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Sample records for enigmatic granulation background

  1. Increased accuracy of starch granule type quantification using mixture distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Emi; Ral, Jean-Phillippe F.; Li, Sean; Gaire, Raj; Cavanagh, Colin R.; Cullis, Brian R.; Whan, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Background The proportion of granule types in wheat starch is an important characteristic that can affect its functionality. It is widely accepted that granule types are either large, disc-shaped A-type granules or small, spherical B-type granules. Additionally, there are some reports of the tiny C-type granules. The differences between these granule types are due to its carbohydrate composition and crystallinity which is highly, but not perfectly, correlated with the granule size. A majority...

  2. Production of small starch granules by expression of a tandem-repeat of a family 20 starch-binding domain (SBD3-SBD5) in an amylose-free potato genetic background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazarian, F.; Trindade, L.M.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Starch exists typically as semicrystalline granules of varying size. Granule size plays an important role for many industrial starch applications. Microbial non-catalytic starch binding domains (SBD) exhibit an affinity for starch granules on their own. Three different constructs were introduced in

  3. Under the radar: mitigating enigmatic ecological impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiter, Keren G; Possingham, Hugh P; Prober, Suzanne M; Hobbs, Richard J

    2014-11-01

    Identifying the deleterious ecological effects of developments, such as roads, mining, and urban expansion, is essential for informing development decisions and identifying appropriate mitigation actions. However, there are many types of ecological impacts that slip 'under the radar' of conventional impact evaluations and undermine the potential for successful impact mitigation (including offsets). These 'enigmatic' impacts include those that are small but act cumulatively; those outside of the area directly considered in the evaluation; those not detectable with the methods, paradigms, or spatiotemporal scales used to detect them; those facilitated, but not directly caused, by development; and synergistic impact interactions. Here, we propose a framework for conceptualising enigmatic impacts and discuss ways to address them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Actinomyces associated with persistent vaginal granulation tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Wai, Clifford Y; Nihira, Mikio A; Drewes, Peter G; Chang, Joe S; Siddiqui, Momin T; Hemsell, David L

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We report a case of symptomatic actinomycosis associated with vaginal suture erosion and granulation tissue refractory to conservative management, in an outpatient setting. CASE: Three months after total vaginal hysterectomy and uterosacral ligament vaginal vault suspension, a woman complained of painless, intermittent vaginal discharge and spotting. Despite cauterization of granulation tissue, vaginal spotting persisted for another month. On re-examination, braided polyester sutu...

  5. Mining the granule proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Goetze, Jens P; Johnsen, Anders H

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics of secretory granules is an emerging strategy for identifying secreted proteins, including potentially novel candidate biomarkers and peptide hormones. In addition, proteomics can provide information about the abundance, localization and structure (post-translational modification) of g...

  6. Plant RNA Regulatory Network and RNA Granules in Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Mäkinen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of post-transcriptional gene expression on mRNA level in eukaryotic cells includes translocation, translation, translational repression, storage, mRNA decay, RNA silencing, and nonsense-mediated decay. These processes are associated with various RNA-binding proteins and cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes many of which are conserved across eukaryotes. Microscopically visible aggregations formed by ribonucleoprotein complexes are termed RNA granules. Stress granules where the translationally inactive mRNAs are stored and processing bodies where mRNA decay may occur present the most studied RNA granule types. Diverse RNP-granules are increasingly being assigned important roles in viral infections. Although the majority of the molecular level studies on the role of RNA granules in viral translation and replication have been conducted in mammalian systems, some studies link also plant virus infection to RNA granules. An increasing body of evidence indicates that plant viruses require components of stress granules and processing bodies for their replication and translation, but how extensively the cellular mRNA regulatory network is utilized by plant viruses has remained largely enigmatic. Antiviral RNA silencing, which is an important regulator of viral RNA stability and expression in plants, is commonly counteracted by viral suppressors of RNA silencing. Some of the RNA silencing suppressors localize to cellular RNA granules and have been proposed to carry out their suppression functions there. Moreover, plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat protein-mediated virus resistance has been linked to enhanced processing body formation and translational repression of viral RNA. Many interesting questions relate to how the pathways of antiviral RNA silencing leading to viral RNA degradation and/or repression of translation, suppression of RNA silencing and viral RNA translation converge in plants and how different RNA granules and

  7. Plant RNA Regulatory Network and RNA Granules in Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Kristiina; Lõhmus, Andres; Pollari, Maija

    2017-01-01

    Regulation of post-transcriptional gene expression on mRNA level in eukaryotic cells includes translocation, translation, translational repression, storage, mRNA decay, RNA silencing, and nonsense-mediated decay. These processes are associated with various RNA-binding proteins and cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes many of which are conserved across eukaryotes. Microscopically visible aggregations formed by ribonucleoprotein complexes are termed RNA granules. Stress granules where the translationally inactive mRNAs are stored and processing bodies where mRNA decay may occur present the most studied RNA granule types. Diverse RNP-granules are increasingly being assigned important roles in viral infections. Although the majority of the molecular level studies on the role of RNA granules in viral translation and replication have been conducted in mammalian systems, some studies link also plant virus infection to RNA granules. An increasing body of evidence indicates that plant viruses require components of stress granules and processing bodies for their replication and translation, but how extensively the cellular mRNA regulatory network is utilized by plant viruses has remained largely enigmatic. Antiviral RNA silencing, which is an important regulator of viral RNA stability and expression in plants, is commonly counteracted by viral suppressors of RNA silencing. Some of the RNA silencing suppressors localize to cellular RNA granules and have been proposed to carry out their suppression functions there. Moreover, plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat protein-mediated virus resistance has been linked to enhanced processing body formation and translational repression of viral RNA. Many interesting questions relate to how the pathways of antiviral RNA silencing leading to viral RNA degradation and/or repression of translation, suppression of RNA silencing and viral RNA translation converge in plants and how different RNA granules and their individual

  8. Tracheostomy Decannulation: Suprastomal Granulation Tissue in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Suprastomal granulation tissue is a complication of tracheostomy which may make decannulation difficult and presents a therapeutic challenge to the Otorhinolaryngologists. The aims of this study therefore were to evaluate tracheostomy in black African population, determine the prevalence of suprastomal ...

  9. Another Look at an Enigmatic New World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    centred at 2 microns. On the right is the NACO/SDI image of the same location showing Titan's surface through the 1.6 micron methane window. A spherical projection with coordinates on Titan is overplotted. ESO PR Photo 04b/05 is a map of Titan taken with NACO at 1.28 micron (a methane window allowing it to probe down to the surface). On the leading side of Titan, the bright equatorial feature ("Xanadu") is dominating. On the trailing side, the landing site of the Huygens probe is indicated. ESO PR Photo 04c/05 ESO PR Photo 04c/05 Titan, the Enigmatic Moon, and Huygens Landing Site (NACO-SDI/VLT and Cassini/ISS) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 589 pix - 40k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1178 pix - 290k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 04c/05 is a comparison between the NACO/SDI image and an image taken by Cassini/ISS while approaching Titan. The Cassini image shows the Huygens landing site map wrapped around Titan, rotated to the same position as the January NACO SDI observations. The yellow "X" marks the landing site of the ESA Huygens probe. The Cassini/ISS image is courtesy of NASA, JPL, Space Science Institute (see http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=36222). The coloured lines delineate the regions that were imaged by Cassini at differing resolutions. The lower-resolution imaging sequences are outlined in blue. Other areas have been specifically targeted for moderate and high resolution mosaicking of surface features. These include the site where the European Space Agency's Huygens probe has touched down in mid-January (marked with the yellow X), part of the bright region named Xanadu (easternmost extent of the area covered), and a boundary between dark and bright regions. ESO PR Photo 04d/05 ESO PR Photo 04d/05 Evolution of the Atmosphere of Titan (NACO/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 902 pix - 40k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1804 pix - 320k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 04d/05 is an image of Titan's atmosphere at 2.12 microns as observed with NACO on the VLT at three different epochs

  10. Enigmatic sub-luminous accreting neutron stars in our Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, R.

    2008-01-01

    During the last few years a class of enigmatic sub-luminous accreting neutron stars has been found in our Galaxy. They have peak X-ray luminosities (2-10 keV) of a few times 10(34) erg s(−1) to a few times 10(35) erg s(−1), and both persistent and transient sources have been found. I present a short

  11. Collages of granulation pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, R.B.; November, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes two small-area selection schemes that the authors have applied to CCD observations of solar granulation. The first scheme, which the authors call the ''mosaic,'' divides the 128 x 128 array into 64 subarrays each containing 16 x 16 pixels. On each picture in the burst the RMS contrast of the fine structure is measured in each subarray and compared to the corresponding value in a table that contains the highest previous RMS values. The second scheme, which the authors call a ''collage,'' is similar except the RMS value is calculated smoothly within a sliding Gaussian window over the entire scene and the value of an individual pixel is gated into the final collage whenever the RMS contrast at that pixel location exceeds that of all previous frames taken during the burst

  12. The life cycle of platelet granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharda, Anish; Flaumenhaft, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Platelet granules are unique among secretory vesicles in both their content and their life cycle. Platelets contain three major granule types-dense granules, α-granules, and lysosomes-although other granule types have been reported. Dense granules and α-granules are the most well-studied and the most physiologically important. Platelet granules are formed in large, multilobulated cells, termed megakaryocytes, prior to transport into platelets. The biogenesis of dense granules and α-granules involves common but also distinct pathways. Both are formed from the trans -Golgi network and early endosomes and mature in multivesicular bodies, but the formation of dense granules requires trafficking machinery different from that of α-granules. Following formation in the megakaryocyte body, both granule types are transported through and mature in long proplatelet extensions prior to the release of nascent platelets into the bloodstream. Granules remain stored in circulating platelets until platelet activation triggers the exocytosis of their contents. Soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins, located on both the granules and target membranes, provide the mechanical energy that enables membrane fusion during both granulogenesis and exocytosis. The function of these core fusion engines is controlled by SNARE regulators, which direct the site, timing, and extent to which these SNAREs interact and consequently the resulting membrane fusion. In this review, we assess new developments in the study of platelet granules, from their generation to their exocytosis.

  13. Cascade reactor: granule fabrication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlandson, O.D.; Winkler, E.O.; Maya, I.; Pitts, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    A key feature of Cascade is the granular blanket. Of the many blanket material options open to Cascade, fabrication of Li 2 O granules was felt to offer the greatest challenge. The authors explored available methods for initial Li 2 O granule fabrication. They identified three cost-effective processes for fabricating Li 2 O granules: the VSM drop-melt furnace process, which is based on melting and spheroidizing irregularly shaped Li 2 O feed granules; the LiOH process, which spheroidizes liquefied LiOH and uses GA Technologies' sphere-forming procedures; and the Li 2 CO 3 sol-gel process, used for making spherical fuel particles for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Each process is described below

  14. Collages of granulation pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, R. B.; November, L. J.

    Two small-area selection schemes are applied to CCD observations of solar granulation. One procedure, referred to as mosaic, divides a 128 x 128 array into 64 subarrays of 16 x 16 pixels; the rms contrast of the fine structure is measured and compared in order to develop a mosaic of the subarrays. The second technique, collage, involves calculating rms values within a sliding Gaussian window and gating the pixel into the final image. Methods for assessing seeing quality, which involve the calculation of rms after high-pass filtering, are examined; a simple high-pass filter or an edge-locating function can be utilized for filtering. The rms map is then formed from the convolution of a Gaussian with either the high-pass or the Laplacian filters. The usefulness of the two procedures is demonstrated by applying the mosaic and collage processes to data recorded on July 17, 1983 with a CCD device on the NSO/Sac Peak Vacuum Tower Telescope.

  15. Control over the morphology and segregation of Zebrafish germ cell granules during embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakkrasae La-Iad

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zebrafish germ cells contain granular-like structures, organized around the cell nucleus. These structures share common features with polar granules in Drosophila, germinal granules in Xenopus and chromatoid bodies in mice germ cells, such as the localization of the zebrafish Vasa, Piwi and Nanos proteins, among others. Little is known about the structure of these granules as well as their segregation in mitosis during early germ-cell development. Results Using transgenic fish expressing a fluorescently labeled novel component of Zebrafish germ cell granules termed Granulito, we followed the morphology and distribution of the granules. We show that whereas these granules initially exhibit a wide size variation, by the end of the first day of development they become a homogeneous population of medium size granules. We investigated this resizing event and demonstrated the role of microtubules and the minus-end microtubule dependent motor protein Dynein in the process. Last, we show that the function of the germ cell granule resident protein the Tudor domain containing protein-7 (Tdrd7 is required for determination of granule morphology and number. Conclusion Our results suggest that Zebrafish germ cell granules undergo a transformation process, which involves germ cell specific proteins as well as the microtubular network.

  16. Dimerization deficiency of enigmatic retinitis pigmentosa-linked rhodopsin mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploier, Birgit; Caro, Lydia N.; Morizumi, Takefumi; Pandey, Kalpana; Pearring, Jillian N.; Goren, Michael A.; Finnemann, Silvia C.; Graumann, Johannes; Arshavsky, Vadim Y.; Dittman, Jeremy S.; Ernst, Oliver P.; Menon, Anant K.

    2016-10-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a blinding disease often associated with mutations in rhodopsin, a light-sensing G protein-coupled receptor and phospholipid scramblase. Most RP-associated mutations affect rhodopsin's activity or transport to disc membranes. Intriguingly, some mutations produce apparently normal rhodopsins that nevertheless cause disease. Here we show that three such enigmatic mutations--F45L, V209M and F220C--yield fully functional visual pigments that bind the 11-cis retinal chromophore, activate the G protein transducin, traffic to the light-sensitive photoreceptor compartment and scramble phospholipids. However, tests of scramblase activity show that unlike wild-type rhodopsin that functionally reconstitutes into liposomes as dimers or multimers, F45L, V209M and F220C rhodopsins behave as monomers. This result was confirmed in pull-down experiments. Our data suggest that the photoreceptor pathology associated with expression of these enigmatic RP-associated pigments arises from their unexpected inability to dimerize via transmembrane helices 1 and 5.

  17. Metabolic changes induced by Bushenhouxue Granules on striatum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease, while its mechanism is still unclear. Long-term levodopa-based treatment leads to decreased response or loss of response, as well as severe side effects. Our previous study has proved that Bushenhuoxue Granules have effects on Parkinson's disease, but ...

  18. The enigmatic fast leaflet rotation in Desmodium motorium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2013-01-01

    I propose that the enigmatic leaflet movements in elliptical circles every few minutes of the Indian telegraph (semaphore) plant Desmodium motorium ( = D. gyrans = Hedysarum gyrans = Codariocalyx motorius), which has intrigued scientists for centuries, is a new type of butterfly or general winged arthropod mimicry by this plant. Such leaflet movement may deceive a passing butterfly searching for an un-occupied site suitable to deposit its eggs, that the plant is already occupied. It may also attract insectivorous birds, reptiles or arthropods to the plant because it looks as if it is harboring a potential prey and while they patrol there, they can find insects or other invertebrates that indeed attack the plant. The possibility that diurnal mammalian herbivores may also be deterred by these movements should not be dismissed. PMID:23603964

  19. Linking granulation performance with residence time and granulation liquid distributions in twin-screw granulation: An experimental investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashish; Alakarjula, Maija; Vanhoorne, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Twin-screw granulation is a promising wet granulation technique for the continuous manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. A twin screw granulator displays a short residence time. Thus, the solid-liquid mixing must be achieved quickly by appropriate arrangement of transport and kneading...

  20. Multidimensional modelling of anaerobic granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picioreanu, C.; Batstone, Damien J.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    A multispecies, two- and three-dimensional model was developed, based on a previously published planar biofilm model, and the biochemical structure of the ADM1. Several soluble substrates diffuse and react in the granule. Local pH is calculated from acid-base equilibria and charge balance. The mo...

  1. The link between rapid enigmatic amphibian decline and the globally emerging chytrid fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötters, Stefan; Kielgast, Jos; Bielby, Jon; Schmidtlein, Sebastian; Bosch, Jaime; Veith, Michael; Walker, Susan F; Fisher, Matthew C; Rödder, Dennis

    2009-09-01

    Amphibians are globally declining and approximately one-third of all species are threatened with extinction. Some of the most severe declines have occurred suddenly and for unknown reasons in apparently pristine habitats. It has been hypothesized that these "rapid enigmatic declines" are the result of a panzootic of the disease chytridiomycosis caused by globally emerging amphibian chytrid fungus. In a Species Distribution Model, we identified the potential distribution of this pathogen. Areas and species from which rapid enigmatic decline are known significantly overlap with those of highest environmental suitability to the chytrid fungus. We confirm the plausibility of a link between rapid enigmatic decline in worldwide amphibian species and epizootic chytridiomycosis.

  2. Questioning hagfish affinities of the enigmatic Devonian vertebrate Palaeospondylus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Zerina; Smith, Moya; Sanchez, Sophie; Senden, Tim; Trinajstic, Kate; Pfaff, Cathrin

    2017-07-01

    Palaeospondylus gunni Traquair, 1890 is an enigmatic Devonian vertebrate whose taxonomic affinities have been debated since it was first described. Most recently, Palaeospondylus has been identified as a stem-group hagfish (Myxinoidea). However, one character questioning this assignment is the presence of three semicircular canals in the otic region of the cartilaginous skull, a feature of jawed vertebrates. Additionally, new tomographic data reveal that the following characters of crown-group gnathostomes (chondrichthyans + osteichthyans) are present in Palaeospondylus: a longer telencephalic region of the braincase, separation of otic and occipital regions by the otico-occipital fissure, and vertebral centra. As well, a precerebral fontanelle and postorbital articulation of the palatoquadrate are characteristic of certain chondrichthyans. Similarities in the structure of the postorbital process to taxa such as Pucapampella, and possible presence of the ventral cranial fissure, both support a resolution of Pa. gunni as a stem chondrichthyan. The internally mineralized cartilaginous skeleton in Palaeospondylus may represent a stage in the loss of bone characteristic of the Chondrichthyes.

  3. Mechanism of the formation of hollow spherical granules using a high shear granulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Takumi; Nishikawa, Mitsunori; Ochiai, Yasushi; Noguchi, Shuji; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru

    2018-05-30

    Recently, we have developed a novel granulation technology to manufacture hollow spherical granules (HSGs) for controlled-release formulations; however, the mechanism of the granulation is still unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the mechanism of the formation of the HSGs using a high shear granulator. Samples of granulated material were collected at various times during granulation and were investigated using scanning electron microscope and X-ray computed tomography. It was observed that the granulation proceeded by drug layering to the polymer, followed by formation of a hollow in the granule. In addition, it was also found that generation of a crack in the adhered drug layer and air flow into the granules might be involved in forming the hollow in the structure. Observation of the granulation of formulations with different types of drugs and polymers indicated that negative pressure in the granules occurred and the granules caved in when the hollow was formed. The hollow-forming speed and the shell density of the hollow granules depended on the particular drug and polymer. Taken together, the granulation mechanism of HSGs was determined and this information will be valuable for HSGs technology development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. EVIDENCE FOR GRANULATION IN EARLY A-TYPE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallinger, Thomas; Matthews, Jaymie M.

    2010-01-01

    Stars with spectral types earlier than about F0 on (or close) to the main sequence have long been believed to lack observable surface convection, although evolutionary models of A-type stars do predict very thin surface convective zones. We present evidence for granulation in two δ Scuti stars of spectral type A2: HD 174936 and HD 50844. Recent analyses of space-based CoRoT data revealed up to some 1000 frequencies in the photometry of these stars. The frequencies were interpreted as individual pulsation modes. If true, there must be large numbers of nonradial modes of very high degree l which should suffer cancellation effects in disk-integrated photometry (even of high space-based precision). The p-mode interpretation of all the frequencies in HD 174936 and HD 50844 depends on the assumption of white (frequency-independent) noise. Our independent analyses of the data provide an alternative explanation: most of the peaks in the Fourier spectra are the signature of non-white granulation background noise, and less than about 100 of the frequencies are actual stellar p-modes in each star. We find granulation timescales which are consistent with scaling relations that describe cooler stars with known surface convection. If the granulation interpretation is correct, the hundreds of low-amplitude Fourier peaks reported in recent studies are falsely interpreted as independent pulsation modes and a significantly lower number of frequencies are associated with pulsation, consistent with only modes of low degree.

  5. Functionally enigmatic genes: a case study of the brain ignorome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh K Pandey

    Full Text Available What proportion of genes with intense and selective expression in specific tissues, cells, or systems are still almost completely uncharacterized with respect to biological function? In what ways do these functionally enigmatic genes differ from well-studied genes? To address these two questions, we devised a computational approach that defines so-called ignoromes. As proof of principle, we extracted and analyzed a large subset of genes with intense and selective expression in brain. We find that publications associated with this set are highly skewed--the top 5% of genes absorb 70% of the relevant literature. In contrast, approximately 20% of genes have essentially no neuroscience literature. Analysis of the ignorome over the past decade demonstrates that it is stubbornly persistent, and the rapid expansion of the neuroscience literature has not had the expected effect on numbers of these genes. Surprisingly, ignorome genes do not differ from well-studied genes in terms of connectivity in coexpression networks. Nor do they differ with respect to numbers of orthologs, paralogs, or protein domains. The major distinguishing characteristic between these sets of genes is date of discovery, early discovery being associated with greater research momentum--a genomic bandwagon effect. Finally we ask to what extent massive genomic, imaging, and phenotype data sets can be used to provide high-throughput functional annotation for an entire ignorome. In a majority of cases we have been able to extract and add significant information for these neglected genes. In several cases--ELMOD1, TMEM88B, and DZANK1--we have exploited sequence polymorphisms, large phenome data sets, and reverse genetic methods to evaluate the function of ignorome genes.

  6. Functionally enigmatic genes: a case study of the brain ignorome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ashutosh K; Lu, Lu; Wang, Xusheng; Homayouni, Ramin; Williams, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    What proportion of genes with intense and selective expression in specific tissues, cells, or systems are still almost completely uncharacterized with respect to biological function? In what ways do these functionally enigmatic genes differ from well-studied genes? To address these two questions, we devised a computational approach that defines so-called ignoromes. As proof of principle, we extracted and analyzed a large subset of genes with intense and selective expression in brain. We find that publications associated with this set are highly skewed--the top 5% of genes absorb 70% of the relevant literature. In contrast, approximately 20% of genes have essentially no neuroscience literature. Analysis of the ignorome over the past decade demonstrates that it is stubbornly persistent, and the rapid expansion of the neuroscience literature has not had the expected effect on numbers of these genes. Surprisingly, ignorome genes do not differ from well-studied genes in terms of connectivity in coexpression networks. Nor do they differ with respect to numbers of orthologs, paralogs, or protein domains. The major distinguishing characteristic between these sets of genes is date of discovery, early discovery being associated with greater research momentum--a genomic bandwagon effect. Finally we ask to what extent massive genomic, imaging, and phenotype data sets can be used to provide high-throughput functional annotation for an entire ignorome. In a majority of cases we have been able to extract and add significant information for these neglected genes. In several cases--ELMOD1, TMEM88B, and DZANK1--we have exploited sequence polymorphisms, large phenome data sets, and reverse genetic methods to evaluate the function of ignorome genes.

  7. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    OpenAIRE

    González, Alfredo; Crittenden, Elizabeth L; García, Dana M

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and musc...

  8. Medical image of the week: granulation tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 57 year old woman presented with a tickling sensation in the back of throat and intermittent bleeding from the healing stoma one month after decannulation of her tracheostomy tube. On bronchoscopy a granuloma with surrounding granulation tissue was present in the subglottic space (Figure 1. Argon plasma coagulation (APC was performed to cauterize the granulation tissue (Figure 2. Formation of granulation tissue after tracheostomy is a common complication which can result in tracheal stenosis. APC and electrocautery using flexible bronchoscopy has been shown to safely and effectively remove the granulation tissue.

  9. Distribution of binder in granules produced by means of twin screw granulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonteyne, Margot; Fussell, Andrew Luke; Vercruysse, Jurgen

    2014-01-01

    According to the quality by design principle processes may not remain black-boxes and full process understanding is required. The granule size distribution of granules produced via twin screw granulation is often found to be bimodal. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding...

  10. The paradox of high shear granulation : the formation of non-homogeneous granules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, Kaspar van den

    2004-01-01

    Wet granulation is a process used for the particle size enlargement of primary powders. The mixing of a liquid with the powder glues the primary particles together, which results in the formation of the granules. The mixing action can be performed in many ways, like tumbling (drum granulation),

  11. Reduced starch granule number per chloroplast in the dpe2/phs1 mutant is dependent on initiation of starch degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Irina; Fettke, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    An Arabidopsis double knock-out mutant lacking cytosolic disproportionating enzyme 2 (DPE2) and the plastidial phosphorylase (PHS1) revealed a dwarf-growth phenotype, reduced starch content, an uneven distribution of starch within the plant rosette, and a reduced number of starch granules per chloroplast under standard growth conditions. In contrast, the wild type contained 5-7 starch granules per chloroplast. Mature and old leaves of the double mutant were essentially starch free and showed plastidial disintegration. Several analyses revealed that the number of starch granules per chloroplast was affected by the dark phase. So far, it was unclear if it was the dark phase per se or starch degradation in the dark that was connected to the observed decrease in the number of starch granules per chloroplast. Therefore, in the background of the double mutant dpe2/phs1, a triple mutant was generated lacking the initial starch degrading enzyme glucan, water dikinase (GWD). The triple mutant showed improved plant growth, a starch-excess phenotype, and a homogeneous starch distribution. Furthermore, the number of starch granules per chloroplast was increased and was similar to wild type. However, starch granule morphology was only slightly affected by the lack of GWD as in the triple mutant and, like in dpe2/phs1, more spherical starch granules were observed. The characterized triple mutant was discussed in the context of the generation of starch granules and the formation of starch granule morphology.

  12. APPLICATION OF GRANULATION TECHNOLOGY IN VARIOUS INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. YEGOROV

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Science and practice proved the high efficiency of granulated mixed fodders. This article presents an overview of granulation technologies for various industries. This article discusses the application of granulation technologies in various industries. The processes of granulation are mass technological processes currently used in a wide range of industries: feed industry, food industry, pharmaceutical industry, fertilizer production, polyethylene, metal production, mining, etc. A wide range of different materials are granulated, including chemicals, iron ore, mixed fodder, and much more. Granulation is a process of pressing or shaping a material in the form of granulesGranulation is widely used in the production of pigments, dyes, synthetic detergents, catalysts, plastics, soot, chemical reagents, etc. The use of granular raw materials in the metallurgical industry helps not only to mechanize processes, but also to increase their intensity by increasing the contact surface of interacting media. Granular fertilizers retain their properties for a long time. In the mining industry, granulation processes are used at the stage of preparation and enrichment of raw materials and release of the finished product.  Particular attention is paid to the feed industry. Granulation allows to ensure stable homogeneity, to improve sanitary and hygienic parameters, to increase nutritional value, to increase the storage period, improve the physical properties. However, despite all the advantages, the existing granulation production lines have a relatively high productivity and, at the same time, a high energy intensity. In this regard, this article proposes a technology for improving the granulation of mixed fodders. According to a preliminary literary review, It should be concluded that improving the technology of the granulation process for feed production is a topical issue in the feed industry today. The development of technology for improving the

  13. Coating of waste containing ceramic granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, W.; Kofler, O.

    1979-01-01

    Simulated high-level waste granules produced by fluidized-bed calcination were overcoated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with pyrocarbon and nickel in laboratory-scale experiments. Successful development enables pyrocrbon deposition at temperatures of 600 to 800 0 K. The coated granules have excellent properties for long-term waste storage

  14. Multiphase flow in spout fluidized bed granulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijtenen, van M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Spout fluidized beds are frequently used for the production of granules or particles through granulation, which are widely applied, for example, in the production of detergents, pharmaceuticals, food and fertilizers (M¨orl et al. 2007). Spout fluidized beds have a number of advantageous properties,

  15. Twin screw wet granulation: Binder delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Cartwright, James J; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2015-06-20

    The effects of three ways of binder delivery into the twin screw granulator (TSG) on the residence time, torque, properties of granules (size, shape, strength) and binder distribution were studied. The binder distribution was visualised through the transparent barrel using high speed imaging as well as quantified using offline technique. Furthermore, the effect of binder delivery and the change of screw configuration (conveying elements only and conveying elements with kneading elements) on the surface velocity of granules across the screw channel were investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The binder was delivered in three ways; all solid binder incorporated with powder mixture, 50% of solid binder mixed with powder mixture and 50% mixed with water, all the solid binder dissolved in water. Incorporation of all solid binder with powder mixture resulted in the relatively longer residence time and higher torque, narrower granule size distribution, more spherical granules, weaker big-sized granules, stronger small-sized granules and better binder distribution compared to that in other two ways. The surface velocity of granules showed variation from one screw to another as a result of uneven liquid distribution as well as shown a reduction while introducing the kneading elements into the screw configuration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. NEDDylation promotes stress granule assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, Aravinth Kumar; Sanchez, Anthony; Park, Ra Young; Yoon, Sang Pil; Kang, Gum-Yong; Baek, Je-Hyun; Anderson, Paul; Kee, Younghoon; Ohn, Takbum

    2016-07-06

    Stress granules (SGs) harbour translationally stalled messenger ribonucleoproteins and play important roles in regulating gene expression and cell fate. Here we show that neddylation promotes SG assembly in response to arsenite-induced oxidative stress. Inhibition or depletion of key components of the neddylation machinery concomitantly inhibits stress-induced polysome disassembly and SG assembly. Affinity purification and subsequent mass-spectrometric analysis of Nedd8-conjugated proteins from translationally stalled ribosomal fractions identified ribosomal proteins, translation factors and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), including SRSF3, a previously known SG regulator. We show that SRSF3 is selectively neddylated at Lys85 in response to arsenite. A non-neddylatable SRSF3 (K85R) mutant do not prevent arsenite-induced polysome disassembly, but fails to support the SG assembly, suggesting that the neddylation pathway plays an important role in SG assembly.

  17. THE STUDY OF THE KINETIC OF NATURAL ZEOLITE GRANULES GROWTH AT DIFFERENT WAYS OF GRANULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybachuk VD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Active substances and excipients used in the manufacture of medicines in tablet form, in most cases, have poor technological properties. This fact determines the need for prior granulation of mass before compression. Granulators of various sizes and designs, running on different modes, made the formation, growth and consolidation of the powder particles that lead to obtain pellets of different shapes and sizes. From the literature it is known that granulation leads to two forms of granules: isodiametric and nonisodiametric. The first group of particles forms has globular shape with a smooth surface and the proportion in which the length, thickness and height are about the same. They are usually made by fluidized bed granulation, spray drying, pelletizing and granulation in dragee pan. Granules of nonisodiametric form in which length is several times the width and height are made mostly by extrusion and compacting. The geometrical parameters of obtained granules are affected by the properties of raw materials, the granulation modes, type and amount of added humidifier and so on. The shape and size of granules, from a technological point of view, are the key factors that contribute, except organoleptic characteristics of the product, its technological properties such as particle size distribution, bulk volume, the ability of the material to shrinkage, porosity, fluidity, mechanical strength and so on. Properly selected for specific conditions granulation method is able to provide the finished product with the specified technological parameters depending on the needs. The aim of this work was to study the effect of granulation method and its conditions on the kinetics of growth of the natural zeolite granules and some quality characteristics of obtained granules. Material & methods. As objects of study served the natural zeolite pellets produced using 3%, 5%, 7% and 10% potato starch paste and solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP

  18. On the origin of Acochlidia and other enigmatic euthyneuran gastropods, with implications for the systematics of Heterobranchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knebelsberger Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A robust phylogenetic hypothesis of euthyneuran gastropods, as a basis to reconstructing their evolutionary history, is still hindered by several groups of aberrant, more or less worm-like slugs with unclear phylogenetic relationships. As a traditional "order" in the Opisthobranchia, the Acochlidia have a long history of controversial placements, among others influenced by convergent adaptation to the mainly meiofaunal habitats. The present study includes six out of seven acochlidian families in a comprehensive euthyneuran taxon sampling with special focus on minute, aberrant slugs. Since there is no fossil record of tiny, shell-less gastropods, a molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times within Euthyneura. Results Our multi-locus molecular study confirms Acochlidia in a pulmonate relationship, as sister to Eupulmonata. Previous hypotheses of opisthobranch relations, or of a common origin with other meiofaunal Euthyneura, are clearly rejected. The enigmatic amphibious and insectivorous Aitengidae incerta sedis clusters within Acochlidia, as sister to meiofaunal and brackish Pseudunelidae and limnic Acochlidiidae. Euthyneura, Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata as traditionally defined are non-monophyletic. A relaxed molecular clock approach indicates a late Palaeozoic diversification of Euthyneura and a Mesozoic origin of the major euthyneuran diversity, including Acochlidia. Conclusions The present study shows that the inclusion of small, enigmatic groups is necessary to solve deep-level phylogenetic relationships, and underlines that "pulmonate" and "opisthobranch" phylogeny, respectively, cannot be solved independently from each other. Our phylogenetic hypothesis requires reinvestigation of the traditional classification of Euthyneura: morphological synapomorphies of the traditionally defined Pulmonata and Opisthobranchia are evaluated in light of the presented phylogeny, and a redefinition of major groups is

  19. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Granules Have no Phospholipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresan, Stephanie; Sznajder, Anna; Hauf, Waldemar; Forchhammer, Karl; Pfeiffer, Daniel; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules, also designated as carbonosomes, are supra-molecular complexes in prokaryotes consisting of a PHB polymer core and a surface layer of structural and functional proteins. The presence of suspected phospholipids in the surface layer is based on in vitro data of isolated PHB granules and is often shown in cartoons of the PHB granule structure in reviews on PHB metabolism. However, the in vivo presence of a phospholipid layer has never been demonstrated. We addressed this topic by the expression of fusion proteins of DsRed2EC and other fluorescent proteins with the phospholipid-binding domain (LactC2) of lactadherin in three model organisms. The fusion proteins specifically localized at the cell membrane of Ralstonia eutropha but did not co-localize with PHB granules. The same result was obtained for Pseudomonas putida, a species that accumulates another type of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granules related to PHB. Notably, DsRed2EC-LactC2 expressed in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense was detected at the position of membrane-enclosed magnetosome chains and at the cytoplasmic membrane but not at PHB granules. In conclusion, the carbonosomes of representatives of α-proteobacteria, β-proteobacteria and γ-proteobacteria have no phospholipids in vivo and we postulate that the PHB/PHA granule surface layers in natural producers generally are free of phospholipids and consist of proteins only. PMID:27222167

  20. Regularities of formation of granules at granulation of powdered materials in drum devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelbaliyev, G.I; Samedli, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text:Granulation of powdered materials in the presence of binding agent is widely used in the most multi-tankage productions of chemical, food, pharmaceutical, metallurgical and agrarian technology. Granulation of powdered materials with participation of liquid phase is carried out in screw, disk, plase-shaped and drum devices and also in devices with mixers. In all cases a formation and growth of granules takes place owing to wetting of separate particles of powder leading to agglomeration and coagulation of particles in their contact with each other. It is apparent that in early stage of granule formation a growth and formation of granules takes place owing to adherence of small particles and agglomerates to larger granules. The content of liquid phase owing to which are appeared adhesive, capillary and surface forces, keeping particles on surface of granule exerts an essential influence on process of granule formation. Besides composition of mixture, its moisture and physical-chemical properties of initial components a mixing frequency degree of filling and angle of inclination of the device, ratio of liquid and hard phases which defines finally qualitative characteristics of the process exert an essential influence on formation of granules as a result of agglomeration of particles of powder. Powder lamination on granule surface is as consequence of its consolidation whereas as a result of consolidation and compression, a binding agent containing in pores squeezed out to a surface, which increases a possibility and probability of further sticking of dry particles of powder. In all cases the further growth and completeness of form of granule is determined by distribution of concentration of binding agent in volume of granule, i.e. moisture content or moisture of granule surface

  1. Application of tumbling melt granulation (TMG) method to prepare controlled-release fine granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maejima, T; Kubo, M; Osawa, T; Nakajima, K; Kobayashi, M

    1998-03-01

    The tumbling melt granulation (TMG) method was applied to prepare controlled-release fine granules of diltiazem hydrochloride (DH). The entire process, from the preparation of the cores by the adherence of DH to the sucrose crystal to the subsequent coating of the controlled-release layer, was performed without using any solvent. A mixture of meltable material, talc, and ethylcellulose was used for the controlled-release layer and controlled-release fine granules approximately 400 microns in diameter were obtained with excellent producibility. The dissolution rate of DH from these fine granules was similar to that of a once-a-day dosage form obtained in the market; further, the dependency of the dissolution profile on pH of the media was less. Thus, it was concluded that this TMG method was very useful for preparing not only controlled-release beads of granule size (usually 500 to 1400 microns) but also fine granules.

  2. Morphological study of the solar granulation. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, I.

    1980-01-01

    A time sequence of granulation images of 46 min long has allowed us to make a detailed study of the evolution of granules in an area of approximately 17 x 17 on the solar surface; It is found that the granules evolve by repeated fragmentation into smaller granules or merging with adjacent ones and that there are few granules which appear in the intergranular lanes as new granules (Table III). The statistical nature of granules is as follows: (1) A family of granules is defined as a group of granules produced from a single granule by fragmentation or merging. The lifetime is estimated for single granules and for families of granules. The lifetime shows a close correlation with the maximum size of a single granule or with that of the largest granule belonging to a family (Figures 5 and 7). (2) The smaller the size, the more probably a granule will disappear without further fragmentation or merging. The granule whose size is larger than 2 will certainly split or merge as the next evolutional step (Table IV.). (orig.)

  3. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-granules: ultrastructure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-12-29

    Dec 29, 2006 ... morphometry and function. Eliane Florencio ... granules is greatest in the right atrium followed by the left atrium and left auricle and right auricle, in this order. ... family: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), Urodilatin, Brain natriuretic ...

  4. Titanium Granules for Augmentation of the Maxillary Sinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstadaas, Ståle Petter; Verket, Anders; Pinholt, Else Marie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biomaterials are commonly used to augment the maxillary sinus floor prior to or in conjunction with dental implant installation. Recently, porous titanium granules (PTGs) have been used in oral implant surgery to stabilize implants and function as an osteoconductive matrix. PURPOSE...... in the study. RESULTS: One immobile implant was removed. The mean marginal bone loss was 0.5 mm and 0.8 mm, on the mesial and distal side, respectively. Histologically, all biopsies demonstrated bone ingrowth. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that PTG can be safely and effectively used as augmentation material...

  5. Mathematical model of melt flow channel granulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kiselev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulation of carbohydrate-vitamin-mineral supplements based on molasses is performed at a high humidity (26 %, so for a stable operation of granulator it is necessary to reveal its melt flow pattern. To describe melt non-isothermal flow in the granulator a mathematical model with following initial equations: continuity equation, motion equation and rheological equation – was developed. The following assumptions were adopted: the melt flow in the granulator is a steady laminar flow; inertial and gravity forces can be ignored; melt is an incompressible fluid; velocity gradient in the flow direction is much smaller than in the transverse direction; the pressure gradient over the cross section of the channel is constant; the flow is hydrodynamically fully developed; effects impact on the channel inlet and outlet may be neglected. Due to the assumptions adopted, it can be considered that in this granulator only velocity components in the x-direction are significant and all the members of the equation with the components and their derivatives with respect to the coordinates y and z can be neglected. The resulting solutions were obtained: the equation for the mean velocity, the equation for determining the volume flow, the formula for calculating of mean time of the melt being in the granulator, the equation for determining the shear stress, the equation for determining the shear rate and the equation for determining the pressure loss. The results of calculations of the equations obtained are in complete agreement with the experimental data; deviation range is 16–19 %. The findings about the melt movement pattern in granulator allowed developing a methodology for calculating a rational design of the granulator molding unit.

  6. [Comparative analysis between origin of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder and modern formula granules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Tian, Wei-Lan; Hou, Ji-Ru; Jin, Shi-Yuan; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the origin and causes of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder were reviewed, and a comprehensive analysis was made for the time background of modern traditional Chinese medicine formula granules and the future development trend, in order to provide reference for application and promotion of traditional Chinese medicine formula granules. By reference to ancient medical books of previous dynasties, a system review was conducted for infancy, formation, maturity and transition of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder, and a comprehensive analysis was made for the six factors of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder's maturity in the Song Dynasty. Efforts were made to collect domestic and foreign research literatures of modern formula granules, understand the detailed development, and conduct an objective analysis of the current clinical application of modern formula granules. According to the comparative analysis for the application characteristics of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder and modern formula granules, ①the popularity of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder in the Song Dynasty has six factors: soaring numbers of medical students and medical practitioners, high medical expenses due to huge army, rapid population growth, frequent epidemics and increasing diseases, and insufficient finances of central and local governments. ②On the basis of clinical application characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine formula granules, traditional Chinese medicine formula granules contain extracted and concentrated effective components, which guarantee the curative effect, meet modern people's demands for "quick, simple and convenience" traditional Chinese medicine decoctions, show a relatively high cost performance; however, formula granules are restricted by their varieties and lack unified quality control standards, and single-extract formula granules have not synergy and attenuation effects of combined traditional

  7. The connection between stellar granulation and oscillation as seen by the Kepler mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallinger, T.; De Ridder, J.; Hekker, S.; Mathur, S.; Mosser, B.; Gruberbauer, M.; García, R.A.; Karoff, C.; Ballot, J.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The long and almost continuous observations by Kepler show clear evidence of a granulation background signal in a large sample of stars, which is interpreted as the surface manifestation of convection. It has been shown that its characteristic timescale and rms intensity fluctuation scale

  8. Granule size control and targeting in pulsed spray fluid bed granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Henrik; Liu, Anchang; Räikkönen, Heikki; Hatara, Juha; Antikainen, Osmo; Airaksinen, Sari; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Lou, Honxiang; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2009-07-30

    The primary aim of the study was to investigate the effects of pulsed liquid feed on granule size. The secondary aim was to increase knowledge of this technique in granule size targeting. Pulsed liquid feed refers to the pump changing between on- and off-positions in sequences, called duty cycles. One duty cycle consists of one on- and off-period. The study was performed with a laboratory-scale top-spray fluid bed granulator with duty cycle length and atomization pressure as studied variables. The liquid feed rate, amount and inlet air temperature were constant. The granules were small, indicating that the powder has only undergone ordered mixing, nucleation and early growth. The effect of atomizing pressure on granule size depends on inlet air relative humidity, with premature binder evaporation as a reason. The duty cycle length was of critical importance to the end product attributes, by defining the extent of intermittent drying and rewetting. By varying only the duty cycle length, it was possible to control granule nucleation and growth, with a wider granule size target range in increased relative humidity. The present study confirms that pulsed liquid feed in fluid bed granulation is a useful tool in end product particle size targeting.

  9. Study of light scattering by a granulated coated sphere - a model of granulated blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yurkin, M.A.; de Kanter, D.; Hoekstra, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    We performed extensive simulations of light scattering by granulated coated sphere model using the discrete dipole approximation and varying model parameters in the ranges of sizes and refractive indices of granulated blood cells. We compared these results with predictions of Maxwell-Garnett

  10. Investigation of Physicochemical Drug Properties to Prepare Fine Globular Granules Composed of Only Drug Substance in Fluidized Bed Rotor Granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mise, Ryohei; Iwao, Yasunori; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Osugi, Yukiko; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    The effect of some drug properties (wettability and particle size distribution) on granule properties (mean particle size, particle size distribution, sphericity, and granule strength) were investigated in a high (>97%) drug-loading formulation using fluidized bed rotor granulation. Three drugs: acetaminophen (APAP); ibuprofen (IBU); and ethenzamide (ETZ) were used as model drugs based on their differences in wettability and particle size distribution. Granules with mean particle sizes of 100-200 µm and a narrow particle size distribution (PSD) could be prepared regardless of the drug used. IBU and ETZ granules showed a higher sphericity than APAP granules, while APAP and ETZ granules exhibited higher granule strength than IBU. The relationship between drug and granule properties suggested that the wettability and the PSD of the drugs were critical parameters affecting sphericity and granule strength, respectively. Furthermore, the dissolution profiles of granules prepared with poorly water-soluble drugs (IBU and ETZ) showed a rapid release (80% release in 20 min) because of the improved wettability with granulation. The present study demonstrated for the first time that fluidized bed rotor granulation can prepare high drug-loaded (>97%) globular granules with a mean particle size of less than 200 µm and the relationship between physicochemical drug properties and the properties of the granules obtained could be readily determined, indicating the potential for further application of this methodology to various drugs.

  11. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  12. Patrick Pearse: Psychobiographical Reflections on an Enigmatic, Paradoxical Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orr, Patricia Meredith

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To date historians have focused almost exclusively on Patrick Pearse’s key role in the 1916 Easter Rising to the extent that there is much less information about his personality development and characteristics. They have portrayed the elusive, paradoxical Patrick as nationalist, revolutionary and martyr or as a flawed and failed human being. Moran, agreeing with comments made at an earlier time by F.S.L. Lyons, suggests that, to have any real understanding of Patrick’s role in the rebellion and the events that led up to it, historians need to focus more attention on understanding the man himself.[1] The approach used in this article is psychobiographical, a methodology that applies psychological theory to biographical information in order to more fully understand an individual’s personality and achievements. In the case of Patrick Pearse the biographical information focuses on consensual aspects of his family background, his life experiences, his role as educator and his emergence as leader and hero. With regard to psychological theory, there are many empirically supported perspectives than could have been applied in this psychobiography. However, for the purposes of this particular article three perspectives have been selected. Drawing on some main tenets of the psychoanalytic, humanistic and trait approaches, the authors hope to provide a broader understanding of the influences and experiences that may have shaped Pearse as son, sibling, peer, educator and ultimately as a main instigator of the 1916 Rising and one of Ireland’s most famous patriots.

  13. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crittenden Elizabeth L

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. Results The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusions Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion.

  14. A Survey of Sludge Granulation Theories Under Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Shayegan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the different theories developed on anaerobic sludge granulation. The theories are generally categorized as physical, microbial, and thermodynamic approaches. In the physical approach to the granulation process, granulation is described by such physical conditions of the reactor as upflow velocity of gas and liquid streams, suspended solids in the effluent flow, and excess sludge removal. Microbial theories are based on the properties of specific organisms and on granule properties (granule structure and its microbiology. The thermodynamic approach studies such factors as hydrophobia, electrophoretic mobility, effective energy in granule adhesion process, and effect of proton transferring activities on bacterial membrane surfaces.

  15. Study of granulated nickel alloy superplasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anoshkin, N.F.; Fatkullin, O.Kh.; Ermanok, M.Z.; Sharshagin, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    Peculiarities of the structure and properties of compact material obtained from granules of the EhI 698 and ZhS6U alloys in the form of pressed rods are investigated. It is shown, that granule metallurgy is the most rational technology method, ensuring the receipt of stable fine-grained structure in the initial blank. After appropriate thermal treatment the products obtained by the method of granule metallyrgy have more high strength characteristics at the room temperature and heat resistance, than typical for the products produced by traditional technology. Creation of specialized vertical presses providing low rates of deformation as well as their equipment by vacuum mechanizms which permit to use a tool from molybdenum alloys is necessary for successful introduction into production of the processes of plastic metal working under conditions of superplasticity

  16. Antimicrobial-Coated Granules for Disinfecting Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.; Kliestik, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Methods of preparing antimicrobialcoated granules for disinfecting flowing potable water have been developed. Like the methods reported in the immediately preceding article, these methods involve chemical preparation of substrate surfaces (in this case, the surfaces of granules) to enable attachment of antimicrobial molecules to the surfaces via covalent bonds. A variety of granular materials have been coated with a variety of antimicrobial agents that include antibiotics, bacteriocins, enzymes, bactericides, and fungicides. When employed in packed beds in flowing water, these antimicrobial-coated granules have been proven effective against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Composite beds, consisting of multiple layers containing different granular antimicrobial media, have proven particularly effective against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. These media have also proven effective in enhancing or potentiating the biocidal effects of in-line iodinated resins and of very low levels of dissolved elemental iodine.

  17. Chromospheric impact of an exploding solar granule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, C. E.; Bello González, N.; Rezaei, R.

    2017-06-01

    Context. Observations of multi-wavelength and therefore height-dependent information following events throughout the solar atmosphere and unambiguously assigning a relation between these rapidly evolving layers are rare and difficult to obtain. Yet, they are crucial for our understanding of the physical processes that couple the different regimes in the solar atmosphere. Aims: We characterize the exploding granule event with simultaneous observations of Hinode spectroplarimetric data in the solar photosphere and Hinode broadband Ca II H images combined with Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) slit spectra. We follow the evolution of an exploding granule and its connectivity throughout the atmosphere and analyze the dynamics of a magnetic element that has been affected by the abnormal granule. Methods: In addition to magnetic flux maps we use a local correlation tracking method to infer the horizontal velocity flows in the photosphere and apply a wavelet analysis on several IRIS chromospheric emission features such as Mg II k2v and Mg II k3 to detect oscillatory phenomena indicating wave propagation. Results: During the vigorous expansion of the abnormal granule we detect radially outward horizontal flows, causing, together with the horizontal flows from the surrounding granules, the magnetic elements in the bordering intergranular lanes to be squeezed and elongated. In reaction to the squeezing, we detect a chromospheric intensity and velocity oscillation pulse which we identify as an upward traveling hot shock front propagating clearly through the IRIS spectral line diagnostics of Mg II h&k. Conclusions: Exploding granules can trigger upward-propagating shock fronts that dissipate in the chromosphere. Movies associated to Figs. A.1 and A.2 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Lemongrass Oil Granules AS Aedes Aegypti Larvicide

    OpenAIRE

    Mulyani, Sri

    2014-01-01

    One way to prevent the spread of Haemorrhage Dengue Fever is the use of abate. The use of abate as larvicides often complained causing an unpleasant smell, and can cause resistance. Lemongrass oil is reported to have activity as larvicides, and this study aims to make granules of lemongrass oil preparation, as well as determining the value of LC50, LC90 against larvae of Ae. aegypti instar III. The granules of lemongrass oil preparation are made with lactose filler and binder CMC-Na. Larvicid...

  19. Method of producing granulated ceramic nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    For the production of granulated ceramic nuclear fuels with a grain size spectrum as narrow as possible it is proposed to suspend the nuclear fuel powder in a non-aqueous solvent with small content of hydrogen (e.g. chloridized hydrocarbons) while adding a binding agent and then dry it by means of rays. As binding agent polybutyl methane acrylate in dibutyl phthalate is proposed. The method is described by the example of UO 2 -powder in trichloroethylene. The dry granulated material is produced in one working step. (UWI) [de

  20. Arachnoid granulation affected by subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Chopard

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate using light microscopy the fibro-cellular components of arachnoid granulations affected by mild and severe subarachnoid hemorrage. The erythrocytes were in the channels delimitated by collagenous and elastic bundles and arachnoid cells, showing their tortuous and intercommunicating row from the pedicle to the fibrous capsule. The core portion of the pedicle and the center represented a principal route to the bulk outflow of cerebrospinal fluid and erythrocytes. In the severe hemorrhage, the fibrocellular components are desorganized, increasing the extracellular channels. We could see arachnoid granulations without erythrocytes, which cells showed big round nucleous suggesting their transformation into phagocytic cells.

  1. Creep of granulated loose-fill insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    This report presents a proposal for a standardised method for creep tests and the necessary theoretical framework that can be used to describe creep of a granulated loose-fill material. Furthermore results from a round robin test are shown. The round robin test was carried out in collaboration...... with SP-Building Physics in Sweden and VTT Building Technology in Finland. For the round robin test a cellulosic fibre insulation material was used. The proposed standardised method for creep tests and theories are limited to cases when the granulated loose-fill material is exposed to a constant...

  2. Molecular composition of IMP1 ribonucleoprotein granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønson, Lars; Vikesaa, Jonas; Krogh, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Localized mRNAs are transported to sites of local protein synthesis in large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules, but their molecular composition is incompletely understood. Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein (IMP) zip code-binding proteins participate in mRNA localization, and in mo......Localized mRNAs are transported to sites of local protein synthesis in large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules, but their molecular composition is incompletely understood. Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein (IMP) zip code-binding proteins participate in mRNA localization...

  3. Background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of background radiation, whether natural or caused by man's activities, are discussed. The known biological effects of radiation in causing cancers or genetic mutations are explained. The statement that there is a threshold below which there is no risk is examined critically. (U.K.)

  4. Vaccine adjuvants: Tailor-made mast-cell granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzer, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    Mast cells induce protective immune responses through secretion of stimulatory granules. Microparticles modelled after mast-cell granules are now shown to replicate and enhance the functions of their natural counterparts and to direct the character of the resulting immunity.

  5. Breakage and drying behaviour of granules in a continuous fluid bed dryer: Influence of process parameters and wet granule transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leersnyder, F; Vanhoorne, V; Bekaert, H; Vercruysse, J; Ghijs, M; Bostijn, N; Verstraeten, M; Cappuyns, P; Van Assche, I; Vander Heyden, Y; Ziemons, E; Remon, J P; Nopens, I; Vervaet, C; De Beer, T

    2018-03-30

    Although twin screw granulation has already been widely studied in recent years, only few studies addressed the subsequent continuous drying which is required after wet granulation and still suffers from a lack of detailed understanding. The latter is important for optimisation and control and, hence, a cost-effective practical implementation. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to increase understanding of the drying kinetics and the breakage and attrition phenomena during fluid bed drying after continuous twin screw granulation. Experiments were performed on a continuous manufacturing line consisting of a twin-screw granulator, a six-segmented fluid bed dryer, a mill, a lubricant blender and a tablet press. Granulation parameters were fixed in order to only examine the effect of drying parameters (filling time, drying time, air flow, drying air temperature) on the size distribution and moisture content of granules (both of the entire granulate and of size fractions). The wet granules were transferred either gravimetrically or pneumatically from the granulator exit to the fluid bed dryer. After a certain drying time, the moisture content reached an equilibrium. This drying time was found to depend on the applied airflow, drying air temperature and filling time. The moisture content of the granules decreased with an increasing drying time, airflow and drying temperature. Although smaller granules dried faster, the multimodal particle size distribution of the granules did not compromise uniform drying of the granules when the target moisture content was achieved. Extensive breakage of granules was observed during drying. Especially wet granules were prone to breakage and attrition during pneumatic transport, either in the wet transfer line or in the dry transfer line. Breakage and attrition of granules during transport and drying should be anticipated early on during process and formulation development by performing integrated experiments on the granulator

  6. Sodium phenylbutyrate coated granules (Pheburane). Defective urea synthesis: a welcome formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Compared with Ammonaps granules, Pheburane coated granules mask the unpleasant taste of sodium phenylbutyrate. A more precise dosing device is provided with the coated granules than with the uncoated granules (Ammonaps).

  7. Detection and Analysis of the Quality of Ibuprofen Granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-bin, Ji; Xin, LI; Guo-song, Xin; Qin-bing, Xue

    2017-12-01

    The Ibuprofen Granules comprehensive quality testing to ensure that it is in accordance with the provisions of Chinese pharmacopoeia. With reference of Chinese pharmacopoeia, the Ibuprofen Granules is tested by UV, HPLC, in terms of grain size checking, volume deviation, weight loss on drying detection, dissolution rate detection, and quality evaluation. Results indicated that Ibuprofen Granules conform to the standards. The Ibuprofen Granules are qualified and should be permitted to be marketed.

  8. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-granules: ultrastructure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANP) are present in the four regions of the atrial-auricular complex (two atria and two auricles). ANP-immunoreactivity was detected in all granules from the four regions. Ultrastructurally, atrial myocytes show the presence of very electron dense ...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1468 - Naproxen granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1468 Naproxen granules. (a... musculoskeletal system of the horse. (2)(i) For oral maintenance therapy following initial intravenous dosage...

  10. Water Filtration through Homogeneous Granulated Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Krautsou

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available General relationship for calculation of water filtration through homogeneous granulated charge has been obtained. The obtained relationship has been compared with experimental data. Discrepancies between calculated and experimental values do not exceed 6 % throughout the entire investigated range.

  11. The influence of granulating solvents on drug release from tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... significantly lower than the other wet granulated tablets, but higher than the matrix tablets. The granulating solvent influenced the release of drug which increased with increase in the water content. Key Words: Grewia gum: Granulating solvents; Release mechanisms. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources Vol.1(1) 2004: ...

  12. 21 CFR 520.905b - Fenbendazole granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fenbendazole granules. 520.905b Section 520.905b... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.905b Fenbendazole granules. (a) Specifications. Each gram of granules contains 222 milligrams (mg) fenbendazole. (b) Sponsor. See...

  13. Amylolytic hydrolysis of native starch granules affected by granule surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J C; Kong, B W; Kim, M J; Lee, S H

    2008-11-01

    Initial stage of hydrolysis of native starch granules with various amylolytic enzymes, alpha-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, glucoamylase I (GA-I) and II (GA-II) from Aspergillus niger, and beta-amylase from sweet potato showed that the reaction was apparently affected by a specific surface area of the starch granules. The ratios of the reciprocal of initial velocity of each amylolytic hydrolysis for native potato and maize starch to that for rice with the amylolytic enzymes were nearly equivalent to the ratio of surface area per mass of the 2 starch granules to that of rice, that is, 6.94 and 2.25, respectively. Thus, the reciprocal of initial velocity of each enzymatic hydrolysis as expressed in a Lineweaver-Burk plot was a linear function of the reciprocal of surface area for each starch granule. As a result, it is concluded that amylolytic hydrolysis of native starch granules is governed by the specific surface area, not by the mass concentration, of each granule.

  14. Enigmatic Sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Katrine Egede; Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    ? Divided into three sections, Clinical Encounters in Sexuality begins with six chapters on important themes in queer theory: identity, desire, perversion, pleasure, discourse and ethics. Section two includes fourteen responses to the chapters in section one by practising psychoanalysts and psychoanalytic......: psychoanalytic and queer. The book is edited by two psychoanalytic practitioners — one Kleinian, one Freudian-Lacanian — who also have research expertise in sexuality studies. All pieces are new and have been commissioned....

  15. Granulation of snow: From tumbler experiments to discrete element simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkogler, Walter; Gaume, Johan; Löwe, Henning; Sovilla, Betty; Lehning, Michael

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that snow avalanches exhibit granulation phenomena, i.e., the formation of large and apparently stable snow granules during the flow. The size distribution of the granules has an influence on flow behavior which, in turn, affects runout distances and avalanche velocities. The underlying mechanisms of granule formation are notoriously difficult to investigate within large-scale field experiments, due to limitations in the scope for measuring temperatures, velocities, and size distributions. To address this issue we present experiments with a concrete tumbler, which provide an appropriate means to investigate granule formation of snow. In a set of experiments at constant rotation velocity with varying temperatures and water content, we demonstrate that temperature has a major impact on the formation of granules. The experiments showed that granules only formed when the snow temperature exceeded -1∘C. No evolution in the granule size was observed at colder temperatures. Depending on the conditions, different granulation regimes are obtained, which are qualitatively classified according to their persistence and size distribution. The potential of granulation of snow in a tumbler is further demonstrated by showing that generic features of the experiments can be reproduced by cohesive discrete element simulations. The proposed discrete element model mimics the competition between cohesive forces, which promote aggregation, and impact forces, which induce fragmentation, and supports the interpretation of the granule regime classification obtained from the tumbler experiments. Generalizations, implications for flow dynamics, and experimental and model limitations as well as suggestions for future work are discussed.

  16. Factors Involved in Sludge Granulation under Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Shayegan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of factors involved in sludge anaerobic granulation. Granulated sludge formation is the main parameter contributing to the success of UASB reactors. Anaerobic granulation leads to reduced reactor size, space requirement, and investment costs. Operation costs are also greatly reduced due to lack of aeration. An important parameter affecting process performance is the size of sludge granules; the factors involved in granule size will be investigated. Some of the important parameters of anaerobic sludge granulation are: existence of growth cores as inert particles or granulated sludge, process operational conditions (Sludge Loading Rate and Organic Loading Rate, Loading rate increase and …, and environment conditions (nutrients, temperature, pH, combination and ….

  17. Giant renin secretory granules in beige mouse renal afferent arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Rasch, Ruth; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    1997-01-01

    The mutant beige mouse (C57BL/6 bg) has a disease characterised by abnormally enlarged cytoplasmic granules in a variety of cells. With the purpose of establishing a suitable cellular model for studying renin secretion, the present study was undertaken to compare renin granule morphology in beige...... (average granular volume 0.681 microm3), whereas 1-2 large granules were present per cell in beige mice. The volume of afferent arteriole that contained secretory granules was lower in the beige mice. We conclude that the beige mouse synthesizes, stores and releases active renin. Renin secretory granules...... in beige mice are grossly enlarged with 1-2 granules per juxtaglomerular cell. Compared with control mice, a similar amount of total renin granule volume per afferent arteriole is contained in a smaller part of beige mouse afferent arteriole. Granular cells from beige mice could therefore be a valuable...

  18. Increased accuracy of starch granule type quantification using mixture distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Emi; Ral, Jean-Phillippe F; Li, Sean; Gaire, Raj; Cavanagh, Colin R; Cullis, Brian R; Whan, Alex

    2017-01-01

    The proportion of granule types in wheat starch is an important characteristic that can affect its functionality. It is widely accepted that granule types are either large, disc-shaped A-type granules or small, spherical B-type granules. Additionally, there are some reports of the tiny C-type granules. The differences between these granule types are due to its carbohydrate composition and crystallinity which is highly, but not perfectly, correlated with the granule size. A majority of the studies that have considered granule types analyse them based on a size threshold rather than chemical composition. This is understandable due to the expense of separating starch into different types. While the use of a size threshold to classify granule type is a low-cost measure, this results in misclassification. We present an alternative, statistical method to quantify the proportion of granule types by a fit of the mixture distribution, along with an R package, a web based app and a video tutorial for how to use the web app to enable its straightforward application. Our results show that the reliability of the genotypic effects increase approximately 60% using the proportions of the A-type and B-type granule estimated by the mixture distribution over the standard size-threshold measure. Although there was a marginal drop in reliability for C-type granules. The latter is likely due to the low observed genetic variance for C-type granules. The determination of the proportion of granule types from size-distribution is better achieved by using the mixing probabilities from the fit of the mixture distribution rather than using a size-threshold.

  19. Microbial granulation for lactic acid production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Mo-Kwon; Hwang, Yuhoon

    2016-01-01

    This work investigated the formation of microbial granules to boost the productivity of lactic acid (LA). The flocculated form of LA-producing microbial consortium, dominated by Lactobacillus sp. (91.5% of total sequence), was initially obtained in a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR), which...... increased, reaching 67 g L-fermenter−1h−1 at HRT 0.17 h. The size of LA-producing granules and hydrophobicity gradually increased with decrease in HRT, reaching 6.0 mm and 60%, respectively. These biogranules were also found to have high settling velocities and low porosities, ranging 2.69-4.73 cm s−1 and 0...

  20. PTEN deletion from adult-generated dentate granule cells disrupts granule cell mossy fiber axon structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSarge, Candi L; Santos, Victor R; Danzer, Steve C

    2015-03-01

    Dysregulation of the mTOR-signaling pathway is implicated in the development of temporal lobe epilepsy. In mice, deletion of PTEN from hippocampal dentate granule cells leads to mTOR hyperactivation and promotes the rapid onset of spontaneous seizures. The mechanism by which these abnormal cells initiate epileptogenesis, however, is unclear. PTEN-knockout granule cells develop abnormally, exhibiting morphological features indicative of increased excitatory input. If these cells are directly responsible for seizure genesis, it follows that they should also possess increased output. To test this prediction, dentate granule cell axon morphology was quantified in control and PTEN-knockout mice. Unexpectedly, PTEN deletion increased giant mossy fiber bouton spacing along the axon length, suggesting reduced innervation of CA3. Increased width of the mossy fiber axon pathway in stratum lucidum, however, which likely reflects an unusual increase in mossy fiber axon collateralization in this region, offsets the reduction in boutons per axon length. These morphological changes predict a net increase in granule cell innervation of CA3. Increased diameter of axons from PTEN-knockout cells would further enhance granule cell communication with CA3. Altogether, these findings suggest that amplified information flow through the hippocampal circuit contributes to seizure occurrence in the PTEN-knockout mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida Granule in Treatment of Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Ya-Lin; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Su, Wei-Juan; Chen, Ning-Ning; Lu, Shu-Hua; Wang, Li-Ying; Shi, Xiu-Lin; Li, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Shu-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health problem worldwide. Several clinical trials have shown the superiority of the Traditional Chinese Medicine in delaying or reversing the development and progression of DM. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Jinlida (JLD) granule, a Chinese herbal recipe, in the treatment of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and its effect on the prevention of DM. Methods: Sixty-five IGT patients were randomized to receive one bag of JLD granu...

  2. Carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium requires Ca2+ and calcineurin

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Adam S; Garc?a, Dana M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Inside bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) retinal pigment epithelial cells, pigment granules move in response to extracellular signals. During the process of aggregation, pigment motility is directed toward the cell nucleus; in dispersion, pigment is directed away from the nucleus and into long apical processes. A number of different chemicals have been found to initiate dispersion, and carbachol (an acetylcholine analog) is one example. Previous research indicates that the ca...

  3. Granule fraction inhomogeneity of calcium carbonate/sorbitol in roller compacted granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Charlotte; Olsen, P.M.; Bertelsen, P.

    2008-01-01

    The granule fraction inhomogeneity of roller compacted granules was examined on mixtures of three different morphologic forms of calcium carbonate and three particle sizes of sorbitol. The granule fraction inhomogeneity was determined by the distribution of the calcium carbonate in each of the 10...... size fractions between 0 and 2000 µm and by calculating the demixing potential. Significant inhomogeneous occurrence of calcium carbonate in the size fractions was demonstrated, depending mostly on the particles sizes of sorbitol but also on the morphological forms of calcium carbonate......, the ability of the powder to agglomerate in the roller compactor was demonstrated to be related to the ability of the powder to be compacted into a tablet, thus the most compactable calcium carbonate and the smallest sized sorbitol improved the homogeneity by decreasing the demixing potential....

  4. Visualization and understanding of the granulation liquid mixing and distribution during continuous twin screw granulation using NIR chemical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, Jurgen; Toiviainen, Maunu; Fonteyne, Margot; Helkimo, Niko; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Juuti, Mikko; Delaet, Urbain; Van Assche, Ivo; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in the application of twin screw granulation as a continuous wet granulation technique for pharmaceutical drug formulations. However, the mixing of granulation liquid and powder material during the short residence time inside the screw chamber and the atypical particle size distribution (PSD) of granules produced by twin screw granulation is not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study aims at visualizing the granulation liquid mixing and distribution during continuous twin screw granulation using NIR chemical imaging. In first instance, the residence time of material inside the barrel was investigated as function of screw speed and moisture content followed by the visualization of the granulation liquid distribution as function of different formulation and process parameters (liquid feed rate, liquid addition method, screw configuration, moisture content and barrel filling degree). The link between moisture uniformity and granule size distributions was also studied. For residence time analysis, increased screw speed and lower moisture content resulted to a shorter mean residence time and narrower residence time distribution. Besides, the distribution of granulation liquid was more homogenous at higher moisture content and with more kneading zones on the granulator screws. After optimization of the screw configuration, a two-level full factorial experimental design was performed to evaluate the influence of moisture content, screw speed and powder feed rate on the mixing efficiency of the powder and liquid phase. From these results, it was concluded that only increasing the moisture content significantly improved the granulation liquid distribution. This study demonstrates that NIR chemical imaging is a fast and adequate measurement tool for allowing process visualization and hence for providing better process understanding of a continuous twin screw granulation system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  5. Traffic-related air pollutants induce the release of allergen-containing cytoplasmic granules from grass pollen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motta, A C; Marliere, M; Peltre, G; Sterenberg, P A; Lacroix, G

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCG) are loaded with allergens. They are released from grass pollen grains following contact with water and can form a respirable allergenic aerosol. On the other hand, the traffic-related air pollutants NO2 and O3 are known to be involved in the current

  6. Traffic-related air pollutants induce the release of allergen-containing cytoplasmic granules from grass pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motta, AC; Marliere, M; Peltre, G; Sterenberg, PA; Lacroix, G

    2006-01-01

    Background/Aim: Pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCG) are loaded with allergens. They are released from grass pollen grains following contact with water and can form a respirable allergenic aerosol. On the other hand, the traffic-related air pollutants NO2 and O-3 are known to be involved in the current

  7. Giant arachnoid granulation in a patient with benign intracranial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiroglu, Yilmaz; Yaqci, Baki; Cirak, Bayram; Karabulut, Nevzat

    2008-01-01

    We report magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT) and angiographic imaging of an unusual giant arachnoid granulation in the superior sagittal sinus in a man with headache and vertigo. Intrasinus pressure measurements revealed a significant pressure gradient across the lesion. MR imaging is useful to identify giant arachnoid granulation and dural sinus thrombosis, whereas dural sinus pressure measurement in certain cases of giant arachnoid granulations can be used to evaluate the lesion as the cause of the patient's symptoms. (orig.)

  8. Giant arachnoid granulation in a patient with benign intracranial hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiroglu, Yilmaz; Yaqci, Baki; Cirak, Bayram; Karabulut, Nevzat [Pamukkale University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Denizli (Turkey)

    2008-10-15

    We report magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT) and angiographic imaging of an unusual giant arachnoid granulation in the superior sagittal sinus in a man with headache and vertigo. Intrasinus pressure measurements revealed a significant pressure gradient across the lesion. MR imaging is useful to identify giant arachnoid granulation and dural sinus thrombosis, whereas dural sinus pressure measurement in certain cases of giant arachnoid granulations can be used to evaluate the lesion as the cause of the patient's symptoms. (orig.)

  9. Rab3A, a possible marker of cortical granules, participates in cortical granule exocytosis in mouse eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, Oscar Daniel; Cappa, Andrea Isabel; Paola, Matilde de; Zanetti, María Natalia [Instituto de Histología y Embriología, CONICET – Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Libertador 80, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Fukuda, Mitsunori [Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Fissore, Rafael A. [Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 661 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Mayorga, Luis S. [Instituto de Histología y Embriología, CONICET – Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Libertador 80, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Michaut, Marcela A., E-mail: mmichaut@gmail.com [Instituto de Histología y Embriología, CONICET – Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Libertador 80, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo (Argentina)

    2016-09-10

    Fusion of cortical granules with the oocyte plasma membrane is the most significant event to prevent polyspermy. This particular exocytosis, also known as cortical reaction, is regulated by calcium and its molecular mechanism is still not known. Rab3A, a member of the small GTP-binding protein superfamily, has been implicated in calcium-dependent exocytosis and is not yet clear whether Rab3A participates in cortical granules exocytosis. Here, we examine the involvement of Rab3A in the physiology of cortical granules, particularly, in their distribution during oocyte maturation and activation, and their participation in membrane fusion during cortical granule exocytosis. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis showed that Rab3A and cortical granules have a similar migration pattern during oocyte maturation, and that Rab3A is no longer detected after cortical granule exocytosis. These results suggested that Rab3A might be a marker of cortical granules. Overexpression of EGFP-Rab3A colocalized with cortical granules with a Pearson correlation coefficient of +0.967, indicating that Rab3A and cortical granules have almost a perfect colocalization in the egg cortical region. Using a functional assay, we demonstrated that microinjection of recombinant, prenylated and active GST-Rab3A triggered cortical granule exocytosis, indicating that Rab3A has an active role in this secretory pathway. To confirm this active role, we inhibited the function of endogenous Rab3A by microinjecting a polyclonal antibody raised against Rab3A prior to parthenogenetic activation. Our results showed that Rab3A antibody microinjection abolished cortical granule exocytosis in parthenogenetically activated oocytes. Altogether, our findings confirm that Rab3A might function as a marker of cortical granules and participates in cortical granule exocytosis in mouse eggs. - Highlights: • Rab3A has a similar migration pattern to cortical granules in mouse oocytes. • Rab3A can be a marker of

  10. Microbial granulation for lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Mo-Kwon; Hwang, Yuhoon; Im, Wan-Taek; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Park, Chul; Kim, Mi-Sun

    2016-01-01

    This work investigated the formation of microbial granules to boost the productivity of lactic acid (LA). The flocculated form of LA-producing microbial consortium, dominated by Lactobacillus sp. (91.5% of total sequence), was initially obtained in a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR), which was fed with 2% glucose and operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12 h and pH 5.0 ± 0.1 under a thermophilic condition (50°C). The mixed liquor in the CSTR was then transferred to an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB). The fermentation performance and granulation process were monitored with a gradual decrease of HRT from 8.0 to 0.17 h, corresponding to an increase in the substrate loading from 60 to 2,880 g glucose L(-1) d(-1) . As the operation continued, the accumulation of biomass in the UASB was clearly observed, which changed from flocculent to granular form with decrease in HRT. Up to the HRT decrease to 0.5 h, the LA concentration was maintained at 19-20 g L(-1) with over 90% of substrate removal efficiency. However, further decrease of HRT resulted in a decrease of LA concentration with increase in residual glucose. Nevertheless, the volumetric LA productivity continuously increased, reaching 67 g L-fermenter (-1) h(-1) at HRT 0.17 h. The size of LA-producing granules and hydrophobicity gradually increased with decrease in HRT, reaching 6.0 mm and 60%, respectively. These biogranules were also found to have high settling velocities and low porosities, ranging 2.69-4.73 cm s(-1) and 0.39-0.92, respectively. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Disintegration of aerobic granules induced by trans-2-decenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pei-Jie; Xiao, Xiang; He, Yan-Rong; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Lei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    One current major hurdle to practical implementation of aerobic granule technology is the frequent occurrence of granule disintegration during long-term operation. However, the mechanism behind this is largely unclear today. Here, 2-decenoic acid, which has been previously demonstrated to be released by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and disperse biofilms, was found to also induce the disintegration of aerobic granules. A comparison of the solution compositions from samples of only trans-2-decenoic acid, only aerobic granules, and granules added with trans-2-decenoic acid shows that bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were stripped from granule surface upon trans-2-decenoic acid dosing. Due to the possible toxicity of trans-2-decenoic acid at a saturation concentration, the disintegrated granules and the milky suspension in the disintegration test showed a significantly lower oxygen uptake rate than the un-integrated granules. This work suggests that trans-2-decenoic acid released by microbes might play a critical role in regulating the disintegration of aerobic granules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The enigmatic fast leaflet rotation in Desmodium motorium: butterfly mimicry for defense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2013-06-01

    I propose that the enigmatic leaflet movements in elliptical circles every few minutes of the Indian telegraph (semaphore) plant Desmodium motorium ( = D. gyrans = Hedysarum gyrans = Codariocalyx motorius), which has intrigued scientists for centuries, is a new type of butterfly or general winged arthropod mimicry by this plant. Such leaflet movement may deceive a passing butterfly searching for an un-occupied site suitable to deposit its eggs, that the plant is already occupied. It may also attract insectivorous birds, reptiles or arthropods to the plant because it looks as if it is harboring a potential prey and while they patrol there, they can find insects or other invertebrates that indeed attack the plant. The possibility that diurnal mammalian herbivores may also be deterred by these movements should not be dismissed.

  13. An Enigmatic Death in Farm Chopping Machine: Is This the Perfect Murder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Sara; Lancia, Massimo; Bacci, Mauro; Suadoni, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    Forensic autopsy, like the other sectors in medicine, has benefited from the technological progress and the creation of multidisciplinary teams to unveil more and more finely planned criminal intents.Forensic pathologists, however, can sometimes deal with very enigmatic cases, meeting so with the limits of their own knowledge. Therefore, in these cases, they must not allow themselves to be pressured by inquiring agencies, remaining instead always faithful to empiric observations.With regard to that, we present a peculiar case of death by shredding inside a grinding machinery. The magistrature consequently opened a dossier for willful murder. Lots of figures were appointed to solve the case and among them is the forensic pathologist. However, a great number of obstacles were put in the investigators' inquiries.Was it a perfect murder?

  14. An enigmatic, diminutive theropod footprint in the shallow marine Pliensbachian Hasle Formation, Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milàn, Jesper; Surlyk, Finn

    2015-01-01

    A well-preserved three-toed footprint, measuring 34 mm in length from a very small predatory dinosaur with an estimated hip height of 153 mm and a total body length around 50 cm including tail, is reported from the type section of the marine Lower Jurassic (Pliensbachian), Hasle Formation...... on the Danish island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea. The morphology of the footprint is similar to the ichnogenus Stenonyx Lull 1904 from the contemporaneous Pliensbachian Szydlowek site in Poland. Apart from the Polish material, footprints from diminutive dinosaurs are rare and reported from few other...... localities around the world. The occurrence of a diminutive dinosaur footprint in a shallow marine sandstone is enigmatic. The well-defined morphology of the footprint, together with the very small size of the trackmaker, excludes the possibility that the track was emplaced by a swimming or wading animal...

  15. New developments on transition radiation detectors using superconducting granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, L.C.L.

    1977-01-01

    By raising slightly either the temperature or the magnetic field to above that of the critical temperature or the critical magnetic field, the type I superconducting granules would still remain in the superconducting state which becomes a metastable state and is called the superheated superconducting state. If a relativistic charged particle incident on such a granule which is located in a colloidal suspension has imported to it an energy that is above the threshold energy (for state flipping) of the granule then it would flip to the normal state. The threshold energy of a granule is a function of the square of its radius, whereas the energy loss of a charged particle due to ionization is linearly proportional to the radius. The size of the granule can be pre-determined to be such that its threshold energy is slightly above the ionization loss of a relativistic charged particle. Then the traversal of the charged particle through such a granule would not affect the superconducting state of the granule unless a transition x-ray radiation is emitted at the surface of the granule by the traversing particle and the x-ray transition radiation is immediately absorbed either in total or partially by the metallic granule causing it to flip to the normal state. The total intensity of the x-ray transition radiation is linearly proportional to the Lorentz factor γ of the traversing particle, and the number of granules flipped would also be a measure of γ. Three methods for detecting the flipping of granules from the superconducting state to the normal state are described. They include the frequency measuring method, the SQUID method, and the pulse method with low noise amplifier system

  16. The biology and dynamics of mammalian cortical granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Min

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cortical granules are membrane bound organelles located in the cortex of unfertilized oocytes. Following fertilization, cortical granules undergo exocytosis to release their contents into the perivitelline space. This secretory process, which is calcium dependent and SNARE protein-mediated pathway, is known as the cortical reaction. After exocytosis, the released cortical granule proteins are responsible for blocking polyspermy by modifying the oocytes' extracellular matrices, such as the zona pellucida in mammals. Mammalian cortical granules range in size from 0.2 um to 0.6 um in diameter and different from most other regulatory secretory organelles in that they are not renewed once released. These granules are only synthesized in female germ cells and transform an egg upon sperm entry; therefore, this unique cellular structure has inherent interest for our understanding of the biology of fertilization. Cortical granules are long thought to be static and awaiting in the cortex of unfertilized oocytes to be stimulated undergoing exocytosis upon gamete fusion. Not till recently, the dynamic nature of cortical granules is appreciated and understood. The latest studies of mammalian cortical granules document that this organelle is not only biochemically heterogeneous, but also displays complex distribution during oocyte development. Interestingly, some cortical granules undergo exocytosis prior to fertilization; and a number of granule components function beyond the time of fertilization in regulating embryonic cleavage and preimplantation development, demonstrating their functional significance in fertilization as well as early embryonic development. The following review will present studies that investigate the biology of cortical granules and will also discuss new findings that uncover the dynamic aspect of this organelle in mammals.

  17. Shelf-life evaluation of Kaṃsaharītakī avaleha and its granules: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemuka, Nidhi; Galib, R; Patgiri, B J; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Savīryatā-avadhi (shelf life) of different Ayurvedic dosage forms is described in Śārṅgadharasaṃhitā. Though the concepts have a strong background, we seek to re-evaluate the age old concepts by following current norms. An attempt has been made in the present study to evaluate shelf-life of Kaṃsaharītakī avaleha and its granules. Raw materials were procured from Pharmacy, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar and utilized after proper authentication in pharmacognosy lab. The avaleha and its granules were prepared in the departmental laboratory following classical guidelines and subjected to accelerated stability studies. Both the products were found to be free from microbial contamination. Heavy metals were within the prescribed limit. Changes in physico-chemical profiles at different intervals are insignificant. On extrapolation of the observations, the shelf life of avaleha was found to be18 months and 27 months to the granules. Stability of granules was found to be comparatively higher than the avaleha. This observation may be exclusive to Kaṃsaharītakī avaleha. Studies on other avalehas and their granules need to be carried out to confirm this preliminary observation.

  18. Metatranscriptomics reveals the molecular mechanism of large granule formation in granular anammox reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Bagchi, Samik; Lamendella, Regina; Strutt, Steven; Van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    to formation of large granules. Size distribution analysis revealed the spatial distribution of granules in which large granules having higher abundance of anammox bacteria (genus Brocadia) dominated the bottom biomass. Metatranscriptomics analysis detected all

  19. Granule properties of paracetamol made with Bombax ceiba gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bombax ceiba gum was extracted from the calyx of the Bombax flower using both hot and cold water extraction method. The gum was used as binder to prepare paracetamol granules in concentrations of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 %. Acacia gum was used to prepare the standard at the same concentrations. The granule properties of ...

  20. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules | Meludu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important root crop in the food system of many African countries. The yield, nutrition and economic potential of sweet potato have been identified as very high. In this study, sweet potato was processed and toasted into granules. The proximate analysis performed on the toasted granules showed protein, ...

  1. Application of granulating of tires; Aplicaciones de granulado de NFUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Justicia, A.

    2001-07-01

    At present, used tires are mainly used as fuel, retreading and granulating of tires. In this article. I will focus on the last option, talking about some of the multiple applications and going into detail of the making process of the granulation of used tires in a recycling plant. (Author)

  2. Roll compaction and granulation system for nuclear fuel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H. Jr.; Holley, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    A roll compaction and roll granulation system has been designed and fabricated to replace conventional preslugging and crushing operations typically used in the fabrication of mixed oxide nuclear fuel pellets. This equipment will be of maintenance advantage with only the compaction and granulation rolls inside containment. The prototype is being tested and the results will be reported within a year

  3. Nonreutilizaton of adrenal chromaffin granule membranes following secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobiletti, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    The intracellular postexocytotic fate of the adrenal chromaffin granule membrane (reutilization vs. nonreutilization) was addressed through two experimental approaches. First, ( 3 H) leucine pulse-chase labeling experiments were conducted in two systems - the isolated retrograde perfused cat adrenal gland and cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells to compare chromaffin granule soluble dopamine-B-hydroxylase (DBH) turnover (marker for granule soluble content turnover) to that of membrane-bound DBH (marker for granule membrane turnover). Experiments in cat adrenal glands showed that at all chase periods the granule distribution of radiolabeled DBH was in agreement with the DBH activity distribution (73% membrane-bound/27% soluble) - a result consistent with parallel turnover of soluble and membrane-bound DBH. Experiments in cultured bovine cells showed that labeled soluble and membrane-bound DBH had parallel turnover patterns and at all chase period, the distribution of radiolabeled DBH between the soluble contents and membranes was similar to the DBH activity distribution (50% soluble/50% membrane-bound). The above experiments showed that the soluble contents and membranes turnover in parallel and are consistent with nonreutilization of chromaffin granule membranes following exocytosis. Isolated retrograde perfused bovine adrenal glands were subjected to repetitive acetylcholine stimulation to induce exocytosis and then the dense and less-dense chromaffin granule fractions were isolated. Since both approaches gave results consistent with membrane nonreutilization, the authors conclude that once a chromaffin granule is involved in exocytosis, its membrane is not reutilized for the further synthesis, storage, and secretion of catecholamines

  4. Autophagy meets fused in sarcoma-positive stress granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, Soledad; Bosco, Daryl A; Hetz, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    Mutations in fused in sarcoma and/or translocated in liposarcoma (FUS, TLS or FUS) are linked to familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutant FUS selectively accumulates into discrete cytosolic structures known as stress granules under various stress conditions. In addition, mutant FUS expression can alter the dynamics and morphology of stress granules. Although the link between mutant FUS and stress granules is well established, the mechanisms modulating stress granule formation and disassembly in the context of ALS are poorly understood. In this issue of Neurobiology of Aging, Ryu et al. uncover the impact of autophagy on the potential toxicity of mutant FUS-positive stress granules. The authors provide evidence indicating that enhanced autophagy activity reduces the number of stress granules, which in the case of cells containing mutant FUS-positive stress granules, is neuroprotective. Overall, this study identifies an intersection between the proteostasis network and alterations in RNA metabolism in ALS through the dynamic assembly and disassembly of stress granules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Osseous drill holes to promote granulation tissue: Radiologic appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnik, C.S.; Reiner, B.I.; Diaconis, J.N.; Goldberg, N.H.

    1991-01-01

    Skin grafting following extensive soft-tissue loss is often delayed until adequate granulation tissue can be generated. Surgical drill holes into the marrow cavity promote development of granulation tissue. This article illustrates the radiology appearance of these drill holes in four patients. (orig.)

  6. Method for the treatment of waste water with sludge granules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loosdrecht, M.C.; De Kreuk, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the treatment of waste water comprising an organic nutrient. According to the invention, the waste water is in a first step fed to sludge granules, after the supply of the waste water to be treated the sludge granules are fluidised in the presence of an

  7. Consolidating nanoparticles in micron-sized granules using spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeloev, J S; Wahlberg, M

    2011-01-01

    Suspensions of nanoparticles (SiO 2 , SiC, TiO2, CNT, Nanoclay and Hydroxyapatite) were spray dried to produce dry granulated products. The nanoparticles were consolidated in granules making them more convenient and safer to use in further processing compared to handling of nanopowders.

  8. Hilar mossy cell circuitry controlling dentate granule cell excitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichiro eJinde

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Glutamatergic hilar mossy cells of the dentate gyrus can either excite or inhibit distant granule cells, depending on whether their direct excitatory projections to granule cells or their projections to local inhibitory interneurons dominate. However, it remains controversial whether the net effect of mossy cell loss is granule cell excitation or inhibition. Clarifying this controversy has particular relevance to temporal lobe epilepsy, which is marked by dentate granule cell hyperexcitability and extensive loss of dentate hilar mossy cells. Two diametrically opposed hypotheses have been advanced to explain this granule cell hyperexcitability – the dormant basket cell and the irritable mossy cell hypotheses. The dormant basket cell hypothesis proposes that mossy cells normally exert a net inhibitory effect on granule cells and therefore their loss causes dentate granule cell hyperexcitability. The irritable mossy cell hypothesis takes the opposite view that mossy cells normally excite granule cells and that the surviving mossy cells in epilepsy increase their activity, causing granule cell excitation. The inability to eliminate mossy cells selectively has made it difficult to test these two opposing hypotheses. To this end, we developed a transgenic toxin-mediated, mossy cell-ablation mouse line. Using these mutants, we demonstrated that the extensive elimination of hilar mossy cells causes granule cell hyperexcitability, although the mossy cell loss observed appeared insufficient to cause clinical epilepsy. In this review, we focus on this topic and also suggest that different interneuron populations may mediate mossy cell-induced translamellar lateral inhibition and intralamellar recurrent inhibition. These unique local circuits in the dentate hilar region may be centrally involved in the functional organization of the dentate gyrus.

  9. A review on granules initiation and development inside UASB Reactor and the main factors affecting granules formation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeeb, S.A.; Latiff, Ab Aziz Bin Abdul; Daud, Zawawi Bin; Ahmad, Zulkifli Bin [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Decades of investigations and explorations in the field of anaerobic wastewater treatment have resulted in significant indications about the role importance of sludge granules in biodegradation anaerobic process. It is believed that the development of anaerobic granules is reflecting an important role on the performance of reactor. An overview on the concept of up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor operation as well as the main parts that reactor consists of is briefly explained in this paper, whereas the major theories of anaerobic granules formation are listed by related researchers. The correlations and compositions of such sludge granule have been specifically explained. It is believed that the extracellular polymer (ECP) is totally responsible of bacterial cell correlations and the formation of bacterial communities in the form of granules. In addition, the dependable factors for the performance of anaerobic granules formation process e.g. temperature, organic loading rate, pH, and alkalinity, nutrients, and cations and heavy metals have been discussed in this paper. Strong evidences proved that the process of gas production in the form of biogas is related to the methanogens activities, which are practically found in the core of granules. The aim of this review is to explore and assess the mechanisms of granules initiation and development inside UASB reactor.

  10. Joint Effects of Granule Size and Degree of Substitution on Octenylsuccinated Sweet Potato Starch Granules As Pickering Emulsion Stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinfeng; Ye, Fayin; Lei, Lin; Zhou, Yun; Zhao, Guohua

    2018-05-02

    The granules of sweet potato starch were size fractionated into three portions with significantly different median diameters ( D 50 ) of 6.67 (small-sized), 11.54 (medium-sized), and 16.96 μm (large-sized), respectively. Each portion was hydrophobized at the mass-based degrees of substitution (DS m ) of approximately 0.0095 (low), 0.0160 (medium), and 0.0230 (high). The Pickering emulsion-stabilizing capacities of modified granules were tested, and the resultant emulsions were characterized. The joint effects of granule size and DS m on emulsifying capacity (EC) were investigated by response surface methodology. For small-, medium-, and large-sized fractions, their highest emulsifying capacities are comparable but, respectively, encountered at high (0.0225), medium (0.0158), and low (0.0095) DS m levels. The emulsion droplet size increased with granule size, and the number of freely scattered granules in emulsions decreased with DS m . In addition, the term of surface density of the octenyl succinic group (SD -OSG ) was first proposed for modified starch granules, and it was proved better than DS m in interpreting the emulsifying capacities of starch granules with varying sizes. The present results implied that, as the particulate stabilizers, the optimal DS m of modified starch granules is size specific.

  11. High-shear granulation as a manufacturing method for cocrystal granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehder, Sönke; Christensen, Niels Peter Aae; Rantanen, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    and the respective excipients). The drug release was slightly decreased by cocrystal formation, most likely due to the lower solubility of the cocrystal. In the presence of calcium hydrogenphosphate however, no influence of cocrystal formation on either compactability or on drug release were observed, compared...... with the reference tablets. It was concluded that high-shear wet granulation is a valuable, however complex, manufacturing method for cocrystals. Cocrystal formation may influence compactability and drug release and thus affect drug performance and should be investigated during pre-formulation.......Cocrystal formation allows the tailoring of physicochemical as well as of mechanical properties of an API. However, there is a lack of large-scale manufacturing methods of cocrystals. Therefore, the objective of this work was to examine the suitability of high-shear wet granulation...

  12. Nucleoli and stress granules: connecting distant relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Hicham; Stochaj, Ursula

    2014-10-01

    Nucleoli and cytoplasmic stress granules (SGs) are subcellular compartments that modulate the response to endogenous and environmental signals to control cell survival. In our opinion, nucleoli and SGs are functionally linked; they are distant relatives that combine forces when cellular homeostasis is threatened. Several lines of evidence support this idea; nucleoli and SGs share molecular building blocks, are regulated by common signaling pathways and communicate when vital cellular functions become compromised. Together, nucleoli and SGs orchestrate physiological responses that are directly relevant to stress and human health. As both compartments have established roles in neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and virus infections, we propose that these conditions will benefit from therapeutic interventions that target simultaneously nucleoli and SGs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Solar-flux Third Granulation Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David F.; Oostra, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    The velocity shifts of spectral lines as a function of line strength, so-called the third signature of granulation, are investigated using three published solar-flux atlases. We use flux atlases because we wish to treat the Sun as a star, against which stellar observations can be compared and judged. The atlases are critiqued and compared to the lower-resolution observations taken with the Elginfield stellar spectrograph. Third-signature plots are constructed for the 6020–6340 Å region. No dependence on excitation potential or wavelength is found over this wavelength span. The shape of the plots from the three solar atlases is essentially the same, with rms line-core velocity differences of 30–35 m s‑1. High-resolution atlas data are degraded to the level of the Elginfield spectrograph and compared to direct observations taken with that spectrograph. The line-core velocities show good agreement, with rms differences of 38 m s‑1. A new standard curve is derived and compared with the previously published one. Only small differences in shape are found, but a significant (+97 m s‑1) change in the zero point is indicated. The bisector of the Fe I 6253 line is mapped onto the third-signature plots and flux deficits are derived, which measure the granule/lane flux imbalance. The lower spectral resolution lowers the flux deficit area slightly and moves the peak of the deficit 0.3–0.5 km s‑1 toward higher velocities. These differences, while significant, are not large compared to measurement errors for stellar data.

  14. Ocular Injury due to Potassium Permanganate Granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chareenun Chirapapaisan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a rare case of ocular injury due to potassium permanganate (KMnO4 granules in a child. Methods: This is a retrospective case report. Results: A 2-year-old boy was transferred to our emergency room with severe pain in his right eye, inflamed eyelids, and brownish stains on his fingers. Chemical injury was suspected. Copious eye irrigation was immediately performed. Diffuse brownish splotches were then observed at the inferior bulbar conjunctiva. Otherwise, systemic organs were intact. Complete eye exam under general anesthesia revealed a 5-mm epithelial defect at the central cornea, along with generalized conjunctival injection and limbal ischemia, inferiorly. Multiple semi-dissolved granules of KMnO4 trapped in the inferior fornix were identified. The chemical particles were gradually washed out and removed; however, the brownish stains remained. The patient received preservative-free steroid, antibiotic eye drops, and lubricants as regular management for mild to moderate degree of ocular burn. Pseudomembrane developed early and transformed into symblepharon within a few days after the injury. Membrane adhesion was lysed, and more aggressive medications were then substituted. Commercial amniotic membrane (PROKERA® was also applied to promote wound healing and to prevent recurrence of symblepharon. The ocular surface was eventually restored, and corneal transparency was preserved. Conclusion: Ocular injury with the granular form of KMnO4 is rare. Its toxicity is comparable to concentrated KMnO4 solution. However, the dissolved particles that had been absorbed in the stained conjunctiva were continuously released and damaged the ocular surface more than we primarily anticipated. Awareness of this condition and prompt management yield a good treatment outcome.

  15. UNCERTAINTY HANDLING IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT USING HIERARCHICAL ROUGH SET GRANULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sheikhian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty is one of the main concerns in geospatial data analysis. It affects different parts of decision making based on such data. In this paper, a new methodology to handle uncertainty for multi-criteria decision making problems is proposed. It integrates hierarchical rough granulation and rule extraction to build an accurate classifier. Rough granulation provides information granules with a detailed quality assessment. The granules are the basis for the rule extraction in granular computing, which applies quality measures on the rules to obtain the best set of classification rules. The proposed methodology is applied to assess seismic physical vulnerability in Tehran. Six effective criteria reflecting building age, height and material, topographic slope and earthquake intensity of the North Tehran fault have been tested. The criteria were discretized and the data set was granulated using a hierarchical rough method, where the best describing granules are determined according to the quality measures. The granules are fed into the granular computing algorithm resulting in classification rules that provide the highest prediction quality. This detailed uncertainty management resulted in 84% accuracy in prediction in a training data set. It was applied next to the whole study area to obtain the seismic vulnerability map of Tehran. A sensitivity analysis proved that earthquake intensity is the most effective criterion in the seismic vulnerability assessment of Tehran.

  16. Assessment of physical properties of granules with paracetamol and caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Szumilo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine increases the analgesic properties of acetaminophen and therefore it is reasonable to use both substances together in one drug form in stronger pain. Currently, there are no commercially available pharmaceutical combination products containing acetaminophen and caffeine, which is present as granules. The aim of the study was to obtain twelve different granules with these therapeutic substances and determine the effect of various excipients on the quality of the drug form. All the granules were made by wet granulation. Two types of binders were used: polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP as well as different types of fillers. The physical properties of granules were assessed in accordance to the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia 8th ed. The highest apparent density was found in preparations containing calcium hydrophosphate (0.609 g/mL and the lowest – containing mannitol (0.353 g/mL as a filler. The Hausner ratio of most prepared granules ranged from 1.05 to 1.11, while the compressibility index ranged from 4.59 to 10.48%. The evaluation of properties of individual granules helped to indicate formulation with good features, which perhaps will be a good alternative to currently available painkillers with caffeine and acetaminophen.

  17. The cochlea of the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata informs mysticete phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Travis; Marx, Felix G; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Evans, Alistair R

    2017-06-01

    The pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata, is the least understood extant baleen whale (Cetacea, Mysticeti). Knowledge on its basic anatomy, ecology, and fossil record is limited, even though its singular position outside both balaenids (right whales) and balaenopteroids (rorquals + grey whales) gives Caperea a pivotal role in mysticete evolution. Recent investigations of the cetacean cochlea have provided new insights into sensory capabilities and phylogeny. Here, we extend this advance to Caperea by describing, for the first time, the inner ear of this enigmatic species. The cochlea is large and appears to be sensitive to low-frequency sounds, but its hearing limit is relatively high. The presence of a well-developed tympanal recess links Caperea with cetotheriids and balaenopteroids, rather than balaenids, contrary to the traditional morphological view of a close Caperea-balaenid relationship. Nevertheless, a broader sample of the cetotheriid Herpetocetus demonstrates that the presence of a tympanal recess can be variable at the specific and possibly even the intraspecific level. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Enigmatic barrows without offerings: Monte Deva (Gijón and Berducedo (Allande, in Asturias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Blas Cortina, Miguel Ángel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The structural simplicity of two large barrows and their lack of grave goods make enigmatic tomb types, that although part of the megalithic tradition, could be located in the Early Bronze Age (Monte Deva V. Their easy classification as “poor tombs” (large poor tombs? ought to raise the possibility of other interpretations. The barrows, built by poorly nucleated societies in a context of very low population density, and with limited possibilities of exchange, are likely to be more due to a concrete funerary form, whose variations are considered, than to exclusively economic reasons.

    La simplicidad estructural de dos grandes túmulos y la carencia de ofrendas sintetizan modalidades sepulcrales enigmáticas que, si bien instaladas en la tradición megalítica, podrían situarse en el Bronce Antiguo (Monte Deva V. A su cómoda catalogación como “tumbas pobres” (¿grandes tumbas pobres? se le debe oponer la plausibilidad de otras opciones.
    Construidos por sociedades poco nucleadas, en un contexto de baja densidad demográfica y de limitadas posibilidades de intercambio, es probable que se deban más a una precisa normativa funeraria, cuyas variantes son consideradas, que a razones exclusivamente económicas.

  19. Zinc sulfide in intestinal cell granules of Ancylostoma caninum adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianotti, A.J.; Clark, D.T.; Dash, J. (Portland State Univ., OR (USA))

    1991-04-01

    A source of confusion has existed since the turn of the century about the reddish brown, weakly birefringent 'sphaerocrystals' located in the intestines of strongyle nematodes, Strongylus and Ancylostoma. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrometric analyses were used for accurate determination of the crystalline order and elemental composition of the granules in the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. The composition of the intestinal pigmented granules was identified unequivocally as zinc sulfide. It seems most probable that the granules serve to detoxify high levels of metallic ions (specifically zinc) present due to the large intake of host blood.

  20. Mechanistic modelling of the drying behaviour of single pharmaceutical granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thérèse F.C. Mortier, Séverine; Beer, Thomas De; Gernaey, Krist

    2012-01-01

    The trend to move towards continuous production processes in pharmaceutical applications enhances the necessity to develop mechanistic models to understand and control these processes. This work focuses on the drying behaviour of a single wet granule before tabletting, using a six...... phase (submodel 2), the water inside the granule evaporates. The second submodel contains an empirical power coefficient, b. A sensitivity analysis was performed to study the influence of parameters on the moisture content of single pharmaceutical granules, which clearly points towards the importance...

  1. Does Thermal Granulation Drive Tephra Jets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. D.; Zimanowski, B.; Buettner, R.; Sonder, I.; Dellino, P.

    2011-12-01

    Surtseyan tephra jets, also called cypressoid or cock's tail plumes, comprise a characteristic mixture of ash with bombs travelling roughly ballistic paths that tip the individual fingers of the projecting jet. Jets of similar form but smaller scale are generated by littoral magma-water interactions, confirming the general inference that surtseyan tephra jets are a characteristic product of explosive magma-water interaction, and suggesting that magmatic volatiles play a subsidiary role, if any, in their formation. Surtseyan jets have been inferred to result from both intense fuel-coolant interactions, and from simple boiling of water entrained into rising magma, and little new information has become available to test these two positions since they were clearly developed in the 1980s. Recent experiments in which magma is poured into standing water have produced vigorous jetting of hot water as melt solidifies and undergoes extensive thermal granulation. We present high-resolution hi-speed video of these jets, which we see as having the following origin. As thermal granulation takes place, a fracture network advances into the melt/glass body, and water invading the cracks at the rate of propagation is heated nearly instantaneously. Vapor produced at the contact expands and drives outward through cooled cracks, condensing as it moves to the exterior of the magma body where it is emitted as a jet of hot water. In ocean ridge hydrothermal systems a diffuse crack network inducts cold water, which is heated and expelled in focused jets. Focusing of hot outflow in experiments is inferred to result, as suggested for ridge hydrothermal systems, from thermoelastic closure of cracks near the one(s) feeding the jet. From the cooled products of our experimental runs, we know that thermal contraction produces a network of curved cracks with modal spacing of 1-2 mm, which separate domains of unbroken glass. It is during growth of this crack network that cold water enters, is

  2. Localization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) granule-associated proteins during PHB granule formation and identification of two new phasins, PhaP6 and PhaP7, in Ralstonia eutropha H16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Daniel; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2012-11-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) granules are covered by a surface layer consisting of mainly phasins and other PHB granule-associated proteins (PGAPs). Phasins are small amphiphilic proteins that determine the number and size of accumulated PHB granules. Five phasin proteins (PhaP1 to PhaP5) are known for Ralstonia eutropha. In this study, we identified three additional potential phasin genes (H16_B1988, H16_B2296, and H16_B2326) by inspection of the R. eutropha genome for sequences with "phasin 2 motifs." To determine whether the corresponding proteins represent true PGAPs, fusions with eYFP (enhanced yellow fluorescent protein) were constructed. Similar fusions of eYFP with PhaP1 to PhaP5 as well as fusions with PHB synthase (PhaC1), an inactive PhaC1 variant (PhaC1-C319A), and PhaC2 were also made. All fusions were investigated in wild-type and PHB-negative backgrounds. Colocalization with PHB granules was found for all PhaC variants and for PhaP1 to PhaP5. Additionally, eYFP fusions with H16_B1988 and H16_B2326 colocalized with PHB. Fusions of H16_B2296 with eYFP, however, did not colocalize with PHB granules but did colocalize with the nucleoid region. Notably, all fusions (except H16_B2296) were soluble in a ΔphaC1 strain. These data confirm that H16_B1988 and H16_B2326 but not H16_B2296 encode true PGAPs, for which we propose the designation PhaP6 (H16_B1988) and PhaP7 (H16_B2326). When localization of phasins was investigated at different stages of PHB accumulation, fusions of PhaP6 and PhaP7 were soluble in the first 3 h under PHB-permissive conditions, although PHB granules appeared after 10 min. At later time points, the fusions colocalized with PHB. Remarkably, PHB granules of strains expressing eYFP fusions with PhaP5, PhaP6, or PhaP7 localized predominantly near the cell poles or in the area of future septum formation. This phenomenon was not observed for the other PGAPs (PhaP1 to PhaP4, PhaC1, PhaC1-C319A, and PhaC2) and indicated that some phasins

  3. The life cycle of platelet granules [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Sharda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Platelet granules are unique among secretory vesicles in both their content and their life cycle. Platelets contain three major granule types—dense granules, α-granules, and lysosomes—although other granule types have been reported. Dense granules and α-granules are the most well-studied and the most physiologically important. Platelet granules are formed in large, multilobulated cells, termed megakaryocytes, prior to transport into platelets. The biogenesis of dense granules and α-granules involves common but also distinct pathways. Both are formed from the trans-Golgi network and early endosomes and mature in multivesicular bodies, but the formation of dense granules requires trafficking machinery different from that of α-granules. Following formation in the megakaryocyte body, both granule types are transported through and mature in long proplatelet extensions prior to the release of nascent platelets into the bloodstream. Granules remain stored in circulating platelets until platelet activation triggers the exocytosis of their contents. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE proteins, located on both the granules and target membranes, provide the mechanical energy that enables membrane fusion during both granulogenesis and exocytosis. The function of these core fusion engines is controlled by SNARE regulators, which direct the site, timing, and extent to which these SNAREs interact and consequently the resulting membrane fusion. In this review, we assess new developments in the study of platelet granules, from their generation to their exocytosis.

  4. A review of monitoring methods for pharmaceutical wet granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansuld, E M; Briens, L

    2014-09-10

    High-shear wet granulation is commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry to improve powder properties for downstream processes such as tabletting. Granule growth, however, is difficult to predict because the process is sensitive to raw material properties and operating conditions. Development of process analytical technologies is encouraged by regulatory bodies to improve process understanding and monitor quality online. The primary technologies investigated for high-shear wet granulation monitoring include power consumption, near-infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, capacitance measurements, microwave measurements, imaging, focused beam reflectance measurements, spatial filter velocimetry, stress and vibration measurements, as well as acoustic emissions. This review summarizes relevant research related to each of these technologies and discusses the challenges associated with each approach as a possible process analytical technology tool for high-shear wet granulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Grade 120 Granulated Ground blast Furnace Slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    This study evaluates Grade 120 Granulated Ground Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) and its effect on the properties of hydraulic cement concretes used in structural and pavement construction. Several mix designs, structural and pavement, were used for this ...

  6. Treatment of hyper-granulated limb wounds in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Bader

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the different methods of treating hyper granulation tissue on experimentally induced wounds in equine limbs. Wounds were induced by removal of a skin patch and subcutaneous tissue for about 5-7 cm width and 6-8 cm in length from the dorsal and lateral aspect of the fore and hind limbs below the carpal and tarsal joints. The wounds were left open without treatment and the animals were trained 2-2.5 hours every day for about 3-5 weeks until hyper granulation tissue was developed. The schedule for the treatment of hyper granulation was divided into five groups each contained eight wounds of hyper granulation tissue; each main group was divided into two subgroups. The subgroups of first, second, third, fourth and fifth groups were treated by the following schedules: bandage alone; copper sulphate ointment 10%; silver nitrate ointment 2%; red mercury ointment 11%; and laser therapy (at a total dose of 9.72 Joule / cm2 respectively. While the second subgroups were treated by surgical resection of the hyper granulation tissue, followed by the same treatments applied on the first subgroup. The bandage for all experimental groups was changed every 48 hours until healing was occurred. The clinical and histological observation of the first group revealed that the healing take long period comparing with other groups. The mean of wound healing were 65 days in non surgical removal of hyper granulation tissue subgroup, while 57 days in surgical removed of hyper granulation tissue subgroup. The results of the second, third, fourth groups revealed that the caustic material especially red mercury has a role in healing processes through depressing the hyper granulation tissue. The mean of wound healing of the second group was 42.25 days in non surgical removal of hyper granulation tissue subgroup while 37.25 days in surgically removed hyper granulation tissue subgroup. In the third group the mean of wound healing was 45

  7. In vitro binding of puroindolines to wheat starch granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Helle Aagaard; Darlington, H.F.; Shewry, P.R.

    2001-01-01

    Puroindoline (pin) preparations made from flours of hard and soft wheats contained a mixture of pin-a, 0.19/0.53 alpha -amylase inhibitor, and purothionins. Starch granule preparations from the same cultivars were treated with proteinase to remove surface proteins and incubated with solutions...... of the pin preparations. Binding of pin-a and purothionins but not the 0.19/0.53 inhibitor was observed with no apparent differences between the behavior of the pin preparations or starch granule preparations from hard or soft types. No binding was observed when several other proteins (bovine serum albumin......, total albumins, a commercial preparation of wheat alpha -amylase inhibitors, and barley beta -amylase) were incubated with the starch granules under the same conditions, indicating that in vitro binding can be used to study specific starch granule and protein interactions....

  8. A Review of Granulation Process for Blast Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Molten slags of blast furnace is a second resources with great value of 1600~1 800 MJ sensible heat per ton. At present, water-quenching process plays a leading role in recovering waste heat of the molten slags. However, this method not only cost lots of water, but also recover little sensible heat and can pollute the surrounding environment. Dry granulation process, as an environmentally friendly method with high-efficiency heat recovery, have attracted widespread attentions. In this paper, the water quenching and dry granulation processes were discussed in detail. After a thorough comparative analysis of various treatment technologies, it can be concluded that centrifugal granulation affiliated with dry granulation is the optimum process, with smaller slag particle size (about 2mm, more glassy phase and higher recovery rate.

  9. Kit systems for granulated decontamination formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2010-07-06

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field. The formulation can be pre-mixed and pre-packaged as a multi-part kit system, where one or more of the parts are packaged in a powdered, granulated form for ease of handling and mixing in the field.

  10. Development of granules from Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Pereira de Souza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop granules from Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried extract using dry and wet granulation and to assess techniques to enable the production of granules with improved technological characteristics and yields. Granules were characterized by granulometry, reological parameters, compression and hygroscopic behavior. Independent of the granulation technique, technologically developed granules presented particle diameter, bulk and tapped densities and compressibility indexes suitable for a solid dosage form. The compression behavior showed plastic and fragmentary deformation for granules produced by the dry granulation technique and predominantly plastic deformation for wet granulation. Concerning the humidity sorption, the study showed that granules absorb less humidity than the spray-dried extract. However, granules with Eudragit® E 100 were the least hygroscopic.O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver grânulos de extrato Phyllantus niruri seco por aspersão e por granulação úmida e avaliar técnicas que possibilitem a produção de grânulos com características tecnológicas e rendimentos aperfeiçoados. Os grânulos foram caracterizados por granulometria, parâmetros reológicos, compressão e comportamento higroscópico. Independentemente da técnica de granulação, os grânulos tecnologicamente desenvolvidos apresentaram diâmetro de partículas, densidades aparente e compactada e índices de compressibilidade adequados para a formulação sólida. O comportamento de compressão mostrou deformação plástica e elástica para os grânulos produzidos por técnicas de granulação seca e, predominantemente, deformação plástica para a granulação úmida. Com relação à absorção da umidade, o estudo mostrou que os grânulos absorvem menos umidade do que o extrato seco por aspersão. Entretanto, os grânulos com Eudragit E 100 foram os menos higroscópicos.

  11. Sludge granulation during anaerobic treatment of pre-hydrolysed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) digester was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRT) ranging from 26.7 h to 2.2 h, while the organic load rate (OLR) ranged from 0.9 to 7.3 kgCOD/m3·d. Sludge granulation was observed after day 150 of operation, at an HRT of 3.4 h, when small granules of less than 2 ...

  12. Superheated superconducting granules: a detector for particle physics and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.; Perret-Gallix, D.

    1987-01-01

    A general introduction to superheated superconducting granules (SSG) detectors is given and some recent results on their basic properties are presented. Granules recently made by industrial producers exhibit good metastability properties and show sensitivity, better than naively expected, to photons and ionizing particles. The behaviour of SSG detectors at very low temperatures is also discussed. We finally sketch a critical review of proposed applications to the cross-disciplinary frontier between particle physics and astrophysics

  13. Effect of granular activated carbon on the aerobic granulation of sludge and its mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jia; Qin, Lian; Liu, Xiaoying; Li, Bolin; Chen, Junnan; You, Juan; Shen, Yitian; Chen, Xiaoguo

    2017-07-01

    The granulation of activated sludge and effect of granular activated carbon (GAC) was investigated under the alternative anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The results showed that GAC accelerated the granulation, but had no obvious effect on the bacterial community structure of granules. The whole granulation process could be categorized into three phases, i.e. lag, granulation and granule maturation phase. During lag period GAC provided nuclei for sludge to attach, and thus enhanced the morphological regularization of sludge. During granulation period the granule size increased significantly due to the growth of bacteria in granules. GAC reduced the compression caused by the inter-particle collisions and thus accelerate the granulation. GAC has no negative effect on the performance of SBR, and thus efficient simultaneous removal of COD, nitrogen and phosphorus were obtained during most of the operating time. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Incorporation of a circulating protein into megakaryocyte and platelet granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handagama, P. J.; George, J. N.; Shuman, M. A.; McEver, R. P.; Bainton, D. F.

    1987-01-01

    To determine whether or not proteins circulating in plasma can be incorporated into megakaryocytes and platelets, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was injected intravenously into guinea pigs and these cells were examined for its uptake by electron microscopy and cytochemistry. Enriched samples of megakaryocytes enabled ultrastructural analysis of large numbers of these rare cells. In megakaryocytes, 50% of alpha granules contained HRP between 75 min and 7 hr after injection. At 24 hr, 25% of the megakaryocyte granules were peroxidase-positive, less were positive by 48 hr, and there were none at 4 days. Thus, the findings demonstrate that a circulating protein can be endocytosed by megakaryocytes and rapidly packaged into alpha granules. Platelet granules also contain HRP by 7 hr after injection, and they can secrete it in response to thrombin. Unfortunately, our present studies do not allow us to distinguish between direct endocytosis by the platelet and/or shedding of new platelets from recently labeled megakaryocytes. It is concluded that while some alpha granule proteins are synthesized by megakaryocytes, others may be acquired from plasma by endocytosis. In addition to providing evidence that some of the proteins of alpha granules may be of exogenous origin, this study has allowed the definition of a pathway whereby plasma proteins may be temporarily sequestered in megakaryocytes before reentering the circulation in platelets.

  15. Enigmatic cranial superstructures among Chamorro ancestors from the Mariana Islands: gross anatomy and microanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, Gary M; Bromage, Timothy G; Sava, Vincent J; Hanson, Douglas B; Anderson, Bruce E

    2014-06-01

    This study focuses on the gross anatomy, anatomic relations, microanatomy, and the meaning of three enigmatic, geographically patterned, and quasi-continuous superstructures of the posterior cranium. Collectively known as occipital superstructures (OSSs), these traits are the occipital torus tubercle (TOT), retromastoid process (PR), and posterior supramastoid tubercle (TSP). When present, TOT, PR, and TSP develop at posterior cranial attachment sites of the upper trapezius, superior oblique, and sternocleidomastoid muscles, respectively. Marked expression and co-occurrence of these OSSs are virtually circumscribed within Oceania and reach highest recorded frequencies in protohistoric Chamorros (CHamoru) of the Mariana Islands. Prior to undertaking scanning electron microscopy (SEM) work, our working multifactorial model for OSS development was that early-onset, long-term, and chronic activity-related microtrauma at enthesis sites led to exuberant reactive or reparative responses in a substantial minority of genetically predisposed (and mostly male) individuals. SEM imaging, however, reveals topographic patterning that questions, but does not negate, activity induction of these superstructures. Although OSSs appear macroscopically as relatively large and discrete phenomena, SEM findings reveal a unique, widespread, and seemingly systemic distribution of structures over the occipital surface that have the appearance of OSS microforms. Nevertheless, apparent genetic underpinnings, anatomic relationships with muscle entheses, and positive correlation of OSS development with humeral robusticity continue to suggest that these superstructures have potential to at once bear witness to Chamorro population history and inform osteobiographical constructions of chronic activity patterns in individuals bearing them. Further work is outlined that would illuminate the proximate and ultimate meanings of OSS. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Unravelling the enigmatic origin of calcitic nanofibres in soils and caves: purely physicochemical or biogenic processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschedler, S.; Cailleau, G.; Braissant, O.; Millière, L.; Job, D.; Verrecchia, E. P.

    2014-05-01

    Calcitic nanofibres are ubiquitous habits of secondary calcium carbonate (CaCO3) accumulations observed in calcareous vadose environments. Despite their widespread occurrence, the origin of these nanofeatures remains enigmatic. Three possible mechanisms fuel the debate: (i) purely physicochemical processes, (ii) mineralization of rod-shaped bacteria, and (iii) crystal precipitation on organic templates. Nanofibres can be either mineral (calcitic) or organic in nature. They are very often observed in association with needle fibre calcite (NFC), another typical secondary CaCO3 habit in terrestrial environments. This association has contributed to some confusion between both habits, however they are truly two distinct calcitic features and their recurrent association is likely to be an important fact to help understanding the origin of nanofibres. In this paper the different hypotheses that currently exist to explain the origin of calcitic nanofibres are critically reviewed. In addition to this, a new hypothesis for the origin of nanofibres is proposed based on the fact that current knowledge attributes a fungal origin to NFC. As this feature and nanofibres are recurrently observed together, a possible fungal origin for nanofibres which are associated with NFC is investigated. Sequential enzymatic digestion of the fungal cell wall of selected fungal species demonstrates that the fungal cell wall can be a source of organic nanofibres. The obtained organic nanofibres show a striking morphological resemblance when compared to their natural counterparts, emphasizing a fungal origin for part of the organic nanofibres observed in association with NFC. It is further hypothesized that these organic nanofibres may act as templates for calcite nucleation in a biologically influenced mineralization process, generating calcitic nanofibres. This highlights the possible involvement of fungi in CaCO3 biomineralization processes, a role still poorly documented. Moreover, on a global

  17. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LARGE AND SMALL GRANULES IN SOLAR QUIET REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Daren; Xie Zongxia; Hu Qinghua [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yang Shuhong; Zhang Jun; Wang Jingxiu, E-mail: caddiexie@hotmail.com, E-mail: zjun@ourstar.bao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2011-12-10

    The normal mode observations of seven quiet regions obtained by the Hinode spacecraft are analyzed to study the physical properties of granules. An artificial intelligence technique is introduced to automatically find the spatial distribution of granules in feature spaces. In this work, we investigate the dependence of granular continuum intensity, mean Doppler velocity, and magnetic fields on granular diameter. We recognized 71,538 granules by an automatic segmentation technique and then extracted five properties: diameter, continuum intensity, Doppler velocity, and longitudinal and transverse magnetic flux density to describe the granules. To automatically explore the intrinsic structures of the granules in the five-dimensional parameter space, the X-means clustering algorithm and one-rule classifier are introduced to define the rules for classifying the granules. It is found that diameter is a dominating parameter in classifying the granules and two families of granules are derived: small granules with diameters smaller than 1.''44, and large granules with diameters larger than 1.''44. Based on statistical analysis of the detected granules, the following results are derived: (1) the averages of diameter, continuum intensity, and Doppler velocity in the upward direction of large granules are larger than those of small granules; (2) the averages of absolute longitudinal, transverse, and unsigned flux density of large granules are smaller than those of small granules; (3) for small granules, the average of continuum intensity increases with their diameters, while the averages of Doppler velocity, transverse, absolute longitudinal, and unsigned magnetic flux density decrease with their diameters. However, the mean properties of large granules are stable; (4) the intensity distributions of all granules and small granules do not satisfy Gaussian distribution, while that of large granules almost agrees with normal distribution with a peak at 1.04 I

  18. Abnormal ion content, hydration and granule expansion of the secretory granules from cystic fibrosis airway glandular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baconnais, S.; Delavoie, F.; Zahm, J.M.; Milliot, M.; Terryn, C.; Castillon, N.; Banchet, V.; Michel, J.; Danos, O.; Merten, M.; Chinet, T.; Zierold, K.; Bonnet, N.; Puchelle, E.; Balossier, G.

    2005-01-01

    The absence or decreased expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) induces increased Na + absorption and hyperabsorption of the airway surface liquid (ASL) resulting in a dehydrated and hyperviscous ASL. Although the implication of abnormal airway submucosal gland function has been suggested, the ion and water content in the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) glandular secretory granules, before exocytosis, is unknown. We analyzed, in non-CF and CF human airway glandular cell lines (MM-39 and KM4, respectively), the ion content in the secretory granules by electron probe X-ray microanalysis and the water content by quantitative dark field imaging on freeze-dried cryosections. We demonstrated that the ion content (Na + , Mg 2+ , P, S and Cl - ) is significantly higher and the water content significantly lower in secretory granules from the CF cell line compared to the non-CF cell line. Using videomicroscopy, we observed that the secretory granule expansion was deficient in CF glandular cells. Transfection of CF cells with CFTR cDNA or inhibition of non-CF cells with CFTR inh -172, respectively restored or decreased the water content and granule expansion, in parallel with changes in ion content. We hypothesize that the decreased water and increased ion content in glandular secretory granules may contribute to the dehydration and increased viscosity of the ASL in CF

  19. Localization of SERBP1 in stress granules and nucleoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Jen; Wei, Hung-Ming; Chen, Ling-Yun; Li, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    SERPINE1 mRNA-binding protein 1 (SERBP1) is an arginine-methylated RNA-binding protein whose modification affects protein interaction and intracellular localization. In the present study, we show that, under normal growth conditions without stress, SERBP1 interacts with arginine-methylated and stress granule-associated proteins such as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, fragile X mental retardation protein and fragile X mental retardation syndrome-related protein 1 in an RNA-dependent manner. We also show that, after arsenite treatment, a proportion of full-length SERBP1 protein co-localizes with the typical stress granule marker T-cell intracellular antigen-1 in the cytoplasmic stress granules. Truncated SERBP1 with an N-terminal, central RG or C-terminal deletion, or single-domain segments comprising the N-terminal, central or C-terminal region, were recruited to stress granules upon arsenite treatment but with reduced efficiency. In addition, upon arsenite treatment, the localization of SERBP1 changed from a diffuse cytoplasmic localization to nuclear-dominant (concentrated in the nucleolus) A similar distribution was observed when cells were treated with the methylation inhibitor adenosine periodate, and was also detected for N- or C-terminal domain deletions and all three single-domain fragments even without stress induction. We further demonstrate that adenosine periodate treatment delays the association/dissociation of SERBP1 with stress granules. Hypomethylation retains SERBP1 in the nucleus/nucleolus regardless of arsenite treatment. Our study indicates that arginine methylation is correlated with recruitment of SERBP to stress granules and nucleoli and its retention therein. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an RNA-binding protein that is shifted simultaneously to cytoplasmic stress granules and nucleoli, two ribonucleoprotein-enriched subcellular compartments, upon stress. © 2013 FEBS.

  20. Recent results and prospects on superheated superconducting granules detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.; Perret-Gallix, D.

    1987-11-01

    The basic properties of superheated superconducting granules (SSG) detectors are reviewed. Recent results are presented and discussed. Granule samples of different sizes (10 μm -8 Ω.cm -6 Ω.cm) exhibit encouraging sensitivity to low energy β and γ sources (down to 55 Fe 6 KeV γ'S). All tests were performed with real-time read-out electronics, detecting single granule flips under the action of individual particles. Sensitivity is shown to depend on normal state resistivity. Irradiation of very large tin granules (45 μm ≤ Φ ≤ 400 μm) with α particles ( 241 Am, E ≅ 5.5 MeV) shows evidence for local heating, where the observed energy threshold is far below the one predicted by equilibrium thermodynamical calculations. Tests made at lower temperatures (T ≥ 450 mK) show the absence of avalanche effect (seen by other authors in different conditions) for several samples of tin granules. A theoretical discussion of the avalanche effect is presented. The understanding of the role of heat exchanges in the composite medium leads to the concept of 'localized micro-avalanche' and opens the way to drastic improvements of SSG performance for particle detection. Such a phenomenon should be obtained by a better thermal matching between dielectric and granules, working at temperatures where the released latent heat is slightly positive. Estimates of the behavior of the detector at very low T are also given, where a thin layer of normal electrons near the surface is shown to contribute to the heat capacity of a superheated granule. We discuss the main points to be studied in the near future, and give a brief evaluation of the present status of feasibility investigation for several proposed experiments (solar neutrinos, monopoles, dark matter, double β,...). An updated working program for SSG development is proposed

  1. Reinvestigating an enigmatic Late Cretaceous monocot: morphology, taxonomy, and biogeography of Viracarpon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly K.S. Matsunaga

    2018-04-01

    genus Viracarpon was widespread and may be present in other Late Cretaceous assemblages. Viracarpon exhibits character combinations not present in any extant taxa and its affinities remain unresolved, possibly representing an extinct member of Alismatales. The character mosaic observed in Viracarpon and the broad distribution of the genus provide new data relevant to understanding early monocot evolution and suggest that the (thus far largely invisible Late Cretaceous monocot diversification was characterized by enigmatic and/or stem taxa.

  2. The influence of substrate transport limitation on porosity and methanogenic activity of anaerobic sludge granules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphenaar, P.A. (Agricultural Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Environmental Technology); Perez, M.C. (Agricultural Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Environmental Technology); Lettinga, G. (Agricultural Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Environmental Technology)

    1993-05-01

    The relationship between porosity, diameter and methanogenic activity of anaerobic granules has been investigated. Experiments with different granular sludges revealed that substrate transport limitations increase with the diameter of the granules. As a consequence, autolysis can occur in the core of the granule, producing hollow granules. The porosity measurements revealed that the hollow centre is not available for substrate transport. Possibly as an effect of bacterial lysis, the porosity decreases in the more interior layers of the granules. This results in a inactive inner part of the large granules, which is not involved in the treatment process; the specific methanogenic activity decreases with granule size. No marked difference in substrate affinity is observed between granules of different sizes, which probably indicates that for large granules only the exterior is biological active. (orig.)

  3. Correlation between microbial community and granule conductivity in anaerobic bioreactors for brewery wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Pravin; Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Werner, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Prior investigation of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating brewery wastes suggested that direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) significantly contributed to interspecies electron transfer to methanogens. To investigate DIET in granules further, the electrical conducti......Prior investigation of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating brewery wastes suggested that direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) significantly contributed to interspecies electron transfer to methanogens. To investigate DIET in granules further, the electrical...... conductivity and bacterial community composition of granules in fourteen samples from four different UASB reactors treating brewery wastes were investigated. All of the UASB granules were electrically conductive whereas control granules from ANAMMOX (ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation) reactors and microbial...... granules from an aerobic bioreactor designed for phosphate removal were not. There was a moderate correlation (r = 0.67) between the abundance of Geobacter species in the UASB granules and granule conductivity, suggesting that Geobacter contributed to granule conductivity. These results, coupled...

  4. Granulation of Cu-Al-Fe-Ni Bronze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarek B.P.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in wall thickness of the casting of iron-nickel-aluminium-bronze, by the reduction of the cooling rate the size of κII phase precipitates increases. This process, in the case of complex aluminium bronzes with additions of Cr, Mo and W is increased. Crystallization of big κII phase, during slow cooling of the casting, reduces the concentration of additives introduced to the bronze matrix and hardness. Undertaken research to develop technology of thick-walled products (g> 6 mm of complex aluminium bronzes. Particular attention was paid to the metallurgy of granules. As a result, a large cooling speed of the alloy, and also high-speed solidification casting a light weight of the granules allows: to avoid micro-and macrosegregation, decreasing the particle size, increase the dispersion of phases in multiphase alloys. Depending on the size granules as possible is to provide finished products with a wall thickness greater than 6 mm by infiltration of liquid alloy of granules (composites. Preliminary studies was conducted using drip method granulate of CuAl10Fe5Ni5 bronze melted in a INDUTHERM-VC 500 D Vacuum Pressure Casting Machine. This bronze is a starting alloy for the preparation of the complex aluminium bronzes with additions of Cr, Mo, W and C or Si. Optimizations of granulation process was carried out. As the process control parameters taken a casting temperature t (°C and the path h (mm of free-fall of the metal droplets in the surrounding atmosphere before it is intensively cooled in a container of water. The granulate was subjected to a sieve analysis. For the objective function was assume maximize of the product of Um*n, the percentage weight “Um” and the quantity of granules ‘n’ in the mesh fraction. The maximum value of the ratio obtained for mesh fraction a sieve with a mesh aperture of 6.3 mm. In the intensively cooled granule of bronze was identified microstructure composed of phases: β and fine bainite

  5. Pelletizing of NaF granules as adsorbent for fluorides of nuclear fuel materials, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Syojiro; Tsutsui, Tenson; Kanagawa, Akira.

    1976-01-01

    The pelletizing of NaF granules on laboratory scale used for recovery and purification of fluorides of nuclear fuel materials are investigated, particularity experimental studies on how to pelletize, fluidity of granules and flow rate of the granules in mortar of tablet machine are carried out. As result, added quantity of H 2 O as binder at granulation process of spherical NaF granule influence to yield of NaF granules. The proper quantity of H 2 O to NaF powder is about 18--19%. Friction coefficient of unfixed shape NaF granule is higher than that of spherical granule, in opposition, density of the former granule is lower. So fluidity of unfixed shape NaF granule is low, flow rate of the granules through feeder of tablet machine is slow, and arching on mortar of the tablet machine occurs. Then, some further operation for getting better fluidity needs for pelletizing of NaF granules using unfixed shape granule. The other hand, using spherical NaF granule, continuous pelletizing by commercial tablet machine can be carried out. (auth.)

  6. Studi Awal Desain Pabrik Pupuk Organik Granul Dari Organic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfatul Hanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Banyak pertanian di Indonesia yang masih bergantung pada penggunaan pupuk kimia. Padahal penggunaan pupuk kimia yang berlebihan dapat menyebabkan penurunan bahan organik tanah. Untuk menyeimbangkannnya saat ini petani juga sedang menggalakkan penggunaan pupuk organik. Sehingga membuat kebutuhan pupuk organik meningkat setiap tahunnya. Pendirian pabrik pupuk organik granul ini dapat memenuhi kebutuhan pupuk organik untuk petani. Prosess pembuatan pupuk organik granul terdiri dari pencampuran bahan baku, yakni sampah organik, kotoran sapi, kotoran domba, dan dipotong dengan rotary knife cutter. Tahap berikutnya adalah proses fermentasi, dengan penambahan bioactivator agar meningkatkan kandungan C-organik, phosphor, dan kalium. Selanjutnya adalah proses granulasi, pembesaran dari partikel dengan proses aglomerasi. Ukuran yang diharapkan pada proses granulasi ini adalah 2-4 mm sehingga produk undersize maupun oversize akan dikembalikan ke dalam granulator setelah melewati screener. Selanjutnya pupuk organik granul dikeringkan. Selanjutnya produk dipisahkan berdasarkan ukurannya lalu didinginkan di Rotary cooler. Setelah keluar dari Rotary Cooler suhu keluaran sekitar 40 oC dan masih mengandung kadar air sebesar 13,7%. Produk dari rotary cooler siap untuk di packaging dan masuk ke dalam pupuk organik granul storage. Dari analisa ekonomi didapatkan BEP sebesar 45% dengan POT sesudah pajak sebesar 4,8 tahun. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  7. Platelet granule exocytosis: A comparison with chromaffin cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eFitch-Tewfik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid secretion of bioactive amines from chromaffin cells constitutes an important component of the fight or flight response of mammals to stress. Platelets respond to stresses within the vasculature by rapidly secreting cargo at sites of injury, inflammation, or infection. Although chromaffin cells derive from the neural crest and platelets from bone marrow megakaryocytes, both have evolved a heterogeneous assemblage of granule types and a mechanism for efficient release. This article will provide an overview of granule formation and exocytosis in platelets with an emphasis on areas in which the study of chromaffin cells has influenced that of platelets and on similarities between the two secretory systems. Commonalities include the use of transporters to concentrate bioactive amines and other cargos into granules, the role of cytoskeletal remodeling in granule exocytosis, and the use of granules to provide membrane for cytoplasmic projections. The SNAREs and SNARE accessory proteins used by each cell type will also be considered. Finally, we will discuss the newly appreciated role of dynamin family proteins in regulated fusion pore formation. This evaluation of the comparative cell biology of regulated exocytosis in platelets and chromaffin cells demonstrates a convergence of mechanisms between two disparate cell types both tasked with responding rapidly to physiological stimuli.

  8. Preparation of porcelain tile granulates by more environmentally sustainable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, C.; Silvestre, D.; Piquer, J.; Garcia-Ten, J.; Quereda, E.; Vicente, M. J.

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the feasibility of manufacturing glazed porcelain tiles with a more environmentally friendly manufacturing process, by reducing water and thermal energy consumption. The process studied in this paper is dry milling in a pendulum mill, with subsequent granulation (in order to obtain a press powder with similar flow ability to that of spray dried powders). The different morphology of the new granulate with respect to the standard spray-dried granulate modifies the microstructure of the green compacts and thus, their behaviour and fired tile properties. In order to obtain porcelain tiles with the required properties (water absorption, mechanical strength,) changes have been made in the raw materials mixture and in the processing variables. Finally, porcelain tiles measuring 50x50 cm have been manufactured at industrial scale with the new granulate using a conventional firing cycle, obtaining quality levels identical to those provided by the spray-dried granulate. These results open the possibility of preparing porcelain tile body compositions through a manufacturing process alternative to the standard one, more environmentally friendly and with lower costs. (Author)

  9. Physicochemical and tablet properties of Cyperus alulatus rhizomes starch granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramakrishnan, N; Jha, S; Kumar, K Jayaram

    2015-05-01

    The starch extracted from rhizomes of Cyperus alulatus (CA) was characterized for its physicochemical, morphological and tableting properties. Rhizomes of CA yield a significant quantity of starch granules (CASG) i.e., 11.93%. CASG was characterized in terms of moisture, ash and amylose contents, solubility and swelling power, paste clarity and water retention capacity. The swelling power was found to be significantly improved with the increase in temperature. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the granule's surface was smooth, the granules were spherical, mostly round, disc like, and the size range was 6.65-12.13 μm. Finger print region in FTIR spectra confirmed its carbohydrate nature. The evaluated micromeritic properties of extracted granule's bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner ratio, true density and porosity render unique practicability of CASG being used as an adjuvant in pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. Tablets prepared by using CASG showed higher mechanical strength and more disintegration time, which depicted the characteristic binding nature of the starch granules. As CASG is imparting better binding properties in less concentration and also it can be used in combination with the established starches to get the synergistic effect; this starch can be used commercially in the tablet preparation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Removal of strontium ions from solutions using granulated zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronic, J.; Subotic, B.

    1992-01-01

    The ion-exchange process on columns filled with granulated zeolites is determined by several physico-chemical parameters. The influence of these parameters (zeolite type, concentration of exchangeable ions in solution, temperature, flow rate, etc.) on the kinetics of ion-exchange process was studied by measuring the Sr 2+ ion concentration in solution before and after passing through a column filled with various granulated zeolites (zeolite 13X, zeolite A and synthetic mordenite). Using the experimental technique of radioactive labeling by 89 Sr, the distribution of Sr 2+ ions in column fillings were also determined. From the results obtained, the optimal conditions for the most efficient removal of strontium ions from solutions using granulated zeolites can be defined. (author) 24 refs.; 9 figs

  11. Enterovirus Control of Translation and RNA Granule Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Richard E

    2016-03-30

    Enteroviruses such as poliovirus (PV) and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) have evolved several parallel strategies to regulate cellular gene expression and stress responses to ensure efficient expression of the viral genome. Enteroviruses utilize their encoded proteinases to take over the cellular translation apparatus and direct ribosomes to viral mRNAs. In addition, viral proteinases are used to control and repress the two main types of cytoplasmic RNA granules, stress granules (SGs) and processing bodies (P-bodies, PBs), which are stress-responsive dynamic structures involved in repression of gene expression. This review discusses these processes and the current understanding of the underlying mechanisms with respect to enterovirus infections. In addition, the review discusses accumulating data suggesting linkage exists between RNA granule formation and innate immune sensing and activation.

  12. Superheated superconducting granule detector tested with nuclear recoil measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Czapek, G.; Diggelmann, U.; Flammer, I.; Frei, D.; Furlan, M.; Gabutti, A.; Janos, S.; Moser, U.; Pretzl, K.; Schmiemann, K.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Brandt, B. van den; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.

    1993-01-01

    The presented results are part of a superheated superconducting granule (SSG) detector development for neutrino and dark matter. The aim of the experiment was to measure the sensitivity of the detector to nuclear recoil energies when exposed to a 70 MeV neutron beam. The detector consists of a small readout coil (diameter 5 mm, length 10 mm) filled with aluminum granules of average diameter 23 μm embedded in an Al 2 O 3 granulate with a 6% volume filling factor. The neutron scattering angles were determined using a scintillator hodoscope. Coincidences between the SSG and the hodoscope signals have been clearly established. Data were taken at an operating temperature of 120 mK for different SSG intrinsic thresholds. The results prove the sensitivity of the detector to nuclear recoils around 10 keV. (orig.)

  13. [Pharmacological availability of erythromycin granules for children's use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, S V; Garsheva, G B; Nesterova, L Ia; Grakovskaia, L K; Tentsova, A I

    1990-08-01

    Pharmaceutical availability of erythromycin granules with polymeric coating of different composition+ was studied. With an account of the ++anatomo-physiological features of a child organism and the properties of the antibiotic, acetylphthalyl cellulose in combination with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose or methyl cellulose was used as a film forming agent. The coated granules were estimated by such parameters as the time of disintegration and the rate of dissolution in various media. The results of the study showed that coating of the erythromycin granules with the film composed of acetylphthalyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose in the ratio of 8 to 2 provided the required protection of the antibiotic in acid media and high pharmaceutical availability of the drug.

  14. Olfactory granule cell development in normal and hyperthyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunjes, P C; Schwark, H D; Greenough, W T

    1982-10-01

    Dendritic development was examined in olfactory bulbs of both normal 7-, 14-, 21- and 60-day-old rats and littermates treated on postnatal days 1-4 with 1 microgram/g body weight of L-thyroxine sodium. Tissue was processed via the Golgi-Cox technique and subjected to quantitative analyses of mitral and internal layer granule cell development. These populations of granule cells were selected because their pattern of late proliferation suggested potentially greater susceptibility to postnatal hormonal alterations. Although neonatal hyperthyroidism induces widespread acceleration of maturation, including precocious chemosensitivity, granule cell development was unaffected relative to littermate controls. Both normal and hyperthyroid groups exhibited an inverted U-shaped pattern of cellular development, with rapid dendritic dendritic growth and expansion occurring during the earliest ages tested, but with loss of processes and dendritic field size occurring after day 21.

  15. UVC-induced stress granules in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Taha Moutaoufik

    Full Text Available Stress granules (SGs are well characterized cytoplasmic RNA bodies that form under various stress conditions. We have observed that exposure of mammalian cells in culture to low doses of UVC induces the formation of discrete cytoplasmic RNA granules that were detected by immunofluorescence staining using antibodies to RNA-binding proteins. UVC-induced cytoplasmic granules are not Processing Bodies (P-bodies and are bone fide SGs as they contain TIA-1, TIA-1/R, Caprin1, FMRP, G3BP1, PABP1, well known markers, and mRNA. Concomitant with the accumulation of the granules in the cytoplasm, cells enter a quiescent state, as they are arrested in G1 phase of the cell cycle in order to repair DNA damages induced by UVC irradiation. This blockage persists as long as the granules are present. A tight correlation between their decay and re-entry into S-phase was observed. However the kinetics of their formation, their low number per cell, their absence of fusion into larger granules, their persistence over 48 hours and their slow decay, all differ from classical SGs induced by arsenite or heat treatment. The induction of these SGs does not correlate with major translation inhibition nor with phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α. We propose that a restricted subset of mRNAs coding for proteins implicated in cell cycling are removed from the translational apparatus and are sequestered in a repressed form in SGs.

  16. Giant arachnoid granulation: differential diagnosis of acute headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, S.A.; Heyer, C.M.; Frombach, E.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: We present a case of intense, rapidly evolving headache clinically mimicking meningitis, subarachnoid haemorrhage or venous sinus thrombosis. Clinical examination, standard blood work and central nervous system studies were non-contributory and effectively ruled out these diagnoses. Cranial multidetector CT studies before and after application of intravenous contrast medium performed prior to lumbar tap disclosed a non-enhancing ovoid mass filling the superior sagittal sinus. This lesion posed a differential to venous sinus thrombosis, but ultimately fulfilled the criteria of a giant arachnoid granulation. The imaging characteristics and differential diagnosis of giant arachnoid granulations are discussed

  17. Morphological Constraints on Cerebellar Granule Cell Combinatorial Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, Jesse I; Person, Abigail L

    2017-12-13

    Combinatorial expansion by the cerebellar granule cell layer (GCL) is fundamental to theories of cerebellar contributions to motor control and learning. Granule cells (GrCs) sample approximately four mossy fiber inputs and are thought to form a combinatorial code useful for pattern separation and learning. We constructed a spatially realistic model of the cerebellar GCL and examined how GCL architecture contributes to GrC combinatorial diversity. We found that GrC combinatorial diversity saturates quickly as mossy fiber input diversity increases, and that this saturation is in part a consequence of short dendrites, which limit access to diverse inputs and favor dense sampling of local inputs. This local sampling also produced GrCs that were combinatorially redundant, even when input diversity was extremely high. In addition, we found that mossy fiber clustering, which is a common anatomical pattern, also led to increased redundancy of GrC input combinations. We related this redundancy to hypothesized roles of temporal expansion of GrC information encoding in service of learned timing, and we show that GCL architecture produces GrC populations that support both temporal and combinatorial expansion. Finally, we used novel anatomical measurements from mice of either sex to inform modeling of sparse and filopodia-bearing mossy fibers, finding that these circuit features uniquely contribute to enhancing GrC diversification and redundancy. Our results complement information theoretic studies of granule layer structure and provide insight into the contributions of granule layer anatomical features to afferent mixing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cerebellar granule cells are among the simplest neurons, with tiny somata and, on average, just four dendrites. These characteristics, along with their dense organization, inspired influential theoretical work on the granule cell layer as a combinatorial expander, where each granule cell represents a unique combination of inputs

  18. Method of production of granulates of ceramic nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    1975-01-01

    To obtain a classified granulate of ceramic nuclear fuels with narrow grain size spectrum, the nuclear fuel powder is made into a slurry in a non-aqueous solvent with a water content as low as possible (e.g. chlorated hydrocarbon), a binder added to it, and spray-dried. The dry granulate desired is already obtained by this working stage. Polybutyl methacrylate in dibutylphthalate is proposed as binder. An example in which uranium dioxide powder is slurried in trichloro-ethylene is described in detail. (UWI/LH) [de

  19. Removal of cesium radioisotopes from solutions using granulated zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronic, J.; Subotic, B.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of type of zeolite and the flow rate of solution through the column on the removal efficiency of radioactive cesium ions from solution has been investigated. The analysis of the change in the concentration of cesium ions in the solutions and distribution of cesium ions in the column fillings (granulated zeolites), after passing the solutions through the columns filled with various granulated zeolites (zeolite 4A, zeolite 13X, synthetic mordenite) was performed. On the basis of the results of this study, the conditions for the most efficient removal of cesium ions from solutions have been discussed. (author) 35 refs.; 9 figs.; 1 tab

  20. PHB granules are attached to the nucleoid via PhaM in Ralstonia eutropha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Andreas; Schuth, Nora; Pfeiffer, Daniel; Nussberger, Stephan; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2012-11-16

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) granules are important storage compounds of carbon and energy in many prokaryotes which allow survival of the cells in the absence of suitable carbon sources. Formation and subcellular localization of PHB granules was previously assumed to occur randomly in the cytoplasm of PHB accumulating bacteria. However, contradictionary results on subcellular localization of PHB granules in Ralstonia eutropha were published, recently. Here, we provide evidence by transmission electron microscopy that PHB granules are localized in close contact to the nucleoid region in R. eutropha during growth on nutrient broth. Binding of PHB granules to the nucleoid is mediated by PhaM, a PHB granule associated protein with phasin-like properties that is also able to bind to DNA and to phasin PhaP5. Over-expression of PhaM resulted in formation of many small PHB granules that were always attached to the nucleoid region. In contrast, PHB granules of ∆phaM strains became very large and distribution of granules to daughter cells was impaired. Association of PHB granules to the nucleoid region was prevented by over-expression of PhaP5 and clusters of several PHB granules were mainly localized near the cell poles. Subcellular localization of PHB granules is controlled in R. eutropha and depends on the presence and concentrations of at least two PHB granule associated proteins, PhaM and PhaP5.

  1. Carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium requires Ca2+ and calcineurin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Dana M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inside bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus retinal pigment epithelial cells, pigment granules move in response to extracellular signals. During the process of aggregation, pigment motility is directed toward the cell nucleus; in dispersion, pigment is directed away from the nucleus and into long apical processes. A number of different chemicals have been found to initiate dispersion, and carbachol (an acetylcholine analog is one example. Previous research indicates that the carbachol-receptor interaction activates a Gq-mediated pathway which is commonly linked to Ca2+ mobilization. The purpose of the present study was to test for involvement of calcium and to probe calcium-dependent mediators to reveal their role in carbachol-mediated dispersion. Results Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion was blocked by the calcium chelator BAPTA. In contrast, the calcium channel antagonist verapamil, and incubation in Ca2+-free medium failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion. The calcineurin inhibitor cypermethrin blocked carbachol-induced dispersion; whereas, two protein kinase C inhibitors (staurosporine and bisindolylmaleimide II failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusion A rise in intracellular calcium is necessary for carbachol-induced dispersion; however, the Ca2+ requirement is not dependent on extracellular sources, implying that intracellular stores are sufficient to enable pigment granule dispersion to occur. Calcineurin is a likely Ca2+-dependent mediator involved in the signal cascade. Although the pathway leads to the generation of diacylglycerol and calcium (both required for the activation of certain PKC isoforms, our evidence does not support a significant role for PKC.

  2. Phenotypic properties and microbial diversity of methanogenic granules from a full-scale UASB reactor treating brewery wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz, E.E.; Stams, A.J.M.; Amils, R.; Sanz, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Methanogenic granules from an anaerobic bioreactor that treated wastewater of a beer brewery consisted of different morphological types of granules. In this study, the microbial compositions of the different granules were analyzed by molecular microbiological techniques: cloning, denaturing gradient

  3. Identification of a multifunctional protein, PhaM, that determines number, surface to volume ratio, subcellular localization and distribution to daughter cells of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), PHB, granules in Ralstonia eutropha H16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Daniel; Wahl, Andreas; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2011-11-01

    A two-hybrid approach was applied to screen for proteins with the ability to interact with PHB synthase (PhaC1) of Ralstonia eutropha. The H16_A0141 gene (phaM) was identified in the majority of positive clones. PhaM (26.6 kDa) strongly interacted with PhaC1 and with phasin PhaP5 but not with PhaP1 or other PHB granule-associated proteins. A ΔphaM mutant accumulated only one or two large PHB granules instead of three to six medium-sized PHB granules of the wild type, and distribution of granules to daughter cells was disordered. All three phenotypes (number, size and distribution of PHB granules) were reversed by reintroduction of phaM. Purified PhaM revealed DNA-binding properties in gel mobility shift experiments. Expression of a fusion of the yellow fluorescent protein (eYfp) with PhaM resulted in formation of many small fluorescent granules that were bound to the nucleoid region. Remarkably, an eYfp-PhaP5 fusion localized at the cell poles in a PHB-negative background and overexpression of eYfp-PhaP5 in the wild type conferred binding of PHB granules to the cell poles. In conclusion, subcellular localization of PHB granules in R. eutropha depends on a concerted expression of at least three PHB granule-associated proteins, namely PhaM, PhaP5 and PHB synthase PhaC1. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Effect of matrix granulation and wax coating on the dissolution rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disintegrating) granules consisting of paracetamol (drug) and acrylatemethacrylate copolymer, a matrix forming material. The effect of coating the matrix granules with wax on the drug release profiles was also investigated. The objective was to ...

  5. Effect of particle size of granules on some mechanical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... granules on some tablet mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets. Granules ... massing paracetamol powder (200 g) with 20% (w/w) of maize starch mucilage as binder. .... The resulting tablets were stored overnight in a.

  6. Formulation of a poorly water-soluble drug in sustained-release hollow granules with a high viscosity water-soluble polymer using a fluidized bed rotor granulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Takumi; Yoshihara, Naoki; Ochiai, Yasushi; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru

    2018-04-25

    Water-soluble polymers with high viscosity are frequently used in the design of sustained-release formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs to enable complete release of the drug in the gastrointestinal tract. Tablets containing matrix granules with a water-soluble polymer are preferred because tablets are easier to handle and the multiple drug-release units of the matrix granules decreases the influences of the physiological environment on the drug. However, matrix granules with a particle size of over 800 μm sometimes cause a content uniformity problem in the tableting process because of the large particle size. An effective method of manufacturing controlled-release matrix granules with a smaller particle size is desired. The aim of this study was to develop tablets containing matrix granules with a smaller size and good controlled-release properties, using phenytoin as a model poorly water-soluble drug. We adapted the recently developed hollow spherical granule granulation technology, using water-soluble polymers with different viscosities. The prepared granules had an average particle size of 300 μm and sharp particle size distribution (relative width: 0.52-0.64). The values for the particle strength of the granules were 1.86-1.97 N/mm 2 , and the dissolution profiles of the granules were not affected by the tableting process. The dissolution profiles and the blood concentration levels of drug released from the granules depended on the viscosity of the polymer contained in the granules. We succeeded in developing the desired controlled-release granules, and this study should be valuable in the development of sustained-release formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Constitutively polarized granules prime KHYG-1 NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suck, Garnet; Branch, Donald R; Aravena, Paola; Mathieson, Mark; Helke, Simone; Keating, Armand

    2006-09-01

    The major mechanism for NK cell lysis of tumor cells is granule-mediated cytotoxicity. Polarization of granules is a prelude to the release of their cytotoxic contents in response to target-cell binding. We describe the novel observation of constitutive granule polarization in the cytotoxic NK cell line, KHYG-1. Continuous degranulation of KHYG-1 cells, however, does not occur and still requires target-cell contact. Disruption of microtubules with colcemid is sufficient to disperse the granules in KHYG-1 and significantly decreases cytotoxicity. A similar effect is not obtained by inhibiting extracellular signal-related kinase 2 (ERK2), the most distal kinase investigated in the cytolytic pathway. Disruption of microtubules significantly down-regulates activation receptors, NKp44 and NKG2D, implicating them as potential microtubule-trafficking receptors. Such changes in upstream receptor expression may have caused deactivation of ERK2, since NKG2D cross-linking also leads to receptor down-regulation and diminished ERK phosphorylation. Thus, a functional role for NKG2D in KHYG-1 cytotoxicity is demonstrated. Moreover, the novel primed state may contribute to the high cytotoxicity exhibited by KHYG-1.

  8. Thermal effects on granules and direct determination of swelling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... DEA. UAA. Abidjan. Côte d'Ivoire, pp. 25-28. Larrigue S, Alvarez G, Cuvelier G, Flick D (2008). Swelling kinetics of waxy maize and starches at high temperatures and heating rates. Carbohydr. Polym. 73: 148-155. Leach HW, MC Cowen LD, Schoch JJ (1959). Structure of the starch granule swelling and ...

  9. Electron microscopic analysis of the specific granule content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge about the stimulus for the release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) from human atria is incomplete. Atrial stretch is known to be a stimulus and atrial tachyarrhythmias are thought to be another. The effects of atrial size (by twodimensional echocardiography) and atrial fibrillation on the atrial specific granule ...

  10. Glass foam granulate as growing medium for tomato and cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Winkel, van A.; Chizhmak, S.

    2011-01-01

    Glass foam granulate was evaluated for use as a horticultural rooting medium with laboratory tests and cultivation experiments. The laboratory tests included moisture characteristics, rehydration rate and pH buffering analyses. Cucumbers and later on tomatoes were propagated in rockwool propagation

  11. ATP storage and uptake by isolated pancreatic zymogen granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haanes, Kristian Agmund; Novak, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    ATP is released from pancreatic acini in response to cholinergic and hormonal stimulation. The same stimuli cause exocytosis of ZG (zymogen granules) and release of digestive enzymes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether ZG stored ATP and to characterize the uptake mechanism for ...

  12. Effect of Drug Active Substance Particles on Wet Granulation Process.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bělohlav, Z.; Břenková, L.; Hanika, Jiří; Durdil, P.; Rapek, P.; Tomášek, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 85, A7 (2007) , s. 974-980 ISSN 0263-8762 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : wet granulation * control * active substance Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2007

  13. Measurement of the moisture content of the granulated sugar by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    Jan 18, 2007 ... The moisture content of granulated sugar is a critical parameter for its transformation into cubes. To the best of our ... resolve this, a new method using infrared transphotometry technique based on the attenuation of an infrared ... contribution of other interactions to the attenuation of the incident wave, i.e. ...

  14. Granulated Silica Method for the Fiber Preform Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sönke Pilz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, we have studied the granulated silica method as a versatile and cost effective way of fiber preform production and the sol-gel method. Until now, we have used the sol-gel technology together with an iterative re-melting and milling step in order to produce rare earth or transition metal doped granular material for the granulated silica method. Here, we present that the iterative re-melting (laser-assisted and milling step is no longer needed to reach a high homogeneity. The sol-gel method also offers a high degree of compositional flexibility with respect to dopants; it further facilitates achieving high concentrations, even in cases when several dopants are used. We employed optical active doped sol-gel derived granulate for the fiber core, whereas pure or index-raised granulated silica has been employed for the cladding. Based on the powder-in-tube technique, where silica glass tubes are appropriately filled with these granular materials, fibers has been directly drawn (“fiber rapid prototyping”, or eventually after an additional optional quality enhancing vitrification step. The powder-in-tube technique is also ideally suited for the preparation of microstructured optical fibers.

  15. Iron-based granules in body of bumblebees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandacka, P.; Kasparova, B.; Jirásková, Yvonna; Dedkova, K.; Mamulová-Kutláková, K.; Kukutschová, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2015), s. 89-99 ISSN 0966-0844 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1350 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Magnetoreception * Bumblebee * Biomineralisation * Iron granules Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.134, year: 2015

  16. Automation system for production of UO2 granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminathan, N.; Setty, C.R.P.; Banerjee, P.K.; Husnain, G.; Rao, K.C.M.; Satyanarayana, A.

    1990-01-01

    Precompaction of UO 2 powder into slugs and granulation of the slugs were used to be carried out in two different work centres involving manual loading/handling of powder and compacts which resulted in a very high level of air-borne activity. This has been simplified by integrating both the operations into one work centre on both the precompaction presses. In the present system, UO 2 powder is transferred to feed hopper through the use of high vac. feeder. The powder in metered quantities is fed into the shoe by deploying screw feeder driven by a compact hydraulic motor. The die cavity is filled with just the right quantity of powder to prevent spillage. The compacts are pushed on to the granulator through a set of guides mounted on the die platform. The granulated powder is made to pass through Vibro screen for separating the fines before collecting in a replaceable S.S. Container. This container is mounted on the final compacting press by using job crane installed on the press. The replaceable container handling facility drastically cuts down the manual handling of UO 2 granules and also eliminates spillage, air borne activity. The development and fabrication of hydraulically operated screw feeder, feed shoe, replaceable container and the job crane structure etc., were completely carried out at Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad. Paper deals in detail the design of the system developed, present operational experiences and further improvements planned. (author). 6 figs

  17. Contribution of granule bound starch synthase in kernel modification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of gbssI and gbssII genes, encoding granule bound starch synthase enzyme I and II, respectively, in quality protein maize (QPM) were studied at different days after pollination (DAP). Total RNA was used for first strand cDNA synthesis using the ImpromIISriptTM reverse transcriptase. No detectable levels of gbssI ...

  18. Population balance modelling of fluidized bed melt granulation: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H.S.; Goldschmidt, M.J.V.; Boerefijn, R.; Hounslow, M.J.; Salman, A.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the work undertaken by our group to identify and quantify the rates processes active in fluidized bed melt granulation (FBMG). The process involves the identification and development of physically representative models to mechanistically describe FBMG using both

  19. Measurement of the moisture content of the granulated sugar by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The moisture content of granulated sugar is a critical parameter for its transformation into cubes. To the best of our knowledge there is no easy-to-use method for the determination of this parameter. To resolve this, a new method using infrared transphotometry technique based on the attenuation of an infrared radiation ...

  20. 21 CFR 520.2520f - Trichlorfon granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trichlorfon granules. 520.2520f Section 520.2520f Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL.... Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in late pregnancy is not recommended...

  1. Background sources at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, γ-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Granule-by-granule reconstruction of a sandpile from x-ray microtomography data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidler, G. T.; Martinez, G.; Seeley, L. H.; Kim, K. H.; Behne, E. A.; Zaranek, S.; Chapman, B. D.; Heald, S. M.; Brewe, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Mesoscale disordered materials are ubiquitous in industry and in the environment. Any fundamental understanding of the transport and mechanical properties of such materials must follow from a thorough understanding of their structure. However, in the overwhelming majority of cases, experimental characterization of such materials has been limited to first- and second-order structural correlation functions, i.e., the mean filling fraction and the structural autocorrelation function. We report here the successful combination of synchrotron x-ray microtomography and image processing to determine the full three-dimensional real-space structure of a model disordered material, a granular bed of relatively monodisperse glass spheres. Specifically, we determine the center location and the local connectivity of each granule. This complete knowledge of structure can be used to calculate otherwise inaccessible high-order correlation functions. We analyze nematic order parameters for contact bonds to characterize the geometric anisotropy or fabric induced by the sample boundary conditions. Away from the boundaries we find short-range bond orientational order exhibiting characteristics of the underlying polytetrahedral structure

  3. Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline 1934 : Richard Tolman shows that blackbody radiation in an will have a blackbody cosmic microwave background with temperature about 5 K 1955: Tigran Shmaonov anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, this strongly supports the big bang model with gravitational

  4. THE EFFECT OF DRY GRANULATION ON THE CONSOLIDATION AND COMPACTION OF CRYSTALLINE LACTOSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIEPMA, KA; VROMANS, H; ZUURMAN, K; LERK, CF

    1993-01-01

    The consolidation and compaction properties of granule fractions prepared by dry granulation (slugging) of alpha-lactose monohydrate and roller dried beta-lactose, respectively, were studied. The results showed that the compactibility of the granule fractions was determined by the type of lactose

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BULK-DENSITY AND COMPACTIBILITY OF LACTOSE GRANULATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZUURMAN, K; RIEPMA, KA; BOLHUIS, GK; VROMANS, H; LERK, CF

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between the bulk density and the compactibility of lactose granulations was studied. The granulations were prepared from different alpha-lactose monohydrate and roller dried beta-lactose powders by wet granulation, using different techniques with only water as a binder, or by

  6. The consequences of granulate heterogeneity towards breakage and attrition upon fluid-bed drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwmeyer, Florentine; Maarschalk, Kees van der Voort; Vromans, Herman

    High-shear granulated lactose granulates were dried in it fluid-bed dryer at various conditions. Granules were characterized by water content and size analysis. It is shown that the drying process is very dynamic in terms of growth and breakage phenomena. Granular size heterogeneity, composition and

  7. TABLETING PROPERTIES OF EXPERIMENTAL AND COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE LACTOSE GRANULATIONS FOR DIRECT COMPRESSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOLHUIS, GK; ZUURMAN, K

    1995-01-01

    Lactose granulations (125-250 mu m) were prepared from two different alpha-lactose monohydrate powders and one roller dried beta-lactose powder respectively, by wet granulation with only water as a binder. As an effect of the granulation process, the flow properties improved, but the compactibility

  8. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 DNase-seq Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685882,SRX685880 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  9. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Histone Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  13. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 TFs and others Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  16. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 TFs and others Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 All antigens Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685882,SRX685880 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Unclassified Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  2. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 All antigens Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685882,SRX685880 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  3. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Histone Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  4. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 TFs and others Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 All antigens Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685878,SRX685882,SRX685877,SRX685880,SRX685883 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. Surface Modification of Porous Titanium Granules for Improving Bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaji, Zahra Gorgin; Houshmand, Behzad; Faghihi, Shahab

    The highly porous titanium granules are currently being used as bone substitute material and for bone tissue augmentation. However, they suffer from weak bone bonding ability. The aim of this study was to create a nanostructured surface oxide layer on irregularly shaped titanium granules to improve their bioactivity. This could be achieved using optimized electrochemical anodic oxidation (anodizing) and heat treatment processes. The anodizing process was done in an ethylene glycol-based electrolyte at an optimized condition of 60 V for 3 hours. The anodized granules were subsequently annealed at 450°C for 1 hour. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the surface structure and morphology of the granules. The in vitro bioactivity of the samples was evaluated by immersion of specimens in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1, 2, and 3 weeks. The human osteoblastic sarcoma cell line, MG63, was used to evaluate cell viability on the samples using dimethylthiazol-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results demonstrated the formation of amorphous nanostructured titanium oxide after anodizing, which transformed to crystalline anatase and rutile phases upon heat treatment. After immersion in SBF, spherical aggregates of amorphous calcium phosphate were formed on the surface of the anodized sample, which turned into crystalline hydroxyapatite on the surface of the anodized annealed sample. No cytotoxicity was detected among the samples. It is suggested that anodic oxidation followed by heat treatment could be used as an effective surface treatment procedure to improve bioactivity of titanium granules implemented for bone tissue repair and augmentation.

  10. Magnetic resonance microscopy of iron transport in methanogenic granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartacek, Jan; Vergeldt, Frank J.; Gerkema, Edo; Jenicek, Pavel; Lens, Piet N. L.; Van As, Henk

    2009-10-01

    Interactions between anaerobic biofilms and heavy metals such as iron, cobalt or nickel are largely unknown. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive method that allows in situ studies of metal transport within biofilm matrixes. The present study investigates quantitatively the penetration of iron (1.75 mM) bound to ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) into the methanogenic granules (spherical biofilm). A spatial resolution of 109 × 109 × 218 μm 3 and a temporal resolution of 11 min are achieved with 3D Turbo Spin Echo (TSE) measurements. The longitudinal relaxivity, i.e. the slope the dependence of the relaxation rate (1/ T1) on the concentration of paramagnetic metal ions, was used to measure temporal changes in iron concentration in the methanogenic granules. It took up to 300 min for the iron-EDTA complex ([FeEDTA] 2-) to penetrate into the methanogenic granules (3-4 mm in diameter). The diffusion was equally fast in all directions with irregularities such as diffusion-facilitating channels and diffusion-resistant zones. Despite these irregularities, the overall process could be modeled using Fick's equations for diffusion in a sphere, because immobilization of [FeEDTA] 2- in the granular matrix (or the presence of a reactive barrier) was not observed. The effective diffusion coefficient ( D ejf) of [FeEDTA] 2- was found to be 2.8 × 10 -11 m 2 s -1, i.e. approximately 4% of D ejf of [FeEDTA] 2- in water. The Fickian model did not correspond to the processes taking place in the core of the granule (3-5% of the total volume of the granule), where up to 25% over-saturation by iron (compare to the concentration in the bulk solution) occurred.

  11. GRANULATION AND BRIQUETTING OF SOLID PRODUCTS FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan J. Hycnar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most flue gas desulfurization products can be characterized by significant solubility in water and dusting in dry state. These characteristics can cause a considerable pollution of air, water, and soil. Among many approaches to utilization of this waste, the process of agglomeration using granulation or briquetting has proved very effective. Using desulfurization products a new material of aggregate characteristics has been acquired, and this material is resistant to water and wind erosion as well as to the conditions of transportation and storage. The paper presents the results of industrial trials granulation and briquetting of calcium desulphurization products. The granulation of a mixture of phosphogypsum used with fly ash (in the share 1:5. The resulting granules characterized by a compressive strength of 41.6 MPa, the damping resistance of 70% and 14.2% abrasion. The granulate was used for the production of cement mix. The produced concrete mortar have a longer setting and hardening time, as compared to the traditional ash and gypsum mortar, and have a higher or comparable flexural and compressive strength during hardening. Briquetting trials made of a product called synthetic gypsum or rea-gypsum both in pure form and with the addition of 5% and 10% of the limestone dust. Briquettes have a high initial strength and resistance to abrasion. The values ​​of these parameters increased after 72 hours of seasoning. It was found that higher hardiness of briquettes with rea-gypsum was obtained with the impact of atmospheric conditions and higher resistance to elution of water-soluble components in comparison to ash briquettes.

  12. Cold experiments on ligament formation for blast furnace slag granulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Junxiang; Yu Qingbo; Li Peng; Du Wenya

    2012-01-01

    Rotary cup atomization for molten slag granulation is an attractive alternative to water quenching. However, the mechanism of disintegration of molten slag must be assessed. In the present study, a glycerol/water mixture was substituted for molten slag, and the mechanism of ligament formation in a rotary cup was investigated using photos taken by a high-speed camera. The effects of the angular speed and inner depth of the rotary cup on ligament disintegration was investigated. The results showed that one state of disintegration may transform into another state as the angular speed of the rotary cup increases at a given liquid flow rate. During ligament formation, the number of ligaments increased with an increase in the angular speed of the rotary cup, and a decrease in the diameter of ligament and liquid drop was observed. Moreover, the initial point of disintegration of the ligament moved to the lip of the rotary cup as the angular speed increased. An equation describing the relationship between the diameter of the liquid drop and various factors was used to predict the diameter of the liquid drop. A rotary cup with an inner depth of 30 mm was the best choice for granulation. The results of the present study will be useful for designing devices used in molten slag granulation. - Highlights: ►The results can be used in the granulation of molten blast furnace slag. ► The three different states of disintegration occur as the angular speed of rotary cup increases. ► The mechanism of ligament disintegration is analyzed. ► Eq. can be used to predict the diameter of liquid drop. ► A rotary cup with an inner depth of 30 mm is optimal for granulation.

  13. High resolution of heterogeneity among human neutrophil granules: physical, biochemical, and ultrastructural properties of isolated fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, W G; Kinkade, J M; Parmley, R T

    1986-08-01

    Previous studies on the fractionation of human neutrophil granules have identified two major populations: myeloperoxidase (MPO)-containing azurophil, or primary, granules and MPO-deficient specific, or secondary, granules. Peripheral blood neutrophils from individual donors were lysed in sucrose-free media by either hypotonic shock or nitrogen cavitation. Using a novel two-gradient Percoll density centrifugation system, the granule-rich postnuclear supernatant was rapidly (ten minutes) and reproducibly resolved into 13 granule fractions (L1 through L8 and H1 through H5). Granule flotation and recentrifugation experiments on both continuous, self-generated and multiple-step gradients using individual and mixed isolated fractions demonstrated that the banding patterns were isopycnic and nonartifactual. Isolated granules were intact based on the findings that biochemical latency of several granule enzymes was greater than 95%, and thin-sectioned electron micrographs demonstrated intact granule profiles. Biochemical analyses of the granule marker proteins MPO, beta-glucuronidase, lysozyme, and lactoferrin indicated that a number of the fractions were related to the major azurophil and specific granule populations. Lactoferrin was found in ten of 13 fractions (L1 through L8, H1 to H2), whereas MPO was found in every fraction. Consistent with these biochemical data, all fractions exhibited varying degrees of heterogeneity based on ultrastructural morphology and cytochemistry, including diaminobenzidine (DAB) reactivity for peroxidase and periodate-thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate (PA-TCH-SP) staining for complex glycoconjugates. A variable but significant percentage (23% to 70%) of the granules in fractions L1 through L8 and H1 and H2 showed DAB reactivity, while about 90% of the granules in fractions H3 through H5 were peroxidase positive. These results demonstrated that DAB-reactive granules spanned the entire range of granule size and density. Ultrastructural PA

  14. Clarithromycin highly-loaded gastro-floating fine granules prepared by high-shear melt granulation can enhance the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hajime; Iwao, Yasunori; Mizoguchi, Midori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2015-05-01

    In an effort to develop a new gastro-retentive drug delivery system (GRDDS) without a large amount of additives, 75% clarithromycin (CAM) loaded fine granules were prepared with three different hydrophobic binders by high-shear melt granulation and their properties were evaluated. Granules containing the higher hydrophobic binder showed sustained drug release and were able to float over 24h. The synchrotron X-ray CT measurement indicated that both the high hydrophobicity of the binder and the void space inside the granules might be involved in their buoyancy. In an in vivo experiment, the floating granules more effectively eradicated Helicobacter pylori than a CAM suspension by remaining in the stomach for a longer period. In short, CAM highly-loaded gastro-floating fine granules can enhance the eradication efficiency of H. pylori compared with CAM alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sequestration of highly expressed mRNAs in cytoplasmic granules, P-bodies, and stress granules enhances cell viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lavut

    Full Text Available Transcriptome analyses indicate that a core 10%-15% of the yeast genome is modulated by a variety of different stresses. However, not all the induced genes undergo translation, and null mutants of many induced genes do not show elevated sensitivity to the particular stress. Elucidation of the RNA lifecycle reveals accumulation of non-translating mRNAs in cytoplasmic granules, P-bodies, and stress granules for future regulation. P-bodies contain enzymes for mRNA degradation; under stress conditions mRNAs may be transferred to stress granules for storage and return to translation. Protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is elevated by stress; and here we analyzed the steady state levels, decay, and subcellular localization of the mRNA of the gene encoding the F-box protein, UFO1, that is induced by stress. Using the MS2L mRNA reporter system UFO1 mRNA was observed in granules that colocalized with P-bodies and stress granules. These P-bodies stored diverse mRNAs. Granules of two mRNAs transported prior to translation, ASH1-MS2L and OXA1-MS2L, docked with P-bodies. HSP12 mRNA that gave rise to highly elevated protein levels was not observed in granules under these stress conditions. ecd3, pat1 double mutants that are defective in P-body formation were sensitive to mRNAs expressed ectopically from strong promoters. These highly expressed mRNAs showed elevated translation compared with wild-type cells, and the viability of the mutants was strongly reduced. ecd3, pat1 mutants also exhibited increased sensitivity to different stresses. Our interpretation is that sequestration of highly expressed mRNAs in P-bodies is essential for viability. Storage of mRNAs for future regulation may contribute to the discrepancy between the steady state levels of many stress-induced mRNAs and their proteins. Sorting of mRNAs for future translation or decay by individual cells could generate potentially different phenotypes in a genetically identical

  16. Impact of fill-level in twin-screw granulation on critical quality attributes of granules and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Robin; Moll, Klaus-Peter; Krumme, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2017-06-01

    In a previous study a change of the fill-level in the barrel exerted a huge influence on the twin-screw granulation (TSG) process of a high drug loaded, simplified formulation. The present work investigated this influence systematically. The specific feed load (SFL) indicating the mass per revolution as surrogate parameter for the fill-level was applied and the correlation to the real volumetric fill level of an extruder could be demonstrated by a newly developed method. A design of experiments was conducted to examine the combined influence of SFL and screw speed on the process and on critical quality attributes of granules and tablets. The same formulation was granulated at constant liquid level with the same screw configuration and led to distinctively different results by only changing the fill-level and the screw speed. The power consumption of the extruder increased at higher SFLs with hardly any influence of screw speed. At low SFL the median residence time was mainly fill-level dependent and at higher SFL mainly screw speed dependent. Optimal values for the product characteristics were found at medium values for the SFL. Granule size distributions shifted from mono-modal and narrow shape to broader and even bimodal distributions of larger median granule sizes, when exceeding or falling below a certain fill-level. Deviating from the optimum fill-level, tensile strength of tablets decreased by about 25% and disintegration times of tablets increased for more than one third. At low fill-levels, material accumulation in front of the kneading zone was detected by pressure measurements and was assumed to be responsible for the unfavored product performance. At high fill-levels, granule consolidation due to higher propensity of contact with the result of higher material temperature was accounted for inferior product performance. The fill-level was found to be an important factor in assessment and development of twin-screw granulation processes as it impacted

  17. Statistical properties of solar granulation from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topka, K.; Title, A.; Tarbell, T.; Ferguson, S.; Shine, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 collected movies of solar granulation completely free from atmospheric blurring, and are not degraded by pointint jitter (the pointing stability was 0.003 sec root mean square). The movies illustrate that the solar five minute oscillation has a major role in the appearance of solar granulation and that exploding granules are a common feature of the granule evolution. Using 3-D Fourier filtering techniques the oscillations were removed and it was demonstrated that the autocorrelation lifetime of granulation is a factor of two greater in magnetic field regions than in field-free quiet sun. Horizontal velocities were measured and flow patterns were observed on the scale of meso- and super granulation. In quiet regions the mean flow velocity is 370 m/s while in the magnetic regions it is about 125 m/s. It was also found that the root mean square (RMS) fluctuating horizonal velocity field is substantially greater in quiet sun than in strong magnetic field regions. By superimposing the location of exploding granules on the average flow maps it was found that they appear almost exclusively in the center of mesogranulation size flow cells. Because of the nonuniformity of the distribution of exploding granules, the evolution of the granulation pattern in mesogranule cell centers and boundaries differs fundamentally. It is clear from this study there is neither a typical granule nor a typical granule evolution

  18. Statistical properties of solar granulation from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topka, K.; Title, A.; Tarbell, T.; Ferguson, S.; Shine, R.

    1988-11-01

    The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 collected movies of solar granulation completely free from atmospheric blurring, and are not degraded by pointint jitter (the pointing stability was 0.003 sec root mean square). The movies illustrate that the solar five minute oscillation has a major role in the appearance of solar granulation and that exploding granules are a common feature of the granule evolution. Using 3-D Fourier filtering techniques the oscillations were removed and it was demonstrated that the autocorrelation lifetime of granulation is a factor of two greater in magnetic field regions than in field-free quiet sun. Horizontal velocities were measured and flow patterns were observed on the scale of meso- and super granulation. In quiet regions the mean flow velocity is 370 m/s while in the magnetic regions it is about 125 m/s. It was also found that the root mean square (RMS) fluctuating horizonal velocity field is substantially greater in quiet sun than in strong magnetic field regions. By superimposing the location of exploding granules on the average flow maps it was found that they appear almost exclusively in the center of mesogranulation size flow cells. Because of the nonuniformity of the distribution of exploding granules, the evolution of the granulation pattern in mesogranule cell centers and boundaries differs fundamentally. It is clear from this study there is neither a typical granule nor a typical granule evolution.

  19. Behavior of hollow balls containing granules bouncing repeatedly off the ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Mu, Qing-song; Luo, Ning; Li, Gang; Peng, Ning-bo

    2013-07-01

    An experimental study of the behavior of hollow balls filled with some granules (mung beans or millets) bouncing repeatedly off a static flat horizontal surface is presented. We observed that the bounce number of the ball is limited and decreases regularly with an increasing number of granules. Moreover, for two balls containing a different kind of granules, their bounce numbers are basically equal when the two balls have the same mass of granules. While there is no clear relationship between the first rebound height of one ball and the number of granules, there appears an exponential decay of the second rebound height with an increase of the granule number. Furthermore, a two-dimensional numerical model has been created to find out the law of the ball's rebound height and the dissipation law of the granule nested system. A generalized prediction equation to reasonably explain the law of the bounce number has also been proposed.

  20. The converse magnetoelectric coupling in asymmetric granule/matrix composite film with Ni/PZT component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Su, Ning-Ning; Cui, Wen-Li; Yan, Shi-Nong

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a type of asymmetric granule/matrix composite film is designed, where the Ni granule is dispersed in PZT matrix, meanwhile the top and bottom electrode is constituted by Au and SRO respectively. Predicted through the electrostatic screening model and mean field approximation, considerable electrostatic charge is induced on Ni granule surface by ferroelectric PZT polarization. Predicted through the spin splitting model and spherical shell approximation, both the magnetization and magnetic anisotropy of Ni granule are modulated by ferroelectric PZT polarization. As the volume fraction of Ni granule is increased, the electric modulation of magnetization and magnetic anisotropy is reduced and enhanced respectively. As the dimension of granule/matrix composite is varied, such modulation is retained. Due to the large area-volume ratio of nano-granule, this work benefits to realize the converse magnetoelectric coupling in nanoscale.

  1. MICROMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF STARCH GRANULES IN SELECTED PROCESSED INDIGENOUS FLOUR OF SOUTH WESTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi A. JAYEOLA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Starch granules of yam stem tubers, plantain fruits and cassava root tubers were studied using the light microscope and then compared. Yam and plantain, both monocotyledons, had morphologically similar granules between locations, being mostly oval in shape while the granules of cassava, a dicot, were predominantly globular but varied between locations. Differences in processing methods between locations might be responsible for the observed variation in cassava granules. There is a suggestion that starch granule morphology might follow lineages in a broad sense. The unique micromorphology of cassava starch granule could make it easily detectable when adulterated, substituted or contaminated with yam or plantain granules and this could provide a cost effective clue in forensic determination.

  2. GRANULATION TRIALS OF WASTE THE DUST SILICON CARBIDE FOR UTILIZATION IN METALLURGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Borowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of laboratory granulation tests of dust silicon carbide and the results of research on the selection of the binder and the properties of the granules obtained. The research material was a waste of the silicon carbide powder with a high fragmentation, mixed with a cement or an organic modified starch specimen. Six tests were performed in a disc granulator with 100 cm in diameter. In each series of trial specified: the type and share of the binder, the diameter of the granules, tenderness, type of structure and mechanical properties. Good granules of silicon carbide obtained with the addition of cement binder with 4% of the mass fraction and at least 24 hours of seasoning. The binder should be added twice by powdering, first in a stirred granulator, and again after manufacture. It was found that the resulting granules may be used as a replacement of ferrosilicon in the process of steelmaking.

  3. Self-organizing of critical state in granulated superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, S.L.; Savitskaya, N.E.

    2000-01-01

    Critical state in granulated superconductors was studied on the basis of two mathematical models - the system of differential equations for calibration and invariant difference of phases and a simplified model describing the system of associated images and equivalent to the standard models to study self-organizing criticality. The critical state of granulated superconductors in all studied cases was shown to be self-organized. Besides, it is shown that the applied models are practically equivalent ones, that is they both show similar critical behavior and lead to coincidence of noncritical phenomena. For the first time one showed that the occurrence of self-organized critically within the system of nonlinear differential equations and its equivalence to self-organized critically in the standard models [ru

  4. Block-based approach to modelling of granulated fertilizers' quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohonen, J.; Reinikainen, S. P.; Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2009-01-01

    be defined through testing the flow rate with, e.g., seed drill. Besides the chemical composition, flowability can be considered as one of the most important characteristics. There are numerous factors affecting the flowability of a granulated fertilizer, several of them related to the particle size......Fertilizer manufacturing is a customer-driven industry, where the quality of a product is a key factor in order to survive the competition. However, measuring the most important feature with granulated fertilizers, flowability, is tedious, time-consuming and thus expensive. Flowability can...... size distribution. The goals are to find a reliable model for flowability using this data and to find the most important variables and to identify the effect of blocks to the quality....

  5. Spray Drying Processing: granules production and drying kinetics of droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)

  6. Contaminated fluid filtration plant using pneumatically renewable granulated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.-C.; Messirejean, Pierre.

    1980-01-01

    This invention concerns a plant for the filtration of a contaminated fluid flow using a granulated material capable of absorbing or adsorbing the contaminants. This plant includes a filtration box within which there is at least one appreciably vertical filtering bed filled with the material and crossed by the fluid flow, loading and discharge compartments respectively located at the top and bottom of the box, each in communication with the filtering bed and an air-actuated transfer system for loading and discharging this bed through these compartments. Facilities of this kind are used mainly in the nuclear and chemical engineering industries to rid their waste of radio-iodines, generally constituted by elementary iodine and methyl iodide, or of toxic gases that contaminate them. The granulated material, whose job it is to trap these contaminants by adsorption or absorption, is generally composed of active carbon or zeolites whose utilisation time is limited [fr

  7. Organic-mineral binder for molybdenum concentrate granulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guro, Vitaliy P.; Ibragimova, Matluba A.; Safarov, Edgorjon T.

    2016-01-01

    Process of pyrite cinders production from Mo middlings consists of molybdenite concentrate granulation, firing to oxidize sulfide minerals and to recover Re-oxide. If kaolin binder is used a pyrite cinders dilution with Mo takes place. So, the development of organic binding agents, alternative to kaolin, is an actual issue. The approach is based on the comparison of the hydrophilic, strength and technological features of the hydrometallurgical processing of pellets. The new batch is developed. It differs from the traditional mixture by polymer burning and minimizing Mo dilution, thus aiming to maximize Re, Au, Ag recovery. The composition of the new organic-mineral batch is as follows: 97.3 % of molybdenite concentrate, 2 % of kaolin and 0.7 % of SK polymer. Keywords: molybdenum middlings, binder, organic additive, batch, granulation.

  8. Optimal background matching camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Constantine; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Gibson, David P; Cuthill, Innes C

    2017-07-12

    Background matching is the most familiar and widespread camouflage strategy: avoiding detection by having a similar colour and pattern to the background. Optimizing background matching is straightforward in a homogeneous environment, or when the habitat has very distinct sub-types and there is divergent selection leading to polymorphism. However, most backgrounds have continuous variation in colour and texture, so what is the best solution? Not all samples of the background are likely to be equally inconspicuous, and laboratory experiments on birds and humans support this view. Theory suggests that the most probable background sample (in the statistical sense), at the size of the prey, would, on average, be the most cryptic. We present an analysis, based on realistic assumptions about low-level vision, that estimates the distribution of background colours and visual textures, and predicts the best camouflage. We present data from a field experiment that tests and supports our predictions, using artificial moth-like targets under bird predation. Additionally, we present analogous data for humans, under tightly controlled viewing conditions, searching for targets on a computer screen. These data show that, in the absence of predator learning, the best single camouflage pattern for heterogeneous backgrounds is the most probable sample. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. Behavioral experience induces zif268 expression in mature granule cells but suppresses its expression in immature granule cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckleberry, Kylie A.; Kane, Gary A.; Mathis, Rita J.; Cook, Sarah G.; Clutton, Jonathan E.; Drew, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of neurons are born each day in the dentate gyrus (DG), but many of these cells die before reaching maturity. Both death and survival of adult-born neurons are regulated by neuronal activity in the DG. The immediate-early gene (IEG) zif268 appears to be an important mediator of these effects, as its expression can be induced by neural activity and knockout of zif268 impairs survival of adult-born neurons (Richardson et al., 1992; Veyrac et al., 2013). Despite the apparent importance of zif268 for adult neurogenesis, its behavior-induced expression has not been fully characterized in adult-born neurons. Here we characterize behavior-evoked expression of zif268 in mature and newborn dentate granule cells (DGCs). We first quantified zif268 expression in doublecortin-positive (DCX+) immature neurons and in the general granule cell population after brief exposure to a novel environment (NE). In the general granule cell population, zif268 expression peaked 1 h after NE exposure and returned to baseline by 8 h post-exposure. However, in the DCX+ cells, zif268 expression was suppressed relative to home cage for at least 8 h post-exposure. We next asked whether suppression of zif268 in DCX+ immature cells occurs in other behavioral paradigms that recruit the hippocampus. Exposure to Morris water maze (MWM) training, an enriched environment, or a NE caused approximately equal suppression of zif268 expression in DCX+ cells and approximately equal activation of zif268 expression among the general granule cell population. The same behavioral procedures activated zif268 expression in 6-week-old BrdU-labeled adult-born neurons, indicating that zif268 suppression is specific to immature neurons. Finally, we asked whether zif268 suppression varied as a function of age within the DCX+ population, which ranges in age from 0 to approximately 4 weeks. NE exposure had no significant effect on zif268 expression in 2- or 4-week-old BrdU-labeled neurons, but it significantly

  10. Multivariate modelling of the tablet manufacturing process with wet granulation for tablet optimization and in-process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, J.A; Coenegracht, P.M J; Lerk, C.F

    1997-01-01

    The process of tablet manufacturing with granulation is described as a two-step process. The first step comprises wet granulation of the powder mixture, and in the second step the granules are compressed into tablets. For the modelling of the pharmaceutical process of wet granulation and tableting,

  11. Spontaneous calcium waves in granule cells in cerebellar slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apuschkin, Mia; Ougaard, Maria; Rekling, Jens C

    2013-01-01

    Multiple regions in the CNS display propagating correlated activity during embryonic and postnatal development. This activity can be recorded as waves of increased calcium concentrations in spiking neurons or glia cells, and have been suggested to be involved in patterning, axonal guidance and es......, that the propagating wave activity is carried through the tissue by axonal collaterals formed by neighboring granule cells, and further suggest that the correlated activity may be related to processes that ensure correct postnatal wiring of the cerebellar circuits....

  12. Lewis M. Rutherfurd and the First Photograph of Solar Granulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J. W.; Briggs, John W.; Prosser, Sian

    2017-08-01

    A major astronomical controversy of the mid-19th century was discordant descriptions of the small scale structure of the solar surface. Visual observers contradicted each other by describing the surface as consisting of “corrugations”, “willow leaves”, “rice grains”, “cumuli”, “thatch”, “granules”, etc. Early photographs of the solar surface were not good enough to settle the controversy. The French astronomer Jules Janssen is credited with the first 1876 photographs that clearly showed what we now call solar granulation (1876, CRAS 82, 1363). Upon seeing these images, New Yorker Lewis M. Rutherfurd (1878, MNRAS 38, 410) praised the high quality of Janssen’s images but asserted that he had also photographed granulation as early as 1871 using collodion wet plates. He sent copies of his best photograph to the Royal Astronomical Society to support his assertion. Curious about his claim, Briggs and Harvey set up Rutherfurd’s 13-inch achromatic refractor on Kitt Peak and found that it easily showed well-resolved solar granulation, so his claim might well have been justified. But without his plates we could not confirm the claim. For 140 years the copies of Rutherfurd’s best solar photograph remained in the archives of the Royal Astronomical Society and were recently discovered by Prosser (RAS Photographs A3/001B and A3/002). By coincidence a few days later, Briggs found the original August 11, 1871 plate. Despite poor condition these photographs show solar granulation. There are at least two other possible early claimants (Reade; Vogel) but their plates are almost certainly lost. Rutherfurd was a master of astronomical instrumentation and photography. He was reticent about his work, letting results speak for themselves, so it is satisfying to find that he was justified in making his claim of priority.

  13. Studies on the influence of laser beams on wound granulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, R.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of laser light of law energy on wound healing was tested on 204 rats in a blind study. The growth of granulation tissue in a polyvinylchloride cylinder implanted on the backs of the animals served as parameter for wound healing. Irradiation was carried out with a helium-neon laser (wavelength 632.8 nm) at daily doses of 0.5 J/cm 2 , 1.5 J/cm 2 , 4 J/cm 2 , 10 J/cm 2 and 20 J/cm 2 , and with incoherent non-linear polarized red light (wavelength 630 nm) with a daily dose of 4 J/cm 2 . This was repeated 8 times. Laser irradiation caused a statistically significant increase in wet and dry granulation tissue weight of 25% in the dose range 1.5 J/cm 2 to 20 J/cm 2 . At 0.5 J/cm 2 the effect was less, but the least effect was achieved by non-linear polarized incoherent red light. Bacteriological evaluation of wound germ counts revealed a marginally lower presence of high germ cell densities. In irradiated animals, histological and enzyme cytochemical findings revealed, in addition to a significant findings revealed, in addition to a significant increase in mast cells, a smaller increase in fibroblast count and a slight decrease in granulocytic and histiocytic elements. The biochemical evaluation of granulation tissue revealed no differences in collagen content between irradiated and unirradiated animals. (orig.) [de

  14. Convergent evolution of germ granule nucleators: A hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Arpita; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2017-10-01

    Germ cells have been considered "the ultimate stem cell" because they alone, during normal development of sexually reproducing organisms, are able to give rise to all organismal cell types. Morphological descriptions of a specialized cytoplasm termed 'germ plasm' and associated electron dense ribonucleoprotein (RNP) structures called 'germ granules' within germ cells date back as early as the 1800s. Both germ plasm and germ granules are implicated in germ line specification across metazoans. However, at a molecular level, little is currently understood about the molecular mechanisms that assemble these entities in germ cells. The discovery that in some animals, the gene products of a small number of lineage-specific genes initiate the assembly (also termed nucleation) of germ granules and/or germ plasm is the first step towards facilitating a better understanding of these complex biological processes. Here, we draw on research spanning over 100years that supports the hypothesis that these nucleator genes may have evolved convergently, allowing them to perform analogous roles across animal lineages. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. First results on quiet and magnetic granulation from SOUP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.; Acton, L.; Duncan, D.; Ferguson, S. H.; Finch, M.; Frank, Z.; Kelly, G.; Lindgren, R.; Morrill, M.

    1987-01-01

    The flight of Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 allowed the collection of time sequences of diffraction limited (0.5 arc sec) granulation images with excellent pointing (0.003 arc sec) and completely free of the distortion that plagues groundbased images. The p-mode oscillations are clearly seen in the data. Using Fourier transforms in the temporal and spatial domain, it was shown that the p-modes dominate the autocorrelation lifetime in magnetic regions. When these oscillations are removed the autocorrelation lifetime is found to be 500 sec in quiet and 950 sec in magnetic regions. In quiet areas exploding granules are seen to be common. It is speculated that a significant fraction of granule lifetimes are terminated by nearby explosions. Using local correlation tracking techniques it was able to measure horizontal displacements, and thus transverse velocities, in the magnetic field. In quiet sun it is possible to detect both super and mesogranulation. Horizontal velocities are as great as 1000 m/s and the average velocity is 400 m/s. In magnetic regions horizontal velocities are much less, about 100 m/s.

  16. Recreating the synthesis of starch granules in yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Barbara; Sánchez-Ferrer, Antoni; Diaz, Ana; Lu, Kuanjen; Otto, Caroline; Holler, Mirko; Shaik, Farooque Razvi; Meier, Florence; Mezzenga, Raffaele; Zeeman, Samuel C

    2016-01-01

    Starch, as the major nutritional component of our staple crops and a feedstock for industry, is a vital plant product. It is composed of glucose polymers that form massive semi-crystalline granules. Its precise structure and composition determine its functionality and thus applications; however, there is no versatile model system allowing the relationships between the biosynthetic apparatus, glucan structure and properties to be explored. Here, we expressed the core Arabidopsis starch-biosynthesis pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae purged of its endogenous glycogen-metabolic enzymes. Systematic variation of the set of biosynthetic enzymes illustrated how each affects glucan structure and solubility. Expression of the complete set resulted in dense, insoluble granules with a starch-like semi-crystalline organization, demonstrating that this system indeed simulates starch biosynthesis. Thus, the yeast system has the potential to accelerate starch research and help create a holistic understanding of starch granule biosynthesis, providing a basis for the targeted biotechnological improvement of crops. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15552.001 PMID:27871361

  17. [Multi-mathematical modelings for compatibility optimization of Jiangzhi granules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Zhang, Li; Ge, Yingli; Lu, Yanliu; Ji, Guang

    2011-12-01

    To investigate into the method of "multi activity index evaluation and combination optimized of mult-component" for Chinese herbal formulas. According to the scheme of uniform experimental design, efficacy experiment, multi index evaluation, least absolute shrinkage, selection operator (LASSO) modeling, evolutionary optimization algorithm, validation experiment, we optimized the combination of Jiangzhi granules based on the activity indexes of blood serum ALT, ALT, AST, TG, TC, HDL, LDL and TG level of liver tissues, ratio of liver tissue to body. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) combining with criteria importance through intercriteria correlation (CRITIC) for multi activity index evaluation was more reasonable and objective, it reflected the information of activity index's order and objective sample data. LASSO algorithm modeling could accurately reflect the relationship between different combination of Jiangzhi granule and the activity comprehensive indexes. The optimized combination of Jiangzhi granule showed better values of the activity comprehensive indexed than the original formula after the validation experiment. AHP combining with CRITIC can be used for multi activity index evaluation and LASSO algorithm, it is suitable for combination optimized of Chinese herbal formulas.

  18. First results on quiet and magnetic granulation from SOUP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.; Acton, L.; Duncan, D.; Ferguson, S. H.; Finch, M.; Frank, Z.; Kelly, G.; Lindgren, R.; Morrill, M.

    1987-09-01

    The flight of Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 allowed the collection of time sequences of diffraction limited (0.5 arc sec) granulation images with excellent pointing (0.003 arc sec) and completely free of the distortion that plagues groundbased images. The p-mode oscillations are clearly seen in the data. Using Fourier transforms in the temporal and spatial domain, it was shown that the p-modes dominate the autocorrelation lifetime in magnetic regions. When these oscillations are removed the autocorrelation lifetime is found to be 500 sec in quiet and 950 sec in magnetic regions. In quiet areas exploding granules are seen to be common. It is speculated that a significant fraction of granule lifetimes are terminated by nearby explosions. Using local correlation tracking techniques it was able to measure horizontal displacements, and thus transverse velocities, in the magnetic field. In quiet sun it is possible to detect both super and mesogranulation. Horizontal velocities are as great as 1000 m/s and the average velocity is 400 m/s. In magnetic regions horizontal velocities are much less, about 100 m/s.

  19. A comparative study of the influence of alpha-lactose monohydrate particle morphology on granule and tablet properties after roll compaction/dry granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Simon; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2018-05-29

    The influence of particle morphology and size of alpha-lactose monohydrate on dry granules and tablets was studied. Four different morphologies were investigated: Two grades of primary crystals, which differed in their particle size and structure (compact crystals vs. agglomerates). The materials were roll compacted at different specific compaction forces and changes in the particle size distribution and the specific surface area were measured. Afterwards, two fractions of granules were pressed to tablets and the tensile strength was compared to that from tablets compressed from the raw materials. The specific surface area was increased induced by roll compaction/dry granulation for all materials. At increased specific compaction forces, the materials showed sufficient size enlargement. The morphology of lactose determined the strength of direct compressed tablets. In contrast, the strength of granule tablets was leveled by the previous compression step during roll compaction/dry granulation. Thus, the tensile strength of tablets compressed directly from the powder mixtures determined whether materials exhibited a loss in tabletability after roll compaction/dry granulation or not. The granule size had only a slight influence on the strength of produced tablets. In some cases, the fraction of smaller granules showed a higher tensile strength compared to the larger fraction.

  20. Melting of fuel element racks and their recycling as granulate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quade, U.; Kluth, T.; Kreh, R.

    1998-01-01

    In order to increase the storage capacity for spent fuel elements in the Spanish NPPs of Almaraz and Asco, the existing racks were replaced by compact one in 1991/1993. The 28 racks from Almaraz NPP were cut on site, packed in 200-I-drums and taken to intermediate storage. For the remaining 28 racks of Asco NPP, ENRESA preferred the melting alternative. To demonstrate the recycling path melting in Germany, a test campaign with six racks was performed in 1997. As a result of this test melt, the limits for Carla melting plant were modified to 200 Bq/g total, α, β, γ 100 Bq/g nuclear fuels, max. 3g/100 kg 2,000 Bq/g total Fe55, H 3 , C-14 and Ni63. After the test melt campaign, the German authorities licensed the import and treatment of the remaining 22 racks on the condition that the waste resulting from the melting process as well as the granules produced were taken back to Spain. The shipment from Asco via France to Germany has been carried out in F 20-ft-IPII containers in accordance with ADR. Size reduction to chargeable dimensions was carried out by a plasma burner and hydraulic shears. For melting, a 3.2 Mg medium frequency induction furnace, operated in a separate housing, was used. For granules production outside this housing, the liquid iron was cast into a 5Mg ladle and then, through a water jet, into the granulating basin. The total mass of 287,659 Kg of 28 fuel elements racks and components of the storage basin yielded 297,914 kg of iron granulate. Secondary waste from melting amounted to 9,920 kg, corresponding to 3.45% of the input mass. The granulating process produced 6,589 kg, corresponding to 2.28% of the total mass to be melted. Radiological analysis of samples taken from the melt and different waste components confirmed the main nuclides Co60, Cs134 and Cs137. Fe55 was highly overestimated by the preliminary analysis. (Author) 2 refs

  1. Rice starch granule amylolysis--differentiating effects of particle size, morphology, thermal properties and crystalline polymorph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Sushil; Butardo, Vito M; Jobling, Stephen A; Gidley, Michael J

    2015-01-22

    The underlying mechanism of amylolysis of rice starch granules was investigated using isolated starch granules from wild-type, as well as SBEIIb mutant and down-regulated lines. Fused granule agglomerates isolated from mutant and transgenic lines were hydrolysed at similar rates by amylases, and had similar crystalline patterns and thermal properties as individual granules. Surface pores, a feature previously only reported for A-polymorphic starch granules, were also observed in B- and C-polymorphic rice starch granules. Although the microscopic patterns of hydrolysis among granules with different crystalline polymorphs were qualitatively similar, the extent and the rate of amylolysis were different, suggesting that B-type crystalline polymorphs are intrinsically more resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis than A-type in rice starch granules. It is proposed that the slightly longer branch lengths of amylopectin which leads to the formation of more stable B-type double helical structures compared to their A-type counterparts is the major parameter, with other factors such as granule size, surface pores and interior channels having secondary roles, in determining the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of rice starch granules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Formation of tRNA granules in the nucleus of heat-induced human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Ryu; Mizuno, Rie; Watanabe, Kazunori; Ijiri, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► tRNAs are tranlocated into the nucleus in heat-induced HeLa cells. ► tRNAs form the unique granules in the nucleus. ► tRNA ganules overlap with nuclear stress granules. -- Abstract: The stress response, which can trigger various physiological phenomena, is important for living organisms. For instance, a number of stress-induced granules such as P-body and stress granule have been identified. These granules are formed in the cytoplasm under stress conditions and are associated with translational inhibition and mRNA decay. In the nucleus, there is a focus named nuclear stress body (nSB) that distinguishes these structures from cytoplasmic stress granules. Many splicing factors and long non-coding RNA species localize in nSBs as a result of stress. Indeed, tRNAs respond to several kinds of stress such as heat, oxidation or starvation. Although nuclear accumulation of tRNAs occurs in starved Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this phenomenon is not found in mammalian cells. We observed that initiator tRNA Met (Meti) is actively translocated into the nucleus of human cells under heat stress. During this study, we identified unique granules of Meti that overlapped with nSBs. Similarly, elongator tRNA Met was translocated into the nucleus and formed granules during heat stress. Formation of tRNA granules is closely related to the translocation ratio. Then, all tRNAs may form the specific granules.

  3. Impact of functionalized particle structure on roll compaction/dry granulation and tableting of calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Simon; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2018-06-10

    The influence of a functionalized raw material particle structure on the granulation behavior and tabletabilty of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) was investigated. Therefore, a milled grade of CaCO 3 was compared to different binary mixtures of milled and functionalized CaCO 3 . Relevant properties of raw materials, ribbons and granules were measured. The starting materials and two fractions of dry granules were compressed to tablets. The tabletability of granules was compared to that of the powders and the influence of specific compaction force and granule size on tablet tensile strength was evaluated. Adding functionalized particles drastically influenced the granulation and tableting behavior of CaCO 3 . Increasing proportions increased the ribbon porosity and granule size. Tensile strength of tablets from powder mixtures and granules was increased as well. Nevertheless, adding functionalized CaCO 3 led to a loss in tabletability induced by a previous compaction step to an extent depending on its proportion in the formulation. A clear influence of the particle morphology on granulation and tableting behavior was demonstrated by the study. The functionalized structure showed aspects of a more plastic deformation behavior. Adding functionalized CaCO 3 to a mixture, even in small amounts, seemed to be beneficial to increase granule size and tablet strength. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of outcomes and safety of using hydroxyapatite granules as a substitute for autograft in cervical cages for anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Mashhadinezhad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:   After cervical discectomy, autogenetic bone is packed into the cage to increase the rate of union between adjacent vertebral bodies, but donor site–related complications can still occur. In this study we evaluate the use   of hydroxyapatite granules as a substitute for autograft for interbody fusion.     Methods:   From November 2008 to November 2011, 236 patients participated in this study. Peek cages were packed with autologous bone grafts taken from the iliac crest in 112 patients and hydroxyapatite (HA granules in 124 patients.   Patients were followed for 12 months. The patients’ neurological signs, results, and complications were fully recorded   throughout the procedure. Radiological imaging was done to assess the fusion rate and settling ratio.     Results:   Formation of bony bridges at the third month was higher in the autograft group versus the granule group. However, there was no difference between both groups at the 12-month follow-up assessment. No difference (     P > 0.05   was found regarding improvement in neurological deficit as well as radicular pain and recovery rate between the two groups. Conclusions:   Interbody fusion cage containing HA granules proved to be an effective treatment for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and/or myelopathy. Clinical and neurological outcome, radiographic measurement and fusion rate   in cage containing HA are similar and competitive with autograft packed cages.    

  5. Comparison of outcomes and safety of using hydroxyapatite granules as a substitute for autograft in cervical cages for anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Mashhadinezhad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:   After cervical discectomy, autogenetic bone is packed into the cage to increase the rate of union between adjacent vertebral bodies, but donor site–related complications can still occur. In this study we evaluate the use   of hydroxyapatite granules as a substitute for autograft for interbody fusion.     Methods:   From November 2008 to November 2011, 236 patients participated in this study. Peek cages were packed with autologous bone grafts taken from the iliac crest in 112 patients and hydroxyapatite (HA granules in 124 patients.   Patients were followed for 12 months. The patients’ neurological signs, results, and complications were fully recorded   throughout the procedure. Radiological imaging was done to assess the fusion rate and settling ratio.     Results:   Formation of bony bridges at the third month was higher in the autograft group versus the granule group. However, there was no difference between both groups at the 12-month follow-up assessment. No difference (     P > 0.05   was found regarding improvement in neurological deficit as well as radicular pain and recovery rate between the two groups. Conclusions:   Interbody fusion cage containing HA granules proved to be an effective treatment for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and/or myelopathy. Clinical and neurological outcome, radiographic measurement and fusion rate   in cage containing HA are similar and competitive with autograft packed cages.

  6. Cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The 20-ft horn-reflector antenna at Bell Laboratories is discussed in detail with emphasis on the 7.35 cm radiometer. The circumstances leading to the detection of the cosmic microwave background radiation are explored

  7. The transformation from anammox granules to deammonification granules in micro-aerobic system by facilitating indigenous ammonia oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Gao, Dawen

    2018-02-01

    Granular deammonification process is a good way to retain aerobic and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB and anammox bacteria) and exhaust flocculent nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). In this study, to facilitate indigenous AOB growth on anammox granules, by stepwise reducing influent nitrite, anammox granules were effectively transformed into deammonification granules in a micro-aerobic EGSB in 100 days. Total nitrogen removal efficiency of 90% and nitrogen removal rate of 2.3 g N/L/d were reached at stable deammonification stage. High influent FA and limited oxygen supply contributed suppression for Nitrospira-like NOB. In transition stages, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi were always dominated. Anammox abundance decreased, while AOB abundance grew fast. Anammox bacteria and AOB were dominated by Brocadia fulgida and Nitrosomonas europaea, respectively. Denitrification activity and bacteria existed although without influent organic. The final AOB abundance was about 4.55-13.8 times more than anammox bacteria abundance, with almost equal potential activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  9. Downstream processing from melt granulation towards tablets: In-depth analysis of a continuous twin-screw melt granulation process using polymeric binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grymonpré, W; Verstraete, G; Vanhoorne, V; Remon, J P; De Beer, T; Vervaet, C

    2018-03-01

    The concept of twin-screw melt granulation (TSMG) has steadily (re)-gained interest in pharmaceutical formulation development as an intermediate step during tablet manufacturing. However, to be considered as a viable processing option for solid oral dosage forms there is a need to understand all critical sources of variability which could affect this granulation technique. The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth analysis of the continuous TSMG process in order to expose the critical process parameters (CPP) and elucidate the impact of process and formulation parameters on the critical quality attributes (CQA) of granules and tablets during continuous TSMG. A first part of the study dealt with the screening of various amorphous polymers as binder for producing high-dosed melt granules of two model drug (i.e. acetaminophen and hydrochlorothiazide). The second part of this study described a quality-by-design (QbD) approach for melt granulation of hydrochlorothiazide in order to thoroughly evaluate TSMG, milling and tableting stage of the continuous TSMG line. Using amorphous polymeric binders resulted in melt granules with high milling efficiency due to their brittle behaviour without producing excessive amounts of fines, providing high granule yields with low friability. Therefore, it makes them extremely suitable for further downstream processing. One of the most important CPP during TSMG with polymeric binders was the granulation-torque, which - in case of polymers with high T g - increased during longer granulation runs to critical levels endangering the continuous process flow. However, by optimizing both screw speed and throughput or changing to polymeric binders with lower T g it was possible to significantly reduce this risk. This research paper highlighted that TSMG must be considered as a viable option during formulation development of solid oral dosage forms based on the robustness of the CQA of both melt granules and tablets. Copyright © 2017

  10. ENIGMATIC RECURRENT PULSATIONAL VARIABILITY OF THE ACCRETING WHITE DWARF EQ LYN (SDSS J074531.92+453829.6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukadam, Anjum S.; Szkody, Paula [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Townsley, D. M.; Brockett, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Gaensicke, B. T.; Parsons, S. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Southworth, J. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Harrold, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78759 (United States); Tovmassian, G.; Zharikov, S. [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional SPM, Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ensenada, BC (Mexico); Drake, A. J. [Department of Astronomy and the Center for Advanced Computing Research, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91225 (United States); Henden, A. [American Association of Variable Star Observers, 25 Birch Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rodriguez-Gil, P. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, E-38204 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Sion, E. M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Zola, S.; Szymanski, T. [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, PL-30-244 Krakow (Poland); Pavlenko, E. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Crimea 98409 (Ukraine); and others

    2013-09-15

    Photometric observations of the cataclysmic variable EQ Lyn (SDSS J074531.92+453829.6), acquired from 2005 October to 2006 January, revealed high-amplitude variability in the range 1166-1290 s. This accreting white dwarf underwent an outburst in 2006 October, during which its brightness increased by at least five magnitudes, and it started exhibiting superhumps in its light curve. Upon cooling to quiescence, the superhumps disappeared and it displayed the same periods in 2010 February as prior to the outburst within the uncertainties of a couple of seconds. This behavior suggests that the observed variability is likely due to nonradial pulsations in the white dwarf star, whose core structure has not been significantly affected by the outburst. The enigmatic observations begin with an absence of pulsational variability during a multi-site campaign conducted in 2011 January-February without any evidence of a new outburst; the light curve is instead dominated by superhumps with periods in the range of 83-87 minutes. Ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope time-series spectroscopy acquired in 2011 March reveals an effective temperature of 15,400 K, placing EQ Lyn within the broad instability strip of 10,500-16,000 K for accreting pulsators. The ultraviolet light curve with 90% flux from the white dwarf shows no evidence of any pulsations. Optical photometry acquired during 2011 and Spring 2012 continues to reflect the presence of superhumps and an absence of pulsations. Subsequent observations acquired in 2012 December and 2013 January finally indicate the disappearance of superhumps and the return of pulsational variability with similar periods as previous data. However, our most recent data from 2013 March to May reveal superhumps yet again with no sign of pulsations. We speculate that this enigmatic post-outburst behavior of the frequent disappearance of pulsational variability in EQ Lyn is caused either by heating the white dwarf beyond the instability strip due to an

  11. Evolution of vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase domains and volutin granules: clues into the early evolutionary origin of the acidocalcisome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Alejandro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Volutin granules appear to be universally distributed and are morphologically and chemically identical to acidocalcisomes, which are electron-dense granular organelles rich in calcium and phosphate, whose functions include storage of phosphorus and various metal ions, metabolism of polyphosphate, maintenance of intracellular pH, osmoregulation and calcium homeostasis. Prokaryotes are thought to differ from eukaryotes in that they lack membrane-bounded organelles. However, it has been demonstrated that as in acidocalcisomes, the calcium and polyphosphate-rich intracellular "volutin granules (polyphosphate bodies" in two bacterial species, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and Rhodospirillum rubrum, are membrane bound and that the vacuolar proton-translocating pyrophosphatases (V-H+PPases are present in their surrounding membranes. Volutin granules and acidocalcisomes have been found in organisms as diverse as bacteria and humans. Results Here, we show volutin granules also occur in Archaea and are, therefore, present in the three superkingdoms of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya. Molecular analyses of V-H+PPase pumps, which acidify the acidocalcisome lumen and are diagnostic proteins of the organelle, also reveal the presence of this enzyme in all three superkingdoms suggesting it is ancient and universal. Since V-H+PPase sequences contained limited phylogenetic signal to fully resolve the ancestral nodes of the tree, we investigated the divergence of protein domains in the V-H+PPase molecules. Using Protein family (Pfam database, we found a domain in the protein, PF03030. The domain is shared by 31 species in Eukarya, 231 in Bacteria, and 17 in Archaea. The universal distribution of the V-H+PPase PF03030 domain, which is associated with the V-H+PPase function, suggests the domain and the enzyme were already present in the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA. Conclusion The importance of the V-H+PPase function and the

  12. Influence of raw material properties upon critical quality attributes of continuously produced granules and tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonteyne, Margot; Wickström, Henrika; Peeters, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    over a range of raw material attributes, manufacturing process options and process parameters. This fits further into the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality by Design (QbD) framework. The present study evaluates the effect of variation in critical raw material properties on the critical......-Lactose-PVP (30-67.5-2.5%) was used as model formulation. Seven different grades of theophylline were granulated. Afterward, the obtained granules were tableted. Both the characteristics of granules and tablets were determined. The results show that differences in raw material properties both affect...... quality attributes of granules and tablets, produced by a continuous from-powder-to-tablet wet granulation line. The granulation process parameters were kept constant to examine the differences in the end product quality caused by the variability of the raw materials properties only. Theophylline...

  13. Can presence of oral Fordyce's granules serve as a marker for hyperlipidemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaballah, Kamis Y.; Rahimi, Iman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hyperlipidemia is a well-documented risk factor for coronary heart disease and a great wealth of clinical trials have shown that early detection of hyperlipidemia and prescribing drugs that lower elevated lipid levels reduce serious cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction, heart failure and stroke. Fordyce granules (FGs) are sebaceous glands without hair follicles, most often located under the epithelium of the cheek and the vermilion border of lip. The incidence of FGs is typically high and their presence is usually regarded as a normal variation of the oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of anatomical distribution and density of FGs and also to explore any potential relationship between the detection of FGs and the state of hyperlipidemia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, prospective study was designed. The participants were divided into two groups; first group consisted of individuals with FGs and the second group included those with no FGs detected. All participants were fasting 9-12 h before they were subjected to a comprehensive oral examination and their blood was sampled and tested for complete lipid profile. The presence of FGs was scored based on the number of the granules and their anatomical distribution. Chi-square test was used and P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: A total of 350 patients were recruited for this study, nearly 90% (n = 314) elicit detectable FGs. The FGs were mainly located on the buccal mucosa with or without labial involvement and their density tend to reduce with age and also with smoking. Individuals with elevated lipid profile tend to have the highest score of the FGs. Conclusion: According to this report, the presence of high numbers of FGs in people with high risk factors for cardiovascular disease should not be neglected. PMID:25426145

  14. Can presence of oral Fordyce′s granules serve as a marker for hyperlipidemia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamis Y Gaballah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperlipidemia is a well-documented risk factor for coronary heart disease and a great wealth of clinical trials have shown that early detection of hyperlipidemia and prescribing drugs that lower elevated lipid levels reduce serious cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction, heart failure and stroke. Fordyce granules (FGs are sebaceous glands without hair follicles, most often located under the epithelium of the cheek and the vermilion border of lip. The incidence of FGs is typically high and their presence is usually regarded as a normal variation of the oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of anatomical distribution and density of FGs and also to explore any potential relationship between the detection of FGs and the state of hyperlipidemia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, prospective study was designed. The participants were divided into two groups; first group consisted of individuals with FGs and the second group included those with no FGs detected. All participants were fasting 9-12 h before they were subjected to a comprehensive oral examination and their blood was sampled and tested for complete lipid profile. The presence of FGs was scored based on the number of the granules and their anatomical distribution. Chi-square test was used and P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: A total of 350 patients were recruited for this study, nearly 90% (n = 314 elicit detectable FGs. The FGs were mainly located on the buccal mucosa with or without labial involvement and their density tend to reduce with age and also with smoking. Individuals with elevated lipid profile tend to have the highest score of the FGs. Conclusion: According to this report, the presence of high numbers of FGs in people with high risk factors for cardiovascular disease should not be neglected.

  15. The enigmatic role of nucleophosmin in malignant melanoma: Does it have an effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Orgen Calli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melanoma is quite a heterogeneous group of diseases of the skin. Prognostic markers of tumor behavior are important to precisely assign individual patients for appropriate treatment protocols. Aim: The aim of our first study was to investigate nucleophosmin expression in melanoma patients and to determine its relationship with the tumor characterictics and patient prognosis. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of nucleophosmin in 55 melanoma patients. The immunostaining pattern was classified into two groups: Diffuse nuclear and nucleolar relocalization. We also investigated the relationship between the expression of nucleophosmin and the clinicopathological parameters sucssh as Clark level, tumor thickness, stage, histological type, location, and survey. Results: In all cases the neoplastic cells were strongly positive for nucleophosmin (14 cases diffuse nuclear, 41 cases nucleolar relocalization. No correlation was demonstrated between the expression pattern of nucleophosmin and the clinicopathological parameters and survey. Conclusions: The implications of our results, nevertheless, are that the immunohistochemical detection of nucleophosmin is not a valuable tool for predicting the outcome of patients with melanoma or identifying subgroups of patients who may be at a higher risk.

  16. In vivo Anomalous Diffusion and Weak Ergodicity Breaking of Lipid Granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeon, J.-H.; Tejedor, V.; Burov, S.

    2011-01-01

    Combining extensive single particle tracking microscopy data of endogenous lipid granules in living fission yeast cells with analytical results we show evidence for anomalous diffusion and weak ergodicity breaking. Namely we demonstrate that at short times the granules perform subdiffusion...... according to the laws of continuous time random walk theory. The associated violation of ergodicity leads to a characteristic turnover between two scaling regimes of the time averaged mean squared displacement. At longer times the granule motion is consistent with fractional Brownian motion....

  17. Proteome profiling of human neutrophil granule subsets, secretory vesicles, and cell membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvig, Sara; Østergaard, Ole; Heegaard, Niels Henrik Helweg

    2013-01-01

    granules, SVs, and plasma membrane has been performed before. Here, we performed subcellular fractionation on freshly isolated human neutrophils by nitrogen cavitation and density centrifugation on a four-layer Percoll gradient. Granule subsets were pooled and subjected to SDS-PAGE, and gel pieces were in...... subcellular proteome profiles presented here may be used as a database in combination with the mRNA array database to predict and test the presence and localization of proteins in neutrophil granules and membranes....

  18. High level waste containing granules coated and embedded in metal as an alternative to HLW glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, W.

    1980-01-01

    Simulated high level waste containing granules were overcoated with pyrocarbon or nickel respectively. The coatings were performed by the use of chemical vapour deposition in a fluidized bed. The coated granules were embedded in an aluminium-silicon-alloy to improve the dissipation of radiation induced heat. The metal-granules-composites obtained were of improved product stability related to the high level waste containing glasses. (orig.) [de

  19. The natural radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggleby, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The components of the natural background radiation and their variations are described. Cosmic radiation is a major contributor to the external dose to the human body whilst naturally-occurring radionuclides of primordial and cosmogenic origin contribute to both the external and internal doses, with the primordial radionuclides being the major contributor in both cases. Man has continually modified the radiation dose to which he has been subjected. The two traditional methods of measuring background radiation, ionisation chamber measurements and scintillation counting, are looked at and the prospect of using thermoluminescent dosimetry is considered

  20. Effects of background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.; Gilman, E.A.; Kneale, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to measure the relationship between exposure to different levels of background gamma radiation in different parts of the country, and different Relative Risks for leukaemias and cancers in children. The investigation is linked to an earlier analysis of the effects of prenatal medical x-rays upon leukaemia and cancer risk; the prior hypothesis on which the background-study was based, is derived from the earlier results. In a third analysis, the authors attempted to measure varying potency of medical x-rays delivered at different stages of gestation and the results supply a link between the other two estimates. (author)

  1. The cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theories expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theorists. (orig.)

  2. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  3. RADIATIVE TRANSFER MODELING OF THE ENIGMATIC SCATTERING POLARIZATION IN THE SOLAR Na i D{sub 1} LINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belluzzi, Luca [Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno, CH-6605 Locarno Monti (Switzerland); Bueno, Javier Trujillo [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Degl’Innocenti, Egidio Landi [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    The modeling of the peculiar scattering polarization signals observed in some diagnostically important solar resonance lines requires the consideration of the detailed spectral structure of the incident radiation field as well as the possibility of ground level polarization, along with the atom's hyperfine structure and quantum interference between hyperfine F-levels pertaining either to the same fine structure J-level, or to different J-levels of the same term. Here we present a theoretical and numerical approach suitable for solving this complex non-LTE radiative transfer problem. This approach is based on the density-matrix metalevel theory (where each level is viewed as a continuous distribution of sublevels) and on accurate formal solvers of the transfer equations and efficient iterative methods. We show an application to the D-lines of Na i, with emphasis on the enigmatic D{sub 1} line, pointing out the observable signatures of the various physical mechanisms considered. We demonstrate that the linear polarization observed in the core of the D{sub 1} line may be explained by the effect that one gets when the detailed spectral structure of the anisotropic radiation responsible for the optical pumping is taken into account. This physical ingredient is capable of introducing significant scattering polarization in the core of the Na i D{sub 1} line without the need for ground-level polarization.

  4. Role of the Caenorhabditis elegans multidrug resistance gene, mrp-4, in gut granule differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Erin; King, Brian; Lawrenson, Andrea L; Schroeder, Lena K; Kershner, Aaron M; Hermann, Greg J

    2007-11-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans gut granules are lysosome-related organelles with birefringent contents. mrp-4, which encodes an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter homologous to mammalian multidrug resistance proteins, functions in the formation of gut granule birefringence. mrp-4(-) embryos show a delayed appearance of birefringent material in the gut granule but otherwise appear to form gut granules properly. mrp-4(+) activity is required for the extracellular mislocalization of birefringent material, body-length retraction, and NaCl sensitivity, phenotypes associated with defective gut granule biogenesis exhibited by embryos lacking the activity of GLO-1/Rab38, a putative GLO-1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor GLO-4, and the AP-3 complex. Multidrug resistance protein (MRP)-4 localizes to the gut granule membrane, consistent with it playing a direct role in the transport of molecules that compose and/or facilitate the formation of birefringent crystals within the gut granule. However, MRP-4 is also present in oocytes and early embryos, and our genetic analyses indicate that its site of action in the formation of birefringent material may not be limited to just the gut granule in embryos. In a search for genes that function similarly to mrp-4(+), we identified WHT-2, another ABC transporter that acts in parallel to MRP-4 for the formation of birefringent material in the gut granule.

  5. Common spectrum of polypeptides occurs in secretion granule membranes of different exocrine glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.S.; Cameron, P.L.; Castle, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    A highly purified membrane preparation from rat parotid secretion granules has been used as a comparative probe to examine the extent of compositional overlap in granule membranes of three other exocrine secretory tissues - pancreatic, lacrimal, and submandibular - from several standpoints. First, indirect immunofluorescent studies using a polyclonal polyspecific anti-parotid granule membrane antiserum has indicated a selective staining of granule membrane profiles in all acinar cells of all tissues. Second, highly purified granule membrane subfractions have been isolated from each exocrine tissue; comparative two-dimensional (isoelectric focusing; SDS) PAGE of radioiodinated granule membranes has identified 10-15 polypeptides of identical pI and apparent molecular mass. These species are likely to be integral membrane components since they are not extracted by either saponin-sodium sulfate or sodium carbonate (pH 11.5) treatments, and they do not have counterparts in the granule content. Finally, the identity among selected parotid and pancreatic radioiodinated granule membrane polypeptides has been documented using two-dimensional peptide mapping of chymotryptic and tryptic digests. These findings clearly indicate that exocrine secretory granules, irrespective of the nature of stored secretion, comprise a type of vesicular carrier with a common (and probably refined) membrane composition. Conceivably, the polypeptides identified carry out general functions related to exocrine secretion

  6. The Effect of Wetting on The Course of The Drum Granulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błaszczyk Michał

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental drum granulation of silica flour with the use of wetting liquids with different values of surface tension. Additionally, different liquid jet breakup and different residual moisture of the bed were applied in the tests. The process was conducted periodically in two stages: wetting and proper granulation, during which no liquid was supplied to the bed. The condition of the granulated material after the period of wetting (particle size distribution and moisture of separate fractions and a change in the particle size distribution during the further conduct of the process (granulation kinetics were determined.

  7. Who Regulates Whom? An Overview of RNA Granules and Viral Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Poblete-Durán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After viral infection, host cells respond by mounting an anti-viral stress response in order to create a hostile atmosphere for viral replication, leading to the shut-off of mRNA translation (protein synthesis and the assembly of RNA granules. Two of these RNA granules have been well characterized in yeast and mammalian cells, stress granules (SGs, which are translationally silent sites of RNA triage and processing bodies (PBs, which are involved in mRNA degradation. This review discusses the role of these RNA granules in the evasion of anti-viral stress responses through virus-induced remodeling of cellular ribonucleoproteins (RNPs.

  8. Three novel proteins co-localise with polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules in Rhodospirillum rubrum S1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narancic, Tanja; Scollica, Elisa; Cagney, Gerard; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2018-04-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable polymer accumulated by bacteria is deposited intracellularly in the form of inclusion bodies often called granules. The granules are supramolecular complexes harbouring a varied number of proteins on their surface, which have specific but incompletely characterised functions. By comparison with other organisms that produce biodegradable polymers, only two phasins have been described to date for Rhodosprillum rubrum, raising the possibility that more await discovery. Using a comparative proteomics strategy to compare the granules of wild-type R. rubrum with a PHB-negative mutant housing artificial PHB granules, we identified four potential PHB granules' associated proteins. These were: Q2RSI4, an uncharacterised protein; Q2RWU9, annotated as an extracellular solute-binding protein; Q2RQL4, annotated as basic membrane lipoprotein; and Q2RQ51, annotated as glucose-6-phosphate isomerase. In silico analysis revealed that Q2RSI4 harbours a Phasin_2 family domain and shares low identity with a single-strand DNA-binding protein from Sphaerochaeta coccoides. Fluorescence microscopy found that three proteins Q2RSI4, Q2EWU9 and Q2RQL4 co-localised with PHB granules. This work adds three potential new granule associated proteins to the repertoire of factors involved in bacterial storage granule formation, and confirms that proteomics screens are an effective strategy for discovery of novel granule associated proteins.

  9. Layered growth with bottom-spray granulation for spray deposition of drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Dawn Z L; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S

    2009-07-30

    The gap in scientific knowledge on bottom-spray fluidized bed granulation has emphasized the need for more studies in this area. This paper comparatively studied the applicability of a modified bottom-spray process and the conventional top-spray process for the spray deposition of a micronized drug during granulation. The differences in circulation pattern, mode of growth and resultant granule properties between the two processes were highlighted. The more ordered and consistent circulation pattern of particles in a bottom-spray fluidized bed was observed to give rise to layered granule growth. This resulted in better drug content uniformity among the granule batches and within a granule batch. The processes' sensitivities to wetting and feed material characteristics were also compared and found to differ markedly. Less robustness to differing process conditions was observed for the top-spray process. The resultant bottom-spray granules formed were observed to be less porous, more spherical and had good flow properties. The bottom-spray technique can thus be potentially applied for the spray deposition of drug during granulation and was observed to be a good alternative to the conventional technique for preparing granules.

  10. Comparison of Ca2+ and Mg2+ enhancing aerobic granulation in SBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lin; Gao Dawen; Zhang Min; Fu Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated to investigate the effect of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ augmentation on aerobic granulation. Reactor R1 was augmented with Ca 2+ at 40 mg/L, while Mg 2+ was added to the reactor R2 with 40 mg/L. Results showed that the reactor R1 had a faster granulation process compared with R2, and the mature granules in R1 showed better physical characteristics. However, the mature granules in R2 had the higher production yield of polysaccharides and proteins, and aerobic granules in R2 experienced a faster substrate biodegradation. Microbial and genetic characteristics in mature granules were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. The results revealed that Mg 2+ addition led to higher microbial diversity in mature granules. In addition, an uncultured bacterium (AB447697) was major specie in R1, and β-proteobacterium was dominant in R2. It can be concluded that Ca 2+ had an important effect on physical properties of aerobic granules, while Mg 2+ played a key role on biological properties during the sludge granulation.

  11. Identification of the Polyhydroxybutyrate Granules in Mammalian Cultured Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Elustondo, Pia; Zakharian, Eleonora; Pavlov, Evgeny

    2012-01-01

    Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biological polyester present in bacteria and eukaryotic cells. Long-chain (or storage) sPHB (up to 100,000 residues) is typically present in PHB-accumulating bacteria and localized in specialized granules known as carbonosomes. In these organisms, sPHB plays a major role as carbon and energy storage. On the other hand, short-chain (or complexed) cPHB (10–100 residues) is present in eukaryotic organisms, including mammals as well as in many bacteria. Previous ...

  12. Thermal background noise limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, S.

    1982-01-01

    Modern detection systems are increasingly limited in sensitivity by the background thermal photons which enter the receiving system. Expressions for the fluctuations of detected thermal radiation are derived. Incoherent and heterodyne detection processes are considered. References to the subject of photon detection statistics are given.

  13. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects

  14. New gentle-wing high-shear granulator: impact of processing variables on granules and tablets characteristics of high-drug loading formulation using design of experiment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, Mohamed H; Abdel-Rahman, Sayed I; Alanazi, Fars K; Ahmed, Mahrous O; Tawfeek, Hesham M; Al-Shdefat, Ramadan I

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the application of design of experiment (DoE) approach in defining design space for granulation and tableting processes using a novel gentle-wing high-shear granulator. According to quality-by-design (QbD) prospective, critical attributes of granules, and tablets should be ensured by manufacturing process design. A face-centered central composite design has been employed in order to investigate the effect of water amount (X 1 ), impeller speed (X 2 ), wet massing time (X 3 ), and water addition rate (X 4 ) as independent process variables on granules and tablets characteristics. Acetaminophen was used as a model drug and granulation experiments were carried out using dry addition of povidone k30. The dried granules have been analyzed for their size distribution, density, and flow pattern. Additionally, the produced tablets have been investigated for; weight uniformity, breaking force, friability and percent capping, disintegration time, and drug dissolution. Results of regression analysis showed that water amount, impeller speed and wet massing time have significant (p tablets characteristics. However, the water amount had the most pronounced effect as indicated by its higher parameter estimate. On the other hand, water addition rate showed a minimal impact on granules and tablets properties. In conclusion, water amount, impeller speed, and wet massing time could be considered as critical process variables. Thus, understanding the relationship between these variables and quality attributes of granules and corresponding tablets provides the basis for adjusting granulation variables in order to optimize product performance.

  15. Modelling the enigmatic Late Pliocene Glacial Event - Marine Isotope Stage M2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Aisling M.; Haywood, Alan M.; Hunter, Stephen J.; Tindall, Julia C.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Hill, Daniel J.; Pickering, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    The Pliocene Epoch (5.2 to 2.58 Ma) has often been targeted to investigate the nature of warm climates. However, climate records for the Pliocene exhibit significant variability and show intervals that apparently experienced a cooler than modern climate. Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) M2 (~ 3.3 Ma) is a globally recognisable cooling event that disturbs an otherwise relatively (compared to present-day) warm background climate state. It remains unclear whether this event corresponds to significant ice sheet build-up in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. Estimates of sea level for this interval vary, and range from modern values to estimates of 65 m sea level fall with respect to present day. Here we implement plausible M2 ice sheet configurations into a coupled atmosphere–ocean climate model to test the hypothesis that larger-than-modern ice sheet configurations may have existed at M2. Climate model results are compared with proxy climate data available for M2 to assess the plausibility of each ice sheet configuration. Whilst the outcomes of our data/model comparisons are not in all cases straight forward to interpret, there is little indication that results from model simulations in which significant ice masses have been prescribed in the Northern Hemisphere are incompatible with proxy data from the North Atlantic, Northeast Arctic Russia, North Africa and the Southern Ocean. Therefore, our model results do not preclude the possibility of the existence of larger ice masses during M2 in the Northern or Southern Hemisphere. Specifically they are not able to discount the possibility of significant ice masses in the Northern Hemisphere during the M2 event, consistent with a global sea-level fall of between 40 m and 60 m. This study highlights the general need for more focused and coordinated data generation in the future to improve the coverage and consistency in proxy records for M2, which will allow these and future M2 sensitivity tests to be interrogated

  16. Wolfram syndrome 1 gene (WFS1) product localizes to secretory granules and determines granule acidification in pancreatic beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Masayuki; Tanabe, Katsuya; Yanai, Akie; Ohta, Yasuharu; Kondo, Manabu; Akiyama, Masaru; Shinoda, Koh; Oka, Yoshitomo; Tanizawa, Yukio

    2011-04-01

    Wolfram syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by juvenile-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy. The gene responsible for the syndrome (WFS1) encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident transmembrane protein. The Wfs1-null mouse exhibits progressive insulin deficiency causing diabetes. Previous work suggested that the function of the WFS1 protein is connected to unfolded protein response and to intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. However, its precise molecular function in pancreatic β-cells remains elusive. In our present study, immunofluorescent and electron-microscopic analyses revealed that WFS1 localizes not only to ER but also to secretory granules in pancreatic β-cells. Intragranular acidification was assessed by measuring intracellular fluorescence intensity raised by the acidotrophic agent, 3-[2,4-dinitroanilino]-3'-amino-N-methyldipropyramine. Compared with wild-type β-cells, there was a 32% reduction in the intensity in WFS1-deficient β-cells, indicating the impairment of granular acidification. This phenotype may, at least partly, account for the evidence that Wfs1-null islets have impaired proinsulin processing, resulting in an increased circulating proinsulin level. Morphometric analysis using electron microscopy evidenced that the density of secretory granules attached to the plasma membrane was significantly reduced in Wfs1-null β-cells relative to that in wild-type β-cells. This may be relevant to the recent finding that granular acidification is required for the priming of secretory granules preceding exocytosis and may partly explain the fact that glucose-induced insulin secretion is profoundly impaired in young prediabetic Wfs1-null mice. These results thus provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of β-cell dysfunction in patients with Wolfram syndrome.

  17. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  18. Tribology of swollen starch granule suspensions from maize and potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Selway, Nichola; Shelat, Kinnari J; Dhital, Sushil; Stokes, Jason R; Gidley, Michael J

    2017-01-02

    The tribological properties of suspensions of cooked swollen starch granules are characterised for systems based on maize starch and potato starch. These systems are known as granule 'ghosts' due to the release (and removal) of polymer from their structure during cooking. Maize starch ghosts are less swollen than potato starch ghosts, resulting in a higher packing concentration and greater mechanical stability. In a soft-tribological contact, maize ghost suspensions reduce friction compared to the solvent (water), generate bell-shaped tribological profiles characteristic of particle entrainment and show a marked concentration dependence, whereas potato ghost suspensions exhibit lubrication behaviour similar to water. Microscopy analysis of the samples following tribological testing suggests that this is due to the rapid break-up of potato ghosts under the shear and rolling conditions within the tribological contact. A reduction in the small deformation moduli (associated with a weak gel structure) is also observed when the potato ghost suspensions are subjected to steady shear using parallel plate rheometry; both microscopy and particle size analysis show that this is accompanied by the partial shear-induced breakage of ghost particles. This interplay between particle microstructure and the resultant rheological and lubrication dynamics of starch ghost suspensions contributes to an enhanced mechanistic understanding of textural and other functional properties of cooked starches in food and other applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modifying the properties of finely ground limestone by tumbling granulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Oliver; Eckert, Maroš; Tomášová, Barbora; Peciar, Peter; Ščasný, Martin; Fekete, Roman; Peciar, Marián

    2016-06-01

    Calcium carbonate in the form of finely ground limestone is a material that has found its application in a wide range of industries, in the chemical, rubber, agricultural, and paper industries, is used for desulfurization of boilers and other. In civil engineering, ground limestone is used for the production of building materials, plaster and mortar mixtures, as a filler in concrete mixtures, in road construction, and as an essential component of mastic asphalt. This paper deals with examining the modification of the properties of finely ground limestone by the tumbling agglomeration method. It has been shown that the components of concrete with a round grain have a positive effect on the pumping of concrete in comparison with an elongated grain or the rough surface of crushed stone. The experiments will be carried out on a granulation plate using a variety of granulation liquid. The agglomerates and their properties were compared with untreated finely ground limestone, with a focus on detecting changes in compressibility, density and particle size. The output of this paper is a description and graphical representation of the changes in the properties of ground limestone before and after the agglomeration process.

  20. Human oocyte cryopreservation and the fate of cortical granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetler, Yehudith; Skutelsky, Ehud; Ben Nun, Isaac; Ben Dor, Liah; Amihai, Dina; Shalgi, Ruth

    2006-07-01

    To examine the effect of the commonly used oocyte cryopreservation protocol on the cortical granules (CGs) of human immature germinal vesicle (GV) and mature metaphase II (MII) oocytes. Laboratory study. IVF unit. Unfertilized, intracytoplasmic sperm injected (ICSI) oocytes, and immature oocytes were cryopreserved using a slow freezing-rapid thawing program with 1,2-propanediol (PROH) as a cryoprotectant. Cortical granule exocytosis (CGE) was assessed by either confocal microscopy or transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The survival rates of frozen-thawed oocytes (mature and immature) were significantly lower compared with zygotes. Both mature and immature oocytes exhibited increased fluorescence after cryopreservation, indicating the occurrence of CGE. Mere exposure of oocytes to cryoprotectants induced CGE of 70% the value of control zygotes. The TEM revealed a drastic reduction in the amount of CGs at the cortex of frozen-thawed GV and MII oocytes, as well as appearance of vesicles in the ooplasm. The commonly used PROH freezing protocol for human oocytes resulted in extensive CGE. This finding explains why ICSI is needed to achieve fertilization of frozen-thawed human oocytes.

  1. PKCalpha regulates platelet granule secretion and thrombus formation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopatskaya, Olga; Gilio, Karen; Harper, Matthew T; Zhao, Yan; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Karim, Zubair A; Whiteheart, Sidney W; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Verkade, Paul; Watson, Steve P; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Poole, Alastair W

    2009-02-01

    Platelets are central players in atherothrombosis development in coronary artery disease. The PKC family provides important intracellular mechanisms for regulating platelet activity, and platelets express several members of this family, including the classical isoforms PKCalpha and PKCbeta and novel isoforms PKCdelta and PKCtheta. Here, we used a genetic approach to definitively demonstrate the role played by PKCalpha in regulating thrombus formation and platelet function. Thrombus formation in vivo was attenuated in Prkca-/- mice, and PKCalpha was required for thrombus formation in vitro, although this PKC isoform did not regulate platelet adhesion to collagen. The ablation of in vitro thrombus formation in Prkca-/- platelets was rescued by the addition of ADP, consistent with the key mechanistic finding that dense-granule biogenesis and secretion depend upon PKCalpha expression. Furthermore, defective platelet aggregation in response to either collagen-related peptide or thrombin could be overcome by an increase in agonist concentration. Evidence of overt bleeding, including gastrointestinal and tail bleeding, was not seen in Prkca-/- mice. In summary, the effects of PKCalpha ablation on thrombus formation and granule secretion may implicate PKCalpha as a drug target for antithrombotic therapy.

  2. High Plasticity of New Granule Cells in the Aging Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela F. Trinchero

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: During aging, the brain undergoes changes that impair cognitive capacity and circuit plasticity, including a marked decrease in production of adult-born hippocampal neurons. It is unclear whether development and integration of those new neurons are also affected by age. Here, we show that adult-born granule cells (GCs in aging mice are scarce and exhibit slow development, but they display a remarkable potential for structural plasticity. Retrovirally labeled 3-week-old GCs in middle-aged mice were small, underdeveloped, and disconnected. Neuronal development and integration were accelerated by voluntary exercise or environmental enrichment. Similar effects were observed via knockdown of Lrig1, an endogenous negative modulator of neurotrophin receptors. Consistently, blocking neurotrophin signaling by Lrig1 overexpression abolished the positive effects of exercise. These results demonstrate an unparalleled degree of plasticity in the aging brain mediated by neurotrophins, whereby new GCs remain immature until becoming rapidly recruited to the network by activity. : Trinchero et al. show that development of new granule cells born in the adult hippocampus is strongly influenced by age. In the aging hippocampus, new neurons remain immature for prolonged intervals, yet voluntary exercise triggers their rapid growth and functional synaptogenesis. This extensive structural remodeling is mediated by neurotrophins. Keywords: adult neurogenesis, dentate gyrus, functional integration, neurotrophins, synaptogenesis, exercise

  3. Enteric coating of granules containing the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyar Hassan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a capsule formulation composed of enteric coated granules of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4962 was developed using Eudragit L30D-55 as enteric polymer. Optimization of the capsule formulation was achieved with a maximum viable cell count after 2 h of incubation in acid medium and disintegration time of 1 h in buffer pH 6.8. The amount of Eudragit L30D-55 in the capsules correlated with gastric juice resistance. The best protective qualities against artificial gastric juice were observed when capsules were prepared from granules composed of L. acidophilus, corn starch, lactose monohydrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and coated with 12.5 % (m/V of Eudragit L30D-55. Capsule formulation of L. acidophilus in edible broth medium suspension serves as a cheap alternative to the expensive freeze-drying procedure for preparing L. acidophilus. In addition, the enteric coating using Eudragit L30D-55 could protect probiotics from the acidic gastric environment and enhance the bioactivity of probiotics along with replacement of pathogenic microbes in human intestine

  4. Biodiesel production from microbial granules in sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Hong, Yuling; Ye, Xin; Wei, Lili; Liao, Jie; Huang, Xu; Liu, Chaoxiang

    2018-02-01

    Effect of reaction variables of in situ transesterification on the biodiesel production, and the characteristic differences of biodiesel obtained from aerobic granular sludge (AG) and algae-bacteria granular consortia (AAG) were investigated. The results indicated that the effect of variables on the biodiesel yield decreased in the order of methanol quantity > catalyst concentration > reaction time, yet the parameters change will not significantly affect biodiesel properties. The maximum biodiesel yield of AAG was 66.21 ± 1.08 mg/g SS, what is significant higher than that of AG (35.44 ± 0.92 mg/g SS). Although methyl palmitate was the dominated composition of biodiesel obtained from both granules, poly-unsaturated fatty acid in the AAG showed a higher percentage (21.86%) than AG (1.2%) due to Scenedesmus addition. Further, microbial analysis confirmed that the composition of biodiesel obtained from microbial granules was also determined by bacterial community, and Xanthomonadaceae and Rhodobacteraceae were the dominant bacteria of AG and AAG, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modifying the properties of finely ground limestone by tumbling granulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macho Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate in the form of finely ground limestone is a material that has found its application in a wide range of industries, in the chemical, rubber, agricultural, and paper industries, is used for desulfurization of boilers and other. In civil engineering, ground limestone is used for the production of building materials, plaster and mortar mixtures, as a filler in concrete mixtures, in road construction, and as an essential component of mastic asphalt. This paper deals with examining the modification of the properties of finely ground limestone by the tumbling agglomeration method. It has been shown that the components of concrete with a round grain have a positive effect on the pumping of concrete in comparison with an elongated grain or the rough surface of crushed stone. The experiments will be carried out on a granulation plate using a variety of granulation liquid. The agglomerates and their properties were compared with untreated finely ground limestone, with a focus on detecting changes in compressibility, density and particle size. The output of this paper is a description and graphical representation of the changes in the properties of ground limestone before and after the agglomeration process.

  6. State of the art of aerobic granulation in continuous flow bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Timothy R; Bott, Charles B; Wang, Zhi-Wu

    In the wake of the success of aerobic granulation in sequential batch reactors (SBRs) for treating wastewater, attention is beginning to turn to continuous flow applications. This is a necessary step given the advantages of continuous flow treatment processes and the fact that the majority of full-scale wastewater treatment plants across the world are operated with aeration tanks and clarifiers in a continuous flow mode. As in SBRs, applying a selection pressure, based on differences in either settling velocity or the size of the biomass, is essential for successful granulation in continuous flow reactors (CFRs). CFRs employed for aerobic granulation come in multiple configurations, each with their own means of achieving such a selection pressure. Other factors, such as bioaugmentation and hydraulic shear force, also contribute to aerobic granulation to some extent. Besides the formation of aerobic granules, long-term stability of aerobic granules is also a critical issue to be addressed. Inorganic precipitation, special inocula, and various operational optimization strategies have been used to improve granule long-term structural integrity. Accumulated studies reviewed in this work demonstrate that aerobic granulation in CFRs is capable of removing a wide spectrum of contaminants and achieving properties generally comparable to those in SBRs. Despite the notable research progress made toward successful aerobic granulation in lab-scale CFRs, to the best of our knowledge, there are only three full-scale tests of the technique, two being seeded with anammox-supported aerobic granules and the other with conventional aerobic granules; two other process alternatives are currently in development. Application of settling- or size-based selection pressures and feast/famine conditions are especially difficult to implement to these and similar mainstream systems. Future research efforts needs to be focused on the optimization of the granule-to-floc ratio, enhancement of

  7. The functional morphology of color changing in a spider: development of ommochrome pigment granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, Teresita C; Casas, Jérôme

    2008-03-01

    Studies on the formation of ommochrome pigment granules are very few, despite their generalized occurrence as screening pigments in insect eyes. This is particularly true for ommochrome granules responsible for epidermal coloration. The aims of this study were to characterize the localization of major body pigments in a color changing mimetic spider, Misumena vatia (Thomisidae), and to describe the formation and location of ommochrome pigment granules responsible for the spider's color change from white to yellow. The unpigmented cuticula of this spider is transparent. Both the guanine localized in guanine cells in the opisthosoma and the uric acid localized in epidermis cells in the prosoma are responsible for the white coloration. The bright yellow color is due to the combination of ommochrome pigment granules and the white reflectance from coincident guanine and/or uric acid. The formation of ommochrome pigment granules in epidermis cells proceeds via three distinctive steps. Translucent, UV fluorescent, progranules (type I) are produced by a dense network of endoplasmic reticulum associated with numerous mitochondria and glycogen rosettes. These progranules are present in white spiders only, and regularly distributed in the cytoplasm. The merging of several progranules of type I into a transient state (progranule type II) leads to the formation of granules (type III) characterized by their lack of fluorescence, their spherical sections and their osmophilic-electron-dense contents. They are found in yellow spiders and in the red stripes on the body sides. Their color varies from yellow to red. Thus, white spiders contain only type I granules, yellow tinted spiders contain type II and III granules and bright yellow spiders contain only type III granules. We present a synthetic view of the ontogeny of ommochrome granules. We discuss the physiology of color changing and the nature of the chemical compounds in the different types of granules. Extended studies on the

  8. Preparation of porcelain tile granulates by more environmentally sustainable processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Ten, J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the feasibility of manufacturing glazed porcelain tiles with a more environmentally friendly manufacturing process, by reducing water and thermal energy consumption. The process studied in this paper is dry milling in a pendulum mill, with subsequent granulation (in order to obtain a press powder with similar flowability to that of spraydried powders. The different morphology of the new granulate with respect to the standard spray-dried granulate modifies the microstructure of the green compacts and thus, their behaviour and fired tile properties. In order to obtain porcelain tiles with the required properties (water absorption, mechanical strength,… changes have been made in the raw materials mixture and in the processing variables. Finally, porcelain tiles measuring 50x50 cm have been manufactured at industrial scale with the new granulate using a conventional firing cycle, obtaining quality levels identical to those provided by the spray-dried granulate. These results open the possibility of preparing porcelain tile body compositions through a manufacturing process alternative to the standard one, more environmentally friendly and with lower costs.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la viabilidad de fabricar gres porcelánico esmaltado utilizando un sistema de preparación de la composición del soporte más respetuoso con el medio ambiente, lo que implica una reducción importante de los consumos de agua y de energía térmica. El proceso que se estudia en el presente trabajo es el consistente en la molienda vía seca en molino pendular y en la posterior granulación (para obtener un polvo de prensas con fluidez similar a la de los polvos atomizados. La distinta morfología de los nuevos gránulos obtenidos respecto al polvo atomizado actual, modifica la microestuctura en crudo de las piezas y, con ello, el comportamiento y propiedades finales de las baldosas obtenidas. Por ello, ha sido necesario

  9. Evaluation of health risks of playing sports on synthetic turf pitches with rubber granulate : Scientific background document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot GM; Oomen AG; Mennen MG; CPV; M&V

    2017-01-01

    Uit nieuw onderzoek van het RIVM blijkt dat het risico voor de gezondheid van sporten op kunstgrasvelden die zijn ingestrooid met rubbergranulaat, praktisch verwaarloosbaar is. Dat betekent dat het verantwoord is om op deze velden te sporten. Aanleiding voor het onderzoek is de maatschappelijke

  10. Difference in distribution of membrane proteins between low- and high-density secretory granules in parotid acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita-Yoshigaki, Junko; Katsumata, Osamu; Matsuki, Miwako; Yoshigaki, Tomoyoshi; Furuyama, Shunsuke; Sugiya, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Secretory granules (SGs) are considered to be generated as immature granules and to mature by condensation of their contents. In this study, SGs of parotid gland were separated into low-, medium-, and high-density granule fractions by Percoll-density gradient centrifugation, since it was proposed that the density corresponds to the degree of maturation. The observation with electron microscopy showed that granules in the three fractions were very similar. The average diameter of high-density granules was a little but significantly larger than that of low-density granules. Although the three fractions contained amylase, suggesting that they are all SGs, distribution of membrane proteins was markedly different. Syntaxin6 and VAMP4 were localized in the low-density granule fraction, while VAMP2 was concentrated in the high-density granule fraction. Immunoprecipitation with anti-syntaxin6 antibody caused coprecipitation of VAMP2 from the medium-density granule fraction without solubilization, but not from Triton X-100-solubilized fraction, while VAMP4 was coprecipitated from both fractions. Therefore, VAMP2 is present on the same granules, but is separated from syntaxin6 and VAMP4, which are expected to be removed from immature granules. These results suggest that the medium-density granules are intermediates from low- to high-density granules, and that the membrane components of SGs dynamically change by budding and fusion during maturation

  11. New clade of enigmatic early archosaurs yields insights into early pseudosuchian phylogeny and the biogeography of the archosaur radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Richard J; Sullivan, Corwin; Ezcurra, Martín D; Liu, Jun; Lecuona, Agustina; Sookias, Roland B

    2014-06-10

    The origin and early radiation of archosaurs and closely related taxa (Archosauriformes) during the Triassic was a critical event in the evolutionary history of tetrapods. This radiation led to the dinosaur-dominated ecosystems of the Jurassic and Cretaceous, and the high present-day archosaur diversity that includes around 10,000 bird and crocodylian species. The timing and dynamics of this evolutionary radiation are currently obscured by the poorly constrained phylogenetic positions of several key early archosauriform taxa, including several species from the Middle Triassic of Argentina (Gracilisuchus stipanicicorum) and China (Turfanosuchus dabanensis, Yonghesuchus sangbiensis). These species act as unstable 'wildcards' in morphological phylogenetic analyses, reducing phylogenetic resolution. We present new anatomical data for the type specimens of G. stipanicicorum, T. dabanensis, and Y. sangbiensis, and carry out a new morphological phylogenetic analysis of early archosaur relationships. Our results indicate that these three previously enigmatic taxa form a well-supported clade of Middle Triassic archosaurs that we refer to as Gracilisuchidae. Gracilisuchidae is placed basally within Suchia, among the pseudosuchian (crocodile-line) archosaurs. The approximately contemporaneous and morphologically similar G. stipanicicorum and Y. sangbiensis may be sister taxa within Gracilisuchidae. Our results provide increased resolution of the previously poorly constrained relationships of early archosaurs, with increased levels of phylogenetic support for several key early pseudosuchian clades. Moreover, they falsify previous hypotheses suggesting that T. dabanensis and Y. sangbiensis are not members of the archosaur crown group. The recognition of Gracilisuchidae provides further support for a rapid phylogenetic diversification of crown archosaurs by the Middle Triassic. The disjunct distribution of the gracilisuchid clade in China and Argentina demonstrates that early

  12. A unique box in 28S rRNA is shared by the enigmatic insect order Zoraptera and Dictyoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Wang

    Full Text Available The position of the Zoraptera remains one of the most challenging and uncertain concerns in ordinal-level phylogenies of the insects. Zoraptera have been viewed as having a close relationship with five different groups of Polyneoptera, or as being allied to the Paraneoptera or even Holometabola. Although rDNAs have been widely used in phylogenetic studies of insects, the application of the complete 28S rDNA are still scattered in only a few orders. In this study, a secondary structure model of the complete 28S rRNAs of insects was reconstructed based on all orders of Insecta. It was found that one length-variable region, D3-4, is particularly distinctive. The length and/or sequence of D3-4 is conservative within each order of Polyneoptera, but it can be divided into two types between the different orders of the supercohort, of which the enigmatic order Zoraptera and Dictyoptera share one type, while the remaining orders of Polyneoptera share the other. Additionally, independent evidence from phylogenetic results support the clade (Zoraptera+Dictyoptera as well. Thus, the similarity of D3-4 between Zoraptera and Dictyoptera can serve as potentially valuable autapomorphy or synapomorphy in phylogeny reconstruction. The clades of (Plecoptera+Dermaptera and ((Grylloblattodea+Mantophasmatodea+(Embiodea+Phasmatodea were also recovered in the phylogenetic study. In addition, considering the other studies based on rDNAs, this study reached the highest congruence with previous phylogenetic studies of Holometabola based on nuclear protein coding genes or morphology characters. Future comparative studies of secondary structures across deep divergences and additional taxa are likely to reveal conserved patterns, structures and motifs that can provide support for major phylogenetic lineages.

  13. Granulation for Coking Wastewater Treatment in a Coupled Anaerobic-Aerobic Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunjuan; Lv, Bingnan

    2018-06-01

    A coupled anaerobic-aerobic granular bio-film reactor was employed with two operation stages: Stage I, granular sludge was formed from digestion sludge using brewery wastewater, and Stage II, granular sludge was acclimatized using coking wastewater. Two oxygenation methods (i.e. A and B) were employed to acclimatize the granules. For method A, dissolved O 2 was supplied through a continuous oxygenation way of 800-15000ml-min-1 . And for method B, dissolved O2 was supplied of 800-15000ml-min-1 18-12 times at 20-60min intervals, 1h each time. The experimental results showed that granules could quickly form in 10d in the EGSB reactor seeded with digestion sludge and little loose granules lack of nutrition, and it was the key factor for granules forming to add little loose granules. It took only about 6 months for granules acclimation using coking wastewater. Both oxygenation methods could run well when acclimatizing the granules. However, method A could have comparatively high and stable operation effect. The actual coking wastewater had distinct inhibition effect on the granules, but the supplement of some oxygen could promote the recovery of SMA, and NaHCO3 supplement could also weaken the inhibition effect of the CWW. Method A had more strongly activity recovery ability than method B.

  14. Microtubule-dependent association of AKAP350A and CCAR1 with RNA stress granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolobova, Elena; Efimov, Andrey; Kaverina, Irina; Rishi, Arun K.; Schrader, John W.; Ham, Amy-Joan; Larocca, M. Cecilia; Goldenring, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent investigations have highlighted the importance of subcellular localization of mRNAs to cell function. While AKAP350A, a multifunctional scaffolding protein, localizes to the Golgi apparatus and centrosomes, we have now identified a cytosolic pool of AKAP350A. Analysis of AKAP350A scaffolded complexes revealed two novel interacting proteins, CCAR1 and caprin-1. CCAR1, caprin-1 and AKAP350A along with G3BP, a stress granule marker, relocate to RNA stress granules after arsenite treatment. Stress also caused loss of AKAP350 from the Golgi and fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus. Disruption of microtubules with nocodazole altered stress granule formation and changed their morphology by preventing fusion of stress granules. In the presence of nocodazole, arsenite induced smaller granules with the vast majority of AKAP350A and CCAR1 separated from G3BP-containing granules. Similar to nocodazole treatment, reduction of AKAP350A or CCAR1 expression also altered the size and number of G3BP-containing stress granules induced by arsenite treatment. A limited set of 69 mRNA transcripts was immunoisolated with AKAP350A even in the absence of stress, suggesting the association of AKAP350A with mRNA transcripts. These results provide the first evidence for the microtubule dependent association of AKAP350A and CCAR1 with RNA stress granules

  15. Granulation in red giants: observations by the Kepler mission and three-dimensional convection simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathur, S.; Hekker, S.; Trampedach, R.; Ballot, J.; Kallinger, T.; Buzasi, D.; Garcia, R.A.; Huber, D.; Jimenez, A.; Mosser, B.; Bedding, T.R.; Elsworth, Y.; Regulo, C.; Stello, D.; Chaplin, W.J.; de Ridder, J.; Hale, S.J.; Kinemuchi, K.; Kjeldsen, H.; Mullally, F.; Thompson, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    The granulation pattern that we observe on the surface of the Sun is due to hot plasma rising to the photosphere where it cools down and descends back into the interior at the edges of granules. This is the visible manifestation of convection taking place in the outer part of the solar convection

  16. Metatranscriptomics reveals the molecular mechanism of large granule formation in granular anammox reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Bagchi, Samik

    2016-06-20

    Granules enriched with anammox bacteria are essential in enhancing the treatment of ammonia-rich wastewater, but little is known about how anammox bacteria grow and multiply inside granules. Here, we combined metatranscriptomics, quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to study the changes in community composition, metabolic gene content and gene expression in a granular anammox reactor with the objective of understanding the molecular mechanism of anammox growth and multiplication that led to formation of large granules. Size distribution analysis revealed the spatial distribution of granules in which large granules having higher abundance of anammox bacteria (genus Brocadia) dominated the bottom biomass. Metatranscriptomics analysis detected all the essential transcripts for anammox metabolism. During the later stage of reactor operation, higher expression of ammonia and nitrite transport proteins and key metabolic enzymes mainly in the bottom large granules facilitated anammox bacteria activity. The high activity resulted in higher growth and multiplication of anammox bacteria and expanded the size of the granules. This conceptual model for large granule formation proposed here may assist in the future design of anammox processes for mainstream wastewater treatment.

  17. Effect of particle size of granules on some mechanical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid dosage forms are invariably multiparticulate systems of heterogenous particle size distribution. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of particle size distribution of paracetamol granules on some tablet mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets. Granules were formed by wet massing paracetamol ...

  18. N-methyl-D-aspartate promotes the survival of cerebellar granule cells in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balázs, R; Jørgensen, Ole Steen; Hack, N

    1988-01-01

    Our previous studies on the survival-promoting influence of elevated concentrations of extracellular K+ ([K+]e) on cultured cerebellar granule cells led to the proposal that depolarization in vitro mimics the effect of the earliest afferent inputs received by the granule cells in vivo. This, in t...

  19. Simultaneous recovery of calcium phosphate granules and methane in anaerobic treatment of black water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunha Costa, da J.M.R.; Tervahauta, T.; Weijden, van der R.D.; Hernández Leal, L.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2017-01-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) granules were discovered in the anaerobic treatment of vacuum collected black water (BW), using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) technology. This allows simultaneous recovery of CaP granules and methane in the UASB reactor. However, the role of BW composition on CaP

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF TABLET FORMULATIONS BASED ON STARCH LACTOSE GRANULATIONS FOR USE IN TROPICAL COUNTRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOS, CE; BOLHUIS, GK; LERK, CF

    1991-01-01

    Several granulations consisting of alpha-lactose monohydrate 200 mesh and native starch (corn, potato, rice or tapioca) were prepared. The influence of starch concentration, storage temperature and relative humidity on the physical properties of the tablets prepared from these granulations was

  1. A Single-Granule-Level Approach Reveals Ecological Heterogeneity in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyohei Kuroda

    Full Text Available Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor has served as an effective process to treat industrial wastewater such as purified terephthalic acid (PTA wastewater. For optimal UASB performance, balanced ecological interactions between syntrophs, methanogens, and fermenters are critical. However, much of the interactions remain unclear because UASB have been studied at a "macro"-level perspective of the reactor ecosystem. In reality, such reactors are composed of a suite of granules, each forming individual micro-ecosystems treating wastewater. Thus, typical approaches may be oversimplifying the complexity of the microbial ecology and granular development. To identify critical microbial interactions at both macro- and micro- level ecosystem ecology, we perform community and network analyses on 300 PTA-degrading granules from a lab-scale UASB reactor and two full-scale reactors. Based on MiSeq-based 16S rRNA gene sequencing of individual granules, different granule-types co-exist in both full-scale reactors regardless of granule size and reactor sampling depth, suggesting that distinct microbial interactions occur in different granules throughout the reactor. In addition, we identify novel networks of syntrophic metabolic interactions in different granules, perhaps caused by distinct thermodynamic conditions. Moreover, unseen methanogenic relationships (e.g. "Candidatus Aminicenantes" and Methanosaeta are observed in UASB reactors. In total, we discover unexpected microbial interactions in granular micro-ecosystems supporting UASB ecology and treatment through a unique single-granule level approach.

  2. A Single-Granule-Level Approach Reveals Ecological Heterogeneity in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Ran; Narihiro, Takashi; Bocher, Benjamin T. W.; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-01-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor has served as an effective process to treat industrial wastewater such as purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater. For optimal UASB performance, balanced ecological interactions between syntrophs, methanogens, and fermenters are critical. However, much of the interactions remain unclear because UASB have been studied at a “macro”-level perspective of the reactor ecosystem. In reality, such reactors are composed of a suite of granules, each forming individual micro-ecosystems treating wastewater. Thus, typical approaches may be oversimplifying the complexity of the microbial ecology and granular development. To identify critical microbial interactions at both macro- and micro- level ecosystem ecology, we perform community and network analyses on 300 PTA–degrading granules from a lab-scale UASB reactor and two full-scale reactors. Based on MiSeq-based 16S rRNA gene sequencing of individual granules, different granule-types co-exist in both full-scale reactors regardless of granule size and reactor sampling depth, suggesting that distinct microbial interactions occur in different granules throughout the reactor. In addition, we identify novel networks of syntrophic metabolic interactions in different granules, perhaps caused by distinct thermodynamic conditions. Moreover, unseen methanogenic relationships (e.g. “Candidatus Aminicenantes” and Methanosaeta) are observed in UASB reactors. In total, we discover unexpected microbial interactions in granular micro-ecosystems supporting UASB ecology and treatment through a unique single-granule level approach. PMID:27936088

  3. Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity of Triphalādi granules in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Gunjal

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Triphalādi granules have significant hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity in mice with minimal effect on BSL below normal range. The studies suggest the potential role of Triphalādi granules as an alternative adjuvant therapy in diabetic individuals for the control of the blood glucose level.

  4. Impact of full range of amylose contents on the architecture of starch granules*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Avi; Annor, George; Putaux, Jean Luc

    2016-01-01

    The effects of amylose deposition on crystalline regions of barley starch granules were studied in granules containing zero to 99.1% amylose using "waxy" (WBS, 0% amylose), normal (NBS, 18% amylose) and amylose-only barley lines (AOS, 99.1% amylose). The effects were probed after hydrolysis of am...

  5. Performance of single carbon granules as perspective for larger scale capacitive bioanodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, Casper; Liu, Dandan; Sleutels, Tom H.J.A.; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Heijne, ter Annemiek

    2016-01-01

    The use of high surface area electrodes, like carbon-based felt or granules, in Bioelectrochemical Systems is crucial for high volumetric current production. In case activated carbon granules are used, charge can also be stored in the form of an electric double layer in the pores, which has been

  6. LUBRICANT SENSITIVITY IN RELATION TO BULK-DENSITY FOR GRANULATIONS BASED ON STARCH OR CELLULOSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOS, CE; VROMANS, H; LERK, CF

    1991-01-01

    The study described in this paper was concerned with the susceptibility to lubrication with magnesium stearate of tablets compressed from granulations based on native starches or on modified celluloses. Different properties of the granulations, like particle size, flowability and surface area, were

  7. Internal structure of normal maize starch granules revealed by chemical surface gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, D D; Jane, J I

    2000-01-01

    Normal maize starch was fractionated into two sizes: large granules with diameters more than 5 microns and small granules with diameters less than 5 microns. The large granules were surface gelatinized by treating them with an aqueous LiCl solution (13 M) at 22-23 degrees C. Surface-gelatinized remaining granules were obtained by mechanical blending, and gelatinized surface starch was obtained by grinding with a mortar and a pestle. Starches of different granular sizes and radial locations, obtained after different degrees of surface gelatinization, were subjected to scanning electron microscopy, iodine potentiometric titration, gel-permeation chromatography, and amylopectin branch chain length analysis. Results showed that the remaining granules had a rough surface with a lamella structure. Amylose was more concentrated at the periphery than at the core of the granule. Amylopectin had longer long B-chains at the core than at the periphery of the granule. Greater proportions of the long B-chains were present at the core than at the periphery of the granule.

  8. Calcium phosphate granulation in anaerobic treatment of black water: a new approach to phosphorus recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Weijden, van der R.D.; Flemming, R.L.; Hernández, L.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Recovery of phosphorus from wastewater as calcium phosphate could diminish the need for mining of scarce phosphate rock resources. This study introduces a novel approach to phosphorus recovery by precipitation of calcium phosphate granules in anaerobic treatment of black water. The granules formed

  9. Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine Wei-Wei-Kang-Granule on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wei-Wei-Kang-Granule(WWKG) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation for the treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). We examined the pathologic change and the effects of Wei-Wei-Kang-Granule (WWKG) on the expression of EGFR (epiderminal growth factor receptors) and NF-kB (nuclear transcription ...

  10. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... effects as determinants of entrepreneurship. We start by estimating sibling correlations in entrepreneurship. We find that between 20 and 50 percent of the variance in different entrepreneurial outcomes is explained by factors that siblings share. The average is 28 percent. Allowing for differential...... entrepreneurship does play a large role, as do shared genes....

  11. Malaysia; Background Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This Background Paper on Malaysia examines developments and trends in the labor market since the mid-1980s. The paper describes the changes in the employment structure and the labor force. It reviews wages and productivity trends and their effects on unit labor cost. The paper highlights that Malaysia’s rapid growth, sustained since 1987, has had a major impact on the labor market. The paper outlines the major policy measures to address the labor constraints. It also analyzes Malaysia’s recen...

  12. The UO2 pellets plant experimental background of the established process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio Arroyo, E.; Alonso Folgueras, J. A.

    1969-01-01

    An account of the UO 2 research and development carried out at the JEN is first given. This includes a 10 tons/year pellet Plant construction. Experimental background of the process is established, pointing out both milling advantages and risks, granulation devices, automatic press selection, binder removing and sintering furnaces. Origin, surface area, grain size and 0/U rate are considered as raw material reception parameters, although this process shows a wide scope. (Author) 13 refs

  13. Roll Compaction/Dry Granulation of Dibasic Calcium Phosphate Anhydrous-Does the Morphology of the Raw Material Influence the Tabletability of Dry Granules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Simon; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The influence of raw material particle morphology on the tabletabilty of dry granules was investigated. Therefore, dibasic calcium phosphate anhydrous was used as a model material. One milled grade, 2 agglomerated grades with different porosities, and a functionalized structure, that is, an agglomerate formed by very small primary particles, were included. Particle size, density, and specific surface area of raw materials were measured. The starting materials and 2 fractions of dry granules were compressed to tablets. The tabletability of granules was compared to that of the powders and the influence of specific compaction force, granule size, and lubrication on tablet tensile strength was evaluated. All materials showed a loss in tabletability induced by a previous compaction step but to a varying extent. Only in case of the functionalized calcium phosphate morphology, this effect depended on the specific compaction force. In contrast to the other materials, the tabletability of functionalized calcium phosphate was influenced by the granule size. This effect was not related to an overlubrication as internal and external lubrication resulted in similar tensile strengths. A clear influence of the particle morphology on tablet strength was demonstrated by the study. The functionalized structure showed aspects of a more plastic deformation behavior. The functionalized dibasic calcium phosphate and the more porous agglomerate performed as potential filler/binder in the field of roll compaction/dry granulation. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Shear Resistance Variations in Experimentally Sheared Mudstone Granules: A Possible Shear-Thinning and Thixotropic Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Gonghui; Scaringi, Gianvito; Mcsaveney, Mauri; Hicher, Pierre-Yves

    2017-11-01

    We present results of ring shear frictional resistance for mudstone granules of different size obtained from a landslide shear zone. Little rate dependency of shear resistance was observed in sand-sized granules in any wet or dry test, while saturated gravel-sized granules exhibited significant and abrupt reversible rate-weakening (from μ = 0.6 to 0.05) at about 2 mm/s. Repeating resistance variations occurred also under constant shear displacement rate. Mudstone granules generate mud as they are crushed and softened. Shear-thinning and thixotropic behavior of the mud can explain the observed behavior: with the viscosity decreasing, the mud can flow through the coarser soil pores and migrate out from the shear zone. This brings new granules into contact which produces new mud. Thus, the process can start over. Similarities between experimental shear zones and those of some landslides in mudstone suggest that the observed behavior may play a role in some landslide kinematics.

  15. Nitrate removal from aquaculture effluents using woodchip bioreactors improved by adding sulfur granules and crushed seashells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Ahnen, Mathis; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Dalsgaard, Johanne

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effects on nitrate removal when adding sulfur granules and crushed seashells to a woodchip bioreactor treating aquaculture effluents. Using a central composite design, the two components were added at three levels (0.000, 0.125 and 0.250 m3/m3 bioreactor volume) to 13......, the inclusion of crushed seashells together with sulfur granules helped to maintain the pH above 7.4 and prevent a production (i.e., release) of nitrite. According to the modeled response surfaces, a sulfur granule:crushed seashell:woodchip mixture ratio containing about 0.2 m3 sulfur granules and 0.1 m3...... crushed seashells per m3 reactor volume would give the best results with respect to high N removal and minimal nitrite release. In conclusion, the study showed that N removal in woodchip bioreactors may be improved by adding sulfur granules and seashells, contributing to the optimization of woodchip...

  16. On-line monitoring of fluid bed granulation by photometric imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soppela, Ira; Antikainen, Osmo; Sandler, Niklas; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2014-11-01

    This paper introduces and discusses a photometric surface imaging approach for on-line monitoring of fluid bed granulation. Five granule batches consisting of paracetamol and varying amounts of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose were manufactured with an instrumented fluid bed granulator. Photometric images and NIR spectra were continuously captured on-line and particle size information was extracted from them. Also key process parameters were recorded. The images provided direct real-time information on the growth, attrition and packing behaviour of the batches. Moreover, decreasing image brightness in the drying phase was found to indicate granule drying. The changes observed in the image data were also linked to the moisture and temperature profiles of the processes. Combined with complementary process analytical tools, photometric imaging opens up possibilities for improved real-time evaluation fluid bed granulation. Furthermore, images can give valuable insight into the behaviour of excipients or formulations during product development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of an in-line particle imaging tool for monitoring twin-screw granulation performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashish; Dhondt, Jens; De Leersnyder, Fien

    2015-01-01

    system. Off-line sieving was used as reference particle size analysis method. A twin-screw granulator which is part of the Consigma system was used to granulate a placebo formulation composed of lactose and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP; 97.5:2.5% w/w). PVP was dissolvedin water, which was used......). The volumetric size distribution obtained from the in-line measurements of the granules leaving the twin-screw granulator using the Eyecon™ camera was compared with the off-line measurements obtainedby sieving of the granule samples collected before and after the drying unit operation. For the intermediate size...... range (diameter 250–1000 μm), the Eyecon™ measurements showed to be promising as they were in agreement with off-line measurement results obtained before the drying unit. However, the image analysis algorithm and data post-processing of the Eyecon™ images for the fines and oversized ranges require...

  18. Conceptual framework for model-based analysis of residence time distribution in twin-screw granulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashish; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Vanhoorne, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Twin-screw granulation is a promising continuous alternative for traditional batchwise wet granulation processes. The twin-screw granulator (TSG) screws consist of transport and kneading element modules. Therefore, the granulation to a large extent is governed by the residence time distribution...... within each module where different granulation rate processes dominate over others. Currently, experimental data is used to determine the residence time distributions. In this study, a conceptual model based on classical chemical engineering methods is proposed to better understand and simulate...... the residence time distribution in a TSG. The experimental data were compared with the proposed most suitable conceptual model to estimate the parameters of the model and to analyse and predict the effects of changes in number of kneading discs and their stagger angle, screw speed and powder feed rate...

  19. Formation of tRNA granules in the nucleus of heat-induced human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagawa, Ryu [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan); Mizuno, Rie [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Watanabe, Kazunori, E-mail: watanabe@ric.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Ijiri, Kenichi [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs are tranlocated into the nucleus in heat-induced HeLa cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs form the unique granules in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA ganules overlap with nuclear stress granules. -- Abstract: The stress response, which can trigger various physiological phenomena, is important for living organisms. For instance, a number of stress-induced granules such as P-body and stress granule have been identified. These granules are formed in the cytoplasm under stress conditions and are associated with translational inhibition and mRNA decay. In the nucleus, there is a focus named nuclear stress body (nSB) that distinguishes these structures from cytoplasmic stress granules. Many splicing factors and long non-coding RNA species localize in nSBs as a result of stress. Indeed, tRNAs respond to several kinds of stress such as heat, oxidation or starvation. Although nuclear accumulation of tRNAs occurs in starved Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this phenomenon is not found in mammalian cells. We observed that initiator tRNA{sup Met} (Meti) is actively translocated into the nucleus of human cells under heat stress. During this study, we identified unique granules of Meti that overlapped with nSBs. Similarly, elongator tRNA{sup Met} was translocated into the nucleus and formed granules during heat stress. Formation of tRNA granules is closely related to the translocation ratio. Then, all tRNAs may form the specific granules.

  20. rab3 mediates cortical granule exocytosis in the sea urchin egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, S; Wessel, G M

    1998-11-15

    Egg activation at fertilization in the sea urchin results in the exocytosis of approximately 15,000 cortical granules that are docked at the plasma membrane. Previously, we reported that several integral membrane proteins modeled in the SNARE hypothesis, synaptotagmin, VAMP, and syntaxin, in addition to a small GTPase of the ras superfamily, rab3, were present on cortical granules (Conner, S., Leaf, D., and Wessel, G., Mol. Reprod. Dev. 48, 1-13, 1997). Here we report that rab3 is associated with cortical granules throughout oogenesis, during cortical granule translocation, and while docked at the egg plasma membrane. Following cortical granule exocytosis, however, rab3 reassociates with a different population of vesicles, at least some of which are of endocytic origin. Because of its selective association with cortical granules in eggs and oocytes, we hypothesize that rab3 functions in cortical granule exocytosis. To test this hypothesis, we used a strategy of interfering with rab3 function by peptide competition with its effector domain, a conserved region within specific rab types. We first identified the effector domain sequence in Lytechinus variegatus eggs and find the sequence 94% identical to the effector domain of rab3 in Stronglocentrotus purpuratus. Then, with synthetic peptides to different regions of the rab3 protein, we find that cortical granule exocytosis is inhibited in eggs injected with effector domain peptides, but not with peptides from the hypervariable region or with a scrambled effector peptide. Additionally, effector-peptide-injected eggs injected with IP3 are blocked in their ability to exocytose cortical granules, suggesting that the inhibition is directly on the membrane fusion event and not the result of interference with the signal transduction mechanism leading to calcium release. We interpret these results to mean that rab3 functions in the regulation of cortical granule exocytosis following vesicle docking. Copyright 1998 Academic

  1. Distorted secretory granule composition in mast cells with multiple protease deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujic, Mirjana; Calounova, Gabriela; Eriksson, Inger; Feyerabend, Thorsten; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Tchougounova, Elena; Kjellén, Lena; Pejler, Gunnar

    2013-10-01

    Mast cells are characterized by an abundance of secretory granules densely packed with inflammatory mediators such as bioactive amines, cytokines, serglycin proteoglycans with negatively charged glycosaminoglycan side chains of either heparin or chondroitin sulfate type, and large amounts of positively charged proteases. Despite the large biological impact of mast cell granules and their contents on various pathologies, the mechanisms that regulate granule composition are incompletely understood. In this study, we hypothesized that granule composition is dependent on a dynamic electrostatic interrelationship between different granule compounds. As a tool to evaluate this possibility, we generated mice in which mast cells are multideficient in a panel of positively charged proteases: the chymase mouse mast cell protease-4, the tryptase mouse mast cell protease-6, and carboxypeptidase A3. Through a posttranslational effect, mast cells from these mice additionally lack mouse mast cell protease-5 protein. Mast cells from mice deficient in individual proteases showed normal morphology. In contrast, mast cells with combined protease deficiency displayed a profound distortion of granule integrity, as seen both by conventional morphological criteria and by transmission electron microscopy. An assessment of granule content revealed that the distorted granule integrity in multiprotease-deficient mast cells was associated with a profound reduction of highly negatively charged heparin, whereas no reduction in chondroitin sulfate storage was observed. Taken together with previous findings showing that the storage of basic proteases conversely is regulated by anionic proteoglycans, these data suggest that secretory granule composition in mast cells is dependent on a dynamic interrelationship between granule compounds of opposite electrical charge.

  2. Studies on rye starch properties and modification. Pt. 1. Composition and properties of rye starch granules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schierbaum, F; Radosta, S; Richter, M; Kettlitz, B [Zentralinstitut fuer Ernaehrung, Potsdam (Germany); Gernat, C [Zentralinstitut fuer Molekularbiologie, Berlin (Germany)

    1991-09-01

    Rye is considered as a potential raw material for starch industry. Starting from a survey of technical procedures of isolating starches from rye-flour and -grits investigations will be reported, which were performed on pilot plant- and laboratory-isolated rye starches. The present paper deals with its granule appearance and composition. A distribution of granule size between small granules ({<=} 10 {mu}m - 15%) and large granules ({>=} 11 ... {<=} 40 {mu}m = 85%) is typical for the totality of the starches. Differing distributions depend on the conditions of isolation: The entity of starch containing samples resulted from the latoratory procedures under investigation. Large-granule starch preparations were isolated in the pilot plant: The centrifuge-overflow contains the small-granule fraction which is high in impurities. Granule crystallinity amounts to 16%. The crystalline component - like in wheat and triticale starches - consists predominantly of A-polymorph - with up to 9% of the B-type. The isotherms of water exchange are of the cereal type. The contents of minor constituents largely relate to the small granule fraction which assembles the majority of crude protein, pentosans and lipids, which are difficult to remove. Lipid components in all fractions influence the results of linear chain-iodine interactions and they must be removed to proceed from apparent to absolute polysaccharide indices. The absolute amylose contents amount to {approx equal} 25% for large granule samples and to 20-21% for small granule samples. The average chain-length of iodine binding helical regions was determined with 220-240 AGU. (orig.).

  3. Production of granules of urea, urea-ammonium sulphate and urea-potassium chloride enriched with 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendassolli, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Using a pearling tower it was possible to produce granulated urea, and granulated mixtures of ammonium sulphate and urea, potassium chloride and urea, Labelled in 15 N. Granulated urea with 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm of diameter was obtained using a system with a heating controller. A low concentration of biuret was observed in the granules produced ( 15 N-Labelled ( 15 NH 4' 15 NH 2 ) with variable proportion of ammonium sulphate and urea. (author)

  4. Backgrounded but not peripheral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    .e. the schema enters into apparently contradictory constructions of the informants’ local home-base and, possibly, of their identity (cf. Hovmark, 2010). Second, I discuss the status and role of the specific linguistic category in question, i.e. the directional adverbs. On the one hand we claim that the DDAs......In this paper I pay a closer look at the use of the CENTRE-PERIPHERY schema in context. I address two specific issues: first, I show how the CENTRE-PERIPHERY schema, encoded in the DDAs, enters into discourses that conceptualize and characterize a local community as both CENTRE and PERIPHERY, i......; furthermore, the DDAs are backgrounded in discourse. Is it reasonable to claim, rather boldly, that “the informants express their identity in the use of the directional adverb ud ‘out’ etc.”? In the course of this article, however, I suggest that the DDAs in question do contribute to the socio...

  5. OCRWM Backgrounder, January 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) assigns to the US Department of Energy (DOE) responsibility for developing a system to safely and economically transport spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from various storage sites to geologic repositories or other facilities that constitute elements of the waste management program. This transportation system will evolve from technologies and capabilities already developed. Shipments of spent fuel to a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility could begin as early as 1996 if Congress authorizes its construction. Shipments of spent fuel to a geologic repository are scheduled to begin in 1998. The backgrounder provides an overview of DOE's cask development program. Transportation casks are a major element in the DOE nuclear waste transportation system because they are the primary protection against any potential radiation exposure to the public and transportation workers in the event an accident occurs

  6. Monitored background radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruel, C.

    1988-01-01

    A monitored background radiometer is described comprising: a thermally conductive housing; low conductivity support means mounted on the housing; a sensing plate mounted on the low conductivity support means and spaced from the housing so as to be thermally insulated from the housing and having an outwardly facing first surface; the sensing plate being disposed relative to the housing to receive direct electromagnetic radiation from sources exterior to the radiometer upon the first surface only; means for controllably heating the sensing plate; first temperature sensitive means to measure the temperature of the housing; and second temperature sensitive means to measure the temperature of the sensing plate, so that the heat flux at the sensing plate may be determined from the temperatures of the housing and sensing plate after calibration of the radiometer by measuring the temperatures of the housing and sensing plate while controllably heating the sensing plate

  7. RNA Recognition and Stress Granule Formation by TIA Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waris, Saboora; Wilce, Matthew Charles James; Wilce, Jacqueline Anne

    2014-01-01

    Stress granule (SG) formation is a primary mechanism through which gene expression is rapidly modulated when the eukaryotic cell undergoes cellular stresses (including heat, oxidative, viral infection, starvation). In particular, the sequestration of specifically targeted translationally stalled mRNAs into SGs limits the expression of a subset of genes, but allows the expression of heatshock proteins that have a protective effect in the cell. The importance of SGs is seen in several disease states in which SG function is disrupted. Fundamental to SG formation are the T cell restricted intracellular antigen (TIA) proteins (TIA-1 and TIA-1 related protein (TIAR)), that both directly bind to target RNA and self-associate to seed the formation of SGs. Here a summary is provided of the current understanding of the way in which TIA proteins target specific mRNA, and how TIA self-association is triggered under conditions of cellular stress. PMID:25522169

  8. Cell labelling. Granule and platelet kinetics. Recent concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najean, Y.; Dresch, C.; Dassin, E.

    Some unsolved problems are reviewed concerning the lifetime of blood platelets, with special reference to excessive platelet consumption and its possible correction by anti-aggregation agents, in many vascular diseases. Regarding the production of platelets it is considered that the 75 Se-methionine labelling method alone offers a quantitative approach to the process and could be used for the physiological study of thrombopoietic factors. A short chapter is devoted to a survey of the points of agreement and disagreement regarding the lifetime of polynuclear cells and a tentative analysis of the reasons explaining the quite different results obtained with DFP and radiochromium labelling. Finally the methods used to study granule formation are criticized, though it is acknowledged that certain ideas useful in physiopathology have emerged from these different procedures [fr

  9. Effects of Qingshen Granules on the Oxidative Stress-NF/kB Signal Pathway in Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hua; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Background . The activation of NF-kappa B (NF/kB) signaling pathway plays an important role in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) in renal tubules. The process of oxidative stress reaction in kidney is via excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production to activate NF/kB signaling pathway. Qingshen Granule (QSG) is an effective Chinese formula utilized to treat chronic renal failure. Previous studies confirmed that QSG could inhibit RIF in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) rats. In this study, we used UUO rats to investigate the effects of QSG on oxidative stress and the activation of NF/kB signaling. Seventy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into a sham group, UUO model group, Qingshen Granules (QSG) high-dose, medium-dose, and low-dose groups, PDTC group, and candesartan group (10 rats in each group). Our study demonstrated that oxidative stress-NF/kB signal pathway contributed to the formation of UUO renal interstitial fibrosis. QSG may protect against RIF by inhibiting the oxidative stress-NF/kB signal pathway, reducing inflammation, and improving renal tubular EMT.

  10. Thermal characterization of partially hydrolyzed cassava (Manihot esculenta starch granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Lacerda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch, partially hydrolyzed by fungal á-amylase, was characterized using thermal analysis, light microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Thermal degradation was initiated at lower degradation temperatures after enzymatic treatment and the DSC (Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed almost similar range of gelatinization temperature, but the enthalpies of gelatinization were quite increased for the partially hydrolyzed starch granules. The results suggested that the partial degradation of the starch granules was concentrated in the amorphous regions.Amilases fúngicas são comumente empregadas a amidos com o intuito de otimizar o rendimento de leveduras, modificar a textura de produtos panificados e prolongar a vida de prateleira do produto final. A hidrólise parcial enzimática pode auxiliar no entendimento da estrutura do amido ganular. Amido de mandioca parcialmente hidrolisado por á-amilase fúngica foi investigado utilizando-se técnicas termoanalíticas, microscopia ótica e difratometria por raios X. A degradação térmica iniciou-se a temperaturas menores após o tratamento enzimático e a análise por DSC mostrou uma próxima faixa de temperatura de gelatinização, porém, a entalpia necessária para o evento foi maior para os grânulos parcialmente hidrolisados. Os resultados sugerem que a degradação parcial do amido granular foi concentrada em regiões amorfas.

  11. The enigmatic archaeal virosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prangishvili, David; Bamford, Dennis H; Forterre, Patrick; Iranzo, Jaime; Koonin, Eugene V; Krupovic, Mart

    2017-11-10

    One of the most prominent features of archaea is the extraordinary diversity of their DNA viruses. Many archaeal viruses differ substantially in morphology from bacterial and eukaryotic viruses and represent unique virus families. The distinct nature of archaeal viruses also extends to the gene composition and architectures of their genomes and the properties of the proteins that they encode. Environmental research has revealed prominent roles of archaeal viruses in influencing microbial communities in ocean ecosystems, and recent metagenomic studies have uncovered new groups of archaeal viruses that infect extremophiles and mesophiles in diverse habitats. In this Review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the genomic and morphological diversity of archaeal viruses and the molecular biology of their life cycles and virus-host interactions, including interactions with archaeal CRISPR-Cas systems. We also examine the potential origins and evolution of archaeal viruses and discuss their place in the global virosphere.

  12. THE ENIGMATIC ORDER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Ii) Monick, S.The awards of the South African Armed Forces: an overview and analysis ... rian Peninsula, as part of the 'Recon- ... whose king (and Grand Master) an- ..... Class IV; Officer (Non-military ..... solved during the reign of Henry VIII, as.

  13. Examining the Enigmatic Einstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoon, Koh Aik

    2007-01-01

    Albert Einstein is the icon of scientific genius. His is one the most recognizable faces in the history of mankind. This paper takes a cursory look at the man who is commonly perceived to be the epitome of eccentricity. We manage to sum up his salient traits which are associated with his name. The traits are based on anecdotal evidence. This…

  14. Intracisternal granules in the adipokinetic cells of locusts are not degraded and apparently function as supplementary stores of secretory material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harthoorn, L F; Diederen, J H; Oudejans, R C; Verstegen, M M; Vullings, H G; Van der Horst, D J

    2000-01-01

    The intracisternal granules in locust adipokinetic cells appear to represent accumulations of secretory material within cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. An important question is whether these granules are destined for degradation or represent stores of (pro)hormones. Two strategies were used to answer this question. First, cytochemistry was applied to elucidate the properties of intracisternal granules. The endocytic tracers horseradish peroxidase and wheat-germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase were used to facilitate the identification of endocytic, autophagic, and lysosomal organelles, which may be involved in the degradation of intracisternal granules. No intracisternal granules could be found within autophagosomes, and granules fused with endocytic and lysosomal organelles were not observed, nor could tracer be found within the granules. The lysosomal enzyme acid phosphatase was absent from the granules. Second, biochemical analysis of the content of intracisternal granules revealed that these granules contain prohormones as well as hormones. Prohormones were present in relatively higher amounts compared with ordinary secretory granules. Since the intracisternal granules in locust adipokinetic cells are not degraded and contain intact (pro)hormones it is concluded that they function as supplementary stores of secretory material.

  15. Liquid‐to‐solid ratio control as an advanced process control solution for continuous twin‐screw wet granulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaï, Niels; Leersnyder, Fien De; Copot, Dana

    2018-01-01

    for the dynamic behavior of the granule liquid‐to‐solid ratio (w) at the end of the granulation unit of a commercial ConsiGmaTM‐25 production line. Near‐infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor the granule composition in‐line. The outcome for both the tracking and regulator problem using either conventional...

  16. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Input control Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  17. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Input control Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  18. File list: NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 No description Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  19. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Input control Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  20. File list: NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 No description Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  1. File list: NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 No description Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  2. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Input control Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  3. Low background infrared (LBIR) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Low background infrared (LBIR) facility was originally designed to calibrate user supplied blackbody sources and to characterize low-background IR detectors and...

  4. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site

  5. Precambrian fluvial deposits: Enigmatic palaeohydrological data from the c. 2 1.9 Ga Waterberg Group, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Patrick G.; Bumby, Adam J.; Brümer, Jacobus J.; van der Neut, Markus

    2006-08-01

    a combination of major global-scale tectono-thermal and atmospheric-palaeoclimatic events, a simpler explanation of these apparently enigmatic palaeoslope values may be pertinent. Of the two possible palaeohydrological formulae for calculating palaeoslope, one provides results close to typical fluvial gradients; the other formula relies on preserved channel-width data. We suggest that the latter will not be reliable due to problematic preservation of original channel-widths within an active braided fluvial system. We thus find no unequivocal support for a unique fluvial style for the Precambrian, beyond that generally accepted for that period and discussed briefly in the first paragraph.

  6. Cross-stratified Wood: Enigmatic Woody Debris Deposits in Warm-Polar Fluvial Sediments (Pliocene Beaufort Formation, Nunavut)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, N. S.; Gosse, J. C.; Rybczynski, N.

    2012-04-01

    Woody debris has been an important sediment component and a significant geomorphic agent in pristine fluvial systems since the Devonian. In recent years a large volume of research has focussed on various aspects of the importance of woody debris within the fluvial realm; from the evolutionary significance of fossil wood accumulations in the rock record to studies of the biogeomorphological and ecological importance of woody debris in modern rivers. In this presentation we describe cross-stratified woody debris deposits comprising organic detritus from a boreal-type treeline forest that included species of pine, birch, poplar, alder, spruce, eastern cedar, and larch, in both shrub and tree form. The cross-stratified wood is an enigmatic subset of fine woody debris which, to our knowledge, has never before been described from either the global stratigraphic record or modern fluvial environments. The deposits we describe are located within the Pliocene Beaufort Formation on Meighen Island, Nunavut, Canada, at a latitude of 80°N, and are compared with other cross-stratified woody debris deposits that have been noted elsewhere in the Pliocene of the Canadian Arctic. We make the robust observation that these deposits appear to be geographically and stratigraphically restricted to polar latitudes from a period of warm climatic conditions during the Pliocene (15-20 °C warmer mean annual temperature than the present day). In this regard it is possible to speculate that the transport of large amounts of woody debris as bedload is potentially a unique feature of forested high latitude rivers. Such bedload deposition requires a large amount of woody debris with a greater density than the fluid transporting it. The softwood composition of the debris suggests that this was most likely attained by saturation and subsequent entrainment of extensive accumulations of deadwood, promoted by unusually high rates of tree mortality and low rates of bacterial decomposition arising from

  7. The pancreatic zymogen granule membrane protein, GP2, binds Escherichia coli type 1 Fimbriae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowe Anson W

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GP2 is the major membrane protein present in the pancreatic zymogen granule, and is cleaved and released into the pancreatic duct along with exocrine secretions. The function of GP2 is unknown. GP2's amino acid sequence is most similar to that of uromodulin, which is secreted by the kidney. Recent studies have demonstrated uromodulin binding to bacterial Type 1 fimbria. The fimbriae serve as adhesins to host receptors. The present study examines whether GP2 also shares similar binding properties to bacteria with Type 1 fimbria. Commensal and pathogenic bacteria, including E. coli and Salmonella, express type 1 fimbria. Methods An in vitro binding assay was used to assay the binding of recombinant GP2 to defined strains of E. coli that differ in their expression of Type 1 fimbria or its subunit protein, FimH. Studies were also performed to determine whether GP2 binding is dependent on the presence of mannose residues, which is a known determinant for FimH binding. Results GP2 binds E. coli that express Type 1 fimbria. Binding is dependent on GP2 glycosylation, and specifically the presence of mannose residues. Conclusion GP2 binds to Type 1 fimbria, a bacterial adhesin that is commonly expressed by members of the Enterobacteriacae family.

  8. Venom Apparatus Structure and Conutoxins Granules formation in Cone Snail (Conus coronatus of Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferial Monsef

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today use conotoxin as a neurotoxin and cytotoxin in medical science is obvious. These compounds are produced by venomous cone snails. Toxins produced by the venom apparatus of this snail and injected into the prey. To obtain and identification of these toxins, study of venom apparatus and the manufacture formation is necessary. Materials and Methods: In order to study the organ, specimens of C. coronatus were collected from the Coast of Gheshm Island. After dissection were fixed in Bouin's for 48 hours and transferred to laboratory into 70% ethanol. After dehydration and Paraffin embedded were cutted by microtome and then collected on glass slides and stained then photographed and studied. Results: Observation showed that, the venom bulb was muscular and in their middle part a channel with epithelial cells was observable that secreted some material. Venom duct walls composed of 3 parts including the outer layer of connective tissue with muscle an inner layer of columnar epithelial cells with basal nucleus and the inner lumens which filled by the. Departed nucleus by secretion exist in all 3 part of venom duct. In radula sac sections, lots growing radula were observed. Conclusion: Venom bulb was a weak secretion role and venom duct near the pharynx have a more mature granule than the other part. Holocrine secretion happened in all part of venom duct. Most suitable part for extract the conotoxin was the venom bulb end part.

  9. Artificial Intelligence Tools for Scaling Up of High Shear Wet Granulation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landin, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    The results presented in this article demonstrate the potential of artificial intelligence tools for predicting the endpoint of the granulation process in high-speed mixer granulators of different scales from 25L to 600L. The combination of neurofuzzy logic and gene expression programing technologies allowed the modeling of the impeller power as a function of operation conditions and wet granule properties, establishing the critical variables that affect the response and obtaining a unique experimental polynomial equation (transparent model) of high predictability (R 2 > 86.78%) for all size equipment. Gene expression programing allowed the modeling of the granulation process for granulators of similar and dissimilar geometries and can be improved by implementing additional characteristics of the process, as composition variables or operation parameters (e.g., batch size, chopper speed). The principles and the methodology proposed here can be applied to understand and control manufacturing process, using any other granulation equipment, including continuous granulation processes. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neutrophil glycoprotein Mo1 is an integral membrane protein of plasma membranes and specific granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, K.B.; Nauseef, W.M.; Clark, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The glucoprotein Mo1 has previously been demonstrated to be on the cell surface and in the specific granule fraction of neutrophils and to be translocated to the cell surface during degranulation. It is not known, however, whether Mo1 is an integral membrane protein or a soluble, intragranular constituent loosely associated with the specific granule membrane. Purified neutrophils were disrupted by nitrogen cavitation and separated on Percoll density gradients into four fractions enriched for azurophilic granules, specific granules, plasma membrane, and cytosol, respectively. The glycoproteins in these fractions were labeled with 3 H-borohydride reduction, extracted with Triton X-114, and immunoprecipitated with 60.3, an anti-Mo1 monoclonal antibody. Mo1 was detected only in the specific granule and plasma membrane fractions and partitioned exclusively into the detergent-rich fraction consistent with Mo1 being an integral membrane protein. In addition, treatment of specific granule membranes with a high salt, high urea buffer to remove adsorbed or peripheral proteins failed to dissociate Mo1. These data support the hypothesis that Mo1 is an integral membrane protein of plasma and specific granule membranes in human neutrophils

  11. [Quality evaluation of rhubarb dispensing granules based on multi-component simultaneous quantitative analysis and bioassay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Peng; Zhang, Hai-Zhu; Zhang, Ding-Kun; Wu, Shan-Na; Niu, Ming; Wang, Jia-Bo; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2017-07-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the quality of Chinese formula granules by combined use of multi-component simultaneous quantitative analysis and bioassay. The rhubarb dispensing granules were used as the model drug for demonstrative study. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method was adopted for simultaneously quantitative determination of the 10 anthraquinone derivatives (such as aloe emodin-8-O-β-D-glucoside) in rhubarb dispensing granules; purgative biopotency of different batches of rhubarb dispensing granules was determined based on compound diphenoxylate tablets-induced mouse constipation model; blood activating biopotency of different batches of rhubarb dispensing granules was determined based on in vitro rat antiplatelet aggregation model; SPSS 22.0 statistical software was used for correlation analysis between 10 anthraquinone derivatives and purgative biopotency, blood activating biopotency. The results of multi-components simultaneous quantitative analysisshowed that there was a great difference in chemical characterizationand certain differences inpurgative biopotency and blood activating biopotency among 10 batches of rhubarb dispensing granules. The correlation analysis showed that the intensity of purgative biopotency was significantly correlated with the content of conjugated anthraquinone glycosides (Panalysis and bioassay can achieve objective quantification and more comprehensive reflection on overall quality difference among different batches of rhubarb dispensing granules. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Enhancement of aerobic granulation by zero-valent iron in sequencing batch airlift reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Qiang, E-mail: kongqiang0531@hotmail.com [College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, 88 Wenhua Donglu, Jinan 250014, Shandong (China); Ngo, Huu Hao [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Shu, Li [School of Engineering, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Built Environment, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Fu, Rong-shu; Jiang, Chun-hui [College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, 88 Wenhua Donglu, Jinan 250014, Shandong (China); Miao, Ming-sheng, E-mail: mingshengmiao@163.com [College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, 88 Wenhua Donglu, Jinan 250014, Shandong (China)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Zero-valent iron (ZVI) was used firstly to enhance the aerobic granulation. • ZVI significantly decreased the start-up time of the aerobic granulation. • ZVI had the function of enhancing organic material diversity identified by 3-D EEM. • ZVI could enhance the diversity of microbial community. - Abstract: This study elucidates the enhancement of aerobic granulation by zero-valent iron (ZVI). A reactor augmented with ZVI had a start-up time of aerobic granulation (43 days) that was notably less than that for a reactor without augmentation (64 days). The former reactor also had better removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand and ammonium. Moreover, the mature granules augmented with ZVI had better physical characteristics and produced more extracellular polymeric substances (especially of protein). Three-dimensional-excitation emission matrix fluorescence showed that ZVI enhanced organic material diversity. Additionally, ZVI enhanced the diversity of the microbial community. Fe{sup 2+} dissolution from ZVI helped reduce the start-up time of aerobic granulation and increased the extracellular polymeric substance content. Conclusively, the use of ZVI effectively enhanced aerobic granulation.

  13. Nitrous Oxide Production in a Granule-based Partial Nitritation Reactor: A Model-based Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lai; Sun, Jing; Liu, Yiwen; Dai, Xiaohu; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2017-04-03

    Sustainable wastewater treatment has been attracting increasing attentions over the past decades. However, the production of nitrous oxide (N 2 O), a potent GHG, from the energy-efficient granule-based autotrophic nitrogen removal is largely unknown. This study applied a previously established N 2 O model, which incorporated two N 2 O production pathways by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) (AOB denitrification and the hydroxylamine (NH 2 OH) oxidation). The two-pathway model was used to describe N 2 O production from a granule-based partial nitritation (PN) reactor and provide insights into the N 2 O distribution inside granules. The model was evaluated by comparing simulation results with N 2 O monitoring profiles as well as isotopic measurement data from the PN reactor. The model demonstrated its good predictive ability against N 2 O dynamics and provided useful information about the shift of N 2 O production pathways inside granules for the first time. The simulation results indicated that the increase of oxygen concentration and granule size would significantly enhance N 2 O production. The results further revealed a linear relationship between N 2 O production and ammonia oxidation rate (AOR) (R 2  = 0.99) under the conditions of varying oxygen levels and granule diameters, suggesting that bulk oxygen and granule size may exert an indirect effect on N 2 O production by causing a change in AOR.

  14. Particle size distribution of wheat starch granules in relation to baking properties of frozen dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Han; Wang, Pei; Wu, Fengfeng; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-02-10

    The impact of freezing on the wheat starches with different particle size was studied using a range of characterization methods including X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, the Rapid Visco Analyser and a reconstitution dough system. Wheat starches were fractionated into A- and B-type granules, and then subjected to freezing/thawing treatment for 3 cycles. The freezing treatment did not cause apparent damage on A-type granular surface but induced cracked structure on B-type granules. It facilitated materials such as amylose, proteins, and lipids leaching from starch granule and an increase in gelatinization temperatures, melting enthalpy, and pasting viscosities. A smaller bread specific volume was obtained from freezing-treated B-granules while the crumb firmness significantly increased (p>0.05). No marked differences were observed in the counterparts of A-granules after freezing treatment. It seemed that the B-type granules were more sensitive to the freezing/thawing treatment, thus facilitating structural transformations from dough to bread. Results indicated that the deterioration in frozen bread quality derived from starch could be minimized by increasing the A-granules content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Polymorphic Transformation of Indomethacin during Hot Melt Extrusion Granulation: Process and Dissolution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Nahar, Kajalajit; Dave, Rutesh; Bates, Simon; Morris, Kenneth

    2018-05-10

    To study and elucidate the effect of the intensity and duration of processing stresses on the possible solid-state changes during a hot melt extrusion granulation process. Blends of α-indomethacin and PEG 3350 (w/w 4:1) were granulated using various screw sizes/designs on the melt extruder under different temperature regimes. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and X-ray Powder Diffraction were employed for characterization. The dissolution behavior of the pure polymorphs and the resulting granules was determined using in-situ fiber optic UV testing system. An XRPD quantitation method using Excel full pattern fitting was developed to determine the concentration of each constituent (amorphous, α and γ indomethacin and PEG) in samples collected from each functioning zone and in granules. Analysis of in-process samples and granules revealed that higher temperature (≥130°C) and shear stress accelerated the process induced phase transitions from amorphous and/or the α form to γ indomethacin during heating stage. However, rapid cooling resulted in an increased percentage of the α form allowing isolation of the meta-stable form. By determining the conditions that either prevent or facilitate process induced transformations of IMC polymorphs during melt granulation, a design space was developed to control the polymorph present in the resulting granules. This represents the conditions necessary to balance the thermodynamic relationships between the polymorphs of the IMC system and the kinetics of the possible transformations as a function of the processing stresses.

  16. Application of grey system theory on the influencing parameters of aerobic granulation in SBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindhu, B K; Madhu, G

    2017-09-01

    Aerobic granulation is a promising technology for wastewater treatment. Four operational parameters were selected as influencing factors for this study. Aerobic granulation was experimented with three different values of organic loading rate (3, 6 and 9 kg COD m -3  d -1 ), superficial upflow air velocity (SUAV) (2, 3 and 4 cm s -1 ), settling time (3, 5 and 10 min) and volume exchange ratio (25%, 50% and 75%) in sequencing batch reactor in nine trials for the optimal performance of aerobic granulation. The influence of compared parameters on five reference parameters (sludge volume index (SVI), time taken for the appearance of granules, size and specific gravity of granules and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal) was analyzed using grey system theory. The grey relational coefficients and grey entropy relational grade of each parameter were calculated. Hydrodynamic shear force in terms of SUAV was found to have the greatest influence on granule appearance, specific gravity of granules and COD removal efficiency. SVI is greatly affected by settling time. The optimal scopes of all the compared parameters were found.

  17. Ultraviolet and gamma-radiation effect on the zymotic characteristics of turnip moth's granules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khakimova, M A

    1975-01-01

    Virus granules of the winter cutworm (Agrotis segetum Schiff) were used as agents for biological control of this pest of field and vegetable crops. The authors first studied the effect of uv and gamma radiation on granules of the cutworm. A purified suspension of winter moth granules, 0.5 mg of granules per mm/sup 3/, was irradiated with a BUV-15 lamp at a distance of 9 cm from the radiation source. The dose rate was 6.6x10/sup 3/ ergs/cm/sup 2/.sec. The results showed that a uv dose of 71.1x10/sup 6/ ergs/cm/sup 2/ decreased the virulence of the granules by a factor of 3 compared to the original suspension (larval mortality of 27.5%) and a dose of 95x10/sup 6/ ergs/cm/sup 2/ completely inactivated the granules. With gamma radiation (/sup 60/Co or /sup 137/Cs) the inactivating dose was only 21.6x10/sup 5/ rads. The work indicated that cutworm granules are very resistant to uv and gamma radiation.

  18. Light scattering on PHA granules protects bacterial cells against the harmful effects of UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaninova, Eva; Sedlacek, Petr; Mravec, Filip; Mullerova, Lucie; Samek, Ota; Koller, Martin; Hesko, Ondrej; Kucera, Dan; Marova, Ivana; Obruca, Stanislav

    2018-02-01

    Numerous prokaryotes accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the form of intracellular granules. The primary function of PHA is the storage of carbon and energy. Nevertheless, there are numerous reports that the presence of PHA granules in microbial cells enhances their stress resistance and fitness when exposed to various stress factors. In this work, we studied the protective mechanism of PHA granules against UV irradiation employing Cupriavidus necator as a model bacterial strain. The PHA-accumulating wild type strain showed substantially higher UV radiation resistance than the PHA non-accumulating mutant. Furthermore, the differences in UV-Vis radiation interactions with both cell types were studied using various spectroscopic approaches (turbidimetry, absorption spectroscopy, and nephelometry). Our results clearly demonstrate that intracellular PHA granules efficiently scatter UV radiation, which provides a substantial UV-protective effect for bacterial cells and, moreover, decreases the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species in UV-challenged cells. The protective properties of the PHA granules are enhanced by the fact that granules specifically bind to DNA, which in turn provides shield-like protection of DNA as the most UV-sensitive molecule. To conclude, the UV-protective action of PHA granules adds considerable value to their primary storage function, which can be beneficial in numerous environments.

  19. Enhancement of aerobic granulation by zero-valent iron in sequencing batch airlift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Qiang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Shu, Li; Fu, Rong-shu; Jiang, Chun-hui; Miao, Ming-sheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Zero-valent iron (ZVI) was used firstly to enhance the aerobic granulation. • ZVI significantly decreased the start-up time of the aerobic granulation. • ZVI had the function of enhancing organic material diversity identified by 3-D EEM. • ZVI could enhance the diversity of microbial community. - Abstract: This study elucidates the enhancement of aerobic granulation by zero-valent iron (ZVI). A reactor augmented with ZVI had a start-up time of aerobic granulation (43 days) that was notably less than that for a reactor without augmentation (64 days). The former reactor also had better removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand and ammonium. Moreover, the mature granules augmented with ZVI had better physical characteristics and produced more extracellular polymeric substances (especially of protein). Three-dimensional-excitation emission matrix fluorescence showed that ZVI enhanced organic material diversity. Additionally, ZVI enhanced the diversity of the microbial community. Fe 2+ dissolution from ZVI helped reduce the start-up time of aerobic granulation and increased the extracellular polymeric substance content. Conclusively, the use of ZVI effectively enhanced aerobic granulation

  20. Sustained-release progesterone vaginal suppositories 1--development of sustained-release granule--.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Ayako; Sunada, Hisakazu; Okamoto, Hirokazu; Furuhashi, Kaoru; Ohno, Yukiko; Ito, Mikio

    2009-02-01

    Progesterone (P) is an important hormone for the establishment of pregnancy, and its administration is useful for luteal insufficiency. Considering the problems of commercially available oral and injection drugs, hospital-formulated vaginal suppositories are clinically used. However, since the half-life of P suppositories is short, it is difficult to maintain its constant blood concentration. To sustain drug efficacy and prevent side-effects, we are attempting to develop sustained-release suppositories by examining the degree of sustained-release of active ingredients. In this study, we examined the combinations of granulation methods and release systems for the preparation of sustained-release granules of P, and produced 13 types of sustained-release granules. We also examined the diameter, content, and dissolution of each type of granules, and confirmed that the sustained-release of all types of granules was satisfactory. Among the sustained-release granules, we selected granules with a content and a degree of sustained-release suitable for sustained-release suppositories.

  1. Turnover of pigment granules: cyclic catabolism and anabolism of ommochromes within epidermal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, T C; Casas, J

    2009-12-01

    Ommochromes are end products of the tryptophan metabolism in arthropods. While the anabolism of ommochromes has been well studied, the catabolism is totally unknown. In order to study it, we used the crab-spider Misumena vatia, which is able to change color reversibly in a few days, from yellow to white and back. Ommochromes is the only pigment class responsible for the body coloration in this animal. The aim of this study was to analyze the fine structure of the epidermal cells in bleaching spiders, in an attempt to correlate morphological changes with the fate of the pigment granules. Central to the process of bleaching is the lysis of the ommochrome granules. In the same cell, intact granules and granules in different degradation stages are found. The degradation begins with granule autolysis. Some components are extruded in the extracellular space and others are recycled via autophagy. Abundant glycogen appears associated to granulolysis. In a later stage of bleaching, ommochrome progranules, typical of white spiders, appear in the distal zone of the same epidermal cell. Catabolism and anabolism of pigment granules thus take place simultaneously in spider epidermal cells. A cyclic pathway of pigment granules formation and degradation, throughout a complete cycle of color change is proposed, together with an explanation for this turnover, involving photoprotection against UV by ommochromes metabolites. The presence of this turnover for melanins is discussed.

  2. Cold experiment of slag centrifugal granulation by rotary atomizer: Effect of atomizer configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jun-Jun; Wang, Hong; Zhu, Xun; Liao, Qiang; Li, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Centrifugal granulation has recently been employed to produce small blast furnace slag particles, so as to recover the waste heat from the high-temperature molten blast furnace slag. An appropriate atomizer enables centrifugal granulation to become a better cost-effective process for particle production. Thus, increasing emphasis has been placed on influence of atomizer configuration on granulation. In present study, three groups of atomizers were specially designed and the granulation performance of each atomizer was experimentally tested during cold experiments. The influences of atomizer configuration on granulation modes and droplet characteristics were investigated visually. Two modified correlations were proposed to predict the granulating droplet size by means of data fitting. The results indicated that the rotary cup atomizers can inhibit the film formation in contrast to rotary disc atomizer. Moreover, atomizers with outer angle of 90° was capable of producing smaller droplets. The revised correlation as well as the newly-developed correlation including the influence of atomizer configurations, presented in good agreement with the experiment data. In addition, an analysis on atomizer design was conducted to provide a good insight for industrialization. It was recommended to adopt cup-like atomizer in granulation for its ability to produce fine particles with smaller atomizer size.

  3. Interaction between granulation and small-scale magnetic flux observed by Hinode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jun; Yang Shuhong; Jin Chunlan

    2009-01-01

    With the polarimetric observations obtained by the Spectro-Polarimeter on board Hinode, we study the relationship between granular development and magnetic field evolution in the quiet Sun. Six typical cases are displayed to exhibit interaction between granules and magnetic elements, and we have obtained the following results. (1) A granule develops centrosymmetrically when no magnetic flux emerges within the granular cell. (2) A granule develops and splits noncentrosymmetrically while flux emerges at an outer part of the granular cell. (3) Magnetic flux emergence in a cluster of mixed polarities is detected at the position of a granule as soon as the granule breaks up. (4) A dipole emerges accompanied by the development of a granule, and the two elements of the dipole are rooted in the adjacent intergranular lanes and face each other across the granule. Advected by the horizontal granular motion, the positive element of the dipole then cancels with the pre-existing negative flux. (5) Flux cancellation also takes place between a positive element, which is advected by granular flow, and its surrounding negative flux. (6) While magnetic flux cancellation takes place in a granular cell, the granule shrinks and then disappears. (7) Horizontal magnetic fields are enhanced at the places where dipoles emerge and where opposite polarities cancel each other, but only the horizontal fields between the dipolar elements point in an orderly way from the positive elements to the negative ones. Our results reveal that granules and small-scale magnetic fluxes influence each other. Granular flow advects magnetic flux, and magnetic flux evolution suppresses granular development. There exist extremely large Doppler blue-shifts at the site of one canceling magnetic element. This phenomenon may be caused by the upward flow produced by magnetic reconnection below the photosphere. (research papers)

  4. Acoustic emission monitoring from a lab scale high shear granulator--a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, N J; Povey, M J W; Reynolds, G K; Xu, B H; Ding, Y

    2014-04-25

    A new approach to the monitoring of granulation processes using passive acoustics together with precise control over the granulation process has highlighted the importance of particle-particle and particle-bowl collisions in acoustic emission. The results have shown that repeatable acoustic results could be obtained but only when a spray nozzle water addition system was used. Acoustic emissions were recorded from a transducer attached to the bowl and an airborne transducer. It was found that the airborne transducer detected very little from the granulation and only experienced small changes throughout the process. The results from the bowl transducer showed that during granulation the frequency content of the acoustic emission shifted towards the lower frequencies. Results from the discrete element model indicate that when larger particles are used the number of collisions the particles experience reduces. This is a result of the volume conservation methodology used in this study, therefore larger particles results in less particles. These simulation results coupled with previous theoretical work on the frequency content of an impacting sphere explain why the frequency content of the acoustic emissions reduces during granule growth. The acoustic system used was also clearly able to identify when large over-wetted granules were present in the system, highlighting its benefit for detecting undesirable operational conditions. High-speed photography was used to study if visual changes in the granule properties could be linked with the changing acoustic emissions. The high speed photography was only possible towards the latter stages of the granulation process and it was found that larger granules produced a higher magnitude of acoustic emission across a broader frequency range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. CSR-1 and P granules suppress sperm-specific transcription in the C. elegans germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anne C; Updike, Dustin L

    2015-05-15

    Germ granules (P granules) in C. elegans are required for fertility and function to maintain germ cell identity and pluripotency. Sterility in the absence of P granules is often accompanied by the misexpression of soma-specific proteins and the initiation of somatic differentiation in germ cells. To investigate whether this is caused by the accumulation of somatic transcripts, we performed mRNA-seq on dissected germlines with and without P granules. Strikingly, we found that somatic transcripts do not increase in the young adult germline when P granules are impaired. Instead, we found that impairing P granules causes sperm-specific mRNAs to become highly overexpressed. This includes the accumulation of major sperm protein (MSP) transcripts in germ cells, a phenotype that is suppressed by feminization of the germline. A core component of P granules, the endo-siRNA-binding Argonaute protein CSR-1, has recently been ascribed with the ability to license transcripts for germline expression. However, impairing CSR-1 has very little effect on the accumulation of its mRNA targets. Instead, we found that CSR-1 functions with P granules to prevent MSP and sperm-specific mRNAs from being transcribed in the hermaphrodite germline. These findings suggest that P granules protect germline integrity through two different mechanisms, by (1) preventing the inappropriate expression of somatic proteins at the level of translational regulation, and by (2) functioning with CSR-1 to limit the domain of sperm-specific expression at the level of transcription. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Note on bouncing backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Jaume; Pan, Supriya

    2018-05-01

    The theory of inflation is one of the fundamental and revolutionary developments of modern cosmology that became able to explain many issues of the early Universe in the context of the standard cosmological model (SCM). However, the initial singularity of the Universe, where physics is indefinite, is still obscure in the combined SCM +inflation scenario. An alternative to SCM +inflation without the initial singularity is thus always welcome, and bouncing cosmology is an attempt at that. The current work is thus motivated to investigate the bouncing solutions in modified gravity theories when the background universe is described by the spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometry. We show that the simplest way to obtain the bouncing cosmologies in such spacetime is to consider some kind of Lagrangian whose gravitational sector depends only on the square of the Hubble parameter of the FLRW universe. For these modified Lagrangians, the corresponding Friedmann equation, a constraint in the dynamics of the Universe, depicts a curve in the phase space (H ,ρ ), where H is the Hubble parameter and ρ is the energy density of the Universe. As a consequence, a bouncing cosmology is obtained when this curve is closed and crosses the axis H =0 at least twice, and whose simplest particular example is the ellipse depicting the well-known holonomy corrected Friedmann equation in loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Sometimes, a crucial point in such theories is the appearance of the Ostrogradski instability at the perturbative level; however, fortunately enough, in the present work, as long as the linear level of perturbations is concerned, this instability does not appear, although it may appear at the higher order of perturbations.

  7. Influence of chemical, physical and texture characteristics in the dry milled clays micro granulation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, L.B.; Moreno, M.M.T.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effects of the granulation in ceramic dry process classified as BIIb. For this we used a high intensity granulator to obtain information on the technical and economic viability in the production line and the possible contributions to the improvement of the process. Industrial compositions of clays were used. These materials were processed under different conditions and subsequently processed for obtaining the ceramic bodies pressed. The results indicate that the use of high intensity granulator, with or without modifications to the particle size distribution of mass, can decrease the firing cycle and / or sintering temperature of the ceramic, causing economic gain (author)

  8. Hydrate formation during wet granulation studied by spectroscopic methods and multivariate analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna; Rantanen, Jukka; Karjalainen, Milja

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim was to follow hydrate formation of two structurally related drugs, theophylline and caffeine, during wet granulation using fast and nondestructive spectroscopic methods. METHODS: Anhydrous theophylline and caffeine were granulated with purified water. Charge-coupled device (CCD......) Raman spectroscopy was compared with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) in following hydrate formation of drugs during wet granulation (off-line). To perform an at-line process analysis, the effect of water addition was monitored by NIR spectroscopy and principal components analysis (PCA). The changes...

  9. Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase plays an important role in intermittent hypoxia-induced cell death in rat cerebellar granule cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Sheng-Chun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Episodic cessation of airflow during sleep in patients with sleep apnea syndrome results in intermittent hypoxia (IH. Our aim was to investigate the effects of IH on cerebellar granule cells and to identify the mechanism of IH-induced cell death. Methods Cerebellar granule cells were freshly prepared from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. IH was created by culturing the cerebellar granule cells in the incubators with oscillating O2 concentration at 20% and 5% every 30 min for 1-4 days. The results of this study are based on image analysis using a confocal microscope and associated software. Cellular oxidative stress increased with increase in IH. In addition, the occurrence of cell death (apoptosis and necrosis increased as the duration of IH increased, but decreased in the presence of an iron chelator (phenanthroline or poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors [3-aminobenzamide (3-AB and DPQ]. The fluorescence of caspase-3 remained the same regardless of the duration of IH, and Western blots did not detect activation of caspase-3. However, IH increased the ratio of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF translocation to the nucleus, while PARP inhibitors (3-AB reduced this ratio. Results According to our findings, IH increased oxidative stress and subsequently leading to cell death. This effect was at least partially mediated by PARP activation, resulting in ATP depletion, calpain activation leading to AIF translocation to the nucleus. Conclusions We suggest that IH induces cell death in rat primary cerebellar granule cells by stimulating oxidative stress PARP-mediated calpain and AIF activation.

  10. Effect of operational strategies on activated sludge’s acclimation to phenol, subsequent aerobic granulation, and accumulation of polyhydoxyalkanoates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wosman, Afrida; Lu, Yuhao; Sun, Supu; Liu, Xiang; Wan, Chunli; Zhang, Yi; Lee, Duu-Jong; Tay, JooHwa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Activated sludge was acclimated to phenol with 2 different strategies. • Acclimated sludge later underwent aerobic granulation process. • Sludge acclimated with phenol only degraded phenol and formed granules faster. • Sludge acclimated with phenol + acetate formed more stable and robust granules. • Both sludge exhibited significant PHA accumulation in early granulation stage. - Abstract: Aerobic granules, a relative novel form of microbial aggregate, are capable of degrading many toxic organic pollutants. Appropriate strategy is needed to acclimate seed sludge to the toxic compounds for successful granulation. In this study, two distinct strategies, i.e. mixed or single carbon sources, were experimented to obtain phenol-acclimated sludge. Their effects on reactor performance, biomass characteristics, microbial population and the granulation process were analyzed. Sludge fed with phenol alone exhibited faster acclimation and earlier appearance of granules, but possibly lower microbial diversity and reactor stability. Using a mixture of acetate and phenol in the acclimation stage, on the other hand, led to a reactor with slower phenol degradation and granulation, but eventual formation of strong and stable aerobic granules. In addition, the content of intracellular polyhydoxyakanoates (PHA) was also monitored, and significant accumulation was observed during the pre-granulation stage, where PHA >50% of dry weight was observed in both reactors.

  11. Effect of operational strategies on activated sludge’s acclimation to phenol, subsequent aerobic granulation, and accumulation of polyhydoxyalkanoates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wosman, Afrida; Lu, Yuhao; Sun, Supu; Liu, Xiang [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Yangpu District, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Wan, Chunli, E-mail: hitwan@163.com [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Yangpu District, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Zhang, Yi, E-mail: sybil_zhang@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Yangpu District, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Lee, Duu-Jong [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Tay, JooHwa [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Activated sludge was acclimated to phenol with 2 different strategies. • Acclimated sludge later underwent aerobic granulation process. • Sludge acclimated with phenol only degraded phenol and formed granules faster. • Sludge acclimated with phenol + acetate formed more stable and robust granules. • Both sludge exhibited significant PHA accumulation in early granulation stage. - Abstract: Aerobic granules, a relative novel form of microbial aggregate, are capable of degrading many toxic organic pollutants. Appropriate strategy is needed to acclimate seed sludge to the toxic compounds for successful granulation. In this study, two distinct strategies, i.e. mixed or single carbon sources, were experimented to obtain phenol-acclimated sludge. Their effects on reactor performance, biomass characteristics, microbial population and the granulation process were analyzed. Sludge fed with phenol alone exhibited faster acclimation and earlier appearance of granules, but possibly lower microbial diversity and reactor stability. Using a mixture of acetate and phenol in the acclimation stage, on the other hand, led to a reactor with slower phenol degradation and granulation, but eventual formation of strong and stable aerobic granules. In addition, the content of intracellular polyhydoxyakanoates (PHA) was also monitored, and significant accumulation was observed during the pre-granulation stage, where PHA >50% of dry weight was observed in both reactors.

  12. Measurement of the internal pH of mast cell granules using microvolumetric fluorescence and isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Young, M.B.; Nemeth, E.F.; Scarpa, A.

    1987-01-01

    The intragranular pH of isolated mast cell granules was measured. Because of the minute amounts of isolated granules available, two techniques were developed by modifying aminoacridine fluorescence and [ 14 C]methylamine accumulation techniques to permit measurements with microliter sample volumes. Granule purity was demonstrated by electron microscopy, ruthenium red exclusion, and biochemical (histamine, mast cell granule protease) analysis. The internal pH was determined to be 5.55 +/- 0.06, indicating that the pH environment within mast cell granules is not significantly different from that of previously studied granule types (i.e., chromaffin, platelet, pancreatic islet, and pituitary granules). Collapse of the pH gradient by NH+4 was demonstrated with both techniques. No evidence of Cl-/OH- or specific cation/H+ transport was found, and major chloride permeability could not be unequivocably demonstrated. Ca 2+ and Cl- at concentrations normally present extracellularly destabilized granules in the presence of NH+4, but this phenomenon does not necessarily indicate a role for these ions in the exocytotic release of granule contents from intact cells. The pH measurement techniques developed for investigating the properties of granules in mast cells may be useful for studying other granules that can be obtained only in limited quantities

  13. The mysterious case of the C. elegans gut granule: death fluorescence, anthranilic acid and the kynurenine pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eGems

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research on the nematode C. elegans, it still contains many hidden secrets. One such is the function of the prominent organelles known as gut granules, which are numerous in the intestinal cells of nematodes throughout the suborder Rhabditina. A striking feature of gut granules is the blue fluorescence that they emit under ultraviolet light. Clues to gut granule function include their acidic interior and capacity for endocytosis, both lysosome-like features (though gut granules are much bigger than normal lysosomes. This and the fluorescent material within identify gut granules as lysosome-like organelles (LROs, akin to pigment-containing melanosomes in mammals and eye pigment granules in Drosophila. Thus, the identity of the blue fluorescent substance could provide a key to understanding gut granule function.

  14. Iron coated pottery granules for arsenic removal from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liangjie; Zinin, Pavel V; Cowen, James P; Ming, Li Chung

    2009-09-15

    A new media, iron coated pottery granules (ICPG) has been developed for As removal from drinking water. ICPG is a solid phase media that produces a stable Fe-Si surface complex for arsenic adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to document the physical attributes (grain size, pore size and distribution, surface roughness) of the ICPG media. Several advantages of the ICPG media such as (a) its granular structure, (b) its ability to absorb As via the F(0) coating on the granules' surface; (c) the inexpensive preparation process for the media from clay material make ICPG media a highly effective media for removing arsenic at normal pH. A column filtration test demonstrated that within the stability region (flow rate lower than 15L/h, EBCT >3 min), the concentration of As in the influent was always lower than 50 microg/L. The 2-week system ability test showed that the media consistently removed arsenic from test water to below the 5 microg/L level. The average removal efficiencies for total arsenic, As(III), and As(V) for a 2-week test period were 98%, 97%, and 99%, respectively, at an average flow rate of 4.1L/h and normal pH. Measurements of the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms at normal pH show that the Freundlich constants of the ICPG are very close to those of ferric hydroxide, nanoscale zero-valent iron and much higher than those of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide. The parameter 1/n is smaller than 0.55 indicating a favorable adsorption process [K. Hristovski, A. Baumgardner, P. Westerhoff, Selecting metal oxide nanomaterials for arsenic removal in fixed bed columns: from nanopowders to aggregated nanoparticle media, J. Hazard. Mater. 147 (2007) 265-274]. The maximum adsorption capacity (q(e)) of the ICPG from the Langmuir isotherm is very close to that of nanoscale zero-valent indicating that zero-valent iron is involved in the process of the As removal from the water. The results of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP

  15. Iron coated pottery granules for arsenic removal from drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Liangjie; Zinin, Pavel V.; Cowen, James P.; Ming, Li Chung

    2009-01-01

    A new media, iron coated pottery granules (ICPG) has been developed for As removal from drinking water. ICPG is a solid phase media that produces a stable Fe-Si surface complex for arsenic adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to document the physical attributes (grain size, pore size and distribution, surface roughness) of the ICPG media. Several advantages of the ICPG media such as (a) its granular structure, (b) its ability to absorb As via the F(0) coating on the granules' surface; (c) the inexpensive preparation process for the media from clay material make ICPG media a highly effective media for removing arsenic at normal pH. A column filtration test demonstrated that within the stability region (flow rate lower than 15 L/h, EBCT >3 min), the concentration of As in the influent was always lower than 50 μg/L. The 2-week system ability test showed that the media consistently removed arsenic from test water to below the 5 μg/L level. The average removal efficiencies for total arsenic, As(III), and As(V) for a 2-week test period were 98%, 97%, and 99%, respectively, at an average flow rate of 4.1 L/h and normal pH. Measurements of the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms at normal pH show that the Freundlich constants of the ICPG are very close to those of ferric hydroxide, nanoscale zero-valent iron and much higher than those of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide. The parameter 1/n is smaller than 0.55 indicating a favorable adsorption process [K. Hristovski, A. Baumgardner, P. Westerhoff, Selecting metal oxide nanomaterials for arsenic removal in fixed bed columns: from nanopowders to aggregated nanoparticle media, J. Hazard. Mater. 147 (2007) 265-274]. The maximum adsorption capacity (q e ) of the ICPG from the Langmuir isotherm is very close to that of nanoscale zero-valent indicating that zero-valent iron is involved in the process of the As removal from the water. The results of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) analysis

  16. Granulation study of porous silica particles for MA recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Ichiro; Kofuji, Hirohide; Oriuchi, Akio; Watanabe, Sou; Takeuchi, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    JAEA has been working on partition of MA from HLLW generated in the reprocessing by extraction chromatography technology. This technology utilizes 50 μm porous silica particles coated by styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer in which an extractant for MA recovery is impregnated as adsorbent. In this study, spray drying granulating experiments with various operating conditions and with different experimental apparatuses were carried out to find an appropriate condition to control the size of the particle and the pore. The target average sizes of the particle and pore are more than 50 μm and 600 nm respectively. Suspension containing fine silica particles were supplied to the spray drying devices, and small droplets generated through the spray nozzle were dried inside the drying chamber. In this study, viscosity of the feed solution and some granulation conditions were parametrically changed, and two different types of the spray nozzles were used. An air atomizing nozzle and a rotary disk nozzle were equipped at different chambers respectively. Then, performance of the product particle was evaluated by particle and pore size distributions and adsorption experiment after the polymer coating and an extractant impregnation. The particle size of the product depended on the atomizing pressure and viscosity of the feed solution, and the size increased with decrease in the pressure and in the viscosity. The maximum size obtained in this study was about 40 μm. Large viscosity of the feed solution lead poor recovery ratio and uniformity in the size distribution of the product powder. The pore size of the resultant particle was 550-800 nm as expected. As the type of the nozzle changed from the air atomizing nozzle to the rotary disk nozzle and size of the drying chamber became large, the average particle size and the particle size distribution became large and sharp, respectively. Rotation speed of the nozzle also influenced on the particle size, and targeted average size of the

  17. On the Origin of Reverse Transcriptase-Using CRISPR-Cas Systems and Their Hyperdiverse, Enigmatic Spacer Repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silas, Sukrit; Makarova, Kira S; Shmakov, Sergey; Páez-Espino, David; Mohr, Georg; Liu, Yi; Davison, Michelle; Roux, Simon; Krishnamurthy, Siddharth R; Fu, Becky Xu Hua; Hansen, Loren L; Wang, David; Sullivan, Matthew B; Millard, Andrew; Clokie, Martha R; Bhaya, Devaki; Lambowitz, Alan M; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Koonin, Eugene V; Fire, Andrew Z

    2017-07-11

    analysis of available bacterial sequence data, we find evidence that RT-based RNA adaptation machinery has been able to join with CRISPR-Cas immune systems in many, diverse bacterial species. To investigate whether the abilities to adapt to DNA and RNA molecules are utilized for defense against distinct classes of invaders in nature, we sequenced CRISPR arrays from samples of commercial-scale open-air cultures of Arthrospira platensis , a cyanobacterium that contains both RT-lacking and RT-containing CRISPR-Cas systems. We uncovered a diverse pool of naturally occurring immune memories, with the RT-lacking locus acquiring a number of segments matching known viral or bacterial genes, while the RT-containing locus has acquired spacers from a distinct sequence pool for which the source remains enigmatic. Copyright © 2017 Silas et al.

  18. Executive Summary - Historical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    matter physics experiments at the High Flux Reactor of The Laue Langevin Institute and the ISIS spallation source at Rutherford-Appleton. Recently, we very actively entered the ICARUS neutrino collaboration and were invited to the PIERRE AUGER collaboration which will search for the highest energies in the Universe. Having close ties with CERN we are very actively engaged in CROSS-GRID, a large computer network project. To better understand the historical background of the INP development, it is necessary to add a few comments on financing of science in Poland. During the 70's and the 80's, research was financed through the so-called Central Research Projects for Science and Technical Development. The advantage of this system was that state-allocated research funds were divided only by a few representatives of the scientific community, which allowed realistic allocation of money to a small number of projects. After 1989 we were able to purchase commercially available equipment, which led to the closure of our large and very experienced electronic workshop. We also considerably reduced our well equipped mechanical shop. During the 90's the reduced state financing of science was accompanied by a newly established Committee of Scientific Research which led to the creation of a system of small research projects. This precluded the development of more ambitious research projects and led to the dispersion of equipment among many smaller laboratories and universities. A large research establishment, such as our Institute, could not develop properly under such conditions. In all, between 1989 and 2004 we reduced our personnel from about 800 to 470 and our infrastructure became seriously undercapitalised. However, with energetic search for research funds, from European rather than national research programs, we hope to improve and modernize our laboratories and their infrastructure in the coming years

  19. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida Granule in Treatment of Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Lin Shi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: JLD granule effectively improved glucose control, increased the conversion of IGT to normal glucose, and improved the insulin resistance in patients with IGT. This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value for IGT.

  20. Granular computing and intelligent systems design with information granules of higher order and higher type

    CERN Document Server

    Pedrycz, Witold; Chen, Shyi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Information granules are conceptual entities that aid the perception of complex phenomena. This book looks at granular computing techniques such as algorithmic pursuits and includes diverse applications and case studies from fields such as power engineering.

  1. Investigating the Mechanisms of Amylolysis of Starch Granules by Solution-State NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Starch is a prominent component of the human diet and is hydrolyzed by α-amylase post-ingestion. Probing the mechanism of this process has proven challenging, due to the intrinsic heterogeneity of individual starch granules. By means of solution-state NMR, we demonstrate that flexible polysaccharide chains protruding from the solvent-exposed surfaces of waxy rice starch granules are highly mobile and that during hydrothermal treatment, when the granules swell, the number of flexible residues on the exposed surfaces increases by a factor of 15. Moreover, we show that these flexible chains are the primary substrates for α-amylase, being cleaved in the initial stages of hydrolysis. These findings allow us to conclude that the quantity of flexible α-glucan chains protruding from the granule surface will greatly influence the rate of energy acquisition from digestion of starch. PMID:25815624

  2. Microbial community changes in methanogenic granules during the transition from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xinyu; Kougias, Panagiotis; Treu, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor is one of the most applied technologies for various high-strength wastewater treatments. The present study analysed the microbial community changes in UASB granules during the transition from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions. Dynamicity...

  3. The influence of roller compaction processing variables on the rheological properties of granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Freeman

    2016-08-01

    The results demonstrate several rheological properties of the granulate, which have been shown to be closely correlated with variance in die filling and tablet strength, and are predictably influenced by the processing parameters.

  4. Condition of granulating titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent and its adsorption for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyai, Yoshitaka; Kitamura, Takao; Katoh, Shunsaku; Miyazaki, Hidetoshi

    1979-01-01

    The powdery titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent was granulated, and the strength and uranium adsorptivity of the granulated adsorbent were studied in relation to its granulating condition. By use of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) with degree of polymerization above 2,000 as binder, the granular adsorbent with as much the same strength as commercial granular activated carbon was obtained. Addition of PVA did not affect the amount of adsorbed uranium in equilibrium, but decreased the adsorption rate. Effect of granule size between 2-5 mm on the uranium adsorption rate was that the uranium adsorption rate changed proportionally to surface area of assumed sphere. As a test for practical use, 5 times repetitions of adsorption and desorption were carried out on the same granular adsorbent. During this repetition the adsorbent containing formalized PVA revealed smaller weight loss than non-treated adsorbent. The amount of adsorbed uranium decreased with increasing repetition times, and reason of this was discussed. (author)

  5. Effect of particle size of granules on some mechanical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... compacts formed from larger granules as a result of plastic deformation and fragmentation than ... whether an increase or a decrease in particle size will ... many) was used for the preparation of the tablets from the various.

  6. Crystallization and initial X-ray analysis of polyhydroxyalkanoate granule-associated protein from Aeromonas hydrophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Minglian; Li, Zhenguo; Zheng, Wei; Lou, Zhiyong [MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Guo-Qiang, E-mail: chengq@stu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Multidisciplinary Research Center, Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China)

    2006-08-01

    The phasin PhaP{sub Ah} from A. hydrophila strain 4AK4 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granule-associated proteins (phasins) were discovered in PHA-accumulating bacteria. They play a crucial role as a structural protein during initial PHA-granule formation and granule growth and also serve as interfaces for granule stabilization in vivo. The phasin PhaP{sub Ah} from Aeromonas hydrophila strain 4AK4 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Single crystals were cryocooled for X-ray diffraction analysis. The phasin crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 80.8, b = 108.9, c = 134.4 Å.

  7. Transplantation of colon carcinoma into granulation tissue induces an invasive morphotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, K. P.; Zeeman-Boeschoten, I. M.; Keep, R. F.; Das, P. K.

    1993-01-01

    The stroma surrounding many malignant tumors resembles granulation tissue. To test the hypothesis that such stroma stimulates tumor invasiveness, we compared, by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, the growth patterns of CC531 rat colon adenocarcinoma in 2 experimental situations: (i)

  8. Furosemide removal in constructed wetlands: Comparative efficiency of LECA and Cork granulates as support matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A I; Dordio, A; Fragoso, R; Leitão, A E; Duarte, E

    2017-12-01

    The removal efficiency of LECA and cork granulates as support matrix for pharmaceuticals active compounds in a constructed wetland system was investigated using the diuretic drug Furosemide. Kinetics studies were performed testing three different concentrations of Furosemide in an ultrapure water matrix, along seven days. LECA achieved higher removal values compared to cork granulates. However, cork granulates presented a higher removal in the first 24 h of contact time compared to the other adsorbent. The kinetic studies showed that LECA and cork granulates have different adsorption behaviours for Furosemide which is controlled by different adsorption mechanisms. Both materials showed good removal efficiencies and a combination of the two should be further explored in order to applied both materials as support matrix to cope with different furosemide concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of torque measurements and near-infrared spectroscopy in characterization of a wet granulation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna Cecilia; Luukkonen, Pirjo; Rantanen, Jukka

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare impeller torque measurements and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in the characterization of the water addition phase of a wet granulation process. Additionally, the effect of hydrate formation during granulation on the impeller torque was investigated....... Anhydrous theophylline, alpha-lactose monohydrate, and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were used as materials for the study. The materials and mixtures of them were granulated using purified water in a small-scale high-shear mixer. The impeller torque was registered and NIR spectra of wet samples were...... recorded at-line. The torque and the NIR baseline-corrected water absorbances increased with increasing water content. A plateau in the NIR baseline-corrected water absorbances was observed for wet masses containing MCC. This was at the region of optimal water amount for granulation according to the torque...

  10. The Prohormone VGF Regulates β Cell Function via Insulin Secretory Granule Biogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel B. Stephens

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The prohormone VGF is expressed in neuroendocrine and endocrine tissues and regulates nutrient and energy status both centrally and peripherally. We and others have shown that VGF-derived peptides have direct action on the islet β cell as secretagogues and cytoprotective agents; however, the endogenous function of VGF in the β cell has not been described. Here, we demonstrate that VGF regulates secretory granule formation. VGF loss-of-function studies in both isolated islets and conditional knockout mice reveal a profound decrease in stimulus-coupled insulin secretion. Moreover, VGF is necessary to facilitate efficient exit of granule cargo from the trans-Golgi network and proinsulin processing. It also functions to replenish insulin granule stores following nutrient stimulation. Our data support a model in which VGF operates at a critical node of granule biogenesis in the islet β cell to coordinate insulin biosynthesis with β cell secretory capacity.

  11. Serglycin proteoglycan is not implicated in localizing exocrine pancreas enzymes to zymogen granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Carsten U; Cowland, Jack B; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Storage and release of proteins from granules forms the basis of cellular functions as diverse as cell mediated cytotoxicity, neuronal communication, activation of muscle fibres, and release of hormones or digestive enzymes from endocrine and exocrine glands, such as the pancreas. Serglycin...... is the major intracellular proteoglycan of haematopoietic cells. Serglycin is important for localization of proteins in granules of different haematopoietic cell types. Previous reports have indicated a role for serglycin in granule formation and localization of zymogens in granules of the exocrine pancreas...... in rat. We here present data showing that serglycin is not present at the protein level in human or murine pancreas. Furthermore, the amount and localization of three exocrine pancreas zymogens (amylase, trypsinogen, and carboxypeptidase A) is not affected by the absence of serglycin in a serglycin knock...

  12. Efficient Removal of Arsenic Using Magnetic Multi-Granule Nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seungho; Cha, Jinmyung; Sim, Kyunjong; Lee, Jinkyu

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic multi-granule nanoclusters (MGNCs) were investigated as an inexpensive means to effectively remove arsenic from aqueous environment, particularly groundwater sources consumed by humans. Various size MGNCs were examined to determine both their capacity and efficiency for arsenic adsorption for different initial arsenic concentrations. The MGNCs showed highly efficient arsenic adsorption characteristics, thereby meeting the allowable safety limit of 10 μg/L (ppb), prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO), and confirming that 0.4 g and 0.6 g of MGNCs were sufficient to remove 0.5 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L of arsenate (AsO 4 3- ) from water, respectively. Adsorption isotherm models for the MGNCs were used to estimate the adsorption parameters. They showed similar parameters for both the Langmuir and Sips models, confirming that the adsorption process in this work was active at a region of low arsenic concentration. The actual efficiency of arsenate removal was then tested against 1 L of artificial arsenic-contaminated groundwater with an arsenic concentration of 0.6 mg/L in the presence of competing ions. In this case, only 1.0 g of 100 nm MGNCs was sufficient to reduce the arsenic concentrations to below the WHO permissible safety limit for drinking water, without adjusting the pH or temperature, which is highly advantageous for practical field applications

  13. Peptide secreted by human alveolar macrophages releases neutrophil granule contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, C.K.; Miller, E.J.; Cohen, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was developed against an 8000-kDa enzyme-releasing peptide (ERP) released from human alveolar macrophages. ERP was isolated on an immunoaffinity column containing the antibody bound to staphylococcal protein A-Sepharose, and by autoradiography. Release of ERP from the macrophages is not changed by plastic adherence, phagocytosis, calcium ionophore, or phorbol esters. The peptide was not antigenically similar to interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor, or interleukin lα or 1β. The release of constituents from azurophilic and specific granules was the main identified biologic function of ERP. ERP was a more effective secretagogue in the untreated neutrophils and f-met-leu-phe was more effective in the cytochalasin B-treated neutrophils. Absorption of ERP from macrophage-conditioned medium removed a small amount of the chemotactic activity; however, the immunopurified peptide was not chemotactic or chemokinetic for neutrophils, and at high concentrations, it suppressed base line chemokinesis. Treatment of washed macrophages with trypsin released active ERP of approximately the same m.w. of spontaneously secreted ERP. These studies showed that human alveolar macrophages release a peptide which is a secretagogue for human neutrophils under conditions which may be encountered in the lungs during certain disease states. Proteolytic enzymes which are free in the lungs may release the peptide and lead to the secretion of neutrophil enzymes

  14. Ebola virus VP35 blocks stress granule assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Sage, Valerie; Cinti, Alessandro; McCarthy, Stephen; Amorim, Raquel; Rao, Shringar; Daino, Gian Luca; Tramontano, Enzo; Branch, Donald R; Mouland, Andrew J

    2017-02-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are dynamic cytoplasmic aggregates of translationally silenced mRNAs that assemble in response to environmental stress. SGs appear to play an important role in antiviral innate immunity and many viruses have evolved to block or subvert SGs components for their own benefit. Here, we demonstrate that intracellular Ebola virus (EBOV) replication and transcription-competent virus like particles (trVLP) infection does not lead to SG assembly but leads to a blockade to Arsenite-induced SG assembly. Moreover we show that EBOV VP35 represses the assembly of canonical and non-canonical SGs induced by a variety of pharmacological stresses. This SG blockade requires, at least in part, the C-terminal domain of VP35. Furthermore, results from our co-immunoprecipitation studies indicate that VP35 interacts with multiple SG components, including G3BP1, eIF3 and eEF2 through a stress- and RNA-independent mechanism. These data suggest a novel function for EBOV VP35 in the repression of SG assembly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Stress granules at the intersection of autophagy and ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Zachary; Shewmaker, Frank; Pandey, Udai Bhan

    2016-10-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, fatal disease caused by loss of upper and lower motor neurons. The majority of ALS cases are classified as sporadic (80-90%), with the remaining considered familial based on patient history. The last decade has seen a surge in the identification of ALS-causing genes - including TARDBP (TDP-43), FUS, MATR3 (Matrin-3), C9ORF72 and several others - providing important insights into the molecular pathways involved in pathogenesis. Most of the protein products of ALS-linked genes fall into two functional categories: RNA-binding/homeostasis and protein-quality control (i.e. autophagy and proteasome). The RNA-binding proteins tend to be aggregation-prone with low-complexity domains similar to the prion-forming domains of yeast. Many also incorporate into stress granules (SGs), which are cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes that form in response to cellular stress. Mutant forms of TDP-43 and FUS perturb SG dynamics, lengthening their cytoplasmic persistence. Recent evidence suggests that SGs are regulated by the autophagy pathway, suggesting a unifying connection between many of the ALS-linked genes. Persistent SGs may give rise to intractable aggregates that disrupt neuronal homeostasis, thus failure to clear SGs by autophagic processes may promote ALS pathogenesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:Autophagy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of Neuregulin-2 as a novel stress granule component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Ah; Jayabalan, Aravinth Kumar; Kothandan, Vinoth Kumar; Mariappan, Ramesh; Kee, Younghoon; Ohn, Takbum

    2016-08-01

    Stress Granules (SGs) are microscopically visible, phase dense aggregates of translationally stalled messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complexes formed in response to distinct stress conditions. It is generally considered that SG formation is induced to protect cells from conditions of stress. The precise constituents of SGs and the mechanism through which SGs are dynamically regulated in response to stress are not completely understood. Hence, it is important to identify proteins which regulate SG assembly and disassembly. In the present study, we report Neuregulin-2 (NRG2) as a novel component of SGs; furthermore, depletion of NRG2 potently inhibits SG formation. We also demonstrate that NRG2 specifically localizes to SGs under various stress conditions. Knockdown of NRG2 has no effect on stress-induced polysome disassembly, suggesting that the component does not influence early step of SG formation. It was also observed that reduced expression of NRG2 led to marginal increase in cell survival under arsenite-induced stress. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(8): 449-454].

  17. Efficient Removal of Arsenic Using Magnetic Multi-Granule Nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seungho; Cha, Jinmyung; Sim, Kyunjong; Lee, Jinkyu [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Magnetic multi-granule nanoclusters (MGNCs) were investigated as an inexpensive means to effectively remove arsenic from aqueous environment, particularly groundwater sources consumed by humans. Various size MGNCs were examined to determine both their capacity and efficiency for arsenic adsorption for different initial arsenic concentrations. The MGNCs showed highly efficient arsenic adsorption characteristics, thereby meeting the allowable safety limit of 10 μg/L (ppb), prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO), and confirming that 0.4 g and 0.6 g of MGNCs were sufficient to remove 0.5 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L of arsenate (AsO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) from water, respectively. Adsorption isotherm models for the MGNCs were used to estimate the adsorption parameters. They showed similar parameters for both the Langmuir and Sips models, confirming that the adsorption process in this work was active at a region of low arsenic concentration. The actual efficiency of arsenate removal was then tested against 1 L of artificial arsenic-contaminated groundwater with an arsenic concentration of 0.6 mg/L in the presence of competing ions. In this case, only 1.0 g of 100 nm MGNCs was sufficient to reduce the arsenic concentrations to below the WHO permissible safety limit for drinking water, without adjusting the pH or temperature, which is highly advantageous for practical field applications.

  18. Behavioral experience induces zif268 expression in mature granule cells but suppresses its expression in immature granule cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie A. Huckleberry

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of neurons are born each day in the dentate gyrus (DG, but many of these cells die before reaching maturity. Both death and survival of adult-born neurons are regulated by neuronal activity in DG. The immediate-early gene (IEG zif268 is an important mediator of these effects, as its expression is induced by neural activity and knockout of zif268 impairs survival of adult-born neurons (Veyrac et al., 2013. Despite the apparent importance of zif268 for adult neurogenesis, its behavior-induced expression has not been fully characterized in adult-born neurons. Here we characterize behavior-evoked expression of zif268 in mature and newborn dentate granule cells (DGCs. In the general granule cell population, zif268 expression peaked 1 hour after novel environment exposure and returned to baseline by 8 hours post-exposure. However, in the doublecortin-positive (DCX+ immature neurons, zif268 expression was suppressed relative to home cage for at least 8 hours post-exposure. We next determined that exposure to water maze training, an enriched environment, or a novel environment caused approximately equal suppression of zif268 expression in DCX+ cells and approximately equal activation of zif268 in the general DGC population and in 6-week-old adult-born neurons. Finally, we asked whether zif268 suppression varied as a function of age within the DCX+ population, which ranges in age from 0 to approximately 4 weeks. Novel environment exposure had no significant effect on zif268 expression in 2- or 4-week-old BrdU-labeled neurons, but it significantly suppressed zif268 expression in 3-week-old neurons. In summary, behavioral experience transiently activated expression of zif268 in mature DGCs but caused a more long-lasting suppression of zif268 expression in immature, adult-born DGCs. We hypothesize that zif268 suppression inhibits memory-related synaptic plasticity in immature DGCs or mediates learning-induced apoptosis of immature adult

  19. Analysis of carbohydrate storage granules in the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. PCC 7822

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welkie, David G. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Sherman, Debra M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Chrisler, William B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Orr, Galya [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sherman, Louis A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-10-19

    The unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria of the genus Cyanothece demonstrate oscillations in nitrogenase activity and H2 production when grown under 12h light-12h dark cycles. We established that Cyanothece sp. PCC 7822 allows for the construction of knock-out mutants and our objective was to improve the growth characteristics of this strain and to identify the nature of the intracellular storage granules. We report the physiological and morphological effects of reduction in nitrate and phosphate concentrations in BG-11 media on this strain. We developed a series of BG-11-derived growth media and monitored batch culture growth, nitrogenase activity and nitrogenase-mediated hydrogen production, culture synchronicity, and intracellular storage content. Reduction in NaNO3 and K2HPO4 concentrations from 17.6 and 0.23 mM to 4.41 and 0.06 mM, respectively, improved growth characteristics such as cell size and uniformity, and enhanced the rate of cell division. Cells grown in this low NP BG-11 were less complex, a parameter that related to the composition of the intracellular storage granules. Cells grown in low NP BG-11 had less polyphosphate, fewer polyhydroxybutyrate granules and many smaller granules became evident. Biochemical analysis and transmission electron microscopy using the histocytochemical PATO technique demonstrated that these small granules contained glycogen. The glycogen levels and the number of granules per cell correlated nicely with a 2.3 to 3.3-fold change from the minimum at L0 to the maximum at D0. The differences in granule morphology and enzymes between Cyanothece ATCC 51142 and Cyanothece PCC 7822 provide insights into the formation of large starch-like granules in some cyanobacteria.

  20. Acute ethanol exposure inhibits silencing of cerebellar Golgi cell firing induced by granule cell axon input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eBotta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Golgi cells (GoCs are specialized interneurons that provide inhibitory input to granule cells in the cerebellar cortex. GoCs are pacemaker neurons that spontaneously fire action potentials, triggering spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in granule cells and also contributing to the generation tonic GABAA receptor-mediated currents in granule cells. In turn, granule cell axons provide feedback glutamatergic input to GoCs. It has been shown that high frequency stimulation of granule cell axons induces a transient pause in GoC firing in a type 2-metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2-dependent manner. Here, we investigated the effect ethanol on the pause of GoC firing induced by high frequency stimulation of granule cell axons. GoC electrophysiological recordings were performed in parasagittal cerebellar vermis slices from postnatal day 23 to 26 rats. Loose-patch cell-attached recordings revealed that ethanol (40 mM reversibly decreases the pause duration. An antagonist of mGluR2 reduced the pause duration but did not affect the effect of ethanol. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings showed that currents evoked by an mGluR2 agonist were not significantly affected by ethanol. Perforated-patch experiments in which hyperpolarizing and depolarizing currents were injected into GoCs demonstrated that there is an inverse relationship between spontaneous firing and pause duration. Slight inhibition of the Na+/K+ pump mimicked the effect of ethanol on pause duration. In conclusion, ethanol reduces the granule cell axon-mediated feedback mechanism by reducing the input responsiveness of GoCs. This would result in a transient increase of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition of granule cells, limiting information flow at the input stage of the cerebellar cortex.

  1. 1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce W. Banfield

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, important linkages have been made between RNA granules and human disease processes. On June 8-10 of this year, we hosted a new symposium, dubbed the 1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection. This symposium brought together experts from diverse research disciplines ranging from cancer and neuroscience to infectious disease. This report summarizes speaker presentations and highlights current challenges in the field.

  2. Clinical observation of Qiming granule combined with Dextran and Hypromellose eye drops for dry eye

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Lan Wan; Ming-Chang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To observe the efficacy of Qiming granule combined with Dextran and Hypromellose eye drops in treatment of dry eye.METHODS: A randomized, parallel-control approach was adopted, 100 cases of dry eye patients were divided into treatment group and control group equally, observation on the treatment of 3 months. The treatment group was applied Dextran and Hypromellose eye drops combined with oral Qiming granule, simply Dextran and Hypromellose eye drops for control group. Before and after tr...

  3. Correlation tracking study for meter-class solar telescope on space shuttle. [solar granulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, R. C.; Tarbell, T. D.

    1977-01-01

    The theory and expected performance level of correlation trackers used to control the pointing of a solar telescope in space using white light granulation as a target were studied. Three specific trackers were modeled and their performance levels predicted for telescopes of various apertures. The performance of the computer model trackers on computer enhanced granulation photographs was evaluated. Parametric equations for predicting tracker performance are presented.

  4. Development of Sustained Release Capsules Containing “Coated Matrix Granules of Metoprolol Tartrate”

    OpenAIRE

    Siddique, Sabahuddin; Khanam, Jasmina; Bigoniya, Papiya

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to prepare sustained release capsule containing coated matrix granules of metoprolol tartrate and to study its in vitro release and in vivo absorption. The design of dosage form was performed by choosing hydrophilic hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K100M) and hydrophobic ethyl cellulose (EC) polymers as matrix builders and Eudragit® RL/RS as coating polymers. Granules were prepared by composing drug with HPMC K100M, EC, dicalcium phosphate by wet gr...

  5. Modelling of drying processes of pharmaceutical granules. Pharmaceutical Sciences for the Future of Medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, S.T.F.C.; Vedantam, S.; De Beer, T.

    Tablets are conventionally produced via consecutive batch process steps. Recent introduction of continuous process equipment is gaining industrial importance in pharmaceutics. Transition to continuous production requires improved understanding of all operations, necessitating the development...... of mechanistic models of multi‐phase systems which in the end allow process control. This contribution focuses on continuous fluidized bed drying of pharmaceutical wet granules. A stepwise approach is used in model development, starting with the drying behaviour of single granules. Experiments to determine...

  6. Preliminary observation on the effects of Huoxuelishuimingmu Granules in treating corneal edema after phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun-Ying Li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects of Huoxuelishuimingmu Granules on corneal edema after phacoemulsification.METHODS: Ninety cases with at least second degree corneal edema the first day after phacoemulsification were randomly divided into the routinely treated group and the Huoxuelishuimingmu Granules intervened group, 45 cases for each group. To the routinely treated group, Tobramycin and Dexamethasone Eye Drops, Compound Tropicamide Eye Drops and Recombinant Bovine Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Eye Drops were administered in turn during the treatment. While to the Huoxuelishuimingmu Granules intervened group, traditional Chinese medicines with the function of promoting blood circulation, alleviating water retention and removing nebula named Huoxuelishuimingmu Granules were additionally administered. The curative effects and the time taken for vanishment of corneal edema in each group were then observed. One week was counted as a course of treatment and curative effects were calculated after two courses.RESULTS: The Huoxuelishuimingmu Granules intervened group showed a much higher clinical cure rate and took quite shorter time for vanishment of corneal edema compared with the group treated with routine drugs(PP>0.05. CONCLUSION: Huoxuelishuimingmu Granules has a preferable clinical effect on corneal edema after phacoemulsification, shortening the duration of corneal edema and restoring the sight of patients in advance.

  7. Snapin mediates insulin secretory granule docking, but not trans-SNARE complex formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somanath, Sangeeta [Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 2AT (United Kingdom); Partridge, Christopher J. [Diabetes Research Laboratories, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Churchill Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7LJ (United Kingdom); Marshall, Catriona [Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 2AT (United Kingdom); Rowe, Tony [CSL Limited, 45 Poplar Road, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Turner, Mark D., E-mail: mark.turner@ntu.ac.uk [Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, NG11 8NS (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-29

    Secretory granule exocytosis is a tightly regulated process requiring granule targeting, tethering, priming, and membrane fusion. At the heart of this process is the SNARE complex, which drives fusion through a coiled-coil zippering effect mediated by the granule v-SNARE protein, VAMP2, and the plasma membrane t-SNAREs, SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1A. Here we demonstrate that in pancreatic β-cells the SNAP-25 accessory protein, snapin, C-terminal H2 domain binds SNAP-25 through its N-terminal Sn-1 domain. Interestingly whilst snapin binds SNAP-25, there is only modest binding of this complex with syntaxin-1A under resting conditions. Instead synataxin-1A appears to be recruited in response to secretory stimulation. These results indicate that snapin plays a role in tethering insulin granules to the plasma membrane through coiled coil interaction of snapin with SNAP-25, with full granule fusion competency only resulting after subsequent syntaxin-1A recruitment triggered by secretory stimulation. - Highlights: • Snapin mediates granule docking. • Snapin binds SNAP-25. • SNARE complex forms downstream.

  8. Characterization by X-ray tomography of granulated alumina powder during in situ die compaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrino, Sandrine; Jorand, Yves, E-mail: yves.jorand@insa-lyon.fr; Maire, Eric; Adrien, Jérôme

    2013-07-15

    Compaction process, the aim of which being to obtain green bodies with low porosity and small size, is often used before sintering treatment. Prior to die filling, the ceramic powder is generally granulated to improve flowability. However during compaction, density heterogeneity and critical size defects may appear due to intergranule and granule-die wall frictions. In this work, the influence of granule formulation on the compact morphology has been studied. To do so, a compaction setup was installed inside an X-ray tomography equipment so that the evolution of the compact morphology could be analysed during the whole compaction process. We have demonstrated that high humidity rate and the addition of binder in the granule formulation increase density heterogeneity and generate larger defects. - Highlights: • An original compaction set up was installed inside an X-Ray tomography equipment. • The compaction process of granulated ceramic powder is imaged. • The compact green microstructure is quantified and related to the compaction stages. • The most detrimental defects of dry-pressed parts are caused by hollow granules. • Formulations without binder allow a reduction of the number of large defects.

  9. Cardioprotective Effect of the Compound Yangshen Granule in Rat Models with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Ming

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of Compound Yangshen Granules was observed in myocardial infarction rat model. Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: the model group, the control group (sham operated, the positive drug group, and small, medium, and large dosage of the Yangshen granule groups, respectively. The rats in the 3 Yangshen granule groups were orally administrated with 0.7 g/kg, 1.4 g/kg, and 2.8 g/kg for 7 consecutive days, whereas the rats of the positive drug group treated with 0.14 g/kg of Danshen Dropping Pills, and rats in the control and model groups orally administrated with saline. The rat model of acute myocardial infarction was established with ligation of coronary artery. Electrocardiograms at different time points, the blood rheology, myocardial enzymes, infarct size, and myocardial morphologic changes were measured. The results demonstrated that the granules could improve blood rheology, decrease st-segment of electrocardiograms and the activities of LDH and CK in serum, reduce myocardial infarction size, and alleviate myocardial histopathologic changes. In addition, the effect of the granules depended on the dose administrated orally. The results suggest that the Yangshen granules could produce cardioprotection effect and have potential benefits in the prevention of ischemic heart disease.

  10. Toxic and inhibitory effects of trichloroethylene aerobic co-metabolism on phenol-grown aerobic granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, JooHwa

    2015-04-09

    Aerobic granule, a form of microbial aggregate, exhibits good potential in degrading toxic and recalcitrant substances. In this study, the inhibitory and toxic effects of trichloroethylene (TCE), a model compound for aerobic co-metabolism, on phenol-grown aerobic granules were systematically studied, using respiratory activities after exposure to TCE as indicators. High TCE concentration did not exert positive or negative effects on the subsequent endogenous respiration rate or phenol dependent specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR), indicating the absence of solvent stress and induction effect on phenol-hydroxylase. Phenol-grown aerobic granules exhibited a unique response to TCE transformation product toxicity, that small amount of TCE transformation enhanced the subsequent phenol SOUR. Granules that had transformed between 1.3 and 3.7 mg TCE gSS(-1) showed at most 53% increase in the subsequent phenol SOUR, and only when the transformation exceeded 6.6 mg TCE gSS(-1) did the SOUR dropped below that of the control. This enhancing effect was found to sustain throughout several phenol dosages, and TCE transformation below the toxicity threshold also lessened the granules' sensitivity to higher phenol concentration. The unique toxic effect was possibly caused by the granule's compact structure as a protection barrier against the diffusive transformation product(s) of TCE co-metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prompt triggering of edge localized modes through lithium granule injection on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, Robert; Sun, Z.; Hu, J. S.; Xu, W.; Zuo, G. Z.; Gong, X. Z.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.; Huang, M.; Maingi, R.; Diallo, A.; Tritz, K.; the EAST Team

    2017-10-01

    We report successful triggering of edge localized mode (ELMs) in EAST with Lithium (Li) micropellets, and the observed dependence of ELM triggering efficiency on granule size. ELM control is essential for successful ITER operation throughout the entire campaign, relying on magnetic perturbations for ELM suppression and ELM frequency enhancement via pellet injection. To separate the task of fueling from ELM pacing, we initiate the prompt generation of ELMs via impurity granule injection. Lithium granules ranging in size from 200 - 1000 microns are mechanically injected into upper-single null EAST long pulse H-mode discharges. The injections are monitored for their effect on high Z impurity accumulation and to assess the pressure perturbation required for reliable ELM triggering. We have determined that granules of diameter larger than 600 microns (corresponding to 5.2 x 1018 Li atoms) are successful at triggering ELMs more than 90% of the time. The triggering efficiency drops precipitously to less than 40% as the granule size is reduced to 400 microns (1.5 x 1018 Li atoms), indicating a triggering threshold has been crossed. Using this information an optimal impurity granule size which will regularly trigger a prompt ELM in these EAST discharges is determined. Coupling these results with alternate discharge scenarios on EAST and similar experiments performed on DIII-D provides the possibility of extrapolation to future devices.

  12. Snapin mediates insulin secretory granule docking, but not trans-SNARE complex formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somanath, Sangeeta; Partridge, Christopher J.; Marshall, Catriona; Rowe, Tony; Turner, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Secretory granule exocytosis is a tightly regulated process requiring granule targeting, tethering, priming, and membrane fusion. At the heart of this process is the SNARE complex, which drives fusion through a coiled-coil zippering effect mediated by the granule v-SNARE protein, VAMP2, and the plasma membrane t-SNAREs, SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1A. Here we demonstrate that in pancreatic β-cells the SNAP-25 accessory protein, snapin, C-terminal H2 domain binds SNAP-25 through its N-terminal Sn-1 domain. Interestingly whilst snapin binds SNAP-25, there is only modest binding of this complex with syntaxin-1A under resting conditions. Instead synataxin-1A appears to be recruited in response to secretory stimulation. These results indicate that snapin plays a role in tethering insulin granules to the plasma membrane through coiled coil interaction of snapin with SNAP-25, with full granule fusion competency only resulting after subsequent syntaxin-1A recruitment triggered by secretory stimulation. - Highlights: • Snapin mediates granule docking. • Snapin binds SNAP-25. • SNARE complex forms downstream.

  13. Partial nitrification using aerobic granules in continuous-flow reactor: rapid startup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chunli; Sun, Supu; Lee, Duu-Jong; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Li; Yang, Xue; Pan, Xiangliang

    2013-08-01

    This study applied a novel strategy to rapid startup of partial nitrification in continuous-flow reactor using aerobic granules. Mature aerobic granules were first cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor at high chemical oxygen demand in 16 days. The strains including the Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana strain were enriched in cultivated granules to enhance their structural stability. Then the cultivated granules were incubated in a continuous-flow reactor with influent chemical oxygen deamnad being stepped decreased from 1,500 ± 100 (0-19 days) to 750 ± 50 (20-30 days), and then to 350 ± 50 mg l(-1) (31-50 days); while in the final stage 350 mg l(-1) bicarbonate was also supplied. Using this strategy the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, Nitrosomonas europaea, was enriched in the incubated granules to achieve partial nitrification efficiency of 85-90% since 36 days and onwards. The partial nitrification granules were successfully harvested after 52 days, a period much shorter than those reported in literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aerobic granulation strategy for bioaugmentation of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating high strength pyridine wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Yan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Xin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Suzhou Institute of Architectural Design Co., Ltd, Suzhou 215021, Jiangsu Province (China); Jiang, Xinbai; Wu, Shijing [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Shen, Jinyou, E-mail: shenjinyou@mail.njust.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Lu, Lude [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Lianjun, E-mail: wanglj@mail.njust.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-09-15

    Abstract: Aerobic granules were successfully cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), using a single bacterial strain Rhizobium sp. NJUST18 as the inoculum. NJUST18 presented as both a good pyridine degrader and an efficient autoaggregator. Stable granules with diameter of 0.5–1 mm, sludge volume index of 25.6 ± 3.6 mL g{sup −1} and settling velocity of 37.2 ± 2.7 m h{sup −1}, were formed in SBR following 120-day cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent pyridine degradation performance, with maximum volumetric degradation rate (V{sub max}) varied between 1164.5 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1} and 1867.4 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1}. High-throughput sequencing analysis exhibited a large shift in microbial community structure, since the SBR was operated under open condition. Paracoccus and Comamonas were found to be the most predominant species in the aerobic granule system after the system had stabilized. The initially inoculated Rhizobium sp. lost its dominance during aerobic granulation. However, the inoculation of Rhizobium sp. played a key role in the start-up process of this bioaugmentation system. This study demonstrated that, in addition to the hydraulic selection pressure during settling and effluent discharge, the selection of aggregating bacterial inocula is equally important for the formation of the aerobic granule.

  15. Aerobic granulation strategy for bioaugmentation of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating high strength pyridine wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Xinbai; Wu, Shijing; Shen, Jinyou; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Lu, Lude; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Aerobic granules were successfully cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), using a single bacterial strain Rhizobium sp. NJUST18 as the inoculum. NJUST18 presented as both a good pyridine degrader and an efficient autoaggregator. Stable granules with diameter of 0.5–1 mm, sludge volume index of 25.6 ± 3.6 mL g −1 and settling velocity of 37.2 ± 2.7 m h −1 , were formed in SBR following 120-day cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent pyridine degradation performance, with maximum volumetric degradation rate (V max ) varied between 1164.5 mg L −1 h −1 and 1867.4 mg L −1 h −1 . High-throughput sequencing analysis exhibited a large shift in microbial community structure, since the SBR was operated under open condition. Paracoccus and Comamonas were found to be the most predominant species in the aerobic granule system after the system had stabilized. The initially inoculated Rhizobium sp. lost its dominance during aerobic granulation. However, the inoculation of Rhizobium sp. played a key role in the start-up process of this bioaugmentation system. This study demonstrated that, in addition to the hydraulic selection pressure during settling and effluent discharge, the selection of aggregating bacterial inocula is equally important for the formation of the aerobic granule

  16. Alkali-silica reactivity of expanded glass granules in structure of lightweight concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumanis, G; Bajare, D; Korjakins, A; Locs, J

    2013-01-01

    Main component in the lightweight concrete, which provides its properties, is aggregate. A lot of investigations on alkali silica reaction (ASR) between cement and lightweight aggregates have been done with their results published in the academic literature. Whereas expanded glass granules, which is relatively new product in the market of building materials, has not been a frequent research object. Therefore lightweight granules made from waste glass and eight types of cement with different chemical and mineralogical composition were examined in this research. Expanded glass granules used in this research is commercially available material produced by Penostek. Lightweight concrete mixtures were prepared by using commercial chemical additives to improve workability of concrete. The aim of the study is to identify effect of cement composition to the ASR reaction which occurs between expanded glass granules and binder. Expanded glass granules mechanical and physical properties were determined. In addition, properties of fresh and hardened concrete were determined. The ASR test was processed according to RILEM AAR-2 testing recommendation. Tests with scanning electron microscope and microstructural investigations were performed for expanded glass granules and hardened concrete specimens before and after exposing them in alkali solution

  17. Background noise levels in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Gjestland, Truls

    2008-01-01

    - This report gives a brief overview of typical background noise levels in Europe, and suggests a procedure for the prediction of background noise levels based on population density. A proposal for the production of background noise maps for Europe is included.

  18. Zebrafish P54 RNA helicases are cytoplasmic granule residents that are required for development and stress resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Zampedri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress granules are cytoplasmic foci that directly respond to the protein synthesis status of the cell. Various environmental insults, such as oxidative stress or extreme heat, block protein synthesis; consequently, mRNA will stall in translation, and stress granules will immediately form and become enriched with mRNAs. P54 DEAD box RNA helicases are components of RNA granules such as P-bodies and stress granules. We studied the expression, in cytoplasmic foci, of both zebrafish P54 RNA helicases (P54a and P54b during development and found that they are expressed in cytoplasmic granules under both normal conditions and stress conditions. In zebrafish embryos exposed to heat shock, some proportion of P54a and P54b helicases move to larger granules that exhibit the properties of genuine stress granules. Knockdown of P54a and/or P54b in zebrafish embryos produces developmental abnormalities restricted to the posterior trunk; further, these embryos do not form stress granules, and their survival upon exposure to heat-shock conditions is compromised. Our observations fit the model that cells lacking stress granules have no resilience or ability to recover once the stress has ended, indicating that stress granules play an essential role in the way organisms adapt to a changing environment.

  19. The importance of binder moisture content in Metformin HCL high-dose formulations prepared by moist aqueous granulation (MAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Takasaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate binders to improve the flowability of granulates and compactibility of Metformin HCL (Met using the moist aqueous granulation (MAG process. The effect of the binder moisture content on granulate and tablet quality was also evaluated. Vinylpyrrolidone–vinyl acetate copolymer (Kollidon VA64 fine: VA64, polyvidone (Povidone K12: PVP, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC SSL SF: HPC and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Methocel E5 LV: HPMC were evaluated as binders. These granulates, except for HPMC, had a lower yield pressure than Met active pharmaceutical ingredient (API. HPMC Met was not sufficiently granulated with low water volume. No problems were observed with the VA64 Met granulates during the tableting process. However, HPC Met granulates had a bowl-forming tendency, and PVP Met granulates had the tendency to stick during the tableting process. These bowl-forming and sticking tendencies may have been due to the low moisture absorbency of HPC and the high volume of bound water of PVP, respectively. VA64 Met granulates had the highest ambient moisture content (bulk water, bound water and moisture absorbency. It was concluded that the type of binder used for the Met MAG process has an impact on granulate flow and compactibility, as well as moisture absorbency and maintenance of moisture balance.

  20. Aspergillus oryzae AoSO is a novel component of stress granules upon heat stress in filamentous fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Ting Huang

    Full Text Available Stress granules are a type of cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP granule formed in response to the inhibition of translation initiation, which typically occurs when cells are exposed to stress. Stress granules are conserved in eukaryotes; however, in filamentous fungi, including Aspergillus oryzae, stress granules have not yet been defined. For this reason, here we investigated the formation and localization of stress granules in A. oryzae cells exposed to various stresses using an EGFP fusion protein of AoPab1, a homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pab1p, as a stress granule marker. Localization analysis showed that AoPab1 was evenly distributed throughout the cytoplasm under normal growth conditions, and accumulated as cytoplasmic foci mainly at the hyphal tip in response to stress. AoSO, a homolog of Neurospora crassa SO, which is necessary for hyphal fusion, colocalized with stress granules in cells exposed to heat stress. The formation of cytoplasmic foci of AoSO was blocked by treatment with cycloheximide, a known inhibitor of stress granule formation. Deletion of the Aoso gene had effects on the formation and localization of stress granules in response to heat stress. Our results suggest that AoSO is a novel component of stress granules specific to filamentous fungi. The authors would specially like to thank Hiroyuki Nakano and Kei Saeki for generously providing experimental and insightful opinions.

  1. Reducing the startup time of aerobic granular sludge reactors through seeding floccular sludge with crushed aerobic granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijuan, Maite; Werner, Ursula; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2011-10-15

    One of the main challenging issues for the aerobic granular sludge technology is the long startup time when dealing with real wastewaters. This study presents a novel strategy to reduce the time required for granulation while ensuring a high level of nutrient removal. This new approach consists of seeding the reactor with a mixture of crushed aerobic granules and floccular sludge. The effectiveness of the strategy was demonstrated using abattoir wastewater, containing nitrogen and phosphorus at approximately 250 mgN/L and 30 mgP/L, respectively. Seven different mixtures of crushed granules and floccular sludge at granular sludge fractions (w/w in dry mass) of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 25%, 30% and 50% were used to start eight granulation processes. The granulation time (defined as the time when the 10th percentile bacterial aggregate size is larger than 200 μm) displayed a strong dependency on the fraction of granular sludge. The shortest granulation time of 18 days was obtained with 50% crushed granules, in comparison with 133 days with 5% crushed granules. Full granulation was not achieved in the two trials without seeding with crushed granules. In contrast to the 100% floccular sludge cases, where a substantial loss of biomass occurred during granulation, the biomass concentration in all other trails did not decrease during granulation. This allowed that good nitrogen removal was maintained in all the reactors during the granulation process. However, enhanced biological phosphorus removal was achieved in only one of the eight trials. This was likely due to the temporary accumulation of nitrite, a strong inhibitor of polyphosphate accumulating organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Two randomized controlled studies comparing the nutritional benefits of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) granules and a BCAA-enriched nutrient mixture for patients with esophageal varices after endoscopic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Iwata, Yoshinori; Enomoto, Hirayuki; Saito, Masaki; Yoh, Kazunori; Ishii, Akio; Takashima, Tomoyuki; Aizawa, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Naoto; Tanaka, Hironori; Iijima, Hiroko; Nishiguchi, Shuhei

    2014-01-01

    Background The usefulness of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) granules and BCAA-enriched nutrient mixtures for patients with liver cirrhosis is often reported. However, no randomized controlled studies have investigated the usefulness of these supplements in the nutritional intervention of cirrhotic patients receiving endoscopic treatment for esophageal varices. Methods Patients without BCAA before endoscopic treatment were divided into study 1, and those who received BCAA were divided into s...

  3. Phenotypic properties and microbial diversity of methanogenic granules from a full-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor treating brewery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Emiliano E; Stams, Alfons J M; Amils, Ricardo; Sanz, José L

    2006-07-01

    Methanogenic granules from an anaerobic bioreactor that treated wastewater of a beer brewery consisted of different morphological types of granules. In this study, the microbial compositions of the different granules were analyzed by molecular microbiological techniques: cloning, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We propose here that the different types of granules reflect the different stages in the life cycle of granules. Young granules were small, black, and compact and harbored active cells. Gray granules were the most abundant granules. These granules have a multilayer structure with channels and void areas. The core was composed of dead or starving cells with low activity. The brown granules, which were the largest granules, showed a loose and amorphous structure with big channels that resulted in fractured zones and corresponded to the older granules. Firmicutes (as determined by FISH) and Nitrospira and Deferribacteres (as determined by cloning and sequencing) were the predominant Bacteria. Remarkably, Firmicutes could not be detected in the brown granules. The methanogenic Archaea identified were Methanosaeta concilii (70 to 90% by FISH and cloning), Methanosarcina mazei, and Methanospirillum spp. The phenotypic appearance of the granules reflected the physiological condition of the granules. This may be valuable to easily select appropriate seed sludges to start up other reactors.

  4. Morphometry of Hilar Ectopic Granule Cells in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Joseph P.; McCloskey, Daniel P.; Scharfman, Helen E.

    2014-01-01

    Granule cell (GC) neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) does not always proceed normally. After severe seizures (e.g., status epilepticus [SE]) and some other conditions, newborn GCs appear in the hilus. Hilar ectopic GCs (EGCs) can potentially provide insight into the effects of abnormal location and seizures on GC development. Additionally, hilar EGCs that develop after SE may contribute to epileptogenesis and cognitive impairments that follow SE. Thus, it is critical to understand how EGCs differ from normal GCs. Relatively little morphometric information is available on EGCs, especially those restricted to the hilus. This study quantitatively analyzed the structural morphology of hilar EGCs from adult male rats several months after pilocarpineinduced SE, when they are considered to have chronic epilepsy. Hilar EGCs were physiologically identified in slices, intracellularly labeled, processed for light microscopic reconstruction, and compared to GC layer GCs, from both the same post-SE tissue and the NeuroMorpho database (normal GCs). Consistently, hilar EGC and GC layer GCs had similar dendritic lengths and field sizes, and identifiable apical dendrites. However, hilar EGC dendrites were topologically more complex, with more branch points and tortuous dendritic paths. Three-dimensional analysis revealed that, remarkably, hilar EGC dendrites often extended along the longitudinal DG axis, suggesting increased capacity for septotemporal integration. Axonal reconstruction demonstrated that hilar EGCs contributed to mossy fiber sprouting. This combination of preserved and aberrant morphological features, potentially supporting convergent afferent input to EGCs and broad, divergent efferent output, could help explain why the hilar EGC population could impair DG function. PMID:21344409

  5. Effect of granulation of geological samples in neutron transport measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woznicka, Urszula; Drozdowicz, Krzysztof; Gabanska, Barbara; Krynicka, Ewa; Igielski, Andrzej

    2001-01-01

    The thermal neutron absorption cross section is one of the parameters describing the transport of thermal neutrons in a medium. Theoretical descriptions and experiments which determine the absorption cross section have a wide literature for homogeneous media. The situation comes true e.g. for fluids or amorphous solids. There are many other media which should be treated as heterogeneous. Among others - geological materials. The material heterogeneity for the thermal neutron transport in a considered volume is understood here as an existence of many small regions which differ significantly in their macroscopic neutron diffusion parameters (defined by the absorption and transport cross sections). The final difference, which influences the neutron transport, comes from a combination of the absolute differences between the parameters and of sizes of regions (related to the neutron mean free paths). A rock can be naturally heterogeneous in the above meaning. Besides, it can happen that a preparation of the rock sample for a neutron measurement can increase its natural heterogeneity. (For example, when the rock material is crushed and the measured sample consists of the obtained grains). The question is which granulation is allowed to treat the sample material as still homogeneous, and from which size of the rock grains we have to consider a two-component medium. It has been experimentally proved that the effective absorption of thermal neutrons in a heterogeneous two-component material can significantly differ from the absorption in a homogeneous one which consists of the same elements. The final effect is dependent on a few factors: the macroscopic absorption cross sections of the components, their total mass contributions, and the size of the grains. The ratio of the effective absorption cross section of the heterogeneous material to the cross section of the equivalent homogeneous, is a measure of the heterogeneity effect on the thermal neutron absorption

  6. Spatio-temporal Dynamics and Mechanisms of Stress Granule Assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ohshima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress granules (SGs are non-membranous cytoplasmic aggregates of mRNAs and related proteins, assembled in response to environmental stresses such as heat shock, hypoxia, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, chemicals (e.g. arsenite, and viral infections. SGs are hypothesized as a loci of mRNA triage and/or maintenance of proper translation capacity ratio to the pool of mRNAs. In brain ischemia, hippocampal CA3 neurons, which are resilient to ischemia, assemble SGs. In contrast, CA1 neurons, which are vulnerable to ischemia, do not assemble SGs. These results suggest a critical role SG plays in regards to cell fate decisions. Thus SG assembly along with its dynamics should determine the cell fate. However, the process that exactly determines the SG assembly dynamics is largely unknown. In this paper, analyses of experimental data and computer simulations were used to approach this problem. SGs were assembled as a result of applying arsenite to HeLa cells. The number of SGs increased after a short latent period, reached a maximum, then decreased during the application of arsenite. At the same time, the size of SGs grew larger and became localized at the perinuclear region. A minimal mathematical model was constructed, and stochastic simulations were run to test the modeling. Since SGs are discrete entities as there are only several tens of them in a cell, commonly used deterministic simulations could not be employed. The stochastic simulations replicated observed dynamics of SG assembly. In addition, these stochastic simulations predicted a gamma distribution relative to the size of SGs. This same distribution was also found in our experimental data suggesting the existence of multiple fusion steps in the SG assembly. Furthermore, we found that the initial steps in the SG assembly process and microtubules were critical to the dynamics. Thus our experiments and stochastic simulations presented a possible mechanism regulating SG assembly.

  7. Backgrounder

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Center for Mountain Ecosystem Studies, Kunming Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China: $1,526,000 to inform effective water governance in the Asian highlands of China, Nepal, and Pakistan. • Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), India: $1,499,300 for research on ...

  8. BACKGROUNDER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    demographic trends, socio-economic development pathways, and strong ... knowledge and experience, and encourage innovation. ... choices, and will work with stakeholders in government, business, civil society, and regional economic.

  9. Backgrounder

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Safe and Inclusive Cities: ... improving urban environments and public spaces might have on reducing the city's high ... violence against women among urban youth of working class neighbourhoods of Islamabad, Rawalpindi, and Karachi,.

  10. BACKGROUNDER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    CARIAA's research agenda addresses gaps and priorities highlighted in the ... Research focuses on climate risk, institutional and regulatory frameworks, markets, and ... The researchers will identify relevant drivers and trends and use develop ...

  11. BACKGROUNDER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    achieving long‐term food security in Africa, with a focus on post‐harvest loss, ... nutrion and health, and the socio‐economic factors that affect food supply ... Water use. Agricultural producvity in sub‐Saharan Africa is the lowest in the world.

  12. PROTEIN TARGETING TO STARCH is required for localising GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE to starch granules and for normal amylose synthesis in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Seung

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The domestication of starch crops underpinned the development of human civilisation, yet we still do not fully understand how plants make starch. Starch is composed of glucose polymers that are branched (amylopectin or linear (amylose. The amount of amylose strongly influences the physico-chemical behaviour of starchy foods during cooking and of starch mixtures in non-food manufacturing processes. The GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE (GBSS is the glucosyltransferase specifically responsible for elongating amylose polymers and was the only protein known to be required for its biosynthesis. Here, we demonstrate that PROTEIN TARGETING TO STARCH (PTST is also specifically required for amylose synthesis in Arabidopsis. PTST is a plastidial protein possessing an N-terminal coiled coil domain and a C-terminal carbohydrate binding module (CBM. We discovered that Arabidopsis ptst mutants synthesise amylose-free starch and are phenotypically similar to mutants lacking GBSS. Analysis of granule-bound proteins showed a dramatic reduction of GBSS protein in ptst mutant starch granules. Pull-down assays with recombinant proteins in vitro, as well as immunoprecipitation assays in planta, revealed that GBSS physically interacts with PTST via a coiled coil. Furthermore, we show that the CBM domain of PTST, which mediates its interaction with starch granules, is also required for correct GBSS localisation. Fluorescently tagged Arabidopsis GBSS, expressed either in tobacco or Arabidopsis leaves, required the presence of Arabidopsis PTST to localise to starch granules. Mutation of the CBM of PTST caused GBSS to remain in the plastid stroma. PTST fulfils a previously unknown function in targeting GBSS to starch. This sheds new light on the importance of targeting biosynthetic enzymes to sub-cellular sites where their action is required. Importantly, PTST represents a promising new gene target for the biotechnological modification of starch composition, as it is

  13. Conditional induction of Math1 specifies embryonic stem cells to cerebellar granule neuron lineage and promotes differentiation into mature granule neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rupali; Kumar, Manoj; Peineau, Stéphane; Csaba, Zsolt; Mani, Shyamala; Gressens, Pierre; El Ghouzzi, Vincent

    2013-04-01

    Directing differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to specific neuronal subtype is critical for modeling disease pathology in vitro. An attractive means of action would be to combine regulatory differentiation factors and extrinsic inductive signals added to the culture medium. In this study, we have generated mature cerebellar granule neurons by combining a temporally controlled transient expression of Math1, a master gene in granule neuron differentiation, with inductive extrinsic factors involved in cerebellar development. Using a Tetracyclin-On transactivation system, we overexpressed Math1 at various stages of ESCs differentiation and found that the yield of progenitors was considerably increased when Math1 was induced during embryonic body stage. Math1 triggered expression of Mbh1 and Mbh2, two target genes directly involved in granule neuron precursor formation and strong expression of early cerebellar territory markers En1 and NeuroD1. Three weeks after induction, we observed a decrease in the number of glial cells and an increase in that of neurons albeit still immature. Combining Math1 induction with extrinsic factors specifically increased the number of neurons that expressed Pde1c, Zic1, and GABAα6R characteristic of mature granule neurons, formed "T-shaped" axons typical of granule neurons, and generated synaptic contacts and action potentials in vitro. Finally, in vivo implantation of Math1-induced progenitors into young adult mice resulted in cell migration and settling of newly generated neurons in the cerebellum. These results show that conditional induction of Math1 drives ESCs toward the cerebellar fate and indicate that acting on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors is a powerful means to modulate ESCs differentiation and maturation into a specific neuronal lineage. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  14. Effect of Granule Size on Diametric Tolerance of Annular Fuel Pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Dong Joo; Kim, Jong Hun; Yang, Jae Ho; Kim, Keon Sik; Kang, Ki Won; Song, Kun Woo

    2008-01-01

    A dual cooled annular fuel has been seriously considered as a favorable option for an extended power uprate of a Pressurized Water Reactor fuel assembly. An annular fuel shows a lot of advantages from the point of a fuel safety and its economy due to its unique configurational merit such as an increased heat transfer area and a thin pellet thickness. From the viewpoint of the fuel pellet fabrication, however, the unique shape of annular fuel pellet causes challenging difficulties to satisfy a diametric tolerance. A sintered cylindrical PWR fuel pellet fabricated by a conventional double-acting press has an hour-glass shape due to an inhomogeneous green density distribution in a powder compact. Thus, a sintered pellet usually undergoes a centerless grinding process in order to secure diametric tolerance specifications. In the case of an annular pellet fabrication using a conventional double-acting press, the same hour-glass shape would probably occur. An inhomogeneous green density distribution in a powder compact is attributed to granule-granule frictions and granule to pressing mold wall frictions. Frictions result in an irregular pressing load distribution in a powder compact. In order to mitigate the frictions, a lot of process variables should be considered such as pre-compaction pressure, lubricant content, granule size and compaction pressure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of a granule size on the amount of deformation after sintering, in other words, the amount of an hour-glassing. The granules with classified size ranges were made to green annular pellets with the same height and diameters. The hour-glassing amounts of the sintered annular pellets were measured and compared with that of the annular pellet made by unclassified granule

  15. Morphological Characterization of Photosynthetic Microbial Granule from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najib, M.Z.M.

    2013-01-01

    Presently, global warming is the most highlighted subjects in the environmental issues which relates closely to greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assigns only methane (CH 4 ) emissions to wastewater treatment rather than GHG emissions specifically carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) gas from the aerobic treatment processes. Focusing on the palm oil industry in Malaysia, the most commonly used treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) which is the conventional pounding system, has caused excessive generation of GHG such as CH 4 and CO 2 gases. To develop a novel, innovative and environmental-friendly mitigation method, this study explores into the possibility of growing the photosynthetic bacteria in the form of granules via the aerobic granulation process with potential applications in reducing CO 2 gases. The cultivation of photosynthetic microbial granules was investigated using POME as the substrate in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system via the sequencing cycle of feeding, reacting, settling and decanting. Evidence of the formation of granule was based on microscopic examination of the morphological changes during the development of the granule in the SBR system over a period of 90 days. It shows changes from dispersed loose structure of the sludge merging into small flocs of irregular shapes and finally into dense and compact granular form. The granule was formed by applying an organic loading rate (OLR) at 2.75 kg COD/ m 3 .day, hydraulic retention time (HRT) at 4 h and superficial air velocity of 2.07 cm/ s. The biomass concentration began to decreased first (initial sludge biomass = 16750 mg/ L) and then increased steadily to a constant value of 32000 mg/ L after 90 days. Besides, the results also demonstrated a good accumulation of biomass as the settleability between raw sludge and granule increased from 0.03 cm/ s to 0.94 cm/ s. The maximum settling velocity obtained in the reactor was approximately 2

  16. Biofunctionalization of Titanium Granules with Simvastatin for Improving Osteogenic Activity and Antibacterial Properties (Ex Vivo Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaji, Zahra Gorgin; Houshmand, Behzad; Abbasi, Shahsanam; Shafiei, Sara; Faghihi, Shahab

    Titanium-based biomaterials present good biocompatibility, while their osseointegration and antibacterial properties need to be improved. This study aimed to enhance the bone-bonding ability of titanium-based granules, which are intended to be used as bone graft. The titanium granules were anodized in ethylene glycol-based electrolyte and subsequently annealed to be loaded separately with simvastatin. The samples were then inspected with attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) for drug loading. The release of simvastatin from titanium granule samples was measured after soaking samples in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 30 days using ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of MG63 osteosarcoma-loaded samples was measured, and microbroth dilution assay was performed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of drug-loaded and nonloaded titanium granule samples for bacterial growth. The results expressed the gradual and constant release of simvastatin within the duration of the examination. ALP of the samples showed improved activity of anodized and annealed granules, while the antibacterial test illustrated no significant improvement in their bactericidal effects. However, the simvastatin-loaded samples showed an improved antibacterial effect compared with nonloaded samples. It is assumed that anodizing, annealing, and subsequent simvastatin loading of titanium granules could be used as surface modification to improve osseointegration and restrain bacterial growth and adhesion. It is fair to believe that the results of this study could be used to treat titanium granules as bone graft substitute materials for dental and orthopedic applications.

  17. Upgrading of automobile shredder residue via innovative granulation process 'ReGran'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthaus, Philip; Kappes, Moritz; Krumm, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Stricter regulatory requirements concerning end-of-life vehicles and rising disposal costs necessitate new ways for automobile shredder residue utilisation. The shredder granulate and fibres, produced by the VW-SICON-Process, have a high energy content of more than 20 MJ kg -1 , which makes energy recovery an interesting possibility. Shredder fibres have a low bulk density of 60 kg m -3 , which prevents efficient storing and utilisation as a refuse-derived fuel. By mixing fibres with plastic-rich shredder granulate and heating the mixture, defined granules can be produced. With this 'ReGran' process, the bulk density can be enhanced by a factor of seven by embedding shredder fibres in the partially melted plastic mass. A minimum of 26-33 wt% granulate is necessary to create enough melted plastic. The process temperature should be between 240 °C and 250 °C to assure fast melting while preventing extensive outgassing. A rotational frequency of the mixing tool of 1000 r min -1 during heating and mixing ensures a homogenous composition of the granules. During cooling, lower rotational frequencies generate bigger granules with particles sizes of up to 60 mm at 300 r min -1 . To keep outgassing to a minimum, it is suggested to melt shredder granulate first and then add shredder fibres. Adding coal, wood or tyre fluff as a third component reduces chlorine levels to less than 1 wt%. The best results can be achieved with tyre fluff. In combination with the VW-SICON-Process, ReGran produces a solid recovered fuel or 'design fuel' tailored to the requirements of specific thermal processes.

  18. HPLC-DAD-ELSD Combined Pharmacodynamics and Serum Medicinal Chemistry for Quality Assessment of Huangqi Granule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaguo Chen

    Full Text Available To more scientifically and reasonably control the quality of Huangqi Granules, preliminary studies on the pharmacodynamics and serum pharmacochemistry of this medicine were performed. DPPH and MTT experiments showed that water extracts of Huangqi Granules had good antioxidant activity and increased immunity. Timed blood samples collected 5 min, 15 min, and 30 min after oral administration of a set amount of Huangqi Granules were collected and tested using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. As a result, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, ononin, calycosin, astragaloside IV, and formononetin were found to exist in rat blood after dosing, indicating that the five chemical compounds might have pharmacological activity, and based on this result, they were designated biomarkers for quality control of Huangqi Granules. Consequently, a simple, rapid and efficient method was developed in the present study for the simultaneous determination of the five characteristic compounds in Huangqi Granules using HPLC-DAD-ELSD.The separation was performed using an Agilent Hypersil ODS column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm at 30 ℃. The mobile phase was composed of water (solvent A and acetonitrile (solvent B with a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The drift tube temperature of the ELSD system was set to 85 ℃, and the nitrogen pressure was 3.5 bar.All five characteristic compounds had good linear behavior with r2 values greater than 0.9972. The recoveries varied from 96.31% to 101.22%. Subsequently, the developed method was applied to evaluate the quality of Huangqi Granules from different batches, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA was used to analyze the classification of the samples based on the values of the five compounds.The established HPLC method combined with HCA proved to be effective to evaluate the quality of Huangqi Granules.

  19. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alfredo; Crittenden, Elizabeth L; García, Dana M

    2004-07-13

    In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl) carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion.

  20. Model-based analysis of a twin-screw wet granulation system for continuous solid dosage manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashish; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Mortier, Severine T. F. C.

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of twin-screw granulation in a continuous from-powder-to-tablet manufacturing line requires process knowledge development. This is often pursued by application of mechanistic models incorporating the underlying mechanisms. In this study, granulation mechanisms considered to be domi......Implementation of twin-screw granulation in a continuous from-powder-to-tablet manufacturing line requires process knowledge development. This is often pursued by application of mechanistic models incorporating the underlying mechanisms. In this study, granulation mechanisms considered...... to be dominant in the kneading element regions of the granulator i.e., aggregation and breakage, were included in a one-dimensional population balance model. The model was calibrated using the experimentally determined inflow granule size distribution, and the mean residence time was used as additional input...

  1. Anatomic relationship between arachnoid granulations in the transverse sinus and the termination of the vein of Labbe: an angiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gailloud, P.; Muster, M.; Khaw, N.; Martin, J.B.; Murphy, K.J.; Ruefenacht, D.A.; Fasel, J.H.D.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the anatomic relationship between arachnoid granulations in the transverse sinus and the termination of the vein of Labbe in 57 consecutive angiograms. Patients with pathology in intracranial venous structures or with inadequate image quality of the venous system were excluded. Arachnoid granulations were found in 12 of the 57 patients (21.1 %), always at the junction of the vein of Labbe and the transverse sinus; the vein of Labbe was present in 55 patients (96.5 %), most often without associated arachnoid granulations; the latter, however, were not observed in the absence of a vein of Labbe. This study confirms the close, constant anatomic relationship between arachnoid granulations in the transverse sinus and the termination of the vein of Labbe. This observation may help to differentiate arachnoid granulations from pathologic conditions involving the transverse sinus such as dural sinus thrombosis. The constant character of this relationship suggests a developmental role of afferent veins in the formation of arachnoid granulations. (orig.)

  2. The CXC chemokine cCAF stimulates precocious deposition of ECM molecules by wound fibroblasts, accelerating development of granulation tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qi-Jing

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During wound repair, fibroblasts orchestrate replacement of the provisional matrix formed during clotting with tenascin, cellular fibronectin and collagen III. These, in turn, are critical for migration of endothelial cells, keratinocytes and additional fibroblasts into the wound site. Fibroblasts are also important in the deposition of collagen I during scar formation. The CXC chemokine chicken Chemotactic and Angiogenic Factor (cCAF, is highly expressed by fibroblasts after wounding and during development of the granulation tissue, especially in areas where extracellular matrix (ECM is abundant. We hypothesized that cCAF stimulates fibroblasts to produce these matrix molecules. Results Here we show that this chemokine can stimulate precocious deposition of tenascin, fibronectin and collagen I, but not collagen III. Studies in culture and in vivo show that tenascin stimulation can also be achieved by the N-terminal 15 aas of the protein and occurs at the level of gene expression. In contrast, stimulation of fibronectin and collagen I both require the entire molecule and do not involve changes in gene expression. Fibronectin accumulation appears to be linked to tenascin production, and collagen I to decreased MMP-1 levels. In addition, cCAF is chemotactic for fibroblasts and accelerates their migration. Conclusions These previously unknown functions for chemokines suggest that cCAF, the chicken orthologue of human IL-8, enhances healing by rapidly chemoattracting fibroblasts into the wound site and stimulating them to produce ECM molecules, leading to precocious development of granulation tissue. This acceleration of the repair process may have important application to healing of impaired wounds.

  3. Competition from newborn granule cells does not drive axonal retraction of silenced old granule cells in the adult hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M Lopez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the developing nervous system synaptic refinement, typified by the neuromuscular junction where supernumerary connections are eliminated by axon retraction leaving the postsynaptic target innervated by a single dominant input, critically regulates neuronal circuit formation. Whether such competition based pruning continues in established circuits of mature animals remains unknown. This question is particularly relevant in the context of adult neurogenesis where newborn cells must integrate into preexisting circuits, and thus, potentially compete with functionally mature synapses to gain access to their postsynaptic targets. The hippocampus plays an important role in memory formation/retrieval and the dentate gyrus subfield (DG exhibits continued neurogenesis into adulthood. Therefore, this region contains both mature granule cells (old GCs and immature recently born GCs that are generated throughout adult life (young GCs, providing a neurogenic niche model to examine the role of competition in synaptic refinement. Recent work from an independent group in developing animals indicated that embryonically/early postnatal generated GCs placed at a competitive disadvantage by selective expression of tetanus toxin (TeTX to prevent synaptic release rapidly retracted their axons, and that this retraction was driven by competition from newborn GCs lacking TeTX. In contrast, following 3-6 months of selective TeTX expression in old GCs of adult mice we did not observe any evidence of axon retraction. Indeed ultrastructural analyses indicated that the terminals of silenced GCs even maintained synaptic contact with their postsynaptic targets. Furthermore, we did not detect any significant differences in the electrophysiological properties between old GCs in control and TeTX conditions. Thus, our data demonstrate a remarkable stability in the face of a relatively prolonged period of altered synaptic competition between two populations of neurons within the

  4. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  5. Background current of radioisotope manometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vydrik, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The technique for calculating the main component of the background current of radioisotopic monometers, current from direct collision of ionizing particles and a collector, is described. The reasons for appearance of background photoelectron current are clarified. The most effective way of eliminating background current components is collector protection from the source by a screen made of material with a high gamma-quanta absorption coefficient, such as lead, for example

  6. Background subtraction theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Elgammal, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background subtraction is a widely used concept for detection of moving objects in videos. In the last two decades there has been a lot of development in designing algorithms for background subtraction, as well as wide use of these algorithms in various important applications, such as visual surveillance, sports video analysis, motion capture, etc. Various statistical approaches have been proposed to model scene backgrounds. The concept of background subtraction also has been extended to detect objects from videos captured from moving cameras. This book reviews the concept and practice of back

  7. Review of the enigmatic Eocene shark genus Xiphodolamia (Chondrichthyes, Lamniformes) and description of a new species recovered from Angola, Iran and Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnet, S.; Hosseinzadeh, R.; Antunes, M. T.; Balbino, A. C.; Kozlov, V. A.; Cappetta, H.

    2009-10-01

    Little is known about the extinct Xiphodolamia, a peculiar lamnid shark which inhabited the Eocene seas. The reexamination of a large set of fossilized teeth specimens from the Ypresian of Kazakhstan has enabled the reconstitution of the tooth series of this enigmatic taxa of lamnid shark. Five distinct tooth morphologies seem to occur in X. ensis Leidy [Leidy, J., 1877. Description of vertebrate remains, chiefly from the phosphate beds of South Carolina. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 8, 209-261] species revealing a weak ontogenetic variation. Such specific variation in tooth shape means that the other described species may be their junior synonyms. Dental morphology perfectly conforms with a Lamniforme but does not prove the current attribution to the Lamnidae family due to some inconsistent dental features observed, such as the presence of symphysial teeth. This genus could be regarded as an old lineage branched from the stem group of Lamnidae, close to the Isuroids sharks. Several Xiphodolamia teeth, originating both from old collections and new acquisitions, are reported and illustrated in order to provide information about a new species described here: Xiphodolamia serrata nov. sp. This species, currently limited to deposits in Angola, Jordan and Iran and dated at the Late Eocene, is easily distinguishable from the Early-Middle Eocene material belonging to the genus by the presence of serrated cutting edges. Adding to the type species considered here as the only valid taxa during the Early-Middle Eocene period, the temporal range of this genus extends to the Late Eocene, thus setting its upper stratigraphic limit prior to its disappearance as enigmatic as its appearance in the Early Eocene was.

  8. Denitrifying capability and community dynamics of glycogen accumulating organisms during sludge granulation in an anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Zhang; Bin, Xue; Zhigang, Qiu; Zhiqiang, Chen; Junwen, Li; Taishi, Gong; Wenci, Zou; Jingfeng, Wang

    2015-08-01

    Denitrifying capability of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) has received great attention in environmental science and microbial ecology. Combining this ability with granule processes would be an interesting attempt. Here, a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated to enrich GAOs and enable sludge granulation. The results showed that the GAO granules were cultivated successfully and the granules had denitrifying capability. The batch experiments demonstrated that all NO3--N could be removed or reduced, some amount of NO2--N were accumulated in the reactor, and N2 was the main gaseous product. SEM analysis suggested that the granules were tightly packed with a large amount of tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs); filamentous bacteria served as the supporting structures for the granules. The microbial community structure of GAO granules was differed substantially from the inoculant conventional activated sludge. Most of the bacteria in the seed sludge grouped with members of Proteobacterium. FISH analysis confirmed that GAOs were the predominant members in the granules and were distributed evenly throughout the granular space. In contrast, PAOs were severely inhibited. Overall, cultivation of the GAO granules and utilizing their denitrifying capability can provide us with a new approach of nitrogen removal and saving more energy.

  9. Biochemical and microscopic evidence for the internalization and degradation of heparin-containing mast cell granules by bovine endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, F.M.; Friedman, M.M.; Metcalfe, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    Incubation of [ 35 S]heparin-containing mast cell granules with cultured bovine endothelial cells was followed by the appearance of 35 S-granule-associated radioactivity within the endothelial cells and a decrease in radioactivity in the extracellular fluid. These changes occurred during the first 24 hours of incubation and suggested ingestion of the mast cell granules by the endothelial cells. Periodic electron microscopic examination of the monolayers confirmed this hypothesis by demonstrating apposition of the granules to the plasmalemma of endothelial cells, which was followed by the engulfment of the granules by cytoplasmic projections. Under light microscopic examination, mast cell granules within endothelial cells then appeared to undergo degradation. The degradation of [ 35 S]heparin in mast cell granules was demonstrated by a decrease in the amount of intracellular [ 35 S]heparin proteoglycan after 24 hours and the appearance of free [ 35 S]sulfate in the extracellular compartment. Intact endothelial cells were more efficient at degrading [ 35 S]heparin than were cell lysates or cell supernatants. These data provide evidence of the ability of endothelial cells to ingest mast cell granules and degrade native heparin that is presented as a part of the mast cell granule

  10. Use of a continuous twin screw granulation and drying system during formulation development and process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, J; Peeters, E; Fonteyne, M; Cappuyns, P; Delaet, U; Van Assche, I; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2015-01-01

    Since small scale is key for successful introduction of continuous techniques in the pharmaceutical industry to allow its use during formulation development and process optimization, it is essential to determine whether the product quality is similar when small quantities of materials are processed compared to the continuous processing of larger quantities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether material processed in a single cell of the six-segmented fluid bed dryer of the ConsiGma™-25 system (a continuous twin screw granulation and drying system introduced by GEA Pharma Systems, Collette™, Wommelgem, Belgium) is predictive of granule and tablet quality during full-scale manufacturing when all drying cells are filled. Furthermore, the performance of the ConsiGma™-1 system (a mobile laboratory unit) was evaluated and compared to the ConsiGma™-25 system. A premix of two active ingredients, powdered cellulose, maize starch, pregelatinized starch and sodium starch glycolate was granulated with distilled water. After drying and milling (1000 μm, 800 rpm), granules were blended with magnesium stearate and compressed using a Modul™ P tablet press (tablet weight: 430 mg, main compression force: 12 kN). Single cell experiments using the ConsiGma™-25 system and ConsiGma™-1 system were performed in triplicate. Additionally, a 1h continuous run using the ConsiGma™-25 system was executed. Process outcomes (torque, barrel wall temperature, product temperature during drying) and granule (residual moisture content, particle size distribution, bulk and tapped density, hausner ratio, friability) as well as tablet (hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution) quality attributes were evaluated. By performing a 1h continuous run, it was detected that a stabilization period was needed for torque and barrel wall temperature due to initial layering of the screws and the screw chamber walls with material. Consequently, slightly deviating

  11. Composite cements containing natural pozzolan and granulated blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irassar, E. F.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available For reasons of market demand and Portland cement production,the manufacture of cements with two or more separately ground additions to produce customized cements is becoming common practice.When pozzolan or slag content in this type of cements is high, however, the initial strength of the resulting product may be adversely impacted. This problem can be minimized by activating one or both of the replacement materials. The present study analyzes the effect of Portland cement additions such as physically activated natural pozzolan(up to 20% and/or granulated blast furnace slag (up to 35% on mortar flexural and compressive strength. The results show that higher strength is attained in ternary than binary cements. Initially (2 and 7 days, the highest compressive strengths are reached by mortars with up to 13% natural pozzolan and 5% slag, whereas at later ages mortars with larger proportions of additions are found to perform best.Debido a las exigencias del mercado y de la producción de cemento Portland, es cada vez más frecuente la elaboración de cementos con dos o más adiciones a partir de la molienda separada de sus constituyentes, dando origen a la formulación de los cementos a medida.Cuando el contenido de adiciones es alto, la utilización de puzolana y escoria en este tipo de cementos presenta la peculiaridad de disminuir la resistencia inicial del cemento resultante. Sin embargo, si algunas o ambas adiciones se activan, este problema puede minimizarse. En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de la incorporación al cemento Portland de puzolana natural (hasta 20% activada físicamente y/o escoria granulada de alto horno (hasta 35% sobre la resistencia a flexión y a compresión de morteros. Los resultados indican que los cementos ternarios presentan un mejor comportamiento resistente que los cementos binarios. Las máximas resistencias a compresión en las primeras edades (2 y 7 díasse alcanzan con hasta 13% de puzolana natural y 5% de

  12. Nano-structured silica coated mesoporous carbon micro-granules for potential application in water filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Avik; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Ghosh, A. K.

    2017-05-01

    A novel nano-composite spherical micro-granule has been synthesized using a facile technique of solvent evaporation induced assembly of nanoparticles for potential application in water filtration. The spherical micro-granule is comprised of nano-structured shell of hydrophilic silica encapsulating a hydrophobic mesoporous carbon at the core. Hierarchical structure of such core-shell micro-granules has been rigorously characterized using small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering techniques and complemented with scanning electron microscopy. The hydrophilic silica envelope around the carbon core helps in incorporation of such granules into the hydrophilic polymeric ultra-filtration membrane. The interstitial micro-pores present in the silica shell can serve as water transport channels and the mesoporus carbon core enhances the separation performance due its well adsorption characteristics. It has been found that the incorporation of such granules inside the ultra-filtration membrane indeed enhances the water permeability as well as the separation performance in a significant way.

  13. Quinoa starch granules as stabilizing particles for production of Pickering emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Marilyn; Sjöö, Malin; Timgren, Anna; Dejmek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Intact starch granules isolated from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were used to stabilize emulsion drops in so-called Pickering emulsions. Miglyol 812 was used as dispersed phase and a phosphate buffer (pH7) with different salt (NaCl) concentrations was used as the continuous phase. The starch granules were hydrophobically modified to different degrees by octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) or by dry heat treatment at 120 degrees C in order to study the effect on the resulting emulsion drop size. The degree of OSA-modification had a low to moderate impact on drop size. The highest level of modification (4.66%) showed the largest mean drop size, and lowest amount of free starch, which could be an effect of a higher degree of aggregation of the starch granules and, thereby, also the emulsion drops stabilized by them. The heat treated starch granules had a poor stabilizing ability and only the starch heated for the longest time (150 min at 120 degrees C) had a better emulsifying capacity than the un-modified native starch granules. The effect of salt concentration was rather limited. However, an increased concentration of salt slightly increased the mean drop size and the elastic modulus.

  14. Impact of full range of amylose contents on the architecture of starch granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Avi; Annor, George; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Blennow, Andreas; Bertoft, Eric

    2016-08-01

    The effects of amylose deposition on crystalline regions of barley starch granules were studied in granules containing zero to 99.1% amylose using "waxy" (WBS, 0% amylose), normal (NBS, 18% amylose) and amylose-only barley lines (AOS, 99.1% amylose). The effects were probed after hydrolysis of amorphous regions of starch granules in dilute HCl generating lintners, which typically represent the crystalline lamella of starch granules. Compared to NBS and WBS, AOS granules exhibited an irregular, multilobular morphology with a rough surface texture. AOS displayed lower rates of acid hydrolysis than WBS, and AOS reached a plateau at ∼45wt% acid hydrolysis. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography of lintners at equivalent levels of hydrolysis (45wt%) revealed the average degree of polymerization (DP) of AOS lintners was 21, substantially smaller than that of NBS and WBS (DP 42). AOS lintners contained the lowest number of chains (NC) per molecule (1.1) compared to NBS (2.8) and WBS (3.3) and the average chain length of AOS, NBS and WBS lintners was 19, 15 and 13, respectively. Hence, both NC and the average chain length correlated with amylose content. The size distribution profile of AOS lintners revealed a repeat motif in the molecules corresponding to 5-6 glucose residues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Improvement of Tenofovir vaginal release from hydrophilic matrices through drug granulation with hydrophobic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notario-Pérez, Fernando; Martín-Illana, Araceli; Cazorla-Luna, Raúl; Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Peña, Juan; Veiga, María-Dolores

    2018-05-30

    Sustained-release vaginal microbicides hold out great hope for the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV from men to women. Tenofovir (TFV) -an antiretroviral drug- sustained-release vaginal compacts combining two release control systems (by drug-loading granules with hydrophobic polymers and incorporating them in a hydrophilic matrix) are proposed in this work as a possible microbicide. The polymers used for the drug granules are Eudragit® RS (ERS), an acrylic derivative, and Zein, a maize protein. The hydrophilic matrix is composed of a mixture of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and chitosan (CH). The thermal, microscopic, spectrophotometric and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the drug was not altered during the granulation process. Studies of TFV release, swelling and ex vivo mucoadhesion were subsequently performed on simulated vaginal fluid. The formulation whereby TFV is granulated using twice its weight in ERS, and then including these granules in a matrix in which the CH predominates over HPMC, allows the sustained release of TFV for 144 h, mucoadhesion to the vaginal mucosa for 150 h and a moderate swelling, making it the most suitable formulation of all those studied. These compacts would therefore offer women protection against the sexual acquisition of HIV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Aerobic Sludge Granulation in a Full-Scale Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic granulation of activated sludge was successfully achieved in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR with 50,000 m3 d−1 for treating a town’s wastewater. After operation for 337 days, in this full-scale SBR, aerobic granules with an average SVI30 of 47.1 mL g−1, diameter of 0.5 mm, and settling velocity of 42 m h−1 were obtained. Compared to an anaerobic/oxic plug flow (A/O reactor and an oxidation ditch (OD being operated in this wastewater treatment plant, the sludge from full-scale SBR has more compact structure and excellent settling ability. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis indicated that Flavobacterium sp., uncultured beta proteobacterium, uncultured Aquabacterium sp., and uncultured Leptothrix sp. were just dominant in SBR, whereas uncultured bacteroidetes were only found in A/O and OD. Three kinds of sludge had a high content of protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS. X-ray fluorescence (XRF analysis revealed that metal ions and some inorganics from raw wastewater precipitated in sludge acted as core to enhance granulation. Raw wastewater characteristics had a positive effect on the granule formation, but the SBR mode operating with periodic feast-famine, shorter settling time, and no return sludge pump played a crucial role in aerobic sludge granulation.

  17. [Molecular authentication of Jinyinhua formula granule by using allele-specific PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Tu, Li-Chan; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Gao, Wei; Jin, Yan

    2017-07-01

    Traditional authentication method is hard to identify herb's authenticity of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) formula granules because they have lost all their morphological characteristics. In this study, a new allele-specific PCR method was established for identifying the authentication of Jinyinhua formula granule (made from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos) based on an SNP site in trnL-trnF fragment. Genomic DNA was successfully extracted from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and its formula granules by using an improved spin column method and then PCR was performed with the designed primer. Approximately 110 bp specific bands was obtained only in the authentic Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and its formula granules, while no bands were found in fake mixed products. In addition, the PCR product sequence was proved from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos trnL-trnF sequence by using BLAST method. Therefore, DNA molecular authentication method could make up the limitations of character identification method and microscopic identification, and quickly identify herb's authenticity of TCM formula granules, with enormous potential for market supervision and quality control. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Surface modified zeolite-based granulates for the sustained release of diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serri, Carla; de Gennaro, Bruno; Quagliariello, Vincenzo; Iaffaioli, Rosario Vincenzo; De Rosa, Giuseppe; Catalanotti, Lilia; Biondi, Marco; Mayol, Laura

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a granulate for the oral controlled delivery of diclofenac sodium (DS), an anionic sparingly soluble nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been realized by wet granulation, using a surface modified natural zeolite (SMNZ) as an excipient. The surface modification of the zeolite has been achieved by means of a cationic surfactant, so as to allow the loading of DS through ionic interaction and bestow a control over the drug release mechanism. The granules possessed a satisfactory dosage uniformity, a flowability suitable for an oral dosage form manufacturing, along with a sustained drug release up to 9h, driven by both ion exchange and transport kinetics. Furthermore, the obtained granulate did not elicit a significant cytotoxicity and could also induce a prolonged anti-inflammatory effect on RAW264.7 cells. Taking also into account that natural zeolites are generally abundant and economic, SMNZ can be considered as an attracting alternative excipient for the production of granules with sustained release features. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of some characteristics of aerobic granules and sludge flocs from sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Garny, K; Neu, T; He, M; Lindenblatt, C; Horn, H

    2007-01-01

    Physical, chemical and biological characteristics were investigated for aerobic granules and sludge flocs from three laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). One reactor was operated as normal SBR (N-SBR) and two reactors were operated as granular SBRs (G-SBR1 and G-SBR2). G-SBR1 was inoculated with activated sludge and G-SBR2 with granules from the municipal wastewater plant in Garching (Germany). The following major parameters and functions were measured and compared between the three reactors: morphology, settling velocity, specific gravity (SG), sludge volume index (SVI), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), distribution of the volume fraction of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and bacteria, organic carbon and nitrogen removal. Compared with sludge flocs, granular sludge had excellent settling properties, good solid-liquid separation, high biomass concentration, simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. Aerobic granular sludge does not have a higher microbial activity and there are some problems including higher effluent suspended solids, lower ratio of VSS/SS and no nitrification at the beginning of cultivation. Measurement with CLSM and additional image analysis showed that EPS glycoconjugates build one main fraction inside the granules. The aerobic granules from G-SBR1 prove to be heavier, smaller and have a higher microbial activity compared with G-SBR2. Furthermore, the granules were more compact, with lower SVI and less filamentous bacteria.

  20. Topical application of Mitomycin C in the treatment of granulation tissue after Canal Wall Down mastoidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Karimi-Yazdi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Otorrhea and granulation tissue in Canal Wall Down mastoidectomy (CWD is the common problem in cholesteatoma removal and leads to many discomfort for both the patient and the physician. The main objective in CWD is creating the dry cavity, so the topical antibiotic and acetic acid in variable saturations are used for this purpose. In this study we evaluate the effectiveness of topical MMC and chemical cautery by acetic acid.   Materials and Methods: Study population consists of 50 patients with cholesteatoma whom underwent CWD. All patient allocated randomly in two study groups, MMC and acetic acid. After 3 weeks, the first visit is planned, extension of granulation tissue and dryness of cavity are evaluated and topical drugs are used in blind fashion. MMC in 4% and acetic acid in 12.5% saturation are applied. Other visits are completed at next month and 3 months later.   Results: Both methods are effective in treatment of granulation tissue. In each group both treatment were effective too but MMC was more effective than acid acetic in the treatment of granulation tissue after 4 weeks.   Conclusion: Based on our findings, it is clear that topical MMC is very effective in the treatment of granulation tissue and in CWD. It results in dry cavity much better than acetic acid without any complication. 

  1. MicroRNAs Promote Granule Cell Expansion in the Cerebellum Through Gli2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Lena; Wainwright, Brandon J

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of cerebellar function and homeostasis. Their deregulation results in cerebellar neuronal degeneration and spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 and contributes to medulloblastoma. Canonical miRNA processing involves Dicer, which cleaves precursor miRNAs into mature double-stranded RNA duplexes. In order to address the role of miRNAs in cerebellar granule cell precursor development, loxP-flanked exons of Dicer1 were conditionally inactivated using the granule cell precursor-specific Atoh1-Cre recombinase. A reduction of 87% in Dicer1 transcript was achieved in this conditional Dicer knockdown model. Although knockdown resulted in normal survival, mice had disruptions to the cortical layering of the anterior cerebellum, which resulted from the premature differentiation of granule cell precursors in this region during neonatal development. This defect manifested as a thinner external granular layer with ectopic mature granule cells, and a depleted internal granular layer. We found that expression of the activator components of the Hedgehog-Patched pathway, the Gli family of transcription factors, was perturbed in conditional Dicer knockdown mice. We propose that loss of Gli2 mRNA mediated the anterior-restricted defect in conditional Dicer knockdown mice and, as proof of principle, were able to show that miR-106b positively regulated Gli2 mRNA expression. These findings confirm the importance of miRNAs as positive mediators of Hedgehog-Patched signalling during granule cell precursor development.

  2. Accumulation of PHA granules in Cupriavidus necator as seen by confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mravec, Filip; Obruca, Stanislav; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Sedlacek, Petr; Hrubanova, Kamila; Samek, Ota; Kucera, Dan; Benesova, Pavla; Nebesarova, Jana

    2016-05-01

    Many bacteria are capable of accumulating intracellular granules of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). In this work, we developed confocal microscopy analysis of bacterial cells to study changes in the diameters of cells as well as PHA granules during growth and PHA accumulation in the bacterium Cupriavidus necator H16 (formerly Ralstonia eutropha). The cell envelope was stained by DiD(®) fluorescent probe and PHA granules by Nile Red. Signals from both probes were separated based on their spectral and fluorescence life-time properties. During growth and PHA accumulation, bacterial cells increased their length but the width of the cells remained constant. The volume fraction of PHA granules in cells increased during PHA accumulation, nevertheless, its value did not exceed 40 vol. % regardless of the PHA weight content. It seems that bacterial cultures lengthen the cells in order to control the PHA volume portion. However, since similar changes in cell length were also observed in a PHA non-accumulating mutant, it seems that there is no direct control mechanism, which regulates the prolongation of the cells with respect to PHA granules volume. It is more likely that PHA biosynthesis and the length of cells are influenced by the same external stimuli such as nutrient limitation. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Implementation of fluidized granulated iron reactors in a chromate remediation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, P.; Lorber, K.E.; Mischitz, R.; Weiß, C.

    2014-01-01

    A new approach concerning in-situ remediation on source (‘hot-spot’) decontamination of a chromate damage in connection with an innovative pump-and-treat-technique has been developed. Iron granulates show significant higher reduction rates, using fluidized bed conditions, than a literature study with a fixed bed installation of small-sized iron granules. First results from an abandoned tannery site concerning injections of sodium dithionite as a chromate reductant for the vadose zone in combination with a pump-and-treat-method, allying the advantages of granulated zero valent iron (ZVI), are reported. Reduction amounts of chromate have been found up to 88% compared with initial values in the soil after a soil water exchange of 8 pore volumes within 2.5 months. Chromate concentrations in the pumped effluent have been reduced to under the detection limit of 0.005 mg/L by treatment with ZVI in the pilot plant. - Highlights: • Fe-granules show high Cr(VI)-reduction rates using fluidized bed conditions. • No respective negligible passivation effects on the surface of the iron granulates. • P and T-method by using ZVI in a FBR is very effective for Cr(VI) remediation. • The process provides no increase in salinity of the treated effluent

  4. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples

  5. Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labree, W.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Marle, H.J.C. van; Rassin, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n = 25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital “De Kijvelanden”, were

  6. Measurement of natural background neutron

    CERN Document Server

    Li Jain, Ping; Tang Jin Hua; Tang, E S; Xie Yan Fong

    1982-01-01

    A high sensitive neutron monitor is described. It has an approximate counting rate of 20 cpm for natural background neutrons. The pulse amplitude resolution, sensitivity and direction dependence of the monitor were determined. This monitor has been used for natural background measurement in Beijing area. The yearly average dose is given and compared with the results of KEK and CERN.

  7. Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majorovits, B., E-mail: bela@mppmu.mpg.de [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Laubenstein, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, S.S.17/bis, km 18 plus 910, I-67100 Assergi (Italy); Volynets, O. [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)

    2011-08-11

    Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10{sup -5} counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q-value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of {sup 22}Na, {sup 26}Al, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

  8. RESEARCH OF MICROWAVE DRYING OF NATURAL ZEOLITE GRANULES AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybachuk V.D.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The wet granulation technique is often used in the preparation of free-flowing granules in the manufacture of tablets and capsules. It is very important that granules obtained by this technology be dried before further processing. And also, it is important that the method of drying is entirely controlled and managed and the result is quite predictable. In recent years, microwave drying of granules make a considerable interest. Microwave drying is especially useful for moisture sensitive materials which are mostly pharmaceutical substances. Microwave drying technology is useful for dosage forms with high purity, since this method provides the possibility of drying in the same container production, which reduces the chance of cross contamination of matter and its direct contact with staff. The aim of this work was to study the effect of microwave radiation on the technological properties of natural zeolite peets compared to traditional convection method and to determine the optimal drying modes and specific humidity of the material. Material & methods. Granules were prepared by wet granulation technology by using a laboratory granulator NG-12. As the humidifier we used potato starch gel and PVP in an amount of 25% by weight of the dry product. The resulting granules were divided into two equal parts and subjected to drying in a microwave oven (Delfa D20MW of installed capacity (119 W, 280 W, 336 W, 462 W, ​​595 W and 700 W and shelf dryer to a residual moisture level of 0.01 g.w./g.d.m. or less. Determination of the specific humidity of granules was carried out by mass loss on drying. Fractional composition of granules was determined using a standard set of sieves with the diameter of the holes 2.0; 1.0; 0.5 and 0.25 mm. The friability of the granules was determined using friabilator Pharma Test PTF 10E / ER, Germany. To characterize the fluidity of granule Carr`s indicator (IC and coefficient Hausnera (HR. Results & discussion

  9. Pelletizing of NaF granules as adsorbent for fluorides of nuclear fuel materials, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Syojiro; Tsutsui, Tenson; Kanagawa, Akira.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental studies on compressibility of NaF granules are investigated. Brittleness and porosity of a tableted pellet depend on compressive power applied to the granules. Relation of the compressive power and distortion of NaF granules agree with Kawakita's formula. About the brittleness of NaF pellet tableted with optional pressure, the follow experimental formula is formed between axial destructive power and compressive power. Dsub(p)=f.psup(n) Then, relation of the axial destructive power and porosity of NaF pellet is given from the above mentioned experimental formula and Kawakita's formula. At the lower value of the porosity than 0.4, the axial destructive power varies steeply as compared with variation of the porosity. At optional porosity, the brittleness of the tableted NaF pellet are lower than Harshow Chem. Co. NaF.HF pellet. So it requires some process raising the brittleness of the pellet after the compression. (auth.)

  10. Mechanistic modelling of fluidized bed drying processes of wet porous granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.; De Beer, Thomas; Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    depending on the geometry of the gas inlet, the gas velocity, characteristics of the particles, the dryer design, etc. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) allows to model this behaviour. Moreover, turbulence can be modelled using several approaches: Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes Equations (RANS) or Large...... are powerful tools to gain process insight and eventually develop well-controlled processes. The level of detail embedded in such a model depends on the goal of the model. Several models have therefore been proposed in the literature and are reviewed here. The drying behaviour of one single granule, a porous...... particle, can be described using the continuum approach, the pore network modelling method and the shrinkage of the diameter of the wet core approach. As several granules dry at a drying rate dependent on the gas temperature, gas velocity, porosity, etc., the moisture content of a batch of granules...

  11. Botanical origin, colour, granulation, and sensory properties of the Harenna forest honey, Bale, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Abera; Solomon, W K; Bultossa, Geremew; Adgaba, Nuru; Melaku, Samuel

    2015-01-15

    In this study, the Harenna forest honey samples were investigated with respect to their botanical origin, granulation, colour and sensory properties. Sixteen honey samples were collected from two representative sites (Chiri, C, and Wabero, W) using random sampling techniques. Botanical origin was investigated using qualitative pollen analysis by counting 500 pollen grains using harmonised methods of melissopalynology. Granulation, colour, and sensory properties of honey were determined by visual observation, using Pfund grader, acceptability and preference tests, respectively. Honey samples were also tested for tetracycline. Honey obtained from Wabero is originated dominantly from Syzygium guineense while Chiri was multifloral. The colour of honey ranged from 34 to 85 with light amber and extra light amber colours. The honey samples were free from tetracycline residue and form coarse granules slowly. Significant variation (p>0.05) in sensory preference and acceptability tests not observed due to hive types and locations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical observation of pingyangmycin, lidocaine, iodipin emulsion and absorbable gelatine sponge granules embolization treatment for hysteromyoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Cun; Zhou Guangde; Teng Jun; Zhang Kuiyang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the feasibility and availability of uterine arterial embolization for hysteromyoma with pingyangmycin, lidocaine, iodipin emulsion and absorbable gelatine sponge granules immersed with lidocaine. Methods: The observation of pain sensation change of clinical symptoms, size of hysteromyoma, change of uterus volume together with the specimens and pathological features of 68 cases of hysteromyoma during and after the embolization by using pingyangmyein, lidocaine, iodipin emulsion and absorbable gelatine sponge granules immersed with lidocaine were carried out and compared. Results: Intramuscular analgesic injection couldn't control the pain in 13 cases, covering 19.1%, symptom remission rate was 92.3%, including 89.2% menstruation recovery, 90.8% disappearance of pelvic pain, abdominal distension and compression symptoms, 78.8% average shrinkage of tumor size and 47.5% reduction of uterus volumes. Conclusion: Pingyangmyein, lidocaine, iodipin emulsion and absorbable gelatine sponge granules immersed with lidocaine are the ideal embolization material for treating hysteromyoma. (authors)

  13. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV is sorted to the secretory granules in pancreatic islet A-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mona Dam; Hansen, Gert Helge; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1993-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DP IV:EC 3.4.14.5) was localized in endocrine cells of pig pancreas by immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical methods. Immunolight microscopy with both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies demonstrated DP IV immunoreactivity in cells located in the peripheral part...... of the islets of Langerhans. The antigen is enzymatically active, as shown by enzyme histochemical analysis with a synthetic DP IV substrate. By immunoelectron microscopy (immunogold labeling), the labeling of DP IV in the islets was associated with the secretory granules of the A-cells, as identified by double...... labeling using a monoclonal glucagon antibody as the second primary antibody. These results show that DP IV is sorted to secretory granules in the pig pancreatic islet A-cells. Furthermore, this secretory granule enzyme, as opposed to intestinal brush border DP IV, is suggested to be a soluble protein...

  14. Hilar Mossy Cell Degeneration Causes Transient Dentate Granule Cell Hyperexcitability and Impaired Pattern Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinde, Seiichiro; Zsiros, Veronika; Jiang, Zhihong; Nakao, Kazuhito; Pickel, James; Kohno, Kenji; Belforte, Juan E.; Nakazawa, Kazu

    2012-01-01

    Summary Although excitatory mossy cells of the hippocampal hilar region are known to project both to dentate granule cells and to interneurons, it is as yet unclear whether mossy cell activity’s net effect on granule cells is excitatory or inhibitory. To explore their influence on dentate excitability and hippocampal function, we generated a conditional transgenic mouse line, using the Cre/loxP system, in which diphtheria toxin receptor was selectively expressed in mossy cells. One week after injecting toxin into this line, mossy cells throughout the longitudinal axis were degenerated extensively, theta wave power of dentate local field potentials increased during exploration, and deficits occurred in contextual discrimination. By contrast, we detected no epileptiform activity, spontaneous behavioral seizures, or mossy-fiber sprouting 5–6 weeks after mossy cell degeneration. These results indicate that the net effect of mossy cell excitation is to inhibit granule cell activity and enable dentate pattern separation. PMID:23259953

  15. Plantain starch granules morphology, crystallinity, structure transition, and size evolution upon acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jaimes, C; Bello-Pérez, L A; Vernon-Carter, E J; Alvarez-Ramirez, J

    2013-06-05

    Plantain native starch was hydrolysed with sulphuric acid for twenty days. Hydrolysis kinetics was described by a logistic function, with a zero-order rate during the first seven days, followed by a slower kinetics dynamics at longer times. X-ray diffraction results revealed a that gradual increase in crystallinity occurred during the first seven days, followed by a decrease to values similar to those found in the native starch. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis suggested a sharp structure transition by the seventh day probably due to a molecular rearrangement of the starch blocklets and inhomogeneous erosion of the amorphous regions and semi crystalline lamellae. Scanning electron micrographs showed that starch granules morphology was continually degraded from an initial oval-like shape to irregular shapes due to aggregation effects. Granule size distribution broadened as hydrolysis time proceeded probably due to fragmentation and agglomeration phenomena of the hydrolysed starch granules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical observation of Qiming granule combined with Dextran and Hypromellose eye drops for dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Lan Wan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the efficacy of Qiming granule combined with Dextran and Hypromellose eye drops in treatment of dry eye.METHODS: A randomized, parallel-control approach was adopted, 100 cases of dry eye patients were divided into treatment group and control group equally, observation on the treatment of 3 months. The treatment group was applied Dextran and Hypromellose eye drops combined with oral Qiming granule, simply Dextran and Hypromellose eye drops for control group. Before and after treatment, tear secretion volume, break-up time, corneal fluorescein staining and symptom were observed.RESULTS: After treatment, there was statistical significance for the break-up time, SⅠt and corneal fluorescein staining in both groups when compared with before treatment(PPCONCLUSION: The combined Dextran and Hypromellose eye drops and Qiming granule perform better than Dextran and Hypromellose eye drops only in treatment of dry eye.

  17. Intracellular production of hydrogels and synthetic RNA granules by multivalent molecular interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hideki; Lee, Albert A.; Afshar, Ali Sobhi; Watanabe, Shigeki; Rho, Elmer; Razavi, Shiva; Suarez, Allister; Lin, Yu-Chun; Tanigawa, Makoto; Huang, Brian; Derose, Robert; Bobb, Diana; Hong, William; Gabelli, Sandra B.; Goutsias, John; Inoue, Takanari

    2018-01-01

    Some protein components of intracellular non-membrane-bound entities, such as RNA granules, are known to form hydrogels in vitro. The physico-chemical properties and functional role of these intracellular hydrogels are difficult to study, primarily due to technical challenges in probing these materials in situ. Here, we present iPOLYMER, a strategy for a rapid induction of protein-based hydrogels inside living cells that explores the chemically inducible dimerization paradigm. Biochemical and biophysical characterizations aided by computational modelling show that the polymer network formed in the cytosol resembles a physiological hydrogel-like entity that acts as a size-dependent molecular sieve. We functionalize these polymers with RNA-binding motifs that sequester polyadenine-containing nucleotides to synthetically mimic RNA granules. These results show that iPOLYMER can be used to synthetically reconstitute the nucleation of biologically functional entities, including RNA granules in intact cells.

  18. Manufacturing of novel low-cost adsorbent: Co-granulation of limestone and coffee waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, Evgenia; Sillanpää, Mika; Maydannik, Philipp; Liu, Jiang Tao; Allen, Stephen; Albadarin, Ahmad B; Mangwandi, Chirangano

    2017-12-01

    Limestone and coffee waste were used during the wet co-granulation process for the production of efficient adsorbents to be used in the removal of anionic and cationic dyes. The adsorbents were characterized using different analytical techniques such as XRD, SEM, FTIR, organic elemental analysis, the nitrogen adsorption method, with wettability, strength and adsorption tests. The adsorption capacity of granules was determined by removal of methylene blue (MB) and orange II (OR) from single and mixed solutions. In the mixed solution, co-granules removed 100% of MB and 85% of OR. The equilibria were established after 6 and 480 h for MB and OR, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from starch-wastewater with bio-granules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akutsu, Yohei; Harada, Hideki [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-06 Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Lee, Dong-Yeol [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Chi, Yong-Zhi [Department of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction, Jinjinggonglu 26, Tianjin 300384 (China); Li, Yu-You [Department of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction, Jinjinggonglu 26, Tianjin 300384 (China); Department of Environmental Science, Tohoku University, 6-6-06 Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Yu, Han-Qing [School of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2009-06-15

    In this study, the effects of the hydraulic retention time (HRT), pH and substrate concentration on the thermophilic hydrogen production of starch with an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor were investigated. Starch was used as a sole substrate. Continuous hydrogen production was stably attained with a maximum H{sub 2} yield of 1.7 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose. A H{sub 2}-producing thermophilic granule was successfully formed with diameter in the range of 0.5-4.0 mm with thermally pretreated methanogenic granules as the nuclei. The metabolic pathway of the granules was drastically changed at each operational parameter. The production of formic or lactic acids is an indication of the deterioration of hydrogen production for H{sub 2}-producing thermophilic granular sludge. (author)

  20. Structure and microhardness of alloy VT22 granules additionally doped with carbon and boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sysoeva, N.V.; Polyakova, I.G.; Karpova, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    Aimed to improve heat resistance and strength of titanium base alloys due to carbon and boron additions (up to 0.3%) a study was made into regularities of phase decomposition in VT22 alloy during its rapid quenching from a liquid state on manufacturing granules 100-400 μm in size. Cooling rates on quenching were found to be sufficiently high to prevent precipitating carbides and borides. Subsequent annealing of granules promotes homogeneous precipitation of strengthening phases in the form of titanium carbides and borides, a reasonable amount of carbon and boron remaining in solid solution. An increase in microhardness of annealed granules reaches 20-25% compared to the standard alloy. 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. Comparative study on fluorescence spectra of Chinese medicine north and south isatis root granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lan; He, Qing; Chen, Zhenqiang; Zhu, Siqi

    2016-03-01

    Since the spectral imaging technology emerged, it has gained a lot of application achievements in the military field, precision agriculture and biomedical science. When the fluorescence spectrum imaging first applied to the detection of the feature resource of Chinese herbal medicine, the characteristics of holistic and ambiguity made it a new approach to the traditional Chinese medicine testing. In this paper, we applied this method to study the Chinese medicine north and south isatis root granules by comparing their fluorescence spectra. Using cluster analysis, the results showed that the north and south Banlangen can not be divided by ascription. And these indicate that there is a large difference in the quality of Banlangen granules on the market, and fluorescence spectrum imaging method can be used in monitoring the quality of radix isatidis granules.

  2. Physicochemical properties of starches and proteins in alkali-treated mungbean and cassava starch granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israkarn, Kamolwan; Na Nakornpanom, Nantarat; Hongsprabhas, Parichat

    2014-05-25

    This study explored the influences of envelope integrity of cooked starch granules on physicochemical and thermophysical properties of mungbean and cassava starches. Alkali treatment was used to selectively leach amylose from the amorphous region of both starches and partially fragmented starch molecules into lower-molecular-weight polymers. It was found that despite the loss of 40% of the original content of amylose, both mungbean and cassava starches retained similar crystallinities, gelatinization temperature ranges, and pasting profiles compared to the native starches. However, the loss of granule-bound starch synthases during alkali treatment and subsequent alkali cooking in excess water played significant roles in determining granular disintegration. The alterations in envelope integrity due to the negative charge repulsion among polymers within the envelope of swollen granules, and the fragmentation of starch molecules, were responsible for the alterations in thermophysical properties of mungbean and cassava starches cooked under alkaline conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. JEM-X background models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huovelin, J.; Maisala, S.; Schultz, J.

    2003-01-01

    Background and determination of its components for the JEM-X X-ray telescope on INTEGRAL are discussed. A part of the first background observations by JEM-X are analysed and results are compared to predictions. The observations are based on extensive imaging of background near the Crab Nebula...... on revolution 41 of INTEGRAL. Total observing time used for the analysis was 216 502 s, with the average of 25 cps of background for each of the two JEM-X telescopes. JEM-X1 showed slightly higher average background intensity than JEM-X2. The detectors were stable during the long exposures, and weak orbital...... background was enhanced in the central area of a detector, and it decreased radially towards the edge, with a clear vignetting effect for both JEM-X units. The instrument background was weakest in the central area of a detector and showed a steep increase at the very edges of both JEM-X detectors...

  4. Role of calcium oxide in sludge granulation and methanogenesis for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent using UASB reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Anwar; Ghufran, Rumana; Wahid, Zularisam Abd.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: SEM micrograph of granules; Outer surface of the granule; Scanning electron micrographs of the granule: Archaea (Methanosarcina sp.) showing the arrangement of bacterial cells in granule surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the seed sludge and granules sampled on day 150. Highlights: ► Examine the treatability of POME and effects of CaO–CKD on the granulation process in UASB reactors. ► The main objective was to determine the influent CaO–CKD concentration and the relationship between the CaO concentration in the feed and biomass accumulation, specific granulation, methanogenic activity, and the density and composition of granules. ► The biomass concentration profiles along the reactors and the size distribution of granules were also measured to track and to assess granulation, methanogenesis, and COD removal on levels at the industrial scale. ► SEM micrograph are showing smooth surface of granule with a large opening cavities likely for biogas escape. - Abstract: The granulation process in palm oil mill effluent using calcium oxide-cement kiln dust (CaO–CKD) provides an attractive and cost effective treatment option. In this study the efficiency of CaO–CKD at doses of 1.5–20 g/l was tested in batch experiments and found that 10 g of CaO/l caused the greatest degradation of VFA, butyrate and acetate. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated continuously at 35 °C for 150 days to investigate the effect of CaO–CKD on sludge granulation and methanogenesis during start-up. The treatment of POME emphasized the influence of varying organic loading rates (OLR). Up to 94.9% of COD was removed when the reactor was fed with the 15.5–65.5 g-COD g/l at an OLR of 4.5–12.5 kg-COD/m 3 d, suggesting the feasibility of using CaO in an UASB process to treat POME. The ratio of volatile solids/total solids (VS/TS) and volatile fatty acids in the anaerobic sludge in the UASB reactor decreased

  5. Role of calcium oxide in sludge granulation and methanogenesis for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent using UASB reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Anwar, E-mail: anwarak218@yahoo.co.uk [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources, University Malaysia Pahang (UMP), Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Ghufran, Rumana; Wahid, Zularisam Abd. [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources, University Malaysia Pahang (UMP), Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2011-12-30

    Graphical abstract: SEM micrograph of granules; Outer surface of the granule; Scanning electron micrographs of the granule: Archaea (Methanosarcina sp.) showing the arrangement of bacterial cells in granule surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the seed sludge and granules sampled on day 150. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examine the treatability of POME and effects of CaO-CKD on the granulation process in UASB reactors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The main objective was to determine the influent CaO-CKD concentration and the relationship between the CaO concentration in the feed and biomass accumulation, specific granulation, methanogenic activity, and the density and composition of granules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biomass concentration profiles along the reactors and the size distribution of granules were also measured to track and to assess granulation, methanogenesis, and COD removal on levels at the industrial scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM micrograph are showing smooth surface of granule with a large opening cavities likely for biogas escape. - Abstract: The granulation process in palm oil mill effluent using calcium oxide-cement kiln dust (CaO-CKD) provides an attractive and cost effective treatment option. In this study the efficiency of CaO-CKD at doses of 1.5-20 g/l was tested in batch experiments and found that 10 g of CaO/l caused the greatest degradation of VFA, butyrate and acetate. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated continuously at 35 Degree-Sign C for 150 days to investigate the effect of CaO-CKD on sludge granulation and methanogenesis during start-up. The treatment of POME emphasized the influence of varying organic loading rates (OLR). Up to 94.9% of COD was removed when the reactor was fed with the 15.5-65.5 g-COD g/l at an OLR of 4.5-12.5 kg-COD/m{sup 3} d, suggesting the feasibility of using CaO in an UASB process to treat POME. The ratio of volatile solids

  6. Preliminary Research on Granulation Process of Dust Waste from Reclamation Process of Moulding Sands with Furan Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kamińska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of usedsands, where furan resins were binders are presented in the paper. Investigations concerned producing of granules of the determineddimensions and strength parameters.Granules were formed from the dusts mixture consisting in 50 mass% of dusts obtained after the reclamation of the furane sands and in50 mass % of dusts from sands with bentonite. Dusts from the bentonite sands with water were used as a binder allowing the granulation of after reclamation dusts from the furane sands.The following parameters of the ready final product were determined: moisture content (W, shatter test of granules (Wz performeddirectly after the granulation process and after 1, 3, 5, 10 days and nights of seasoning, water-resistance of granules after 24 hours of being immersed in water, surface porosity ep and volumetric porosity ev. In addition the shatter test and water-resistance of granulate dried at a temperature of 105oC were determined.Investigations were performed at the bowl angle of inclination 45o, for three rotational speeds of the bowl being: 10, 15, 20 rpm.For the speed of 10 rpm the granulation tests of dusts mixture after the preliminary mixing in the roller mixer and with the addition ofwater-glass in the amount of 2% in relation to the amount of dust were carried out.The obtained results indicate that the granulator allows to obtain granules from dusts originated from the reclamations of mouldingsands with the furane resin with an addition of dusts from the bentonite sands processing plants.

  7. Super-resolution microscopy as a potential approach to diagnosis of platelet granule disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, D; Shaw, M; Grimes, W; Metcalf, D J; Burden, J J; Gomez, K; Knight, A E; Cutler, D F

    2016-04-01

    Many platelet functions are dependent on bioactive molecules released from their granules. Deficiencies of these granules in number, shape or content are associated with bleeding. The small size of these granules is such that imaging them for diagnosis has traditionally required electron microscopy. However, recently developed super-resolution microscopes provide sufficient spatial resolution to effectively image platelet granules. When combined with automated image analysis, these methods provide a quantitative, unbiased, rapidly acquired dataset that can readily and reliably reveal differences in platelet granules between individuals. To demonstrate the ability of structured illumination microscopy (SIM) to efficiently differentiate between healthy volunteers and three patients with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Blood samples were taken from three patients with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome and seven controls. Patients 1-3 have gene defects in HPS1, HPS6 and HPS5, respectively; all controls were healthy volunteers. Platelet-rich plasma was isolated from blood and the platelets fixed, stained for CD63 and processed for analysis by immunofluorescence microscopy, using a custom-built SIM microscope. SIM can successfully resolve CD63-positive structures in fixed platelets. A determination of the number of CD63-positive structures per platelet allowed us to conclude that each patient was significantly different from all of the controls with 99% confidence. A super-resolution imaging approach is effective and rapid in objectively differentiating between patients with a platelet bleeding disorder and healthy volunteers. CD63 is a useful marker for predicting Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome and could be used in the diagnosis of patients suspected of other platelet granule disorders. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  8. Modified granulation of red mud by weak gelling and its application to stabilization of Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hui-li; Huang, Sheng-sheng; Luo, Lin; Wu, Gen-yi; Liu, Yan

    2012-08-15

    This study presents a novel modification of red mud (RM) with cementitious materials by rotary drum granulation under partial hydration. Admixtures and surfactants were applied to improve the microspore structure of red mud-based granules in order to stabilize Pb steadily. Through XRD and SEM-EDS analyses, it was demonstrated that calcite, the main alkali in RM, was partially concreted and coated. Compared to pH 12.47 for RM, the lowest pH of the granules was 10.66 implying that the release of OH(-) from hydrolysis and decomposition was decreased. Based on stabilization of Pb, influence on soil properties and forming qualities, composition of the optimum granule PSP was determined as 5% cement, 5% gypsum, 1% rice straw, and 0.1% emulsifier OP-10. Within a 90 d remediation, immobilization of ionic Pb in a 500 mg kg(-1) Pb-contaminated artificial soil was 9.85 mg kg(-1) at day 30 with 5% PSP2 as substitute. Furthermore, the reverse increase diminished as the final concentration was 11.13 mg kg(-1) while it was 14.25 mg kg(-1) by RM. The increase of residual Pb was 122.61%, which was better than the 83.92% of RM. Particularly, the highest pH in mine soil was 11.09 at day 1 with RM, but the decrease of ionic Pb was 46.26%. Meanwhile, a significant deviation from the control soil zeta-potential lasted longer and the recovery was more difficult, as compared to the granules. Therefore, a granulated modification of RM is shown to be very important when aiming at steady release of OH(-) to improve the later stabilization of Pb. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Latent structure analysis in the pharmaceutical process of tablets prepared by wet granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Naoto; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Mochida, Hiroshi; Otoguro, Saori; Onuki, Yoshinori; Obata, Yasuko; Takayama, Kozo

    2016-01-01

    Granule characteristics are some of the important intermediate qualities that determine tablet properties. However, the relationships between granule and tablet characteristics are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate relationships among formulation factors, granule characteristics, and tablet properties using a non-linear response surface method (RSM) incorporating a thin-plate spline interpolation (RSM-S) and a Bayesian network (BN). Tablets containing lactose (Lac), cornstarch (CS), and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were prepared by wet granulation. Ten formulations were prepared by an extreme vertices design. The angle of repose (Y 1 ), compressibility (Y 2 ), cohesion force (Y 3 ), internal friction angle (Y 4 ), and mean particle size (Y 5 ) were measured as granule characteristics. Tensile strength (TS) and disintegration time (DT) were measured as tablet properties. RSM-S results showed that TS increased with increasing amounts of MCC and Lac. DT decreased with increasing amounts of MCC and CS. The optimal BN models were predicted using four evaluation indices -Y 3 was shown to be the most important factor for TS, whereas Y 2 , Y 3 , and Y 4 were relatively important for predicting DT. Moreover, tablets with excellent tablet properties (i.e. high TS and low DT) were produced by relatively high Y 1 , low Y 2 , high Y 3 , high Y 4 , and middle Y 5 values, and resulted from the middle of MCC, middle-to-low CS, low Lac, and middle-to-low magnesium stearate (Mg-St) amounts. The RSM-S and BN techniques are useful for revealing complex relationships among formulation factors, granule characteristics, and tablet properties.

  10. Denervation-induced homeostatic dendritic plasticity in morphological granule cell models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Cuntz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal death and subsequent denervation of target areas are major consequences of several neurological conditions such asischemia or neurodegeneration (Alzheimer's disease. The denervation-induced axonal loss results in reorganization of the dendritic tree of denervated neurons. The dendritic reorganization has been previously studied using entorhinal cortex lesion (ECL. ECL leads to shortening and loss of dendritic segments in the denervated outer molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. However, the functional importance of these long-term dendritic alterations is not yet understood and their impact on neuronal electrical properties remains unclear. Here we analyzed what happens to the electrotonic structure and excitability of dentate granule cells after lesion-induced alterations of their dendritic morphology, assuming all other parameters remain equal. We performed comparative electrotonic analysis in anatomically and biophysically realistic compartmental models of 3D-reconstructed healthy and denervated granule cells. Using the method of morphological modeling based on optimization principles minimizing the amount of wiring and maximizing synaptic democracy, we built artificial granule cells which replicate morphological features of their real counterparts. Our results show that somatofugal and somatopetal voltage attenuation in the passive cable model are strongly reduced in denervated granule cells. In line with these predictions, the attenuation both of simulated backpropagating action potentials and forward propagating EPSPs was significantly reduced in dendrites of denervated neurons. Intriguingly, the enhancement of action potential backpropagation occurred specifically in the denervated dendritic layers. Furthermore, simulations of synaptic f-I curves revealed a homeostatic increase of excitability in denervated granule cells. In summary, our morphological and compartmental modeling indicates that unless modified by changes of

  11. Production of high quality adsorbent charcoal from Phil. Wood II. Granulated activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arida, V.P.; Atienza, O.G.; Quilao, T.A.; Caballero, A.R.; Laxamana, J.S.; Pugal, D.L.; Guce, C.P.

    1992-01-01

    Two Philippine wood species out of twelve earlier studied in part I namely ''ipil-ipil'' Leucaena leucocephala (Lann) de Wit and coconut coir dust were selected for the production of good quality granulated activated carbon. Fluidization method was used in the study. The conditions for the granulation of the carbonized chars using molasses were established. An optimum ratio of 1:0.5 and 1:0.8 (char:binder) was used in the granulation process for ''ipil-ipil'' and coir dust, respectively. Carbonization was done at gradually increasing temperature of 3 0 C/min at 600 0 C. Carbonized granules with particle sizes ranging from 0.5-2.0 mm were used for the activation study. The produced granules were activated in an external heat type stainless steel reactor as mentioned in Part I using steam as activating agent. The physical properties and adsorptive capacity of the activated granular products obtained at varying activation were determined and correlated. Methylene blue adsorption and internal surface area obtained at varying conditions were determined and correlated. Maximum values obtained for methylene blue adsorption and internal surface area are 290 mg/g AC and 1,200m 2 /g AC at 900 0 C, respectively for ''ipil-ipil'' and 390 mg/g AC and 1,000m 2 g AC at 850 0 C respectively for coir dust. Gas adsorption tests done using benzene acetone and carbon tetrachloride for both ''ipil-ipil'' and coir dust activated granular char products showed that both exhibited maximum absorbability at 900 0 C. Results of the study have shown that good quality granulated activated carbon can be produced from ''ipil-ipil'' and coir dust which find suitable applications in various adsorption processes such as organic solvent adsorption, gas adsorption, water purification, oil and sugar refining, among others. (auth.). 3 refs.; 4 tabs.; 14 figs

  12. Prediction on sunspot activity based on fuzzy information granulation and support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lingling; Yan, Haisheng; Yang, Zhigang

    2018-04-01

    In order to analyze the range of sunspots, a combined prediction method of forecasting the fluctuation range of sunspots based on fuzzy information granulation (FIG) and support vector machine (SVM) was put forward. Firstly, employing the FIG to granulate sample data and extract va)alid information of each window, namely the minimum value, the general average value and the maximum value of each window. Secondly, forecasting model is built respectively with SVM and then cross method is used to optimize these parameters. Finally, the fluctuation range of sunspots is forecasted with the optimized SVM model. Case study demonstrates that the model have high accuracy and can effectively predict the fluctuation of sunspots.

  13. Correlation lifetimes of quiet and magnetic granulation from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Title, A.; Tarbell, T.; Topka, K.; Acton, L.; Duncan, D.; Ferguson, S.; Finch, M.; Frank, Z.; Kelly, G.; Lindgren, R.; Morrill, M.; Pope, T.; Reeves, R.; Rehse, R.; Shine, R.; Simon, G.; Harvey, J.; Leibacher, J.; Livingston, W.; November, L.; Zirker, J.

    The time sequences of diffraction limited granulation images obtained by the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter on Spacelab 2 are presented. The uncorrection autocorrelation limetime in magnetic regions is dominated by the 5-min oscillation. The removal of this oscillation causes the autocorrelation lifetime to increase by more than a factor of 2. The results suggest that a significant fraction of granule lifetimes are terminated by nearby explosions. Horizontal displacements and transverse velocities in the intensity field are measured. Lower limits to the lifetime in the quiet and magnetic sun are set at 440 s and 950 s, respectively.

  14. Principles of superheated superconducting granules as a detector for dark matter and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Czapek, G.; Diggelmann, U.; Furlan, M.; Gabutti, A.; Janos, S.; Moser, U.; Pretzl, K.; Schmiemann, K.

    1993-01-01

    The interest in superconducting devices for particle detection is based on the very small quantum energies involved as compared to conventional ionization and semiconductor detectors. The use of superheated superconducting granules (SSG) as a particle detector is reviewed. Physical properties and experimental applications of SSG are discussed. The dynamic responses of the phase transition of superheated superconducting Sn, In, Al and Zn single granules (20-50μm in diameter) due to an applied magnetic field exceeding the superheating threshold are presented. A status report on further experimental development is given. (orig.)

  15. Registering parameters and granules of wave observations: IMAGE RPI success story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, I. A.; Charisi, A.; Fung, S. F.; Benson, R. F.; Reinisch, B. W.

    2015-12-01

    Modern metadata systems strive to help scientists locate data relevant to their research and then retrieve them quickly. Success of this mission depends on the organization and completeness of metadata. Each relevant data resource has to be registered; each content has to be described; each data file has to be accessible. Ultimately, data discoverability is about the practical ability to describe data content and location. Correspondingly, data registration has a "Parameter" level, at which content is specified by listing available observed properties (parameters), and a "Granule" level, at which download links are given to data records (granules). Until recently, both parameter- and granule-level data registrations were accomplished at NASA Virtual System Observatory easily by listing provided parameters and building Granule documents with URLs to the datafile locations, usually those at NASA CDAWeb data warehouse. With the introduction of the Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO), however, the parameter/granule concept faced a scalability challenge. The wave phenomenon content is rich with descriptors of the wave generation, propagation, interaction with propagation media, and observation processes. Additionally, the wave phenomenon content varies from record to record, reflecting changes in the constituent processes, making it necessary to generate granule documents at sub-minute resolution. We will present the first success story of registering 234,178 records of IMAGE Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) plasmagram data and Level 2 derived data products in ESPAS (near-Earth Space Data Infrastructure for e-Science), using the VWO-inspired wave ontology. The granules are arranged in overlapping display and numerical data collections. Display data include (a) auto-prospected plasmagrams of potential interest, (b) interesting plasmagrams annotated by human analysts or software, and (c) spectacular plasmagrams annotated by analysts as publication-quality examples of the RPI science

  16. Biosorption of Sr(II) from aqueous solutions using aerobic granules. Equilibrium and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wang; Xiang Liu; Xiao-feng Chen; Duu-Jong Lee; Joo-Hwa Tay; Yi Zhang; Chun-li Wan

    2015-01-01

    Aqueous strontium biosorption using aerobic granules was investigated. Parameters affecting the biosorption were optimized, including initial pH, biomass dosage, temperature, and rotation speed. The equilibrium data were fitted using Langmuir and Freundlich models, and both could well describe the process (R 2 = 0.987 and 0.989, respectively). Ion exchange and water-desorption experiments were conducted, and ion exchange together with physical adsorption were found to be the main mechanisms. The aerobic granules were characterized with methods including scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that surface complexation could also be involved in the Sr(II) biosorption. (author)

  17. Dependence of some characteristics of granulated wurtzite boron nitride powders on conditions of their production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkogon, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    Compaction of wurtzite boron nitride powders (both pure and with plasticizers) by different methods is studied for its peculiarities. Compaction of powders in all cases is established to obey basic regularities of compaction. Such physical and technological characteristics of wurtzite boron nitride powders granulated after preliminary compaction as specific surface, bulk weight and yield point are studied. It is shown that properties of these powders depend on the method of their compaction prior to granulation. Powders produced after preliminary compaction of initial BN W powders under high static and dynamic pressures possess the best characteristics

  18. Trajectory Analysis Unveils Reelin's Role in the Directed Migration of Granule Cells in the Dentate Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaobo; Brunne, Bianka; Zhao, Shanting; Chai, Xuejun; Li, Jiawei; Lau, Jeremie; Failla, Antonio Virgilio; Zobiak, Bernd; Sibbe, Mirjam; Westbrook, Gary L; Lutz, David; Frotscher, Michael

    2018-01-03

    Reelin controls neuronal migration and layer formation. Previous studies in reeler mice deficient in Reelin focused on the result of the developmental process in fixed tissue sections. It has remained unclear whether Reelin affects the migratory process, migration directionality, or migrating neurons guided by the radial glial scaffold. Moreover, Reelin has been regarded as an attractive signal because newly generated neurons migrate toward the Reelin-containing marginal zone. Conversely, Reelin might be a stop signal because migrating neurons in reeler , but not in wild-type mice, invade the marginal zone. Here, we monitored the migration of newly generated proopiomelanocortin-EGFP -expressing dentate granule cells in slice cultures from reeler , reeler -like mutants and wild-type mice of either sex using real-time microscopy. We discovered that not the actual migratory process and migratory speed, but migration directionality of the granule cells is controlled by Reelin. While wild-type granule cells migrated toward the marginal zone of the dentate gyrus, neurons in cultures from reeler and reeler -like mutants migrated randomly in all directions as revealed by vector analyses of migratory trajectories. Moreover, live imaging of granule cells in reeler slices cocultured to wild-type dentate gyrus showed that the reeler neurons changed their directions and migrated toward the Reelin-containing marginal zone of the wild-type culture, thus forming a compact granule cell layer. In contrast, directed migration was not observed when Reelin was ubiquitously present in the medium of reeler slices. These results indicate that topographically administered Reelin controls the formation of a granule cell layer. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neuronal migration and the various factors controlling its onset, speed, directionality, and arrest are poorly understood. Slice cultures offer a unique model to study the migration of individual neurons in an almost natural environment. In the

  19. Recent results on avalanche phenomena for Al and Zn superconducting granule colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, P.; Gebauer, J.; Boniface, J.; Gonzalez-Mestres, L.; Perret-Gallix, D.

    1989-11-01

    Recent results on Al and Zn superheated superconducting granules (SSG) embedded into varnish GE 7031, and operated at very low temperature (down to 40 mK) are presented. The observed signals exhibit possible evidence for avalanche phenomena that could be due to thermal exchanges inside the detector. Such a result may confirm previous claims based on tests with Cd granules at T < 300 mK. Present observations indeed suggest that the SSG colloid should be dealt with as a composite medium rather than as an assembly of single grains

  20. [Clinical evaluation of cefdinir 5% fine granules in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, N; Nakamura, H; Taneda, Y; Miyazu, M; Kasai, K; Watanabe, Y

    1991-10-01

    Clinical evaluation in pediatrics on cefdinir (CFDN, FK482) (5% fine granules), a new oral cephem, was performed. 1. CFDN was administered to 112 pediatric patients with ages between 1 month to 13 years with various infections. Dose levels used were 3.0-8.9 mg/kg (mean 5.1 mg/kg) t.i.d. for 3-14 days (mean 6.7 days). The studied patients included 2 patients with scarlet fever, 6 with acute pharyngitis, 6 with acute rhinopharyngitis, 52 with acute purulent tonsillitis, 8 with acute bronchitis, 24 with acute pneumonia, 7 with acute urinary tract infections, 1 with acute vaginitis, and 6 with impetigo. Total doses ranged from 0.6 to 4.05 g. One hundred eleven of the 112 patients were evaluated for clinical efficacy and all the patients were evaluated for safety. 2. Clinical effects were excellent in 51 cases, good in 57, and fair in 3 with an extremely high efficacy rate of 97.3%. Efficacy rates were 100% in scarlet fever, acute pharyngitis, acute purulent tonsillitis, acute bronchitis, acute vaginitis and impetigo, and 83.3%, 95.7%, 85.7% in acute rhinopharyngitis, acute pneumonia, and acute urinary tract infections, respectively. Good clinical effects were observed regardless of diseases. 3. Causative organisms were identified in 79 cases, of which 71 were found to be monobacterial infections and 8 were found to be multi-bacterial infections. In mono-bacterial infections, clinical efficacies were 100% for those caused by Staphylococcus aureus/Streptococcus pyogenes/Streptococcus pneumoniae/beta-Streptococcus except those in A and B groups with an overall efficacy of 100% against Gram-positive cocci (GPC) and they were 89.5%, 100%, 100% for those caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Escherichia coli, respectively, with an overall efficacy of 90.3% in Gram-negative rods (GNR). In multi-bacterial infections also, a clinical efficacy of 100% was obtained. 4. Bacteriological effects were studied for 89 strains in the 79 cases. The eradication