WorldWideScience

Sample records for enhancing anaerobic degradation

  1. Enhanced degradation of waste grass clippings in one and two stage anaerobic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, S; Kuang, Y; Pullammanappallil, P

    2005-09-01

    The present work investigated the use of a simple rumen-fluid-inoculated anaerobic treatment system for the degradation of organic waste. Fresh rumen fluid collected from a fistulated sheep was used as the inoculum and fresh grass clippings were used as the waste material for treatment. Studies were carried out on both a one-stage system where the ligno-cellulosic fraction breaks down into a mixture of soluble products including volatile fatty acids and a two- stage system where these products are subsequently mineralised to biogas. In the one stage system about 70% of the organic waste was solubilized and in the two stage system about 60% waste material was solubilized in a week. About 50% of the degradation was achieved in a 4 day period, showing that a 4 day solids retention time would be a suitable operating regime. The maximum volatile fatty acid production rate was 327 mg COD l(-1) h(-1). A higher loading rate of 30 g l(-1) d(-1) was achieved in these systems compared to anaerobic digesters. Microbiological studies showed an increase in the number of fungal spores as well as a decrease in the number of protozoa in the treatment system. These numbers attained stable values over the duration of the experiments. The system developed is superior to conventional composting or anaerobic digestion and can be applied for the treatment of ligno-cellulosic agricultural residues.

  2. Enhanced Gene Detection Assays for Fumarate-Adding Enzymes Allow Uncovering of Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degraders in Terrestrial and Marine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Netzer, Frederick; Pilloni, Giovanni; Kleindienst, Sara; Krüger, Martin; Knittel, Katrin; Gründger, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    The detection of anaerobic hydrocarbon degrader populations via catabolic gene markers is important for the understanding of processes at contaminated sites. Fumarate-adding enzymes (FAEs; i.e., benzylsuccinate and alkylsuccinate synthases) have already been established as specific functional marker genes for anaerobic hydrocarbon degraders. Several recent studies based on pure cultures and laboratory enrichments have shown the existence of new and deeply branching FAE gene lineages, such as clostridial benzylsuccinate synthases and homologues, as well as naphthylmethylsuccinate synthases. However, established FAE gene detection assays were not designed to target these novel lineages, and consequently, their detectability in different environments remains obscure. Here, we present a new suite of parallel primer sets for detecting the comprehensive range of FAE markers known to date, including clostridial benzylsuccinate, naphthylmethylsuccinate, and alkylsuccinate synthases. It was not possible to develop one single assay spanning the complete diversity of FAE genes alone. The enhanced assays were tested with a range of hydrocarbon-degrading pure cultures, enrichments, and environmental samples of marine and terrestrial origin. They revealed the presence of several, partially unexpected FAE gene lineages not detected in these environments before: distinct deltaproteobacterial and also clostridial bssA homologues as well as environmental nmsA homologues. These findings were backed up by dual-digest terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism diagnostics to identify FAE gene populations independently of sequencing. This allows rapid insights into intrinsic degrader populations and degradation potentials established in aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon-impacted environmental systems. PMID:23124238

  3. Pretreatment of bagasse and coconut fibres for enhanced anaerobic degradation by rumen microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivaisi, A.K.; Eliapenda, S. (Dar es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania, United Republic of). Applied Microbiology Unit)

    1994-08-01

    Both chemical pretreatment and particle size affected total fibre degradation and production of methane and volatile fatty acids from these waste materials significantly compared to the untreated materials. Pretreatment of bagasse with sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and ammonium hydroxide followed by incubations for 168 h increased fibre degradation by 11, 31 and 14%, respectively. Pretreatment of coconut fibres increased degradation by 55, 74 and 46%. Methane yield from bagasse was increased by 44, 32 and 22%, and from coconut fibres 73,76 and 46%. Amounts of volatile fatty acids produced from bagasse and coconut fibres increased by 42, 37 and 11%, and 40, 28 and 11 %, respectively. By reducing particle sizes of bagasse and coconut fibres from 5 mm to less than 0.85 mm, total fibre degradation increased by over 40%, the yields of methane increased by an average of 30%, and those of volatile fatty acids by about the same order of magnitude. The suitability of using pretreated lignocellulosic waste biomass as a substrate for methane production in Rumen Derived Anaerobic Digestion -process is discussed. (Author)

  4. Anaerobic benzene degradation by bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Carsten; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Richnow, Hans‐Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Summary Benzene is a widespread and toxic contaminant. The fate of benzene in contaminated aquifers seems to be primarily controlled by the abundance of oxygen: benzene is aerobically degraded at high rates by ubiquitous microorganisms, and the oxygen‐dependent pathways for its breakdown were elucidated more than 50 years ago. In contrast, benzene was thought to be persistent under anoxic conditions until 25 years ago. Nevertheless, within the last 15 years, several benzene‐degrading cultures have been enriched under varying electron acceptor conditions in laboratories around the world, and organisms involved in anaerobic benzene degradation have been identified, indicating that anaerobic benzene degradation is a relevant environmental process. However, only a few benzene degraders have been isolated in pure culture so far, and they all use nitrate as an electron acceptor. In some highly enriched strictly anaerobic cultures, benzene has been described to be mineralized cooperatively by two or more different organisms. Despite great efforts, the biochemical mechanism by which the aromatic ring of benzene is activated in the absence of oxygen is still not fully elucidated; methylation, hydroxylation and carboxylation are discussed as likely reactions. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the ‘key players’ of anaerobic benzene degradation under different electron acceptor conditions and the possible pathway(s) of anaerobic benzene degradation. PMID:21450012

  5. Synergistic effect of co-digestion to enhance anaerobic degradation of catering waste and orange peel for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Muzammil; Khalid, Azeem; Qadeer, Samia; Miandad, Rashid

    2017-09-01

    Catering waste and orange peel were co-digested using an anaerobic digestion process. Orange peel is difficult to degrade anaerobically due to the presence of antimicrobial agents such as limonene. The present study aimed to examine the feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of catering waste with orange peel to provide the optimum nutrient balance with reduced inhibitory effects of orange peel. Batch experiments were conducted using catering waste as a potential substrate mixed in varying ratios (20-50%) with orange peel. Similar ratios were followed using green vegetable waste as co-substrate. The results showed that the highest organic matter degradation (49%) was achieved with co-digestion of catering waste and orange peel at a 50% mixing ratio (CF4). Similarly, the soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) was increased by 51% and reached its maximum value (9040 mg l -1 ) due to conversion of organic matter from insoluble to soluble form. Biogas production was increased by 1.5 times in CF4 where accumulative biogas was 89.61 m 3 t -1 substrate compared with 57.35 m 3 t -1 substrate in the control after 80 days. The main reason behind the improved biogas production and degradation is the dilution of inhibitory factors (limonene), with subsequent provision of balanced nutrients in the co-digestion system. The tCOD of the final digestate was decreased by 79.9% in CF4, which was quite high as compared with 68.3% for the control. Overall, this study revealed that orange peel waste is a highly feasible co-substrate for anaerobic digestion with catering waste for enhanced biogas production.

  6. Enhanced degradation of 14C-HCB in two tropical clay soils using multiple anaerobic-aerobic cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengara, Fredrick Orori; Doerfler, Ulrike; Welzl, Gerhard; Ruth, Bernhard; Munch, Jean Charles; Schroll, Reiner

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to induce and enhance the degradation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a highly-chlorinated persistent organic pollutant, in two ecologically different tropical soils: a paddy soil (PS) and a non-paddy soil (FS). The degradation of HCB was enhanced using two anaerobic-aerobic cycles in model laboratory experiments. There was greater degradation of HCB in the PS (half-life of 224 days) relative to the FS (half-life of 286 days). It was further shown that soils amended with compost had higher metabolite concentrations relative to the non-amended soils. In the first cycle, there was little degradation of HCB in both soils. However, in the second cycle, there was enhanced mineralization in the PS under aerobic conditions, with the compost-treated samples showing higher mineralization. There was also extensive volatilization in both soils. The metabolite pattern revealed that the increased mineralization and volatilization was due to the formation of lower chlorinated benzenes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anaerobic Degradation of Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Schink, Bernhard; Philipp, Bodo; Jochen A Müller

    2000-01-01

    Mononuclear aromatic compounds are degraded anaerobically through three main pathways, the benzoyl-CoA pathway, the resorcinol pathway, and the phloroglucinol pathway. Various modification reactions channel a broad variety of mononuclear aromatics including aromatic hydrocarbons into either one of these three pathways. Recently, a further pathway was discovered with hydroxyhydroquinone as central intermediate through which especially nitrate-reducing bacteria degrade phenolic compounds and so...

  8. In-situ formation and immobilization of biogenic nanopalladium into anaerobic granular sludge enhances azo dyes degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Xiangchun; Zhang, Xin; Xu, Hengduo

    2015-07-01

    Azo dyes are toxic and recalcitrant wastewater pollutants. An innovative technology based on biogenic nanopalladium (Bio-Pd) supported anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) was developed for azo dyes reduction. In-situ formation of Bio-Pd in the AGS was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The Pd associated AGS (Pd-AGS) showed enhanced decolorization rates to the three azo dyes of Congo Red, Evans Blue and Orange II, with the degradation kinetic constants increased by 2.3-10 fold compared to the control AGS in the presence of electron donor formate. Impacts of different electron donors on Orange II decolorization were further investigated. Results showed that formic acid, formate, acetate, glucose, ethanol and lactate could serve as electron and hydrogen donors to stimulate Orange II decolorization by the Pd-AGS, and their activities followed the order: formic acid > formate > ethanol > glucose > lactate > acetate. Most of the Bio-Pd was bound with microbes in the AGS with a small fraction in the extracellular polymer substances (EPS). Transmission Electronic Microscopy analysis revealed that the Bio-Pd formed in the periplasmic space, cytoplasm and on the cell walls of bacteria. This study provides a new concept for azo dye reduction, which couples sludge microbial degradation ability with Bio-Pd catalytic ability via in-situ formation and immobilization of Bio-Pd into AGS, and offers an alternative for the current azo dye treatment technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Haagensen, Frank; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) found in wastewater is removed in the wastewater treatment facilities by sorption and aerobic biodegradation. The anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge has not been shown to contribute to the removal. The concentration of LAS based on dry matter typically...... increases during anaerobic stabilization due to transformation of easily degradable organic matter. Hence, LAS is regarded as resistant to biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. We present data from a lab-scale semi-continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) spiked with linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C...

  10. Enhanced anaerobic degradation of Fischer-Tropsch wastewater by integrated UASB system with Fe-C micro-electrolysis assisted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dexin; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Li, Kun; Xu, Hao; Fang, Fang; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong

    2016-12-01

    Coupling of the Fe-C micro-electrolysis (IC-ME) into the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was developed for enhanced Fischer-Tropsch wastewater treatment. The COD removal efficiency and methane production in R3 with IC-ME assisted both reached up to 80.6 ± 1.7% and 1.38 ± 0.11 L/L·d that higher than those values in R1 with GAC addition (63.0 ± 3.4% and 0.95 ± 0.09 L/L·d) and R2 with ZVI addition (74.5 ± 2.8% and 1.21 ± 0.09 L/L·d) under the optimum HRT (5 d). The Fe corrosion as electron donor reduced the ORP values and stimulated the activities of hydrogenotrophic methanogens to lower H2 partial pressure in R2 and R3. Additionally, Fe2+ as by-product of iron corrosion, its presence could effectively increase the percentage of protein content in tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances (TB-EPS) to promote better bioflocculation, increasing to 90.5 mg protein/g·VSS (R2) and 106.3 mg protein/g·VSS (R3) while this value in R1 was simply 56.6 mg protein/g·VSS. More importantly, compared with R1, the excess accumulation of propionic acid and butyric acid in system was avoided. The macroscopic galvanic cells around Fe-C micro-electrolysis carriers in R3, that larger than microscopic galvanic cells in R2, further accelerate to transfer the electrons from anodic Fe to cathodic carbon that enhance interspecies hydrogen transfer, making the decomposition of propionic acid and butyric acid more thermodynamically feasible, finally facilitate more methane production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Targeted modification of organic components of municipal solid waste by short-term pre-aeration and its enhancement on anaerobic degradation in simulated landfill bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhe; Liu, Jianguo; Girotto, Francesca; Cossu, Raffaello; Qi, Guangxia

    2016-09-01

    Pre-aeration is effective on regulating subsequent anaerobic degradation of municipal solid waste (MSW) with high organic fractions during landfilling. The strength of pre-aeration should be optimized to intentionally remove some easily biodegradable fractions while conserve bio-methane potential as much as possible. This study investigates the evolution of organic components in MSW during 2-14days pre-aeration process and its impacts on subsequent anaerobic degradation in simulated landfill bioreactors. Results showed that a 6-day pre-aeration enabled to develop a thermophilic stage, which significantly accelerated biodegradation of organics except lignocelluloses, with removal rates of 42.8%, 76.7% and 25.1% for proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, respectively. Particularly, ammonia from accelerated ammonification in the thermophilic stage neutralized VFAs generated from anaerobic landfilling. As a result, the MSW with 6-day pre-aeration obtained the highest methane yield 123.4NL/kg dry matter. Therefore, it is recommended to interrupt pre-aeration before its cooling stage to switch to anaerobic landfilling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Natural and enhanced anaerobic degradation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and its degradation products in the subsurface – A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Durant, Neal D.; Hansen, Maria Heisterberg

    2011-01-01

    demonstrating the utility of bioaugmentation with Dhb cultures for remediation of TCA in the field. In this paper we review the state-of-the-science of TCA degradation in aquifers, examining results from both laboratory experiments and twenty-two field case studies, focusing on the capabilities and limits...

  13. Anaerobic Degradation of Aromatic Compounds by Magnetospirillum Strains: Isolation and Degradation Genes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SHINODA, Yoshifumi; AKAGI, Junya; UCHIHASHI, Yasumitsu; HIRAISHI, Akira; YUKAWA, Hideaki; YURIMOTO, Hiroya; SAKAI, Yasuyoshi; KATO, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    .... It was confirmed that the genus Magnetospirillum represents the third genus of denitrifying bacteria capable of degrading aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions, besides the genera Thauera and Azoarcus.

  14. Combined Anaerobic-Aerobic Bacterial Degradation of Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wilfred Sugumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewaters from the dye baths of a non-formal textile-dyeing unit containing C.I. Acid Orange 7 and C.I. Reactive Red 2 were subjected to degradation in a sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment process based on mixed culture of bacteria. The technical samples of the dyestuffs and the dye bath wastes were treated in an anaerobic reactor, using an adapted mixed culture of anaerobic microorganisms. The dyestuffs were biotransformed into colourless substituted amine metabolites in the reactor. The biotransformation was assisted by co-metabolic process. The amine metabolites did not undergo further degradation in the anaerobic reactor. The effluent from the anaerobic reactor was treated in an aerobic rotating biological contactor and the amine metabolites were found to undergo complete mineralization. This two stage treatment resulted in 94% elimination of dissolved organic carbon. In addition, 85% of organic nitrogen was converted into nitrate in the aerobic reactor during nitrification process.

  15. The degradability of biodegradable plastics in aerobic and anaerobic waste landfill model reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Tomonori; Sugano, Wataru; Nakanishi, Akane; Tateda, Masafumi; Ike, Michihiko; Fujita, Masanori

    2004-01-01

    Degradabilities of four kinds of commercial biodegradable plastics (BPs), polyhydroxybutyrate and hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) plastic, polycaprolactone plastic (PCL), blend of starch and polyvinyl alcohol (SPVA) plastic and cellulose acetate (CA) plastic were investigated in waste landfill model reactors that were operated as anaerobically and aerobically. The application of forced aeration to the landfill reactor for supplying aerobic condition could potentially stimulate polymer-degrading microorganisms. However, the individual degradation behavior of BPs under the aerobic condition was completely different. PCL, a chemically synthesized BP, showed film breakage under the both conditions, which may have contributed to a reduction in the waste volume regardless of aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Effective degradation of PHBV plastic was observed in the aerobic condition, though insufficient degradation was observed in the anaerobic condition. But the aeration did not contribute much to accelerate the volume reduction of SPVA plastic and CA plastic. It could be said that the recalcitrant portions of the plastics such as polyvinyl alcohol in SPVA plastic and the highly substituted CA in CA plastic prevented the BP from degradation. These results indicated existence of the great variations in the degradability of BPs in aerobic and anaerobic waste landfills, and suggest that suitable technologies for managing the waste landfill must be combined with utilization of BPs in order to enhance the reduction of waste volume in landfill sites.

  16. Degradation of formaldehyde in anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.S. [Laboratorio de Processos Biologicos (LPB), Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Engenharia Ambiental, Bloco 4-F, Av. Joao Dagnone, 1100 Santa Angelina, 13.563-120 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Zaiat, M. [Laboratorio de Processos Biologicos (LPB), Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Engenharia Ambiental, Bloco 4-F, Av. Joao Dagnone, 1100 Santa Angelina, 13.563-120 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: zaiat@sc.usp.br

    2009-04-30

    The present study evaluated the degradation of formaldehyde in a bench-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor, which contained biomass immobilized in polyurethane foam matrices. The reactor was operated for 212 days at 35 deg. C with 8 h sequential cycles, under different affluent formaldehyde concentrations ranging from 31.6 to 1104.4 mg/L (formaldehyde loading rates from 0.08 to 2.78 kg/m{sup 3} day). The results indicate excellent reactor stability and over 99% efficiency in formaldehyde removal, with average effluent formaldehyde concentration of 3.6 {+-} 1.7 mg/L. Formaldehyde degradation rates increased from 204.9 to 698.3 mg/L h as the initial concentration of formaldehyde was increased from around 100 to around 1100 mg/L. However, accumulation of organic matter was observed in the effluent (chemical oxygen demand (COD) values above 500 mg/L) due to the presence of non-degraded organic acids, especially acetic and propionic acids. This observation poses an important question regarding the anaerobic route of formaldehyde degradation, which might differ substantially from that reported in the literature. The anaerobic degradation pathway can be associated with the formation of long-chain oligomers from formaldehyde. Such long- or short-chain polymers are probably the precursors of organic acid formation by means of acidogenic anaerobic microorganisms.

  17. Enhanced anaerobic digestion of corn stover by thermo-chemical pretreatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang Fang; Niu Weisheng; Zhang Andong; Yi Weiming

    2015-01-01

      In order to solve the problem of lignocellulose degraded speedily and efficiently in anaerobic digestion, the thermo-chemical pretreatment was applied to enhance biogas production from corn stover...

  18. Anaerobic degradation of benzoate by sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, S.P.; Adorno, M.A.T.; Moraes, E.M.; Varesche, M.B.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Biological Processes Laboratory

    2004-07-01

    Anaerobic processes are an efficient way to degrade aromatic compounds in industrial wastewater, such as phenol, cresol and benzoate. This study characterized the bacteria that degrades benzoate, an anaerobic degradation intermediate of several complex aromatic compounds. In particular, the study assessed the capacity to use benzoate with sulfate reducing bacteria in mesophilic conditions. Biofilm from polyurethane foam matrices of a fixed bed reactor was used as the cellular inoculum to treat industrial wastewater containing organic peroxide. Dilution techniques were used to purify the material and obtain cultures of cocci. The benzoate consumption capacity in sulfidogenic conditions was observed when the purified inoculum was applied to batch reactors with different benzoate/sulfate relations. Results indicate that purification was positive to bacteria that can degrade aromatic compounds. Desulfococcus multivorans bacteria was identified following the physiologic and kinetic experiments. The 0.6 benzoate/sulfate relation was considered ideal for complete consumption of carbon and total use of sulfur. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Enhanced biogas yield from energy crops with rumen anaerobic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochazka, Jindrich; Zabranska, Jana; Dohanyos, Michal [Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Mrazek, Jakub; Strosova, Lenka; Fliegerova, Katerina [Laboratory of Anaerobic Microbiology, Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, CAS, v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-06-15

    Anaerobic fungi (AF) are able to degrade crop substrates with higher efficiency than commonly used anaerobic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate ways of use of rumen AF to improve biogas production from energy crops under laboratory conditions. In this study, strains of AF isolated from feces or rumen fluid of cows and deer were tested for their ability to integrate into the anaerobic bacterial ecosystem used for biogas production, in order to improve degradation of substrate polysaccharides and consequently the biogas yield. Batch culture, fed batch culture, and semicontinuous experiments have been performed using anaerobic sludge from pig slurry fermentation and different kinds of substrates (celluloses, maize, and grass silage) inoculated by different genera of AF. All experiments showed a positive effect of AF on the biogas yield and quality. AF improved the biogas production by 4-22%, depending on the substrate and AF species used. However, all the cultivation experiments indicated that rumen fungi do not show long-term survival in fermenters with digestate from pig slurry. The best results were achieved during fed batch experiment with fungal culture Anaeromyces (KF8), in which biogas production was enhanced during the whole experimental period of 140 days. This result has not been achieved in semicontinuous experiment, where increment in biogas production in fungal enriched reactor was only 4% after 42 days. (copyright 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Parameter identification of thermophilic anaerobic degradation of valerate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flotats, X; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    Mathematical model of the decomposition of valerate presents 3 unknown kinetic parameters, 2 unknown stoichiometric coefficients and 3 unknown initial concentrations for biomass. Applying a structural identifiability study, it is concluded that it is necessary to perform simultaneous batch...... experiments have been done at 55 degree C, charcterised by four different initial acetate concentrations. Product inhibition of valerate degradation by acetate is considered. Practical identification has been done optimising the sum of the multiple determination coefficients for all measured state variables...... form. Stoichiometry of valerate anaerobic decomposition has also been established, with the following yeild coefficients: 0.072 g biomass/g Val, 0.52 g Ac/g Val and 0.73 g Pr/g Val. Kinetic parameter values are not significantly different from kinetic values for butyrate anaerobic degradation found...

  1. Anaerobic degradation of phenylacetic acid by mixed and pure cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sembiring, T.; Winter, J.

    1989-07-01

    A phenylacetic acid-degrading mixed culture was enriched from effluent of an anaerobic reactor for the treatment of waste water from cellulose bleaching. From this consortium a phenylacetic acid-degrading pure culture, strain DSU3, was isolated and, due to its typical morphology and substrate spectrum, tentatively classified as a Desulfosarcina sp. It could grow on and degrade phenylacetic acid, cyclohexane carboxylate, cyclohexylacetate, benzoate, fumaric acid and several volatile fatty acids, while phenol, o-hydroxybenzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate and glucose were not utilized. Production of mandelic acid from phenylacetic acid by the enrichment culture and utilization of benzoate, an intermediate of the mandelic acid pathway, by strain DSU3 may presumably indicate degradation of phenylacetic acid via the mandelic acid pathway.

  2. Ultrasonic and Thermal Pretreatments on Anaerobic Digestion of Petrochemical Sludge: Dewaterability and Degradation of PAHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Xu, Weizhong; Wong, Jonathan W. C.; Yong, Xiaoyu; Yan, Binghua; Zhang, Xueying; Jia, Honghua

    2015-01-01

    Effects of different pretreatment methods on sludge dewaterability and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion were studied. Results showed that the total biogas production volume in the thermal pretreatment system was 4 and 5 times higher than that in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system, and the corresponding volatile solid removal efficiencies reached 28%, 15%, and 8%. Phenanthrene, paranaphthalene, fluoranthene, benzofluoranthene, and benzopyrene removal rates reached 43.3%, 55.5%, 30.6%, 42.9%, and 41.7%, respectively, in the thermal pretreatment system, which were much higher than those in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system. Moreover, capillary suction time (CST) of sludge increased after pretreatment, and then reduced after 20 days of anaerobic digestion, indicating that sludge dewaterability was greatly improved after anaerobic digestion. The decrease of protein and polysaccharide in the sludge could improve sludge dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. This study suggested that thermal pretreatment might be a promising enhancement method for petrochemical sludge solubilization, thus contributing to degradation of the PAHs, biogas production, and improvement of dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. PMID:26327510

  3. Anaerobic degradation of alkylated benzenes in denitrifying laboratory aquifer columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, E P; Zeyer, J; Eicher, P; Schwarzenbach, R P

    1988-01-01

    Toluene and m-xylene were rapidly mineralized in an anaerobic laboratory aquifer column operated under continuous-flow conditions with nitrate as an electron acceptor. The oxidation of toluene and m-xylene was coupled with the reduction of nitrate, and mineralization was confirmed by trapping 14CO2 evolved from 14C-ring-labeled substrates. Substrate degradation also took place when nitrous oxide replaced nitrate as an electron acceptor, but decomposition was inhibited in the presence of molecular oxygen or after the substitution of nitrate by nitrite. The m-xylene-adapted microorganisms in the aquifer column degraded toluene, benzaldehyde, benzoate, m-toluylaldehyde, m-toluate, m-cresol, p-cresol, and p-hydroxybenzoate but were unable to metabolize benzene, naphthalene, methylcyclohexane, and 1,3-dimethylcyclohexane. Isotope-dilution experiments suggested benzoate as an intermediate formed during anaerobic toluene metabolism. The finding that the highly water-soluble nitrous oxide served as electron acceptor for the anaerobic mineralization of some aromatic hydrocarbons may offer attractive options for the in situ restoration of polluted aquifers. PMID:3355134

  4. Anaerobic degradation of alkylated benzenes in denitrifying laboratory aquifer columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, E.P.; Zeyer, J.; Eicher, P.; Schwarzenbach, R.P.

    1988-02-01

    Toluene and m-xylene were rapidly mineralized in an anaerobic laboratory aquifer column operated under continuous-flow conditions with nitrate as an electron acceptor. The oxidation of toluene and m-xylene was coupled with the reduction of nitrate, and mineralization was confirmed by trapping /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ evolved from /sup 14/C-ring-labeled substrates. Substrate degradation also took place when nitrous oxide replaced nitrate as an electron acceptor, but decomposition was inhibited in the presence of molecular oxygen or after the substitution of nitrate by nitrite. The m-xylene-adapted microorganisms in the aquifer column degraded toluene, benzaldehyde, benzoate, m-toluylaldehyde, m-toluate, m-cresol, p-cresol, and p-hydroxybenzoate but were unable to metabolize benzene, naphthalene, methylcyclohexane, and 1,3-dimethylcyclohexane. Isotope-dilution experiments suggested benzoate as an intermediate formed during anaerobic toluene metabolism. The finding that the highly water-soluble nitrous oxide served as electron acceptor for the anaerobic mineralization of some aromatic hydrocarbons may offer attractive options for the in situ restoration of polluted aquifers.

  5. Degradation of Methanethiol in a Continuously Operated Upflow Anaerobic Sludge-Blanket Reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipma, J.; Bree, van R.; Janssen, A.J.H.; Arena, B.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lettinga, G.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing volatile organic sulfur compounds was investigated using biomass originating from an anaerobic wastewater treatment facility treating brewery wastewater. Interest focused mainly on the degradation of methanethiol (MT), an extremely

  6. Specific methanogenic activity test for anaerobic degradation of influents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Athar; Dubey, Shashi Kant

    2017-05-01

    Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) determines the methane-producing capability of the sludge for a specific substrate. Methanogenic activity test can be used to delineate the operating conditions for anaerobic systems and a parameter to assess the system performance by giving a better perceptive of the system and its stability. At the beginning of the start-up period of a new digester, the SMA is of great importance for the determination of proper initial organic loading rate. In different phases, a regular determination of SMA also ascertains the development stages of the sludge. Also, a change in SMA indicates an inhibition or an accumulation of slow degradable or even non-biodegradable organic matter from the influents. This paper reviews the SMA of anaerobic sludge under different operating conditions using different substrates.

  7. Anaerobic degradation of toluene by pure cultures of denitrifying bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schocher, R J; Seyfried, B; Vazquez, F; Zeyer, J

    1991-01-01

    Several denitrifying Pseudomonas spp., isolated with various aromatic compounds, were tested for the ability to degrade toluene in the absence of molecular oxygen. Four out of seven strains were able to degrade toluene in the presence of N2O. More than 50% of the 14C from ring-labelled toluene was released as CO2, and up to 37% was assimilated into cell material. Furthermore it was demonstrated for two strains that they were able to grow on toluene as the sole carbon and energy source in the presence of N2O. Suspensions of cells pregrown on toluene degraded toluene, benzaldehyde or benzoate without a lag phase and without accumulation of intermediates. p-Cresol, p-hydroxybenzylalcohol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde or p-hydroxybenzoate was degraded much slower or only after distinct lag times. In the presence of fluoroacetate [14C]toluene was transformed to [14C]benzoate, which suggests that anaerobic toluene degradation proceeds through oxidation of the methyl side chain to benzoate.

  8. Metagenomic and proteomic analyses to elucidate the mechanism of anaerobic benzene degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu Laban, Nidal [Helmholtz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the mechanism of anaerobic benzene degradation using metagenomic and proteomic analyses. The objective of the study is to find out the microbes and biochemistry involved in benzene degradation. Hypotheses are proposed for the initial activation mechanism of benzene under anaerobic conditions. Two methods for degradation, molecular characterization and identification of benzene-degrading enzymes, are described. The physiological and molecular characteristics of iron-reducing enrichment culture are given and the process is detailed. Metagenome analysis of iron-reducing culture is presented using a pie chart. From the metagenome analysis of benzene-degrading culture, putative mobile element genes were identified in the aromatic-degrading configurations. Metaproteomic analysis of iron-reducing cultures and the anaerobic benzene degradation pathway are also elucidated. From the study, it can be concluded that gram-positive bacteria are involved in benzene degradation under iron-reducing conditions and that the catalysis mechanism of putative anaerobic benzene carboxylase needs further investigation.

  9. Anaerobic degradation of acetone by Desulfococcus biacutus spec. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platen, H; Temmes, A; Schink, B

    1990-01-01

    From anaerobic digestor sludge of a waste water treatment plant, a gram-negative, strictly anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacterium was isolated with acetone as sole organic substrate. The bacterium was characterized as a new species, Desulfococcus biacutus. The strain grew with acetone with doubling times of 72 h to 120 h; the growth yield was 12.0 (+/- 2.1) g x [mol acetone]-1. Acetone was oxidized completely, and no isopropanol was formed. In labelling studies with 14CO2, cell lipids (including approx. 50% PHB) of acetone-grown cells became labelled 7 times as high as those of 3-hydroxy-butyrate-grown cells. Enzyme studies indicated that acetone was degraded via acetoacetyl-CoA, and that acetone was channeled into the intermediary metabolism after condensation with carbon dioxide to a C4-compound, possibly free acetoacetate. Acetoacetyl-CoA is cleaved by a thiolase reaction to acetyl-CoA which is completely oxidized through the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway. Strain KMRActS was deposited with the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen, Braunschweig, under the number DSM 5651.

  10. Sulfamethoxazole degradation in anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria sludge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yanyan; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Zhang, Huiqun; Chen, Guang-Hao; Lu, Hui

    2017-08-01

    Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is one of the most commonly used antibiotics. SMX degradation in sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) sludge systems has not been reported so far. This research investigated the SMX degradation using SRB sludge in a sulfate-reducing up-flow sludge bed reactor. Moreover, the mechanisms and kinetics of SMX removal were also investigated using SRB sludge via a series of batch experiments. The results showed that SMX removal was characterized by a rapid sorption onto SRB sludge, and desorption from SRB sludge to aqueous phase until achieving equilibrium, and then followed by slow biodegradation. Biodegradation was the dominant route for SMX removal. The sorption process conformed well to a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, meaning that the sorption occurred primarily via a chemical sorption process. The removal of SMX followed the pseudo-zero-order kinetic model with a specific removal rate of 13.2 ± 0.1 μg/L/d at initial SMX concentration 100 μg/L in batch tests. Based on the analysis of metabolites, most of the SMX biotransformation products' structures altered in the isoxazole ring, which were significantly different from that produced by aerobic and anaerobic sludge systems. Thus, SRB sludge system could play an important role in SMX biodegradation, especially in Sulfate-reduction Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated (SANI) process for sewage treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Saponification of fatty slaughterhouse wastes for enhancing anaerobic biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battimelli, Audrey; Carrère, Hélène; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe

    2009-08-01

    The thermochemical pretreatment by saponification of two kinds of fatty slaughterhouse waste--aeroflotation fats and flesh fats from animal carcasses--was studied in order to improve the waste's anaerobic degradation. The effect of an easily biodegradable compound, ethanol, on raw waste biodegradation was also examined. The aims of the study were to enhance the methanisation of fatty waste and also to show a link between biodegradability and bio-availability. The anaerobic digestion of raw waste, saponified waste and waste with a co-substrate was carried out in batch mode under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The results showed little increase in the total volume of biogas, indicating a good biodegradability of the raw wastes. Mean biogas volume reached 1200 mL/g VS which represented more than 90% of the maximal theoretical biogas potential. Raw fatty wastes were slowly biodegraded whereas pretreated wastes showed improved initial reaction kinetics, indicating a better initial bio-availability, particularly for mesophilic runs. The effects observed for raw wastes with ethanol as co-substrate depended on the process temperature: in mesophilic conditions, an initial improvement was observed whereas in thermophilic conditions a significant decrease in biodegradability was observed.

  12. Xylan degradation by the anaerobic bacterium Bacteroides xylanolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, P.J.Y.M.L.

    1997-01-01

    Plant cell walls are the major reservoir of fixed carbon in nature. The mineralization of the fiber material, the so called lignocellulosic complex, proceeds almost exclusively by microbial processes in both aerobic and anaerobic environments. In anaerobic microbial processes the energy of

  13. Anaerobic degradation of benzene by enriched consortia with humic acids as terminal electron acceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, Francisco J., E-mail: fjcervantes@ipicyt.edu.mx [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi, SLP, 78216 Mexico (Mexico); Mancilla, Ana Rosa; Toro, E. Emilia Rios-del [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi, SLP, 78216 Mexico (Mexico); Alpuche-Solis, Angel G.; Montoya-Lorenzana, Lilia [Division de Biologia Molecular, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi, SLP, 78216 Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Enriched consortia were able to couple the anaerobic degradation of benzene to the reduction of humic acids. {yields} Electron-equivalents derived from anaerobic benzene oxidation were highly recovered as reduced humic acids. {yields} Several species from classes {beta}-, {delta}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria were enriched during the anaerobic degradation of benzene. - Abstract: The anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of humic acids (HA) was demonstrated in two enriched consortia. Both inocula were able to oxidize benzene under strict anaerobic conditions when the humic model compound, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), was supplied as terminal electron acceptor. An enrichment culture originated from a contaminated soil was also able to oxidize benzene linked to the reduction of highly purified soil humic acids (HPSHA). In HPSHA-amended cultures, 9.3 {mu}M of benzene were degraded, which corresponds to 279 {+-} 27 micro-electron equivalents ({mu}Eq) L{sup -1}, linked to the reduction of 619 {+-} 81 {mu}Eq L{sup -1} of HPSHA. Neither anaerobic benzene oxidation nor reduction of HPSHA occurred in sterilized controls. Anaerobic benzene oxidation did not occur in soil incubations lacking HPSHA. Furthermore, negligible reduction of HPSHA occurred in the absence of benzene. The enrichment culture derived from this soil was dominated by two {gamma}-Proteobacteria phylotypes. A benzene-degrading AQDS-reducing enrichment originated from a sediment sample showed the prevalence of different species from classes {beta}-, {delta}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria. The present study provides clear quantitative demonstration of anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of HA.

  14. Enhancing anaerobic digestibility and phosphorus recovery of dairy manure through microwave-based thermochemical pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ying; Hu, Zhenhu; Wen, Zhiyou

    2009-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion and struvite precipitation are two effective ways of treating dairy manure for recovering biogas and phosphorus. Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure is commonly limited by slow fiber degradation, while struvite precipitation is limited by the availability of orthophosphate. The aim of this work is to study the possibility of using microwave-based thermochemical pretreatment to simultaneously enhance manure anaerobic digestibility (through fiber degradation) and struvite precipitation (through phosphorus solubilization). Microwave heating combined with different chemicals (NaOH, CaO, H(2)SO(4), or HCl) enhanced solubilization of manure and degradation of glucan/xylan in dairy manure. However, sulfuric acid-based pretreatment resulted in a low anaerobic digestibility, probably due to the sulfur inhibition and Maillard side reaction. The pretreatments released 20-40% soluble phosphorus and 9-14% ammonium. However, CaO-based pretreatment resulted in lower orthophosphate releases and struvite precipitation efficiency as calcium interferes with phosphate to form calcium phosphate. Collectively, microwave heating combined with NaOH or HCl led to a high anaerobic digestibility and phosphorus recovery. Using these two chemicals, the performance of microwave- and conventional-heating in thermochemical pretreatment was further compared. The microwave heating resulted in a better performance in terms of COD solubilization, glucan/xylan reduction, phosphorus solubilization and anaerobic digestibility. Lastly, temperature and heating time used in microwave treatment were optimized. The optimal values of temperature and heating time were 147 degrees C and 25.3 min for methane production, and 135 degrees C and 26 min for orthophosphate release, respectively.

  15. Microbial dynamics in anaerobic enrichment cultures degrading di-n-butyl phthalic acid ester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trably, Eric; Batstone, Damien J.; Christensen, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Although anaerobic biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalic acid ester (DBP) has been studied over the past decade, only little is known about the microorganisms involved in the biological anaerobic degradation pathways. The aim of this work is to characterize the microbial community dynamics...... losses were observed in the sterile controls (20-22%), substantial DBP biodegradation was found in the enrichment cultures (90-99%). In addition, significant population changes were observed. The dominant bacterial species in the DBP-degrading cultures was affiliated to Soehngenia saccharolytica......, a microorganism described previously as an anaerobic benzaldehyde degrader. Within the archaeal community, there was a shift between two different species of the genus Methanosaeta sp., indicating a highly specific impact of DBP or degradation products on archaeal species. RNA-directed probes were designed from...

  16. Assessment of the ability of sludge to degrade PCP under anaerobic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. L. Bolaños

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of sludge from different sources to degrade pentachlorophenol (PCP was evaluated. Three 2.5 liter reactors (R1, R2, and R3 were inoculated with different anaerobic sludges, semi continuously fed and maintained in orbital motion at 30±1°C. R1 was inoculated with aerobic sludge and river sediment collected downstream from a pulp and paper plant. R2 received sludge from an anaerobic reactor treating effluents from a paper recycling plant and R3 received anaerobic sludge from a biodigestor treating industrial and domestic effluents. The sludges were first acclimatized to a culture medium generally recommended for organochloride anaerobic degradation studies. The reactors were then subjected to increasing concentrations of PCP from 0.05 to 10.0 mg.l-1. PCP degradation and metabolite formation were monitored using gas chromatography, and the effects of PCP on the anaerobic process were verified by monitoring pH, volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, total suspended solids, and chemical oxygen demand. It was found that PCP did not affect reactor performance. All the sludges displayed the best PCP degradation capacity at a concentration of 0.2 mg.l-1, producing fewer chlorinated metabolites than when higher PCP concentrations were applied. R1 consistently produced fewer chlorinated metabolites, confirming the hypothesis that pre exposure to chlorinated compounds improves the sludge's capacity to degrade PCP.

  17. Bacterial Cellulose Hydrolysis in Anaerobic Environmental Subsystems—Clostridium thermocellumandClostridium stercorarium, Thermophilic Plant‐fiber Degraders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zverlov, Vladimir V; Schwarz, Wolfgang H

    2008-01-01

    Cellulose degradation is a rare trait in bacteria. However, the truly cellulolytic bacteria are extremely efficient hydrolyzers of plant cell wall polysaccharides, especially those in thermophilic anaerobic ecosystem...

  18. BadR and BadM Proteins Transcriptionally Regulate Two Operons Needed for Anaerobic Benzoate Degradation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Hidetada; Hirakawa, Yuko; Greenberg, E Peter; Harwood, Caroline S

    2015-07-01

    The bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris grows with the aromatic acid benzoate and the alicyclic acid cyclohexanecarboxylate (CHC) as sole carbon sources. The enzymatic steps in an oxygen-independent pathway for CHC degradation have been elucidated, but it was unknown how the CHC operon (badHI aliAB badK) encoding the enzymes for CHC degradation was regulated. aliA and aliB encode enzymes for the conversion of CHC to cyclohex-1-enecarboxyl-coenzyme A (CHene-CoA). At this point, the pathway for CHC degradation merges with the pathway for anaerobic benzoate degradation, as CHene-CoA is an intermediate in both degradation pathways. Three enzymes, encoded by badK, badH, and badI, prepare and cleave the alicyclic ring of CHene-CoA to yield pimelyl-CoA. Here, we show that the MarR transcription factor family member, BadR, represses transcription of the CHC operon by binding near the transcription start site of badH. 2-Ketocyclohexane-1-carboxyl-CoA, an intermediate of CHC and benzoate degradation, interacts with BadR to abrogate repression. We also present evidence that the transcription factor BadM binds to the promoter of the badDEFGAB (Bad) operon for the anaerobic conversion of benzoate to CHene-CoA to repress its expression. Contrary to previous reports, BadR does not appear to control expression of the Bad operon. These data enhance our view of the transcriptional regulation of anaerobic benzoate degradation by R. palustris. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Anaerobic benzene degradation under denitrifying conditions: Peptococcaceae was identified as dominant benzene degrader by Stable Isotope Probing (SIP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaan, van der B.M.; Talarico Saia, F.; Plugge, C.M.; Vos, de W.M.; Smidt, H.; Stams, A.J.M.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Gerritse, J.

    2012-01-01

    An anaerobic microbial community was enriched in a chemostat that was operated for more than 8 years with benzene and nitrate as electron acceptor. The coexistence of multiple species in the chemostat and the presence of a biofilm, led to the hypothesis that benzene-degrading species coexist in a

  20. Identification of Anaerobic Aniline-Degrading Bacteria at a Contaminated Industrial Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weimin; Li, Yun; McGuinness, Lora R; Luo, Shuai; Huang, Weilin; Kerkhof, Lee J; Mack, E Erin; Häggblom, Max M; Fennell, Donna E

    2015-09-15

    Anaerobic aniline biodegradation was investigated under different electron-accepting conditions using contaminated canal and groundwater aquifer sediments from an industrial site. Aniline loss was observed in nitrate- and sulfate-amended microcosms and in microcosms established to promote methanogenic conditions. Lag times of 37 days (sulfate amended) to more than 100 days (methanogenic) were observed prior to activity. Time-series DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify bacteria that incorporated (13)C-labeled aniline in the microcosms established to promote methanogenic conditions. In microcosms from heavily contaminated aquifer sediments, a phylotype with 92.7% sequence similarity to Ignavibacterium album was identified as a dominant aniline degrader as indicated by incorporation of (13)C-aniline into its DNA. In microcosms from contaminated canal sediments, a bacterial phylotype within the family Anaerolineaceae, but without a match to any known genus, demonstrated the assimilation of (13)C-aniline. Acidovorax spp. were also identified as putative aniline degraders in both of these two treatments, indicating that these species were present and active in both the canal and aquifer sediments. There were multiple bacterial phylotypes associated with anaerobic degradation of aniline at this complex industrial site, which suggests that anaerobic transformation of aniline is an important process at the site. Furthermore, the aniline degrading phylotypes identified in the current study are not related to any known aniline-degrading bacteria. The identification of novel putative aniline degraders expands current knowledge regarding the potential fate of aniline under anaerobic conditions.

  1. Origin of p-cresol in the anaerobic degradation of trinitrotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, C F; Hawari, J A; Ampleman, G; Thiboutot, S; Guiot, S R

    2000-02-01

    p-Cresol was repeatedly detected as a trace metabolite in anaerobic slurry reactors treating 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soils. This study shows that p-cresol was not a metabolite of the anaerobic degradation of TNT, by using a combination of analytical techniques and 13C-labelled TNT. Instead, p-cresol, an intermediate in the degradation pathway of some amino acids, was shown to be inhibited by TNT and its metabolites. The range and persistence of inhibition to p-cresol microbial degradation decreased with the level of amino-substitution of the derivatives. This explains why p-cresol accumulated within the TNT-treating anaerobic bioslurry, as it could not be further biodegraded in the presence of TNT.

  2. Anaerobic degradation of microcrystalline cellulose: kinetics and micro-scale structure evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Chen, Zi-Xiang; Tong, Xin; Li, Kuan; Li, Wen-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The degradation kinetics and micro-scale structure change of microcrystalline cellulose during anaerobic biodegradation were investigated. A modified Logistic model was established to properly describe the kinetics, which showed good fitness and wide applicability for cellulose degradation. A maximum degradation rate of 0.14 g L(-1) h(-1) was achieved after cultivating for 51.5 h. This result was in good agreement with the scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis. Channels of 400-500 nm size started to occur on the crystalline surface of cellulose at around the inflexion time. Accordingly, the crystallinity significantly decreased at this point, indicating a degradation of the crystalline structure zones by anaerobic bacteria. This study offers direct morphological evidence and quantitative analysis of the biodegradation process of cellulose, and is beneficial to a better understanding of the cellulose degradation mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anaerobic degradation of phthalic acid esters during digestion of municipal solid waste under landfilling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlertsson, J; Meyerson, U; Svensson, B H

    1996-08-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms in municipal solid waste samples from laboratory-scale landfill reactors and a pilot-plant biogas digestor were investigated with the aim of assessing their ability to transform four commercially used phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and phthalic acid (PA). The PAEs studied were diethyl phthalate (DEP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). No biological transformation of DEHP could be detected in any of the experiments. Together with waste samples from the simulated landfilling conditions, the PAEs (except DEHP) were hydrolytically transformed to their corresponding monoesters. These accumulated as end products, and in most cases they were not further degraded. During incubation with waste from the biogas digestor, the PAEs (except DEHP) were completely degraded to methane and carbon dioxide. The influence of the landfill development phase on the transformations was investigated utilizing PA and DEP as model substances. We found that during both the intense and stable methanogenic (but not the acidogenic) phases, the microorganisms in the samples had the potential to transform PA. A shorter lag phase was observed for the PA transformation in the samples from the stable methanogenic phase as compared with earlier phases. This indicates an increased capacity to degrade PA during the aging phases of the municipal solid waste in landfills. No enhancement of the DEP transformation could be observed as conditions in the methanogenic landfill model changed over a year's time. The results indicate that microorganisms developing in a methanogenic landfill environment have a substantially lower potential to degrade compared with those developing in a biogas reactor.

  4. Aged refuse enhances anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwei; Gui, Lin; Wang, Qilin; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Dongbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Li, Xiaoming; Xu, Rui; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Qi

    2017-10-15

    In this work, a low-cost alternative approach (i.e., adding aged refuse (AR) into waste activated sludge) to significantly enhance anaerobic digestion of sludge was reported. Experimental results showed that with the addition dosage of AR increasing from 0 to 400 mg/g dry sludge soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) increased from 1150 to 5240 mg/L at the digestion time of 5 d, while the maximal production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased from 82.6 to 183.9 mg COD/g volatile suspended solids. Although further increase of AR addition decreased the concentrations of both soluble COD and VFA, their contents in these systems with AR addition at any concentration investigated were still higher than those in the blank, which resulted in higher methane yields in these systems. Mechanism studies revealed that pertinent addition of AR promoted solubilization, hydrolysis, and acidogenesis processes and did not affect methanogenesis significantly. It was found that varieties of enzymes and anaerobes in AR were primary reason for the enhancement of anaerobic digestion. Humic substances in AR benefited hydrolysis and acidogenesis but inhibited methanogenesis. The effect of heavy metals in AR on sludge anaerobic digestion was dosage dependent. Sludge anaerobic digestion was enhanced by appropriate amounts of heavy metals but inhibited by excessive amounts of heavy metals. The relative abundances of microorganisms responsible for sludge hydrolysis and acidogenesis were also observed to be improved in the system with AR addition, which was consistent with the performance of anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diversity of Five Anaerobic Toluene-Degrading Microbial Communities Investigated Using Stable Isotope Probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weimin

    2012-01-01

    Time-series DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify the microbes assimilating carbon from [13C]toluene under nitrate- or sulfate-amended conditions in a range of inoculum sources, including uncontaminated and contaminated soil and wastewater treatment samples. In all, five different phylotypes were found to be responsible for toluene degradation, and these included previously identified toluene degraders as well as novel toluene-degrading microorganisms. In microcosms constructed from granular sludge and amended with nitrate, the putative toluene degraders were classified in the genus Thauera, whereas in nitrate-amended microcosms constructed from a different source (agricultural soil), microorganisms in the family Comamonadaceae (genus unclassified) were the key putative degraders. In one set of sulfate-amended microcosms (agricultural soil), the putative toluene degraders were identified as belonging to the class Clostridia (genus Desulfosporosinus), while in other sulfate-amended microcosms, the putative degraders were in the class Deltaproteobacteria, within the family Syntrophobacteraceae (digester sludge) or Desulfobulbaceae (contaminated soil) (genus unclassified for both). Partial benzylsuccinate synthase gene (bssA, the functional gene for anaerobic toluene degradation) sequences were obtained for some samples, and quantitative PCR targeting this gene, along with SIP, was further used to confirm anaerobic toluene degradation by the identified species. The study illustrates the diversity of toluene degraders across different environments and highlights the utility of ribosomal and functional gene-based SIP for linking function with identity in microbial communities. PMID:22156434

  6. Enhanced reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil by in-vessel anaerobic composting with zero-valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Zhang, Chi; Du, Yao; Tao, Xiao-Qing; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2014-03-01

    Anaerobic dechlorination is an effective degradation pathway for higher chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The enhanced reductive dechlorination of PCB-contaminated soil by anaerobic composting with zero-valent iron (ZVI) was studied, and preliminary reasons for the enhanced reductive dechlorination with ZVI were investigated. The results show that the addition of nanoscale ZVI can enhance dechlorination during in-vessel anaerobic composting. After 140 days, the average number of removed Cl per biphenyl with 10 mg g(-1) of added nanoscale ZVI was 0.63, enhancing the dechlorination by 34 % and improving the initial dechlorination speed. The ZVI enhances dechlorination by providing a suitable acid base environment, reducing volatile fatty acid inhibition and stimulating the microorganisms. The C/N ratios for treatments with the highest rate of ZVI addition were smaller than for the control, indicating that ZVI addition can promote compost maturity.

  7. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic materials in excess sludge by bioaugmentation and pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuansheng; Hao, Xiaodi; Wang, Jimin; Cao, Yali

    2016-03-01

    This study attempted to enhance anaerobic conversion of lignocellulosic materials in excess sludge by bioaugmentation and pretreatment. The results reveal that highly active lignocellulolytic microorganisms (Clostridium stercorarium and Bacteroides cellulosolvens) could be enriched from anaerobic sludge in ordinarily operated anaerobic digester (AD). Inoculating these microorganisms into AD could substantially enhance the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose. However, this effect of bioaugmentation was shielded for raw excess sludge due to lignin incrustation in native biosolids. For this problem, pretreatments including acid, alkali, thermal and ultrasonic methods were effectively used to deconstruct the lignin incrustation, in which thermal pretreatment was demonstrated to be the most effective one. Then, pretreatment associated with bioaugmentation was successfully used to enhance the energy conversion of lignocellulosic materials, which resulted in the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin to 68.8-78.2%, 77.4-89% and 15.4-33.7% respectively and thus increased the CH4 production by 210-246%, compared with ordinary AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anaerobic phosphate release from activated sludge with enhanced biological phosphorus removal. A possible mechanism of intracellular pH control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, P.L.; Keller, J.; Blackall, L.L. [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)

    1999-06-05

    The biochemical mechanisms of the wastewater treatment process known as enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) are presently described in a metabolic model. The authors investigated details of the EBPR model to determine the nature of the anaerobic phosphate release and how this may be metabolically associated with polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) formation. Iodoacetate, an inhibitor of glycolysis, was found to inhibit the anaerobic formation of PHA and phosphate release, supporting the pathways proposed in the EBPR metabolic model. In the metabolic model, it is proposed that polyphosphate degradation provides energy for the microorganisms in anaerobic regions of these treatment systems. Other investigations have shown that anaerobic phosphate release depends on the extracellular pH. The authors observed that when the intracellular pH of EBPR sludge was raised, substantial anaerobic phosphate release was caused without volatile fatty acid (VFA) uptake. Acidification of the sludge inhibited anaerobic phosphate release even in the presence of VFA. from these observations, the authors postulate that an additional possible role of anaerobic polyphosphate degradation in EBPR is for intracellular pH control. Intracellular pH control may be a metabolic feature of EBPR, not previously considered, that could have some use in the control and optimization of EBPR.

  9. Identification of enzymes involved in anaerobic benzene degradation by a strictly anaerobic iron-reducing enrichment culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Laban, Nidal; Selesi, Draženka; Rattei, Thomas; Tischler, Patrick; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2010-10-01

    Anaerobic benzene degradation was studied with a highly enriched iron-reducing culture (BF) composed of mainly Peptococcaceae-related Gram-positive microorganisms. The proteomes of benzene-, phenol- and benzoate-grown cells of culture BF were compared by SDS-PAGE. A specific benzene-expressed protein band of 60 kDa, which could not be observed during growth on phenol or benzoate, was subjected to N-terminal sequence analysis. The first 31 amino acids revealed that the protein was encoded by ORF 138 in the shotgun sequenced metagenome of culture BF. ORF 138 showed 43% sequence identity to phenylphosphate carboxylase subunit PpcA of Aromatoleum aromaticum strain EbN1. A LC/ESI-MS/MS-based shotgun proteomic analysis revealed other specifically benzene-expressed proteins with encoding genes located adjacent to ORF 138 on the metagenome. The protein products of ORF 137, ORF 139 and ORF 140 showed sequence identities of 37% to phenylphosphate carboxylase PpcD of A. aromaticum strain EbN1, 56% to benzoate-CoA ligase (BamY) of Geobacter metallireducens and 67% to 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase (UbiD/UbiX) of A. aromaticum strain EbN1 respectively. These genes are proposed as constituents of a putative benzene degradation gene cluster (∼ 17 kb) composed of carboxylase-related genes. The identified gene sequences suggest that the initial activation reaction in anaerobic benzene degradation is probably a direct carboxylation of benzene to benzoate catalysed by putative anaerobic benzene carboxylase (Abc). The putative Abc probably consists of several subunits, two of which are encoded by ORFs 137 and 138, and belongs to a family of carboxylases including phenylphosphate carboxylase (Ppc) and 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase (UbiD/UbiX). © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Biomarkers of Microbial Metabolism for Monitoring in-situ Anaerobic PAH Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L.; Phelps, C.; Battistelli, J.

    2002-12-01

    Monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic compounds found in petroleum and its products are subject to biodegradation in the absence of oxygen. These anaerobic pathways reveal novel mechanism of microbial transformation through a series of metabolites and intermediates which are unique to the anaerobic degradation process. The presence of these compounds in-situ, then conceptually can serve as indicators that anaerobic degradation is taking place. We have laboratory studies and field samples which support this concept for BTX and PAH compounds. Environments in which these anaerobic degradation processes have been observed include freshwater and estuarine sediments, groundwater from impacted aquifers at a former manufactured gas plant and gasoline station, and a creosote-contaminated aquifer. Analytical protocols were developed to detect nanomolar concentrations from soil slurries and groundwater samples and microcosm studies verified their formation from field samples and use as biomarkers of activity. Recent studies on the mechanisms of anaerobic naphthalene and methylnaphthalene metabolism have identified several unusual compounds that can serve as biomarkers for monitoring in situ PAH biodegradation. For naphthalene these include 2-naphthoic acid (2-NA), tetrahydro-2-naphthoic acid (TH-2-NA), hexahydro-2-naphthoic acid (HH-2-NA) and methylnaphthoic acid (MNA) generated by sulfate-reducing bacteria degrading naphthalene or methylnaphthalene. Groundwater samples were analyzed from wells distributed throughout an anaerobic, creosote-contaminated aquifer and also from a leaking underground storage site. Samples were extracted, derivatized and analyzed by GC/MS. The concentration of 2-NA at each monitoring well was quantified and correlated to the zones of naphthalene contamination. Taken together with measurements of the aquifer's physical characteristics, these biomarker data can be used to describe the extent of naphthalene biodegradation at these site.

  11. Distinct carbon isotope fractionation during anaerobic degradation of dichlorobenzene isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoming; Mundle, Scott O C; Nelson, Jennifer L; Passeport, Elodie; Chan, Calvin C H; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Zinder, Stephen H; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2014-05-06

    Chlorinated benzenes are ubiquitous organic contaminants found in groundwater and soils. Compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has been increasingly used to assess natural attenuation of chlorinated contaminants, in which anaerobic reductive dechlorination plays an essential role. In this work, carbon isotope fractionation of the three dichlorobenzene (DCB) isomers was investigated during anaerobic reductive dehalogenation in methanogenic laboratory microcosms. Large isotope fractionation of 1,3-DCB and 1,4-DCB was observed while only a small isotope effect occurred for 1,2-DCB. Bulk enrichment factors (εbulk) were determined from a Rayleigh model: -0.8 ± 0.1 ‰ for 1,2-DCB, -5.4 ± 0.4 ‰ for 1,3-DCB, and -6.3 ± 0.2 ‰ for 1,4-DCB. εbulk values were converted to apparent kinetic isotope effects for carbon (AKIE) in order to characterize the carbon isotope effect at the reactive positions for the DCB isomers. AKIE values are 1.005 ± 0.001, 1.034 ± 0.003, and 1.039 ± 0.001 for 1,2-DCB, 1,3-DCB, and 1,4-DCB, respectively. The large difference in AKIE values between 1,2-DCB and 1,3-DCB (or 1,4-DCB) suggests distinct reaction pathways may be involved for different DCB isomers during microbial reductive dechlorination by the methanogenic cultures.

  12. Degradation of a model azo dye in submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) operated with powdered activated carbon (PAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baêta, B E L; Luna, H J; Sanson, A L; Silva, S Q; Aquino, S F

    2013-10-15

    This work investigated the anaerobic degradation of the model azo dye Remazol Yellow Gold RNL in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) and two submerged anaerobic membrane (SAMBR) bioreactors, one of which (SAMBR-1) was operated with powdered activated carbon (PAC) in its interior. The reactors were operated at 35 °C with a hydraulic retention time of 24 h in three operational phases, aimed to assess the effect of external sources of carbon (glucose) or redox mediator (yeast extract) on the removal or color and organic matter. The results showed that removal efficiencies of COD (73-94%) and color (90-94%) were higher for SAMBR-1 when compared to SAMBR-2 (operated without PAC) and UASB reactors. In addition, the presence of PAC in SAMBR-1 increased reactor stability, thereby leading to a lower accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). The microfiltration membrane was responsible for an additional removal of ~50% of soluble residual COD in the form of VFA, thus improving permeate quality. On its turn, PAC exhibited the ability to adsorb byproducts (aromatic amines) of azo dye degradation as well as to act as source of immobilized redox mediator (quinone groups on its surface), thereby enhancing color removal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anaerobic degradation of landfill leachate using an upflow anaerobic fixed-bed reactor with microbial sulfate reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Dhia Thabet, Olfa [Laboratory of Ecology and Microbial Technology, National Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology, 2 Boulevard de la Terre, P.O. Box 676, 1080 Tunis (Tunisia); Laboratory of Microbiology IRD, UMR 180, University of Provence and the Mediterranean, ESIL P.O. Box 925, 163 Avenue Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Bouallagui, Hassib, E-mail: hassibbouallagui@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Ecology and Microbial Technology, National Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology, 2 Boulevard de la Terre, P.O. Box 676, 1080 Tunis (Tunisia); Cayol, Jean-luc; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure [Laboratory of Microbiology IRD, UMR 180, University of Provence and the Mediterranean, ESIL P.O. Box 925, 163 Avenue Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Hamdi, Moktar [Laboratory of Ecology and Microbial Technology, National Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology, 2 Boulevard de la Terre, P.O. Box 676, 1080 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2009-08-15

    This study evaluated the anaerobic degradation of landfill leachate and sulfate reduction as a function of COD/(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) ratio in an upflow anaerobic fixed-bed reactor. The reactor, which was inoculated with a mixed consortium, was operated under a constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5 days. We investigated the effect of COD/(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) ratio variation on the sulfate reduction efficiency, hydrogen sulfide production, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, conductivity, and pH variation. The best reactor performance, with significant sulfate reduction efficiency and COD removal efficiency of 91% and 87%, respectively, was reached under a COD/(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) ratio of 1.17. Under these conditions, microscopic analysis showed the abundance of vibrios and rod-shaped bacterial cells. Two anaerobic bacteria were isolated from the reactor sludge. Phylogenetic studies performed on these strains identified strain A1 as affiliated to Clostridium genus and strain H1 as a new species of sulfate-reducing bacteria affiliated to the Desulfovibrio genus. The closest phylogenetic relative of strain H1 was Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, at 96% similarity for partial 16S RNA gene sequence data. Physiological and metabolic characterization was performed for this strain.

  14. Anaerobic Microbial Degradation of Hydrocarbons: From Enzymatic Reactions to the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabus, Ralf; Boll, Matthias; Heider, Johann; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Buckel, Wolfgang; Einsle, Oliver; Ermler, Ulrich; Golding, Bernard T; Gunsalus, Robert P; Kroneck, Peter M H; Krüger, Martin; Lueders, Tillmann; Martins, Berta M; Musat, Florin; Richnow, Hans H; Schink, Bernhard; Seifert, Jana; Szaleniec, Maciej; Treude, Tina; Ullmann, G Matthias; Vogt, Carsten; von Bergen, Martin; Wilkes, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are abundant in anoxic environments and pose biochemical challenges to their anaerobic degradation by microorganisms. Within the framework of the Priority Program 1319, investigations funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft on the anaerobic microbial degradation of hydrocarbons ranged from isolation and enrichment of hitherto unknown hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microorganisms, discovery of novel reactions, detailed studies of enzyme mechanisms and structures to process-oriented in situ studies. Selected highlights from this program are collected in this synopsis, with more detailed information provided by theme-focused reviews of the special topic issue on 'Anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons' [this issue, pp. 1-244]. The interdisciplinary character of the program, involving microbiologists, biochemists, organic chemists and environmental scientists, is best exemplified by the studies on alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases. Here, research topics ranged from in-depth mechanistic studies of archetypical toluene-activating benzylsuccinate synthase, substrate-specific phylogenetic clustering of alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases (toluene plus xylenes, p-cymene, p-cresol, 2-methylnaphthalene, n-alkanes), stereochemical and co-metabolic insights into n-alkane-activating (methylalkyl)succinate synthases to the discovery of bacterial groups previously unknown to possess alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases by means of functional gene markers and in situ field studies enabled by state-of-the-art stable isotope probing and fractionation approaches. Other topics are Mo-cofactor-dependent dehydrogenases performing O2-independent hydroxylation of hydrocarbons and alkyl side chains (ethylbenzene, p-cymene, cholesterol, n-hexadecane), degradation of p-alkylated benzoates and toluenes, glycyl radical-bearing 4-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase, novel types of carboxylation reactions (for acetophenone, acetone, and potentially also benzene and

  15. Distribution of Anaerobic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria in Soils from King George Island, Maritime Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Dayanna Souza; Almeida, Juliana Rodrigues Barboza; de Jesus, Hugo E; Rosado, Alexandre S; Seldin, Lucy; Jurelevicius, Diogo

    2017-11-01

    Anaerobic diesel fuel Arctic (DFA) degradation has already been demonstrated in Antarctic soils. However, studies comparing the distribution of anaerobic bacterial groups and of anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in Antarctic soils containing different concentrations of DFA are scarce. In this study, functional genes were used to study the diversity and distribution of anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (bamA, assA, and bssA) and of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB-apsR) in highly, intermediate, and non-DFA-contaminated soils collected during the summers of 2009, 2010, and 2011 from King George Island, Antarctica. Signatures of bamA genes were detected in all soils analyzed, whereas bssA and assA were found in only 4 of 10 soils. The concentration of DFA was the main factor influencing the distribution of bamA-containing bacteria and of SRB in the analyzed soils, as shown by PCR-DGGE results. bamA sequences related to genes previously described in Desulfuromonas, Lautropia, Magnetospirillum, Sulfuritalea, Rhodovolum, Rhodomicrobium, Azoarcus, Geobacter, Ramlibacter, and Gemmatimonas genera were dominant in King George Island soils. Although DFA modulated the distribution of bamA-hosting bacteria, DFA concentration was not related to bamA abundance in the soils studied here. This result suggests that King George Island soils show functional redundancy for aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. The results obtained in this study support the hypothesis that specialized anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria have been selected by hydrocarbon concentrations present in King George Island soils.

  16. gaseous fuel production by anaerobic fungal degradation of banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JANICO

    Production and Collection of Gaseous Fuel. The prepared slurry was placed in a Vuchner filter flask (as reactor). The reactor was made airtight using plastic stopper and the outlet of the reactor was connected to a balloon using PVC tube. The degradation temperature was maintained at 330C using water bath within which ...

  17. Trichloroethylene degradation in a coupled anaerobic/aerobic reactor oxygenated using hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, B; Manuel, M F; Guiot, S R

    2003-12-15

    In this work, trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation under combined anaerobic-aerobic conditions was studied in an ethanol-fed biofilm reactor oxygenated using hydrogen peroxide. The reactor was inoculated with a biomass originating from an anaerobic digestor. Granulated peat was added to the reactor as a substratum for biofilm development. Extensive characterization of reactor populations using activity tests and PCR analysis revealed the development of a mutualistic consortium, particularly methanotrophic and methanogenic microorganisms. This consortium was shown to degrade TCE by a combination of reductive and oxidative pathways. A near complete degradation of TCE at a load of 18 mg L(R)(-1) day(-1) was evidenced by a stoichiometric release of inorganic chloride.

  18. Kinetic evaluation and process performance of an upflow anaerobic filter reactor degrading terephthalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davutluoglu, Orkun I; Seckin, Galip

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic degradation of terephthalic acid (TA) as the sole organic carbon source was studied in an upflow anaerobic filter (UAF) reactor. The reactor was seeded with biomass obtained from a full-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor and was used to treat wastewater from a petrochemical facility producing dimethyl terephthalate. The UAF reactor was operated for 252 d with a constant hydraulic retention time of 24 h, and the organic loading rate (OLR) was gradually increased from 1 to 10 g-chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L d. After a lag period of approximately 40 d, the COD removal efficiency increased exponentially and high removal rate values (≈90%) were obtained, except for at highest OLR (10 g-COD/L d). The high removal rates and the robustness of the reactor performance could be attributed to the formation of biofilm as well as granular sludge. The methane production rates (0.22 to 2.15 L/d) correlated well with the removed OLRs (0.3 to 6.8 g-COD/L d) during the various phases of treatment, indicating that the main mechanism of TA degradation occurs via methanogenic reactions. The average methane content of the produced biogas was 70.3%. The modified Stover-Kincannon model was found to be applicable for the anaerobic degradation of TA in UAFs (Umax = 64.5, KB = 69.1 g-COD/L d and Ymax = 0.27 L-CH4/g-CODremoved). These results suggest that UAF reactors are among the most effective reactor configurations for the anaerobic degradation of TA.

  19. Parameter identification of thermophilic anaerobic degradation of valerate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flotats, X.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Angelidaki, Irini

    2003-01-01

    The considered mathematical model of the decomposition of valerate presents three unknown kinetic parameters, two unknown stoichiometric coefficients, and three unknown initial concentrations for biomass. Applying a structural identifiability study, we concluded that it is necessary to perform...... simultaneous batch experiments with different initial conditions for estimating these parameters. Four simultaneous batch experiments were conducted at 55degreesC, characterized by four different initial acetate concentrations. Product inhibition of valerate degradation by acetate was considered. Practical...

  20. Anaerobic degradation of aircraft deicing fluid (ADF) in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors and the fate of ADF additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Tham

    2002-11-01

    A central composite design was employed to methodically investigate anaerobic treatment of aircraft deicing fluid (ADF) in bench-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors. A total of 23 runs at 17 different operating conditions were conducted in continuous mode. The development of four empirical models describing process responses (i.e., chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency, biomass specific acetoclastic activity, methane production rate, and methane production potential) as functions of ADF concentration, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and biomass concentration is presented. Model verification indicated that predicted responses (COD removal efficiencies, biomass specific acetoclastic activity, and methane production rates and potential) were in good agreement with experimental results. Biomass specific acetoclastic activity was improved by almost two-fold during ADF treatment in UASB reactors. For the design window, COD removal efficiencies were higher than 90%. Predicted methane production potentials were close to theoretical values, and methane production rates increased as the organic loading rate (OLR) was increased. ADF toxicity effects were evident for 1.6% ADF at medium specific organic loadings (SOLR above 0.5 g COD/g VSS/d). In contrast, good reactor stability and excellent removal efficiencies were achieved at 1.2% ADF for reactor loadings approaching that of highly loaded systems (0.73 g COD/g VSS/d). Acclimation to ADF resulted in an initial reduction in the biomass settling velocity. The fate of ADF additives was also investigated. There was minimal sorption of benzotriazole (BT), 5-methyl-1 H-benzotriazole (MeBT), and 5,6-dimethyl-1 H-benzotriazole (DiMeBT) to anaerobic granules. A higher sorption capacity was measured for NP. Active transport may be one of the mechanisms for NP sorption. Ethylene glycol degradation experiments indicated that BT, MeBT, DiMeBT, and the nonionic surfactant Tergitol NP-4 had no significant

  1. The effect of free nitrous acid on key anaerobic processes in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liu; Pijuan, Maite; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the effect of nitrite/FNA on the anaerobic metabolism of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) is investigated. The results clearly show that FNA has a detrimental effect on the acetate uptake rate by both PAOs and GAOs, but this adverse effect is much stronger on PAOs than on GAOs. Also, when FNA was increased, phosphate release to acetate uptake ratio by PAOs increased substantially (250-300% compared to control), which was accompanied by decreases (40-60%) in glycogen degradation and PHA production to VFA uptake. In contrast, these ratios for GAOs remained constant or increased slightly towards the highest FNA concentration applied. These results indicate that the anaerobic metabolism of PAOs is more adversely affected than that of GAOs when FNA is present. This might provide a competitive advantage to GAOs over PAOs in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems when nitrite is present. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The key microorganisms for anaerobic degradation of pentachlorophenol in paddy soil as revealed by stable isotope probing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Hui [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Chengshuai [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550009 (China); Li, Fangbai, E-mail: cefbli@soil.gd.cn [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Luo, Chunling [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, Manjia; Hu, Min [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • SIP suggested that Dechloromonas can mineralize PCP in soil. • Methanosaeta and Methanocella acquired PCP-derived carbon. • Lactate enhanced microbial degradation of PCP in soil. - Abstract: Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a common residual persistent pesticide in paddy soil and has resulted in harmful effect on soil ecosystem. The anaerobic microbial transformation of PCP, therefore, has been received much attentions, especially the functional microbial communities for the reductive transformation. However, the key functional microorganisms for PCP mineralization in the paddy soil still remain unknown. In this work, DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) was applied to explore the key microorganisms responsible for PCP mineralization in paddy soil. The SIP results indicated that the dominant bacteria responsible for PCP biodegradation belonged to the genus Dechloromonas of the class β-Proteobacteria. In addition, the increased production of {sup 13}CH{sub 4} and {sup 13}CO{sub 2} indicated that the addition of lactate enhanced the rate of biodegradation and mineralization of PCP. Two archaea classified as the genera of Methanosaeta and Methanocella of class Methanobacteria were enriched in the heavy fraction when with lactate, whereas no archaea was detected in the absence of lactate. These findings provide direct evidence for the species of bacteria and archaea responsible for anaerobic PCP or its breakdown products mineralization and reveal a new insight into the microorganisms linked with PCP degradation in paddy soil.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of a Strictly Anaerobic Dichloromethane-Degrading Bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Kleindienst, Sara; Higgins, Steven A.; Tsementzi, Despina; Konstantinos T Konstantinidis; Mack, E. Erin; L?ffler, Frank E.

    2016-01-01

    An anaerobic, dichloromethane-degrading bacterium affiliated with novel Peptococcaceae was maintained in a microbial consortium. The organism originated from pristine freshwater sediment collected from Rio Mameyes in Luquillo, Puerto Rico, in October 2009 (latitude 18?21?43.9?, longitude ?65?46?8.4?). The draft genome sequence is 2.1?Mb and has a G+C content of 43.5%.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of a Strictly Anaerobic Dichloromethane-Degrading Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleindienst, Sara; Higgins, Steven A; Tsementzi, Despina; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T; Mack, E Erin; Löffler, Frank E

    2016-03-03

    An anaerobic, dichloromethane-degrading bacterium affiliated with novel Peptococcaceae was maintained in a microbial consortium. The organism originated from pristine freshwater sediment collected from Rio Mameyes in Luquillo, Puerto Rico, in October 2009 (latitude 18°21'43.9″, longitude -65°46'8.4″). The draft genome sequence is 2.1 Mb and has a G+C content of 43.5%. Copyright © 2016 Kleindienst et al.

  5. Effect of Volatile Fatty Acid Concentration on Anaerobic Degradation Rate from Field Anaerobic Digestion Facilities Treating Food Waste Leachate in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Jin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of volatile fatty acid concentration on anaerobic degradation rate of food waste leachate in the anaerobic digestion facilities. The anaerobic digestion facilities treating food waste leachate (FWL, codigestion with food leachate and animal manure (A-MIX, and codigestion with food waste leachate and sewage sludge (S-MIX were selected for this study. In accordance with the regulation under Wastes Control Act in South Korea, the guideline of volatile solid removal rate for anaerobic digestion facility is set as 65% for anaerobic degradation efficiency. Highest volatile solids removal rates were achieved from FWL (63.5% than A-MIX (56.4% and S-MIX (41.2%. Four out of eight FWLs met the guidelines. The concentration of volatile fatty acids, therefore, was analyzed to determine the relationship with volatile solid removal rate. The results showed that, in order to meet the Korean guideline of 65% volatile solid removal rate, volatile fatty acid concentrations should remain below 4,000 mg/L on the field anaerobic digestion facilities treating FWL. Volatile fatty acid concentrations should be used along with others as an operational parameter to control and manage the anaerobic digestion process.

  6. Cellulose- and xylan-degrading thermophilic anaerobic bacteria from biocompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizova, M V; Izquierdo, J A; Panikov, N S; Lynd, L R

    2011-04-01

    Nine thermophilic cellulolytic clostridial isolates and four other noncellulolytic bacterial isolates were isolated from self-heated biocompost via preliminary enrichment culture on microcrystalline cellulose. All cellulolytic isolates grew vigorously on cellulose, with the formation of either ethanol and acetate or acetate and formate as principal fermentation products as well as lactate and glycerol as minor products. In addition, two out of nine cellulolytic strains were able to utilize xylan and pretreated wood with roughly the same efficiency as for cellulose. The major products of xylan fermentation were acetate and formate, with minor contributions of lactate and ethanol. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and glycosyl hydrolase family 48 (GH48) gene sequences revealed that two xylan-utilizing isolates were related to a Clostridium clariflavum strain and represent a distinct novel branch within the GH48 family. Both isolates possessed high cellulase and xylanase activity induced independently by either cellulose or xylan. Enzymatic activity decayed after growth cessation, with more-rapid disappearance of cellulase activity than of xylanase activity. A mixture of xylan and cellulose was utilized simultaneously, with a significant synergistic effect observed as a reduction of lag phase in cellulose degradation.

  7. Anaerobic Cysteine Degradation and Potential Metabolic Coordination in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loddeke, Melissa; Schneider, Barbara; Oguri, Tamiko; Mehta, Iti; Xuan, Zhenyu; Reitzer, Larry

    2017-08-15

    Salmonella enterica has two CyuR-activated enzymes that degrade cysteine, i.e., the aerobic CdsH and an unidentified anaerobic enzyme; Escherichia coli has only the latter. To identify the anaerobic enzyme, transcript profiling was performed for E. coli without cyuR and with overexpressed cyuR Thirty-seven genes showed at least 5-fold changes in expression, and the cyuPA (formerly yhaOM) operon showed the greatest difference. Homology suggested that CyuP and CyuA represent a cysteine transporter and an iron-sulfur-containing cysteine desulfidase, respectively. E. coli and S. enterica ΔcyuA mutants grown with cysteine generated substantially less sulfide and had lower growth yields. Oxygen affected the CyuR-dependent genes reciprocally; cyuP-lacZ expression was greater anaerobically, whereas cdsH-lacZ expression was greater aerobically. In E. coli and S. enterica, anaerobic cyuP expression required cyuR and cysteine and was induced by l-cysteine, d-cysteine, and a few sulfur-containing compounds. Loss of either CyuA or RidA, both of which contribute to cysteine degradation to pyruvate, increased cyuP-lacZ expression, which suggests that CyuA modulates intracellular cysteine concentrations. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CyuA homologs are present in obligate and facultative anaerobes, confirming an anaerobic function, and in archaeal methanogens and bacterial acetogens, suggesting an ancient origin. Our results show that CyuA is the major anaerobic cysteine-catabolizing enzyme in both E. coli and S. enterica, and it is proposed that anaerobic cysteine catabolism can contribute to coordination of sulfur assimilation and amino acid synthesis.IMPORTANCE Sulfur-containing compounds such as cysteine and sulfide are essential and reactive metabolites. Exogenous sulfur-containing compounds can alter the thiol landscape and intracellular redox reactions and are known to affect several cellular processes, including swarming motility, antibiotic sensitivity, and biofilm

  8. Enhanced anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge digestion by the addition of zero valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yinghong; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Suo

    2014-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion is promising technology to recover energy from waste activated sludge. However, the sludge digestion is limited by its low efficiency of hydrolysis-acidification. Zero valent iron (ZVI) as a reducing material is expected to enhance anaerobic process including the hydrolysis-acidification process. Considering that, ZVI was added into an anaerobic sludge digestion system to accelerate the sludge digestion in this study. The results indicated that ZVI effectively enhanced the decomposition of protein and cellulose, the two main components of the sludge. Compared to the control test without ZVI, the degradation of protein increased 21.9% and the volatile fatty acids production increased 37.3% with adding ZVI. More acetate and less propionate are found during the hydrolysis-acidification with ZVI. The activities of several key enzymes in the hydrolysis and acidification increased 0.6-1 time. ZVI made the methane production raise 43.5% and sludge reduction ratio increase 12.2 percent points. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that the abundances of hydrogen-consuming microorganisms including homoacetogens and hydrogenotrophic methanogens with ZVI were higher than the control, which reduced the H2 accumulation to create a beneficial condition for the sludge digestion in thermodynamics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced Biogas Production from Nanoscale Zero Valent Iron-Amended Anaerobic Bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; Laughton, Stephanie N; Wiesner, Mark R

    2015-08-01

    Addition of nanoscale zero valent iron (NZVI) to anaerobic batch reactors to enhance methanogenic activity is described. Two NZVI systems were tested: a commercially available NZVI (cNZVI) slurry and a freshly synthesized NZVI (sNZVI) suspension that was prepared immediately before addition to the reactors. In both systems, the addition of NZVI increased pH and decreased oxidation/reduction potential compared with unamended control reactors. Biodegradation of a model brewery wastewater was enhanced as indicated by an increase in chemical oxygen demand removal with both sNZVI and cNZVI amendments at all concentrations tested (1.25-5.0 g Fe/L). Methane production increased for all NZVI-amended bioreactors, with a maximum increase of 28% achieved on the addition of 2.5 and 5.0 g/L cNZVI. Addition of bulk zero-valent iron resulted in only a 5% increase in methane, indicating the advantage of using the nanoscale particles. NZVI amendments further improved produced biogas by decreasing the amount of CO 2 released from the bioreactor by approximately 58%. Overall, addition of cNZVI proved more beneficial than the sNZVI at equal iron concentrations, due to decreased colloidal stability and larger effective particle size of sNZVI. Although some have reported cytotoxicity of NZVI to anaerobic microorganisms, work presented here suggests that NZVI of a certain particle size and reactivity can serve as an amendment to anaerobic digesters to enhance degradation and increase the value of the produced biogas, yielding a more energy-efficient anaerobic method for wastewater treatment.

  10. Enhanced high-solids anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by the addition of scrap iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Yu, Qilin; Xu, Zibin; Quan, Xie

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge usually requires pretreatment procedure to improve the bioavailability of sludge, which involves considerable energy and high expenditures. This study proposes a cost-effective method for enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge without a pretreatment by directly adding iron into the digester. The results showed that addition of Fe(0) powder could enhance 14.46% methane yield, and Fe scrap (clean scrap) could further enhance methane yield (improving rate 21.28%) because the scrap has better mass transfer efficiency with sludge and liquid than Fe(0) powder. The scrap of Fe with rust (rusty scrap) could induce microbial Fe(III) reduction, which resulted in achieving the highest methane yield (improving rate 29.51%), and the reduction rate of volatile suspended solids (VSS) was also highest (48.27%) among Fe powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap. PCR-DGGE proved that the addition of rusty scrap could enhance diversity of acetobacteria and enrich iron-reducing bacteria to enhance degradation of complex substrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pathway-dependent isotope fractionation during aerobic and anaerobic degradation of monochlorobenzene and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoming; Howlett, Michael R; Nelson, Jennifer L; Grant, Gavin; Dworatzek, Sandra; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Zinder, Stephen H; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Stable carbon isotope fractionation is a valuable tool for monitoring natural attenuation and to establish the fate of groundwater contaminants. In this study, we measured carbon isotope fractionation during aerobic and anaerobic degradation of two chlorinated benzenes: monochlorobenzene (MCB) and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB). MCB isotope fractionation was measured in anaerobic methanogenic microcosms, while 1,2,4-TCB isotope experiments were carried out in both aerobic and anaerobic microcosms. Large isotope fractionation was observed in both the anaerobic microcosm experiments. Enrichment factors (ε) for anaerobic reductive dechlorination of MCB and 1,2,4-TCB were -5.0‰ ± 0.2‰ and -3.0‰ ± 0.4‰, respectively. In contrast, no significant isotope fractionation was found during aerobic microbial degradation of 1,2,4-TCB. The cleavage of a C-Cl σ bond occurs during anaerobic reductive dechlorination of MCB and 1,2,4-TCB, while no σ bond cleavage is involved during aerobic degradation via dioxygenase. The difference in isotope fractionation for aerobic versus anaerobic biodegradation of MCB and 1,2,4-TCB can be explained by the difference in the initial step of aerobic versus anaerobic biodegradation pathways.

  12. Anaerobic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... them during shorter, more intense activities like sprinting. Anaerobic exercise leads to a buildup of lactic acid in ... Asplund CA, Best TM. Exercise physiology. In: Miller MD, Thompson ... Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ...

  13. Anaerobic benzene degradation by Gram-positive sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Laban, Nidal; Selesi, Drazenka; Jobelius, Carsten; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2009-06-01

    Despite its high chemical stability, benzene is known to be biodegradable with various electron acceptors under anaerobic conditions. However, our understanding of the initial activation reaction and the responsible prokaryotes is limited. In the present study, we enriched a bacterial culture that oxidizes benzene to carbon dioxide under sulfate-reducing conditions. Community analysis using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and FISH revealed 95% dominance of one phylotype that is affiliated to the Gram-positive bacterial genus Pelotomaculum showing that sulfate-reducing Gram-positive bacteria are involved in anaerobic benzene degradation. In order to get indications of the initial activation mechanism, we tested the substrate utilization, performed cometabolism tests and screened for putative metabolites. Phenol, toluene, and benzoate could not be utilized as alternative carbon sources by the benzene-degrading culture. Cometabolic degradation experiments resulted in retarded rates of benzene degradation in the presence of phenol whereas toluene had no effect on benzene metabolism. Phenol, 2-hydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, and benzoate were identified as putative metabolites in the enrichment culture. However, hydroxylated aromatics were shown to be formed abiotically. Thus, the finding of benzoate as an intermediate compound supports a direct carboxylation of benzene as the initial activation mechanism but additional reactions leading to its formation cannot be excluded definitely.

  14. Ubiquitous presence and novel diversity of anaerobic alkane degraders in cold marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje eGittel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alkanes are major constituents of crude oil and are released to the marine environment by natural seepage and from anthropogenic sources. Due to their chemical inertness, their removal from anoxic marine sediments is primarily controlled by the activity of anaerobic alkane-degrading microorganisms. To conduct a comprehensive cultivation-independent survey of the diversity and distribution of anaerobic alkane degraders, we designed novel PCR primers that cover all known diversity of the 1-methylalkyl succinate synthase gene (masD/assA, which catalyzes the initial activation of alkanes. We studied masD/assA gene diversity in pristine and seepage-impacted Danish coastal sediments, as well as in sediments and alkane-degrading enrichment cultures from the Middle Valley (MV hydrothermal vent system in the Pacific Northwest. MasD/assA genes were ubiquitously present, and the primers captured the diversity of both known and previously undiscovered masD/assA gene diversity. Seepage sediments were dominated by a single masD/assA gene cluster, which is presumably indicative of a substrate-adapted community, while pristine sediments harbored a diverse range of masD/assA phylotypes including those present in seepage sediments. This rare biosphere of anaerobic alkane degraders will likely increase in abundance in the event of seepage or accidental oil spillage. Nanomolar concentrations of short-chain alkanes (SCA were detected in pristine and seepage sediments. Interestingly, anaerobic alkane degraders closely related to strain BuS5, the only SCA degrader in pure culture, were found in mesophilic MV enrichments, but not in cold sediments from Danish waters. We propose that the new masD/assA gene lineages in these sediments represent novel phylotypes that are either fueled by naturally occurring low levels of SCA or that metabolize medium- to long-chain alkanes. Our study highlights that masD/assA genes are a relevant diagnostic marker to identify seepage and

  15. 'Candidatus Dichloromethanomonas elyunquensis' gen. nov., sp. nov., a dichloromethane-degrading anaerobe of the Peptococcaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleindienst, Sara; Higgins, Steven A; Tsementzi, Despina; Chen, Gao; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T; Mack, E Erin; Löffler, Frank E

    2017-04-01

    Taxonomic assignments of anaerobic dichloromethane (DCM)-degrading bacteria remain poorly constrained but are important for understanding the microbial diversity of organisms contributing to DCM turnover in environmental systems. We describe the taxonomic classification of a novel DCM degrader in consortium RM obtained from pristine Rio Mameyes sediment. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the DCM degrader was most closely related to members of the genera Dehalobacter and Syntrophobotulus, but sequence similarities did not exceed 94% and 93%, respectively. Genome-aggregate average amino acid identities against Peptococcaceae members did not exceed 66%, suggesting that the DCM degrader does not affiliate with any described genus. Phylogenetic analysis of conserved single-copy functional genes supported that the DCM degrader represents a novel clade. Growth strictly depended on the presence of DCM, which was consumed at a rate of 160±3μmolL(-1) d(-1). The DCM degrader attained 5.25×10(7)±1.0×10(7) cells per μmol DCM consumed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed rod-shaped cells 4±0.8μm long and 0.4±0.1μm wide. Based on the unique phylogenetic, genomic, and physiological characteristics, we propose that the DCM degrader represents a new genus and species, 'Candidatus Dichloromethanomonas elyunquensis'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Biostimulation and enhancement of pesticide degradation around water abstraction fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Suzi

    to develop remediation solutions. Abstraction fields often include several wells. Even if only one of the wells is contaminated, this water mixes with uncontaminated groundwater from the other wells and causes excessive volumes of water to be treated at the waterworks. An alternative approach...... by diffuse sources in or around water abstraction fields. This approach could lead to more efficient in situ remediation solutions and protection of groundwater as a drinking water supply. Herbicides are generally expected to be difficult to be degraded under anaerobic conditions, but prone to biodegradation...... to be a potential remediation solution for pesticides. Furthermore, bentazone mineralization was first time found in aquifer sediments at low oxygen concentrations. Enhanced biostimulation by adding nitrate or nutrients was also seen as potential technologies, however, in the case of nitrate, it was suggested...

  17. Bioelectrochemical enhancement of anaerobic methanogenesis for high organic load rate wastewater treatment in a up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Yu, Qilin

    2014-10-17

    A coupling process of anaerobic methanogenesis and electromethanogenesis was proposed to treat high organic load rate (OLR) wastewater. During the start-up stage, acetate removal efficiency of the electric-biological reactor (R1) reached the maximization about 19 percentage points higher than that of the control anaerobic reactor without electrodes (R2), and CH4 production rate of R1 also increased about 24.9% at the same time, while additional electric input was 1/1.17 of the extra obtained energy from methane. Coulombic efficiency and current recorded showed that anodic oxidation contributed a dominant part in degrading acetate when the metabolism of methanogens was low during the start-up stage. Along with prolonging operating time, aceticlastic methanogenesis gradually replaced anodic oxidation to become the main pathway of degrading acetate. When the methanogens were inhibited under the acidic conditions, anodic oxidation began to become the main pathway of acetate decomposition again, which ensured the reactor to maintain a stable performance. FISH analysis confirmed that the electric field imposed could enrich the H2/H(+)-utilizing methanogens around the cathode to help for reducing the acidity. This study demonstrated that an anaerobic digester with a pair of electrodes inserted to form a coupling system could enhance methanogenesis and reduce adverse impacts.

  18. Effect of community structure on the kinetics of anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, M.J.

    1990-11-01

    The kinetics of benzoate degradation by Syntrophus buswellii grown in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G11 was determined. Benzoate was degraded to a threshold value where no futher benzoate degradation was detected even after long incubation times. The addition of sodium acetate, but not sodium chloride, was found to affect the threshold value with higher values observed at higher acetate concentrations. Syntrophus buswellii was isolated in pure culture with crotonate as the substrate. Also, an anaerobic, fermentative bacterium that metabolizes 3-chlorophenoxyacetate and phenoxyacetate to the corresponding phenol was isolated in pure culture. The synthesis of poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) in Syntrophomonas wolfei was studied. The bacterium synthesized PHA directly from the {Beta}-oxidation intermediate during the initial stages of growth. Later, PHA was made by the condensation of two acetyl-CoA molecules. The genes for PHA synthesis in S. wolfei have been cloned into Escherichia coli.

  19. Evaluation of anaerobic degradation, biogas and digestate production of cereal silages using nylon-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Marco; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco; Bocchi, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the degradation efficiency and the biogas and digestate production during anaerobic digestion were evaluated for the cereal silages most used to feed biogas plants. To this purpose, silages of: maize from the whole plant, maize from the ear, triticale and wheat were digested, inside of nylon bags, in laboratory scale digesters, for 75days. Overall, the test involved 288 nylon bags. After 75days of digestion, the maize ear silage shows the highest degradation efficiency (about 98%) while wheat silage the lowest (about 83%). The biogas production ranges from 438 to 852Nm(3)/t of dry matter for wheat and ear maize silage, respectively. For all the cereal silages, the degradation as well as the biogas production are faster at the beginning of the digestion time. Digestate mass, expressed as percentage of the fresh matter, ranges from 38% to 84% for wheat and maize ear silage, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lactose contaminant as steroid degradation enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwmeyer, Florentine; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees; Vromans, Herman

    2008-11-01

    By pharmaceutical processes and in the presence of solid excipients physical-chemical changes are known to occur, leading to increased rate of chemical degradation. The purpose of this work was to determine the critical aspects in the stability of a steroid in the presence of a commonly used excipient, lactose. A steroid was either mixed or wet granulated with lactose with different particle size. Small lactose particles lead to a higher degree of degradation. Degradation was enhanced under warm humid conditions although the presence of water alone could not account for this effect. Lactose-phosphate, a known intrinsic contaminant in lactose is demonstrated to enhance the degradation of the steroid. Stability was improved in high purity lactose and deteriorated upon extra addition of phosphates. Since the exposure to the contaminant is a function of the surface area of the lactose, particle size differences of the excipient have a clear consequence. High shear granulated lactose granules exhibit a heterogeneous composition; large granules consist of small primary particles and vice versa. It is shown that the large granules, composed of the small primary lactose particles reveal the highest degree of degradation. Granule composition dictates the stability profile of the granules. The lactose contaminant and granule composition dictates the stability profile of the granules and mixtures.

  1. Modeling multi-component transport and enhanced anaerobic dechlorination processes in a single fracture-clay matrix system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Broholm, Mette Martina; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    Clayey tills contaminated with chlorinated solvents are a threat to groundwater and are difficult to remediate. A numerical model is developed for assessing leaching processes and for simulating the remediation via enhanced anaerobic dechlorination. The model simulates the transport...... of a contaminant in a single fracture-clay matrix system coupled with a reactive model for anaerobic dechlorination. The model takes into account microbially driven anaerobic dechlorination, where sequential Monod kinetics with competitive inhibition is used to model the reaction rates, and degradation...... is localized to account for potential pore size limitations on microbial entry to the clay matrix. The model is used to assess the distribution of TCE and its daughter products in the clay matrix and the concentration of the different compounds at the outlet of the fracture. The time frame for complete cleanup...

  2. Energetics and kinetics of anaerobic aromatic and fatty acid degradation. Progress report, March 1992--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney M.J.

    1995-06-23

    Factors affecting the rate and extent of benzoate degradation by anaerobic syntrophic consortia were studied. Cocultures of a syntrophic benzoate degrader, strain SB, with a hydrogen/formate-using sulfate reducer degraded benzoate to a threshold that depended on the amount of substrate and acetate present. The benzoate threshold was not a function of the inhibition of benzoate degradation capacity by acetate or the toxicity of the undissociated form of acetate. Rather, a critical or minimal Gibb`s free energy value may exist where thermodynamic constraints preclude further benzoate degradation. A sensitive assay to detect low formate concentrations was developed to measure the formate levels when the benzoate threshold was reached. We showed that increased acetate concentrations, even when hydrogen and formate levels are low, affects the extent of benzoate degradation, implicating the importance of interspecies acetate transfer. In addition to benzoate, various saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, 2-methylbutyrate, and methyl esters of fatty acids supported growth in coculture with a hydrogen-using partner. SB is the only syntrophic bacterium known to use both benzoate and fatty acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SB clustered with sulfate reducers in the delta subclass of the Proteobacteria. SB grew well in coculture with Desulfoarculus baarsii, a sulfate reducer that uses formate but not hydrogen. This unequivocally shows that SB can grow by interspecies formate transfer.

  3. Degradation and utilization of cellulose and straw by three different anaerobic fungi from the ovine rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, G L; Phillips, M W

    1989-07-01

    Three different ruminal fungi, a Neocallimastix sp. (strain LM-1), a Piromonas sp. (strain SM-1), and a Sphaeromonas sp. (strain NM-1), were grown anaerobically in liquid media which contained a suspension of either 1% (wt/vol) purified cellulose or finely milled wheat straw as the source of fermentable carbon. Fungal biomass was estimated by using cell wall chitin or cellular protein in cellulose cultures and chitin in straw cultures. Both strains LM-1 and SM-1 degraded cellulose with a concomitant increase in fungal biomass. Maximum growth of both fungi occurred after incubation for 4 days, and the final yield of protein was the same for both fungi. Cellulose degradation continued after growth ceased. Strain NM-1 failed to grow in the cellulose medium. All three anaerobic fungi grew in the straw-containing medium, and loss of dry weight from the cultures indicated degradation of straw to various degrees (LM-1 greater than SM-1 greater than NM-1). The total fiber component and the cellulose component of the straw were degraded in similar proportions, but the lignin component remained undegraded by any of the fungi. Maximum growth yield on straw occurred after 4 days for strain LM-1 and after 5 days for strains SM-1 and NM-1. The calculated yield of cellular protein for strain LM-1 was twice that of both strains SM-1 and NM-1. The cellular protein yield of strain SM-1 was the same in both cellulose and straw cultures. In contrast to cellulose, straw degradation ceased after the end of the growth phase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Morphological observation and microbial population dynamics in anaerobic polyurethane foam biofilm degrading gelatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on a preliminary study of anaerobic degradation of gelatin with emphasis on the development of the proteolytic biofilm in polyurethane foam matrices in differential reactors. The evolution of the biofilm was observed during 22 days by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses. Three distinct immobilization patterns could be observed in the polyurethane foam: cell aggregates entrapped in matrix pores, thin biofilms attached to inner polyurethane foam surfaces and individual cells that have adhered to the support. Rods, cocci and vibrios were observed as the predominant morphologies of bacterial cells. Methane was produced mainly by hydrogenothrophic reactions during the operation of the reactors.

  5. Biotic and abiotic processes contribute to successful anaerobic degradation of cyanide by UASB reactor biomass treating brewery waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Domen; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; Pirc, Elizabeta Tratar; Jerman, Vesna; Insam, Heribert; Logar, Romana Marinšek; Stres, Blaž

    2013-07-01

    In contrast to the general aerobic detoxification of industrial effluents containing cyanide, anaerobic cyanide degradation is not well understood, including the microbial communities involved. To address this knowledge gap, this study measured anaerobic cyanide degradation and the rearrangements in bacterial and archaeal microbial communities in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor biomass treating brewery waste water using bio-methane potential assays, molecular profiling, sequencing and microarray approaches. Successful biogas formation and cyanide removal without inhibition were observed at cyanide concentrations up to 5 mg l(-1). At 8.5 mg l(-1) cyanide, there was a 22 day lag phase in microbial activity, but subsequent methane production rates were equivalent to when 5 mg l(-1) was used. The higher cumulative methane production in cyanide-amended samples indicated that part of the biogas was derived from cyanide degradation. Anaerobic degradation of cyanide using autoclaved UASB biomass proceeded at a rate more than two times lower than when UASB biomass was not autoclaved, indicating that anaerobic cyanide degradation was in fact a combination of simultaneous abiotic and biotic processes. Phylogenetic analyses of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes for the first time identified and linked the bacterial phylum Firmicutes and the archaeal genus Methanosarcina sp. as important microbial groups involved in cyanide degradation. Methanogenic activity of unadapted granulated biomass was detected at higher cyanide concentrations than reported previously for the unadapted suspended biomass, making the aggregated structure and predominantly hydrogenotrophic nature of methanogenic community important features in cyanide degradation. The combination of brewery waste water and cyanide substrate was thus shown to be of high interest for industrial level anaerobic cyanide degradation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancement of Cellulose Degradation by Cattle Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yasutaka; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Aburai, Kenichi; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ruike, Tatsushi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale. PMID:26402242

  7. Community characterization of anaerobic methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-degrading enrichment cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngster, Laura K G; Kerkhof, Lee J; Häggblom, Max M

    2010-05-01

    Use of the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has led to widespread environmental contamination. Anaerobic biodegradation of MTBE observed under different redox conditions is a potential means for remediation of contaminated aquifers; however, no responsible microorganisms have been identified as yet. We analyzed the bacterial communities in anaerobic-enriched cultures originating from three different contaminated sediments that have retained MTBE-degrading activity for over a decade. MTBE was transformed to tert-butyl alcohol and the methyl group used as a carbon and energy source. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that the MTBE-utilizing microcosms established from different sediment sources had substantially different community profiles, suggesting that multiple species are capable of MTBE biodegradation. The 16S rRNA genes from one enrichment culture were cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis showed a diverse community, with phylotypes belonging to the Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi and Thermotogae. Continued enrichment on MTBE further reduced the community to three predominant phylotypes, as evidenced by T-RFLP analysis, which were most closely related to the Deltaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Chloroflexi. These three common operational taxonomic units were detectable in the enrichments from Atlantic and Pacific coastal samples. Identification of the microorganisms important in mediating anaerobic MTBE transformation will provide the foundation for developing tools for site assessment and bioremediation monitoring.

  8. Anaerobic Degradation Pathway of the Novel Chiral Insecticide Paichongding and Its Impact on Bacterial Communities in Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jing; Ma, Jiangtao; Zhu, Xiaolin; Cai, Jinyan; Yang, Guanghua

    2015-08-19

    To comprehensively understand anaerobic degradation of the novel cis-nitromethylene neonicotinoid insecticide Paichongding (IPP) and its impacts on microbial communities in anaerobic soils, we investigated IPP degradation characteristics, kinetics, and pathway in four different soils. The bacterial community in response to the application of IPP using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was also studied. The removal ratio of IPP stereoisomers (RR-IPP, SS-IPP, RS-IPP, and SR-IPP) reached >90% at 60 days after IPP treatment (DAT) in yellow loam soil (F) and paddy field on desalting muddy polder (C), whereas the degradation ratios of RR-IPP and SS-IPP were soil (J) and yellow paddy soil (H). The results showed that the anaerobic degradation rate of IPP and its stereoisomers was strongly affected by soil physical-chemical characteristics. Furthermore, on the basis of the six metabolites (M1-M6) identified by LC-MS/MS and their behavior, the anaerobic degradation pathway of IPP in soils was proposed. Biodegradation of IPP involved continuous biocatalytic reactions such as nitro reduction and elimination, hydrolysis, demethyl, and ether cleavage reactions. A higher richness of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was found in soils without IPP application than in soils with IPP application. Both the rarefaction curves and Shannon-Wiener diversity index in anaerobic soils had significant difference after IPP application, and the community composition also differed at both the phyla and genus levels.

  9. Degradation of Fluxapyroxad in Soils and Water/Sediment Systems Under Aerobic or Anaerobic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shasha; Liu, Xingang; Chen, Chao; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Zheng, Yongquan

    2015-07-01

    The persistence and fate of fluxapyroxad were investigated including studies with four soils from Hunan (HN), Shanxi (SX), Jiangsu (JS), and Heilongjiang (HLJ) and two water/sediment systems (water/sediment systems 1 and 2) from Beijing, China. The results demonstrated that the biodegradation efficiency of fluxapyroxad in soils under aerobic conditions was higher than that observed under anaerobic conditions. The order of degradation capability was HLJ soil > JS soil > SX soil > HN soil, and fluxapyroxad dissipated faster in water/sediment system 2 than in system 1. The tested systems (four soils and two water/sediments systems) with rich organic matter content, high oxygen level and neutral pH had a high potential to degrade fluxapyroxad, possibly because rich organic matter and oxygen level stimulated microbial activity and the neutral pH was suitable for microbial growth. These results showed that fluxapyroxad exhibited high persistence in tested systems, with half-lives ≥157.6 day.

  10. Energetics and kinetics of anaerobic aromatic and fatty acid degradation. Progress report, November 1993--November 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, M.J.

    1994-12-06

    Factors influencing the rate and extent of benzoate degradation by the anaerobic syntrophic consortia were studied. Nonlinear regression analysis showed that the cause of the benzoate threshold was not a diminished benzoate degradation capacity. Analysis of cocultures with hydrogen users that differed in their hydrogen utilization capacities showed that the threshold did not depend on the kinetic properties of the syntrophic partner. These data support a thermodynamic explanation for the threshold, and exclude the possibility that a change in the affinity of the enzyme system due to acetate inhibition caused the threshold. Modeling studies showed that the threshold value could be predicted from the concentrations of the end products, assuming a critical Gibb`s free energy value. This work shows that interspecies acetate transfer is important in controlling the extent of metabolism by syntrophic organisms.

  11. Degradation of phenol in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Shui-zhou; Shi, Zhou; Zhang, Tong; Fang, Herbert H P

    2004-01-01

    A synthetic wastewater containing phenol as sole substrate was treated in a 2.8 L upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor at ambient temperature. The operation conditions and phenol removal efficiency were discussed, microbial population in the UASB sludge was identified based on DNA cloning, and pathway of anaerobic phenol degradation was proposed. Phenol in wastewater was degraded in an UASB reactor at loading rate up to 18 gCOD/(L x d), with a 1:1 recycle ratio, at 26 +/- 1 degrees C, pH 7.0-7.5. An UASB reactor was able to remove 99% of phenol up to 1226 mg/L in wastewater with 24 h of hydraulic retention time (HRT). For HRT below 24 h, phenol degradation efficiency decreased with HRT, from 95.4% at 16 h to 93.8% at 12 h. It further deteriorated to 88.5% when HRT reached 8 h. When the concentration of influent phenol of the reactor was 1260 mg/L (corresponding COD 3000 mg/L), with the HRT decreasing (from 40 h to 4 h, corresponding COD loading increasing), the biomass yields tended to increase from 0.265 to 3.08 g/(L x d). While at 12 h of HRT, the biomass yield was lower. When HRT was 12 h, the methane yield was 0.308 L/(gCOD removed), which was the highest. Throughout the study, phenol was the sole organic substrate. The effluent contained only residual phenol without any detectable intermediates, such as benzoate, 4-hydrobenzoate or volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Based on DNA cloning analysis, the sludge was composed of five groups of microorganisms. Desulfotomaculum and Clostridium were likely responsible for the conversion of phenol to benzoate, which was further degraded by Syntrophus to acetate and H2/CO2. Methanogens lastly converted acetate and H2/CO2 to methane. The role of epsilon-Proteobacteria was, however, unsure.

  12. The anaerobic degradability of thermoplastic starch: polyvinyl alcohol blends: potential biodegradable food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Melissa A L; O'Sullivan, Cathryn; Rounsefell, Beth; Halley, Peter J; Truss, Rowan; Clarke, William P

    2009-03-01

    A systematic study on the anaerobic degradability of a series of starch:polyvinyl alcohol (TPS:PVOH) blends was performed to determine their fate upon disposal in either anaerobic digesters or bioreactor landfills. The aims of the study were to measure the rate and extent of solubilisation of the plastics. The extent of substrate solubilisation on a COD basis reached 60% for a 90:10 (w/w) blend of TPS:PVOH, 40% for 75:25, 30% for 50:50 and 15% for PVOH only. The rate of substrate solubilisation was most rapid for the 90:10 blend (0.041 h(-1)) and decreased with the amount of starch in the blend in the following order 0.034 h(-1)(75:25); 0.023 h(-1)(50:50). The total solids that remained after 900 h were 10 wt.% (90:10); 23 wt.% (75:25); 55 wt.% (50:50); 90 wt.% (0:100). Starch containing substrates produced a higher concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biogas, compared to the 0:100 substrate. The major outcome was that PVOH inhibited the degradation of the starch from the blend.

  13. Metatranscriptome of an Anaerobic Benzene-Degrading, Nitrate-Reducing Enrichment Culture Reveals Involvement of Carboxylation in Benzene Ring Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fei; Gitiafroz, Roya; Devine, Cheryl E.; Gong, Yunchen; Hug, Laura A.; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2014-01-01

    The enzymes involved in the initial steps of anaerobic benzene catabolism are not known. To try to elucidate this critical step, a metatranscriptomic analysis was conducted to compare the genes transcribed during the metabolism of benzene and benzoate by an anaerobic benzene-degrading, nitrate-reducing enrichment culture. RNA was extracted from the mixed culture and sequenced without prior mRNA enrichment, allowing simultaneous examination of the active community composition and the differential gene expression between the two treatments. Ribosomal and mRNA sequences attributed to a member of the family Peptococcaceae from the order Clostridiales were essentially only detected in the benzene-amended culture samples, implicating this group in the initial catabolism of benzene. Genes similar to each of two subunits of a proposed benzene-carboxylating enzyme were transcribed when the culture was amended with benzene. Anaerobic benzoate degradation genes from strict anaerobes were transcribed only when the culture was amended with benzene. Genes for other benzoate catabolic enzymes and for nitrate respiration were transcribed in both samples, with those attributed to an Azoarcus species being most abundant. These findings indicate that the mineralization of benzene starts with its activation by a strict anaerobe belonging to the Peptococcaceae, involving a carboxylation step to form benzoate. These data confirm the previously hypothesized syntrophic association between a benzene-degrading Peptococcaceae strain and a benzoate-degrading denitrifying Azoarcus strain for the complete catabolism of benzene with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor. PMID:24795366

  14. Detoxification of tar water by anaerobic treatment in an UASB reactor - A study of the degradation of phenolic compounds in a combined denitrifying and anaerobic UASB reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skibsted Mogensen, A.; Schmidt, J.E.; Ahring, B.K. [Technical Univ., Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1998-08-01

    The digestion of pyrolysis condensate (PC) in two combined anaerobic and denitrifying upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors was studied. A COD removal of 80% was achieved with an influent concentration of 1.43% PC{sub pH}. When the reactor was fed with 100% PC during a period of 10 days good reactor operation was observed. Despite less than one retention time of operation, the results indicated clearly, that PC could be used as substrate in the biogas process, even in very high concentrations. A combined anaerobic and denitrifying UASB reactor was successfully digesting 5.5% of wet oxidised PC, but further loading increments deteriorated the anaerobic digestion process. The detoxification of PC was studied by determining the degradation of phenols during reactor operation and the toxicity of PC was decreased more than 77 times witnessed through decreased inhibition of the nitrification process. Phenol, methyl and dimethyl phenols along with methoxyphenols were shown to be degraded within the reactor systems. Degradation rates for phenol and substituted phenols were determined by the reactor experiment indicating that the biomass was selective towards the substrates. Maximum growth rates and half saturation constants for phenol, 4-Methylphenol and 2-Methoxy-4-methylphenol were determined in batch experiments. The degradation rates of phenols determined in batches were significantly higher compared to degradation rates observed in the reactor systems digesting pyrolysis condensate. Determination of the population of methanogens revealed, that Methanosarcina was found only in one reactor, while Methanobacterium and Methanosaeta were found in reactors and inoculum. A UASB reactor was designed for the treatment of pyrolysis condensate at the gasification plant at Harbooere, Denmark. (au) 35 refs.

  15. Succession of microbial community and enhanced mechanism of a ZVI-based anaerobic granular sludge process treating chloronitrobenzenes wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Liang, E-mail: felix79cn@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory for Water Pollution Control and Environmental Safety, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Jin, Jie [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Lin, Haizhuan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wenzhou Environmental Protection Design Scientific Institute, Wenzhou 325000 (China); Gao, Kaituo [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Xu, Xiangyang, E-mail: xuxy@zju.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory for Water Pollution Control and Environmental Safety, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • The combined ZVI–UASB process was established for the degradation of chloronitrobenzenes. • There were the better shock resistance and buffering capacity for anaerobic acidification in the combined process. • Novel ZVI-based anaerobic granular sludge (ZVI–AGS) was successfully developed. • Adaptive shift of microbial community was significant in ZVI-based anaerobic granular sludge system. - Abstract: The combined zero-valent iron (ZVI) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process is established for the treatment of chloronitrobenzenes (ClNBs) wastewater, and the succession of microbial community and its enhanced mechanism are investigated in the study. Results showed that compared with the control UASB (R1), the stable COD removal, ClNBs transformation, and dechlorination occurred in the combined system (R2) when operated at influent COD and 3,4-Dichloronitrobenzene (3,4-DClNB) loading rates of 4200–7700 g m{sup −3} d{sup −1} and 6.0–70.0 g m{sup −3} d{sup −1}, and R2 had the better shock resistance and buffering capacity for the anaerobic acidification. The dechlorination for the intermediate products of p-chloroanaline (p-ClAn) to analine (AN) occurred in R2 reactor after 45 days, whereas it did not occur in R1 after a long-term operation. The novel ZVI-based anaerobic granular sludge (ZVI–AGS) was successfully developed in the combined system, and higher microbial activities including ClNB transformation and H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} production were achieved simultaneously. The dominant bacteria were closely related to the groups of Megasphaera, Chloroflexi, and Clostridium, and the majority of archaea were correlated with the groups of Methanosarcinalesarchaeon, Methanosaetaconcilii, and Methanothrixsoehngenii, which are capable of reductively dechlorinating PCB, HCB, and TCE in anaerobic niche and EPS secretion.

  16. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of poultry blood using activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Cuetos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential of using anaerobic digestion for the treatment of poultry blood has been evaluated in batch assays at the laboratory scale and in a mesophilic semi-continuous reactor. The biodegradability test performed on residual poultry blood was carried out in spite of high inhibitory levels of acid intermediaries. The use of activated carbon as a way to prevent inhibitory conditions demonstrated the feasibility of attaining anaerobic digestion under extreme ammonium and acid conditions. Batch assays with higher carbon content presented higher methane production rates, although the difference in the final cumulative biogas production was not as sharp. The digestion of residual blood was also studied under semi-continuous operation using granular and powdered activated carbon. The average specific methane production was 216 ± 12 mL CH4/g VS. This result was obtained in spite of a strong volatile fatty acid (VFA accumulation, reaching values around 6 g/L, along with high ammonium concentrations (in the range of 6–8 g/L. The use of powdered activated carbon resulted in a better assimilation of C3-C5 acid forms, indicating that an enhancement in syntrophic metabolism may have taken place. Thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were applied as analytical tools for measuring the presence of organic material in the final digestate and evidencing modifications on the carbon surface. The addition of activated carbon for the digestion of residual blood highly improved the digestion process. The adsorption capacity of ammonium, the protection this carrier may offer by limiting mass transfer of toxic compounds, and its capacity to act as a conductive material may explain the successful digestion of residual blood as the sole substrate.

  17. Enhancing the CH4 yield of anaerobic digestion via endogenous CO2 fixation by exogenous H2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuansheng; Hao, Xiaodi; Zhao, Dan; Fu, Kunming

    2015-12-01

    A large amount (25-60%) of degraded organics is converted directly to CO2 during anaerobic digestion (AD) process, which substantially lowers the energy (methane, CH4) yield. In this study, endogenous CO2 fixation by H2 from in-situ iron corrosion was explored to enhancing the CH4 yield. The results demonstrated that a substantial enhancement (up to 61%) in the CH4 yield could be achieved with both nano-scale zero-valent iron (NZVI) and waste iron scraps (WIS) being the added iron. Additionally, the added iron could also achieve effective phosphorus removal from the AD supernatant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbial diversity and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation potential in an oil-contaminated mangrove sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Mangrove forests are coastal wetlands that provide vital ecosystem services and serve as barriers against natural disasters like tsunamis, hurricanes and tropical storms. Mangroves harbour a large diversity of organisms, including microorganisms with important roles in nutrient cycling and availability. Due to tidal influence, mangroves are sites where crude oil from spills farther away can accumulate. The relationship between mangrove bacterial diversity and oil degradation in mangrove sediments remains poorly understood. Results Mangrove sediment was sampled from 0–5, 15–20 and 35–40 cm depth intervals from the Suruí River mangrove (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), which has a history of oil contamination. DGGE fingerprinting for bamA, dsr and 16S rRNA encoding fragment genes, and qPCR analysis using dsr and 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed differences with sediment depth. Conclusions Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity revealed changes with depth. DGGE for bamA and dsr genes shows that the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community profile also changed between 5 and 15 cm depth, and is similar in the two deeper sediments, indicating that below 15 cm the anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading community appears to be well established and homogeneous in this mangrove sediment. qPCR analysis revealed differences with sediment depth, with general bacterial abundance in the top layer (0–5 cm) being greater than in both deeper sediment layers (15–20 and 35–40 cm), which were similar to each other. PMID:22935169

  19. Enhancement on Wingate Anaerobic Test Performance With Hyperventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithäuser, Renate M; Böning, Dieter; Hütler, Matthias; Beneke, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    Relatively long-lasting metabolic alkalizing procedures such as bicarbonate ingestion have potential for improving performance in long-sprint to middle-distance events. Within a few minutes, hyperventilation can induce respiratory alkalosis. However, corresponding performance effects are missing or equivocal at best. To test a potential performance-enhancing effect of respiratory alkalosis in a 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). 10 men (mean ± SD age 26.6 ± 4.9 y, height 184.4 ± 6.1 cm, body-mass test 1 80.7 ± 7.7 kg, body-mass test 2 80.4 ± 7.2 kg, peak oxygen uptake 3.95 ± 0.43 L/min) performed 2 WAnTs, 1 with and 1 without a standardized 15-min hyperventilation program pre-WAnT in randomized order separated by 1 wk. Compared with the control condition, hyperventilation reduced (all P Hyperventilation-induced respiratory alkalosis can enhance WAnT cycling sprint performance well in the magnitude of what is seen after successful bicarbonate ingestion.

  20. Enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of natural gas condensate contaminated groundwater : a laboratory mesocosm study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, X.; Guigard, S. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Foght, J.; Semple, K. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Biggar, K. [BGC Engineering Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)]|[Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2007-07-01

    This paper provided details of a 2-year mesocosm study conducted to optimize anaerobic biodegradation using terminal electron acceptor (TEA) and nutrient amendments. Groundwater and sediment samples were taken from a natural gas condensate-contaminated site in southeast Alberta and were used to install mesocosms under anaerobic conditions. The mesocosms were then selectively amended with sulfate or nitrate TEAs, amended with ammonium and phosphate, and incubated in darkness at 15 degrees C. Samples of the mesocosms were collected on a monthly basis in order to monitor BTEX and CCME F1 hydrocarbons; TEA utilization; and headspace gases. The study also examined most probable numbers of various microorganisms and metabolites. Results of the study showed that sulfate amendment enhanced the biodegradation of xylenes and F1 hydrocarbons, and that nitrate amendments hastened the biodegradation of ethylbenzene in nitrate (NO3) mesocosms. It was concluded that estimated benzene degradation rates in the study were comparable with field rates. Results of the study will be used to investigate geochemical aspects of large-scale field studies. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  1. Anaerobic degradation kinetics of particulate organic matter in untreated and sonicated sewage sludge: role of the inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, M C; Braguglia, C M; Mininni, G

    2008-09-01

    Degradation kinetics of particulate matter in anaerobic digestion of secondary sludge, untreated and sonicated, was investigated by carrying out batch tests at different feed/inoculum ratio (F/I) (in the range of 0.1-4.0). Particulate COD degradation data were analysed using the four equations most widely utilized to model the hydrolysis process and the related kinetic parameters were evaluated. The increase of F/I results in a correspondent increase of the process rate up to one order of magnitude in the investigated interval for both untreated and sonicated sludge. The maximum step increase is observed in the range of 0.1-2.0 while for F/I varying from 2.0 to 4.0 only a modest enhancement of the process kinetics is detected. The effect of sonication on kinetics is not appreciable at low F/I, due to the low fraction of fed sludge and to the consequent strong substrate limitation, whereas at high F/I a slight increase is evidenced.

  2. Relationship between phenol degradation efficiency and microbial community structure in an anaerobic SBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, F; Cabrol, L; Carballa, M; Donoso-Bravo, A; Cruz, L; Ruiz-Filippi, G; Chamy, R; Lema, J M

    2013-11-01

    Phenol is a common wastewater contaminant from various industrial processes, including petrochemical refineries and chemical compounds production. Due to its toxicity to microbial activity, it can affect the efficiency of biological wastewater treatment processes. In this study, the efficiency of an Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor (ASBR) fed with increasing phenol concentrations (from 120 to 1200 mg L(-1)) was assessed and the relationship between phenol degradation capacity and the microbial community structure was evaluated. Up to a feeding concentration of 800 mg L(-1), the initial degradation rate steadily increased with phenol concentration (up to 180 mg L(-1) d(-1)) and the elimination capacity remained relatively constant around 27 mg phenol removed∙gVSS(-1) d(-1). Operation at higher concentrations (1200 mg L(-1)) resulted in a still efficient but slower process: the elimination capacity and the initial degradation rate decreased to, respectively, 11 mg phenol removed∙gVSS(-1) d(-1) and 154 mg L(-1) d(-1). As revealed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, the increase of phenol concentration induced level-dependent structural modifications of the community composition which suggest an adaptation process. The increase of phenol concentration from 120 to 800 mg L(-1) had little effect on the community structure, while it involved drastic structural changes when increasing from 800 to 1200 mg L(-1), including a strong community structure shift, suggesting the specialization of the community through the emergence and selection of most adapted phylotypes. The thresholds of structural and functional disturbances were similar, suggesting the correlation of degradation performance and community structure. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) confirmed that the ASBR functional performance was essentially driven by specific community traits. Under the highest feeding concentration, the most abundant ribotype probably involved in

  3. Anaerobic degradation of xenobiotics by organisms from municipal solid waste under landfilling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlertsson, J; Johansson, E; Karlsson, A; Meyerson, U; Svensson, B H

    1996-01-01

    The potential for biological transformation of 23 xenobiotic compounds by microorganisms in municipal solid waste (MSW) samples from a laboratory scale landfill reactor was studied. In addition the influence of these xenobiotic compounds on methanogenesis was investigated. All R11, 1,1 dichloroethylene, 2,4,6 trichlorophenol, dimethyl phthalate, phenol, benzoate and phthalic acid added were completely transformed during the period of incubation ( > 100 days). Parts of the initially added perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, R12, R114, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate and benzylbutyl phthalate were transformed. Methanogenesis from acetate was completely inhibited in the presence of 2,5 dichlorophenol, whereas 2,4,6 trichlorophenol and R11 showed an initial inhibition, whenafter methane formation recovered. No transformation or effect on the anaerobic microflora occurred for R13, R22, R114, 3 chlorobenzoate, 2,4,6 trichlorobenzoate, bis(2 ethyl)hexyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and dinonyl phthalate. The results indicate a limited potential for degradation, of the compounds tested, by microorganisms developing in a methanogenic landfill environment as compared with other anaerobic habitats such as sewage digestor sludge and sediments.

  4. Thermophilic degradation of phenolic compounds in lab scale hybrid up flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreekanth, D.; Sivaramakrishna, D. [Center for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad 500085, Andhra Pradesh (India); Himabindu, V., E-mail: vurimindihimabindu@yahoo.com [Center for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad 500085, Andhra Pradesh (India); Anjaneyulu, Y. [TLGVRC, JSU Box 18739, JSU, Jackson, MS 32917-0939 (United States)

    2009-05-30

    This Study describes the feasibility of anaerobic degradation of United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) listed 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C-2-NP), 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol (2C-4-NP), 2-chloro-5-methylphenol (2C-5-MP) from a simulated wastewater using four identical 7L bench scale hybrid up flow anaerobic sludge blankets (HUASBs) at five different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) under thermophilic condition (55 {+-} 3 deg. C). The substrate to co-substrate ratios were maintained between 1:33.3 and 1:166.6. Continuous monitoring of parameters like pH, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulation, oxidation reduction potential, chemical oxygen demand (COD), alkalinity, gas productions, methane percentages were carried out along with compound reduction to asses the efficiency of biodegradation. The compound reduction was estimated by using spectrophotometric methods and further validated with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Optimum HRT values were observed at 24 h. Optimum ratio of substrate (phenolic compounds) to co-substrate (glucose) was 1:100. Scanning electron micrographs show that the granules were composed of thermophilic Methanobrevibacter and thermophilic Methanothrix like bacteria.

  5. Effective distribution of emulsified edible oil for enhanced anaerobic bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Robert C.

    2007-10-01

    Recent laboratory and field studies have shown that injection of emulsified edible oils can provide an effective, low-cost alternative for stimulating anaerobic biodegradation processes. A pilot-scale permeable reactive bio-barrier (PRBB) was installed at a perchlorate and chlorinated solvent impacted site by injecting 380 L of commercially available emulsion (EOS ®) containing emulsified soybean oil, food-grade surfactants, lactate, and yeast extract through ten direct push injection wells over a two day period. Soil cores collected six months after emulsion injection indicate the oil was distributed up to 5 m downgradient of the injection wells. A previously developed emulsion transport model was used to simulate emulsion transport and retention using independently estimated model parameters. While there was considerable variability in the soil sampling results, the model simulations generally agreed with the observed oil distribution at the field site. Model sensitivity analyses indicate that increasing the injection flow rate or diluting the oil with more water will have little effect on final oil distribution in the aquifer. The only effective approach for enhancing the spread of emulsified oil away from the injection well appears to be injecting a greater mass of oil.

  6. Shifts in indigenous microbial communities during the anaerobic degradation of pentachlorophenol in upland and paddy soils from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yating; Tao, Liang; Wu, Ke; Wang, Yongkui

    2016-11-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a common persistent pesticide in soil that has generated a significant environmental problem worldwide. Therefore, anaerobic degradation of PCP by the soil indigenous microbial community has gained increasing attention. However, little information is available concerning the functional microorganisms and the potential shifts in the microbial community associated with PCP degradation. In this study, we conducted a set of experiments to determine which components of the indigenous microbial community were capable of degrading PCP in soils of two land use types (upland and paddy soils) in southern China. Our results showed that the PCP degradation rate was significantly higher in paddy soils than that in upland soils. 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) high-throughput sequencing revealed significant differences in microbial taxonomic composition between the soil with PCP and blank (soil without PCP) with Acinetobacter, Clostridium, Coprococcus, Oxobacter, and Sedimentibacter dominating the PCP-affected communities. Acinetobacter was also apparently enriched in the paddy soils with PCP (up to 52.2 %) indicated this genus is likely to play an important role in PCP degradation. Additionally, the Fe(III)-reducing bacteria Clostridium may also be involved in PCP degradation. Our data further revealed hitherto unknown metabolisms of potential PCP degradation by microorganisms including Coprococcus, Oxobacter, and Ruminiclostridium. Overall, these findings indicated that land use types may affect the PCP anaerobic degradation rate via the activities of indigenous bacterial populations and extend our knowledge of the bacterial populations responsible for PCP degradation.

  7. Removal and Degradation Pathways of Sulfamethoxazole Present in Synthetic Municipal Wastewater via an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Sanchez Huerta, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    The current global water crisis in addition to continues contamination of natural water bodies with harmful organic micropollutants (OMPs) have driven the development of new water treatment technologies that allow the efficient removal of such compounds. Among a long list of OMPs, antibiotics are considered as top priority pollutants to be treated due to their great resistance to biological treatments and their potential to develop bacterial resistance. Different approaches, such as membrane-based and advance oxidation processes have been proposed to alleviate or minimize antibiotics discharge into aquatic environments. However most of these processes are costly and generate either matrices with high concentration of OMPs or intermediate products with potentially greater toxicity or persistence. Therefore, this thesis proposes the study of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for the treatment of synthetic municipal wastewater containing sulfamethoxazole (SMX), a world widely used antibiotic. Besides the general evaluation of AnMBR performance in the COD removal and biogas production, this research mainly focuses on the SMX removal and its degradation pathway. Thus 5 SMX quantification was performed through solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and the identification of its transformation products (TPs) was assessed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. The results achieved showed that, working under optimal conditions (35°C, pH 7 and ORP around -380 to -420 mV) and after a biomass adaptation period (maintaining 0.85 VSS/TSS ratio), the AnMBR process provided over 95% COD removal and 95-98% SMX removal, while allowing stable biogas composition and methane production (≈130 mL CH4/g CODremoved). Kinetic analysis through a batch test showed that after 24 h of biological reaction, AnMBR process achieved around 94% SMX removal, indicating a first order kinetic reaction with K= 0.119, which highlights the high degradation

  8. Enhancement of carbon dioxide reduction and methane production by an obligate anaerobe and gas dissolution device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungjin; Choi, Kwangkeun; Kim, Jong-Oh; Chung, Jinwook

    2016-01-25

    The use of gas dissolution devices to improve the efficiency of H2 dissolution has enhanced CO2 reduction and CH4 production. In addition, the nutrients that initially existed in anaerobic sludge were exhausted over time, and the activities of anaerobic microorganisms declined. When nutrients were artificially injected, CO2 reduction and CH4 production rates climbed. Thus, assuming that the activity of the obligatory anaerobic microorganisms is maintained, a gas dissolution device will further enhance the efficiency of CO2 reduction and CH4 production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous addition of zero-valent iron and activated carbon on enhanced mesophilic anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tongyu; Qin, Yujie; Cao, Yan; Han, Bin; Ren, Junyi

    2017-10-01

    The performance of biogas generation and sludge degradation was studied under different zero-valent iron/activated carbon (ZVI/AC) ratios in detail in mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sludge. A good enhancement of methane production was obtained at the 10:1 ZVI/AC ratio, and the cumulative methane production was 132.1 mL/g VS, 37.6% higher than the blank. The methane content at the 10:1 ZVI/AC ratio reached 68.8%, which was higher than the blank (55.2%) and the sludge-added AC alone (59.6%). For sludge degradation, the removal efficiencies of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), proteins, and polysaccharides were all the highest at the 10:1 ZVI/AC ratio. The concentration of available phosphorus (AP) decreased after anaerobic digestion process. On the other hand, the concentrations of available nitrogen (AN) and available potassium (AK) increased after the anaerobic digestion process and showed a gradually decreasing trend with increasing ZVI/AC ratio. The concentrations of AN and AK were 2303.1-4200.3 and 274.7-388.3 mg/kg, showing a potential for land utilization.

  10. Kinetics of butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen metabolism in a thermophilic, anaerobic, butyrate-degrading triculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahring, B K; Westermann, P

    1987-02-01

    Kinetics of butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen metabolism were determined with butyrate-limited, chemostat-grown tricultures of a thermophilic butyrate-utilizing bacterium together with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and the TAM organism, a thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogenic rod. Kinetic parameters were determined from progress curves fitted to the integrated form of the Michaelis-Menten equation. The apparent half-saturation constants, K(m), for butyrate, acetate, and dissolved hydrogen were 76 muM, 0.4 mM, and 8.5 muM, respectively. Butyrate and hydrogen were metabolized to a concentration of less than 1 muM, whereas acetate uptake usually ceased at a concentration of 25 to 75 muM, indicating a threshold level for acetate uptake. No significant differences in K(m) values for butyrate degradation were found between chemostat- and batch-grown tricultures, although the maximum growth rate was somewhat higher in the batch cultures in which the medium was supplemented with yeast extract. Acetate utilization was found to be the rate-limiting reaction for complete degradation of butyrate to methane and carbon dioxide in continuous culture. Increasing the dilution rate resulted in a gradual accumulation of acetate. The results explain the low concentrations of butyrate and hydrogen normally found during anaerobic digestion and the observation that acetate is the first volatile fatty acid to accumulate upon a decrease in retention time or increase in organic loading of a digestor.

  11. Physiology of deletion mutants in the anaerobic β-myrcene degradation pathway in Castellaniella defragrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lüddeke Frauke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monoterpenes present a large and versatile group of unsaturated hydrocarbons of plant origin with widespread use in the fragrance as well as food industry. The anaerobic β-myrcene degradation pathway in Castellaniella defragrans strain 65Phen differs from well known aerobic, monooxygenase-containing pathways. The initial enzyme linalool dehydratase-isomerase ldi/LDI catalyzes the hydration of β-myrcene to (S-(+-linalool and its isomerization to geraniol. A high-affinity geraniol dehydrogenase geoA/GeDH and a geranial dehydrogenase geoB/GaDH contribute to the formation of geranic acid. A genetic system was for the first time applied for the betaproteobacterium to prove in vivo the relevance of the linalool dehydratase-isomerase and the geraniol dehydrogenase. In-frame deletion cassettes were introduced by conjugation and two homologous recombination events. Results Polar effects were absent in the in-frame deletion mutants C. defragrans Δldi and C. defragrans ΔgeoA. The physiological characterization of the strains demonstrated a requirement of the linalool dehydratase-isomerase for growth on acyclic monoterpenes, but not on cyclic monoterpenes. The deletion of geoA resulted in a phenotype with hampered growth rate on monoterpenes as sole carbon and energy source as well as reduced biomass yields. Enzyme assays revealed the presence of a second geraniol dehydrogenase. The deletion mutants were in trans complemented with the broad-host range expression vector pBBR1MCS-4ldi and pBBR1MCS-2geoA, restoring in both cases the wild type phenotype. Conclusions In-frame deletion mutants of genes in the anaerobic β-myrcene degradation revealed novel insights in the in vivo function. The deletion of a high-affinity geraniol dehydrogenase hampered, but did not preclude growth on monoterpenes. A second geraniol dehydrogenase activity was present that contributes to the β-myrcene degradation pathway. Growth on cyclic monoterpenes

  12. A comparison of anaerobic 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid degradation in single-fed and sequencing batch reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elefsiniotis, P.; Wareham, D. G.; Fongsatitukul, P.

    2017-08-01

    This paper compares the practical limits of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) degradation that can be obtained in two laboratory-scale anaerobic digestion systems; namely, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a single-fed batch reactor (SFBR) system. The comparison involved synthesizing a decade of research conducted by the lead author and drawing summative conclusions about the ability of each system to accommodate industrial-strength concentrations of 2,4-D. In the main, 2 L liquid volume anaerobic SBRs were used with glucose as a supplemental carbon source for both acid-phase and two-phase conditions. Volatile fatty acids however were used as a supplemental carbon source for the methanogenic SBRs. The anaerobic SBRs were operated at an hydraulic retention time of 48 hours, while being subjected to increasing concentrations of 2,4-D. The SBRs were able to degrade between 130 and 180 mg/L of 2,4-D depending upon whether they were operated in the acid-phase or two-phase regime. The methanogenic-only phase did not achieve 2,4-D degradation however this was primarily attributed to difficulties with obtaining a sufficiently long SRT. For the two-phase SFBR system, 3.5 L liquid-volume digesters were used and no difficulty was experienced with degrading 100 % of the 2,4-D concentration applied (300 mg/L).

  13. Dual (C, H) isotope fractionation in anaerobic low molecular weight (poly)aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation: potential for field studies and mechanistic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Franz D; Abu Laban, Nidal M F H; Meyer, Armin H; Elsner, Martin; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2011-08-15

    Anaerobic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation is a key process for natural attenuation of oil spills and contaminated aquifers. Assessments by stable isotope fractionation, however, have largely been limited to monoaromatic hydrocarbons. Here, we report on measured hydrogen isotope fractionation during strictly anaerobic degradation of the PAH naphthalene. Remarkable large hydrogen isotopic enrichment factors contrasted with much smaller values for carbon: ε(H) = -100‰ ± 15‰, ε(C) = -5.0‰ ± 1.0‰ (enrichment culture N47); ε(H) = -73‰ ± 11‰, ε(C) = -0.7‰ ± 0.3‰ (pure culture NaphS2). This reveals a considerable potential of hydrogen isotope analysis to assess anaerobic degradation of PAHs. Furthermore, we investigated the conclusiveness of dual isotope fractionation to characterize anaerobic aromatics degradation. C and H isotope fractionation during benzene degradation (ε(C) = -2.5‰ ± 0.2‰; ε(H) = -55‰ ± 4‰ (sulfate-reducing strain BPL); ε(C) = -3.0‰ ± 0.5‰; ε(H) = -56‰ ± 8‰ (iron-reducing strain BF)) resulted in dual isotope slopes (Λ = 20 ± 2; 17 ± 1) similar to those reported for nitrate-reducers. This breaks apart the current picture that anaerobic benzene degradation by facultative anaerobes (denitrifiers) can be distinguished from that of strict anaerobes (sulfate-reducers, fermenters) based on the stable isotope enrichment factors.

  14. Investigation of the impact of trace elements on anaerobic volatile fatty acid degradation using a fractional factorial experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Banks, Charles; Heaven, Sonia; Longhurst, Philip

    2017-11-15

    The requirement of trace elements (TE) in anaerobic digestion process is widely documented. However, little is understood regarding the specific requirement of elements and their critical concentrations under different operating conditions such as substrate characterisation and temperature. In this study, a flask batch trial using fractional factorial design is conducted to investigate volatile fatty acids (VFA) anaerobic degradation rate under the influence of the individual and combined effect of six TEs (Co, Ni, Mo, Se, Fe and W). The experiment inoculated with food waste digestate, spiked with sodium acetate and sodium propionate both to 10 g/l. This is followed by the addition of a selection of the six elements in accordance with a 2(6-2) fractional factorial principle. The experiment is conducted in duplicate and the degradation of VFA is regularly monitored. Factorial effect analysis on the experimental results reveals that within these experimental conditions, Se has a key role in promoting the degradation rates of both acetic and propionic acids; Mo and Co are found to have a modest effect on increasing propionic acid degradation rate. It is also revealed that Ni shows some inhibitory effects on VFA degradation, possibly due to its toxicity. Additionally, regression coefficients for the main and second order effects are calculated to establish regression models for VFA degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In situ anaerobic degradation of petroleum alkanes in marine sediments: preliminary results; Degradation anaerobie d'alcanes petroliers dans un sediment marin: resultats preliminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massias, D. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 6535, Lab. d' Oceanographie et de Biogeochimie, 13 - Marseille (France); Grossi, V.; Bertrand, J.C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 6535, Lab. d' Oceanographie et de Biogeochimie, Faculte des Sciences de Luminy, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2003-05-01

    The degradation of acyclic petroleum hydrocarbons was studied during a 24-month experiment in Mediterranean coastal sediments (Gulf of Fos). Sediment cores entirely contaminated with oil (Arabian Light Crude Oil) were incubated in situ. The use of conservative tracers of sediment's particles reworking (luminophors) allowed the distinction of the reworked layer from the anoxic deeper sediments. Using the 17{alpha},21{beta}C{sub 30} hopane (C{sub 30}H) as an inert internal reference, we could demonstrate that, after 24 months of experiment, acyclic petroleum hydrocarbons can be degraded under natural anaerobic conditions. The reactivity of individual alkanes appeared to depend on their chemical structure. (authors)

  16. Complete genome sequence of the anaerobic, protein-degrading hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Desulfurococcus kamchatkensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravin, Nikolai V; Mardanov, Andrey V; Beletsky, Alexey V; Kublanov, Ilya V; Kolganova, Tatiana V; Lebedinsky, Alexander V; Chernyh, Nikolai A; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Skryabin, Konstantin G

    2009-04-01

    Desulfurococcus kamchatkensis is an anaerobic organotrophic hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon isolated from a terrestrial hot spring. Its genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 1,365,223 bp with no extrachromosomal elements. A total of 1,474 protein-encoding genes were annotated, among which 205 are exclusive for D. kamchatkensis. The search for a replication origin site revealed a single region coinciding with a global extreme of the nucleotide composition disparity curve and containing a set of crenarchaeon-type origin recognition boxes. Unlike in most archaea, two genes encoding homologs of the eukaryotic initiator proteins Orc1 and Cdc6 are located distantly from this site. A number of mobile elements are present in the genome, including seven transposons representing IS607 and IS200/IS605 families and multiple copies of miniature inverted repeat transposable elements. Two large clusters of regularly interspaced repeats are present; none of the spacer sequences matches known archaeal extrachromosomal elements, except one spacer matches the sequence of a resident gene of D. kamchatkensis. Many of the predicted metabolic enzymes are associated with the fermentation of peptides and sugars, including more than 30 peptidases with diverse specificities, a number of polysaccharide degradation enzymes, and many transporters. Consistently, the genome encodes both enzymes of the modified Embden-Meyerhof pathway of glucose oxidation and a set of enzymes needed for gluconeogenesis. The genome structure and content reflect the organism's nutritionally diverse, competitive natural environment, which is periodically invaded by viruses and other mobile elements.

  17. Characterization of Anaerobic Degradability and Kinetics of Harvested Submerged Aquatic Weeds Used for Nutrient Phytoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuro Kobayashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, eight different submerged aquatic species were screened by batch biochemical methane potential and anaerobic degradability tests to identify a promising/suitable feedstock. Kinetics of the best-screened substrate were studied in a mesophilic semi-continuous experiment. The aquatic species Myriophyllum aquaticum, Egeria densa and Potamogeton perfoliatus showed relatively higher methane yields of over 400 NmL/g-VS (volatile solids. Semi-continuous operation was carried out by feeding E. densa for over 400 days. The achieved results were 33%–53% chemical oxygen demand (COD reduction and methane yield of 126–231 NmL/g-VS with a short hydraulic retention time (HRT. Additionally, the NH4+ and PO43− releases from the biomass to water were found to be low (18%–27% and 2.5%–3.9% throughout the experiment. Hydrolysis was the limiting step in the digestion of E. densa, regardless of changes in HRT (15–45 days. The acid-phase model indicated that the hydrolysis rate constant (kh of E. densa was 0.058 one/day, which was one third lower the kh value of food waste, but quite similar to cow manure.

  18. Molecular analysis of meso- and thermophilic microbiota associated with anaerobic biowaste degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritari Jarmo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial anaerobic digestion (AD is used as a waste treatment process to degrade complex organic compounds into methane. The archaeal and bacterial taxa involved in AD are well known, whereas composition of the fungal community in the process has been less studied. The present study aimed to reveal the composition of archaeal, bacterial and fungal communities in response to increasing organic loading in mesophilic and thermophilic AD processes by applying 454 amplicon sequencing technology. Furthermore, a DNA microarray method was evaluated in order to develop a tool for monitoring the microbiological status of AD. Results The 454 sequencing showed that the diversity and number of bacterial taxa decreased with increasing organic load, while archaeal i.e. methanogenic taxa remained more constant. The number and diversity of fungal taxa increased during the process and varied less in composition with process temperature than bacterial and archaeal taxa, even though the fungal diversity increased with temperature as well. Evaluation of the microarray using AD sample DNA showed correlation of signal intensities with sequence read numbers of corresponding target groups. The sensitivity of the test was found to be about 1%. Conclusions The fungal community survives in anoxic conditions and grows with increasing organic loading, suggesting that Fungi may contribute to the digestion by metabolising organic nutrients for bacterial and methanogenic groups. The microarray proof of principle tests suggest that the method has the potential for semiquantitative detection of target microbial groups given that comprehensive sequence data is available for probe design.

  19. Evaluation of integrated anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactor for degradation of azo dye methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, V; Ong, Soon-An; Ho, Li-Ngee; Wong, Yee-Shian

    2013-09-01

    This study was to investigate the mineralization of wastewater containing methyl orange (MO) in integrated anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactor with coconut fiber as bio-material. Different aeration periods (3h in phase 1 and 2; 3, 6 and 15 h in phase 3; 24 h in phase 4 and 5) in aerobic chamber were studied with different MO concentration 50, 100, 200, 200 and 300 mg/L as influent from phase 1-5. The color removals estimated from the standard curve of dye versus optical density at its maximum absorption wavelength were 97%, 96%, 97%, 97%, and 96% and COD removals were 75%, 72%, 63%, 81%, and 73% in phase 1-5, respectively. The MO decolorization and COD degradation followed first-order kinetic model and second-order kinetic model, respectively. GC-MS analysis indicated the symmetrical cleavage of azo bond and the reduction in aromatic peak ensured the partial mineralization of MO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Response of anaerobes to methyl fluoride, 2-bromoethanesulfonate and hydrogen during acetate degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Liping; Lü, Fan; Li, Lei; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2013-05-01

    To use the selective inhibition method for quantitative analysis of acetate metabolism in methanogenic systems, the responses of microbial communities and metabolic activities, which were involved in anaerobic degradation of acetate, to the addition of methyl fluoride (CH3F), 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) and hydrogen were investigated in a thermophilic batch experiment. Both the methanogenic inhibitors, i.e., CH3F and BES, showed their effectiveness on inhibiting CH4 production, whereas acetate metabolism other than acetoclastic methanogenesis was stimulated by BES, as reflected by the fluctuated acetate concentration. Syntrophic acetate oxidation was thermodynamically blocked by hydrogen (H2), while H2-utilizing reactions as hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and homoacetogenesis were correspondingly promoted. Results of PCR-DGGE fingerprinting showed that, CH3F did not influence the microbial populations significantly. However, the BES and hydrogen notably altered the bacterial community structures and increased the diversity. BES gradually changed the methanogenic community structure by affecting the existence of different populations to different levels, whilst H2 greatly changed the abundance of different methanogenic populations, and induced growth of new species.

  1. Adsorption and degradation of sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole in an agricultural soil system under an anaerobic condition: Kinetics and environmental risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Genxiang; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Shuangqing; Zhang, Hongchang; Yuan, Zhejun; Zhang, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Sulfonamides, one of the commonest antibiotics, were widely used on humans and livestock to control pathema and bacterial infections resulting in further environmental risks. The present study evaluated the adsorption and degradation of sulfadiazine (SDZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in an agricultural soil system under an anaerobic condition. Low sorption coefficients (K d , 1.22 L kg -1 for SDZ and 1.23 L kg -1 for SMX) obtained from Freundlich isotherms experiment indicated that poor sorption of both antibiotics may pose a high risk to environment due to their high mobility and possibility of entering surface and ground water. Degradation occurred at a lower rate under the anaerobic environment, where both two antibiotics had higher persistence in sterile and non-sterile soils with degradation ratio  20 d. Additionally, the addition of manure slightly increased degradation rates of SDZ and SMX, but there were no significant differences between single and repeated manure application at a later stage (p > 0.05), which suggested that the degradation was affected by both biotic and abiotic factors. Degradation rates would be slower at a higher concentration, indicating that degradation kinetics of SDZ and SMX were dependent on initial concentrations. During the degradation period, the antibiotics removal may change temperature, pH, sulfate and nitrate in soil, which suggested that the variation of antibiotics concentrations was related to the changes of soil physicochemical properties. An equation was proposed to elucidate the link between adsorption and degradation under different conditions, and to predict potential environmental risks of antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anaerobic methanethiol degradation and methanogenic community analysis in an alkaline (pH 10) biological process for liquefied petroleum gas desulfurization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerdam, van R.C.; Bonilla-Salinas, M.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Bruning, H.; Lens, P.N.L.; Stams, A.J.M.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic methanethiol (MT) degradation by mesophilic (30 degrees C) alkaliphilic (pH 10) communities was studied in a lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactor inoculated with a mixture of sediments from the Wadden Sea (The Netherlands), Soap Lake (Central Washington), and Russian soda

  3. Effect of community structure on the kinetics of anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds. Progress report, March 1989--June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, M.J.

    1991-06-01

    The physiology of fatty acid metabolism and the kinetics of benzoate degradation by anaerobic syntrophic bacteria were studied. We have shown that: a threshold for benzoate degradation by a syntrophic coculture of Syntrophus buswellii and Desulfovibrio strain G11 exists and the value of the threshold depends on the amount of benzoate and acetate suggesting a thermodynamic limitation. Syntrophomonas wolfei has the enzymatic ability to produce formate and that low levels of formate are made during growth in pure culture with crotonate or in coculture with butyrate. However, the high specific activities of hydrogenase compared to formate dehydrogenase indicate that hydrogen rather than formate is the intermediate involved in the interspecies transfer of reducing equivalents. We have isolated Syntrophus buswellii and a novel anaerobic bacteria that catalyzes an aryl-ether cleavage reaction using crotonate as the energy source. Several novel obligately halophilic anaerobes from hypersaline oil reservoir brines were isolated and characterized. Two of these degraded pyrogallate with the production of acetate. We have shown that S. wolfei synthesizes poly-{beta}hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) by two routes, directly from a {beta}-oxidation intermediate without cleaving a C-C bond and by the condensation of two acetyl-CoA molecules. The formation of D-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA needed for PHA synthesis occurs by the activity of a acetoacetyl-CoA reductase rather than a enoyl-CoA hydratase. The genes for PHA synthesis in S. wolfei have been cloned into Escherichia coli.

  4. Anaerobic digestion of secondary residuals from an anaerobic bioreactor at a brewery to enhance bioenergy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocher, Benjamin T; Agler, Matthew T; Garcia, Marcelo L; Beers, Allen R; Angenent, Largus T

    2008-05-01

    Many beer breweries use high-rate anaerobic digestion (AD) systems to treat their soluble high-strength wastewater. Biogas from these AD systems is used to offset nonrenewable energy utilization in the brewery. With increasing nonrenewable energy costs, interest has mounted to also digest secondary residuals from the high-rate digester effluent, which consists of yeast cells, bacteria, methanogens, and small (hemi)cellulosic particles. Mesophilic (37 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) lab-scale, low-rate continuously-stirred anaerobic digestion (CSAD) bioreactors were operated for 258 days by feeding secondary residuals at a volatile solids (VS) concentration of approximately 40 g l(-1). At a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days and a VS loading rate of 2.7 g VS l(-1) day(-1), the mesophilic bioreactor showed an average specific volumetric biogas production rate of 0.88 l CH4 l(-1) day(-1) and an effluent VS concentration of 22.2 g VS l(-1) (43.0% VS removal efficiency) while the thermophilic bioreactor displayed similar performances. The overall methane yield for both systems was 0.21 l CH4 g(-1) VS fed and 0.47-0.48 l CH4 g(-1) VS removed. A primary limitation of thermophilic digestion of this protein-rich waste is the inhibition of methanogens due to higher nondissociated (free) ammonia (NH3) concentrations under similar total ammonium (NH4+) concentrations at equilibrium. Since thermophilic AD did not result in advantageous methane production rates or yields, mesophilic AD was, therefore, superior in treating secondary residuals from high-rate AD effluent. An additional digester to convert secondary residuals to methane may increase the total biogas generation at the brewery by 8% compared to just conventional high-rate digestion of brewery wastewater alone.

  5. The microbial ecology of anaerobic cellulose degradation in municipal waste landfill sites: evidence of a role for fibrobacters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James E; Houghton, James N I; Rooks, David J; Allison, Heather E; McCarthy, Alan J

    2012-04-01

    Cellulose is reputedly the most abundant organic polymer in the biosphere, yet despite the fundamental role of cellulolytic microorganisms in global carbon cycling and as potential sources of novel enzymes for biotechnology, their identity and ecology is not well established. Cellulose is a major component of landfill waste and its degradation is therefore a key feature of the anaerobic microbial decomposition process. Here, we targeted a number of taxa containing known cellulolytic anaerobes (members of the bacterial genus Fibrobacter, lineages of Clostridium clusters I, III, IV and XIV, and anaerobic fungi of the Neocallimastigales) in landfill leachate and colonized cellulose 'baits' via PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Fibrobacter spp. and Clostridium clusters III, IV and XIV were detected in almost all leachate samples and cluster III and XIV clostridia were the most abundant (1-6% and 1-17% of total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies respectively). Two landfill leachate microcosms were constructed to specifically assess those microbial communities that colonize and degrade cellulose substrates in situ. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of colonized cotton revealed extensive cellulose degradation in one microcosm, and Fibrobacter spp. and Clostridium cluster III represented 29% and 17%, respectively, of total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies in the biofilm. Visible cellulose degradation was not observed in the second microcosm, and this correlated with negligible relative abundances of Clostridium cluster III and Fibrobacter spp. (≤ 0.1%), providing the first evidence that the novel fibrobacters recently detected in landfill sites and other non-gut environments colonize and degrade cellulose substrates in situ. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Substrate-bound structures of benzylsuccinate synthase reveal how toluene is activated in anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Michael A; Marsh, E Neil G; Drennan, Catherine L

    2015-09-11

    Various bacteria perform anaerobic degradation of small hydrocarbons as a source of energy and cellular carbon. To activate non-reactive hydrocarbons such as toluene, enzymes conjugate these molecules to fumarate in a radical-catalyzed, C-C bond-forming reaction. We have determined x-ray crystal structures of the glycyl radical enzyme that catalyzes the addition of toluene to fumarate, benzylsuccinate synthase (BSS), in two oligomeric states with fumarate alone or with both substrates. We find that fumarate is secured at the bottom of a long active site cavity with toluene bound directly above it. The two substrates adopt orientations that appear ideal for radical-mediated C-C bond formation; the methyl group of toluene is positioned between fumarate and a cysteine that forms a thiyl radical during catalysis, which is in turn adjacent to the glycine that serves as a radical storage residue. Toluene is held in place by fumarate on one face and tight packing by hydrophobic residues on the other face and sides. These hydrophobic residues appear to become ordered, thus encapsulating toluene, only in the presence of BSSβ, a small protein subunit that forms a tight complex with BSSα, the catalytic subunit. Enzymes related to BSS are able to metabolize a wide range of hydrocarbons through attachment to fumarate. Using our structures as a guide, we have constructed homology models of several of these "X-succinate synthases" and determined conservation patterns that will be useful in understanding the basis for catalysis and specificity in this family of enzymes. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Substrate-bound Structures of Benzylsuccinate Synthase Reveal How Toluene Is Activated in Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Michael A.; Marsh, E. Neil G.; Drennan, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Various bacteria perform anaerobic degradation of small hydrocarbons as a source of energy and cellular carbon. To activate non-reactive hydrocarbons such as toluene, enzymes conjugate these molecules to fumarate in a radical-catalyzed, C—C bond-forming reaction. We have determined x-ray crystal structures of the glycyl radical enzyme that catalyzes the addition of toluene to fumarate, benzylsuccinate synthase (BSS), in two oligomeric states with fumarate alone or with both substrates. We find that fumarate is secured at the bottom of a long active site cavity with toluene bound directly above it. The two substrates adopt orientations that appear ideal for radical-mediated C—C bond formation; the methyl group of toluene is positioned between fumarate and a cysteine that forms a thiyl radical during catalysis, which is in turn adjacent to the glycine that serves as a radical storage residue. Toluene is held in place by fumarate on one face and tight packing by hydrophobic residues on the other face and sides. These hydrophobic residues appear to become ordered, thus encapsulating toluene, only in the presence of BSSβ, a small protein subunit that forms a tight complex with BSSα, the catalytic subunit. Enzymes related to BSS are able to metabolize a wide range of hydrocarbons through attachment to fumarate. Using our structures as a guide, we have constructed homology models of several of these “X-succinate synthases” and determined conservation patterns that will be useful in understanding the basis for catalysis and specificity in this family of enzymes. PMID:26224635

  8. Application of Novel Amino-Functionalized NZVI@SiO2 Nanoparticles to Enhance Anaerobic Granular Sludge Removal of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zeyu; Wan, Jinquan; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan; Shu, Yajie

    2015-01-01

    A novel amino-functionalized silica-coated nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI@SiO2-NH2) was successfully synthesized by using one-step liquid-phase method with the surface functionalization of nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) to enhance degradation of chlorinated organic contaminants from anaerobic microbial system. NZVI@SiO2-NH2 nanoparticles were synthesized under optimal conditions with the uniform core-shell structure (80-100 nm), high loading of amino functionality (~0.9 wt%), and relatively large specific surface area (126.3 m(2)/g). The result demonstrated that well-dispersed NZVI@SiO2-NH2 nanoparticle with nFe(0)-core and amino-functional silicon shell can effectively remove 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) in the neutral condition, much higher than that of NZVI. Besides, the surface-modified nanoparticles (NZVI@SiO2-NH2) in anaerobic granule sludge system also showed a positive effect to promote anaerobic biodechlorination system. More than 94.6% of 2,4,6-TCP was removed from the combined NZVI@SiO2-NH2-anaerobic granular sludge system during the anaerobic dechlorination processes. Moreover, adding the appropriate concentration of NZVI@SiO2-NH2 in anaerobic granular sludge treatment system can decrease the toxicity of 2,4,6-TCP to anaerobic microorganisms and improved the cumulative amount of methane production and electron transport system activity. The results from this study clearly demonstrated that the NZVI@SiO2-NH2/anaerobic granular sludge system could become an effective and promising technology for the removal of chlorophenols in industrial wastewater.

  9. Biological degradation of triclocarban and triclosan in a soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and comparison with environmental fate modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying Guangguo [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide Laboratory, PMB2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia)], E-mail: guang-guo.ying@gig.ac.cn; Yu Xiangyang [CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide Laboratory, PMB2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia); Food Safety Research Institute, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Kookana, Rai S. [CSIRO Land and Water, Adelaide Laboratory, PMB2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia)

    2007-12-15

    Triclocarban and triclosan are two antimicrobial agents widely used in many personal care products. Their biodegradation behaviour in soil was investigated by laboratory degradation experiments and environmental fate modelling. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses showed that triclocarban and triclosan had a tendency to partition into soil or sediment in the environment. Fate modelling suggests that either triclocarban or triclosan 'does not degrade fast' with its primary biodegradation half-life of 'weeks' and ultimate biodegradation half-life of 'months'. Laboratory experiments showed that triclocarban and triclosan were degraded in the aerobic soil with half-life of 108 days and 18 days, respectively. No negative effect of these two antimicrobial agents on soil microbial activity was observed in the aerobic soil samples during the experiments. But these two compounds persisted in the anaerobic soil within 70 days of the experimental period. - Triclocarban and triclosan can be degraded by microbial processes in aerobic soil, but will persist in anaerobic soil.

  10. Enhanced anaerobic digestion of food waste by thermal and ozonation pretreatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariunbaatar, Javkhlan; Panico, Antonio; Frunzo, Luigi; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco

    2014-12-15

    Treatment of food waste by anaerobic digestion can lead to an energy production coupled to a reduction of the volume and greenhouse gas emissions from this waste type. According to EU Regulation EC1774/2002, food waste should be pasteurized/sterilized before or after anaerobic digestion. With respect to this regulation and also considering the slow kinetics of the anaerobic digestion process, thermal and chemical pretreatments of food waste prior to mesophilic anaerobic digestion were studied. A series of batch experiments to determine the biomethane potential of untreated as well as pretreated food waste was carried out. All tested conditions of both thermal and ozonation pretreatments resulted in an enhanced biomethane production. The kinetics of the anaerobic digestion process were, however, accelerated by thermal pretreatment at lower temperatures (food waste, was obtained with thermal pretreatment at 80 °C for 1.5 h. On the basis of net energy calculations, the enhanced biomethane production could cover the energy requirement of the thermal pretreatment. In contrast, the enhanced biomethane production with ozonation pretreatment is insufficient to supply the required energy for the ozonator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lactose contaminant as steroid degradation enhancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwmeyer, Florentine; Maarschalk, Kees van der Voort; Vromans, Herman

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. By pharmaceutical processes and in the presence of solid excipients physical-chemical changes are known to occur, leading to increased rate of chemical degradation. The purpose of this work was to determine the critical aspects in the stability of a steroid in the presence of a commonly

  12. ANAEROBIC DDT BIOTRANSFORMATION: ENHANCEMENT BY APPLICATION OF SURFACTANTS AND LOW OXIDATION REDUCTION POTENTIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enhancement of anaerobic DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane) biotransformation by mixed cultures was studied with application of surfactants and oxidation reduction potential reducing agents. Without amendments, DDT transformation resulted mainly in the pr...

  13. Bioelectrochemical enhancement of methane production in low temperature anaerobic digestion at 10 °C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Dandan; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Si; Buisman, Cees; Heijne, ter Annemiek

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion at low temperature is an attractive technology especially in moderate climates, however, low temperature results in low microbial activity and low rates of methane formation. This study investigated if bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) can enhance methane production from

  14. Microbial Insight into a Pilot-Scale Enhanced Two-Stage High-Solid Anaerobic Digestion System Treating Waste Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Cao, Zhiping; Hu, Yuying; Wang, Xiaolu; Wang, Guangqi; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun; Qian, Yi

    2017-11-30

    High solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD) is a rapidly developed anaerobic digestion technique for treating municipal sludge, and has been widely used in Europe and Asia. Recently, the enhanced HSAD process with thermal treatment showed its advantages in both methane production and VS reduction. However, the understanding of the microbial community is still poor. This study investigated microbial communities in a pilot enhanced two-stage HSAD system that degraded waste activated sludge at 9% solid content. The system employed process "thermal pre-treatment (TPT) at 70 °C, thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD), and mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD)". Hydrogenotrophic methanogens Methanothermobacter spp. dominated the system with relative abundance up to about 100% in both TAD and MAD. Syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) bacteria were discovered in TAD, and they converted acetate into H₂ and CO₂ to support hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The microbial composition and conversion route of this system are derived from the high solid content and protein content in raw sludge, as well as the operational conditions. This study could facilitate the understanding of the enhanced HSAD process, and is of academic and industrial importance.

  15. Characterization of the anaerobic propionate-degrading syntrophs Smithella propionica gen. nov., sp. nov. and Syntrophobacter wolinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Balkwill, D L; Aldrich, H C; Drake, G R; Boone, D R

    1999-04-01

    A strain of anaerobic, syntrophic, propionate-oxidizing bacteria, strain LYPT (= OCM 661T; T = type strain), was isolated and proposed as representative of a new genus and new species, Smithella propionica gen. nov., sp. nov. The strain was enriched from an anaerobic digestor and isolated. Initial isolation was as a monoxenic propionate-degrading co-culture containing Methanospirillum hungateii JF-1T as an H2- and formate-using partner. Later, an axenic culture was obtained by using crotonate as the catabolic substrate. The previously described propionate-degrading syntrophs of the genus Syntrophobacter also grow in co-culture with methanogens such as Methanospirillum hungateii, forming acetate, CO2 and methane from propionate. However, Smithella propionica differs by producing less methane and more acetate; in addition, it forms small amounts of butyrate. Smithella propionica and Syntrophobacter wolinii grew within similar ranges of pH, temperature and salinity, but they differed significantly in substrate ranges and catabolic products. Unlike Syntrophobacter wolinii, Smithella propionica grew axenically on crotonate, although very slowly. Co-cultures of Smithella propionica grew on propionate, and grew slowly on crotonate or butyrate. Syntrophobacter wolinii and Syntrophobacter pfennigii grow on propionate plus sulfate, whereas Smithella propionica did not. Comparisons of 16S rDNA genes indicated that Smithella propionica is most closely related to Syntrophus, and is more distantly related to Syntrophobacter.

  16. Effects of Electron Acceptors, Reducing Agents, and Toxic Metabolites on Anaerobic Degradation of Heterocyclic Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Dorthe; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Arvin, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Degradation of four heterocyclic compounds was examined under nitrate-reducing, sulphate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. Soil samples from a creosote-polluted site in Denmark were used as inoculum. Indole and quinoline were degraded under all redox conditions with the highest degradation...

  17. Role of nickel in high rate methanol degradation in anaerobic granular sludge bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermoso, F.G.; Collins, G.; Bartacek, J.; O'Flaherty, V.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of nickel deprivation from the influent of a mesophilic (30 degrees C) methanol fed upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor was investigated by coupling the reactor performance to the evolution of the Methanosarcina population of the bioreactor sludge. The reactor was operated at pH

  18. Cadmium removal by Euglena gracilis is enhanced under anaerobic growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago-Martínez, M. Geovanni; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Encalada, Rusely; Pineda, Erika; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología (Mexico); Zepeda-Rodriguez, Armando [Facultad de Medicina, UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico); Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología (Mexico); Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo, E-mail: rjass_cardiol@yahoo.com.mx [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología (Mexico)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The protist Euglena gracilis had the ability to grow and remove large amounts of Cd{sup 2+} under anaerobic conditions. • High biomass was attained by combination of glycolytic and mitochondrial carbon sources. • Routes of degradation of glucose, glutamate and malate under anaerobic conditions in E. gracilis are described. • Biosorption was the main mechanism of Cd{sup 2+} removal in anaerobiosis, whereas the Cd{sup 2+} intracellularly accumulated was inactivated by thiol-molecules and polyphosphate. - Abstract: The facultative protist Euglena gracilis, a heavy metal hyper-accumulator, was grown under photo-heterotrophic and extreme conditions (acidic pH, anaerobiosis and with Cd{sup 2+}) and biochemically characterized. High biomass (8.5 × 10{sup 6} cells mL{sup −1}) was reached after 10 days of culture. Under anaerobiosis, photosynthetic activity built up a microaerophilic environment of 0.7% O{sub 2}, which was sufficient to allow mitochondrial respiratory activity: glutamate and malate were fully consumed, whereas 25–33% of the added glucose was consumed. In anaerobic cells, photosynthesis but not respiration was activated by Cd{sup 2+} which induced higher oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were 20 times lower in control cells under anaerobiosis than in aerobiosis, although Cd{sup 2+} induced a higher MDA production. Cd{sup 2+} stress induced increased contents of chelating thiols (cysteine, glutathione and phytochelatins) and polyphosphate. Biosorption (90%) and intracellular accumulation (30%) were the mechanisms by which anaerobic cells removed Cd{sup 2+} from medium, which was 36% higher versus aerobic cells. The present study indicated that E. gracilis has the ability to remove Cd{sup 2+} under anaerobic conditions, which might be advantageous for metal removal in sediments from polluted water bodies or bioreactors, where the O{sub 2} concentration is particularly low.

  19. Tenax extraction for exploring rate-limiting factors in methyl-β-cyclodextrin enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs under denitrifying conditions in a red paddy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mingming, E-mail: sunmingming@njau.edu.cn [Soil Ecology Lab, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Key Laboratory of Soil Environmental and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Ye, Mao [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Hu, Feng, E-mail: fenghu@njau.edu.cn [Soil Ecology Lab, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li, Huixin [Soil Ecology Lab, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Teng, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo, Yongming [Yantai Institute of Costal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Jiang, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Kengara, Fredrick Orori [Department of Chemistry, Maseno University, Private Bag, Maseno 40105 (Kenya)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Enhanced anaerobic bioremediation of a red paddy soil polluted with PAHs. • 1% (w/w) methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and 20 mM nitrate addition acted as solubility-enhancing agent and electron acceptor respectively. • Tenax extraction and a first-three-compartment modeling were applicable to explore the rate-limiting factors in the biodegradation. • Lack of PAH-degraders hindered biodegradation in control and MCD addition treatments. • Inadequate bioaccessible PAHs was vital rate-limiting factor in nitrate addition treatments. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of anaerobic bioremediation systems for PAH-contaminated soil may be constrained by low contaminants bioaccessibility due to limited aqueous solubility and lack of suitable electron acceptors. Information on what is the rate-limiting factor in bioremediation process is of vital importance in the decision in what measures can be taken to assist the biodegradation efficacy. In the present study, four different microcosms were set to study the effect of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and nitrate addition (N) on PAHs biodegradation under anaerobic conditions in a red paddy soil. Meanwhile, sequential Tenax extraction combined with a first-three-compartment model was employed to evaluate the rate-limiting factors in MCD enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs. Microcosms with both 1% (w/w) MCD and 20 mM N addition produced maximum biodegradation of total PAHs of up to 61.7%. It appears rate-limiting factors vary with microcosms: low activity of degrading microorganisms is the vital rate-limiting factor for control and MCD addition treatments (CK and M treatments); and lack of bioaccessible PAHs is the main rate-limiting factor for nitrate addition treatments (N and MN treatments). These results have practical implications for site risk assessment and cleanup strategies.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC GROWTH OF BACILLUS MOJAVENSIS STRAIN JF-2 FOR THE PURPOSE OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; M. Folmsbee; D. Nagle

    2004-05-31

    Our work focuses on the use of microorganisms to recover petroleum hydrocarbons that remain entrapped after current recovery technologies reach their economic limit. Capillary forces between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases are largely responsible for trapping the hydrocarbons in the pores of the rock and large reductions in the interfacial tension between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases are needed for hydrocarbon mobilization (1-3, 10, 11). Microorganisms produce a variety of biosurfactants (4), several of which generate the ultra low interfacial tensions needed for hydrocarbon mobilization (4, 5, 8). In particular, the lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 reduces the interfacial tension between hydrocarbon and aqueous phases to very low levels (<0.016 mN/m) (8) (9). B. mojavensis JF-2 grows under the environmental conditions found in many oil reservoirs, i. e., anaerobic, NaCl concentrations up to 80 g l{sup -1}, and temperatures up to 45 C (6, 7), making it ideally suited for in situ applications. However, anaerobic growth of B. mojavensis JF-2 was inconsistent and difficult to replicate, which limited its use for in situ applications. Our initial studies revealed that enzymatic digests, such as Proteose Peptone, were required for anaerobic growth of Bacillus mojavensis JF-2. Subsequent purification of the growth-enhancing factor in Proteose Peptone resulted in the identification of the growth-enhancing factor as DNA or deoxyribonucleosides. The addition of salmon sperm DNA, herring sperm DNA, E. coli DNA or synthetic DNA (single or double stranded) to Medium E all supported anaerobic growth of JF-2. Further, we found that JF-2 required all four deoxyribonucleosides (deoxyadeonosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine and thymidine) for growth under strict anaerobic conditions. The requirement for the deoxyribonucleosides did not occur under aerobic growth conditions. DNA was not used as a sole energy source; sucrose was required

  1. Energetics and kinetics of anaerobic aromatic and fatty acid degradation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. McInerney

    1996-06-24

    The factors that affect the rate and extent of a model aromatic compound, benzoate, in methanogenic environments was studied. Benzoate is degraded to a threshold concentration below which no further substrate degradation occurs. The threshold concentration depended on the substrate concentration and the amount of acetate present. The threshold value was not a function of the kinetic ability of the organism or toxicity of the end products. Rather a minimal Gibb's free energy value may exist where thermodynamic constraints preclude further benzoate degradation. In addition, new bacterial species were isolated and described, that degrade benzoate or reduce iron, cobalt and other metals.

  2. The physicochemical characteristics and anaerobic degradability of desiccated coconut industry waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanakya, H N; Khuntia, Himanshu Kumar; Mukherjee, Niranjan; Aniruddha, R; Mudakavi, J R; Thimmaraju, Preeti

    2015-12-01

    Desiccated coconut industries (DCI) create various intermediates from fresh coconut kernel for cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The mechanized and non-mechanized DCI process between 10,000 and 100,000 nuts/day to discharge 6-150 m(3) of malodorous waste water leading to a discharge of 264-6642 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) daily. In these units, three main types of waste water streams are coconut kernel water, kernel wash water and virgin oil waste water. The effluent streams contain lipids (1-55 g/l), suspended solids (6-80 g/l) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) at concentrations that are inhibitory to anaerobic bacteria. Coconut water contributes to 20-50% of the total volume and 50-60% of the total organic loads and causes higher inhibition of anaerobic bacteria with an initial lag phase of 30 days. The lagooning method of treatment widely adopted failed to appreciably treat the waste water and often led to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (propionic acid) along with long-chain unsaturated free fatty acids. Biogas generation during biological methane potential (BMP) assay required a 15-day adaptation time, and gas production occurred at low concentrations of coconut water while the other two streams did not appear to be inhibitory. The anaerobic bacteria can mineralize coconut lipids at concentrations of 175 mg/l; however; they are severely inhibited at a lipid level of ≥350 mg/g bacterial inoculum. The modified Gompertz model showed a good fit with the BMP data with a simple sigmoid pattern. However, it failed to fit experimental BMP data either possessing a longer lag phase and/or diauxic biogas production suggesting inhibition of anaerobic bacteria.

  3. Anaerobic treatment of antibiotic production wastewater pretreated with enhanced hydrolysis: Simultaneous reduction of COD and ARGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qizhen; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Yingxin; Tian, Zhe; Yang, Min

    2017-03-01

    The presence of high concentration antibiotics in wastewater can disturb the stability of biological wastewater treatment systems and promote generation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the treatment. To solve this problem, a pilot system consisting of enhanced hydrolysis pretreatment and an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor in succession was constructed for treating oxytetracycline production wastewater, and the performance was evaluated in a pharmaceutical factory in comparison with a full-scale anaerobic system operated in parallel. After enhanced hydrolysis under conditions of pH 7 and 85 °C for 6 h, oxytetracycline production wastewater with an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 11,086 ± 602 mg L -1 was directly introduced into the pilot UASB reactor. With the effective removal of oxytetracycline and its antibacterial potency (from 874 mg L -1 to less than 0.61 mg L -1 and from 900 mg L -1 to less than 0.84 mg L -1 , respectively) by the enhanced hydrolysis pretreatment, an average COD removal rate of 83.2%, 78.5% and 68.9% was achieved at an organic loading rate of 3.3, 4.8 and 5.9 kg COD m -3  d -1 , respectively. At the same time, the relative abundances of the total tetracycline (tet) genes and a mobile element (Class 1 integron (intI1)) in anaerobic sludge on day 96 were one order of magnitude lower than those in inoculated sludge on day 0 (P gene abundance in sludge was five times higher than the pilot-scale system (P < 0.01). The above result demonstrated that enhanced hydrolysis as a pretreatment method could enable efficient anaerobic treatment of oxytetracycline production wastewater containing high concentrations of oxytetracycline with significantly lower generation of ARGs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Yuancai, E-mail: donkey1204@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, Yuancai, E-mail: chenyc@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Song, Wenzhe, E-mail: songwenzhe007@126.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Yongyou, E-mail: ppyyhu@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: In this work, an aerobic column reactor was placed before the USB to maintain micro-oxygen condition in the reactor and the micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) was successfully obtained. PCP degradation by the micro-aerobic system was studied and the variance of microbial community was also discussed by using PCR-DGGE analysis. - Highlights: • Micro-aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in column-type combined reactors. • PCP biodegradation, VFA accumulation and biogas production were studied. • The function of Methanogenic archaeon in the system was investigated. • Fluctuation and diversity of microbial community were discussed by DGGE analysis. • The dominated microorganisms were identified by 16S rDNA sequences. - Abstract: Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH{sub 4}/h g VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO{sub 2}/h g VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro

  5. Anaerobic degradation of toluene in denitrifying Pseudomonas sp.: indication for toluene methylhydroxylation and benzoyl-CoA as central aromatic intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenschmidt, U; Fuchs, G

    1991-01-01

    The anaerobic degradation of toluene has been studied with whole cells and by measuring enzyme activities. Cultures of Pseudomonas strain K 172 were grown in mineral medium up to a cell density of 0.5 g of dry cells per liter in fed-batch culture with toluene and nitrate as the sole carbon and energy sources. A molar growth yield of 57 g of cell dry matter formed per mol toluene totally consumed was determined. The mean generation time was 24 h. The redox balance between toluene consumed (oxidation and cell material synthesis) and nitrate consumed (reduction to nitrogen gas and assimilation as NH3) was 77% of expectation if toluene was completely oxidized; this indicated that the major amount of toluene was mineralized to CO2. It was tested whether the initial reaction in anaerobic toluene degradation was a carboxylation or a dehydrogenation (anaerobic hydroxylation); the hypothetical carboxylated or hydroxylated intermediates were tested with whole cells applying the method of simultaneous adaptation; cells pregrown on toluene degraded benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, and benzoic acid without lag, 4-hydroxybenzoate and p-cresol with a 90 min lag phase, and phenylacetate after a 200 min lag phase. The cells were not at all adapted to degrade 2-methylbenzoate, 4-methylbenzoate, o-cresol, and m-cresol, nor did these compounds support growth within a few days after inoculation with cells grown on toluene. In extracts of cells anaerobically grown on toluene, benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase, benzaldehyde dehydrogenase, and benzoyl-CoA synthetase (AMP forming) activities were present. The data (1) conclusively show anaerobic growth of a pure culture on toluene; (2) suggest that toluene is anaerobically degraded via benzoyl-CoA; (3) imply that water functions as the source of the hydroxyl group in a toluene methylhydroxylase reaction.

  6. A genomic view on syntrophic versus non-syntrophic lifestyle in anaerobic fatty acid degrading communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, P.; Koehorst, J.J.; Visser, M.; Sedano Nunez, V.T.; Schaap, P.J.; Plugge, C.M.; Sousa, D.Z.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In sulfate-reducing and methanogenic environments complex biopolymers are hydrolyzed and degraded by fermentative micro-organisms that produce hydrogen, carbon dioxide and short chain fatty acids. Degradation of short chain fatty acids can be coupled to methanogenesis or to sulfate-reduction. Here

  7. 454-Pyrosequencing analysis of highly adapted azo dye-degrading microbial communities in a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor treating textile effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köchling, Thorsten; Ferraz, Antônio Djalma Nunes; Florencio, Lourdinha; Kato, Mario Takayuki; Gavazza, Sávia

    2017-03-01

    Azo dyes, which are widely used in the textile industry, exhibit significant toxic characteristics for the environment and the human population. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic reactor systems are efficient for the degradation of dyes and the mineralization of intermediate compounds; however, little is known about the composition of the microbial communities responsible for dye degradation in these systems. 454-Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was employed to assess the bacterial biodiversity and composition of a two-stage (anaerobic-aerobic) pilot-scale reactor that treats effluent from a denim factory. The anaerobic reactor was inoculated with anaerobic sludge from a domestic sewage treatment plant. Due to the selective composition of the textile wastewater, after 210 days of operation, the anaerobic reactor was dominated by the single genus Clostridium, affiliated with the Firmicutes phylum. The aerobic biofilter harbored a diverse bacterial community. The most abundant phylum in the aerobic biofilter was Proteobacteria, which was primarily represented by the Gamma, Delta and Epsilon classes followed by Firmicutes and other phyla. Several bacterial genera were identified that most likely played an essential role in azo dye degradation in the investigated system.

  8. Anaerobic BTEX degradation in oil sands tailings ponds: Impact of labile organic carbon and sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasik, Sebastian; Wick, Lukas Y; Wendt-Potthoff, Katrin

    2015-11-01

    The extraction of bitumen from oil sands in Alberta (Canada) produces volumes of tailings that are pumped into large anaerobic settling-basins. Beside bitumen, tailings comprise fractions of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) that derive from the application of industrial solvents. Due to their toxicity and volatility, BTEX pose a strong concern for gas- and water-phase environments in the vicinity of the ponds. The examination of two pond profiles showed that concentrations of indigenous BTEX decreased with depth, pointing at BTEX transformation in situ. With depth, the relative contribution of ethylbenzene and xylenes to total BTEX significantly decreased, while benzene increased relatively from 44% to 69%, indicating preferential hydrocarbon degradation. To predict BTEX turnover and residence time, we determined BTEX degradation rates in tailings of different depths in a 180-days microcosm study. In addition, we evaluated the impact of labile organic substrates (e.g. acetate) generally considered to stimulate hydrocarbon degradation and the contribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to BTEX turnover. In all depths, BTEX concentrations significantly decreased due to microbial activity, with degradation rates ranging between 4 and 9 μg kg(-1) d(-1). BTEX biodegradation decreased linearly in correlation with initial concentrations, suggesting a concentration-dependent BTEX transformation. SRB were not significantly involved in BTEX consumption, indicating the importance of methanogenic degradation. BTEX removal decreased to 70-90% in presence of organic substrates presumptively due to an accumulation of acetate that lowered BTEX turnover due to product inhibition. In those assays SRB slightly stimulated BTEX transformation by reducing inhibitory acetate levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Degradation of Perennial Ryegrass Leaf and Stem Cell Walls by the Anaerobic Fungus Neocallimastix sp. Strain CS3b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, L; Tan, B

    1996-04-01

    The degradation of cell walls isolated from stems and leaves of perennial ryegrass by the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix sp. strain CS3b was studied in a defined medium. The combined cellulose and hemicellulose fraction represented 53.1 (wt/wt) and 63.3% (wt/wt) of the dry weight of control grass leaf and stem cell walls, respectively. In both leaf and stem cell walls, glucose was the major neutral monosaccharide, followed by xylose, arabinose, and galactose. After 2 days of fermentation with Neocallimastix sp. strain CS3b, treated cell walls contained smaller amounts of neutral sugars compared with those of undigested cell walls. These results were more evident for glucose, xylose, and arabinose than for galactose. Furthermore, the sugar content of leaf cell walls decreased before a decline in the sugar content of stem cell walls was observed. Data from formate and hydrogen production indicated that the growth of Neocallimastix sp. strain CS3b was completed in 4 days in the culture system used. During this period, the fungus liberated about 95% of the fermentable sugars in untreated material. On a percentage basis, no significant differences were found in final extent of degradation of glucose, xylose, and arabinose. Galactose, however, was degraded to a lesser extent.

  10. Restoring and Enhancing Productivity of Degraded Tephra-Derived Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuck Bulmer; Jim Archuleta; Mike Curran

    2007-01-01

    Soil restoration (sometimes termed enhancement) is an important strategy for sustaining the productivity of managed forest landscapes. Tephra-derived soils have unique physical and chemical characteristics that affect their response to disturbance and restoration. A variety of factors reduce forest productivity on degraded soils. Site-specific information on soil...

  11. Modeling of anaerobic degradation of solid slaughterhouse waste: inhibition effects of long-chain fatty acids or ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokshina, L Y; Vavilin, V A; Salminen, E; Rintala, J

    2003-01-01

    The anaerobic bioconversion of solid poultry slaughterhouse wastes was kinetically investigated. The modified version of simulation model was applied for description of experimental data in mesophilic laboratory digester and assays. Additionally, stages of formation and consumption of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) were included in the model. Batch data on volatile solids, ammonium, acetate, butyrate, propionate, LCFA concentrations, pH level, cumulative volume, and methane partial pressure were used for model calibration. As a reference, the model was used to describe digestion of solid sorted household waste. Simulation results showed that an inhibition of polymer hydrolysis by volatile fatty acids and acetogenesis by NH3 or LCFA could be responsible for the complex system dynamics during degradation of lipid- and protein-rich wastes.

  12. Enhancing anaerobic digestion performance of crude lipid in food waste by enzymatic pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ying; Luan, Fubo; Yuan, Hairong; Chen, Xue; Li, Xiujin

    2017-01-01

    Three lipases were applied to hydrolyze the floatable grease (FG) in the food waste for eliminating FG inhibition and enhancing digestion performance in anaerobic process. Lipase-I, Lipase-II, and Lipase-III obtained from different sources were used. Animal fat (AF) and vegetable oil (VO) are major crude lipids in Chinese food waste, therefore, applied as substrates for anaerobic digestion tests. The results showed that Lipase-I and Lipase-II were capable of obviously releasing long chain fatty acid in AF, VO, and FG when hydrolyzed in the conditions of 24h, 1000-1500μL and 40-50°C. Compared to the untreated controls, the biomethane production rate were increased by 80.8-157.7%, 26.9-53.8%, and 37.0-40.7% for AF, VO, and FG, respectively, and the digestion time was shortened by 10-40d. The finding suggests that pretreating lipids with appropriate lipase could be one of effective methods for enhancing anaerobic digestion of food waste rich in crude lipid. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Operating tests analysis of liquid biologically degradable waste processing by anaerobic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Fryč

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the analysis of operating anaerobic fermentation systems of agricultural biogas station and implementing a suitable system enabling the use of liquid biowaste. Based on the comparison of the technological solutions and operating parameters of specific equipment a system enabling the utilisation of biowaste has been designed. The tests made use of liquid substrates commercially offered to biogas station operators. The study evaluates practical measurements at an agricultural biogas station in order to evaluate the biogas production from these substrates and the efficiency of transforming input material to usable energy. The use of such treated substrates for the anaerobic fermentation technology may have a substantial influence on the volume of dosed energy crops. The mixture of input substrates consisting of liquid cattle excrements, silage corn, liquid food-processing waste, animal waste and glycerine water was experimentally validated. This mixture was compared with the operation using liquid cattle excrements and silage corn. It was concluded that the proposed composition of input raw materials makes it possible to increase the production of biogas and el. power. On the other hand, it was identified that the energy content of the input raw materials is not optimally transformed into usable energy. Therefore, the proposed mixture of input materials with biowaste is not recommended for use.

  14. Degradation of phenolic contaminants in ground water by anaerobic bacteria: St. Louis Park, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, G.G.; Goerlitz, D.F.; Godsy, E.M.; Hult, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    Coal-tar derivatives from a coal-tar distillation and wood-treating plant that operated from 1918 to 1972 at St. Louis Park, Minnesota contaminated the near-surface ground water. Solutions of phenolic compounds and a water-immiscible mixture of polynuclear aromatic compounds accumulated in wetlands near the plant site and entered the aquifer. The concentration of phenolic compounds in the aqueous phase under the wetlands is about 30 mg/1 but decreases to less than 0.2 mg/1 at a distance of 430 m immediately downgradient from the source. Concentrations of naphthalene (the predominant polynuclear compound in the ground water) and sodium (selected as a conservative tracer) range from about 20 mg/1 and 430 mg/1 in the aqueous phase at the source to about 2 mg/1 and 120 mg/1 at 430 m downgradient, respectively. Phenolic compounds and naphthalene are disappearing faster than expected if only dilution were occurring. Sorption of phenolic compounds on aquifer sediments is negligible but naphthalene is slightly sorbed. Anaerobic biodegradation of phenolic compounds is primarily responsible for the observed attenuation. Methane was found only in water samples from the contaminated zone (2-20 mg/1). Methane-producing bacteria were found only in water from the contaminated zone. Methane was produced in laboratory cultures of contaminated water inoculated with bacteria from the contaminated zone. Evidence for anaerobic biodegradation of naphthalene under either field or laboratory conditions was not obtained.

  15. Feasibility of sunflower oil cake degradation with three different anaerobic consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Bárbara; Portillo, María Del Carmen; González, Juan M; Fernández-Cegrí, Victoria; De La Rubia, María Ángeles; Borja, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Sunflower oil cake (SuOC) is the solid by-product from the sunflower oil extraction process and an important pollutant waste because of its high organic content. For the anaerobic digestion of SuOC three different industrial reactors were compared as inoculum sources. This was done using a biochemical methane production (BMP) test. Inoculum I was a granular biomass from an industrial reactor treating soft-drink wastewaters. Inoculum II was a flocculent biomass from a full-scale reactor treating biosolids generated in an urban wastewater treatment plant. Inoculum III was a granular biomass from an industrial reactor treating brewery wastes. The highest kinetic constant for methane production was achieved using inoculum II. The inoculum sources were analyzed through PCR amplification of 16S rRNA genes and fingerprinting before (t = 0) and after the BMP test (t = 12 days). No significant differences were found in the bacterial community fingerprints between the beginning and the end of the experiments. The bacterial and archaeal communities of inoculum II were further analyzed. The main bacteria found in this inoculum belong to Alphaproteobacteria and Chloroflexi. Of the Archaea detected, Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales made up practically the whole archaeal community. The results showed the importance of selecting an appropriate inoculum in short term processes due to the fact that the major microbial constituents in the initial consortia remained stable throughout anaerobic digestion.

  16. Anaerobic degradation of cyclohexane by sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eJaekel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fate of cyclohexane, often used as a model compound for the biodegradation of cyclic alkanes due to its abundance in crude oils, in anoxic marine sediments has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we obtained an enrichment culture of cyclohexane-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated intertidal marine sediments. Microscopic analyses showed an apparent dominance by oval cells of 1.5×0.8 m. Analysis of a 16S rRNA gene library, followed by whole-cell hybridization with group- and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that these cells belonged to a single phylotype, and were accounting for more than 80% of the total cell number. The dominant phylotype, affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster of the Deltaproteobacteria, is proposed to be responsible for the degradation of cyclohexane. Quantitative growth experiments showed that cyclohexane degradation was coupled with the stoichiometric reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Substrate response tests corroborated with hybridization with a sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe suggested that the dominant phylotype apparently was able to degrade other cyclic and n-alkanes, including the gaseous alkanes propane and n-butane. Based on GC-MS analyses of culture extracts cyclohexylsuccinate was identified as a metabolite, indicating an activation of cyclohexane by addition to fumarate. Other metabolites detected were 3-cyclohexylpropionate and cyclohexanecarboxylate providing evidence that the overall degradation pathway of cyclohexane under anoxic conditions is analogous to that of n-alkanes.

  17. Simulation of municipal solid waste degradation in aerobic and anaerobic bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Bhagwan Shamrao; C, Agnes Anto; Singh, Devendra Narain

    2017-03-01

    Municipal solid waste generation is huge in growing cities of developing nations such as India, owing to the rapid industrial and population growth. In addition to various methods for treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste (landfills, composting, bio-methanation, incineration and pyrolysis), aerobic/anaerobic bioreactor landfills are gaining popularity for economical and effective disposal of municipal solid waste. However, efficiency of municipal solid waste bioreactor landfills primarily depends on the municipal solid waste decomposition rate, which can be accelerated through monitoring moisture content and temperature by using the frequency domain reflectometry probe and thermocouples, respectively. The present study demonstrates that these landfill physical properties of the heterogeneous municipal solid waste mass can be monitored using these instruments, which facilitates proper scheduling of the leachate recirculation for accelerating the decomposition rate of municipal solid waste.

  18. Effect of sulfate on anaerobic degradation of benzoate in UASB reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, H.H.P.; Liu, Y.; Chen, T. [Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1997-04-01

    Anaerobic processes have been widely used for the treatment of various high-strength industrial wastewaters. However, application has been limited for the treatment of sulfate-rich industrial wastewaters, such as those from the petrochemical, and mining industries. Wastewaters containing benzoate and sulfate were treated in two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors at 34--37 C for 320 d. The sulfate concentration was increased stepwise in Reactor-A up to 7,500 mg/L, and was kept mostly constant at 3,000 mg/L in Reactor-B. Both reactors removed over 98% of organic chemical-oxygen demand (COD) for sulfate up to 6,000 mg/L, despite the fact that the mixed liquor contained up to 769 mg S/L of total sulfides and up to 234 mg S/L of dissolved H{sub 2}S. Sulfate0reducing efficiency decreased with the increase in sulfate concentration, but increased with time at each sulfate concentration. Reactor-B consistently reduced 89% of sulfate. However, both organic COD removal and sulfate-reducing efficiencies of Reactor-A dropped drastically at 7,500 mg SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}/L, and showed no sign of recovery after 50 d. The system failure was likely due to the increased sulfate, instead of sulfide, toxicity. From the COD balance, 93.4% of COD removed was converted to methane instead of sulfides, with a net sludge yield of 0.047 g volatile suspended solids (VSS)/g COD. The sulfur balance was over 97%.

  19. Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process enhancing compost maturity of dewatered sludge with synchronous electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hang; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Yunshu; Zheng, Zhen; Hao, Xiaodi

    2015-10-01

    Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process (AnCBE) with dewatered sludge as the anode fuel was constructed to accelerate composting of dewatered sludge, which could increase the quality of the compost and harvest electric energy in comparison with the traditional anaerobic composting (AnC). Results revealed that the AnCBE yielded a voltage of 0.60 ± 0.02 V, and total COD (TCOD) removal reached 19.8 ± 0.2% at the end of 35 d. The maximum power density was 5.6 W/m(3). At the end of composting, organic matter content (OM) reduction rate increased to 19.5 ± 0.2% in AnCBE and to 12.9 ± 0.1% in AnC. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA) result indicated that the membership degree of class I of AnCBE compost (0.64) was higher than that of AnC compost (0.44). It was demonstrated that electrogenesis in the AnCBE could improve the sludge stabilization degree, accelerate anaerobic composting process and enhance composting maturity with bioelectricity generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Anodes Stimulate Anaerobic Toluene Degradation via Sulfur Cycling in Marine Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghio, Matteo; Vaiopoulou, Eleni; Patil, Sunil A; Suárez-Suárez, Ana; Head, Ian M; Franzetti, Andrea; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-10-23

    Hydrocarbons released during oil spills are persistent in marine sediments due to the absence of suitable electron acceptors below the oxic zone. Here, we investigated an alternative bioremediation strategy to remove toluene, a model monoaromatic hydrocarbon, using a bioanode. Bioelectrochemical reactors were inoculated with sediment collected from a hydrocarbon-contaminated marine site, and anodes were polarized at 0 mV and +300 mV (versus an Ag/AgCl [3 M KCl] reference electrode). The degradation of toluene was directly linked to current generation of up to 301 mA m(-2) and 431 mA m(-2) for the bioanodes polarized at 0 mV and +300 mV, respectively. Peak currents decreased over time even after periodic spiking with toluene. The monitoring of sulfate concentrations during bioelectrochemical experiments suggested that sulfur metabolism was involved in toluene degradation at bioanodes. 16S rRNA gene-based Illumina sequencing of the bulk anolyte and anode samples revealed enrichment with electrocatalytically active microorganisms, toluene degraders, and sulfate-reducing microorganisms. Quantitative PCR targeting the α-subunit of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (encoded by dsrA) and the α-subunit of the benzylsuccinate synthase (encoded by bssA) confirmed these findings. In particular, members of the family Desulfobulbaceae were enriched concomitantly with current production and toluene degradation. Based on these observations, we propose two mechanisms for bioelectrochemical toluene degradation: (i) direct electron transfer to the anode and/or (ii) sulfide-mediated electron transfer. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. An integrated aerobic-anaerobic strategy for performance enhancement of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-inoculated microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Xiao-Yu; Yan, Zhi-Ying; Shen, Hai-Bo; Zhou, Jun; Wu, Xia-Yuan; Zhang, Li-Juan; Zheng, Tao; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Jia, Hong-Hua; Yong, Yang-Chun

    2017-10-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a promising device for energy generation and organic waste treatment simultaneously by electrochemically active bacteria (EAB). In this study, an integrated aerobic-anaerobic strategy was developed to improve the performance of P. aeruginosa-inoculated MFC. With an aerobic start-up and following an anaerobic discharge process, the current density of MFC reached a maximum of 99.80µA/cm2, which was 91.6% higher than the MFC with conventional constant-anaerobic operation. Cyclic voltammetry and HPLC analysis showed that aerobic start-up significantly increased electron shuttle (pyocyanin) production (76% higher than the constant-anaerobic MFC). Additionally, enhanced anode biofilm formation was also observed in the integrated aerobic-anaerobic MFC. The increased pyocyanin production and biofilm formation promoted extracellular electron transfer from EAB to the anode and were the underlying mechanism for the MFC performance enhancement. This work demonstrated the integrated aerobic-anaerobic strategy would be a practical strategy to enhance the electricity generation of MFC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of substrate concentration on methane potential and degradation kinetics in batch anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Strömberg, Sten; Li, Chao; Nges, Ivo Achu; Nistor, Mihaela; Deng, Liangwei; Liu, Jing

    2015-10-01

    In this study, two experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of substrate concentrations on methane potential and degradation kinetics of substrate. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests in Experiment I were performed at a constant inoculum to substrate ratio (ISR), whereas, different ISRs were applied in Experiment II. Results obtained from Experiment I revealed that methane potential of substrate increased at a saturating trend with higher substrate concentrations, and could differ by up to 30% between the lowest and highest investigated concentrations. The results of Experiment II verified the results of Experiment I, and further showed that this trend also occurs when the substrate concentration is regulated with ISRs. In contrast, substrate concentration had no significant impact on the degradation kinetics. It was concluded that dilutions should be avoided when the substrate concentration is lower than 10 g VS/L in order to avoid underestimations of methane potential from BMP test. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mass spectrometric comparison of swift heavy ion-induced and anaerobic thermal degradation of polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, V.; Hossain, U. H.; Walbert, T.; Seidl, T.; Ensinger, W.

    2018-03-01

    The study of polymers irradiated by highly energetic ions and the resulting radiation-induced degradation is of major importance for space and particle accelerator applications. The mechanism of ion-induced molecular fragmentation of polyethylene, polyethyleneimine and polyamide was investigated by means of mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the introduction of nitrogen and oxygen into the polymer influences the stability rendering aliphatic polymers with heteroatoms less stable. A comparison to thermal decomposition data from literature reveals that ion-induced degradation is different in its bond fracture mechanism. While thermal degradation starts at the weakest bond, which is usually the carbon-heteroatom bond, energetic ion irradiation leads in the first step to scission of all types of bonds creating smaller molecular fragments. This is due to the localized extreme energy input under non-equilibrium conditions when the ions transfer kinetic energy onto electrons. These findings are of relevance for the choice of polymers for long-term application in both space and accelerator facilities.

  4. Investigation on the anaerobic propionate degradation by Escherichia coli K12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonte, Francesca M; Dötsch, Andreas; Galego, Lisete; Arraiano, Cecilia; Gescher, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Propionate is an abundant carboxylic acid in nature. Microorganisms metabolize propionate aerobically via the 2-methylcitrate pathway. This pathway depends on a series of three reactions in the citric acid cycle that leads to the conversion of succinate to oxaloacetate. Interestingly, the γ-proteobacterium Escherichia coli can use propionate as a carbon and electron source under oxic but not under anoxic conditions. RT-PCR and transcriptomic analysis revealed a posttranscriptional regulation of the prpBCDE-gene cluster encoding the necessary enzymes for propionate metabolism. The polycistronic mRNA seems to be hydrolyzed in the 3'-5' direction under anoxic conditions. This regulatory strategy is highly constructive because the last gene of the operon encodes the first enzyme of the propionate metabolism. Further analysis revealed that RNase R is involved in the hydrolysis of the prp transcripts. Consequently, an rnr-deletion strain could metabolize propionate under anoxic conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study describing the influence of RNase R on the anaerobic metabolism of E. coli. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Biogas and biohydrogen production potential of high strength automobile industry wastewater during anaerobic degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Mini; Winter, Josef

    2013-10-15

    High strength automobile industry wastewater, collected from decanters (DECA) of the pre-treatment plant after oil, grease and sludge separation, was investigated for production of methane in the absence and presence of glucose or excess aerobic sludge (AS) from a lab scale suspension reactor as co-substrates. The highest methane production from DECA wastewater was 335.4 L CH4/kg CODsoluble removal which decreased in the presence of the co-substrates to 232.5 (with 2 g/L glucose) and to 179 (with 40% AS) L CH4/kg CODsoluble removal, respectively. Around 95% of total methane was produced within 5 days of incubation of DECA at 37 °C when no co-substrate was added. Addition of co-substrates did not improve biodegradation of DECA but overall methane production from DECA + co-substrates was increased due to co-substrate biodegradation. The anaerobic inoculum, capable of producing 2.4 mol of hydrogen/mol of glucose under zinc induced inhibitory conditions, was unable to produce hydrogen from DECA as substrate under the same conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of anaerobic digestion on chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline degradation efficiency for swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fubin; Dong, Hongmin; Ji, Chao; Tao, Xiuping; Chen, Yongxing

    2016-10-01

    Manure containing antibiotics is considered a hazardous substance that poses a serious health risk to the environment and to human health. Anaerobic digestion (AD) could not only treatment animal waste but also generate valuable biogas. However, the interaction between antibiotics in manure and the AD process has not been clearly understood. In this study, experiments on biochemical methane potential (BMP) were conducted to determine the inhibition of the AD process from antibiotics and the threshold of complete antibiotic removal. The thresholds of the complete antibiotic removal were 60 and 40mg/kg·TS for CTC and OTC, respectively. CTC and OTC with concentrations below thresholds could increase the BMP of manure. When the CTC and OTC concentrations exceeded the thresholds, they inhibited manure fermentation, and the CTC removal rate declined exponentially with concentration (60-500mg/kg·TS). The relationship between OTC antibiotic concentration and its removal rate in AD treatment was described with exponential (40-100mg/kg·TS) and linear equations (100-500mg/kg·TS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancement of starting up anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic substrate: fique's bagasse as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Mabel; Castro, Liliana; Ortiz, Claudia; Guzmán, Carolina; Escalante, Humberto

    2012-03-01

    In Colombia there are 20,000 ha of fique fields (Furcraea sp., family Agavaceae), that produce around 93,400 tons of fique's bagasse per year. These residuals are disposed into rivers and soil causing pollution. According to physicochemical characteristics, the lignocellulosic residues from fique crops (fique's bagasse) are appropriate carbon source to biogas production. Anaerobic digestion from fique's Bagasse (FB) requires a specialized microbial consortium capable of degrading its high lignocellulosic concentration. In this study, the capacities of seven microbial consortia for biomethane potential (BMP) from FB were evaluated. Inoculum of ruminal liquid achieved high hydrolytic activity (0.068 g COD/g VSS day), whereas pig waste sludge inoculum showed high methanogenic activity (0.146 g COD/g VSS day). Mixtures of these two inoculums (RL+PWS) showed the best yields for biomethane potential (0.3 m(3) CH4/Kg VS ad). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Blending based optimisation and pretreatment strategies to enhance anaerobic digestion of poultry manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Verde, Ivan; Regueiro, Leticia; Lema, Juan M; Carballa, Marta

    2017-11-07

    Anaerobic digestion of poultry manure is limited by the excessive levels of nitrogen and the high concentration of dry matter. These limitations are usually overcome either by applying procedures to remove nitrogen or by employing pretreatments that allows to solubilise organic matter. In this work, the treatment of poultry manure was enhanced by co-digestion with pig manure through the methodological determination of optimal mixtures combined together with a thermochemical pretreatment coupled to ammonia stripping. The optimum poultry-pig mixture, resulting in a 24%:76% (volume basis) poultry-pig manure, was determined by applying a methodology based on linear programming which calculates the proportions of the blend which returns the maximum methane production while keeping a stable process. Pretreatment batch experiments, consisting of increasing both temperature and pH simultaneously with ammonia stripping process was optimised for a temperature of 90 °C and a pH of 10 resulting in a nitrogen removal efficiency of 72% and a 1.2-fold higher methane production in comparison to the unpretreated mixture. Continuous anaerobic co-digestion of pretreated optimum mixture enhanced the COD removal efficiency by 37% when compared with the treatment of unpretreated feedstock (37% vs 27%, respectively). This study indicates that combining blending optimisation of substrates, thermochemical pretreatments and ammonia stripping procedures prior to anaerobic co-digestion becomes a good strategy to overtake the limitations offered by solid- and nitrogen-rich substrates, such as poultry manure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Akkermansia glycaniphila sp. nov., an anaerobic mucin-degrading bacterium isolated from reticulated python faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwerkerk, Janneke P; Aalvink, Steven; Belzer, Clara; de Vos, Willem M

    2016-11-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, strictly anaerobic, oval-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (strain PytT) was isolated from reticulated python faeces. Strain PytT was capable of using mucin as sole carbon, energy and nitrogen source. Cells could grow singly, in pairs, and were also found to aggregate. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of filamentous structures connecting individual bacterial cells. Strain PytT could grow on a limited number of single sugars, including N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, glucose, lactose and galactose, but only when a plentiful protein source was provided. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed strain PytT to belong to the Verrucomicrobiae class I, family Akkermansiaceae, genus Akkermansia, with Akkermansia muciniphila MucT as the closest relative (94.4 % sequence similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization revealed low relatedness of 28.3 % with A. muciniphila MucT. The G+C content of DNA from strain PytT was 58.2 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) of the genome of strain PytT compared to the genome of strain MucT was 79.7 %. Chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of strain PytT to the genus Akkermansia. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and genetic characteristics, strain PytT represents a novel species of the genus Akkermansia, for which the name Akkermansia glycaniphila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PytT (=DSM 100705T=CIP 110913T).

  10. Efficient methanogenic degradation of alcohol ethoxylates and microbial community acclimation in treatment of municipal wastewater using a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yulun; Niu, Qigui; Kato, Hiroyuki; Sugo, Toshiki; Tian, Xike; Li, Yu-You

    2017-02-01

    The effect of alcohol ethoxylates on the treatment of municipal wastewater by a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor was investigated by a 400days operation including the treatment efficiency, methanogenic activity of sludge and microbial community structure. The results indicated that alcohol ethoxylates (5.0-200mg/L) was efficiently degraded and converted into methane due to the similar COD removal 95.5-98.8% and rising biogas production rate (2.30-4.25L/d) compared with control (96.8% and 2.55L/d). The microbes in sludge could copy with the presence of alcohol ethoxylates in wastewater by releasing more SMP and EPS, which caused a higher membrane fouling rate. Moreover, via long term acclimation, the specific methanogenic activity of sludge was greatly enhanced due to the changes of microbial community structure. Hence, the sludge self-acclimation to alcohol ethoxylates was responsible to the efficient methane recovery in treatment of municipal wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced hydrolysis and methane yield by applying microaeration pretreatment to the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jun Wei; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-04-01

    Microaeration has been used conventionally for the desulphurization of biogas, and recently it was shown to be an alternative pretreatment to enhance hydrolysis of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Previous studies on microaeration pretreatment were limited to the study of substrates with complex organic matter, while little has been reported on its effect on substrates with higher biodegradability such as brown water and food waste. Due to the lack of consistent microaeration intensities, previous studies were not comparable and thus inconclusive in proving the effectiveness of microaeration to the overall AD process. In this study, the role of microaeration pretreatment in the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste was evaluated in batch-tests. After a 4-day pretreatment with 37.5 mL-O2/L(R)-d added to the liquid phase of the reactor, the methane production of substrates were monitored in anaerobic conditions over the next 40 days. The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms and a reducing environment for organic matter degradation was maintained. Other than higher COD solubilization, microaeration pretreatment led to greater VFA accumulation and the conversion of other short chain fatty acids to acetate. This could be due to enhanced activities of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria and the degradation of slowly biodegradable compounds under microaerobic conditions. This study also found that the nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration as a 21% and 10% increase in methane yield was observed when pretreatment was applied to inoculated substrates, and substrates without inoculum, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Membrane installation for enhanced up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Zhang, Kaisong; Bakke, Rune; Li, Chunming; Liu, Haining

    2013-09-01

    It is postulated that up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor efficiency can be enhanced by a membrane immersed in the reactor to operate it as an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for low-strength wastewater treatment. This postulate was tested by comparing the performance with and without a hollow fiber microfiltration membrane module immersed in UASB reactors operated at two specific organic loading rates (SOLR). Results showed that membrane filtration enhanced process performance and stability, with over 90% total organic carbon (TOC) removal consistently achieved. More than 91% of the TOC removal was achieved by suspended biomass, while less than 6% was removed by membrane filtration and digestion in the membrane attached biofilm during stable AnMBRs operation. Although the membrane and its biofilm played an important role in initial stage of the high SOLR test, linear increased TOC removal by bulk sludge mainly accounted for the enhanced process performance, implying that membrane led to enhanced biological activity of the suspended sludge. The high retention of active fine sludge particles in suspension was the main reason for this significant improvement of performance and biological activity, which led to decreased SOLR with time to a theoretical optimal level around 2  g COD/g MLVSS·d and the establishment of a microbial community dominated by Methanothrix-like microbes. It was concluded that UASB process performance can be enhanced by transforming such to AnMBR operation when the loading rate is too high for sufficient sludge retention, and/or when the effluent water quality demands are especially stringent. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tenax extraction for exploring rate-limiting factors in methyl-β-cyclodextrin enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs under denitrifying conditions in a red paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yongming; Jiang, Xin; Kengara, Fredrick Orori

    2014-01-15

    The effectiveness of anaerobic bioremediation systems for PAH-contaminated soil may be constrained by low contaminants bioaccessibility due to limited aqueous solubility and lack of suitable electron acceptors. Information on what is the rate-limiting factor in bioremediation process is of vital importance in the decision in what measures can be taken to assist the biodegradation efficacy. In the present study, four different microcosms were set to study the effect of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and nitrate addition (N) on PAHs biodegradation under anaerobic conditions in a red paddy soil. Meanwhile, sequential Tenax extraction combined with a first-three-compartment model was employed to evaluate the rate-limiting factors in MCD enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs. Microcosms with both 1% (w/w) MCD and 20mM N addition produced maximum biodegradation of total PAHs of up to 61.7%. It appears rate-limiting factors vary with microcosms: low activity of degrading microorganisms is the vital rate-limiting factor for control and MCD addition treatments (CK and M treatments); and lack of bioaccessible PAHs is the main rate-limiting factor for nitrate addition treatments (N and MN treatments). These results have practical implications for site risk assessment and cleanup strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Methanogenic degradation of toilet-paper cellulose upon sewage treatment in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Nie, Yulun; Kato, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jiang; Utashiro, Tetsuya; Lu, Jianbo; Yue, Shangchao; Jiang, Hongyu; Zhang, Lu; Li, Yu-You

    2017-03-01

    Toilet-paper cellulose with rich but refractory carbon sources, are the main insoluble COD fractions in sewage. An anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was configured for sewage treatment at room temperature and its performance on methanogenic degradation of toilet paper was highlighted. The results showed, high organic removal (95%), high methane conversion (90%) and low sludge yield (0.08gVSS/gCOD) were achieved in the AnMBR. Toilet-paper cellulose was fully biodegraded without accumulation in the mixed liquor and membrane cake layer. Bioconversion efficiency of toilet paper approached 100% under a high organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.02gCOD/L/d and it could provide around 26% of total methane generation at most of OLRs. Long sludge retention time and co-digestion of insoluble/soluble COD fractions achieving mutualism of functional microorganisms, contributed to biodegradation of toilet-paper cellulose. Therefore the AnMBR successfully implemented simultaneously methanogenic bioconversion of toilet-paper cellulose and soluble COD in sewage at room temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: Cellulose degradation, volatile fatty acid formation and biological sulphate removal operating and anaerobic hybrid reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, H

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available degradation, volatile fatty acid formation and biological sulphate removal operating an anaerobic hybrid reactor Background The biological sulphate removal technology requires carbon and energy sources to reduce sulphate to sulphide. Plant biomass... SO4. Sustained sulphate reduction can be maintained when grass is continuously added to the reactor. No VFA were measured in FR, indicating that all produced VFA were utilised for SO4 removal. Conclusions The fermentation products of grass...

  16. A Three-Component Microbial Consortium from Deep-Sea Salt-Saturated Anoxic Lake Thetis Links Anaerobic Glycine Betaine Degradation with Methanogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta La Cono

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities inhabiting the deep-sea salt-saturated anoxic lakes of the Eastern Mediterranean operate under harsh physical-chemical conditions that are incompatible with the lifestyle of common marine microorganisms. Here, we investigated a stable three-component microbial consortium obtained from the brine of the recently discovered deep-sea salt-saturated Lake Thetis. The trophic network of this consortium, established at salinities up to 240, relies on fermentative decomposition of common osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB. Similarly to known extreme halophilic anaerobic GB-degrading enrichments, the initial step of GB degradation starts with its reductive cleavage to trimethylamine and acetate, carried out by the fermenting member of the Thetis enrichment, Halobacteroides lacunaris TB21. In contrast to acetate, which cannot be easily oxidized in salt-saturated anoxic environments, trimethylamine represents an advantageous C1-substrate for methylotrophic methanogenic member of the Thetis enrichment, Methanohalophilus sp. TA21. This second member of the consortium likely produces hydrogen via methylotrophic modification of reductive acetyl-CoA pathway because the initial anaerobic GB cleavage reaction requires the consumption of reducing equivalents. Ecophysiological role of the third member of the Thetis consortium, Halanaerobium sp. TB24, which lacks the capability of either GB or trimethylamine degradation, remains yet to be elucidated. As it is true for cultivated members of family Halanaerobiaceae, the isolate TB24 can obtain energy primarily by fermenting simple sugars and producing hydrogen as one of the end products. Hence, by consuming of TB21 and TA21 metabolites, Halanaerobium sp. TB24 can be an additional provider of reducing equivalents required for reductive degradation of GB. Description of the Thetis GB-degrading consortium indicated that anaerobic degradation of osmoregulatory molecules may play important role in the

  17. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9.......6 addresses the mass balances and environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion....

  18. Cellulose- and Xylan-Degrading Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacteria from Biocompost ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizova, M. V.; Izquierdo, J. A.; Panikov, N. S.; Lynd, L. R.

    2011-01-01

    Nine thermophilic cellulolytic clostridial isolates and four other noncellulolytic bacterial isolates were isolated from self-heated biocompost via preliminary enrichment culture on microcrystalline cellulose. All cellulolytic isolates grew vigorously on cellulose, with the formation of either ethanol and acetate or acetate and formate as principal fermentation products as well as lactate and glycerol as minor products. In addition, two out of nine cellulolytic strains were able to utilize xylan and pretreated wood with roughly the same efficiency as for cellulose. The major products of xylan fermentation were acetate and formate, with minor contributions of lactate and ethanol. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and glycosyl hydrolase family 48 (GH48) gene sequences revealed that two xylan-utilizing isolates were related to a Clostridium clariflavum strain and represent a distinct novel branch within the GH48 family. Both isolates possessed high cellulase and xylanase activity induced independently by either cellulose or xylan. Enzymatic activity decayed after growth cessation, with more-rapid disappearance of cellulase activity than of xylanase activity. A mixture of xylan and cellulose was utilized simultaneously, with a significant synergistic effect observed as a reduction of lag phase in cellulose degradation. PMID:21317267

  19. Characterisation of microbial floras and functional gene levels in an anaerobic/aerobic bio-reactor for the degradation of carboxymethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Guodong; Wang, Chen; Guo, Feng

    2013-04-01

    The current study determined the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) degradation efficiency, dominant microbial flora, eubacteria and archaebacteria characteristics, and expression levels of genes cel5A, cel6B, and bglC in an anaerobic/aerobic bio-reactor consisting of two-stage UASB (U1 and U2) and two-stage BAF (B1 and B2). The results showed that under three CMC loads, the CMC degradation efficiency of the UASB-BAF system was 91.25%, 80.44%, and 78.73%, respectively. At higher CMC loads, the degradation of cellulose and transformation to cellobiose in U1 was higher, while the transformation to glucose was lower. The results of DGGE and real-time PCR indicated that cellulose degradation bacteria are dominant in U1, cellulose degradation bacteria and cellulose degradation symbiosis bacteria are dominant in B1, and non-cellulose degradation symbiosis bacteria are dominant in both U2 and B2. The rate-limiting enzyme gene of cellulose degradation in U1, B1, and B2 is cel6B, but it is cel5A in U2.

  20. Enhancement of sludge granulation in anaerobic treatment of concentrated latex wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugul Intrasungkha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor has become attractive for wastewater treatment with low energy requirement and biogas production. However, the start-up of an UASB reactor depends on the formation of granules. Therefore, this research aims to study the effect of AlCl3, CaCl2 and temperature on the granule formation process using real concentrated latex wastewater. The result shows that the optimum chemicals concentration of AlCl3 at 300 mg/l enhanced the biomass accumulation and sludge formation process. Approximately 50% of large granular size (0.5 mm 0.8 mm within 35 days, whereas the large granular sizes in reactorwithout AlCl3 supplement (R2 became visible within 63 days. Moreover, this experiment found that R1, R2 and R3 could reach steady state within 40, 55 and 45 days, respectively.

  1. Nanoscale zero-valent iron/persulfate enhanced upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for dye removal: Insight into microbial metabolism and microbial community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fei; Zhong, Xiaohan; Xia, Dongsheng; Yin, Xianze; Li, Fan; Zhao, Dongye; Ji, Haodong; Liu, Wen

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the efficiency of nanoscale zero-valent iron combined with persulfate (NZVI/PS) for enhanced degradation of brilliant red X-3B in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, and examined the effects of NZVI/PS on anaerobic microbial communities during the treatment process. The addition of NZVI (0.5 g/L) greatly enhanced the decolourization rate of X-3B from 63.8% to 98.4%. The Biolog EcoPlateTM technique was utilized to examine microbial metabolism in the reactor, and the Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing revealed 22 phyla and 88 genera of the bacteria. The largest genera (Lactococcus) decreased from 33.03% to 7.94%, while the Akkermansia genera increased from 1.69% to 20.23% according to the abundance in the presence of 0.2 g/L NZVI during the biological treatment process. Meanwhile, three strains were isolated from the sludge in the UASB reactors and identified by 16 S rRNA analysis. The distribution of three strains was consistent with the results from the Illumina MiSeq high throughput sequencing. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that Fe(0) was transformed into Fe(II)/Fe(III) during the treatment process, which are beneficial for the microorganism growth, and thus promoting their metabolic processes and microbial community.

  2. Enhanced anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge of low organic content in a novel digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Jiang, Y; Cao, Z P; Li, Z H; Hu, Y Y; Li, H Z; Zuo, J E; Wang, K J

    2015-01-01

    A novel digester, termed an internal circulation anaerobic digester (ICAD), was developed to intensify sludge digestion. It consists of reaction zone, settling zone, thickening zone, riser and downcomer. Internal circulation in the digester is intensified by backflow biogas. The mesophilic ICAD treating thermal pretreated waste activated sludge with volatile suspended solids (VSS)/suspended solids (SS) of 0.45-0.49 was conducted in this study to reduce and stabilize the low organic content sludge. The results showed that the VSS removal rate and biogas rate reached 46.0% and 0.72 m(3)/kg VSS(fed) at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days. VSS/SS and soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of the effluent sludge ranged from 0.39 to 0.41 and 274 mg/L to 473 mg/L, respectively, under various HRTs from 10 to 27 days. The degradation ability of ICAD derived from the improved mass transfer by internal circulation and long solid retention time at short HRT is compared with continuous stirred tank reactor.

  3. Potential of hydrolysis of particulate COD in extended anaerobic conditions to enhance biological phosphorous removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, P; Yuan, Q; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2016-11-01

    The effect of anaerobic hydrolysis of particulate COD (pCOD) on biological phosphorous removal in extended anaerobic condition was investigated through (i) sequencing batch reactors (SBR)s with anaerobic hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 0.8, 2, and 4 h; (ii) batch tests using biomass from a full scale biological nutrient removal (BNR) plant; and (iii) activated sludge modeling (BioWin 4.1 simulation). The results from long-term SBRs operation showed that phosphorus removal was correlated to the ratio of filtered COD (FCOD) to total phosphorus (TP) in the influent. Under conditions with low FCOD/TP ratio (average of 20) in the influent, extending anaerobic HRT to 4 h in the presence of pCOD did not significantly improve overall phosphorous removal. During the period with high FCOD/TP ratio (average of 37) in the influent, all SBRs removed phosphorous completely, and the long anaerobic HRT did not have negative effect on overall phosphorous removal. The batch tests also showed that pCOD at different concentration during 4 h test did not affect the rate of anaerobic phosphorus release. The rate of anaerobic hydrolysis of pCOD was significantly low and extending the anaerobic HRT was ineffective. The simulation (BioWin 4.1) of SBRs with low influent FCOD/TP ratio showed that the default kinetics of anaerobic hydrolysis in ASM2d overestimated phosphorous removal in the SBRs (high anaerobic hydrolysis of pCOD). The default anaerobic hydrolysis rate in BioWin 4.1 (ten times lower) could produce similar phosphorous removal to that in the experiment. Results showed that the current kinetics of anaerobic hydrolysis in ASM2d could lead to considerable error in predicting phosphorus removal in processes with extended anaerobic HRT. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2377-2385. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Enhanced coproduction of hydrogen and methane from cornstalks by a three-stage anaerobic fermentation process integrated with alkaline hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xi-Yu; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2012-01-01

    A three-stage anaerobic fermentation process including H(2) fermentation I, H(2) fermentation II, methane fermentation was developed for the coproduction of hydrogen and methane from cornstalks. Hydrogen production from cornstalks using direct microbial conversion by Clostridium thermocellum 7072 was markedly enhanced in the two-stage thermophilic hydrogen fermentation process integrated with alkaline treatment. The highest total hydrogen yield from cornstalks in the two-stage fermentation process reached 74.4 mL/g-cornstalk. The hydrogen fermentation effluents and alkaline hydrolyzate were further used for methane fermentation by anaerobic granular sludge, and the total methane yield reached 205.8 mL/g-cornstalk. The total energy recovery in the three-stage anaerobic fermentation process integrated with alkaline hydrolysis reached 70.0%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High-density natural luffa sponge as anaerobic microorganisms carrier for degrading 1,1,1-TCA in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbing; Wu, Yanqing; Zhang, Chi

    2017-03-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms were applied to degrade organic contaminants in groundwater with permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). However, anaerobic microorganisms need to select optimal immobilizing material as carrier. The potential of high-density natural luffa sponge (HDLS) (a new variety of luffa) for the immobilization and protection of anaerobic microorganisms was investigated. The HDLS has a dense structure composed of a complicated interwoven fibrous network. Therefore, the abrasion rate of HDLS (0.0068 g s-1) was the smallest among the four carriers [HDLS, ordinary natural luffa sponge (OLS), polyurethane sponge (PS), and gel carrier AQUAPOROUSGEL (APG)]. The results suggest that it also had the greatest water retention (10.26 H2O-g dry carrier-g-1) and SS retention (0.21 g dry carrier-g-1). In comparison to well-established commercialized gel carrier APG, HDLS was of much better mechanical strength, hydrophilicity and stability. Microbial-immobilized HDLS also had the best performance for the remediation of 1,1,1-TCA simulated groundwater. Analysis of the clone libraries from microorganism-immobilized HDLS showed the HDLS could protect microorganisms from the toxicity of 1,1,1-TCA and maintain the stability of microbial community diversity. The mechanism of HDLS immobilizing and protecting microorganisms was proposed as follows. The HDLS had a micron-scale honeycomb structure (30-40 μm) and an irregular ravine structure (4-20 μm), which facilitate the immobilization of anaerobic microorganisms and protect the anaerobic microorganisms.

  6. Enhancing recovery of ammonia from swine manure anaerobic digester effluent using gas-permeable membrane technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, P J; Vanotti, M B; Szogi, A A; García-González, M C

    2016-03-01

    Gas-permeable membrane technology is useful to recover ammonia from manure. In this study, the technology was enhanced using aeration instead of alkali chemicals to increase pH and the ammonium (NH4(+)) recovery rate. Digested effluents from covered anaerobic swine lagoons containing 1465-2097 mg NH4(+)-N L(-1) were treated using submerged membranes (0.13 cm(2) cm(-3)), low-rate aeration (120 mL air L-manure(-1) min(-1)) and nitrification inhibitor (22 mg L(-1)) to prevent nitrification. The experiment included a control without aeration. The pH of the manure with aeration rose from 8.6 to 9.2 while the manure without aeration decreased from 8.6 to 8.1. With aeration, 97-99% of the NH4(+) was removed in about 5 days of operation with 96-98% recovery efficiency. In contrast, without aeration it took 25 days to treat the NH4(+). Therefore, the recovery of NH4(+) was five times faster with the low-rate aeration treatment. This enhancement could reduce costs by 70%. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The biostimulation of anaerobic digestion with (semi)conductive ferric oxides: their potential for enhanced biomethanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Gahyun; Kim, Jaai; Cho, Kyungjin; Bae, Hyokwan; Lee, Changsoo

    2015-12-01

    The effect of biostimulation with ferric oxides, semiconductive ferric oxyhydroxide, and conductive magnetite on the anaerobic digestion of dairy wastewater was examined in a batch mode. The reactors supplemented with ferric oxyhydroxide (R2) and magnetite (R3) showed significantly enhanced biomethanation performance compared with the control (R1). The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) after 30 days was 31.9, 59.3, and 82.5% in R1, R2, and R3, respectively. The consumed COD was almost fully recovered as biogas in R2 and R3, while only 79% was recovered in R1. The total energy production as biogas was accordingly 32.2, 71.0, and 97.7 kJ in R1, R2, and R3, respectively. The reactors also differed in the acid formation profile with more propionate and butyrate found in R1 and more acetate found in R3. The enhanced biomethanation seems to be associated with variations in the bacterial community structure supposedly induced by the ferric oxides added. In contrast, no evident variation was observed in the archaeal community structure among the reactors. The potential electric syntrophy formed between Methanosaeta concilii-like methanogens and electroactive iron-reducing bacteria, particularly Trichococcus, was likely responsible for the enhanced performance. The stimulated growth of fermentative iron reducers may also have contributed by altering the metabolic characteristics of the bacterial communities to produce more favorable acidogenic products for methanogenesis. The overall results suggest the potential of biostimulation with (semi)conductive ferric oxides to enhance the rate and efficiency of the biomethanation of organic wastes. This seems to be potentially attractive, as increasing attention is being paid to the energy self-sufficiency of waste/wastewater treatment processes today.

  8. Enhanced treatment of Fischer-Tropsch wastewater using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket system coupled with micro-electrolysis cell: A pilot scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dexin; Han, Yuxing; Han, Hongjun; Li, Kun; Xu, Chunyan

    2017-08-01

    The coupling of micro-electrolysis cell (MEC) with an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system in pilot scale was established for enhanced treatment of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) wastewater. The lowest influent pH (4.99±0.10) and reduced alkali addition were accomplished under the assistance of anaerobic effluent recycling of 200% (stage 5). Simultaneously, the optimum COD removal efficiency (93.5±1.6%) and methane production (2.01±0.13m3/m3·d) at the lower hydraulic retention time (HRT) were achieved in this stage. In addition, the dissolved iron from MEC could significantly increase the protein content of tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances (TB-EPS), which was beneficial to formation of stable granules. Furthermore, the high-throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing in this study further confirmed that Geobacter species could utilize iron oxides particles as electron conduit to perform the direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) with Methanothrix, finally facilitating the syntrophic degradation of propionic acid and butyric acid and contributing completely methane production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Introduction of atrazine degrader to enhance rhizodegradation of atrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introducing atrazine (ATR) degraders into riparian vegetative buffer strips (VBS) can be a promising bioremediation approach to accelerate the degradation of ATR and its degradation products deposited into VBS by surface runoff. A growth chamber study was conducted to investigated the synergistic ef...

  10. Organic solar cells: Degradation processes and approaches to enhance performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungura, Fadzai

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) have attracted a lot of attention due to their potential as flexible, lightweight, and low-cost renewable energy sources. Significant improvements have been made in increasing the devices' power conversion efficiency (PCE) and extensive efforts to understand degradation mechanisms and increase OSCs' lifetimes are ongoing. OSCs with higher than 10% efficiency have been reported. Enhanced stability and efficiency of inverted poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) solar cells with Cesium (Cs) halides were achieved by spin-coating Bphen (4,7-di(phenyl)-1,10-phenanthroline) on the halide layer and adding an 100nm polystyrene beads layer on the blank side of the OSC. To investigate photodegradation in a low-bandgap polymer, PBDTTT-EFT (benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) and thieno[3,4-b]-thiophene), PBDTTT-EFT:PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells were irradiated under 1X sun intensity and their electronic measurements were monitored over time. The electronic measurements revealed an increase in deep defect density in the polymer and at the donor-acceptor (D/A) interface of BHJ SCs and an increase in charge recombination as well as a decrease in external quantum efficiency, charge collection, short circuit current, open circuit voltage and hole mobility. Filtering blue and UV light resulted in drastically reduced photodegradation. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements were performed on the photodegraded polymer and BHJ films, and revealed for the first time experimental evidence for metastable carbon dangling bonds (g=2.0029+/-0.0004) formed by blue/UV irradiation of the films. Dark EPR showed an increase in densities of other spin-active sites in the polymer, fullerene and polymer:fullerene blends in agreement with electronic measurements. The EPR results revealed that the carbon dangling bonds were at the D/A interface. These studies helped to better understand degradation mechanisms in a low-bandgap polymer, PBDTTT-EFT, ways to enhance

  11. Positive Feedbacks Enhance Macroalgal Resilience on Degraded Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Claire L. A.; Longo, Guilherme O.

    2016-01-01

    Many reefs have shifted from coral and fish dominated habitats to less productive macroalgal dominated habitats, and current research is investigating means of reversing this phase shift. In the tropical Pacific, overfished reefs with inadequate herbivory can become dominated by the brown alga Sargassum polycystum. This alga suppresses recruitment and survival of corals and fishes, thus limiting the potential for reef recovery. Here we investigate the mechanisms that reinforce S. polycystum dominance and show that in addition to negatively affecting other species, this species acts in a self-reinforcing manner, positively promoting survival and growth of conspecifics. We found that survival and growth of both recruit-sized and mature S. polycystum fronds were higher within Sargassum beds than outside the beds and these results were found in both protected and fished reefs. Much of this benefit resulted from reduced herbivory within the Sargassum beds, but adult fronds also grew ~50% more within the beds even when herbivory did not appear to be occurring, suggesting some physiological advantage despite the intraspecific crowding. Thus via positive feedbacks, S. polycystum enhances its own growth and resistance to herbivores, facilitating its dominance (perhaps also expansion) and thus its resilience on degraded reefs. This may be a key feedback mechanism suppressing the recovery of coral communities in reefs dominated by macroalgal beds. PMID:27186979

  12. Positive Feedbacks Enhance Macroalgal Resilience on Degraded Coral Reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L A Dell

    Full Text Available Many reefs have shifted from coral and fish dominated habitats to less productive macroalgal dominated habitats, and current research is investigating means of reversing this phase shift. In the tropical Pacific, overfished reefs with inadequate herbivory can become dominated by the brown alga Sargassum polycystum. This alga suppresses recruitment and survival of corals and fishes, thus limiting the potential for reef recovery. Here we investigate the mechanisms that reinforce S. polycystum dominance and show that in addition to negatively affecting other species, this species acts in a self-reinforcing manner, positively promoting survival and growth of conspecifics. We found that survival and growth of both recruit-sized and mature S. polycystum fronds were higher within Sargassum beds than outside the beds and these results were found in both protected and fished reefs. Much of this benefit resulted from reduced herbivory within the Sargassum beds, but adult fronds also grew ~50% more within the beds even when herbivory did not appear to be occurring, suggesting some physiological advantage despite the intraspecific crowding. Thus via positive feedbacks, S. polycystum enhances its own growth and resistance to herbivores, facilitating its dominance (perhaps also expansion and thus its resilience on degraded reefs. This may be a key feedback mechanism suppressing the recovery of coral communities in reefs dominated by macroalgal beds.

  13. ENHANCED DEGRADATION OF CAPTAN BY IMMOBILIZED CELLS OF BACILLUS CIRCULANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena More

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using Bacillus circulans in degrading captan was evaluated by comparing the captan degradation rate by freely suspended and immobilized cells on agar, sodium alginate (SA, polyacrylamide (PA and polyurethane-foam (PUF in batch and repeated batch degradations. Under batch degradations, 50, 60, 72, and 88% of 0.1% captan was degraded by freely suspended cells, agar-, SA-, and PA-immobilized cells, respectively in 72 h; whereas 15, 47.5, 67.7 and 75% of 0.2% captan was degraded by freely suspended cells, agar-, SA-, and PA-immobilized cells, respectively in 72 h. However, 0.1 and 0.2% captan were completely degraded by PUF-immobilized cells in 48 and 72 h, respectively. Under repeated batch degradations, PUF-immobilized cells were reused more than 40 cycles for 72 h without losing the captan degradation ability, while the cells immobilized on agar, SA, and the PA could be reused for 15, 20, and 25 cycles, respectively. A significant 0.1% captan degradation by PUF-immobilized cells was observed at pH 4.0 - 10.0 and 20 - 40 ºC ranges. In contrast, freely suspended cells only degraded captan at optimum pH of 7.0 and 30 ºC. The PUF-immobilized cells were able to significantly degrade captan for 120 days at 4 ºC without losing the captan degradation ability; whereas this ability was lost in 120 days for freely suspended cells. Since the application of captan leads to pollution and reduces soil fertility, the use of immobilized cells of Bacillus circulans can thus be a better cost-effective strategy to decontaminate captan polluted sites.

  14. Enhancing the anaerobic digestion potential of dairy waste activated sludge by two step sono-alkalization pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, R Uma; Kumar, S Adish; Kaliappan, S; Yeom, Ick-Tae; Banu, J Rajesh

    2014-05-01

    High efficiency resource recovery from dairy waste activated sludge (WAS) has been a focus of attention. An investigation into the influence of two step sono-alkalization pretreatment (using different alkaline agents, pH and sonic reaction times) on sludge reduction potential in a semi-continuous anaerobic reactor was performed for the first time in literature. Firstly, effect of sludge pretreatment was evaluated by COD solubilization, suspended solids reduction and biogas production. At optimized condition (4172 kJ/kg TS of supplied energy for NaOH - pH 10), COD solubilization, suspended solids reduction and biogas production was 59%, 46% and 80% higher than control. In order to clearly describe the hydrolysis of waste activated sludge during sono-alkalization pretreatment by a two step process, concentrations of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and bound extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) were also measured. Secondly, semi-continuous process performance was studied in a lab-scale semi-continuous anaerobic reactor (5L), with 4 L working volume. With three operated SRTs, the SRT of 15 d was found to be most appropriate for economic operation of the reactor. Combining pretreatment with anaerobic digestion led to 58% and 62% of suspended solids and volatile solids reduction, respectively, with an improvement of 83% in biogas production. Thus, two step sono-alkalization pretreatment laid the basis in enhancing the anaerobic digestion potential of dairy WAS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Zero-valent iron enhanced methanogenic activity in anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge after heat and alkali pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Quan, Xie

    2015-04-01

    Heat or alkali pretreatment is the effective method to improve hydrolysis of waste sludge and then enhance anaerobic sludge digestion. However the pretreatment may inactivate the methanogens in the sludge. In the present work, zero-valent iron (ZVI) was used to enhance the methanogenic activity in anaerobic sludge digester under two methanogens-suppressing conditions, i.e. heat-pretreatment and alkali condition respectively. With the addition of ZVI, the lag time of methane production was shortened, and the methane yield increased by 91.5% compared to the control group. The consumption of VFA was accelerated by ZVI, especially for acetate, indicating that the acetoclastic methanogenesis was enhanced. In the alkali-condition experiment, the hydrogen produced decreased from 27.6 to 18.8 mL when increasing the ZVI dosage from 0 to 10 g/L. Correspondingly, the methane yield increased from 1.9 to 32.2 mL, which meant that the H2-utilizing methanogenes was enriched. These results suggested that the addition of ZVI into anaerobic digestion of sludge after pretreated by the heat or alkali process could efficiently recover the methanogenic activity and increase the methane production and sludge reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Polyhydroxyalkanoates in waste activated sludge enhances anaerobic methane production through improving biochemical methane potential instead of hydrolysis rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qilin; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Chang; Xie, Guo-Jun; Zhou, Xu; Qian, Jin; Yang, Guojing; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Yiqi; Wang, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic sludge digestion is the main technology for sludge reduction and stabilization prior to sludge disposal. Nevertheless, methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is often restricted by the poor biochemical methane potential and slow hydrolysis rate of WAS. This work systematically investigated the effect of PHA levels of WAS on anaerobic methane production, using both experimental and mathematical modeling approaches. Biochemical methane potential tests showed that methane production increased with increased PHA levels in WAS. Model-based analysis suggested that the PHA-based method enhanced methane production by improving biochemical methane potential of WAS, with the highest enhancement being around 40% (from 192 to 274 L CH4/kg VS added; VS: volatile solid) when the PHA levels increased from 21 to 143 mg/g VS. In contrast, the hydrolysis rate (approximately 0.10 d-1) was not significantly affected by the PHA levels. Economic analysis suggested that the PHA-based method could save $1.2/PE/y (PE: population equivalent) in a typical wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The PHA-based method can be easily integrated into the current WWTP to enhance methane production, thereby providing a strong support to the on-going paradigm shift in wastewater management from pollutant removal to resource recovery.

  17. Vertical distribution of archaeal communities associated with anaerobic degradation of pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) in river-based groundwater recharge with reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yulin; Ma, Mengsi; Liu, Xiang; Ma, Weifang; Li, Yangyao

    2018-02-01

    When groundwater is recharged with reclaimed water, the presence of trace amounts of biorefractory pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE, specifically BDE-99) might cause potential groundwater pollution. A laboratory-scale column was designed to investigate the distribution of the community of archaea in this scenario and the associated anaerobic degradation of BDE-99. The concentration of BDE-99 decreased significantly as soil depth increased, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis suggested that archaea exerted significant effects on the biodegradation of PBDE. Through 454 pyrosequencing of 16s rRNA genes, we found that the distribution and structure of the archaeal community associated with anaerobic degradation of BDE-99 in the river-based aquifer media changed significantly between different soil depths. The primary debrominated metabolites varied with changes in the vertically distributed archaeal community. The archaea in the surface layer were dominated by Methanomethylovorans, and the middle layer was mainly composed of Nitrososphaera. Nitrosopumilus and Nitrososphaera were equally abundant in the bottom layer. In addition, Methanomethylovorans abundance depended on the depth of soil, and the relative abundance of Nitrosopumilus increased with increasing depth, which was associated with the oxidation-reduction potential and the content of intermediate metabolites. We propose that Nitrososphaera and Nitrosopumilus might be the key archaeal taxa mediating the biodegradation of BDE-99.

  18. IN-SITU CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF METALS AND RADIONUCLIDES THROUGH ENHANCED ANAEROBIC REDUCTIVE PRECIPITATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher C. Lutes; Angela Frizzell, PG; Todd A. Thornton; James M. Harrington

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this NETL sponsored bench-scale study was to demonstrate the efficacy of enhanced anaerobic reductive precipitation (EARP) technology for precipitating uranium using samples from contaminated groundwater at the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) in Cincinnati, Ohio. EARP enhances the natural biological reactions in the groundwater through addition of food grade substrates (typically molasses) to drive the oxidative-reductive potential of the groundwater to a lower, more reduced state, thereby precipitating uranium from solution. In order for this in-situ technology to be successful in the long term, the precipitated uranium must not be re-dissolved at an unacceptable rate once groundwater geochemical conditions return to their pretreatment, aerobic state. The approach for this study is based on the premise that redissolution of precipitated uranium will be slowed by several mechanisms including the presence of iron sulfide precipitates and coatings, and sorption onto fresh iron oxides. A bench-scale study of the technology was performed using columns packed with site soil and subjected to a continuous flow of uranium-contaminated site groundwater (476 {micro}g/L). The ''treated'' column received a steady stream of dilute food grade molasses injected into the contaminated influent. Upon attainment of a consistently reducing environment and demonstrated removal of uranium, an iron sulfate amendment was added along with the molasses in the influent solution. After a month long period of iron addition, the treatments were halted, and uncontaminated, aerobic, unamended water was introduced to the treated column to assess rebound of uranium concentrations. In the first two months of treatment, the uranium concentration in the treated column decreased to the clean-up level (30 {micro}g/L) or below, and remained there for the remainder of the treatment period. A brief period of resolubilization of uranium was observed as the treated column

  19. Stimulation of Methanol Degradation in UASB Reactors: In Situ Versus Pre-Loading Cobalt on Anaerobic Granular Sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, M.H.; Gieteling, J.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of pre-loading and in situ loading of cobalt onto a cobalt-limited granular sludge on the performance of methanol fed bioreactors was investigated. One upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor was inoculated with cobalt pre-loaded sludge (24h; 30degreesC; 1 mM CoCl2) and a second UASB

  20. The dominant acetate degradation pathway/methanogenic composition in full-scale anaerobic digesters operating under different ammonia levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia is a major environmental factor influencing biomethanation in full-scale anaerobic digesters. In this study, the effect of different ammonia levels on methanogenic pathways and methanogenic community composition of full-scale biogas plants was investigated. Eight full-scale digesters...

  1. Medium factors on anaerobic production of rhamnolipids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa SG and a simplifying medium for in situ microbial enhanced oil recovery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Jidong; Han, Siqin; Ma, Fang; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Aerobic production of rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was extensively studied. But effect of medium composition on anaerobic production of rhamnolipid by P. aeruginosa was unknown. A simplifying medium facilitating anaerobic production of rhamnolipid is urgently needed for in situ microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Medium factors affecting anaerobic production of rhamnolipid were investigated using P. aeruginosa SG (Genbank accession number KJ995745). Medium composition for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid by P. aeruginosa is different from that for aerobic production of rhamnolipid. Both hydrophobic substrate and organic nitrogen inhibited rhamnolipid production under anaerobic conditions. Glycerol and nitrate were the best carbon and nitrogen source. The commonly used N limitation under aerobic conditions was not conducive to rhamnolipid production under anaerobic conditions because the initial cell growth demanded enough nitrate for anaerobic respiration. But rhamnolipid was also fast accumulated under nitrogen starvation conditions. Sufficient phosphate was needed for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. SO4(2-) and Mg(2+) are required for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. Results will contribute to isolation bacteria strains which can anaerobically produce rhamnolipid and medium optimization for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. Based on medium optimization by response surface methodology and ions composition of reservoir formation water, a simplifying medium containing 70.3 g/l glycerol, 5.25 g/l NaNO3, 5.49 g/l KH2PO4, 6.9 g/l K2HPO4·3H2O and 0.40 g/l MgSO4 was designed. Using the simplifying medium, 630 mg/l of rhamnolipid was produced by SG, and the anaerobic culture emulsified crude oil to EI24 = 82.5 %. The simplifying medium was promising for in situ MEOR applications.

  2. Augmentation of a Microbial Consortium for Enhanced Polylactide (PLA) Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Nimisha R; Sekhar, Vini C; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan

    2016-03-01

    Bioplastics are eco-friendly and derived from renewable biomass sources. Innovation in recycling methods will tackle some of the critical issues facing the acceptance of bioplastics. Polylactic acid (PLA) is the commonly used and well-studied bioplastic that is presumed to be biodegradable. Considering their demand and use in near future, exploration for microbes capable of bioplastic degradation has high potential. Four PLA degrading strains were isolated and identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Serratia marcescens and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. A consortium of above strains degraded 44 % (w/w) PLA in 30 days time in laboratory conditions. Subsequently, the microbial consortium employed effectively for PLA composting.

  3. Reaction mechanisms and rate constants of waste degradation in landfill bioreactor systems with enzymatic-enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, P A; Hettiaratchi, J P A; Mehrotra, A K; Kumar, S

    2014-06-01

    Augmenting leachate before recirculation with peroxidase enzymes is a novel method to increase the available carbon, and therefore the food supply to microorganisms at the declining phase of the anaerobic landfill bioreactor operation. In order to optimize the enzyme-catalyzed leachate recirculation process, it is necessary to identify the reaction mechanisms and determine rate constants. This paper presents a kinetic model developed to ascertain the reaction mechanisms and determine the rate constants for enzyme catalyzed anaerobic waste degradation. The maximum rate of reaction (Vmax) for MnP enzyme-catalyzed reactors was 0.076 g(TOC)/g(DS).day. The catalytic turnover number (k(cat)) of the MnP enzyme-catalyzed was 506.7 per day while the rate constant (k) of the un-catalyzed reaction was 0.012 per day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced sonochemical degradation of bisphenol-A by bicarbonate ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétrier, Christian; Torres-Palma, Ricardo; Combet, Evelyne; Sarantakos, Georgios; Baup, Stéphane; Pulgarin, César

    2010-01-01

    Sonochemical elimination of organic pollutants can take place through two degradation pathways. Molecules with relatively large Henry's law constants will be incinerated inside the cavitation bubble, while nonvolatile molecules with low Henry's law constants will be oxidised by the OH(*) ejected from the bubble of cavitation. Taking bisphenol-A as a model pollutant, this study points out an alternate degradation route, mediated by bicarbonate ions, which is significant for the elimination of micro-pollutants at concentrations present in natural waters. In this process, OH(*) radicals react with bicarbonate ions to produce the carbonate radical, which, unlike the OH(*) radical, can migrate towards the bulk of the solution and therefore induce the degradation of the micro-pollutants present in the bulk solution. As a consequence, initial degradation rate is increased by a factor 3.2 at low concentration of bisphenol-A (0.022 micromol l(-1)) in presence of bicarbonate in water.

  5. Biostimulation for the Enhanced Degradation of Herbicides in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramdas Gopinath Kanissery

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleanup of herbicide-contaminated soils has been a dire environmental concern since the advent of industrial era. Although microorganisms are excellent degraders of herbicide compounds in the soil, some reparation may need to be brought about, in order to stimulate them to degrade the herbicide at a faster rate in a confined time frame. “Biostimulation” through the appropriate utilization of organic amendments and nutrients can accelerate the degradation of herbicides in the soil. However, effective use of biostimulants requires thorough comprehension of the global redox cycle during the microbial degradation of the herbicide molecules in the soil. In this paper, we present the prospects of using biostimulation as a powerful remediation strategy for the rapid cleanup of herbicide-polluted soils.

  6. Two-phase model of hydrolysis kinetics and its applications to anaerobic degradation of particulate organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilin, V A; Rytov, S V; Lokshina, L Y

    1997-01-01

    The various equations of hydrolysis kinetics included into the generalized simulation model (METHANE) were tested on the anaerobic digestion of cellulose, sludge, and cattle manure. The good agreement between the model simulation results and experimental data was obtained. The Contois equation, taking into account a hydrolytic biomass, and the first-order equation with respect to the particulate substrate only, were shown to be the approximations of two-phase hydrolysis kinetics.

  7. Anaerobic degradation of sorbic acid by sulfate-reducing and fermenting bacteria : pentanone-2 and isopentanone-2 as byproducts

    OpenAIRE

    Schnell, Sylvia; Wondrak, Christine; Wahl, Günther; Schink, Bernhard

    1991-01-01

    Strictly anaerobic bacteria were enriched and isolated from freshwater sediment sources in the presence and absence of sulfate with sorbic acid as sole source of carbon and energy. Strain WoSol, a Gram-negative vibrioid sulfate-reducing bacterium which was assigned to the species Desulfoarculus (formerly Desulfo-vibrio) baarsii oxidized sorbic acid completely to CO2 with concomitant stoichiometric reduction of sulfate to sulfide. This strain also oxidized a wide variety of fatty acids and oth...

  8. Analysis of organic compounds' degradation and electricity generation in anaerobic fluidized bed microbial fuel cell for coking wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinmin; Wu, Jianjun; Guo, Qingjie

    2017-12-01

    A single-chambered packing-type anaerobic fluidized microbial fuel cell (AFBMFC) with coking wastewater (CWW) as fuel was built to treat CWW, which not only has high treating efficiency, but also can convert organic matter in wastewater into electricity. AFBMFC was constructed by using anaerobic sludge that was domesticated as inoculation sludge, which was used to biochemically treat CWW. The organic compounds in CWW were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction step by step every day. The extraction phase was concentrated by a rotary evaporator and a nitrogen sweeping device and was analyzed by GC-MS. And the electricity-generation performances of AFBMFC were investigated. The results show that the composition of CWW was complicated, which mainly contains hydrocarbons, phenols, nitrogenous organic compounds, alcohols and aldehydes, esters and acids and so on. After a cycle of anaerobic biochemical treatment, the content of organic compounds in the effluent decreased significantly. After the treatment of AFBMFC, 99.9% phenols, 98.4% alcohol and aldehydes and 95.3% nitrogenous compounds were biodegraded. In the effluent, some new compounds (such as tricosane and dibutyl phthalate) were produced. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) of CWW decreased from 3372 to 559 mg/L in the closed-circuit microbial fuel cell, and the COD removal was 83.4 ± 1.0%. The maximum power density of AFBMFC was 2.13 ± 0.01 mW m-2.

  9. Metabolic analysis of the soil microbe Dechloromonas aromatica str. RCB: indications of a surprisingly complex life-style and cryptic anaerobic pathways for aromatic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinero, Kennan Kellaris; Keller, Keith; Feil, William S.; Feil, Helene; Trong, Stephan; Di Bartolo, Genevieve; Lapidus, Alla

    2008-11-17

    Initial interest in Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB arose from its ability to anaerobically degrade benzene. It is also able to reduce perchlorate and oxidize chlorobenzoate, toluene, and xylene, creating interest in using this organism for bioremediation. Little physiological data has been published for this microbe. It is considered to be a free-living organism. The a priori prediction that the D. aromatica genome would contain previously characterized 'central' enzymes involved in anaerobic aromatic degradation proved to be false, suggesting the presence of novel anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways in this species. These missing pathways include the benzyl succinyl synthase (bssABC) genes (responsible for formate addition to toluene) and the central benzoylCoA pathway for monoaromatics. In depth analyses using existing TIGRfam, COG, and InterPro models, and the creation of de novo HMM models, indicate a highly complex lifestyle with a large number of environmental sensors and signaling pathways, including a relatively large number of GGDEF domain signal receptors and multiple quorum sensors. A number of proteins indicate interactions with an as yet unknown host, as indicated by the presence of predicted cell host remodeling enzymes, effector enzymes, hemolysin-like proteins, adhesins, NO reductase, and both type III and type VI secretory complexes. Evidence of biofilm formation including a proposed exopolysaccharide complex with the somewhat rare exosortase (epsH), is also present. Annotation described in this paper also reveals evidence for several metabolic pathways that have yet to be observed experimentally, including a sulphur oxidation (soxFCDYZAXB) gene cluster, Calvin cycle enzymes, and nitrogen fixation (including RubisCo, ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase, and nif gene families, respectively). Analysis of the D. aromatica genome indicates there is much to be learned regarding the metabolic capabilities, and life-style, for this microbial

  10. Metabolic analysis of the soil microbe Dechloromonas aromatica str. RCB: indications of a surprisingly complex life-style and cryptic anaerobic pathways for aromatic degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feil Helene

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Initial interest in Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB arose from its ability to anaerobically degrade benzene. It is also able to reduce perchlorate and oxidize chlorobenzoate, toluene, and xylene, creating interest in using this organism for bioremediation. Little physiological data has been published for this microbe. It is considered to be a free-living organism. Results The a priori prediction that the D. aromatica genome would contain previously characterized "central" enzymes to support anaerobic aromatic degradation of benzene proved to be false, suggesting the presence of novel anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways in this species. These missing pathways include the benzylsuccinate synthase (bssABC genes (responsible for fumarate addition to toluene and the central benzoyl-CoA pathway for monoaromatics. In depth analyses using existing TIGRfam, COG, and InterPro models, and the creation of de novo HMM models, indicate a highly complex lifestyle with a large number of environmental sensors and signaling pathways, including a relatively large number of GGDEF domain signal receptors and multiple quorum sensors. A number of proteins indicate interactions with an as yet unknown host, as indicated by the presence of predicted cell host remodeling enzymes, effector enzymes, hemolysin-like proteins, adhesins, NO reductase, and both type III and type VI secretory complexes. Evidence of biofilm formation including a proposed exopolysaccharide complex and exosortase (epsH are also present. Annotation described in this paper also reveals evidence for several metabolic pathways that have yet to be observed experimentally, including a sulphur oxidation (soxFCDYZAXB gene cluster, Calvin cycle enzymes, and proteins involved in nitrogen fixation in other species (including RubisCo, ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase, and nif gene families, respectively. Conclusion Analysis of the D. aromatica genome indicates there is much to be

  11. Methane production enhancement by an independent cathode in integrated anaerobic reactor with microbial electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Weiwei; Han, Tingting; Guo, Zechong

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) represents a potential way to achieve energy recovery from waste organics. In this study, a novel bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic reactor is assembled by two AD systems separated by anion exchange membrane, with the cathode placing in the inside cylinder (cathodic...... fermentation liquid, methane production rate has been further increased to 0.247 mL CH4/mL reactor/day (increased by 51.53% comparing with AD control). Energy recovery efficiency presents profitable gains, and economic revenue from increased methane totally self-cover the cost of input electricity. The study...

  12. Enhancement effect of two ecological earthworm species (Eisenia foetida and Amynthas robustus E. Perrier) on removal and degradation processes of soil DDT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhong; Li, Xiao-min; Li, Yong-tao; Huang, De-yin; Dong, Jun; Li, Fang-bai

    2012-05-01

    Effects of two ecological earthworm species (epigeic Eisenia foetida and endogeic Amynthas robustus E. Perrier) with different densities (15 and 30 individuals per kg of soil) on the removal of soil 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) with two pollution levels (2 and 4 mg kg(-1)) were investigated. Concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, including 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), and 1-chloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDMU), were monitored after 60, 180, and 360 days of incubation. The results obtained showed that both earthworm species can significantly enhance degradation of soil DDT to its metabolites. For E. foetida, the higher earthworm density showed significantly higher rate of DDT degradation than the lower one. Anaerobic reductive dechlorination was the main degradation pathway over 180 days of incubation, while the aerobic dechlorination process was promoted between 180 and 360 days of incubation. Some earthworm amended treatments showed significantly higher microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen than the control, which suggested that earthworms might enhance the microbial degradation of DDT. Both earthworm species would have the potential to be applied to enhance the remediation of agricultural lands polluted by DDT.

  13. Modelling the population dynamics and metabolic diversity of organisms relevant in anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic enhanced biological phosphorus removal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmen, A; Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Carvalho, G; Reis, M A M; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2010-08-01

    In this study, enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) metabolic models are expanded in order to incorporate the competition between polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) under sequential anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic conditions, which are representative of most full-scale EBPR plants. Since PAOs and GAOs display different denitrification tendencies, which is dependent on the phylogenetic identity of the organism, the model was separated into six distinct biomass groups, constituting Accumulibacter Types I and II, as well as denitrifying and non-denitrifying Competibacter and Defluviicoccus GAOs. Denitrification was modelled as a multi-step process, with nitrate (NO(3)), nitrite (NO(2)), nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and di-nitrogen gas (N(2)) being the primary components. The model was calibrated and validated using literature data from enriched cultures of PAOs and GAOs, obtaining a good description of the observed biochemical transformations. A strong correlation was observed between Accumulibacter Types I and II, and nitrate-reducing and non-nitrate-reducing PAOs, respectively, where the abundance of each PAO subgroup was well predicted by the model during an acclimatization period from anaerobic-aerobic to anaerobic-anoxic conditions. Interestingly, a strong interdependency was observed between the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic kinetic parameters of PAOs and GAOs. This could be exploited when metabolic models are calibrated, since all of these parameters should be changed by an identical factor from their default value. Factors that influence these kinetic parameters include the fraction of active biomass, relative aerobic/anoxic fraction and the ratio of acetyl-CoA to propionyl-CoA. Employing a metabolic approach was found to be advantageous in describing the performance and population dynamics in such complex microbial ecosystems. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Addendum to the Principles And Practices Manual. Loading Rates and Impacts of Substrate Delivery for Enhanced Anaerobic Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    mass transfer of CAHs from a DNAPL or sorbed phase to the dissolved phase where they may be degraded by microbial processes ( Macbeth and Sorenson...may be degraded by biological processes (Ward, et al., 2009; Macbeth and Sorenson, 2008; McCarty et al., 2007). Bioaugmentation cultures can survive...Center and ESTCP. February. 28 Macbeth , T.W., and K. Sorenson. 2008. In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvent Source Zones with Enhanced Mass

  15. Fungal pretreatment of albizia chips for enhanced biogas production by solid-state anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albizia biomass is a forestry waste, and holds a great potential in biogas production by solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD). However, low methane yields from albizia chips were observed due to their recalcitrant structure. In this study, albizia chips were pretreated by Ceriporiopsis subvermisp...

  16. Enhanced s-triazine Degradation and Sugar Cane Weed Control Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil borne bacteria on all continents except Antarctica have developed the ability to rapidly degrade the herbicide atrazine. Reduced residual weed control with atrazine in soils exhibiting enhanced degradation was confirmed under Mississippi Delta corn production and is expected to be occurring in...

  17. Enhanced sonochemical degradation of tetracycline by sulfate radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Akbar; Bahrami, Hamideh; Asadi, Anvar; Alinejad, Abdolazim

    2016-01-01

    Tetracyclines (TCs) are widely used antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine and as growth promoters in the world. Sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes have been of great interest due to the high oxidizing potential of sulfate radical to degrade refractory organic pollutants in aqueous solution. In this study, the degradation of antibiotic TC in aqueous solution by silver-activated persulfate (Na2S2O8) in the presence of ultrasound irradiation under various conditions has been investigated. The effects of several parameters such as Ag2SO4, Na2S2O8 concentration, temperature, ultrasonic (US) power, initial TC concentration and initial pH on the degradation of TC were investigated. More than 83% of TC removal was achieved within 120 min under optimal conditions. The optimum operational conditions were found to be as follows: Ag2SO4 dosage 3.5 mmol/L, Na2S2O8 concentration 70 mmol/L, reaction temperature 25 °C, US power 120 W, initial TC concentration 50 mg/L, pH 3.0 and contact time 120 min. The degradation of TC in the persulfate/Ag(+)/US process followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics.

  18. Fusion of two yeast strains for enhanced crude oil degradation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A hybrid strain S24 was developed from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5A and Saccharomyces carlsbergensis Y7B, using protoplast fusion technique. The yeast protoplasts were prepared using gut juice from Helix pomatia (Land Snail) as cell digesting enzyme. The ability of the wild and the hybrid strains to degrade medium ...

  19. Enhanced adsorptive degradation of Congo red in aqueous solutions using polyaniline/Fe0 composite nanofibers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bhaumik, M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available -ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM). These CNFs exhibited enhanced performance relevant to the adsorptive degradation/decolourization of CR, compared to PANI NFs and Fe0 nanoparticle counterparts. Batch experiments with a...

  20. A Novel Retinex Algorithm and its Application to Fog-degraded Image Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyou Hu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fog-degraded images enhancement is an important problem in the field of image enhancement and computer vision. To overcome the halo artifact, enhance the contrast and better preserve the color of original image, a novel Multi-Scale Retinex color image enhancement method is proposed in this paper. An adaptive anisotropic Gaussian filtering method and its principle are described. The orientation of the Gaussian filter long axes is determined according to the gradient orientation in the position. The procedure of algorithm is given in this paper and applied in the fog- degraded images enhancement. Finally, by comparison with histogram equalization and Multi-Scale Retinex method, the experimental results show that the proposed method can offer better performance in fog-degraded image enhancement.

  1. Thermophilic Anaerobic Degradation of Butyrate by a Butyrate-Utilizing Bacterium in Coculture and Triculture with Methanogenic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahring, Birgitte K.; Westermann, Peter

    1987-01-01

    We studied syntrophic butyrate degradation in thermophilic mixed cultures containing a butyrate-degrading bacterium isolated in coculture with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum or in triculture with M. thermoautotrophicum and the TAM organism, a thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacterium. Butyrate was β-oxidized to acetate with protons as the electron acceptors. Acetate was used concurrently with its production in the triculture. We found a higher butyrate degradation rate in the triculture, in which both hydrogen and acetate were utilized, than in the coculture, in which acetate accumulated. Yeast extract, rumen fluid, and clarified digestor fluid stimulated butyrate degradation, while the effect of Trypticase was less pronounced. Penicillin G, d-cycloserine, and vancomycin caused complete inhibition of butyrate utilization by the cultures. No growth or degradation of butyrate occurred when 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid or chloroform, specific inhibitors of methanogenic bacteria, was added to the cultures and common electron acceptors such as sulfate, nitrate, and fumarate were not used with butyrate as the electron donor. Addition of hydrogen or oxygen to the gas phase immediately stopped growth and butyrate degradation by the cultures. Butyrate was, however, metabolized at approximately the same rate when hydrogen was removed from the cultures and was metabolized at a reduced rate in the cultures previously exposed to hydrogen. Images PMID:16347292

  2. Analysis of production tests in processing the mixture of solid and liquid biologically degradable wastes by anaerobic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Fryč

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the analysis of operating anaerobic fermentation systems of agricultural biogas station and implementing a suitable system enabling the use of a mixture of solid and liquid biowaste. The tests made use of liquid substrates commercially offered to biogas station operators. The study evaluates practical measurements at an agricultural biogas station in order to evaluate the biogas production from these substrates and the efficiency of transforming input material to usable energy. The use of such treated substrates for the anaerobic fermentation technology may have a substantial influence on the volume of dosed energy crops. The mixture of input substrates consisting of liquid cattle excrements, silage corn, solid and liquid waste from food processing, animal waste and glycerine water was experimentally validated. This mixture was compared with the operation using liquid cattle excrements and silage corn. It was concluded that the proposed composition of input raw materials makes it possible to increase the production of biogas and el. power. On the other hand, it was identified that the energy content of the input raw materials is not optimally transformed into usable energy. This is why the proposed mixture of input materials with biowaste is not recommended for use at the used proportion.

  3. Bacillus stamsii sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic sugar degrader that is numerically dominant in freshwater lake sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nicolai; Scherag, Frank D; Pester, Michael; Schink, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    A novel type of anaerobic bacteria was previously isolated from profundal lake sediment by direct dilution of the sediment in mineral agar medium containing glucose and a background lawn of Methanospirillum hungatei as a syntrophic partner. The isolated bacteria grouped with aerobic Bacillus spp. according to their 16S rRNA gene sequence, and the most closely related species is Bacillus thioparans. Fermentative growth of the novel strain with glucose was possible only in the presence of syntrophic partners, and cocultures produced acetate and methane, in some cases also lactate and traces of succinate as fermentation products. In contrast, the closely related strains Bacillus jeotgali and Bacillus sp. strain PeC11 are able to grow with glucose axenically by mixed acid fermentation yielding lactate, acetate, formate, succinate, and ethanol as fermentation products. Alternatively, the isolated strain grew anaerobically in pure culture if pyruvate was added to glucose-containing media, and lactate, acetate and formate were the major fermentation products, but the strain never produced ethanol. Aerobic growth was found with a variety of organic substrates in the presence of partly reduced sulfur compounds. In the absence of sulfide and oxygen, nitrate served as an electron acceptor. Strain BoGlc83 was characterized as the type strain of a new species for which the name Bacillus stamsii sp. nov. (DSM 19598=JCM 30025) is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Interleukin-29 Enhances Synovial Inflammation and Cartilage Degradation in Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxiao Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that IL-29 was an important proinflammatory cytokine in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Inflammation also contributes to the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of IL-29 on cytokine production and cartilage degradation in OA. The mRNA levels of IL-29 and its specific receptor IL-28Ra in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were significantly increased in OA patients when compared to healthy controls (HC. In the serum, IL-29 protein levels were higher in OA patients than those in HC. Immunohistochemistry revealed that both IL-29 and IL-28Ra were dramatically elevated in OA synovium compared to HC; synovial fibroblasts (FLS and macrophages were the main IL-29-producing cells in OA synovium. Furthermore, recombinant IL-29 augmented the mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and matrix-metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3 in OA FLS and increased cartilage degradation when ex vivo OA cartilage explant was coincubated with OA FLS. Finally, in OA FLS, IL-29 dominantly activated MAPK and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, but not Jak-STAT and AKT signaling pathway as examined by western blot. In conclusion, IL-29 stimulates inflammation and cartilage degradation by OA FLS, indicating that this cytokine is likely involved in the pathogenesis of OA.

  5. Enhanced degradation of metalaxyl in agricultural soils of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papini Solange

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the effect of repeated applications on enhanced degradation of metalaxyl in two different agricultural soils used for cultivation of orange and lemon from Casa Branca and Itapetininga districts of São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from areas repeatedly treated with commercial ridomil 50GR for six successive years, and from other areas never exposed to this fungicide. At the laboratory, soil samples received a 14C-metalaxyl solution and its degradation was studied through radiometric techniques to measure biomineralization and recovery of extractable- and soil-bound products. Enhanced degradation was verified only in one soil, although partial degradation and mineralization of the fungicide were detected in both soils. The different rates and patterns of metalaxyl degradation in the soils were probably due to their different physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.

  6. Whole-Genome Sequence of the Anaerobic Isosaccharinic Acid Degrading Isolate, Macellibacteroides fermentans Strain HH-ZS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Simon P; Salah, Zohier B; Charles, Christopher J; Humphreys, Paul N

    2017-08-01

    The ability of micro-organisms to degrade isosaccharinic acids (ISAs) while tolerating hyperalkaline conditions is pivotal to our understanding of the biogeochemistry associated within these environs, but also in scenarios pertaining to the cementitious disposal of radioactive wastes. An alkalitolerant, ISA degrading micro-organism was isolated from the hyperalkaline soils resulting from lime depositions. Here, we report the first whole-genome sequence, ISA degradation profile and carbohydrate preoteome of a Macellibacteroides fermentans strain HH-ZS, 4.08 Mb in size, coding 3,241 proteins, 64 tRNA, and 1 rRNA. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Microbial characterization and degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in an anaerobic reactor treating wastewater containing soap powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosia, Mariana Fronja; Okada, Dagoberto Yukio; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Silva, Edson Luiz; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) treating wastewater containing soap powder as LAS source. At Stage I, the AFBR was fed with a synthetic substrate containing yeast extract and ethanol as carbon sources, and without LAS; at Stage II, soap powder was added to this synthetic substrate obtaining an LAS concentration of 14 ± 3 mg L(-1). The compounds of soap powder probably inhibited some groups of microorganisms, increasing the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from 91 to 143 mg HAc L(-1). Consequently, the LAS removal rate was 48 ± 10% after the 156 days of operation. By sequencing, 16S rRNA clones belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria and Synergistetes were identified in the samples taken at the end of the experiment, with a remarkable presence of Dechloromonas sp. and Geobacter sp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced start-up of anaerobic facultatively autotrophic biocathodes in bioelectrochemical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zaybak, Zehra

    2013-12-01

    Biocathodes in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) can be used to convert CO2 into diverse organic compounds through a process called microbial electrosynthesis. Unfortunately, start-up of anaerobic biocathodes in BESs is a difficult and time consuming process. Here, a pre-enrichment method was developed to improve start-up of anaerobic facultatively autotrophic biocathodes capable of using cathodes as the electron donor (electrotrophs) and CO2 as the electron acceptor. Anaerobic enrichment of bacteria from freshwater bog sediment samples was first performed in batch cultures fed with glucose and then used to inoculate BES cathode chambers set at -0.4V (versus a standard hydrogen electrode; SHE). After two weeks of heterotrophic operation of BESs, CO2 was provided as the sole electron acceptor and carbon source. Consumption of electrons from cathodes increased gradually and was sustained for about two months in concert with a significant decrease in cathode chamber headspace CO2. The maximum current density consumed was -34±4mA/m2. Biosynthesis resulted in organic compounds that included butanol, ethanol, acetate, propionate, butyrate, and hydrogen gas. Bacterial community analyses based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed Trichococcus palustris DSM 9172 (99% sequence identity) as the prevailing species in biocathode communities, followed by Oscillibacter sp. and Clostridium sp. Isolates from autotrophic cultivation were most closely related to Clostridium propionicum (99% sequence identity; ZZ16), Clostridium celerecrescens (98-99%; ZZ22, ZZ23), Desulfotomaculum sp. (97%; ZZ21), and Tissierella sp. (98%; ZZ25). This pre-enrichment procedure enables simplified start-up of anaerobic biocathodes for applications such as electrofuel production by facultatively autotrophic electrotrophs. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Steam pressure disruption of municipal solid waste enhances anaerobic digestion kinetics and biogas yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H W; Walter, H K; Vogt, G M; Vogt, H S; Holbein, B E

    2002-01-20

    Biomass waste, including municipal solid waste (MSW), contains lignocellulosic-containing fiber components that are not readily available as substrates for anaerobic digestion due to the physical shielding of cellulose imparted by the nondigestible lignin. Consequently, a substantial portion of the potentially available carbon is not converted to methane and the incompletely digested residues from anaerobic digestion generally require additional processing prior to their return to the environment. We investigated and developed steam pressure disruption as a treatment step to render lignocellulosic-rich biomass more digestible and as a means for increasing methane energy recovery. The rapid depressurization after steam heating (240 degrees C, 5 min.) of the nondigested residues following a 30-day primary digestion of MSW caused a visible disruption of fibers and release of soluble organic components. The disrupted material, after reinoculation, provided a rapid burst in methane production at rates double those observed in the initial digestion. This secondary digestion proceeded without a lag phase in gas production, provided approximately 40% additional methane yields, and was accompanied by a approximately 40% increase in volatile solids reduction. The secondary digestate was found to be enriched in lignin and significantly depleted in cellulose and hemi-cellulose components when compared to primary digestate. Thus, steam pressure disruption treatment rendered lignocellulosic substrates readily accessible to anaerobic digestion bacteria and improved both the kinetics of biogas production and the overall methane yield from MSW. Steam pressure disruption is central to a new anaerobic digestion process approach including sequential digestion stages and integrated energy recovery, to improve process yields, provide cogenerated energy for process needs, and to provide effective reuse and recycling of waste biomass materials. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. ENHANCEMENT OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION POTENTIAL FOR ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER USING DECANTER CAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Thaniya Kaosol; Narumol Sohgrathok

    2012-01-01

    The wastewater from agro-industry treated with the biological treatment cannot produce the biogas because of its low COD level and its low organic content. In this research, the co-digestion with decanter cake will improve the biogas yield and biogas production of wastewater. The effect of three parameters (i.e., type of wastewater, mixing and mesophilic temperature) will be evaluated in batch digesters under anaerobic condition. Moreover, the study determines the biogas production potential ...

  11. ENHANCEMENT OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION POTENTIAL FOR ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER USING DECANTER CAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Thaniya Kaosol; Narumol Sohgrathok

    2013-01-01

    The wastewater from agro-industry treated with the biological treatment cannot produce the biogas because of its low COD level and its low organic content. In this research, the co-digestion with decanter cake will improve the biogas yield and biogas production of wastewater. The effect of three parameters (i.e., type of wastewater, mixing and mesophilic temperature) will be evaluated in batch digesters under anaerobic condition. Moreover, the study determines the biogas production potential ...

  12. Cadmium removal by Euglena gracilis is enhanced under anaerobic growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Martínez, M Geovanni; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Encalada, Rusely; Pineda, Erika; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Zepeda-Rodriguez, Armando; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo

    2015-05-15

    The facultative protist Euglena gracilis, a heavy metal hyper-accumulator, was grown under photo-heterotrophic and extreme conditions (acidic pH, anaerobiosis and with Cd(2+)) and biochemically characterized. High biomass (8.5×10(6)cellsmL(-1)) was reached after 10 days of culture. Under anaerobiosis, photosynthetic activity built up a microaerophilic environment of 0.7% O₂, which was sufficient to allow mitochondrial respiratory activity: glutamate and malate were fully consumed, whereas 25-33% of the added glucose was consumed. In anaerobic cells, photosynthesis but not respiration was activated by Cd(2+) which induced higher oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were 20 times lower in control cells under anaerobiosis than in aerobiosis, although Cd(2+) induced a higher MDA production. Cd(2+) stress induced increased contents of chelating thiols (cysteine, glutathione and phytochelatins) and polyphosphate. Biosorption (90%) and intracellular accumulation (30%) were the mechanisms by which anaerobic cells removed Cd(2+) from medium, which was 36% higher versus aerobic cells. The present study indicated that E. gracilis has the ability to remove Cd(2+) under anaerobic conditions, which might be advantageous for metal removal in sediments from polluted water bodies or bioreactors, where the O₂ concentration is particularly low. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced dewaterability of sludge during anaerobic digestion with thermal hydrolysis pretreatment: New insights through structure evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingsi; Li, Ning; Dai, Xiaohu; Tao, Wenquan; Jenkinson, Ian R; Li, Zhuo

    2017-12-19

    Comprehensive insights into the sludge digestate dewaterability were gained through porous network structure of sludge. We measured the evolution of digestate dewaterability, represented by the solid content of centrifugally dewatered cake, in high-solids sequencing batch digesters with and without thermal hydrolysis pretreatment (THP). The results show that the dewaterability of the sludge after digestion was improved by 3.5% (±0.5%) for unpretreated sludge and 5.1% (±0.4%) for thermally hydrolyzed sludge. Compared to the unpretreated sludge digestate, thermal hydrolysis pretreatment eventually resulted in an improvement of dewaterability by 4.6% (±0.5%). Smaller particle size and larger surface area of sludge were induced by thermal hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion treatments. The structure strength and compactness of sludge, represented by elastic modulus and fractal dimension respectively, decreased with increase of digestion time. The porous network structure was broken up by thermal hydrolysis pretreatment and was further weakened during anaerobic digestion, which correspondingly improved the dewaterability of digestates. The logarithm of elastic modulus increased linearly with fractal dimension regardless of the pretreatment. Both fractal dimension and elastic modulus showed linear relationship with dewaterability. The rheological characterization combined with the analysis of fractal dimension of sewage sludge porous network structure was found applicable in quantitative evaluation of sludge dewaterability, which depended positively on both thermal hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance of thermophilic anaerobic digesters using inoculum mixes with enhanced methanogenic diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanimeh, Sophia

    2017-05-30

    BACKGROUND Reportedly, various mixes of seeds were quasi-randomly selected to startup anaerobic digesters. In contrast, this study examines the impact of inoculating thermophilic anaerobic digesters with a designed mix of non-acclimated seeds based on their methanogen composition, using Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (QPCR) of 16S rRNA gene, to achieve high abundance and diversity of methanogens. RESULTS Based on QPCR results, two seed mixes were selected to inoculate two anaerobic digesters: digester (A) was inoculated with a control seed consisting of digestate, manure, and activated sludge; and digester (B) was inoculated with a further methanogen-enriched seed consisting of the control seed with added compost and leachate. Both seed combinations yielded a balanced microflora that is able to achieve a successful startup. However, upon reaching steady state, digester B exhibited lower propionate levels, resulting in lower VFA concentration and increased buffering capacity, indicating greater stability. Acetotrophs and hydrogenotrophs were dominated by Methanosarcinaceae and Methanobacteriales, respectively, in both digesters, exhibiting an average ratio of 66-to-34% in A and 76-to-24% in B during steady state. CONCLUSION The inoculation strategy in digester B resulted in improved stability, lower propionate concentration and 10% higher relative abundance of acetotrophs.

  15. Super blue box recycling (SUBBOR) enhanced two-stage anaerobic digestion process for recycling municipal solid waste: laboratory pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, G M; Liu, H W; Kennedy, K J; Vogt, H S; Holbein, B E

    2002-12-01

    The super blue box recycling (SUBBOR) process is an enhanced, multi-stage anaerobic digestion process for mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) and other biomass feedstock materials. The technology centers on enhanced high solids, thermophilic digestion after steam-pressure disruption of the ligno-cellulosic fiber components that are recalcitrant to conventional anaerobic digestion. Mixed MSW, rich in organic components but also containing inorganic materials, such as glass, aluminum and steel, as well as non-digestible plastic materials, has been laboratory pilot tested with a fully integrated process train designed to treat and recycle all of the MSW components. Methane yields from the MSW were 0.36 m3 CH4/kg volatile solids (VS) representing a 40% increase over the yield obtained from conventional single stage digestion. The secondary digestion step after steam pressure disruption also provided a 40% improvement in total solids and VS reduction. The residual organic fraction following two-stage digestion was fine in texture and was recovered as a clean peat fraction with reduced contents of heavy metal and other fugitive non-digested contaminants. Mass and energy balance determinations indicated a high degree of MSW diversion from landfill disposal (>80%) was achievable by the SUBBOR process as well as substantial net electrical and thermal energy production. Continuous long-term trials of the SUBBOR process at 25,000 tonnes/year are underway.

  16. Carbon and hydrogen stable isotope fractionation associated with the anaerobic degradation of propane and butane by marine sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Ulrike; Vogt, Carsten; Fischer, Anko; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Musat, Florin

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic degradation of propane and butane is typically initiated by activation via addition to fumarate. Here we investigated the mechanism of activation under sulfate-reducing conditions by one pure culture (strain BuS5) and three enrichment cultures employing stable isotope analysis. Stable isotope fractionation was compared for cultures incubated with or without substrate diffusion limitation. Bulk enrichment factors were significantly higher in mixed vs. static incubations. Two dimensional factors, given by the correlation of stable isotope fractionation of both carbon and hydrogen at their reactive positions (Lambda reactive position, Λrp), were compared to analyse the activation mechanisms. A characteristic reactive position isotope fractionation pattern was observed, distinct from aerobic degradation. Λrp values ranged from 10.5 to 11.8 for propane and from 7.8 to 9.4 for butane. Incubations of strain BuS5 with deuterium-labelled n-alkanes indicated that butane was activated solely at the subterminal C atom. In contrast, propane was activated mainly at the subterminal C atom but also significantly at the terminal C atoms. A conservative estimate suggests that about 70% of the propane activation events occurred at the subterminal C atom and about 30% at the terminal C atoms. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Anaerobic degradation of propane and butane by sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from marine hydrocarbon cold seeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Ulrike; Musat, Niculina; Adam, Birgit; Kuypers, Marcel; Grundmann, Olav; Musat, Florin

    2013-05-01

    The short-chain, non-methane hydrocarbons propane and butane can contribute significantly to the carbon and sulfur cycles in marine environments affected by oil or natural gas seepage. In the present study, we enriched and identified novel propane and butane-degrading sulfate reducers from marine oil and gas cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and Hydrate Ridge. The enrichment cultures obtained were able to degrade simultaneously propane and butane, but not other gaseous alkanes. They were cold-adapted, showing highest sulfate-reduction rates between 16 and 20 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries, followed by whole-cell hybridizations with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that each enrichment culture was dominated by a unique phylotype affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster within the Deltaproteobacteria. These phylotypes formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster of propane and butane degraders, including sequences from environments associated with hydrocarbon seeps. Incubations with (13)C-labeled substrates, hybridizations with sequence-specific probes and nanoSIMS analyses showed that cells of the dominant phylotypes were the first to become enriched in (13)C, demonstrating that they were directly involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, using the nanoSIMS data, carbon assimilation rates were calculated for the dominant cells in each enrichment culture.

  18. Enhanced treatment of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) wastewater using the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket coupled with bioelectrochemical system: Effect of electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dexin; Han, Hongjun; Han, Yuxing; Li, Kun; Zhu, Hao

    2017-05-01

    The coupling of bioelectrochemical system (BES) with an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was established for enhanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) wastewater treatment while the UASB (control group) was operated in parallel. The presence of electric field could offer system a more reductive micro-environment that lower the ORP values and maintain the appropriate pH range, resulting in the higher chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and methane production for BES-UASB (86.8% and 2.31±0.1L/(L·d)) while those values in control group were 72.1% and 1.77±0.08L/(L·d). In addition, the coupled system could promote sludge granulation to perform a positive effect on maintaining stability of pollutants removal. The high-throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing in this study further confirmed that the promoting direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between Geobacter and Methanosarcina might be established in BES-UASB to improve the syntrophic degradation of propionate and butyrate, finally facilitated completely methane production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced bioelectroremediation of a complexly contaminated river sediment through stimulating electroactive degraders with methanol supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Youkang; Li, Zhiling; Ma, Jincai; Yun, Hui; Qi, Mengyuan; Ma, Xiaodan; Wang, Hao; Wang, Aijie; Liang, Bin

    2018-05-05

    Bioelectroremediation is an efficient, sustainable, and environment-friendly remediation technology for the complexly contaminated sediments. Although various recalcitrant pollutants could be degraded in the electrode district, the degradation efficiency was generally confined by the low total organic carbon (TOC) content in the sediment. How to enhance the electroactive degraders' activity and efficiency remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the bioeletroremediation of a complexly contaminated river sediment with low TOC in a cylindric sediment microbial fuel cell stimulated by methanol. After 200 days treatment, the degradation efficiencies of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and cycloalkenes (CYE) in the electrode district with methanol stimulation were 1.45-4.38 times higher compared with those in the non-electrode district without methanol stimulation. The overall electrode district communities were significantly positively correlated with the variables of the enhanced TPH, PAH, CYE and TOC degradation efficiencies (p methanol stimulation selectively enriched electroactive degraders (Geobacter and Desulfobulbus) in the anode biofilms, and their proportion was markedly positively correlated with the characteristic and total pollutants degradation efficiencies (p < .001). This study offers a new insight into the response of key electroactive degraders to the joint stimulation process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ENHANCED ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF FOOD WASTE BY SUPPLEMENTING TRACE ELEMENTS: ROLE OF SELENIUM (VI AND IRON (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javkhlan eAriunbaatar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential to enhance the anaerobic digestion of food waste FW by supplementing trace elements (Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu, Se, and Mo individually as well as in cocktails. A series of batch experiments on the biomethane potential of synthetic food waste were performed with low (FW-A and high (FW-B trace element background concentrations prepared in, respectively, Delft (The Netherlands and Tampa (Florida, USA. The most effective trace elements for FW-A were Fe with an increase of 39.2 (± 0.6 % of biomethane production, followed by Se (34.1 ± 5.6 % increase, Ni (26.4 ± 0.2 % increase and Co (23.8 ± 0.2 % increase. For FW-B supplementing these trace elements did not result in enhancement of the biomethane production, except for Se. FW-B had a Se concentration of 1.3 (± 0. 5 µg/gTS, while it was below the detection limit for FW-A. Regardless of the FW source, Se resulted in 30 – 35% increase of biomethane production at a concentration range of 25-50 µg/L (0.32 – 0.63 µM. Volatile fatty acids analysis revealed that TE supplementation enhances their consumption, thus yielding a higher biomethane production. Moreover, additional experiments on sulfide inhibition showed the enhancing effects of trace elements on the anaerobic digestion of food waste were not related with sulfide toxicity, but with the enzymatic reactions and/or microbial biomass aggregation.

  1. Enhanced aerobic degradation of 4-chlorophenol with iron-nickel nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wenjuan; Mu, Yi; Wang, Bingning; Ai, Zhihui, E-mail: jennifer.ai@mail.ccnu.edu.cn; Zhang, Lizhi

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Bimetallic iron-nickel nanoparticles possessed an enhanced performance on aerobic degradation of 4-CP. • Hydroxyl radicals were the major active species contributed to aerobic 4-CP degradation with nZVI. • Superoxide radicals predominated the 4-CP degradation in the nZVIN/Air process. • The 4-CP degradation pathways were dependent on the generated superoxide radicals in the nZVIN/Air process. - Abstract: In this study, we demonstrate that the bimetallic iron-nickel nanoparticles (nZVIN) possessed an enhanced performance in comparison with nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) on aerobic degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). The 4-CP degradation rate constant in the aerobic nZVIN process (nZVIN/Air) was 5 times that in the classic nZVI counterpart system (nZVI/Air). Both reactive oxygen species measurement and inhibition experimental results suggested that hydroxyl radicals were the major active species contributed to aerobic 4-CP degradation with nZVI, on contrast, superoxide radicals predominated the 4-CP degradation in the nZVIN/Air process. High performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis indicated the intermediates of the nZVI/Air system were p-benzoquinone and hydroquinone, which were resulted from the bond cleavage between the chlorine and carbon atom in the benzene ring by hydroxyl radicals. However, the primary intermediates of 4-CP found in the nZVIN/Air system were phenol via the direct dechlorination by superoxide radicals, accompanying with the formation of chloride ions. On the base of experimental results, a superoxide radicals mediated enhancing mechanism was proposed for the aerobic degradation of 4-CP in the nZVIN/Air system. This study provides new insight into the role of bimetallic nickel on enhancing removal of organic pollutants with nZVI.

  2. Enhanced enzymatic cellulose degradation by cellobiohydrolases via product removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan; Meyer, Anne S.; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    2013-01-01

    Product inhibition by cellobiose decreases the rate of enzymatic cellulose degradation. The optimal reaction conditions for two Emericella (Aspergillus) nidulans-derived cellobiohydrolases I and II produced in Pichia pastoris were identified as CBHI: 52 °C, pH 4.5–6.5, and CBHII: 46 °C, pH 4.......8. The optimum in a mixture of the two was 50 °C, pH 4.9. An almost fourfold increase in enzymatic hydrolysis yield was achieved with intermittent product removal of cellobiose with membrane filtration (2 kDa cut-off): The conversion of cotton cellulose after 72 h was ~19 % by weight, whereas the conversion...... achievable by intermittent product removal during cellulose hydrolysis....

  3. Aminobacterium thunnarium sp. nov., a mesophilic, amino acid-degrading bacterium isolated from an anaerobic sludge digester, pertaining to the phylum Synergistetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Olfa; Ben Hania, Wajdi; Postec, Anne; Bouallagui, Hassib; Hamdi, Moktar; Bonin, Patricia; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2015-02-01

    A new Gram-staining-positive, non-sporulating, mesophilic, amino acid-degrading anaerobic bacterium, designated strain OTA 102(T), was isolated from an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor treating wastewater from cooking tuna. The cells were curved rods (0.6-2.5×0.5 µm) and occurred singly or in pairs. The strain was motile by means of one lateral flagellum. Strain OTA 102(T) grew at temperatures between 30 and 45 °C (optimum 40 °C), between pH 6.0 and 8.4 (optimum pH 7.2) and NaCl concentrations between 1 and 5 % (optimum 2 %, w/v). Strain OTA 102(T) required yeast extract for growth. Serine, threonine, glycine, cysteine, citrate, fumarate, α-ketoglutarate and pyruvate were fermented. When co-cultured with Methanobacterium formicicum as the hydrogen scavenger, strain OTA 102(T) oxidized alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartate, tyrosine, methionine, histidine and asparagine. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain OTA 102(T) was 41.7 mol%. The main fatty acid was iso-C15 : 0. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain OTA 102(T) was related to Aminobacterium colombiense and Aminobacterium mobile (95.5 and 95.2 % similarity, respectively), of the phylum Synergistetes. On the basis of phylogenetic, genetic and physiological characteristics, strain OTA 102(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Aminobacterium, Aminobacterium thunnarium sp. nov. The type strain is OTA 102(T) ( = DSM 27500(T) = JCM 19320(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  4. Distinct Dual C-Cl Isotope Fractionation Patterns during Anaerobic Biodegradation of 1,2-Dichloroethane: Potential To Characterize Microbial Degradation in the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palau, J; Yu, R; Hatijah Mortan, S; Shouakar-Stash, O; Rosell, M; Freedman, D L; Sbarbati, C; Fiorenza, S; Aravena, R; Marco-Urrea, E; Elsner, M; Soler, A; Hunkeler, D

    2017-03-07

    This study investigates, for the first time, dual C-Cl isotope fractionation during anaerobic biodegradation of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) via dihaloelimination by Dehalococcoides and Dehalogenimonas-containing enrichment cultures. Isotopic fractionation of 1,2-DCA (εbulkC and εbulkCl) for Dehalococcoides (-33.0 ± 0.4‰ and -5.1 ± 0.1‰) and Dehalogenimonas-containing microcosms (-23 ± 2‰ and -12.0 ± 0.8‰) resulted in distinctly different dual element C-Cl isotope correlations (Λ = Δδ13C/Δδ37Cl ≈ εbulkC/εbulkCl), 6.8 ± 0.2 and 1.89 ± 0.02, respectively. Determined isotope effects and detected products suggest that the difference on the obtained Λ values for biodihaloelimination could be associated with a different mode of concerted bond cleavage rather than two different reaction pathways (i.e., stepwise vs concerted). Λ values of 1,2-DCA were, for the first time, determined in two field sites under reducing conditions (2.1 ± 0.1 and 2.2 ± 2.9). They were similar to the one obtained for the Dehalogenimonas-containing microcosms (1.89 ± 0.02) and very different from those reported for aerobic degradation pathways in a previous laboratory study (7.6 ± 0.1 and 0.78 ± 0.03). Thus, this study illustrates the potential of a dual isotope analysis to differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation pathways of 1,2-DCA in the field and suggests that this approach might also be used to characterize dihaloelimination of 1,2-DCA by different bacteria, which needs to be confirmed in future studies.

  5. Degradation of organic pollutants and characteristics of activated sludge in an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic reactor treating chemical industrial wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic system operated at the hydraulic retention times (HRT of 20, 40, and 60 h with mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS concentrations of 3 g/L and 6 g/L was considered for treating chemical industrial wastewater rich in complex organic compounds and total dissolved solids. Extending the HRT and increasing the MLSS concentration resulted in higher removal efficiency for chemical oxygen demand at 72%. Organic compounds in wastewater could be classified into easily-removed and refractory compounds during treatment. The easily-removed compounds consisted primarily of ethers, alcohols, and aldehydes, whereas the refractory compounds included mainly oxygen-containing heterocyclic and benzene-containing compounds. Results from energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that several metal ions accumulated in activated sludge, particularly Fe(III. Fe accumulated mainly on the surface of sludge floc pellets and resulted in the compactness of activated sludge, which caused the values of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids /MLSS and sludge volume index to decrease.

  6. Enhanced degradation of mono aromatic hydrocarbons in sandy aquifer materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corseuil, Henry X. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Sanitaria; Weber Junior, W.J. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1993-12-31

    The use of an inoculation technique to enhance rates of in-situ biodegradation of toxic organic contaminants by increasing subsurface populations of specific microorganisms is described. An external biologically active carbon (BAC) adsorber is demonstrated to be an efficient reactor system for collection, acclimation and enrichment of microorganisms for the inoculation process (author). 15 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Bioenergy from stillage anaerobic digestion to enhance the energy balance ratio of ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuess, Lucas Tadeu; Garcia, Marcelo Loureiro

    2015-10-01

    The challenges associated with the availability of fossil fuels in the past decades intensified the search for alternative energy sources, based on an ever-increasing demand for energy. In this context, the application of anaerobic digestion (AD) as a core treatment technology in industrial plants should be highlighted, since this process combines the pollution control of wastewaters and the generation of bioenergy, based on the conversion of the organic fraction to biogas, a methane-rich gaseous mixture that may supply the energetic demands in industrial plants. In this context, this work aimed at assessing the energetic potential of AD applied to the treatment of stillage, the main wastewater from ethanol production, in an attempt to highlight the improvements in the energy balance ratio of ethanol by inserting the heating value of methane as a bioenergy source. At least 5-15% of the global energy consumption in the ethanol industry could be supplied by the energetic potential of stillage, regardless the feedstock (i.e. sugarcane, corn or cassava). The association between bagasse combustion and stillage anaerobic digestion in sugarcane-based distilleries could provide a bioenergy surplus of at least 130% of the total fossil fuel input into the ethanol plant, considering only the energy from methane. In terms of financial aspects, the economic gains could reach US$ 0.1901 and US$ 0.0512 per liter of produced ethanol, respectively for molasses- (Brazil) and corn-based (EUA) production chains. For large-scale (∼1000 m(3)EtOH per day) Brazilian molasses-based plants, an annual economic gain of up to US$ 70 million could be observed. Considering the association between anaerobic and aerobic digestion, for the scenarios analyzed, at least 25% of the energetic potential of stillage would be required to supply the energy consumption with aeration, however, more suitable effluents for agricultural application could be produced. The main conclusion from this work

  8. Degradation-by-design: Surface modification with functional substrates that enhance the enzymatic degradation of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshbabu, Adukamparai Rajukrishnan; Kurapati, Rajendra; Russier, Julie; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Bartolini, Isacco; Meneghetti, Moreno; Kostarelos, Kostas; Bianco, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Biodegradation of carbon-based nanomaterials has been pursued intensively in the last few years, as one of the most crucial issues for the design of safe, clinically relevant conjugates for biomedical applications. In this paper it is demonstrated that specific functional molecules can enhance the catalytic activity of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and xanthine oxidase (XO) for the degradation of carbon nanotubes. Two different azido coumarins and one cathecol derivative are linked to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). These molecules are good reducing substrates and strong redox mediators to enhance the catalytic activity of HRP. XO, known to metabolize various molecules mainly in the mammalian liver, including human, was instead used to test the biodegradability of MWCNTs modified with an azido purine. The products of the biodegradation process are characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that coumarin and catechol moieties have enhanced the biodegradation of MWCNTs compared to oxidized nanotubes, likely due to the capacity of these substrates to better interact with and activate HRP. Although azido purine-MWCNTs are degraded less effectively by XO than oxidized nanotubes, the data uncover the importance of XO in the biodegradation of carbon-nanomaterials leading to their better surface engineering for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced degradation of metalaxyl in Gley Humic and Dark Red Latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Papini

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced degradation of the fungicide metalaxyl was investigated in two soils: a gley humic (GH and a Dark Red Latosol (LE, collected at sites never exposed to the fungicide. The soil samples were treated with successive applications of metalaxyl as a commercial formulation and 14C-metalaxyl in laboratory. Metalaxyl biodegradation was analyzed during 63 days by means of radiometric techniques to verify biomineralization and degradation product formation from the applied 14C-metalaxyl. Although biomineralization (maximum of 14 and 8% in the GH and LE soils, respectively, and partial degradation (about 32 and 48%, respectively were detected in both soils, enhanced degradation was verified only in the GH soil. Results proved that metalaxyl behaves differently in soils.

  10. Anaerobic accumulation of short-chain fatty acids from algae enhanced by damaging cell structure and promoting hydrolase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Leiyu; Chen, Yunzhi; Chen, Xutao; Duan, Xu; Xie, Jing; Chen, Yinguang

    2017-12-06

    Short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs) produced from harvested algae by anaerobic fermentation with uncontrolled pH was limited due to the solid cell structure of algae. This study, therefore, was undertaken to enhance the generation of SCFAs from algae by controlling the fermentation pH. pH influenced not only the total SCFAs production, but the percentage of individual SCFA. The maximal yield of SCFAs occurred at pH 10.0 and fermentation time of 6 d (3161 mg COD/L), which mainly contained acetic and iso-valeric acids and was nearly eight times that at uncontrolled pH (392 mg COD/L). Mechanism exploration revealed at alkaline pH, especially at pH 10.0, not only the cell structure of algae was damaged effectively, but also activities and relative quantification of hydrolases as well as the abundance of microorganisms responsible for organics hydrolysis and SCFAs production were improved. Also, the released microcystins from algae were removed efficiently during alkaline anaerobic fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancement of acidic dye biosorption capacity on poly(ethylenimine) grafted anaerobic granular sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xue-Fei, E-mail: xfsun06@gmail.com [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang, Shu-Guang, E-mail: wsg@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Cheng, Wen [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Fan, Maohong [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Tian, Bing-Hui [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Gao, Bao-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ming [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Developing a novel biosorbent with high capacity is crucial to remove dyes from waters in an efficient way. This study demonstrated that porous anaerobic granular sludge could be grafted with polyethylenimine (PEI), which definitely improved the sorption capacity towards Acid Red 18 (AR18) removal. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study revealed that the PEI modification introduced a large number of amino groups on the surface of sludge, and the amino groups played an important role in the adsorption of dye molecule. Analysis of sorption data using a Boyd plot confirms the film diffusion was the rate-limiting step. The equilibrium data were well fitted Langmuir model, with a maximum AR18 uptake of 520.52 mg/g. Removal of AR18 decreased with the increasing pH and the maximum color removal was observed at pH 2.0. The sorption energy calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm was found to be less than 8 for the biosorption of AR 18, which suggested that the biosorption processes of dye molecule onto modified anaerobic granules could be taken place by physical adsorption. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as {Delta}G{sup 0}, {Delta}H{sup 0} and {Delta}S{sup 0}, were also calculated, which indicated that the present system was spontaneous and endothermic process.

  12. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of food waste through biochemical methane potential assays at different substrate: inoculum ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Shakira R; Landis, Amy E; Rittmann, Bruce E; Young, Michelle N; Parameswaran, Prathap

    2018-01-01

    Food waste has a high energy potential that can be converted into useful energy in the form of methane via anaerobic digestion. Biochemical Methane Potential assays (BMPs) were conducted to quantify the impacts on methane production of different ratios of food waste. Anaerobic digester sludge (ADS) was used as the inoculum, and BMPs were performed at food waste:inoculum ratios of 0.42, 1.42, and 3.0g chemical oxygen demand/g volatile solids (VS). The 1.42 ratio had the highest CH 4 -COD recovery: 90% of the initial total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) was from food waste, followed by ratios 0.42 and 3.0 at 69% and 57%, respectively. Addition of food waste above 0.42 caused a lag time for CH 4 production that increased with higher ratios, which highlighted the negative impacts of overloading with food waste. The Gompertz equation was able to represent the results well, and it gave lag times of 0, 3.6 and 30days and maximum methane productions of 370, 910, and 1950mL for ratios 0.42, 1.42 and 3.0, respectively. While ratio 3.0 endured a long lag phase and low VSS destruction, ratio 1.42 achieved satisfactory results for all performance criteria. These results provide practical guidance on food-waste-to-inoculum ratios that can lead to optimizing methanogenic yield. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A built-in zero valent iron anaerobic reactor to enhance treatment of azo dye wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaobin; Jing, Yanwen; Quan, Xie; Liu, Yiwen; Onu, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Waste scrap iron was packed into an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to form a zero valent iron (ZVI) - UASB reactor system for treatment of azo dye wastewater. The ZVI acted as a reductant to decrease ORP in the reactor by more than 40 mv and functioned as an acid buffer to increase the pH in the reactor from 5.44 to 6.29, both of which improved the performance of the anaerobic reactor. As a result, the removal of color and COD in this reactor was 91.7% and 53%, respectively, which was significantly higher than that of a reference UASB reactor without ZVI. The UV-visible spectrum demonstrated that absorption bands of the azo dye from the ZVI-UASB reactor were substantially reduced. The ZVI promoted methanogenesis, which was confirmed by an increase in CH(4) content in the biogas from 47.9% to 64.8%. The ZVI bed was protected well from rusting, which allowed it to function stably. The effluent could be further purified only by pH adjustment because the Fe(2+) released from ZVI served as a flocculent.

  14. Enhanced degradation of metalaxyl in agricultural soils of São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Papini Solange; Andréa Mara Mercedes de

    2001-01-01

    This work investigated the effect of repeated applications on enhanced degradation of metalaxyl in two different agricultural soils used for cultivation of orange and lemon from Casa Branca and Itapetininga districts of São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from areas repeatedly treated with commercial ridomil 50GR for six successive years, and from other areas never exposed to this fungicide. At the laboratory, soil samples received a 14C-metalaxyl solution and its degradation...

  15. Increase of anaerobic degradation of particulate organic matter in full-scale biogas plants by mechanical maceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Hinrich; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2000-01-01

    of a macerator make it attractive to use this pretreatment method for a more complete degradation of particulate organic matter. investigation of the size distribution of the fibers showed that a change in biogas potential was not correlated to a smaller size of the fibers. Results from the macerators indicate......% by pretreatment of the whole feed in the macerator before the reactor was observed. implementation concepts with a treatment of the fibers alone after separation from the manure showed to be not efficient due to a low recovery of organic matter in the fibers by the separation unit. The low operational costs...

  16. Low-temperature thermal pre-treatment of municipal wastewater sludge: Process optimization and effects on solubilization and anaerobic degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Laleh; Yuan, Zhongshun; Santoro, Domenico; Sarathy, Siva; Ho, Dang; Batstone, Damien; Xu, Chunbao Charles; Ray, Madhumita B

    2017-04-15

    The present study examines the relationship between the degree of solubilization and biodegradability of wastewater sludge in anaerobic digestion as a result of low-temperature thermal pre-treatment. The main effect of thermal pre-treatment is the disintegration of cell membranes and thus solubilization of organic compounds. There is an established correlation between chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization and temperature of thermal pre-treatment, but results of thermal pre-treatment in terms of biodegradability are not well understood. Aiming to determine the impact of low temperature treatments on biogas production, the thermal pre-treatment process was first optimized based on an experimental design study on waste activated sludge in batch mode. The optimum temperature, reaction time and pH of the process were determined to be 80 °C, 5 h and pH 10, respectively. All three factors had a strong individual effect (p effect for temp. pH 2 (p = 0.002). Thermal pre-treatments, carried out on seven different municipal wastewater sludges at the above optimum operating conditions, produced increased COD solubilization of 18.3 ± 7.5% and VSS reduction of 27.7 ± 12.3% compared to the untreated sludges. The solubilization of proteins was significantly higher than carbohydrates. Methane produced in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests, indicated initial higher rates (p = 0.0013) for the thermally treated samples (k hyd up to 5 times higher), although the ultimate methane yields were not significantly affected by the treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Anaerobic lactic acid degradation during ensilage of whole crop maize inoculated with lactobacillus buchneri inhibits yeast growth and improves aerobic stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driehuis; Elferink; Spoelstra

    1999-10-01

    Aerobic deterioration of silages is initiated by (facultative) aerobic micro-organisms, usually yeasts, that oxidize the preserving organic acids. In this study, a Lactobacillus buchneri strain isolated from maize silage was evaluated for its potential as a bacterial inoculant that enhances aerobic stability of silages. In four experiments, chopped whole crop maize (30-43% dry matter (DM)) was inoculated with Lact. buchneri and ensiled in laboratory silos. Uninoculated silages served as controls. Analysis of silages treated with Lact. buchneri at levels of 103-106 cfu g-1 after about 3 months of anaerobic storage showedthat acetic acid and 1-propanol contents increased with inoculum levels above 104 cfu g-1,whereas lactic acid decreased. Propionic acid, silage pH and DM loss increased withinoculum levels above 105 cfu g-1. Time course experiments with maize inoculated with Lact. buchneri at 4 x 104-2 x 105 cfu g-1 showed that up to 7-14 d after ensiling, Lact. buchneri had no effect on silage characteristics. Thereafter, the lactic acid content of the inoculated silages declined and, simultaneously, acetic acid and, to a lesser extent, propionic acid and 1-propanol, accumulated. Inoculation reduced survival of yeasts during the anaerobic storage phase and inhibited yeast growth when the silage was exposed to O2, resulting in a substantial improvement in aerobic stability. The results indicate that the use of Lact. buchneri as a silage inoculant can enhance aerobic stability by inhibition of yeasts. The ability of the organism to ferment lactic acid to acetic acid appears to be an important underlying principle of this effect.

  18. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and of Pu-EDTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xun, Luying

    2009-11-20

    The enhanced mobility of radionuclides by co-disposed chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), is likely to occur only under anaerobic conditions. Our extensive effort to enrich and isolate anaerobic EDTA-degrading bacteria has failed. Others has tried and also failed. To explain the lack of anaerobic biodegradation of EDTA, we proposed that EDTA has to be transported into the cells for metabolism. A failure of uptake may contribute to the lack of EDTA degradation under anaerobic conditions. We demonstrated that an aerobic EDTA-degrading bacterium strain BNC1 uses an ABC-type transporter system to uptake EDTA. The system has a periplasmic binding protein that bind EDTA and then interacts with membrane proteins to transport EDTA into the cell at the expense of ATP. The bind protein EppA binds only free EDTA with a Kd of 25 nM. The low Kd value indicates high affinity. However, the Kd value of Ni-EDTA is 2.4 x 10^(-10) nM, indicating much stronger stability. Since Ni and other trace metals are essential for anaerobic respiration, we conclude that the added EDTA sequestrates all trace metals and making anaerobic respiration impossible. Thus, the data explain the lack of anaerobic enrichment cultures for EDTA degradation. Although we did not obtain an EDTA degrading culture under anaerobic conditions, our finding may promote the use of certain metals that forms more stable metal-EDTA complexes than Pu(III)-EDTA to prevent the enhanced mobility. Further, our data explain why EDTA is the most dominant organic pollutant in surface waters, due to the lack of degradation of certain metal-EDTA complexes.

  19. Fate of antibiotic resistance genes in mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun Min; Shin, Jingyeong; Choi, Sangki; Shin, Seung Gu; Park, Ki Young; Cho, Jinwoo; Kim, Young Mo

    2017-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) sludge and non-CEPT (conventional sedimentation) sludge were comparatively operated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The highest methane yield (692.46±0.46mL CH 4 /g VS removed in CEPT sludge) was observed in mesophilic AD of CEPT sludge. Meanwhile, thermophilic conditions were more favorable for the removal of total antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, no measurable difference in the fates and removal of ARGs and class 1 integrin-integrase gene (intI1) was observed between treated non-CEPT and CEPT sludge. However, redundancy analysis indicated that shifts in bacterial community were primarily accountable for the variations in ARGs and intI1. Network analysis further revealed potential host bacteria for ARGs and intI1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioaugmentation with Clostridium thermocellum to enhance the anaerobic biodegradation of lignocellulosic agricultural residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecem Öner, Büşra; Akyol, Çağrı; Bozan, Mahir; Ince, Orhan; Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar

    2017-10-13

    This study aimed to improve biomethane production from lignocellulosic biomass by assessing the impact of bioaugmentation with Clostridium thermocellum on the performance of anaerobic digesters at different inoculation ratios. The outputs of the digestion experiments revealed that bioaugmentation strategies with C. thermocellum increased the methane yield up to 39%. The sequencing analysis indicated that the indigenous microbial community was modified by the bioaugmentation. During the process of bioaugmentation, in the digester that was inoculated at the ratio of 20% (v:v), an increase in the abundance of Ruminococcaceae family led to a decrease in the Bacteroidaceae and Synergistaceae families. Furthermore, the metabolic products of the bioaugmented strains greatly influenced the diversity of the archaeal community and an increase in the abundance of Methanomicrobiales was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Anaerobic p-coumarate degradation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris and identification of CouR, a MarR repressor protein that binds p-coumaroyl coenzyme A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Hidetada; Schaefer, Amy L; Greenberg, E Peter; Harwood, Caroline S

    2012-04-01

    The phenylpropanoid p-coumarate and structurally related aromatic compounds are produced in large amounts by green plants and are excellent carbon sources for many soil bacteria. Aerobic bacteria remove the acyl side chain from phenylpropanoids to leave an aromatic aldehyde, which then enters one of several possible central pathways of benzene ring degradation. We investigated the pathway for the anaerobic degradation of p-coumarate by the phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris and found that it also follows this metabolic logic. We characterized enzymes for the conversion of p-coumarate to p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) encoded by the couAB operon. We also identified a MarR family transcriptional regulator that we named CouR. A couR mutant had elevated couAB expression. In addition, His-tagged CouR bound with high affinity to a DNA fragment encompassing the couAB promoter region, and binding was abrogated by the addition of nanomolar quantities of p-coumaroyl-CoA but not by p-coumarate. Footprinting demonstrated binding of CouR to an inverted repeat sequence that overlaps the -10 region of the couAB promoter. Our results provide evidence for binding of a CoA-modified aromatic compound by a MarR family member. Although the MarR family is widely distributed in bacteria and archaea and includes over 12,000 members, ligands have been identified for relatively few family members. Here we provide biochemical evidence for a new category of MarR ligand.

  2. Loading Rates and Impacts of Substrate Delivery for Enhanced Anaerobic Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Chemistry – Cations/Anions Concentrations of Ag+, Al+3, Ca+2, Cd+2, Clֿ, Cu+2, Fe+2, Fe+3, K+, Mg+2, Mn+2, NO3ֿ, NO2ֿ, NH4+, Na+, Ni+2, PO4 - 3, Pb+2, HSֿ...Recommended Anion Suite - Clֿ, NO3ֿ, NO2ֿ, PO4 -3, HSֿ, Sֿ, and SO4-2 USEPA E300 series; E365.3 or SM4500 for PO4 -3 Used for geochemical...before reaching potential points of exposure in the downgradient wetlands . VC may degrade by a number of degradation processes, including aerobic and

  3. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of high-pressure extruded food waste by inoculum optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xin; Xu, Shuang; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Huan; Zhao, Ke; He, Liang

    2016-01-15

    The inoculation for extruded food waste anaerobic digestion (AD) was optimized to improve methane (CH4) yield. The inoculum of acclimated anaerobic sludge resulted in high biodegradability, producing CH4 yields from 580 mLCH4 g(-1)·VSadded to 605 mLCH4 g(-1)·VSadded, with corresponding BDCH4 ranging from 90% to 94%. We also investigated inoculum to substrate ratios (ISRs). With regards to digested slurry as inoculum, we found that a decrease in ISR improved CH4 yield, while a lower ISR prolonged the lag time of the initial AD stage due to lipid inhibition caused by excessive food waste. These results demonstrate that minimal inocula are required to start the AD system for high-pressure extruded food waste because it is easily biodegraded. High ammonia concentration had a negative effect on CH4 production (i.e., when free ammonia nitrogen [FAN] increased from 20 to 30 mg L(-1) to 120-140 mg L(-1), the CH4 yield decreased by 25%), suggesting that FAN was a significant inhibitor in CH4 yield reduction. In terms of CH4 yield and lag time of the AD process, the optimal inoculation of digested slurry for the extruded food waste had an ISR of 0.33 with CH4 yield of 505 mLCH4 g(-1)VSadded, which was 20% higher than what was found for higher ISR controls of 2, 1 and 0.5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancement of anaerobic digestibility of waste activated sludge using photo-Fenton pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Gan Chin; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Lim, Jun-Wei; Ho, Yeek-Chia; Zinatizadeh, Ali Akbar Lorestani

    2017-12-01

    Biological treatments, such as activated sludge process, are common methods to treat municipal and industrial wastewaters. However, they produce huge amounts of waste activated sludge (WAS). The excess sludge treatment and disposal are a challenge for wastewater treatment plants due to economic, environmental, and regulatory factors. In this study, photo-Fenton pretreatment (oxidation using hydrogen peroxide and iron catalyst aided with UV light) was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and central composite design (CCD) to determine the effects of three operating parameters (H2O2 dosage, H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio, and irradiation time) on disintegration and dewaterability of WAS. MLVSS removal, capillary suction time (CST) reduction, sCOD, and EPS were obtained as 70%, 25%, 12,000 mg/L, and 500 mg/L, respectively, at the optimal conditions, i.e., 725 g H2O2/kg TS, H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio 80, and irradiation time 40 min. Two batch-fed completely mixed mesophilic anaerobic digesters were then operated at 15-day solid retention time (SRT) and 37 ± 0.5 °C to compare the digestibility of untreated and photo-Fenton pretreated sludge in terms of volatile solids (VS) reduction, COD removal, and biogas production at steady-state operations. Photo-Fenton pretreatment followed by anaerobic digestion of WAS was very effective and yielded 75.7% total VS reduction, 81.5% COD removal, and 0.29-0.31 m3/kg VSfed·d biogas production rate, compared to 40.7% total VS solid reduction, 54.7% COD removal, and 0.12-0.17 m3/kg VSfed·d biogas production rate for control. Thus, photo-Fenton can be a useful pretreatment step in sludge management.

  5. Anaerobic degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Ethers (PBDEs), and microbial community dynamics of electronic waste-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mengke [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Luo, Chunling, E-mail: clluo@gig.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Fangbai [Guangdong Institute of Eco-environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Jiang, Longfei [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Wang, Yan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, Dayi [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Zhang, Gan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination caused by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is attracting increasing attention worldwide because of the threats posed to ecosystems and human safety. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of e-waste-contaminated soils. We found that, in the presence of lactate as an electron donor, higher halogenated congeners were converted to lower congeners via anaerobic halorespiration using ferrous ions in contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of terminal restriction fragments indicated that the three dominant strains were closely related to known dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and those able to perform dehalogenation upon respiration. The functional species performed the activities of ferrous oxidation to ferric ions and further ferrous reduction for dehalogenation. The present study links iron cycling to degradation of halogenated materials in natural e-waste-contaminated soil, and highlights the synergistic roles of soil bacteria and ferrous/ferric ion cycling in the dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). - Highlights: • The biodegradation PCBs and PBDEs in e-waste contaminated soils was studied. • DIRB and arylhalorespiring bacteria were responsive to dehalogenation respiration. • Soil bacteria and Fe ion cycling play synergistic roles in dehalogenation.

  6. Application of ascorbic acid to enhance trichloroethene degradation by Fe(III)-activated calcium peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Gu, Xiaogang; Lu, Shuguang; Brusseau, Mark L; Xu, Minhui; Fu, Xiaori; Qiu, Zhaofu; Sui, Qian

    2017-10-01

    The enhancement effect of an environmentally friendly reducing agent, ascorbic acid (AA), on trichloroethene (TCE) degradation by Fe(III)-activated calcium peroxide (CP) was evaluated. The addition of AA accelerated the transformation of Fe(III) to Fe(II), and the complexation of Fe(III)/Fe(II) with AA and its products alleviated the precipitation of dissolved iron. These impacts enhanced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROSs). Investigation of ROSs using chemical probe tests, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) tests, and radical scavenger tests strongly confirm large production of hydroxyl radicals (HO•) that is responsible for TCE degradation. The generation of Cl(-) from the degraded TCE was complete in the enhanced CP/Fe(III)/AA system. The investigation of solution matrix effects showed that the TCE degradation rate decreases with the increase in solution pH, while Cl(-), SO4(2-) and NO3(-) anions have minor impact. Conversely, HCO3(-) significantly inhibited TCE degradation due to pH elevation and HO• scavenging. The results of experiments performed using actual groundwater indicated that an increase in reagent doses are required for effective TCE removal. In summary, the potential effectiveness of the CP/Fe(III)/AA oxidation system for remediation of TCE contaminated groundwater has been demonstrated. Additional research is needed to develop the system for practical implementation.

  7. Enhanced degradation of benzene by percarbonate activated with Fe(II)-glutamate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaori; Gu, Xiaogang; Lu, Shuguang; Miao, Zhouwei; Xu, Minhui; Zhang, Xiang; Danish, Muhammad; Cui, Hang; Farooq, Usman; Qiu, Zhaofu; Sui, Qian

    2016-04-01

    Effective degradation of benzene was achieved in sodium percarbonate (SPC)/Fe(II)-Glu system. The presence of glutamate (Glu) could enhance the regeneration of Fe(III) to Fe(II), which ensures the benzene degradation efficiency at wider pH range and eliminate the influence of HCO3 (-) in low concentration. Meanwhile, the significant scavenging effects of high HCO3 (-) concentration could also be overcome by increasing the Glu/SPC/Fe(II)/benzene molar ratio. Free radical probe compound tests, free radical scavenger tests, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis were conducted to explore the reaction mechanism for benzene degradation, in which hydroxyl radical (HO•) and superoxide anion radical (O2 (•-)) were confirmed as the predominant species responsible for benzene degradation. In addition, the results obtained in actual groundwater test strongly indicated that SPC/Fe(II)-Glu system is applicable for the remediation of benzene-contaminated groundwater in practice.

  8. Experimental evidence for a lack of thermodynamic control on hydrogen concentrations during anaerobic degradation of chlorinated ethenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Axel C; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    2006-06-01

    Hydrogen (H2) concentrations during reductive dechlorination of cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) were investigated with respectto the influence of parameters entering the Gibbs free energy expression of the reactions. A series of laboratory experiments was conducted employing a mixed, Dehalococcoides-containing enrichment culture capable of complete dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes. The objective was to investigate whether a constant energy gain controls H2 levels in dechlorinating systems, thereby evaluating the applicability of the partial equilibrium approach to microbial dechlorination at contaminated sites. Variations in the temperature between 10 and 30 degrees C did not affect the H2 concentration in a fashion that suggested thermodynamic control through a constant energy gain. In another set of experiments, H2 levels at constant ionic strength were independent of the chloride concentration between 10 and 110 mmol chloride per liter. These findings demonstrate that the partial equilibrium approach is not directly applicable to the interpretation of reductive degradation of chlorinated ethenes. We also present recalculated thermodynamic properties of aqueous chlorinated ethene species that allow for calculation of in-situ Gibbs free energy of dechlorination reactions at different temperatures.

  9. DDE remediation and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John E; Ou, Li-Tse; All-Agely, Abid

    2008-01-01

    breakdown of DDE by the extracellular lignolytic enzymes produced by white rot fungi. The addition of adjutants such as sodium ion, surfactants, and cellulose increased the rate of DDT aerobic or anaerobic degradation but did little to enhance the rate of DDE disappearance under anaerobic conditions. Only in the past decade has it been demonstrated that DDE can undergo reductive dechlorination under methanogenic and sulfidogenic conditions to form the degradation product DDMU, 1-chloro-2,2'-bis-(4'-chlorophenyl)ethane. The only pure culture reported to degrade DDE under anaerobic conditions was the denitrifier Alcaligens denitrificans. The degradation of DDE by this bacterium was enhanced by glucose, whereas biphenyl fumes had no effect. Abiotic remediation by DDE volatilization was enhanced by flooding and irrigation and deepplowing inhibited the volatilization. The use of zero-valent iron and surfactants in flooded soils enhanced DDT degradation but did not significantly alter the rate of DDE removal. Other catalysts (palladized magnesium, palladium on carbon, and nickel/aluminum alloys) degraded DDT and its metabolites, including DDE. However, these systems are often biphasic or involve explosive gases or both. Safer abiotic alternatives use UV light with titanium oxide or visible light with methylene green to degrade DDT, DDD, and DDE in aqueous or mixed solvent systems. Remediation and degradation of DDE in soil and water by phytoextraction, aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, or abiotic methods can be accomplished. However, success has been limited, and great care must be taken that the method does not transfer the contaminants to another locale (by volatilization, deep plowing, erosion, or runoff) or to another species (by ingestion of accumulating plants or contaminated water). Although the remediation of DDT-, DDD-, and DDE-contaminated soil and water is beset with myriad problems, there remain many open avenues of research.

  10. Proanthocyanidins-Loaded Nanoparticles Enhance Dentin Degradation Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, A S; Priyadarshini, B M; Selvan, S T; Lu, T B; Neo, J

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies reported that grapeseed extract (GSE), which is rich in proanthocyanidins (PAs), improves the biodegradation resistance of demineralized dentin. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a new GSE delivery strategy to demineralized dentin through loading into biodegradable polymer poly-[lactic-co-glycolic acid] (PLGA) nanoparticles on the biodegradation resistance in terms of structural stability and surface/bulk mechanical and biochemical properties with storage time in collagenase-containing solutions. GSE-loaded nanoparticles were synthetized by nanoprecipitation at PLGA/GSE (w/w) ratios of 100:75, 100:50, and 100:25 and characterized for their morphological/structural features, physicochemical characteristics, and drug loading, entrapment, and release. Nanoparticle suspensions in distilled water (12.5% w/v) were applied (1 min) to demineralized dentin specimens by simulating pulpal pressure. The nanoparticle delivery was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the GSE release from the delivered nanoparticles was further characterized. The variations in surface and bulk mechanical properties were characterized in terms of reduced elastic-modulus, hardness, nanoindentation testing, and apparent elastic-modulus with a storage time up to 3 mo. Hydroxyproline release with exposure to collagenase up to 7 d was estimated. An etch-and-rinse dentin adhesive was applied to investigate the morphology of the resin-dentin interface after nanoparticle delivery. Treatment with the GSE-loaded nanoparticles enhanced the collagen fibril structural resistance, reflected from the TEM investigation, and improved the biomechanical and biochemical stability of demineralized dentin. Nanoparticles having PLGA/GSE of 100:75 (w/w) showed the highest cumulative GSE release and were associated with the best improvement in biodegradation resistance. TEM/SEM showed the ability of the nanoparticles to infiltrate

  11. Enhanced degradation of organic contaminants in water by peroxydisulfate coupled with bisulfite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Chengdu, E-mail: qichengdu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Xitao, E-mail: liuxt@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li, Yang; Lin, Chunye; Ma, Jun; Li, Xiaowan; Zhang, Huijuan [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • S(IV)/PDS system showed synergistic degradation of BPA than S(IV) and PDS. • BPA degradation involved hydroxyl and oxysulfur radicals in the S(IV)/PDS system. • Based on the identified intermediates, the BPA degradation pathway was proposed. - Abstract: In this study, the bisulfite-peroxydisulfate system (S(IV)/PDS) widely used in polymerization was innovatively applied for organic contaminants degradation in water. The addition of S(IV) into PDS system remarkably enhanced the degradation efficiency of bisphenol A (BPA, a frequently detected endocrine disrupting chemical in the environments) from 17.0% to 84.7% within 360 min. The degradation efficiency of BPA in the S(IV)/PDS system followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, with rate constant values ranging from 0.00005 min{sup −1} to 0.02717 min{sup −1} depending on the operating parameters, such as the initial S(IV) and PDS dosage, solution pH, reaction temperature, chloride and water type. Furthermore, nitrogen purging experiment, radical scavenging experiment and electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis were used to elucidate the possible mechanism. The results revealed that sulfate radical was the dominant reactive species in the S(IV)/PDS system. Finally, based on the results of liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), the BPA degradation pathway was proposed to involve β-scission (C−C), hydroxylation, dehydration, oxidative skeletal rearrangement, and ring opening. This study helps to characterize the combination of PDS and inorganic S(IV), a common industrial contaminant, to generate reactive species to enhance organic contaminants degradation in water.

  12. Visual Context Enhanced: The Joint Contribution of Iconic Gestures and Visible Speech to Degraded Speech Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijvers, Linda; Ozyurek, Asli

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated whether and to what extent iconic co-speech gestures contribute to information from visible speech to enhance degraded speech comprehension at different levels of noise-vocoding. Previous studies of the contributions of these 2 visual articulators to speech comprehension have only been performed separately. Method:…

  13. Enhanced anaerobic digestion performance via combined solids- and leachate-based hydrolysis reactor inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L Paige; Sharvelle, Sybil E; De Long, Susan K

    2016-11-01

    Suboptimal conditions in anaerobic digesters (e.g., presence of common inhibitors ammonia and salinity) limit waste hydrolysis and lead to unstable performance and process failures. Application of inhibitor-tolerant inocula improves hydrolysis, but approaches are needed to establish and maintain these desired waste-hydrolyzing bacteria in high-solids reactors. Herein, performance was compared for leach bed reactors (LBRs) seeded with unacclimated or acclimated inoculum (0-60% by mass) at start-up and over long-term operation. High quantities of inoculum (∼60%) increase waste hydrolysis and are beneficial at start-up or when inhibitors are increasing. After start-up (∼112days) with high inoculum quantities, leachate recirculation leads to accumulation of inhibitor-tolerant hydrolyzing bacteria in leachate. During long-term operation, low inoculum quantities (∼10%) effectively increase waste hydrolysis relative to without solids-derived inoculum. Molecular analyses indicated that combining digested solids with leachate-based inoculum doubles quantities of Bacteria contacting waste over a batch and supplies additional desirable phylotypes Bacteriodes and Clostridia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pretreatment on Anaerobic Sludge for Enhancement of Biohydrogen Production from Cassava Processing Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele do Carmo Lamaison

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Methods for the enrichment of an anaerobic sludge with H2-producing bacteria have been compared by using cassava processing wastewater as substrate.The sludge was submitted to three different pretreatments: 1 heat pretreatment by boiling at 98 °C for 15 min., 2 heat pretreatment followed by sludge washout in a Continuous Stirring Tank Reactor (CSTR operated at a dilution rate (D of 0.021 h-1, and 3 sludge washout as the sole enrichment method. The pretreated sludge and the sludge without pretreatment (control were employed in the seeding of 4 batch bioreactors, in order to verify the volume and composition of the generated biogas. Maximum H2 production rates (Rm from the pretreated sludges, were estimated by the modified Gompertz model. Compared to the control, H2 production was ca. 4 times higher for the sludge submitted to the heat pretreatment only and for the sludge subjected to heat pretreatment combined with washout, and 10 times higher for washout. These findings demonstrated that the use of sludge washout as the sole sludge pretreatment method was the most effective in terms of H2 production, as compared to the heat and to the combined heat and washout pretreatments.

  15. Anaerobic rotating disc batch reactor nutrient removal process enhanced by volatile fatty acid addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodziewicz, Joanna; Janczukowicz, Wojciech; Mielcarek, Artur; Filipkowska, Urszula; Kłodowska, Izabella; Ostrowska, Kamila; Duchniewicz, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    RBC effluent needs further treatment because of water-quality standards requiring low nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. It may be achieved by using reactors with biomass immobilized on the filling's surface as post-denitrification biofilm reactors. Due to the lack of organic matter in treated wastewater, the introduction of external carbon sources becomes necessary. The new attached growth bioreactor--anaerobic rotating disc batch reactor (ARDBR)--was examined as a post-denitrification reactor. The impact of selected volatile fatty acids on nutrient removal efficiency in an ARDBR was studied. The biofilm was developing on totally submerged discs mounted coaxially on a vertical shaft. Acetic, propionic, butyric and caproic acids were applied. Wastewaters were removed from the reactors after 24-h treatment, together with the excess solids. In the ARDBR tank, there was no biomass in the suspended form at the beginning of the treatment process. Acids with a higher number of carbon atoms (butyric and caproic) were the most efficient in denitrification process. The highest phosphorus removal efficiency was noted in the ARDBR with butyric and propionic acids. The lowest unitary consumption of the external source of carbon in denitrification was recorded for acetic acid, whereas the highest one for caproic acid.

  16. Degradation of chloramphenicol by UV/chlorine treatment: Kinetics, mechanism and enhanced formation of halonitromethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huiyu; Qiang, Zhimin; Hu, Jun; Qu, Jiuhui

    2017-09-15

    Ultraviolet (UV)/chlorine process is considered as an emerging advanced oxidation process for the degradation of micropollutants. This study investigated the degradation of chloramphenicol (CAP) and formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during the UV/chlorine treatment. It was found that CAP degradation was enhanced by combined UV/chlorine treatment compared to that of UV and chlorination treatment alone. The pseudo-first-order rate constant of the UV/chlorine process at pH 7.0 reached 0.016 s-1, which was 10.0 and 2.0 folds that observed from UV and chlorination alone, respectively. The enhancement can be attributed to the formation of diverse radicals (HO and reactive chlorine species (RCSs)), and the contribution of RCSs maintained more stable than that of HO at pH 5.5-8.5. Meanwhile, enhanced DBPs formation during the UV/chlorine treatment was observed. Both the simultaneous formation and 24-h halonitromethanes formation potential (HNMsFP) were positively correlated with the UV/chlorine treatment time. Although the simultaneous trichloronitromethane (TCNM) formation decreased with the prolonged UV irradiation, TCNM dominated the formation of HNMs after 24 h (>97.0%). According to structural analysis of transformation by-products, both the accelerated CAP degradation and enhanced HNMs formation steps were proposed. Overall, the formation of diverse radicals during the UV/chlorine treatment accelerated the degradation of CAP, while also enhanced the formation of DBPs simultaneously, indicating the need for DBPs evaluation before the application of combined UV/chlorine process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Towards a sustainable paradigm of waste-to-energy process: Enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge with woody biochar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yanwen; Linville, Jessica L.; Ignacio-de Leon, Patricia Anne A.; Schoene, Robin P.; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2016-11-01

    This study presents an integrated waste-to-energy process, using two waste streams, sludge generated from the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and biochar generated from the biomass gasification systems, to produce fungible biomethane and nutrient-rich digestate with fertilizer value. Two woody biochar, namely pinewood (PBC) and white oak biochar (WOBC) were used as additives during anaerobic digestion (AD) of WWTP sludge to enhance methane production at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. The PBC and WOBC have porous structure, large surface area and desirable chemical properties to be used as AD amendment material to sequester CO2 from biogas in the digester. The biochar-amended digesters achieved average methane content in biogas of up to 92.3% and 79.0%, corresponding to CO2 sequestration by up to 66.2% and 32.4% during mesophilic and thermophilic AD, respectively. Biochar addition enhanced process stability by increasing the alkalinity, but inhibitory effects were observed at high dosage. It also alleviated free ammonia inhibition by up to 10.5%. The biochar-amended digesters generated digestate rich in macro- and micronutrients including K (up to 300 m/L), Ca (up to 750 mg/L), Mg (up to 1800 mg/L) and Fe (up to 390 mg/L), making biochar-amended digestate a potential alternative used as agricultural lime fertilizer.

  18. Carbon capture and biogas enhancement by carbon dioxide enrichment of anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge or food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajón Fernández, Y; Soares, A; Villa, R; Vale, P; Cartmell, E

    2014-05-01

    The increasing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere and the stringent greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction targets, require the development of CO2 sequestration technologies applicable for the waste and wastewater sector. This study addressed the reduction of CO2 emissions and enhancement of biogas production associated with CO2 enrichment of anaerobic digesters (ADs). The benefits of CO2 enrichment were examined by injecting CO2 at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 M fractions into batch ADs treating food waste or sewage sludge. Daily specific methane (CH4) production increased 11-16% for food waste and 96-138% for sewage sludge over the first 24h. Potential CO2 reductions of 8-34% for sewage sludge and 3-11% for food waste were estimated. The capacity of ADs to utilise additional CO2 was demonstrated, which could provide a potential solution for onsite sequestration of CO2 streams while enhancing renewable energy production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A photo-degradable gene delivery system for enhanced nuclear gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoyoung; Kim, Yeji; Schweickert, Patrick G; Konieczny, Stephen F; Won, You-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    There currently exists a significant gap in our understanding of how the detailed chemical characteristics of polycation gene carriers influence their delivery performances in overcoming an important cellular-level transport barrier, i.e., intranuclear gene transcription. In this study, a UV-degradable gene carrier material (ENE4-1) was synthesized by crosslinking low molecular weight branched polyethylenimine (bPEI-2k) molecules using UV-cleavable o-nitrobenzyl urethane (NBU) as the linker molecule. NBU degrades upon exposure to mild UV irradiation. Therefore, this UV-degradable carrier allows us to control the chemical characteristics of the polymer/DNA complex (polyplex) particles at desired locations within the intracellular environment. By using this photolytic DNA carrier, we found that the exact timing of the UV degradation significantly influences the gene transfection efficiencies of ENE4-1/DNA(pGL2) polyplexes in HeLa cells. Interestingly, even if the polyplexes were UV-degraded at different intracellular locations/times, their nuclear entry efficiency was not influenced by the location/timing of UV degradation. The UV treatment did not influence the size or binding strength of the polyplexes. However, we confirmed that the degradation of the carrier molecules impacts the chemical characteristics of the polyplexes (it produces carbamic acid and nitrosobenzyl aldehyde groups on ENE4-1). We believe that these anionic acid groups enhance the interaction of the polyplexes with nuclear transcription proteins and thus the final gene expression levels; this effect was found to occur, even though UV irradiation itself has a general effect of reducing transfection efficiencies. Excess (uncomplexed) ENE4-1 polymers appear to not play any role in the UV-enhanced gene transcription phenomenon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhancing Short-Term Recovery After High-Intensity Anaerobic Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nawaiseh, Ali M; Pritchett, Robert C; Bishop, Philip A

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the effects of antioxidant vitamins, ibuprofen, cold water submersion, and whey protein administered simultaneously on short-term recovery. Competitive athletes (n = 22) performed the protocol in 2 occasions (treatment and control) separated by 15 days in counterbalanced crossover design. Each occasion consisted of morning and afternoon sessions (AM and PM). In each session, participants performed 2 bouts of high-intensity anaerobic cycling separated by 30 minutes of rest. Each bout consisted of 3 Wingate tests (3 × 30-second Wingate tests) with 3 minutes of active recovery in between. Power output, rated perceived exertion (RPE), and pain scores were averaged and compared between the 2 sessions (AM vs. PM) and between the treatment vs. control (4 bouts). Creatine kinase (CK) levels were also measured 24 hours after the AM bout. Power output, CK, muscle soreness, and RPE were measured as recovery indices. Creatine kinase increased (p < 0.001) in both treatment and control 24 hours after the AM session. Performance results in the PM session for treatment/control were 832.5 ± 198.7/813.3 ± 187.6 W for peak power (PP), and 497.85 ± 120.7/486.1 ± 115 W for mean power (MP). Treatment was effective in maintaining MP (p = 0.034) in the PM sessions, but there was no significant effect of treatment on PP (p = 0.193), CK (p = 0.08), pain (p = 0.12), or RPE (p = 0.45). Treatment was helpful in protecting performance, but this was apparently not due to reduced muscle soreness or damage.

  1. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  2. Enhanced microbial degradation of cadusafos in soils from potato monoculture: demonstration and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Karanasios, Evangelos; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania

    2004-08-01

    Rapid degradation of cadusafos was evident in soils collected from previously-treated field sites from a potato monoculture area in northern Greece. The slower degradation of cadusafos observed in corresponding antibiotic-treated soils as well as in soils from an adjacent previously-untreated field demonstrated the microbial involvement in the rapid degradation of cadusafos in the soils from the previously-treated sites. Application of the non-specific antibacterial antibiotic chloramphenicol or of the Gram+ bacteria-inhibiting antibiotics penicillin + lyncomycin + vancomycin significantly inhibited the rapid biodegradation of cadusafos suggesting that soil bacteria and probably Gram+ bacteria are mainly responsible for the rapid biodegradation of cadusafos in the specific soil. Further experiments showed that the bacterial population of the cadusafos-adapted soil was also able to rapidly degrade the chemically related nematicide ethoprophos but not fenamiphos and oxamyl. This is the first report of the occurrence of enhanced biodegradation of cadusafos in potato fields. In addition, the finding of cross-enhancement between cadusafos and ethoprophos significantly reduces the number of available chemicals which could be alternated to prevent the development of enhanced biodegradation and thus intensifies the problem in potato monoculture areas like the one in northern Greece.

  3. Enhanced biohydrogen production from oat straw co-digested with cow dung / sewage sludge by combined aerobic digestion and anaerobic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen was produced from oat straw by combined aerobic and anaerobic fermentation with fungi and cow dung. With aerobic pre-digestion, the maximum hydrogen production rate reached 133 ml/g volatile suspended solids per hour. The maximum hydrogen yield was 71.5 ml/g straw in 6 days by biological process. The lignocellulosic conversion of oak-straw waste was 39%, with the complex component converting 68% of the hemi-cellulose and 61% of the cellulose, but only 34% of lignin conversion. Aerobic pre-digestion by Trichoderma viride and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was significantly effective for lignin degradation.  Combining aerobic and anaerobic fermentation is a promising low-cost efficient and environmentally friendly method, compared with hydrogen fermentation, not only for hydrogen production, but also for converting straw biomass.

  4. Use of CAH-degrading bacteria as test-organisms for evaluating the impact of fine zerovalent iron particles on the anaerobic subsurface environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velimirovic, Milica; Simons, Queenie; Bastiaens, Leen

    2015-09-01

    The release of fine zerovalent iron (ZVI) particles in the environment after being introduced for in-situ treatment of compounds like chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) may raise questions toward environmental safety, especially for nanoscale materials. Classical single-species ecotoxicity tests do focus on aerobic conditions and are only relevant for the scenario when ZVI-particles reach surface water. Herein, we present an alternative approach where a CAH-degrading mixed bacterial culture was used as test-organisms relevant for the anaerobic subsurface. The impact of different ZVI particles on the bacterial culture was evaluated mainly by quantifying ATP, a reporter molecule giving a general indication of the microbial activity. These lab-scale batch tests were performed in liquid medium, without protecting and buffering aquifer material, as such representing worst-case scenario. The activity of the bacterial culture was negatively influenced by nanoscale zerovalent iron at doses as low as 0.05 g L(-1). On the other hand, concentrations up to 2 g L(-1) of several different types of microscale zerovalent iron (mZVI) particles stimulated the activity. However, very high doses of 15-30 g L(-1) of mZVI showed an inhibiting effect on the bacterial community. Negative effects of ZVIs were confirmed by H2 accumulation in the batch reactors and the absence of lactate consumption. Observed inhibition also corresponded to a pH increase above 7.5, explicable by ZVI corrosion that was found to be dose-dependent. The obtained results suggest that low doses of mZVIs will not show severe inhibition effects on the microbial community once used for in-situ treatment of CAHs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Eekert, van M.H.A.; Dolfing, J.; Schraa, G.

    2006-01-01

    Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory

  6. Potential enhancement of degradation of the nematicides aldicarb, oxamyl and fosthiazate in UK agricultural soils through repeated applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Rachel K; Edwards, Simon G; Wilcox, Andrew; Haydock, Patrick P J

    2010-03-01

    The potential for enhanced degradation of the carbamoyloxime nematicides aldicarb and oxamyl and the organophosphate fosthiazate was investigated in 35 UK agricultural soils. Under laboratory conditions, soil samples received three successive applications of nematicide at 25 day intervals. The second and third applications of aldicarb were degraded at a faster rate than the first application in six of the 15 aldicarb-treated soils, and a further three soils demonstrated rapid degradation of all three applications. High organic matter content and low pH had an inhibitory effect on the rate of aldicarb degradation. Rapid degradation was observed in nine out of the ten soils treated with oxamyl. In contrast, none of the fosthiazate-treated soils demonstrated enhanced degradation. The potential for enhanced degradation of aldicarb and oxamyl was demonstrated in nine out of 15 and nine out of ten soils respectively that had previously been treated with these active substances. Degradation of fosthiazate occurred at a much slower rate, with no evidence of enhanced degradation. Fosthiazate may provide a useful alternative in cases where the efficacy of aldicarb and oxamyl has been reduced as a result of enhanced degradation.

  7. Effect of hydrothermal pre-treatment (HTP) on poultry slaughterhouse waste (PSW) sludge for the enhancement of the solubilization, physical properties, and biogas production through anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seyong; Yoon, Young-Man; Han, Seong Kuk; Kim, Daegi; Kim, Ho

    2017-06-01

    This study is an assessment of the hydrothermal pre-treatment (HTP) of poultry slaughterhouse waste (PSW) sludge for the enhancement of the solubilization, physical properties, and biogas production through anaerobic digestion. This assessment was carried out to ascertain the optimal HTP temperature. The solubilization and physical properties efficacy was investigated by capillary suction time (CST), time to filter (TTF), and particle size. In addition, the anaerobic digestion was investigated through biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests and subsequent statistical analysis using the modified Gompertz model. HTP was found to have improved the solubilization of the PSW sludge with increasing HTP temperature. In addition, the results of the CST, TTF, and particle size decreased with increasing HTP temperature. These results of the assessment that was conducted in this study confirm that the HTP process indeed modifies the physical properties of PSWs to enhance the solubilization of organic solids. Nevertheless, the results of the BMP tests and the modified Gompertz model analysis show that the optimal HTP temperature of PSWs for anaerobic digestion is 190°C. These findings show that to achieve high conversion efficiency, an accurately designed pre-treatment step must be included in the overall anaerobic digestion process for wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced biogas production by anaerobic co-digestion from a trinary mix substrate over a binary mix substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Efath; Sartaj, Majid; Kennedy, Kevin

    2015-06-01

    The synergetic enhancement of mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of trinary and binary mix of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) + primary sludge (PS) + thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) as substrates was investigated through batch biological methane potential (BMP) and semi-continuous flow reactor tests. Cumulative biogas yield (CBY) yield for the binary mix of OFMSW:TWAS was 555, 580, and 660 mL/g volatile solids (VS)added for an OFMSW:TWAS ratio of 25:75, 50:50, and 75:25, respectively, which was 48, 78.5, and 140% higher than the calculated expected biogas (CEB) yield from the corresponding individual substrates. The trinary mixture of OFMSW:TWAS:PS at ratios of 25:37.5:375.5, 50:25:25 and 75:12.5:12.5 was able to produce 680, 710 and 780 mL/g VSadded, respectively, which was 25.5, 62.0 and 135.6% more biogas than the calculated expected biogas yield from the corresponding individual substrates. Cumulative methane yield (CMY) of trinary mixtures was also higher than the corresponding binary mixtures (20, 27, and 12 % increase for OFMSW:TWAS:PS at a ratio of 25:37.5:37.5, 50:25:25, and 75:12.5:12.5 compared to the binary mix of OFMSW:TWAS at a ratio of 25:75, 50:50, and 75:25, respectively). Methane content of the biogas varied from 54 to 57%. The results from semi-continuous flow anaerobic reactors under hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15, 10 and 7 days supported the results of batch biological methane potential tests. The results were conclusive that enhancement in biogas production was noticeably higher from the co-digestion of trinary mix of organic fraction of municipal solid waste+ thickened waste activated sludge + primary sludge than the binary mix organic fraction of municipal solid waste+thickened waste activated sludge or thickened waste activated sludge+primary sludge with concomitant improvements in VS removal and biodegradability for tri-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge

  9. Biochar increases arsenic release from an anaerobic paddy soil due to enhanced microbial reduction of iron and arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Xue, Xi-Mei; Juhasz, Albert L; Chang, Zhi-Zhou; Li, Hong-Bo

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that biochar enhances microbial reduction of iron (Fe) oxyhydroxide under anaerobic incubation. However, there is a lack of data on its influence on arsenic (As) release from As-contaminated paddy soils. In this study, paddy soil slurries (120 mg As kg(-1)) were incubated under anaerobic conditions for 60 days with and without the addition of biochar (3%, w/w) prepared from rice straw at 500 °C. Arsenic release, Fe reduction, and As fractionation were determined at 1, 10, 20, 30, and 60 d, while Illumina sequencing and real-time PCR were used to characterize changes in soil microbial community structure and As transformation function genes. During the first month of incubation, As released into soil solution increased sharply from 27.9 and 55.9 to 486 and 630 μg kg(-1) in unamended and biochar amended slurries, with inorganic trivalent As (As(III)) being the dominant specie (52.7-91.0% of total As). Compared to unamended slurries, biochar addition increased As and ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) concentrations in soil solution but decreased soil As concentration in the amorphous Fe/Al oxide fraction (F3). Difference in released As between biochar and unamended treatments (ΔAs) increased with incubation time, showing strong linear relationships (R(2) = 0.23-0.33) with ΔFe(2+) and ΔF3, confirming increased As release due to enhanced Fe reduction. Biochar addition increased the abundance of Fe reducing bacteria such as Clostridum (27.3% vs. 22.7%), Bacillus (3.34% vs. 2.39%), and Caloramator (4.46% vs. 3.88%). In addition, copy numbers in biochar amended slurries of respiratory As reducing (arrA) and detoxifying reducing genes (arsC) increased 19.0 and 1.70 fold, suggesting microbial reduction of pentavalent As (As(V)) adsorbed on Fe oxides to As(III), further contributing to increased As release. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced primary treatment of concentrated black water and kitchen residues within DESAR concept using two types of anaerobic digesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Elmitwalli, T.A.; Zeeman, G.

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of concentrated domestic wastewater streams - black or brown water, and solid fraction of kitchen waste is considered as a core technology in a source separation based sanitation concept (DESAR - decentralised sanitation and reuse). A simple anaerobic digester can be implemented

  11. Milk prevents the degradation of daikon (Raphanus sativus L.) isothiocyanate and enhances its absorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippoushi, Katsunari; Ueda, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Atsuko

    2014-10-15

    Epidemiological and experimental researches show that isothiocyanate (ITC), a class of phytochemical compounds that imparts a characteristic biting taste and pungent odour to cruciferous vegetables, such as daikon (Japanese white radish, Raphanus sativus L. Daikon Group), broccoli, cabbage, and Chinese cabbage, possesses anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The concentration of daikon ITC, which degrades in aqueous solution, was measured in mixtures of daikon juice and water, corn oil, or milk. Daikon juice mixed with corn oil or milk showed a higher concentration (1.4-fold) of daikon ITC than that in mixture with water; thus, corn oil and milk prevent the degradation of daikon ITC. Moreover, orally administered daikon juice with milk increased daikon ITC absorption in rats. Therefore, dishes or drinks that include raw daikon with corn oil or milk may promote the possible health benefits of daikon ITC by preventing ITC degradation and enhancing its absorption in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhancement of the biological degradation of soils contaminated with oil by the addition of compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupe, K. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Abfallwirtschaft und Stadttechnik; Lueth, J.C. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Abfallwirtschaft und Stadttechnik; Heerenklage, J. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Abfallwirtschaft und Stadttechnik; Stegmann, R. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Abfallwirtschaft und Stadttechnik

    1996-06-01

    The fundamentals of the biological treatment of contaminated soils were investigated in bioreactors with the aim to optimize the processes of biological soil treatment in order to achieve the highest possible degree of degradation within the shortest period of time. Preinvestigations using test systems at different scales have provided information about the possibilities of enhancing the decomposition processes which are dependent on various factors, such as milieu conditions, additives, etc., that must be known before remedial actions are taken. The investigations made so far have shown that compost is a favourable additive when oil-contaminated soils are biologically treated. The degradation of contaminants can be enhanced by the addition of compost. This positive effect is attributed to various mechanisms. In this paper, results of a variety of test systems at different scales are presented. In test series, different amounts of biocompost were added to investigate the influence on the degradation of diesel fuel. It was demonstrated that by increasing the compost content - the cumulative O{sub 2} consumption caused by the degradation of the diesel fuel contaminants increased. It could be shown that the reduction of the diesel fuel contaminants in the soil was independent of the compost age and amounted to approximately 94% of the initial quantity. The addition of biocompost could also enhance the degradation of real contaminants. After a test period of 162 days in set-ups with compost addition, more than 75% of the lubricating oil contaminants disappeared, while less than 37% of the contaminants disappeared in set-ups without compost addition. Moreover, by the addition of compost, the formation of pellets during the dynamic treatment of soil materials could be reduced. (orig.)

  13. Genipin crosslinking of cartilage enhances resistance to biochemical degradation and mechanical wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, Megan E; Bonitsky, Craig M; Jackson, Mariah L; Ovaert, Timothy C; Trippel, Stephen B; Wagner, Diane R

    2015-11-01

    Collagen crosslinking enhances many beneficial properties of articular cartilage, including resistance to chemical degradation and mechanical wear, but many crosslinking agents are cytotoxic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of genipin, a crosslinking agent with favorable biocompatibility and cytotoxicity, as a potential treatment to prevent the degradation and wear of articular cartilage. First, the impact of genipin concentration and treatment duration on the viscoelastic properties of bovine articular cartilage was quantified. Next, two short-term (15 min) genipin crosslinking treatments were chosen, and the change in collagenase digestion, cartilage wear, and the friction coefficient of the tissue with these treatments was measured. Finally, chondrocyte viability after exposure to these genipin treatments was assessed. Genipin treatment increased the stiffness of healthy, intact cartilage in a dose-dependent manner. The 15-min crosslinking treatments improved cartilage's resistance to both chemical degradation, particularly at the articular surface, and to damage due to mechanical wear. These enhancements were achieved without sacrificing the low coefficient of friction of the tissue and at a genipin dose that preserved chondrocyte viability. The results of this study suggest that collagen crosslinking via genipin may be a promising preventative treatment to slow the degradation of cartilage. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Anaerobic Co-digestion for Enhanced Renewable Energy and Green House Gas Emission Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navaratnam, Navaneethan; Zitomer, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    The need to develop renewable energy is important for replacing fossil fuel, which is limited in quantity and also tends to increase in price over time. The addition of high strength organic wastes in municipal anaerobic digesters is growing and tends to increase renewable energy production. In addition, conversion of wastes to energy significantly reduces uncontrolled greenhouse gas emissions. Co-digestion of municipal sludge with any combination of wastes can result in synergistic, antagonistic or neutral outcomes. The objectives of this study were to identify potential co-digestates, determine synergistic, antagonistic and neutral effects, determine economic benefits, quantify performance of bench scale co-digesters, identify influence of co-digestion on microbial communities and implement appropriate co-digestion, if warranted, after full-scale testing. A market study was used to identify promising co-digestates. Most promising wastes were determined by biochemical methane potential (BMP) and other testing followed by a simple economic analysis. Performance was investigated using bench-scale digesters receiving synthetic primary sludge with and without co-digestates. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses were performed on the gene encoding the α subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) to compare methanogen communities among the digesters. One significant band contributing to the greatest difference in banding patterns was excised, cloned, amplified and sequenced. Full- scale co-digestion was conducted using the most promising co-digestate at South Shore Wastewater Reclamation Facility (Oak Creek, WI). Over 80 wastes were identified from 54 facilities within 160 km of an existing municipal digester. A simple economic comparison identified the greatest benefits for seven co-digestates. Methane production rates of two co- digester systems increased by 105% and 66% in comparison to a control

  15. Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance of NiO-Decorated ZnO Nanowhiskers for Methylene Blue Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanowhiskers were used for photodecomposition of methylene blue in aqueous solution under UV irradiation. The rate of methylene blue degradation increased linearly with time of UV irradiation. 54% of degradation rate was observed when the ZnO nanowhiskers were used as photocatalysts for methylene blue degradation for 80 min under UV irradiation. The decoration of p-type NiO nanoparticles on n-type ZnO nanowhiskers significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity and reached 72% degradation rate of methylene blue by using the same method. NiO-decorated ZnO was recycled for second test and shows 66% degradation from maximal peak of methylene blue within the same period. The increment of photocatalytic activity of NiO-decorated ZnO nanowhiskers was explained by the extension of the electron depletion layer due to the formation of nanoscale p-n junctions between p-type NiO and n-type ZnO. Hence, these products provide new alternative proficient photocatalysts for wastewater treatment.

  16. Enhanced sulfamethoxazole degradation through ammonia oxidizing bacteria co-metabolism and fate of transformation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotaki, Elissavet; Buttiglieri, Gianluigi; Ferrando-Climent, Laura; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Pijuan, Maite

    2016-05-01

    The occurrence of the widely-used antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SFX) in wastewaters and surface waters has been reported in a large number of studies. However, the results obtained up-to-date have pointed out disparities in its removal. This manuscript explores the enhanced biodegradation potential of an enriched culture of Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) towards SFX. Several sets of batch tests were conducted to establish a link between SFX degradation and specific ammonia oxidation rate. The occurrence, degradation and generation of SFX and some of its transformation products (4-Nitro SFX, Desamino-SFX and N(4)-Acetyl-SFX) was also monitored. A clear link between the degradation of SFX and the nitrification rate was found, resulting in an increased SFX removal at higher specific ammonia oxidation rates. Moreover, experiments conducted under the presence of allylthiourea (ATU) did not present any removal of SFX, suggesting a connection between the AMO enzyme and SFX degradation. Long term experiments (up to 10 weeks) were also conducted adding two different concentrations (10 and 100 μg/L) of SFX in the influent of a partial nitrification sequencing batch reactor, resulting in up to 98% removal. Finally, the formation of transformation products during SFX degradation represented up to 32%, being 4-Nitro-SFX the most abundant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical dispersants enhance the activity of oil- and gas condensate-degrading marine bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Julien; Yergeau, Etienne; Fortin, Nathalie; Cobanli, Susan; Elias, Miria; King, Thomas L; Lee, Kenneth; Greer, Charles W

    2017-12-01

    Application of chemical dispersants to oil spills in the marine environment is a common practice to disperse oil into the water column and stimulate oil biodegradation by increasing its bioavailability to indigenous bacteria capable of naturally metabolizing hydrocarbons. In the context of a spill event, the biodegradation of crude oil and gas condensate off eastern Canada is an essential component of a response strategy. In laboratory experiments, we simulated conditions similar to an oil spill with and without the addition of chemical dispersant under both winter and summer conditions and evaluated the natural attenuation potential for hydrocarbons in near-surface sea water from the vicinity of crude oil and natural gas production facilities off eastern Canada. Chemical analyses were performed to determine hydrocarbon degradation rates, and metagenome binning combined with metatranscriptomics was used to reconstruct abundant bacterial genomes and estimate their oil degradation gene abundance and activity. Our results show important and rapid structural shifts in microbial populations in all three different oil production sites examined following exposure to oil, oil with dispersant and dispersant alone. We found that the addition of dispersant to crude oil enhanced oil degradation rates and favored the abundance and expression of oil-degrading genes from a Thalassolituus sp. (that is, metagenome bin) that harbors multiple alkane hydroxylase (alkB) gene copies. We propose that this member of the Oceanospirillales group would be an important oil degrader when oil spills are treated with dispersant.

  18. Electrochemically enhancement of the anaerobic baffled reactor performance as an appropriate technology for treatment of municipal wastewater in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aqaneghad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed at investigating the performance of the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR for treatment of municipal wastewater at various hydraulic retention time (HRT. An effort was also made to improve the performance of ABR opting two strategies of effluent recirculation and electrochemical process integration. The mean steady-state removal of TSS, tCOD (total chemical oxygen demand, sCOD (soluble COD and BOD (biochemical oxygen demand at HRT of 48 h was 93 ± 1, 89 ± 1, 82 ± 1 and 92 ± 1%, respectively. The performance of ABR decreased when the HRT was decreased from 48 to 24 h. The effluent recirculation did not improve the performance of ABR. The integration of electrochemical process with the ABR (EABR using a pair of electrodes (steel or aluminum could enhance the removal of contaminants in the ABR. The EABR with steel electrodes at the current density of 0.1 mA cm−2 at the HRT of 24 h could decrease the concentrations of TSS, tCOD, BOD, sulfate and phosphate in the wastewater to the standard limits for discharge into surface water bodies. Therefore, EABR is a promising and efficient technology appropriate for domestic wastewater treatment mainly in the developing countries.

  19. An enhanced anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating bamboo industry wastewater by bamboo charcoal addition: Performance and microbial community analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tian; Gao, Xinyi; Wang, Caiqin; Xu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Liang

    2016-11-01

    In this study, two anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) were operated for 150days to treat bamboo industry wastewater (BIWW), and one of them was enhanced with bamboo charcoal (B-AnMBR). During the steady period, average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of 94.5±2.9% and 89.1±3.1% were achieved in B-AnMBR and AnMBR, respectively. The addition of bamboo charcoal (BC) increased the amount of biomass and improved the performance of the systems. A higher biogas production and methane yield were also observed in B-AnMBR. Regarding the issue of membrane fouling, BC lowered the soluble microbial product (SMP) content by approximately 62.73mg/L and decreased the membrane resistance, thereby mitigating membrane fouling. Analysis of the microbial communities demonstrated that BC increased the microbial diversity and promoted the activity of Methanosaeta, Methanospirillum, and Methanobacterium, which are dominant in methane production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles as Nanocatalyst for Enhanced Degradation of Cellulose by Cellulase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipinchandra K. Salunke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs as a result of their excellent optical and electronic properties are promising catalytic materials for various applications. In this study, we demonstrate a novel approach for enhanced degradation of cellulose using biosynthesized AgNPs in an enzyme catalyzed reaction of cellulose hydrolysis by cellulase. AgNPs were synthesized through reduction of silver nitrate by extracts of five medicinal plants (Mentha arvensis var. piperascens, Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz, Epimedium koreanum Nakai, Artemisia messer-schmidtiana Besser, and Magnolia kobus. An increase of around twofold in reducing sugar formation confirmed the catalytic activity of AgNPs as nanocatalyst. The present study suggests that immobilization of the enzyme onto the surface of the AgNPs can be useful strategy for enhanced degradation of cellulose, which can be utilized for diverse industrial applications.

  1. Enhanced hydrogen production from anaerobic fermentation of rice straw pretreated by hydrothermal technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Leilei; Huang, He; Lei, Zhongfang; Liu, Chunguang; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-11-01

    This study tested the effect of hydrothermal treatment (HTT) at different peak temperatures (150 °C and 210 °C, i.e. HTT150 and HTT210, respectively) and holding time (0-30 min) on the solubilization of rice straw at total solids (TS) of 20% and then subsequent H2 production from resultant substrates. No obvious degradation was detected in lignin content under all tested HTT conditions which did open up the surface structure and have efficient solubilization effect on rice straw. Soluble carbohydrates produced from straw particles during HTT210 was found to have strongly (r=0.9987) positive correlation with the subsequent H2 yield. The maximum soluble carbohydrates, 80 mg per gram of volatile solids (VS) was achieved under HTT210 and 0 min of holding condition, correspondingly yielding the highest hydrogen production (28 ml/g-VS), about 93-fold higher than the control. Results suggest that holding time is crucial for HTT pretreatment when taking subsequent H2 production into consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Maize cob waste pre-treatments to enhance biogas production through co-anaerobic digestion with OFMSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surra, Elena; Bernardo, Maria; Lapa, Nuno; Esteves, Isabel; Fonseca, Isabel; Mota, José Paulo

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, the enhancement of biogas and methane yields through anaerobic co-digestion of the pre-hydrolised Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Wastes (hOFMSW) and Maize Cob Wastes (MCW) in a lab-scale thermophilic anaerobic reactor was tested. In order to increase its biodegradability, MCW were submitted to an initial pre-treatment screening phase as follows: (i) microwave (MW) irradiation catalysed by NaOH, (ii) MW catalysed by glycerol in water and alkaline water solutions, (iii) MW catalysed by H2O2 with pH of 9.8 and (iv) chemical pre-treatment at room temperature catalysed by H2O2 with 4 h reaction time. The pre-treatments cataysed by H2O2 were performed with 2% MCW (wMCW/v alkaline water) at ratios of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 (wH2O2/wMCW). The pre-treatment that presented the most favourable balance between sugars, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose solubilisations, as well as low production of phenolic compound and furfural (inhibitors), was the chemical pre-treatment catalysed by H2O2, at room temperature, with a ratio of 0.5 wH2O2/wMCW (Pre1). This Pre1 was then optimised testing reaction times of 1, 2 and 3 days at a different pH (11.5) and MCW percentage (10% w/v). The optimised pre-treatment that presented the best results, considering the same criteria defined above, was the one carried out during 3 days, at pH 9.8 and 10% MCW w/v (Pre2). The anaerobic reactor was initially fed with the hOFMSW obtained from the hydrolysis tank of an industrial AD plant. The hOFMSW was than co-digested with MCW submitted to the pre-treatment Pre1. In another assay, hOFMSW was co-digested with MCW submitted pre-treatment Pre 2. The co-digestion of hOFMSW + Pre1 increased the biogas yield by 38.9% and methane yield by 29.7%, when compared to the results obtained with hOFMSW alone. The co-digestion of hOFMSW + Pre2 increased biogas yield by 46.0% and CH4 yield by 36.3%. In both cases, the methane content obtained in the biogas streams was above

  3. Preliminary experimental results of Sewage Sludge (SS) Co-digestion with Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) for Enhanced Biogas Production in Laboratory Scale Anaerobic Digester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankari, R.; Kumaran, P.; Normanbhay, Saifuddin; Halim Shamsuddin, Abd

    2013-06-01

    An investigation on the feasibility of co-digesting Sewage Sludge with Palm Oil Mill Effluent for enhancing the biogas production and the corresponding effect of the co-digestion substrate ratio on the biogas production has been evaluated. Anaerobic co-digestion of POME with SS was performed at ratios of 100:0, 70:30, 60:40 and 0:100 to find the optimum blend required for enhanced waste digestion and biogas production. Single stage batch digestion was carried out for 12 days in a laboratory scale anaerobic digester. Co-digestion of sludge's at the 70:30 proportion resulted in optimal COD and C: N ratio which subsequently recorded the highest performance with regards to biogas production at 28.1 L's compared to the 1.98 L's of biogas produced from digestion of SS alone. From the results obtained, it is evident that co-digestion of POME and SS is an attractive option to be explored for enhancement of biogas production in anaerobic digesters.

  4. Effects of ferric iron on the anaerobic treatment and microbial biodiversity in a coupled microbial electrolysis cell (MEC)--anaerobic reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxin; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo

    2013-10-01

    Adding Fe(III) into a MEC - anaerobic reactor enhanced the degradation of organic matters. To clarify the respective effects of combining Fe(III) dosage and a MEC and Fe(III) dosage only on strengthening anaerobic digestion, three anaerobic reactors were operated in parallel: a MEC - anaerobic reactor with dosing Fe(OH)3 (R1), an anaerobic reactor with dosing Fe(OH)3 (R2) and a common anaerobic reactor (R3). With increasing influent COD from 1500 to 4000 mg/L, the COD removal in R1 was maintained at 88.3% under a voltage of 0.8 V, which was higher than that in reactor R2 and R3. When the power was cut off, the COD removal in R1 decreased by 5.9%. The addition of Fe(OH)3 enhanced both anaerobic digestion and anodic oxidation, resulting in the effective mineralization of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The reduced Fe(II) combined with electric field resulted more extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production. Quantitative real - time PCR showed a higher abundance of bacteria in the anodic biofilm and R1. Pyrosequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that the dominant bacteria and archaea communities were richer and more abundant in the anode biofilm and R1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Anaerobic co-digestion of Tunisian green macroalgae Ulva rigida with sugar industry wastewater for biogas and methane production enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karray, Raida; Karray, Fatma; Loukil, Slim; Mhiri, Najla; Sayadi, Sami

    2017-03-01

    Ulva rigida is a green macroalgae, abundantly available in the Mediterranean which offers a promising source for the production of valuable biomaterials, including methane. In this study, anaerobic digestion assays in a batch mode was performed to investigate the effects of various inocula as a mixture of fresh algae, bacteria, fungi and sediment collected from the coast of Sfax, on biogas production from Ulva rigida. The results revealed that the best inoculum to produce biogas and feed an anaerobic reactor is obtained through mixing decomposed macroalgae with anaerobic sludge and water, yielding into 408mL of biogas. The process was then investigated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) which led to an overall biogas production of 375mL with 40% of methane. Further co-digestion studies were performed in an anaerobic up-flow bioreactor using sugar wastewater as a co-substrate. A high biogas production yield of 114mL g-1 VSadded was obtained with 75% of methane. The co-digestion proposed in this work allowed the recovery of natural methane, providing a promising alternative to conventional anaerobic microbial fermentation using Tunisian green macroalgae. Finally, in order to identify the microbial diversity present in the reactor during anaerobic digestion of Ulva rigida, the prokaryotic diversity was investigated in this bioreactor by the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Manipulations in hydrogel degradation behavior enhance osteoblast function and mineralized tissue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Danielle S W; Durney, Andrew R; Anseth, Kristi S

    2006-06-01

    Hydrogels were prepared by copolymerizing a degradable macromer, poly(lactic acid)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic acid) endcapped with methacrylate groups (PEG-LA-DM), with a nondegradable macromer, poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDM). Copolymer networks consisted of 100:0, 83:17, 67:33, and 50:50 PEGDM:PEG-LA-DM mass%, essentially creating scaffolds that exhibit 0, 17, 33, and 50% degradation over the time course of the experiment. Osteoblasts were photoencapsulated in these copolymer hydrogels and cultured for 3 weeks in vitro. Metabolic activity, proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase production were enhanced by an increase PEG-LADM content and corresponding degradation. Gene expression of the cultured osteoblasts, normalized to beta-actin, was analyzed, and osteopontin and collagen type I gene expression increased with degradation. Finally, as a measure of mineralized tissue formation, calcium and phosphate deposition was analyzed biochemically and histologically. Mineralization increased with increasing concentration of PEG-LA-DM and biochemically resembled that of hydroxyapatite.

  7. Gartanin, an isoprenylated xanthone from the mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana), is an androgen receptor degradation enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gongbo; Petiwala, Sakina M; Yan, Miao; Won, Jong Hoon; Petukhov, Pavel A; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2016-06-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) has been a target of prostate cancer for nearly seven decades. In the last several years there has been an interest in identifying compounds that promote degradation of the androgen receptor. In the present study, gartanin, an isoprentylated xanthone in the mangosteen fruit, was evaluated for enhancing AR degradation, and inducing the unfolded protein response pathway. The interaction of gartanin with the ligand-binding domain was characterized using a fluorescence polarization cell-free assay and cell-based FRET assay. Western blot analysis identified modulation of ER stress markers (BiP, PERK, IRE1, and CHOP) along with androgen receptor degradation. A computation simulation was performed to identify possible orientations of gartanin with the ligand-binding domain. Utilizing a cell-free and cell-based FRET assays gartanin was found to interact with the ligand-binding domain through a solely antagonist interaction. Interestingly, inhibition of CHOP, a critical component of the ER stress pathway, was observed to stabilize AR. Gartanin is an isoprenylated xanthone that promotes AR degradation with evidence suggesting this process is critically regulated by the unfolded protein response pathway. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Enhanced degradation of 1-naphthol in landfill leachate using Arthrobacter sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyong; Min, Xiaobo; Li, Xinyu; Liu, Jingyi; Yu, Haibin; Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Jiachao; Luo, Lin; Chai, Liyuan; Zhou, Yaoyu

    2017-11-23

    Arthrobacter sp. named as JY5-1 was isolated from the contaminated soil of a coking plant, which can degrade 1-naphthol as the sole carbon source. Through identification of species, analysis of the optimal degradation condition and kinetic equation, the degradation characteristic of Arthrobacter sp. JY5-1 was obtained. Afterwards, the acclimated strain was added into the bioreactor to observe treatment performance of landfill leachate. The results showed the optimal conditions for strain JY5-1 biodegradation in the study were pH 7.0 and 30 oC. Bioreactor operation experiment declared that Arthrobacter sp. JY5-1 had strengthened effect on COD removal of landfill leachate. Moreover, the efficiency of COD removal could be high and stable when JY5-1 was accumulated as biofilm together with active sludge. These results demonstrate adding 1-naphthol-degrading strain JY5-1 is a feasible technique for the enhancement treatment of sanitary landfill leachate, providing theoretical support for engineering utilization.

  9. Soil bacteria showing a potential of chlorpyrifos degradation and plant growth enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsa Akbar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Since 1960s, the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos has been widely used for the purpose of pest control. However, given its persistence and toxicity towards life forms, the elimination of chlorpyrifos from contaminated sites has become an urgent issue. For this process bioremediation is the method of choice. Results: Two bacterial strains, JCp4 and FCp1, exhibiting chlorpyrifos-degradation potential were isolated from pesticide contaminated agricultural fields. These isolates were able to degrade 84.4% and 78.6% of the initial concentration of chlorpyrifos (100 mg L-1 within a period of only 10 days. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, these strains were identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans (JCp4 and Ochrobactrum sp. (FCp1. These strains exhibited the ability to degrade chlorpyrifos in sterilized as well as non-sterilized soils, and were able to degrade 93-100% of the input concentration (200 mg kg-1 within 42 days. The rate of degradation in inoculated soils ranged from 4.40 to 4.76 mg-1 kg-1 d-1 with rate constants varying between 0.047 and 0.069 d-1. These strains also displayed substantial plant growth promoting traits such as phosphate solubilization, indole acetic acid production and ammonia production both in absence as well as in the presence of chlorpyrifos. However, presence of chlorpyrifos (100 and 200 mg L-1 was found to have a negative effect on indole acetic acid production and phosphate solubilization with percentage reduction values ranging between 2.65-10.6% and 4.5-17.6%, respectively. Plant growth experiment demonstrated that chlorpyrifos has a negative effect on plant growth and causes a decrease in parameters such as percentage germination, plant height and biomass. Inoculation of soil with chlorpyrifos-degrading strains was found to enhance plant growth significantly in terms of plant length and weight. Moreover, it was noted that these strains degraded chlorpyrifos at an increased rate (5

  10. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and chemically enhanced primary-treated sludge under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obulisamy, Parthiba Karthikeyan; Chakraborty, Debkumar; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-12-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste with primary sewage sludge is beneficial for urban centers, while the optimized conditions reported in the literature are not locally suitable for Hong Kong. Therefore, the present study was aimed to develop an optimized mixing ratio of food waste to chemically enhanced primary-treated sewer sludge (CEPT) for co-digestion using batch tests under mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. The mixing ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1 and 3:1 (v v(-1)) of food waste to CEPT sludge was tested under the following conditions: temperature - 35°C and 55°C; pH - not regulated; agitation - 150 rpm and time - 20 days. The thermophilic incubations led a good hydrolysis rate and 2-12-fold higher enzyme activities than in mesophilic incubations for different mixing ratios. While the acidogenesis were found retarded that leading to 'sour and stuck' digestion for all mixing ratio of food waste to CEPT sludge from thermophilic incubations. The measured zeta potential was most favourable (-5 to -16.8 mV) for methane production under thermophilic incubations; however the CH4 recovery was less than that in mesophilic incubations. The results suggested that the quick hydrolysis and subsequent acid accumulation under thermophilic incubation lead to inhibited methanogenesis at the early stage than in mesophilic systems. It is concluded that buffer addition is therefore required for any mixing ratio of food waste to CEPT sludge for improved CH4 recovery for both mesophilic and thermophilic operations.

  11. Enhanced azo dye removal in a continuously operated up-flow anaerobic filter packed with henna plant biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jingang, E-mail: hjg@hdu.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wu, Mengke; Chen, Jianjun; Liu, Xiuyan; Chen, Tingting [Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wen, Yue [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Tang, Junhong; Xie, Zhengmiao [Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Henna stem mixed with ceramic media in UAF enhanced the removal of AO7. • Bio-reduction was the main AO7 removal pathway in henna-added UAF. • Adsorption and endogenous reduction were the main removal pathways in the control. • Henna played a multiple role in providing electron donors and redox mediator. - Abstract: Effects of henna plant biomass (stem) packed in an up-flow anaerobic bio-filter (UAF) on an azo dye (AO7) removal were investigated. AO7 removal, sulfanilic acid (SA) formation, and pseudo first-order kinetic constants for these reactions (k{sub AO7} and k{sub SA}) were higher in the henna-added UAF (R2) than in the control UAF without henna (R1). The maximum k{sub AO7} in R1 and R2 were 0.0345 and 0.2024 cm{sup −1}, respectively, on day 18; the corresponding molar ratios of SA formation to AO7 removal were 0.582 and 0.990. Adsorption and endogenous bio-reduction were the main AO7 removal pathways in R1, while in R2 bio-reduction was the dominant. Organics in henna could be released and fermented to volatile fatty acids, acting as effective electron donors for AO7 reduction, which was accelerated by soluble and/or fixed lawsone. Afterwards, the removal process weakened over time, indicating the demand of electron donation and lawsone-releasing during the long-term operation of UAF.

  12. Column study of enhanced Cr(VI) removal and longevity by coupled abiotic and biotic processes using Fe0 and mixed anaerobic culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhong, Jiawei; Yin, Weizhao; Li, Yongtao

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Fe(0) and mixed anaerobic culture were integrated in one column to investigate the coupled abiotic and biotic effects on hexa-valent chromium (Cr(VI)) removal and column longevity with an abiotic Fe(0) column in the control experiments. According to the breakthrough study, a slower...... by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed that this enhancement was attributed to the higher consumption of iron and greater production of diverse reactive minerals (e.g., green rust, magnetite and lepidocrocite) induced by the synergistic...... interaction of Fe(0) and anaerobic culture, providing more reactive sites for Cr(VI) adsorption, reduction and co-precipitation. Furthermore, the decreasing breakthrough rates and growing iron corrosion along the biotic Fe(0) column demonstrated an inhomogeneous distribution of reactive zones in the column...

  13. The anaerobic threshold: over-valued or under-utilized? A novel concept to enhance lipid optimization!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Declan A J

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess the value of the anaerobic threshold for use in clinical populations with the intent to improve exercise adaptations and outcomes. The anaerobic threshold is generally poorly understood, improperly used, and poorly measured. It is rarely used in clinical settings and often reserved for athletic performance testing. Increased exercise participation within both clinical and other less healthy populations has increased our attention to optimizing exercise outcomes. Of particular interest is the optimization of lipid metabolism during exercise in order to improve numerous conditions such as blood lipid profile, insulin sensitivity and secretion, and weight loss. Numerous authors report on the benefits of appropriate exercise intensity in optimizing outcomes even though regulation of intensity has proved difficult for many. Despite limited use, selected exercise physiology markers have considerable merit in exercise-intensity regulation. The anaerobic threshold, and other markers such as heart rate, may well provide a simple and valuable mechanism for regulating exercising intensity. The use of the anaerobic threshold and accurate target heart rate to regulate exercise intensity is a valuable approach that is under-utilized across populations. The measurement of the anaerobic threshold can be simplified to allow clients to use nonlaboratory measures, for example heart rate, in order to self-regulate exercise intensity and improve outcomes.

  14. Integration of bacterial lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases into designer cellulosomes promotes enhanced cellulose degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfi, Yonathan; Shamshoum, Melina; Rogachev, Ilana; Peleg, Yoav; Bayer, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Efficient conversion of cellulose into soluble sugars is a key technological bottleneck limiting efficient production of plant-derived biofuels and chemicals. In nature, the process is achieved by the action of a wide range of cellulases and associated enzymes. In aerobic microrganisms, cellulases are secreted as free enzymes. Alternatively, in certain anaerobic microbes, cellulases are assembled into large multienzymes complexes, termed “cellulosomes,” which allow for efficient hydrolysis of cellulose. Recently, it has been shown that enzymes classified as lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) were able to strongly enhance the activity of cellulases. However, LPMOs are exclusively found in aerobic organisms and, thus, cannot benefit from the advantages offered by the cellulosomal system. In this study, we designed several dockerin-fused LPMOs based on enzymes from the bacterium Thermobifida fusca. The resulting chimeras exhibited activity levels on microcrystalline cellulose similar to that of the wild-type enzymes. The dockerin moieties of the chimeras were demonstrated to be functional and to specifically bind to their corresponding cohesin partner. The chimeric LPMOs were able to self-assemble in designer cellulosomes alongside an endo- and an exo-cellulase also converted to the cellulosomal mode. The resulting complexes showed a 1.7-fold increase in the release of soluble sugars from cellulose, compared with the free enzymes, and a 2.6-fold enhancement compared with free cellulases without LPMO enhancement. These results highlight the feasibility of the conversion of LPMOs to the cellulosomal mode, and that these enzymes can benefit from the proximity effects generated by the cellulosome architecture. PMID:24927597

  15. Volatile organic sulfur compounds in anaerobic sludge and sediments: biodegradation and toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerdam, van R.C.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Lomans, B.P.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    A variety of environmental samples was screened for anaerobic degradation of methanethiol, ethanethiol, propanethiol, dimethylsulfide, and dimethyldisulfide. All sludge and sediment samples degraded methanethiol, dimethylsulfide, and dimethyldisulfide anaerobically. In contrast, ethanethiol and

  16. Methane enhancement through oxidative cleavage and alkali solubilization pre-treatments for corn stover with anaerobic activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muhammad; Ding, Weimin; Bi, Jinhua; Mehryar, Esmaeil; Talha, Zahir Ahmed Ali; Huang, Hongying

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, thermo-chemical pre-treatment was adopted to evaluate methane production potential from corn stover by co-digesting it with anaerobic activated sludge. Three chemicals H2O2, Ca(OH)2 and NaOH were selected with two levels of concentration. All thermo-chemical pre-treatments were found significant (PProcess biochemistry during the anaerobic digestion process was taken into consideration to optimize the most feasible thermo-chemical pre-treatment for corn stover. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Promotes Degradation of SMC5/6 to Enhance HBV Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Murphy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The hepatitis B virus (HBV regulatory protein X (HBx activates gene expression from the HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA genome. Interaction of HBx with the DDB1-CUL4-ROC1 (CRL4 E3 ligase is critical for this function. Using substrate-trapping proteomics, we identified the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC complex proteins SMC5 and SMC6 as CRL4HBx substrates. HBx expression and HBV infection degraded the SMC5/6 complex in human hepatocytes in vitro and in humanized mice in vivo. HBx targets SMC5/6 for ubiquitylation by the CRL4HBx E3 ligase and subsequent degradation by the proteasome. Using a minicircle HBV (mcHBV reporter system with HBx-dependent activity, we demonstrate that SMC5/6 knockdown, or inhibition with a dominant-negative SMC6, enhance HBx null mcHBV-Gluc gene expression. Furthermore, SMC5/6 knockdown rescued HBx-deficient HBV replication in human hepatocytes. These results indicate that a primary function of HBx is to degrade SMC5/6, which restricts HBV replication by inhibiting HBV gene expression.

  18. Enhanced activation of periodate by iodine-doped granular activated carbon for organic contaminant degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowan; Liu, Xitao; Lin, Chunye; Qi, Chengdu; Zhang, Huijuan; Ma, Jun

    2017-08-01

    In this study, iodine-doped granular activated carbon (I-GAC) was prepared and subsequently applied to activate periodate (IO4(-)) to degrade organic contaminants at ambient temperature. The physicochemical properties of GAC and I-GAC were examined using scanning electron microscopy, N2 adsorption/desorption, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No significant difference was observed between the two except for the existence of triiodide (I3(-)) and pentaiodide (I5(-)) on I-GAC. The catalytic activity of I-GAC towards IO4(-) was evaluated by the degradation of acid orange 7 (AO7), and superior catalytic performance was achieved compared with GAC. The effects of some influential parameters (preparation conditions, initial solution pH, and coexisting anions) on the catalytic ability were also investigated. Based on radical scavenging experiments, it appeared that IO3 was the predominant reactive species in the I-GAC/IO4(-) system. The mechanism underlying the enhanced catalytic performance of I-GAC could be explained by the introduction of negatively charged I3(-) and I5(-) into I-GAC, which induced positive charge density on the surface of I-GAC. This accelerated the interaction between I-GAC and IO4(-), and subsequently mediated the increasing generation of iodyl radicals (IO3). Furthermore, a possible degradation pathway of AO7 was proposed according to the intermediate products identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stretchable degradable and electroactive shape memory copolymers with tunable recovery temperature enhance myogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zexing; Guo, Yi; Zhao, Xin; Li, Longchao; Dong, Ruonan; Guo, Baolin; Ma, Peter X

    2016-12-01

    Development of flexible degradable electroactive shape memory polymers (ESMPs) with tunable switching temperature (around body temperature) for tissue engineering is still a challenge. Here we designed and synthesized a series of shape memory copolymers with electroactivity, super stretchability and tunable recovery temperature based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) with different molecular weight and conductive amino capped aniline trimer, and demonstrated their potential to enhance myogenic differentiation from C2C12 myoblast cells. We characterized the copolymers by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), cyclic voltammetry (CV), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), shape memory test, tensile test and in vitro enzymatic degradation study. The electroactive biodegradable shape memory copolymers showed great elasticity, tunable recovery temperature around 37°C, and good shape memory properties. Furthermore, proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts were investigated on electroactive copolymers films, and they greatly enhanced the proliferation, myotube formation and related myogenic differentiation genes expression of C2C12 myoblasts compared to the pure PCL with molecular weight of 80,000. Our study suggests that these electroactive, highly stretchable, biodegradable shape memory polymers with tunable recovery temperature near the body temperature have great potential in skeletal muscle tissue engineering application. Conducting polymers can regulate cell behavior such cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation with or without electrical stimulation. Therefore, they have great potential for electrical signal sensitive tissue regeneration. Although conducting biomaterials with degradability have been developed, highly stretchable and electroactive degradable copolymers for soft tissue engineering have been rarely reported. On the other hand, shape

  20. Semi-Degradable Poly(β-amino ester) Networks with Temporally-Controlled Enhancement of Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safranski, David L.; Weiss, Daiana; Clark, J. Brian; Taylor, W.R.; Gall, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable polymers are clinically used in numerous biomedical applications, and classically show a loss in mechanical properties within weeks of implantation. This work demonstrates a new class of semi-degradable polymers that show an increase in mechanical properties through degradation via a controlled shift in a thermal transition. Semi-degradable polymer networks, poly(β-amino ester)-co-methyl methacrylate, were formed from a low glass transition temperature crosslinker, poly(β-amino ester), and high glass transition temperature monomer, methyl methacrylate, which degraded in a manner dependent upon the crosslinker chemical structure. In vitro and in vivo degradation revealed changes in mechanical behavior due to the degradation of the crosslinker from the polymer network. This novel polymer system demonstrates a strategy to temporally control the mechanical behavior of polymers and to enhance the initial performance of smart biomedical devices. PMID:24769113

  1. Anaerobic degradation of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and association with microbial communities in a freshwater tidal wetland, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland : laboratory experiments and comparisons to field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Voytek, Mary A.; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Jones, Elizabeth J.

    2003-01-01

    Defining biodegradation rates and processes is a critical part of assessing the feasibility of monitored natural attenuation as a remediation method for ground water containing organic contaminants. During 1998?2001, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a microbial study at a freshwater tidal wetland along the West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, as part of an investigation of natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the wetland sediments. Geochemical analyses and molecular biology techniques were used to investigate factors controlling anaerobic degradation of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TeCA), and to characterize the microbial communities that potentially are important in its degradation. Rapid TeCA and daughter product degradation observed in laboratory experiments and estimated with field data confirm that natural attenuation is a feasible remediation method at this site. The diverse microbial community that seems to be involved in TeCA degradation in the wetland sediments varies with changing spatial and seasonal conditions, allowing continued effective natural attenuation throughout the year. Rates of TeCA degradation in anaerobic microcosm experiments conducted with wetland sediment collected from two different sites (WB23 and WB30) and during three different seasons (March?April 1999, July?August 1999, and October?November 2000) showed little spatial variability but high seasonal variability. Initial first-order degradation rate constants for TeCA ranged from 0.10?0.01 to 0.16?0.05 per day (half-lives of 4.3 to 6.9 days) for March?April 1999 and October?November 2000 microcosms incubated at 19 degrees Celsius, whereas lower rate constants of 0 ? 0.03 and 0.06 ? 0.03 per day were obtained in July?August 1999 microcosms incubated at 19 degrees Celsius. Microbial community profiles showed that low microbial biomass and microbial diversity in the summer, possibly due to competition for nutrients by the

  2. Melamine modified P25 with heating method and enhanced the photocatalytic activity on degradation of ciprofloxacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huiqin [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Li, Jinze; Ma, Changchang [School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Guan, Qingfeng [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Lu, Ziyang [School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Huo, Pengwei, E-mail: huopw1@163.com [School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yan, Yongsheng [School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • We demonstrated the as-prepared photocatalyst of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} with the commercial TiO{sub 2} (P25) composited melamine under ball milling and calcined. • The enhanced photocatalytic performance could be mainly attributed to the suitable band gap structure with heterojunction of CN-P25. • The possible photocatalytic mechanism of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/P25 under visible light irradiation is proposed. - Abstract: The graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}), as one photocatalyst which possess the suitable band gap, is better for modified TiO{sub 2} and enhanced photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants. In this work, the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} were successfully prepared via directly calcined the mixture of melamine and P25. The as-prepared g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The photocatalytic performances of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} composites were investigated by degradation of ciprofloxacin. The results showed that the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and P25 were successfully composited, and the bond of C–N was well formed, the calcined temperature for as-prepared photocatalysts and the ratio of melamine and P25 were important to the degradation rate of ciprofloxacin. When the mixture of melamine and P25 with 1:2, and calcined temperature at 600 °C, the degradation rate of ciprofloxacin could reach 95% in 60 min. The enhanced photocatalytic performances could be mainly attributed to the suitable band gap structure with heterojunction of CN-P25. Finally, the possible transferred processes of photoelectrons and photoholes were proposed.

  3. Gold nanoparticles enhance the X-ray-induced degradation of human centrin 2 protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Emilie [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, CNRS UMR 8000, Universite Paris-Sud 11, Bat. 350, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Duchambon, Patricia; Blouquit, Yves [INSERM U759, Imagerie Integrative, Campus Universitaire d' Orsay, Bat. 112, Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche, Laboratoire R. Latarjet, Campus Universitaire d' Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Keller, Gerard [UMR CNRS 8612, Physico-Chimie-Pharmacotechnie-Biopharmacie, Universite Paris 11, Faculte de Pharmacie, 5 rue Jean-Baptiste Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Sanche, Leon [Groupe en Sciences des Radiations, Departement de Medecine Nucleaire et Radiobiologie, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada J1H 5N4 (Canada); Sicard-Roselli, Cecile [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, CNRS UMR 8000, Universite Paris-Sud 11, Bat. 350, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)], E-mail: cecile.sicard@u-psud.fr

    2009-03-15

    In the war against cancer, radiotherapy is a prominent tool but counterbalanced by the fact that it also induces damages in healthy tissues. Nanotechnologies could open a new possibility to decrease these side effects. In particular, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) could be used as radio-sensitizers. As the role of proteins in the processes leading to cell death cannot be neglected, their radio-sensitization by GNPs is of great interest. This is particularly true in the case of the human centrin 2 protein, which has been proposed to be involved in DNA repair processes. To investigate this effect, we quantified for the first time the degradation of this protein in a gold colloidal solution when submitted to X-rays. We showed that the X-ray-induced degradation of the human centrin 2 protein is enhanced 1.5-fold in the presence of GNPs, even though no covalent bond exists between protein and GNPs. Among the conditions tested, the maximum enhancement was found with the higher GNP:protein ratio of 2x10{sup -4} and with the higher X-ray energy of 49 keV.

  4. Gold nanoparticles enhance the X-ray-induced degradation of human centrin 2 protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Emilie; Duchambon, Patricia; Blouquit, Yves; Keller, Gérard; Sanche, Léon; Sicard-Roselli, Cécile

    2009-03-01

    In the war against cancer, radiotherapy is a prominent tool but counterbalanced by the fact that it also induces damages in healthy tissues. Nanotechnologies could open a new possibility to decrease these side effects. In particular, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) could be used as radio-sensitizers. As the role of proteins in the processes leading to cell death cannot be neglected, their radio-sensitization by GNPs is of great interest. This is particularly true in the case of the human centrin 2 protein, which has been proposed to be involved in DNA repair processes. To investigate this effect, we quantified for the first time the degradation of this protein in a gold colloidal solution when submitted to X-rays. We showed that the X-ray-induced degradation of the human centrin 2 protein is enhanced 1.5-fold in the presence of GNPs, even though no covalent bond exists between protein and GNPs. Among the conditions tested, the maximum enhancement was found with the higher GNP:protein ratio of 2×10 -4 and with the higher X-ray energy of 49 keV.

  5. KCTD1 suppresses canonical Wnt signaling pathway by enhancing β-catenin degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Li

    Full Text Available The canonical Wnt signaling pathway controls normal embryonic development, cellular proliferation and growth, and its aberrant activity results in human carcinogenesis. The core component in regulation of this pathway is β-catenin, but molecular regulation mechanisms of β-catenin stability are not completely known. Here, our recent studies have shown that KCTD1 strongly inhibits TCF/LEF reporter activity. Moreover, KCTD1 interacted with β-catenin both in vivo by co-immunoprecipitation as well as in vitro through GST pull-down assays. We further mapped the interaction regions to the 1-9 armadillo repeats of β-catenin and the BTB domain of KCTD1, especially Position Ala-30 and His-33. Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that KCTD1 promotes the cytoplasmic accumulation of β-catenin. Furthermore, protein stability assays revealed that KCTD1 enhances the ubiquitination/degradation of β-catenin in a concentration-dependent manner in HeLa cells. And the degradation of β-catenin mediated by KCTD1 was alleviated by the proteasome inhibitor, MG132. In addition, KCTD1-mediated β-catenin degradation was dependent on casein kinase 1 (CK1- and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and enhanced by the E3 ubiquitin ligase β-transducin repeat-containing protein (β-TrCP. Moreover, KCTD1 suppressed the expression of endogenous Wnt downstream genes and transcription factor AP-2α. Finally, we found that Wnt pathway member APC and tumor suppressor p53 influence KCTD1-mediated downregulation of β-catenin. These results suggest that KCTD1 functions as a novel inhibitor of Wnt signaling pathway.

  6. Enhancing the Electron Transfer Capacity and Subsequent Color Removal in Bioreactors by Applying Thermophilic Anaerobic Treatment and Redox Mediators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, dos A.B.; Traverse, J.; Cervantes, F.J.; Lier, van J.B.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of temperature, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the redox mediator anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), on electron transfer and subsequent color removal from textile wastewater was assessed in mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic bioreactors. The results clearly show that compared

  7. Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant : recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield

    OpenAIRE

    Martín González, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valori...

  8. Enhancement effects of reducing agents on the degradation of tetrachloroethene in the Fe(II)/Fe(III) catalyzed percarbonate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Zhouwei [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Soil, Water and Environmental Science Department, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Arizona, 429 Shantz Building, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gu, Xiaogang [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Lu, Shuguang, E-mail: lvshuguang@ecust.edu.cn [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Brusseau, Mark L. [Soil, Water and Environmental Science Department, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Arizona, 429 Shantz Building, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Yan, Ni [Hydrology and Water Resources Department, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Arizona, 429 Shantz Building, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Qiu, Zhaofu; Sui, Qian [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • PCE degradation by reducing-agent modified Fe-catalyzed percarbonate was studied. • The addition of reducing agents significantly increased PCE degradation. • Hydroxylamine hydrochloride showed the best effect on enhancing PCE degradation. • The primary PCE degradation mechanism was oxidation by hydroxyl radical. • O{sub 2}·{sup −} participated in the degradation of PCE in reducing-agent modified system. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of reducing agents on the degradation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) were investigated in the Fe(II)/Fe(III) catalyzed sodium percarbonate (SPC) system. The addition of reducing agents, including hydroxylamine hydrochloride, sodium sulfite, ascorbic acid and sodium ascorbate, accelerated the Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox cycle, leading to a relatively steady Fe(II) concentration and higher production of free radicals. This, in turn, resulted in enhanced PCE oxidation by SPC, with almost complete PCE removal obtained for appropriate Fe and SPC concentrations. The chemical probe tests, using nitrobenzene and carbon tetrachloride, demonstrated that HO· was the predominant radical in the system and that O{sub 2}·{sup −} played a minor role, which was further confirmed by the results of electron spin resonance measurements. PCE degradation decreased significantly with the addition of isopropanol, a HO· scavenger, supporting the hypothesis that HO· was primarily responsible for PCE degradation. It is noteworthy that Cl{sup −} release was slightly delayed in the first 20 min, indicating that intermediate products were produced. However, these intermediates were further degraded, resulting in the complete conversion of PCE to CO{sub 2}. In conclusion, the use of reducing agents to enhance Fe(II)/Fe(III) catalyzed SPC oxidation appears to be a promising approach for the rapid degradation of organic contaminants in groundwater.

  9. Functionalized Polymeric Membrane with Enhanced Mechanical and Biological Properties to Control the Degradation of Magnesium Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hoi Man; Zhao, Ying; Leung, Frankie K L; Xi, Tingfei; Zhang, Zhixiong; Zheng, Yufeng; Wu, Shuilin; Luk, Keith D K; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Chu, Paul K; Yeung, Kelvin W K

    2017-04-01

    To achieve enhanced biological response and controlled degradation of magnesium alloy, a modified biodegradable polymer coating called polycaprolactone (PCL) is fabricated by a thermal approach in which the heat treatment neither alters the chemical composition of the PCL membrane nor the rate of magnesium ion release, pH value, or weight loss, compared with the untreated sample. The changes in the crystallinity, hydrophilicity, and oxygen content of heat-treated PCL coating not only improve the mechanical adhesion strength between the coating and magnesium substrate but also enhance the biological properties. Moreover, the thermally modified sample can lead to higher spreading and elongation of osteoblasts, due to the enhanced hydrophilicity and CO to CO functional group ratio. In the analyses of microcomputed tomography from one to four weeks postoperation, the total volume of new bone formation on the heat-treated sample is 10%-35% and 70%-90% higher than that of the untreated and uncoated controls, respectively. Surprisingly, the indentation modulus of the newly formed bone adjacent to the heat-treated sample is ≈20% higher than that of both controls. These promising results reveal the clinical potential of the modified PCL coating on magnesium alloy in orthopedic applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Enhanced sonocatalytic degradation of azo dyes by Au/TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Zhao, Dan; Ma, Wanhong; Chen, Chuncheng; Zhao, Jincai

    2008-08-15

    Au-loaded TiO2 (Au/TiO2) has been reported for the first time as a sonocatalyst. It was found that the catalyst Au/TiO2, with a low Au loading 0.5 wt % and under common and commercial frequency (40 kHz) ultrasonic irradiation, greatly accelerated both the discoloration and total organic carbon (TOC) removal of azo dyes such as orange II (Org II), ethyl orange (EO), and acid red G (ARG), as compared to bare TiO2 and nano-Au catalyst. About 80% TOC removal was achieved after complete discoloration of 2.5 x 10(-4) M Org II. H2O2 and H2 formation as well as their accumulation was greatly enhanced due to Au loading on TiO2. Both oxidative and reductive degradation intermediates have been detected, and thus the mechanism involves both enhanced oxidation and enhanced reduction via the accelerated formation of active *OH and *H radicals due to Au loading on TiO2, which is supported by electron spin resonance (EPR) and other evidence. The study provides an admirable way to raise the efficiency of sonication and to treat azo dye-containing wastewaters with sonocatalytic processes.

  11. Understanding and Enhancing Soil Biological Health: The Solution for Reversing Soil Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Michael Lehman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective is to provide an optimistic strategy for reversing soil degradation by increasing public and private research efforts to understand the role of soil biology, particularly microbiology, on the health of our world’s soils. We begin by defining soil quality/soil health (which we consider to be interchangeable terms, characterizing healthy soil resources, and relating the significance of soil health to agroecosystems and their functions. We examine how soil biology influences soil health and how biological properties and processes contribute to sustainability of agriculture and ecosystem services. We continue by examining what can be done to manipulate soil biology to: (i increase nutrient availability for production of high yielding, high quality crops; (ii protect crops from pests, pathogens, weeds; and (iii manage other factors limiting production, provision of ecosystem services, and resilience to stresses like droughts. Next we look to the future by asking what needs to be known about soil biology that is not currently recognized or fully understood and how these needs could be addressed using emerging research tools. We conclude, based on our perceptions of how new knowledge regarding soil biology will help make agriculture more sustainable and productive, by recommending research emphases that should receive first priority through enhanced public and private research in order to reverse the trajectory toward global soil degradation.

  12. Enhancement of micropollutant degradation at the outlet of small wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Luca; Queloz, Pierre; Brovelli, Alessandro; Margot, Jonas; Barry, D A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate low-cost and easy-to-operate engineering solutions that can be added as a polishing step to small wastewater treatment plants to reduce the micropollutant load to water bodies. The proposed design combines a sand filter/constructed wetland with additional and more advanced treatment technologies (UV degradation, enhanced adsorption to the solid phase, e.g., an engineered substrate) to increase the elimination of recalcitrant compounds. The removal of five micropollutants with different physico-chemical characteristics (three pharmaceuticals: diclofenac, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, one pesticide: mecoprop, and one corrosion inhibitor: benzotriazole) was studied to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed system. Separate batch experiments were conducted to assess the removal efficiency of UV degradation and adsorption. The efficiency of each individual process was substance-specific. No process was effective on all the compounds tested, although elimination rates over 80% using light expanded clay aggregate (an engineered material) were observed. A laboratory-scale flow-through setup was used to evaluate interactions when removal processes were combined. Four of the studied compounds were partially eliminated, with poor removal of the fifth (benzotriazole). The energy requirements for a field-scale installation were estimated to be the same order of magnitude as those of ozonation and powdered activated carbon treatments.

  13. Enhancing the biological activity of chitosan and controlling the degradation by nanoscale interaction with bioglass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravarian, Roya; Craft, Michaela; Dehghani, Fariba

    2015-09-01

    A nonuniform degradation of physical mixture of organic-inorganic biomaterials increases their risk of failure. In this study a chemical bonding between chitosan and bioglass was used as an alternative product to address this issue. To prepare a homogenous composite, chitosan was functionalized with γ-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane and chemically bonded with bioglass during sol-gel method. The gelation time of these hybrids samples was optimized by varying parameters such as composition of chitosan and temperature. It was shown that gelation time was reduced from 7 days for pure bioglass at 25°C to less than six minutes at 70°C for chitosan 40 vol % bioglass hybrid. Furthermore, the enzymatic degradation after 4 weeks was decreased from 80% mass loss for pure chitosan to 32% for chitosan 40 vol % bioglass hybrid. The results of in vitro study demonstrated that the presence of nanoscale interaction enhanced the bioactivity of chitosan. Additionally, hybrid scaffolds were fabricated with pore sizes in the range of 200-400 µm. These scaffolds were prepared by the addition of sodium bicarbonate during sol-gel method as a gas foaming agent and a neutralizer that resulted in decreasing the gelation time of hybrids to less than three minutes. The hybrids fabricated in this study possessed superior characteristics compared to chitosan, also physical mixture of chitosan-bioglass and are promising alternatives for bone tissue engineering applications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Anatase TiO{sub 2} hierarchical nanospheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity for degrading methyl orange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Liqin; Xu, Wence [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Zhu, Shengli, E-mail: slzhu@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Cui, Zhenduo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Yang, Xianjin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Inoue, Akihisa [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); International Institute of Green Materials, Josai International University, Togane, 283-8555 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Anatase TiO{sub 2} hierarchical nanospheres were synthesized through a simple way combining dealloying and hydrothermal methods. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained products and Degussa P25 were evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution at different initial pH values and concentrations. The anatase TiO{sub 2} hierarchical nanospheres exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange under ultraviolet–visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic efficiency of the anatase TiO{sub 2} increased with the decrease of pH at first then decreased and it also decreased with the increase of MO concentration. The superior photocatalytic performance of anatase TiO{sub 2} hierarchical nanospheres is attributed to its crystal phase, microstructure, and particularly surface acidity. The enhancement of surface acidity reduces the electron–hole pair recombination, and further increases the photocatalytic efficiency. - Highlights: • Anatase TiO{sub 2} nanospheres was prepared by chemical dealloying method. • The anatase TiO{sub 2} nanospheres exhibited good photocatalytic activity. • Sulfate ions adsorbed on TiO{sub 2} was beneficial for the photocatalytic performance.

  15. Monitoring cell culture media degradation using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Amandine; Ryder, Alan G

    2014-08-20

    The quality of the cell culture media used in biopharmaceutical manufacturing is a crucial factor affecting bioprocess performance and the quality of the final product. Due to their complex composition these media are inherently unstable, and significant compositional variations can occur particularly when in the prepared liquid state. For example photo-degradation of cell culture media can have adverse effects on cell viability and thus process performance. There is therefore, from quality control, quality assurance and process management view points, an urgent demand for the development of rapid and inexpensive tools for the stability monitoring of these complex mixtures. Spectroscopic methods, based on fluorescence or Raman measurements, have now become viable alternatives to more time-consuming and expensive (on a unit analysis cost) chromatographic and/or mass spectrometry based methods for routine analysis of media. Here we demonstrate the application of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy for the simple, fast, analysis of cell culture media degradation. Once stringent reproducibility controls are implemented, chemometric data analysis methods can then be used to rapidly monitor the compositional changes in chemically defined media. SERS shows clearly that even when media are stored at low temperature (2-8°C) and in the dark, significant chemical changes occur, particularly with regard to cysteine/cystine concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Compost Amendment Enhances Natural Revegetation of a Mediterranean Degraded Agricultural Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Bellino, Alessandro; Morra, Luigi; Alfani, Anna

    2015-10-01

    A vegetation analysis was carried out on a degraded agricultural soil of the Mediterranean area (Campania region, southern Italy) in order to study the effects of different fertilization practices (quality compost, mineral fertilizers, mixed fertilization, and no fertilization) on the whole spontaneous vegetation community. The study was performed for two consecutive years at three different scales (species level, community structure, and community properties), using three different units of abundance (number of individuals, biomass, and cover of each species). The observations were carried out in spring, after 5 and 6 years of soil treatments, on a total area of 4 m2 for each soil treatment and in each year. The different fertilization practices did not determine changes in species composition; however, the relative abundance of dominant species increased in compost and mixed fertilized soils, particularly in the second year of observation. Although the dominance and diversity were unaffected by the different fertilization practices, the total biomass and total number of individuals increased in compost-amended soils. These results indicate the effectiveness of soil quality compost amendments to enhance natural revegetation, a key step in the recovery of degraded areas.

  17. Enhancement of micropollutant degradation at the outlet of small wastewater treatment plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Rossi

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate low-cost and easy-to-operate engineering solutions that can be added as a polishing step to small wastewater treatment plants to reduce the micropollutant load to water bodies. The proposed design combines a sand filter/constructed wetland with additional and more advanced treatment technologies (UV degradation, enhanced adsorption to the solid phase, e.g., an engineered substrate to increase the elimination of recalcitrant compounds. The removal of five micropollutants with different physico-chemical characteristics (three pharmaceuticals: diclofenac, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, one pesticide: mecoprop, and one corrosion inhibitor: benzotriazole was studied to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed system. Separate batch experiments were conducted to assess the removal efficiency of UV degradation and adsorption. The efficiency of each individual process was substance-specific. No process was effective on all the compounds tested, although elimination rates over 80% using light expanded clay aggregate (an engineered material were observed. A laboratory-scale flow-through setup was used to evaluate interactions when removal processes were combined. Four of the studied compounds were partially eliminated, with poor removal of the fifth (benzotriazole. The energy requirements for a field-scale installation were estimated to be the same order of magnitude as those of ozonation and powdered activated carbon treatments.

  18. Compost Amendment Enhances Natural Revegetation of a Mediterranean Degraded Agricultural Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Bellino, Alessandro; Morra, Luigi; Alfani, Anna

    2015-10-01

    A vegetation analysis was carried out on a degraded agricultural soil of the Mediterranean area (Campania region, southern Italy) in order to study the effects of different fertilization practices (quality compost, mineral fertilizers, mixed fertilization, and no fertilization) on the whole spontaneous vegetation community. The study was performed for two consecutive years at three different scales (species level, community structure, and community properties), using three different units of abundance (number of individuals, biomass, and cover of each species). The observations were carried out in spring, after 5 and 6 years of soil treatments, on a total area of 4 m(2) for each soil treatment and in each year. The different fertilization practices did not determine changes in species composition; however, the relative abundance of dominant species increased in compost and mixed fertilized soils, particularly in the second year of observation. Although the dominance and diversity were unaffected by the different fertilization practices, the total biomass and total number of individuals increased in compost-amended soils. These results indicate the effectiveness of soil quality compost amendments to enhance natural revegetation, a key step in the recovery of degraded areas.

  19. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue on carbon nanotube-TiO{sub 2}-Pd composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Hye; Choi, Hyun Chul [Dept. of Chemistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Semiconductor-based photocatalysis is recognized as a promising technique for addressing energy and environmental issues. Among various semiconductors, the use of titanium dioxide (TiO-2) as a photocatalyst in solar energy conversion and pollutant degradation has been widely investigated because of its high efficiency, photostability, and low toxicity. However, its practical application is restricted by the intrinsic wide band gap of TiO-2 and the rapid recombination of photogenerated electron–hole pairs. Therefore, several remedial methods have been proposed, such as the doping of TiO{sub 2} with metallic or non-metallic elements, increasing its surface area, sensitization with dyes, and the generation of defect structures. We have successfully prepared CNT–TiO{sub 2}–Pd composites with a simple two-step sol–gel method. We characterized the composites with TEM and XRD, and demonstrated that anatase TiO{sub 2} and metallic Pd nanoparticles were deposited onto the surfaces of the CNTs. The average particle size of these nanoparticles was approximately 3.4 nm. The prepared catalyst was found to exhibit a higher activity in MB photodegradation than the reference systems. The synergy of the combination of CNTs and Pd nanoparticles with TiO{sub 2} provides superior MB degradation. More comprehensive studies of the mechanism for this synergy between the metal nanoparticles and TiO{sub 2} that enhances the photocatalytic activity of CNT–TiO{sub 2} are underway in our laboratory.

  20. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by metal-modified silicon nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brahiti, N., E-mail: dihiabrahiti@yahoo.fr [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteurs pour l' Energétique (CRTSE), 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140 Alger-7 Merveilles, Alger (Algeria); Université Mouloud MAMMERI de TiziOuzou, Département de Physique, Bastos (Algeria); Hadjersi, T., E-mail: hadjersi@gmx.com [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteurs pour l' Energétique (CRTSE), 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140 Alger-7 Merveilles, Alger (Algeria); Menari, H. [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteurs pour l' Energétique (CRTSE), 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140 Alger-7 Merveilles, Alger (Algeria); Amirouche, S.; El Kechai, O. [Université Mouloud MAMMERI de TiziOuzou, Département de Physique, Bastos (Algeria)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • SiNWs modified with Pd, Au and Pt were used as photocatalysts to degrade MB. • Yield of photodegardation increases with UV irradiation time. • SiNWs modified with Pd nanoparticles show the best photocatalytic activity. • A degradation of 97% was obtained after 200 min of UV irradiation. - Abstract: Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) modified with Au, Pt and Pd nanoparticles were used as heterogeneous photocatalysts for the photodegradation of methylene blue in water under UV light irradiation. The modification of SiNWs was carried out by deposition of metal nanoparticles using the electroless metal deposition (EMD) technique. The effect of metal nanoparticles deposition time on the photocatalytic activity was studied. It was found that the photocatalytic activity of modified SiNWs was enhanced when the deposition time of metal nanoparticles was increased. In addition of modified SiNWs with Pt, Au and Pd nanoparticles, oxidized silicon substrate (Ox-Si), oxidized silicon nanowires (Ox-SiNWs) and hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires (H-SiNWs) were also evaluated for the photodegradation of methylene blue.

  1. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  2. Combined use of alkane-degrading and plant growth-promoting bacteria enhanced phytoremediation of diesel contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara, Nain; Afzal, Muhammad; Ansari, Tariq M; Tahseen, Razia; Iqbal, Samina; Khan, Qaiser M

    2014-01-01

    Inoculation of plants with pollutant-degrading and plant growth-promoting microorganisms is a simple strategy to enhance phytoremediation activity. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inoculation of different bacterial strains, possessing alkane-degradation and 1-amino-cyclopropane-1 -carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity, on plant growth and phytoremediation activity. Carpet grass (Axonopus affinis) was planted in soil spiked with diesel (1% w/w) for 90 days and inoculated with different bacterial strains, Pseudomonas sp. ITRH25, Pantoea sp. BTRH79 and Burkholderia sp. PsJN, individually and in combination. Generally, bacterial application increased total numbers of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere ofcarpet grass, plant biomass production, hydrocarbon degradation and reduced genotoxicity. Bacterial strains possessing different beneficial traits affect plant growth and phytoremediation activity in different ways. Maximum bacterial population, plant biomass production and hydrocarbon degradation were achieved when carpet grass was inoculated with a consortium of three strains. Enhanced plant biomass production and hydrocarbon degradation were associated with increased numbers of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere of carpet grass. The present study revealed that the combined use of different bacterial strains, exhibiting different beneficial traits, is a highly effective strategy to improve plant growth and phytoremediation activity.

  3. Integrating microbial fuel cells with anaerobic acidification and forward osmosis membrane for enhancing bio-electricity and water recovery from low-strength wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinmeng; Wang, Xinhua; Wang, Zhiwei; Lu, Yuqin; Li, Xiufen; Ren, Yueping

    2017-03-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and forward osmosis (FO) are two emerging technologies with great potential for energy-efficient wastewater treatment. In this study, anaerobic acidification and FO membrane were simultaneously integrated into an air-cathode MFC (AAFO-MFC) for enhancing bio-electricity and water recovery from low-strength wastewater. During a long-term operation of approximately 40 days, the AAFO-MFC system achieved a continuous and relatively stable power generation, and the maximum power density reached 4.38 W/m 3 . The higher bio-electricity production in the AAFO-MFC system was mainly due to the accumulation of ethanol resulted from anaerobic acidification process and the rejection of FO membrane. In addition, a proper salinity environment in the system controlled by the addition of MF membrane enhanced the electricity production. Furthermore, the AAFO-MFC system produced a high quality effluent, with the removal rates of organic matters and total phosphorus of more than 97%. However, the nitrogen removal was limited for the lower rejection of FO membrane. The combined biofouling and inorganic fouling were responsible for the lower water flux of FO membrane, and the Desulfuromonas sp. utilized the ethanol for bio-electricity production was observed in the anode. These results substantially improve the prospects for simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy recovery, and further studies are needed to optimize the system integration and operating parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancement of the performance of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor treating low-strength wastewater through implementation of a variable stirring rate program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues J. A. D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on enhancement of the performance of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor with a six-vertical-blade-disk-turbine impeller, containing granulated biomass treating low-strength synthetic wastewater, through a study of the feasibility of implementing a variable stirring rate program. The reactor was operated at 30ºC and a six-hour cycle was used to treat approximately 2.0 L of the synthetic substrate with a chemical oxygen demand (COD of nearly 500 mg/L. Two different stirring rate program were implemented: a constant rate of 50 rpm and a variable rate consisting of 75 rpm for one hour, 50 rpm for four hours and 25 rpm for 0.5 hour. The last 0.5 hour of the cycle was used for the settling step. In both cases, a very short start-up period and unfiltered and filtered substrate removal efficiencies of 81% and 88%, respectively, were attained. However, use of the variable stirring rate enhanced efficiency of the reactor dynamics without impairing biomass morphology, thus resulting in a reduction in the total cycle time and a possible decrease in energy consumption. Additionally, a simplified model of the anaerobic metabolic activity, using apparent kinetic parameters, was proposed as a consecutive first-order kinetic model with substrate and total volatile acid residual concentrations in order to analyze how the variable stirring rate affects reactor performance.

  5. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Toxicity data for the impact of nano-silver on anaerobic degradation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Gitipour, A., S. Thiel, K. Scheckel,...

  6. Enhancement of bioenergy production from organic wastes by two-stage anaerobic hydrogen and methane production process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated a two-stage anaerobic hydrogen and methane process for increasing bioenergy production from organic wastes. A two-stage process with hydraulic retention time (HRT) 3d for hydrogen reactor and 12d for methane reactor, obtained 11% higher energy compared to a single......:12 to 1:14, 6.7%, more energy could be obtained. Microbial community analysis indicated that the dominant bacterial species were different in the hydrogen reactors (Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum-like species) and methane reactors (Clostridium thermocellum-like species). The changes...

  7. Cellulase-Xylanase Synergy in Designer Cellulosomes for Enhanced Degradation of a Complex Cellulosic Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraïs, Sarah; Barak, Yoav; Caspi, Jonathan; Hadar, Yitzhak; Lamed, Raphael; Shoham, Yuval; Wilson, David B.; Bayer, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Designer cellulosomes are precision-engineered multienzyme complexes in which the molecular architecture and enzyme content are exquisitely controlled. This system was used to examine enzyme cooperation for improved synergy among Thermobifida fusca glycoside hydrolases. Two T. fusca cellulases, Cel48A exoglucanase and Cel5A endoglucanase, and two T. fusca xylanases, endoxylanases Xyn10B and Xyn11A, were selected as enzymatic components of a mixed cellulase/xylanase-containing designer cellulosome. The resultant mixed multienzyme complex was fabricated on a single scaffoldin subunit bearing all four enzymes. Conversion of T. fusca enzymes to the cellulosomal mode followed by their subsequent incorporation into a tetravalent cellulosome led to assemblies with enhanced activity (~2.4-fold) on wheat straw as a complex cellulosic substrate. The enhanced synergy was caused by the proximity of the enzymes on the complex compared to the free-enzyme systems. The hydrolytic properties of the tetravalent designer cellulosome were compared with the combined action of two separate divalent cellulase- and xylanase-containing cellulosomes. Significantly, the tetravalent designer cellulosome system exhibited an ~2-fold enhancement in enzymatic activity compared to the activity of the mixture of two distinct divalent scaffoldin-borne enzymes. These results provide additional evidence that close proximity between cellulases and xylanases is key to the observed concerted degradation of the complex cellulosic substrate in which the integrated enzymes complement each other by promoting access to the relevant polysaccharide components of the substrate. The data demonstrate that cooperation among xylanases and cellulases can be augmented by their integration into a single designer cellulosome. PMID:21157512

  8. Does residual H2O2 result in inhibitory effect on enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge pretreated by microwave-H2O2 pretreatment process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jibao; Jia, Ruilai; Wang, Yawei; Wei, Yuansong; Zhang, Junya; Wang, Rui; Cai, Xing

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of residual H2O2 on hydrolysis-acidification and methanogenesis stages of anaerobic digestion after microwave-H2O2 (MW-H2O2) pretreatment of waste activated sludge (WAS). Results showed that high sludge solubilization at 35-45 % was achieved after pretreatment, while large amounts of residual H2O2 remained and refractory compounds were thus generated with high dosage of H2O2 (0.6 g H2O2/g total solids (TS), 1.0 g H2O2/g TS) pretreatment. The residual H2O2 not only inhibited hydrolysis-acidification stage mildly, such as hydrolase activity, but also had acute toxic effect on methanogens, resulting in long lag phase, low methane yield rate, and no increase of cumulative methane production during the 30-day BMP tests. When the low dosage of H2O2 at 0.2 g H2O2/g TS was used in MW-H2O2 pretreatment, sludge anaerobic digestion was significantly enhanced. The cumulative methane production increased by 29.02 %, but still with a lag phase of 1.0 day. With removing the residual H2O2 by catalase, the initial lag phase of hydrolysis-acidification stage decreased from 1.0 to 0.5 day.

  9. Enhanced methane production in an anaerobic digestion and microbial electrolysis cell coupled system with co-cultivation of Geobacter and Methanosarcina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qi; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Zhan, Guoqiang; Bo, Tao; Yang, Yanfei; Tao, Yong; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping; Yan, Zhiying

    2016-04-01

    The anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) coupled system has been proved to be a promising process for biomethane production. In this paper, it was found that by co-cultivating Geobacter with Methanosarcina in an AD-MEC coupled system, methane yield was further increased by 24.1%, achieving to 360.2 mL/g-COD, which was comparable to the theoretical methane yield of an anaerobic digester. With the presence of Geobacter, the maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate (216.8 mg COD/(L·hr)) and current density (304.3A/m(3)) were both increased by 1.3 and 1.8 fold compared to the previous study without Geobacter, resulting in overall energy efficiency reaching up to 74.6%. Community analysis demonstrated that Geobacter and Methanosarcina could coexist together in the biofilm, and the electrochemical activities of both were confirmed by cyclic voltammetry. Our study observed that the carbon dioxide content in total gas generated from the AD reactor with Geobacter was only half of that generated from the same reactor without Geobacter, suggesting that Methanosarcina may obtain the electron transferred from Geobacter for the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane. Taken together, Geobacter not only can improve the performance of the MEC system, but also can enhance methane production. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Anaerobic SBR treatment of coal conversion wastewaters: Eighth quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketchum, L.H. Jr.

    1987-12-11

    Results are presented for anaerobic biodegradation of constituents of coal conversion wastewater. Biochemical Methane Potential tests were employed. The relative toxicity of each constituent on anaerobic phenol degradation was also tested. Methylated phenols tended to be more inhibitory to phenol degradation than other hydroxylated and nitrogen containing aromatics. Studies of reaction intermediates of degradation are underway. Several intermediates have been identified in the degradation of p-cresol. 1 fig., 2 tabs. (CBS)

  11. Enhancement of sludge anaerobic biodegradability by combined microwave-H2O2 pretreatment in acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswari, Parvathy; Kavitha, S; Kaliappan, S; Yeom, Ick-Tae; Banu, J Rajesh

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the sludge disintegration and reduce the cost of microwave (MW) pretreatment. Thermodynamic analysis of MW hydrolysis revealed the best fit with a first-order kinetic model at a specific energy of 18,600 kJ/kg total solids (TS). Combining H2O2 with MW resulted in a significant increment in solubilization from 30 to 50 % at 18,600 kJ/kg TS. The pH of H2O2-assisted MW-pretreated sludge (MW + H2O2) was in the alkaline range (pH 9-10), and it made the sludge unfavorable for subsequent anaerobic digestion and inhibits methane production. In order to nullify the alkaline effect caused by the MW + H2O2 combination, the addition of acid was considered for pH adjustment. H2O2-assisted MW-pretreated sludge in acidic conditions (MW + H2O2 + acid) showed a maximum methane production of 323 mL/g volatile solids (VS) than others during anaerobic biodegradability. A cost analysis of this study reveals that MW + H2O2 + acid was the most economical method with a net profit of 59.90 €/t of sludge.

  12. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B over phosphorus doped graphitic carbon nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Bo, E-mail: willycb@163.com; Yan, Juntao; Wang, Chunlei; Ren, Zhandong; Zhu, Yuchan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The phosphorus doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysts are synthesized by a co-pyrolysis procedure. • The crystal phase, morphology, and optical property of P doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} are characterized. • The P doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysts show the improved photocatalytic activity. • The possible mechanism for enhanced photocatalytic activity is proposed. - Abstract: Phosphorus doped graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) was easily synthesized using ammonium hexafluorophosphate (NH{sub 4}PF{sub 6}) as phosphorus source, and ammonium thiocyanate (NH{sub 4}SCN) as g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} precursor, through a direct thermal co-polycondensation procedure. The obtained phosphorus doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), UV–vis diffuse reflectance absorption spectra (UV-DRS), photoelectrochemical measurement and photoluminescence spectra (PL). The photocatalytic activities of phosphorus doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} samples were evaluated by degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) solution under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the phosphorus doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} had a superior photocatalytic activity than that of pristine g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, attributing to the phosphorus atoms substituting carbon atoms of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} frameworks to result in light harvesting enhancement and delocalized π-conjugated system of this copolymer, beneficial for the increase of photocatalytic performance. The photoelectrochemical measurements also verified that the charge carrier separation efficiency was promoted by phosphorus doping g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Moreover, the tests of radical scavengers demonstrated that the holes (h{sup +}) and superoxide radicals (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) were the main active species for the

  13. Sulfate addition as an effective method to improve methane fermentation performance and propionate degradation in thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of coffee grounds, milk and waste activated sludge with AnMBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Yu-You; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Xiaochang; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of sulfate on propionate degradation and higher organic loading rate (OLR) achievement in a thermophilic AnMBR for 373days using coffee grounds, milk and waste activated sludge (WAS) as the co-substrate. Without the addition of sulfate, the anaerobic system failed at an OLR of 14.6g-COD/L/d, with propionate accumulating to above 2.23g-COD/L, and recovery by an alkalinity supplement was not successful. After sulfate was added into substrates at a COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 200:1 to 350:1, biogas production increased proportionally with OLR increasing from 4.06 to 15.2g-COD/L/d. Propionic acid was maintained at less than 100mg-COD/L due to the effective conversion of propionic acid to methane after the sulfate supplement was added. The long-term stable performance of the AnMBR indicated that adding sulfate was beneficial for the degradation of propionate and achieving a higher OLR under the thermophilic condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and Pu-EDTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, H., Jr.; Rai, D.; Xun, L.

    2005-04-18

    The complexation of radionuclides (e.g., plutonium (Pu) and {sup 60}Co) by codisposed ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) has enhanced their transport in sediments at DOE sites. Our previous NABIR research investigated the aerobic biodegradation and biogeochemistry of Pu(IV)-EDTA. Plutonium(IV) forms stable complexes with EDTA under aerobic conditions and an aerobic EDTA degrading bacterium can degrade EDTA in the presence of Pu and decrease Pu mobility. However, our recent studies indicate that while Pu(IV)-EDTA is stable in simple aqueous systems, it is not stable in the presence of relatively soluble Fe(III) compounds (i.e., Fe(OH){sub 3}(s)--2-line ferrihydrite). Since most DOE sites have Fe(III) containing sediments, Pu(IV) in likely not the mobile form of Pu-EDTA in groundwater. The only other Pu-EDTA complex stable in groundwater relevant to DOE sites would be Pu(III)-EDTA, which only forms under anaerobic conditions. Research is therefore needed in this brand new project to investigate the biotransformation of Pu and Pu-EDTA under anaerobic conditions. The biotransformation of Pu and Pu-EDTA under various anaerobic regimes is poorly understood including the reduction kinetics of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) from soluble (Pu(IV)-EDTA) and insoluble Pu(IV) as PuO2(am) by metal reducing bacteria, the redox conditions required for this reduction, the strength of the Pu(III)-EDTA complex, how the Pu(III)-EDTA complex competes with other dominant anoxic soluble metals (e.g., Fe(II)), and the oxidation kinetics of Pu(III)-EDTA. Finally, the formation of a stable soluble Pu(III)-EDTA complex under anaerobic conditions would require degradation of the EDTA complex to limit Pu(III) transport in geologic environments. Anaerobic EDTA degrading microorganisms have not been isolated. These knowledge gaps preclude the development of a mechanistic understanding of how anaerobic conditions will influence Pu and Pu-EDTA fate and transport to assess, model, and design approaches to stop

  15. Fate of antibiotic resistance bacteria and genes during enhanced anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge by microwave pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juan; Liu, Jibao; Zheng, Xiang; Zhang, Junya; Ni, Xiaotang; Chen, Meixue; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-10-01

    The fate of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were investigated during the sludge anaerobic digestion (AD) with microwave-acid (MW-H), microwave (MW) and microwave-H2O2-alkaline (MW-H2O2) pretreatments. Results showed that combined MW pretreatment especially for the MW-H pretreatment could efficiently reduce the ARB concentration, and most ARG concentrations tended to attenuate during the pretreatment. The subsequent AD showed evident removal of the ARB, but most ARGs were enriched after AD. Only the concentration of tetX kept continuous declination during the whole sludge treatment. The total ARGs concentration showed significant correlation with 16S rRNA during the pretreatment and AD. Compared with unpretreated sludge, the AD of MW and MW-H2O2 pretreated sludge presented slightly better ARB and ARGs reduction efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Porous Mn doped g-C3N4 photocatalysts for enhanced synergetic degradation under visible-light illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Chao; Cui, Cheng-Xing; Li, Ying; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Shi, Weina

    2017-10-05

    Photocatalytic degradation by semiconductors is an ideal way to solve the environmental problem. Here, the porous Mn doped g-C3N4 photocatalyst was synthesized by the calcination-refluxing method. The as-prepared g-C3N4 exhibits the high activity of photocatalytic degradation under visible light irradiation ( > 400nm) in the mixed system of Cr(VI) and organic pollutants. Especially, the photocatalytic activity of Cr(VI) reduction was increased from 9.5% to 76.5%, while that of Rhodamine B(RhB) degradation was enhanced from 15.3% to 88.9% after 60min irradiation. The porous Mn doped g-C3N4 still keeps the high degradation efficiency of mixed pollutants in the 7th running. Based on the computational modeling, the Mn doping and carboxyl modification affect the atomic arrangement and molecular orbital distribution of the g-C3N4 semiconductor, leading to the enhancement of photo-induced carrier separation. Additionally, the active oxygen species and intermediates in the photoreaction process were discovered by ESR measurement and UV-vis test. The RhB degradation in synergistic photocatalysis not only inhibits the reverse reaction of Cr(VI) reduction, but also validly supply the photogenerated electrons by the photosensitization effect. This work may be useful for rationally designing photocatalysts and providing illuminating insights into the photocatalytic mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancement effects of chelating agents on the degradation of tetrachloroethene in Fe(III) catalyzed percarbonate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhouwei; Gu, Xiaogang; Lu, Shuguang; Brusseau, Mark L; Zhang, Xiang; Fu, Xiaori; Danish, Muhammad; Qiu, Zhaofu; Sui, Qian

    2015-12-01

    The performance of Fe(III)-based catalyzed sodium percarbonate (SPC) for stimulating the oxidation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) for groundwater remediation applications was investigated. The chelating agents citric acid monohydrate (CIT), oxalic acid (OA), and Glutamic acid (Glu) significantly enhanced the degradation of PCE. Conversely, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) had a negative impact on PCE degradation, which may due to its strong Fe chelation and HO• scavenging abilities. However, excessive SPC or chelating agent will retard PCE degradation. In addition, investigations using free radical probe compounds and radical scavengers revealed that PCE was primarily degraded by HO• radical oxidation in both the chelated and non-chelated systems, while O2•- also participated in the non-chelated system and the OA and Glu modified systems. According to the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies, the presence of HO• in the Fe(III)/SPC system was maintained much longer than that in the Fe(II)/SPC system. The results indicated that the addition of CIT, OA or Glu indeed enhanced the generation of HO• in the first 10 min and promoted degradation efficiency by increasing the amount of Fe(III) and maintaining the concentration of HO• radicals in solution. In conclusion, chelated Fe(III)-based catalyzed SPC oxidation is a promising method for the remediation of PCE-contaminated groundwater.

  18. Introducing saccharic acid as an efficient iron chelate to enhance photo-Fenton degradation of organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Gokulakrishnan; Madras, Giridhar

    2016-11-01

    The identification of iron chelates that can enhance photo-Fenton degradation is of great interest in the field of advanced oxidation process. Saccharic acid (SA) is a polyhydroxy carboxylic acid and completely non-toxic. Importantly, it can effectively bind Fe(III) as well as induce photoreduction of Fe(III). Despite having these interesting properties, the effect of SA on photo-Fenton degradation has not been studied. Herein, we demonstrate the first assessment of SA as an iron chelate in photo-Fenton process using methylene blue (MB) as a model organic contaminant. Our results demonstrate that SA has the ability to (i) enhance the photo-Fenton degradation of MB by about 11 times at pH 4.5 (ii) intensify photochemical reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) by about 17 times and (iii) accelerate the rate of consumption of H2O2 in photo-Fenton process by about 5 times (iv) increase the TOC reduction by about 2 times and (v) improve the photo-Fenton degradation of MB in the presence of a variety of common inorganic ions and organic matter. The influential properties of SA on photo-Fenton degradation is attributed to the efficient photochemical reduction of Fe(III) via LMCT (ligand to metal charge transfer reaction) to Fe(II), which then activated H2O2 to generate OH and accelerated photo-Fenton degradation efficiency. Moreover, the effect of operational parameters such as oxidant: contaminant (H2O2: MB) ratio, catalyst: contaminant (Fe(III)SA: MB) ratio, Fe(III): SA stoichiometry and pH on the degradation of MB by photo-Fenton in the presence of SA is demonstrated. Importantly, SA assisted photo-Fenton caused effective degradation of MB and 4-Chlorophenol under natural sunlight irradiation in natural water matrix. The findings strongly support SA as a deserving iron chelate to enhance photo-Fenton degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrasonic treatment to improve anaerobic digestibility of dairy waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmowski, L; Simons, L; Brooks, R

    2006-01-01

    The dairy-processing industry generates various types of organic wastes, which are utilised as stock feed, for anaerobic digestion, spread on land or alternatively land-filled at high costs. Owing to the generation of renewable energy, anaerobic digestion is an attractive option for many factories. To enhance the biological degradation process, a mechanical disintegration of various waste dairy streams was undertaken. While the successful application of ultrasonic treatment has been reported for various municipal waste streams, limited information was available for dairy industry applications. The results of this study showed that ultrasonic treatment can improve the digestibility of the more problematic dairy waste streams, such as sludges, by breaking down micro-organisms' cell walls and releasing soluble cell compounds. For more soluble streams, such as dairy factory effluent, an increased gas production was observed and attributed to the reduced particle size of the fat globules.

  20. Degradation of the Plant Defense Signal Salicylic Acid Protects Ralstonia solanacearum from Toxicity and Enhances Virulence on Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany M. Lowe-Power

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants use the signaling molecule salicylic acid (SA to trigger defenses against diverse pathogens, including the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. SA can also inhibit microbial growth. Most sequenced strains of the heterogeneous R. solanacearum species complex can degrade SA via gentisic acid to pyruvate and fumarate. R. solanacearum strain GMI1000 expresses this SA degradation pathway during tomato pathogenesis. Transcriptional analysis revealed that subinhibitory SA levels induced expression of the SA degradation pathway, toxin efflux pumps, and some general stress responses. Interestingly, SA treatment repressed expression of virulence factors, including the type III secretion system, suggesting that this pathogen may suppress virulence functions when stressed. A GMI1000 mutant lacking SA degradation activity was much more susceptible to SA toxicity but retained the wild-type colonization ability and virulence on tomato. This may be because SA is less important than gentisic acid in tomato defense signaling. However, another host, tobacco, responds strongly to SA. To test the hypothesis that SA degradation contributes to virulence on tobacco, we measured the effect of adding this pathway to the tobacco-pathogenic R. solanacearum strain K60, which lacks SA degradation genes. Ectopic addition of the GMI1000 SA degradation locus, including adjacent genes encoding two porins and a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, significantly increased the virulence of strain K60 on tobacco. Together, these results suggest that R. solanacearum degrades plant SA to protect itself from inhibitory levels of this compound and also to enhance its virulence on plant hosts like tobacco that use SA as a defense signal molecule.

  1. Layer of organic pine forest soil on top of chlorophenol-contaminated mineral soil enhances contaminant degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkkonen, Aki; Kauppi, Sari; Simpanen, Suvi; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Strömmer, Rauni; Romantschuk, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Chlorophenols, like many other synthetic compounds, are persistent problem in industrial areas. These compounds are easily degraded in certain natural environments where the top soil is organic. Some studies suggest that mineral soil contaminated with organic compounds is rapidly remediated if it is mixed with organic soil. We hypothesized that organic soil with a high degradation capacity even on top of the contaminated mineral soil enhances degradation of recalcitrant chlorophenols in the mineral soil below. We first compared chlorophenol degradation in different soils by spiking pristine and pentachlorophenol-contaminated soils with 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in 10-L buckets. In other experiments, we covered contaminated mineral soil with organic pine forest soil. We also monitored in situ degradation on an old sawmill site where mineral soil was either left intact or covered with organic pine forest soil. 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol was rapidly degraded in organic pine forest soil, but the degradation was slower in other soils. If a thin layer of the pine forest humus was added on top of mineral sawmill soil, the original chlorophenol concentrations (high, ca. 70 μg g(-1), or moderate, ca. 20 μg g(-1)) in sawmill soil decreased by >40 % in 24 days. No degradation was noticed if the mineral soil was kept bare or if the covering humus soil layer was sterilized beforehand. Our results suggest that covering mineral soil with an organic soil layer is an efficient way to remediate recalcitrant chlorophenol contamination in mineral soils. The results of the field experiment are promising.

  2. Understanding and enhancing soil health: the solution for reversing soil degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This special issue of Sustainability documents both the magnitude and global prevalence of soil degradation and helps illustrate (1) various factors contributing to the problem, (2) its past and current impacts, and (3) projected consequences to humankind if degradation of our fragile soil resource...

  3. Anaerobic thermophilic biogas process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelidaki, I.

    1992-06-01

    Investigations into several important aspects concerning thermophilic, anaerobic treatment of livestock wastes and other types of wastes in Denmark was carried out. Lipids, typically found in industrial organic waste, could be effectively degraded during anaerobic treatment with a high biogas yield. Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) could also inhibit the biogas process at relatively low concentrations. Lipid-containing waste should be introduced gradually and fed continuously to the biogas process in order to permit adaptation. Fed-bacth cultivation was shown to be a successful method for enriching bacteria which are exposed to substrate inhibition. The end product of the degradation were methane and carbon dioxide. Ammonia concentrations at or above 4 g-N/l were shown to inhibit thermophilic digestion of cattle manure, but if the ammonia concentration was gradually increased, adaptation of the process occurred. It was found that addition of bentonite or the waste product bentonite-bound oil counteracted to some extent the inhibitory effect of ammonia. The effect was observed only when the ammonia concentration was increased gradually. When the ammonia load was high, reduction of the temperature below 55 Deg. C was shown to have a positive effect on process performance, while at ammonia non-inhibitory concentrations a temperature of 55 deg. C was found to be the optimal temperature. A mathematical model of the biogas process was formulated with main emphasis on free ammonia inhibition, pH simulation and temperature effects. (au) (140 refs.).

  4. Enhanced anaerobically digested swine wastewater treatment by the composite of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and Bacillus megatherium G106 derived EPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junyuan; Huang, Yang; Chen, Cheng; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Jing; Jian, Biyu

    2017-08-17

    A strain was isolated from biological sludge to produce EPS by using anaerobically digested swine wastewater (ADSW). Potential of the EPS in ADSW treatment were discussed. Results showed that the optimal fermentation medium for EPS production was determined as 4 g K2HPO4, 2 g KH2PO4, and 2 g sucrose dissolved in 1 L ADSW. After fermentation for 60 h, 2.98 g EPS with main backbone of polysaccharides can be extracted from 1 L of fermentation broth. The EPS showed good performances in ADSW treatment, after conditioned by this EPS, removal efficiencies of COD, ammonia, and TP reached 70.2%, 76.5% and 82.8%, respectively, which were higher than that obtained when chemicals were selected as conditioning agents. Removal efficiencies were further improved when the EPS and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) were used simultaneously, and finally reached 91.6%, 90.8%, and 92.5%, respectively, under the optimized conditioning process by the composite of EPS of 16 mg/L, PAC of 12 g/L, pH of 7.5, and agitation speed of 200 r/min.

  5. Model experiments on improving nitrogen removal in laboratory scale subsurface constructed wetlands by enhancing the anaerobic ammonia oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, D; Kuschk, P; Stange, F; Müller, R A; Köser, H

    2007-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (Anammox) has been identified as a new general process-strategy for nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment. In order to evaluate the role and effects of the Anammox process in wetlands, laboratory-scale model experiments were performed with planted fixed bed reactors. A reactor (planted with Juncus effusus) was fed with synthetic wastewater containing 150-200 mg L(-1) NH4+ and 75-480 mg L(-1) NO2(-). Under these operating conditions, the plants were affected by the high ammonia and nitrite concentrations and the nitrogen removal rate fell within the same range of 45-49 mg N d(-1) (equivalent to 0.64-0.70 g Nm(-2)d(-1)) as already reported by other authors. In order to stimulate the rate of nitrogen conversion, the planted reactor was inoculated with Anammox biomass. As a result, the rate of nitrogen removal was increased 4-5-fold and the toxic effects on the plants also disappeared. The results show that, in principle, subsurface flow wetlands can also function as an "Anammox bioreactor". However, the design of a complete process for the treatment of waters with a high ammonia load and, in particular, the realisation of simple technical solutions for partial nitrification have still to be developed.

  6. Parallel characterization of anaerobic toluene- and ethylbenzene-degrading microbial consortia by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, RNA-DNA membrane hybridization, and DNA microarray technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Yoshikazu; Kelly, John J.; Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Urakawa, Hidetoshi; El-Fantroussi, Said; Al-Muzaini, Saleh; Fukui, Manabu; Urushigawa, Yoshikuni; Stahl, David A.

    2002-01-01

    A mesophilic toluene-degrading consortium (TDC) and an ethylbenzene-degrading consortium (EDC) were established under sulfate-reducing conditions. These consortia were first characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments, followed by sequencing. The sequences of the major bands (T-1 and E-2) belonging to TDC and EDC, respectively, were affiliated with the family Desulfobacteriaceae. Another major band from EDC (E-1) was related to an uncultured non-sulfate-reducing soil bacterium. Oligonucleotide probes specific for the 16S rRNAs of target organisms corresponding to T-1, E-1, and E-2 were designed, and hybridization conditions were optimized for two analytical formats, membrane and DNA microarray hybridization. Both formats were used to characterize the TDC and EDC, and the results of both were consistent with DGGE analysis. In order to assess the utility of the microarray format for analysis of environmental samples, oil-contaminated sediments from the coast of Kuwait were analyzed. The DNA microarray successfully detected bacterial nucleic acids from these samples, but probes targeting specific groups of sulfate-reducing bacteria did not give positive signals. The results of this study demonstrate the limitations and the potential utility of DNA microarrays for microbial community analysis.

  7. Kinetics and mechanism of the enhanced reductive degradation of nitrobenzene by elemental iron in the presence of ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, H.M.; Ling, F.H.; Hoffmann, M.R.

    2000-05-01

    Sonolysis, reduction by elemental iron (Fe{sup 0}), and a combination of the two processes were used to facilitate the degradation of nitrobenzene (NB) and aniline (AN) in water. The rates of reduction of nitrobenzene by Fe{sup 0} are enhanced in the presence of ultrasound. The first-order rate constant, K{sub US}, for nitrobenzene degradation by ultrasound is 1.8 x 10{sup {minus}3} min{sup {minus}1}, while in the presence of Fe{sup 0}, the rate was found to be substantially faster. The observation of similar degradation rates for aniline in each system suggests that the sonication process was not affected by the presence of Fe{sup 0}. The observed rate enhancements for the degradation of nitrobenzene can be attributed primarily to the continuous cleaning and chemical activation of the Fe{sup 0} surfaces by acoustic cavitation and to accelerated mass transport rates of reactants, intermediates, and products between the solution phase and the Fe{sup 0} surface. The relative concentrations of nitrosobenzene and aniline, the principal reaction intermediates generated by Fe{sup 0} reduction, are altered substantially in the presence of ultrasound.

  8. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal under alternating anaerobic and anoxic conditions. Pt. 1. Data from literature and scientific fundamentals; Vermehrte biologische Phosphorelimination durch alternierende anaerob/anoxische Milieubedingungen. T. 1. Literaturuebersicht und naturwissenschaftliche Grundlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieker, C.A. [Berliner Wasserbetriebe, Berlin (Germany); Hegemann, W. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Siedlungswasserwirtschaft

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the state of research on excess biological phosphorus removal under alternating anaerobic/anoxic conditions. Up to now only a few experimental investigations exist. They show that denitrifying poly-P-organisms can be accumulated under alternating anaerobic/anoxic conditions and that the efficiency of P-uptake under anoxic and aerobic conditions is similar. Further, the existence of denitrifying poly-P-organisms has a positive influence on denitrification. The experimental results and developed models indicate that denitrifying poly-P-organisms need less substrate for denitrification compared to other heterotrophic denitrifying organisms. This should be reason enough to further investigations on anaerobic/anoxic operated bio-P-processes and to support process configurations, which help denitrifying poly-P-organisms to accumulate. (orig.) [German] In diesem Beitrag wird der Stand der Wissenschaft zur biologischen Phosphorelimination unter anaerob/anoxischen Milieubedingungen beschrieben. Bisher existieren erst vereinzelt Untersuchungen zu diesem Themengebiet. Diese zeigen, dass die Effizienz der P-Elimination unter aeroben und anoxischen Bedingungen vergleichbar ist. Ausserdem zeigen sie, das die Existenz denitrifizierender polyP-Organismen einen positiven Einfluss auf die Denitrifikation hat. Die Versuchsergebnisse und die daraus abgeleiteten metabolischen Modelle deuten an, dass polyP-Organismen weniger Substrat fuer die Denitrifikation benoetigen als andere heterotrophe Organismen. Dieses sollte Anlass genug sein, ueber anaerob/anoxische Bio-P-Verfahren nachzudenken und Betriebsweisen zu unterstuetzen, die die Anreicherung von denitrifizierenden polyP-Organismen beguenstigen. (orig.)

  9. In situ preparation of cubic Cu2O-RGO nanocomposites for enhanced visible-light degradation of methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Xiaolin; Yang, Zhi; Tang, Xuehui; Ma, Yujie; Li, Ming; Hu, Nantao; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-07-01

    There has been a growing interest in gathering together photocatalysis of semiconductors, like cuprous oxide (Cu2O), and the excellent electron transmittability of graphene to produce a graphene-based semiconductor for photocatalytic degradation. In this paper, a mild one-pot in situ synthesis of cubic cuprous oxide-reduced graphene oxide (Cu2O-RGO) nanocomposites has been proposed for the removal of methyl orange. In contrast to pure cubic Cu2O particles under similar preparation conditions, the cubic Cu2O-RGO nanocomposites demonstrate enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for methyl orange dye with a 100% degradation rate in 100 min. The enhanced photocatalytic performance is mainly attributed to the increased charge transportation, effective separation of photoelectrons from vacancies, and the improved contact area.

  10. Enhanced degradation of spiro-insecticides and their leacher enol derivatives in soil by solarization and biosolarization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, José; Garrido, Isabel; Vela, Nuria; Ros, Caridad; Navarro, Simón

    2017-04-01

    The leaching potential of three insecticides (spirodiclofen, spiromesifen, and spirotetramat) was assessed using disturbed soil columns. Small quantities of spirodiclofen and spiromesifen were detected in leachate fraction, while spirotetramat residues were not found in the leachates. In addition, the transformation products (enol derivatives) are relatively more mobile than the parent compounds and may leach into groundwater. Moreover, the use of disinfection soil techniques (solarization and biosolarization) to enhance their degradation rates in soil was investigated. The results show that both practices achieved a reduction in the number of juvenile nematodes, enhancing in a parallel way degradation rates of the insecticides and their enol derivatives as compared with the non-disinfected soil. This behavior can be mainly attributed to the increase in soil temperature and changes in microbial activity. All insecticides showed similar behavior under solarization and biosolarization conditions. As a consequence, both agronomic techniques could be considered as suitable strategies for detoxification of soils polluted with the studied pesticides.

  11. Exopolysaccharides produced by Gordonia alkanivorans enhance bacterial degradation activity for diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta-Chen, Lin; Chang, Jo-Shu; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2008-07-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by Gordonia alkanivorans CC-JG39 was used to stimulate cell floating, cell growth, and diesel biodegradation of indigenous or commercial-available, diesel-degrading bacteria. Addition of EPS-containing supernatant into the culture medium resulted in floatation of the non-floating bacteria and allowed a 40-45% and 38-42% increase in diesel degradation and cell growth, respectively. The EPS-stimulating effect on cell growth and diesel degradation positively correlated with the EPS dosage. Thus, the EPS may act as a biostimulant for bioremediation of oil-contaminated water or soil.

  12. Interfacial Modifiers for Enhanced Stability and Reduced Degradation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Ina T.; Oyster, Tricia M.; Mansfield, Lorelle M.; Matthews, Rachael; Pentzer, Emily B.; French, Roger H.; Peshek, Timothy J.

    2016-11-21

    Transparent conductive oxide (TCO) degradation is a known failure mode in thin-film photovoltaic (PV) devices through mechanisms such as resistivity increase and delamination. Here we apply thin interfacial modifiers to aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) to mitigate damp heat induced degradation of electrical performance. Additionally, we demonstrate that these modifiers can be applied to the AZO front contact of a Cu(In, Ga)Se2 device without significantly degrading the device performance, a promising step towards improving the lifetime performance.

  13. Enhanced ammonia removal at room temperature by pH controlled partial nitrification and subsequent anaerobic ammonium oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, U; del Val Río, A; Campos, J L; Mosquera-Corral, A; Méndez, R

    2014-01-01

    The Anammox-based processes are suitable for the treatment of wastewaters characterized by a low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio. The application of the Anammox process requires the availability of an effluent with a NO2- -N/NH4+ -N ratio composition around 1 g g-1, which involves the necessity of a previous step where the partial nitrification is performed. In this step, the inhibition of the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) is crucial. In the present work, a combined partial nitrification-ANaerobic AMmonia OXidation (Anammox) two-units system operated at room temperature (20 degreeC) has been tested for the nitrogen removal of pre-treated pig slurry. To achieve the successful partial nitrification and inhibit the NOB activity, different ammonium/inorganic carbon (NH4+/IC) ratios were assayed from 1.19 to 0.82g NH4+-Ng-1 HCO3-C. This procedure provoked a decrease of the pH value to 6.0 to regulate the inhibitory effect over ammonia-oxidizing bacteria caused by free ammonia. Simultaneously, the NOB experienced the inhibitory effect of free nitrous acid which avoided the presence of nitrate in the effluent. The NH4+/IC ratio which allowed the obtaining of the desired effluent composition (50% of both ammonium and nitrite) was 0.82 +/- 0.02 g NH4+-N g-1 HCO3- -C. The Anammox reactor was fed with the effluent of the partial nitrification unit containing a NO2 -N/NH4+ -N ratio of 1 g g-1' where a nitrogen loading rate of 0.1 g N L-1 d-1 was efficiently removed.

  14. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of poultry litter in field digestors by incorporating in-line pre-digestor assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Barooah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic fermentation inside the digestor is the continuous process which results in the formation of useful biogas fuel. All feedstocks are not easily decomposable thereby necessitating the design of an “optional in-line pre-digestor assembly”. Initially a 2 m3 modified fixed dome ‘Deenbandhu’ type biogas plant was commissioned with cattle dung, bypassing the pre-digestor assembly. In a phased manner, cattle dung was substituted with poultry litter as feedstock. Gradually increasing the substitution @ of 10% per fortnight, complete substitution of cattle dung could be attained in 18 week time. Poultry droppings assorted with paddy husk from deep litter system of poultry housings were used as feedstock. As paddy husk were indecomposable inside the digestor, an in-line pre-digestor assembly was used to remove the unwanted paddy husk by water dissolution technique. Enzymatic hydrolysis initiated in the pre-digestion tank in the 24 hours residence time improved the digestibility of the feedstock for generating biogas. The process of cattle dung substitution with poultry litter was complete in 18 weeks duration. Daily gas production was recorded with the help of wet type gas flow meter. The gas produced was continuously used for domestic cooking. The total solid (TS content of the poultry litter based feedstock slurry was maintained at around the same TS (9 - 10% as that of cattle dung (dung to water at 1:1 ratio slurry. With 100% use of poultry droppings at 10.3 % TS, average gas production level was 208.5 lit per kg of TS.

  15. Theobromine suppresses adipogenesis through enhancement of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β degradation by adenosine receptor A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Takakazu; Watanabe, Shun; Yoshioka, Yasukiyo; Katayama, Shigeru; Nakamura, Soichiro; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2017-12-01

    Theobromine, a methylxanthine derived from cacao beans, reportedly has various health-promoting properties but molecular mechanism by which effects of theobromine on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to clarify the molecular mechanisms of the anti-adipogenic effect of theobromine in vitro and in vivo. ICR mice (4week-old) were administered with theobromine (0.1g/kg) for 7days. Theobromine administration attenuated gains in body and epididymal adipose tissue weights in mice and suppressed expression of adipogenic-associated genes in mouse adipose tissue. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, theobromine caused degradation of C/EBPβ protein by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Pull down assay showed that theobromine selectively interacts with adenosine receptor A1 (AR1), and AR1 knockdown inhibited theobromine-induced C/EBPβ degradation. Theobromine increased sumoylation of C/EBPβ at Lys133. Expression of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-specific protease 2 (SENP2) gene, coding for a desumoylation enzyme, was suppressed by theobromine. In vivo knockdown studies showed that AR1 knockdown in mice attenuated the anti-adipogenic effects of theobromine in younger mice. Theobromine suppresses adipocyte differentiation and induced C/EBPβ degradation by increasing its sumoylation. Furthermore, the inhibition of AR1 signaling is important for theobromine-induced C/EBPβ degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Modelling of the mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater with olive mill solid waste using anaerobic digestion model No. 1 (ADM1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Fezzani; Ridha, Ben Cheikh

    2008-09-01

    The anaerobic digestion model No. 1 (ADM1), conceived by the international water association (IWA) task group for mathematical modelling of anaerobic digestion processes is a structured generic model which includes multiples steps describing biochemical and physicochemical processes encountered in the anaerobic degradation of complex organic substrates and a common platform for further model enhancement and validation of dynamic simulations for a variety of anaerobic processes. In this study the ADM1 model was modified and applied to simulate the mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater (OMW) with olive mill solid waste (OMSW). The ADM1 equations were coded and implemented using the simulation software package MATLAB/Simulink. The most sensitive parameters were calibrated and validated using updated experimental data of our previous work. The results indicated that the ADM1 model could simulate with good accuracy: gas flows, methane and carbon-dioxide contents, pH and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) concentrations of effluents for various feed concentrations digested at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and especially at HRTs of 36 and 24 days. Furthermore, effluent alkalinity and ammonium nitrogen were successfully predicted by the model at HRTs of 12 and 24 days for some feed concentrations.

  17. Starch-enhanced degradation of HMW PAHs by Fusarium sp. in an aged polluted soil from a coal mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ou-Ya; Zhang, Xue-Na; Feng, Sheng-Dong; Zhang, Li-Xiu; Shi, Wei; Yang, Zhi-Xin; Chena, Miao-Miao; Fanga, Xue-Dan

    2017-05-01

    The present study used strain ZH-H2 (Fusarium sp.) isolated by our group as the PAH-degrading strain and 5-6-rings PAHs as degradation objects. The soil incubation experiment was carried out to investigate the starch-enhanced degradation effects of HMW PAHs by Fusarium sp. in an Aged Polluted Soil from a Coal Mining Area. The results showed that the removal rates of BaP, InP and BghiP increased with increasing inoculation rate of ZH-H2 in the unsterile aged polluted soil of coal mining area, with the exception of BbF degradation which increased in the H2 treatment and then decreased. Different addition dosage of starch apparently resulted in degradation of 4 PAHs in soil, with removal rates of 14.47% for BaP, 23.83% for DbA, 30.77% for BghiP and 31.00% for InP obtained with treatment D2, respectively higher than in treatment D1. So starch addition apparently enhanced the degradation of the 4 PAHs, especially InP and BghiP, by native microbes in the aged HMW PAH-polluted soil. By adding starch to these aged polluted soils with inoculated strain ZH-H2, HMW-PAHs degradation was further improved and addition of 0.5 g kg -1 starch to soils with 1.0 g kg -1 Fusarium ZH-H2 (D 2  + H 2 ) performed best to the 4 HMW-PAHs in all of these combination treatments by a factor of up to 3.09, depending on the PAH. We found that the highest polyphenol oxidase activities under D 2  + H 2 treatments are consistent with the results of removal rates of 4 PAHs. Our findings suggest that the combination of Fusarium sp. ZH-H2 and starch offers a suitable alternative for bioremediation of aged PAH-contaminated soil in coal mining areas, with a recommended inoculation size of 0.5 g Fusarium sp. ZH-H2 and addition of 0.5 g kg -1 starch per kg soil. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Degradation of chlorobenzoates and chlorophenols by methanogenic consortia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ennik-Maarsen, K.

    1999-01-01

    Pollution of the environment with chlorinated organic compounds mainly results from (agro)industrial activity. In many studies, biodegradation is examined under anaerobic conditions, because highly chlorinated compounds are more easily degradable under anaerobic than under aerobic

  19. Enhanced recovery of ammonia from swine manure anaerobic digester effluent using gas-permeable membranes and aeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric ammonia pollution from livestock wastes can be reduced using gas-permeable membrane technology by converting ammonia contained in the manure into ammonium salt for use in fertilizers. In this study, gas-permeable membrane technology was enhanced using aeration combined with nitrificatio...

  20. Bioresorbable Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-HA Materials for Orthopedic Implantation: Enhancing Degradation through Porosity Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiden, Michael; Nauman, Eric; Stanciu, Lia

    2017-07-01

    Resorbable, porous iron-manganese-hydroxyapatite biocomposites with suitable degradation rates for orthopedic applications are prepared using salt-leaching for the first time. These transient biomaterials have the potential to replace inert, permanent implants that can suffer from long-term complications, or have to be surgically removed, leaving an unfavorable void. Fe30Mn-10HA materials are newly developed to address inadequate resorption rates of degradable materials proposed for orthopedic environments in the past. In this study, controllable porosities with 300 µm diameter pores are introduced into Fe30Mn alloys and Fe30Mn-10HA composites, which enhance tissue ingrowth. For the composites, a Ca2 Mn7 O14 phase generated within the Fe30Mn matrix during the sintering process greatly increases degradability. The combination of this second phase and added porosity is found to contribute to increased bone-like apatite layer formation, mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell attachment, and reduction of detrimental oxide layer flaking. Remarkably, after thirty days in vitro, there is a significant increase in degradation up to 0.82 ± 0.04 mm per year for 30 wt% porous Fe30Mn-10HA biocomposites, compared to 0.02 ± 0.00 mm per year for traditional nonporous Fe30Mn, thereby increasing the viability of these materials for future clinical studies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Enhanced lipid recovery from Nannochloropsis microalgae by treatment with optimized cell wall degrading enzyme mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuorro, Antonio; Miglietta, Selenia; Familiari, Giuseppe; Lavecchia, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    A statistical mixture design approach was used to investigate the effects of cell wall degrading enzymes on the recovery of lipids from Nannochloropsis sp. A preliminary screening of potentially suitable enzyme preparations, including lysozyme, cellulase and different types of hemicellulases, was carried out. The most effective preparations were then taken as basic components for the formulation of enzyme mixtures. Optimized ternary mixtures consisting of cellulase and two hemicellulases were obtained which allowed the recovery of up to 37.2g of lipids per 100g of dry biomass. SEM and TEM images of the enzymatically treated microalga revealed extensive cell damage, with degradation of the cell wall and release of intracellular material. Overall, the results obtained demonstrate that the mixture design method can be used to prepare cell wall degrading enzyme cocktails that can significantly improve the recovery of lipids or other valuable components from microalgae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anaerobic Thermophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Canganella

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong

  3. Fabrication of Ag-Decorated CaTiO₃ Nanoparticles and Their Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity for Dye Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, T; Yang, H; Huo, Y S; Ma, J Y; Zhang, H M; Su, J Y; Feng, W J

    2016-01-01

    CaTiO₃nanoparticles of 30-40 nm in size were synthesized via a polyacrylamide gel route. Ag nanoparticles with size of 8-16 nm were deposited onto CaTiO₃particles by a photochemical reduction method to yield CaTiO₃@Ag composites. The photocatalytic activity of prepared samples was evaluated by degrading methyl orange under ultraviolet irradiation. It is demonstrated that Ag-decorated CaTiO₃ particles exhibit an enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to bare CaTiO₃ particles. After 60 min of photocatalysis, the degradation percentage of MO increases from 54% for bare CaTiO₃particles to 72% for CaTiO₃@Ag composites. This can be explained by the fact that photogenerated electrons are captured by Ag nanoparticles and photogenerated holes are therefore increasingly available to react with OH⁻/H₂O to generate hydroxyl (·OH) radicals. ·OH radicals were detected by fluorimetry using terephthalic acid as a probe molecule, revealing an enhanced yield on the irradiated CaTiO₃@Ag composites. In addition, it is found that the addition of ethanol, which acts as an ·OH scavenger, leads to a quenching of ·OH radicals and simultaneous decrease in the photocatalytic efficiency. This suggests that ·OH radicals are the dominant active species responsible for the dye degradation.

  4. Formic acid enhanced effective degradation of methyl orange dye in aqueous solutions under UV-Vis irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Bai, Renbi

    2016-09-15

    Developing efficient technologies to treat recalcitrant organic dye wastewater has long been of great research and practical interest. In this study, a small molecule, formic acid (FA), was applied as a process enhancer for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye as a model recalcitrant organic pollutant in aqueous solutions under the condition of UV-Vis light irradiation and air aeration at the ambient temperature of 25 °C. It was found that the decolouration of the dye solutions can be rapidly achieved, reducing the time, for example, from around 17.6 h without FA to mostly about less than 2 h with the presence of FA. The mineralization rate of MO dye reached as high as 81.8% in 1.5 h in the case of initial MO dye concentration at 25 mg L(-1), which is in contrast to nearly no mineralization of the MO dye for a similar system without the FA added. The study revealed that the generation of the H2O2 species in the system was enhanced and the produced OH radicals effectively contributed to the degradation of the MO dye. Process parameters such as the initial concentration of MO dye, FA dosage and solution pH were all found to have some effect on the degradation efficiency under the same condition of UV-Vis light irradiation and air aeration. The MO dye degradation performance was found to follow a first-order reaction rate to the MO dye concentration in most cases and there existed a positive correlation between the reaction rate constant and the initial FA concentration. Compared to the traditional H2O2/UV-Vis oxidation system, the use of FA as a process-enhancing agent can have the advantages of low cost, easy availability, and safe to use. The study hence demonstrates a promising approach to use a readily available small molecule of FA to enhance the degradation of recalcitrant organic pollutants, such as MO dye, especially for their pre-treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced reductive degradation of methyl orange in a microbial fuel cell through cathode modification with redox mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong-Hua; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Sun, Min; Zang, Guo-Long; Li, Wen-Wei; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Dong, Fang; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-01-01

    A model azo dye, methyl orange (MO), was reduced through in situ utilization of the electrons derived from the anaerobic conversion of organics in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). The MO reduction process could be described by a pseudo first-order kinetic model with a rate constant of 1.29 day(-1). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic analysis shows that the cathode had a high polarization resistance, which could decrease the reaction rate and limit the electron transfer. To improve the MO reduction efficiency, the cathode was modified with redox mediators to enhance the electron transfer. After modification with thionine, the polarization resistance significantly decreased by over 50%. As a consequence, the MO decolorization rate increased by over 20%, and the power density was enhanced by over three times. Compared with thionine, anthraquinone-2, 6-disulfonate modified cathode has less positive effect on the MFC performance. These results indicate that the electrode modification with thionine is a useful approach to accelerate the electrochemical reactions. This work provides useful information about the key factors limiting the azo dye reduction in the MFC and how to improve such a process.

  6. Graphene oxide as an anaerobic membrane scaffold for the enhancement of B. adolescentis proliferation and antagonistic effects against pathogens E. coli and S. aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-qing; Gao, Di; Wang, Bing; Zhao, Rui-fang; Guan, Ming; Zheng, Ling-na; Zhou, Xiao-yan; Chai, Zhi-fang; Feng, Wei-yue

    2014-04-01

    The impact of the gut microbiota on human health is widely perceived as the most exciting advancement in biomedicine. The gut microbiota has been known to play a crucial role in defining states of human health and diseases, and thus becomes a potential new territory for drug targeting. Herein, graphene oxide (GO) interaction with five common human gut bacteria, B. adolescentis, L. acidophilus, E. coli, E. faecalis, and S. aureus, was studied. It was shown that, in bacterial media, GO sheets were able to form effective, anaerobic membrane scaffolds that enhanced the antagonistic activity of B. adolescentis against the pathogens E. coli andS. aureus. Data obtained using bacterial growth measurements, colony counting and 16S rRNA gene sequencing consistently indicated that GO sheets promoted proliferation of gut bacteria, particularly for B. adolescentis. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy images, and membrane potential measurements showed that cell membranes maintained their integrity and that no observable variations in cell morphology were induced after interaction with GO sheets, indicating good biocompatibility of GO. These results suggest the possibility of using GO sheets as efficient drug carriers in therapeutic applications to treat diseases related to the gut microbiota.

  7. Enhanced biotic and abiotic transformation of Cr(vi) by quinone-reducing bacteria/dissolved organic matter/Fe(iii) in anaerobic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Gu, Lipeng; He, Huan; Xu, Zhixiang; Pan, Xuejun

    2016-09-14

    This study investigated the simultaneous transformation of Cr(vi) via a closely coupled biotic and abiotic pathway in an anaerobic system of quinone-reducing bacteria/dissolved organic matters (DOM)/Fe(iii). Batch studies were conducted with quinone-reducing bacteria to assess the influences of sodium formate (NaFc), electron shuttling compounds (DOM) and the Fe(iii) on Cr(vi) reduction rates as these chemical species are likely to be present in the environment during in situ bioremediation. Results indicated that the concentration of sodium formate and anthraquinone-2-sodium sulfonate (AQS) had apparently an effect on Cr(vi) reduction. The fastest decrease in rate for incubation supplemented with 5 mM sodium formate and 0.8 mM AQS showed that Fe(iii)/DOM significantly promoted the reduction of Cr(vi). Presumably due to the presence of more easily utilizable sodium formate, DOM and Fe(iii) have indirect Cr(vi) reduction capability. The coexisting cycles of Fe(ii)/Fe(iii) and DOM(ox)/DOM(red) exhibited a higher redox function than the individual cycle, and their abiotic coupling action can significantly enhance Cr(vi) reduction by quinone-reducing bacteria.

  8. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with food waste (FW): Enhancement of bio-hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeriz-Campoy, Rubén; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos J; Romero-García, Luis I

    2015-10-01

    Bio-hydrogen production from dry thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion (55°C and 20% total solids) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and food waste (FW) was studied. OFMSW coming from mechanical-biological treatment plants (MBT plants) presents a low organic matter concentration. However, FW has a high organic matter content but several problems by accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and system acidification. Tests were conducted using a mixture ratio of 80:20 (OFSMW:FW), to avoid the aforementioned problems. Different solid retention times (SRTs) - 6.6, 4.4, 2.4 and 1.9 days - were tested. It was noted that addition of food waste enhances the hydrogen production in all the SRTs tested. Best results were obtained at 1.9-day SRT. It was observed an increase from 0.64 to 2.51 L H2/L(reactor) day in hydrogen productivity when SRTs decrease from 6.6 to 1.9 days. However, the hydrogen yield increases slightly from 33.7 to 38 mL H2/gVS(added). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced nitrogen and phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater in an anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic sequencing batch reactor with sludge fermentation products as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinjin; Yuan, Yue; Li, Baikun; Zhang, Qiong; Wu, Lei; Li, Xiyao; Peng, Yongzhen

    2017-11-01

    An anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic sequencing batch reactor (AOA-SBR) using sludge fermentation products as carbon source was developed to enhance nitrogen and phosphorus removal in municipal wastewater with low C/N ratio (<4) and reduce sludge production. The AOA-SBR achieved simultaneous partial nitrification and denitrification (SND), aerobic phosphorus uptake and anoxic denitrification through the real-time control and the addition of sludge fermentation products. The average removal efficiencies of total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus (PO4(3-)-P) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) after 145-day operation were 88.8%, 99.3% and 81.2%, respectively. Nitrite accumulation ratio (NAR) reached 99.1% and sludge reduction rate reached 44.1-52.1%. Specifically, 34.4% of the TN removal was carried out by SND and 57.5% by denitrification. Illumina MiSeq sequencing indicated that ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomonas) were enriched and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrospira) did not exist in AOA-SBR. The system demonstrated potential to solve the dual problem of insufficient carbon source and sludge reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rare earth oxide-doped titania nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of partially hydrolysis polyacrylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhuan; Yang, Xia; Yu, Xiaodan; Xu, Leilei; Kang, Wanli; Yan, Wenhua; Gao, Hongfeng; Liu, Zhonghe; Guo, Yihang

    2009-01-01

    Rare-earth oxide-doped titania nanocomposites (RE 3+/TiO 2, where RE = Eu 3+, Pr 3+, Gd 3+, Nd 3+, and Y 3+) were prepared by a one-step sol-gel-solvothermal method. The products exhibited anatase phase structure, mesoporosity, and interesting surface compositions with three oxygen species and two titanium species. The products were used as the photocatalysts to degrade a partially hydrolysis polyacrylamide (HPAM) under UV-light irradiation, a very useful polymer in oil recovery. For comparison, Degussa P25 and as-prepared pure TiO 2 were also tested under the same conditions. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was obtained on as-prepared Eu 3+ (Gd 3+, Pr 3+)/TiO 2 composites, and the reasons were explained. Finally, the degradation pathway of HPAM over the RE 3+/TiO 2 composite was put forward based on the intermediates produced during the photocatalysis procedure.

  11. Photocatalytic activity enhancement of anatase-graphene nanocomposite for methylene removal: Degradation and kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mostafa; Salem, Shiva

    2016-10-01

    In the present research, the TiO2-graphene nanocomposite was synthesized by an eco-friendly method. The blackberry juice was introduced to graphene oxide (GO) as a reducing agent to produce the graphene nano-sheets. The nanocomposite of anatase-graphene was developed as a photocatalyst for the degradation of methylene blue, owing to the larger specific surface area and synergistic effect of reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The UV spectroscopy measurements showed that the prepared nanocomposite exhibited an excellent photocatalytic activity toward the methylene blue degradation. The rate of electron transfer of redox sheets is much higher than that observed on GO, indicating the applicability of proposed method for the production of anatase-RGO nanocomposite for treatment of water contaminated by cationic dye. The prepared materials were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A facile and rapid route was applied for the uniform deposition of anatase nanoparticles on the sheets. The resulting nanocomposite contained nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 10 nm. A mechanism for the photocatalytic activity of nanocomposite was suggested and the degradation reaction obeyed the second-order kinetics. It was concluded that the degradation kinetics is changed due to the reduction of GO in the presence of blackberry juice.

  12. Enhanced production of dimethyl phthalate-degrading strain Bacillus sp. QD14 by optimizing fermentation medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixian Mo

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: In this work, the key factors affected by the fermentation of DMP-degrading strain Bacillus sp. QD14 were optimized by PBD, SAM and BBD (RSM; the yield was increased by 57,11% in the conditions in our study. We propose that the conditions optimized in the study can be applied to the fermentation for commercialization production.

  13. Facile synthesis of main-chain degradable block copolymers for performance enhanced dismantlable adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Eriko; Hagihara, Takashi; Matsumoto, Akikazu

    2012-04-01

    Block copolymers consisting of readily degradable polyperoxides and non-degradable vinyl polymers as the block segments were successfully synthesized by reversible chain transfer catalyzed polymerization, which is one of living radical polymerization techniques. The block copolymers showed characteristic morphology and wettability being different from the polymer blends. When block copolymers containing polyperoxide and polymethacrylate blocks were heated below 150 °C, the polyperoxide blocks were completely degraded and the polymethacrylate blocks were recovered without degradation. Block copolymers containing a poly(2-ethylhexyl methacrylate) block were then investigated as a dismantlable adhesion material, which requires adequate bonding strength during use and easy debonding on demand. Among the several block copolymers, the one consisting of poly(2-ethylhexyl methacrylate) and polyperoxide from methyl sorbate (PPMS) (M(n) = 4900) exhibited good performance as a pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA). After heating the test specimens in a temperature range from 60 to 100 °C, PSA performance, which was evaluated by 180° peel strength and shear holding power measurements, was significantly diminished. Especially, after heating at 100 °C for 1 h, spontaneous debonding of some test specimens was observed because of the evolution of volatile acetaldehyde from PPMS.

  14. Anaerobic degradation of tetrachloroethylene; Anaerober Abbau von Tetrachlorethylen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekert, G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie; Scholz-Muramatsu, H. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau

    1996-12-31

    Dehalospirillum multivorans, a tetrachloroethylene-dechlorinating bacterium, was isolated in activated sludge. This organism is able to grow on a defined medium with hydrogen and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) as its only energy source. The organism was characterised and the physiology of dechlorination was studied. In this process PCE is dechlorinated to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) via trichloroethene (TCE). A fluidized-bed reactor which reduces PCE to DCE at a high rate (15 nmol/min/mg of protein at 5 {mu}M PCE) was inoculated with the bacterium. Meanwhile a reactor inoculated with D. multivorans and a fully dechlorinating mixed culture has become available which catalyses the complete dechlorination of PCE to ethene at just as high rates. Tetrachloroethene dehalogenase was purified from D. multivorans (unpublished results) and characterised. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Aus Belebtschlamm wurde ein Tetrachlorethen-dechlorierendes Bakterium, Dehalospirillum multivorans, isoliert. Der Organismus waechst auf definiertem Medium mit Wasserstoff und Tetrachlorethen (PCE) als einziger Energiequelle. Der Organismus wurde charakterisiert und die Physiologie der Dechlorierung wurde untersucht. PCE wird dabei ueber Trichlorethen (TCE) bis zum cis-1,2-Dichlorethen (DCE) dechloriert. Mit diesem Bakterium wurde ein Wirbelschichtreaktor inokuliert, der mit hohen Raten (15 nmol/min/mg Protein bei 5 {mu}M PCE) PCE zu DCE reduziert. Inzwischen steht ein Reaktor zur Verfuegung, der mit D. multivorans und einer voellig dechlorierenden Mischkultur inokuliert wurde und der mit ebenso hohen Raten eine vollstaendige Dechlorierung von PCE bis zum Ethen katalysiert. Aus D. multivorans wurde die Tetrachlorethen-Dehalogenase gereinigt (unveroeffentlichte Ergebnisse) und charakterisiert. (orig./SR)

  15. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal under alternating anaerobic and anoxic conditions. Pt. 2. The sorption-denitrification-P-removal-system; Vermehrte biologische Phosphorelimination durch alternierende anaerob/anoxische Milieubedingungen. T. 2. S-DN-P-Biofilmverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieker, C.A. [Berliner Wasserbetriebe, Berlin (Germany); Hegemann, W. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Siedlungswasserwirtschaft

    2000-07-01

    The Sorption-Denitrification-P-Removal-system (S-DN-P-system) is a process which combines biological excess P-removal and denitrification in a biofilm system. The accumulation of polyP organisms is achieved by sequencing anaerobic and anoxic conditions. The biofilm is in alternating contact with primary treated wastewater (anaerobic phase) and nitrified wastewater (anoxic phase). In the anaerobic phase, P-Release takes place and readily biodegradable organic substrate is fermented to volatile fatty acids and absorbed by the polyP organisms. In addition to this, other organic substrate is physically/chemically adsorbed in the biofilm. In the anoxic phase the biofilm dentirifies the ab/adsorbed organic substrate and, at the same time, P-uptake and polyP formation occurs. The research on the S-DN-P-system shows that P-removal in the anaerobic/anoxic system works well and ab- and adsorption mechanisms nearly remove all of the readily biodegradable substrate in the anaerobic phase. Consequently, this substrate can be used for denitrification in the anoxic phase. The S-DN-P-Process is a very promising concept. However, up to now the technical scale-up is unclear. This is subject to further investigation at the Technical University of Berlin. (orig.) [German] Das S-DN-P-Verfahren ist ein Biofilmverfahren, welches die vermehrte biologische Phosphorelemination und die Denitrifikation kombiniert. Die Anreicherung von denitrifizierenden polyP-Organismen wird durch alternierende anaerob-anoxische Milieubedingungen erreicht. Der Biofilm wird abwechselnd mit vorgeklaertem Abwasser beschickt (Sorptionsphase) und nitrifiziertem Abwasser (Denitrifikationsphase). In der anaeroben Sorptionsphase erfolgt eine P-Rueckloesung sowie die Aufnahme und zellinterne Speicherung von organischen Saeuren durch polyP-Organismen. Darueber hinaus werden andere organische Substanzen im Biofilm chemisch/physikalisch adsorbiert. In der Denitrifikationsphase werden die zuvor gespeicherten und

  16. Enhanced degradation of isoproturon in an agricultural soil by a Sphingomonas sp. strain and a microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renyi; Dörfler, Ulrike; Munch, Jean Charles; Schroll, Reiner

    2017-02-01

    Isoproturon (IPU) degradation in an agricultural soil inoculated with an isolated IPU-degrader strain (Sphingomonas sp. strain AK1, IS) or a microbial consortium (MC) harboring this strain, with or without carrier material, were investigated in soil microcosm experiments during 46 days. Effect of the carrier material and inoculation size on IPU-degradation efficacy of the inoculants were studied. Mineralization, extractable residues and non-extractable residues of 14 C-labeled IPU were analyzed. The low IPU mineralization in untreated soil (7.0%) was enhanced to different extents by inoculation of IS (17.4%-46.0%) or MC (58.9%-67.5%). Concentrations of IPU residues in soils amended with MC (0.002-0.095 μg g dry soil -1 ) were significantly lower than in soils amended with IS (0.02-0.67 μg g dry soil -1 ) and approximately 10 times lower than in the uninoculated soil (0.06-0.80 μg g dry soil -1 ). Less extractable residues and non-extractable residues were detected in soil with higher IPU mineralization. Inoculation size (as indicated by the volume of liquid cultures or by the number of carrier particles) determined the IPU-removal efficacy of IS in soil, but this effect was less pronounced for MC. The low sorption of IPU to soil and the decreasing IPU-mineralizing rates suggested incapability of IS to establish the IPU-mineralizing function in the soil. The thorough removal of IPU and persistent IPU-mineralizing activity of soil inoculated with MC indicated a high persistence of IPU-metabolic trait. Our results showed that microbial consortia might be more efficient than single degrader strains to enhance clean-up of organic chemicals in soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced degradation activity by endophytic bacteria of plants growing in hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.; Germida, J.J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Greer, C.W. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Biotechnology Research Inst.

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of using phytoremediation for cleaning soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was discussed. Petroleum hydrocarbons are problematic because of their toxicity, mobility and persistence in the environment. Appropriate clean-up methods are needed, given that 60 per cent of Canada's contaminated sites contain these compounds. Phytoremediation is an in situ biotechnology in which plants are used to facilitate contaminant removal. The approach relies on a synergistic relationship between plants and their root-associated microbial communities. Previous studies on phytoremediation have focussed on rhizosphere communities. However, it is believed that endophytic microbes may also play a vital role in organic contaminant degradation. This study investigated the structural and functional dynamics of both rhizosphere and endophytic microbial communities of plants from a phytoremediation field site in south-eastern Saskatchewan. The former flare pit contains up to 10,000 ppm of F3 to F4 hydrocarbon fractions. Root samples were collected from tall wheatgrass, wild rye, saltmeadow grass, perennial ryegrass, and alfalfa. Culture-based and culture-independent methods were used to evaluate the microbial communities associated with these roots. Most probable number assays showed that the rhizosphere communities contained more n-hexadecane, diesel fuel, and PAH degraders. However, mineralization assays with 14C labelled n-hexadecane, naphthalene, and phenanthrene showed that endophytic communities had more degradation activities per standardized initial degrader populations. Total community DNA samples taken from bulk, rhizosphere, and endophytic samples, were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. It was shown that specific bacteria increased in endophytic communities compared to rhizosphere communities. It was suggested plants may possibly recruit specific bacteria in response to hydrocarbon contamination, thereby increasing degradation

  18. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of dyes under sunlight using biocompatible TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, B.; Sonkar, A. K.; Singh, N.; Dash, D.; Rath, Chandana

    2017-08-01

    As TiO2 is one of the most popular photocatalysts, we have studied here the photocatalytic degradation of the most common dyestuffs like rhodamine B (RhB), congo red (CR) and methylene blue (MB), which mainly come from the textile and photographic industries using nanoparticles of TiO2. Nanoparticles of TiO2 synthesized through a simple and cost effective sol-gel technique crystallizes in the anatase phase, showing a band gap less than that of bulk value. Particles consisting of coherently scattered domains of size 33 nm are found to be agglomerated and polycrystalline in nature. While the degradation rates of MB, CR and RhB after irradiating with a renewable source of energy, i.e. sunlight, show 100% degradation, TiO2 irradiated with UV light of 4.8 eV shows a much slower degradation rate. To use the waste water after photocatalysis, we examine further the biocompatibile nature of the TiO2 nanoparticles by platelet interaction activity, hemolysis effect and MTT assay. It is worth mentioning here that TiO2 nanoparticles are found to be highly hemocompatible, show no platelet aggregation, and the level of intracellular ROS in human platelets does not show significant change in ROS level. We conclude that TiO2 nanoparticles constitute an excellent photocatalyst and biocompatible material, and that after photocatalytic degradation of dye effluents obtained from textile industries, purified water can be used in agriculture and domestic sectors.

  19. Degradation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) by homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalysis applied to the photochemically enhanced Fenton reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossmann, S H; Oliveros, E; Göb, S; Kantor, M; Göppert, A; Lei, L; Yue, P L; Braun, A M

    2001-01-01

    The reaction mechanism of the oxidative degradation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) by the photochemically enhanced Fenton reaction was studied using a homogeneous (Fe2+(aq) + H2O2) and a heterogeneous reaction system (iron(III)-exchanged zeolite Y+ H2O2). In the homogeneous Fenton system, efficient degradation was observed in a batch reactor, equipped with a medium pressure mercury arc in a Pyrex envelope and employing 80% of the stoichiometric amount of H2O2 required for the total oxidation of PVA and a concentration ratio as low as I mole of iron(II) sulfate per 20 moles of PVA sub-units (C2H40). Model PVA polymers of three different molecular weights (15,000, 49,000 and 100,000 g mol(-1)) were found to follow identical degradation patterns. Strong experimental evidence supports the formation of supermacromolecules (MW: 1-5 x 10(6) g/mol) consisting of oxidized PVA and trapped iron(III) at an early reaction stage. Low molecular weight intermediates, such as oxalic acid, formic acid or formaldehyde were not found during PVA degradation in the homogeneous Fenton system, and we may deduce that the manifold of degradation reactions is mainly taking place within the super-macromolecules from which CO2 is directly released. However, in the heterogeneous Fenton system, the reaction behavior was found to be distinctly different: a decrease of the molecular weights of all three tested monodisperse PVA samples was observed by the broadening of the GPC-traces during irradiation, and oxalic acid was formed. The results lead to the mechanistic hypothesis that during the heterogeneous Fenton process, the cleavage of the PVA-chains may occur at random positions, the reactive centres being located inside the iron(III)-doped zeolite Y photocatalysts.

  20. Enhanced photocatalytic performance and degradation pathway of Rhodamine B over hierarchical double-shelled zinc nickel oxide hollow sphere heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Jiabin; Cai, Weiquan; Zhou, Jun; Li, Zhen

    2018-02-01

    In this study, hierarchical double-shelled NiO/ZnO hollow spheres heterojunction were prepared by calcination of the metallic organic frameworks (MOFs) as a sacrificial template in air via a one-step solvothermal method. Additionally, the photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under UV-vis light irradiation were also investigated. NiO/ZnO microsphere comprised a core and a shell with unique hierarchically porous structure. The photocatalytic results showed that NiO/ZnO hollow spheres exhibited excellent catalytic activity for RhB degradation, causing complete decomposition of RhB (200 mL of 10 g/L) under UV-vis light irradiation within 3 h. Furthermore, the degradation pathway was proposed on the basis of the intermediates during the photodegradation process using liquid chromatography analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). The improvement in photocatalytic performance could be attributed to the p-n heterojunction in the NiO/ZnO hollow spheres with hierarchically porous structure and the strong double-shell binding interaction, which enhances adsorption of the dye molecules on the catalyst surface and facilitates the electron/hole transfer within the framework. The degradation mechanism of pollutant is ascribed to the hydroxyl radicals (rad OH), which is the main oxidative species for the photocatalytic degradation of RhB. This work provides a facile and effective approach for the fabrication of porous metal oxides heterojunction with high photocatalytic activity and thus can be potentially used in the environmental purification.

  1. Enhanced solid-phase photocatalytic degradation of polyethylene by TiO{sub 2}–MWCNTs nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Yang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering/Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Chemical Engineering of Xinjiang Bingtuan, Shihezi University, Xinjiang 832003 (China); Hou, Juan [College of Sciences, Shihezi University, Xinjiang 832003 (China); Liu, Zhiyong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering/Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Chemical Engineering of Xinjiang Bingtuan, Shihezi University, Xinjiang 832003 (China); Peng, Banghua, E-mail: banghuapeng@hotmail.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering/Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Chemical Engineering of Xinjiang Bingtuan, Shihezi University, Xinjiang 832003 (China)

    2014-11-14

    In this work, a novel acid vapor method was introduced to prepare the water soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and the titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2})–MWCNTs nanocomposites photocatalyst were successfully synthesized by sol–gel solvothermal method. Products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), which revealed that the anatase TiO{sub 2} particles were uniform deposited on MWCNTs surface. UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis) showed that composite photocatalyst had an obviously absorption band which covered the whole range of UV–vis region and exhibited a significant enhancement of optical absorption property. Based on above properties, we used the TiO{sub 2}–MWCNTs composites as photocatalysts to degrade the polyethylene (PE) plastic. Solid-phase PE film photocatalytic degradation experiments were investigated through monitoring TiO{sub 2}–MWCNTs–PE composite film's weight loss under mercury lamp irradiation. Results showed that the degradation efficiency could be tuned by changing the concentration of MWCNTs in photocatalyst. The photo-induced degradation of composite film was significantly higher than that of the pure PE film and the Degussa P25-PE film under the same UV irradiation. The weight loss of TiO{sub 2}–MWCNTs (20 wt%)–PE sample reached 35% under 180 h UV-light irradiation. Our work could be extended to synthesize other MWCNTs based composite with the purpose of enhancing TiO{sub 2}'s activity and inspiring for the practical environmental pollution, especially for degradation of plastics. - Highlights: • A novel acid vapor method was used to functionalize the MWCNTs. • Anatase nano-particles of TiO{sub 2} were uniform deposited on MWCNTs surface. • The composite photo-catalyst’s visible-light absorption capability was improved. • Polyethylene film's photodegradation efficiency was obviously enhanced

  2. Prior alcohol use enhances vulnerability to compulsive cocaine self-administration by promoting degradation of HDAC4 and HDAC5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Edmund A; Melas, Philippe A; Zhou, Royce; Li, Yang; Mercado, Peter; Kempadoo, Kimberly A; Stephenson, Stacy; Colnaghi, Luca; Taylor, Kathleen; Hu, Mei-Chen; Kandel, Eric R; Kandel, Denise B

    2017-11-01

    Addiction to cocaine is commonly preceded by experiences with legal or decriminalized drugs, such as alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana. The biological mechanisms by which these gateway drugs contribute to cocaine addiction are only beginning to be understood. We report that in the rat, prior alcohol consumption results in enhanced addiction-like behavior to cocaine, including continued cocaine use despite aversive consequences. Conversely, prior cocaine use has no effect on alcohol preference. Long-term, but not short-term, alcohol consumption promotes proteasome-mediated degradation of the nuclear histone deacetylases HDAC4 and HDAC5 in the nucleus accumbens, a brain region critical for reward-based memory. Decreased nuclear HDAC activity results in global H3 acetylation, creating a permissive environment for cocaine-induced gene expression. We also find that selective degradation of HDAC4 and HDAC5, facilitated by the class II-specific HDAC inhibitor MC1568, enhances compulsive cocaine self-administration. These results parallel our previously reported findings that the gateway drug nicotine enhances the behavioral effects of cocaine via HDAC inhibition. Together, our findings suggest a shared mechanism of action for the gateway drugs alcohol and nicotine, and reveal a novel mechanism by which environmental factors may alter the epigenetic landscape of the reward system to increase vulnerability to cocaine addiction.

  3. Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine produces enhanced anaerobic work capacity with reduced lactate accumulation in resistance trained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orem Ihsan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has indicated that short term administration of glycine propionyl-L-carnitine (GPLC significantly elevates levels of nitric oxide metabolites at rest and in response to reactive hyperaemia. However, no scientific evidence exists that suggests such supplementation enhances exercise performance in healthy, trained individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of GPLC on the performance of repeated high intensity stationary cycle sprints with limited recovery periods in resistance trained male subjects. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, twenty-four male resistance trained subjects (25.2 ± 3.6 years participated in two test sessions separated by one week. Testing was performed 90 minutes following oral ingestion of either 4.5 grams GPLC or 4.5 grams cellulose (PL, in randomized order. The exercise testing protocol consisted of five 10-second Wingate cycle sprints separated by 1-minute active recovery periods. Peak (PP and mean values (MP of sprint power output and percent decrement of power (DEC were determined per bout and standardized relative to body masss. Heart rate (HR and blood lactate (LAC were measured prior to, during and following the five sprint bouts. Results Significant main effects (p Conclusion These findings indicate that short-term oral supplementation of GPLC can enhance peak power production in resistance trained males with significantly less LAC accumulation.

  4. A comparative study of leachate quality and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Tian, Ying; Wang, Shen; Ko, Jae Hac

    2015-07-01

    Research has been conducted to compare leachate characterization and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactor landfills with typical Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW). Three laboratory-scale reactors, an anaerobic (A1) and two hybrid bioreactors (C1 and C2), were constructed and operated for about 10months. The hybrid bioreactors were operated in an aerobic-anaerobic mode with different aeration frequencies by providing air into the upper layer of waste. Results showed that the temporary aeration into the upper layer aided methane generation by shortening the initial acidogenic phase because of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) reduction and pH increase. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactors, but the concentrations of ammonia-nitrogen in the hybrid bioreactors were greater than those in the anaerobic control. Methanogenic conditions were established within 75d and 60d in C1 and C2, respectively. However, high aeration frequency led to the consumption of organic matters by aerobic degradation and resulted in reducing accumulative methane volume. The temporary aeration enhanced waste settlement and the settlement increased with increasing the frequency of aeration. Methane production was inhibited in the anaerobic control; however, the total methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4L/kgvs and 113.2L/kgvs. As for MSW with high content of food waste, leachate recirculation right after aeration stopped was not recommended due to VFA inhibition for methanogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced visible-light induced degradation of benzene on Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI nanospheres: In situ FTIR investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yu [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Zhao, Qidong [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Xinyong, E-mail: xyli@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Yuan, Deling; Hou, Yang [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Shaomin, E-mail: shaomin.liu@curtin.edu.au [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2012-11-30

    Graphical abstract: The dramatic enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Mg-ferrite/hematite nanospheres photocatalyst on benzene were obtained after hybridized by polyaniline (PANI) using the chemisorption method. The enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of benzene under visible-light irradiation was mainly ascribed to the high efficiency of charge separation induced by the hybrid effect of PANI and Mg-ferrite/hematite. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO{sub 2} is produced as the final product during the reaction process. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI photocatalysts showed enhanced photocatalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde were the intermediate products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} was produced as the final product during the reaction process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high efficiency of charge separation was mainly ascribed to the hybrid effect. - Abstract: The dramatic enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Mg-ferrite/hematite nanospheres photocatalysts on benzene were obtained after hybridized by polyaniline (PANI) using the chemisorption method. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of benzene under visible-light irradiation was mainly ascribed to the high efficiency of charge separation induced by the hybrid effect of PANI and Mg-ferrite/hematite. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO{sub 2} is determined as the final product during the reaction process.

  6. Enhancing Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Blue Using PVP-Capped and Uncapped CdSe Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kgobudi Frans Chepape

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum confinement of semiconductor nanoparticles is a potential feature which can be interesting for photocatalysis, and cadmium selenide is one simple type of quantum dot to use in the following photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes. CdSe nanoparticles capped with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP in various concentration ratios were synthesized by the chemical reduction method and characterized. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis of the samples showed that 50% PVP-capped CdSe nanoparticles were uniformly distributed in size with an average of 2.7 nm and shape which was spherical-like. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue (MB in water showed efficiencies of 31% and 48% when using uncapped and 50% PVP-capped CdSe nanoparticles as photocatalysts, respectively. The efficiency of PVP-capped CdSe nanoparticles indicated that a complete green process can be utilized for photocatalytic treatment of water and waste water.

  7. A Slurry Biocascade for the Enhanced Degradation of Fuels in Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-29

    effective treatment ’of thermal treatment. Such approaches, however, can be hazardous waste, bioslurry treatment of organic very expensive, and are... bioslurry consortia or populations most effectively degrade treatment to be effective for reducing organic different components of the complex fuel...but rather of those materials air dried, acidified and extracted with a 1:1:1 mixture which will most likely be removed and bioslurry of hexane and

  8. Small-scale barriers mitigate desertification processes and enhance plant recruitment in a degraded semiarid grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fick, Stephen E; Decker, Cheryl E.; Duniway, Michael C.; Miller, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic desertification is a problem that plagues drylands globally; however, the factors which maintain degraded states are often unclear. In Canyonlands National Park on the Colorado Plateau of southeastern Utah, many degraded grasslands have not recovered structure and function >40 yr after release from livestock grazing pressure, necessitating active restoration. We hypothesized that multiple factors contribute to the persistent degraded state, including lack of seed availability, surficial soil-hydrological properties, and high levels of spatial connectivity (lack of perennial vegetation and other surface structure to retain water, litter, seed, and sediment). In combination with seeding and surface raking treatments, we tested the effect of small barrier structures (“ConMods”) designed to disrupt the loss of litter, seed and sediment in degraded soil patches within the park. Grass establishment was highest when all treatments (structures, seed addition, and soil disturbance) were combined, but only in the second year after installation, following favorable climatic conditions. We suggest that multiple limiting factors were ameliorated by treatments, including seed limitation and microsite availability, seed removal by harvester ants, and stressful abiotic conditions. Higher densities of grass seedlings on the north and east sides of barrier structures following the summer months suggest that structures may have functioned as artificial “nurse-plants”, sheltering seedlings from wind and radiation as well as accumulating wind-blown resources. Barrier structures increased the establishment of both native perennial grasses and exotic annuals, although there were species-specific differences in mortality related to spatial distribution of seedlings within barrier structures. The unique success of all treatments combined, and even then only under favorable climatic conditions and in certain soil patches, highlights that restoration success (and

  9. Colonization of Paracoccus sp. QCT6 and Enhancement of Metribuzin Degradation in Maize Rhizosphere Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xing; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Feng; Song, Man

    2017-09-22

    Strain QCT6, capable of degrading metribuzin, was isolated from metribuzin-contaminated soil. The isolate was identified as Paracoccus sp. according to its physiological characteristics, biochemical tests, and 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. In liquid culture, 86.4% of 50 mg/L metribuzin was removed by strain QCT6 after incubation for 7 days. The product of metribuzin degradation by QCT6 was identified as deamino-metribuzin, which has reduced phytotoxicity on the growth of maize. After being marked with the gfp gene, the colonization and distribution of gfp-tagged QCT6 were directly observed with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The QCT6 strain showed good colonization ability on maize roots and was maintained for at least 20 days in rhizosphere soil. After root irrigation with gfp-tagged QCT6, 75.7% of 15 mg/L metribuzin was removed from the maize rhizosphere soil. This metribuzin-degrading strain QCT6 has strong potential applications for in situ bioremediation of soil contaminated with metribuzin.

  10. Interleukin-15 enhances proteasomal degradation of bid in normal lymphocytes: implications for large granular lymphocyte leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Deborah L; Yang, Jun; Buschman, Matthew D; Schaughency, Paul M; Dang, Hong; Bere, William; Yang, Yili; Savan, Ram; Subleski, Jeff J; Yin, Xiao-Ming; Loughran, Thomas P; Young, Howard A

    2009-05-01

    Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia is a clonal proliferative disease of T and natural killer (NK) cells. Interleukin (IL)-15 is important for the development and progression of LGL leukemia and is a survival factor for normal NK and T memory cells. IL-15 alters expression of Bcl-2 family members, Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bim, Noxa, and Mcl-1; however, effects on Bid have not been shown. Using an adoptive transfer model, we show that NK cells from Bid-deficient mice survive longer than cells from wild-type control mice when transferred into IL-15-null mice. In normal human NK cells, IL-15 significantly reduces Bid accumulation. Decreases in Bid are not due to alterations in RNA accumulation but result from increased proteasomal degradation. IL-15 up-regulates the E3 ligase HDM2 and we find that HDM2 directly interacts with Bid. HDM2 suppression by short hairpin RNA increases Bid accumulation lending further support for HDM2 involvement in Bid degradation. In primary leukemic LGLs, Bid levels are low but are reversed with bortezomib treatment with subsequent increases in LGL apoptosis. Overall, these data provide a novel molecular mechanism for IL-15 control of Bid that potentially links this cytokine to leukemogenesis through targeted proteasome degradation of Bid and offers the possibility that proteasome inhibitors may aid in the treatment of LGL leukemia.

  11. Methanol conversion in high-rate anaerobic reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    An overview on methanol conversion in high-rate anaerobic reactors is presented, with the focus on technological as well as microbiological aspects. The simple C1-compound methanol can be degraded anaerobically in a complex way, in which methanogens, sulfate reducing bacteria and homoacetogens

  12. Anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation in deep subsurface oil reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Carolyn M; Jones, D M; Larter, S R

    2004-09-16

    Biodegradation of crude oil in subsurface petroleum reservoirs is an important alteration process with major economic consequences. Aerobic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at the surface is well documented and it has long been thought that the flow of oxygen- and nutrient-bearing meteoric waters into reservoirs was necessary for in-reservoir petroleum biodegradation. The occurrence of biodegraded oils in reservoirs where aerobic conditions are unlikely, together with the identification of several anaerobic microorganisms in oil fields and the discovery of anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation mechanisms, suggests that anaerobic degradation processes could also be responsible. The extent of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation processes in the world's deep petroleum reservoirs, however, remains strongly contested. Moreover, no organism has yet been isolated that has been shown to degrade hydrocarbons under the conditions found in deep petroleum reservoirs. Here we report the isolation of metabolites indicative of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation from a large fraction of 77 degraded oil samples from both marine and lacustrine sources from around the world, including the volumetrically important Canadian tar sands. Our results therefore suggest that anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation is a common process in biodegraded subsurface oil reservoirs.

  13. Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Using ZnFe2O4/MWCNT Composite Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Singhal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were synthesized using arc discharge method at a magnetic field of 430 G and purified using HNO3/H2O2. Transmission electron micrographs revealed that MWCNTs had inner and outer diameter of ~2 nm and ~4 nm, respectively. Raman spectroscopy confirmed formation of MWCNTs showing G-band at 1577 cm−1. ZnFe2O4 and ZnFe2O4/MWCNT were produced using one step hydrothermal method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD confirmed the formation of cubic spinel ZnFe2O4 as well as incorporation of MWCNT into ZnFe2O4. Visible light photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB was studied using pure ZnFe2O4 and ZnFe2O4/MWCNT. The results showed that ZnFe2O4/MWCNT composite had higher photocatalytic activity as compared to pure ZnFe2O4. After irradiation for 5 hours in the visible light, MB was almost 84% degraded in the presence of ZnFe2O4 photocatalyst, while 99% degradation was observed in case of ZnFe2O4/MWCNT composite. This enhancement in the photocatalytic activity of composite may be attributed to the inhibition of recombination of photogenerated charge carriers.

  14. Self-Powered Electrostatic Filter with Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Formaldehyde Based on Built-in Triboelectric Nanogenerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yawei; Ling, Lili; Nie, Jinhui; Han, Kai; Chen, Xiangyu; Bian, Zhenfeng; Li, Hexing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-12-26

    Recently, atmospheric pollution caused by particulate matter or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has become a serious issue to threaten human health. Consequently, it is highly desirable to develop an efficient purifying technique with simple structure and low cost. In this study, by combining a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and a photocatalysis technique, we demonstrated a concept of a self-powered filtering method for removing pollutants from indoor atmosphere. The photocatalyst P25 or Pt/P25 was embedded on the surface of polymer-coated stainless steel wires, and such steel wires were woven into a filtering network. A strong electric field can be induced on this filtering network by TENG, while both electrostatic adsorption effect and TENG-enhanced photocatalytic effect can be achieved. Rhodamine B (RhB) steam was selected as the pollutant for demonstration. The absorbed RhB on the filter network with TENG in 1 min was almost the same amount of absorption achieved in 15 min without using TENG. Meanwhile, the degradation of RhB was increased over 50% under the drive of TENG. Furthermore, such a device was applied for the degradation of formaldehyde, where degradation efficiency was doubled under the drive of TENG. This work extended the application for the TENG in self-powered electrochemistry, design and concept of which can be possibly applied in the field of haze governance, indoor air cleaning, and photocatalytic pollution removal for environmental protection.

  15. Enhanced ultrasound-assisted degradation of methyl orange and metronidazole by rectorite-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Na; Zhang, Gaoke; Guo, Sheng; Wan, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the rectorite-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI/R) was synthesized through a reduction method. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the existence of the nZVI in the nZVI/R composite and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the nZVI particles were partly oxidized into iron oxide. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the nZVI particles were highly dispersed on the surface of the rectorite. The specific surface area of the nZVI/R composite is 21.43 m(2)/g, which was higher than that of rectorite (4.30 m(2)/g) and nZVI (17.97 m(2)/g). In the presence of ultrasound (US), the degradation of methyl orange and metronidazole by the nZVI/R composite was over 93% and 97% within 20 min, respectively, which is much higher than that by the rectorite and the nZVI. The degradation ratio of methyl orange and metronidazole by the nZVI/R composite under US was 1.7 and 1.8 times as high as that by the nZVI/R composite without US, respectively. The mechanism of the enhanced degradation of methyl orange and metronidazole under US irradiation was studied. These results indicate that the US/nZVI/R process has great potential application value for treatment of dye wastewater and medicine wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced visible-light induced degradation of benzene on Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI nanospheres: in situ FTIR investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu; Zhao, Qidong; Li, Xinyong; Yuan, Deling; Hou, Yang; Liu, Shaomin

    2012-11-30

    The dramatic enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Mg-ferrite/hematite nanospheres photocatalysts on benzene were obtained after hybridized by polyaniline (PANI) using the chemisorption method. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of benzene under visible-light irradiation was mainly ascribed to the high efficiency of charge separation induced by the hybrid effect of PANI and Mg-ferrite/hematite. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO(2) is determined as the final product during the reaction process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Anaerobic desulphurisation of thiophenes by mixed microbial communities from oilfields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, C.L.M.; Ivanova, A.E.; Janssen, A.J.H.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichment cultures obtained from oil fields degraded various thiophenic compounds i.e. thiophene, benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene, with the concomitant formation of sulphide using hydrogen, lactate and ethanol as possible electron donors. It was demonstrated that dibenzothiophene was

  18. Enhancing Natural Attenuation Through Bioaugmentation with Aerobic Bacteria that Degrade Cis-1,2-Dichloroethene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    transport to and subsequent injection at a suitable field site. Kinetic assays have also allowed for estimation of biodegradation rates (e.g., cDCE degrades...VC), 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), or ethene while growing on cDCE, its application can be expanded to sites containing not only cDCE but mixtures of...reagent was added to each well of a 96-well, black polystyrene plate (Corning). Another 100 μl of sample or standard was added to each well. Samples

  19. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of copper-doped titanium oxide–zinc oxide heterojunction for methyl orange degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorraj, Masoumeh, E-mail: masidor20@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Alizadeh, Mahdi [UM Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Centre (UMPEDAC), Level 4 Wisma R& D, University of Malaya, Jalan Pantai Baharu, 59990 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sairi, Nor Asrina, E-mail: asrina@um.edu.my [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); University of Malaya Centre for Ionic Liquids, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Basirun, Wan Jefrey [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Goh, Boon Tong [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Woi, Pei Meng; Alias, Yatimah [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); University of Malaya Centre for Ionic Liquids, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • The novel Cu-TiO{sub 2}/ZnO heterojunction nanocomposite was synthesized for the first time via a two-step process. • The Cu-TiO{sub 2}/ZnO heterostructured nanocomposite exhibited an enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for MO degradation. • The heterostructured nanocomposite could be recycled during the degradation of MO in a three-cycle experiment with good stability. - Abstract: A novel Cu-doped TiO{sub 2} coupled with ZnO nanoparticles (Cu-TiO{sub 2}/ZnO) was prepared by sol-gel method and subsequent precipitation for methyl orange (MO) photodegradation under visible light irradiation. The compositions and shapes of the as-prepared Cu-TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanocomposites were characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller adsorption isotherm techniques. The Cu-TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanocomposites showed considerably higher photocatalytic activity for MO removal from water under visible light irradiation than that of single-doped semiconductors. The effects of Cu-TiO{sub 2} and ZnO mass ratios on the photocatalytic reaction were also studied. A coupling percentage of 30% ZnO exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the Cu-TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanocomposites was mainly attributed to heterojunction formation, which allowed the efficient separation of photoinduced electron−hole pairs at the interface. Moreover, these novel nanocomposites could be recycled during MO degradation in a three-cycle experiment without evident deactivation, which is particularly important in environmental applications.

  20. In-situ biogas sparging enhances the performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) with mesh filter in low-strength wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Hu, Yi; Lu, Yong-Ze; Zeng, Raymond J; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-07-01

    In the recent years, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology is being considered as a very attractive alternative for wastewater treatment due to the striking advantages such as upgraded effluent quality. However, fouling control is still a problem for the application of AnMBR. This study investigated the performance of an AnMBR using mesh filter as support material to treat low-strength wastewater via in-situ biogas sparging. It was found that mesh AnMBR exhibited high and stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies with values of 95 ± 5 % and an average methane yield of 0.24 L CH4/g CODremoved. Variation of transmembrane pressure (TMP) during operation indicated that mesh fouling was mitigated by in-situ biogas sparging and the fouling rate was comparable to that of aerobic membrane bioreactor with mesh filter reported in previous researches. The fouling layer formed on the mesh exhibited non-uniform structure; the porosity became larger from bottom layer to top layer. Biogas sparging could not change the composition but make thinner thickness of cake layer, which might be benefit for reducing membrane fouling rate. It was also found that ultrasonic cleaning of fouled mesh was able to remove most foulants on the surface or pores. This study demonstrated that in-situ biogas sparging enhanced the performance of AnMBRs with mesh filter in low-strength wastewater treatment. Apparently, AnMBRs with mesh filter can be used as a promising and sustainable technology for wastewater treatment.

  1. Anaerobic Coculture of Microalgae with Thermosipho globiformans and Methanocaldococcus jannaschii at 68°C Enhances Generation of n-Alkane-Rich Biofuels after Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Shigeru; Igarashi, Kensuke; Utsumi, Motoo; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro; Kuwabara, Tomohiko

    2013-01-01

    We tested different alga-bacterium-archaeon consortia to investigate the production of oil-like mixtures, expecting that n-alkane-rich biofuels might be synthesized after pyrolysis. Thermosipho globiformans and Methanocaldococcus jannaschii were cocultured at 68°C with microalgae for 9 days under two anaerobic conditions, followed by pyrolysis at 300°C for 4 days. Arthrospira platensis (Cyanobacteria), Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyta), Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta), and Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyta) served as microalgal raw materials. D. tertiolecta, E. huxleyi, and E. gracilis cocultured with the bacterium and archaeon inhibited their growth and CH4 production. E. huxleyi had the strongest inhibitory effect. Biofuel generation was enhanced by reducing impurities containing alkanenitriles during pyrolysis. The composition and amounts of n-alkanes produced by pyrolysis were closely related to the lipid contents and composition of the microalgae. Pyrolysis of A. platensis and D. tertiolecta containing mainly phospholipids and glycolipids generated short-carbon-chain n-alkanes (n-tridecane to n-nonadecane) and considerable amounts of isoprenoids. E. gracilis also produced mainly short n-alkanes. In contrast, E. huxleyi containing long-chain (31 and 33 carbon atoms) alkenes and very long-chain (37 to 39 carbon atoms) alkenones, in addition to phospholipids and glycolipids, generated a high yield of n-alkanes of various lengths (n-tridecane to n-pentatriacontane). The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) profiles of these n-alkanes were similar to those of native petroleum crude oils despite containing a considerable amount of n-hentriacontane. The ratio of phytane to n-octadecane was also similar to that of native crude oils. PMID:23183975

  2. Anaerobic coculture of microalgae with Thermosipho globiformans and Methanocaldococcus jannaschii at 68°C enhances generation of n-alkane-rich biofuels after pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Kunio; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Igarashi, Kensuke; Utsumi, Motoo; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro; Kuwabara, Tomohiko

    2013-02-01

    We tested different alga-bacterium-archaeon consortia to investigate the production of oil-like mixtures, expecting that n-alkane-rich biofuels might be synthesized after pyrolysis. Thermosipho globiformans and Methanocaldococcus jannaschii were cocultured at 68°C with microalgae for 9 days under two anaerobic conditions, followed by pyrolysis at 300°C for 4 days. Arthrospira platensis (Cyanobacteria), Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyta), Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta), and Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyta) served as microalgal raw materials. D. tertiolecta, E. huxleyi, and E. gracilis cocultured with the bacterium and archaeon inhibited their growth and CH(4) production. E. huxleyi had the strongest inhibitory effect. Biofuel generation was enhanced by reducing impurities containing alkanenitriles during pyrolysis. The composition and amounts of n-alkanes produced by pyrolysis were closely related to the lipid contents and composition of the microalgae. Pyrolysis of A. platensis and D. tertiolecta containing mainly phospholipids and glycolipids generated short-carbon-chain n-alkanes (n-tridecane to n-nonadecane) and considerable amounts of isoprenoids. E. gracilis also produced mainly short n-alkanes. In contrast, E. huxleyi containing long-chain (31 and 33 carbon atoms) alkenes and very long-chain (37 to 39 carbon atoms) alkenones, in addition to phospholipids and glycolipids, generated a high yield of n-alkanes of various lengths (n-tridecane to n-pentatriacontane). The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) profiles of these n-alkanes were similar to those of native petroleum crude oils despite containing a considerable amount of n-hentriacontane. The ratio of phytane to n-octadecane was also similar to that of native crude oils.

  3. Dry anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal waste with paperboard mill sludge and gelatin solid waste for enhancement of hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsamadony, M; Tawfik, A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the bio-H2 production via dry anaerobic co-fermentation of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with protein and calcium-rich substrates such as gelatin solid waste (GSW) and paperboard mill sludge (PMS). Co-fermentation of OFMSW/GSW/PMS significantly enhanced the H2 production (HP) and H2 yield (HY). The maximum HP of 1082.5±91.4 mL and HY of 144.9±9.8 mL/gVSremoved were achieved at a volumetric ratio of 70% OFMSW:20% GSW:10% PMS. COD, carbohydrate, protein and lipids conversion efficiencies were 60.9±4.4%, 71.4±3.5%, 22.6±2.3% and 20.5±1.8% respectively. Co-fermentation process reduced the particle size distribution which is favorably utilized by hydrogen producing bacteria. The mean particle size diameters for feedstock and the digestate were 939.3 and 115.2μm, respectively with reduction value of 8.15-fold in the mixtures. The volumetric H2 production increased from 4.5±0.3 to 7.2±0.6 L(H2)/L(substrate) at increasing Ca(+2) concentrations from 1.8±0.1 to 6.3±0.5 g/L respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multistep Phosphorylation by Oncogenic Kinases Enhances the Degradation of the NF2 Tumor Suppressor Merlin1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulajainen, Minja; Muranen, Taru; Nyman, Tuula A; Carpén, Olli; Grönholm, Mikaela

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the Neurofibromatosis 2 gene (NF2) predispose to tumors of the nervous system, mainly schwannomas and meningiomas. The NF2 gene encodes for the tumor suppressor protein merlin (moesin-ezrin-radixin-like protein), which functions as a linker between the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton. Carboxyterminal phosphorylation affects merlin activity, but many open questions on the regulation of merlin function still remain. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway is activated in human vestibular schwannoma, suggesting a role for Akt-dependent merlin regulation in the formation of these tumors. In this study, we identify merlin serine 10 as a novel substrate for Akt phosphorylation. We demonstrate that this N-terminal phosphorylation directs merlin for proteasome-mediated degradation and affects merlin binding to the E3 ligase component DCAF1. Our data indicate that sequential phosphorylation of merlin C- and N-terminus by different oncogenic kinases targets merlin for degradation and thus downregulates its activity. On the basis of these findings, we propose a model for a posttranslational mechanism of merlin inactivation. PMID:21750658

  5. Multistep phosphorylation by oncogenic kinases enhances the degradation of the NF2 tumor suppressor merlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulajainen, Minja; Muranen, Taru; Nyman, Tuula A; Carpén, Olli; Grönholm, Mikaela

    2011-07-01

    Mutations in the Neurofibromatosis 2 gene (NF2) predispose to tumors of the nervous system, mainly schwannomas and meningiomas. The NF2 gene encodes for the tumor suppressor protein merlin (moesin-ezrin-radixin-like protein), which functions as a linker between the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton. Carboxyterminal phosphorylation affects merlin activity, but many open questions on the regulation of merlin function still remain. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway is activated in human vestibular schwannoma, suggesting a role for Akt-dependent merlin regulation in the formation of these tumors. In this study, we identify merlin serine 10 as a novel substrate for Akt phosphorylation. We demonstrate that this N-terminal phosphorylation directs merlin for proteasome-mediated degradation and affects merlin binding to the E3 ligase component DCAF1. Our data indicate that sequential phosphorylation of merlin C- and N-terminus by different oncogenic kinases targets merlin for degradation and thus downregulates its activity. On the basis of these findings, we propose a model for a posttranslational mechanism of merlin inactivation.

  6. Enhanced heterogeneous photo-Fenton process modified by magnetite and EDDS: BPA degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenyu; Luo, Mengqi; Wei, Chaoshuai; Wang, Yinghui; Hanna, Khalil; Mailhot, Gilles

    2017-04-01

    In this research, magnetite and ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) are used in a heterogeneous photo-Fenton system in order to find a new way to remove organic contaminants from water. Influence of different parameters including magnetite dosage, EDDS concentration, H2O2 concentration, and pH value were evaluated. The effect of different radical species including HO· and HO2·/O2·- was investigated by addition of different scavengers into the system. The addition of EDDS improved the heterogeneous photo-Fenton degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) through the formation of photochemically efficient Fe-EDDS complex. This effect is dependent on the H2O2 and EDDS concentrations and pH value. The high performance observed at pH 6.2 could be explained by the ability of O2·- to generate Fe(II) from Fe(III) species reduction. GC-MS analysis suggested that the cleavage of the two benzene rings is the first degradation step followed by oxidation leading to the formation of the benzene derivatives. Then, the benzene ring was opened due to the attack of HO· radicals producing short-chain organic compounds of low molecular weight like glycerol and ethylene glycol. These findings regarding the capability of EDDS/magnetite system to promote heterogeneous photo-Fenton oxidation have important practical implications for water treatment technologies.

  7. Kinetics of propionate conversion in anaerobic continuously stirred tank reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2008-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of anaerobic propionate degradation by biomass from 7 continuously stirred tank reactors differing in temperature, hydraulic retention time and substrate composition were investigated. In substrate-depletion experiments (batch) the maximum propionate degradation rate, A......-m, was estimated. The results demonstrate that the rate of endogenous substrate (propionate) production should be taken into account when estimating kinetic parameters in biomass from manure-based anaerobic reactors....

  8. Reductive transformation and detoxification mechanism of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in combined zero valent iron and anaerobic-aerobic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jinyou; Zhou, Zongyuan; Ou, Changjin; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Han, Weiqing; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Lianjun

    2012-01-01

    A combined zero valent iron (ZVI) and anaerobic-aerobic process was adopted for the treatment of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-containing wastewater. The transformation pathway, reduction of acute toxicity and enhancement of biodegradability were investigated. After pretreatment by ZVI, DNCB in wastewater could be completely converted into 2,4-diaminochlorobenzene (DACB). The ratio of BOD5/COD increased from 0.005 +/- 0.001 to 0.168 +/- 0.007, while EC(50, 48 hr) (V/V) increased from 0.65% to 5.20%, indicating the enhancement of biodegradability and reduction of acute toxicity with the pretreatment by ZVI. DACB was further dechlorinated to m-phenylenediamine during the anaerobic process using methanol as electron donor, with EC(50, 48 hr) increasing from 5.20% to 48.2%. After the subsequent anaerobic-aerobic process, m-phenylenediamine was degraded completely, with effluent COD of 67.5 +/- 10.8 mg/L. This effluent of the subsequent anaerobic-aerobic process was not toxic to zebrafish. The combined ZVI and anaerobic-aerobic process offers bright prospects for the treatment of chlorinated nitroaromatic compound-containing wastewater.

  9. Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange Dye under the Daylight Irradiation over CN-TiO₂ Modified with OMS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamed Elfatih; Chen, Jing; Liu, Guanglong; Zhu, Duanwei; Cai, Jianbo

    2014-12-12

    In this study, CN-TiO₂ was modified with cryptomelane octahedral molecular sieves (OMS-2) by the sol-gel method based on the self-assembly technique to enhance its photocatalytic activity under the daylight irradiation. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and porosimeter analysis. The results showed that the addition of OMS-2 in the sol lead to higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, pore volume, porosity of particle after heat treatment and the specific surface area, porosity, crystallite size and pore size distribution could be controlled by adjusting the calcination temperature. Compared to the CN-TiO₂-400 sample, CN-TiO₂/OMS-2-400 exhibited greater red shift in absorption edge of samples in visible region due to the OMS-2 coated. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity of CN-TiO₂/OMS-2 composite photocatalyst was subsequently evaluated for the degradation of the methyl orange dye under the daylight irradiation in water. The results showed that the methyl orange dye degradation rate reach to 37.8% for the CN-TiO₂/OMS-2-400 sample under the daylight irradiation for 5 h, which was higher than that of reference sample. The enhancement in daylight photocatalytic activities of the CN-TiO₂/OMS samples could be attributed to the synergistic effects of OMS-2 coated, larger surface area and red shift in adsorption edge of the prepared sample.

  10. Preparation of mesoporous TiO2 with enhanced photocatalytic activity towards tannery wastewater degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weiwei; He, Xiu; Peng, Yu; Zhang, Hongfeng; Sun, Donglan; Wang, Xiaocong

    2017-03-01

    Ordered mesoporous TiO2 materials are successfully synthesized via a sol-gel route using butyl titanate as a precursor and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate surfactants as soft templates. The as-prepared TiO2 samples possess a relatively high surface area of 40.03 m2/g and the center of pore diameter distribution of 13.04 nm. They exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity towards degradation of organic pollutants in tannery wastewater under UV-light and natural sunlight irradiation. The effect of the catalyst dosage, the pH value of the solution and the concentration of H2O2 are discussed in detail. This work would pave an avenue for purifying various industrial wastewaters through an advanced photocatalytic oxidation process.

  11. Pyrite-enhanced methylene blue degradation in non-thermal plasma water treatment reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benetoli, Luis Otavio de Brito, E-mail: luskywalcker@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Cadorin, Bruno Mena; Baldissarelli, Vanessa Zanon [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Geremias, Reginaldo [Departamento de Ciencias Rurais, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Curitibanos, SC (Brazil); Goncalvez de Souza, Ivan [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Debacher, Nito Angelo, E-mail: debacher@qmc.ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-10-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use O{sub 2} as the feed gas and pyrite was added to the non-thermal plasma reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The methylene blue removal by NTP increased in the presence of pyrite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The total organic carbon content decreased substantially. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The acute toxicity test showed that the treated solution is not toxic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dye degradation occurs via electron impact as well as successive hydroxylation. - Abstract: In this study, methylene blue (MB) removal from an aqueous phase by electrical discharge non-thermal plasma (NTP) over water was investigated using three different feed gases: N{sub 2}, Ar, and O{sub 2}. The results showed that the dye removal rate was not strongly dependent on the feed gas when the electrical current was kept the same for all gases. The hydrogen peroxide generation in the water varied according to the feed gas (N{sub 2} < Ar < O{sub 2}). Using O{sub 2} as the feed gas, pyrite was added to the reactor in acid medium resulting in an accentuated increase in the dye removal, which suggests that pyrite acts as a Fenton-like catalyst. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the dye solution decreased slightly as the plasma treatment time increased, but in the presence of the pyrite catalyst the TOC removal increased substantially. The acute toxicity test using Artemia sp. microcrustaceans showed that the treated solution is not toxic when Ar, O{sub 2} or O{sub 2}-pyrite is employed. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis (ESI-MS) of the treated samples indicated that the dye degradation occurs via high energy electron impact as well as successive hydroxylation in the benzene rings of the dye molecules.

  12. A Crohn's disease variant in Atg16l1 enhances its degradation by caspase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Aditya; Li, Yun; Peng, Ivan; Reichelt, Mike; Katakam, Anand Kumar; Noubade, Rajkumar; Roose-Girma, Merone; Devoss, Jason; Diehl, Lauri; Graham, Robert R.; van Lookeren Campagne, Menno

    2014-02-01

    Crohn's disease is a debilitating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can involve the entire digestive tract. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) encoding a missense variant in the autophagy gene ATG16L1 (rs2241880, Thr300Ala) is strongly associated with the incidence of Crohn's disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated the effect of ATG16L1 deletion or deficiency; however, the molecular consequences of the Thr300Ala (T300A) variant remains unknown. Here we show that amino acids 296-299 constitute a caspase cleavage motif in ATG16L1 and that the T300A variant (T316A in mice) significantly increases ATG16L1 sensitization to caspase-3-mediated processing. We observed that death-receptor activation or starvation-induced metabolic stress in human and murine macrophages increased degradation of the T300A or T316A variants of ATG16L1, respectively, resulting in diminished autophagy. Knock-in mice harbouring the T316A variant showed defective clearance of the ileal pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica and an elevated inflammatory cytokine response. In turn, deletion of the caspase-3-encoding gene, Casp3, or elimination of the caspase cleavage site by site-directed mutagenesis rescued starvation-induced autophagy and pathogen clearance, respectively. These findings demonstrate that caspase 3 activation in the presence of a common risk allele leads to accelerated degradation of ATG16L1, placing cellular stress, apoptotic stimuli and impaired autophagy in a unified pathway that predisposes to Crohn's disease.

  13. Anaerobic hydrolysis during digestion of complex substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Complex waste(water) such as, raw sewage, dairy wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, fish processing wastewater, primary sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste have been proven to be degradable under anaerobic conditions. However, during the digestion process the

  14. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the

  15. A Novel Laccase from Ganoderma Lucidum Capable of Enhancing Enzymatic Degradation of Lignocellulolytic Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    for the hydrolysis of biomass using a laccase derived from Ganoderma lucidum. Further, the invention provides an enzyme composition comprising a laccase derived from Ganoderma lucidum which may be combined with one or more cellulases, and for its use in enhancing lignocellulose biomass hydrolysis....

  16. ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs for domestic wastewaters treatment was studied in laboratory scale, with the objective to define sustainable filtration conditions of the suspensions along the process. During continuous experiments, the organic matter degradation by anaerobic way showed an average DQOT removal of 85% and 93%. Indeed, the degradation generated biogas after 12 days of operation and its relative methane composition was of 60% after 25 days of operation. Additionally, the comparison between membrane bioreactors (MBRs performance in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in filterability terms, reported that both systems behave similarly once reached the stationary state.

  17. Iron dependent degradation of an isothiazolone biocide (5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanji, Y; Nishihara, T; Miyanaga, K

    2007-01-01

    An isothiazolone biocide, 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (CMI), was degraded in the presence of iron. According to the Fe-dependent degradation of CMI, stoichiometric production of chloride was observed. Copper and stainless steel did not enhance the physico-chemical degradation of CMI, whilst phosphate inhibited the Fe-dependent degradation. Neither aerobic nor anaerobic conditions influenced the Fe-dependent CMI degradation. Furthermore, FeO(OH)-powder and Fe(3)O(4)-powder did not lead to the physico-chemical degradation of CMI. Rapid disappearance of CMI was observed in an operating cooling water plant. CMI added to the cooling tower declined from 1.4 mg l(-1) to < 0.1 mg l(-1) in 2 d. This finding is important in optimising the use of CMI and combating resistance if encountered.

  18. Fabrication of A/R-TiO2 composite for enhanced photoelectrochemical performance: Solar hydrogen generation and dye degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadik, Mahadeo A.; An, Gil Woo; David, Selvaraj; Choi, Sun Hee; Cho, Min; Jang, Jum Suk

    2017-12-01

    Anatase/rutile TiO2 nanorods composites were prepared by a facile hydrothermal method followed by dip coating method using titanium isopropoxide in acetic acid and ethanol solvent. The effects of the titanium isopropoxide precursor concentration, on the formation of dip coated anatase/rutile TiO2 nanorods composite were systematically explored. The growth of anatase on rutile TiO2 nanorods can be controlled by varying the titanium isopropoxide concentration. The morphological study reveals that anatase TiO2 nanograins formed on the surface of rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays through dip coating method. Photoelectrochemical analyses showed that the enhancement of the photocatalytic activities of the samples is affected by the anatase nanograins present on the rutile TiO2 nanorods, which can induce the separation of electrons and holes. To interpret the photoelectrochemical behaviors, the prepared photoelectrodes were applied in photoelectrochemical solar hydrogen generation and orange II dye degradation. The optimized photocurrent density of 1.8 mA cm-2 and the 625 μmol hydrogen generation was observed for 10 mM anatase/rutile TiO2 NRs composites. Additionally, 96% removal of the orange II dye was achieved within 5 h during oxidative degradation under solar light irradiation. One of the benefits of high specific surface area and the efficient photogenerated charge transport in the anatase/rutile TiO2 nanorod composite improves the photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation and orange dye degradation compared to the rutile TiO2. Thus, our strategy provides a promising, stable, and low cost alternative to existing photocatalysts and is expected to attract considerable attention for industrial applications.

  19. Ultrasound-enhanced nanosized zero-valent copper activation of hydrogen peroxide for the degradation of norfloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Yongqing; Ge, Yongjian; Wu, Huadan; Li, Qingsong; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Commercial nanosized zero-valent copper (nZVC) was used as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) activator in conjunction with ultrasonic irradiation (US) for the oxidative degradation of norfloxacin (NOR) in this study. Compared with silent degradation system, a significantly enhanced NOR removal was obtained in sono-advanced Fenton process, which involved a synergistic effect between sonolysis and Fenton-like reaction. Almost complete removal of NOR was achieved at 30min when the operating conditions were 0.25g/L nZVC and 10mM H2O2 with ultrasound power of 240W at 20kHz. The released Cu(+) during the nZVC dissolution was the predominant copper species to activate H2O2 and yield hydroxyl radicals (OH) in US/nZVC/H2O2 system. According to the radical quenching experiments and electron paramagnetic resonance technique, hydroxyl radicals in solution (OHfree) were verified as the primary reactive species, and superoxide anion radicals (O2(-)) were regarded as the mediator for the copper cycling by reduction of Cu(2+) to Cu(+). NOR removal efficiencies were improved in various degrees when increased nZVC dosage, ultrasound power, hydrogen-ion amount and H2O2 concentration. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of different inorganic salts on NOR degradation followed the sequence of Na2SO4>NaNO3≈no salt>NaCl>NaHCO3. Finally, eleven intermediates were identified and five oxidation pathways were proposed, the cleavage of piperazine ring and transformation of quinolone group seemed to be the major pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhanced antibacterial properties, biocompatibility, and corrosion resistance of degradable Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hui; Zhao, Yaochao; An, Zhiquan; Cheng, Mengqi; Wang, Qi; Cheng, Tao; Wang, Qiaojie; Wang, Jiaxing; Jiang, Yao; Zhang, Xianlong; Yuan, Guangyin

    2015-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg), a potential biodegradable material, has recently received increasing attention due to its unique antibacterial property. However, rapid corrosion in the physiological environment and potential toxicity limit clinical applications. In order to improve the corrosion resistance meanwhile not compromise the antibacterial activity, a novel Mg alloy, Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr (Hereafter, denoted as JDBM), is fabricated by alloying with neodymium (Nd), zinc (Zn), zirconium (Zr). pH value, Mg ion concentration, corrosion rate and electrochemical test show that the corrosion resistance of JDBM is enhanced. A systematic investigation of the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial capability of JDBM is performed. The results of microbiological counting, CLSM, SEM in vitro, and microbiological cultures, histopathology in vivo consistently show JDBM enhanced the antibacterial activity. In addition, the significantly improved cytocompatibility is observed from JDBM. The results suggest that JDBM effectively enhances the corrosion resistance, biocompatibility and antimicrobial properties of Mg by alloying with the proper amount of Zn, Zr and Nd. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rare earth oxide-doped titania nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of partially hydrolysis polyacrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jinhuan [Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Daqing Petroleum Institute, Daqing 163318 (China); Yang Xia; Yu Xiaodan; Xu, Leilei [School of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Kang Wanli [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and Enhanced Oil Recovery Research Center, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266555 (China)], E-mail: kangwanli@126.com; Yan Wenhua; Gao Hongfeng; Liu Zhonghe [Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Daqing Petroleum Institute, Daqing 163318 (China); Guo Yihang [School of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)], E-mail: guoyh@nenu.edu.cn

    2009-01-01

    Rare-earth oxide-doped titania nanocomposites (RE{sup 3+}/TiO{sub 2}, where RE = Eu{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, and Y{sup 3+}) were prepared by a one-step sol-gel-solvothermal method. The products exhibited anatase phase structure, mesoporosity, and interesting surface compositions with three oxygen species and two titanium species. The products were used as the photocatalysts to degrade a partially hydrolysis polyacrylamide (HPAM) under UV-light irradiation, a very useful polymer in oil recovery. For comparison, Degussa P25 and as-prepared pure TiO{sub 2} were also tested under the same conditions. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was obtained on as-prepared Eu{sup 3+} (Gd{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+})/TiO{sub 2} composites, and the reasons were explained. Finally, the degradation pathway of HPAM over the RE{sup 3+}/TiO{sub 2} composite was put forward based on the intermediates produced during the photocatalysis procedure.

  2. Enhanced degradation of acid red 1 dye using a coupled system of zero valent iron nanoparticles and sonolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shoniya; Abraham, Sijumon V; Aravind, Usha K; Aravindakumar, Charuvila T

    2017-11-01

    The heterogeneous catalytic degradation of a model azo dye, acid red 1 (AR1), initiated by zero valent iron nanoparticles (ZVINP), and its synergic effect with ultrasound (US) have been investigated in the present study. The treatment of AR1 using ZVINP at pH 3 showed maximum efficiency in terms of colour removal (53.0%) and mineralization (48.5% TOC reduction) after 25 min of reaction. However, the coupling of this system with US showed an enhanced efficiency against the decolourization and mineralization of AR1. More than 95% colour removal was achieved within 5 min in the case of US/ZVINP system. Around 55% TOC reduction suggests the conversion of the parent molecules in to aromatic transformed products, and it is further supported by LC-Q-TOF analysis. The remarkably higher efficiency in the coupled system is attributed to the synergic effect of ZVINPs and ultrasound. The highest degradation rates observed at highly acidic (pH 3) and alkaline pH (pH 9) suggests that different mechanisms are operating at both pH. The products identified gave some insight into the mechanism. The ZVINPs prepared in the present study was easily recoverable (and reusable) and hence may be considered as an effective replacement for the conventional Fenton's reagent.

  3. Biogenic hierarchical TiO₂/SiO₂ derived from rice husk and enhanced photocatalytic properties for dye degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rice husk, an agricultural bioresource, is utilized as a non-metallic bio-precursor to synthesize biogenic hierarchical TiO₂/SiO₂ (BH-TiO₂/SiO₂ and the products are applied to dye degradation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The as-prepared BH-TiO₂/SiO₂ samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS, nitrogen-adsorption measurement, UV-vis spectroscopy and electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR. The results show that BH-TiO₂/SiO₂ possesses both anatase and rutile phases with amorphous SiO₂ as background, which contains mesopore structure, and nitrogen derived from original rice husk is self-doped into the lattice. Besides, the light-harvesting within the visible-light range of BH-TiO₂/SiO₂ has been enhanced. Moreover, the catalytic activity of BH-TiO₂/SiO₂ has been proven by EPR, and both the photocatalytic activity and stability of BH-TiO₂/SiO₂ are improved as well, which has been illustrated by cycled degradation of methylene blue dye under irradiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work provides a good way to combine natural hierarchical porous structure with synthetic material chemistry based on available biomass in the vast natural environment for the sustainable development of human society, and extends potentials of biomass in applications such as photocatalysts, sunlight splitting water and so forth.

  4. Enhanced Phospholipase A2 Group 3 Expression by Oxidative Stress Decreases the Insulin-Degrading Enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daishi Yui

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative damage in specific regions of the brain is associated with selective neurodegeneration. We previously reported that Alzheimer disease (AD model mice showed decreased insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE levels in the cerebrum and accelerated phenotypic features of AD when crossbred with alpha-tocopherol transfer protein knockout (Ttpa-/- mice. To further investigate the role of chronic oxidative stress in AD pathophysiology, we performed DNA microarray analysis using young and aged wild-type mice and aged Ttpa-/- mice. Among the genes whose expression changed dramatically was Phospholipase A2 group 3 (Pla2g3; Pla2g3 was identified because of its expression profile of cerebral specific up-regulation by chronic oxidative stress in silico and in aged Ttpa-/- mice. Immunohistochemical studies also demonstrated that human astrocytic Pla2g3 expression was significantly increased in human AD brains compared with control brains. Moreover, transfection of HEK293 cells with human Pla2g3 decreased endogenous IDE expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings show a key role of Pla2g3 on the reduction of IDE, and suggest that cerebrum specific increase of Pla2g3 is involved in the initiation and/or progression of AD.

  5. Anaerobe Tolerance to Oxygen and the Potentials of Anaerobic and Aerobic Cocultures for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Kato

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic treatment processes are considered to be well-established methods for the elimination of easily biodegradable organic matter from wastewaters. Some difficulties concerning certain wastewaters are related to the possible presence of dissolved oxygen. The common belief is that anaerobes are oxygen intolerant. Therefore, the common practice is to use sequencing anaerobic and aerobic steps in separate tanks. Enhanced treatment by polishing off the residual biodegradable oxygen demand from effluents of anaerobic reactors, or the biodegradation of recalcitrant wastewater pollutants, usually requires sequenced anaerobic and aerobic bacteria activities. However, the combined activity of both bacteria can also be obtained in a single reactor. Previous experiments with either pure or mixed cultures showed that anaerobes can tolerate oxygen to a certain extent. The oxygen toxicity to methanogens in anaerobic sludges was quantified in batch experiments, as well as in anaerobic reactors. The results showed that methanogens have a high tolerance to oxygen. In practice, it was confirmed that dissolved oxygen does not constitute any detrimental effect on reactor treatment performance. This means that the coexistence of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in one single reactor is feasible and increases the potentials of new applications in wastewater treatment

  6. Structural and Functional Studies of Aspergillus oryzae Cutinase: Enhanced Thermostability and Hydrolytic Activity of Synthetic Ester and Polyester Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z.; Gosser, Y; Baker, P; Ravee, Y; Li, H; Butterfoss, G; Kong, X; Gross, R; Montclare, J; et al.

    2009-01-01

    Cutinases are responsible for hydrolysis of the protective cutin lipid polyester matrix in plants and thus have been exploited for hydrolysis of small molecule esters and polyesters. Here we explore the reactivity, stability, and structure of Aspergillus oryzae cutinase and compare it to the well-studied enzyme from Fusarium solani. Two critical differences are highlighted in the crystallographic analysis of the A. oryzae structure: (i) an additional disulfide bond and (ii) a topologically favored catalytic triad with a continuous and deep groove. These structural features of A. oryzae cutinase are proposed to result in an improved hydrolytic activity and altered substrate specificity profile, enhanced thermostability, and remarkable reactivity toward the degradation of the synthetic polyester polycaprolactone. The results presented here provide insight into engineering new cutinase-inspired biocatalysts with tailor-made properties.

  7. Strongly enhanced Fenton degradation of organic pollutants by cysteine: An aliphatic amino acid accelerator outweighs hydroquinone analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tuo; Zhao, Zhenwen; Wang, Quan; Xie, Pengfei; Ma, Jiahai

    2016-11-15

    Quinone-hydroquinone analogues have been proven to be efficient promoters of Fenton reactions by accelerating the Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox cycle along with self-destruction. However, so far there is little information on non-quinone-hydroquinone cocatalyst for Fenton reactions. This study found that cysteine, a common aliphatic amino acid, can strongly enhance Fenton degradation of organic pollutants by accelerating Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox cycle, as quinone-hydroquinone analogues do. Further, cysteine is superior to quinone-hydroquinone analogues in catalytic activity, H2O2 utilization and atmospheric limits. The cocatalysis mechanism based on the cycle of cysteine/cystine was proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant: recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, L; Colturato, L F; Font, X; Vicent, T

    2010-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valorisation of STP-FOGW and lead to a higher biogas yield throughout the anaerobic digestion process. In the present study, STP-FOGW was evaluated as a co-substrate in wet anaerobic digestion of SC-OFMSW under mesophilic conditions (37 degrees C). Batch experiments carried out at different co-digestion ratios showed an improvement in methane production related to STP-FOGW addition. A 1:7 (VS/VS) STP-FOGW:SC-OFMSW feed ratio was selected for use in performing further lab-scale studies in a 5L continuous reactor. Biogas yield increased from 0.38+/-0.02 L g VS(feed)(-1) to 0.55+/-0.05 L g VS(feed)(-1) as a result of adding STP-FOGW to reactor feed. Both VS reduction values and biogas methane content were maintained and inhibition produced by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation was not observed. Recovery of a currently wasted methane potential from STP-FOGW was achieved in a co-digestion process with SC-OFMSW. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis of S-doped WO3 nanowires with enhanced photocatalytic performance towards dye degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fugui; Li, Heping; Fu, Li; Yang, Jun; Liu, Zhong

    2016-05-01

    In this letter, S-doped WO3 nanowires (S-WO3) were prepared using a hydrothermal method followed by a low-temperature solid-state annealing treatment. The synthesized S-WO3 was characterized by SEM, EDX, XRD, XPS, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis DRS and photocurrent responses. The results indicated that S could enhance the light harvesting capacity of WO3 nanowires. The photocatalytic performance of the S-WO3 was investigated by photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. Results demonstrated that the photocatalytic activity of the S-WO3 nanowires is much higher than that of pure WO3 nanowires.

  10. Enhanced degradation of haloacid by heterologous expression in related Burkholderia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xianbin; Deng, Liyu; Kong, Ka Fai; Tsang, Jimmy S H

    2013-10-01

    Haloacids are environmental pollutant and can be transformed to non-toxic alkanoic acids by microbial dehalogenase. Bacterium Burkholderia species MBA4 was enriched from soil for its ability to bioremediate haloacids such as mono-chloroacetate (MCA), mono-bromoacetate (MBA), 2-mono-chloropropionate, and 2-mono-bromopropionate. MBA4 produces an inducible dehalogenase Deh4a that catalyzes the dehalogenation process. The growth of MBA4 on haloacid also relies on the presence of a haloacid-uptake system. Similar dehalogenase genes can be found in the genome of many related species. However, wildtype Burkholderia caribensis MWAP64, Burkholderia phymatum STM815, and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 were not able to grow on MCA. When a plasmid containing the regulatory and structural gene of Deh4a was transformed to these species, they were able to grow on haloacid. The specific enzyme activities in these recombinants ranges from 2- to 30-fold that of MBA4 in similar condition. Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR showed that the relative transcript levels in these recombinant strains ranges from 9 to over 1,600 times that of MBA4 in similar condition. A recombinant has produced nearly five times of dehalogenase that MBA4 could ever achieve. While the expressions of Deh4a were more relaxed in these phylogenetically related species, an MCA-uptake activity was found to be inducible. These metabolically engineered strains are better degraders than the haloacid-enriched MBA4. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Anaerobic glycolysis and lymphocytes blastization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzuca, A

    1980-01-30

    The role of enhanced anaerobic glycolysis in the transformation of human peripheral lymphocytes induced by mitogens has been investigated. The DNA syntesis, lactate production and increment of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 5 (LDH5) have been studied. In this paper we present detailed kinetic studies, which indicate that LDH5 increment correlates closely with rapid synthetic activity and is not morely part of an overall increase in enzymatic activities.

  12. A detailed study on Sn4+ doped ZnO for enhanced photocatalytic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beura, Rosalin; Pachaiappan, R.; Thangadurai, P.

    2018-03-01

    The samples of Sn4+ doped (1, 5, 10, 15, 20 & 30%) ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by a low temperature hydrothermal method. Structural analysis by XRD and Raman spectroscopy showed the hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO and the formation of a secondary phase Zn2SnO4 beyond 10% doping of Sn4+. Microstructural analysis by TEM also confirmed the wurtzite ZnO with rod as well as particle like structure. Presence of various functional groups (sbnd OH, sbnd CH, Znsbnd O) were confirmed by FTIR. Optical properties were studied by UV-vis absorption, photoluminescence emission spectroscopies and lifetime measurement. Band gap of the undoped and Sn4+ doped ZnO were analyzed by Tauc plot and it was observed that the band gap of the materials had slightly decreased from 3.2 to 3.16 eV and again increased to 3.23 eV with respect to the increase in the doping concentration from 1 to 30%. A significant change was also noticed in the photoluminescence emission properties of ZnO i.e. increase in the intensity of NBE emission and decrease in DLE, on subject to Sn4+ doping. Average PL lifetime had increased from 29.45 ns for ZnO to 30.62 ns upon 1% Sn ion doping in ZnO. Electrical properties studied by solid state impedance spectroscopy showed that the conductivity had increased by one order of magnitude (from 7.48×10-8 to 2.21×10-7 S/cm) on Sn4+ doping. Photocatalytic experiments were performed on methyl orange (MO) as a model industrial dye under UV light irradiation for different irradiation times. The optimum Sn4+ content in order to achieve highest photocatalytic activity was found to be 1% Sn 4+ doping. The enhancement was achieved due to a decrease in the band gap favoring the generation of electron-hole pairs and the enhanced PL life time that delays the recombination of these charge carrier formation. The third reason was that the increased electrical conductivity that indicated the faster charge transfer in this material to enhance the photocatalytic activity. The Sn

  13. A comparative study of leachate quality and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qiyong; Tian, Ying; Wang, Shen; Ko, Jae Hac, E-mail: jaehacko@pkusz.edu.cn

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Temporary aeration shortened the initial acid inhibition phase for methanogens. • COD decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactor than that in the anaerobic control. • Methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4 L/kg{sub vs} and 113.2 L/kg{sub vs}. • MSW settlement increased with increasing the frequency of intermittent aeration. - Abstract: Research has been conducted to compare leachate characterization and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactor landfills with typical Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW). Three laboratory-scale reactors, an anaerobic (A1) and two hybrid bioreactors (C1 and C2), were constructed and operated for about 10 months. The hybrid bioreactors were operated in an aerobic–anaerobic mode with different aeration frequencies by providing air into the upper layer of waste. Results showed that the temporary aeration into the upper layer aided methane generation by shortening the initial acidogenic phase because of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) reduction and pH increase. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactors, but the concentrations of ammonia–nitrogen in the hybrid bioreactors were greater than those in the anaerobic control. Methanogenic conditions were established within 75 d and 60 d in C1 and C2, respectively. However, high aeration frequency led to the consumption of organic matters by aerobic degradation and resulted in reducing accumulative methane volume. The temporary aeration enhanced waste settlement and the settlement increased with increasing the frequency of aeration. Methane production was inhibited in the anaerobic control; however, the total methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4 L/kg{sub vs} and 113.2 L/kg{sub vs}. As for MSW with high content of food waste, leachate recirculation right after aeration stopped was not recommended due to VFA inhibition for methanogens.

  14. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to “slow rhythm music”, “fast rhythm music” or “no music”. 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN) tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music) was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p > 0.05). On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise. PMID:24744463

  15. Effect of music on anaerobic exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atan, T

    2013-03-01

    For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to "slow rhythm music", "fast rhythm music" or "no music". 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN) tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music) was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p > 0.05). On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise.

  16. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin Atan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to “slow rhythm music”, “fast rhythm music” or “no music”. 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p>0.05. On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise.

  17. Epidemiology of anaerobic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatko, S I

    1983-01-01

    The clinical importance of the anaerobic organisms, especially the toxicogenic Clostridia and some of the nonsporulating anaerobes, has been recognized for some time. Only within the last 20 years, however, owing to improved methodology, have gram-negative anaerobic bacilli, anaerobic cocci, and streptococci been commonly recognized and encountered in clinical infections. Today, anaerobic organisms are common isolates from infections involving intra-abdominal sites, the female genital tract, soft tissue, and oral areas and from major infections involving the lung, brain, and head and neck. Most of these infections are polymicrobial--involving both anaerobic and facultative or aerobic organisms. In some instances, it is difficult to ascertain what role is played by what organisms. No doubt, synergism is present in many cases. Because anaerobes are prevalent normal flora of the body, almost all anaerobic infections are of endogenous origin. Many of these anaerobes are opportunists; given the appropriate set of conditions, they will penetrate tissue and cause infection. Many have been associated with wound infection subsequent to bowel surgery or trauma, tubo-ovarian abscess, perirectal abscess, subphrenic abscess, postabortal sepsis, appendicitis, and many other infectious conditions. This article reviews the distribution of anaerobes in infected hospitalized patients and their relation to infection over a 5-year period.

  18. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity for Degradation of Methyl Orange over Silica-Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Guo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica-modified titania (SMT powders with different atomic ratios of silica to titanium (Rx were successfully synthesized by a simple ultrasonic irradiation technique. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, FT-IR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy. The specific surface area was measured according to BET theory. Results indicate that the addition of silica to titania can suppress the crystalline size growth and the transformation of anatase phase to rutile phase of titania, enlarge specific surface area of the titania particles, and result in a blue shift of absorption edge compared to pure titania. The photocatalytic activity of the SMT samples was evaluated by decolorizing methyl orange aqueous solutions under UV-visible light irradiation. It was found in our study that this activity was affected by silica content, calcination temperature, H2SO4, and oxidants such as KIO4, (NH42S2O8 and H2O2. The results reveal that the photocatalytic activity of 0.1-SMT catalyst is the best among all samples calcined at 550°C for 1 h and it is 1.56 times higher than that of Degussa P-25 titania, which is a widely used commercial TiO2 made by Germany Degussa company and has been most widely used in industry as photocatalyst, antiultraviolet product, and thermal stabilizer. The optimal calcination temperature for preparation was 550°C. The photocatalytic activity of SMT samples is significantly enhanced by H2SO4 solution treatment and oxidants.

  19. StAR Enhances Transcription of Genes Encoding the Mitochondrial Proteases Involved in Its Own Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahat, Assaf; Perlberg, Shira; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Lauria, Ines; Langer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is essential for steroid hormone synthesis in the adrenal cortex and the gonads. StAR activity facilitates the supply of cholesterol substrate into the inner mitochondrial membranes where conversion of the sterol to a steroid is catalyzed. Mitochondrial import terminates the cholesterol mobilization activity of StAR and leads to mounting accumulation of StAR in the mitochondrial matrix. Our studies suggest that to prevent mitochondrial impairment, StAR proteolysis is executed by at least 2 mitochondrial proteases, ie, the matrix LON protease and the inner membrane complexes of the metalloproteases AFG3L2 and AFG3L2:SPG7/paraplegin. Gonadotropin administration to prepubertal rats stimulated ovarian follicular development associated with increased expression of the mitochondrial protein quality control system. In addition, enrichment of LON and AFG3L2 is evident in StAR-expressing ovarian cells examined by confocal microscopy. Furthermore, reporter studies of the protease promoters examined in the heterologous cell model suggest that StAR expression stimulates up to a 3.5-fold increase in the protease gene transcription. Such effects are StAR-specific, are independent of StAR activity, and failed to occur upon expression of StAR mutants that do not enter the matrix. Taken together, the results of this study suggest the presence of a novel regulatory loop, whereby acute accumulation of an apparent nuisance protein in the matrix provokes a mitochondria to nucleus signaling that, in turn, activates selected transcription of genes encoding the enrichment of mitochondrial proteases relevant for enhanced clearance of StAR. PMID:24422629

  20. Radiolytically degraded sodium alginate enhances plant growth, physiological activities and alkaloids production in Catharanthus roseus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naeem

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don (Family Apocynaceae is a medicinal plant that produces indole alkaloids used in cancer chemotherapy. The anticancerous alkaloids, viz. vinblastine and vincristine, are mainly present in the leaves of C. roseus. High demand and low yield of these alkaloids in the plant has led to explore the alternative means for their production. Gamma irradiated sodium alginate (ISA has proved as a plant growth promoting substance for various medicinal and agricultural crops. A pot culture experiment was carried out to explore the effect of ISA on plant growth, physiological activities and production of anticancer alkaloids (vinblastine and vincristine in C. roseus at 120 and 150 days after planting (DAP. Foliar application of ISA (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg L−1 significantly improved the performance of C. roseus. 80 mg L−1 of ISA enhanced the leaf-yield by 25.3 and 30.2% and the herbage-yield by 29.4 and 34.4% at 120 and 150 DAP, respectively, as compared to the control. The spray treatment of ISA at 80 mg L−1 improved the yield of vinblastine by 66.7 and 71.4% and of vincristine by 67.6 and 75.6% at 120 and 150 DAP, respectively, in comparison to the control. As compared to control, the application of ISA at 80 mg L−1 resulted in the maximum swell in the content and yield of vindoline, increasing them by 18.9 and 20.8% and by 81.8 and 87.2% at 120 and 150 DAP, respectively.

  1. Enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability of alumina supported hematite for azo-dye degradation in aerated aqueous suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Sheng, Jiayi; Wang, Yan; Xu, Yiming

    2013-06-15

    Silica supported hematite (Fe2O3/silica) that is more active but less stable than the supported hematite for organic photodegradation in aqueous solution has been reported. In this work, we report on alumina supported hematite (Fe2O3/alumina) with significantly improved activity and stability. The catalysts were prepared by mixing alumina with a pre-made colloidal iron oxide at various loading (0-100 wt %), followed by sintering at different temperatures (200-900 °C). Solid characterization with X-ray diffraction and N2 adsorption showed that hematite particles were small in size, and large in surface area, as compared with the unsupported hematite prepared in parallel. The catalyst activity was evaluated with anionic Orange II as a model substrate, and the reaction was carried out in aerated aqueous suspension under light irradiation at wavelengths longer than 320 nm. As the Fe2O3 loading on alumina or the catalyst sintering temperature increased, the apparent rate constant of dye degradation increased, and then decreased. The maximum rate of dye degradation was obtained with 25 wt % Fe2O3/alumina, sintered at 400 °C. Moreover, five consecutive experiments for dye photodegradation showed that Fe2O3/alumina was much more stable than Fe2O3/silica, due to alumina that has a positively charged surface and thus facilitates the dissolved iron species back onto iron oxide. The higher activity of Fe2O3/alumina than Fe2O3/silica and bare hematite is ascribed to the combined effect between the reduced particle size of hematite and the enhanced surface adsorption of dye on the catalyst. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive. [Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    Aimed at improving the process operating characteristics of anaerobic digestion for sludge stabilization and SNG production, this study evaluates the effects of a lactobacillus additive under normal, variable, and overload conditions. This whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of L. acidophilus fortified with CoCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. Data indicate that the biochemical additive increases methane yield, gas production rate, and volatile solids reduction; decreases volatile acids accumulation; enhances the digester buffer capacity; and improves the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue. Digester capacities could be potentially doubled when the feed is so treated. Results of field tests with six full-scale digesters confirm observations made with bench-scale digesters.

  3. Enhancing the cellulose-degrading activity of cellulolytic bacteria CTL-6 (Clostridium thermocellum) by co-culture with non-cellulolytic bacteria W2-10 (Geobacillus sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yucai; Li, Ning; Yuan, Xufeng; Hua, Binbin; Wang, Jungang; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo; Cui, Zongjun

    2013-12-01

    The effect of a non-cellulolytic bacterium W2-10 (Geobacillus sp.) on the cellulose-degrading activity of a cellulolytic bacterium CTL-6 (Clostridium thermocellum) was determined using cellulose materials (paper and straw) in peptone cellulose solution (PCS) medium under aerobic conditions. The results indicated that in the co-culture, addition of W2-10 resulted in a balanced medium pH, and may provide the required anaerobic environment for CTL-6. Overall, addition of W2-10 was beneficial to CTL-6 growth in the adverse environment of the PCS medium. In co-culture with W2-10, the CTL-6 cellulose degradation efficiency of filter paper and alkaline-treated wheat straw significantly increased up to 72.45 and 37.79 %, respectively. The CMCase activity and biomass of CTL-6 also increased from 0.23 U ml(-1) and 45.1 μg ml(-1) (DNA content) up to 0.47 U ml(-1) and 112.2 μg ml(-1), respectively. In addition, co-culture resulted in accumulation of acetate and propionate up to 4.26 and 2.76 mg ml(-1). This was a respective increase of 2.58 and 4.45 times, in comparison to the monoculture with CTL-6.

  4. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. The experimental work consisted of several pairs of parallel mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion runs (control and test) conducted in five experimental phases. Baseline runs without the additive showed that the two experimental digesters had the same methane content, gas production rate (GPR), and ethane yield. The effect of the additive was to increase methane yield and GPR by about 5% (which was statistically significant) during digester operation at a loading rate (LR) of 3.2 kg VS/m/sup 3/-day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Data collected from the various experimental phases showed that the biochemical additive increased methane yield, gas production rate, and VS reduction, and decreased volatile acids accumulation. In addition, it enhanced digester buffer capacity and improved the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue.

  5. The transcription factor STAT2 enhances proteasomal degradation of RCAN1 through the ubiquitin E3 ligase FBW7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee Won; Kang, Hye Seon; Lee, Jae Youn; Lee, Eun Jung; Rhim, Hyewhon; Yoon, Joo Heon; Seo, Su Ryeon; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2012-04-06

    Down syndrome is the most common genetic disorder and is characterized by three copies of chromosome 21. Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) is located close to the Down syndrome critical region (distal part of chromosome 21), and its product functions as an endogenous inhibitor of calcineurin signaling. RCAN1 protein stability is regulated by several inflammatory signaling factors, though the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we report that RCAN1 interacts with the inflammation-linked transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2) in mammalian cells. STAT2 overexpression decreased levels of RCAN1 protein. Decreases in RCAN1 were blocked by a proteasome inhibitor, indicating that STAT2 regulates RCAN1 degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Co-immunoprecipitation/immunoblot analyses showed that STAT2 enhanced RCAN1 ubiquitination through the ubiquitin E3 ligase FBW7. This pathway appeared to be physiologically relevant, as treatment of cells with interferon-α reduced RCAN1 levels through the activation of STAT2 and FBW7. Together, these results suggest that STAT2 influences diverse cellular processes linked to RCAN1 by negatively affecting RCAN1 protein stability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancing Jatropha oil extraction yield from the kernels assisted by a xylan-degrading bacterium to preserve protein structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasabessy, Ahmad [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Valorisation of Plant Production Chains; RijksUniv. Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), Jakarta (Indonesia); Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group; M