Induced Changes in Soil Resilience: Effects of Soil Texture and Biochar Dosage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayodele Ebenezer AJAYI; Rainer HORN

    2017-01-01

    Biochars are,amongst other available amendment materials,considered as an attractive tool in agriculture for carbon sequestration and improvement of soil functions.The latter is widely discussed as a consequence of improved physical quality of the amended soil.However,the mechanisms for this improvement are still poorly understood.This study investigated the effect of woodchip biochar amendment on micro-structural development,micro-and macro-structural stability,and resilience of two differently textured soils,fine sand (FS) and sandy loam (SL).Test substrates were prepared by adding 50 or 100 g kg-1 biochar to FS or SL.Total porosity and plant available water were significantly increased in both soils.Moreover,compressive strength of the aggregates was significantly decreased when biochar amount was doubled.Mechanical resilience of the aggregates at both micro-and macro-scale was improved in the biochar-amended soils,impacting the cohesion and compressive behavior.A combination of these effects will result in an improved pore structure and aeration.Consequently,the physicochemical environment for plants and microbes is improved.Furthermore,the improved stability properties will result in better capacity of the biochar-amended soil to recover from the myriad of mechanical stresses imposed under arable systems,including vehicle traffic,to the weight of overburden soil.However,it was noted that doubling the amendment rate did not in any case offer any remarkable additional improvement in these properties,suggesting a further need to investigate the optimal amendment rate.

  1. Effect of occasional epoetin use in combination with a stable darbepoetin dosage on anemia management in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimamatsu K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kazumasa Shimamatsu Shimamatsu Naika Iin (Clinic, Shiseikai Medical Corporation, Chikushino City, Japan Aim: Taking advantage of the characteristics of both darbepoetin (DA and epoetin (EPO might be a reasonable option for stabilizing hemoglobin (Hb control in hemodialysis (HD patients. The effect of DA assisted by EPO (DA/EPO on Hb control was evaluated retrospectively in comparison with that of EPO monotherapy. Methods: Twenty-six HD patients whose annual mean Hb values were available for both an EPO monotherapy period and a DA/EPO period were selected for analysis. During the DA/EPO period, DA was given on the second HD day of a week, and EPO was given if needed on the first and third HD days. Under stable DA dosage, when Hb rose >12 g/dL, EPO was eliminated. When Hb decreased <10 g/dL, EPO was added again. The variability of annual mean Hb values from the 26 HD patients during the DA/EPO period was compared with that during the EPO period. Additionally, the distance in Hb (d-Hb; absolute value of difference between the annual mean Hb values and the target Hb (11 g/dL during the DA/EPO period was compared with that during the EPO period. Results: The variability of annual mean Hb values during the DA/EPO period was significantly smaller than that during the EPO period (11.2±0.25 g/dL versus [vs] 11.0±0.50 g/dL; the F-test for equality of variance, P<0.001. Additionally, the d-Hb during the DA/EPO period was significantly smaller than that during the EPO period (0.22±0.21 g/dL vs 0.38±0.31 g/dL, P<0.03. The total doses (as EPO equivalents of DA with EPO were reduced to 82.2% of the baseline EPO dose during the EPO monotherapy period. The expenditure for the DA/EPO period was significantly reduced to 80.9% of that for the EPO monotherapy. Also, the annual total amount of intravenous iron supplementation during the DA/EPO period was significantly reduced compared with that during the EPO period (546±304 mg/year vs 684±314 mg/year, P<0

  2. Dosage effect of rocuronium on intraoperative neuromonitoring in patients undergoing thyroid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang-dong; Liang, Feng; Chen, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations of rocuronium bromide used for anesthesia induction during thyroid surgery on the intraoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring was evaluated. One hundred patients undergoing thyroid operation were randomized into five groups (20 patients per group). Patients in group I were operated and monitored without the use of rocuronium bromide. Patients in groups II-V were respectively injected with 0.5x, 1x, 1.5x, and 2x ED95 rocuronium bromide intravenously. The time from injecting the rocuronium bromide to the beginning of tube insertion was recorded, the conditions of tracheal intubation were evaluated, and the changes in blood pressure and pulse during the intubation process were monitored. Vagus nerve/recurrent laryngeal nerve evoked muscle potential was monitored using the NIM-Response3.0 nerve electromyography monitor. The amplitude of electromyography signal was recorded every 5 min during 30 min after successful tracheal intubation. The tracheal intubation success rate was 100% in all groups. Compared with group I, intubating condition scores (Cooper scores) in the patients of groups II-V were higher (P rocuronium bromide during the anesthesia induction can improve the tracheal tube conditions without affecting the intraoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring. The use of 1x ED95 rocuronium bromide induction was associated with the best results.

  3. Estudo experimental dos efeitos da heparina de baixo peso molecular (Enoxaparina na formação de calo ósseo em fêmures de ratos The effects of low-molecular-weight heparin (Enoxaparin on bony callus formation in rats' femurs - an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mussi Filho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O tromboembolismo venoso é uma complicação grave que pode ocorrer após fraturas. O tratamento anticoagulante mais utilizado é com a heparina de baixo peso molecular (HBPM. Existem estudos que mostram que essa droga pode interferir no metabolismo ósseo. Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da HBPM no processo de formação de calo ósseo, realizamos um estudo experimental em ratos. A amostra constituiu-se de 22 ratos de linhagem Wistar, machos, que foram submetidos à fratura diafisária de seus fêmures direitos. Foram divididos em dois grupos de 11. No grupo controle, os animais recebiam soro fisiológico e no grupo de estudo, recebiam HBPM, enoxaparina, diariamente, por 28 dias. Após este período os ratos foram submetidos à eutanásia e os fêmures foram avaliados. No estudo macroscópico foi constatada consolidação em 11 animais (100% que não receberam enoxaparina, e, em dez animais (90,9% que receberam a droga em estudo. No estudo histológico foi constatada a formação de calo ósseo em todos os fêmures. Concluiu-se neste experimento que a enoxaparina não altera o processo de consolidação óssea em fêmures de ratos Wistar.Venous thromboembolism is a serious complication that may follow fractures. The most commonly used anticoagulant treatment is low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH. There are some studies showing that this drug may interfere on bone metabolism. With the objective of evaluating the LMWH influence on the process of bony callus formation, we conducted an experimental study on rats. Sample was constituted of 22 Wistar male rats, which were submitted to diaphyseal fracture on their right femurs. They were divided into two groups of 11 subjects each. In the control group, the animals received saline solution and in the study group, they received LMWH - enoxaparin - in a daily basis, during 28 days. After that period, the rats were submitted to euthanasia for femur assessment purposes. At the macroscopic study

  4. A novel bioreactor system for simultaneous mutli-metal leaching from industrial pyrite ash: Effect of agitation and sulphur dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sandeep; Akcil, Ata; Mishra, Srabani; Erust, Ceren

    2018-01-15

    Simultaneous multi-metal leaching from industrial pyrite ash is reported for the first time using a novel bioreactor system that allows natural diffusion of atmospheric O 2 and CO 2 along with the required temperature maintenance. The waste containing economically important metals (Cu, Co, Zn & As) was leached using an adapted consortium of meso-acidophilic Fe 2+ and S oxidising bacteria. The unique property of the sample supported adequate growth and activity of the acidophiles, thereby, driving the (bio) chemical reactions. Oxido-reductive potentials were seen to improve with time and the system's pH lowered as a result of active S oxidation. Increase in sulphur dosage (>1g/L) and agitation speed (>150rpm) did not bear any significant effect on metal dissolution. The consortium was able to leach 94.01% Cu (11.75% dissolution/d), 98.54% Co (12.3% dissolution/d), 75.95% Zn (9.49% dissolution/d) and 60.80% As (7.6% dissolution/d) at 150rpm, 1g/L sulphur, 30°C in 8days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of Chitosan Dosage Againts Liquid Waste Water Color on "Oriens Handicraft" Sasirangan Home Industry, Landasan Ulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifin Arifin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth of sasirangan fabricated prodution has brought positive impact on the welfare of Banjarnese people.  On the other hand, it also have negative impacts in the form environmental pollution as a result of sasirangan industrial liquid waste disposal without any proper treatment proccess. This study aims to determine the effect of chitosan dosage againts liquid waste water color on "Oriens Handicraft" sasirangan home industry. This is an experimental study, the test was conducted in the chemistry laboratory of environmental health department while the color level examination conducted at the Banjarbaru Industrial Standardization and Research Center. One way anova test with α = 0,05% was used for analyzed the data while chitosan regression statistic test with 84% deacetylation degree can be utilized as coagulant material for environmentally friendly sasirangan wastewater treatment with dose variation from 600, 650,700, 750 untill to 800 mg / lt. The highest color concentration eduction occurred at 750 mg / lt doses with 50,5% reduction and the lowest control at 650 mg/lt dose by 43%. The results showed that there were significant differences between color level and chitosan dose. Therefore, the government needs to play a significant role in sasirangan liquid waste treatment by using natural and environmentally friendly coagulant materials such as chitosan.

  6. The prospective study of the effect of the low-dosage radiation on the health of the staff members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shicheng; Jing Luwei; Tian Guang; Liu Linxiu; Wu Wentao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of the long term low-dosage radiation on the health of the staff members in order to provide a scientific basis for the rational protective measures to be taken. Methods: Dynamic observations were made for 15 years of the conditions of the staff members exposed to radiation. The inherent changes and the affecting factors were analyzed. Group of people free from radiation were chosen to the control group. Results: Sighs of nervous breakdown, damages of the eye crystal, hand skin and nails are much more frequently seen among medical radiation workers than these in the control group. There are differences between radiation workers and the control in the positive rates of the objective indices such as leukocytes, erythrocytes, blood platelets, immune functions, the minute nuclei and the chromosome fission. Conclusion: Persistent low-dose radiation can cause damages to the health of radiation workers in many respects, Measures of radiation protection and persistant health monitoring should be taken. Thisis of great importance in implementing the state's relative laws and regulations to protect the health of the radiation workers. (authors)

  7. Characterization of very high gravity ethanol fermentation of corn mash. Effect of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and yeast strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devantier, R. [Starch, Applied Discovery, Research and Development, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Center for Microbial Biotechnology, BioCentrum-DTU, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Pedersen, S. [Starch, Applied Discovery, Research and Development, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Olsson, L. [Center for Microbial Biotechnology, BioCentrum-DTU, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-09-01

    Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics such as the ethanol yield and volumetric and specific productivity were determined. It was shown that higher glucoamylase doses and/or pre-saccharification accelerated the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process and increased the final ethanol concentration from 106 to 126 g/kg although the maximal specific growth rate was decreased. Ethanol production was not only growth related, as more than half of the total saccharides were consumed and more than half of the ethanol was produced during the stationary phase. Furthermore, a high stress tolerance of the applied yeast strain was found to be crucial for the outcome of the fermentation process, both with regard to residual saccharides and final ethanol concentration. The increased formation of cell mass when a well-suited strain was applied increased the final ethanol concentration, since a more complete fermentation was achieved. (orig.)

  8. Effect of powdered activated carbon dosage on sludge properties and membrane bioreactor performance in a hybrid MBR-PAC system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi; Zuo, Xingtao; Xiong, Juan; Ma, Cong; Hu, Bo

    2017-12-22

    An improved insight into the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on membrane fouling is crucial to the MBR performance. Sludge key property, soluble microbial products (SMP) and transmembrane pressure (TMP) were monitored. The membrane fouling rate in the MBRs was also analyzed based on TMP profile and resistance-in-series model. PAC reduced the membrane filtration resistance and significantly decreased the fouling rate. The sludge filterability was improved by extending the filtration time by almost twofold. PAC affected the SMP release and protein/polysaccharide (carbohydrate) was in a lower ratio. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicated that PAC decreased the impact of organic carbon, and reduced the proteins' and polysaccharides' absorption and deposition on the membrane surface and in the pores. The degree of reversible and irreversible fouling was related to the PAC content added into the MBRs. At the optimum dosage of 2 g/L, the results signified the PAC potential as a mitigation strategy of membrane fouling.

  9. Effect of low dosage biochar amendment on plant physiology parameters of sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    María De la Rosa, José; Paneque, Marina; Franco-Navarro, Juan D.; Colmenero-Flores, José Manuel; Knicker, Heike

    2017-04-01

    Four different biochars were used as organic ameliorants in a typical agricultural soil of the Mediterranean region a (Calcic Cambisol). This field study was performed with plants of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) at the experimental station "La Hampa", located in the Guadalquivir river valley (SW Spain). The soil was amended with doses equivalent to 1.5 and 15 t ha-1 of the four biochars in two independent plantations. In addition, un-amended plots were prepared for comparison purposes 1. This study showed that the amendment with 1.5 t biochar ha-1 did not modify significantly soil properties, or the agronomic productivity of sunflowers. However, in spite of this low dose of biochar, positive effects on plant physiology were observed. The efficiency of Photosystem-II (quantum yield (QYPSII)), is a stress marker, related to the water status of the plant, and is reduced under drought stress. The QYPSII values of the plants grown with 1.5 t biochar ha-1 were higher than in the control and ranged between 72 and 77%. Values between 70 and 80% correspond to non-stressed (well-watered) sunflower plants. Biochar reduced stomatal conductance (gs, leaf transpiration) in both treatments. Therefore, the dependence of agronomic productivity on biochar dose was not observed, since both doses resulted in similar gs reductions. In C3 plants, such as sunflower, an increase of leaf area (LA) is usually associated to a decrease of gs caused by a reduction of stomatal frequency and increases the water use efficiency and drought tolerance 2. However, here no clear correlation could be established between biochar-induced LA stimulation and gs response after application of biochar. Thus, gs reduction was evident but not a consequence of LA increase. We hypothesize that biochar addition to soils alters anatomical and/or physiological parameters of the plants that in turn reduces stomatal conductance and increases water use efficiency of sunflower plants. After the last rain, increasing

  10. Determination of enoxaparin with rotational thrombelastometry using the prothrombinase-induced clotting time reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaden, Eva; Schober, Andreas; Hacker, Stefan; Spiss, Christian; Chiari, Astrid; Kozek-Langenecker, Sibylle

    2010-04-01

    Drug monitoring of low molecular weight heparin is generally not recommended, but could be reasonable in critically ill patients, whose risk for bleeding or thrombosis shows a high interpatient variability. Anti-Xa assays are not available around the clock even in central hospitals, whereas rotational thrombelastometry (ROTEM) becomes increasingly used at the bedside. Prothrombinase-induced clotting time (PiCT) reagent allows determination of factor Xa-inhibition in plasma. The aim of our study was to evaluate enoxaparin determination in whole blood with the ROTEM using specific test modifications, including PiCT. After ethics committee's approval, citrated whole blood obtained from overall 16 healthy volunteers was incubated with enoxaparin at 16 different anti-Xa concentrations. Main endpoint was the clotting time (CT) in ROTEM representing initial activation of clot formation. CT was determined in the new PiCT-ROTEM test, in a low-tissue factor-activated modification (LowTF-ROTEM) as well as in the commercially available heparin-sensitive ROTEM assays (HEPTEM and INTEM). In the absence of enoxaparin, CT values were 168.6 +/- 6.1 s (PiCT-ROTEM), 247.3 +/- 18.6 s (LowTF-ROTEM), and -6.2 +/- 7.9 s (INTEM-HEPTEM). A linear dependency (P anti-Xa concentration and CT was found for PiCT-ROTEM, LowTF-ROTEM, and for INTEM-HEPTEM with correlation coefficients of 0.93 for PiCT-ROTEM, 0.94 for LowTF-ROTEM, and 0.81 for INTEM-HEPTEM. This in-vitro experiment demonstrates a strong correlation between enoxaparin anti-Xa concentrations and specific ROTEM tests. These promising assays should be further evaluated for monitoring anticoagulation in high-risk patients in clinical studies.

  11. Drop-on-Demand System for Manufacturing of Melt-based Solid Oral Dosage: Effect of Critical Process Parameters on Product Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Içten, Elçin; Giridhar, Arun; Nagy, Zoltan K; Reklaitis, Gintaras V

    2016-04-01

    The features of a drop-on-demand-based system developed for the manufacture of melt-based pharmaceuticals have been previously reported. In this paper, a supervisory control system, which is designed to ensure reproducible production of high quality of melt-based solid oral dosages, is presented. This control system enables the production of individual dosage forms with the desired critical quality attributes: amount of active ingredient and drug morphology by monitoring and controlling critical process parameters, such as drop size and product and process temperatures. The effects of these process parameters on the final product quality are investigated, and the properties of the produced dosage forms characterized using various techniques, such as Raman spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and dissolution testing. A crystallization temperature control strategy, including controlled temperature cycles, is presented to tailor the crystallization behavior of drug deposits and to achieve consistent drug morphology. This control strategy can be used to achieve the desired bioavailability of the drug by mitigating variations in the dissolution profiles. The supervisor control strategy enables the application of the drop-on-demand system to the production of individualized dosage required for personalized drug regimens.

  12. Alternative dosing of prophylactic enoxaparin in the trauma patient: is more the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, Tammy R; O'Neill, Patrick J; Pieri, Paola G; Salomone, Jeffrey P; Hall, Scott T; Quan, Asia; Wells, Jordan R; Pressman, Melissa S

    2013-12-01

    Inadequate anti-factor Xa levels and increased venous thromboembolic events occur in trauma patients receiving standard prophylactic enoxaparin dosing. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that higher dosing (40 mg twice daily) would improve peak anti-Xa levels and decrease venous thromboembolism. A retrospective review was performed of trauma patients who received prophylactic enoxaparin and peak anti-Xa levels over 27 months. Patients were divided on the basis of dose: group A received 30 mg twice daily, and group B received 40 mg twice daily. Demographics and rates of venous thromboembolism were compared between dose groups and patients with inadequate or adequate anti-Xa levels. One hundred twenty-four patients were included, 90 in group A and 34 in group B. Demographics were similar, except that patients in group B had a higher mean body weight. Despite this, only 9% of group B patients had inadequate anti-Xa levels, compared with 33% of those in group A (P = .01). Imaging studies were available in 69 patients and revealed 8 venous thromboembolic events (P = NS, group A vs group B) with significantly more venous thromboembolic events occurring in patients with low anti-Xa levels (P = .02). Although higher dosing of enoxaparin led to improved anti-Xa levels, this did not equate to a statistical decrease in venous thromboembolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of Room Location on UV-C Irradiance and UV-C Dosage and Antimicrobial Effect Delivered by a Mobile UV-C Light Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, John M; Farrel, Patricia A; Towle, Dana; Fekieta, Renee; Aniskiewicz, Michael

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate ultraviolet C (UV-C) irradiance, UV-C dosage, and antimicrobial effect achieved by a mobile continuous UV-C device. DESIGN Prospective observational study. METHODS We used 6 UV light sensors to determine UV-C irradiance (W/cm2) and UV-C dosage (µWsec/cm2) at various distances from and orientations relative to the UV-C device during 5-minute and 15-minute cycles in an ICU room and a surgical ward room. In both rooms, stainless-steel disks inoculated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), and Clostridium difficile spores were placed next to sensors, and UV-C dosages and log10 reductions of target organisms achieved during 5-minute and 15-minute cycles were determined. Mean irradiance and dosage readings were compared using ANOVA. RESULTS Mean UV-C irradiance was nearly 1.0E-03 W/cm2 in direct sight at a distance of 1.3 m (4 ft) from the device but was 1.12E-05 W/cm2 on a horizontal surface in a shaded area 3.3 m (10 ft) from the device (P4 to 1-3 for MRSA, >4 to 1-2 for VRE and >4 to 0 log10 for C. difficile spores, depending on the distance from, and orientation relative to, the device with 5-minute and 15-minute cycles. CONCLUSION UV-C irradiance, dosage, and antimicrobial effect received from a mobile UV-C device varied substantially based on location in a room relative to the UV-C device. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:667-672.

  14. Randomized controlled trial of enoxaparin versus intermittent pneumatic compression for venous thromboembolism prevention in Japanese surgical patients with gynecologic malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Chie; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Takakura, Satoshi; Narui, Chikage; Saito, Motoaki; Yanaihara, Nozomu; Okamoto, Aikou

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of enoxaparin and intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention in Japanese surgical patients with gynecologic malignancy. Patients ≥ 40 years old undergoing major surgery for gynecologic malignancy without preoperative VTE were included. Written informed consent was obtained. Enrolled patients received IPC immediately before surgery. After surgery, they were randomly assigned to either an enoxaparin group or an IPC-alone group. The enoxaparin group received enoxaparin injection (20 mg, subcutaneous, every 12 h) from postoperative day 2 to 8. IPC was discontinued after the first injection. In the IPC-alone group, IPC was continued until full ambulation. The primary end-point was incidence of VTE, including pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis, regardless of symptoms. An interim analysis was to be conducted when the first 30 patients had completed the study protocol. A Data and Safety Monitoring Board was established for making recommendation on the continuation or termination of the study based on the interim results. At the time of the interim analysis, six cases of VTE were found: five in the IPC-alone group and one in the enoxaparin group (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.08). Three patients in the IPC-alone group developed pulmonary embolism, but none in the enoxaparin group did so (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.10). The study was terminated following the Data and Safety Monitoring Board's recommendation. Enoxaparin might have lowered the risk of VTE among surgical patients with gynecologic malignancy. Further studies are necessary to confirm this. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Intercavitary implants dosage calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehder, B.P.

    The use of spacial geometry peculiar to each treatment for the attainment of intercavitary and intersticial implants dosage calculation is presented. The study is made in patients with intercavitary implants by applying a modified Manchester technique [pt

  16. Effects of Microencapsulated Synbiotic Administration at Different Dosages against heavy co-infection of White Spot Disease (WSD and Vibrio harveyi in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunarty Yunarty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available White spot disease (WSD is one of infectious disease in shrimp caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. This study aimed to determine the dosage immunological effects and growth performances of microencapsulated synbiotic (Bacillus NP5 and mannan oligosaccharide at different dosages on Pacific white shrimp.  The microencapsulated synbiotic   was administered as feed supplementation  against the co-infection of   WSSV and Vibrio harveyi. Synbiotic was encapsulated by spray drying method, further feed supplemented to Pacific white shrimp for 30 days at a  dosages of 0.5% (A, 1% (B, 2% (C and control treatments, i.e. without any microencapsulated synbiotic administration as positive control (D and negative control (E. The challenge test was performed on day 30 after feeding supplementation, then the experimental shrimps were injected by WSSV intramuscularly   at the infective dosage of 104 copies.-ml-1. Afterwards,   24 hours after WSSV injection the shrimps were immersed in water contained cells suspension of V. harveyi  at the cells population dosage of 106 CFU-.ml-1. All synbiotic treatments showed better results with the values of Total Haemocyte Count (THC, Phenoloxidase (PO and Respiratory Burst (RB, were higher (P<0.05 compared to positive control. The specific growth rates (SGR of A, B and C showed higher than both controls of D and E. The feed conversion ratio (FCR value of synbiotic treatments were lower (P<0.05 than both controls. However, the administration of microencapsulated synbiotic have not been able to prevent heavy impact of WSSV and V. harveyi co-infection due to lower SR and mortality pattern which continued to increase.   Keywords: Synbiotic, Litopenaeus vannamei, WSSV, Vibrio harveyi, co-infection

  17. EFFECTS OF TWO DIFFERENT DOSAGE OF BCAA SUPPLEMENTATION ON SERUM INDICES OF MUSCLE DAMAGE AND SORENESS IN SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Mohamad-Panahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigation of the effects of two different dose of BCAA supplementation on serum indices of muscle damage and soreness in soccer players. 30 male soccer players (age: 20.2+-0.6 yr participated as subjects in this study. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups (double-blind design. All subjects performed lower- body resistance exercise (6 sets, 10 repetitions, 70% 1RM. The BCAA was given at doses of 200 and 450 mg.kg -1 BW for supplemental groups 1 and 2, respectively, 30 minutes before and after to exercise tests and carbohydrate was given at dose of 200 mg.kg -1 BW for placebo group. To identify enzymes activity (IU/L, venous blood samples were collected 30 min prior to exercise and at 24 and 48 hrs post exercise. Data were statistically analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and Bonfferoni test. Baseline CK, CK-MB and muscle soreness were determined 30 minutes before the exercise test. Baseline serum values for CK, CK-MB and baseline muscle soreness were not different between groups in the 30 minutes before the exercise test (p>0/05. However, there were significant increases between the pre-exercise and post-exercise values for CK, CK-MB and muscle soreness from 24 hrs to 48 hrs post-test (p<0/05, but there were no significant differences between two groups (p< 0.05(. These results suggested that two different dosages of BCAA supplementation did not affect muscle damage and muscle sureness during resistance exercise bout in soccer players.

  18. Bioequivalence of a biosimilar enoxaparin sodium to Clexane® after single 100 mg subcutaneous dose: results of a randomized, double-blind, crossover study in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez González J

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Javier Martínez González, Mayte Monreal, Ignacio Ayani Almagia, Jordi Llaudó Garín, Lourdes Ochoa Díaz de Monasterioguren, Ibón Gutierro Adúriz R&D Department, Laboratorios Farmacéuticos Rovi S.A., Madrid, Spain Purpose: To demonstrate the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD equivalence of a biosimilar enoxaparin to the reference drug, and to assess its safety and tolerability in healthy volunteers. Patients and methods: A randomized, double-blind, crossover, 2-sequence, single-dose study was conducted in healthy volunteers of both sexes. Participants were sequentially and randomly administered single subcutaneous injections of enoxaparin 100 mg manufactured by Rovi (test; Madrid, Spain and Clexane® (enoxaparin 100 mg manufactured by Sanofi, reference separated by a 1-week washout period. The primary PK/PD variables were maximum activity (Amax and area under the effect curve from time 0 to the last measured activity (T (AUEC0–T and AUEC from time 0 to infinity (AUEC0–inf of anti-FXa activity, and Amax and AUEC0–T of anti-FIIa activity. Secondary variables were Amax and AUEC0–T, AUEC0–inf of tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and the ratio of AUEC0–T anti-FXa to anti-FIIa activity. Biosimilarity would be shown when the 95% CI of the ratio of geometric least squares means (95% CI RGLSMs of primary PK/PD parameters fell within the standard range of bioequivalence, ie, 80%–125%.Results: The study sample consisted of 46 volunteers (33 males aged 18–44 years and with body mass index ranging from 19.0 to 31.1 kg/m2. Three subjects did not complete the study. The curves of anti-FXa, anti-FIIa and tissue factor pathway inhibitor activities corresponding to administration of the test and reference products were comparable. The 95% CI RGLSMs of Amax, AUEC0–T and AUEC0–inf for anti-FXa activity were 94.6%–105.9%, 99.8%–108.0% and 100.0%–108.6% respectively; Amax and AUEC0–T for anti-FIIa activity were 94.7%–112.6% and

  19. The presence of mathematics and computer anxiety in nursing students and their effects on medication dosage calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, Karen

    2007-05-01

    To determine if the presence of mathematical and computer anxiety in nursing students affects learning of dosage calculations. The quasi-experimental study compared learning outcomes at differing levels of mathematical and computer anxiety when integrative and computer based learning approaches were used. Participants involved a cohort of second year nursing students (n=97). Mathematical anxiety exists in 20% (n=19) of the student nurse population, and 14% (n=13) experienced mathematical testing anxiety. Those students more anxious about mathematics and the testing of mathematics benefited from integrative learning to develop conditional knowledge (F(4,66)=2.52 at pComputer anxiety was present in 12% (n=11) of participants, with those reporting medium and high levels of computer anxiety performing less well than those with low levels (F(1,81)=3.98 at pmathematical and computer anxiety when planning an educational program to develop competency in dosage calculations.

  20. GENE-dosage effects on fitness in recent adaptive duplications: ace-1 in the mosquito Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Pierrick; Milesi, Pascal; Yébakima, André; Pasteur, Nicole; Weill, Mylène; Lenormand, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Gene duplications have long been advocated to contribute to the evolution of new functions. The role of selection in their early spread is more controversial. Unless duplications are favored for a direct benefit of increased expression, they are likely detrimental. In this article, we investigated the case of duplications favored because they combine already functionally divergent alleles. Their gene-dosage/fitness relations are poorly known because selection may operate on both overall expression and duplicates relative dosage. Using the well-documented case of Culex pipiens resistance to insecticides, we compared strains with various ace-1 allele combinations, including two duplicated alleles carrying both susceptible and resistant copies. The overall protein activity was nearly additive, but, surprisingly, fitness correlated better with the relative proportion of susceptible and resistant copies rather than any absolute measure of activity. Gene dosage is thus crucial, duplications stabilizing a "heterozygote" phenotype. It corroborates the view that these were favored because they fix a permanent heterosis, thereby solving the irreducible trade-off between resistance and synaptic transmission. Moreover, we showed that the contrasted successes of the two duplicated alleles in natural populations depend on genetic changes unrelated to ace-1, confirming the probable implication of recessive sublethal mutations linked to structural rearrangements in some duplications. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Strategies for enzyme saving during saccharification of pretreated lignocellulo-starch biomass: effect of enzyme dosage and detoxification chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Mithra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Two strategies leading to enzyme saving during saccharification of pretreated lignocellulo-starch biomass (LCSB was investigated which included reducing enzyme dosage by varying their levels in enzyme cocktails and enhancing the fermentable sugar yield in enzyme-reduced systems using detoxification chemicals. Time course release of reducing sugars (RS during 24–120 h was significantly higher when an enzyme cocktail containing full dose of cellulase (16 FPU/g cellulose along with half dose each of xylanase (1.5 mg protein/g hemicelluloses and Stargen (12.5 μl/g biomass was used to saccharify conventional dilute sulphuric acid (DSA pretreated biomass compared to a parallel system where only one-fourth the dose of the latter two enzymes was used. The reduction in RS content in the 120 h saccharified mash to the extent of 3–4 g/L compared to the system saccharified with full complement of the three enzymes could be overcome considerably by supplementing the system (half dose of two enzymes with detoxification chemical mix incorporating Tween 20, PEG 4000 and sodium borohydride. Microwave (MW-assisted DSA pretreated biomass on saccharification with enzyme cocktail having full dose of cellulase and half dose of Stargen along with detoxification chemicals gave significantly higher RS yield than DSA pretreated system saccharified using three enzymes. The study showed that xylanase could be eliminated during saccharification of MW-assisted DSA pretreated biomass without affecting RS yield when detoxification chemicals were also supplemented. The Saccharification Efficiency and Overall Conversion Efficiency were also high for the MW-assisted DSA pretreated biomass. Since whole slurry saccharifcation of pretreated biomass is essential to conserve fermentable sugars in LCSB saccharification, detoxification of soluble inhibitors is equally important as channelling out of insoluble lignin remaining in the residue. As one of the major factors contributing

  2. Use of Enoxaparin in Obese Adolescents During Bariatric Surgery--a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Alvina; Vaughns, Janelle D; Ziesenitz, Victoria C; Nadler, Evan P; van den Anker, John N

    2015-10-01

    Obese patients have a higher risk of venous thromboembolism when immobilized due to surgery. The objective of this study was to assess anti-factor Xa activity in adolescent bariatric surgical patients receiving prophylactic enoxaparin. Four morbidly obese adolescents undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy were enrolled. Enoxaparin was administered (40 mg subcutaneous (SC) if BMI ≤50 kg/m(2) or 60 mg SC if BMI >50 kg/m(2)) for prevention of venous thromboembolism every 12 h starting after induction of anesthesia until discharge. Plasma anti-factor Xa activity was assessed over 12 h after the first dose and used as a surrogate marker for enoxaparin levels. Non-compartmental analysis of anti-factor Xa activity levels was performed and compared with previously published studies. Patients recruited were 16 to 18 years of age with a mean BMI of 52.6 ± 5.8 kg/m(2) (>99th BMI percentile). Peak anti-factor Xa activity ranged from 0.20 to 0.23 IU/mL in our study population, compared to 0.38 to 0.53 IU/mL in the cited lean comparator groups. Our current dosing practice of 40 mg SC for individuals with a BMI ≤50 kg/m(2) and 60 mg for individuals with a BMI ≥50 kg/m(2) resulted in anti-factor Xa activity that was sufficient for adequate thromboprophylaxis in adolescent bariatric surgical patients. Our data also demonstrates lower drug exposures in the obese when compared to lean patients. Therefore, randomized controlled efficacy and safety studies are urgently needed to guide the use of low-molecular-weight heparins in the pediatric and adolescent obese population.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and Adverse Effects of 3 Sustained-release Buprenorphine Dosages in Healthy Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Andrea S; Putta, Sumanth K; Casebolt, Donald B; Louie, Stan G

    2017-11-01

    In guinea pigs, studies addressing the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetic profiles of different sustained-release buprenorphine (SRB) formulations are still in their infancy. Here we assessed the pharmacokinetic profiles of 3 SRB dosages (SR-LAB, ZooPharm; SRBLow, 0.15 mg/kg; SRBMedium, 0.3 mg/kg; and SRBHigh, 0.6 mg/kg) for 72 h after a single subcutaneous administration to 8 (4 male and 4 female) healthy guinea pigs. Body weight, fecal output, and cortisol levels were also monitored and the results compared with those of the sham group. Within the first h after administration, the maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) of the drug was 64.3 ± 9.2 ng/mL (males) and 71.3 ± 3.7 ng/mL (females) in the SRBHigh group; 11.5 ± 3.2 ng/mL (males) and 6.9 ± 0.9 ng/mL (females) in the SRBMedium group; and 2.3 ± 0.8 ng/mL (males) and 2.0 ± 0.5 ng/mL (females) in the SRBLow group. After 72 h, therapeutic levels of the drug (>1 ng/mL) were observed only in guinea pigs treated with SRBHigh (both sexes) and males treated with SRBMediu cm. Fecal output (quantity and distribution) and body weight were significantly lower in the SRB groups as compared with the sham group, and with the SRBHigh group showing larger reductions. Baseline levels of serum cortisol in healthy females (1440 ± 106 ng/mL) were significantly greater than in males (550 ± 66 ng/mL). But, independent of the sex, SRB administration significantly reduced those levels. In conclusion, the data indicate that all 3 SRB dosages can be safely used in guinea pigs. However, therapeutic levels of the drug were observed for at least 48 h only guinea pigs treated with SRBHigh and SRBMedium. Further investigation is needed to determine if these dosages can alleviate pain in guinea pigs.

  4. Analysis of sulfates on low molecular weight heparin using mass spectrometry: structural characterization of enoxaparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rohitesh; Ponnusamy, Moorthy P

    2018-05-21

    Structural characterization of Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) is critical to meet biosimilarity standards. In this context, the review focuses on structural analysis of labile sulfates attached to the side-groups of LMWH using mass spectrometry. A comprehensive review of this topic will help readers to identify key strategies for tackling the problem related to sulfate loss. At the same time, various mass spectrometry techniques are presented to facilitate compositional analysis of LMWH, mainly Enoxaparin. Areas covered: This review summarizes findings on mass spectrometry application for LMWH, including modulation of sulfates, using enzymology and sample preparation approaches. Furthermore, popular open-source software packages for automated spectral data interpretation are also discussed. Successful use of LC/MS can decipher structural composition for LMWH and help evaluate their sameness or biosimilarity with the innovator molecule. Overall, the literature has been searched using PubMed by typing various search queries such as "enoxaparin", "mass spectrometry", "low molecular weight heparin", "structural characterization", etc. Expert commentary: This section highlights clinically relevant areas that need improvement to achieve satisfactory commercialization of LMWHs. It also primarily emphasizes the advancements in instrumentation related to mass spectrometry, and discusses building automated software for data interpretation and analysis.

  5. Combined Effects of Egg Age and Gamma Radiation Dosage on egg hatch of Scolytus Amygdali/guer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadros, A.W.; Abdallah, F.F.; Abdelsalam, K.A.; Hashem, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    Eggs of Scolytus Amygdali were irradiated with 5 to 300 gray of gamma radiation at a dose rate of 7.87 rad/second. One-to five-day-old eggs were used. Results showed that one-and-tow-day-old eggs were the most sensitive as 100% mortality were obtained at 40 and 50 gray, respectively. Three-day-old-eggs required 100 gray to prevent hatch ability; while 300 gray were needed to prevent the 4-and 5-day-old eggs from hatching. There was 7.2-fold increase in resistance as eggs matured from 1 to 5 days measured by dosages required to produce LD 50. 2 fig

  6. Comprehensive evaluation of cesium removal by CuFC adsorption. The effects of initial concentration, CuFC dosage and co-existing ions in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Xu; Ping Gu; Guang-Hui Zhang; Jun Zhao; Lu Wang; Xiang-Zhu Xiao; Fei Han

    2017-01-01

    To use copper ferrocyanide (CuFC) more efficiently in wastewater treatment, the method of isotope carrying used in "1"3"7Cs removal was investigated. A calculation model based on Freundlich isotherm was established to determine the optimum initial cesium concentration, at which the highest decontamination factor (DF) could be obtained at a certain CuFC dosage. An accurate DF prediction model was developed to describe synergistic effects of sodium and potassium. A novel index called volumetric distribution coefficient (K_v_d) was proposed to evaluate adsorption performance in terms of DF and concentration factor. (author)

  7. Benefit–risk assessment of rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after total hip or knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levitan B

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bennett Levitan,1 Zhong Yuan,1 Alexander GG Turpie,2 Richard J Friedman,3 Martin Homering,4 Jesse A Berlin,1 Scott D Berkowitz,5 Rachel B Weinstein,1 Peter M DiBattiste61Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA; 2Hamilton Health Sciences McMaster Clinic, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3Charleston Orthopaedic Associates, Charleston, SC, USA; 4Bayer HealthCare, Berlin, Germany; 5Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Whippany, NJ, USA; 6Janssen Research & Development, Raritan, NJ, USAPurpose: Venous thromboembolism is a common complication after major orthopedic surgery. When prescribing anticoagulant prophylaxis, clinicians weigh the benefits of thromboprophylaxis against bleeding risk and other adverse events. Previous benefit–risk analyses of the REgulation of Coagulation in ORthopaedic surgery to prevent Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (RECORD randomized clinical studies of rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin after total hip (THA or knee (TKA arthroplasty generally used pooled THA and TKA results, counted fatal bleeding as both an efficacy and a safety event, and included the active and placebo-controlled portions of RECORD2, which might confound benefit–risk assessments. We conducted a post hoc analysis without these constraints to assess benefit–risk for rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin in the RECORD studies.Patients and methods: Data from the safety population of the two THA and two TKA studies were pooled separately. The primary analysis compared the temporal course of event rates and rate differences between rivaroxaban and enoxaparin prophylaxis for symptomatic venous thromboembolism plus all-cause mortality (efficacy events versus nonfatal major bleeding (safety events. Additionally, these rates were used to derive measures of net clinical benefit, number needed to treat (NNT, and number needed to harm (NNH for these two end points.Results: After THA or TKA, and compared with enoxaparin, rivaroxaban

  8. Effects of rocuronium bromide on globe position and respiratory function in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs: a comparison between three different dosages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briganti, Angela; Barsotti, Giovanni; Portela, Diego A; Di Nieri, Camilla; Breghi, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effect on globe position and respiration of three dosages of intravenous rocuronium in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. Thirty-two dogs anesthetized for ophthalmic procedures. The dogs were divided into four groups, each of eight animals (G1-G4). G1, G2, G3 received 0.075, 0.05, 0.03 mg/kg of IV rocuronium, respectively; G4 received 0.9% NaCl IV; all the treatments were administered when an end-tidal isoflurane of 1.1-1.2% was reached. Anesthesia was obtained with dexmedetomidine (2.5 mcg/kg IV), methadone (0.1 mg/kg IV), propofol (2 mg/kg IV), and isoflurane in oxygen. Neuromuscular function was assessed with acceleromyography by stimulation of the peroneal nerve using the train-of-four (ToF) and the ToF ratio (ToFR). Monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory functions was performed. Changes in globe position were recorded. All three dosages of rocuronium produced centralization of the globe. Duration was 24.3 ± 4.2, 23.4 ± 3.6, and 8.7 ± 2.8 min, for G1, G2, and G3, respectively. The control group did not show globe centralization. No significant differences were found among the four groups in cardiovascular and respiratory parameters. Minute volume and ToFR were significantly lower in G1 compared with baseline values. All doses of rocuronium resulted in globe centralization. The higher dose provoked a transient respiratory depression and some degree of skeletal muscular blockade detectable with ToFR. No alterations in respiratory activity were present when 0.05 mg/kg was used. The 0.03 mg/kg dosage could be useful for very short ophthalmic procedures. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  9. The effect of different dosage regimens of tranexamic acid on blood loss in bimaxillary osteotomy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apipan, B; Rummasak, D; Narainthonsaenee, T

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three dosage regimens of intravenous tranexamic acid and normal saline placebo on blood loss and the requirement for transfusion during bimaxillary osteotomy. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed. Eighty patients scheduled for elective bimaxillary osteotomy were divided into four groups: a placebo group and three groups receiving a single dose of tranexamic acid 10, 15, or 20mg/kg body weight after the induction of anaesthesia. Demographic data, the anaesthetic time, the operative time, and the experience of the surgical team were similar in the four groups. Patients receiving placebo had increased blood loss compared to those receiving tranexamic acid. No significant difference in blood loss was found among those who received 10, 15, or 20mg/kg body weight of tranexamic acid. There was no significant difference in transfusion requirement, amount of 24-h postoperative vacuum drainage, length of hospital stay, or complications among the four groups. Prophylactic tranexamic acid decreased bleeding during bimaxillary osteotomy. Of the three dosages of tranexamic acid studied, the most efficacious and cost-effective dose to reduce bleeding was 10mg/kg body weight. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Transgenic mice with increased Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase activity: animal model of dosage effects in Down syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, C.J.; Avraham, K.B.; Lovett, M.; Smith, S.; Elroy-Stein, O.; Rotman, G.; Bry, C.; Groner, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Down syndrome, the phenotypic expression of human trisomy 21, is presumed to result from a 1.5-fold increase in the expression of the genes on human chromosome 21. As an approach to the development of an animal model for Down syndrome, several strains of transgenic mice that carry the human Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase gene have been prepared. The animals express the transgene in a manner similar to that of humans, with 0.9- and 0.7-kilobase transcripts in a 1:4 ratio, and synthesize the human enzyme in an active form capable of forming human-mouse enzyme heterodimers. Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase activity is increased from 1.6- to 6.0-fold in the brains of four transgenic strains and to an equal or lesser extent in several other tissues. These animals provide a unique system for studying the consequences of increased dosage of the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase gene in Down syndrome and the role of this enzyme in a variety of other pathological processes

  11. Fondaparinux versus Enoxaparin - Which is the Best Anticoagulant for Acute Coronary Syndrome? - Brazilian Registry Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Silva, Pedro Gabriel Melo de Barros E; Roque, Eduardo Alberto de Castro; Bossa, Aline Siqueira; César, Maria Cristina; Simões, Sheila Aparecida; Okada, Mariana Yumi; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Pedroti, Fátima Cristina Monteiro; Oliveira, Múcio Tavares de

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have shown fondaparinux's superiority over enoxaparin in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS), especially in relation to bleeding reduction. The description of this finding in a Brazilian registry has not yet been documented. To compare fondaparinux versus enoxaparin in in-hospital prognosis of non-ST elevation ACS. Multicenter retrospective observational study. A total of 2,282 patients were included (335 in the fondaparinux group, and 1,947 in the enoxaparin group) between May 2010 and May 2015. Demographic, medication intake and chosen coronary treatment data were obtained. Primary outcome was mortality from all causes. Secondary outcome was combined events (cardiogenic shock, reinfarction, death, stroke and bleeding). Comparison between the groups were done through Chi-Square test and T test. Multivariate analysis was done through logistic regression, with significance values defined as p acidente vascular cerebral e sangramentos). A comparação entre os grupos foi realizada por meio de Q-quadrado e teste-T. A análise multivariada foi realizada por regressão logística, sendo considerado significativo p < 0,05. Em relação ao tratamento, observou-se realização de intervenção coronária percutânea em 40,2% no grupo fondaparinux e 35,1% no grupo enoxaparina (p = 0,13). Na análise multivariada, observaram-se diferenças significativas entre os grupos fondaparinux e enoxaparina em relação a eventos combinados (13,8% vs. 22%, OR = 2,93, p = 0,007) e sangramentos (2,3% vs. 5,2%, OR = 4,55, p = 0,037), respectivamente. Semelhante aos dados recentemente publicados na literatura mundial, fondaparinux mostrou-se superior à enoxaparina para a população brasileira, com redução significativa de eventos combinados e sangramentos.

  12. Update on thromboprophylaxis in orthopedic surgery and critical appraisal of the role of enoxaparin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong JM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jan Man Wong, Yoon Kong LokeNorwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United KingdomAbstract: Orthopedic surgery is considered one of the most prominent risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE, but the optimal strategy for thromboprophylaxis remains a debatable topic. Consistent and reliable definitions of clinically relevant VTE and major bleeds in orthopedic research are particularly contentious areas, resulting in uncertainty about the actual benefit–harm balance of available interventions. For the newer oral anticoagulants, short-term clinical trials in highly selected patients with asymptomatic VTE (from mandatory radiological screening must be supplemented by long-term efficacy and safety data in real-world settings (such as the Global Orthopedic Registry. The evidence gap leads to visible differences among recent recommendations from bodies such as the American College of Chest Physicians (2012, the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (2011, and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence, England (NICE, 2012. While thromboprophylaxis after hip and knee arthroplasty is clearly recommended by all three bodies, there is no consistent agreement on the optimal agent or the duration of prophylaxis. Differences in opinion stem from subjective judgments on the relative weighting given to asymptomatic as opposed to symptomatic VTE, and the impact of major bleeding. While the newer oral anticoagulants (such as rivaroxaban and apixaban seem to offer significant benefits compared to enoxaparin in the reduction of asymptomatic VTE, the data are limited by the paucity of symptomatic VTE and inconsistencies in capturing major bleeds. The lack of long-term experience in real world patients means that it is too early to judge whether the obvious convenience of newer oral anticoagulants will result in better patient adherence, safety, and quality of life as compared to enoxaparin. Further research should focus on clinically

  13. Effect of Tillage in Day or Night and Application of Reduced Dosage of Imazethapyr and Trifluralin on Weed Control, Yield and Yield Components of Chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abbasian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This Experiment was arranged as a strip-plot on the base of a completely randomized block design with three replications to study the effect of tillage (whether in day or night or in day by light-proof cover and application of reduced dosage of imazethapyr and trifluralin on weed control, yield and yield components of chickpea. Main plots consisted of tillage methods and subplots consisted of trifluralin (at doses of 480, 960 and 1440 g ai /ha and imazethapyr (at doses of 50, 100 and 150 g ai /ha, plus weed free and weedy checks. Results showed weed biomass in day tillage, night tillage and in light-proof cover tillage were respectively 86, 127 and 148 g m-2. Therefore tillage at night or by light-proof cover in day time showed not enough efficiency in weed control. Weed biomass increased when application dose of herbicides decreased. Chickpea grain yield showed significant differences when different doses of herbicides applied. The minimum and the maximum seed yield were obtained respectively in weed free (by 208 g m-2 and weedy checks (by 123 g m-2. Reduced dosage of imazethapyr and trifluralin could control weeds good enough by no significant decrease in chickpea yield. Efficacy of imazethapyr to control weeds grown in chickpea was significantly better than that of trifluralin

  14. Effect of two different sublingual dosages of vitamin B12 on cobalamin nutritional status in vegans and vegetarians with a marginal deficiency: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Gardana, Claudio; Brusamolino, Antonella; Battezzati, Alberto; Ciappellano, Salvatore

    2018-02-15

    Vegetarians and vegans are more vulnerable to vitamin B 12 deficiency with severe risks of megaloblastic anemia, cognitive decline, neuropathy, and depression. An easy and simple method of supplementation consists of taking one weekly dosage of 2000 μg. However, single large oral doses of vitamin B 12 are poorly absorbed. The present research evaluates the ability of two different sublingual dosages of vitamin B 12 (350 μg/week vs 2000 μg/week) in improving cyanocobalamin (vitamin B 12 ) nutritional status in vegans and vegetarians with a marginal deficiency. A 12-week randomized, double-blind, controlled, parallel intervention trial was performed. Forty subjects with marginal vitamin B 12 deficiency were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups: test group Ld (low dose, 350 μg/week) and control group Hd (high dose, 2000 μg/week) vitamin B 12 supplementation. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 15, 30, 60, and 90 days from the intervention for the determination of vitamin B 12 , related metabolic markers, and blood cell counts. Two-way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of time (P < 0.0001) and of time × treatment interaction (P = 0.012) on serum concentration of vitamin B 12 that increased after 90-day supplementation (Ld and Hd) compared to baseline. Both the supplements increased (P < 0.0001, time effect) the levels of holotranscobalamin, succinic acid, methionine and wellness parameter, while decreased (P < 0.0001, time effect) the levels of methylmalonic acid, homocysteine and folate compared to baseline. No difference was observed between groups (LdvsHd). No effect was detected for vitamin B 6 and blood cell count. In our experimental conditions, both supplements were able to restore adequate serum concentrations of vitamin B 12 and to improve the levels of related metabolic blood markers in subjects with a marginal deficiency. The results support the use of a sublingual dosage of 50 μg/day (350

  15. Dosage and cell line dependent inhibitory effect of bFGF supplement in human pluripotent stem cell culture on inactivated human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Tara; Marquez, Maribel; Blanco, Giselle; Zhao, Yuanxiang

    2014-01-01

    Many different culture systems have been developed for expanding human pluripotent stem cells (hESCs and hiPSCs). In general, 4-10 ng/ml of bFGF is supplemented in culture media in feeder-dependent systems regardless of feeder cell types, whereas in feeder-free systems, up to 100 ng/ml of bFGF is required for maintaining long-term culture on various substrates. The amount of bFGF required in native hESCs growth niche is unclear. Here we report using inactivated adipose-derived human mesenchymal stem cells as feeder cells to examine long-term parallel cultures of two hESCs lines (H1 and H9) and one hiPSCs line (DF19-9-7T) in media supplemented with 0, 0.4 or 4 ng/ml of bFGF for up to 23 passages, as well as parallel cultures of H9 and DF19 in media supplemented with 4, 20 or 100 ng/ml bFGF for up to 13 passages for comparison. Across all cell lines tested, bFGF supplement demonstrated inhibitory effect over growth expansion, single cell colonization and recovery from freezing in a dosage dependent manner. In addition, bFGF exerted differential effects on different cell lines, inducing H1 and DF19 differentiation at 4 ng/ml or higher, while permitting long-term culture of H9 at the same concentrations with no apparent dosage effect. Pluripotency was confirmed for all cell lines cultured in 0, 0.4 or 4 ng/ml bFGF excluding H1-4 ng, as well as H9 cultured in 4, 20 and 100 ng/ml bFGF. However, DF19 demonstrated similar karyotypic abnormality in both 0 and 4 ng/ml bFGF media while H1 and H9 were karyotypically normal in 0 ng/ml bFGF after long-term culture. Our results indicate that exogenous bFGF exerts dosage and cell line dependent effect on human pluripotent stem cells cultured on mesenchymal stem cells, and implies optimal use of bFGF in hESCs/hiPSCs culture should be based on specific cell line and its culture system.

  16. Endotoxin dosage in sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Rondinelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Endotoxin, a component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of septic shock and multiple organ failure (MOF. Its entry into the bloodstream stimulates monocytes/macrophages which once activated produce and release cytokines, nitric oxide and other mediators that induce systemic inflammation, endothelial damage, organ dysfunction, hypotension (shock and MOF.The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of a quantitative test for the dosage of endotoxin to determine the risk of severe Gram-negative sepsis. Materials and methods. In the period January 2009 - June 2011 we performed 897 tests for 765 patients, mostly coming from the emergency room and intensive care, of which 328 (43% women (mean age 53 and 437 (57% male (mean age 49. Fifty-nine patients, no statistically significant difference in sex, were monitored by an average of two determinations of EA.All patients had procalcitonin values significantly altered.The kit used was EAA (Endotoxin Activity Assay Estor Company, Milan, which has three ranges of endotoxin activity (EA: low risk of sepsis if <0.40 units, medium if between 0.40 and 0.59; high if 0.60. Results. 78 out of 765 patients (10% had a low risk, 447 (58% a medium risk and 240 (32% a high risk.The dosage of EA, combined with that of procalcitonin, has allowed a more targeted antibiotic therapy. Six patients in serious clinical conditions were treated by direct hemoperfusion with Toraymyxin, a device comprising a housing containing a fiber polypropylene and polystyrene with surface-bound polymyxin B, an antibiotic that removes bacterial endotoxins from the blood. Conclusions.The test is useful in risk stratification as well as Gram negative sepsis, to set and monitor targeted therapies, also based on the neutralization of endotoxin.

  17. Effect of herbicides and various NPK dosage on ß-carotene content in the leaves of Vicia faba L. ssp. minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Wójcik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of herbicides Afalon (linuron, Aretit (dinoseb acetate, Gesatop 50 (simazine was tested concemitantly with two NPK fertilization levels (N - 0, P2O5 - 36 kg/ha, K2O - 60 kg/ha and N - 70 kg/ha, P2O5 - 72 kg/ha, K2O - 120 kg/ha on the ß-carotene content of field bean leaves. The carotenoids content was determined by thin-layer chromatography on magnesium oxide in the system petroleum ether: acetone (88 : 12 v/v. An increase of ß-carotene content in the field bean leaves at the flower-bud formation stage was found, after application of above mentioned herbicides and high dosage NPK fertilization levels. No influence of herbicides and mineral fertilization on the (ß-carotene content in the plant leaves could be demonstrated at the full pods stage.

  18. Effects of substrate type and arsenic dosage level on arsenic behavior in grassland microcosms. Part I. Preliminary results on 74As transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draggan, S.

    1977-01-01

    Microcosm design is an important factor in interpreting results obtained from studies of the environmental effects, mobility and persistence of contaminants. The behavior of pentavalent arsenic and a radioarsenic tracer was studied in three substrate types exposed to differing levels of stable As dosage. Soil cores excised intact from a natural grassland ecosystem were considered to most reliably represent the natural system under study since they retained the soil structure, and closely simulated the abiotic and biotic complexity, of the grassland ecosystem. The behavior of 74 As in the components of intact soil core microcosms differed appreciably from that observed for the other microcosm types where soil underwent manipulation. These differences were explained primarily on the basis of differences in soil structure

  19. In Vitro Activation of eNOS by Mangifera indica (Careless™) and Determination of an Effective Dosage in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Human Pilot Study on Microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstgrasser, Alexandra; Röchter, Sigrid; Dressler, Dirk; Schön, Christiane; Reule, Claudia; Buchwald-Werner, Sybille

    2016-03-01

    Mangifera indica fruit preparation (Careless™) activates the evolutionary conserved metabolic sensors sirtuin 1 and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, which have been identified as playing a key role in microcirculation and endothelial function. Here, an acute effect of a single dose of 100 mg or 300 mg Careless™ on microcirculation was investigated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover pilot study in ten healthy women to determine the effective dosage. Microcirculation and endothelial function were assessed by the Oxygen-to-see system and pulse amplitude tonometry (EndoPAT™), respectively. Cutaneous blood flow was increased over time by 100 mg (54% over pre-values, p = 0.0157) and 300 mg (35% over pre-value, p = 0.209) Careless™. The EndoPAT™ reactive hyperemia response was slightly improved 3 h after intake compared to pretesting with 300 mg Careless™. Furthermore, activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, as an important regulator for endothelial function, was tested in vitro in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Careless™, after simulation of digestion, increased the activated form of endothelial nitric oxide synthase dose-dependently by 23% (300 µg/mL), 42% (1500 µg/mL), and 60% (3000 µg/mL) compared to the untreated control. In conclusion, the study suggests moderate beneficial effects of Careless™ on microcirculation, which is at least partly mediated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. The Effect of Dosage, Gestational Age and Splenectomy on Anti-IgM Interception of Prenatal B-cell Development in Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. McCullagh

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The administration of a single bolus of anti-IgM antibody to foetal lambs early in pregnancy produces prolonged B-cell depletion. The present study investigated this depletion by examining the effect, on B-cell development in the ileal Peyer's patches, of varying the timing and dosage of antibody administration and by supplementing anti-IgM with surgical splenectomy. The capacity of a 1 mg bolus of anti-IgM to deplete Peyer's patches of B cells was lost if its administration was deferred until two thirds of the way through pregnancy, but persisted beyond this time if weight-adjusted doses were used. Splenectomy of the foetus performed at an earlier age failed to extend the age at which a 1 mg dose of antibody remained effective. As the concentration of murine immunoglobulin in foetal serum was greatly reduced after 21 days, it is inferred that ongoing suppression of B-cell development is not dependent on the continued presence of murine immunoglobulin. The enduring nature of suppression could be attributable to a limited period during which differentiation of B cells from stem cells normally occurs, although further studies will be needed to investigate this and other possible explanations for the effect of anti-IgM treatment on prenatal B-cell development in sheep.

  1. Dosage Effects of a Preventive Social-Emotional Learning Intervention on Achievement Loss Associated with Middle School Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Jennifer L.; Elias, Maurice J.

    2008-01-01

    A number of studies have documented a normative decline in academic achievement across the transition from elementary school to middle or junior high school. The current study examined the effectiveness of varying levels of a social-emotional learning intervention, "Talking with TJ," in limiting achievement loss across transition. Data were…

  2. The OPTIMIST study: optimisation of cost effectiveness through individualised FSH stimulation dosages for IVF treatment. A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Tilborg Theodora C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Costs of in vitro fertilisation (IVF are high, which is partly due to the use of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. FSH is usually administered in a standard dose. However, due to differences in ovarian reserve between women, ovarian response also differs with potential negative consequences on pregnancy rates. A Markov decision-analytic model showed that FSH dose individualisation according to ovarian reserve is likely to be cost-effective in women who are eligible for IVF. However, this has never been confirmed in a large randomised controlled trial (RCT. The aim of the present study is to assess whether an individualised FSH dose regime based on an ovarian reserve test (ORT is more cost-effective than a standard dose regime. Methods/Design Multicentre RCT in subfertile women indicated for a first IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle, who are aged  Discussion The results of this study will be integrated into a decision model that compares cost-effectiveness of the three dose-adjustment strategies to a standard dose strategy. The study outcomes will provide scientific foundation for national and international guidelines. Trial registration NTR2657

  3. The OPTIMIST study: optimisation of cost effectiveness through individualised FSH stimulation dosages for IVF treatment. A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Laven, Joop S E; Koks, Carolien A M; de Bruin, Jan Peter; Scheffer, Gabrielle J; van Golde, Ron J T; Fleischer, Kathrin; Hoek, Annemieke; Nap, Annemiek W; Kuchenbecker, Walter K H; Manger, Petra A; Brinkhuis, Egbert A; van Heusden, Arne M; Sluijmer, Alexander V; Verhoeff, Arie; van Hooff, Marcel H A; Friederich, Jaap; Smeenk, Jesper M J; Kwee, Janet; Verhoeve, Harold R; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Helmerhorst, Frans M; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J; Torrance, Helen L; Broekmans, Frank J M

    2012-09-18

    Costs of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) are high, which is partly due to the use of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH is usually administered in a standard dose. However, due to differences in ovarian reserve between women, ovarian response also differs with potential negative consequences on pregnancy rates. A Markov decision-analytic model showed that FSH dose individualisation according to ovarian reserve is likely to be cost-effective in women who are eligible for IVF. However, this has never been confirmed in a large randomised controlled trial (RCT). The aim of the present study is to assess whether an individualised FSH dose regime based on an ovarian reserve test (ORT) is more cost-effective than a standard dose regime. Multicentre RCT in subfertile women indicated for a first IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle, who are aged IVF with oocyte donation, will not be included. Ovarian reserve will be assessed by measuring the antral follicle count. Women with a predicted poor response or hyperresponse will be randomised for a standard versus an individualised FSH regime (150 IU/day, 225-450 IU/day and 100 IU/day, respectively). Participants will undergo a maximum of three stimulation cycles during maximally 18 months. The primary study outcome is the cumulative ongoing pregnancy rate resulting in live birth achieved within 18 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes are parameters for ovarian response, multiple pregnancies, number of cycles needed per live birth, total IU of FSH per stimulation cycle, and costs. All data will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed to assess whether the health and associated economic benefits of individualised treatment of subfertile women outweigh the additional costs of an ORT. The results of this study will be integrated into a decision model that compares cost-effectiveness of the three dose-adjustment strategies to a standard dose strategy

  4. Effect of oral administration of green tea extract in various dosage schemes on oxidative stress status of mice in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bártíková Hana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is a favorite beverage and its extracts are popular components of dietary supplements. The aim of the present in vivo study was to obtain detailed information about the effect of a standard green tea extract (Polyphenon, P, at different doses, on antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers in murine blood, liver, small and large intestine. In all doses, P improved the oxidative stress status via an increased content of plasmatic SH-groups (by 21-67 %. Regarding antioxidant enzymes in tissues, the low dose of P had the best positive effect as it elevated the activity of NADPH quinone reductase in liver and small intestine, thioredoxin reductase in small intestine and hepatic superoxide dismutase. Based on these facts, consumption of green tea seems to be safe and beneficial, while consumption of dietary supplements containing high doses of catechins may disturb oxidative balance by lowering the activity of thioredoxin reductase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase

  5. Effect of copper oxide wire particles dosage and feed supplement level on Haemonchus contortus infection in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Olcott, D D; Olcott, B M; Terrill, T H

    2004-09-02

    The objective of the experiment was to determine the optimal dose of copper oxide wire particles (COWPs) to reduce infection of Haemonchus contortus in male lambs. Five to six-month-old hair breed lambs were housed on concrete and fed 450 (L; n = 25) or 675 g (H; n = 25) corn/soybean meal supplement and bermudagrass hay. In July, lambs were inoculated with 10,000 L(3) larvae (97% H. contortus; Day 0). Lambs were administered 0, 2, 4, or 6 g COWP on Day 28. Concentrations of copper in the liver were determined. There were no effects of supplement level on concentrations of copper in the liver and a linear relationship existed between COWP treatment and concentrations of copper in liver (P copper in the liver of the COWP treatment groups. PCV values were more favorable for lambs fed the higher level of supplement, especially when FEC were greater than 8000 epg.

  6. Enhanced Medial Collateral Ligament Healing using Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Dosage Effects on Cellular Response and Cytokine Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saether, Erin E.; Chamberlain, Connie S.; Leiferman, Ellen M.; Kondratko-Mittnacht, Jaclyn R.; Li, Wan Ju; Brickson, Stacey L.; Vanderby, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have potential therapeutic applications for musculoskeletal injuries due to their ability to differentiate into several tissue cell types and modulate immune and inflammatory responses. These immune-modulatory properties were examined in vivo during early stage rat medial collateral ligament healing. Two different cell doses (low dose 1×106 or high dose 4×106 MSCs) were administered at the time of injury and compared with normal ligament healing at days 5 and 14 post-injury. At both times, the high dose MSC group demonstrated a significant decrease in M2 macrophages compared to controls. At day 14, fewer M1 macrophages were detected in the low dose group compared to the high dose group. These results, along with significant changes in procollagen I, proliferating cells, and endothelialization suggest that MSCs can alter the cellular response during healing in a dose-dependent manner. The higher dose ligaments also had increased expression of several pro-inflammatory cytokines at day 5 (IL-1β, IFNγ, IL-2) and increased expression of IL-12 at day 14. Mechanical testing at day 14 revealed increased failure strength and stiffness in low dose ligaments compared to controls. Based on these improved mechanical properties, MSCs enhanced functional healing when applied at a lower dose. Different doses of MSCs uniquely affected the cellular response and cytokine expression in healing ligaments. Interestingly, the lower dose of cells proved to be most effective in improving functional properties. PMID:24174129

  7. Effect of PAC dosage in a pilot-scale PAC-MBR treating micro-polluted surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingyi; Shang, Ran; Deng, Huiping; Heijman, Sebastiaan G J; Rietveld, Luuk C

    2014-02-01

    To address the water scarcity issue and advance the traditional drinking water treatment technique, a powdered activated carbon-amended membrane bioreactor (PAC-MBR) is proposed for micro-polluted surface water treatment. A pilot-scale study was carried out by initially dosing different amounts of PAC into the MBR. Comparative results showed that 2g/L performed the best among 0, 1, 2 and 3g/L PAC-MBR regarding organic matter and ammonia removal as well as membrane flux sustainability. 1g/L PAC-MBR exhibited a marginal improvement in pollutant removal compared to the non-PAC system. The accumulation of organic matter in the bulk mixture of 3g/L PAC-MBR led to poorer organic removal and severer membrane fouling. Molecular weight distribution of the bulk liquid in 2g/L PAC-MBR revealed the synergistic effects of PAC adsorption/biodegradation and membrane rejection on organic matter removal. Additionally, a lower amount of soluble extracellular polymer substances in the bulk can be secured in 21 days operation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of a lifestyle programme on ambulatory blood pressure and drug dosage in treated hypertensive patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Valerie; Beilin, Lawrie J; Cutt, Hayley E; Mansour, Jacqueline; Wilson, Amy; Mori, Trevor A

    2005-06-01

    To assess effects of multifactorial lifestyle modification on antihypertensive drug needs in treated hypertensive individuals. Randomized controlled trial. Research studies unit. Overweight hypertensive patients, receiving one or two antihypertensive drugs, were recruited by advertising, and allocated randomly to a usual care group (controls; n = 118) or a lifestyle modification group (programme group; n = 123). A 4-month programme of weight loss, a low-sodium 'Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension'-type diet with added fish, physical activity and moderation of alcohol intake. After 4 months, if mean 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was less than 135/85 mmHg, antihypertensive drugs were withdrawn over 4 weeks and long-term home blood pressure monitoring was begun. Antihypertensive drug requirements, ABP, weight, waist girth at 4 months and 1-year follow-up. Ninety control group and 102 programme group participants completed the study. Mean 24-h ABP changed after 4 months by -1.0/-0.3 +/- 0.5/0.4 mmHg in controls and -4.1/-2.1 +/- 0.7/0.5 mmHg with the lifestyle programme (P lifestyle modification in patients with treated hypertension reduced blood pressure in the short-term. Decreased central obesity persisted 1 year later and could reduce overall cardiovascular risk.

  9. Effect of different dosages of nitroglycerin infusion on arterial blood gas tensions in patients undergoing on- pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Gholamreza; Pour, Evaz Hidar; Sadeghpour, Ali; Ziayeefard, Mohsen; Alavi, Mostapha; Anbardan, Sanam Javid; Shirani, Shahin

    2012-02-01

    On-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery impairs gas exchange in the early postoperative period. The main object on this study was evaluation of changes in arterial blood gas values in patients underwent on pump CABG surgery receiving different dose of intravenous nitroglycerin (NTG). sixty-seven consecutive patients undergoing elective on-pump CABG randomly enrolled into three groups receiving NTG 50 μg/min (Group N1, n =67), 100 μg/min (Group N2, n = 67), and 150 μg/min (Group N3, n = 67). Arterial blood gas (ABG) tensions were evaluated just before induction of anesthesia, during anesthesia, at the end of warming up period, and 6 h after admission to the intensive care unit. Pao2 and PH had the highest value during surgery in Group N1, Group N2, and Group N3. No significant difference was noted in mean values of Pao2 and PH during surgery between three groups (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in HCO3 values in different time intervals among three groups (P > 0.05). our results showed that infusing three different dosage of NTG (50, 100, and 150 μg/min) had no significant effect on ABG tensions in patients underwent on-pump CABG surgery.

  10. Economic impact of enoxaparin versus unfractionated heparin for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in patients with acute ischemic stroke: a hospital perspective of the PREVAIL trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Graham; Lin, Jay; Stern, Lee; Subrahmanian, Tarun; Annemans, Lieven

    2012-03-01

    The PREVAIL (Prevention of VTE [venous thromboembolism] after acute ischemic stroke with LMWH [low-molecular-weight heparin] and UFH [unfractionated heparin]) study demonstrated a 43% VTE risk reduction with enoxaparin versus UFH in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). A 1% rate of symptomatic intracranial and major extracranial hemorrhage was observed in both groups. To determine the economic impact, from a hospital perspective, of enoxaparin versus UFH for VTE prophylaxis after AIS. A decision-analytic model was constructed and hospital-based costs analyzed using clinical information from PREVAIL. Total hospital costs were calculated based on mean costs in the Premier™ database and from wholesalers acquisition data. Costs were also compared in patients with severe stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score ≥14) and less severe stroke (NIHSS score <14). The average cost per patient due to VTE or bleeding events was lower with enoxaparin versus UFH ($422 vs $662, respectively; net savings $240). The average anticoagulant cost, including drug-administration cost per patient, was lower with UFH versus enoxaparin ($259 vs $360, respectively; net savings $101). However, when both clinical events and drug-acquisition costs were considered, the total hospital cost was lower with enoxaparin versus UFH ($782 vs $922, respectively; savings $140). Hospital cost-savings were greatest ($287) in patients with NIHSS scores ≥14. The higher drug cost of enoxaparin was offset by the reduction in clinical events as compared to the use of UFH for VTE prophylaxis after an AIS, particularly in patients with severe stroke. Copyright © 2011 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  11. Quantitative determination of five metabolites of aspirin by UHPLC-MS/MS coupled with enzymatic reaction and its application to evaluate the effects of aspirin dosage on the metabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Ping; Guo, Jian-Ming; Shang, Er-Xin; Zhu, Zhen-Hua; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Bu-Chang; Zhao, Jing; Tang, Zhi-Shu; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2017-05-10

    Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin, ASA) is a famous drug for cardiovascular diseases in recent years. Effects of ASA dosage on the metabolic profile have not been fully understood. The purpose of our study is to establish a rapid and reliable method to quantify ASA metabolites in biological matrices, especially for glucuronide metabolites whose standards are not commercially available. Then we applied this method to evaluate the effects of ASA dosage on the metabolic and excretion profile of ASA metabolites in rat urine. Salicylic acid (SA), gentisic acid (GA) and salicyluric acid (SUA) were determined directly by UHPLC-MS/MS, while salicyl phenolic glucuronide (SAPG) and salicyluric acid phenolic glucuronide (SUAPG) were quantified indirectly by measuring the released SA and SUA from SAPG and SUAPG after β-glucuronidase digestion. SUA and SUAPG were the major metabolites of ASA in rat urine 24h after ASA administration, which accounted for 50% (SUA) and 26% (SUAPG). When ASA dosage was increased, the contributions dropped to 32% and 18%, respectively. The excretion of other three metabolites (GA, SA and SAPG) however showed remarkable increases by 16%, 6% and 4%, respectively. In addition, SUA and SUAPG were mainly excreted in the time period of 12-24h, while GA was excreted in the earlier time periods (0-4h and 4-8h). SA was mainly excreted in the time period of 0-4h and 12-24h. And the excretion of SAPG was equally distributed in the four time periods. We went further to show that the excretion of five metabolites in rat urine was delayed when ASA dosage was increased. In conclusion, we have developed a rapid and sensitive method to determine the five ASA metabolites (SA, GA, SUA, SAPG and SUAPG) in rat urine. We showed that ASA dosage could significantly influence the metabolic and excretion profile of ASA metabolites in rat urine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Inoculum Dosage Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae mixture with Fermentation Time of Oil Seed Cake (Jatropha curcas L) to the content of Protein and Crude Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniati, T.; Nurlaila, L.; Iim

    2017-04-01

    Jatropha curcas L already widely cultivated for its seeds pressed oil used as an alternative fuel. This plant productivity per hectare obtained 2.5-5 tonnes of oil/ha / year and jatropha seed cake from 5.5 to 9.5 tonnes/ha/year, nutrient content of Jatropha curcas seed L potential to be used as feed material, However, the constraints faced was the low crude protein and high crude protein. The purpose of the research was to determine the dosage of inoculum and fermentation time of Jatropha seed cake by a mixture of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae on crude protein and crude fibre. The study was conducted by an experimental method using a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) factorial design (3×3). The treatment consisted of a mixture of three dosage levels of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae (= 0.2% d1, d2 and d3 = 0.3% = 0.4%) and three levels of fermentation time (w1 = 72 hours, 96 hours and w2 = w3 = 120 hours) each repeated three times. The parameters measured were crude protein and crude fibre. The results showed that dosages of 0.3% (Aspergillus niger Rhizopus oryzae 0.15% and 0.15%) and 72 hours (d2w1) is the dosage and the optimal time to generate the highest crude protein content of 21.11% and crude fibre amounted to 21.36%.

  13. Gene dosage effects of the imprinted delta-like homologue 1 (dlk1/pref1 in development: implications for the evolution of imprinting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simao Teixeira da Rocha

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Genomic imprinting is a normal process that causes genes to be expressed according to parental origin. The selective advantage conferred by imprinting is not understood but is hypothesised to act on dosage-critical genes. Here, we report a unique model in which the consequences of a single, double, and triple dosage of the imprinted Dlk1/Pref1, normally repressed on the maternally inherited chromosome, can be assessed in the growing embryo. BAC-transgenic mice were generated that over-express Dlk1 from endogenous regulators at all sites of embryonic activity. Triple dosage causes lethality associated with major organ abnormalities. Embryos expressing a double dose of Dlk1, recapitulating loss of imprinting, are growth enhanced but fail to thrive in early life, despite the early growth advantage. Thus, any benefit conferred by increased embryonic size is offset by postnatal lethality. We propose a negative correlation between gene dosage and survival that fixes an upper limit on growth promotion by Dlk1, and we hypothesize that trade-off between growth and lethality might have driven imprinting at this locus.

  14. Effect of 16 Weeks Walking With Different Dosages on Psychosocial Function Related Quality of Life Among 60 to 75 Years Old Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Karimi Torghabeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of current semi-experimental study was a survey on effect Abstract  of 16 week walking on psychosocial functioning related to quality of life among 60 to 75 years old men. Methods & Materials: For this reason, short form of health-related quality of life questionnaire (SF-36 and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS had been distributed to the subjects at 2 times of pre-test and posttest. Statistical sample of current study was 60 to 75 years old men who placed at Kahrizak house and assessed by considering physically and medical background. Also factors of entrance to the intervention like age range, satisfaction and intention to participate in walking program, no history of diabetic, cardiovascular, Parkinsonism diseases and postural, neurological, musculoskeletal disorders, lack of having clinical background like visual disorders or disordering on equilibrium system, lack of motor limitation, foot print disorders, having surgery and mental health had been determined and assessed. Finally after primary studies, 80 person selected and categorized accidentally to the 3 experimental group (1, 2, 3 sessions per week, 30 min walking with moderate intension at every sessions and one control group (without physical activity in period of 16 week. Data analyzed by employing ANOVA, Pearson coefficient and scheffe post-hoc tests at the significance level of P0.05. Conclusion: On the basis of results, we can say that doing regular walking with efficient and standard dosage for elderly people, can increase their quality of life. Furthermore designing and action operating regular walking program for elderly men on the basis of special, logical and systematic pattern under the supervision of aware coaches have been recommended on the basis of results.

  15. Determining S-1 dosage at hospitals prioritizing cancer chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Shigefumi; Kitada, Noriaki; Anami, Setsuko

    2008-01-01

    Although it is recommended that the standard S-1 dosage should be based on how large the body surface area is, an on-site setting of the appropriate dosage is often lower than the standard one, depending on the individual's condition and considering possible side effects and so, on. Here, we investigated usage conditions for S-1 as a part of field training for expert pharmacists at our hospital that performs total clinical treatments. Decreases in dosage per day for elderly patients were although the standard dosage is generally determined according to the amount of a patient's body surface. We conducted a retrospective survey with a total 90 patients by creating a tree-diagram to identify a reduction standard. It was found that the S-1 dosage was decreased when there were side effects, aggravation in performance status, decrease in kidney function, old age, combined injection chemotherapy, and a decrease in radiation therapy performance. The dosage decreases without such medical reasons were seen in only 4 of the 90 patients. At hospitals giving priority to chemotherapy, it became clear that appropriate treatment was promoted by decreasing. The individual target dosage on the basis of daily medical examination. (author)

  16. 21 CFR 330.3 - Imprinting of solid oral dosage form drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imprinting of solid oral dosage form drug products... AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND NOT MISBRANDED General Provisions § 330.3 Imprinting of solid oral dosage form drug products. A requirement to imprint an identification code on solid oral dosage form drug...

  17. Effect of maternal high dosages of folic acid supplements on neurocognitive development in children at 4-5 y of age: the prospective birth cohort Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera-Gran, Desirée; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva M; Garcia de la Hera, Manuela; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardón, Adonina; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Balluerka, Nekane; Murcia, Mario; González-Safont, Llúcia; Romaguera, Dora; Julvez, Jordi; Vioque, Jesús

    2017-09-01

    Background: The benefits of the use of folic acid supplements (FASs) during the periconception period to prevent neural tube defects and to ensure normal brain development in offspring are well known. There is concern, however, about the long-term effects of the maternal use of high dosages of FASs that exceed the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) (≥1000 μg/d) on child neurocognitive outcomes. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the association between the use of high dosages of FASs during pregnancy and child neuropsychological development at ages 4-5 y. Design: The multicenter prospective mother-child cohort study, the Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project, was conducted in 4 regions of Spain: Asturias, Sabadell, Gipuzkoa, and Valencia. Pregnant women were recruited between 2003 and 2008. Data on 1682 mother-child pairs were included in the final analyses. The pregnant women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire that was validated to estimate typical dietary folate intake and the use of FASs at 10-13 and 28-32 wk of gestation. Neuropsychological development scores at 4-5 y of age were estimated with the use of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Multiple linear regression and meta-analysis were used to obtain combined-effect estimates. Results: During the periconception period, one-third of the women ( n = 502) took FAS dosages ≥1000 μg/d. The use of FAS dosages ≥1000 μg/d in this period was negatively associated with several neuropsychological outcomes scores in children: global verbal (β = -2.49; 95% CI: -4.71, -0.27), verbal memory (β = -3.59; 95% CI: -6.95, -0.23), cognitive function of posterior cortex (β = -2.31; 95% CI: -4.45, -0.18), and cognitive function of left posterior cortex (β = -3.26; 95% CI: -5.51, -1.01). Conclusions: The use of FAS dosages exceeding the UL (≥1000 μg/d) during the periconception period was associated with lower levels of cognitive development in children aged 4-5 y. The

  18. Effect of surfactants, gastric emptying, and dosage form on supersaturation of dipyridamole in an in vitro model simulating the stomach and duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, A; Fadda, H M

    2014-08-04

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gastric emptying patterns, surfactants, and dosage form on the supersaturation of a poorly soluble weakly basic drug, dipyridamole, using an in vitro model mimicking the dynamic environment of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and, furthermore, to evaluate the usefulness of this model in establishing correlations to in vivo bioavailability for drugs with solubility/dissolution limited absorption. A simulated stomach duodenum model comprising four compartments was used to assess supersaturation and precipitation kinetics as a function of time. It integrates physiologically relevant fluid volumes, fluid transfer rates, and pH changes of the upper GI tract. Monoexponential gastric emptying patterns simulating the fasted state were compared to linear gastric emptying patterns simulating the fed state. The effect of different surfactants commonly used in oral preparations, specifically, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), poloxamer-188, and polysorbate-80, on dipyridamole supersaturation was investigated while maintaining surface tension of the simulated gastric fluids at physiological levels and without obtaining artificial micellar solubilization of the drug. The supersaturation behavior of different dose strengths of dipyridamole was explored. Significant levels of dipyridamole supersaturation were observed in the duodenal compartment under all the different in vivo relevant conditions explored. Dipyridamole supersaturation ratios of up to 11-fold have been observed, and supersaturation has been maintained for up to 120 min. Lower duodenal concentrations of dipyridamole were observed under linear gastric emptying patterns compared to mononexponential gastric emptying. The mean duodenal area under concentration-time curves (AUC60min) for the dipyridamole concentration profile in the duodenal compartment is significantly different for all the surfactants explored (P stomach duodenum model can provide a reliable and

  19. Influence of renal function on the efficacy and safety of fondaparinux relative to enoxaparin in non ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Keith A A; Bassand, Jean-Pierre; Mehta, Shamir R

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A recent randomized, controlled trial, the Fifth Organization to Assess Strategies in Acute Ischemic Syndromes (OASIS 5) trial, reported that major bleeding was 2-fold less frequent with fondaparinux than with enoxaparin in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Renal dysfunction increases t...

  20. The effect of altered dosage of a mutant allele of Teosinte branched 1 (tb1-ref) on the root system of modern maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Amelie C M; McClymont, Sarah A; Soliman, Sameh S M; Raizada, Manish N

    2014-02-14

    There was ancient human selection on the wild progenitor of modern maize, Balsas teosinte, for decreased shoot branching (tillering), in order to allow more nutrients to be diverted to grain. Mechanistically, the decline in shoot tillering has been associated with selection for increased expression of the major domestication gene Teosinte Branched 1 (Tb1) in shoot primordia. Therefore, TB1 has been defined as a repressor of shoot branching. It is known that plants respond to changes in shoot size by compensatory changes in root growth and architecture. However, it has not been reported whether altered TB1 expression affects any plant traits below ground. Previously, changes in dosage of a well-studied mutant allele of Tb1 in modern maize, called tb1-ref, from one to two copies, was shown to increase tillering. As a result, plants with two copies of the tb1-ref allele have a larger shoot biomass than heterozygotes. Here we used aeroponics to phenotype the effects of tb1-ref copy number on maize roots at macro-, meso- and micro scales of development. An increase in the tb1-ref copy number from one to two copies resulted in: (1) an increase in crown root number due to the cumulative initiation of crown roots from successive tillers; (2) higher density of first and second order lateral roots; and (3) reduced average lateral root length. The resulting increase in root system biomass in homozygous tb1-ref mutants balanced the increase in shoot biomass caused by enhanced tillering. These changes caused homozygous tb1-ref mutants of modern maize to more closely resemble its ancestor Balsas teosinte below ground. We conclude that a decrease in TB1 function in maize results in a larger root system, due to an increase in the number of crown roots and lateral roots. Given that decreased TB1 expression results in a more highly branched and larger shoot, the impact of TB1 below ground may be direct or indirect. We discuss the potential implications of these findings for whole

  1. Clinical presentation and course of bleeding events in patients with venous thromboembolism, treated with apixaban or enoxaparin and warfarin. Results from the AMPLIFY trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleker, Suzanne M; Cohen, Alexander T; Büller, Harry R; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Gallus, Alexander S; Raskob, Gary E; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Curto, Madelyn; Sisson, Melanie; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2016-11-30

    Apixaban, a direct acting oral anticoagulant (DOAC), was found to be non-inferior to and safer as enoxaparin followed by warfarin for treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the AMPLIFY trial. Information is needed on how bleeding events with DOACs present and develop. In this post-hoc analysis, the clinical presentation and course of all major and clinically relevant non major (CRNM) bleeding events in the AMPLIFY trial were blindly classified by three investigators, using pre-designed classification schemes containing four categories. Odds ratios (OR) for classifying as category three or four (representing a more severe clinical presentation and course) were calculated between apixaban and enoxaparin/warfarin. In total, 63 major and 311 CRNM bleeding events were classified. Of the major bleeds, a more severe clinical presentation occurred in 28.5 % of apixaban versus 44.9 % of enoxaparin/warfarin related recipients (OR 0.49, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.14-1.78). A severe clinical course was observed in 14.3 % and in 12.2 %, respectively (OR 1.19, 95 %CI 0.21-6.69). Of the CRNM bleeding events, a more severe clinical presentation and extent of clinical care was found in 25 % of apixaban recipients compared to 22.7 % in the enoxaparin/warfarin group (OR 1.13, 95 %CI 0.65-1.97). The clinical presentation and course of major and CRNM bleeds were similar in apixaban and enoxaparin/warfarin treated patients. This finding should reassure physicians and patients that even in the absence of a specific reversal agent, apixaban is a convenient and safe choice for VTE.

  2. Dosage compensation of serine-4 transfer RNA in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchler, J.A.; Owenby, R.K.; Jacobson, K.B.

    1982-01-01

    A dosage series of the X chromosome site for serine-4 transfer RNA consisting of one of three copies in females and one to two in males was constructed to test whether transfer RNA expression is governed by dosage compensation. A dosage effect on the level of the serine-4 isoacceptor was observed in both females and males when the structural locus was varied. However, in males, each dose had a relatively greater expression so the normal one dose was slightly greater than the total female value and the duplicated male had the highest relative expression of all the types examined. Serine-4 levels in males and females from an isogenic Oregon-R stock were similar. Thus the transfer RNA levels conform to the expectations of dosage compensation

  3. Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) used as a marker for completeness of 24 hour urine: effects of age and dosage scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, J.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Ovesen, L.

    2003-01-01

    collections in this age group will be rejected unjustly (false-negatives). Also, with the currently recommended dosage schedule (PABA taken with the main meals) the risk of false-positive 24 h urine collections prevails. With refinement of the PABA test procedure, ie employing a specific analytical method......Objective: To examine the age dependency of the urinary para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) excretion, and if a delayed PABA excretion can be overcome by advancing intake schedule; and to examine the recovery of PABA in fractionated urinary samples collected during 24 h after single and repeated doses...... specimens for 24 h after a morning dose of 80 mg of PABA, and another subgroup of 10 subjects collected individual urine specimens for 24 h after ingestion of 80 mg of PABA three times at mealtimes. Subjects: Employees and relatives from the Danish Food Administration. Setting: Ninety-nine healthy...

  4. Effect of cement dosage and early curing towards Kuala Perlis dredged marine sediments: a ɛv - σv and SEM-EDX approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syakeera Nordin, Nurul; Chan, Chee-Ming

    2017-11-01

    Cement is the primary material used in solidifying the soft soils. This material was applied in solidifying Kuala Perlis dredged marine sediments (DMS). These unwanted sediments are classified as high plasticity silt, MH with 3.36 LL of wc/LL value. At dosage 10 and 20 % of cemented-DMS and 3 days curing time, compression curve results shows the settlement criteria were enhanced than the natural DMS. Unfortunately, the settlement criteria are not complies with the permissible settlement limit and applicable pressure. The formation of cementing compounds appears in the SEM micrograph for 10 and 20 % of cemented-DMS. EDX analysis shows the Ca:Si ratio were increased for cemented-DMS due to the formation of C-S-H gel.

  5. Abatement of phenolic mixtures by catalytic wet oxidation enhanced by Fenton's pretreatment: Effect of H2O2 dosage and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.; Yustos, P.; Rodriguez, S.; Simon, E.; Garcia-Ochoa, F.

    2007-01-01

    Catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) of a phenolic mixture containing phenol, o-cresol and p-cresol (500 mg/L on each pollutant) has been carried out using a commercial activated carbon (AC) as catalyst, placed in a continuous three-phase reactor. Total pressure was 16 bar and temperature was 127 deg. C. Pollutant conversion, mineralization, intermediate distribution, and toxicity were measured at the reactor outlet. Under these conditions no detoxification of the inlet effluent was found even at the highest catalyst weight (W) to liquid flow rate (Q L ) ratio used. On the other hand, some Fenton Runs (FR) have been carried out in a batch way using the same phenolic aqueous mixture previously cited. The concentration of Fe 2+ was set to 10 mg/L. The influence of the H 2 O 2 amount (between 10 and 100% of the stoichiometric dose) and temperature (30, 50, and 70 deg. C) on phenols conversion, mineralization, and detoxification have been analyzed. Phenols conversion was near unity at low hydrogen peroxide dosage but mineralization and detoxification achieved an asymptotic value at each temperature conditions. The integration of Fenton reagent as pretreatment of the CWO process remarkably improves the efficiency of the CWO reactor and allows to obtain detoxified effluents at mild temperature conditions and relatively low W/Q L values. For a given phenolic mixture a temperature range of 30-50 deg. C in the Fenton pretreatment with a H 2 O 2 dosage between 20 and 40% of the stoichiometric amount required can be proposed

  6. Parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates imprinting in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline E Jullien

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In mammals and in plants, parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates embryo growth and might be involved in reproductive isolation between emerging new species. Increased dosage of maternal genomes represses growth while an increased dosage of paternal genomes has the opposite effect. These observations led to the discovery of imprinted genes, which are expressed by a single parental allele. It was further proposed in the frame of the parental conflict theory that parental genome imbalances are directly mirrored by antagonistic regulations of imprinted genes encoding maternal growth inhibitors and paternal growth enhancers. However these hypotheses were never tested directly. Here, we investigated the effect of parental genome imbalance on the expression of Arabidopsis imprinted genes FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED2 (FIS2 and FLOWERING WAGENINGEN (FWA controlled by DNA methylation, and MEDEA (MEA and PHERES1 (PHE1 controlled by histone methylation. Genome dosage imbalance deregulated the expression of FIS2 and PHE1 in an antagonistic manner. In addition increased dosage of inactive alleles caused a loss of imprinting of FIS2 and MEA. Although FIS2 controls histone methylation, which represses MEA and PHE1 expression, the changes of PHE1 and MEA expression could not be fully accounted for by the corresponding fluctuations of FIS2 expression. Our results show that parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates imprinting using mechanisms, which are independent from known regulators of imprinting. The complexity of the network of regulations between expressed and silenced alleles of imprinted genes activated in response to parental dosage imbalance does not support simple models derived from the parental conflict hypothesis.

  7. Dosage of DTPA administration by inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Akira; Fukuda, Satoshi; Yamada, Yuji; Iida, Haruzo; Shimo, Michikuni

    2000-01-01

    The administration of DTPA by inhalation was examined as an emergency medical treatment. In order to estimate the practical dosage to the human, an accurate model of the human air way was connected to a anesthetizer and respiration was simulated. Ca-DTPA, aerosolized by an ultra-sonic nebulizer, was administered by inhalation to the model. For the experiments, the respiratory volume (tidal volume) and the respiration rate was 12 per minute. Irrigation water from the model of larynx and mouth, and the air filter were collected and measured by chelate titration in order to determine the quantity of aerosolized DTPA and the amount deposited on the trachea and lang. The results indicated that the quantity of aerosolized DTPA varied with dilution of the DTPA solution in a ample. It was found that a 3 time dilution was the most practical and that 73 mg of DTPA per minute could be aerosolized. Furthermore, the results indicated that 46% of the aerosolized DTPA was taken in through inhalation and that 26% of DTPA was deposited in the trachea and lung. These results suggest that in practical application in the emergency medical treatment, 15 minutes of inhalation could delivered to approximately 500 mg of DTPA, and 130 mg could be delivered to the trachea and lung. It is considered that these quantity are enough amount to increase the effects of radioactive nuclides from the body, comparing with the recommended dosage for injection administration. (author)

  8. Effect of three different dosages of magnesium sulfate on attenuating hemodynamic responses after electroconvulsive therapy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honarmand, A.; Safavi, M.; Mehdizadeh, F.; Salehi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study was to compare the efficacy of three different dosages of MgSO/sub 4/ administration (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) versus placebo on attenuation of cardiovascular response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Methodology: Thirty-five adult patients scheduled for 8 ECT sessions were randomly assigned to be allocated twice into one of the four study groups: MgSO/sub 4/ 10 mg/kg (M10), MgSO/sub 4/ 20 mg/ kg (M20), MgSO/sub 4/ 30 mg/kg (M30), and placebo control (P). Systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded at 0, 1, 3, and 10 minutes after termination of ECT-induced seizures. Duration of electroencephalographs (EEGs) and motor seizures and peak HR during convulsions were also recorded. Results: Changes in SAP, DAP, and MAP were significantly attenuated at 0, one, and three minutes after ECT in groups M20 and M30 compared with group P (P< 0.05). Peak HR changes were significantly less in groups M20 and M30 compared with groups M10 and P (P< 0.05). Duration of motor and EEG seizure activity was not significantly different among the four groups. Conclusion: Administration of either 20 or 30 mg/kg MgSO/sub 4/ significantly attenuated increased blood pressure and peak HR after ECT without decreasing seizure duration. (author)

  9. Matrix effect on leaching of Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from epoxy resin based inner lacquer of aluminium tubes into semi-solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipke, Uwe; Haverkamp, Jan Boris; Zapf, Thomas; Lipperheide, Cornelia

    2016-04-01

    To study the impact of different semi-solid dosage form components on the leaching of Bisphenol A (BPA) and Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from the epoxy resin-based inner lacquer of aluminium tubes, the tubes were filled with different matrix preparations and stored at an elevated temperature. Despite compliance with the European Standards EN 15348 and EN 15766 on porosity and polymerisation of internal coatings of aluminium tubes, the commercially available tubes used in the study contained an increased amount of polymerisation residues, such as unbound BPA, BADGE and BADGE derivatives in the lacquer, as determined by acetonitrile extraction. Storage of Macrogol ointments in these tubes resulted in an almost quantitative migration of the unbound polymerisation residues from the coating into the ointment. In addition, due to alterations observed in the RP-HPLC chromatograms of the matrix spiked with BADGE and BADGE derivatives it is supposed that the leachates can react with formulation components. The contamination of the medicinal product by BPA, BADGE and BADGE derivatives can be precluded by using aluminium tubes with an internal lacquer with a low degree of unbound polymerisation residues. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enalapril dosage in progressive chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, Thomas; Heisterberg, Jens; Sonne, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In chronic renal failure, clearance of enalapril is reduced. Hence, a renoprotective effect may be achieved with lower doses than conventionally used. Since marked inter-patient variation in concentrations of enalaprilat has been shown in patients with renal failure despite equivalent...... dosage of enalapril, a direct comparison of the effect of high versus low plasma concentrations of enalaprilat on the progression of renal failure was undertaken. METHODS: Forty patients with a median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 17 (6-35) ml/min/1.73 m2 were studied in an open-label, randomised...... intervals by the plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA, and the individual rates of progression of renal failure were calculated as the slope of GFR versus time plot. RESULTS: In the high-concentration group, the median enalaprilat trough concentration was 92.9 ng/ml (21.8-371.0 ng/ml) and in the low...

  11. Effect of Fe(II)/Ce(III) dosage ratio on the structure and anion adsorptive removal of hydrothermally precipitated composites: Insights from EXAFS/XANES, XRD and FTIR

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia

    2016-10-24

    In this work, we present material chemistry in the hydrothermal synthesis of new complex structure materials based on various dosage ratios of Fe and Ce (1:0, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 0:1), characterize them by the relevant methods that allow characterization of both crystalline and amorphous phases and correlate their structure/surface properties with the adsorptive performance of the five toxic anions. The applied synthesis conditions resulted in the formation of different compounds of Fe and Ce components. The Fe-component was dominated by various phases of Fe hydrous oxides, whereas the Ce-component was composed of various phases of Ce carbonates. The presence of two metal salts in raw materials resulted in the formation of a mesoporous structure and averaged the surface area compared to one metal-based material. The surface of all Fe-Ce composites was abundant in Fe component phases. Two-metal systems showed stronger anion removal performance than one-metal materials. The best adsorption was demonstrated by Fe-Ce based materials that had low crystallinity, that were rich in phases and that exhibited surfaces were abundant in greater number of surface functional groups. Notably, Fe extended fine structures simulated by EXAFS in these better adsorbents were rich from oscillations from both heavy and light atoms. This work provides new insights on the structure of composite inorganic materials useful to develop their applications in adsorption and catalysis. It also presents new inorganic anion exchangers with very high removal potential to fluoride and arsenate.

  12. Estimation of radiation dosage and transmutation effect of 14C involved in measuring rate of albumin synthesis with 14C-carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, A.H.; Hafkenscheid, J.C.M.; Goossens, C.M.I.C.; Buys, W.C.A.M.; Binkhorst, R.A.; Van Tongeren, J.H.M.

    1975-01-01

    For direct measurement of the rate of albumin synthesis, Na 2 14 CO 3 was used intravenously. The assessment of the radiation hazard involved in the study was based on the knowledge of the minimum dose of Na 2 14 CO 3 necessary for a sufficient incorporation of 14 C in the guanidine-C of arginine in albumin to obtain measurable radioactivity. By measurement of expired 14 CO 2 and excreted 14 C-urea in the urine during a 5-hr period following intravenous administration of Na 2 14 CO 3 in five subjects, some quantitative data on 14 C retention and radiation dosage were obtained. In comparison with animal studies, the rate of expiration of 14 CO 2 in man is slower. About 50 percent of the total radioactivity injected was lost through the respiratory route in the first hour. The total amount of expired 14 C during the 5 hr of investigation was about 75 percent of the injected dose for the five subjects. The amount of 14 C excreted as urinary 14 C-urea during the 5 hr of investigation is very small in comparison with the expired 14 C; it was only about 0.5 percent of the dose injected. The total absorbed radiation dose after complete elimination of 14 C from the body was calculated with various assumptions. The extra risk of genetic damage due to disintegration of retained 14 C in comparison with that of natural 14 C in the body during 30 living years is about 50 percent. (U.S.)

  13. Effect of Fe(II)/Ce(III) dosage ratio on the structure and anion adsorptive removal of hydrothermally precipitated composites: Insights from EXAFS/XANES, XRD and FTIR

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia; Gerda, Vasyl; Banerjee, Dipanjan; Yablokova, Ganna

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present material chemistry in the hydrothermal synthesis of new complex structure materials based on various dosage ratios of Fe and Ce (1:0, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 0:1), characterize them by the relevant methods that allow characterization of both crystalline and amorphous phases and correlate their structure/surface properties with the adsorptive performance of the five toxic anions. The applied synthesis conditions resulted in the formation of different compounds of Fe and Ce components. The Fe-component was dominated by various phases of Fe hydrous oxides, whereas the Ce-component was composed of various phases of Ce carbonates. The presence of two metal salts in raw materials resulted in the formation of a mesoporous structure and averaged the surface area compared to one metal-based material. The surface of all Fe-Ce composites was abundant in Fe component phases. Two-metal systems showed stronger anion removal performance than one-metal materials. The best adsorption was demonstrated by Fe-Ce based materials that had low crystallinity, that were rich in phases and that exhibited surfaces were abundant in greater number of surface functional groups. Notably, Fe extended fine structures simulated by EXAFS in these better adsorbents were rich from oscillations from both heavy and light atoms. This work provides new insights on the structure of composite inorganic materials useful to develop their applications in adsorption and catalysis. It also presents new inorganic anion exchangers with very high removal potential to fluoride and arsenate.

  14. Doubled dosage of sofosbuviris expected for inhibiting Zika virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2017-01-01

    Sofosbuvir is a new antiviral drug that has been recommended for management of hepatitis C virus (HCV) for a few years. New researches support that sofosbuvir might be useful for the management of Zika virus infection. Based on the pharmacological activity, inhibiting the HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp or NS5 protein), sofosbuvir is proposed for its effectiveness against Zika virus infection. Here, the authors used a mathematical modelling theoretical approach to predict the expected dosage of sofosbuvir for inhibiting Zika virus infection. Based on the modeling study, if sofosbuvir is assigned for management of Zika virus infection, doubled dosage of the present dosage for hepatitis C management is recommended.

  15. Hydraulic Modular Dosaging Systems for Machine Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Kotlobai

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The justified principle of making modular dosaging systems for positive-displacement multimotor hydraulic drives used in running gear and technological equipment of mobile construction, road and agricultural machines makes it possible to synchronize motion of running parts. The examples of the realization of modular dosaging systems and an algorithm of their operation are given in the paper.

  16. [Pharmaceutical advice concerning different pharmaceutical dosage forms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakonyi, Gergely; Zelkó, Romána

    2010-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the commonly applied types of drug uptake and the pharmacists' advice concerning a certain dosage form. The manuscript also deals with the modified release dosage forms and their abbreviations in the name of the marketing authorized products.

  17. Dosage-based parameters for characterization of puff dispersion results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbekar, Eva; Harms, Frank; Leitl, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    A set of parameters is introduced to characterize the dispersion of puff releases based on the measured dosage. These parameters are the dosage, peak concentration, arrival time, peak time, leaving time, ascent time, descent time and duration. Dimensionless numbers for the scaling of the parameters are derived from dimensional analysis. The dimensionless numbers are tested and confirmed based on a statistically representative wind tunnel dataset. The measurements were carried out in a 1:300 scale model of the Central Business District in Oklahoma City. Additionally, the effect of the release duration on the puff parameters is investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mesenteric ischemia-reperfusion injury: clearly improved hemodynamics but only minor protection of the rat small intestine by (sub)therapeutic heparin sodium and enoxaparin doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walensi, Mikolaj; de Groot, Herbert; Schulz, Rainer; Hartmann, Matthias; Petrat, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Tissue protection against ischemia (I)/reperfusion (R) injury by heparins can be due to their anticoagulant and/or non-anticoagulant properties. Here we studied the protective potential of the anticoagulant and the non-anticoagulant features of heparin sodium (HepSo) and enoxaparin (Enox) against mesenteric I/R injury in a rat model. Mesenteric I/R was induced in rats (n = 6 per group) by superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO; 90 min) and reopening (120 min). Therapeutic/clinical and subtherapeutic/non-anticoagulant doses of HepSo (0.25 mg/kg bolus + 0.25 mg/kg × h; 0.05 mg/kg bolus + 0.1 mg/kg × h) or Enox (0.5 mg/kg bolus + 0.5 mg/kg × h; 0.05 mg/kg bolus + 0.1 mg/kg × h) were administered intravenously starting 30 min before SMAO to the end of reperfusion. Systemic/vital and intestinal microcirculatory parameters were measured during the whole experimental procedure, those of small intestine injury at the end. During intestinal reperfusion, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rates were significantly increased by HepSo and, less effectively, by Enox, in a dose-dependent manner. Intestinal microcirculation was only affected by the therapeutic HepSo dose, which decreased the microvascular flow and S(O2) during reperfusion. The subtherapeutic Enox treatment, as opposed to any HepSo dose, most effectively diminished I/R-induced intestinal hemorrhages, myeloperoxidase activity (as a measure of neutrophil invasion), and histopathological changes. Therapeutic but, to a lesser extent, also the subtherapeutic doses of both HepSo and Enox clearly improve hemodynamics during mesenteric reperfusion, while intestinal protection is exclusively provided by Enox, especially at its subtherapeutic dose. Alterations in intestinal microcirculation are not responsible for these effects. Thus, non-anticoagulant Enox doses and, preferably, heparin(oid)s unable to affect coagulation, could diminish clinical risks of I/R-induced gastrointestinal complications. Copyright

  19. Dosage and duration effects of nitrogen additions on ectomycorrhizal sporocarp production and functioning: an example from two N-limited boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselquist, Niles J; Högberg, Peter

    2014-08-01

    relative index of EM fungal sink strength for N. However, nitrogen additions at high dosage rates or over long time periods appear to disrupt this feedback, which could have important ramifications on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in these forested ecosystems.

  20. X chromosome dosage compensation via enhanced transcriptional elongation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larschan, Erica; Bishop, Eric P; Kharchenko, Peter V; Core, Leighton J; Lis, John T; Park, Peter J; Kuroda, Mitzi I

    2011-03-03

    The evolution of sex chromosomes has resulted in numerous species in which females inherit two X chromosomes but males have a single X, thus requiring dosage compensation. MSL (Male-specific lethal) complex increases transcription on the single X chromosome of Drosophila males to equalize expression of X-linked genes between the sexes. The biochemical mechanisms used for dosage compensation must function over a wide dynamic range of transcription levels and differential expression patterns. It has been proposed that the MSL complex regulates transcriptional elongation to control dosage compensation, a model subsequently supported by mapping of the MSL complex and MSL-dependent histone 4 lysine 16 acetylation to the bodies of X-linked genes in males, with a bias towards 3' ends. However, experimental analysis of MSL function at the mechanistic level has been challenging owing to the small magnitude of the chromosome-wide effect and the lack of an in vitro system for biochemical analysis. Here we use global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) to examine the specific effect of the MSL complex on RNA Polymerase II (RNAP II) on a genome-wide level. Results indicate that the MSL complex enhances transcription by facilitating the progression of RNAP II across the bodies of active X-linked genes. Improving transcriptional output downstream of typical gene-specific controls may explain how dosage compensation can be imposed on the diverse set of genes along an entire chromosome.

  1. Neurological outcomes in patients with ischemic stroke receiving enoxaparin or heparin for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis: subanalysis of the Prevention of VTE after Acute Ischemic Stroke with LMWH (PREVAIL) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Carlos S; Albers, Gregory W; Bladin, Christopher; Fieschi, Cesare; Gabbai, Alberto A; O'Riordan, William; Pineo, Graham F

    2009-11-01

    The Prevention of VTE after Acute Ischemic Stroke with LMWH (PREVAIL) study demonstrated that enoxaparin was superior to unfractionated heparin (UFH) in preventing venous thromboembolism in patients with ischemic stroke and was associated with a small but statistically significant increase in extracranial hemorrhage rates. In this PREVAIL subanalysis, we evaluate the long-term neurological outcomes associated with the use of enoxaparin compared with UFH. We also determine predictors of stroke progression. Acute ischemic stroke patients aged >or=18 years, who could not walk unassisted, were randomized to receive enoxaparin (40 mg once daily) or UFH (5000 U every 12 hours) for 10 days. Patients were stratified according to baseline stroke severity using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score. End points for this analysis included stroke progression (>or=4-point increase in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score), neurological outcomes up to 3 months postrandomization (assessed using National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and modified Rankin Scale score), and incidence of intracranial hemorrhage. Stroke progression occurred in 45 of 877 (5.1%) patients in the enoxaparin group and 42 of 872 (4.8%) of those receiving UFH. Similar improvements in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin Scale scores were observed in both groups over the 90-day follow-up period. Incidence of intracranial hemorrhage was comparable between groups (20 of 877 [2.3%] and 22 of 872 [2.5%] in enoxaparin and UFH groups, respectively). Baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, hyperlipidemia, and Hispanic ethnicity were independent predictors of stroke progression. The clinical benefits associated with use of enoxaparin for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in patients with acute ischemic stroke are not associated with poorer long-term neurological outcomes or increased rates of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage compared

  2. Advances in solid dosage form manufacturing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Gavin P

    2007-12-15

    Currently, the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries are moving through a period of unparalleled change. Major multinational pharmaceutical companies are restructuring, consolidating, merging and more importantly critically assessing their competitiveness to ensure constant growth in an ever-more demanding market where the cost of developing novel products is continuously increasing. The pharmaceutical manufacturing processes currently in existence for the production of solid oral dosage forms are associated with significant disadvantages and in many instances provide many processing problems. Therefore, it is well accepted that there is an increasing need for alternative processes to dramatically improve powder processing, and more importantly to ensure that acceptable, reproducible solid dosage forms can be manufactured. Consequently, pharmaceutical companies are beginning to invest in innovative processes capable of producing solid dosage forms that better meet the needs of the patient while providing efficient manufacturing operations. This article discusses two emerging solid dosage form manufacturing technologies, namely hot-melt extrusion and fluidized hot-melt granulation.

  3. Maths anxiety and medication dosage calculation errors: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Davis, Samantha

    2016-09-01

    A student's accuracy on drug calculation tests may be influenced by maths anxiety, which can impede one's ability to understand and complete mathematic problems. It is important for healthcare students to overcome this barrier when calculating drug dosages in order to avoid administering the incorrect dose to a patient when in the clinical setting. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of maths anxiety on healthcare students' ability to accurately calculate drug dosages by performing a scoping review of the existing literature. This review utilised a six-stage methodology using the following databases; CINAHL, Embase, Medline, Scopus, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, Trip database (http://www.tripdatabase.com/) and Grey Literature report (http://www.greylit.org/). After an initial title/abstract review of relevant papers, and then full text review of the remaining papers, six articles were selected for inclusion in this study. Of the six articles included, there were three experimental studies, two quantitative studies and one mixed method study. All studies addressed nursing students and the presence of maths anxiety. No relevant studies from other disciplines were identified in the existing literature. Three studies took place in the U.S, the remainder in Canada, Australia and United Kingdom. Upon analysis of these studies, four factors including maths anxiety were identified as having an influence on a student's drug dosage calculation abilities. Ultimately, the results from this review suggest more research is required in nursing and other relevant healthcare disciplines regarding the effects of maths anxiety on drug dosage calculations. This additional knowledge will be important to further inform development of strategies to decrease the potentially serious effects of errors in drug dosage calculation to patient safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ecchymosis and/or haematoma formation after prophylactic administration of subcutaneous enoxaparin in the abdomen or arm of the critically ill patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jareño-Collado, R; Sánchez-Sánchez, M M; Fraile-Gamo, M P; García-Crespo, N; Barba-Aragón, S; Bermejo-García, H; Sánchez-Izquierdo, R; Sánchez-Muñoz, E I; López-López, A; Arias-Rivera, S

    Ecchymosis and/or haematoma are the most common adverse events after subcutaneous administration of low molecular weight heparin. There is no strong recommendation as to the puncture site. To evaluate the adverse events, ecchymosis and/or haematoma after the administration of prophylactic subcutaneous enoxaparin in the abdomen vs the arm in the critically ill patient. A randomised, two-arm clinical trial (injection in the abdomen vs the arm), performed between July 2014 and January 2017, in an 18-bed, polyvalent intensive care unit. Patients receiving prophylactic enoxaparin, admitted >72h, with no liver or haematological disorders, a body mass index (BMI) >18.5, not pregnant, of legal age and with no skin lesions which would impede assessment were included. We excluded patients who died or who were transferred to another hospital before completing the evaluation. We gathered demographic and clinical variables, and the onset of ecchymosis and/or haematomas at the injection site after 12, 24, 48 and 72hours. A descriptive analysis was undertaken, with group comparison and logistic regression. The study was approved by the ethics committee with the signed consent of patients/families. 301 cases (11 excluded): 149 were injected in the abdomen vs 141 in the arm. There were no significant differences in demographic and clinical variables, BMI, enoxaparin dose or antiplatelet administration [ecchymosis, abdomen vs arm, n(%): 66(44) vs 72(51), P=.25] [haematoma abdomen vs arm, n(%): 9(6) vs 14(10), P=.2]. Statistical significance was found in the size of the haematomas after 72h: [area of haematoma (mm 2 ) abdomen vs arm, median (IQR): 2(1-5.25) vs 20(5.25-156), P=.027]. In our patient cohort, prophylactic subcutaneous enoxaparin administered in the abdomen causes fewer haematomas after 72hours, than when administered in the arm. The incidence rate of ecchymosis and haematoma was lower than the published incidence in critically ill patients, although patients receiving

  5. Study of therapeutic and histopathologic effects of corn silk\\'s aqueous and metanolic extract against dosage induced by MDMA in isolated rat liver perfusion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corn silk is obtained from the plant Zea mays L. A traditional herbal medicine is in China. This has been used in many parts of the world to treat edema, kidney infections, gout, kidney stones, kidney diseases and prostate. Reports of the antioxidant effects of this material are available. Although little scientific resources are available to confirm its efficacy. In this study we tried to find out the antioxidant effect and preventing of hepatotoxicity effect of Corn silk with IRLP Isolated Rat Liver Perfusion system. Material and Methods: The aqueous and methanol extracts of dried Corn silk doses (10, 20, 40, 50 and 100 mg/kg was used. Albino Rats weighing 220-180 g were examined after anesthesia by diethyl ether, the abdominal cavity of the animal T-shaped pattern excision in the abdomen and around is opened.Then portal vein connected to the perfusion flow by using small scalp Vienna (No. 23 into the portal vein. After reaching perfusion flow rate to 20 ml per minute, extracts and fraction with above doses were added to perfusion buffer. Fluid outflows from the inferior vena cava, were collected for measurement of glutathione. One sample of the liver was removed for glutathione measurement and one sample was maintained in 10% formalin for histopathological examination. Differences between group means were estimated using oneway ANOVA followed by Duncan’s multiple range test. Results: The results showed that reduced glutathione level increased significantly by aqueous and methanol extract in comparison with controls. Pathology results confirmed that by increasing dose of extracts, severity of tissue damage (hemorrhage, fibrosis, and necrosis is reduced. In samples taken at intervals of 120 minutes, changes in the glutathione of case groups showed significant difference in comparison with the control group (p<0.01. Conclusion: Findings indicated that aqueous and methanolic extracts of corn fiber, reduced hepatic damages of MDMA

  6. beta. -Amyloid gene dosage in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdoch, G H; Manuelidis, L; Kim, J H; Manuelidis, E E

    1988-01-11

    The 4-5 kd amyloid ..beta..-peptide is a major constituent of the characteristic amyloid plaque of Alzheimer's disease. It has been reported that some cases of sporatic Alzheimer's disease are associated with at least a partial duplication of chromosome 21 containing the gene corresponding to the 695 residue precursor of this peptide. To contribute to an understanding of the frequency to such a duplication event in the overall Alzheimer's population, the authors have determined the gene dosage of the ..beta..-amyloid gene in this collection of cases. All cases had a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's confirmed neuropathologically. Each Alzheimer's case had an apparent normal diploid ..beta..-amyloid gene dosage, while control Down's cases had the expected triploid dosage. Thus partial duplication of chromosome 21 may be a rare finding in Alzheimer's disease. Similar conclusions were just reported in several studies of the Harvard Alzheimer collection.

  7. The effects of a high dosage of creatine and caffeine supplementation on the lean body mass composition of rats submitted to vertical jumping training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro-Junior Miguel A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influences of creatine and caffeine supplementation associated with power exercise on lean body mass (LBM composition are not clear. The purpose of this research was to determine whether supplementation with high doses of creatine and caffeine, either solely or combined, affects the LBM composition of rats submitted to vertical jumping training. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups: Sedentary (S or Exercised (E [placebo (Pl, creatine (Cr, caffeine (Caf or creatine plus caffeine (CrCaf]. The supplemented groups received creatine [load: 0.430 g/kg of body weight (BW for 7 days; and maintenance: 0.143 g/kg of BW for 35 days], caffeine (15 mg/kg of BW for 42 days or creatine plus caffeine. The exercised groups underwent a vertical jump training regime (load: 20 - 50% of BW, 4 sets of 10 jumps interspersed with 1 min resting intervals, 5 days/wk, for 6 weeks. LBM composition was evaluated by portions of water, protein and fat in the rat carcass. Data were submitted to ANOVA followed by the Tukey post hoc test and Student's t test. Results Exercised animals presented a lower carcass weight (10.9%; P = 0.01, as compared to sedentary animals. However, no effect of supplementation was observed on carcass weight (P > 0.05. There were no significant differences among the groups (P > 0.05 for percentage of water in the carcass. The percentage of fat in the group SCr was higher than in the groups SCaf and ECr (P Conclusions High combined doses of creatine and caffeine does not affect the LBM composition of either sedentary or exercised rats, however, caffeine supplementation alone reduces the percentage of fat. Vertical jumping training increases the percentages of water and protein and reduces the fat percentage in rats.

  8. The effect of reduced treatment time and dosage of enrofloxacin on the course of respiratory disease caused by avian metapneumovirus and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmyn, A; Martel, A; Froyman, R; Ludwig, C; Nauwynck, H; Haesebrouck, F; Pasmans, F

    2009-11-01

    A dose titration and reduced duration medication study were performed to evaluate the current enrofloxacin treatment schedule in growing turkeys experimentally infected with avian metapneumovirus and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale. Experimental groups of 17 four-week-old turkeys were first infected with avian metapneumovirus and 3 d later with O. rhinotracheale. Enrofloxacin treatment in the drinking water was started 24 h after O. rhinotracheale inoculation. In the dose titration study, enrofloxacin doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of BW were administered for 5 successive days. In the reduced duration medication study, the following enrofloxacin regimens were compared: 25 mg/kg of BW per day on d 0 and 2; 15 mg/kg of BW per day on d 0, 2, and 4; and 10 mg/kg of BW for 5 successive days. In both studies, all enrofloxacin treatments were equally efficacious (i.e., equally capable of shortening the course of clinical disease), eliminating O. rhinotracheale from the respiratory tract and reducing gross lesions. Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale bacteria were not recovered from any of the birds on enrofloxacin-supplemented media, indicating that none of the used treatment regimens promoted the selection of bacterial clones with reduced susceptibility or resistance to this antimicrobial agent. In conclusion, none of the alternative enrofloxacin treatment regimens yielded better results than the current prescribed treatment (i.e., 10 mg/kg of BW for 5 successive days) of O. rhinotracheale infections in turkeys. However, the reduced duration of application would offer a less time-consuming and equally effective alternative.

  9. The effects of a high dosage of creatine and caffeine supplementation on the lean body mass composition of rats submitted to vertical jumping training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Frederico Sc; Costa, Neuza Mb; Ferreira, Susana A; Carneiro-Junior, Miguel A; Natali, Antônio J

    2011-03-01

    The influences of creatine and caffeine supplementation associated with power exercise on lean body mass (LBM) composition are not clear. The purpose of this research was to determine whether supplementation with high doses of creatine and caffeine, either solely or combined, affects the LBM composition of rats submitted to vertical jumping training. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups: Sedentary (S) or Exercised (E) [placebo (Pl), creatine (Cr), caffeine (Caf) or creatine plus caffeine (CrCaf)]. The supplemented groups received creatine [load: 0.430 g/kg of body weight (BW) for 7 days; and maintenance: 0.143 g/kg of BW for 35 days], caffeine (15 mg/kg of BW for 42 days) or creatine plus caffeine. The exercised groups underwent a vertical jump training regime (load: 20 - 50% of BW, 4 sets of 10 jumps interspersed with 1 min resting intervals), 5 days/wk, for 6 weeks. LBM composition was evaluated by portions of water, protein and fat in the rat carcass. Data were submitted to ANOVA followed by the Tukey post hoc test and Student's t test. Exercised animals presented a lower carcass weight (10.9%; P = 0.01), as compared to sedentary animals. However, no effect of supplementation was observed on carcass weight (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences among the groups (P > 0.05) for percentage of water in the carcass. The percentage of fat in the group SCr was higher than in the groups SCaf and ECr (P < 0.05). A higher percentage of protein was observed in the groups EPl and ECaf when compared to the groups SPl and SCaf (P < 0.001). The percentage of fat in the carcass decreased (P < 0.001), while those of water and protein increased (P < 0.05) in exercised animals, compared to sedentary animals. Caffeine groups presented reduced percentage of fat when compared to creatine supplemented groups (P < 0.05). High combined doses of creatine and caffeine does not affect the LBM composition of either sedentary or exercised rats, however, caffeine

  10. 76 FR 81806 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    .... FDA-2011-N-0003] Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution... solution of ivermectin. DATES: This rule is effective December 29, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... ANADA 200-318 for [[Page 81807

  11. Intelligent system for improving dosage control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cosme Rodrigues dos Santos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation is one of the most important processes in a drinking-water treatment plant, and it is applied to destabilize impurities in water for the subsequent flocculation stage. Several techniques are currently used in the water industry to determine the best dosage of the coagulant, such as the jar-test method, zeta potential measurements, artificial intelligence methods, comprising neural networks, fuzzy and expert systems, and the combination of the above-mentioned techniques to help operators and engineers in the water treatment process. Current paper presents an artificial neural network approach to evaluate optimum coagulant dosage for various scenarios in raw water quality, using parameters such as raw water color, raw water turbidity, clarified and filtered water turbidity and a calculated Dose Rate to provide the best performance in the filtration process. Another feature in current approach is the use of a backpropagation neural network method to estimate the best coagulant dosage simultaneously at two points of the water treatment plant. Simulation results were compared to the current dosage rate and showed that the proposed system may reduce costs of raw material in water treatment plant.

  12. Spectrophotometric Determination of Trimipramine in Tablet Dosage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric procedures for determination of trimipramine in tablet dosage form. Methods: The methods were based on the interaction of trimipramine as n-electron donor with the ο-acceptor, iodine and various π-acceptors, namely: chloranil (CH), ...

  13. A brief history of dosage compensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    depression of X-linked gene activity in the female, as well as by hyperexpression of the ... to the Harvey lecture, Muller had presented important ideas relative to dosage ... at Columbia. I do recall a talk by the popular physical anthro- pologist ...

  14. Pavor nocturnus: a complication of single daily tricyclic or neuroleptic dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemenbaum, A

    1976-05-01

    The author tested the hypothesis that a single bedtime dosage schedule of tricyclic or neuroleptic medication produces increased frequency of night terrors by administering a questionnaire to 30 medical patients who were not receiving such medications and 100 psychiatric patients on either multiple- or single-dosage schedules. Psychiatric patients on multiple-dosage schedules reported no more frightening dreams than the medical patients, whereas almost three-fourths of those receiving single bedtime doses had frightening dreams, a significant difference from the medical sample. This preliminary report is presented to call attention to the possible undesirable effects of a single dose schedule.

  15. Genetic basis for dosage sensitivity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle M Henry

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Aneuploidy, the relative excess or deficiency of specific chromosome types, results in gene dosage imbalance. Plants can produce viable and fertile aneuploid individuals, while most animal aneuploids are inviable or developmentally abnormal. The swarms of aneuploid progeny produced by Arabidopsis triploids constitute an excellent model to investigate the mechanisms governing dosage sensitivity and aneuploid syndromes. Indeed, genotype alters the frequency of aneuploid types within these swarms. Recombinant inbred lines that were derived from a triploid hybrid segregated into diploid and tetraploid individuals. In these recombinant inbred lines, a single locus, which we call SENSITIVE TO DOSAGE IMBALANCE (SDI, exhibited segregation distortion in the tetraploid subpopulation only. Recent progress in quantitative genotyping now allows molecular karyotyping and genetic analysis of aneuploid populations. In this study, we investigated the causes of the ploidy-specific distortion at SDI. Allele frequency was distorted in the aneuploid swarms produced by the triploid hybrid. We developed a simple quantitative measure for aneuploidy lethality and using this measure demonstrated that distortion was greatest in the aneuploids facing the strongest viability selection. When triploids were crossed to euploids, the progeny, which lack severe aneuploids, exhibited no distortion at SDI. Genetic characterization of SDI in the aneuploid swarm identified a mechanism governing aneuploid survival, perhaps by buffering the effects of dosage imbalance. As such, SDI could increase the likelihood of retaining genomic rearrangements such as segmental duplications. Additionally, in species where triploids are fertile, aneuploid survival would facilitate gene flow between diploid and tetraploid populations via a triploid bridge and prevent polyploid speciation. Our results demonstrate that positional cloning of loci affecting traits in populations containing ploidy and

  16. Application of DBNPA dosage for biofouling control in spiral wound membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber

    2017-05-30

    Biocides may be used to control biofouling in spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) systems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biocide 2,2-dibromo-3-ni-trilopropionamide (DBNPA) dosage on biofouling control. Preventive biofouling control was studied applying a continuous dosage of substrate (0.5 mg/L) and DBNPA (1 mg/L). Curative biofouling control was studied on pre-grown biofilms, once again applying a continuous dosage of substrate (0.5 mg acetate C/L) and DBNPA (1 and 20 mg/L). Biofouling studies were performed in membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) supplied with biodegradable substrate and DBNPA. The pressure drop was monitored in time and at the end of the study, the accumulated biomass in MFS was quantified by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Continuous dosage of DBNPA (1 mg/L) prevented pressure drop increase and biofilm accumulation in the MFSs during a run time of 7 d, showing that biofouling can be managed by preventive DBNPA dosage. For biofouled systems, continuous dosage of DBNPA (1 and 20 mg/L) inactivated the accumulated biomass but did not restore the original pressure drop and did not remove the accumulated inactive cells and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), indicating DBNPA dosage is not suitable for curative biofouling control.

  17. Boxing and mixed martial arts: preliminary traumatic neuromechanical injury risk analyses from laboratory impact dosage data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam J; Benzel, Edward C; Miele, Vincent J; Morr, Douglas R; Prakash, Vikas

    2012-05-01

    In spite of ample literature pointing to rotational and combined impact dosage being key contributors to head and neck injury, boxing and mixed martial arts (MMA) padding is still designed to primarily reduce cranium linear acceleration. The objects of this study were to quantify preliminary linear and rotational head impact dosage for selected boxing and MMA padding in response to hook punches; compute theoretical skull, brain, and neck injury risk metrics; and statistically compare the protective effect of various glove and head padding conditions. An instrumented Hybrid III 50th percentile anthropomorphic test device (ATD) was struck in 54 pendulum impacts replicating hook punches at low (27-29 J) and high (54-58 J) energy. Five padding combinations were examined: unpadded (control), MMA glove-unpadded head, boxing glove-unpadded head, unpadded pendulum-boxing headgear, and boxing glove-boxing headgear. A total of 17 injury risk parameters were measured or calculated. All padding conditions reduced linear impact dosage. Other parameters significantly decreased, significantly increased, or were unaffected depending on padding condition. Of real-world conditions (MMA glove-bare head, boxing glove-bare head, and boxing glove-headgear), the boxing glove-headgear condition showed the most meaningful reduction in most of the parameters. In equivalent impacts, the MMA glove-bare head condition induced higher rotational dosage than the boxing glove-bare head condition. Finite element analysis indicated a risk of brain strain injury in spite of significant reduction of linear impact dosage. In the replicated hook punch impacts, all padding conditions reduced linear but not rotational impact dosage. Head and neck dosage theoretically accumulates fastest in MMA and boxing bouts without use of protective headgear. The boxing glove-headgear condition provided the best overall reduction in impact dosage. More work is needed to develop improved protective padding to minimize

  18. Low starting dosage of infliximab with possible escalating dosage in psoriatic arthritis gives the same treatment results as standard dosage of adalimumab or etanercept: results from the nationwide Icelandic ICEBIO registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudbjornsson B

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Bjorn Gudbjornsson,1,2 Arni Jon Geirsson,3,4 Niels Steen Krogh5 1Centre for Rheumatology Research, University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland; 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland; 3Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland; 4Laeknasetrid - Medical Clinic, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland; 5Zitelab Aps, Copenhagen, Denmark Objective: To explore differences in response to a low dosage regimen of infliximab with an escalating dosage in comparison to a standard dosage of etanercept and adalimumab in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA. Methods: Biologically naïve PsA patients who were beginning anti-TNF-α therapy were selected from the ICEBIO registry. Demographics and clinical differences were compared in four treatment groups: infliximab <4 mg/kg; infliximab >4 mg/kg; etanercept or adalimumab at baseline and on follow-up (6 and 12 months, last visit. The Kruskal–Wallis rank sum test was used for comparison of the groups and the Wilcoxon test to compare the two infliximab dosage regimens. Results: One hundred and eighty-five patients (61% female were identified; 84 patients received infliximab, 66 etanercept, and 35 adalimumab. A total of 19% of the patients treated with infliximab escalated their dosage ≥4 mg/kg. No significant differences were observed at baseline in respect to visual analog scale (VAS pain, VAS fatigue, Health Assessment Questionnaire, C-reactive protein (CRP, numbers of swollen or tender joints, or Disease Activity Score (DAS 28-CRP values. A similar treatment response was observed in all four treatment groups on follow-up. Conclusion: In respect to treatment effects, a low dosage of infliximab with possible escalating dosage is acceptable for the majority of PsA patients who are in need of biological treatment. Keywords: psoriatic arthritis, outcome, biological treatment, routine care, clinical nationwide registry

  19. Optimizing the dosage of stabilizing chemical

    OpenAIRE

    Harjula, Tomi

    2013-01-01

    A chemical company provides chemical treatment at customer mill in paper industry. This thesis work was done to determine the optimum dosage of stabilizing chemical. The theoretical framework explains the basics of paper brightness and bleaching and how these topics are connected to each other. The knowledge gained is very valuable and can possibly be used in the future in other similar applications as well. This thesis work contains confidential back ground information. Key ...

  20. Microbial quality of some herbal solid dosage forms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... Key words: Microbial quality, herbal, contamination, solid dosage form ... The type of dosage form, packaging, manufacturing and expiration dates of subject solid herbal .... According to WHO report (2002), Salmonella food.

  1. The characteristics of novel dosage forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić-Aškrabić Jela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of pharmaceutical-technological development is to find a procedure of transforming an active substance (a drug into a drug dosage form which is not only acceptable for application, but also enables the active substance to be released following administration, pursuant to therapy objectives. The aim is that the concentration of the active substance in the action location rapidly reaches a therapeutic level and maintains an approximately constant level in the course of a particular time, according to the established therapeutic goal. The primary objective is to present the active ingredient (drug in the form and concentration/quantity that enables the corresponding therapeutic response, i.e. to control the site and rate of medicinal substance release from the drug, as well as the rate at which it reaches the membranes and surfaces to which it is absorbed, while applying a common method of administration. The procedures used to achieve this goal are becoming highly complex and demanding and are aiming at sophisticated drug delivery systems and functional packaging material. Development from the existing drug molecule, through the conventional drug dosage form, to a new system of drug "delivery" (novel delivery system, can improve the drug (active substance characteristics significantly in view of compliance (acceptability by the patient, safety and efficiency. The paper presents an overview of the most important examples of pharmaceutical forms with controlled release and advanced drug "carriers".

  2. Adverse outcomes of anticoagulant use among hospitalized patients with chronic kidney disease: a comparison of the rates of major bleeding events between unfractionated heparin and enoxaparin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Saheb Sharif-Askari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anticoagulation therapy is usually required in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD for treatment or prevention of thromboembolic diseases. However, this benefit could easily be offset by the risk of bleeding. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of adverse outcomes of anticoagulants in hospitalized patients with CKD, and to compare the rates of major bleeding events between the unfractionated heparin (UFH and enoxaparin users. METHODS: One year prospective observational study was conducted in patients with CKD stages 3 to 5 (estimated GFR, 10-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2 who were admitted to the renal unit of Dubai Hospital. Propensity scores for the use of anticoagulants, estimated for each of the 488 patients, were used to identify a cohort of 117 pairs of patients. Cox regression method was used to estimate association between anticoagulant use and adverse outcomes. RESULTS: Major bleeding occurred in 1 in 3 patients who received anticoagulation during hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR], 4.61 [95% confidence interval [CI], 2.05-10.35]. Compared with enoxaparin users, patients who received anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin had a lower mean [SD] serum level of platelet counts (139.95 [113] × 10(3/µL vs 205.56 [123] × 10(3/µL; P<0.001, and had a higher risk of major bleeding (HR, 4.79 [95% CI, 1.85-12.36]. Furthermore, compared with those who did not receive anticoagulants, patients who did had a higher in-hospital mortality (HR, 2.54 [95% CI, 1.03-6.25]; longer length of hospitalization (HR, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.01-1.06]; and higher hospital readmission at 30 days (HR, 1.79 [95% CI, 1.10-2.91]. CONCLUSIONS: Anticoagulation among hospitalized patients with CKD was significantly associated with an increased risk of bleeding and in-hospital mortality. Hence, intensive monitoring and preventive measures such as laboratory monitoring and/or dose adjustment are warranted.

  3. Intrathecal baclofen in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury: complications and long-term dosage evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draulans, Nathalie; Vermeersch, Kristof; Degraeuwe, Bart; Meurrens, Tom; Peers, Koen; Nuttin, Bart; Kiekens, Carlotte

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the long-term dosage evolution and complication rate of intrathecal baclofen use in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury patients, based on a large population with a long follow-up. Retrospective data analysis. Academic hospital. Patients with multiple sclerosis (n = 81) or spinal cord injury (n = 49) having an intrathecal baclofen pump implanted at the University Hospitals Leuven between 1988 and 2009. Medical records review of included patients in August 2010. Complications linked to intrathecal baclofen therapy. Daily baclofen dosage after 3 and 6 months, and yearly thereafter. Data on dosage evolution were analysed using a mixed-effect linear model. In 130 patients with a mean follow-up of 63 months, comprising 797 pump years, 104 complications were recorded. This corresponds to a complication rate of 0.011 per month, equally divided among both groups. Seventy-eight of these complications were catheter related. The mean dosage of baclofen stabilizes two years after implantation at 323 µg/day in the multiple sclerosis population. In spinal cord injury patients the daily dose only stabilizes after five years at a significantly higher dosage (504 µg/day). No significant increase in dosage is seen in the long term. In multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury patients, intrathecal baclofen therapy has a complication rate of 1% per month. Complications are mainly due to catheter-related problems (74%). The intrathecal baclofen dosage stabilizes in the long term, indicating that long-term tolerance, defined as progressive diminution of the susceptibility to the effects of a drug, is not present.

  4. Gamma ray dosage and mutation breeding in St. Augustinegrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busey, P.

    1980-01-01

    Stolon pieces of St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] were irradiated with gamma rays in an attempt to cause mutations. A practical dosage for most genotypes was 4,500 rads. This dosage caused considerable (50%) growth retardation and a mean survival of about 40% of single-node cuttings. However, Bitterblue and another accession were entirely killed at 4,000 rads. At 4,500 rads, up to 7% recognizable mutants of accession FA-243 were obtained. This proportion resulted when irradiated cuttings were propagated clonally and observed for 1.5 years in replicated microplots. In addition to morphological variants, a chimeral anthocyanin change was noticed. From this chimera arose a stable genotype with green stolons and white stigmas, whereas the source genotype (FA-243) had red stolons and purple stigmas. Associated reduction in fertility from 56 to 0.6% suggested that the mutation arose as a small chromosome deletion. Mutation breeding is effective in improving St. Augustinegrass when easily recognizable variants are needed

  5. [Oral films as perspective dosage form].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walicová, Veronika; Gajdziok, Jan

    Oral films, namely buccal mucoadhesive films and orodispersible films represent innovative formulations for administration of a wide range of drugs. Oral films show many advantageous properties and are intended for systemic drug delivery or for local treatment of the oral mucosa. In both cases, the film represents a thin layer, which could be intended to adhere to the oral mucosa by means of mucoadhesion; or to rapid dissolution and subsequent swallowing without the need of liquid intake, in the case of orodispersible films. Main constitutive excipients are film-forming polymers, which must in the case of mucoadhesive forms remain on the mucosa within the required time interval. Oral films are currently available on the pharmaceutical market and could compete with conventional oral dosage forms in the future. oral cavity oral films buccal mucoadhesive films orodispersible films film-forming polymers.

  6. Semi-solid dosage form of clonazepam for rapid oral mucosal absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Osamu; Machida, Yoshiharu; Onishi, Hiraku

    2011-07-01

    In order to obtain an alternative to the intravenous (i.v.) dosage form of clonazepam (CZ), an oral droplet formulation of CZ was developed previously; however, the droplet was physically unstable. Therefore, in the present study, it was attempted to develop an easily-handled dosage form, which was more physically stable and allowed rapid drug absorption from oral mucosa. A semi-solid dosage form, composed of polyethylene glycol 1500 (PEG), CZ, and oleic acid (OA) at 37/1/2 (w/w) and named PEG/CZ/OA, and a semi-solid dosage form containing PEG and CZ at 39/1 (w/w), called PEG/CZ, were prepared. Their physical stability in air at room temperature and oral mucosal absorption in rats were investigated. The semi-solid dosage forms were much more stable physically than the droplet, that is, no recrystallization of CZ was observed for at least 8 days. The effective concentration for humans and rats (20 ng/mL or more) was achieved within 30 min after buccal administration for both PEG/CZ/OA and PEG/CZ. The plasma concentration increased gradually and less varied at each time point for PEG/CZ/OA. PEG/CZ/OA was found to show more rapid and higher absorption of CZ in buccal administration than in sublingual administration. Buccal administration with the semi-solid dosage PEG/CZ with or without OA was suggested to be a possibly useful novel dosage form as an alternative to i.v. injection.

  7. Switch between life history strategies due to changes in glycolytic enzyme gene dosage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoxiao; Spor, Aymé; Nidelet, Thibault; Montalent, Pierre; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Sicard, Delphine

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation is the process whereby a population or species becomes better fitted to its habitat through modifications of various life history traits which can be positively or negatively correlated. The molecular factors underlying these covariations remain to be elucidated. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, we have investigated the effects on life history traits of varying the dosage of genes involved in the transformation of resources into energy. Changing gene dosage for each of three glycolytic enzyme genes (hexokinase 2, phosphoglucose isomerase, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase) resulted in variation in enzyme activities, glucose consumption rate, and life history traits (growth rate, carrying capacity, and cell size). However, the range of effects depended on which enzyme was expressed differently. Most interestingly, these changes revealed a genetic trade-off between carrying capacity and cell size, supporting the discovery of two extreme life history strategies already described in yeast populations: the "ants," which have lower glycolytic gene dosage, take up glucose slowly, and have a small cell size but reach a high carrying capacity, and the "grasshoppers," which have higher glycolytic gene dosage, consume glucose more rapidly, and allocate it to a larger cell size but reach a lower carrying capacity. These results demonstrate antagonist pleiotropy for glycolytic genes and show that altered dosage of a single gene drives a switch between two life history strategies in yeast.

  8. In situ experimental study for the optimization of chlorine dosage in seawater cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebot, E.; Casanueva, T.; Fernandez-Baston, M.M.; Sales, D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Food Technology and Environmental Technologies, University of Cadiz (Spain); Casanueva, J.F. [Department of Thermal Engines, University of Cadiz (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    The paper details an in situ study for the evaluation of the evolution of fouling heat transfer resistance and to optimize the antifouling chlorine dosage at a 550MW power station. A portable pilot plant has been designed to simulate the steam surface condenser and used as an accurate fouling monitor that takes the seawater from the same intake point as the power station. This study includes fouling extraction and its characterization for different dosage patterns. The residual chlorine concentration at the cooling-water discharge from the power station is 0.2mg/l and has been considered appropriate for the prevention of the formation of fouling, because with this concentration approximately 90% reduction in the amount of fouling is obtained. Residual chlorine dosages lower than 0.2ppm could be effective in controlling fouling development if mechanical techniques of fouling control are also available. (author)

  9. 21 CFR 522.1222 - Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms. 522.1222 Section 522.1222 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1222 Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms. ...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1696 - Penicillin oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin oral dosage forms. 520.1696 Section 520.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696 Penicillin oral...

  11. 21 CFR 526.1696 - Penicillin intramammary dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin intramammary dosage forms. 526.1696 Section 526.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS INTRAMAMMARY DOSAGE FORMS § 526.1696 Penicillin...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1660 - Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms. 522.1660 Section 522.1660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 522.1660 Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms. ...

  13. 21 CFR 520.905 - Fenbendazole oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fenbendazole oral dosage forms. 520.905 Section 520.905 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Fenbendazole oral dosage forms. ...

  14. 21 CFR 520.45 - Albendazole oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albendazole oral dosage forms. 520.45 Section 520.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.45 Albendazole oral...

  15. Warfarin dosage response related pharmacogenetics in Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyue Li

    Full Text Available As the most frequently prescribed anticoagulant, warfarin has large inter-individual variability in dosage. Genetic polymorphisms could largely explain the differences in dosage requirement. rs9923231 (VKORC1, rs7294 (VKORC1, rs1057910 (CYP2C9, rs2108622 (CYP4F2, and rs699664 (GGCX involved in the warfarin action mechanism and the circulatory vitamin K were selected to investigate their polymorphism characteristics and their effects on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of warfarin in Chinese population.220 patients with cardiac valve replacement were recruited. International normalized ratio and plasma warfarin concentrations were determined. The five genetic polymorphisms were genotyping by pyro-sequencing. The relationships of maintenance dose, plasma warfarin concentration and INR were assessed among groups categorized by genotypes.rs9923231 and rs7294 in VKORC1 had the analogous genotype frequencies (D': 0.969. 158 of 220 recruited individuals had the target INR (1.5-2.5. Patients with AA of rs9923231 and CC of rs7294 required a significantly lower maintenance dose and plasma concentration than those with AG and TC, respectively. The mean weekly maintenance dose was also significantly lower in CYP2C9 rs1057910 mutated heterozygote than in patients with the wild homozygote. Eliminating the influence from environment factors (age, body weight and gender, rs9923231 and rs1057910 could explain about 32.0% of the variability in warfarin maintenance dose; rs7294 could explain 26.7% of the variability in plasma concentration. For patients with allele G of rs9923231 and allele T of rs7294, higher plasma concentration was needed to achieve the similar goal INR.A better understanding of the genetic variants in individuals can be the foundation of warfarin dosing algorithm and facilitate the reasonable and effective use of warfarin in Chinese.

  16. Radiation dosage of various CT-methods in lung diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz-Peer, G.; Weninger, F.; Nowotny, R.; Herold, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction of the computed tomography index CTDI and the multiple scan average dose (MSAD) has led to standardization of the dose description in CT examinations. Despite the use of these dose parameters, many different dosages are reported in the literature for different CT methods. In addition, there is still a wide range of radiation dosimetry results reported for conventional CT, helical CT, and HRCT used in chest examinations. The variations in dosage are mainly due to difference in factors affecting the dose, i.e. beam geometry, beam quality, scanner geometry ('generation'), and operating parameters. In addition, CT dosimetry instrumentation and methodology make a contribution to dosages. Recent studies calculating differences in factors affecting dosage and CT dosimetry and using similar operating parameters, show similar results in CT dosimetry for conventional and helical CT. On the other hand, dosages for HRCT were greatly reduced. This was mainly caused by narrow beam collimation and increasing section spacing. (orig.) [de

  17. On the exfoliating polymeric cellular dosage forms for immediate drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaesi, Aron H; Saka, Nannaji

    2016-06-01

    The most prevalent pharmaceutical dosage forms at present-the oral immediate-release tablets and capsules-are granular solids. Though effective in releasing drug rapidly, development and manufacture of such dosage forms are fraught with difficulties inherent to particulate processing. Predictable dosage form manufacture could be achieved by liquid-based processing, but cast solid dosage forms are not suitable for immediate drug release due to their resistance to fluid percolation. To overcome this limitation, we have recently introduced cellular dosage forms that can be readily prepared from polymeric melts. It has been shown that open-cell structures comprising polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG 8k) excipient and a drug exfoliate upon immersion in a dissolution medium. The drug is then released rapidly due to the large specific surface area of the exfoliations. In this work, we vary the molecular weight of the PEG excipient and investigate its effect on the drug release kinetics of structures with predominantly open-cell topology. We demonstrate that the exfoliation rate decreases substantially if the excipient molecular weight is increased from 12 to 100kg/mol, which causes the drug dissolution time to increase by more than a factor of ten. A model is then developed to elucidate the exfoliation behavior of cellular structures. Diverse transport processes are considered: percolation due to capillarity, diffusion of dissolution medium through the cell walls, and viscous flow of the saturated excipient. It is found that the lower exfoliation rate and the longer dissolution time of the dosage forms with higher excipient molecular weight are primarily due to the greater viscosity of the cell walls after fluid penetration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 75 FR 26647 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    .... FDA-2010-N-0002] Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution... are treated with a topical solution of ivermectin. DATES: This rule is effective May 12, 2010. FOR... ANADA 200-340 for PRIVERMECTIN (ivermectin), a topical solution used on cattle to control infestations...

  19. [Ultrasound dynamics lysis apex thrombus as an objective criterion of effectiveness of anticoagulation therapy in venous thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, R E; Suchkov, I A; Pshennikov, A S; Agapov, A B

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of anticoagulant therapy (ACT) for the treatment of patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities. The study considered ultrasonic characteristics of lysis of the proximal part of thrombus: localization and nature of venous thrombosis, the length and diameter of the proximal floating part of the thrombus, and duration of the venous thrombosis. Depending on the ACT options patients were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (18 patients) received rivaroxaban, group 2 (19 patients) received enoxaparin sodium with subsequent transition to warfarin, and 3 group (19 patietns) received enoxaparin sodium, followed by administration of rivaroxaban. Treatment with rivaroxaban was preferable over standard ACT with enoxaparin/warfarin with regards to the lysis of thrombus when duration of thrombosis did not exceed 10 days. In 10.5% of patients who received warfarin flotation of thrombi remained for 14 days; the length of the floating part of the thrombi did not exceed 3 cm. Such circumstances and inability to reach a therapeutic INR value required cava filter placement. Treatment with enoxaparin sodium followed by the administration of rivaroxaban was found to be the most efficient ACT regimen as there was no negative dynamics of ultrasound characteristics of lysis of thrombi at any duration of the disease.

  20. LABORATORY PROTECTION RATE OF TORN BEDNETS TREATED WITH THREE DOSAGES OF PYRETHROIDE AGAINST ANOPHELES CULICIFACIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Babaee

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Evaluated under laboratory condition. The objective of the present study was to observe the effect of impregnated torn bednets on the number of bites by An. culicifacies A glass made tunnel test was designed to The effect of torn bednets treated with three dosages of cyfluthrin 5% EW, were induce hungry female mosquitoes to pass through holes cut in the pyrethroid treated nets. A guinea pig used as bait to attract mosquitoes through circular holes in the netting. With untreated netting, 72-87% of laboratory-reared females passed through the holes overnight, 64-92% blood-fed successfully and 0.3/9-4/3% died. When the netting was treated with cyfluthrin at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg a.i./m2, the entry Index (the proportions that passed through the holes overnight were 43.37%, 42.82% and 24.72%; mortality rates were 66.31%, 81.45% and 95.99%; and the feeding rate were 45%, 27% and 3%. In conclusion it should be stressed that efficacy of pyrethroid impregnated bednets using “Tunnel Tests” showing acceptable protection rate both in lower and higher dosages as well as cause dead in the blood-fed mosquitoes. In addition, the higher dosages of these three dosages pyrethroid provided good levels of protection against An. culicifacies.

  1. Automatic identification and normalization of dosage forms in drug monographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Each day, millions of health consumers seek drug-related information on the Web. Despite some efforts in linking related resources, drug information is largely scattered in a wide variety of websites of different quality and credibility. Methods As a step toward providing users with integrated access to multiple trustworthy drug resources, we aim to develop a method capable of identifying drug's dosage form information in addition to drug name recognition. We developed rules and patterns for identifying dosage forms from different sections of full-text drug monographs, and subsequently normalized them to standardized RxNorm dosage forms. Results Our method represents a significant improvement compared with a baseline lookup approach, achieving overall macro-averaged Precision of 80%, Recall of 98%, and F-Measure of 85%. Conclusions We successfully developed an automatic approach for drug dosage form identification, which is critical for building links between different drug-related resources. PMID:22336431

  2. Fourteen days oral administration of therapeutic dosage of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen days oral administration of therapeutic dosage of some antibiotics reduced serum testosterone in male rats. FO Awobajo, Y Raji, II Olatunji-Bello, FT Kunle-Alabi, AO Adesanya, TO Awobajo ...

  3. Buccal Dosage Forms: General Considerations for Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Padilla, Soledad; Velaga, Sitaram; Morales, Javier O

    2017-02-01

    The development of an appropriate dosage form for pediatric patients needs to take into account several aspects, since adult drug biodistribution differs from that of pediatrics. In recent years, buccal administration has become an attractive route, having different dosage forms under development including tablets, lozenges, films, and solutions among others. Furthermore, the buccal epithelium can allow quick access to systemic circulation, which could be used for a rapid onset of action. For pediatric patients, dosage forms to be placed in the oral cavity have higher requirements for palatability to increase acceptance and therapy compliance. Therefore, an understanding of the excipients required and their functions and properties needs to be particularly addressed. This review is focused on the differences and requirements relevant to buccal administration for pediatric patients (compared to adults) and how novel dosage forms can be less invasive and more acceptable alternatives.

  4. Dosage of trace carbon in sodium (1963); Dosage de traces de carbone dans le sodium (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannier, J; Vasseur, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    A wet method for dosing carbon in sodium has been developed. The carbon is oxidised in a vacuum using Van SLYKE'S solution. The carbonic acid formed is measured volumetrically; its purity can be controlled by chromatographic analysis. The results obtained show that this method makes it possible to measure carbon in concentrations of about 10 ppm. (authors) [French] Une methode de dosage par voie humide du carbone dans le sodium a ete mise au point. L'oxydation du carbone par la solution de Van SLYKE est realisee sous vide. Le gaz carbonique forme est dose volumetriquement; sa purete peut etre controlee par analyse chromatographique. Les resultats obtenus montrent que cette methode permet de doser des teneurs en carbone de l'ordre de 10 ppm. (auteurs)

  5. Absorption of macronutrients by cassava in different harvest dates and dosages of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Souza dos Santos

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out in 2010-2011 crop years in the experimental area of the Centro de Ciências Agrárias of the Universidade Federal de Roraima, in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of nitrogen availability on the concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S in cassava, cultivar Aciolina, in different harvest times. A randomized block design was used in split-plot, with four replications. Dosages of N in cover were applied randomly on the plots (0, 30, 60, 150 and 330 kg ha-1, and in the subplot the harvest dates 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270 and 300 days after emergence (DAE. The vegetal material was collected, ground and then underwent an analysis for determination of nutrients concentrations in the leaves (N, P, K, Ca Mg and S. The harvest dates and dosages of N affect the nutrient concentrations in the cassava leaves, cv. Aciolina. The macronutrients dosage in the leaves, 120 DAE, is a good indicator of the nutritional status of the cassava plant. The dosage of 150 kg ha-1 of N raises the tubers roots per plant. The sequence of the macronutrients concentration in the leaves of the cassava, cv. Aciolina is N>Ca>K>Mg>P>S.

  6. Accelerated in-vitro release testing methods for extended-release parenteral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Burgess, Diane J

    2012-07-01

    This review highlights current methods and strategies for accelerated in-vitro drug release testing of extended-release parenteral dosage forms such as polymeric microparticulate systems, lipid microparticulate systems, in-situ depot-forming systems and implants. Extended-release parenteral dosage forms are typically designed to maintain the effective drug concentration over periods of weeks, months or even years. Consequently, 'real-time' in-vitro release tests for these dosage forms are often run over a long time period. Accelerated in-vitro release methods can provide rapid evaluation and therefore are desirable for quality control purposes. To this end, different accelerated in-vitro release methods using United States Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus have been developed. Different mechanisms of accelerating drug release from extended-release parenteral dosage forms, along with the accelerated in-vitro release testing methods currently employed are discussed. Accelerated in-vitro release testing methods with good discriminatory ability are critical for quality control of extended-release parenteral products. Methods that can be used in the development of in-vitro-in-vivo correlation (IVIVC) are desirable; however, for complex parenteral products this may not always be achievable. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Accelerated in vitro release testing methods for extended release parenteral dosage forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Burgess, Diane J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This review highlights current methods and strategies for accelerated in vitro drug release testing of extended release parenteral dosage forms such as polymeric microparticulate systems, lipid microparticulate systems, in situ depot-forming systems, and implants. Key findings Extended release parenteral dosage forms are typically designed to maintain the effective drug concentration over periods of weeks, months or even years. Consequently, “real-time” in vitro release tests for these dosage forms are often run over a long time period. Accelerated in vitro release methods can provide rapid evaluation and therefore are desirable for quality control purposes. To this end, different accelerated in vitro release methods using United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) apparatus have been developed. Different mechanisms of accelerating drug release from extended release parenteral dosage forms, along with the accelerated in vitro release testing methods currently employed are discussed. Conclusions Accelerated in vitro release testing methods with good discriminatory ability are critical for quality control of extended release parenteral products. Methods that can be used in the development of in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) are desirable, however for complex parenteral products this may not always be achievable. PMID:22686344

  8. Evaluation of students' knowledge about paediatric dosage calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyazıcıoğlu, Nurcan; Aydın, Ayla İrem; Sürenler, Semra; Çinar, Hava Gökdere; Yılmaz, Dilek; Arkan, Burcu; Tunç, Gülseren Çıtak

    2018-01-01

    Medication errors are common and may jeopardize the patient safety. As paediatric dosages are calculated based on the child's age and weight, risk of error in dosage calculations is increasing. In paediatric patients, overdose drug prescribed regardless of the child's weight, age and clinical picture may lead to excessive toxicity and mortalities while low doses may delay the treatment. This study was carried out to evaluate the knowledge of nursing students about paediatric dosage calculations. This research, which is of retrospective type, covers a population consisting of all the 3rd grade students at the bachelor's degree in May, 2015 (148 students). Drug dose calculation questions in exam papers including 3 open ended questions on dosage calculation problems, addressing 5 variables were distributed to the students and their responses were evaluated by the researchers. In the evaluation of the data, figures and percentage distribution were calculated and Spearman correlation analysis was applied. Exam question on the dosage calculation based on child's age, which is the most common method in paediatrics, and which ensures right dosages and drug dilution was answered correctly by 87.1% of the students while 9.5% answered it wrong and 3.4% left it blank. 69.6% of the students was successful in finding the safe dose range, and 79.1% in finding the right ratio/proportion. 65.5% of the answers with regard to Ml/dzy calculation were correct. Moreover, student's four operation skills were assessed and 68.2% of the students were determined to have found the correct answer. When the relation among the questions on medication was examined, a significant relation (correlation) was determined between them. It is seen that in dosage calculations, the students failed mostly in calculating ml/dzy (decimal). This result means that as dosage calculations are based on decimal values, calculations may be ten times erroneous when the decimal point is placed wrongly. Moreover, it

  9. A benefit/risk approach towards selecting appropriate pharmaceutical dosage forms - an application for paediatric dosage form selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Tom; Ernest, Terry B; Walsh, Jennifer; Williams, Julie L

    2012-10-05

    The design and selection of new pharmaceutical dosage forms involves the careful consideration and balancing of a quality target product profile against technical challenges and development feasibility. Paediatric dosage forms present particular complexity due to the diverse patient population, patient compliance challenges and safety considerations of this vulnerable population. This paper presents a structured framework for assessing the comparative benefits and risks of different pharmaceutical design options against pre-determined criteria relating to (1) efficacy, (2) safety and (3) patient access. This benefit/risk framework has then been applied to three hypothetical, but realistic, scenarios for paediatric dosage forms in order to explore its utility in guiding dosage form design and formulation selection. The approach allows a rigorous, systematic and qualitative assessment of the merits and disadvantages of each dosage form option and helps identify mitigating strategies to modify risk. The application of a weighting and scoring system to the criteria depending on the specific case could further refine the analysis and aid decision-making. In this paper, one case study is scored for illustrative purposes. However, it is acknowledged that in real development scenarios, the generation of actual data considering the very specific situation for the patient/product/developer would come into play to drive decisions on the most appropriate dosage form strategy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of travel speed and suction carried by a pneumatic planter on seed dosage and germination Efecto de la velocidad de avance y de la succión de una sembradora neumática en la dosificación y germinación de semillas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera G Óscar A.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The effect of the travel speed and suction carried by the John Deere 7300 pneumatic planterʼs vacuum pump on ICA-305 corn, FUNKʼS HW-1758 sorghum, and Soyica P-34 soybean seeds dosage, germination, and vigor was studied; five travel speeds were assessed (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 km/h and two vacuum pump work pressures (-1241.4 and -1738.0 Pa, at the sprocket combination 16/28. Seed weight (g supplied and seed of variance distribution in two lineal meters, seed feasibility by germination and vigor tests, were determined. Analysis of variance for means of the variable and four regression models (linear, quadratic, cubic and quadruple were applied. The linear regression model selected to explain correlation lead to conclude that travel speed of plant equipment do not affect seed dosage at two working pressures. No effect was found of planting work pressure on seed dosage. No effect was found of planting work pressure and travel speed on corn, sorghum, and soybean seed germination and germinated plantules vigor.

    Key words: corn, sorghum and soybean planting; pneumatic planter; planting travel speed; planting work pressure; seeds dosage and germination.

    Se estudió el efecto en maíz (ICA-305, sorgo (FUNKʼS HW-1758 y soya (Soyica P-34, de cinco (5 velocidades de marcha (2, 4, 6, 8 y 10 km/h y dos presiones de trabajo de la bomba de vacío (-1241.4 y -1738.0 Pa; en la relación de piñones 16/28 de la caja de cambios de la sembradora neumática John Deere 7300. Se determinó el peso dosificado y la distribución de la semilla en dos metros lineales; la viabilidad mediante pruebas de germinación y el vigor de plántulas germinadas. Se empleó análisis de varianza para las medias de las variables y se probaron cuatro modelos de regresión (lineal, cuadrático, cúbico y cuártico. En el modelo de regresión lineal elegido

  11. Fumigant dosages below maximum label rate control some soilborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shachaf Triky-Dotan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The activity of commercial soil fumigants on some key soilborne pathogens was assessed in sandy loam soil under controlled conditions. Seven soil fumigants that are registered in California or are being or have been considered for registration were used in this study: dimethyl disulfide (DMDS mixed with chloropicrin (Pic (79% DMDS and 21% Pic, Tri-Con (50% methyl bromide and 50% Pic, Midas Gold (33% methyl iodide [MI] and 67% Pic, Midas Bronze (50% MI and 50% Pic, Midas (MI, active ingredient [a.i.] 97.8%, Pic (a.i. 99% trichloronitromethane and Pic-Clor 60 (57% Pic and 37% 1,3-dichloropropene [1–3,D]. Dose-response models were calculated for pathogen mortality after 24 hours of exposure to fumigants. Overall, the tested fumigants achieved good efficacy with dosages below the maximum label rate against the tested pathogens. In this study, Pythium ultimum and citrus nematode were sensitive to all the fumigants and Verticillium dahliae was resistant. For most fumigants, California regulations restrict application rates to less than the maximum (federal label rate, meaning that it is possible that the fumigants may not control major plant pathogens. This research provides information on the effectiveness of these alternatives at these lower application rates. The results from this study will help growers optimize application rates for registered fumigants (such as Pic and 1,3-D and will help accelerate the adoption of new fumigants (such as DMDS if they are registered in California.

  12. Dosage-dependent role of Rac1 in podocyte injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoyang; Lee, Mi-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Activation of small GTPase Rac1 in podocytes is associated with rodent models of kidney injury and familial nephrotic syndrome. Induced Rac1 activation in podocytes in transgenic mice results in rapid transient proteinuria and foot process effacement, but not glomerular sclerosis. Thus it remains an open question whether abnormal activation of Rac1 in podocytes is sufficient to cause permanent podocyte damage. Using a number of transgenic zebrafish models, we showed that moderate elevation of Rac1 activity in podocytes did not impair the glomerular filtration barrier but aggravated metronidazole-induced podocyte injury, while inhibition of Rac1 activity ameliorated metronidazole-induced podocyte injury. Furthermore, a further increase in Rac1 activity in podocytes was sufficient to cause proteinuria and foot process effacement, which resulted in edema and lethality in juvenile zebrafish. We also found that activation of Rac1 in podocytes significantly downregulated the expression of nephrin and podocin, suggesting an adverse effect of Rac1 on slit diaphragm protein expression. Taken together, our data have demonstrated a causal link between excessive Rac1 activity and podocyte injury in a dosage-dependent manner, and transgenic zebrafish of variable Rac1 activities in podocytes may serve as useful animal models for the study of Rac1-related podocytopathy. PMID:26792065

  13. Discrete element method (DEM) simulations of stratified sampling during solid dosage form manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Bruno C; Ketterhagen, William R

    2011-10-14

    Discrete element model (DEM) simulations of the discharge of powders from hoppers under gravity were analyzed to provide estimates of dosage form content uniformity during the manufacture of solid dosage forms (tablets and capsules). For a system that exhibits moderate segregation the effects of sample size, number, and location within the batch were determined. The various sampling approaches were compared to current best-practices for sampling described in the Product Quality Research Institute (PQRI) Blend Uniformity Working Group (BUWG) guidelines. Sampling uniformly across the discharge process gave the most accurate results with respect to identifying segregation trends. Sigmoidal sampling (as recommended in the PQRI BUWG guidelines) tended to overestimate potential segregation issues, whereas truncated sampling (common in industrial practice) tended to underestimate them. The size of the sample had a major effect on the absolute potency RSD. The number of sampling locations (10 vs. 20) had very little effect on the trends in the data, and the number of samples analyzed at each location (1 vs. 3 vs. 7) had only a small effect for the sampling conditions examined. The results of this work provide greater understanding of the effect of different sampling approaches on the measured content uniformity of real dosage forms, and can help to guide the choice of appropriate sampling protocols. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation of contrast agent dosage for perfusion-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, G.; Benner, T.; Heiland, S.; Reith, W.; Sartor, K.; Forsting, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we investigated, whether increasing the dosage of a paramagnetic contrast agent results in a stronger signal decrease in T 2 *-weighted perfusion sequences and therefore more meaningful parameter maps. Material and methods: In a prospective study bolus injection of gadolinium-DTPA was performed at dosages of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mmol/kg body weight (BW) in 10 patients each. Before, during and after bolus injection 40 T 2 *-weighted images of a reference brain slice were acquired within 65.6 seconds on a 1.0 T clinical scanner and perfusion parameters were calculated. Results: Due to the limited signal decrease during bolus passage and the resulting low signal-difference-to-noise ratio (ΔS/N) no reliable differentiation of gray and white matter was possible at a contrast agent dosage of 0.1 mmol/kg BW. Only at higher dosages, both, signal decrease and ΔS/N were strong enough to allow differentiation of gray and white matter and to yield reliable parameter maps. Conclusion: For meaningful MR perfusion imaging at 1.0 T and with the given sequence a contrast agent dosage of at least 0.2 mmol/kg BW is necessary, if a 0.5-molar contrast agent is used. (orig.) [de

  15. Enoxaparin for the prevention of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction in women with a history: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groom, Katie M.; McCowan, Lesley M.; Mackay, Laura K.; Lee, Arier C.; Said, Joanne M.; Kane, Stefan C.; Walker, Susan P.; van Mens, Thijs E.; Hannan, Natalie J.; Tong, Stephen; Chamley, Larry W.; Stone, Peter R.; McLintock, Claire; Groom, K.; McCowan, L.; Mackay, L.; Lee, A.; Stone, P.; Chamley, L.; McLintock, C.; Said, J.; Kane, S.; Walker, S.; Tong, S.; Hannan, N.; van Mens, T.; Ganzevoort, W.; Middeldorp, S.

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age pregnancy are major causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Women with a previous pregnancy affected by these conditions are at an increased risk of recurrence in a future pregnancy. Past trials evaluating the effect of

  16. Length of stay and economic consequences with rivaroxaban vs enoxaparin/vitamin K antagonist in patients with DVT and PE: findings from the North American EINSTEIN clinical trial program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookhart, Brahim K; Haskell, Lloyd; Bamber, Luke; Wang, Maria; Schein, Jeff; Mody, Samir H

    2014-10-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) (deep vein thrombosis [DVT] and pulmonary embolism [(PE]) represents a substantial economic burden to the healthcare system. Using data from the randomized EINSTEIN DVT and PE trials, this North American sub-group analysis investigated the potential of rivaroxaban to reduce the length of initial hospitalization in patients with acute symptomatic DVT or PE. A post-hoc analysis of hospitalization and length-of-stay (LOS) data was conducted in the North American sub-set of patients from the randomized, open-label EINSTEIN trial program. Patients received either rivaroxaban (15 mg twice daily for 3 weeks followed by 20 mg once daily; n = 405) or dose-adjusted subcutaneous enoxaparin overlapping with (guideline-recommended 'bridging' therapy) and followed by a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) (international normalized ratio = 2.0-3.0; n = 401). The open-label study design allowed for the comparison of LOS between treatment arms under conditions reflecting normal clinical practice. LOS was evaluated using investigator records of dates of admission and discharge. Analyses were carried out in the intention-to-treat population using parametric tests. Costs were applied to the LOS based on weighted mean cost per day for DVT and PE diagnoses obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project dataset. Of 382 patients hospitalized, 321 (84%), had acute symptomatic PE; few DVT patients required hospitalization. Similar rates of VTE patients were hospitalized in the rivaroxaban and enoxaparin/VKA treatment groups, 189/405 (47%) and 193/401 (48%), respectively. In hospitalized VTE patients, rivaroxaban treatment produced a 1.6-day mean reduction in LOS (median = 1 day) compared with enoxaparin/VKA (mean = 4.5 vs 6.1; median = 3 vs 4), translating to total costs that were $3419 lower in rivaroxaban-treated patients. In hospitalized North American patients with VTE, treatment with rivaroxaban produced a statistically

  17. Dosage of boron traces in graphite, uranium and beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursier, J.; Hure, J.; Platzer, R.

    1955-01-01

    The problem of the dosage of the boron in the materials serving to the construction of nuclear reactors arises of the following way: to determine to about 0,1 ppm close to the quantities of boron of the order of tenth ppm. We have chosen the colorimetric analysis with curcumin as method of dosage. To reach the indicated contents, it is necessary to do a previous separation of the boron and the materials of basis, either by extraction of tetraphenylarsonium fluoborate in the case of the boron dosage in uranium and the beryllium oxide, either by the use of a cations exchanger resin of in the case of graphite. (M.B.) [fr

  18. Evolution of vertebrate sex chromosomes and dosage compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated sex chromosomes in mammals and other vertebrates evolved independently but in strikingly similar ways. Vertebrates with differentiated sex chromosomes share the problems of the unequal expression of the genes borne on sex chromosomes, both between the sexes and with respect to autosomes. Dosage compensation of genes on sex chromosomes is surprisingly variable - and can even be absent - in different vertebrate groups. Systems that compensate for different gene dosages include a wide range of global, regional and gene-by-gene processes that differ in their extent and their molecular mechanisms. However, many elements of these control systems are similar across distant phylogenetic divisions and show parallels to other gene silencing systems. These dosage systems cannot be identical by descent but were probably constructed from elements of ancient silencing mechanisms that are ubiquitous among vertebrates and shared throughout eukaryotes.

  19. Materials for Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Molecular Pharmaceutics and Controlled Release Drug Delivery Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick P. DeLuca

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlled release delivery is available for many routes of administration and offers many advantages (as microparticles and nanoparticles over immediate release delivery. These advantages include reduced dosing frequency, better therapeutic control, fewer side effects, and, consequently, these dosage forms are well accepted by patients. Advances in polymer material science, particle engineering design, manufacture, and nanotechnology have led the way to the introduction of several marketed controlled release products and several more are in pre-clinical and clinical development.

  20. Prospective randomized trial of enoxaparin, pentoxifylline and ursodeoxycholic acid for prevention of radiation-induced liver toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Seidensticker

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy of liver malignancies has found to be effective in selected patients. A key limiting factor of these therapies is the relatively low tolerance of the liver parenchyma to radiation. We sought to assess the preventive effects of a combined regimen of pentoxifylline (PTX, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA and low-dose low molecular weight heparin (LMWH on focal radiation-induced liver injury (fRILI.Patients with liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma who were scheduled for local ablation by radiotherapy (image-guided high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy were prospectively randomized to receive PTX, UDCA and LMWH for 8 weeks (treatment or no medication (control. Focal RILI at follow-up was assessed using functional hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. A minimal threshold dose, i.e. the dose to which the outer rim of the fRILI was formerly exposed to, was quantified by merging MRI and dosimetry data.Results from an intended interim-analysis made a premature termination necessary. Twenty-two patients were included in the per-protocol analysis. Minimal mean hepatic threshold dose 6 weeks after radiotherapy (primary endpoint was significantly higher in the study treatment-group compared with the control (19.1 Gy versus 14.6 Gy, p = 0.011. Qualitative evidence of fRILI by MRI at 6 weeks was observed in 45.5% of patients in the treatment versus 90.9% of the control group. No significant differences between the groups were observed at the 12-week follow-up.The post-therapeutic application of PTX, UDCA and low-dose LMWH significantly reduced the extent and incidence fRILI at 6 weeks after radiotherapy. The development of subsequent fRILI at 12 weeks (4 weeks after cessation of PTX, UDCA and LMWH during weeks 1-8 in the treatment group was comparable to the control group thus supporting the observation that the agents mitigated fRILI.EU clinical trials register 2008-002985-70 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01149304.

  1. Cumulative dosages of antipsychotic drugs are associated with increased mortality rate in patients with Alzheimer's dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R E; Lolk, A; Valentin, J B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We wished to investigate the effects of cumulative dosages of antipsychotic drug in Alzheimer's dementia, when controlling for known risk factors, including current antipsychotic exposure, on all-cause mortality. METHOD: We utilized a nationwide, population-based, retrospective cohort...... study design with mortality as outcome in individual patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's dementia. RESULTS: We included a total of 45 894 patients and followed them for 3 803 996 person-years in total, presenting 27 894 deaths in the study population. Cumulative antipsychotic exposure increased...... or equal to 730 DDDs: HR 1.06, 95% CI (0.95-1.18), P = 0.322, when controlling for proxy markers of severity, somatic and mental comorbid disorders. CONCLUSION: In this nationwide cohort study of 45 894 patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's dementia, we found that cumulative dosages of antipsychotic drugs...

  2. Prediction of required ozone dosage for pilot recirculating aquaculture systems based on laboratory studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Rojas-Tirado, Paula Andrea; Kaarsholm, Kamilla Marie Speht

    2017-01-01

    In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), the water quality changes continuously. Organic and inorganic compounds accumulates creating toxic conditions for the farmed organisms. Ozone improves water quality diminishing significantly both bacteria load and dissolved organic matter. However......, in a non-meticulously designed system, residual ozone might reach the culture tanks causing significant harm to cultured species or excess costs. The aim of the study was to predict the suitable ozone dosage in pilot RAS, for water treatment purposes, based on laboratory studies. The ozone effect on water...... quality of freshwater RAS and system’s ozone demand was investigated. Bench-scale ozonation experiments revealed the ozone demand of the system to be 180 mg O3/h. Three different ozone dosages were applied to four replicated systems with fixed feed loading (1.56 kg feed/m3 make up water). Results...

  3. Vitamin D supplementation in inflammatory bowel disease: the role of dosage and patient compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojecky, V; Adamikova, A; Klimek, P

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D substitution is recommended in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Specific guidelines are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation with respect to dosage and patient compliance. A prospective cohort study of 167 Crohn disease/ulcerative colitis outpatients. Patients were screened for serum vitamin D (25OHD2+3) at the end of summer and in late winter. Demographic data, history of vitamin D supplementation were recorded and matched with prescription records. A total of 57 subjects used vitamin D supplementation (mean dose 1104 IU/day). 25OHD2+3 levels were lower (p compliance with vitamin D supplementation was low, however this fact did not significantly contribute to the degree of vitamin D deficiency in this dosage (Tab. 3, Fig. 1, Ref. 21).

  4. Fluorometric determination of uranium in urine; Dosage fluorimetrique de l'uranium urinaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronteix, C; Hugot, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    For the medical supervision of personnel the most sensitive analytical methods must be used. The fluorimetric method, enabling determinations to be made without previous concentration, is undoubtedly the quickest and most effective. This report is intended to help users of the method to avoid loss of time in the practical application. It therefore describes in great detail the material used, and also gives precise technical information acquired by experience. (author) [French] Pour la surveillance medicale du personnel, il est necessaire d'utiliser les methodes de dosages les plus sensibles. La methode fluorimetrique qui permet d'effectuer le dosage sans concentration prealable est, sans conteste, la plus rapide et la plus efficace. Le present rapport a pour but de permettre aux utilisateurs de cette methode, d'eviter des pertes de temps dans l'application pratique. Il contient donc, tres detaille, le materiel utilise ainsi que des precisions techniques acquises par l'experience. (auteur)

  5. Dosage design - past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganderton, D.

    1982-01-01

    The design criteria to be considered in the formulation of drugs is discussed eg. the porosity, density, solubility and compressibility of tablets. Structure related to function. The absorbability of drug surfaces in the intestinal tract and the relationship of this to the pH of stomach contents. Particle size and the role of release of a drug for maximum therapeutic effect. Pharmacodynamic intensity and the use of polymers as matrix materials for slow-release drugs. Sites of administration and targeting of drugs, and the physiological response of the body are all important. (U.K.)

  6. Evidence for oral agmatine sulfate safety--a 95-day high dosage pilot study with rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad, Gad M; Gilad, Varda H

    2013-12-01

    Agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, exerts beneficial effects in various experimental disease models. Clinical trials indicate the safety and effectiveness of short-term (up to 21 days) high dose regimens of oral agmatine sulfate, but longer term studies are lacking. This pilot study undertook to assess the safety of a longer term high dosage oral agmatine sulfate in laboratory rats. Adult Wistar rats consumed 5.3 g/l agmatine sulfate in their drinking water for 95 days, a regimen estimated to result in a daily dosage of absorbed agmatine of about 100mg/kg. Animals' body weight, water consumption and blood pressure were periodically measured, and general cage behavior, fur appearance, urination and feces appearance monitored. These parameters were also determined at 20 days after treatment cessation (day 115). On days 95 and 115, animals were euthanized for gross necropsy assessment. Agmatine-treated rats showed slight, but significant reductions in body weight and blood pressure, and reduced water consumption during treatment, which recovered completely within 20 days after treatment cessation. Otherwise, no abnormal behaviors or organ pathologies were observed. These findings are first to suggest apparent safety of sub-chronic high dosage dietary agmatine sulfate in laboratory rats, thus lending further support to the therapeutic applications of agmatine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Contraceptive Use Affects Overall Olfactory Performance: Investigation of Estradiol Dosage and Duration of Intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Kollndorfer

    Full Text Available The influence of female sex steroids on cognitive performance and sensory perception has been investigated for decades. However, previous research that studied olfaction revealed inconsistent results. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different ethinyl estradiol (EE concentrations of oral contraceptives and duration of intake on olfactory function. Forty-two healthy women, with regular intake of either high or low EE dosage over at least one year and up to 15 years participated in this study. Results revealed a significant concordance between a priori categorization in the two groups with high and low EE dosage and data-driven hierarchical clustering (p = 0.008. Furthermore, significantly higher olfactory performance was observed in women using low-dose products compared to women using high-dosed products (p = 0.019. These findings indicate different effects of pill use with regard to EE concentration. We therefore strongly recommend the acquisition of information about EE dosage of oral contraceptives to reduce potential confounding factors when investigating sensory systems.

  8. Safety of higher dosages of Viscum album L. in animals and humans - systematic review of immune changes and safety parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiene Helmut

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viscum album L extracts (VAE, mistletoe and isolated mistletoe lectins (ML have immunostimulating properties and a strong dose-dependent cytotoxic activity. They are frequently used in complementary cancer treatment, mainly to improve quality of life, but partly also to influence tumour growth, especially by injecting VAE locally and in high dosage. The question is raised whether these higher dosages can induce any harm or immunosuppressive effects. Methods Systematic review of all experiments and clinical studies investigating higher dosages of VAE in animals and humans (Viscum album > 1 mg in humans corresponding to > 0.02 mg/kg in animals or ML > 1 ng/kg and assessing immune parameters or infections or adverse drug reactions. Results 69 clinical studies and 48 animal experiments reported application of higher doses of VAE or ML and had assessed immune changes and/or harm. In these studies, Viscum album was applied in dosages up to 1500 mg in humans and 1400 mg/kg in animals, ML was applied up to 6.4 μg/kg in humans and in animals up to 14 μg/kg subcutaneously, 50 μg/kg nasally and 500 μg/kg orally. A variety of immune parameters showed fluctuating or rising outcomes, but no immunosuppressive effect. Side effects consisted mainly of dose-dependent flu-like symptoms (FLS, fever, local reactions at the injection site and various mild unspecific effects. Occasionally, allergic reactions were reported. After application of high doses of recombinant ML, reversible hepatotoxicity was observed in some cases. Conclusions Application of higher dosages of VAE or ML is not accompanied by immunosuppression; altogether VAE seems to exhibit low risk but should be monitored by clinicians when applied in high dosages.

  9. 76 FR 59023 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Tylosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Tylosin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug...

  10. 77 FR 3927 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Deracoxib

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Deracoxib AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug...

  11. 76 FR 18648 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Robenacoxib

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Robenacoxib AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug...

  12. 76 FR 40808 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Amprolium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Amprolium AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug...

  13. 77 FR 15960 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Pergolide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Pergolide AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug...

  14. 75 FR 67031 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Domperidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0002] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Domperidone AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug...

  15. 76 FR 78149 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Estriol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Estriol AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug...

  16. Pharmaceutical development of an intravenous dosage form of diacetylmorphine hydrochloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klous, Marjolein G.; Nuijen, Bastiaan; van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M.; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2004-01-01

    A solid dosage form for multiple use was developed for parenteral administration of diacetylmorphine in a clinical trial on co-prescription of heroin to heroin addicts. A 300-mg/mL diacetylmorphine hydrochloride solution was lyophilised as 10-mL aliquots in 30-mL glass vials, to be reconstituted to

  17. Quality of 'Climax' blueberries after low dosage electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.R.; McDonald, R.E.; McCollum, T.G.; Smittle, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fruit of 'Climax' rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium ashei Reade) were irradiated by a linear accelerator at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 kGy and evaluated for various quality attributes after storage for 1, 3, 7, or 14 days at 1C plus 2 days at 15C, respectively. Weight loss increased during storage and averaged 4.2% after the final inspection and was not affected by irradiation dosage. About 5% of total berries were decayed after 14 days at 1C, about 6% after the final inspection at 15C, but decay was not affected by the level of irradiation. Electrolyte leakage, skin color, total soluble solids, acidity, and pH were also not affected by irradiation dosage. There was a significant decline in berry firmness, flavor, and texture as dosage increased. Berries treated at 1.0 kGy or above were softer and had lower flavor and texture preference scores than berries treated at lower dosages or nontreated berries

  18. Dosage plasmatique et globulaire du magnesium dans l'exploration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The allergic rhinitis represents a real public health problem. The goal of this survey is to value the interest of the dosage plasmatical and globular of magnesium in the diagnosis of the allergic rhinitis. Materials and methods : Analytic and prospective survey of 80 files, on one period of 4 years and 5 months (from ...

  19. Determination of methadone hydrochloride in a maintenance dosage formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T J; Thompson, R D

    1975-07-01

    A colorimetric method for direct quantitative assay of methadone hydrochloride in liquid oral dosage forms is presented. The procedure involves the formation of a dye complex with bromothymol blue buffer solution. The resultant complex is extracted with benzene and measured spectrophotometrically. Duplicate tests on the formulation showed 99.2% of the labeled amount of methadone.

  20. 21 CFR 520.1448 - Monensin oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monensin oral dosage forms. 520.1448 Section 520.1448 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... distance the spots travel from the starting line divided by the distance the solvent front travels from the...

  1. Dosage Compensation of an Aneuploid Genome in Mouse Spermatogenic Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jansa, Petr; Homolka, David; Blatný, Radek; Mistrik, M.; Bartek, Jiří; Forejt, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 6 (2014), 124/1-124/9 ISSN 0006-3363 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08078S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : gene dosage * male sterility * segmental trisomy * meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin * DOWN-SYNDROME * MAMMALIAN MEIOSIS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2014

  2. Gonadal dosage during hip dysplasia radiography in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A K; Reynolds, K M; Leith, I S; Burns, P A

    1977-01-01

    Thermoluminescent dosemeters were used to estimate gonadal dosage during hip dysplasia radiography of labrador retriever dogs. The mean radiation dose to the unshielded testes was 100 millirad (mrad) and the estimated dose to the shielded testes was 9 mrad. It was considered unnecessary to shield the ovaries.

  3. Fuzzy-based dosage model of aqueous decoction of Adansonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, in the area of traditional medicine, no much attention has been given to its enhancement with the use of information technology especially in the area of herbal prescription. ... The mass of herb and volume of solvent were used as input parameters to design the dosage model, and simulated using MATLAB.

  4. Formulation of Croton penduliflorus seed into tablet dosage form ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation of Croton penduliflorus seed into tablet dosage form. GC Onunkwo. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 5(1) 2006: 29-33. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjms.v5i1.10145.

  5. Formulation and evaluation of tablet dosage form of Hunteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed at formulating and evaluating tablet dosage form of Hunteria umbellata (HU) seed aqueous and purified extracts. HU seeds were dried, pulverized and the powder macerated in water to obtain aqueous extract, while alkaloidal extraction process was used to obtain purified extract. Extracts ...

  6. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: cimetidine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jantratid, E; Prakongpan, S; Dressman, J B; Amidon, G L; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Barends, D M

    2006-01-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing cimetidine are reviewed. According to the current Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), cimetidine would be assigned

  7. Dosage Compensation of an Aneuploid Genome in Mouse Spermatogenic Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jansa, Petr; Homolka, David; Blatný, Radek; Mistrik, M.; Bartek, Jiří; Forejt, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 6 (2014), 124/1-124/9 ISSN 0006-3363 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08078S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : gene dosage * male sterility * segmental trisomy * meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin * DOWN - SYNDROME * MAMMALIAN MEIOSIS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2014

  8. Dosage compensation and demasculinization of X chromosomes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtrog, Doris; Toda, Nicholas R T; Lockton, Steven

    2010-08-24

    The X chromosome of Drosophila shows a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, whereas mammalian X chromosomes are enriched for spermatogenesis genes expressed premeiosis and multicopy testis genes. Meiotic X-inactivation and sexual antagonism can only partly account for these patterns. Here, we show that dosage compensation (DC) in Drosophila may contribute substantially to the depletion of male genes on the X. To equalize expression between X-linked and autosomal genes in the two sexes, male Drosophila hypertranscribe their single X, whereas female mammals silence one of their two X chromosomes. We combine fine-scale mapping data of dosage compensated regions with genome-wide expression profiles and show that most male-biased genes on the D. melanogaster X are located outside dosage compensated regions. Additionally, X-linked genes that have newly acquired male-biased expression in D. melanogaster are less likely to be dosage compensated, and parental X-linked genes that gave rise to an autosomal male-biased retrocopy are more likely located within compensated regions. This suggests that DC contributes to the observed demasculinization of X chromosomes in Drosophila, both by limiting the emergence of male-biased expression patterns of existing X genes, and by contributing to gene trafficking of male genes off the X. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spectrophotometric Determination of Cilostazol in Tablet Dosage Form

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop simple, rapid and selective spectrophotometric methods for the determination of cilostazol in tablet dosage form. Methods: Cilostazol was dissolved in 50 % methanol and its absorbance was scanned by ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry. Both linear regression equation and standard absorptivity were ...

  10. Mathematical modeling of drug release from lipid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepmann, J; Siepmann, F

    2011-10-10

    Lipid dosage forms provide an interesting potential for controlled drug delivery. In contrast to frequently used poly(ester) based devices for parenteral administration, they do not lead to acidification upon degradation and potential drug inactivation, especially in the case of protein drugs and other acid-labile active agents. The aim of this article is to give an overview on the current state of the art of mathematical modeling of drug release from this type of advanced drug delivery systems. Empirical and semi-empirical models are described as well as mechanistic theories, considering diffusional mass transport, potentially limited drug solubility and the leaching of other, water-soluble excipients into the surrounding bulk fluid. Various practical examples are given, including lipid microparticles, beads and implants, which can successfully be used to control the release of an incorporated drug during periods ranging from a few hours up to several years. The great benefit of mechanistic mathematical theories is the possibility to quantitatively predict the effects of different formulation parameters and device dimensions on the resulting drug release kinetics. Thus, in silico simulations can significantly speed up product optimization. This is particularly useful if long release periods (e.g., several months) are targeted, since experimental trial-and-error studies are highly time-consuming in these cases. In the future it would be highly desirable to combine mechanistic theories with the quantitative description of the drug fate in vivo, ideally including the pharmacodynamic efficacy of the treatments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. ATLAS ABCD Hybrid Fatal Charge Dosage Test

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhl, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Grillo, AA; Martinez-McKinney, F; Nielsen, J; Spencer, E; Wilder, M

    2011-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) in the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) could be subject to various beam loss scenarios. If a severe beam loss event were to occur, it would be beneficial to know how SCT components would be affected. In the SCT detector modules, a key component is the ABCD application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the onboard readout electronics of the system. This ASIC has design specifications that it should withstand a 5nC charge injection within 25 ns, which is the period of the LHC bunch crossing. The first test performed is designed to test this limit, reaching a maximum of 10nC deposited in 25 ns. One model for beam loss predicts that a large charge, of the order of 10^6 MIPS, could be incident on the detector. According to detector studies, this causes a local field breakdown between the backplane of the sensor, held at 450V, and the strips. In this case the signal seen on the readout strip has a rise time of about 1μs due to a charge screening effect. A seco...

  12. ATLAS ABCD Hybrid Fatal Charge Dosage Test

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhl, A; Grillo, A A; Martinez-McKinney, F; Nielsen, J; Spencer, E; Wilder, M

    2011-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) in the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) could be subject to various beam loss scenarios. If a severe beam loss event were to occur, it would be beneficial to know how SCT components would be affected. In the SCT detector modules, a key component is the ABCD application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the onboard readout electronics of the system. This ASIC has design specifications that it should withstand a 5 nC charge application within 25 ns, which is the period of the LHC bunch crossing. The first test performed is designed to test this limit, reaching a maximum of 10 nC deposited in 25 ns. One model for beam loss predicts that a large charge, of the order of 106 MIPS, could be incident on the detector. According to detector studies, this causes a local field breakdown between the backplane of the sensor, held at 450 V, and the strips. In this case the signal seen on the readout strip has a rise time of about 1 μs due to a charge screening effect. A...

  13. Clinical efficacy of dexmedetomidine in the diminution of fentanyl dosage in pediatric cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingying; Ye, Hongwu; Xia, Yin; Li, Yuanhai; Yuan, Xianren; Wang, Xing

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to explore the clinical efficacy of dexmedetomidine (DEX) in the diminution of fentanyl dosage in pediatric cardiac surgery based on some clinical and biochemical parameters. Fifty pediatric patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists II), 1-6 years old, were randomly allocated into two groups: group F (control group), in which patients received normal saline and high dosage of fentanyl (30 μg/kg), and group D, in which patients were given DEX and low dosage of fentanyl (15 μg/kg). Some hemodynamic and clinical parameters of the two groups were recorded. Furthermore, stress hormone (serum cortisol, norepinephrine, blood glucose) levels and cytokine (interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha) levels in the two groups were compared with each other. Stress hormone levels, cytokine levels, hemodynamic parameters and the consumption of sevoflurane did not differ between the two groups. Meanwhile, the extubation time was significantly shorter in Group D than F (Pfentanyl supplemented with DEX almost had the same anesthesia effects and inflammation extent compared with high dose of fentanyl, which suggested that infusion DEX might decrease fentanyl consumption in pediatric cardiac surgery.

  14. Applications of Polymers as Pharmaceutical Excipients in Solid Oral Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debotton, Nir; Dahan, Arik

    2017-01-01

    Over the last few decades, polymers have been extensively used as pharmaceutical excipients in drug delivery systems. Pharmaceutical polymers evolved from being simply used as gelatin shells comprising capsule to offering great formulation advantages including enabling controlled/slow release and specific targeting of drugs to the site(s) of action (the "magic bullets" concept), hence hold a significant clinical promise. Oral administration of solid dosage forms (e.g., tablets and capsules) is the most common and convenient route of drug administration. When formulating challenging molecules into solid oral dosage forms, polymeric pharmaceutical excipients permit masking undesired physicochemical properties of drugs and consequently, altering their pharmacokinetic profiles to improve the therapeutic effect. As a result, the number of synthetic and natural polymers available commercially as pharmaceutical excipients has increased dramatically, offering potential solutions to various difficulties. For instance, the different polymers may allow increased solubility, swellability, viscosity, biodegradability, advanced coatings, pH dependency, mucodhesion, and inhibition of crystallization. The aim of this article is to provide a wide angle prospect of the different uses of pharmaceutical polymers in solid oral dosage forms. The various types of polymeric excipients are presented, and their distinctive role in oral drug delivery is emphasized. The comprehensive know-how provided in this article may allow scientists to use these polymeric excipients rationally, to fully exploit their different features and potential influence on drug delivery, with the overall aim of making better drug products. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. When and how should we teach the basic concepts of radiation beam dosage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewin, T B [Institute of Radiotherapeutics and Oncology, Glasgow (UK)

    1977-06-01

    The difficulty that many trainees, including those medically qualified, have in achieving a sound working grasp of certain basic principles of radiation beam dosage is often underestimated. Since any failure of understanding may seriously impair the efficiency of the team treating the patient, the discussion of these problems (and especially the monitoring of the results of such discussion by means of oral and written tests) deserves a high priority. Contrary to traditional practice, there would seem to be no good reason why teaching of radiation beam dosage, and the effect on dose-rate of changes in the treatment distance or in the amount of scattered radiation, should not begin in the very first week of training and be immediately integrated with discussion of the dose-rate information available at every radiotherapy unit when the patient is treated. A preliminary course of physics lectures does not usually make the understanding of these principles any easier and can be done either concurrently or later. For many radiotherapy trainees and for many doctors in other fields, comparison with drug dosage and with the brightness and scatter of ordinary light beams, avoiding technical terms so far as possible, may achieve a better initial understanding of basic principles than is achieved by mathematical equations and theoretical physics.

  16. When and how should we teach the basic concepts of radiation beam dosage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewin, T.B.

    1977-01-01

    The difficulty that many trainees, including those medically qualified, have in achieving a sound working grasp of certain basic principles of radiation beam dosage is often underestimated. Since any failure of understanding may seriously impair the efficiency of the team treating the patient, the discussion of these problems (and especially the monitoring of the results of such discussion by means of oral and written tests) deserves a high priority. Contrary to traditional practice, there would seem to be no good reason why teaching of radiation beam dosage, and the effect on dose-rate of changes in the treatment distance or in the amount of scattered radiation, should not begin in the very first week of training and be immediately integrated with discussion of the dose-rate information available at every radiotherapy unit when the patient is treated. A preliminary course of physics lectures does not usually make the understanding of these principles any easier and can be done either concurrently or later. For many radiotherapy trainees and for many doctors in other fields, comparison with drug dosage and with the brightness and scatter of ordinary light beams, avoiding technical terms so far as possible, may achieve a better initial understanding of basic principles than is achieved by mathematical equations and theoretical physics. (author)

  17. Formulation and process considerations affecting the stability of solid dosage forms formulated with methacrylate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petereit, H U; Weisbrod, W

    1999-01-01

    General considerations concerning the stability of coated dosage forms are discussed, in order to avoid predictable interactions which may cause long-term stability problems. As polymers themselves maintain a high chemical stability and a low reactivity, instability phenomena mainly have to be explained by interactions of low molecular weight substances or physical changes. Possible interactions of functional groups can be predicted easily and insulating subcoates are proper countermeasures. Impurities, remaining in the polymeric material from the manufacturing process, may accelerate the hydrolysis of sensitive drugs. Instabilities of coated dosage forms are mainly based on physical interactions, caused by improper formulations of coating suspensions (i.e. plasticizers or pigments) or the film coating process. Residual moisture or solvents, probably enclosed in the core and migrating over time, may increase the permeability of coatings, due to plasticizing effects. The functionality of coatings from aqueous dispersions is linked to coalescence of latex particles. Thus any incomplete film formation, caused by too high or too low coating temperatures, may result in high permeable coatings. During storage, preferably under stress conditions this process will continue and thus change the release profile. Therefore bed temperatures of 10-20 degrees C above MFT must ensure the formation of homogeneous polymer layers during the coating process. Stability test procedures and packaging materials also need to be adapted to the physicochemical properties of the dosage form, in order to get meaningful results in stability tests.

  18. parkin mutation dosage and the phenomenon of anticipation: a molecular genetic study of familial parkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellenberg Gerard D

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background parkin mutations are a common cause of parkinsonism. Possessing two parkin mutations leads to early-onset parkinsonism, while having one mutation may predispose to late-onset disease. This dosage pattern suggests that some parkin families should exhibit intergenerational variation in age at onset resembling anticipation. A subset of familial PD exhibits anticipation, the cause of which is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if anticipation was due to parkin mutation dosage. Methods We studied 19 kindreds that had early-onset parkinsonism in the offspring generation, late-onset parkinsonism in the parent generation, and ≥ 20 years of anticipation. We also studied 28 early-onset parkinsonism cases without anticipation. Patients were diagnosed by neurologists at a movement disorder clinic. parkin analysis included sequencing and dosage analysis of all 12 exons. Results Only one of 19 cases had compound parkin mutations, but contrary to our postulate, the affected relative with late-onset parkinsonism did not have a parkin mutation. In effect, none of the anticipation cases could be attributed to parkin. In contrast, 21% of early-onset parkinsonism patients without anticipation had parkin mutations. Conclusion Anticipation is not linked to parkin, and may signify a distinct disease entity.

  19. Digital and conventional radiology techniques: comparison of dosage and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arranza, L.; Albornoz, C. de

    1996-01-01

    To compare the radiation dosage and costs in conventional and digital technologies. The study dealt with transverse sections. The dosage applied with conventional technology was measured in 254 patients who intertwined 402 explorations of 6 anatomic regions in 4 Radiodiagnostic Services. The dosage applied with digital technology was measured in 57 patients who underwent 95 explorations of the same anatomic region in one Radiodiagnostic Service. The costs of the 6 types of conventional and digital explorations performed were calculated for two Radiodiagnostic Service. The doses administered (mGy) using convectional/digital technology were as follows: chest PA 0.2/0.1; chest LAT 0.7/0.3; breast CC 7.0/8.4; breast LAT 7.0/7.8; breast OB 7.0/10.5; cervical spine AP 9.6/9.0; cervical spine LAT 21.9/29.6; pelvis AP 7.3/7.1; plain abdominal 6.5/2.2. The costs incurred (1992 pesetas) with the convectional/digital technologies: chest AP and LAT 1,393/2,973; portable chest 2,027/3,714; mammography 2,357/3,486; phlebography 12,718/14,023; hysterosalpingography 4,876/6,701; bone scientigraphy 1,633/2,839. Compared with conventional technology, digital imaging reduces the radiation doses received by the patients, except in the case of mammography. The costs associated with the use of digital technology are greater than those incurred with conventional technology, mainly due to the costs of amortization. the use of digital technology is more justified when: 1) it is very necessary to reduce the dosage; 2) studies of chest and abdomen predominant; 3) the volume of utilization is high; 4) staff management is flexible , and 5) the cost of purchasing the equipment is lower. (Author) 10 refs

  20. Effects of different anticoagulant drugs on the prevention of complications in patients after arthroplasty: A network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ji-Hai; Chu, Xiu-Cheng; Wang, Lin-Liang; Ning, Bo; Zhao, Chuan-Xin

    2017-10-01

    After arthroplasty treatment, some complications commonly occur, such as early revision, infection/dislocation, and venous thromboembolism (VTE). This study aims to use a network meta-analysis to compare effects of 9 anticoagulant drugs (edoxaban, dabigatan, apixaban, rivaroxaban, warfarin, heparin, bemiparin, ximelagatran, and enoxaparin) in preventing postoperative complications in arthroplasty patients. After retrieving PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library database from the inception to November 2016, randomized controlled trials were enrolled. The integration of direct and indirect evidences was performed to calculate odd ratios and the surface under the cumulative ranking curves. Nineteen eligible randomized controlled trials were included. The network meta-analysis results showed that compared with warfarin, edoxaban, apixaban, and rivaroxaban had a lower incidence rate in asymptomatic deep venous thrombosis, which indicated that edoxaban, apixaban, and rivaroxaban had better effects on prevention. Similarly, in comparison to enoxaparin, edoxaban and rivaroxaban had better effect; rivaroxaban was better than ximelagatran in preventive effects. Compared with apixaban, edoxaban, dabigatan, rivaroxaban, and enoxaparin had a higher incidence rate in clinically relevant non-major bleeding, which showed that preventive effects were relatively poor. In addition, the results of the surface under the cumulative ranking curves showed that rivaroxaban and bemiparin worked best on symptomatic deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. In terms of bleeding, apixaban and warfarin had better preventive effects. Our findings suggested that rivaroxaban may work better in terms of symptomatic deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, whereas apixaban had better preventive effects in bleeding.

  1. QR encoded smart oral dosage forms by inkjet printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Magnus; Bar-Shalom, Daniel; Sandler, Niklas; Rantanen, Jukka; Genina, Natalja

    2018-01-30

    The use of inkjet printing (IJP) technology enables the flexible manufacturing of personalized medicine with the doses tailored for each patient. In this study we demonstrate, for the first time, the applicability of IJP in the production of edible dosage forms in the pattern of a quick response (QR) code. This printed pattern contains the drug itself and encoded information relevant to the patient and/or healthcare professionals. IJP of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)-containing ink in the pattern of QR code was performed onto a newly developed porous and flexible, but mechanically stable substrate with a good absorption capacity. The printing did not affect the mechanical properties of the substrate. The actual drug content of the printed dosage forms was in accordance with the encoded drug content. The QR encoded dosage forms had a good print definition without significant edge bleeding. They were readable by a smartphone even after storage in harsh conditions. This approach of efficient data incorporation and data storage combined with the use of smart devices can lead to safer and more patient-friendly drug products in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and trends of cellulosics in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropietro, David J; Omidian, Hossein

    2013-02-01

    Many studies have shown that cellulose derivatives (cellulosics) can provide various benefits when used in virtually all types of dosage forms. Nevertheless, the popularity of their use in approved drug products is rather unknown. This research reports the current prevalence and trends of use for 15 common cellulosics in prescription drug products. The cellulosics were powdered and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), ethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), hypromellose (HPMC), HPMC phthalate, HPMC acetate succinate, cellulose acetate (CA), CA phthalate, sodium (Na) and calcium (Ca) carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), croscarmellose sodium (XCMCNa), methyl cellulose, and low substituted HPC. The number of brand drug products utilizing each cellulosics was determined using the online drug index Rxlist. A total of 607 brand products were identified having one or more of the cellulosics as an active or inactive ingredient. An array of various dosage forms was identified and revealed HPMC and MCC to be the most utilized cellulosics in all products followed by XCMCNa and HPC. Many products contained two or more cellulosics in the formulation (42% containing two, 23% containing three, and 4% containing 4-5). The largest combination occurrence was HPMC with MCC. The use of certain cellulosics within different dosage form types was found to contain specific trends. All injectables utilized only CMCNa, and the same with all ophthalmic solutions utilizing HPMC, and otic suspensions utilizing HEC. Popularity and trends regarding cellulosics use may occur based on many factors including functionality, safety, availability, stability, and ease of manufacturing.

  3. Hybrid incompatibilities are affected by dominance and dosage in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.; Koevoets, Tosca; Morales, Hernán E.; Ferber, Steven; van de Zande, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Study of genome incompatibilities in species hybrids is important for understanding the genetic basis of reproductive isolation and speciation. According to Haldane's rule hybridization affects the heterogametic sex more than the homogametic sex. Several theories have been proposed that attribute asymmetry in hybridization effects to either phenotype (sex) or genotype (heterogamety). Here we investigate the genetic basis of hybrid genome incompatibility in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia using the powerful features of haploid males and sex reversal. We separately investigate the effects of heterozygosity (ploidy level) and sex by generating sex reversed diploid hybrid males and comparing them to genotypically similar haploid hybrid males and diploid hybrid females. Hybrid effects of sterility were more pronounced than of inviability, and were particularly strong in haploid males, but weak to absent in diploid males and females, indicating a strong ploidy level but no sex specific effect. Molecular markers identified a number of genomic regions associated with hybrid inviability in haploid males that disappeared under diploidy in both hybrid males and females. Hybrid inviability was rescued by dominance effects at some genomic regions, but aggravated or alleviated by dosage effects at other regions, consistent with cytonuclear incompatibilities. Dosage effects underlying Bateson–Dobzhansky–Muller (BDM) incompatibilities need more consideration in explaining Haldane's rule in diploid systems. PMID:25926847

  4. Untangling the Contributions of Sex-Specific Gene Regulation and X-Chromosome Dosage to Sex-Biased Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Maxwell; Rao, Prashant; Ercan, Sevinc

    2016-01-01

    Dosage compensation mechanisms equalize the level of X chromosome expression between sexes. Yet the X chromosome is often enriched for genes exhibiting sex-biased, i.e., imbalanced expression. The relationship between X chromosome dosage compensation and sex-biased gene expression remains largely unexplored. Most studies determine sex-biased gene expression without distinguishing between contributions from X chromosome copy number (dose) and the animal’s sex. Here, we uncoupled X chromosome dose from sex-specific gene regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans to determine the effect of each on X expression. In early embryogenesis, when dosage compensation is not yet fully active, X chromosome dose drives the hermaphrodite-biased expression of many X-linked genes, including several genes that were shown to be responsible for hermaphrodite fate. A similar effect is seen in the C. elegans germline, where X chromosome dose contributes to higher hermaphrodite X expression, suggesting that lack of dosage compensation in the germline may have a role in supporting higher expression of X chromosomal genes with female-biased functions in the gonad. In the soma, dosage compensation effectively balances X expression between the sexes. As a result, somatic sex-biased expression is almost entirely due to sex-specific gene regulation. These results suggest that lack of dosage compensation in different tissues and developmental stages allow X chromosome copy number to contribute to sex-biased gene expression and function. PMID:27356611

  5. The effect of marihuana dosage on driver performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-10-01

    Performance in a complex driving simulator under 4 marihuan dose levels was examined. Car control and tracking appeared to be uninfluenced, but significant dose-related impairment was found on a visual recognition task simulating the search-and-recog...

  6. Integrated Effect of Seeding Rate, Herbicide Dosage and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yield reductions of 26 to 63% across four bread wheat cultivars at 90 weed seedlings m-2 in. Ethiopia. Before herbicides were widely available, farmers employed cultural measures to manage weed population. Wild oat management systems have evolved to the point that producers rely on herbicides to the virtual exclusion ...

  7. Cancer therapy leading to state of cancer metabolism depression for efficient operation of small dosage cytotoxic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponizovskiy MR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “Prolonged medical starvation” as the method of cancer therapy was borrowed from folk healers Omelchenko A and Breuss R. Author was convinced in efficiency of this method of cancer treatment via examination of cured patients and on own experience. The mechanism of this method of cancer therapy operates via Warburg effect targeting that promotes efficient cancer treatment with small cytotoxic drugs. Just it was described the mechanism of Warburg effect as well as mechanism transmutation of mitochondrial function in cancer metabolism which are exhibited in connection with operation of described method cancer therapy. There were described the biochemical and biophysical mechanisms of formations resistance to some cytotoxic drugs and recurrence cancer disease after disease remission which occur sometimes as result of treatment with great dosage of cytotoxic drugs. Also it was described the benefits of use the method “Prolonged medical starvation” with decreased dosage of cytotoxic drugs for cancer treatment. The significance of this work that it was substantiated the mechanism operation of combination “Prolonged medical starvation” with small dosages cytotoxic drugs of cancer treatment, which mechanism leads to prevention recurrence cancer disease and resistance to anticancer drugs in comparison with intensive anticancer chemotherapy with great dosages of cytotoxic drugs in cancer therapy. Also the offered concepts of cancer therapy mechanism gave possibility to explain mechanisms of some results of experiments eliminating the doubts of the authors these experiments.

  8. Evaluation on the influence of electrocardiograph modulated milliampere on image quality and exposure dosage of volume CT heart scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Sen; Du Xiangke; Li Jianyin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To find out whether the use of ECG modulated current (mA) will influence image quality and to decide whether the electrocardiograph (ECG) modulated mA will effectively reduce the exposure dosage. Methods: The cardiac pulsating phantom was set at three speed levels, i.e. high, medium, and low speed so as to simulate different heart rates. The phantom was scanned with ECG modulated mA turned on and off, and the exposure dosage of each scan sequence was documented. The images were reconstructed with reconstruction algorithm that matched the different levels of heart rate. CT values and their corresponding standard deviations at uniform areas on the images and the variation of the CT values at different locations were measured. The results from the two groups with and without ECG modulated mA were analyzed. Results: Under the same level of heart rate, the exposure dosage was remarkably reduced when the ECG modulated mA was on than when it was off. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference (P>0.05) between the images from the two groups. Conclusion: When scanning the heart with volume CT (VCT), the application of ECG modulated mA can effectively reduce the exposure dosage without sacrificing the image quality. (authors)

  9. 21 CFR 522.1696 - Penicillin G procaine implantation and injectable dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin G procaine implantation and injectable dosage forms. 522.1696 Section 522.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1696 Penicillin G procaine implantation and injectable dosage forms. ...

  10. 21 CFR 524.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1662 Section 524.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. ...

  11. COMPARISON OF THE NEW IRON DOSAGE METHODS FOR DRINKING WATER PRODUCTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Krysztof; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    Arsenic is considered as one of the most concerned pollutants in the world due to its adverse health effects. Therefore, its content in drinking water has been recommended to be limited to 10 μg/L (WHO 2006). On of the conventional methods for arsenic removal is based on the addition of ferrous......, it can be controlled, which brings main advantage in large scale water processing. However, both techniques have limitations, which results in different area of implementation. The aim of this work is to compare and evaluate new iron dosage methods by comparing the water treatment plants where ZVI...

  12. Determination of Tannin and Saponin Dosage for Defaunation Improvement Feed Fermentability

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuni, I.M. D; Muktiani, A; Christianto, M

    2014-01-01

    The research was conducted to evaluate the effect of addition of tannin, saponin or combination of tannin and saponin to the concentrate of the ration on the microbial population and fermentability of feed in vitro and to assess the best dosage of uses. The research was arranged according to completely randomized design with four treatments and 3 replications. The treatments were ration without tannin and saponin (T0), ration with 1.2% saponin (T1), ration with 0.5% tannin and 0.9% saponin (T...

  13. Histone dosage regulates DNA damage sensitivity in a checkpoint-independent manner by the homologous recombination pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dun; Burkhart, Sarah Lyn; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Kabbaj, Marie-Helene Miquel; Gunjan, Akash

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotes, multiple genes encode histone proteins that package genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and regulate its accessibility. Because of their positive charge, ‘free’ (non-chromatin associated) histones can bind non-specifically to the negatively charged DNA and affect its metabolism, including DNA repair. We have investigated the effect of altering histone dosage on DNA repair in budding yeast. An increase in histone gene dosage resulted in enhanced DNA damage sensitivity, whereas deletion of a H3–H4 gene pair resulted in reduced levels of free H3 and H4 concomitant with resistance to DNA damaging agents, even in mutants defective in the DNA damage checkpoint. Studies involving the repair of a HO endonuclease-mediated DNA double-strand break (DSB) at the MAT locus show enhanced repair efficiency by the homologous recombination (HR) pathway on a reduction in histone dosage. Cells with reduced histone dosage experience greater histone loss around a DSB, whereas the recruitment of HR factors is concomitantly enhanced. Further, free histones compete with the HR machinery for binding to DNA and associate with certain HR factors, potentially interfering with HR-mediated repair. Our findings may have important implications for DNA repair, genomic stability, carcinogenesis and aging in human cells that have dozens of histone genes. PMID:22850743

  14. Mechanisms and evolutionary patterns of mammalian and avian dosage compensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Julien

    Full Text Available As a result of sex chromosome differentiation from ancestral autosomes, male mammalian cells only contain one X chromosome. It has long been hypothesized that X-linked gene expression levels have become doubled in males to restore the original transcriptional output, and that the resulting X overexpression in females then drove the evolution of X inactivation (XCI. However, this model has never been directly tested and patterns and mechanisms of dosage compensation across different mammals and birds generally remain little understood. Here we trace the evolution of dosage compensation using extensive transcriptome data from males and females representing all major mammalian lineages and birds. Our analyses suggest that the X has become globally upregulated in marsupials, whereas we do not detect a global upregulation of this chromosome in placental mammals. However, we find that a subset of autosomal genes interacting with X-linked genes have become downregulated in placentals upon the emergence of sex chromosomes. Thus, different driving forces may underlie the evolution of XCI and the highly efficient equilibration of X expression levels between the sexes observed for both of these lineages. In the egg-laying monotremes and birds, which have partially homologous sex chromosome systems, partial upregulation of the X (Z in birds evolved but is largely restricted to the heterogametic sex, which provides an explanation for the partially sex-biased X (Z expression and lack of global inactivation mechanisms in these lineages. Our findings suggest that dosage reductions imposed by sex chromosome differentiation events in amniotes were resolved in strikingly different ways.

  15. Dependence of 'CT clearance' on dosage and time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenborn, H.A.; Klose, K.J.; Dexheimer, C.; Steinijans, V.

    1989-01-01

    The contrast medium dose used in CT renal function analysis corresponds to about 1 ml/kg body weight at a measurement interval of 5 or 10 minutes. In the present study the dependence of 'CT clearance' on dosage and time was examined in 12 healthy subjects. The amount of clearance was directly proportional to the employed contrast medium dose and to the length of the measurement interval. On account of the superior signal-to-noise ratio, the higher dose (1 ml/kg body weight) will continue to be prefered in future. The measurement interval can be limited to 10 minutes. (orig.) [de

  16. Comprehensive review on additives of topical dosage forms for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K

    2015-12-01

    Skin is the largest organ of the human body and plays the most important role in protecting against pathogen and foreign matter. Three important modes such as topical, regional and transdermal are widely used for delivery of various dosage forms. Among these modes, the topical dosage forms are preferred because it provides local therapeutic activity when applied to the skin or mucous membranes. Additives or pharmaceutical excipients (non-drug component of dosage form) are used as inactive ingredients in dosage form or tools for structuring dosage forms. The main use of topical dosage form additives are controling the extent of absorption, maintaining the viscosity, improving the stability as well as organoleptic property and increasing the bulk of the formulation. The overall goal of this article is to provide the clinician with information related to the topical dosage form additives and their current major applications against various diseases.

  17. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: efavirenz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Nair, Anita; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Groot, D W; Kopp, Sabine; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2013-02-01

    Literature data pertaining to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence testing for the approval of immediate-release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing efavirenz as the only active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are reviewed. Because of lack of conclusive data about efavirenz's permeability and its failure to comply with the "high solubility" criteria according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), the API can be classified as BCS Class II/IV. In line with the solubility characteristics, the innovator product does not meet the dissolution criteria for a "rapidly dissolving product." Furthermore, product variations containing commonly used excipients or in the manufacturing process have been reported to impact the rate and extent of efavirenz absorption. Despite its wide therapeutic index, subtherapeutic levels of efavirenz can lead to treatment failure and also facilitate the emergence of efavirenz-resistant mutants. For all these reasons, a biowaiver for IR solid oral dosage forms containing efavirenz as the sole API is not scientifically justified for reformulated or multisource drug products. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Gamma scintigraphy in the evaluation of pharmaceutical dosage forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.S.; Hardy, J.G.; Newman, S.P.; Wilding, I.R.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma-scintigraphy is applied extensively in the development and evaluation of pharmaceutical drug delivery systems. It is used particularly for monitoring formulations in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. The radiolabelling is generally achieved by the incorporation of an appropriate technetium-99m or indium-111 labelled radiopharmaceutical into the formulation. In the case of complex dosage forms, such as enteric-coated tablets, labelling is best undertaken by the addition of a non-radioactive tracer such as samarium-152 or erbium-170 followed by neutron activation of the final product. Systems investigated include tablets and multiparticulates for oral administration, enemas and suppositories, metered dose inhalers and nebulisers, and nasal sprays and drops. Gamma-scintigraphy provides information on the deposition, dispersion and movement of the formulation. The combination of such studies with the assay of drug levels in blood or urine specimens, pharmacoscintigraphy, provides information concerning the sites of drug release and absorption. Data acquired from the scintigraphic evaluation of pharmaceutical dosage forms are now being used increasingly at all stages of product development, from the assessment of prototype delivery systems to supporting the product licence application. (orig.)

  19. Emergence of 3D Printed Dosage Forms: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhnan, Mohamed A; Okwuosa, Tochukwu C; Sadia, Muzna; Wan, Ka-Wai; Ahmed, Waqar; Arafat, Basel

    2016-08-01

    The recent introduction of the first FDA approved 3D-printed drug has fuelled interest in 3D printing technology, which is set to revolutionize healthcare. Since its initial use, this rapid prototyping (RP) technology has evolved to such an extent that it is currently being used in a wide range of applications including in tissue engineering, dentistry, construction, automotive and aerospace. However, in the pharmaceutical industry this technology is still in its infancy and its potential yet to be fully explored. This paper presents various 3D printing technologies such as stereolithographic, powder based, selective laser sintering, fused deposition modelling and semi-solid extrusion 3D printing. It also provides a comprehensive review of previous attempts at using 3D printing technologies on the manufacturing dosage forms with a particular focus on oral tablets. Their advantages particularly with adaptability in the pharmaceutical field have been highlighted, which enables the preparation of dosage forms with complex designs and geometries, multiple actives and tailored release profiles. An insight into the technical challenges facing the different 3D printing technologies such as the formulation and processing parameters is provided. Light is also shed on the different regulatory challenges that need to be overcome for 3D printing to fulfil its real potential in the pharmaceutical industry.

  20. Gamma scintigraphy in the evaluation of pharmaceutical dosage forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.S.; Hardy, J.G.; Newman, S.P.; Wilding, I.R. (Pharmaceutical Profiles Ltd., Nottingham (United Kingdom))

    1992-11-01

    Gamma-scintigraphy is applied extensively in the development and evaluation of pharmaceutical drug delivery systems. It is used particularly for monitoring formulations in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. The radiolabelling is generally achieved by the incorporation of an appropriate technetium-99m or indium-111 labelled radiopharmaceutical into the formulation. In the case of complex dosage forms, such as enteric-coated tablets, labelling is best undertaken by the addition of a non-radioactive tracer such as samarium-152 or erbium-170 followed by neutron activation of the final product. Systems investigated include tablets and multiparticulates for oral administration, enemas and suppositories, metered dose inhalers and nebulisers, and nasal sprays and drops. Gamma-scintigraphy provides information on the deposition, dispersion and movement of the formulation. The combination of such studies with the assay of drug levels in blood or urine specimens, pharmacoscintigraphy, provides information concerning the sites of drug release and absorption. Data acquired from the scintigraphic evaluation of pharmaceutical dosage forms are now being used increasingly at all stages of product development, from the assessment of prototype delivery systems to supporting the product licence application. (orig.).

  1. Maintenance and Loss of Duplicated Genes by Dosage Subfunctionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gout, Jean-Francois; Lynch, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) have contributed to gene-repertoire enrichment in many eukaryotic lineages. However, most duplicated genes are eventually lost and it is still unclear why some duplicated genes are evolutionary successful whereas others quickly turn to pseudogenes. Here, we show that dosage constraints are major factors opposing post-WGD gene loss in several Paramecium species that share a common ancestral WGD. We propose a model where a majority of WGD-derived duplicates preserve their ancestral function and are retained to produce enough of the proteins performing this same ancestral function. Under this model, the expression level of individual duplicated genes can evolve neutrally as long as they maintain a roughly constant summed expression, and this allows random genetic drift toward uneven contributions of the two copies to total expression. Our analysis suggests that once a high level of imbalance is reached, which can require substantial lengths of time, the copy with the lowest expression level contributes a small enough fraction of the total expression that selection no longer opposes its loss. Extension of our analysis to yeast species sharing a common ancestral WGD yields similar results, suggesting that duplicated-gene retention for dosage constraints followed by divergence in expression level and eventual deterministic gene loss might be a universal feature of post-WGD evolution. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. ORODISPERSIBLE TABLET: A Patient Friendly Dosage Form (a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Rameesa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common and preferred route of drug administration is through the oral route. Orodispersible tablets are gaining importance among novel oral drug delivery system as they have improved patient compliance and have some additional advantages compared to other formulation. They are also solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate in the mouth within a minute in the presence of saliva due to superdisintegrants in the formulation. Thus this type of drug delivery helps a proper per oral administration in pediatric and geriatric population where swallowing is a matter of trouble. Various scientists have prepared orodispersible tablets by following various methods. However, the most common method is the direct compression method. Other special methods are Freeze Drying,Tablet Molding, Sublimation, Spray Drying, Mass extrusion, Phase transition process, etc. Since these tablets dissolve directly in the mouth, so, their taste is also an important factor. Various approaches have been taken in order to mask the bitter taste of the drug. A number of scientists have explored several drugs in this field. Like all other solid dosage forms, they are also evaluated in the field of hardness, friability, wetting time, moisture uptake, disintegration test and dissolution test.

  3. Stability of pharmaceutical salts in solid oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Haichen; Byrn, Stephen R; Zhou, Qi Tony

    2017-08-01

    Using pharmaceutical salts in solid dosage forms can raise stability concerns, especially salt dissociation which can adversely affect the product performance. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the salt instability encountered in solid-state formulations is imperative to ensure the product quality. The present article uses the fundamental theory of acid base, ionic equilibrium, relationship of pH and solubility as a starting point to illustrate and interpret the salt formation and salt disproportionation in pharmaceutical systems. The criteria of selecting the optimal salt form and the underlying theory of salt formation and disproportionation are reviewed in detail. Factors influencing salt stability in solid dosage forms are scrutinized and discussed with the case studies. In addition, both commonly used and innovative strategies for preventing salt dissociations in formulation, on storage and during manufacturing will be suggested herein. This article will provide formulation scientists and manufacturing engineers an insight into the mechanisms of salt disproportionation and salt formation, which can help them to avoid and solve the instability issues of pharmaceutical salts in the product design.

  4. Use of lipid-lowering medicinal herbs during pregnancy: A systematic review on safety and dosage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat Rouhi-Boroujeni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperlipidemia is one of the important diseases in pregnancy that causes fetal abnormalities during pregnancy and after the birth. Unfortunately, the usual anti-fat drugs are associated with high morbidity in fetus and due to people's inclination towards taking herbs, it is required to identify side effects of medicinal herbs in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to present hypolipidemic herbs that would not any complications for mother and fetus. METHODS: In this review article, the major electronic databases such as EBSCO, Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, China Network Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Cochrane, Google scholar, MEDLINE, SciVerse, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched using the key words “herbal” and “hyperlipidemia”, “herbal” and “pregnancy” matched by MeSH from their respective inceptions till September, 2016. Total of 1723 publications (145 review articles, 855 original research articles, and 723 abstracts about the effect of herbals on hyperlipidemia and 682 publications (200 abstracts, 423 original research articles, and 59 review articles about the effect of herbals in pregnancy were retrieved. At the end, a list of medicinal plants effective on hyperlipidemia alongside their effects on pregnancy was developed. Finally, the plants effective on hyperlipidemia and safe during pregnancy were determined and their dosage, complications, mechanism of action, and side effects were reported. RESULTS: A total of 110 effective herbs on hyperlipidemia were identified and complications of 95 plants in pregnancy were studied. At last, among the 55 selected plants effective on hyperlipidemia and examined for pregnancy, we reported 12 herbs with their dosage and special considerations that can be used to treat hyperlipidemia during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Some medicinal plants can be used to treat hyperlipidemia during pregnancy without any significant side effects both on mother or fetus. 

  5. Oral rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin with vitamin K antagonist for the treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer (EINSTEIN-DVT and EINSTEIN-PE): a pooled subgroup analysis of two randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Martin H; Lensing, Anthonie W A; Brighton, Tim A; Lyons, Roger M; Rehm, Jeffrey; Trajanovic, Mila; Davidson, Bruce L; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Pap, Ákos F; Berkowitz, Scott D; Cohen, Alexander T; Kovacs, Michael J; Wells, Philip S; Prandoni, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    Patients with venous thromboembolism and cancer have a substantial risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism and bleeding during anticoagulant therapy. Although monotherapy with low-molecular-weight heparin is recommended in these patients, in clinical practice many patients with venous thromboembolism and cancer do not receive this treatment. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of a single-drug regimen with oral rivaroxaban compared with enoxaparin followed by vitamin K antagonists, in the subgroup of patients with cancer enrolled in the EINSTEIN-DVT and EINSTEIN-PE randomised controlled trials. We did a subgroup analysis of patients with active cancer (either at baseline or diagnosed during the study), a history of cancer, or no cancer who were enrolled in the EINSTEIN-DVT and EINSTEIN-PE trials. Eligible patients with deep-vein thrombosis (EINSTEIN-DVT) or pulmonary embolism (EINSTEIN-PE) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive rivaroxaban (15 mg twice daily for 21 days, followed by 20 mg once daily) or standard therapy (enoxaparin 1·0 mg/kg twice daily and warfarin or acenocoumarol; international normalised ratio 2·0-3·0). Randomisation with a computerised voice-response system was stratified according to country and intended treatment duration (3, 6, or 12 months). The prespecified primary efficacy and safety outcomes of both the trials and this subanalysis were symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism and clinically relevant bleeding, respectively. We did efficacy and mortality analyses in the intention-to-treat population, and bleeding analyses for time spent receiving treatment plus 2 days in the safety population (all patients who received at least one dose of study drug). The EINSTEIN-DVT and EINSTEIN-PE studies are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00440193 and NCT00439777. In patients with active cancer (diagnosed at baseline or during treatment), recurrent venous thromboembolism occurred in 16 (5%) of 354 patients

  6. Development of polymer film dosage forms of lidocaine for buccal administration: II. Comparison of preparation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hirokazu; Nakamori, Takahiko; Arakawa, Yotaro; Iida, Kotaro; Danjo, Kazumi

    2002-11-01

    In previous studies, we prepared film dosage forms of lidocaine (LC) with hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as a film base using the solvent evaporation (SE) method. However, from the viewpoint of environmental issues, a reduction in organic solvent use in pharmaceutical and other industries is required. In this study, we prepared the LC films by direct compression of the physical mixture (DCPM method) and direct compression of the spray dried powder (DCSD method). Magnesium stearate, which was required as a lubricant for direct compression, showed no effect on the LC release rate. The LC release rate (%/h) was independent of the compression pressure, but a higher pressure was preferable to easily remove the film from the punches. An increase in the film weight decreased the LC release rate expressed in %/h, whereas no significant effect of film weight was observed on the LC release rate from unit surface area expressed in mg/h/cm(2). The LC release rate (%/h) was independent of the LC content, suggesting that the LC release rate (mg/h) can be quantitatively controlled by changing the LC content in the formulation. The LC release rate and penetration rate were affected by the preparation method; that is, DCPM method dosage form. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 91:2424-2432, 2002

  7. Feasibility study on low-dosage digital tomosynthesis (DTS) using a multislit collimation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. Y.; Kim, G. A.; Park, C. K.; Cho, H. S.; Seo, C. W.; Lee, D. Y.; Kang, S. Y.; Kim, K. S.; Lim, H. W.; Lee, H. W.; Park, J. E.; Kim, W. S.; Jeon, D. H.; Woo, T. H.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we investigated an effective low-dose digital tomosynthesis (DTS) where a multislit collimator placed between the X-ray tube and the patient oscillates during projection data acquisition, partially blocking the X-ray beam to the patient thereby reducing the radiation dosage. We performed a simulation using the proposed DTS with two sets of multislit collimators both having a 50% duty cycle and investigated the image characteristics to demonstrate the feasibility of this proposed approach. In the simulation, all projections were taken at a tomographic angle of θ = ± 50° and an angle step of Δθ =2°. We utilized an iterative algorithm based on a compressed-sensing (CS) scheme for more accurate DTS reconstruction. Using the proposed DTS, we successfully obtained CS-reconstructed DTS images with no bright-band artifacts around the multislit edges of the collimator, thus maintaining the image quality. Therefore, the use of multislit collimation in current real-world DTS systems can reduce the radiation dosage to patients.

  8. Encapsulated Synbiotic Dietary Supplementation at Different Dosages to Prevent Vibriosis in White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Zubaidah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of encapsulated synbiotic (Bacillus sp. NP5 and oligosaccharide dietary at different dosages on growth performance, survival rate, feed conversion ratio, and immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio infection. The shrimps of the main treatments were fed by the diet that contained three different dosages of encapsulated synbiotic [0.5% (A, 1% (B, and 2% (C (w/w] with feeding rate of 5% of shrimp biomass (4 times a day. The shrimps of two control treatments (negative control and positive control were fed only by commercial feed without supplementation of encapsulated synbiotic. The growth, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate were observed after 30 days of encapsulated synbiotic dietary. The shrimps were then challenged by injection of Vibrio harveyi (6 log colony forming units/mL 0.1 mL/shrimp, excluded the negative control treatment. Afterward, the survival and immune responses were observed for 9 days after experimental infection. The shrimps treated with 2% encapsulated synbiotic (treatment C in the diet showed the highest growth performance (2.98 ± 0.42%, feed conversion ratio (1.26 ± 0.19, and better immune responses i.e. total hemocyte counts, differential hemocyte count, phenoloxidase, and intestine bacteria observation compared to those of positive control treatment.

  9. The Importance of Superplastizer Dosage in the Mix Design of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Reinforced With Plypropylene Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafigh Payam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a study conducted to investigate the effect of superplasticizer (SP dosage on the slump, density, compressive strength and splitting tensile strength under different curing conditions of a lightweight aggregate concrete reinforced with polypropylene (PP fiber. The lightweight aggregate used in this study was oil palm shell, which is an agricultural solid waste, originating from the palm oil industry. The results indicated that an increase in superplasticizer increased the workability, however, all the mechanical properties declined significantly. The reduction in the 28-day compressive and splitting tensile strengths was about 14. This study showed that although additional SP can improve the workability of the concrete, it may have a negative effect on the other properties of concrete. Therefore, the SP dosage in concrete mixtures containing PP fiber should be limited to a certain amount.

  10. Oral Solid Dosage Form Disintegration Testing - The Forgotten Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gousous, Jozef; Langguth, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Since its inception in the 1930s, disintegration testing has become an important quality control (QC) test in pharmaceutical industry, and disintegration test procedures for various dosage forms have been described by the different pharmacopoeias, with harmonization among them still not quite complete. However, because of the fact that complete disintegration does not necessarily imply complete dissolution, much more research has been focused on dissolution rather than on disintegration testing. Nevertheless, owing to its simplicity, disintegration testing seems to be an attractive replacement to dissolution testing as recognized by the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines, in some cases. Therefore, with proper research being carried out to overcome the associated challenges, the full potential of disintegration testing could be tapped saving considerable efforts allocated to QC testing and quality assurance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  11. Nanofibrous solid dosage form of living bacteria prepared by electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Wagner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the suitability of electrospinning for biodrug delivery and to develop an electrospinning-based method to produce vaginal drug delivery systems. Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria were encapsulated into nanofibers of three different polymers (polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinylpyrrolidone with two different molar masses. Shelf life of the bacteria could be enhanced by the exclusion of water and by preparing a solid dosage form, which is an advantageous and patient-friendly way of administration. The formulations were stored at –20, 7 and 25°C, respectively. Viability testing showed that the nanofibers can provide long term stability for huge amounts of living bacteria if they are kept at (or below 7°C. Furthermore, all kinds of nanowebs prepared in this work dissolved instantly when they got in contact with water, thus the developed biohybrid nanowebs can provide new potential ways for curing bacterial vaginosis.

  12. Investigation of radiation exposure dosage in dental and panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kenichi

    2005-01-01

    Dental radiography and a 10-sheet procedure were conducted at 10 sites in the maxillomandibular anterior teeth and at both sides of the premolar and molar teeth sections with and without a protective apron (total 22 patterns). Experiments, which included a total of five patterns, involving standard ortho-radiography were performed with and without a protective apron, positioning of an apron exclusively on the anterior or the posterior portion of the body and utility of an apron that covered the entire body. Results are as follows: In dental radiography, internal organs included in a bundle demonstrated high radiation exposure, whereas organs excluded from the bundle exhibited low radiation exposure. In organs situated below the thyroid gland, utilization of aprons resulted in lower radiation exposure. In ortho-radiography, radiation exposure was greatest in the parotid gland, followed by the mandibular, sublingual and thyroid glands, respectively. The protective apron resulted in lower radiation exposure at sites situated below the mammary glands; moreover, a protector covering the entire body led to lower radiation exposure in comparison to an apron worn exclusively on the anterior or the posterior aspect of the body. No significant difference was observed in terms of exposure between protective aprons worn on the anterior or the posterior aspect of the body. Furthermore, a protective collar resulted in nearly zero radiation exposure in the thyroid gland. However, a protective collar largely interferes with interpretation of the radiograph; thus, in order to produce interpretable radiographs, protection of the thyroid gland is not possible. In conclusion, radiation exposure dosage can be reduced via utilization of a protective apron positioned below the thyroid gland during dental radiography and below the mammary glands during ortho-radiography. We confirmed evidence indicating that application of a protective apron can reduce patient radiation exposure dosage

  13. Dosage of strontium 90 in human bone ashes; Dosage du strontium 90 sans les cendres d'os humain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patti, F; Jeanmaire, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The determination of {sup 90}Sr in bones by dosage of its daughter product {sup 90}Y is a 4-step process: 1) elimination of the phosphate ions by precipitation of the Ca and Sr as oxalate in the presence of acid; 2) reduction in the calcium concentration to a suitable level by the addition of a known volume of nitric acid (a single precipitation is sufficient), the precipitation yield of the strontium nitrate is checked by the measurement of the amount of {sup 85}Sr added as tracer; 3) purification by a yttrium hydroxide precipitation; 4) extraction at equilibrium of the {sup 90}Y which is counted to give the concentration. By using 50 gm of ash it is possible to detect about 0.1 pCi of {sup 90}Sr per gram of calcium. The advantages of this technique: -) treatment of a large quantity of bone ash -) the use of a small volume of nitric acid (less than 2 ml/g of ash, and -) the various operations present no difficulty. (authors) [French] Determination du Sr dans les os par dosage de son produit de filiation {sup 90}Y. Principe du dosage: 1 - Eliminer les ions phosphates par precipitation du calcium et du strontium sous forme d'oxalate en milieu acide. 2 - Reduire la concentration en calcium a un niveau convenable par addition d'un volume determine d'acide nitrique (une seule precipitation est necessaire). Le rendement de precipitation du nitrate de strontium est controle par la mesure de {sup 85}Sr ajoute comme traceur. 3 - Purifier par une precipitation d'hydroxyde d'yttrium. 4 - Extraire a l'equilibre l'{sup 90}Y qui eat compte pour determiner le {sup 90}Sr. En traitant 50 g de cendre, il est possible de deceler de l'ordre de 0,1 pCi de {sup 90}Sr par gramme de calcium. Les 3 avantages de cette technique: 1 - traitement d'une quantite importante de cendres d'os, 2 - emploi d'un faible volume d'acide nitrique (moins de 2 ml/g de cendres), et 3 - les diverses operations ne presentent aucune difficulte.

  14. TaS2 nanosheet-based room-temperature dosage meter for nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyuan He

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A miniature dosage meter for toxic gas is developed based on TaS2 nanosheets, which is capable of indicating the toxic dosage of trace level NO at room temperature. The TaS2 film-based chemiresistor shows an irreversible current response against the exposure of NO. The unique non-recovery characteristic makes the TaS2 film-based device an ideal indicator of total dosage of chronicle exposure.

  15. Evaluation of insecticides in different dosages to control cicadas in parica plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odineila Martins Monteiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the more efficient and economically viable dosage of chemical insecticide to control Quesada gigas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae nymphs in parica plantations. Three dosages of three products (carbofuran, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam were tested based on the maximum recommended dosage for the control of cicadas in coffee plants and applied in total area. The dosage of one kilogram of a commercial product based in thiamethoxam per hectare was more efficient economically and environmentally to control nymphs of Q. gigas in parica plantations.

  16. General lack of global dosage compensation in ZZ/ZW systems? Broadening the perspective with RNA-seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Jochen BW

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes face the challenge of large-scale imbalance in gene dose. Microarray-based studies in several independent male heterogametic XX/XY systems suggest that dosage compensation mechanisms are in place to mitigate the detrimental effects of gene dose differences. However, recent genomic research on female heterogametic ZZ/ZW systems has generated surprising results. In two bird species and one lepidopteran no evidence for a global dosage compensating mechanism has been found. The recent advent of massively parallel RNA sequencing now opens up the possibility to gauge the generality of this observation with a broader phylogenetic sampling. It further allows assessing the validity of microarray-based inference on dosage compensation with a novel technology. Results We here expemplify this approach using massively parallel sequencing on barcoded individuals of a bird species, the European crow (Corvus corone, where previously no genetic resources were available. Testing for Z-linkage with quantitative PCR (qPCR, we first establish that orthology with distantly related species (chicken, zebra finch can be used as a good predictor for chromosomal affiliation of a gene. We then use a digital measure of gene expression (RNA-seq on brain transcriptome and confirm a global lack of dosage compensation on the Z chromosome. RNA-seq estimates of male-to-female (m:f expression difference on the Z compare well to previous microarray-based estimates in birds and lepidopterans. The data further lends support that an up-regulation of female Z-linked genes conveys partial compensation and suggest a relationship between sex-bias and absolute expression level of a gene. Correlation of sex-biased gene expression on the Z chromosome across all three bird species further suggests that the degree of compensation has been partly conserved across 100 million years of avian evolution. Conclusions This work

  17. Intensive Versus Distributed Aphasia Therapy: A Nonrandomized, Parallel-Group, Dosage-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignam, Jade; Copland, David; McKinnon, Eril; Burfein, Penni; O'Brien, Kate; Farrell, Anna; Rodriguez, Amy D

    2015-08-01

    Most studies comparing different levels of aphasia treatment intensity have not controlled the dosage of therapy provided. Consequently, the true effect of treatment intensity in aphasia rehabilitation remains unknown. Aphasia Language Impairment and Functioning Therapy is an intensive, comprehensive aphasia program. We investigated the efficacy of a dosage-controlled trial of Aphasia Language Impairment and Functioning Therapy, when delivered in an intensive versus distributed therapy schedule, on communication outcomes in participants with chronic aphasia. Thirty-four adults with chronic, poststroke aphasia were recruited to participate in an intensive (n=16; 16 hours per week; 3 weeks) versus distributed (n=18; 6 hours per week; 8 weeks) therapy program. Treatment included 48 hours of impairment, functional, computer, and group-based aphasia therapy. Distributed therapy resulted in significantly greater improvements on the Boston Naming Test when compared with intensive therapy immediately post therapy (P=0.04) and at 1-month follow-up (P=0.002). We found comparable gains on measures of participants' communicative effectiveness, communication confidence, and communication-related quality of life for the intensive and distributed treatment conditions at post-therapy and 1-month follow-up. Aphasia Language Impairment and Functioning Therapy resulted in superior clinical outcomes on measures of language impairment when delivered in a distributed versus intensive schedule. The therapy progam had a positive effect on participants' functional communication and communication-related quality of life, regardless of treatment intensity. These findings contribute to our understanding of the effect of treatment intensity in aphasia rehabilitation and have important clinical implications for service delivery models. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Long-term (5 years), high daily dosage of dietary agmatine--evidence of safety: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad, Gad M; Gilad, Varda H

    2014-11-01

    There is presently a great interest in the therapeutic potential of agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, for various diseases. Recent clinical studies have already shown that oral agmatine sulfate given for up to 3 weeks provides a safe and, as compared with current therapeutics, more effective treatment for neuropathic pain. These studies have ushered in the use of dietary agmatine as a nutraceutical. However, in view of information paucity, assessment of long-term safety of oral agmatine treatment is now clearly required. The authors of this report undertook to assess their own health status during ongoing consumption of a high daily dosage of oral agmatine over a period of 4-5 years. A daily dose of 2.67 g agmatine sulfate was encapsulated in gelatin capsules; the regimen consists of six capsules daily, each containing 445 mg, three in the morning and three in the evening after meals. Clinical follow-up consists of periodic physical examinations and laboratory blood and urine analyses. All measurements thus far remain within normal values and good general health status is sustained throughout the study period, up to 5 years. This case study shows for the first time that the recommended high dosage of agmatine may be consumed for at least 5 years without evidence of any adverse effects. These initial findings are highly important as they provide significant evidence for the extended long-term safety of a high daily dosage of dietary agmatine--a cardinal advantage for its utility as a nutraceutical.

  19. Dosage of boron traces in graphite, uranium and beryllium oxide; Dosage de traces de bore dans le graphite, l'uranium et l'oxyde de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coursier, J [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Physique et Chimie Industrielles, 75 - Paris (France); Hure, J; Platzer, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The problem of the dosage of the boron in the materials serving to the construction of nuclear reactors arises of the following way: to determine to about 0,1 ppm close to the quantities of boron of the order of tenth ppm. We have chosen the colorimetric analysis with curcumin as method of dosage. To reach the indicated contents, it is necessary to do a previous separation of the boron and the materials of basis, either by extraction of tetraphenylarsonium fluoborate in the case of the boron dosage in uranium and the beryllium oxide, either by the use of a cations exchanger resin of in the case of graphite. (M.B.) [French] Le probleme du dosage du bore dans les materiaux servant a la construction de reacteurs nucleaires se pose de la facon suivante: determiner a environ 0,1 ppm pres des quantites de bore de l'ordre de quelques dixiemes de ppm. Nous avons choisit la colorimetrie a la curcumine comme methode de dosage. Pour atteindre les teneurs indiquees, il est necessaire d'effectuer une separation prealable du bore et des materiaux de base, soit par extraction du fluoborate de tetraphenylarsonium dans le cas du dosage de bore dans l'uranium et l'oxyde de beryllium, soit par l'utilisation d'une resine echangeuse de cations dans le cas du graphite. (M.B.)

  20. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohin, Igor E; Kulinich, Julia I; Ramenskaya, Galina V; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Kopp, Sabine; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Groot, D W; Barends, Dirk M; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2014-02-01

    Literature and experimental data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing piroxicam in the free acid form are reviewed. Piroxicam solubility and permeability, its therapeutic use and therapeutic index, pharmacokinetic properties, data related to the possibility of excipient interactions and reported BE/bioavailability (BA), and corresponding dissolution data are taken into consideration. The available data suggest that according to the current biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and all current guidances, piroxicam would be assigned to BCS Class II. The extent of piroxicam absorption seems not to depend on manufacturing conditions or excipients, so the risk of bioinequivalence in terms of area under the curve (AUC) is very low, but the rate of absorption (i.e., BE in terms of Cmax ) can be affected by the formulation. Current in vitro dissolution methods may not always reflect differences in terms of Cmax for BCS Class II weak acids; however, minor differences in absorption rate of piroxicam would not subject the patient to unacceptable risks: as piroxicam products may be taken before or after meals, the rate of absorption cannot be considered crucial to drug action. Therefore, a biowaiver for IR piroxicam solid oral dosage form is considered feasible, provided that (a) the test product contains only excipients, which are also present in IR solid oral drug products containing piroxicam, which have been approved in ICH or associated countries, for instance, those presented in Table 3 of this paper; (b) both the test and comparator drug products dissolve 85% in 30 min or less at pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8; and (c) the test product and comparator show dissolution profile similarity in pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8. When not all of these conditions can be fulfilled, BE of the products should be established in vivo. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the

  1. The Dosage Form of Aragh in Treatment, from the Iranian Traditional Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adl, Mehdi; Emtiazi, Majid

    2016-05-01

    The Iranian traditional medicine is one of the branches of complementary medicine and it is based on using the dosage forms of plants. One of the most common forms of pharmaceutical plants is Aragh. Due to ease-of-use, distillate is a more acceptable form among the public. In this article, it is attempted to study the usage forms and effects of Aragh according to the valid traditional medicine resources. This article is a review of Iranian traditional medicine textbooks such as Makhzan-ul-dawiah, Gharabadin Kabir, Cannon of Medicine, and other recent texts on medical plants. According to the traditional medicine, the process of getting Aragh is a kind of distillation, which is performed by using Ghar and Alembic (the equipment that are used in distillation). Distillation is the process of extracting and refining the fluid of a plant. Aragh of the plants is much more effective on the body than the plant itself. Traditional medicine regards Aragh as a new kind of drug (medicine) that is rarely mentioned in older texts (except for golab). However, the modern medicine regards it as a dosage form of essence, which is dissolved in water. The more the essence, the better the distillate gets. According to the traditional medicine sources, since the time of Hakim Aghil Khorasani, Aragh was used more and more every day. About 100 kinds of Araghs are mentioned in ancient texts, which are extracted from simple plants. Considering the distillation process and the way it performs, and by knowing that Aragh is a plant's softest and the most influential entity, it seems that it has a huge effect on Arvah and Ghova, the main parts like heart and brain and nervous parts.

  2. Antioxidant activity evaluation of new dosage forms as vehicles for dehydrated vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-de Soto, María Dolores; García-Salas, Patricia; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Campos, Francisco; Clares-Naveros, Beatriz

    2013-06-01

    A dehydrated vegetables mixture loaded in four pharmaceutical dosage forms as powder, effervescent granulate, sugar granulate and gumdrops were investigated for their antioxidant capacity using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging capacity assay, oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay and ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay. Total phenolic content of dehydrated vegetables powder mixture was also measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, so as to evaluate its contribution to their total antioxidant function. The effect of different temperatures on stability of these systems after 90 days storage was also evaluated. These formulations presented strong antioxidant properties and high phenolic content (279 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of sample) and thus could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant properties differed significantly among selected formulations (p forms are new and innovative approach for vegetable intakes in population with special requirements providing an improvement in the administration of vegetables and fruits.

  3. GC Method Validation for the Analysis of Menthol in Suppository Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad N. Abualhasan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Menthol is widely used as a fragrance and flavor in the food and cosmetic industries. It is also used in the medical and pharmaceutical fields for its various biological effects. Gas chromatography (GC is considered to be a sensitive method for the analysis of menthol. GC chromatographic separation was developed using capillary column (VF-624 and a flame ionization detector (FID. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines for various parameters such as precision, linearity, accuracy, solution stability, robustness, limit of detection, and quantification. The tested validation parameters were found to be within acceptable limits. The method was successfully applied for the quantification of menthol in suppositories formulations. Quality control departments and official pharmacopeias can use our developed method in the analysis of menthol in pharmaceutical dosage formulation and raw material.

  4. Self-compacting concretes (SCC: comparison of methods of dosage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. F. Tutikian

    Full Text Available The composition of a self-compacting concrete (SCC should be defined to fulfills a number of requirements, such as self-compactibility, strength and durability. This study aims to compare three methods of dosage for SCC with local materials, so as to determine which one is the most economical and rational, thus assisting the executor in making a decision and enabling economic and technical feasibility for its application. The methods used in the experimental program were: Nan Su et al., which was developed in 2001 [1]; Repette-Melo, which was proposed in 2005 [2]; and Tutikian & Dal Molin, which was developed in 2007 [3]. From the results obtained in the experimental program, it was observed that the method which presented the lowest cost and highest compressive strength at the ages of 7, 28 and 91 days was Tutikian & Dal Molin, while the one which reached the lowest chloride ion penetration, best compactness and highest elasticity modulus was Repette-Melo. In tests carried out in the fresh state, all tested methods yielded mixtures which comply with the self-compactibility levels required by ABNT NBR 15823:2010 [4].

  5. A step toward development of printable dosage forms for poorly soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raijada, Dharaben Kaushikkumar; Genina, Natalja; Fors, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to formulate printable dosage forms for a poorly soluble drug (piroxicam; PRX) and to gain understanding of critical parameters to be considered during development of such dosage forms. Liquid formulations of PRX were printed on edible paper using piezoelectric inkjet...

  6. 21 CFR 522.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms. 522.1662 Section 522.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable...

  7. Influence of initial insulin dosage on blood glucose dynamics of children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Gong, Chunxiu; Cao, Bingyan; Meng, Xi; Wei, Liya; Wu, Di; Liang, Xuejun; Li, Wenjing; Liu, Min; Gu, Yi; Su, Chang

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effect of initial insulin dosage on blood glucose (BG) dynamics, β-cell protection, and oxidative stress in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Sixty newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus patients were randomly assigned to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusions of 0.6 ± 0.2 IU/kg/d (group 1), 1.0 ± 0.2 IU/kg/d (group 2), or 1.4 ± 0.2 IU/kg/d (group 3) for 3 wk. BG was monitored continuously for the first 10 d and the last 2 d of wk 2 and 3. A total of 24-hour urinary 8-iso-PGF2α was assayed on days 8, 9, and 10. The occurrence and duration of the honeymoon period were recorded. Fasting C-peptide and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were assayed after 1, 6, and 12 months of insulin treatment. BG decreased to the target range by the end of wk 3 (group 1), wk 2 (group 2), or wk 1 (group 3). The actual insulin dosage over the 3 wk, frequency of hypoglycemia on wk 1 and 2, and median BG at the end of wk 1 differed significantly, but not 8-iso-PGF2α and the honeymoon period in the three groups. No severe hypoglycemia event was observed in any patient, but there was significant difference in the first occurrence of hypoglycemia. Differences in initial insulin dosage produced different BG dynamics in wk 1, equivalent BG dynamics on wk 2 and 3, but had no influence on short- and long-term BG control and honeymoon phase. The wide range of initial insulin dosage could be chosen if guided by BG monitoring. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatric Diabetes published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Laūq: A Sustained-Release Dosage Form for Respiratory Disorders in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karegar-Borzi, Hossein; Salehi, Mehdi; Rahimi, Roja

    2016-01-01

    Laūq is a pharmaceutical dosage form that had been mainly used for the treatment of various respiratory disorders in traditional Persian medicine. It is important from 2 aspects: a dosage form with efficient and optimum delivery of drugs to the respiratory tract and biological effects of its ingredients. Natural medicine in laūq has been demonstrated to act in respiratory disorders by their antitussive, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, spasmolytic, and antibacterial activities. Some of these natural remedies act by most of the mentioned mechanisms such as Cydonia oblonga, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Crocus sativus, Hyssopus officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, and honey. However, the evidence is limited including Cassia fistula, Papaver somniferum, and Drimia maritima. According to positive pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of laūqs, they may be considered as efficient dosage forms for delivery of drugs to the respiratory tract. For better compatibility of patients, it could be substituted laūqs with newer drug delivery systems like lozenges. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Genetic Variance Partitioning and Genome-Wide Prediction with Allele Dosage Information in Autotetraploid Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endelman, Jeffrey B; Carley, Cari A Schmitz; Bethke, Paul C; Coombs, Joseph J; Clough, Mark E; da Silva, Washington L; De Jong, Walter S; Douches, David S; Frederick, Curtis M; Haynes, Kathleen G; Holm, David G; Miller, J Creighton; Muñoz, Patricio R; Navarro, Felix M; Novy, Richard G; Palta, Jiwan P; Porter, Gregory A; Rak, Kyle T; Sathuvalli, Vidyasagar R; Thompson, Asunta L; Yencho, G Craig

    2018-05-01

    As one of the world's most important food crops, the potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) has spurred innovation in autotetraploid genetics, including in the use of SNP arrays to determine allele dosage at thousands of markers. By combining genotype and pedigree information with phenotype data for economically important traits, the objectives of this study were to (1) partition the genetic variance into additive vs. nonadditive components, and (2) determine the accuracy of genome-wide prediction. Between 2012 and 2017, a training population of 571 clones was evaluated for total yield, specific gravity, and chip fry color. Genomic covariance matrices for additive ( G ), digenic dominant ( D ), and additive × additive epistatic ( G # G ) effects were calculated using 3895 markers, and the numerator relationship matrix ( A ) was calculated from a 13-generation pedigree. Based on model fit and prediction accuracy, mixed model analysis with G was superior to A for yield and fry color but not specific gravity. The amount of additive genetic variance captured by markers was 20% of the total genetic variance for specific gravity, compared to 45% for yield and fry color. Within the training population, including nonadditive effects improved accuracy and/or bias for all three traits when predicting total genotypic value. When six F 1 populations were used for validation, prediction accuracy ranged from 0.06 to 0.63 and was consistently lower (0.13 on average) without allele dosage information. We conclude that genome-wide prediction is feasible in potato and that it will improve selection for breeding value given the substantial amount of nonadditive genetic variance in elite germplasm. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. Short-Term Dosage Regimen for Stimulation-Induced Long-Lasting Desynchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanos Manos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we computationally generate hypotheses for dose-finding studies in the context of desynchronizing neuromodulation techniques. Abnormally strong neuronal synchronization is a hallmark of several brain disorders. Coordinated Reset (CR stimulation is a spatio-temporally patterned stimulation technique that specifically aims at disrupting abnormal neuronal synchrony. In networks with spike-timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may ultimately cause an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and neuronal synchrony. This long-lasting desynchronization was theoretically predicted and verified in several pre-clinical and clinical studies. We have shown that CR stimulation with rapidly varying sequences (RVS robustly induces an anti-kindling at low intensities e.g., if the CR stimulation frequency (i.e., stimulus pattern repetition rate is in the range of the frequency of the neuronal oscillation. In contrast, CR stimulation with slowly varying sequences (SVS turned out to induce an anti-kindling more strongly, but less robustly with respect to variations of the CR stimulation frequency. Motivated by clinical constraints and inspired by the spacing principle of learning theory, in this computational study we propose a short-term dosage regimen that enables a robust anti-kindling effect of both RVS and SVS CR stimulation, also for those parameter values where RVS and SVS CR stimulation previously turned out to be ineffective. Intriguingly, for the vast majority of parameter values tested, spaced multishot CR stimulation with demand-controlled variation of stimulation frequency and intensity caused a robust and pronounced anti-kindling. In contrast, spaced CR stimulation with fixed stimulation parameters as well as singleshot CR stimulation of equal integral duration failed to improve the stimulation outcome. In the model network under consideration, our short-term dosage regimen enables to robustly induce

  11. Short-Term Dosage Regimen for Stimulation-Induced Long-Lasting Desynchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Thanos; Zeitler, Magteld; Tass, Peter A

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we computationally generate hypotheses for dose-finding studies in the context of desynchronizing neuromodulation techniques. Abnormally strong neuronal synchronization is a hallmark of several brain disorders. Coordinated Reset (CR) stimulation is a spatio-temporally patterned stimulation technique that specifically aims at disrupting abnormal neuronal synchrony. In networks with spike-timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may ultimately cause an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and neuronal synchrony. This long-lasting desynchronization was theoretically predicted and verified in several pre-clinical and clinical studies. We have shown that CR stimulation with rapidly varying sequences (RVS) robustly induces an anti-kindling at low intensities e.g., if the CR stimulation frequency (i.e., stimulus pattern repetition rate) is in the range of the frequency of the neuronal oscillation. In contrast, CR stimulation with slowly varying sequences (SVS) turned out to induce an anti-kindling more strongly, but less robustly with respect to variations of the CR stimulation frequency. Motivated by clinical constraints and inspired by the spacing principle of learning theory, in this computational study we propose a short-term dosage regimen that enables a robust anti-kindling effect of both RVS and SVS CR stimulation, also for those parameter values where RVS and SVS CR stimulation previously turned out to be ineffective. Intriguingly, for the vast majority of parameter values tested, spaced multishot CR stimulation with demand-controlled variation of stimulation frequency and intensity caused a robust and pronounced anti-kindling. In contrast, spaced CR stimulation with fixed stimulation parameters as well as singleshot CR stimulation of equal integral duration failed to improve the stimulation outcome. In the model network under consideration, our short-term dosage regimen enables to robustly induce long

  12. ANTITUBERCULOSIS DRUG DOSAGE FORMS: RANGE, KEY BENEFITS AND PROSPECTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest to research in the development of new formulations of antituberculosis drugs due to the high incidence of tuberculosis in the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation nowadays, including with acquired drug resistance. The reason for the development of acquired drug resistance is to interrupt the treatment of patients is the high toxicity of antituberculosis drugs. The improving the efficiency of antituberculosis therapy remains one of the most pressing.The aim this study was to review the dosage forms of antituberculosis drugs currently used and the ways to improve them.Methods. The study was conducted on the basis of scientific analysis (eLibrary database, PubMed, Cyberleninca, patent (kzpatents, reference (Klifar, Drugs register and technical literature.Results. It was revealed that the antituberculosis drugs are available in the form of tablets, capsules, granules for oral use and injection solutions. The advantages and disadvantages of oral dosage forms of antituberculosis drugs: tablets, capsules, granules, syrups, suspensions are described. The importance of the development and implementation in practice of pediatric formulations of antituberculosis drugs is mentioned. The state of current research inhaled formulations for the treatment of tuberculosis is described. The prospects of directional inhalation exposure by immobilization of antituberculosis drugs in liposomes, niosomes, nanocapsules, micelles, micro- and nanoparticles are mentioned. The prospect of the rectal formulations use is described. The increase in interest in the molecular encapsulation of medicinal substances with cyclodextrins in connection with the possibility of increasing the bioavailability of active ingredients, reduce the harmful effects on the gastrointestinal tract, extension, elimination of interaction of incompatible components in combination preparations, the protection of unstable substances is

  13. A cluster-analytic profiling of heroin-dependent patients based on level, clinical adequacy, and patient-desired adjustment of buprenorphine dosage during buprenorphine-naloxone maintenance treatment in sixteen Spanish centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, Saul; González-Saiz, Francisco; Trujols, Joan; Vergara-Moragues, Esperanza; Siñol, Núria; Pérez de Los Cobos, José

    2018-06-01

    Buprenorphine dosage is a crucial factor influencing outcomes of buprenorphine treatment for heroin use disorders. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to identify naturally occurring profiles of heroin-dependent patients regarding individualized management of buprenorphine dosage in clinical practice of buprenorphine-naloxone maintenance treatment. 316 patients receiving buprenorphine-naloxone maintenance treatment were surveyed at 16 Spanish centers during the stabilization phase of this treatment. Patients were grouped using cluster analysis based on three key indicators of buprenorphine dosage management: dose, adequacy according to physician, and adjustment according to patient. The clusters obtained were compared regarding different facets of patient clinical condition. Four clusters were identified and labeled as follows (buprenorphine average dose and percentage of participants in each cluster are given in brackets): "Clinically Adequate and Adjusted to Patient Desired Low Dosage" (2.60 mg/d, 37.05%); "Clinically Adequate and Adjusted to Patient Desired High Dosage" (10.71 mg/d, 29.18%); "Clinically Adequate and Patient Desired Reduction of Low Dosage" (3.38 mg/d, 20.0%); and "Clinically Inadequate and Adjusted to Patient Desired Moderate Dosage" (7.55 mg/d, 13.77%). Compared to patients from the other three clusters, participants in the latter cluster reported more frequent use of heroin and cocaine during last week, lower satisfaction with buprenorphine-naloxone as a medication, higher prevalence of buprenorphine-naloxone adverse effects and poorer psychological adjustment. Our results show notable differences between clusters of heroin-dependent patients regarding buprenorphine dosage management. We also identified a group of patients receiving clinically inadequate buprenorphine dosage, which was related to poorer clinical condition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and characterization of a gastroretentive dosage form composed of chitosan and hydroxyethyl cellulose for alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen YC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ying-Chen Chen,1,* Hsiu-O Ho,1,* Chiao-Chi Chiu,1 Ming-Thau Sheu1,2 1School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, 2Clinical Research Center and Traditional Herbal Medicine Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: In this study, alendronate, the most commonly used biphosphonate for treating osteoporosis, was formulated as gastroretentive dosage form (GRDF tablets to enhance its oral bioavailability. GRDF tablets were characterized with the effects of different molecular weights (MWs of chitosan (CS and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC at various ratios on swelling, floating, and physical integrity. The CS component was formed using various acids: acetic, lactic, malic, succinic, and citric, and a high viscosity grade of HEC was selected. The results demonstrated that the swelling ratios of the formulations comprising high MW CS were lower than those of low or medium MW CS when salts were formed with any countering acids except for acetic acid. The decreasing ranking of the swelling rates was: CS-citrate > CS-malate > CS-lactate > CS-succinate > CS-acetate. A negative correlation was found between the pKa of the respective countering acid and the swelling rate. The swelling rate was promoted if an acidic salt of CS with a lower water content was incorporated, while it became slower when tablet hardness was higher or the compression force to form tablets was increased. Although HEC did not contribute to swelling or floating, it played a role in maintaining structural integrity. A prolonged dissolution profile of alendronate GRDF tablets developed in this study was observed.Keywords: gastroretentive dosage form, chitosan, hydrogel, hydroxyethyl cellulose, swelling, alendronate

  15. Screening computer-assisted dosage programs for anticoagulation with warfarin and other vitamin K antagonists: minimum safety requirements for individual programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poller, L; Roberts, C; Ibrahim, S

    2009-01-01

    Based on the results of the previous European Action on Anticoagulation (EAA) multicenter study, a simplified minimum procedure is described for screening the safety and effectiveness of marketed programs for dosage of oral anticoagulant drugs (vitamin K antagonists). The aim was to demonstrate non...

  16. [Pharmaceutical counseling of non-conventional dosage forms concerning the health-literacy and the patient adherence in public medication dispensing -Questionnaire surveys in Hungarian community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, O; Zelko, R

    Although the non-conventional dosage forms (e.g. modified release per oral systems or transdermal patches) have more significant advantages than other conventional dosage forms, the pa- tients have to apply them correctly in their home medicine using to reach the effective and safe therapy. A guideline of relevant application instructions contribute to development of an effective pharmaceutical counseling in community pharmacies. The counseling and advices can improve the patients' knowledge concerning application rules of different new dosage forms (health- literacy) with patient adherence. Finally it will result more effective and safer therapies. The aim of our Hungarian questionnaire surveys was to explore the patients' drug application habits or application errors and improve special verbal counseling of mentioned non-conventional dosage forms in community pharmacies. Understandable patient information leaflets were developed about application rules and besides the levels of patients' reading comprehension was evaluated in case of the leaflet of medicinal patches. The results show that a properly developed text is useful for the majority of patients but they need the verbal explanation as well, moreover there is a demand for the verbal counseling in community pharmacies. The most common application errors were explored and the most effective instructions or application rules were collected for the pharmacists and patients concerning the modified release tablets or capsules and transdermal patches.

  17. Preactivated thiolated nanoparticles: A novel mucoadhesive dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Claudia; Bonengel, Sonja; Pereira de Sousa, Irene; Laffleur, Flavia; Prüfert, Felix; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2016-01-30

    Within this study a novel form of mucoadhesive nanoparticles (NPs) exhibiting a prolonged residence time on mucosal tissues was developed. In order to achieve this goal a new thiomer was synthesized by the covalent attachment of the amino acid l-cysteine ethyl ester to poly(acrylic acid) (100 kDa). The free thiol groups were in the following preactivated with the aromatic thiol bearing ligand 2-mercaptonicotinic acid (2-MNA) and the amount of coupled l-cysteine ethyl ester as well as the amount of attached 2-MNA was determined. Based on this, preactivated thiomer NPs were prepared by ionic gelation with polyethylenimine (PEI). The resulting NPs were characterized regarding size and zeta potential. Furthermore their mucoadhesive properties were investigated via rheological measurements with porcine intestinal mucus and via determination of the particles' mucosal residence time. Results showed that 1666.74 μmol l-cysteine ethyl ester and 603.07 μmol 2-MNA could be attached per gram polymer. NPs were in a size range of 112.67-252.84 nm exhibiting a zeta potential of -29 mV. Thiolated NPs only led to a 2-fold increase in mucus viscosity whereas preactivated NPs showed a 6-fold higher mucus viscosity than unmodified NPs. The mucosal residence time of thiolated NPs was 1.6-fold prolonged and that of preactivated NPs even 4.4-fold higher compared to unmodified particles. Accordingly, preactivated thiolated NPs providing a prolonged residence time on mucosal membranes could be a promising dosage form for various applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Carboxymethyl starch mucoadhesive microspheres as gastroretentive dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Marc; Gosselin, Patrick; Mateescu, Mircea Alexandru

    2015-12-30

    Carboxymethyl starch microspheres (CMS-MS) were produced from carboxymethyl starch powder (CMS-P) with a degree of substitution (DS) from 0.1 to 1.5 in order to investigate the influence of DS on physicochemical, drug release and mucoadhesion properties as well as interactions with gastrointestinal tract (GIT) epithelial barrier models. Placebo and furosemide loaded CMS-MS were obtained by emulsion-crosslinking with sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). DS had an impact on increasing equilibrium water uptake and modulating drug release properties of the CMS-MS according to the surrounding pH. The transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of NCI-N87 gastric cell monolayers was not influenced in presence of CMS-MS, whereas that of Caco-2 intestinal cell monolayers decreased with increasing DS but recovered initial values at about 15h post-treatment. CMS-MS with increasing DS also enhanced furosemide permeability across both NCI-N87 and Caco-2 monolayers at pH gradients from 3.0 to 7.4. Mucoadhesion of CMS-MS on gastric mucosa (acidic condition) increased with the DS up to 55% for a DS of 1.0 but decreased on neutral intestinal mucosa to less than 10% with DS of 0.1. The drug release, permeability enhancement and mucoadhesive properties of the CMS-MS suggest CMS-MS with DS between 0.6 and 1.0 as suitable excipient for gastroretentive oral delivery dosage forms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Thromboprophylaxis in Abdominoplasty: Efficacy and Safety of a Complete Perioperative Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Francesco Marangi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundVenous thromboembolism, a spectrum of diseases ranging from deep venous thrombosis to pulmonary embolism, is a major source of morbidity and mortality. The majority of cases described in plastic surgery involve abdominoplasty. Risk assessment and prophylaxis are paramount in such patients. General recommendations were recently developed, but the evidence in the literature was insufficient to prepare exhaustive guidelines regarding the medication, dosage, timing, or length of the prophylaxis.MethodsA thromboprophylaxis protocol was developed for patients undergoing abdominoplasty. The protocol consisted of preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative measures. Enoxaparin was administered as chemoprophylaxis in selected patients. The study involved 253 patients. The patients were analyzed for age, body mass index, enoxaparin dosage, risk factors, and complications.ResultsDeep venous thrombosis was documented in two cases (0.8%. No pulmonary embolism occurred. Three patients (1.2% presented mild subcutaneous abdominal hematoma within the first postoperative week that spontaneously resorbed with neither aesthetic nor functional complications. Two patients (0.8% presented severe hematoma requiring surgical re-intervention for drainage and hemostasis revision. Statistical analysis showed no significant correlation between enoxaparin dosage and hematoma (P=0.18 or deep venous thrombosis (P=0.61.ConclusionsThe described thromboprophylaxis protocol proved to be effective in the prevention of thrombotic events, with an acceptable risk of hemorrhagic complications. Furthermore, it provides new evidence regarding the currently debated variables of chemoprophylaxis, namely type, dosage, timing, and length.

  20. Dosage sensitivity shapes the evolution of copy-number varied regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Schuster-Böckler

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dosage sensitivity is an important evolutionary force which impacts on gene dispensability and duplicability. The newly available data on human copy-number variation (CNV allow an analysis of the most recent and ongoing evolution. Provided that heterozygous gene deletions and duplications actually change gene dosage, we expect to observe negative selection against CNVs encompassing dosage sensitive genes. In this study, we make use of several sources of population genetic data to identify selection on structural variations of dosage sensitive genes. We show that CNVs can directly affect expression levels of contained genes. We find that genes encoding members of protein complexes exhibit limited expression variation and overlap significantly with a manually derived set of dosage sensitive genes. We show that complexes and other dosage sensitive genes are underrepresented in CNV regions, with a particular bias against frequent variations and duplications. These results suggest that dosage sensitivity is a significant force of negative selection on regions of copy-number variation.

  1. Influence of dosage form on the intravitreal pharmacokinetics of diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairaj, Chandrasekar; Kim, Stephen J; Edelhauser, Henry F; Shah, Jaymin C; Kompella, Uday B

    2009-10-01

    To prepare a suspension form of diclofenac and compare the influence of the injected form (suspension versus solution) on the intravitreal pharmacokinetics of diclofenac in Dutch belted pigmented rabbits. Diclofenac acid was prepared and characterized in a suspension formulation. Rabbit eyes were injected with either diclofenac sodium solution (0.3 mg) or diclofenac acid suspension (10 mg) prepared in 0.1 mL balanced salt solution. Rabbits were killed at regular time intervals, the eyes enucleated, and drug content quantified in the vitreous humor and retina-choroid tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic models were developed for both the dosage forms, and simulations were performed for different doses. Diclofenac acid with an approximate 5-mum particle size exhibited 3.5-fold lower solubility in vitreous humor, when compared with its sodium salt. The estimated settling velocity of the suspension in the vitreous humor was 3 cm/h. After diclofenac sodium salt solution injection, drug levels declined rapidly with no drug levels detectable after 24 hours in the vitreous humor and 4 hours in the RC. Throughout the assessed time course, drug levels were higher in the vitreous. However, sustained, high drug levels were observed in both the vitreous humor and the retina-choroid even on day 21 after diclofenac acid suspension injection, with retina-choroid drug levels being higher beginning at 0.25 hour. The elimination half-life of diclofenac suspension was 24 and 18 days in vitreous and retina-choroid, respectively, compared to 2.9 and 0.9 hours observed with diclofenac sodium. The pharmacokinetic models developed indicated a slow-release distribution or depot compartment for the diclofenac acid suspension in the posterior segment. Simulations indicated the inability of a 10-mg dose of diclofenac sodium solution to sustain drug levels in the vitreous beyond 11 days. By choosing a less soluble form of a drug such as diclofenac acid, vitreous

  2. High gonadotropin dosage does not affect euploidy and pregnancy rates in IVF PGS cycles with single embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barash, Oleksii O; Hinckley, Mary D; Rosenbluth, Evan M; Ivani, Kristen A; Weckstein, Louis N

    2017-11-01

    Does high gonadotropin dosage affect euploidy and pregnancy rates in PGS cycles with single embryo transfer? High gonadotropin dosage does NOT affect euploidy and pregnancy rates in PGS cycles with single embryo transfer. PGS has been proven to be the most effective and reliable method for embryo selection in IVF cycles. Euploidy and blastulation rates decrease significantly with advancing maternal age. In order to recruit an adequate number of follicles, the average dosage of gonadotropins administered during controlled ovarian stimulation in IVF cycles often increases significantly with advancing maternal age. A retrospective study of SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) PGS outcome data from blastocysts biopsied on day 5 or day 6 was conducted to identify differences in euploidy and clinical pregnancy rates. Seven hundred and ninety four cycles of IVF treatment with PGS between January 2013 and January 2017 followed by 651 frozen embryo transfers were included in the study (506 patients, maternal age (y.o.) - 37.2 ± 4.31). A total of 4034 embryos were analyzed (5.1 ± 3.76 per case) for euploidy status. All embryos were vitrified after biopsy, and selected embryos were subsequently thawed for a hormone replacement frozen embryo transfer cycle. All cycles were analyzed by total gonadotropin dosage (5000 IU), by number of eggs retrieved (1-5, 5-10, 10-15 and >15 eggs) and patient's age (cycles) euploidy rates ranged from 62.3% (cycle) to 67.5% (>5000 IU were used in the IVF cycle) (OR = 0.862, 95% CI 0.687-1.082, P = 0.2) and from 69.5% (1-5 eggs retrieved) to 60.0% (>15 eggs retrieved) (OR = 0.658, 95% CI 0.405-1.071, P = 0.09). Similar data were obtained in the oldest group of patients (≥41 y.o. - 189 IVF cycles): euploidy rates ranged from 30.7 to 26.4% (OR = 0.811, 95% CI 0.452-1.454, P = 0.481) when analyzed by total dosage of gonadotropins used in the IVF cycle and from 40.0 to 30.7% (OR = 0.531, 95% CI 0.204-1.384, P = 0.19), when assessed by the total

  3. Continuous intravenous infusion of ampicillin and gentamicin during parenteral nutrition to 36 newborn infants using a dosage schedule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Andersen, G E

    1984-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were given continuously i.v. to 36 newborn infants using a dosage schedule and the results were compared with those obtained in an earlier study including 88 infants who received individually calculated dosages. With the dosage schedule the variation in the serum concent...

  4. Dietary vitamin E dosage and source affects meat quality parameters in light weight lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Leonel N; Beltrán, José A; Alonso, Verónica; Bello, José M; den Hartog, Leo A; Hendriks, Wouter H; Martín-Tereso, Javier

    2018-03-01

    Supra-nutritional vitamin E supplementation is a commonly used approach to delay lipid oxidation and colour deterioration in lamb and beef meat marketed under modified atmosphere packaging. However, these applications lack a precise calibration of dose for the desired effect and, in addition, limited information is available regarding the use of natural vitamin E for this purpose. Three hundred and sixty Rasa Aragonesa lambs were fed diets supplemented with all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg -1 compound feed), RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate (125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg kg -1 compound feed) and a basal diet without vitamin E supplementation for 14 days before slaughter at 25.8 ± 1.67 kg body weight. Vitamin E supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on average daily weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency. Display time had larger effects on lipid oxidation, colour stability, myoglobin forms and meat discolouration parameters compared to vitamin E supplementation. However, vitamin E source and dosage significantly extended meat shelf-life as indicated by lipid oxidation, redness, hue angle, metmyoglobin formation, deoxymyoglobin formation, A 580-630 and I SO2 . The quantification of these effects demonstrated that the biological activity value of 1.36 used to distinguish both vitamin E sources is not appropriate for meat quality enhancing properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. [Ascolong: a new buccal dosage form of acetylsalicylic acid to be used and antiaggregant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokurina, E V; Suslina, Z A; Khromov, G L; Davydo, A B; Metelitsa, V I; Ionova, V G; Tanashian, M M; Demina, E G; Bochkareva, E V; Belolipetskaia, V G; Deev, A D; Kucheriaeva, N G; Zidra, S I; Gorin, N N; Rumiantsev, D O

    1998-01-01

    Study of the tolerance and pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics of ascolong, a new buccal dosage form of aspirin containing a very low dose of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA): 12.5 mg. The study was carried out in 43 healthy men (assessment of the drug tolerance) and 19 male patients with coronary disease or cerebrovascular disorders. In 10 patients the antiaggregant efficacy of ascolong administered once or regularly (for 2 weeks) in a dose of 12.5 mg was compared with placebo, in 9 patients a random cross study of 2-week courses of ascolong and Russian aspirin tablets in a dose of 100 mg was carried out. Platelet aggregation was assessed on days 1 and 14 of each course before and 2, 4, and 24 h after the drug intake. Ascolong containing a very low dose of ASA exerts a reliable antiaggregant effect after a single and regular intake, although this effect is less manifest than after aspirin tablets. Profiles of ASA concentrations in the blood were studied. Transbuccal entry of ASA in systemic circulation decelerated its metabolism into a less active metabolite, salicylic acid, due to which fact the ASA microdose had an expressed antiaggregant effect. The drug was sufficiently well tolerated. The new buccal film form of aspirin containing a very low dose of ASA possesses a good antiaggregant effect and is promising in subjects with contraindications to oral intake of aspirin.

  6. General Requirements to the Preparation of Tinctures, Decoctions. Dosage of Phytopreparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Yershovа

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the advantages and disadvantages of using herbal medicine, general information for the collection of medicinal plants. According to the World Health Organization, the classification of herbal medicine is an integral part of traditional medicine. It refers to the variety of metabolic therapy. This treatment meets the requirements of pathogenetic therapy. Currently, more than 30 % of medicines on the pharmaceutical market have herbal origin. According to the World Health Organization, about 80 % of the world population use mainly traditional medicines of natural origin within the framework of primary health care system. Analysis of publications on phytotherapy revealed insufficient coverage of contraindications and side effects of certain plants. This was the basis for opening in our magazine this column, and we wanted to start with what would be the advantages and disadvantages of phytotherapy. Benefits of herbal medi­cine: biological proximity of the active substances of plants and active substances of the body, harmony therapy for the human body, the prolonged effect of herbal medicines after the completion of therapy, the opportunity to prepare a wide variety of different dosage forms, for both indoor and outdoor use, compatibility with many synthetic pharmaceuticals drugs, comprehensive multilateral action of plants, no side effects, simplicity and ease of preparation of herbal remedies at home, the availability for the majority of patients due to the low cost of the medicines. Limitations of herbal medicine: the complexity of the standardization of the treatment effect of herbal drugs, the complexity of establishing a dose, selectivity of diseases, in which typical herbal remedies are prescribed, the risk of poisoning, particularly in self-collection of medicinal plants. The article also provides methods for the preparation of various forms of herbal remedies, dosage for adults and children. With all the advantages of

  7. Tissue- and stage-dependent dosage compensation on the Neo-X chromosome in drosophila pseudoobscura

    KAUST Repository

    Nozawa, Masafumi; Fukuda, Nana; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Sex chromosome dosage compensation (DC) is widely accepted in various organisms. This concept is mostly supported by comparisons of gene expression between chromosomes and between sexes. However, genes on the X chromosome and autosomes are mostly

  8. Meta-analysis : High-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, ER; Pastor-Barriuso, R; Dalal, D; Riemersma, RA; Appel, LJ; Guallar, E

    2005-01-01

    Background: Experimental models and observational studies suggest that vitamin E supplementation may prevent cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, several trials of high-dosage vitamin E supplementation showed non-statistically significant increases in total mortality. Purpose: To perform a

  9. Low-dosage helical CT applications for chest medical checkup and lung cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ping; Cui Fa; Liang Huanqing; Zheng Minfei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A discussion on low-dosage helical CT applications on chest medical checkup and lung cancer screening. Methods: On the 100 chest medical check up with three different of protocols, including standard-dosage (the tube current was 230 mAs) were compared with low-dose (tube current was 50 mAs or 30 mAs). Results: Low-dosage helical CT scan provides excellent images. In 100 chest medical checkup, 39 nodules or masses were revealed, enlarged lymph node was noted in 1 case; emphysema or bullae was demonstrated in 3 segments; thickening of bronchial wall was shown in 2 cases; and localized pleural thickening was found in 1 case. Conclusion: In chest checkup or lung cancer screening low-dosage helical CT (tube current 30 mAs) will not only guarantee image quality but also reduce the radiation dose during the examination. (authors)

  10. Biowaiver Monographs for Immediate Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms: Proguanil Hydrochloride.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plöger, Gerlinde F; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Groot, D I R K W; Langguth, Peter; Mehta, Mehul U; Parr, Alan; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Tajiri, Tomokazu; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2018-01-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to waive in vivo bioequivalence testing for the approval of generic immediate release solid oral dosage forms of proguanil hydrochloride are reviewed. To clarify the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) classification, experimental solubility and

  11. Clinical criteria for medical staff exposure and reference dosage within the Galician health Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Comesana, J.

    2003-01-01

    The generalised use of ionising radiation tests is making these tests become the prime cause of exposure to artificial radiation, receiving one sixth of the dosage through background radiation. (Author)

  12. Peril in the market-classification and dosage of species used as anti-diabetics in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Paniagua-Zambrana, Narel; Chamorro, Marinoli Rivas; Moreira, Natalia Molina; del Rosario Cuadros Negri, María Luisa; Olivera, Jose

    2013-05-30

    Peru is what Peruvian anthropologist Lupe Camino calls the “health axis” of the old Central Andean culture area stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. In particular in the North of the country the traditional use of medicinal dates back as far as the first millennium B.C. Both healers, and the wider population, often buy their medicinal plants in local markets, but there is very little comparative information available about which plants are sold under which vernacular name at any given time, for which indication, and which dosage information and information about side effects is given by vendors. For this study we used two traditionally used species groups “Hercampuri” Gentianella spec. (Gentianaceae) and “Pasuchaca” Geranium spec. (Geraniaceae.), found in the Mercado Aviación in Lima, as small, clearly circumscribed plant group frequently used to treat symptoms of diabetes as a test case to study the taxonomy, indications, dosage, indicated side effects, and additional species used as admixtures and hypothesized that: 1. A wide variety of different species is sold under the same common name, and often several common names exist for one species. 2. There is no consistency in the dosage, or a relationship between dosage and species marketed under one name. 3. However, there is consistency in the knowledge about usage and side effects. Surveys focusing on medicinal plants sold and their properties were conducted at the Mercado Aviaciónin Lima in December 2012. Vouchers of all specimens were deposited at the National Herbarium of Peru. Our surveys in Mercado Aviación in Lima yielded four species of Gentianella, two of Geranium, and three additional species from three genera used as common additives that were sold as anti-diabetic. These results indicate that even in case of only a few plant species, used for a very clearly circumscribed application, patients run a considerable risk when purchasing their remedies in the market. The possible side effects in

  13. Administered activity of Tc-99m MDP for bone scintigraphy, standard or individual dosage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestergren, E.; Gretarsdottir, J.; Jacobsson, L.

    2002-01-01

    Background and Aim: Adult patients are generally, irrespective of size, given the same amount of activity for a certain type of nuclear medicine examination, a standard dosage. Identical image quality is essential when comparing different patient studies. The aim of this study is to evaluate different dosage methods for Tc-99m-MDP bone scintigraphy and to investigate whether individual dosage will decrease the variations in image quality between different patients. Material and Methods: 100 consecutive adult patients (aged between 40 and 89 years) undergoing whole body bone scintigraphy were studied. Eight patients were excluded from the study because of abnormal high uptake in the areas of interest. The patient weight and height were registered. The activity in the syringes was measured before and after the injection of about 600 MBq Tc-99m MDP. Scanning was performed, with a dual head gamma camera (Maxxus or Millennium VG, General Electric) equipped with a high-resolution collimator, at approximately 4 hours (mean 3.8 h) post-injection. Regions of interest (ROI) were drawn over the lumbar spine (posterior view), the right femur (anterior view) and also soft tissue background regions for each area. The total counts, maximum counts/pixel and number of pixels in the ROIs were registered. The maximum number of counts/pixel (background-subtracted), SPINEmax and FEMURmax were chosen as the image quality parameters. For each patient, SPINEmax and FEMURmax where recalculated to the number that would have been obtained with standard dosage (exactly 600 MBq), and dosage proportional to body weight, body surface area and body height. All values were corrected to a scanning time 3.8 h after injection. Results: Both with a standard activity dosage and a dosage proportional to body height, SPINEmax decreases with increasing body weight. Dosage proportional to body weight gives increasing values of SPINEmax with increasing body weight. Dosage proportional to body surface area

  14. Methotrexate Dosage Reduction Upon Adalimumab Initiation: Clinical and Ultrasonographic Outcomes from the Randomized Noninferiority MUSICA Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeley, Gurjit S; Evangelisto, Amy M; Nishio, Midori J; Goss, Sandra L; Liu, Shufang; Kalabic, Jasmina; Kupper, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    To examine the clinical and ultrasonographic (US) outcomes of reducing methotrexate (MTX) dosage upon initiating adalimumab (ADA) in MTX-inadequate responders with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MUSICA (NCT01185288) was a double-blind, randomized, parallel-arm study of 309 patients with RA receiving MTX ≥ 15 mg/week for ≥ 12 weeks before screening. Patients were randomized to high dosage (20 mg/week) or low dosage (7.5 mg/week) MTX; all patients received 40 mg open-label ADA every other week for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was Week 24 mean 28-joint Disease Activity Score based on C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) to test for noninferiority of low-dosage MTX using a 15% margin. US images were scored using a 10-joint semiquantitative system incorporating OMERACT definitions for pathology, assessing synovial hypertrophy, vascularity, and bony erosions. Rapid improvement in clinical indices was observed in both groups after addition of ADA. The difference in mean DAS28-CRP (0.37, 95% CI 0.07-0.66) comparing low-dosage (4.12, 95% CI 3.88-4.34) versus high-dosage MTX (3.75, 95% CI 3.52-3.97) was statistically significant and non-inferiority was not met. Statistically significant differences were not detected for most clinical, functional, and US outcomes. Pharmacokinetic and safety profiles were similar. In MUSICA, Week 24 mean DAS28-CRP, the primary endpoint, did not meet non-inferiority for the low-dosage MTX group. Although the differences between the 2 MTX dosage groups were small, our study findings did not support routine MTX reduction in MTX inadequate responders initiating ADA.

  15. Feedback Control of Sex Determination by Dosage Compensation Revealed through Caenorhabditis Elegans Sdc-3 Mutations

    OpenAIRE

    DeLong, L.; Plenefisch, J. D.; Klein, R. D.; Meyer, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, sex determination and dosage compensation are coordinately controlled through a group of genes that respond to the primary sex determination signal. Here we describe a new gene, sdc-3, that also controls these processes. In contrast to previously described genes, the sex determination and dosage compensation activities of sdc-3 are separately mutable, indicating that they function independently. Paradoxically, the sdc-3 null phenotype fails to reveal the role of sdc...

  16. Miniaturized approach for excipient selection during the development of oral solid dosage form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raijada, Dharaben Kaushikkumar; Müllertz, Anette; Cornett, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The present study introduces a miniaturized high-throughput platform to understand the influence of excipients on the performance of oral solid dosage forms during early drug development. Wet massing of binary mixtures of the model drug (sodium naproxen) and representative excipients was followed...... for excipient selection and for early-stage performance testing of active pharmaceutical ingredient intended for oral solid dosage form. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:900-908, 2014....

  17. Pupillometry as an indicator of L-DOPA dosages in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartošová, O; Bonnet, C; Ulmanová, O; Šíma, M; Perlík, F; Růžička, E; Slanař, O

    2018-04-01

    Dopamine was shown to induce mydriasis by excitation of alpha-adrenergic receptors at the dilator pupillae muscle. Pupilla diameter may thus serve as an indirect measure of peripheral pharmacokinetics of L-DOPA and dopamine. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of L-DOPA dosage on pupillometric parameters in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Sixteen PD patients and 14 healthy control subjects (CS) were studied. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences between CS and PD patients for the mean maximum and minimum pupil diameters (p = 0.017, p = 0.028, respectively), with higher values found in PD. Moreover, a significant dose-response relationship was found between the maximum pupil diameter and both the morning L-DOPA dose (R 2  = 0.78) and the total daily L-DOPA dose (R 2  = 0.93). A sigmoid-shaped curve best describes the dose-response relationship, with a ceiling effect at about 400 mg L-DOPA daily dose. In conclusion, measuring pupillometric parameters represents a sensitive tool for non-invasive evaluation of the peripheral effect of L-DOPA, especially with daily doses below 400 mg L-DOPA.

  18. Efficiency of individual dosage of digoxin with calculated concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao L

    2014-07-01

    digoxin and creatinine clearance, our results show that although there was a significant correlation between clearance of digoxin and creatinine clearance in the group overall, correlations were not evident within the different stages of renal function.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that clearance of digoxin and the creatinine clearance rate cannot be explained by renal function alone and that the validity of the Konishi equation for individualizing the digoxin dosage in Chinese patients is limited, being applicable only in stage 3 renal disease. Further research in larger numbers of patients across all stages of renal function will be required in the future to verify the original Konishi model. Keywords: serum digoxin concentration, predicted concentration, renal insufficiency

  19. Estimating the Optimal Dosage of Sodium Valproate in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy with Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Lotfi Noghabi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epilepsy is a clinical syndrome in which seizures have a tendency to recur. Sodium valproate is the most effective drug in the treatment of all types of generalized seizures. Finding the optimal dosage (the lowest effective dose of sodium valproate is a real challenge to all neurologists. In this study, a new approach based on Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS was presented for estimating the optimal dosage of sodium valproate in IGE (Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy patients. Methods: 40 patients with Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy, who were referred to the neurology department of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences between the years 2006-2011, were included in this study. The function Adaptive Neuro- Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS constructs a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS whose membership function parameters are tuned (adjusted using either a back-propagation algorithm alone, or in combination with the least squares type of method (hybrid algorithm. In this study, we used hybrid method for adjusting the parameters. Methods: The R-square of the proposed system was %598 and the Pearson correlation coefficient was significant (P 0.05. Although the accuracy of the model was not high, it wasgood enough to be applied for treating the IGE patients with sodium valproate. Discussion: This paper presented a new application of ANFIS for estimating the optimal dosage of sodium valproate in IGE patients. Fuzzy set theory plays an important role in dealing with uncertainty when making decisions in medical applications. Collectively, it seems that ANFIS has a high capacity to be applied in medical sciences, especially neurology.

  20. Measurement of the lowest dosage of phenobarbital that can produce drug discrimination in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Donald A.; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Patel, Bhavesh N.; Pragada, Sreenivasa R.; Gordon, M. Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Accurate measurement of the threshold dosage of phenobarbital that can produce drug discrimination (DD) may improve our understanding of the mechanisms and properties of such discrimination. Objectives Compare three methods for determining the threshold dosage for phenobarbital (D) versus no drug (N) DD. Methods Rats learned a D versus N DD in 2-lever operant training chambers. A titration scheme was employed to increase or decrease dosage at the end of each 18-day block of sessions depending on whether the rat had achieved criterion accuracy during the sessions just completed. Three criterion rules were employed, all based on average percent drug lever responses during initial links of the last 6 D and 6 N sessions of a block. The criteria were: D%>66 and N%50 and N%33. Two squads of rats were trained, one immediately after the other. Results All rats discriminated drug versus no drug. In most rats, dosage decreased to low levels and then oscillated near the minimum level required to maintain criterion performance. The lowest discriminated dosage significantly differed under the three criterion rules. The squad that was trained 2nd may have benefited by partially duplicating the lever choices of the previous squad. Conclusions The lowest discriminated dosage is influenced by the criterion of discriminative control that is employed, and is higher than the absolute threshold at which discrimination entirely disappears. Threshold estimations closer to absolute threshold can be obtained when criteria are employed that are permissive, and that allow rats to maintain lever preferences. PMID:19082992

  1. How to stabilize cilazapril-containing solid dosage forms? The optimization of a final drug formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Regulska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cilazapril, a moisture-sensitive compound, is known to undergo rapid degradation which could be additionally facilitated by the presence of excipients that contain or absorb moisture. Hence we investigated the stability of cilazapril in two commercially-available dosage forms and in binary mixtures with the selected excipients used in the studied commercial formulations i.e.: hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, maize starch and talc in order to detect any possible, stability-affecting incompatibilities. Also the impact of the blister made of oriented polyamide/aluminum/polyvinyl chloride//aluminum on cilazapril-containing tablets was researched. A validated HPLC and HPLC-MS methods were used for analysis and the isothermal stress testing conditions were applied (temperature range 318–343 K, relative humidity 76.4% for tablets and temperature 333 K, relative humidity range 50.9–76.4% for binary mixtures. It was shown that the degradation of cilazapril in both, model mixtures and tablets follows the autocatalytic model kinetics and it is more rapid than that observed for pure substance, evidenced by higher degradation rate constants. The immediate packaging protects cilazapril in tablets from degradation only in case of the original drug while in its blistered generic counterpart a slight but statistically insignificant increase of cilazapril decay occurs when compared to bare tablets (p < 0.05. The degradation product of cilazapril in tablets and binary mixtures was identified as cilazaprilat. It was also observed that the increase of relative humidity or the presence of hypromellose, lactose and talc significantly impairs the stability of cilazapril in the aforementioned order. Only maize starch exhibited a positive effect on cilazapril stability (10.8% loss of cilazapril in binary mixture after 360 days of stressing compared to 35% loss of pure cilazapril in analogous test conditions probably thanks to its moisture-scavenging properties

  2. The influences of adrenaline dosing frequency and dosage on outcomes of adult in-hospital cardiac arrest: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Hung; Huang, Chien-Hua; Chang, Wei-Tien; Tsai, Min-Shan; Yu, Ping-Hsun; Wu, Yen-Wen; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Wen-Jone

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the influence of dosing frequency and dosage of adrenaline on outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We conducted a retrospective observational study in a single medical centre and included adult patients who had suffered an in-hospital cardiac arrest between 2006 and 2012. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to evaluate the associations between independent variables and outcomes. Adrenaline average dosing frequency was calculated as the total dosage of adrenaline administered during CPR divided by the duration of CPR. Body weight (BW) was analysed as an interaction term to investigate the effect of adrenaline dosage on outcomes. Favourable neurological outcome was defined as a score of 1 or 2 on the Cerebral Performance Category scale at hospital discharge. We included 896 patients in the analysis. After adjusting for multiple confounding factors, including CPR duration, the results indicated that higher adrenaline dosing frequency was associated with lower rates of survival (odds ratio (OR): 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01-0.23) and favourable neurological outcome at hospital discharge (OR: 0.02, 95% CI: 0.002-0.16). A significant interaction was noted between total adrenaline dosage and BW, which indicated that, with the same adrenaline dosage, the outcomes for patients with BW≥82.5kg would be worse than those for patients with lower BW. Higher adrenaline average dosing frequency may be associated with worse outcomes after CPR. Besides, according to current recommendations, patients with BW above 82.5kg may not receive adequate dose of adrenaline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of the mechanical properties of solid and cellular polymeric dosage forms by diametral compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaesi, Aron H; Saka, Nannaji

    2016-07-25

    At present, the immediate-release solid dosage forms, such as the oral tablets and capsules, are granular solids. They release drug rapidly and have adequate mechanical properties, but their manufacture is fraught with difficulties inherent in processing particulate matter. Such difficulties, however, could be overcome by liquid-based processing. Therefore, we have recently introduced polymeric cellular (i.e., highly porous) dosage forms prepared from a melt process. Experiments have shown that upon immersion in a dissolution medium, the cellular dosage forms with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as excipient and with predominantly open-cell topology disintegrate by exfoliation, thus enabling rapid drug release. If the volume fraction of voids of the open-cell structures is too large, however, their mechanical strength is adversely affected. At present, the common method for determining the tensile strength of brittle, solid dosage forms (such as select granular forms) is the diametral compression test. In this study, the theory of diametral compression is first refined to demonstrate that the relevant mechanical properties of ductile and cellular solids (i.e., the elastic modulus and the yield strength) can also be extracted from this test. Diametral compression experiments are then conducted on PEG-based solid and cellular dosage forms. It is found that the elastic modulus and yield strength of the open-cell structures are about an order of magnitude smaller than those of the non-porous solids, but still are substantially greater than the stiffness and strength requirements for handling the dosage forms manually. This work thus demonstrates that melt-processed polymeric cellular dosage forms that release drug rapidly can be designed and manufactured to have adequate mechanical properties. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Pre-anthesis CPPU low dosage application increases 'Hayward' kiwifruit weight without affecting the other qualitative and nutritional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Castillo, J G; Baldicchi, A; Frioni, T; Marocchi, F; Moscatello, S; Proietti, S; Battistelli, A; Famiani, F

    2014-09-01

    In 2008, in Central Italy, a low dosage of CPPU solution, 4 μL L(-1) (6 hL/ha), was sprayed on the canopy of vines of 'Hayward' kiwifruit, at the "break of sepals", about one week before anthesis, to study its effects on fruit weight/size and on qualitative and nutritional characteristics. At harvest, CPPU, with respect to control, significantly increased the fresh weight by about 12% (+12.6 g fruit(-1)) and consequently the yield per vine, without affecting fruit shape, firmness, dry matter (%), total soluble solids, glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch, citrate, malate, vitamin C and soluble and insoluble oxalic acid. After 3 months of storage, CPPU-treated kiwifruits and the control fruit showed no difference in dry matter content, fruit firmness and total soluble solids. The results indicate that a low dosage of CPPU applied in pre-anthesis can improve fruit weight/size without any negative effect on fruit qualitative and nutritional characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Selection of target mutation in rat gastrointestinal tract E. coli by minute dosage of enrofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dachuan; Chen, Kaichao; Li, Ruichao; Liu, Lizhang; Guo, Jiubiao; Yao, Wen; Chen, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that bacterial resistance is selected within a mutation selection window of antibiotics. More recent studies showed that even extremely low concentration of antibiotic could select resistant bacteria in vitro. Yet little is known about the exact antibiotic concentration range that can effectively select for resistant organisms in animal gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In this study, the effect of different dosages of enrofloxacin on resistance and mutation development in rat GI tract E. coli was investigated by determining the number of resistant E. coli recoverable from rat fecal samples. Our data showed that high dose antibiotic treatment could effectively eliminate E. coli with single gyrA mutation in the early course of treatment, yet the eradication effects diminished upon prolonged treatment. Therapeutic and sub-therapeutic dose (1/10 and 1/100 of therapeutic doses) of enrofloxacin could effectively select for mutation in GI tract E. coli at the later course of enrofloxacin treatment and during the cessation periods. Surprisingly, very low dose of enrofloxacin (1/1000 therapeutic dose) could also select for mutation in GI tract E. coli at the later course of enrofloxacin treatment, only with slightly lower efficiency. No enrofloxacin-resistant E. coli could be selected at all test levels of enrofloxacin during long term treatment and the strength of antibiotic treatment does not alter the overall level of E. coli in rat GI tract. This study demonstrated that long term antibiotic treatment seems to be the major trigger for the development of target mutations in GI tract E. coli, which provided insight into the rational use of antibiotics in animal husbandry.

  6. Development and characterization of a gastroretentive dosage form composed of chitosan and hydroxyethyl cellulose for alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chen; Ho, Hsiu-O; Chiu, Chiao-Chi; Sheu, Ming-Thau

    2014-01-01

    In this study, alendronate, the most commonly used biphosphonate for treating osteoporosis, was formulated as gastroretentive dosage form (GRDF) tablets to enhance its oral bioavailability. GRDF tablets were characterized with the effects of different molecular weights (MWs) of chitosan (CS) and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) at various ratios on swelling, floating, and physical integrity. The CS component was formed using various acids: acetic, lactic, malic, succinic, and citric, and a high viscosity grade of HEC was selected. The results demonstrated that the swelling ratios of the formulations comprising high MW CS were lower than those of low or medium MW CS when salts were formed with any countering acids except for acetic acid. The decreasing ranking of the swelling rates was: CS-citrate > CS-malate > CS-lactate > CS-succinate > CS-acetate. A negative correlation was found between the pKa of the respective countering acid and the swelling rate. The swelling rate was promoted if an acidic salt of CS with a lower water content was incorporated, while it became slower when tablet hardness was higher or the compression force to form tablets was increased. Although HEC did not contribute to swelling or floating, it played a role in maintaining structural integrity. A prolonged dissolution profile of alendronate GRDF tablets developed in this study was observed.

  7. Biowaiver Monographs for Immediate Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms: Proguanil Hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöger, Gerlinde F; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Groot, Dirk W; Langguth, Peter; Mehta, Mehul U; Parr, Alan; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Tajiri, Tomokazu; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2018-07-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to waive in vivo bioequivalence testing for the approval of generic immediate release solid oral dosage forms of proguanil hydrochloride are reviewed. To elucidate the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) classification, experimental solubility and dissolution studies were also carried out. The antimalarial proguanil hydrochloride, effective via the parent compound proguanil and the metabolite cycloguanil, is not considered to be a narrow therapeutic index drug. Proguanil hydrochloride salt was shown to be highly soluble according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, World Health Organization, and European Medicines Agency guidelines, but data for permeability are inconclusive. Therefore, proguanil hydrochloride is conservatively classified as a BCS class 3 substance. In view of this information and the assessment of risks associated with a false positive decision, a BCS-based biowaiver approval procedure can be recommended for orally administered solid immediate release products containing proguanil hydrochloride, provided well-known excipients are used in usual amounts and provided the in vitro dissolution of the test and reference products is very rapid (85% or more are dissolved in 15 min at pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8) and is performed according to the current requirements for BCS-based biowaivers. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. All rights reserved.

  8. Microbiological assay for the determination of meropenem in pharmaceutical dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Andreas S L; Weisheimer, Vanessa; Oppe, Tércio P; Steppe, Martin; Schapoval, Elfrides E S

    2005-04-01

    Meropenem is a highly active carbapenem antibiotic used in the treatment of a wide range of serious infections. The present work reports a microbiological assay, applying the cylinder-plate method, for the determination of meropenem in powder for injection. The validation method yielded good results and included linearity, precision, accuracy and specificity. The assay is based on the inhibitory effect of meropenem upon the strain of Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 used as the test microorganism. The results of assay were treated statistically by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and were found to be linear (r=0.9999) in the range of 1.5-6.0 microg ml(-1), precise (intra-assay: R.S.D.=0.29; inter-assay: R.S.D.=0.94) and accurate. A preliminary stability study of meropenem was performed to show that the microbiological assay is specific for the determination of meropenem in the presence of its degradation products. The degraded samples were also analysed by the HPLC method. The proposed method allows the quantitation of meropenem in pharmaceutical dosage form and can be used for the drug analysis in routine quality control.

  9. Hyperintense acute reperfusion marker is associated with higher contrast agent dosage in acute ischaemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostwaldt, Ann-Christin; Schaefer, Tabea; Villringer, Kersten; Fiebach, Jochen B. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Academic Neuroradiology, Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Berlin (Germany); Rozanski, Michal; Ebinger, Martin [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Academic Neuroradiology, Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Berlin (Germany); Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Jungehuelsing, Gerhard J. [Stiftung des Buergerlichen Rechts, Juedisches Krankenhaus Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    The hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images is associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability changes. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of contrast agent dosage on HARM incidence in acute ischaemic stroke patients. We prospectively included 529 acute ischaemic stroke patients (204 females, median age 71 years). Patients underwent a first stroke-MRI within 24 hours from symptom onset and had a follow-up on day 2. The contrast agent Gadobutrol was administered to the patients for perfusion imaging or MR angiography. The total dosage was calculated as ml/kg body weight and ranged between 0.04 and 0.31 mmol/kg on the first examination. The incidence of HARM was evaluated on day 2 FLAIR images. HARM was detected in 97 patients (18.3 %). HARM incidence increased significantly with increasing dosages of Gadobutrol. Also, HARM positive patients were significantly older. HARM was not an independent predictor of worse clinical outcome, and we did not find an association with increase risk of haemorrhagic transformation. A higher dosage of Gadobutrol in acute stroke patients on initial MRI is associated with increased HARM incidence on follow-up. MRI studies on BBB should therefore standardize contrast agent dosages. (orig.)

  10. Dependence of surface smoothing, sputtering and etching phenomena on cluster ion dosage

    CERN Document Server

    Song, J H; Choi, W K

    2002-01-01

    The dependence of surface smoothing and sputtering phenomena of Si (1 0 0) solid surfaces irradiated by CO sub 2 cluster ions on cluster-ion dosage was investigated using an atomic force microscope. The flux and total ion dosage of impinging cluster ions at the acceleration voltage of 50 kV were fixed at 10 sup 9 ions/cm sup 2 s and were scanned from 5x10 sup 1 sup 0 to 5x10 sup 1 sup 3 ions/cm sup 2 , respectively. The density of hillocks induced by cluster ion impact was gradually increased with the dosage up to 5x10 sup 1 sup 1 ions/cm sup 2 , which caused that the irradiated surface became rough from 0.4 to 1.24 nm in root-mean-square roughness (sigma sub r sub m sub s). At the boundary of the ion dosage of 10 sup 1 sup 2 ions/cm sup 2 , the density of the induced hillocks was decreased and sigma sub r sub m sub s was about 1.21 nm, not being deteriorated further. At the dosage of 5x10 sup 1 sup 3 ions/cm sup 2 , the induced hillocks completely disappeared and the surface became very flat as much as sigma...

  11. Adrenal Insufficiency under Standard Dosage of Glucocorticoid Replacement after Unilateral Adrenalectomy for Cushing’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Fujii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid replacement is needed for patients after adrenal surgery for Cushing’s syndrome; however, the adequate dosage is not easily determined. The patient was a 62-year-old woman who has had hypertension for 5 years and presented with heart failure due to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. She consulted with us because of general fatigue, facial edema, and muscle weakness and was diagnosed with Cushing’s syndrome. A laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed, standard dosage of postoperative replacement was administered, and she was discharged with 30 mg/day of hydrocortisone (cortisol. However, she suffered from loss of appetite and was transferred to an emergency unit with the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency on postoperative day 15. After initial hydrocortisone replacement with 200 mg/day, the dosage was gradually decreased during hospitalization; however, reduction of hydrocortisone dosage lower than 60 mg/day was difficult because of nausea and fatigue. Her circadian cortisol profile after hydrocortisone administration showed delayed and lowered peaks, which suggested that hydrocortisone absorption in the intestine was impaired. Therefore, complicated heart failure may have led to the adrenal insufficiency in the patient. In such cases, we should consider postoperative administration of more than the standard dosage of hydrocortisone to avoid adrenal insufficiency after surgery for Cushing’s syndrome.

  12. Dosage of fission products in irradiated fuel treatment effluents (radio-chemical method); Dosage des produits de fission dans les effluents du traitement des combustibles irradies (methode radiochimique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchapt, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The dosage methods presented here are applicable to relatively long-lived fission products present in the effluents resulting from irradiated fuel treatment processes (Sr - Cs - Ce - Zr - Nb - Ru - I). The methods are based on the same principle: - addition of a carrying-over agent - chemical separation over several purification stages, - determination of the chemical yield by calorimetry - counting of an aliquot liquid portion. (author) [French] Les methodes de dosage presentees concernent les produits de fission a vie relativement longue presents dans les effluents de traitement des combustibles irradies (Sr - Cs - Ce - Zr - Nb - Ru - I). Elles sont toutes basees sur le meme principe: - addition d'entraineur, - separation chimique en plusieurs stades de purification, - determination du rendement chimique par calorimetrie, - comptage d'une aliquote liquide. (auteur)

  13. Dosage of cesium 137 in radioactive wastes by the application of sodium tetraphenylborate; Dosage du cesium 137 dans les effluents radioactifs par le tetraphenylborate de sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testemale, G; Girault, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    A simple technique of the dosage of {sup 137}Cs has been developed. The technique consists in the formation of cesium tetraphenyl borate, followed by a double extraction with isoamyl acetate, and washing of the organic phase. The counting of known parts of the cesium solution assaying of its purity by {gamma} spectrometry enable the determination of the {sup 137}Cs. The yield is about 98 per cent. (authors) [French] Une technique simple du dosage du {sup 137}Cs a ete mise au point. Elle consiste en une double extraction du tetraphenylborate de cesium forme par l'acetate d'isoamyle suivie d'un lavage de la phase organique. Des comptages sur des parties aliquotes de la solution de cesium et un controle de purete par spectrometrie {gamma} permettent la determination de cet element. Rendement: environ 98 pour cent. (auteurs)

  14. Overview of PAT process analysers applicable in monitoring of film coating unit operations for manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korasa, Klemen; Vrečer, Franc

    2018-01-01

    Over the last two decades, regulatory agencies have demanded better understanding of pharmaceutical products and processes by implementing new technological approaches, such as process analytical technology (PAT). Process analysers present a key PAT tool, which enables effective process monitoring, and thus improved process control of medicinal product manufacturing. Process analysers applicable in pharmaceutical coating unit operations are comprehensibly described in the present article. The review is focused on monitoring of solid oral dosage forms during film coating in two most commonly used coating systems, i.e. pan and fluid bed coaters. Brief theoretical background and critical overview of process analysers used for real-time or near real-time (in-, on-, at- line) monitoring of critical quality attributes of film coated dosage forms are presented. Besides well recognized spectroscopic methods (NIR and Raman spectroscopy), other techniques, which have made a significant breakthrough in recent years, are discussed (terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI), chord length distribution (CLD) analysis, and image analysis). Last part of the review is dedicated to novel techniques with high potential to become valuable PAT tools in the future (optical coherence tomography (OCT), acoustic emission (AE), microwave resonance (MR), and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The combination of sugammadex and neostigmine can reduce the dosage of sugammadex during recovery from the moderate neuromuscular blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Soon Ho; Ki, Seunghee; Lee, Jiyong; Lee, Jeong Han; Kim, Myoung-Hun; Hur, Dongki; Cho, Kwangrae; Lim, Se Hun; Lee, Kun Moo; Kim, Young-Jae; Lee, Wonjin

    2015-12-01

    Sugammadex is a novel neuromuscular reversal agent, but its associated hypersensitivity reaction and high cost have been obstacles to its widespread use. In the interest of reducing the necessary dosage of sugammadex, the reversal time of the combined use of sugammadex and neostigmine from moderate neuromuscular blockade were investigated. The patients enrolled ranged in age from 18 to 65 years old with American Society of Anesthesiologists class 1 or 2. The subjects were randomly assigned into one of the four groups (Group S2, S1, SN, and N; n = 30 per group). The reversal agents of each groups were as follows: S2 - sugammadex 2 mg/kg, S1 - sugammadex 1 mg/kg, SN - sugammadex 1 mg/kg + neostigmine 50 µg/kg + glycopyrrolate 10 µg/kg, N - neostigmine 50 µg/kg + glycopyrrolate 10 µg/kg. The time to recovery of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio was checked in each group. The time to 90% recovery of TOF ratio was 182.6 ± 88.9, 371.1 ± 210.4, 204.3 ± 103.2, 953.2 ± 379.7 sec in group S2, S1, SN and N, respectively. Group SN showed a significantly shorter recovery time than did group S1 and N (P sugammadex and neostigmine may be helpful to decrease the recovery time and can also reduce the required dosage of sugammadex. However, the increased incidence of systemic muscarinic side effects must be considered.

  16. Simple and Inexpensive Methods Development for Determination of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride from Its Solid Dosage Forms by Visible Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Raghubabu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, sensitive and cost effective visible spectrophotometric methods (M1 and M2 have been developed for the determination of venlafaxine hydrochloride from bulk and tablet dosage forms. The method M1 is based on the formation of green colored coordination complex by the drug with cobalt thiocyanate which is quantitatively extractable into nitro benzene with an absorption maximum of 626.4 nm. The method M2 involves internal salt formation of aconitic anhydride, dehydration product of citric acid [CIA] with acetic anhydride [Ac2O] to form colored chromogen with an absorption maximum of 561.2 nm. The calibration graph is linear over the concentration range of 10-50 µg/mL and 8-24 µg/mL for method M1 and M2 respectively. The proposed methods are applied to commercial available tablets and the results are statistically compared with those obtained by the reference method and validated by recovery studies. The results are found satisfactory and reproducible. These methods are applied successfully for the estimation of the venlafaxine hydrochloride in the presence of other ingredients that are usually present in dosage forms.

  17. Currently used dosage regimens of vancomycin fail to achieve therapeutic levels in approximately 40% of intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Vitor Yuzo; Zacas, Carolina Petrus; Carrilho, Claudia Maria Dantas de Maio; Delfino, Vinicius Daher Alvares

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether currently used dosages of vancomycin for treatment of serious gram-positive bacterial infections in intensive care unit patients provided initial therapeutic vancomycin trough levels and to examine possible factors associated with the presence of adequate initial vancomycin trough levels in these patients. A prospective descriptive study with convenience sampling was performed. Nursing note and medical record data were collected from September 2013 to July 2014 for patients who met inclusion criteria. Eighty-three patients were included. Initial vancomycin trough levels were obtained immediately before vancomycin fourth dose. Acute kidney injury was defined as an increase of at least 0.3mg/dL in serum creatinine within 48 hours. Considering vancomycin trough levels recommended for serious gram-positive infection treatment (15 - 20µg/mL), patients were categorized as presenting with low, adequate, and high vancomycin trough levels (35 [42.2%], 18 [21.7%], and 30 [36.1%] patients, respectively). Acute kidney injury patients had significantly greater vancomycin trough levels (p = 0.0055, with significance for a trend, p = 0.0023). Surprisingly, more than 40% of the patients did not reach an effective initial vancomycin trough level. Studies on pharmacokinetic and dosage regimens of vancomycin in intensive care unit patients are necessary to circumvent this high proportion of failures to obtain adequate initial vancomycin trough levels. Vancomycin use without trough serum level monitoring in critically ill patients should be discouraged.

  18. Histomorphological study of submandibulary glands of rats submitted to low dosage of X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Claudia Maria; Onofre, Mirian Aparecida; Chan, Carolina; Cordeiro, Rita de Cassis Loiola; Raveli, Dirceu Barnabe

    1996-01-01

    The minimal dosage of X-ray that is likely to induce cellular alterations is unknown and there are just a few reports with low dosage in odontologic literature. The authors developed a histomorphological analysis of the submandibulary glands of rat that received low dosage of X radiation. The body of the animals was covered with a lead lamin leaving the cervical area uncovered. The submandibular glands were exposed to 1,80 Gy of X-radiation in a single dose. After 24, 48, 72 hours, 7, 14 and 21 days the glands were excised, fixed and prepared for analysis in light microscopy. Mild degenerative changes and nuclear pleomorfism, mainly on the first three experimental periods were observed. (author)

  19. Optimal Antibiotic Dosage for Chronic Kidney Disease Patient: A Pharmacological Manual for Oral Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Ramasamy

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease, (CKD) a gradual and inevitable deterioration in renal function, is the disease with the most associations in dentistry. Dosage adjustment is one amongst the vital elements to be familiar with during their oral care. CKD patients take extended duration to filter out medications, therefore dosage must always be tailored under the supervision of nephrologist. The relished benefits from antibiotic could transform as anti-microbial resistance on their abuse and nephrotoxic when contraindicated drugs are encouraged. New patented drug belonging to oxazoliodine group has driven the researchers to handle the emerging AMR. The present communication discusses the pharmacological factors influencing in prescribing the antibiotics for CKD patient from the dentist's point of view. The formulas destined for calculating the optimal dosage of antibiotics have been documented to aid oral physicians.

  20. BILATERAL ACUTE ANGLE CLOSURE GLAUCOMA AND MYOPIA INDUCED BY LOW DOSAGE TOPIRAMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busra S. Arica

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Topiramate, a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of epilepsy and migraine prophylaxis. However, acute secondary angle closure glaucoma and myopia has been shown to develop, especially during the first two weeks of treatment, in a small subset of patients. Case presentation: In the current case report, a 23 year old female patient developed acute myopia and angle closure glaucoma after one week topiramate treatment (25 mg/day for prophylaxis of migraine without aura. The patient was found to have significant conjunctival hyperemia, shallow anterior chamber, and bulging iris in both eyes. Grade 1 acute angle was detected in both eyes during gonioscopic examination. There was no pupillary block and intraocular pressure was 40 mmHg in both eyes. Refraction values were measured at -7.00 and -8.00 in the right and left eye, respectively. The patient and #8217;s visual acuity was at 0.1 to 0.2. Topiramate treatment was promptly discontinued, topical antiglaucomatous treatment was initiated, and laser peripheral iridotomy was performed on each eye. Intraocular pressure has declined to normal limits, refractive values were zero in both eyes and patient and #8217;s visual acuity has restored at follow-up period at 10 days after treatment. Conclusion: Side effects associated with topiramate treatments are known to disappear without long-term damage when the discontinuation of therapy and effective interventions are started early. Therefore, patients and their physicians should be alert for symptoms associated with acute secondary angle closure glaucoma and myopia; especially in the first weeks of topiramate treatment also with low dosage. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(3.000: 168-171

  1. Development and Validation of a Precise, Single HPLC Method for the Determination of Tolperisone Impurities in API and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, Thummala Veera Raghava; Seshadri, Raja Kumar; Arutla, Srinivas; Mohan, Tharlapu Satya Sankarsana Jagan; Rao, Ivaturi Mrutyunjaya; Nittala, Someswara Rao

    2012-01-01

    A novel, sensitive, stability-indicating HPLC method has been developed for the quantitative estimation of Tolperisone-related impurities in both bulk drugs and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Effective chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 stationary phase with a simple mobile phase combination delivered in a simple gradient programme, and quantitation was by ultraviolet detection at 254 nm. The mobile phase consisted of a buffer and acetonitrile delivered at a flow rate 1.0 ml/min. ...

  2. Short-time, high-dosage penicillin infusion therapy of syphilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Hans; Poulsen, Asmus; Brandrup, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    The optimal dosage and duration of penicillin treatment for the various stages of syphilis are not known. We present data on 20 patients with syphilis (primary, secondary or latent) treated with high-dose, short-time penicillin infusion therapy. Patients were given 10 MIU of penicillin G intraven......The optimal dosage and duration of penicillin treatment for the various stages of syphilis are not known. We present data on 20 patients with syphilis (primary, secondary or latent) treated with high-dose, short-time penicillin infusion therapy. Patients were given 10 MIU of penicillin G...

  3. Derivative spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazandeh Tehrani, Maliheh; Namadchian, Melika; Fadaye Vatan, Sedigheh; Souri, Effat

    2013-04-10

    A derivative spectrophotometric method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of clindamycin and tretinoin in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The measurement was achieved using the first and second derivative signals of clindamycin at (1D) 251 nm and (2D) 239 nm and tretinoin at (1D) 364 nm and (2D) 387 nm.The proposed method showed excellent linearity at both first and second derivative order in the range of 60-1200 and 1.25-25 μg/ml for clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin respectively. The within-day and between-day precision and accuracy was in acceptable range (CVpharmaceutical dosage form.

  4. Gene expression analysis identifies global gene dosage sensitivity in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rudolf S. N.; Karjalainen, Juha M.; Krajewska, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Many cancer-associated somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) are known. Currently, one of the challenges is to identify the molecular downstream effects of these variants. Although several SCNAs are known to change gene expression levels, it is not clear whether each individual SCNA affects gen...

  5. Methadone dosage and its relationship to quality of life, satisfaction, psychopathology, cognitive performance and additional consumption of non-prescribed drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J; MethaQoL, Grupo

    2016-06-14

    The effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment is beyond any doubt, but there remains some incertitude about the appropriate and effective dosage and the objectives that should be achieved by this therapy. Some authors maintain that only doses higher than 50-60 mg/day ought to be considered effective, since only these block all the opioid receptors. But others propose the use of doses adjusted to the needs of the patient, based on their recovery process. Quality of life, satisfaction with treatment, psychopathological symptoms, cognitive performance and additional intake of illegal and unprescribed drugs were evaluated in a representative sample of all patients treated with opioid agonists in the Addiction Institute of Madrid (N = 1898, n = 450) and the Junta de Extremadura (N = 100, n = 65). The results revealed a negative relationship between dose and quality of life, psychopathological symptoms and cognitive performance. Satisfaction with treatment, based on doses negotiated together by doctor and patient, was very high, regardless of the dose. To establish hypothetical causal dependencies among the studied variables structural equation modelling was performed. The results reject the need for high dosage if not required by the patient, and highlight the benefits of other psychosocial interventions that lead to recovery, despite the chronification that could imply the use of high doses. Whereas high dosage programmes provide better indicators of social control, the patient's quality of life must be one of the main indicators of a successful treatment, as in any other health problem.

  6. Dosage and dose schedule screening of drug combinations in agent-based models reveals hidden synergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Corina Barros de Andrade e Sousa1

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Candida albicans is the most common causative agent of human fungal infections and better drugs or drug combination strategies are urgently needed. Here, we present an agent-based model of the interplay of C. albicans with the host immune system and with the microflora of the host. We took into account the morphological change of C. albicans from the yeast to hyphae form and its dynamics during infection. The model allowed us to follow the dynamics of fungal growth and morphology, of the immune cells and of microflora in different perturbing situations. We specifically focused on the consequences of microflora reduction following antibiotic treatment. Using the agent-based model, different drug types have been tested for their effectiveness, namely drugs that inhibit cell division and drugs that constrain the yeast-to-hyphae transition. Applied individually, the division drug turned out to successfully decrease hyphae while the transition drug leads to a burst in hyphae after the end of the treatment. To evaluate the effect of different drug combinations, doses, and schedules, we introduced a measure for the return to a healthy state, the infection score. Using this measure, we found that the addition of a transition drug to a division drug treatment can improve the treatment reliability while minimizing treatment duration and drug dosage. In this work we present a theoretical study. Although our model has not been calibrated to quantitative experimental data, the technique of computationally identifying synergistic treatment combinations in an agent based model exemplifies the importance of computational techniques in translational research.

  7. Missing dosages and neuroleptic usage may prolong length of stay in hospitalized Parkinson's disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Martinez-Ramirez

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease patients are more likely to be hospitalized, have higher rates of hospital complications, and have an increased risk of deterioration during hospitalization. Length of stay is an important underlying factor for these increased risks. We aimed to investigate potential medication errors that may occur during hospitalization and its impact on length of hospital stay.A cross-sectional chart review of 339 consecutive hospital encounters from 212 PD subjects was performed. Medication errors were defined as wrong timing or omission of administration for dopaminergic drugs and administration of contraindicated dopamine blockers. An analysis of covariance was applied to examine whether these medication errors were related to increased length of hospital stays.A significant effect for dopaminergic administration (p<0.01 on length of hospital stay was observed. Subjects who had delayed administration or missed at least one dose stayed longer (M=8.2 days, SD=8.9 vs. M=3.6 days SD=3.4. Contraindicated dopamine blocking agents were administered in 23% (71/339 of cases, and this was also significantly related to an increased length of stay (M=8.2 days, SD=8.9 vs. M=3.6 days SD=3.4, p<0.05. Participants who received a contraindicated dopamine blocker stayed in the hospital longer (M=7.5 days, SD=9.1 compared to those who did not (M=5.9 days, SD=6.8. Neurologists were consulted in 24.5% of encounters. Specialty consultation had no effect on the medication related errors.Missing dopaminergic dosages and administration of dopamine blockers occur frequently in hospitalized Parkinson's disease patients and this may impact length of stay. These potentially modifiable factors may reduce the risk of a longer stay related to hospitalization.

  8. Development of theophylline sustained release dosage form based on Kollidon SR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Md Selim; Quadir, Mohiuddin Abdul; Haider, Syed Shabbir

    2002-01-01

    Sustained release theophylline matrix tablets constituting Kollidon SR (Polyvinyl acetate and povidone based matrix retarding polymer) were developed in this study in an attempt to design a dosage form that manifests desirable release profile and thorough adherence to official monographs. Four matrix tablet formulations were prepared by dry blending and direct compression of Kollidon SR and HPMC-15cps (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose) in varying proportion with fixed percentage of theophylline. Tablets containing only Kollidon SR with the active ingredient demonstrated a rapid rate of drug release with an initial burst effect. Incorporation of HPMC-15cps in the matrix tablet prolonged the release of drug with subsequent minimization of burst effect as confirmed by mean dissolution time, T50 and Higuchi release rate data. Among the batches containing HPMC-15 cps, a direct relationship was obtained between release rate and the percentage of HPMC used. A suitable controlled release profile was obtained with the matrix tablets containing 20% Kollidon SR and 30% HPMC-15cps. The formulation showed close resemblance to commercial products and compliance with USP specification. The results were explored and explained by the difference of physico-chemical property and hydration characteristics of the polymers. In addition to this result, the exponential model was applied to characterize the drug release behaviour from polymeric systems. It was found that, Fickian release is predominant in tablets containing Kollidon SR alone and non-Fickian mechanism plays an important role in the release of drug from HPMC containing tablets with a trend towards zero-order or case II release. In vitro release profile of two commercial brands were also undertaken for comparison and modulation of the experimental batches.

  9. A novel once daily microparticulate dosage form comprising lansoprazole to prevent nocturnal acid breakthrough in the case of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: preparation, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alai, Milind; Lin, Wen Jen

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate the lansoprazole (LPZ)-loaded microparticles to prevent nocturnal acid breakthrough in the case of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The microparticulate delivery system was prepared by solvent evaporation method using Eudragit RS100 as a matrix polymer followed by enteric coated with Eudragit S100 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate HP55 using spray drying method. The enteric coated microparticles were stable in gastric pH condition. In vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in male Wistar rats demonstrated that enteric coated microparticles sustained release of LPZ and promoted ulcer healing activity. In other words, the microparticulate dosage form provided effective drug concentration for a longer period as compared to conventional extended release dosage form, and showed sufficient anti-acid secretion activity to treat acid related disorders including the enrichment of nocturnal acid breakthrough event based on a once daily administration.

  10. Attenuation of Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome by Various Dosages of Curcumin in Comparison with Clonidine in Mouse: Possible Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motaghinejad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herbal medical compounds and their major constituent have been used in the management and treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome and pain. This study was carried out to clarify the effect of curcumin, the major compound of turmeric, on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mouse model and its possible mechanisms of pain relieving activity by assessing in writhing test as a model of visceral pain. Methods: Due to two separate protocols (withdrawal syndrome and pain, 144 male albino mice were divided in two major groups. In withdrawal syndrome group, test effect of various dosages of curcumin (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg was assessed on withdrawal signs and compared with positive and negative control and standard treatment (clonidine 0.4 mg/kg groups. In pain groups, to determine the mechanism of pain relieving activity of curcumin, various dosages of curcumin (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg in three separated groups, were used against acetic acid induced writhing (which is a constriction test. The most effective dose (40 mg/kg was used in writhing test and compared with groups pretreated with antagonist of major neurotransmitters involved in pain; and compared with group pretreated with vehicle (DMSO, 0.05% as control. Results: Curcumin attenuates withdrawal syndrome in a dose dependent manner in comparison with the dependent positive control group (P<0.05. It also indicated that pretreatment with naloxone and cyproheptadine significantly attenuate antinociception effect of curcumin (P<0.05. Conclusion: This study advocate that antinociception of curcumin was mediated by opioidergic and adrenergic system.

  11. Quercetin topical application, from conventional dosage forms to nanodosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatahet, T; Morille, M; Hommoss, A; Devoisselle, J M; Müller, R H; Bégu, S

    2016-11-01

    Skin is a multifunctional organ with activities in protection, metabolism and regulation. Skin is in a continuous exposure to oxidizing agents and inflammogens from the sun and from the contact with the environment. These agents may overload the skin auto-defense capacity. To strengthen skin defense mechanisms against oxidation and inflammation, supplementation of exogenous antioxidants is a promising strategy. Quercetin is a flavonoid with very pronounced effective antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities, and thus a candidate of first choice for such skin supplementation. Quercetin showed interesting actions in cellular and animal based models, ranging from protecting cells from UV irradiation to support skin regeneration in wound healing. However, due to its poor solubility, quercetin has limited skin penetration ability, and various formulation approaches were taken to increase its dermal penetration. In this article, the quercetin antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities in wound healing and supporting skin against aging are discussed in detail. In addition, quercetin topical formulations from conventional emulsions to novel nanoformulations in terms of skin penetration enhancement are also presented. This article gives a comprehensive review of quercetin for topical application from biological effects to pharmaceutical formulation design for the last 25 years of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Spectroscopic determination of succinylcholine in dosage forms using eosin Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, Magda M; Belal, Fathalla; Hosney, Mervet M; Abo El Abass, Samah; Elsayed, Nora

    2018-03-01

    Two simple and sensitive analytical assay methods using spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetry techniques were developed for the estimation of succinylcholine chloride (SUC) in pharmaceutical preparations. The suggested methods are based on the formation of an ion pair complex formed between the drug and eosin Y spectrophotometrically (Method I), or the suppressive effect of succinylcholine on the native fluorescence property of eosin Y (Method II). The spectrophotometric method (Method I) involves measuring the absorbance of the complex between succinylcholine and eosin Y at 550 nm in Britton Robinson buffer of pH 3. However, the spectrofluorimetric method (Method II) involves measuring the quenching effect of the studied drug on the native fluorescence property of eosin Y at the same pH at 550 nm after excitation at 480 nm. The absorbance versus concentration of the drug is rectilinear over the range of 0.5 to 15 μg/ml. The formation constant was 3.5 × 10 4 and the Gibb's free energy change was -2.5 × 10 4  J/mol. In Method II, the relative fluorescence intensity was directly proportional to SUC concentration over the range of 0.05 to 1 μg/ml. The proposed methods allowed a successful application to the estimation of succinylcholine ampoules. An explanation of the reaction pathway was postulated. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Ocular Insert: Dosage Form for Sustain Opthalmic Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Except for skin, the eye is the most easily accessible site for topical administration of a medication. Traditional topical ophthalmic formulations (eye drops and ointments have poor bioavailability because of rapid pre-corneal elimination, conjunctival absorption, solution drainage by gravity, induced lacrimation and normal tear turnover. This leads to frequent installations of concentrated medication to achieve a therapeutic effect. The typical “pulse-entry” type drug release observed with ocular aqueous solutions (eye drops, suspensions and ointments can be replaced by more controlled, sustained, and continuous drug delivery, using a controlled-release ocular drug delivery system. Ocular inserts are solid or semisolid sterile preparations, of appropriate size and shape, designed to be inserted behind the eyelid or held on the eye and to deliver drugs for topical or systemic effect. These are polymeric systems into which the drug is incorporated as a solution or dispersion. They are better tolerated as to drainage and tear flow compared with other ophthalmic formulation and produce reliable drug release in the conjunctival cul-de-sac.

  14. Neurobehavioral response to increased treatment dosage in chronic, severe aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Mozeiko

    2014-04-01

    •\tIncreased activation in S2’s bilateral inferior frontal gyrus following the second treatment session indicates that a second Treatment Period can influence continued neuroplastic change in severe, chronic aphasia. •\tS1 appears to show the most activation following Treatment Period I. It is possible that his greater lesion volume or site did not allow for benefit from a second dose to the same degree as S2. •\tActivation changes (or lack thereof in both cases corresponded with performance on the naming task in the scanner, reflecting the effect of treatment. •\tFor S2, neuroimaging supported the behavioral results which favor a second dose of ILAT. For S1, behavioral results, particularly in his consistent increases on the BNT, are not supported by either the behavioral results in the scanner or the BOLD response.

  15. Material Considerations for Fused-Filament Fabrication of Solid Dosage Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert Fuenmayor

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Material choice is a fundamental consideration when it comes to designing a solid dosage form. The matrix material will ultimately determine the rate of drug release since the physical properties (solubility, viscosity, and more of the material control both fluid ingress and disintegration of the dosage form. The bulk properties (powder flow, concentration, and more of the material should also be considered since these properties will influence the ability of the material to be successfully manufactured. Furthermore, there is a limited number of approved materials for the production of solid dosage forms. The present study details the complications that can arise when adopting pharmaceutical grade polymers for fused-filament fabrication in the production of oral tablets. The paper also presents ways to overcome each issue. Fused-filament fabrication is a hot-melt extrusion-based 3D printing process. The paper describes the problems encountered in fused-filament fabrication with Kollidon® VA64, which is a material that has previously been utilized in direct compression and hot-melt extrusion processes. Formulation and melt-blending strategies were employed to increase the printability of the material. The paper defines for the first time the essential parameter profile required for successful 3D printing and lists several pre-screening tools that should be employed to guide future material formulation for the fused-filament fabrication of solid dosage forms.

  16. Biowaiver monograph for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms: bisoprolol fumarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoo, Naseem A; Shamsher, Areeg A A; Lian, Lai Y; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Groot, D W; Kopp, Sabine; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James; Shah, Vinod P; Dressman, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate-release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing bisoprolol as the sole active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are reviewed. Bisoprolol is classified as a Class I API according to the current Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). In addition to the BCS class, its therapeutic index, pharmacokinetic properties, data related to the possibility of excipient interactions, and reported BE/bioavailability problems are taken into consideration. Qualitative compositions of IR tablet dosage forms of bisoprolol with a marketing authorization (MA) in ICH (International Conference on Harmonisation) countries are tabulated. It was inferred that these tablets had been demonstrated to be bioequivalent to the innovator product. No reports of failure to meet BE standards have been made in the open literature. On the basis of all these pieces of evidence, a biowaiver can currently be recommended for bisoprolol fumarate IR dosage forms if (1) the test product contains only excipients that are well known, and used in normal amounts, for example, those tabulated for products with MA in ICH countries and (2) both the test and comparator dosage form are very rapidly dissolving, or, rapidly dissolving with similarity of the dissolution profiles demonstrated at pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  17. Identification of chromatin-associated regulators of MSL complex targeting in Drosophila dosage compensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Larschan

    Full Text Available Sex chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila provides a model for understanding how chromatin organization can modulate coordinate gene regulation. Male Drosophila increase the transcript levels of genes on the single male X approximately two-fold to equal the gene expression in females, which have two X-chromosomes. Dosage compensation is mediated by the Male-Specific Lethal (MSL histone acetyltransferase complex. Five core components of the MSL complex were identified by genetic screens for genes that are specifically required for male viability and are dispensable for females. However, because dosage compensation must interface with the general transcriptional machinery, it is likely that identifying additional regulators that are not strictly male-specific will be key to understanding the process at a mechanistic level. Such regulators would not have been recovered from previous male-specific lethal screening strategies. Therefore, we have performed a cell culture-based, genome-wide RNAi screen to search for factors required for MSL targeting or function. Here we focus on the discovery of proteins that function to promote MSL complex recruitment to "chromatin entry sites," which are proposed to be the initial sites of MSL targeting. We find that components of the NSL (Non-specific lethal complex, and a previously unstudied zinc-finger protein, facilitate MSL targeting and display a striking enrichment at MSL entry sites. Identification of these factors provides new insight into how MSL complex establishes the specialized hyperactive chromatin required for dosage compensation in Drosophila.

  18. 76 FR 22610 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Enrofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    .... FDA-2011-N-0003] Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Enrofloxacin AGENCY: Food... the indications for use of enrofloxacin solution in cattle, as a single injection, for the treatment... supplement to NADA 141-068 for BAYTRIL 100 (enrofloxacin), an injectable solution. The supplemental NADA...

  19. 78 FR 30197 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Clindamycin; Enrofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ...-0002] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Clindamycin; Enrofloxacin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...- Tallaght, Dublin Oral Drops. 940. 24, Ireland. 200-551........ Putney, Inc., 400 Enrofloxacin Original....812 Enrofloxacin. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 22.7, 68.0, or 136.0 milligrams (mg) of...

  20. Application of DBNPA dosage for biofouling control in spiral wound membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber; Pinel, I.; Prest, E.I.; Bucs, Szilard; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Kruithof, J.C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2017-01-01

    in MFS was quantified by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Continuous dosage of DBNPA (1 mg/L) prevented pressure drop increase and biofilm accumulation in the MFSs during a run time of 7 d, showing that biofouling can

  1. Purifying Selection Maintains Dosage-Sensitive Genes during Degeneration of the Threespine Stickleback Y Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael A.; Kitano, Jun; Peichel, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are subject to unique evolutionary forces that cause suppression of recombination, leading to sequence degeneration and the formation of heteromorphic chromosome pairs (i.e., XY or ZW). Although progress has been made in characterizing the outcomes of these evolutionary processes on vertebrate sex chromosomes, it is still unclear how recombination suppression and sequence divergence typically occur and how gene dosage imbalances are resolved in the heterogametic sex. The threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is a powerful model system to explore vertebrate sex chromosome evolution, as it possesses an XY sex chromosome pair at relatively early stages of differentiation. Using a combination of whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing, we characterized sequence evolution and gene expression across the sex chromosomes. We uncovered two distinct evolutionary strata that correspond with known structural rearrangements on the Y chromosome. In the oldest stratum, only a handful of genes remain, and these genes are under strong purifying selection. By comparing sex-linked gene expression with expression of autosomal orthologs in an outgroup, we show that dosage compensation has not evolved in threespine sticklebacks through upregulation of the X chromosome in males. Instead, in the oldest stratum, the genes that still possess a Y chromosome allele are enriched for genes predicted to be dosage sensitive in mammals and yeast. Our results suggest that dosage imbalances may have been avoided at haploinsufficient genes by retaining function of the Y chromosome allele through strong purifying selection. PMID:25818858

  2. Use of fluorescence spectroscopy to control ozone dosage in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Martin, Richard; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2017-01-01

    , in order to optimise ozonation treatment. Water samples from six different Danish facilities (two rearing units from a commercial trout RAS, a commercial eel RAS, a pilot RAS and two marine water aquariums) were treated with different O3 dosages (1.0–20.0 mg/L ozone) in bench-scale experiments, following...

  3. Rheology as a tool for evaluation of melt processability of innovative dosage forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aho, Johanna Maaria; Boetker, Johan P; Baldursdottir, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    ) printing, will have an increasingly important role when designing products for flexible dosing, since dosage forms based on compacting of a given powder mixture do not enable manufacturing of optimal pharmaceutical products for personalized treatments. The melt processability of polymers and API...

  4. Study of hydrogels based on polyacrilamide as new controlled release dosage forms produced by frontal polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Sechi, Rossana; Gavini, Elisabetta; Mariani, Alberto; Bidali, Simone; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Sanna, Vanna Annunziata; Rassu, Giovanna; Pirisino, Gerolamo Antonio; Giunchedi, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The work purpose was the evaluation of the potential application of the Frontal Polymerization (FP) technique as a new method for the preparation of controlled release dosage forms based on polyacrilamide, in which the drug loading and the polymer preparation occur at the same time.

  5. 76 FR 3488 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Oxytetracycline and Flunixin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    .... FDA-2010-N-0002] Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Oxytetracycline and Flunixin... combination drug injectable solution containing oxytetracycline and flunixin meglumine in cattle. [[Page 3489... veterinary prescription use of HEXASOL (oxytetracycline and flunixin meglumine) Injection for the treatment...

  6. 3D printing of high drug loaded dosage forms using thermoplastic polyurethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, G; Samaro, A; Grymonpré, W; Vanhoorne, V; Van Snick, B; Boone, M N; Hellemans, T; Van Hoorebeke, L; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2018-01-30

    It was the aim of this study to develop high drug loaded (>30%, w/w), thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)-based dosage forms via fused deposition modelling (FDM). Model drugs with different particle size and aqueous solubility were pre-processed in combination with diverse TPU grades via hot melt extrusion (HME) into filaments with a diameter of 1.75 ± 0.05 mm. Subsequently, TPU-based filaments which featured acceptable quality attributes (i.e. consistent filament diameter, smooth surface morphology and good mechanical properties) were printed into tablets. The sustained release potential of the 3D printed dosage forms was tested in vitro. Moreover, the impact of printing parameters on the in vitro drug release was investigated. TPU-based filaments could be loaded with 60% (w/w) fine drug powder without observing severe shark skinning or inconsistent filament diameter. During 3D printing experiments, HME filaments based on hard TPU grades were successfully converted into personalized dosage forms containing a high concentration of crystalline drug (up to 60%, w/w). In vitro release kinetics were mainly affected by the matrix composition and tablet infill degree. Therefore, this study clearly demonstrated that TPU-based FDM feedstock material offers a lot of formulation freedom for the development of personalized dosage forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Improved sentinel node visualization in breast cancer by optimizing the colloid particle concentration and tracer dosage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Tanis, P. J.; Hoefnagel, C. A.; Nieweg, O. E.; Muller, S. H.; Rutgers, E. J.; Kooi, M. L.; Kroon, B. B.

    2001-01-01

    Faint lymph uptake may hamper sentinel node (SN) identification by scintigraphy and subsequent gamma probe localization. The aim of the present study was to evaluate an adjustment in the colloid particle concentration and tracer dosage to optimize mammary lymphoscintigraphy. Scintigraphy was

  8. 75 FR 21162 - Certain Other Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Detomidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    .... FDA-2010-N-0002] Certain Other Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Detomidine AGENCY: Food and Drug... NADA provides for veterinary prescription use of detomidine hydrochloride oromucosal gel for sedation... prescription use of DORMOSEDAN GEL (detomidine hydrochloride) for sedation and restraint of horses. The...

  9. 76 FR 16533 - Certain Other Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Detomidine; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    .... FDA-2010-N-0002] Certain Other Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Detomidine; Correction AGENCY: Food and... paragraph describing limitations to the approved conditions of use for detomidine hydrochloride oromucosal... conditions of use for detomidine hydrochloride oromucosal gel in horses. This correction is being made to...

  10. Plasma concentrations of caspofungin at two different dosage regimens in a patient with hepatic dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, K.C.; Bruggemann, R.J.M.; Rodgers, M.G.; Alffenaar, J.W.C.

    2012-01-01

    The currently recommended dosage regimen of caspofungin (50 mg/day) was developed for patients with invasive candidiasis. With invasive aspergillosis, successful outcomes occur in less than half the patients. We evaluate the pharmacokinetics in a patient with elevated liver enzyme levels after liver

  11. Plasma concentrations of caspofungin at two different dosage regimens in a patient with hepatic dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, K. C. M.; Bruggemann, R. J. M.; Rodgers, M. G. G.; Alffenaar, J. W. C.

    The currently recommended dosage regimen of caspofungin (50 mg/day) was developed for patients with invasive candidiasis. With invasive aspergillosis, successful outcomes occur in less than half the patients. We evaluate the pharmacokinetics in a patient with elevated liver enzyme levels after liver

  12. 75 FR 20268 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Propofol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... 21 CFR Part 522 Animal drugs. Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and under... use in dogs and cats--(1) Amount. The drug is administered by intravenous injection as follows: (i) Dogs. For induction of general anesthesia without the use of preanesthetics the dosage is 5.5 to 7.0 mg...

  13. Avian sex, sex chromosomes, and dosage compensation in the age of genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2014-04-01

    Comparisons of the sex chromosome systems in birds and mammals are widening our view and deepening our understanding of vertebrate sex chromosome organization, function, and evolution. Birds have a very conserved ZW system of sex determination in which males have two copies of a large, gene-rich Z chromosome, and females have a single Z and a female-specific W chromosome. The avian ZW system is quite the reverse of the well-studied mammalian XY chromosome system, and evolved independently from different autosomal blocs. Despite the different gene content of mammal and bird sex chromosomes, there are many parallels. Genes on the bird Z and the mammal X have both undergone selection for male-advantage functions, and there has been amplification of male-advantage genes and accumulation of LINEs. The bird W and mammal Y have both undergone extensive degradation, but some birds retain early stages and some mammals terminal stages of the process, suggesting that the process is more advanced in mammals. Different sex-determining genes, DMRT1 and SRY, define the ZW and XY systems, but DMRT1 is involved in downstream events in mammals. Birds show strong cell autonomous specification of somatic sex differences in ZZ and ZW tissue, but there is growing evidence for direct X chromosome effects on sexual phenotype in mammals. Dosage compensation in birds appears to be phenotypically and molecularly quite different from X inactivation, being partial and gene-specific, but both systems use tools from the same molecular toolbox and there are some signs that galliform birds represent an early stage in the evolution of a coordinated system.

  14. Comparative Sex Chromosome Genomics in Snakes: Differentiation, Evolutionary Strata, and Lack of Global Dosage Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zektser, Yulia; Mahajan, Shivani; Bachtrog, Doris

    2013-01-01

    Snakes exhibit genetic sex determination, with female heterogametic sex chromosomes (ZZ males, ZW females). Extensive cytogenetic work has suggested that the level of sex chromosome heteromorphism varies among species, with Boidae having entirely homomorphic sex chromosomes, Viperidae having completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and Colubridae showing partial differentiation. Here, we take a genomic approach to compare sex chromosome differentiation in these three snake families. We identify homomorphic sex chromosomes in boas (Boidae), but completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes in both garter snakes (Colubridae) and pygmy rattlesnake (Viperidae). Detection of W-linked gametologs enables us to establish the presence of evolutionary strata on garter and pygmy rattlesnake sex chromosomes where recombination was abolished at different time points. Sequence analysis shows that all strata are shared between pygmy rattlesnake and garter snake, i.e., recombination was abolished between the sex chromosomes before the two lineages diverged. The sex-biased transmission of the Z and its hemizygosity in females can impact patterns of molecular evolution, and we show that rates of evolution for Z-linked genes are increased relative to their pseudoautosomal homologs, both at synonymous and amino acid sites (even after controlling for mutational biases). This demonstrates that mutation rates are male-biased in snakes (male-driven evolution), but also supports faster-Z evolution due to differential selective effects on the Z. Finally, we perform a transcriptome analysis in boa and pygmy rattlesnake to establish baseline levels of sex-biased expression in homomorphic sex chromosomes, and show that heteromorphic ZW chromosomes in rattlesnakes lack chromosome-wide dosage compensation. Our study provides the first full scale overview of the evolution of snake sex chromosomes at the genomic level, thus greatly expanding our knowledge of reptilian and vertebrate sex chromosomes

  15. Bilayered buccal films as child-appropriate dosage form for systemic administration of propranolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abruzzo, Angela; Nicoletta, Fiore Pasquale; Dalena, Francesco; Cerchiara, Teresa; Luppi, Barbara; Bigucci, Federica

    2017-10-05

    Buccal mucosa has emerged as an attractive site for systemic administration of drug in paediatric patients. This route is simple and non-invasive, even if the saliva wash-out effect and the relative permeability of the mucosa can reduce drug absorption. Mucoadhesive polymers represent a common employed strategy to increase the contact time of the formulation at the application site and to improve drug absorption. Among the different mucoadhesive dosage forms, buccal films are particularly addressed for paediatric population since they are thin, adaptable to the mucosal surface and able to offer an exact and flexible dose. The objective of the present study was to develop bilayered buccal films for the release of propranolol hydrochloride. A primary polymeric layer was prepared by casting and drying of solutions of film-forming polymers, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or polyvinylalcohol (PVA), added with different weight ratios of gelatin (GEL) or chitosan (CH). In order to achieve unidirectional drug delivery towards buccal mucosa, a secondary ethylcellulose layer was applied onto the primary layer. Bilayered films were characterized for their physico-chemical (morphology, thickness, drug content and solid state) and functional (water uptake, mucoadhesion, drug release and permeation) properties. The inclusion of CH into PVP and PVA primary layer provided the best mucoadhesion ability. Films containing CH provided a lower drug release with respect to films containing GEL and increased the amount of permeated drug through buccal mucosa, thanks to its ability of interfering with the lipid organization. The secondary ethylcellulose layer did not interfere with drug permeation, but it could limit drug release in the buccal cavity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of alternative methods for the determination of raloxifene hydrochloride in tablet dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rodrigues Salazar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three methods are proposed for the quantitative determination of raloxifene hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form: ultraviolet method (UV high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and micellar capillary electrophoresis (MEKC. These methods were developed and validated and showed good linearity, precision and accuracy. Also they demonstrated to be specific and robust. The HPLC and MEKC methods were tested in regards to be stability indicating methods and they showed to have this attribute. The UV method used methanol as solvent and optimal wavelength at 284 nm, obeying Lambert-Beer law in these conditions. The chromatographic conditions for the HPLC method included: NST column C18 (250 x 4.6 mm x 5 µm, mobile phase water:acetonitrile:triethylamine (67:33:0,3 v/v, pH 3.5, flow rate 1.0 mL min-1, injection volume 20.0 µl, UV detection 287 nm and analysis temperature 30 °C. The MEKC method was performed on a fused-silica capillary (40 cm effective length x 50 µm i.d. using as background electrolyte 35.0 mmol L-1 borate buffer and 50.0 mmol L-1 anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS at pH 8.8. The capillary temperature was 32°C, applied voltage 25 kV, UV detection at 280 nm and injection was perfomed at 45 mBar for 4 s, hydrodimanic mode. In this MEKC method, potassium diclofenac (200.0 µg mL-1 was used as internal standard. All these methods were statistically analyzed and demonstrated to be equivalent for quantitative analysis of RLX in tablets and were successfully applied for the determination of the drug.

  17. Stability of Dosage Forms in the Pharmaceutical Payload Aboard Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Brian J.; Daniels, Vernie; Boyd, Jason L.; Crady, Camille; Satterfield, Rick; Younker, Diane R.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Efficacious pharmaceuticals with adequate shelf lives are essential for successful space medical operations. Stability of pharmaceuticals, therefore, is of paramount importance for assuring the health and wellness of astronauts on future space exploration missions. Unique physical and environmental factors of space missions may contribute to the instability of pharmaceuticals, e.g., radiation, humidity and temperature variations. Degradation of pharmaceutical formulations can result in inadequate efficacy and/or untoward toxic effects, which could compromise astronaut safety and health. Methods: Four identical pharmaceutical payload kits containing 31 medications in different dosage forms (liquid, tablet, capsule, ointment and suppository) were transported to the International Space Station aboard the Space Shuttle (STS-121). One of the 4 kits was stored on the Shuttle and the other 3 were stored on the International Space Station (ISS) for return to Earth at 6-month interval aboard a pre-designated Shuttle flight for each kit. The kit stored on the Shuttle was returned to Earth aboard STS-121 and 2 kits from ISS were returned on STS 117 and STS-122. Results: Analysis of standard physical and chemical parameters of degradation was completed for pharmaceuticals returned by STS-121 after14 days, STS - 117 after11 months and STS 122 after 19 months storage aboard ISS. Analysis of all flight samples along with ground-based matching controls was completed and results were compiled. Conclusion: Evaluation of results from the shuttle (1) and ISS increments (2) indicate that the number of formulations degraded in space increased with duration of storage in space and was higher in space compared to their ground-based counterparts. Rate of degradation for some of the formulations tested was faster in space than on Earth. Additionally, some of the formulations included in the medical kits were unstable, more so in space than on the ground. These results indicate that the

  18. Study on image quality and dosage comparison of F/S system and DR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Chil; Jung, Jae Eun

    2003-01-01

    Currently, many hospital are hastening to introduce digital radiography systems. This is a direct result of the intentions to improve medical services and to digitalized radiology information systems, and is also leading to the improvement of medical imaging technology. Throughout F/S system's long history, many people have researched the image quality and dosage concerning these systems, and as a result, huge improvements in the dosage of patients were possible. Similarly, I believe that DR systems need the same kind of effort. Of course, decreases in dosage that ignore image quality are unthinkable. The results of experiments conducted by five hospitals during a period of 3 months brought to us the conclusions listed below. Based on the comparison and analysis of the exposure control of F/S systems and DR systems, DR systems generally showed higher exposure control for parts of the phantom that became thicker, and the exposure control improved rapidly as the thickness increased. DR systems still proved to be somewhat deficient in resolution measurements compared to existing F/S systems. The image processing part of DR systems contributed much to these result. Under conditions used clinically, the dosage measurements of DR systems were generally higher regardless of region. According to the evaluation of image quality, DR systems showed a higher degree of satisfaction as the thickness of the region became thinner. As mentioned above and based on the mutual relationship experiments between the dosage and image quality of F/S systems and DR systems, research to increase the satisfaction of DR systems must be considered

  19. ACE-it: a tool for genome-wide integration of gene dosage and RNA expression data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wieringen, W.N.; Belien, J.A.M.; Vosse, S.; Achame, E.M.; Ylstra, B.

    2006-01-01

    Summary: We describe a tool, called ACE-it (Array CGH Expression integration tool). ACE-it links the chromosomal position of the gene dosage measured by array CGH to the genes measured by the expression array. ACE-it uses this link to statistically test whether gene dosage affects RNA expression. ©

  20. The Impact of Wine Style and Sugar Addition in liqueur d’expedition (dosage Solutions on Traditional Method Sparkling Wine Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Kemp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of wine style and cane sugar addition in the liqueur d’expedition (dosage solution on volatile aroma compounds (VOCs in traditional method sparkling wine. There were 24 bottles of each treatment produced. Treatments were sparkling wine zero dosage (ZD; NV sparkling wine + sugar (BS; unoaked still Chardonnay wine + sugar (UC; Pinot noir 2009 sparkling wine + sugar (PN; Niagara produced Brandy + sugar (B and Icewine (IW. The control treatment in the sensory analysis was an oaked still Chardonnay wine + sugar (OC because the zero-dosage wine was not suitable for a difference test that compared wines with sugar to one without. Standard wine chemical parameters were analysed before disgorging and after liqueur d’expedition was added and included; pH, titratable acidity (TA g/L, alcohol (v/v %, residual sugar (RS g/L, free and total SO2 and total phenolics (A.U.. Volatile aroma compounds (VOCs analysed by Headspace Solid- Phase Micro-Extraction Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS included two alcohols, and six ethyl esters. ZD wines had the highest foam height and highest dissolved oxygen level. Sugar affected VOC concentrations in all treatments at five weeks post-disgorging, but by 15 weeks after liqueur d’expedition addition, the wine with added sugar had similar VOC concentrations to the ZD wines. The type of wines used in the dosage solutions had more influence on VOC concentrations than sugar addition.

  1. Investigation of influence of 16-slice spiral CT electrocardiogram-controlled dose modulation on exposure dosage and image quality of cardiac CT imaging under simulated fluctuant heart rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Yan; Chen Jie; Chai Weiming; Hua Jia; Gao Na; Xu Jianrong; Shen Yun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of electrocardiogram (ECG)-controlled dose modulation on exposure dosage and image quality of cardiac CT imaging in a cardiac phantom with simulated fluctuant heart rate. Methods: The basal heart rate of the cardiac pulsating phantom was set as 60 bpm, the experimental situations were divided as 6 groups according to different heart rates. The cardiac imaging was performed on the cardiac phantom when the ECG-controlled dose modulation was firstly turned off. The exposure dosage of each scan sequence was documented. The standard deviation of the CT values of the phantom was measured on the central slice after coronal reformation of the raw data. The quality of 2D and 3D images were scored. Then cardiac imaging was performed when ECG modulation was on and set as four groups according to different modulation parameters. All the data were documented as before. The results from the five groups with and without ECG modulation current were analyzed by F test and comparative rank sum test using the statistical software SPSS 10.0. Results: Statistical analysis showed no significant difference (P>0.05) between the SNR of images (SD value was 27.78 and 26.30) from the groups that full mA output at wide reconstruction phase (69%-99%) when the heart rate was fluctuant(≥7.5 bpm). There was also no significant difference (P>0.05) between the quality of the 2D and 3D images. But there was a significant difference (P 12.5 bpm, the exposure dosage would increase obviously (from 0.6 to 1.7 mSv). Conclusion: For cardiac imaging with 16-slice row CT, the application of ECG modulated current can effectively reduce the exposure dosage without compromising the image quality even if heart rate was fluctuant. (authors)

  2. Standard PK/PD concepts can be applied to determine a dosage regimen for a macrolide: the case of tulathromycin in the calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutain, P-L; Potter, T; Pelligand, L; Lacroix, M; Illambas, J; Lees, P

    2017-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of tulathromycin, administered to calves subcutaneously at the dosage of 2.5 mg/kg, was established in serum, inflamed (exudate), and noninflamed (transudate) fluids in a tissue cage model. The PK profile of tulathromycin was also established in pneumonic calves. For Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, tulathromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were approximately 50 times lower in calf serum than in Mueller-Hinton broth. The breakpoint value of the PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) index (AUC (0-24 h) /MIC) to achieve a bactericidal effect was estimated from in vitro time-kill studies to be approximately 24 h for M. haemolytica and P. multocida. A population model was developed from healthy and pneumonic calves and, using Monte Carlo simulations, PK/PD cutoffs required for the development of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) were determined. The population distributions of tulathromycin doses were established by Monte Carlo computation (MCC). The computation predicted a target attainment rate (TAR) for a tulathromycin dosage of 2.5 mg/kg of 66% for M. haemolytica and 87% for P. multocida. The findings indicate that free tulathromycin concentrations in serum suffice to explain the efficacy of single-dose tulathromycin in clinical use, and that a dosage regimen can be computed for tulathromycin using classical PK/PD concepts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Upgrade of deep bed filtration with activated carbon dosage for compact micropollutant removal from wastewater in technical scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwenberg, Jonas; Zenker, Armin; Krahnstöver, Thérèse; Boehler, Marc; Baggenstos, Martin; Koch, Gerhard; Wintgens, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    resulted in lower dosage concentrations, was efficient in limiting PAC consumption during these events without suffering from negative effects on process performance or effluent quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Post-marketing re-evaluation about usage and dosage of Chinese medicine based on human population pharmacokinetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Junjie; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine are determined by rigorous evaluation which include four clinical trail stages: I, II, III. But the usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine are lacked re-evaluation after marketing. And this lead to unchanging or fixed of the usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine instead of different quantity based on different situations in individual patients. The situation of Chinese patent medicine used in clinical application is far away from the idea of the "Treatment based on syndrome differentiation" in traditional Chinese medicine and personalized therapy. Human population pharmacokinetics provides data support to the personalized therapy in clinical application, and achieved the postmarking reevaluating of the usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine. This paper briefly introduced the present situation, significance and the application of human population pharmacokinetics about re-evaluation of the usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine after marketing.

  5. Preparation, extraction and dosage of labelled cholesterol (D and C{sup 14}); Preparation, extraction et dosage de cholesterol marque (D et C{sup 14})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugnard, L; Chevallier, F; Coursaget, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    We returned in this note the techniques that we used for the preparation of labelled cholesterol. The chemical exchange of hydrogen enabling to contain deutero-cholesterol until 4 percent deuterium. The biologic synthesis, done on living rats or on their liver maintained in survival, permits, on the other hand, to get active cholesterol from acetate of containing sodium of the carbon 14. We indicated the techniques of extraction and dosage of the marked cholesterol. The radioactivity is measured with a Geiger-Muller counter. (M.B.) [French] Nous avons rapporte dans cette note les techniques que nous avons utilisees pour la preparation de cholesterol marque. L'echange chimique d'hydrogene conduit a du deuterio-cholesterol pouvant contenir jusqu'a 4 pour cent de deuterium. La synthese biologique, effectuee sur des rats vivants ou sur leur foie maintenu en survie, permet, d'autre part, d'obtenir du cholesterol radio-actif a partir d'acetate de sodium contenant du carbone 14. Nous avons indique les techniques d'extraction et de dosage du cholesterol marque. Sa radioactivite est mesuree au compteur de Geiger-Muller. (M.B.)

  6. Neural expression and post-transcriptional dosage compensation of the steroid metabolic enzyme 17β-HSD type 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wise Petra M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Steroids affect many tissues, including the brain. In the zebra finch, the estrogenic steroid estradiol (E2 is especially effective at promoting growth of the neural circuit specialized for song. In this species, only the males sing and they have a much larger and more interconnected song circuit than females. Thus, it was surprising that the gene for 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 (HSD17B4, an enzyme that converts E2 to a less potent estrogen, had been mapped to the Z sex chromosome. As a consequence, it was likely that HSD17B4 was differentially expressed in males (ZZ and females (ZW because dosage compensation of Z chromosome genes is incomplete in birds. If a higher abundance of HSD17B4 mRNA in males than females was translated into functional enzyme in the brain, then contrary to expectation, males could produce less E2 in their brains than females. Results Here, we used molecular and biochemical techniques to confirm the HSD17B4 Z chromosome location in the zebra finch and to determine that HSD17B4 mRNA and activity were detectable in the early developing and adult brain. As expected, HSD17B4 mRNA expression levels were higher in males compared to females. This provides further evidence of the incomplete Z chromosome inactivation mechanisms in birds. We detected HSD17B4 mRNA in regions that suggested a role for this enzyme in the early organization and adult function of song nuclei. We did not, however, detect significant sex differences in HSD17B4 activity levels in the adult brain. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the HSD17B4 gene is expressed and active in the zebra finch brain as an E2 metabolizing enzyme, but that dosage compensation of this Z-linked gene may occur via post-transcriptional mechanisms.

  7. Physicochemical characterization of berberine chloride: a perspective in the development of a solution dosage form for oral delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battu, Sunil Kumar; Repka, Michael A; Maddineni, Sindhuri; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Avery, Mitchell A; Majumdar, Soumyajit

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present research was to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of berberine chloride and to assess the complexation of drug with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), a first step towards solution dosage form development. The parameters such as log P value were determined experimentally and compared with predicted values. The pH-dependent aqueous solubility and stability were investigated following standard protocols at 25°C and 37°C. Drug solubility enhancement was attempted utilizing both surfactants and cyclodextrins (CDs), and the drug/CD complexation was studied employing various techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental log P value suggested that the compound is fairly hydrophilic. Berberine chloride was found to be very stable up to 6 months at all pH and temperature conditions tested. Aqueous solubility of the drug was temperature dependent and exhibited highest solubility of 4.05 ± 0.09 mM in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at 25°C, demonstrating the effect of buffer salts on drug solubility. Decreased drug solubility was observed with increasing concentrations of ionic surfactants such as sodium lauryl sulfate and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. Phase solubility studies demonstrated the formation of berberine chloride-HPβCD inclusion complex with 1:1 stoichiometry, and the aqueous solubility of the drug improved almost 4.5-fold in the presence of 20% HPβCD. The complexation efficiency values indicated that the drug has at least threefold greater affinity for hydroxypropyl-β-CD compared to randomly methylated-β-CD. The characterization techniques confirmed inclusion complex formation between berberine chloride and HPβCD and demonstrated the feasibility of developing an oral solution dosage form of the drug.

  8. Identification and analcime quantification; Identification et dosage de l'analcime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantret, F; Guillemaut, A; Pouget, R

    1962-07-01

    The authors are comparing thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction methods for the estimation of analcime in rocks. From application to the analcimolithes of Agades - Republic of Niger - it appears that X-ray diffractometry is better convenient, both for identification and estimation; nevertheless, thermal analysis combined with chemical analysis allows to detect variations in the composition of analcime inside a given series. [French] Les auteurs comparent les techniques d'analyse thermique et de diffraction X pour le dosage de l'analcime dans les roches. L'application aux analcimolites d'Agades - Republique du Niger - montre que la diffractometrie X est mieux adaptee a la fois dans l'identification et le dosage; neanmoins, l'analyse thermique, associee a l'analyse chimique, permet de suivre les fluctuations de composition de l'analcime a l'interieur d'une serie determinee. (auteurs)

  9. Artificial Neural Networks in Evaluation and Optimization of Modified Release Solid Dosage Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Djurić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD approach in pharmaceutical development has compelled researchers in the pharmaceutical industry to employ Design of Experiments (DoE as a statistical tool, in product development. Among all DoE techniques, response surface methodology (RSM is the one most frequently used. Progress of computer science has had an impact on pharmaceutical development as well. Simultaneous with the implementation of statistical methods, machine learning tools took an important place in drug formulation. Twenty years ago, the first papers describing application of artificial neural networks in optimization of modified release products appeared. Since then, a lot of work has been done towards implementation of new techniques, especially Artificial Neural Networks (ANN in modeling of production, drug release and drug stability of modified release solid dosage forms. The aim of this paper is to review artificial neural networks in evaluation and optimization of modified release solid dosage forms.

  10. Assessment of tobramycin RIA for drug monitoring and dosage regimen. Comparison with other assay technics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, S.; Shinozaki, K.; Tsujino, D.; Ohhara, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Arai, S.; Someya, K.; Sasaki, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Because of wide range of inter-individual difference of pharmacokinetic parameter, importance of monitoring blood concentration of aminoglycoside antibiotics in each patient has been recognized. With the purpose to use for monitoring of serum tobramycin (TOB) levels and for adequate dosage regimen RIA of TOB was evaluated in comparison with other assay technics. Gamma Coat TOB RIA kits (Clinical Assay-Travenol Japan) were used for RIA of TOB. The TOB concentrations in the same samples were also measured by two kinds of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (EMIT EIA and SLFIA EIA), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and bioassay (BA). RIA of TOB is a useful assay method with high sensitivity and reasonably good precision to be used for drug monitoring and adequate dosage regimen. Modification of the method for rapid assay of a small number of samples will increase the clinical usefulness in individualized drug monitoring

  11. Plasma levels and symptom complaints in patients maintained on daily dosage of methadone hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horns, W H; Rado, M; Goldstein, A

    1975-06-01

    Plasma methadone levels, symptom complaints, and urine tests for illicit opiate use were followed weekly in 17 patients on a methadone maintenance program. There were very large differences between patients in the plasma level established at a given dosage, implying large differences in the rate of methadone metabolism. Despite virtually constant daily dosage, the plasma methadone levels fluctuated greatly from week to week and from day to day in individual patients. With rate exceptions there was no relationship between plasma methadone level and symptom complaints or between weekly chamges in plasma methadone level and changes in symptom complaints. Except possible to identify the ocassional patient with unusually low plasam methadone levels, the determination of methadone levels is not likely to be or practical value in methadone programs.

  12. Apparatus comprising trace element dosage and method for treating raw water in biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    the inlet (2) to the outlet (3) or in the reverse direction, - the trace element dosage device (13) is positioned upstream of the porous filter material and microbial biomass and is configured to dose trace element(s) to the water flowing through the filter. A method for treating raw water by microbial......Apparatus for treating raw water in a biofilter The present invention relates to an apparatus in which raw water is treated through microbial activity where microbial activity is controlled by nutrients and other parameters. Some of the nutrients controlling the microbial activity are trace...... elements such as certain metals (Cu, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, W, Zn or a mixture thereof). The apparatus comprising - a volume provided with an inlet (2) for raw water and an outlet (3) for water having been subjected to microbial activity, a filter and a trace element dosage device (13) are placed in this volume...

  13. A Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Determination of Atazanavir in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srinivasu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A validated RP HPLC method for the estimation of atazanavir in capsule dosage form on YMC ODS 150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μ column using mobile phase composition of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 2.5 with acetonitrile (55:45 v/v. Flow rate was maintained at 1.5 mL/min with 288 nm UV detection. The retention time obtained for atazanavir was at 4.7 min. The detector response was linear in the concentration range of 30 - 600 μg/mL. This method has been validated and shown to be specific, sensitive, precise, linear, accurate, rugged, robust and fast. Hence, this method can be applied for routine quality control of atazanavir in capsule dosage forms as well as in bulk drug.

  14. Standardization of radioimmunoassay for dosage of angiotensin II (ang-II) and its methodological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantovani, Milene; Mecawi, Andre S.; Elias, Lucila L.K.; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This paper standardizes the radioimmunoassay (RIA) for dosage of ANG-II of rats, after experimental conditions of saline hypertonic (2%), treating with losartan (antagonist of ANG-II), hydric privation, and acute hemorrhage (25%). After that, the plasmatic ANG-II was extracted for dosage of RIA, whose sensitiveness was of 1.95 pg/m L, with detection of 1.95 to 1000 pg/m L. The treatment with saline reduced the concentration of ANG-II, while the administration pf losartan, the hydric administration and the hemorrhage increase the values, related to the control group. Those results indicate variations in the plasmatic concentration of ANG-II according to the experimental protocols, validating the method for evaluation of activity renin-angiotensin

  15. Semi-Solid and Solid Dosage Forms for the Delivery of Phage Therapy to Epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovski, Steve; Chan, Hiu Tat; Angove, Michael J.; Tucci, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    The delivery of phages to epithelial surfaces for therapeutic outcomes is a realistic proposal, and indeed one which is being currently tested in clinical trials. This paper reviews some of the known research on formulation of phages into semi-solid dosage forms such as creams, ointments and pastes, as well as solid dosage forms such as troches (or lozenges and pastilles) and suppositories/pessaries, for delivery to the epithelia. The efficacy and stability of these phage formulations is discussed, with a focus on selection of optimal semi-solid bases for phage delivery. Issues such as the need for standardisation of techniques for formulation as well as for assessment of efficacy are highlighted. These are important when trying to compare results from a range of experiments and across different delivery bases. PMID:29495355

  16. Particle Engineering Via Mechanical Dry Coating in the Design of Pharmaceutical Solid Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li; Morton, David A V; Zhou, Qi Tony

    2015-01-01

    Cohesive powders are problematic in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms because they exhibit poor flowability, fluidization and aerosolization. These undesirable bulk properties of cohesive powders represent a fundamental challenge in the design of efficient pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Recently, mechanical dry coating has attracted increasing attention as it can improve the bulk properties of cohesive powders in a cheaper, simpler, safer and more environment-friendly way than the existing solvent-based counterparts. In this review, mechanical dry coating techniques are outlined and their potential applications in formulation and manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms are discussed. Reported data from the literature have shown that mechanical dry coating holds promise for the design of superior pharmaceutical solid formulations or manufacturing processes by engineering the interfaces of cohesive powders in an efficient and economical way.

  17. Development and characterization of a gastroretentive dosage form composed of chitosan and hydroxyethyl cellulose for alendronate

    OpenAIRE

    Chen YC; Ho HO; Chiu CC; Sheu MT

    2013-01-01

    Ying-Chen Chen,1,* Hsiu-O Ho,1,* Chiao-Chi Chiu,1 Ming-Thau Sheu1,2 1School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, 2Clinical Research Center and Traditional Herbal Medicine Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: In this study, alendronate, the most commonly used biphosphonate for treating osteoporosis, was formulated as gastroretentive dosage form (GRDF) tablets to enhance its oral bioav...

  18. Characterisation of lung tumour under dosage for interpretation of clinical trial data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.L.; Dunn, L.; Franich, R.D.; Kron, T.; Height, F.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: It is well known that the periphery of lung tumours is under-dosed in radiotherapy as a result of electronic disequilibrium at the interface of lung and tumour tissue. Clinical trials often employ dose calculation algorithms which poorly approximate the dose to peripheral regions of tumour volumes. The aim of this study was to develop a set of systematic under-dosage estimates corresponding to various clinical parameters. High resolution Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations were undertaken for a systematic set of generic lung tumours irradiated with an external photon beam. Varied parameters include beam energy, field size, tumour size and distance to chest wall. Calculations were undertaken using both EGSnrc and GEAI T4. A 'Dose Reduction Factor' is defined which describes the dose to the peripheral 'shell' 01 the tumour, as relevant for multiple-field and arc therapy. For a 6 MV beam, under-dosage is typically between 2 and 5% for the different arrangements investigated, and for a 15 MV beam it is between 5 and 8% (relative to the central dose). Good agreement between EGSnrc and GEANT4 was demonstrated. Comparisons with pencil beam convolution calculations indicate that the treatment planning system does not identify this under-dosage. A systematic set of data has been obtained that characterises the extent of peripheral under-dosage in lung tumours for the retrospective evaluation of clinical trial data. The data presented i: also informative for clinics using less sophisticated planning algorithms, particularly when dose is being prescribed to covering isodoses. (author)

  19. ANALYTICAL STUDY OF CURCUMIN CONTENT IN DIFFERENT DOSAGE FORMS CONTAINING TURMERIC EXTRACT POWDER AND TURMERIC OLEORESIN

    OpenAIRE

    Rane Rajashree; Gangolli Divya; Patil Sushma; Ingawale Kanchan; Kundalwal Sachin

    2013-01-01

    Different dosage forms namely tablets, capsules, creams and syrups were analysed for curcumin content, by the well-known spectrophotometric method. Turmeric extract powder was used as a source of curcumin in capsule and tablet formulations. Turmeric oleoresin was used as a source of curcumin in cream formulation. Additionally, syrup formulations containing turmeric extract powder as well as turmeric oleoresin, separately, were also tested for their curcumin contents. Analytical results for cu...

  20. Preparation and evaluation of doxycycline hydrochloride and bromhexine hydrochloride dosage forms for pigeons / Marga le Roux

    OpenAIRE

    Le Roux, Marga

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To prepare and evaluate three different dosage forms, containing doxycycline hydrochloride (HCI) and bromhexine hydrochloride (HCI) respectively and in combination, for the treatment of respiratory diseases in pigeons. Background: Birds have held a place in man's affection since the ancient Egyptians and Romans kept birds. Europeans have successfully bred birds, especially smaller birds and pigeons, for centuries. Only in recent years, however, have science and me...

  1. Influence of Postprandial Intragastric Pressures on Drug Release from Gastroretentive Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Felix; Hoppe, Melanie; Koziolek, Mirko; Weitschies, Werner

    2018-05-29

    Despite extensive research in the field of gastroretentive dosage forms, this "holy grail" of oral drug delivery yet remained an unmet goal. Especially under fasting conditions, the reproducible retention of dosage forms in the stomach seems to be an impossible task. This is why such systems are often advised to be taken together with food. But also the postprandial motility can contribute significantly to the failure of gastroretentive dosage forms. To investigate the influence of postprandial pressure conditions on drug release from such systems, we used a novel in vitro dissolution tool, the dissolution stress test device. With the aid of this device, we simulated three different intragastric pressure profiles that may occur after postprandial intake. These transit scenarios were based on recently obtained, postprandial SmartPill® data. The tested systems, Glumetza® 1000 and Madopar® HBS 125, are marketed dosage forms that are based on different approaches to achieve proper gastric retention. All three transit scenarios revealed a highly pressure-sensitive drug release behavior, for both drugs. For Madopar® HBS 125, nearly complete drug release was observed even after early occurring pressures. Glumetza® 1000 seemed to be more resistant to these, most likely due to incomplete wetting of the system. On the contrary to these findings, data from standard dissolution tests using the paddle apparatus displayed controlled drug release for both systems for about 6 h. Based on these results, it can be doubted that established gastroretentive systems stay intact over a longer period of time, even under postprandial conditions.

  2. Spectrophotometric simultaneous determination of Rabeprazole Sodium and Itopride Hydrochloride in capsule dosage form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabnis, Shweta S.; Dhavale, Nilesh D.; Jadhav, Vijay. Y.; Gandhi, Santosh V.

    2008-03-01

    A new simple, economical, rapid, precise and accurate method for simultaneous determination of rabeprazole sodium and itopride hydrochloride in capsule dosage form has been developed. The method is based on ratio spectra derivative spectrophotometry. The amplitudes in the first derivative of the corresponding ratio spectra at 231 nm (minima) and 260 nm were selected to determine rabeprazole sodium and itopride hydrochloride, respectively. The method was validated with respect to linearity, precision and accuracy.

  3. Laboratory data of serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine and thyrotrophin dosages for diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau, W.; Abelin, N.M.A.; Villares, S.M.; Mattar, E.

    1984-01-01

    TSH dosages are studied in 5.598 patients during 31 months. TSH values equal or superior than 10 μlU/ml was chosen (360 samples). These ones, 193 presented T 3 and T 4 results changed, too. The several factors that could influence the normal peripheral levels of T 3 and T 4 in primary hypothyroidal patients and the factors that cause an eventual low correlation with TSH are discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. Onabotulinum toxin A dosage trends over time for adductor spasmodic dysphonia: A 15-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Christopher G; Novakovic, Daniel; Mor, Niv; Blitzer, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Although onabotulinum neurotoxin A (BoNTA) has been used for over three decades for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia, no study has been performed to look at the trend of BoNTA dosages across time. The goal of this study is to evaluate the dosage trends to determine if the dosage necessary for voice improvement in patients increases over time. Charts were reviewed for patients with 15 years or more of experience. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine correlation coefficients and trends. Fifty-five patients receiving BoNTA injections by the senior author (a.b.) for over 15 years were evaluated. Thirty-nine patients (82% female) met inclusion criteria. Patients received injections over an average of 18.6 years ± 1.36 years, with the longest follow-up of 21.5 years. Of 39 patients, 16 (41%) had a negative correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) suggesting a decrease over time, whereas 23 (59%) had a positive correlation coefficient suggesting an increase over time. The mean correlation coefficient was 0.139 ± 0.534 and P  0.05 in 20 patients. R(2) for all patients were less than 0.75. Onabotulinum neurotoxin A injection dosage trends vary depending on the individual over time. Overall, the dose range appears to be stable in the majority of patients, suggesting that tolerance does not play a significant part in dose variation over time. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:678-681, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. New applications to computerized tomography: analysis of solid dosage forms produced by pharmaceutical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Junior, Jose Martins de; Martins, Antonio Cesar Germano

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, computerized tomography (CT) has been used as a new probe to study solid dosage forms (tablets) produced by pharmaceutical industry. This new approach to study tablet and powder, or granulation, properties used in pharmaceutical industry is very suitable. First because CT can generate information that traditional technologies used in this kind of analysis can not, such as, density distribution of internal structures and tablet dimensions, pore size distribution, particle shape information, and also investigation of official and unofficial (counterfeit) copies of solid dosage forms. Second because CT is a nondestructive technique, allowing the use of tablets or granules in others analysis. In this work we discus how CT can be used to acquire and reconstruct internal microstructure of tablets and granules. CT is a technique that is based on attenuation of X-rays passing through matter. Attenuation depends on the density and atomic number of the material that is scanned. In this work, a micro-CT X-ray scanner (manufactured by the group of Applied Nuclear Physics at University of Sorocaba) was used to obtain three-dimensional images of the tablets and granules for nondestructive analysis. These images showed a non uniform density distribution of material inside some tablets, the morphology of some granules analyzed, the integrity of the liquid-filled soft-gelatin capsule and so on. It could also be observed that the distribution of different constituents presents an osmotic controlled-release dosage form. The present work shows that it is possible to use X-ray microtomography to obtain useful qualitative and quantitative information on the structure of pharmaceutical dosage forms. (author)

  6. Biowaiver monograph for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms: fluconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoo, Naseem; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Graham, Alexandra; Lartey, Paul; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Groot, D W; Kopp, Sabine; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James; Shah, Vinod P; Dressman, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    Literature data pertaining to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing requirements for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing fluconazole as the only active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are reviewed. The decision is based on solubility, dissolution, permeability, therapeutic index, pharmacokinetic parameters, pharmacodynamic properties, and other relevant data. BE/bioavailability (BA) problems and drug-excipients interaction data were also reviewed and taken into consideration. According to the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS), fluconazole in polymorphic forms II and III is a BCS class I drug and has a wide therapeutic index. BE of test formulations from many different manufacturers containing different excipients confirmed that the risk of bioinequivalence because of formulation and manufacturing factors is low. It was inferred that risk can be further reduced if in vitro studies are performed according to biowaiver guidelines. Thus, it is concluded that a biowaiver can be recommended for fluconazole IR dosage forms if (a) fluconazole is present as polymorphic form II or III or any other form/mixture showing high solubility, (b) the selection of excipients be limited to those found in IR drug products approved in International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) countries for the same dosage form and used in their usual amounts, and (c) both the test and comparator dosage form are very rapidly dissolving, or, rapidly dissolving throughout the shelf life with similar dissolution profiles at pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  7. Should we adjust erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dosage to postdialysis hemoglobin levels? A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Nieves; García-García Patricia; Rivero Antonio; Jiménez-Sosa Alejandro; Macía Manuel; Getino María; Méndez María; García-Pérez Javier; Navarro-González Juan F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Predialysis hemoglobin (Hb) may overestimate the true erithropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) requeriments. We tested whether predialysis Hb is a reliable predictor of the postdialysis level to better control ESA dosage, and evaluated the relation between ESA, Hb and cardiovascular events (CVE). Methods Cohort study including 67 stable hemodialysis patients. Pre- and post-dialysis Hb concentrations were measured, and ESA doses were calculated. A model to predict post-dialy...

  8. Analysis of the dosage compensation of a specific transcript in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    The basic tenet of dosage compensation is that males, which normally have one X-chromosome that contains half the amount of DNA as the two X-chromosomes in females, produce a relatively equivalent amount of X-encoded gene products compared to females. Quantitative analyses were performed to ascertain the amount of transcripts synthesized from the X-linked salivary gland secretion protein gene, Sgs-4, in larval third instar males and females which had a variety of genetic backgrounds. Two types of analyses were performed. In one, RNA from male and female late third instar salivary glands was isolated and quantitatively blotted to replica nitrocellulose filters. The replicas were hybridized with 32 P-labeled probes specific for either Sgs-4 or Sgs-3 RNA. The radioactive hybrids were quantitated by scintillation counting. In the other, male and female third instar salivary glands were incubated for 12.5 minutes with 3 H-uridine. The labelled, nascent RNAs were hybridized to dot blots of Sgs-4 and Sgs-3 DNA, and were scintillation counted. 3 H-uridine incorporation analysis showed that male Sgs-4 genes were transcribed at twice the rate of the female genes. These findings indicated that steady-state Sgs-4 RNA levels directly reflect the rate of their transcription. These results are important in that they demonstrate that dosage compensation operates at the level of the rate of transcription of a specific gene. They also dissolve ambiguities associated with results obtained in past dosage compensation experiments

  9. The relationship among gene expression, the evolution of gene dosage, and the rate of protein evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Gout

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of selective constraints affecting genes is a major issue in biology. It is well established that gene expression level is a major determinant of the rate of protein evolution, but the reasons for this relationship remain highly debated. Here we demonstrate that gene expression is also a major determinant of the evolution of gene dosage: the rate of gene losses after whole genome duplications in the Paramecium lineage is negatively correlated to the level of gene expression, and this relationship is not a byproduct of other factors known to affect the fate of gene duplicates. This indicates that changes in gene dosage are generally more deleterious for highly expressed genes. This rule also holds for other taxa: in yeast, we find a clear relationship between gene expression level and the fitness impact of reduction in gene dosage. To explain these observations, we propose a model based on the fact that the optimal expression level of a gene corresponds to a trade-off between the benefit and cost of its expression. This COSTEX model predicts that selective pressure against mutations changing gene expression level or affecting the encoded protein should on average be stronger in highly expressed genes and hence that both the frequency of gene loss and the rate of protein evolution should correlate negatively with gene expression. Thus, the COSTEX model provides a simple and common explanation for the general relationship observed between the level of gene expression and the different facets of gene evolution.

  10. Gene dosage compensation calibrates four regulatory RNAs to control Vibrio cholerae quorum sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Sine L; Tu, Kimberly C; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2009-01-01

    the quorum regulatory RNAs 1-4 (Qrr1-4). The four Qrr sRNAs are functionally redundant. That is, expression of any one of them is sufficient for wild-type quorum-sensing behaviour. Here, we show that the combined action of two feedback loops, one involving the sRNA-activator LuxO and one involving the sRNA......Quorum sensing is a mechanism of cell-to-cell communication that allows bacteria to coordinately regulate gene expression in response to changes in cell-population density. At the core of the Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing signal transduction pathway reside four homologous small RNAs (sRNAs), named......-target HapR, promotes gene dosage compensation between the four qrr genes. Gene dosage compensation adjusts the total Qrr1-4 sRNA pool and provides the molecular mechanism underlying sRNA redundancy. The dosage compensation mechanism is exquisitely sensitive to small perturbations in Qrr levels. Precisely...

  11. Maximum Recommended Dosage of Lithium for Pregnant Women Based on a PBPK Model for Lithium Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Horton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of bipolar disorder with lithium therapy during pregnancy is a medical challenge. Bipolar disorder is more prevalent in women and its onset is often concurrent with peak reproductive age. Treatment typically involves administration of the element lithium, which has been classified as a class D drug (legal to use during pregnancy, but may cause birth defects and is one of only thirty known teratogenic drugs. There is no clear recommendation in the literature on the maximum acceptable dosage regimen for pregnant, bipolar women. We recommend a maximum dosage regimen based on a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK model. The model simulates the concentration of lithium in the organs and tissues of a pregnant woman and her fetus. First, we modeled time-dependent lithium concentration profiles resulting from lithium therapy known to have caused birth defects. Next, we identified maximum and average fetal lithium concentrations during treatment. Then, we developed a lithium therapy regimen to maximize the concentration of lithium in the mother’s brain, while maintaining the fetal concentration low enough to reduce the risk of birth defects. This maximum dosage regimen suggested by the model was 400 mg lithium three times per day.

  12. Dropwise additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products for solvent-based dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfield, Laura; Giridhar, Arun; Taylor, Lynne S; Harris, Michael T; Reklaitis, Gintaras V

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, the US Food and Drug Administration has encouraged pharmaceutical companies to develop more innovative and efficient manufacturing methods with improved online monitoring and control. Mini-manufacturing of medicine is one such method enabling the creation of individualized product forms for each patient. This work presents dropwise additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products (DAMPP), an automated, controlled mini-manufacturing method that deposits active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) directly onto edible substrates using drop-on-demand (DoD) inkjet printing technology. The use of DoD technology allows for precise control over the material properties, drug solid state form, drop size, and drop dynamics and can be beneficial in the creation of high-potency drug forms, combination drugs with multiple APIs or individualized medicine products tailored to a specific patient. In this work, DAMPP was used to create dosage forms from solvent-based formulations consisting of API, polymer, and solvent carrier. The forms were then analyzed to determine the reproducibility of creating an on-target dosage form, the morphology of the API of the final form and the dissolution behavior of the drug over time. DAMPP is found to be a viable alternative to traditional mass-manufacturing methods for solvent-based oral dosage forms. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  13. Comparison of Dosage Requirement of Erythropoietin Stimulating Agent (ESA in Maintenance of Hemoglobin Concentration in patients undergoing twice weekly versus thrice weekly Hemodialysis in Pakistani Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Kunwer Naveed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is one of the major complications of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD undergoing hemodialysis (HD and is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and also increases morbidity and mortality. Anemia in patients with CKD can be due to two major reasons; iron deficiency or erythropoietin insufficiency. Erythropoietin Stimulating Agent (ESAs administration is the mainstay in treating anemia if the patient is iron sufficient. However, higher doses of ESAs have been associated with increased cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events. We conducted this study to see how much erythropoietin is required in our setting in iron sufficient patients to maintain hemoglobin(Hb  level and the effect of dialysis frequency on ESA doses.  Methods and Findings: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Nephrology at Ziauddin University Hospital. Patients’ charts were reviewed for Hb levels and doses of ESA to maintain Hb between 10-12 mg/dl. Patients were excluded if they had iron deficiency, malignancy, were on immunosuppressive agents, had renal transplant, and with Hb >12 mg/dl or <10 mg/dl and their ferritin levels, transferrin saturation, hemoglobin concentration, frequency of hemodialysis and ESA dosage were monitored. We also compared these variables between patients undergoing hemodialysis thrice weekly with those undergoing hemodialysis twice a week. A total of 105 patients were analyzed. 24 were excluded as they did not match the inclusion criteria. 81 patients were included in the study. 36 (44.4% were males and 45 (55.6% were females. Mean age of the patient was 56.47 ± 11.72 years. The average dose of ESA was 106.91 ± 61.47 for patients undergoing hemodialysis thrice weekly and 183.94 ± 116.71 for patients undergoing hemodialysis twice a week. Significant difference was found to exist between dosage of patients undergoing thrice weekly dialysis versus twice weekly dialysis(p=<0.001.  Our study has limitations

  14. Multi-unit dosage formulations of theophylline for controlled release applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhumwangho, Michael U; Okor, Roland S

    2007-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the drug release profiles of multi-unit dosage formulations of theophylline consisting of both the fast and slow release components in a unit dose. The fast release component consisted of conventional granules of theophylline formed by mixing the drug powder with starch mucilage (20% w/v) while the slow release component consisted of wax granulations of theophylline formed by triturating the drug powder with a melted Carnauba wax (drug:wax ratio, 4:1). The granules were either filled into capsules or tabletted. In the study design, the drug release characteristics of the individual fast or slow release particles were first determined separately and then mixed in various proportions for the purpose of optimizing the drug release profiles. The evaluating parameters were the prompt release in the first 1 h (mp), the maximum release (m infinity) and the time to attain it (t infinity). Total drug content in each capsule or tablet was 300 mg and two of such were used in dissolution studies. The release kinetics and hence the release mechanism was confirmed by measuring the linear regression coefficient (R2 values) of the release data. The release kinetics was generally most consistent with the Higuchi square root of time relationship (R2 = 0.95). indicating a diffusion-controlled mechanism. The mp (mg) and t infinity (h) values for capsules and tablets of the conventional granules were (420 mg, 3 h) and (348 mg, 5 h), respectively, while for the capsules and tablets of the wax granulations mp and t infinity values were (228 mg, 9 h) and (156 mg, 12 h), respectively, indicating that a combination of wax granulation and tableting markedly retarded drug release. In the multi-unit dose formulations where the conventional and wax granulations were mixed in the ratios 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2 (conventional: matrix), the m infinity and t infinity values for the capsules were (378 mg, 6 h), (326 mg, 6 h) and (272 mg, 7 h), reSpectively. The

  15. Radio-chemical dosage of {sup 90}Sr in large volumes of drinking water; Dosage radiochimique du {sup 90}Sr sur des volumes importants d'eaux potables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, L; Patti, F; Bullier, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    I. Principle of the method: 1. Fixing on a resin of all the cations present in the water. 2. Elution using 5 N nitric acid and precipitation of strontium as the carbonate. 3. Concentration of the strontium using the fuming nitric acid method. 4. Purification of the strontium on a resin by selective elution with ammonium citrate. 5. The strontium-90 is measured by separation at the {sup 90}Y equilibrium in the form of the oxalate which is then counted. II. Advantages of the method The concentration of the radio-activity starting from large volumes (100 l) is generally tedious but this method which makes use of a fixation on a cationic resin makes it very simple. The rest of the method consists of a series of simple chemical operations using ion-exchange on resins and coprecipitation. Finally, it is possible to dose stable strontium. (authors) [French] I. Principe du dosage 1. Fixation sur resine de tous les cations presents dans l'eau, 2. Elution par l'acide nitrique 5 N et precipitation du strontium sous forme de carbonate. 3. Concentration du strontium par la methode a l'acide nitrique fumant. 4. Purification du strontium sur resine par elution selective au citrate d'ammonium. 5. Le strontium-90 est dose par separation a l'equilibre du {sup 90}Y sous forme d'oxalate qui est compte. II. Interet de la methode La concentration de la radioactivite a partir de volumes importants (100 l) est generalement fastidieuse, la technique proposee rend cette phase tres simple en utilisant une fixation sur resine cationique. Le reste de la technique est une suite d'operations chimiques simples a realiser, faisant appel a l'echange d'ions sur resine et a la coprecipitation. Enfin, il est possible de realiser le dosage du strontium stable. (auteurs)

  16. Disposition Kinetics and Optimal Dosage of Ciprofloxacin in Healthy Domestic Ruminant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Javed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the disposition kinetics and optimal dosages of ciprofloxacin in healthy domestic ruminant species including adult female buffalo, cow, sheep and goat. The drug was given as a single intramuscular dose of 5 mg/kg. The plasma concentrations of the drug were determined with HPLC and pharmacokinetic variables were determined. The biological half-life (t1/2 β was longer in cows (3.25 ± 0.46 h followed by intermediate values in buffaloes (3.05 ± 0.20 h and sheep (2.93 ± 0.45 h and shorter in goats (2.62 ± 0.39 h. The volume of distribution (Vd in buffaloes was 1.09 ± 0.06 l/kg, cows 1.24 ± 0.16 l/kg, sheep 2.89 ± 0.30 l/kg and goats 3.76 ± 0.92 l/kg. Total body clearance (ClB expressed in l/h/kg was minimum in buffaloes 0.25 ± 0.02 followed by values in cows 0.31 ± 0.02 and sheep 0.75 ± 0.04 and maximum in goats 1.09 ± 0.11. An optimal dosage regimen for 12-h interval consisted of 5.17, 5.62, 6.54 and 6.10 mg/kg body weight as priming and 4.84, 5.37, 6.26 and 5.91 mg/kg body weight as maintenance intramuscular dose in buffalo, cow, sheep and goat, respectively. The manufacturers of ciprofloxacin have claimed 5 mg/kg dose to be repeated after 24 h. However, the investigated dosage regimen may be repeated after 12 h to maintain MIC at the end of the dosage interval. Therefore, it is imperative that an optimal dosage regimen be based on the disposition kinetics data determined in the species and environment in which a drug is to be employed clinically.

  17. Piracetam relieves symptoms in progressive myoclonus epilepsy: a multicentre, randomised, double blind, crossover study comparing the efficacy and safety of three dosages of oral piracetam with placebo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskiniemi, M.; Van Vleymen, B.; Hakamies, L.; Lamusuo, S.; Taalas, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of three daily dosage regimens of oral piracetam in patients with progressive myoclonus epilepsy.
METHODS—Twenty patients (12 men, eight women), aged 17-43 years, with classical Unverricht-Lundborg disease were enrolled in a multicentre, randomised, double blind trial of crossover design in which the effects of daily doses of 9.6 g, 16.8 g, and 24 g piracetam, given in two divided doses, were compared with placebo. The crossover design was such that patients received placebo and two of the three dosage regimens of piracetam, each for two weeks, for a total treatment period of six weeks and thus without wash out between each treatment phase. The primary outcome measure was a sum score representing the adjusted total of the ratings of six components of a myoclonus rating scale in which stimulus sensitivity, motor impairment, functional disability, handwriting, and global assessments by investigators and patients were scored. Sequential clinical assessments were made by the same neurologist in the same environment at the same time of day.
RESULTS—Treatment with 24 g/day piracetam produced significant and clinically relevant improvement in the primary outcome measure of mean sum score (p=0.005) and in the means of its subtests of motor impairment (p=0.02), functional disability (p=0.003), and in global assessments by both investigator (p=0.002) and patient (p=0.01). Significant improvement in functional disability was also found with daily doses of 9.6 g and 16.8 g. The dose-effect relation was linear and significant. More patients showed clinically relevant improvement with the highest dosage and, in individual patients, increasing the dose improved response. Piracetam was well tolerated and adverse effects were few, mild, and transient.
CONCLUSIONS—This study provides further evidence that piracetam is an effective and safe medication in patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease. In addition

  18. Reversing the Effect of Oral Anticoagulant Drugs: Established and Newer Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Jack E

    2016-06-01

    The vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) have been the standard (and only) oral anticoagulants used for the long-term treatment or prevention of venous thromboembolism or stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. The coagulopathy induced by VKAs can be reversed with vitamin K, and in urgent situations, the vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors can be replaced by transfusion. In the last decade, a new class of oral anticoagulants has been developed, direct oral anticoagulants that bind to a specific coagulation factor and neutralize it. These compounds were shown to be effective and safe compared with the VKAs and were licensed for specific indications, but without a specific reversal agent. The absence of a reversal agent is a barrier to more widespread use of these agents. Currently, for the management of major life-threatening bleeding with the direct oral anticoagulants, most authorities recommend the use of four factor prothrombin complex concentrates. There are now three reversal agents in development and poised to enter the market. Idarucizumab is a specific antidote targeted to reverse the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran, which was recently approved for use in the USA. Andexanet alfa is an antidote targeted to reverse the oral direct factor Xa inhibitors as well as the indirect inhibitor enoxaparin. Ciraparantag is an antidote targeted to reverse the direct thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors as well as the indirect inhibitor enoxaparin.

  19. Volcanic ash dosage calculator: A proof-of-concept tool to support aviation stakeholders during ash events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacre, H.; Prata, A.; Shine, K. P.; Irvine, E.

    2017-12-01

    The volcanic ash clouds produced by Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in April/May 2010 resulted in `no fly zones' which paralysed European aircraft activity and cost the airline industry an estimated £1.1 billion. In response to the crisis, the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), in collaboration with Rolls Royce, produced the `safe-to-fly' chart. As ash concentrations are the primary output of dispersion model forecasts, the chart was designed to illustrate how engine damage progresses as a function of ash concentration. Concentration thresholds were subsequently derived based on previous ash encounters. Research scientists and aircraft manufactures have since recognised the importance of volcanic ash dosages; the accumulated concentration over time. Dosages are an improvement to concentrations as they can be used to identify pernicious situations where ash concentrations are acceptably low but the exposure time is long enough to cause damage to aircraft engines. Here we present a proof-of-concept volcanic ash dosage calculator; an innovative, web-based research tool, developed in close collaboration with operators and regulators, which utilises interactive data visualisation to communicate the uncertainty inherent in dispersion model simulations and subsequent dosage calculations. To calculate dosages, we use NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment) to simulate several Icelandic eruption scenarios, which result in tephra dispersal across the North Atlantic, UK and Europe. Ash encounters are simulated based on flight-optimal routes derived from aircraft routing software. Key outputs of the calculator include: the along-flight dosage, exposure time and peak concentration. The design of the tool allows users to explore the key areas of uncertainty in the dosage calculation and to visualise how this changes as the planned flight path is varied. We expect that this research will result in better informed decisions from key stakeholders during

  20. Determination of elements in citrus leaves; Dosage des elements dans les feuilles de citrus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masozera, C.; Compernolle, G. van; Brandstetr, J.; Krivanek, M. [Centre nucléaire TRICO, Kinshasa (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Université Lovanium, Kinshasa (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the)

    1970-01-15

    In many agricultural stations and farms most of the problems encountered generally reduce to questions of diminished yield. This may be due to a number of factors, including soil exhaustion and the application of fertilizers of unsuitable formula. The chemical impoverishment of the soil is due to the leaching-out phenomenon, i- e. the washing out of bases, and to the ''exportation'' of fertilizer elements in the form of crops in years when nothing has been returned to the soil. These losses have a particularly adverse effect if the parent rock does not contain sufficient mineral reserves to compensate for them by a slow alteration process. Such impoverishment is revealed by soil and foliar analyses. The authors have attempted to determine the content in citrus plants of the following elements: Mn, P, Cu, Cl and K (the latter on three samples only). After collection, the samples are treated by Bransolten's method (Rapport de Recherche TRICO № 15/1968), dried for at least 12 hours at 105°C, followed by pulverization of the leaves, after which the determination is carried out. The determination of Mn and Cl is very simple, as is that of Cu. The latter is determined by activation with slow neutrons in order to avoid Zn formation. The phosphorus content is determined by measuring the beta-radiation emitted by the radioactive elements. In this case particular precautions must be taken to ensure that the same layer is used for the samples and the standards, since beta-radiation is absorbed by these layers. For the K and Na determinations thermal neutrons are used for activation and a Ge(Li) detector for measurement of the gamma-spectra. Because of the high resolution of the detector, the two elements can be determined without separation. (author) [French] La plupart des problèmes que l’on rencontre dans plusieurs stations ou exploitations agricoles se résument généralement à une diminution de rendement. Cette dernière peut être provoquée par plusieurs

  1. Oxytocin efficacy is modulated by dosage and oxytocin receptor genotype in young adults with high-functioning autism: a 24-week randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, H; Okamoto, Y; Munesue, T; Yamasue, H; Inohara, K; Fujioka, T; Anme, T; Orisaka, M; Ishitobi, M; Jung, M; Fujisawa, T X; Tanaka, S; Arai, S; Asano, M; Saito, D N; Sadato, N; Tomoda, A; Omori, M; Sato, M; Okazawa, H; Higashida, H; Wada, Y

    2016-08-23

    Recent studies have suggested that long-term oxytocin administration can alleviate the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, factors influencing its efficacy are still unclear. We conducted a single-center phase 2, pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, clinical trial in young adults with high-functioning ASD, to determine whether oxytocin dosage and genetic background of the oxytocin receptor affects oxytocin efficacy. This trial consisted of double-blind (12 weeks), open-label (12 weeks) and follow-up phases (8 weeks). To examine dose dependency, 60 participants were randomly assigned to high-dose (32 IU per day) or low-dose intranasal oxytocin (16 IU per day), or placebo groups during the double-blind phase. Next, we measured single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). In the intention-to-treat population, no outcomes were improved after oxytocin administration. However, in male participants, Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scores in the high-dose group, but not the low-dose group, were significantly higher than in the placebo group. Furthermore, we examined whether oxytocin efficacy, reflected in the CGI-I scores, is influenced by estimated daily dosage and OXTR polymorphisms in male participants. We found that >21 IU per day oxytocin was more effective than ⩽21 IU per day, and that a SNP in OXTR (rs6791619) predicted CGI-I scores for ⩽21 IU per day oxytocin treatment. No severe adverse events occurred. These results suggest that efficacy of long-term oxytocin administration in young men with high-functioning ASD depends on the oxytocin dosage and genetic background of the oxytocin receptor, which contributes to the effectiveness of oxytocin treatment of ASD.

  2. Design of ANFIS Structures and GMDH Type-Neural Network for Prediction of Optimum Coagulant Dosage in Water Treatment Process Case Study: Great Water Treatment Plant in Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Daghbandan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the increasing importance of surface water bodies as supply sources of drinking water and regarding the requirement for using different chemicals at various stages of water treatment processes, it is essential to investigate coagulant consumption in water treatment plants. Determination of the required dosage of coagulants used in the coagulation and flocculation unit is one of the most important decisions in water treatment operations. For this purpose, the jar test is generally used to determine the type and concentration of suitable coagulants in a water treatment plant. However, the test is rather time-consuming and unreliable due to the inaccurate results it yields. Instead, intelligent methods can be employed to overcome this shortcoming of the jar test. In this study, experimental data were collected over the period from 2011 to 2012 and further refined for study. Two non-linear models based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS and GMDH-type neural networks were then developed and experimental results were used to determine the optimum poly-aluminium chloride dosage for use at Guilan water treatment plant. The effects of input parameters including temperature, pH, turbidity, suspended solids, electrical conductivity, and color were investigated on coagulant dosage. The ANFIS model was found to outperform the GMDH model in predicting the required poly-aluminium chloride dosage.

  3. A novel solid dosage form of rifampicin and isoniazid with improved functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohel, Mukesh C; Sarvaiya, Krishnakant G

    2007-08-24

    The aim of the present investigation was to develop a novel dosage form of rifampicin and isoniazid to minimize degradation of rifampicin in acidic medium and to modulate the release of rifampicin in the stomach and isoniazid in the intestine. Gastroretentive tablets of rifampicin (150 mg) were prepared by the wet granulation method using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, calcium carbonate, and polyethylene glycol 4000. The granules and tablets of rifampicin were characterized. Hard gelatin capsules (size 4) containing a compacted mass of isoniazid (150 mg) and dicalcium phosphate (75 mg) were enteric coated. Two tablets of rifampicin and 1 capsule (size 4) of isoniazid were put into a hard gelatin capsule (size 00). The in vitro drug release and in vitro drug degradation studies were performed. Rifampicin was released over 4 hours by zero-order kinetics from the novel dosage form. More than 90% of isoniazid was released in alkaline medium in 30 minutes. The results of dissolution studies with the US Pharmacopeia XXIII method revealed that a substantial amount of rifampicin was degraded from the immediate release capsule containing rifampicin and isoniazid powder owing to drug accumulation in the dissolution vessel and also to the presence of isoniazid. The degradation of rifampicin to 3-formyl rifampicin SV (3FRSV) was arrested (3.6%-4.8% degradation of rifampicin at 4 hours) because of the minimization of physical contact between the 2 drugs and controlled release of rifampicin in acidic medium in the modified Rossett-Rice apparatus. This study concludes that the problem of rifampicin degradation can be alleviated to a certain extent by this novel dosage form.

  4. Paracetamol in therapeutic dosages and acute liver injury: causality assessment in a prospective case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellote José

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute liver injury (ALI induced by paracetamol overdose is a well known cause of emergency hospital admission and death. However, there is debate regarding the risk of ALI after therapeutic dosages of the drug. The aim is to describe the characteristics of patients admitted to hospital with jaundice who had previous exposure to therapeutic doses of paracetamol. An assessment of the causality role of paracetamol was performed in each case. Methods Based on the evaluation of prospectively gathered cases of ALI with detailed clinical information, thirty-two cases of ALI in non-alcoholic patients exposed to therapeutic doses of paracetamol were identified. Two authors assessed all drug exposures by using the CIOMS/RUCAM scale. Each case was classified into one of five categories based on the causality score for paracetamol. Results In four cases the role of paracetamol was judged to be unrelated, in two unlikely, and these were excluded from evaluation. In seven of the remaining 26 cases, the RUCAM score associated with paracetamol was higher than that associated with other concomitant medications. The estimated incidence of ALI related to the use of paracetamol in therapeutic dosages was 0.4 per million inhabitants older than 15 years of age and per year (99%CI, 0.2-0.8 and of 10 per million paracetamol users-year (95% CI 4.3-19.4. Conclusions Our results indicate that paracetamol in therapeutic dosages may be considered in the causality assessment in non-alcoholic patients with liver injury, even if the estimated incidence of ALI related to paracetamol appears to be low.

  5. Age and dosage-level dependence of radium retention in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, N.J.; Pool, R.R.; Williams, J.R.; Wolf, H.G.

    1978-01-01

    Radium retention was measured over the lifespan of 46 beagles exposed by eight semimonthly injections at 60 to 160, 120 to 220, or 435 to 535 days of age. Injection dosage levels ranged from 0.37 to 10 μCi of 226 Ra/kg. The fractional retention of each animal is described in terms of a modified power function, R = [(t + d)/d] - /sup b/. Young adult beagles (approximately equal to 10 kg) injected at a mean age (A) of 485 days with 226 Ra at dosage levels of 10, 3.3, 1.11, and 0.37 μCi/kg had mean values for d and b of [0.897; 0.187], [2.015; 0.206], [2.778; 0.257], and [3.894; 0.274], respectively. Juvenile beagles injected with 10 μCi/kg at A = 110 days (average weight approximately equal to 6 kg) and at A = 170 days (average weight approximately equal to 10 kg) had mean values for d and b of [137; 0.277] and [5.53; 0.086], respectively. The d values are geometric means and the units are days; b values are arithmetic means. The formula for deriving the age-dependent retention function for dogs is given. The beagle results were correlated with human data in terms of age-to-equivalent fraction of adult body calcium content and were used to construct a similar age-dependent retention function for chronically exposed people. The correlation of age-dependent retention functions for beagles and humans is used to estimate scaling factors between the two species for the fraction of injected dosage associated with bone for various ages of exposure

  6. Application of wireless sensor networks in personnel dosage monitoring system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yonghong; Zhang Dafa; Jiang Wei; Chen Dengke

    2007-01-01

    Aim to meet the need of personnel dosage monitoring of nuclear power plant, a monitoring system was designed which based on wireless sensor network. First, the basic concept was described; the characteristics of the wireless sensor network applied in the monitoring system of nuclear power plant were also been analyzed; the structure of the system was built too. Finally, the special technologies like the choice of communication mode, the security of communication network and orientation that used in the monitoring system were discussed. (authors)

  7. Stability Indicating LC-Method for Estimation of Paracetamol and Lornoxicam in Combined Dosage Form

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Dimal A.; Patel, Neel J.; Baldania, Sunil L.; Chhalotiya, Usman K.; Bhatt, Kashyap K.

    2011-01-01

    A simple, specific and stability indicating reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol and lornoxicam in tablet dosage form. A Brownlee C-18, 5 μm column having 250×4.6 mm i.d. in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing 0.05 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate:methanol (40:60, v/v) was used. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and effluents were monitored at 266 nm. The retention times of paracetamol and lornoxicam ...

  8. Predictors of ovarian response in intrauterine insemination patients and development of a dosage nomogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, Nina La Cour; Lossl, K.; Bogstad, Jeanette Wulff

    2008-01-01

    , total Doppler score of the ovarian stromal blood flow, baseline FSH and oestradiol. Simple and multiple linear regressions were used for the statistical analysis. Appropriate ovarian response was defined as two to three mature follicles. Body weight (P = 0.001) and the number of antral follicles (P = 0.......004) were the strongest independent predictive factors of the number of mature follicles. In conclusion, body weight and antral follicle count may be used to achieve appropriate ovarian response for IUI in ovulatory patients. Based on this, a simple rFSH dosage nomogram was developed for individual ovarian...

  9. Predicting AEA dosage by Foam Index and adsorption on Fly Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Stefan; Ollendorff, Margrethe; Geiker, Mette Rica; Tunstall, Lori; Scherer, George W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The unpredictable air entrainment in fly ash concrete caused by carbon in fly ash was studied by measuring adsorption of Air Entraining Agents (AEA) on the fly ash and by Foam Index (FI) testing. The FI test measures the mass ratio of AEA/binder required to obtain stable foam when shaking a mixture of water, binder powder and AEA, while increasing AEA-dosage stepwise. A review of concrete air entrainment and new studies combining adsorption (TGA, NMR) of AEA on fly ash with various ...

  10. Preparation, extraction and dosage of labelled cholesterol (D and C14)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugnard, L.; Chevallier, F.; Coursaget, J.

    1953-01-01

    We returned in this note the techniques that we used for the preparation of labelled cholesterol. The chemical exchange of hydrogen enabling to contain deutero-cholesterol until 4 percent deuterium. The biologic synthesis, done on living rats or on their liver maintained in survival, permits, on the other hand, to get active cholesterol from acetate of containing sodium of the carbon 14. We indicated the techniques of extraction and dosage of the marked cholesterol. The radioactivity is measured with a Geiger-Muller counter. (M.B.) [fr

  11. Stability-indicating HPLC determination of pramipexole dihydrochloride in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form

    OpenAIRE

    Panditrao, Vedavati M; Sarkate, Aniket P; Sangshetti, Jaiprakash N; Wakte, Pravin S; Shinde, Devanand B

    2011-01-01

    A novel stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic assay method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of pramipexole dihydrochloride in bulk drugs and in pharmaceutical dosage form in the presence of degradation products. An isocratic, reversed phase HPLC method was developed to separate the drug from the degradation products, using an Ace5-C18 (250×4.6 mm, 5 µm) advance chromatography column, and 10 mmol L-1 ammonium acetate and acetonitrile (75:25 v/v)...

  12. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head post heart-transplantation and steroid dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley-Nolan, D; Daly, C; Barry, C; Woods, A; Neligan, M; Coughlan, R J

    1992-12-01

    Avascular necrosis (avn) post heart-transplantation has been considered to be due to the high doses of steroids used to immunosuppress these patients in attempting to prevent transplant rejection. This study shows that avascular necrosis occurs even when low dose steroids regimes are used and demonstrates no significant correlation between steroid dosage and the development of avn. Patients with symptomatic avn benefit from early diagnosis and management of their condition in that the need for total joint arthroplasty can be prevented in many cases.

  13. Colorimetric determination of a paracetamole in raw material and in pharmaceutical dosage forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usifoh, C.O; Adelusi, S.A.; Adebambo, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    A rapid, accurate and simple method is proposed for the determination of p-acetaminophen (paracetamole) in raw material, tablets and syrups. The method is based on measuring the intensity of the yellow color that developed when acute acetaminophen is allowed to react with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde in 2M HCl after heating. The color which absorbs in the visible region of gamma 450 nm is stable for several hours and the intensity is directly proportional to the concentration of the drug, that is, Beer lambert law is obeyed. The method can be used to analyse paracetamole in raw material and in pharmaceutical dosage forms. (author)

  14. Analytical Method Development and Validation of Solifenacin in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms by RP-HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Shaik, Rihana Parveen; Puttagunta, Srinivasa Babu; Kothapalli Bannoth, Chandrasekar; Challa, Bala Sekhara Reddy

    2014-01-01

    A new, accurate, precise, and robust HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of solifenacin in tablet dosage form. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an Inertsil ODS 3V C18 (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) stationary phase maintained at ambient temperature with a mobile phase combination of monobasic potassium phosphate (pH 3.5) containing 0.1% triethylamine and methanol (gradient mode) at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min, and the detection was carried out by using UV detect...

  15. HPLC DETERMINATION OF FENBENDAZOLE AND IVERMECTIN SIMULTANEOUSLY IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS

    OpenAIRE

    Battula Sreenivasa Rao, Mandapati Varaprasad Reddy*, Bhatraju Sreenivasa Rao

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, a simple, precise and accurate high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector was developed for the simultaneous estimation of ivermectin & fenbendazole in bulk and tablet dosage forms. A Zorbax C8 column (250 cm × 4.6 mm × 5 μm) with mobile phase consisting of 0.1 M potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate and methanol (60:40 v/v) having pH 4.5 (adjusted with orthophosphoric acid) was used. The flow rate was 1.2 ml/min and the effluents were detected a...

  16. Determination of radium in urine; Dosage du radium dans l'urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourniguet, H; Jeanmaire, L; Jammet, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    A procedure for the quantitative analysis of radium in urine is described. The radium is carried by a barium sulfate precipitate. The precipitate is mixed with zinc sulfide and the activity measured by scintillation counting. It is thus possible to detect an amount of radium less than 1 pico-curie in the sample. (author) [French] Cet article decrit une technique de dosage du radium dans l'urine. Le radium entraine par un precipite de sulfate de baryum est compte par scintillation apres melange du precipite avec du sulfure de zinc. Cette methode permet de deceler moins de 1 picocurie de radium dans l'echantillon. (auteur)

  17. Determination of strontium 90 in milk Ash; Dosage du strontium 90 dans les cendres de lait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballada, J; Jeanmaire, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This report describes a method of determination of {sup 90}Sr in milk ashes by extraction of {sup 90}Y in TBP. The tests which led to the choice of the operating process are presented together with tire result of an intercomparison. (author) [French] Le document decrit une methode de dosage du {sup 90}Sr dans les cendres de lait par extraction de {sup 90}Y dans le TBP. De plus, les auteurs rapportent les essais qui ont conduit au choix du mode operatoire presente, ainsi que les resultats d'une intercomparaison. (auteur)

  18. Sub-apoptotic dosages of pro-oxidant vitamin cocktails sensitize human melanoma cells to NK cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremante, Elisa; Santarelli, Lory; Lo Monaco, Elisa; Sampaoli, Camilla; Ingegnere, Tiziano; Guerrieri, Roberto; Tomasetti, Marco; Giacomini, Patrizio

    2015-10-13

    Alpha-tocopheryl succinate (αTOS), vitamin K3 (VK3) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA) were previously shown to synergistically promote different death pathways in carcinoma cells, depending on their concentrations and combinations. Similar effects were observed herein in melanoma cells, although αTOS behaved as an antagonist. Interestingly, suboptimal cell death-inducing concentrations (1.5 μM αTOS/20 μM AA/0.2 μM VK3) effectively up-regulated activating Natural Killer (NK) cell ligands, including MICA (the stress-signaling ligand of the NKG2D receptor), and/or the ligands of at least one of the natural cytotoxicity receptors (NKp30, NKp44 and NKp46) in 5/6 melanoma cell lines. Only an isolated MICA down-regulation was seen. HLA class I, HLA class II, ULBP1, ULBP2, ULBP3, Nectin-2, and PVR displayed little, if any, change in expression. Ligand up-regulation resulted in improved lysis by polyclonal NK cells armed with the corresponding activating receptors. These results provide the first evidence for concerted induction of cell death by cell-autonomous and extrinsic (immune) mechanisms. Alarming the immune system much below the cell damage threshold may have evolved as a sensitive readout of neoplastic transformation and oxidative stress. Cocktails of vitamin analogues at slightly supra-physiological dosages may find application as mild complements of melanoma treatment, and in chemoprevention.

  19. Radiation doses for pediatric nuclear medicine studies: comparing the North American consensus guidelines and the pediatric dosage card of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Frederick D; Gelfand, Michael J; Drubach, Laura A; Treves, S Ted; Fahey, Frederic H

    2015-04-01

    Estimated radiation dose is important for assessing and communicating the risks and benefits of pediatric nuclear medicine studies. Radiation dose depends on the radiopharmaceutical, the administered activity, and patient factors such as age and size. Most radiation dose estimates for pediatric nuclear medicine have not been based on administered activities of radiopharmaceuticals recommended by established practice guidelines. The dosage card of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the North American consensus guidelines each provide recommendations of administered activities of radiopharmaceuticals in children, but there are substantial differences between these two guidelines. For 12 commonly performed pediatric nuclear medicine studies, two established pediatric radiopharmaceutical administration guidelines were used to calculate updated radiation dose estimates and to compare the radiation exposure resulting from the recommendations of each of the guidelines. Estimated radiation doses were calculated for 12 common procedures in pediatric nuclear medicine using administered activities recommended by the dosage card of the EANM (version 1.5.2008) and the 2010 North American consensus guidelines for radiopharmaceutical administered activities in pediatrics. Based on standard models and nominal age-based weights, radiation dose was estimated for typical patients at ages 1, 5, 10 and 15 years and adult. The resulting effective doses were compared, with differences greater than 20% considered significant. Following either the EANM dosage card or the 2010 North American guidelines, the highest effective doses occur with radiopharmaceuticals labeled with fluorine-18 and iodine-123. In 24% of cases, following the North American consensus guidelines would result in a substantially higher radiation dose. The guidelines of the EANM dosage card would lead to a substantially higher radiation dose in 39% of all cases, and in 62% of cases in which patients

  20. Radiation doses for pediatric nuclear medicine studies: comparing the North American consensus guidelines and the pediatric dosage card of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, Frederick D.; Drubach, Laura A.; Treves, S. Ted; Fahey, Frederic H.; Gelfand, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Estimated radiation dose is important for assessing and communicating the risks and benefits of pediatric nuclear medicine studies. Radiation dose depends on the radiopharmaceutical, the administered activity, and patient factors such as age and size. Most radiation dose estimates for pediatric nuclear medicine have not been based on administered activities of radiopharmaceuticals recommended by established practice guidelines. The dosage card of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the North American consensus guidelines each provide recommendations of administered activities of radiopharmaceuticals in children, but there are substantial differences between these two guidelines. For 12 commonly performed pediatric nuclear medicine studies, two established pediatric radiopharmaceutical administration guidelines were used to calculate updated radiation dose estimates and to compare the radiation exposure resulting from the recommendations of each of the guidelines. Estimated radiation doses were calculated for 12 common procedures in pediatric nuclear medicine using administered activities recommended by the dosage card of the EANM (version 1.5.2008) and the 2010 North American consensus guidelines for radiopharmaceutical administered activities in pediatrics. Based on standard models and nominal age-based weights, radiation dose was estimated for typical patients at ages 1, 5, 10 and 15 years and adult. The resulting effective doses were compared, with differences greater than 20% considered significant. Following either the EANM dosage card or the 2010 North American guidelines, the highest effective doses occur with radiopharmaceuticals labeled with fluorine-18 and iodine-123. In 24% of cases, following the North American consensus guidelines would result in a substantially higher radiation dose. The guidelines of the EANM dosage card would lead to a substantially higher radiation dose in 39% of all cases, and in 62% of cases in which patients

  1. Electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) matrices containing silver sulfadiazine complexed with β-cyclodextrin as a new pharmaceutical dosage form to wound healing: preliminary physicochemical and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Sarah Oliveira Lamas; Cotrim, Monique Alvarenga Pinto; Oréfice, Rodrigo Lambert; Carvalho, Suzana Gonçalves; Dutra, Jessyca Aparecida Paes; de Paula Careta, Francisco; Resende, Juliana Alves; Villanova, Janaina Cecília Oliveira

    2018-05-10

    Cooperation between researchers in the areas of medical, pharmaceutical and materials science has facilitated the development of pharmaceutical dosage forms that elicit therapeutic effects and protective action with a single product. In addition to optimizing pharmacologic action, such dosage forms provide greater patient comfort and increase success and treatment compliance. In the present work, we prepared semipermeable bioactive electrospun fibers for use as wound dressings containing silver sulfadiazine complexed with β-cyclodextrin in a poly(Ɛ-caprolactone) nanofiber matrix aiming to reduce the direct contact between silver and skin and to modulate the drug release. Wound dressings were prepared by electrospinning, and were subjected to ATR-FT-IR and TG/DTG assays to evaluate drug stability. The hydrophilicity of the fibrous nanostructure in water and PBS buffer was studied by goniometry. Electrospun fibers permeability and swelling capacity were assessed, and a dissolution test was performed. In vitro biological tests were realized to investigate the biological compatibility and antimicrobial activity. We obtained flexible matrices that were each approximately 1.0 g in weight. The electrospun fibers were shown to be semipermeable, with water vapor transmission and swelling indexes compatible with the proposed objective. The hydrophilicity was moderate. Matrices containing pure drug modulated drug release adequately during 24 h but presented a high hemolytic index. Complexation promoted a decrease in the hemolytic index and in the drug release but did not negatively impact antimicrobial activity. The drug was released predominantly by diffusion. These results indicate that electrospun PCL matrices containing β-cyclodextrin/silver sulfadiazine inclusion complexes are a promising pharmaceutical dosage form for wound healing.

  2. Assessment of Digoxin-Specific Fab Fragment Dosages in Digoxin Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordt, Sean Patrick; Clark, Richard F; Machado, Carol; Cantrell, F Lee

    2016-01-01

    Digoxin poisoning still remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Fortunately, digoxin-specific Fab fragments are commercially available as an antidote. However, these Fab fragments are several thousand dollars per vial. There is a standardized formula to calculate appropriate Fab fragment dosage based on the serum digoxin concentration. This can greatly reduce the amount of Fab fragment administered. There is also an empiric dosing guideline recommending 6-10 vials be given; however, this may result in higher amounts of Fab fragments being administered than required. We performed this study to assess the amounts of digoxin-specific Fab fragments administered in the treatment of digoxin poisonings recorded in a poison control system database from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2009, in which digoxin serum concentrations were available. This was a retrospective study of 278 patients, 107 with acute poisonings (group A) and 171 following chronic poisoning (group B). In group A, the calculated Fab dose was higher than the calculated dose based on available concentrations in 39 (36%) of group A and 15 (9%) of group B patients. The average wholesale price cost of the excessive dosages ranged from $4818 to as high as $50,589 per patient. Our data suggests that clinician education on digoxin poisoning and the use of the standardized formula to calculate the Fab dose may decrease over utilization and decrease costs associated with the administration of digoxin-specific Fab fragments in the treatment of digoxin poisonings.

  3. A Novel Disintegration Tester for Solid Dosage Forms Enabling Adjustable Hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindgen, Sarah; Rach, Regine; Nawroth, Thomas; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Langguth, Peter

    2016-08-01

    A modified in vitro disintegration test device was designed that enables the investigation of the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on disintegration of solid oral dosage forms. The device represents an improved derivative of the compendial PhEur/USP disintegration test device. By the application of a computerized numerical control, a variety of physiologically relevant moving velocities and profiles can be applied. With the help of computational fluid dynamics, the hydrodynamic and mechanical forces present in the probe chamber were characterized for a variety of device moving speeds. Furthermore, a proof of concept study aimed at the investigation of the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on disintegration times of immediate release tablets. The experiments demonstrated the relevance of hydrodynamics for tablet disintegration, especially in media simulating the fasted state. Disintegration times increased with decreasing moving velocity. A correlation between experimentally determined disintegration times and computational fluid dynamics predicted shear stress on tablet surface was established. In conclusion, the modified disintegration test device is a valuable tool for biorelevant in vitro disintegration testing of solid oral dosage forms. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development and Statistical Validation of Spectrophotometric Methods for the Estimation of Nabumetone in Tablet Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Rote

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new simple, economic spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the estimation of nabumetone in bulk and tablet dosage form. First method includes determination of nabumetone at absorption maxima 330 nm, second method applied was area under curve for analysis of nabumetone in the wavelength range of 326-334 nm and third method was First order derivative spectra with scaling factor 4. Beer law obeyed in the concentration range of 10-30 μg/mL for all three methods. The correlation coefficients were found to be 0.9997, 0.9998 and 0.9998 by absorption maxima, area under curve and first order derivative spectra. Results of analysis were validated statistically and by performing recovery studies. The mean percent recoveries were found satisfactory for all three methods. The developed methods were also compared statistically using one way ANOVA. The proposed methods have been successfully applied for the estimation of nabumetone in bulk and pharmaceutical tablet dosage form.

  5. RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Nebivolol in Tablet Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Sahoo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A reverse phase HPLC method is described for the determination of nebivolol in tablet dosage form. Chromatography was carried on a Hypersil ODS C18 column using a mixture of methanol and water (80:20 v/v as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with detection at 282 nm. Chlorzoxazone was used as the internal standard. The retention times were 3.175 min and 4.158 min for nebivolol and chlorzoxazone respectively. The detector response was linear in the concentration of 1-400 μg/mL. The limit of detection and limit of quantification was 0.0779 and 0.2361 μg/mL respectively. The percentage assay of nebivolol was 99.974%. The method was validated by determining its sensitivity, accuracy and precision. The proposed method is simple, fast, accurate and precise and hence can be applied for routine quality control of nebivolol in bulk and tablet dosage form.

  6. Design of a gastroretentive mucoadhesive dosage form of furosemide for controlled release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad S. Darandale

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop and characterize a gastroretentive dosage form suitable for controlled drug release. It consists of a drug loaded polymeric film made up of a bilayer of immediate (IR and controlled release (CR layers folded into a hard gelatin capsule. Gastroretention results from unfolding and swelling of the film and its bioadhesion to the gastric mucosa. Furosemide, a drug with a narrow absorption window, was selected as the model drug. Inclusion of hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin in both layers and Carbopol® 971P NF in the CR layer of the bilayer film resulted in optimum drug release, bioadhesion and mechanical properties. The film with zig-zag folding in the capsule was shown to unfold and swell under acidic conditions and provide IR of drug over 1 h and CR for up to 12 h in acidic medium. X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy revealed uniform dispersion of furosemide in the polymeric matrices. The results indicate the dosage form is gastroretentive and can provide controlled release of drugs with narrow therapeutic windows.

  7. Radiation dosages absorbed by the skin during videofluorographic examination of velopharyngeal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Hirotoshi; Ogata, Hisao; Nakajima, Tatsuo; Sone, Kiyoaki

    2008-01-01

    Radiographic assessment has become essential in examining the function of the soft palate and pharyngeal walls in patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency. However, in our search of the literature, there was no report on the exposure dose during videofluorographic examination of velopharyngeal function in Japan. Radiation dosages from videofluorography were measured by attaching a glass dosimeter to the submental skin in 17 patients undergoing examination of velopharyngeal function. Sixteen patients underwent a complete videofluorographic examination. For these 16 patients, the mean time of examination was 96.4 sec; the mean radiation dosage absorbed by the skin was 14.4 mGy, equivalent to approximately 7 standard skull x-rays and lower than that during other fluoroscopic procedures. This dose was also lower than the threshold dose at which the skin damage occurs. In light of increasing concern among the general public over radiation exposure, we consider that these data should provide useful information to patients being asked to give informed consent for this examination. (author)

  8. Dry coating of solid dosage forms: an overview of processes and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppoli, Anastasia Anna; Maroni, Alessandra; Cerea, Matteo; Zema, Lucia; Gazzaniga, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    Dry coating techniques enable manufacturing of coated solid dosage forms with no, or very limited, use of solvents. As a result, major drawbacks associated with both organic solvents and aqueous coating systems can be overcome, such as toxicological, environmental, and safety-related issues on the one hand as well as costly drying phases and impaired product stability on the other. The considerable advantages related to solventless coating has been prompting a strong research interest in this field of pharmaceutics. In the article, processes and applications relevant to techniques intended for dry coating are analyzed and reviewed. Based on the physical state of the coat-forming agents, liquid- and solid-based techniques are distinguished. The former include hot-melt coating and coating by photocuring, while the latter encompass press coating and powder coating. Moreover, solventless techniques, such as injection molding and three-dimensional printing by fused deposition modeling, which are not purposely conceived for coating, are also discussed in that they would open new perspectives in the manufacturing of coated-like dosage forms.

  9. Dropwise additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products for melt-based dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Içten, Elçin; Giridhar, Arun; Taylor, Lynne S; Nagy, Zoltan K; Reklaitis, Gintaras V

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration introduced the quality by design approach and process analytical technology guidance to encourage innovation and efficiency in pharmaceutical development, manufacturing, and quality assurance. As part of this renewed emphasis on the improvement of manufacturing, the pharmaceutical industry has begun to develop more efficient production processes with more intensive use of online measurement and sensing, real-time quality control, and process control tools. Here, we present dropwise additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products (DAMPP) as an alternative to conventional pharmaceutical manufacturing methods. This mini-manufacturing process for the production of pharmaceuticals utilizes drop on demand printing technology for automated and controlled deposition of melt-based formulations onto edible substrates. The advantages of drop-on-demand technology, including reproducible production of small droplets, adjustable drop sizing, high placement accuracy, and flexible use of different formulations, enable production of individualized dosing even for low-dose and high-potency drugs. In this work, DAMPP is used to produce solid oral dosage forms from hot melts of an active pharmaceutical ingredient and a polymer. The dosage forms are analyzed to show the reproducibility of dosing and the dissolution behavior of different formulations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  10. Enhancement of bioavailability of ketoprofen using dry elixir as a novel dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H J; Kim, K M; Kim, C K

    1998-07-01

    To enhance the dissolution rate and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble ketoprofen, a novel oral dosage form of ketoprofen, termed ketoprofen dry elixir, was developed by the spray-drying technique. Ketoprofen, dextrin, and sodium lauryl sulfate were dissolved in an ethanol-water mixture (20:25 w/w) and thereafter spray-dried to form the ketoprofen dry elixir. Comparative studies on the in vitro dissolution and in vivo adsorption of ketoprofen in the form of dry elixir and powder were carried out. Ketoprofen in the dry elixir completely dissolved within 5 min. On the other hand, only about 50.1% of ketoprofen powder alone dissolved during 60 min. The initial dissolution rate of ketoprofen in the dry elixir markedly increased in distilled water at 37 degrees C, becoming fourfold higher than that of ketoprofen powder alone. The maximal plasma concentration of ketoprofen (Cmax) and the area under the concentration-time curve from zero to 8 hr (AUC0-8 hr) after the oral administration of dry elixir increased about 3.2- (24.6 versus 7.6 micrograms/ml) and 2.2-(38.4 versus 17.3 micrograms hr/ml) fold compared with powder alone. It was obvious that ketoprofen dry elixir might be a useful solid dosage form to improve the dissolution rate and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble ketoprofen.

  11. Biowaiver Monographs for Immediate-Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms: Folic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofsäss, Martin A; Souza, Jacqueline de; Silva-Barcellos, Neila M; Bellavinha, Karime R; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Groot, D W; Parr, Alan; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Tajiri, Tomokazu; Mehta, Mehul U; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2017-12-01

    This work presents a review of literature and experimental data relevant to the possibility of waiving pharmacokinetic bioequivalence studies in human volunteers for approval of immediate-release solid oral pharmaceutical forms containing folic acid as the single active pharmaceutical ingredient. For dosage forms containing 5 mg folic acid, the highest dose strength on the World Health Organization Essential Medicines List, the dose/solubility ratio calculated from solubility studies was higher than 250 mL, corresponding to a classification as "not highly soluble." Small, physiological doses of folic acid (≤320 μg) seem to be absorbed completely via active transport, but permeability data for higher doses of 1-5 mg are inconclusive. Following a conservative approach, folic acid is classified as a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class IV compound until more reliable data become available. Commensurate with its solubility characteristics, the results of dissolution studies indicated that none of the folic acid products evaluated showed rapid dissolution in media at pH 1.2 or 4.5. Therefore, according to the current criteria of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System, the biowaiver approval procedure cannot be recommended for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms containing folic acid. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. All rights reserved.

  12. A progressive review of Sandhana kalpana (Biomedical fermentation): An advanced innovative dosage form of Ayurveda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anand; Singh, Neetu; Dalvi, Madhuri; Wele, Asmita

    2011-01-01

    Sandhana kalpana (biomedical fermented formulations) are one of the best dosage forms of Ayurveda in practice since thousands of years. In order to prepare these medicaments, certain sets of conditions are prearranged, which lead to fermentation. Thus, products bequeath with self-generated ethyl alcohol, which potentiate these preparations (Asava–Arishta), pharmaceutically and therapeutically. Commonly, medicinal and commercial components of these formulations are prompting many researchers to contribute in manufacturing, quality control, safety, and efficacy of these formulations. To cope up with this, literature related to Asava–Arishta has been surveyed from the Vedic period to recent publications of Government of India, ie, Ayurvedic Formulary of India, and presented briefly here. In this review paper, we have discussed pioneering facts such as nature and amount of carbohydrate, type of containers, optimum temperature, variety and relevance of initiator of fermentation, manufacturing, regulatory rules, and business aspects of Asava-Arishta. After going through this basic information, any academician or researcher may show a way to further strengthen this dosage form. PMID:22529661

  13. Design and evaluation of buccal films as paediatric dosage form for transmucosal delivery of ondansetron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trastullo, Ramona; Abruzzo, Angela; Saladini, Bruno; Gallucci, Maria Caterina; Cerchiara, Teresa; Luppi, Barbara; Bigucci, Federica

    2016-08-01

    In the process of implementation and innovation of paediatric dosage forms, buccal films for transmucosal administration of drug represent one of the most interesting approach. In fact, films are able to provide an extended duration of activity allowing minimal dosage and frequency and offer an exact and flexible dose, associated with ease of handling. The objective of the present study was to develop polymeric films for the sustained release of ondansetron hydrochloride, a selective inhibitor of 5-HT3 receptors indicated in paediatrics for the prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy or radiotherapy and postoperatively. Films were prepared by casting and drying of aqueous solutions containing different weight ratios of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) with chitosan (CH) or sodium hyaluronate (HA) or gelatin (GEL) and characterized for their physico-chemical and functional properties. The presence of HA, GEL and CH did not improve the mucoadhesive properties of HPMC film. The inclusion of GEL and CH in HPMC film increased in vitro drug release with respect to the inclusion of HA, although films containing HA showed the highest water uptake. Moreover in agreement with the release behaviour, the inclusion of CH and GEL provided higher drug permeation through porcine buccal mucosa with respect to HPMC film and ensured linear permeation profiles of drug. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Simple RP-HPLC Method for Quantitation of Itopride HCl in Tablet Dosage Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengada, Rajan Vs; Mohamed, Saleem Ts; Ramkanth, S; Alagusundaram, M; Ganaprakash, K; Madhusudhana, Chetty C

    2010-10-01

    An isocratic reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection at 220 nm has been developed for the quantification of itopride hydrochloride in tablet dosage form. The quantification was carried out using C(8) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm), 5-μm particle size SS column. The mobile phase comprised of two solvents (Solvent A: buffer 1.4 mL ortho-phosphoric acid adjusted to pH 3.0 with triethyl amine and Solvent B: acetonitrile). The ratio of Solvent A: Solvent B was 75:25 v/v. The flow rate was 1.0 mL (-1)with UV detection at 220 nm. The method has been validated and proved to be robust. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 80-120% with coefficient of correlation 0.9995. The percentage recovery for itopride HCl was 100.01%. The proposed method was validated for its selectivity, linearity, accuracy, and precision. The method was found to be suitable for the quality control of itopride HCl in tablet dosage formulation.

  15. The Case for DUF1220 Domain Dosage as a Primary Contributor to Anthropoid Brain Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon eKeeney

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the hypothesis that increasing copy number (dosage of sequences encoding DUF1220 protein domains is a major contributor to the evolutionary increase in brain size, neuron number and cognitive capacity that is associated with the primate order. We further propose that this relationship is restricted to the anthropoid sub-order of primates, with DUF1220 copy number markedly increasing in monkeys, further in apes, and most extremely in humans where the greatest number of copies (~272 haploid copies is found. We show that this increase closely parallels the increase in brain size and neuron number that has occurred among anthropoid primate species. We also provide evidence linking DUF1220 copy number to brain size within the human species, both in normal populations and in individuals associated with brain size pathologies (1q21-associated microcephaly and macrocephaly. While we believe these and other findings presented here strongly suggest increase in DUF1220 copy number is a key contributor to anthropoid brain expansion, the data currently available rely on correlative measures that, though considerable, do not yet provide direct evidence for a causal connection. Nevertheless, we believe the evidence presented is sufficient to provide the basis for a testable model which proposes that DUF1220 protein domain dosage increase is a main contributor to the increase in brain size and neuron number found among the anthropoid primate species and that is at its most extreme in human.

  16. Consumer Preferences and Perceptions towards the use Colored Oral Solid Dosage Forms in Baghdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inas Rifaat Ibrahim,*, Mohamed Izham M.I & Mahmoud Al-Haddad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main aims of this study were to determine consumers’ preferences and perceptions in Baghdad towards the color of Oral Solid Dosage Form.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted using a self–administered questionnaire. A convenient sampling method was adopted to approach the consumers visiting the community pharmacies in Baghdad.The data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 16 ®. Anon-parametric statistics i.e [Chi-square, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests] were used to evaluate the association of demographic variables with respondents perceptions toward physical characteristics of Oral Solid Dosage Form.Results: Colored OSDF was preferred by 76.4% of consumers.Significant differences in this preference were found among genders (P=0.029; age (P<0.001; educational level (P=0.001;and monthly income level (0.007. Further, consumers perceived that color of OSDF is related with the therapeutic activity of medicine. Significant differences in this perception were found to be influenced by gender (P=0.016; age group(P<0.001; and educational level (P<0.001.Conclusion: In a conclusion, color was the most preferred characteristic of OSDF by Baghdadi consumers with the perceptions that color is related to therapeutic activity of medicines. Gender, age, educational level, and monthly income are important factors that are associated with the preferences and perceptions toward colored OSDF.

  17. A fuzzy logic urea dosage controller design for two-cell selective catalytic reduction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kun; Wei, Lijiang; Jiang, Kai

    2017-12-22

    Diesel engines have dominated in the heavy-duty vehicular and marine power source. However, the induced air pollution is a big problem. As people's awareness of environmental protection increasing, the emission regulations of diesel-engine are becoming more stringent. In order to achieve the emission regulations, the after-treatment system is a necessary choice. Specifically, the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system has been widely applied to reduce the NO X emissions of diesel engine. Different from single-cell SCR systems, the two-cell systems have various benefits from the modeling and control perspective. In this paper, the urea dosage controller design for two-cell SCR systems was investigated. Firstly, the two-cell SCR modeling was introduced. Based on the developed model, the design procedure for the fuzzy logic urea dosage controller was well addressed. Secondly, simulations and comparisons were employed via an experimental verification of the whole vehicle simulator. And the results showed that the designed controller simultaneously achieved high NO X reduction rate and low tail-pipe ammonia slip. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of the fuel and dosage on the performance of double-compartment microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Y; Fernandez-Marchante, C M; Lobato, J; Cañizares, P; Rodrigo, M A

    2016-08-01

    This manuscript focuses on the evaluation of the use of different types and dosages of fuels in the performance of double-compartment microbial fuel cell equipped with carbon felt electrodes and cationic membrane. Five types of fuels (ethanol, glycerol, acetate, propionate and fructose) have been tested for the same organic load (5,000 mg L(-1) measured as COD) and for one of them (acetate), the range of dosages between 500 and 20,000 mg L(-1) of COD was also studied. Results demonstrate that production of electricity depends strongly on the fuel used. Carboxylic acids are much more efficient than alcohols or fructose for the same organic load and within the range 500-5,000 mg L(-1) of acetate the production of electricity increases linearly with the amount of acetate fed but over these concentrations a change in the population composition may explain a worse performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of atazanavir sulfate and ritonavir in tablet dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disha A Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ritonavir (RTV and atazanavir sulfate (ATV are protease inhibitor and RTV mostly used as a booster for increasing the bioavailability of other protease inhibitors like ATV. Aims: Quality assessment of the new dosage form of RTV and ATV i.e., tablets is very essential and hence this work deals with to develop sensitive, simple and precise method for simultaneous estimation of ATV and RTV in tablet dosage form by absorbance correction method. Materials and Methods: The present work was carried out on Shimadzu Ultraviolate(UV-1700 double beam spectrophotometer with 1 cm path length supported by S Shimadzu, model-1700(Japan, UV-Probe software, version 2.31 was used for spectral measurements with 10 mm matched quartz cells. Standard ATV and RTV were supplied by Cipla Pharmaceutical Ltd. Methanol was purchased from Finar Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. Results and Conclusion: The λmax or the absorption maxima for ATV and RTV were found to be 279 and 240 nm, respectively in methanol as solvent. The drugs follow Beer-Lambert′s law in the concentration range 30-90 and 10-30 μg/mL for ATV and RTV, respectively. The percentage recovery was found to be 100-100.33% and 100-101.5% for ATV and RTV, respectively. The method was validated for different parameters as per the International Conference for Harmonization Guidelines.

  20. Preparation and characterization of solid oral dosage forms containing soy isoflavones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela R. de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Soy isoflavones have been extensively used for menopausal symptoms and prevention of hormone-related cancer, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Commercially available forms of isoflavones include supplements, capsules and tablets. However, the non-standardization of soy isoflavones extracts and different dissolution profiles of these solid dosage forms highlight the need of additional studies on the development of well characterized pharmaceutical dosage forms of isoflavones. In this work, immediate release oral tablets of soy isoflavones were obtained and evaluated. Genistein and daidzein, were the main constituents of the dried soy extract. Preparation of the tables was accomplished in a rotary tableting machine following either a dry mixture for direct compression or wet granulation with different excipients. Powder, granules and tablets were evaluated for several parameters, including flow properties, Carr and Hausner indexes, hardness, friability, disintegration time and drug release profile. Also, a fast and validated HPLC analytical method for both genistein and daidzein was developed. Formulations containing sodium croscarmellose and sodium dodecyl sulfate resulted in better flowability as indicated by the flow rate and angle of repose, faster disintegration time and immediate release dissolution profile.