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Sample records for enhances endoreduplication induced

  1. Sodium arsenite induces chromosome endoreduplication and inhibits protein phosphatase activity in human fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong-Nan Huang; I-Ching Ho; Ling-Hui Yih [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Taiwan (China)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Arsenic, strongly associated with increased risks of human cancers, is a potent clastogen in a variety of mammalian cell systems. The effect of sodium arsenite (a trivalent arsenic compound) on chromatid separation was studied in human skin fibroblasts (HFW). Human fibroblasts were arrested in S phase by the aid of serum starvation and aphidicolin blocking and then these cells were allowed to synchronously progress into G2 phase. Treatment of the G2-enriched HFW cells with sodium arsenite (0-200 {mu}M) resulted in arrest of cells in the G2 phase, interference with mitotic division, inhibition of spindle assembly, and induction of chromosome endoreduplication in their second mitosis. Sodium arsenite treatment also inhibited the activities of serine/threonine protein phosphatases and enhanced phosphorylation levels of a small heat shock protein (HSP27). These results suggest that sodium arsenite may mimic okadaic acid to induce chromosome endoreduplication through its inhibitory effect on protein phosphatase activity. 61 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Endo-reduplication and irregular division lead to genome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Endo-reduplication and irregular division lead to genome heterogeneity in Entamoeba histolytica · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Differences between a mitotic cycle and endo-reduplicating cycle · Heterogeneity of genome content is observed in cells arrested by serum starvation followed by serum addition · Slide 6.

  3. Misexpression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1/KRP1 in single-celled Arabidopsis trichomes reduces endoreduplication and cell size and induces cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittger, Arp; Weinl, Christina; Bouyer, Daniel; Schöbinger, Ulrike; Hülskamp, Martin

    2003-02-01

    A positive correlation between cell size and DNA content has been recognized in many plant cell types. Conversely, misexpression of a dominant-negative cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) or CDK inhibitor proteins (ICK/KRPs) in Arabidopsis and tobacco leaves has revealed that cell growth can be uncoupled from cell cycle progression and DNA content. However, cell growth also appears to be controlled in a non-cell-autonomous manner by organ size, making it difficult in a ubiquitous expression assay to judge the cell-autonomous function of putative cell growth regulators. Here, we investigated the function of the CDK inhibitor ICK1/KRP1 on cell growth and differentiation independent of any compensatory influence of an organ context using Arabidopsis trichomes as a model system. By analyzing cell size with respect to DNA content, we dissected cell growth in a DNA-dependent and a DNA-independent process. We further found that ICK1/KRP1 misexpression interfered with differentiation and induced cell death, linking cell cycle progression, differentiation, and cell death in plants. The function of ICK1/KRP1 in planta was found to be dependent on a C-terminal domain and regulated negatively by an N-terminal domain. Finally, we identified CDKA;1 and a D-type cyclin as possible targets of ICK1/KRP1 expression in vivo.

  4. Control of cell proliferation, endoreduplication, cell size, and cell death by the retinoblastoma-related pathway in maize endosperm

    KAUST Repository

    Sabelli, Paolo A.

    2013-04-22

    The endospermof cereal grains is one of the most valuable products of modern agriculture. Cereal endosperm development comprises different phases characterized by mitotic cell proliferation, endoreduplication, the accumulation of storage compounds, and programmed cell death. Although manipulation of these processes could maximize grain yield, how they are regulated and integrated is poorly understood. We show that the Retinoblastoma-related (RBR) pathway controls key aspects of endosperm development in maize. Down-regulation of RBR1 by RNAi resulted in up-regulation of RBR3-type genes, as well as the MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE 2-7 gene family and PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN, which encode essential DNA replication factors. Both the mitotic and endoreduplication cell cycles were stimulated. Developing transgenic endosperm contained 42-58% more cells and ~70% more DNA than wild type, whereas there was a reduction in cell and nuclear sizes. In addition, cell death was enhanced. The DNA content of mature endosperm increased 43% upon RBR1 downregulation, whereas storage protein content and kernel weight were essentially not affected. Down-regulation of both RBR1 and CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASE A (CDKA);1 indicated that CDKA;1 is epistatic to RBR1 and controls endoreduplication through an RBR1- dependent pathway. However, the repressive activity of RBR1 on downstream targets was independent from CDKA;1, suggesting diversification of RBR1 activities. Furthermore, RBR1 negatively regulated CDK activity, suggesting the presence of a feedback loop. These results indicate that the RBR1 pathway plays a major role in regulation of different processes during maize endosperm development and suggest the presence of tissue/organlevel regulation of endosperm/seed homeostasis.

  5. The polar auxin transport inhibitor TIBA inhibits endoreduplication in dark grown spinach hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amijima, Makoto; Iwata, Yuji; Koizumi, Nozomu; Mishiba, Kei-Ichiro

    2014-08-01

    We addressed the question of whether an additional round of endoreduplication in dark-grown hypocotyls is a common feature in dicotyledonous plants having endopolyploid tissues. Ploidy distributions of hypocotyl tissues derived from in vitro-grown spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Atlas) seedlings grown under different light conditions were analyzed by flow cytometry. An additional round of endoreduplication (represented by 32C cells) was found in the dark-grown hypocotyl tissues. This response was inhibited by light, the intensity of which is a crucial factor for the inhibition of endoreduplication. The higher ploidy cells in cortical tissues of the dark-grown hypocotyls had larger cell sizes, suggesting that the additional round of endoreduplication contributes to hypocotyl elongation. More importantly, a polar auxin transport inhibitor, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), strongly inhibits endoreduplication, not only in spinach but also in Arabidopsis. Because other polar auxin transport inhibitors or an auxin antagonist show no or mild effects, TIBA may have a specific feature that inhibits endoreduplication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tomato fruit growth : integrating cell division, cell growth and endoreduplication by experimentation and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanwoua, J.

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: cell division, cell growth, cell endoreduplication, fruit growth, genotype, G×E interaction, model, tomato. Fruit size is a major component of fruit yield and quality of many crops. Variations in fruit size can be tremendous due to genotypic and environmental factors. The mechanisms

  7. Effect of Blue Light on Endogenous Isopentenyladenine and Endoreduplication during Photomorphogenesis and De-Etiolation of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergougnoux, Véronique; Zalabák, David; Jandová, Michaela; Novák, Ondřej; Wiese-Klinkenberg, Anika; Fellner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Light is one of the most important factor influencing plant growth and development all through their life cycle. One of the well-known light-regulated processes is de-etiolation, i.e. the switch from skotomorphogenesis to photomorphogenesis. The hormones cytokinins (CKs) play an important role during the establishment of photomorphogenesis as exogenous CKs induced photomorphogenesis of dark-grown seedlings. Most of the studies are conducted on the plant model Arabidopsis, but no or few information are available for important crop species, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). In our study, we analyzed for the first time the endogenous CKs content in tomato hypocotyls during skotomorphogenesis, photomorphogenesis and de-etiolation. For this purpose, two tomato genotypes were used: cv. Rutgers (wild-type; WT) and its corresponding mutant (7B-1) affected in its responses to blue light (BL). Using physiological and molecular approaches, we identified that the skotomorphogenesis is characterized by an endoreduplication-mediated cell expansion, which is inhibited upon BL exposure as seen by the accumulation of trancripts encoding CycD3, key regulators of the cell cycle. Our study showed for the first time that iP (isopentenyladenine) is the CK accumulated in the tomato hypocotyl upon BL exposure, suggesting its specific role in photomorphogenesis. This result was supported by physiological experiments and gene expression data. We propose a common model to explain the role and the relationship between CKs, namely iP, and endoreduplication during de-etiolation and photomorphogenesis. PMID:23049779

  8. Effect of blue light on endogenous isopentenyladenine and endoreduplication during photomorphogenesis and de-etiolation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Bergougnoux

    Full Text Available Light is one of the most important factor influencing plant growth and development all through their life cycle. One of the well-known light-regulated processes is de-etiolation, i.e. the switch from skotomorphogenesis to photomorphogenesis. The hormones cytokinins (CKs play an important role during the establishment of photomorphogenesis as exogenous CKs induced photomorphogenesis of dark-grown seedlings. Most of the studies are conducted on the plant model Arabidopsis, but no or few information are available for important crop species, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.. In our study, we analyzed for the first time the endogenous CKs content in tomato hypocotyls during skotomorphogenesis, photomorphogenesis and de-etiolation. For this purpose, two tomato genotypes were used: cv. Rutgers (wild-type; WT and its corresponding mutant (7B-1 affected in its responses to blue light (BL. Using physiological and molecular approaches, we identified that the skotomorphogenesis is characterized by an endoreduplication-mediated cell expansion, which is inhibited upon BL exposure as seen by the accumulation of trancripts encoding CycD3, key regulators of the cell cycle. Our study showed for the first time that iP (isopentenyladenine is the CK accumulated in the tomato hypocotyl upon BL exposure, suggesting its specific role in photomorphogenesis. This result was supported by physiological experiments and gene expression data. We propose a common model to explain the role and the relationship between CKs, namely iP, and endoreduplication during de-etiolation and photomorphogenesis.

  9. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis induced responses enhance susceptibility in maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole J Dafoe

    Full Text Available Herbivore-induced plant responses have been widely described following attack on leaves; however, less attention has been paid to analogous local processes that occur in stems. Early studies of maize (Zea mays responses to stem boring by European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinianubilalis larvae revealed the presence of inducible acidic diterpenoid phytoalexins, termed kauralexins, and increases in the benzoxazinoid 2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one-glucose (HDMBOA-Glc after 24 h of herbivory. Despite these rapidly activated defenses, larval growth was not altered in short-term feeding assays. Unexpectedly, ECB growth significantly improved in assays using stem tissue preconditioned by 48 h of larval tunneling. Correspondingly, measures of total soluble protein increased over 2.6-fold in these challenged tissues and were accompanied by elevated levels of sucrose and free linoleic acid. While microarray analyses revealed up-regulation of over 1100 transcripts, fewer individual protein increases were demonstrable. Consistent with induced endoreduplication, both wounding and ECB stem attack resulted in similar significant expansion of the nucleus, nucleolus and levels of extractable DNA from challenged tissues. While many of these responses are triggered by wounding alone, biochemical changes further enhanced in response to ECB may be due to larval secreted effectors. Unlike other Lepidoptera examined, ECB excrete exceedingly high levels of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA in their frass which is likely to contact and contaminate the surrounding feeding tunnel. Stem exposure to a metabolically stable auxin, such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, promoted significant protein accumulation above wounding alone. As a future testable hypothesis, we propose that ECB-associated IAA may function as a candidate herbivore effector promoting the increased nutritional content of maize stems.

  10. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) induced responses enhance susceptibility in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafoe, Nicole J; Thomas, James D; Shirk, Paul D; Legaspi, Michelle E; Vaughan, Martha M; Huffaker, Alisa; Teal, Peter E; Schmelz, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    Herbivore-induced plant responses have been widely described following attack on leaves; however, less attention has been paid to analogous local processes that occur in stems. Early studies of maize (Zea mays) responses to stem boring by European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinianubilalis) larvae revealed the presence of inducible acidic diterpenoid phytoalexins, termed kauralexins, and increases in the benzoxazinoid 2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one-glucose (HDMBOA-Glc) after 24 h of herbivory. Despite these rapidly activated defenses, larval growth was not altered in short-term feeding assays. Unexpectedly, ECB growth significantly improved in assays using stem tissue preconditioned by 48 h of larval tunneling. Correspondingly, measures of total soluble protein increased over 2.6-fold in these challenged tissues and were accompanied by elevated levels of sucrose and free linoleic acid. While microarray analyses revealed up-regulation of over 1100 transcripts, fewer individual protein increases were demonstrable. Consistent with induced endoreduplication, both wounding and ECB stem attack resulted in similar significant expansion of the nucleus, nucleolus and levels of extractable DNA from challenged tissues. While many of these responses are triggered by wounding alone, biochemical changes further enhanced in response to ECB may be due to larval secreted effectors. Unlike other Lepidoptera examined, ECB excrete exceedingly high levels of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in their frass which is likely to contact and contaminate the surrounding feeding tunnel. Stem exposure to a metabolically stable auxin, such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), promoted significant protein accumulation above wounding alone. As a future testable hypothesis, we propose that ECB-associated IAA may function as a candidate herbivore effector promoting the increased nutritional content of maize stems.

  11. Systemic Control of Cell Division and Endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by Modulating CDKs in Root Tip Cells of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigna G. Tank

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed.

  12. Centrosome/Cell cycle uncoupling and elimination in the endoreduplicating intestinal cells of C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lu

    Full Text Available The centrosome cycle is most often coordinated with mitotic cell division through the activity of various essential cell cycle regulators, consequently ensuring that the centriole is duplicated once, and only once, per cell cycle. However, this coupling can be altered in specific developmental contexts; for example, multi-ciliated cells generate hundreds of centrioles without any S-phase requirement for their biogenesis, while Drosophila follicle cells eliminate their centrosomes as they begin to endoreduplicate. In order to better understand how the centrosome cycle and the cell cycle are coordinated in a developmental context we use the endoreduplicating intestinal cell lineage of C. elegans to address how novel variations of the cell cycle impact this important process. In C. elegans, the larval intestinal cells undergo one nuclear division without subsequent cytokinesis, followed by four endocycles that are characterized by successive rounds of S-phase. We monitored the levels of centriolar/centrosomal markers and found that centrosomes lose their pericentriolar material following the nuclear division that occurs during the L1 stage and is thereafter never re-gained. The centrioles then become refractory to S phase regulators that would normally promote duplication during the first endocycle, after which they are eliminated during the L2 stage. Furthermore, we show that SPD-2 plays a central role in the numeral regulation of centrioles as a potential target of CDK activity. On the other hand, the phosphorylation on SPD-2 by Polo-like kinase, the transcriptional regulation of genes that affect centriole biogenesis, and the ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathway, contribute collectively to the final elimination of the centrioles during the L2 stage.

  13. Field enhancement induced laser ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiutowski, Jacek; Maibohm, Christian; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob

    . The accompanying field enhancement substantially lowers the ablation threshold of the polymer film and thus creates local ablation spots and corresponding topographic modifications of the polymer film. Such modifications are quantified straightforwardly via scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. Thickness......Sub-diffraction spatially resolved, quantitative mapping of strongly localized field intensity enhancement on gold nanostructures via laser ablation of polymer thin films is reported. Illumination using a femtosecond laser scanning microscope excites surface plasmons in the nanostructures...

  14. Cell division and endoreduplication play important roles in stem swelling of tuber mustard (Brassica juncea Coss. var. tumida Tsen et Lee).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H; Wang, L L; Sun, L T; Dong, L L; Liu, B; Chen, L P

    2012-11-01

    We investigated spatio-temporal variations in cell division and the occurrence of endoreduplication in cells of tuber mustard stems during development. Cells in the stem had 8C nuclei (C represents DNA content of a two haploid genome), since it is an allotetraploid species derived from diploid Brassica rapa (AA) and B. nigra (BB), thus indicating the occurrence of endoreduplication. Additionally, we observed a dynamic change of cell ploidy in different regions of the swollen stems, with a decrease in 4C proportion in P4-1 and a sharp increase in 8C cells that became the dominant cell type (86.33% at most) in the inner pith cells. Furthermore, cDNAs of 14 cell cycle genes and four cell expansion genes were cloned and their spatial transcripts analysed in order to understand their roles in stem development. The expression of most cell cycle genes peaked in regions of the outer pith (P2 or P3), some genes regulating S/G2 and G2/M (BjCDKB1;2, BjCYCB1;1 and BjCYCB1;2) significantly decrease in P5 and P6, while G1/S regulators (BjE2Fa, BjE2Fb and BjE2Fc) showed a relative high expression level in the inner pith (P5) where cells were undergoing endoreduplication. Coincidentally, BjXTH1and BjXTH2 were exclusively expressed in the endoreduplicated cells. Our results suggest that cells of outer pith regions (P2 and P3) mainly divide for cell proliferation, while cells of the inner pith expand through endoreduplication. Endoreduplication could trigger expression of BjXTH1 and BjXTH2 and thus function in cell expansion of the pith tissue. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Induced resistance: an enhancement of basal resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M. de; Robben, C.; Pelt, J.A. van; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Upon primary pathogen attack, plants activate resistance mechanisms at the site of infection. Besides this so-called basal resistance, plants have also the ability to enhance their defensive capacity against future pathogen attack. There are at least two types of biologically induced resistance.

  16. Induced seismicity associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, Ernest L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 90-R1116, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Baria, Roy [MIL-TECH UK Ltd., 62 Rosewood Way, West End, Woking, Surrey GU24 9PF (United Kingdom); Stark, Mitch [Calpine Corp., 10350 Socrates Mine Road, Middletown, CA 95461 (United States); Oates, Stephen [Shell International Exploration and Production, Kesslerpark 1, 2288-GS Rijswijk-ZH (Netherlands); Bommer, Julian [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Smith, Bill [Northern California Power Agency, Middletown, P.O. Box 663, Middletown, CA 95461 (United States); Asanuma, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 980-8579 Sendai (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) have the potential to make a significant contribution to the world energy inventory. One controversial issue associated with EGS, however, is the impact of induced seismicity or microseismicity, which has been the cause of delays and threatened cancellation of at least two EGS projects worldwide. Although microseismicity has in fact had few (or no) adverse physical effects on operations or on surrounding communities, there remains public concern over the amount and magnitude of the seismicity associated with current and future EGS operations. The primary objectives of this paper are to present an up-to-date review of what is already known about the seismicity induced during the creation and operation of EGS, and of the gaps in our knowledge that, once addressed, should lead to an improved understanding of the mechanisms generating the events. Several case histories also illustrate a number of technical and public acceptance issues. We conclude that EGS-induced seismicity need not pose a threat to the development of geothermal energy resources if site selection is carried out properly, community issues are handled adequately and operators understand the underlying mechanisms causing the events. Induced seismicity could indeed prove beneficial, in that it can be used to monitor the effectiveness of EGS operations and shed light on geothermal reservoir processes. (author)

  17. Induced seismicity associated with enhanced geothermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, Ernest; Majer, Ernest L.; Baria, Roy; Stark, Mitch; Oates, Stephen; Bommer, Julian; Smith, Bill; Asanuma, Hiroshi

    2006-09-26

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) offer the potential to significantly add to the world energy inventory. As with any development of new technology, some aspects of the technology has been accepted by the general public, but some have not yet been accepted and await further clarification before such acceptance is possible. One of the issues associated with EGS is the role of microseismicity during the creation of the underground reservoir and the subsequent extraction of the energy. The primary objectives of this white paper are to present an up-to-date review of the state of knowledge about induced seismicity during the creation and operation of enhanced geothermal systems, and to point out the gaps in knowledge that if addressed will allow an improved understanding of the mechanisms generating the events as well as serve as a basis to develop successful protocols for monitoring and addressing community issues associated with such induced seismicity. The information was collected though literature searches as well as convening three workshops to gather information from a wide audience. Although microseismicity has been associated with the development of production and injection operations in a variety of geothermal regions, there have been no or few adverse physical effects on the operations or on surrounding communities. Still, there is public concern over the possible amount and magnitude of the seismicity associated with current and future EGS operations. It is pointed out that microseismicity has been successfully dealt with in a variety of non-geothermal as well as geothermal environments. Several case histories are also presented to illustrate a variety of technical and public acceptance issues. It is concluded that EGS Induced seismicity need not pose any threat to the development of geothermal resources if community issues are properly handled. In fact, induced seismicity provides benefits because it can be used as a monitoring tool to understand the

  18. Enhanced ALA-induced fluorescence in hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosst, Ruediger L; Schroeter, Lioba; Gahlen, Johannes

    2005-04-04

    Intraoperative localization of parathyroid glands can be challenging especially in minimally invasive surgery. Fluorescence diagnosis using the photosensitizer aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has been described to identify normal parathyroid glands during experimental bilateral neck exploration. The present study evaluated fluorescence differences between hyperplastic and normal parathyroid glands as a precondition for a clinical application of the technique. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) rats with hyperparathyroidism due to hyperplastic parathyroid glands and Wistar rats with normal parathyroid glands were photosensitized by peritoneal lavage with ALA solution. After surgical exposure of thyroid and parathyroid glands the operative site was observed under blue light conditions using the d-light system to assess fluorescence characteristics of each tissue. Fluorescence intensities of parathyroid glands and surrounding thyroid tissue were measured by spectrometry. Parathyroid hormone in serum of the rats was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Observation of the exposed thyroid site showed a subjectively stronger red fluorescence of the parathyroid glands in the PKD rats in comparison to the Wistar rats, whereas thyroid tissue appeared equally fluorescent. In the PKD animals, spectrometric fluorescence intensity was 10 times higher in the parathyroid glands than in the thyroid gland, whereas in the Wistar rats the ratio was 3.2:1. Fluorescence intensity in the parathyroid glands was more than twice in the PKD rats than in the Wistar rats, however slightly lower in the thyroid tissue. ELISA confirmed the pathophysiological change of a hyperparathyroidism with significantly increased serum levels of parathyroid hormone in the PKD rats. Hyperparathyroidism enhances ALA-induced fluorescence of the parathyroid glands. A combined surgical fluorescence strategy may justify a unilateral, minimally invasive approach in selected patients and serve to improve

  19. Enhanced lipase production by mutation induced Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the HNO2 mutant (AHN3) and 217% higher than the UV mutant (AUV3) and 276% higher lipase activity than the parent strain. The results indicated that UV, HNO2 and NTG treatment were effective physical and chemical mutagenic agents for strain improvement of Aspergillus japonicus for enhanced lipase productivity.

  20. Mutation induced enhanced biosynthesis of lipase | Bapiraju ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, the lipase yield of the best NTG mutant BTNT2 was 133 % higher than the parent strain (BTUV3) and 232% higher than the wild strain (BTS-24). The results indicated that UV and NTG were effective mutagenic agents for strain improvement of Rhizopus sp. BTS-24 for enhanced lipase productivity. Key Words: Lipase ...

  1. Enhancement of acetaminophen overdosage-induced hepatotoxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paracetamol) overdosage-induced hepatotoxicity in three groups of albino Wistar rats. Administration of the minimum toxic dose of paracetamol (150mg/kg body weight) to animals (group II) produced significantly (P≤0.05) higher levels of alanine ...

  2. Dexamethasone Enhances ATP-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    The purinergic nucleotide ATP is released from stressed cells and is implicated in vascular inflammation. Glucocorticoids are essential to stress responses and are used therapeutically, yet little information is available that describes the effects of glucocorticoids on ATP-induced inflammation. In a human microvascular endothelial cell line, extracellular ATP-induced interleukin (IL)-6 secretion in a dose- and time-dependent manner. When cells were pretreated with dexamethasone, a prototypic glucocorticoid, ATP-induced IL-6 production was enhanced in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, blocked these effects. ATP-induced IL-6 release was significantly inhibited by a phospholipase C inhibitor [1-[6-[((17β)-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5[10]-trien-17-yl)amino]hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122)] (63.2 ± 3%, p dexamethasone induced mRNA expression of the purinergic P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2R) 1.8- ± 0.1-fold and, when stimulated with ATP, enhanced Ca2+ release and augmented IL-6 mRNA expression. Silencing of the P2Y2R by its small interfering RNA decreased ATP-induced IL-6 production by 81 ± 1% (p Dexamethasone enhanced the transcription rate of P2Y2R mRNA and induced a dose-related increase in the activity of the P2Y2R promoter. Furthermore, dexamethasone-enhanced ATP induction of adhesion molecule transcription and augmented the release of IL-8. Dexamethasone leads to an unanticipated enhancement of endothelial inflammatory mediator production by extracellular ATP via a P2Y2R-dependent mechanism. These data define a novel positive feedback loop of glucocorticoids and ATP-induced endothelial inflammation. PMID:20826566

  3. Propofol Enhances Hemoglobin-Induced Cytotoxicity in Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Cui, Guiyun; Li, Wenlu; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Xiaoying; Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Jian; Xiang, Shuanglin; Xie, Zhongcong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND It has been increasingly suggested that propofol protects against hypoxic-/ischemic-induced neuronal injury. As evidenced by hemorrhage-induced stroke, hemorrhage into the brain may also cause brain damage. Whether propofol protects against hemorrhage-induced brain damage remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of propofol on hemoglobin-induced cytotoxicity in cultured mouse cortical neurons. METHODS Neurons were prepared from the cortex of embryonic 15-day-old mice. Hemoglobin was used to induce cytotoxicity in the neurons. The neurons were then treated with propofol for 4 hours. Cytotoxicity was determined by lactate dehydrogenase release assay. Caspase-3 activation was examined by Western blot analysis. Finally, the free radical scavenger U83836E was used to examine the potential involvement of oxidative stress in propofol’s effects on hemoglobin-induced cytotoxicity. RESULTS We found that treatment with hemoglobin induced cytotoxicity in the neurons. Propofol enhanced hemoglobin-induced cytotoxicity. Specifically, there was a significant difference in the amount of lactate dehydrogenase release between hemoglobin plus saline (19.84% ± 5.38%) and hemoglobin plus propofol (35.79% ± 4.41%) in mouse cortical neurons (P = 0.00058, Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney U test, n = 8 in the control group or the treatment group). U83836E did not attenuate the enhancing effects of propofol on hemoglobin-induced cytotoxicity in the neurons, and propofol did not significantly affect caspase-3 activation induced by hemoglobin. These data suggested that caspase-3 activation and oxidative stress might not be the underlying mechanisms by which propofol enhanced hemoglobin-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, these data suggested that the neuroprotective effects of propofol would be dependent on the condition of the brain injury, which will need to be confirmed in future studies. CONCLUSIONS These results from our current proof-of-concept study should

  4. Enhancing protoporphyrin IX-induced PDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curnow, Alison; Pye, Andrew; Campbell, Sandra

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using porphyrin precursors is commonly used in dermatology. Evidence indicates that good clinical outcomes (associated with excellent cosmesis) can be achieved in superficial precancers and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), however, efficacy appears less favorable for thicker nodular BCC (nBCC) unless multiple PDT treatment cycles are performed. Enhancement is therefore required if nBCC lesions are to be treated effectively with a single PDT treatment. The most common technique currently being routinely employed clinically is the use of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) esters (usually methyl (MAL) or hexyl (HAL)). Standard dermatological PDT employing these porphyrin precursors already manipulates the normal heme biosynthesis pathway resulting in a temporary accumulation of the natural photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Further manipulation using iron chelating agents is possible however. In normal and malignant human cells in vitro, the novel iron chelating agent CP94 produced greater PPIX fluorescence when administered with ALA or MAL than either congener produced alone. CP94 was also significantly more effective than the clinically established iron chelating agent desferrioxamine (DFO). Topical application of ALA+CP94 to clinical nBCC lesions was a simple and safe treatment modification which produced a significant increase in clinical clearance when CP94 was included in the cream.

  5. Caffeine Markedly Enhanced Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Erkang; Wu, Lijun

    2009-04-01

    In this paper it is shown that incubation with 2 mM caffeine enhanced significantly the MN (micronucleus) formation in both the 1 cGy α-particle irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions. Moreover, caffeine treatment made the non-irradiated bystander cells more sensitive to damage signals. Treated by c-PTIO(2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide), a nitric oxide (NO) scavenger, the MN frequencies were effectively inhibited, showing that nitric oxide might be very important in mediating the enhanced damage. These results indicated that caffeine enhanced the low dose α-particle radiation-induced damage in irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions, and therefore it is important to investigate the relationship between the radiosensitizer and radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE).

  6. Apomorphine enhances harmaline-induced tremor in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossowska, Krystyna; Głowacka, Urszula; Kosmowska, Barbara; Wardas, Jadwiga

    2015-06-01

    Harmaline-induced tremor is a well-known model of essential tremor in humans. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of apomorphine, a non-selective dopamine receptor agonist, on the tremor induced by harmaline in rats. Propranolol (a first-line drug in essential tremor) was used as a reference compound. Tremor, locomotor activity and focused stereotypy were measured objectively using force plate actimeters. Tremor was analyzed using a Fourier transform to generate power spectra for rhythmic behavior. The tremor induced by harmaline administered at a dose of 15 mg/kg ip was associated with an increase in power in the 9-15 Hz band (AP2) and in the tremor index, calculated as a difference between AP2 and power in the 0-8 Hz band (AP1). Propranolol injected at a dose of 20mg/kg ip reversed both of these effects of harmaline. Apomorphine administered at the doses of 0.5 and 1mg/kg sc further enhanced AP2 and at the lower dose also the tremor index elevated by harmaline. This increase in AP2 was stronger than enhancement of locomotor activity induced by apomorphine in the harmaline-treated animals. The present study suggests that the dopamine agonist apomorphine enhances the tremor induced by harmaline, and this effect is at least partly independent of hyperactivity. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  7. Defining multiple, distinct, and shared spatiotemporal patterns of DNA replication and endoreduplication from 3D image analysis of developing maize (Zea mays L.) root tip nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Hank W; Hoffman, Gregg G; Lee, Tae-Jin; Wear, Emily E; Joseph, Stacey R; Allen, George C; Hanley-Bowdoin, Linda; Thompson, William F

    2015-11-01

    Spatiotemporal patterns of DNA replication have been described for yeast and many types of cultured animal cells, frequently after cell cycle arrest to aid in synchronization. However, patterns of DNA replication in nuclei from plants or naturally developing organs remain largely uncharacterized. Here we report findings from 3D quantitative analysis of DNA replication and endoreduplication in nuclei from pulse-labeled developing maize root tips. In both early and middle S phase nuclei, flow-sorted on the basis of DNA content, replicative labeling was widely distributed across euchromatic regions of the nucleoplasm. We did not observe the perinuclear or perinucleolar replicative labeling patterns characteristic of middle S phase in mammals. Instead, the early versus middle S phase patterns in maize could be distinguished cytologically by correlating two quantitative, continuous variables, replicative labeling and DAPI staining. Early S nuclei exhibited widely distributed euchromatic labeling preferentially localized to regions with weak DAPI signals. Middle S nuclei also exhibited widely distributed euchromatic labeling, but the label was preferentially localized to regions with strong DAPI signals. Highly condensed heterochromatin, including knobs, replicated during late S phase as previously reported. Similar spatiotemporal replication patterns were observed for both mitotic and endocycling maize nuclei. These results revealed that maize euchromatin exists as an intermingled mixture of two components distinguished by their condensation state and replication timing. These different patterns might reflect a previously described genome organization pattern, with "gene islands" mostly replicating during early S phase followed by most of the intergenic repetitive regions replicating during middle S phase.

  8. Towards the Understanding of Induced Seismicity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritto, Roland [Array Information Technology, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Dreger, Douglas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Heidbach, Oliver [Helmholtz Centre Potsdam (Germany, German Research Center for Geosciences; Hutchings, Lawrence [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-29

    This DOE funded project was a collaborative effort between Array Information Technology (AIT), the University of California at Berkeley (UCB), the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam - German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). It was also part of the European research project “GEISER”, an international collaboration with 11 European partners from six countries including universities, research centers and industry, with the goal to address and mitigate the problems associated with induced seismicity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). The goal of the current project was to develop a combination of techniques, which evaluate the relationship between enhanced geothermal operations and the induced stress changes and associated earthquakes throughout the reservoir and the surrounding country rock. The project addressed the following questions: how enhanced geothermal activity changes the local and regional stress field; whether these activities can induce medium sized seismicity M > 3; (if so) how these events are correlated to geothermal activity in space and time; what is the largest possible event and strongest ground motion, and hence the potential hazard associated with these activities. The development of appropriate technology to thoroughly investigate and address these questions required a number of datasets to provide the different physical measurements distributed in space and time. Because such a dataset did not yet exist for an EGS system in the United State, we used current and past data from The Geysers geothermal field in northern California, which has been in operation since the 1960s. The research addressed the need to understand the causal mechanisms of induced seismicity, and demonstrated the advantage of imaging the physical properties and temporal changes of the reservoir. The work helped to model the relationship between injection and production and medium sized magnitude events that have

  9. Recognition of interferon-inducible sites, promoters, and enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondrakhin Yury V

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational analysis of gene regulatory regions is important for prediction of functions of many uncharacterized genes. With this in mind, search of the target genes for interferon (IFN induction appears of interest. IFNs are multi-functional cytokines. Their effects are immunomodulatory, antiviral, antibacterial, and antitumor. The interaction of the IFNs with their cell surface receptors produces an activation of several transcription factors. Four regulatory factors, ISGF3, STAT1, IRF1, and NF-κB, are essential for the function of the IFN system. The aim of this work is the development of computational approaches for the recognition of DNA binding sites for these factors and computer programs for the prediction of the IFN-inducible regions. Results We developed computational approaches to the recognition of the binding sites for ISGF3, STAT1, IRF1, and NF-κB. Analysis of the distribution of these binding sites demonstrated that the regions -500 upstream of the transcription start site in IFN-inducible genes are enriched in putative binding sites for these transcription factors. Based on selected combinations of the sites whose frequencies were significantly higher than in the other functional gene groups, we developed methods for the prediction of the IFN-inducible promoters and enhancers. We analyzed 1004 sequences of the IFN-inducible genes compiled using microarray data analyses and also about 10,000 human gene sequences from the EPD and RefSeq databases; 74 of 1,664 human genes annotated in EPD were significantly IFN-inducible. Conclusion Analyses of several control datasets demonstrated that the developed methods have a high accuracy of prediction of the IFN-inducible genes. Application of these methods to several datasets suggested that the number of the IFN-inducible genes is approximately 1500–2000 in the human genome.

  10. Cytokinins enhance sugar-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prasanta Kumar; Shin, Dong Ho; Choi, Sang-Bong; Yoo, Sang-Dong; Choi, Giltsu; Park, Youn-Il

    2012-07-01

    In higher plants, the regulation of anthocyanin synthesis by various factors including light, sugars and hormones is mediated by numerous regulatory factors acting at the transcriptional level. Here, the association between sucrose and the plant hormone, cytokinin, in the presence of light was investigated to elucidate cytokinin signaling cascades leading to the transcriptional activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in Arabidopsis seedlings. We showed that cytokinin enhances anthocyanin content and transcript levels of sugar inducible structural gene UDPglucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyl transferase (UF3GT) and regulatory gene PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT 1 (PAP1). Genetic analysis showed that cytokinin signaling modulates sugar-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis through a two-component signaling cascade involving the type-B response regulators ARR1, ARR10 and ARR12 in a redundant manner. Genetic, physiological and molecular biological approaches demonstrated that cytokinin enhancement is partially dependent on phytochrome and cryptochrome downstream component HY5, but mainly on photosynthetic electron transport. Taken together, we suggest that cytokinin acts down-stream of the photosynthetic electron transport chain in which the plastoquinone redox poise is modulated by sugars in a photoreceptor independent manner.

  11. Cathodoluminescence and Electron-Induced Fluorescence Enhancement of Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Kuniaki; Onuma, Tsubasa; Ueno, Ryosuke; Tamehiro, Katsuyuki; Minoda, Hiroki

    2016-02-18

    Becaues the spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy is not high enough to study the molecular level of relationship between the structure and function of biological specimens, correlative light and electron microscopy has been used for this purpose. Another possibility for a high-resolution light microscopy is cathodoluminescence microscopy. Here, we report a new phenomenon, the electron-induced activation of luminescence (cathodoluminescence) and electron-enhanced fluorescence for the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). This was found using our recently developed hybrid fluorescence and electron microscopy. Contrary to the past reports, which showed a degradation of organic compounds by electron irradiation, stable cathodoluminescence emitted from an organic molecule, EGFP, has been observed using the hybrid microscopy. Addition of the glycerol promoted the fluorescence enhancement of EGFP probably due to the change in the electronic state density of excitation channels from the ground to the excited state or of relaxation channels from the excited to the emission state. Stable cathodoluminescence and enhanced fluorescence of the EGFP may introduce a cathodoluminescence microscopy, which will increase the variety of the imaging to investigate the biological compounds.

  12. Enhanced stimulus-induced gamma activity in humans during propofol-induced sedation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Saxena

    Full Text Available Stimulus-induced gamma oscillations in the 30-80 Hz range have been implicated in a wide number of functions including visual processing, memory and attention. While occipital gamma-band oscillations can be pharmacologically modified in animal preparations, pharmacological modulation of stimulus-induced visual gamma oscillations has yet to be demonstrated in non-invasive human recordings. Here, in fifteen healthy humans volunteers, we probed the effects of the GABAA agonist and sedative propofol on stimulus-related gamma activity recorded with magnetoencephalography, using a simple visual grating stimulus designed to elicit gamma oscillations in the primary visual cortex. During propofol sedation as compared to the normal awake state, a significant 60% increase in stimulus-induced gamma amplitude was seen together with a 94% enhancement of stimulus-induced alpha suppression and a simultaneous reduction in the amplitude of the pattern-onset evoked response. These data demonstrate, that propofol-induced sedation is accompanied by increased stimulus-induced gamma activity providing a potential window into mechanisms of gamma-oscillation generation in humans.

  13. Consistency between Modalities Enhances Visually Induced Self-Motion (Vection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeharu Seno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Visually induced illusory self-motion (vection is generally facilitated by consistent information of self-motion from other modalities. We provide three examples that consistent information between vision and other proprioception enhances vection, ie, locomotion, air flow, and sounds. We used an optic flow of expansion or contraction created by positioning 16,000 dots at random inside a simulated cube (length 20 m, and moving the observer's viewpoint to simulate forward or backward self-motion of 16 m/s. First, We measured the strength of forward or backward vection with or without forward locomotion on a treadmill (2 km/h. The results revealed that forward vection was facilitated by the consistent locomotion whereas vections in the other directions were inhibited by the inconsistent locomotion. Second, we found that forward vection intensity increased when the air flow to subjects' faces produced by an electric fan (the wind speed was 6.37 m/s was provided. On the contrary, the air flow did not enhance backward vection. Finally, we demonstrated that sounds which increased in loudness facilitated forward vection and the sounds which ascended (descended in pitch facilitated upward (downward vection.

  14. Simplified, enhanced protein purification using an inducible, autoprocessing enzyme tag.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee Shen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new method for purifying recombinant proteins expressed in bacteria using a highly specific, inducible, self-cleaving protease tag. This tag is comprised of the Vibrio cholerae MARTX toxin cysteine protease domain (CPD, an autoprocessing enzyme that cleaves exclusively after a leucine residue within the target protein-CPD junction. Importantly, V. cholerae CPD is specifically activated by inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6, a eukaryotic-specific small molecule that is absent from the bacterial cytosol. As a result, when His(6-tagged CPD is fused to the C-terminus of target proteins and expressed in Escherichia coli, the full-length fusion protein can be purified from bacterial lysates using metal ion affinity chromatography. Subsequent addition of InsP(6 to the immobilized fusion protein induces CPD-mediated cleavage at the target protein-CPD junction, releasing untagged target protein into the supernatant. This method condenses affinity chromatography and fusion tag cleavage into a single step, obviating the need for exogenous protease addition to remove the fusion tag(s and increasing the efficiency of tag separation. Furthermore, in addition to being timesaving, versatile, and inexpensive, our results indicate that the CPD purification system can enhance the expression, integrity, and solubility of intractable proteins from diverse organisms.

  15. Survivin S81A Enhanced TRAIL's Activity in Inducing Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Sandra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Survivin is rarely expressed in normal healthy adult tissues, however, it is upregulated in the majority of cancers. Survivin, which belongs to IAPs family, has been widely reported to protect cells from apoptosis by inhibiting caspases pathway. Survivin’s mitotic activity is modulated by many kinases, and its phosphor status can also influence its ability to inhibit apoptosis. There are several important survivin’s phosphorylation sites, such as S20 and T34. We have continued our investigation on other potential survivin’s phosphorylation sites that could be important site for regulating survivin’s cyto-protection. METHODS: By assuming that S81 could be a potential target to modify activity of survivin, wild-type survivin (Survivin, antisense survivin (Survivin-AS, mutated-survivin Thr34Ala (Survivin-T34A and mutated-survivin Ser81Ala (Survivin-S81A were constructed and inserted into pMSCV-IRES-GFP vector with cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter. Each retroviral product was produced in BOSC23 cells. LY294002 pretreatment and TRAIL treatment along with infection of retroviral products were performed in murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells. For analysis, flow cytometric apoptosis assay and western blot were performed. RESULTS: In our present study, survivin for providing cytoprotection was regulated by PI3K. The results showed that LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K, effectively suppressed survivin-modulated cytoprotection in a TRAIL-induced apoptotic model. In addition, mutated survivin S81A showed marked suppression on survivin’s cytoprotection. Along with that, TRAIL’s apoptotic activity was enhanced for inducing apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: We suggested that survivin could inhibit apoptosis through PI3K and S81A could be another potential target in order to inhibit Survivin-modulated cytoprotection as well as to sensitize efficacy of TRAIL or other related apoptotic inducers. KEYWORDS: apoptosis, survivin, TRAIL, S81A, L929, LY294002.

  16. Induced collagen cross-links enhance cartilage integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristos A Athens

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage does not integrate due primarily to a scarcity of cross-links and viable cells at the interface. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that lysyl-oxidase, a metalloenzyme that forms collagen cross-links, would be effective in improving integration between native-to-native, as well as tissue engineered-to-native cartilage surfaces. To examine these hypotheses, engineered cartilage constructs, synthesized via the self-assembling process, as well as native cartilage, were implanted into native cartilage rings and treated with lysyl-oxidase for varying amounts of time. For both groups, lysyl-oxidase application resulted in greater apparent stiffness across the cartilage interface 2-2.2 times greater than control. The construct-to-native lysyl-oxidase group also exhibited a statistically significant increase in the apparent strength, here defined as the highest observed peak stress during tensile testing. Histology indicated a narrowing gap at the cartilage interface in lysyl-oxidase treated groups, though this alone is not sufficient to indicate annealing. However, when the morphological and mechanical data are taken together, the longer the duration of lysyl-oxidase treatment, the more integrated the interface appeared. Though further data are needed to confirm the mechanism of action, the enhancement of integration may be due to lysyl-oxidase-induced pyridinoline cross-links. This study demonstrates that lysyl-oxidase is a potent agent for enhancing integration between both native-to-native and native-to-engineered cartilages. The fact that interfacial strength increased manifold suggests that cross-linking agents should play a significant role in solving the difficult problem of cartilage integration. Future studies must examine dose, dosing regimen, and cellular responses to lysyl-oxidase to optimize its application.

  17. Enhancement of hemin-induced membrane damage by artemisinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, N; Sadrzadeh, S M

    1994-08-17

    Artemisinin is an effective antimalarial agent, and its action on the malarial parasite is suggested to be mediated by oxidative processes. Since malarial parasites contain a high concentration of hemin, and hemin may induce the formation of reactive oxygen species, we investigated the interaction of artemisinin, iron and hemin. We used erythrocyte membrane-bound Ca2+ pump ATPase (basal) and calmodulin (CaM)-activated Ca2+ pump ATPase as our model. Membranes were incubated with artemisinin in the presence or absence of iron-ascorbate or hemin at 37 degrees for 1 hr. Following incubation, ATPase activity was measured. Our results showed that artemisinin (500 microM) had no effect on ATPase activities. However, artemisinin enhanced the inhibitory effect of iron (50 microM)-ascorbate (500 microM) on ATPase activity (46.3 +/- 3.9 vs 63 +/- 2.1% for basal; 57.2 +/- 2.5 vs 74.8 +/- 2.1% for CaM-activated). Desferrioxamine (DFO, 200 microM) blocked significantly the effect of iron-ascorbate-artemisinin on ATPases (P CaM-activated Ca2+ pump ATPase (31.6 +/- 2.8 vs 70.0 +/- 1.5%). Iron chelators (DFO, ferene, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 1,10-phenanthroline, and 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one) had no effect on artemisinin plus hemin-induced enzyme inhibition. Catalase (2000 U/mL) had a minor effect on the artemisinin-hemin or hemin-mediated effect. Thiourea (1 mM) had no effect. However, superoxide dismutase (500 U/mL) and dithiothreitol blocked artemisinin-hemin or hemin-mediated ATPase inhibition significantly (P oxidation of thiol groups on the enzymes. Free iron or hydroxyl radical does not seem to be involved. This interaction between artemisinin and hemin may contribute to the antimalarial action of artemisinin against malarial parasites.

  18. Enhanced heat sink with geometry induced wall-jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Md. Mahamudul, E-mail: sohel0991@gmail.com; Tikadar, Amitav; Bari, Fazlul; Morshed, A. K. M. M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000. Bangladesh (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    Mini-channels embedded in solid matrix have already proven to be a very efficient way of electronic cooling. Traditional mini-channel heat sinks consist of single layer of parallel channels. Although mini-channel heat sink can achieve very high heat flux, its pumping requirement for circulating liquid through the channel increase very sharply as the flow velocity increases. The pumping requirements of the heat sink can be reduced by increasing its performance. In this paper a novel approach to increase the thermal performance of the mini-channel heat sink is proposed through geometry induced wall jet which is a passive technique. Geometric irregularities along the channel length causes abrupt pressure change between the channels which causes cross flow through the interconnections thus one channel faces suction and other channel jet action. This suction and jet action disrupts boundary layer causing enhanced heat transfer performance. A CFD model has been developed using commercially available software package FLUENT to evaluate the technique. A parametric study of the velocities and the effect of the position of the wall-jets have been performed. Significant reduction in thermal resistance has been observed for wall-jets, it is also observed that this reduction in thermal resistance is dependent on the position and shape of the wall jet.

  19. Development of enhanced piezoelectric energy harvester induced by human motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Y; Nakamachi, E

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a high frequency piezoelectric energy harvester converted from the human low vibrated motion energy was newly developed. This hybrid energy harvester consists of the unimorph piezoelectric cantilever and a couple of permanent magnets. One magnet was attached at the end of cantilever, and the counterpart magnet was set at the end of the pendulum. The mechanical energy provided through the human walking motion, which is a typical ubiquitous presence of vibration, is converted to the electric energy via the piezoelectric cantilever vibration system. At first, we studied the energy convert mechanism and the performance of our energy harvester, where the resonance free vibration of unimorph cantilever with one permanent magnet under a rather high frequency was induced by the artificial low frequency vibration. The counterpart magnet attached on the pendulum. Next, we equipped the counterpart permanent magnet pendulum, which was fluctuated under a very low frequency by the human walking, and the piezoelectric cantilever, which had the permanent magnet at the end. The low-to-high frequency convert "hybrid system" can be characterized as an enhanced energy harvest one. We examined and obtained maximum values of voltage and power in this system, as 1.2V and 1.2 µW. Those results show the possibility to apply for the energy harvester in the portable and implantable Bio-MEMS devices.

  20. Dependence of enhanced asymmetry-induced transport on collision frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggleston, D. L. [Occidental College, Physics Department, Los Angeles, California 90041 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    A single-particle code with collisional effects is used to study how asymmetry-induced radial transport in a non-neutral plasma depends on collision frequency. For asymmetries of the form ϕ{sub 1}(r) cos(kz) cos(ωt−lθ), two sources for the transport have been identified: resonant particles and axially trapped particles. The simulation shows that this latter type, which occurs near the radius where ω matches the azimuthal rotation frequency ω{sub R}, is usually dominant at low collision frequency ν but becomes negligible at higher ν. This behavior can be understood by noting that axially trapped particles have a lower trapping frequency than resonant particles. In the low ν (banana) regime, the radial oscillations have amplitude Δr ≈ v{sub r}/ω{sub T}, so axially trapped particles dominate, and the transport may even exceed the resonant particle plateau regime level. As ν increases, collisions start to interrupt the slower axially trapped particle oscillations, while the resonant particles are still in the banana regime, so the axially trapped particle contribution to the transport decreases. At the largest ν values, axially trapped particle transport is negligible and the observed diffusion coefficient matches that given by plateau regime resonant particle theory. Heuristic models based on these considerations give reasonable agreement with the observed scaling laws for the value of the collision frequency where axially trapped particle transport starts to decrease and for the enhancement of the diffusion coefficient produced by axially trapped particles.

  1. Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, R. M.; Drachev, V. P.; Liu, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Enhanced fluorescence is observed from dye molecules interacting with optical nanoantenna arrays. Elliptical gold dimers form individual nanoantennae with tunable plasmon resonances depending upon the geometry of the two particles and the size of the gap between them. A fluorescent dye, Rhodamine...... 800, is uniformly embedded in a dielectric host that coats the nanoantennae. The nanoantennae act to enhance the dye absorption. In turn, emission from the dye drives the plasmon resonance of the antennae; the nanoantennae act to enhance the fluorescence signal and change the angular distribution...

  2. Inlet Cover Treatment to Enhance Zero NPSH Inducer Operation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Zero net positive suction head (NPSH)-capable hydrogen pump inducers are a critical component needed to lower the cost and increase the effectiveness of Nuclear...

  3. Protocol for Addressing Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, Ernie [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Nelson, James [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Robertson-Tait, Ann [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Savy, Jean [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Wong, Ivan [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This Protocol is a living guidance document for geothermal developers, public officials, regulators and the general public that provides a set of general guidelines detailing useful steps to evaluate and manage the effects of induced seismicity related to EGS projects.

  4. Chalcones Enhance TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ewelina Szliszka; Zenon P. Czuba; Bogdan Mazur; Lukasz Sedek; Andrzej Paradysz; Wojciech Krol

    2009-01-01

    Chalcones exhibit chemopreventive and antitumor effects. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a naturally occurring anticancer agent that induces apoptosis in cancer cells and is not toxic to normal cells. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of five chalcones in combination with TRAIL on prostate cancer cells. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by the MTT and LDH assays. The apoptosis was determined using flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC. Our study showe...

  5. Emodin enhances ATRA-induced differentiation and induces apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingyu; Li, Jing; Hu, Jianda; Zheng, Jing; Zheng, Zhihong; Liu, Tingbo; Lin, Zhenxing; Lin, Minhui

    2014-11-01

    Emodin, an extracted natural compound from the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum L, has been shown to have multiple biological activities including anticancer functions in previous studies. In this study, we investigated the anti-leukemic activity of emodin alone or emodin in the presence all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and the potential signaling pathway involved. We demonstrated that emodin could significantly enhance the sensitivity to ATRA and present additive differentiation-inducing effects in AML cell line NB4 cells and, especially, in NB4-derived ATRA-resistant MR2 cells. Further study showed that increasing dose of emodin could effectively induce growth inhibition and apoptotic effects in both cell lines as well as in primary leukemic cells from AML patients. Moreover, the apoptotic induction in AML cells was associated with the activation of caspase cascades involving caspase-9, caspase-3, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. In addition, leukemic cell response to emodin stimuli in vitro was observed through the decreased expression levels of Bcl-2 and retinoic acid receptor α (RARα). Importantly, emodin was demonstrated as a new inhibitor of PI3K/Akt in AML cells, even in primary AML cells. It inhibited Akt phosphoration (p-Akt) at Ser473 as efficiently as mTOR at Ser2448. Consistently, it exerted suppression effects on the phosphoration of mTOR downstream targets, 4E-BP1 and p70S6K. Taken together, these findings indicate that emodin might be developed as a promising anti-leukemic agent to improve the patient outcome in AML.

  6. Inducement and enhancement of multiple coherence resonances in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of cooperative coupling strength (CCS), i.e., random coupling strength and time-periodic coupling strength, on multiple coherence resonances in unidirectionally coupled neural system has been investigated. Results show that noise, frequency and amplitude play efficient roles for the enhancement of various ...

  7. Contrast induced nephropathy following intravenous contrast enhanced computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moos, S.I.

    2015-01-01

    Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is often described as an acute increase in serum creatinine following intravascular contrast medium administration. CIN is associated with adverse events such as permanent renal failure, increased risk for renal replacement therapy and death. To prevent the above

  8. Identification of promoters and enhancers induced by carbon nanotube exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornholdt, Jette; Lilje, Berit; Saber, Anne Thoustrup

    Usage of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is increasing in industry due to their mechanical and electrical properties. However, pulmonary exposure to CNTs induces, an asbestos-like toxicological response characterized by persistent inflammation, granuloma formation and fibrosis with low no-effect levels...

  9. Dynamic random links enhance diversity-induced coherence in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We investigate the influence of diversity on the temporal regularity of spiking in a ring of coupled model neurons. We find diversity-induced coherence in the spike events, with an optimal amount of parametric heterogeneity at the nodal level yielding the greatest regularity in the spike train. Further, we investigate ...

  10. Inducement and enhancement of multiple coherence resonances in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JIANCHENG SHI

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... College of Chemistry and Material Sciences, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001,. Guangxi, People's Republic of China. ∗ .... In this letter, RCS CR without tuning and CCS-induced CR without ..... the Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi Province. No. 2013GXNSFAA019019 and ...

  11. Chalcones Enhance TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szliszka, Ewelina; Czuba, Zenon P; Mazur, Bogdan; Sedek, Lukasz; Paradysz, Andrzej; Krol, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    Chalcones exhibit chemopreventive and antitumor effects. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a naturally occurring anticancer agent that induces apoptosis in cancer cells and is not toxic to normal cells. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of five chalcones in combination with TRAIL on prostate cancer cells. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by the MTT and LDH assays. The apoptosis was determined using flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC. Our study showed that all five tested chalcones: chalcone, licochalcone-A, isobavachalcone, xanthohumol, butein markedly augmented TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cells and confirmed the significant role of chalcones in chemoprevention of prostate cancer. PMID:20161998

  12. Chalcones Enhance TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Szliszka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Chalcones exhibit chemopreventive and antitumor effects. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL is a naturally occurring anticancer agent that induces apoptosis in cancer cells and is not toxic to normal cells. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of five chalcones in combination with TRAIL on prostate cancer cells. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by the MTT and LDH assays. The apoptosis was determined using flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC. Our study showed that all five tested chalcones: chalcone, licochalcone-A, isobavachalcone, xanthohumol, butein markedly augmented TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cells and confirmed the significant role of chalcones in chemoprevention of prostate cancer.

  13. Variation of antioxidative activity and growth enhancement of Brassicaceae induced by low-pressure oxygen plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Reoto; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2015-06-01

    The mechanism of growth enhancement induced by active oxygen species generated in an oxygen plasma is investigated. The plant growth enhancement induced by the active oxygen species would relate to an antioxidative activity, which is one of the biological responses. The amount of generated active oxygen species is varied by the oxygen gas pressure in a low-pressure RF glow discharge plasma. The antioxidative activity of sprouts of Brassicaceae induced by the oxygen plasma is maximized at pressures between 30 and 40 Pa, whereas the antioxidative activity becomes small at around 60 and 80 Pa. The pressure dependence of the antioxidative activity of sprout stems is opposite to that of the stem length of the sprouts. The growth enhancement would be induced by the increase in the concentration of active oxygen species in plants owing to the decrease in the amount of antioxidative substances.

  14. Evaluate the Mechanism of Enhanced Metastasis Induced by Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    develop mammary gland tumors [6] and the second that develops spontaneous mammary gland tumors (PyV MT mice) and is induced to develop AA [7]. Metastasis...as the SKG mice) that was injected with syngeneic metastatic breast cancer cells (4T1 cells) in the mammary fat pad to develop unifocal mammary gland ...70, a key signal transduction molecule in T cells . This mutation impairs positive and negative selection of T cells in the thymus , leading to thymic

  15. Enhancement of endocannabinoid signaling protects against cocaine-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, Luciano R. [Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Gobira, Pedro H.; Viana, Thercia G. [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Medeiros, Daniel C.; Ferreira-Vieira, Talita H. [Department of Physiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Doria, Juliana G. [Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Rodrigues, Flávia [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Aguiar, Daniele C. [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Pereira, Grace S.; Massessini, André R. [Department of Physiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Ribeiro, Fabíola M. [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Antonio Carlos P. de [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Moraes, Marcio F.D., E-mail: mfdm@icb.ufmg.br [Department of Physiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Moreira, Fabricio A., E-mail: fabriciomoreira@icb.ufmg.br [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-08-01

    Cocaine is an addictive substance with a potential to cause deleterious effects in the brain. The strategies for treating its neurotoxicity, however, are limited. Evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system exerts neuroprotective functions against various stimuli. Thus, we hypothesized that inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the main enzyme responsible for terminating the actions of the endocannabinoid anandamide, reduces seizures and cell death in the hippocampus in a model of cocaine intoxication. Male Swiss mice received injections of endocannabinoid-related compounds followed by the lowest dose of cocaine that induces seizures, electroencephalographic activity and cell death in the hippocampus. The molecular mechanisms were studied in primary cell culture of this structure. The FAAH inhibitor, URB597, reduced cocaine-induced seizures and epileptiform electroencephalographic activity. The cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptor selective agonist, ACEA, mimicked these effects, whereas the antagonist, AM251, prevented them. URB597 also inhibited cocaine-induced activation and death of hippocampal neurons, both in animals and in primary cell culture. Finally, we investigated if the PI3K/Akt/ERK intracellular pathway, a cell surviving mechanism coupled to CB{sub 1} receptor, mediated these neuroprotective effects. Accordingly, URB597 injection increased ERK and Akt phosphorylation in the hippocampus. Moreover, the neuroprotective effect of this compound was reversed by the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. In conclusion, the pharmacological facilitation of the anandamide/CB1/PI3K signaling protects the brain against cocaine intoxication in experimental models. This strategy may be further explored in the development of treatments for drug-induced neurotoxicity. - Highlights: • Cocaine toxicity is characterized by seizures and hippocampal cell death. • The endocannabinoid anandamide acts as a brain protective mechanism. • Inhibition of anandamide hydrolysis

  16. Chill-inducing music enhances altruism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2014-01-01

    Music is a universal feature of human cultures, and it has both fascinated and troubled many researchers. In this paper we show through the dictator game (DG) that an individual's listening to preferred "chill-inducing" music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. Participants were 22 undergraduate and postgraduate students who were divided into two groups, the in-group and the out-group, and they acted as dictators. The dictators listened to their own preferred "chill-inducing" music, to music they disliked, or to silence, and then played the DG. In this hypothetical experiment, the dictators were given real money (which they did not keep) and were asked to distribute it to the recipients, who were presented as stylized images of men and women displayed on a computer screen. The dictators played the DG both before and after listening to the music. Both male and female dictators gave more money after listening to their preferred music and less after listening to the music they disliked, whereas silence had no effect on the allocated amounts. The group to which the recipient belonged did not influence these trends. The results suggest that listening to preferred "chill-inducing" music promotes altruistic behavior.

  17. Chill-inducing music enhances altruism in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime eFukui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Music is a universal feature of human cultures, and it has both fascinated and troubled many researchers. In this paper we show through the Dictator Game that an individual’s listening to preferred chill-inducing music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. Participants were 22 undergraduate and postgraduate students who were divided into two groups, the In-group (IG and the Out-group (OG, and they acted as dictators. The dictators listened to their own preferred chill-inducing music, to music they disliked, or to silence, and then played the Dictator Game. In this hypothetical experiment, the dictators were given real money (which they did not keep and were asked to distribute it to the recipients, who were presented as stylized images of men and women displayed on a computer screen. The dictators played the Dictator Game both before and after listening to the music. Both male and female dictators gave more money after listening to their preferred music and less after listening to the music they disliked, whereas silence had no effect on the allocated amounts. The group to which the recipient belonged did not influence these trends. The results suggest that listening to preferred chill-inducing music promotes altruistic behavior.

  18. Exercise-induced enhancement of immune function in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J C; Harris, T J; Higgins, J; Maisel, A S

    1994-07-01

    There have been many anecdotal reports that regular, moderate exercise confers some protective immunity against infection. There has been little scientific evidence to support this. It is also unclear whether training alters lymphocyte trafficking from the spleen to the periphery after a bout of exhaustive exercise. To determine the effect of moderate training on in vivo antibody production, using rats as an animal model, we gradually trained 18 rats using a swimming protocol for a 4-week period after injection and booster with Keyhole limpet hemocyanin antigen. There were 9 age-matched controls. At the conclusion of training, both groups underwent a short-term exhaustive swim. The trained group showed marked enhancement of IgM and IgG production. After short-term exercise, both groups had acute lymphocytosis, mainly T(suppressor)/cytolytic and natural killer cells with decreases in T(helper) (trained), B cells, and the Th-to-Ts ratio. The changes in the splenocyte subsets were the opposite of the changes in the peripheral blood. With respect to function, after exhaustive exercise, there was a slight increase in mitogenesis and interleukin-2 receptor expression to concanavalin A (untrained more than trained) compared with controls. Regular, moderate training enhances antibody production to specific de novo antigen both early and late. In addition, short-term exercise leads to selective release of immune cells from the spleen and results in slightly enhanced function of splenocytes. Direct stimulation by the sympathetic nervous system and catecholamines is the proposed mechanism for the changes seen after short-term exercise and possibly antibody production during training.

  19. Hydrogen sulfide enhances nitric oxide-induced tolerance of hypoxia in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Renyi; Bian, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Lina; Cheng, Wei; Hai, Na; Yang, Changquan; Yang, Tao; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Chongying

    2016-11-01

    Our data present H 2 S in a new role, serving as a multi-faceted transducer to different response mechanisms during NO-induced acquisition of tolerance to flooding-induced hypoxia in maize seedling roots. Nitric oxide (NO), serving as a secondary messenger, modulates physiological processes in plants. Recently, hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has been demonstrated to have similar signaling functions. This study focused on the effects of treatment with H 2 S on NO-induced hypoxia tolerance in maize seedlings. The results showed that treatment with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) enhanced survival rate of submerged maize roots through induced accumulation of endogenous H 2 S. The induced H 2 S then enhanced endogenous Ca 2+ levels as well as the Ca 2+ -dependent activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), improving the capacity for antioxidant defense and, ultimately, the hypoxia tolerance in maize seedlings. In addition, NO induced the activities of key enzymes in H 2 S biosynthesis, such as L-cysteine desulfhydrases (L-CDs), O-acetyl-L-serine (thiol)lyase (OAS-TL), and β-Cyanoalanine Synthase (CAS). SNP-induced hypoxia tolerance was enhanced by the application of NaHS, but was eliminated by the H 2 S-synthesis inhibitor hydroxylamine (HA) and the H 2 S-scavenger hypotaurine (HT). H 2 S concurrently enhanced the transcriptional levels of relative hypoxia-induced genes. Together, our findings indicated that H 2 S serves as a multi-faceted transducer that enhances the nitric oxide-induced hypoxia tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.).

  20. Chill-inducing music enhances altruism in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Hajime eFukui; Kumiko eToyoshima

    2014-01-01

    Music is a universal feature of human cultures, and it has both fascinated and troubled many researchers. In this paper we show through the Dictator Game that an individual’s listening to preferred chill-inducing music may promote altruistic behavior that extends beyond the bounds of kin selection or reciprocal altruism. Participants were 22 undergraduate and postgraduate students who were divided into two groups, the In-group (IG) and the Out-group (OG), and they acted as dictators. The dict...

  1. Enhanced SCAP glycosylation by inflammation induces macrophage foam cell formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhou

    Full Text Available Inflammatory stress promotes foam cell formation by disrupting LDL receptor feedback regulation in macrophages. Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins (SREBPs Cleavage-Activating Protein (SCAP glycosylation plays crucial roles in regulating LDL receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCoAR feedback regulation. The present study was to investigate if inflammatory stress disrupts LDL receptor and HMGCoAR feedback regulation by affecting SCAP glycosylation in THP-1 macrophages. Intracellular cholesterol content was assessed by Oil Red O staining and quantitative assay. The expression of molecules controlling cholesterol homeostasis was examined using real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. The translocation of SCAP from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER to the Golgi was detected by confocal microscopy. We demonstrated that exposure to inflammatory cytokines increased lipid accumulation in THP-1 macrophages, accompanying with an increased SCAP expression even in the presence of a high concentration of LDL. These inflammatory cytokines also prolonged the half-life of SCAP by enhancing glycosylation of SCAP due to the elevated expression of the Golgi mannosidase II. This may enhance translocation and recycling of SCAP between the ER and the Golgi, escorting more SREBP2 from the ER to the Golgi for activation by proteolytic cleavages as evidenced by an increased N-terminal of SREBP2 (active form. As a consequence, the LDL receptor and HMGCoAR expression were up-regulated. Interestingly, these effects could be blocked by inhibitors of Golgi mannosidases. Our results indicated that inflammation increased native LDL uptake and endogenous cholesterol de novo synthesis, thereby causing foam cell formation via increasing transcription and protein glycosylation of SCAP in macrophages. These data imply that inhibitors of Golgi processing enzymes might have a potential vascular-protective role in prevention of atherosclerotic foam

  2. Round Window Membrane Intracochlear Drug Delivery Enhanced by Induced Advection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkholder, David A.; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Frisina, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Delivery of therapeutic compounds to the inner ear via absorption through the round window membrane (RWM) has advantages over direct intracochlear infusions; specifically, minimizing impact upon functional hearing measures. However, previous reports show that significant basal-to-apical concentration gradients occur, with the potential to impact treatment efficacy. Here we present a new approach to inner ear drug delivery with induced advection aiding distribution of compounds throughout the inner ear in the murine cochlea. Polyimide microtubing was placed near the RWM niche through a bullaostomy into the middle ear cavity allowing directed delivery of compounds to the RWM. We hypothesized that a posterior semicircular canalostomy would induce apical flow from the patent cochlear aqueduct to the canalostomy due to influx of cerebral spinal fluid. To test this hypothesis, young adult CBA/CaJ mice were divided into two groups: bullaostomy approach only (BA) and bullaostomy + canalostomy (B+C). Cochlear function was evaluated by distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds during and after middle ear infusion of salicylate in artificial perilymph (AP), applied near the RWM. The mice recovered for 1 week, and were re-tested. The results demonstrate there was no significant impact on auditory function utilizing the RWM surgical procedure with or without the canalostomy, and DPOAE thresholds were elevated reversibly during the salicylate infusion. Comparing the threshold shifts for both methods, the B+C approach had more of a physiological effect than the BA approach, including at lower frequencies representing more apical cochlear locations. Unlike mouse cochleostomies, there was no deleterious auditory functional impact after 1 week recovery from surgery. The B+C approach had more drug efficacy at lower frequencies, underscoring potential benefits for more precise control of delivery of inner ear therapeutic compounds

  3. Cardiovascular responses induced by obstructive apnea are enhanced in hypertensive rats due to enhanced chemoreceptor responsivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M M Angheben

    Full Text Available Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, like patients with sleep apnea, have hypertension, increased sympathetic activity, and increased chemoreceptor drive. We investigated the role of carotid chemoreceptors in cardiovascular responses induced by obstructive apnea in awake SHR. A tracheal balloon and vascular cannulas were implanted, and a week later, apneas of 15 s each were induced. The effects of apnea were more pronounced in SHR than in control rats (Wistar Kyoto; WKY. Blood pressure increased by 57±3 mmHg during apnea in SHR and by 28±3 mmHg in WKY (p<0.05, n = 14/13. The respiratory effort increased by 53±6 mmHg in SHR and by 34±5 mmHg in WKY. The heart rate fell by 209±19 bpm in SHR and by 155±16 bpm in WKY. The carotid chemoreceptors were then inactivated by the ligation of the carotid body artery, and apneas were induced two days later. The inactivation of chemoreceptors reduced the responses to apnea and abolished the difference between SHR and controls. The apnea-induced hypertension was 11±4 mmHg in SHR and 8±4 mmHg in WKY. The respiratory effort was 15±2 mmHg in SHR and 15±2 mmHg in WKY. The heart rate fell 63±18 bpm in SHR and 52±14 bpm in WKY. Similarly, when the chemoreceptors were unloaded by the administration of 100% oxygen, the responses to apnea were reduced. In conclusion, arterial chemoreceptors contribute to the responses induced by apnea in both strains, but they are more important in SHR and account for the exaggerated responses of this strain to apnea.

  4. Vacuum-induced suppression and enhancement of four-wave mixing in an optical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haixia; Wang, Xiuxiu; Ahmed, Irfan; Yao, Xin; Wu, Zhenkun; Zhu, Dayu; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2015-09-01

    We report on an experimental study of vacuum-induced suppression and enhancement of four-wave mixing (FWM) signal in a composite atom-cavity system. By scanning the additional dressing field, the suppression ratio of the FWM signal can reach 90 % compared with 40 % without cavity. We attribute the enhanced suppression and enhancement to the atom-cavity coupling arising from a vacuum-induced Raman process, which amplifies the dressing effect from the additional field. Also, the dressing asymmetry of the atom-cavity coupling is discussed and used to estimate the nonlinearity of atomic medium in the cavity. The suppression and enhancement can be interpreted by a dressed-state picture and agree with theoretical calculations. The investigation may find applications in optical switch and quantum memory controlled by cavity.

  5. Growth Enhancement of Radish Sprouts Induced by Low Pressure O2 Radio Frequency Discharge Plasma Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazaki, Satoshi; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2012-01-01

    We studied growth enhancement of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.) induced by low pressure O2 radio frequency (RF) discharge plasma irradiation. The average length of radish sprouts cultivated for 7 days after O2 plasma irradiation is 30-60% greater than that without irradiation. O2 plasma irradiation does not affect seed germination. The experimental results reveal that oxygen related radicals strongly enhance growth, whereas ions and photons do not.

  6. Implantation induced extended defects and transient enhanced diffusion in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.; Liu, J.; Listebarger, J.; Krishnamoorthy, W.; Zhang, L.; Jones, K.S. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Transient enhanced diffusion (TED) of dopant in silicon caused by point defects during annealing of implanted. Si has become one of the essential concerns in miniaturization of silicon device technology. In order to control and minimize the TED effect, a fundamental understanding of the evolution of the point defects upon annealing and the interaction between point defects and extended defects and their effects on dopant diffusion is necessary. Our studies were carried out by two parts; (1) For understanding the evolution of <311> and <110> defects, B{sup +} and Si{sup +} implantation at energies (from 5 keV to 40 keV) and doses in the range from 5 x 10{sup 12} to 1 x 10{sup 14}/cm{sup 2} were used. The annealing kinetics were investigated using a N{sub 2} ambient with temperatures for time ranging from 500{degrees}C to 1100{degrees}C for time ranging from 3 min to 3 hours. A matrix of implant energy vs. dose on formation threshold of <311> and <110> defect, interstitials napped and dissolved condition were obtained. (2) For Understanding the interaction between Type II dislocation loop and point defect a B doped buried marker layer was used. The oxidation of silicon surface used as a interstitials injection source and a buried type II loop layer as a point defect detector used to quantify the flux of interstitials injected. Combining the flux measured by loops and dopant diffusion the D{sub I} C{sub I} was determined. The diffusion limited kinetics was concluded. The TED from <311> and EOR (End of Range) <110> defect was studied using 8keV B{sup +} implanted Si to a dose of the le14 and 190keV Ge{sub +} implanted to a dose of le15. Subsequent anneals are done for 5 min and 30 min, respectively, These defects affect dopant diffusion by trapping and releasing point defects.

  7. Microlens array induced light absorption enhancement in polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuqing [Ames Laboratory; Elshobaki, Moneim [Iowa State University; Ye, Zhuo [Ames Laboratory; Park, Joong-Mok [Ames Laboratory; Noack, Max A. [Iowa State University; Ho, Kai-Ming [Ames Laboratory; Chaudhary, Sumit [Ames Laboratory

    2013-01-24

    Over the last decade, polymer solar cells (PSCs) have attracted a lot of attention and highest power conversion efficiencies (PCE) are now close to 10%. Here we employ an optical structure – the microlens array (MLA) – to increase light absorption inside the active layer, and PCE of PSCs increased even for optimized devices. Normal incident light rays are refracted at the MLA and travel longer optical paths inside the active layers. Two PSC systems – poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) and poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl]:(6,6)-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PCDTBT:PC70BM) – were investigated. In the P3HT:PCBM system, MLA increased the absorption, absolute external quantum efficiency, and the PCE of an optimized device by [similar]4.3%. In the PCDTBT:PC70BM system, MLA increased the absorption, absolute external quantum efficiency, and PCE by more than 10%. In addition, simulations incorporating optical parameters of all structural layers were performed and they support the enhancement of absorption in the active layer with the assistance of MLA. Our results show that utilizing MLA is an effective strategy to further increase light absorption in PSCs, in which optical losses account for [similar]40% of total losses. MLA also does not pose materials processing challenges to the active layers since it is on the other side of the transparent substrate.

  8. Genetically-induced cholinergic hyper-innervation enhances taste learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin eNeseliler

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute inhibition of acetylcholine (ACh has been shown to impair many forms of simple learning, and notably conditioned taste aversion (CTA. The most adhered-to theory that has emerged as a result of this work—that ACh increases a taste’s perceived novelty, and thereby its associability—would be further strengthened by evidence showing that enhanced cholinergic function improves learning above normal levels. Experimental testing of this corollary hypothesis has been limited, however, by side-effects of pharmacological ACh agonism and by the absence of a model that achieves long-term increases in cholinergic signaling. Here, we present this further test of the ACh hypothesis, making use of mice lacking the p75 pan-neurotrophin receptor gene, which show a resultant over-abundance of cholinergic neurons in subregions of the basal forebrain (BF. We first demonstrate that the p75-/- abnormality directly affects portions of the CTA circuit, locating mouse gustatory cortex (GC using a functional assay and then using immunohistochemisty to demonstrate cholinergic hyperinnervation of GC in the mutant mice—hyperinnervation that is unaccompanied by changes in cell numbers or compensatory changes in muscarinic receptor densities. We then demonstrate that both p75-/- and wild-type mice learn robust CTAs, which extinguish more slowly in the mutants. Further testing to distinguish effects on learning from alterations in memory retention demonstrate that p75-/- mice do in fact learn stronger CTAs than wild-type mice. These data provide novel evidence for the hypothesis linking ACh and taste learning.

  9. Curcumin enhances the apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL in prostate cancer cells: molecular mechanisms of apoptosis, migration and angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar, Sharmila; Chen, Qinghe; Sarva, Krishna; Siddiqui, Imtiaz; Srivastava, Rakesh K

    2007-01-01

    Background: We have recently shown that curcumin (a diferuloylmethane) inhibits growth and induces apoptosis, and also demonstrated that TRAIL induces apoptosis by binding to specific cell surface death receptors in prostate cancer cells. The objectives of this paper were to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which curcumin enhanced the apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL in prostate cancer cells.Results: Curcumin enhanced the apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL in androgen-unrespons...

  10. Gene transfer occurs with enhanced efficiency in biofilms and induces enhanced stabilisation of the biofilm structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Søren; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2003-01-01

    There has been much interest in bioremediation based on the introduction of bacteria able to catabolise recalcitrant compounds deposited in the environment. In particular, the delivery of catabolic information in the form of conjugative plasmids to bacterial populations in situ has great potential....... As most bacteria in the environment live in surface-associated communities (biofilms), the gene transfer systems within these communities need to be better characterised for bio-enhancement strategies to be developed. Recent findings suggest that gene transfer does take place within biofilms, but studies...... also identified limitations and bottlenecks of the process. The dense population structure in biofilms increases plasmid dispersal by conjugation, and the conjugation mechanism itself may stimulate biofilm development. Moreover, DNA release and transformation seem to be part of a biofilm-related life...

  11. Inhibition of the autophagy flux by gingerol enhances TRAIL-induced tumor cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazim, Uddin Md; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Seol, Jae-Won; Hur, Jin; Eo, Seong-Kug; Lee, John-Hwa; Park, Sang-Youel

    2015-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a primary anticancer agent and a member of the tumor necrosis factor family that selectively induces apoptosis in various tumor cells, but not in normal cells. Gingerol is a major ginger component with anti-inflammatory and anti‑tumorigenic activities. Autophagy flux is the complete process of autophagy, in which the autophagosomes are lysed by lysosomes. The role of autophagy in cell death or cell survival is controversial. A549 adenocarcinoma cells are TRAIL-resistant. In the present study, we showed that treatment with TRAIL slightly induced cell death, but gingerol treatment enhanced the TRAIL-induced cell death in human lung cancer cells. The combination of gingerol and TRAIL increased accumulation of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II and p62, confirming the inhibited autophagy flux. Collectively, our results suggest that gingerol sensitizes human lung cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the autophagy flux.

  12. Enhancing resilience of farmer seed system to climate-induced stresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kansiime, Monica K.; Mastenbroek, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Given the challenges facing African agriculture resulting from climate-induced stresses, building resilience is a priority. Seed systems are important for enhancing such resilience as seed security has direct links to food security, and resilient livelihoods in general. Using data from a case

  13. Glucocorticoid enhancement of memory requires arousal-induced noradrenergic activation in the basolateral amygdala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, B; Okuda, S; Van der Zee, EA; McGaugh, JL; McGaugh, James L.

    2006-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that glucocorticoid hormones enhance the consolidation of long-term memories for emotionally arousing experiences but not that for less arousing or neutral information. However, previous studies have not determined the basis of such arousal-induced selectivity. Here

  14. Persistent wind-induced enhancement of diffusive CO2 transport in a mountain forest snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. R. Bowling; W. J. Massman

    2011-01-01

    Diffusion dominates the transport of trace gases between soil and the atmosphere. Pressure gradients induced by atmospheric flow and wind interacting with topographical features cause a small but persistent bulk flow of air within soil or snow. This forcing, called pressure pumping or wind pumping, leads to a poorly quantified enhancement of gas transport beyond the...

  15. Dectin-1 activation induces proliferation and migration of human keratinocytes enhancing wound re-epithelialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Linda M.; Zijlstra-Willems, Esther M.; Richters, Cornelia D.; Ulrich, Magda M. W.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2014-01-01

    Beta-glucans in temporary wound dressings have immuno-stimulatory capacities and have been shown to enhance wound healing in burn patients. Curdlan is a 1,3-linked bacterial/fungal derived beta-glucan that induces inflammatory responses via the C-type lectin receptor dectin-1 on dendritic cells

  16. Yohimbine enhances protection of berberine against LPS-induced mouse lethality through multiple mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    Full Text Available Sepsis remains a major cause of mortality in intensive care units, better therapies are urgently needed. Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS is an important trigger of sepsis. We have demonstrated that berberine (Ber protects against lethality induced by LPS, which is enhanced by yohimbine (Y pretreatment, and Ber combined with Y also improves survival in septic mice. However, the precise mechanisms by which Y enhances protection of Ber against LPS-induced lethality remain unclear. The present study confirmed that simultaneously administered Y also enhanced protection of Ber against LPS-induced lethality. Ber or/and Y attenuated liver injury, but not renal injury in LPS-challenged mice. Ber or/and Y all inhibited LPS-stimulated IκBα, JNK and ERK phosphorylation, NF-κB activation as well as TNF-α production. Ber also increased IL-10 production in LPS-challenged mice, which was enhanced by Y. Furthermore, Ber or/and Y all suppressed LPS-induced IRF3, TyK2 and STAT1 phosphorylation, as well as IFN-β and IP-10 mRNA expression in spleen of mice at 1 h after LPS challenge. Especially, Y enhanced the inhibitory effect of Ber on LPS-induced IP-10 mRNA expression. In vitro experiments further demonstrated that Y significantly enhanced the inhibitory effect of Ber on TNF-α production in LPS-treated peritoneal macrophages, Ber combined with Y promoted LPS-induced IL-10 production and LPS-stimulated IκBα, JNK, ERK and IRF3 phosphorylation and NF-κB activation were also suppressed by Ber or/and Y pretreatment in peritoneal macrophages. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Y enhances the protection of Ber against LPS-induced lethality in mice via attenuating liver injury, upregulating IL-10 production and suppressing IκBα, JNK, ERK and IRF3 phosphorylation. Ber combined with Y may be an effective immunomodulator agent for the prevention of sepsis.

  17. Real-time observations of mechanical stimulus-induced enhancements of mechanical properties in osteoblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xu; Liu Xiaoli; Sun Jialun [State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300073 (China); He Shuojie [State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300073 (China); Department of Physics, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Imshik [State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300073 (China)], E-mail: ilee@nankai.edu.cn2; Pak, Hyuk Kyu [Department of Physics, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    Osteoblast, playing a key role in the pathophysiology of osteoporosis, is one of the mechanical stress sensitive cells. The effects of mechanical load-induced changes of mechanical properties in osteoblast cells were studied at real-time. Osteoblasts obtained from young Wister rats were exposed to mechanical loads in different frequencies and resting intervals generated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe tip and simultaneously measured the changes of the mechanical properties by AFM. The enhancement of the mechanical properties was observed and quantified by the increment of the apparent Young's modulus, E{sup *}. The observed mechanical property depended on the frequency of applied tapping loads. For the resting interval is 50 s, the mechanical load-induced enhancement of E{sup *}-values disappears. It seems that the enhanced mechanical property was recover able under no additional mechanical stimulus.

  18. The ER stress inducer DMC enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in glioblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roosmalen, Ingrid A. M.; Dos Reis, Carlos R; Setroikromo, Rita; Yuvaraj, Saravanan; Joseph, Justin V.; Tepper, Pieter G.; Kruyt, Frank A. E.; Quax, Wim J.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant brain tumour in humans and is highly resistant to current treatment modalities. We have explored the combined treatment of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducing agent 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC) and TNF-related

  19. Tip-enhanced nano-Raman analytical imaging of locally induced strain distribution in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Taka-Aki; Ichimura, Taro; Kuwahara, Shota; H'dhili, Fekhra; Uetsuki, Kazumasa; Okuno, Yoshito; Verma, Prabhat; Kawata, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Tip-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy is a powerful technique for analysing nanomaterials at high spatial resolution far beyond the diffraction limit of light. However, imaging of intrinsic properties of materials such as individual molecules or local structures has not yet been achieved even with a tip-enhanced Raman scattering microscope. Here we demonstrate colour-coded tip-enhanced Raman scattering imaging of strain distribution along the length of a carbon nanotube. The strain is induced by dragging the nanotube with an atomic force microscope tip. A silver-coated nanotip is employed to enhance and detect Raman scattering from specific locations of the nanotube directly under the tip apex, representing deformation of its molecular alignment because of the existence of local strain. Our technique remarkably provides an insight into localized variations of structural properties in nanomaterials, which could prove useful for a variety of applications of carbon nanotubes and other nanomaterials as functional devices and materials.

  20. Pleiotrophin enhances PDGFB-induced gliomagenesis through increased proliferation of neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Laaniste, Liisi; Jiang, Yiwen; Alafuzoff, Irina; Uhrbom, Lene; Dimberg, Anna

    2016-12-06

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) augments tumor growth by increasing proliferation of tumor cells and promoting vascular abnormalization, but its role in early gliomagenesis has not been evaluated. Through analysis of publically available datasets, we demonstrate that increased PTN mRNA expression is associated with amplification of chromosome 7, identified as one of the earliest steps in glioblastoma development. To elucidate the role of PTN in tumor initiation we employed the RCAS/tv-a model that allows glioma induction by RCAS-virus mediated expression of oncogenes in neural progenitor cells. Intracranial injection of RCAS-PTN did not induce glioma formation when administrated alone, but significantly enhanced RCAS-platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)B-induced gliomagenesis. PTN co-treatment augmented PDGFB-induced Akt activation in neural progenitor cells in vitro, and enhanced neural sphere size associated with increased proliferation. Our data indicates that PTN expression is associated with chromosome 7 gain, and that PTN enhances PDGFB-induced gliomagenesis by stimulating proliferation of neural progenitor cells.

  1. Enhancement of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitsas, Michael M [Saline, MI; Raghavan, Kamaldev [Houston, TX

    2011-11-01

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to increase Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Enhancement is needed in such applications as harnessing of clean and renewable energy from ocean/river currents using the ocean energy converter VIVACE (Vortex Induced Vibration for Aquatic Clean Energy).

  2. Quasi-resonance enhancement of laser-induced-fluorescence diagnosis of endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ralph H., Jr.; Vancaillie, Thierry G.

    1990-05-01

    Endometriosis, a common disease in women in the reproductive age group, is defined pathologically by the presence of endometrial tissue (inner lining of the uterus) outside the uterus. The displaced tissue is histologically identical to endometrium. In addition to being a highly prevalent disease, this disease is associated with many distressing and debilitating symptoms. Motivated by the need to improve diagnosis by endoscopic imaging instrumentation, we have previously used several drugs to cause selective laser-induced fluorescence of active surgically induced endometriosis in the rabbit model in vivo using ultraviolet-wavelength (351.1 and 363.8 nm) excitation from an argon-ion laser. In the present study we have investigated methods of enhancing differentiation between normal and abnormal tissue by using other excitation wavelengths. In addition to an enhanced capability for detecting abnormal tissue, there are several other advantages associated with using visible-wavelength excitation, such as deeper penetration into the tissue, as well as increased equipment performance, reliability, versatility, and availability. The disadvantage is that because only wavelengths longer than the excitation wavelength can be used for detection, some of the spectral information is lost. Because human endomeiriosis samples were somewhat limited in quantity, as well as specimen size, we used normal ovarian tissue for the laser-induced-fluorescence differentiation-enhancement studies. Positive enhancement of the laser-induced- fluorescence differentiation was found in human ovarian tissue in vitro utilizing 514.5-nm excitation from an argonion laser. Additionally, preliminary verification of this concept was accomplished in active surgically induced endometriosis in the rabbit model in vivo with visible argon-ion laser excitation of two tetracycline-based drugs. Future experiments with other drug treatments and excitation/detection parameters are planned.

  3. A visible light-induced photocatalytic silver enhancement reaction for gravimetric biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wooree; Yim, Changyong; Jung, Namchul; Joo, Jinmyoung; Jeon, Sangmin; Seo, Hyejung; Lee, Soo Suk; Park, Jae Chan

    2011-10-01

    We have developed a novel microgravimetric immunosensor using a WO3 nanoparticle-modified immunoassay and a silver enhancement reaction. When the nanoparticles in silver ion solution (i.e. AgNO3) are exposed to visible light, the silver ions are photocatalytically reduced and form a metallic silver coating on the nanoparticles. This silver coating consequently induces changes in the mass and light absorption spectrum. Although photocatalytic reduction reactions can be achieved using ultraviolet (UV) light and TiO2 nanoparticles as described in our previous publication (Seo et al 2010 Nanotechnology 21 505502), the use of UV light in biosensing applications has drawbacks in that UV light can damage proteins. In addition, conventional quartz crystal substrates must be passivated to prevent undesirable silver ion reduction on their gold-coated sensing surfaces. We addressed these problems by adopting a visible light-induced photocatalytic silver enhancement method using WO3 nanoparticles and lateral field excited (LFE) quartz crystals. As a proof-of-concept demonstration of the technique, streptavidin was adsorbed onto an LFE quartz crystal, and its mass was enhanced with biotinylated WO3 nanoparticles, this being followed by a photocatalytic silver enhancement reaction. The mass change due to the enhancement was found to be > 30 times greater than the mass change obtained with the streptavidin alone.

  4. Glioblastoma Presenting with Steroid-Induced Pseudoregression of Contrast Enhancement on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus D. Mazur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroid-induced reduction in contrast enhancement on radiographic imaging is most commonly associated with lymphoma but has been reported in other entities, including glioma. This finding may represent a diagnostic dilemma. Concern that steroid-induced cytotoxicity obscures histological diagnosis of suspected lymphoma may lead to postponement of a biopsy. If glioma is not considered in the differential diagnosis, reduction in tumor contrast enhancement may be misinterpreted as disease regression rather than a transient radiographic change. We report a case of a patient with an enhancing right temporoparietal mass adjacent to the atrium of the lateral ventricle. After treatment with dexamethasone was started, the mass exhibited marked reduction in contrast enhancement, with symptom improvement. The clinical course suggested lymphoma, and surgery was not performed. Subsequent screening for extra-axial lymphoma was negative. Two weeks later, the patient developed worsening symptoms, and repeat T1-weighted imaging showed interval increase in size and enhancement. The findings suggested a possible diagnosis of malignant glioma. The patient underwent a stereotactic-guided craniotomy for excision of the right temporoparietal mass lesion. Final histological diagnosis was glioblastoma multiforme, World Health Organization grade IV.

  5. Nicotinamide enhances repair of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage in primary melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Benjamin C; Surjana, Devita; Halliday, Gary M; Damian, Diona L

    2014-07-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Nicotinamide is a safe, widely available vitamin that reduces the immune suppressive effects of UV, enhances DNA repair in keratinocytes and has shown promise in the chemoprevention of non-melanoma skin cancer. Here, we report the effect of nicotinamide on DNA damage and repair in primary human melanocytes. Nicotinamide significantly enhanced the repair of oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine) and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers induced by UV exposure. It also enhanced the repair of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine induced by the culture conditions in unirradiated melanocytes. A significant increase in the percentage of melanocytes undergoing unscheduled but not scheduled DNA synthesis was observed, confirming that nicotinamide enhances DNA repair in human melanocytes. In summary, nicotinamide, by enhancing DNA repair in melanocytes, is a potential agent for the chemoprevention of cutaneous melanoma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Metazoan Nuclear Pores Provide a Scaffold for Poised Genes and Mediate Induced Enhancer-Promoter Contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Garcia, Pau; Debo, Brian; Aleman, Jennifer R; Talamas, Jessica A; Lan, Yemin; Nguyen, Nha H; Won, Kyoung J; Capelson, Maya

    2017-04-06

    Nuclear pore complex components (Nups) have been implicated in transcriptional regulation, yet what regulatory steps are controlled by metazoan Nups remains unclear. We identified the presence of multiple Nups at promoters, enhancers, and insulators in the Drosophila genome. In line with this binding, we uncovered a functional role for Nup98 in mediating enhancer-promoter looping at ecdysone-inducible genes. These genes were found to be stably associated with nuclear pores before and after activation. Although changing levels of Nup98 disrupted enhancer-promoter contacts, it did not affect ongoing transcription but instead compromised subsequent transcriptional activation or transcriptional memory. In support of the enhancer-looping role, we found Nup98 to gain and retain physical interactions with architectural proteins upon stimulation with ecdysone. Together, our data identify Nups as a class of architectural proteins for enhancers and supports a model in which animal genomes use the nuclear pore as an organizing scaffold for inducible poised genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A visible light-induced photocatalytic silver enhancement reaction for gravimetric biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Wooree; Yim, Changyong; Jung, Namchul; Joo, Jinmyoung; Jeon, Sangmin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyejung; Lee, Soo Suk; Park, Jae Chan, E-mail: jeons@postech.ac.kr [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT), Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-07

    We have developed a novel microgravimetric immunosensor using a WO{sub 3} nanoparticle-modified immunoassay and a silver enhancement reaction. When the nanoparticles in silver ion solution (i.e. AgNO{sub 3}) are exposed to visible light, the silver ions are photocatalytically reduced and form a metallic silver coating on the nanoparticles. This silver coating consequently induces changes in the mass and light absorption spectrum. Although photocatalytic reduction reactions can be achieved using ultraviolet (UV) light and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles as described in our previous publication (Seo et al 2010 Nanotechnology 21 505502), the use of UV light in biosensing applications has drawbacks in that UV light can damage proteins. In addition, conventional quartz crystal substrates must be passivated to prevent undesirable silver ion reduction on their gold-coated sensing surfaces. We addressed these problems by adopting a visible light-induced photocatalytic silver enhancement method using WO{sub 3} nanoparticles and lateral field excited (LFE) quartz crystals. As a proof-of-concept demonstration of the technique, streptavidin was adsorbed onto an LFE quartz crystal, and its mass was enhanced with biotinylated WO{sub 3} nanoparticles, this being followed by a photocatalytic silver enhancement reaction. The mass change due to the enhancement was found to be > 30 times greater than the mass change obtained with the streptavidin alone.

  8. Retinoids enhance glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of T cells by facilitating glucocorticoid receptor-mediated transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, K; Sarang, Z; Scholtz, B; Brázda, P; Ghyselinck, N; Chambon, P; Fésüs, L; Szondy, Z

    2011-01-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of thymocytes is one of the first recognized forms of programmed cell death. It was shown to require gene activation induced by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) translocated into the nucleus following ligand binding. In addition, the necessity of the glucocorticoid-induced, but transcription-independent phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) has also been shown. Here we report that retinoic acids, physiological ligands for the nuclear retinoid receptors, enhance glucocorticoid-induced death of mouse thymocytes both in vitro and in vivo. The effect is mediated by retinoic acid receptor (RAR) alpha/retinoid X receptor (RXR) heterodimers, and occurs when both RARα and RXR are ligated by retinoic acids. We show that the ligated RARα/RXR interacts with the ligated GR, resulting in an enhanced transcriptional activity of the GR. The mechanism through which this interaction promotes GR-mediated transcription does not require DNA binding of the retinoid receptors and does not alter the phosphorylation status of Ser232, known to regulate the transcriptional activity of GR. Phosphorylation of PI-PLC was not affected. Besides thymocytes, retinoids also promoted glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of various T-cell lines, suggesting that they could be used in the therapy of glucocorticoid-sensitive T-cell malignancies. PMID:21072052

  9. Targeting Aerobic Glycolysis and HIF-1α Expression Enhance Imiquimod-induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi-Wei; Kao, Jun-Kai; Wu, Chun-Ying; Wang, Sin-Ting; Lee, Hsin-Chen; Liang, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Ju; Shieh, Jeng-Jer

    2014-01-01

    Tumor cells rely on aerobic glycolysis to maintain unconstrained cell growth and proliferation. Imiquimod (IMQ), a synthetic Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 ligand, exerts anti-tumor effects directly by inducing cell death in cancer cells and/or indirectly by activating cellular immune responses against tumor cells. However, whether IMQ modulates glucose metabolism pathways remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that IMQ can enhance aerobic glycolysis by up-regulating HIF-1α expression at the transcriptional and translational levels via ROS mediated STAT3- and Akt-dependent pathways, independent of TLR7/8 signaling. The genetic silencing of HIF-1α not only repressed IMQ-induced aerobic glycolysis but also sensitized cells to IMQ-induced apoptosis due to faster ATP and Mcl-1 depletion. Moreover, the glucose analog 2-DG and the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG, which destabilizes the HIF-1α protein, synergized with IMQ to induce tumor cell apoptosis in vitro and significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Thus, we hypothesize that the IMQ-induced up-regulation of HIF-1α and aerobic glycolysis is a protective response to the metabolic stress generated by IMQ treatment, and thus, co-treatment with inhibitors of HIF-1α and/or glycolysis may be a useful therapeutic strategy to enhance the anti-tumor effects of IMQ in clinical settings. PMID:24658058

  10. TRIB3 downregulation enhances doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, I-Jung; Lin, Rong-Jaan; Wang, Hsin-Chiao; Yuan, Tein-Ming; Chuang, Show-Mei

    2017-05-15

    TRIB3, which is a pseudokinase known to regulate multiple pro-survival pathways, appears to be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of human tumors. However, its precise role in cancer is controversial, as TRIB3 protein levels have been associated with both good and poor prognosis in cancer patients. Here, we investigated the significance of TRIB3 expression in the survival of gastric cancer cells exposed to anticancer drugs. We found that the tested anticancer drug, doxorubicin, induced cytotoxicity by decreasing TRIB3 transcription, which was followed by apoptotic cell death. Moreover, TRIB3 siRNA knockdown appeared to enhance doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells, concurrently with altering the expression of downstream apoptotic factors. Conversely, overexpression of TRIB3 significantly protected cells against doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that downregulation of TRIB3 appears to promote cell death and enhance doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, supporting the anti-apoptotic role of TRIB3. The inductions of three classes of MAPKs failed to affect doxorubicin-mediated TRIB3 downregulation, while TRIB3 overexpression did not affect doxorubicin-induced MAPK activation. In sum, our findings indicate that TRIB3 plays an anti-apoptotic role in doxorubicin-treated gastric cancer cell lines, perhaps indicating that the status of TRIB3 expression in response to anticancer drugs, such as doxorubicin, irinotecan or oxaliplatin, may reflect the efficiency for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Uremic Toxins Enhance Statin-Induced Cytotoxicity in Differentiated Human Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Uchiyama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis is considerably increased in statin users with end-stage renal failure (ESRF. Uremic toxins, which accumulate in patients with ESRF, exert cytotoxic effects that are mediated by various mechanisms. Therefore, accumulation of uremic toxins might increase statin-induced cytotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of four uremic toxins—hippuric acid, 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionate, indole-3-acetic acid, and 3-indoxyl sulfate—on statin-induced myopathy. Differentiated rhabdomyosarcoma cells were pre-treated with the uremic toxins for seven days, and then the cells were treated with pravastatin or simvastatin. Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed by viability assays and flow cytometry. Pre-treatment with uremic toxins increased statin- but not cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity (p < 0.05 vs. untreated. In addition, the pre-treatment increased statin-induced apoptosis, which is one of the cytotoxic factors (p < 0.05 vs. untreated. However, mevalonate, farnesol, and geranylgeraniol reversed the effects of uremic toxins and lowered statin-induced cytotoxicity (p < 0.05 vs. untreated. These results demonstrate that uremic toxins enhance statin-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity. The mechanism underlying this effect might be associated with small G-protein geranylgeranylation. In conclusion, the increased severity of statin-induced rhabdomyolysis in patients with ESRF is likely due to the accumulation of uremic toxins.

  12. Enhanced acceleration of injected electrons in a laser-beat-wave-induced plasma channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochitsky, S Ya; Narang, R; Filip, C V; Musumeci, P; Clayton, C E; Yoder, R B; Marsh, K A; Rosenzweig, J B; Pellegrini, C; Joshi, C

    2004-03-05

    Enhanced energy gain of externally injected electrons by a approximately 3 cm long, high-gradient relativistic plasma wave (RPW) is demonstrated. Using a CO2 laser beat wave of duration longer than the ion motion time across the laser spot size, a laser self-guiding process is initiated in a plasma channel. Guiding compensates for ionization-induced defocusing (IID) creating a longer plasma, which extends the interaction length between electrons and the RPW. In contrast to a maximum energy gain of 10 MeV when IID is dominant, the electrons gain up to 38 MeV energy in a laser-beat-wave-induced plasma channel.

  13. Induced seismicity hazard and risk by enhanced geothermal systems: an expert elicitation approach

    OpenAIRE

    Trutnevyte, Evelina; Azevedo, Ines L

    2018-01-01

    Induced seismicity is a concern for multiple geoenergy applications, including low-carbon Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). We present results of an international expert elicitation (N=14) on EGS induced seismicity hazard and risk. Using a hypothetical scenario of an EGS plant and its geological context, we show that expert best-guess estimates of annualized exceedance probabilities of a M≥3 event range from 0.2% to 95% during reservoir stimulation and 0.2% to 100% during operation. Best-gue...

  14. Glucose Enhances Basal or Melanocortin-Induced cAMP-Response Element Activity in Hypothalamic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicht, Kristina; Boekhoff, Ingrid; Glas, Evi; Lauffer, Lisa; Mückter, Harald; Gudermann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)-induced activation of the cAMP-response element (CRE) via the CRE-binding protein in hypothalamic cells promotes expression of TRH and thereby restricts food intake and increases energy expenditure. Glucose also induces central anorexigenic effects by acting on hypothalamic neurons, but the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. It has been proposed that glucose activates the CRE-binding protein-regulated transcriptional coactivator 2 (CRTC-2) in hypothalamic neurons by inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinases (AMPKs), but whether glucose directly affects hypothalamic CRE activity has not yet been shown. Hence, we dissected effects of glucose on basal and MSH-induced CRE activation in terms of kinetics, affinity, and desensitization in murine, hypothalamic mHypoA-2/10-CRE cells that stably express a CRE-dependent reporter gene construct. Physiologically relevant increases in extracellular glucose enhanced basal or MSH-induced CRE-dependent gene transcription, whereas prolonged elevated glucose concentrations reduced the sensitivity of mHypoA-2/10-CRE cells towards glucose. Glucose also induced CRCT-2 translocation into the nucleus and the AMPK activator metformin decreased basal and glucose-induced CRE activity, suggesting a role for AMPK/CRTC-2 in glucose-induced CRE activation. Accordingly, small interfering RNA-induced down-regulation of CRTC-2 expression decreased glucose-induced CRE-dependent reporter activation. Of note, glucose also induced expression of TRH, suggesting that glucose might affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis via the regulation of hypothalamic CRE activity. These findings significantly advance our knowledge about the impact of glucose on hypothalamic signaling and suggest that TRH release might account for the central anorexigenic effects of glucose and could represent a new molecular link between hyperglycaemia and thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27144291

  15. Oxazolone-induced contact hypersensitivity reduces lymphatic drainage but enhances the induction of adaptive immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Aebischer

    Full Text Available Contact hypersensitivity (CHS induced by topical application of haptens is a commonly used model to study dermal inflammatory responses in mice. Several recent studies have indicated that CHS-induced skin inflammation triggers lymphangiogenesis but may negatively impact the immune-function of lymphatic vessels, namely fluid drainage and dendritic cell (DC migration to draining lymph nodes (dLNs. On the other hand, haptens have been shown to exert immune-stimulatory activity by inducing DC maturation. In this study we investigated how the presence of pre-established CHS-induced skin inflammation affects the induction of adaptive immunity in dLNs. Using a mouse model of oxazolone-induced skin inflammation we observed that lymphatic drainage was reduced and DC migration from skin to dLNs was partially compromised. At the same time, a significantly stronger adaptive immune response towards ovalbumin (OVA was induced when immunization had occurred in CHS-inflamed skin as compared to uninflamed control skin. In fact, immunization with sterile OVA in CHS-inflamed skin evoked a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response comparable to the one induced by conventional immunization with OVA and adjuvant in uninflamed skin. Striking phenotypic and functional differences were observed when comparing DCs from LNs draining uninflamed or CHS-inflamed skin. DCs from LNs draining CHS-inflamed skin expressed higher levels of co-stimulatory molecules and MHC molecules, produced higher levels of the interleukin-12/23 p40 subunit (IL-12/23-p40 and more potently induced T cell activation in vitro. Immunization experiments revealed that blockade of IL-12/23-p40 during the priming phase partially reverted the CHS-induced enhancement of the adaptive immune response. Collectively, our findings indicate that CHS-induced skin inflammation generates an overall immune-stimulatory milieu, which outweighs the potentially suppressive effect of reduced lymphatic vessel function.

  16. Stimulation of GABA-induced Ca2+ influx enhances maturation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Rushton

    Full Text Available Optimal use of patient-derived, induced pluripotent stem cells for modeling neuronal diseases is crucially dependent upon the proper physiological maturation of derived neurons. As a strategy to develop defined differentiation protocols that optimize electrophysiological function, we investigated the role of Ca(2+ channel regulation by astrocyte conditioned medium in neuronal maturation, using whole-cell patch clamp and Ca(2+ imaging. Standard control medium supported basic differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons, as assayed by the ability to fire simple, single, induced action potentials. In contrast, treatment with astrocyte conditioned medium elicited complex and spontaneous neuronal activity, often with rhythmic and biphasic characteristics. Such augmented spontaneous activity correlated with astrocyte conditioned medium-evoked hyperpolarization and was dependent upon regulated function of L-, N- and R-type Ca(2+ channels. The requirement for astrocyte conditioned medium could be substituted by simply supplementing control differentiation medium with high Ca(2+ or γ-amino butyric acid (GABA. Importantly, even in the absence of GABA signalling, opening Ca(2+ channels directly using Bay K8644 was able to hyperpolarise neurons and enhance excitability, producing fully functional neurons. These data provide mechanistic insight into how secreted astrocyte factors control differentiation and, importantly, suggest that pharmacological modulation of Ca(2+ channel function leads to the development of a defined protocol for improved maturation of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons.

  17. Perforin enhances the granulysin-induced lysis of Listeria innocua in human dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Carsten A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL and natural killer (NK cells play an essential role in the host defence against intracellular pathogens such as Listeria, and Mycobacteria. The key mediator of bacteria-directed cytotoxicity is granulysin, a 9 kDa protein stored in cytolytic granules together with perforin and granzymes. Granulysin binds to cell membranes and is subsequently taken up via a lipid raft-associated mechanism. In dendritic cells (DC granulysin is further transferred via early endosomes to L. innocua-containing phagosomes were bacteriolysis is induced. In the present study we analysed the role of perforin in granulysin-induced intracellular bacteriolysis in DC. Results We found granulysin-induced lysis of intracellular Listeria significantly increased when perforin was simultaneously present. In pulse-chase experiments enhanced bacteriolysis was observed when perforin was added up to 25 minutes after loading the cells with granulysin demonstrating no ultimate need for simultaneous uptake of granulysin and perforin. The perforin concentration sufficient to enhance granulysin-induced intracellular bacteriolysis did not cause permanent membrane pores in Listeria-challenged DC as shown by dye exclusion test and LDH release. This was in contrast to non challenged DC that were more susceptible to perforin lysis. For Listeria-challenged DC, there was clear evidence for an Ca2+ influx in response to sublytic perforin demonstrating a short-lived change in the plasma membrane permeability. Perforin treatment did not affect granulysin binding, initial uptake or intracellular trafficking to early endosomes. However, enhanced colocalization of granulysin with listerial DNA in presence of perforin was found by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Conclusion The results provide evidence that perforin increases granulysin-mediated killing of intracellular Listeria by enhanced phagosome-endosome fusion triggered by a transient Ca2+ flux.

  18. Perforin enhances the granulysin-induced lysis of Listeria innocua in human dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Michael; Latinovic-Golic, Sonja; Velic, Ana; Sundstrom, Hanna; Dumrese, Claudia; Wagner, Carsten A; Groscurth, Peter; Ziegler, Urs

    2007-08-16

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells play an essential role in the host defence against intracellular pathogens such as Listeria, and Mycobacteria. The key mediator of bacteria-directed cytotoxicity is granulysin, a 9 kDa protein stored in cytolytic granules together with perforin and granzymes. Granulysin binds to cell membranes and is subsequently taken up via a lipid raft-associated mechanism. In dendritic cells (DC) granulysin is further transferred via early endosomes to L. innocua-containing phagosomes were bacteriolysis is induced. In the present study we analysed the role of perforin in granulysin-induced intracellular bacteriolysis in DC. We found granulysin-induced lysis of intracellular Listeria significantly increased when perforin was simultaneously present. In pulse-chase experiments enhanced bacteriolysis was observed when perforin was added up to 25 minutes after loading the cells with granulysin demonstrating no ultimate need for simultaneous uptake of granulysin and perforin. The perforin concentration sufficient to enhance granulysin-induced intracellular bacteriolysis did not cause permanent membrane pores in Listeria-challenged DC as shown by dye exclusion test and LDH release. This was in contrast to non challenged DC that were more susceptible to perforin lysis. For Listeria-challenged DC, there was clear evidence for an Ca2+ influx in response to sublytic perforin demonstrating a short-lived change in the plasma membrane permeability. Perforin treatment did not affect granulysin binding, initial uptake or intracellular trafficking to early endosomes. However, enhanced colocalization of granulysin with listerial DNA in presence of perforin was found by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results provide evidence that perforin increases granulysin-mediated killing of intracellular Listeria by enhanced phagosome-endosome fusion triggered by a transient Ca2+ flux.

  19. Resonant size enhancement of induced polarization with particular spatial distribution in optical response of mesoscopic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kikuo; Ishihara, Hajime; Ohfuti, Yasushi

    1993-09-01

    For an incident light resonant with a size quantized material level, the induced polarization with a particular spatial pattern has been predicted to be resonantly size-enhanced, which could lead to a double resonance effect in energy (frequency) and size in pump-probe type nonlinear processes. Two examples are shown for a slab and a finite 1D chain of identical fine particles.

  20. A Novel Serine Protease Secreted by Medicinal Maggots Enhances Plasminogen Activator-Induced Fibrinolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, Mariena J. A.; Andersen, Anders S.; Nazir, Sheresma; van Tilburg, Nico H.; Oestergaard, Peter R.; Krogfelt, Karen A.; van Dissel, Jaap T.; Hensbergen, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Maggots of the blowfly Lucilia sericata are used for the treatment of chronic wounds. As haemostatic processes play an important role in wound healing, this study focused on the effects of maggot secretions on coagulation and fibrinolysis. The results showed that maggot secretions enhance plasminogen activator-induced formation of plasmin and fibrinolysis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. By contrast, coagulation was not affected by secretions. Biochemical studies indicated that a novel serine protease within secretions, designated Sericase, cleaved plasminogen to several fragments. Recombinant Sericase degraded plasminogen leading amongst others to the formation of the mini-plasminogen like fragment Val454-plasminogen. In addition, the presence of a non-proteolytic cofactor in secretions was discovered, which plays a role in the enhancement of plasminogen activator-induced fibrinolysis by Sericase. We conclude from our in vitro studies that the novel serine protease Sericase, with the aid of a non-proteolytic cofactor, enhances plasminogen activator-induced fibrinolysis. PMID:24647546

  1. CAMKII activation is not required for maintenance of learning-induced enhancement of neuronal excitability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori Liraz

    Full Text Available Pyramidal neurons in the piriform cortex from olfactory-discrimination trained rats show enhanced intrinsic neuronal excitability that lasts for several days after learning. Such enhanced intrinsic excitability is mediated by long-term reduction in the post-burst after-hyperpolarization (AHP which is generated by repetitive spike firing. AHP reduction is due to decreased conductance of a calcium-dependent potassium current, the sI(AHP. We have previously shown that learning-induced AHP reduction is maintained by persistent protein kinase C (PKC and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK activation. However, the molecular machinery underlying this long-lasting modulation of intrinsic excitability is yet to be fully described. Here we examine whether the CaMKII, which is known to be crucial in learning, memory and synaptic plasticity processes, is instrumental for the maintenance of learning-induced AHP reduction. KN93, that selectively blocks CaMKII autophosphorylation at Thr286, reduced the AHP in neurons from trained and control rat to the same extent. Consequently, the differences in AHP amplitude and neuronal adaptation between neurons from trained rats and controls remained. Accordingly, the level of activated CaMKII was similar in pirifrom cortex samples taken form trained and control rats. Our data show that although CaMKII modulates the amplitude of AHP of pyramidal neurons in the piriform cortex, its activation is not required for maintaining learning-induced enhancement of neuronal excitability.

  2. PERSONALITY DOES NOT INFLUENCE EXERCISE-INDUCED MOOD ENHANCEMENT AMONG FEMALE EXERCISERS

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    Andrew M. Lane

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the influence of personality on exercise-induced mood changes. It was hypothesised that (a exercise would be associated with significant mood enhancement across all personality types, (b extroversion would be associated with positive mood and neuroticism with negative mood both pre- and post-exercise, and (c personality measures would interact with exercise-induced mood changes. Participants were 90 female exercisers (M = 25.8 yr, SD = 9.0 yr who completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI once and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS before and after a 60-minute exercise session. Median splits were used to group participants into four personality types: stable introverts (n = 25, stable extroverts (n = 20, neurotic introverts (n = 26, and neurotic extroverts (n = 19. Repeated measures MANOVA showed significant mood enhancement following exercise across all personality types. Neuroticism was associated with negative mood scores pre- and post-exercise but the effect of extroversion on reported mood was relatively weak. There was no significant interaction effect between exercise-induced mood enhancement and personality. In conclusion, findings lend support to the notion that exercise is associated with improved mood. However, findings show that personality did not influence this effect, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood

  3. Platelet-collagen adhesion enhances platelet aggregation induced by binding of VWF to platelets

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    Laduca, F.M.; Bell, W.R.; Bettigole, R.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA) State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

    1987-11-01

    Ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA) was evaluated in the presence of platelet-collagen adhesion. RIPA of normal donor platelet-rich plasma (PRP) demonstrated a primary wave of aggregation mediated by the binding of von Willebrand factor (VWF) to platelets and a secondary aggregation wave, due to a platelet-release reaction, initiated by VWF-platelet binding and inhibitable by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). An enhanced RIPA was observed in PRP samples to which collagen had been previously added. These subthreshold concentrations of collagen, which by themselves were insufficient to induce aggregation, caused measurable platelet-collagen adhesion. Subthreshold collagen did not cause microplatelet aggregation, platelet release of ({sup 3}H)serotonin, or alter the dose-responsive binding of {sup 125}I-labeled VWF to platelets, which occurred with increasing ristocetin concentrations. However, ASA inhibition of the platelet release reaction prevented collagen-enhanced RIPA. These results demonstrate that platelet-collagen adhesion altered the platelet-release reaction induced by the binding of VWF to platelets causing a platelet-release reaction at a level of VWF-platelet binding not normally initiating a secondary aggregation. These findings suggest that platelet-collagen adhesion enhances platelet function mediated by VWF.

  4. A novel serine protease secreted by medicinal maggots enhances plasminogen activator-induced fibrinolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariena J A van der Plas

    Full Text Available Maggots of the blowfly Lucilia sericata are used for the treatment of chronic wounds. As haemostatic processes play an important role in wound healing, this study focused on the effects of maggot secretions on coagulation and fibrinolysis. The results showed that maggot secretions enhance plasminogen activator-induced formation of plasmin and fibrinolysis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. By contrast, coagulation was not affected by secretions. Biochemical studies indicated that a novel serine protease within secretions, designated Sericase, cleaved plasminogen to several fragments. Recombinant Sericase degraded plasminogen leading amongst others to the formation of the mini-plasminogen like fragment Val454-plasminogen. In addition, the presence of a non-proteolytic cofactor in secretions was discovered, which plays a role in the enhancement of plasminogen activator-induced fibrinolysis by Sericase. We conclude from our in vitro studies that the novel serine protease Sericase, with the aid of a non-proteolytic cofactor, enhances plasminogen activator-induced fibrinolysis.

  5. Hexokinase 2 confers resistance to cisplatin in ovarian cancer cells by enhancing cisplatin-induced autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Meng; Cong, Qing; Zhang, Ming-Xing; Zhang, Meng-Yu; Lu, Ying-Ying; Xu, Cong-Jian

    2018-02-01

    The high mortality rate of ovarian cancer is connected with the development of acquired resistance to multiple cancer drugs, especially cisplatin. Activation of cytoprotective autophagy has been implicated as a contributing mechanism for acquired cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells. Hexokinase 2 (HK2) phosphorylates glucose to generate glucose-6-phosphate, the rate-limiting step in glycolysis. Higher HK2 expression has been associated with chemoresistance in ovarian cancer. However, whether HK2 functionally contributes to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer is unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of HK2 in regulating ovarian cancer cisplatin resistance. Increased HK2 levels were detected in drug-resistant human ovarian cancer cells and tissues. Cisplatin downregulated HK2 in cisplatin-sensitive but not in resistant ovarian cancer cells. HK2 knockdown sensitized resistant ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin-induced cell death and apoptosis. Conversely, HK2 overexpression in cisplatin-sensitive cells induced cisplatin resistance. Mechanistically, cisplatin increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation as well as autophagic activity. Blocking autophagy with the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA sensitized resistant ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin. HK2 overexpression enhanced cisplatin-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and autophagy while HK2 knockdown showed the opposite effects. Blocking the MEK/ERK pathway using the MEK inhibitor U0126 prevented cisplatin-induced autophagy enhanced by HK2 overexpression. Furthermore, HK2 knockdown sensitized resistance ovarian tumor xenografts to cisplatin in vivo. In conclusion, our data supported that HK2 promotes cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer by enhancing drug-induced, ERK-mediated autophagy. Therefore, targeting HK2 may be a new therapeutic strategy to combat chemoresistance in ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intracellular Methamphetamine Prevents the Dopamine-induced Enhancement of Neuronal Firing*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Kaustuv; Sambo, Danielle; Richardson, Ben D.; Lin, Landon M.; Butler, Brittany; Villarroel, Laura; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2014-01-01

    The dysregulation of the dopaminergic system is implicated in multiple neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders such as Parkinson disease and drug addiction. The primary target of psychostimulants such as amphetamine and methamphetamine is the dopamine transporter (DAT), the major regulator of extracellular dopamine levels in the brain. However, the behavioral and neurophysiological correlates of methamphetamine and amphetamine administration are unique from one another, thereby suggesting these two compounds impact dopaminergic neurotransmission differentially. We further examined the unique mechanisms by which amphetamine and methamphetamine regulate DAT function and dopamine neurotransmission; in the present study we examined the impact of extracellular and intracellular amphetamine and methamphetamine on the spontaneous firing of cultured midbrain dopaminergic neurons and isolated DAT-mediated current. In dopaminergic neurons the spontaneous firing rate was enhanced by extracellular application of amphetamine > dopamine > methamphetamine and was DAT-dependent. Amphetamine > methamphetamine similarly enhanced DAT-mediated inward current, which was sensitive to isosmotic substitution of Na+ or Cl− ion. Although isosmotic substitution of extracellular Na+ ions blocked amphetamine and methamphetamine-induced DAT-mediated inward current similarly, the removal of extracellular Cl− ions preferentially blocked amphetamine-induced inward current. The intracellular application of methamphetamine, but not amphetamine, prevented the dopamine-induced increase in the spontaneous firing of dopaminergic neurons and the corresponding DAT-mediated inward current. The results reveal a new mechanism for methamphetamine-induced dysregulation of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:24962577

  7. Dexamethasone-Induced Oxidative Stress Enhances Myeloma Cell Radiosensitization While Sparing Normal Bone Marrow Hematopoiesis

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    Soumen Bera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dexamethasone (Dex and radiation therapy are established modalities in multiple myeloma. In this study, we propose a novel combination of Dex plus radiation that shows superior clonogenic cell killing and apoptosis of myeloma cells and selectively eliminates myeloma cells when cocultured with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs. Dex was found to inhibit the release of interleukin-6 from irradiated BMSCs, which is an established myeloma cell proproliferative cytokine. In 5TGM1 model, the combination of Dex with skeletal targeted radiotherapy (153-Sm-EDTMP prolonged median survival time and inhibited radiation-induced myelosuppression. A two-cycle treatment of Dex plus 153-Sm-EDTMP was well tolerated and further improved median survival time. Mechanistically, Dex increased superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production and augmented radiation-induced oxidative stress and cell death of myeloma cells. In contrast, Dex inhibited radiation-induced increase in pro-oxidant levels and enhanced the clonogenic survival in normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Treatment with either N-acetylcysteine or the combination of polyethylene glycol (PEG-conjugated copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase, and PEG-catalase significantly protected myeloma cells from Dex-induced clonogenic death. Overall, these results demonstrate that Dex in combination with radiotherapy enhances the killing of myeloma cells while protecting normal bone marrow hematopoiesis through a mechanism that involves selective increases in oxidative stress.

  8. Chitin enhances serum IgE in Aspergillus fumigatus induced allergy in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, Lalit Kumar; Moeller, Jesper Bonnet; Schlosser, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) is a ubiquitous fungus that activates, suppresses or modulates the immune response by changing its cell wall structure and by secreting proteases. In this study, we show that chitin acts as an adjuvant in a murine model of A. fumigatus protease induced allergy....... The mice were immunised intraperitoneally with A. fumigatus culture filtrate antigen either with or without chitin and were subsequently challenged with the culture filtrate antigen intranasally. Alum was used as an adjuvant control. Compared to alum, chitin induced a weaker inflammatory response...... fluid. These results shows that chitin, in spite of a reduction of the Th2 cytokine levels in the lungs, enhanced the total and specific IgE production in A. fumigatus culture filtrate induced allergy....

  9. Magnetic domain-wall velocity enhancement induced by a transverse magnetic field

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    Yang, Jusang, E-mail: jsyang@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1081 (United States); Beach, Geoffrey S.D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Knutson, Carl; Erskine, James L. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1081 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Spin dynamics of field-driven domain walls (DWs) guided by permalloy nanowires are studied by high-speed magneto-optic polarimetry and numerical simulations. DW velocities and spin configurations are determined as functions of longitudinal drive field, transverse bias field, and nanowire width. Nanowires having cross-sectional dimensions large enough to support vortex wall structures exhibit regions of drive-field strength (at zero bias field) that have enhanced DW velocity resulting from coupled vortex structures that suppress oscillatory motion. Factor of 10 enhancements of the DW velocity are observed above the critical longitudinal drive-field (that marks the onset of oscillatory DW motion) when a transverse bias field is applied. Nanowires having smaller cross-sectional dimensions that support transverse wall structures also exhibit a region of higher mobility above the critical field, and similar transverse-field induced velocity enhancement but with a smaller enhancement factor. The bias-field enhancement of DW velocity is explained by numerical simulations of the spin distribution and dynamics within the propagating DW that reveal dynamic stabilization of coupled vortex structures and suppression of oscillatory motion in the nanowire conduit resulting in uniform DW motion at high speed. The enhanced velocity and drive field range are achieved at the expense of a less compact DW spin distribution. - Highlights: • The transverse magnetic fields can dramatically enhance the domain wall velocity. • The numerical simulation exhibits the four distinct dynamic modes. • Coupled multiple vortex structures within the domain wall become dynamically stable. • The enhanced domain wall velocity is explained by numerical simulations.

  10. Secretoneurin induces airway mucus hypersecretion by enhancing the binding of EGF to NRP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Li, Qi; Zhou, Jia; Zhou, Xiangdong; Perelman, Juliy M; Kolosov, Victor P

    2014-01-01

    Secretoneurin(SN), a neuropeptide, has been considered a reliable marker of allergenic stimulation. However, the relationship between SN and the secretion of airway mucin remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to examine the in vitro relationship between SN and airway mucin over synthesis, as well as the signaling pathways involved. Exogenous SN was added to two human airway epithelial cell lines (16HBE and NCI-H292). Measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) respectively, the intracellular mucin(MUC)5AC mRNA and MUC5AC protein of culture supernates exhibited a time- and dose-dependent increase after stimulation of SN. Based on the evidence of an increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 induced by exogenous SN, we performed the radioactive binding assay. We failed to find direct binding of SN to either epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or Neuropilin-1(NRP1), the co-receptor of EGFR. But we detected an enhanced binding of EGF to NRP1 in the two airway epithelial cell lines induced by exogenous SN. Either EGF neutralizing antibody or MEK specific inhibitor (PD-98059) could attenuate the over synthesis of MUC5AC induced by exogenous SN, indicating an endogenous EGF dependent mechanism in MUC5AC over synthesis induced by SN. We conclude that SN induces MUC5AC hypersecretion in a dose- and time-dependent manner; moreover, the MUC5AC over synthesis induced by SN is strongly associated with the enhanced binding of EGF to NRP1 and the activation of EGFR and ERK1/2 subsequently. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Secretoneurin Induces Airway Mucus Hypersecretion by Enhancing the Binding of EGF to NRP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Secretoneurin(SN, a neuropeptide, has been considered a reliable marker of allergenic stimulation. However, the relationship between SN and the secretion of airway mucin remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to examine the in vitro relationship between SN and airway mucin over synthesis, as well as the signaling pathways involved. Methods and Results: Exogenous SN was added to two human airway epithelial cell lines (16HBE and NCI-H292. Measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA respectively, the intracellular mucin(MUC5AC mRNA and MUC5AC protein of culture supernates exhibited a time- and dose-dependent increase after stimulation of SN. Based on the evidence of an increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 induced by exogenous SN, we performed the radioactive binding assay. We failed to find direct binding of SN to either epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or Neuropilin-1(NRP1, the co-receptor of EGFR. But we detected an enhanced binding of EGF to NRP1 in the two airway epithelial cell lines induced by exogenous SN. Either EGF neutralizing antibody or MEK specific inhibitor (PD-98059 could attenuate the over synthesis of MUC5AC induced by exogenous SN, indicating an endogenous EGF dependent mechanism in MUC5AC over synthesis induced by SN. Conclusions: We conclude that SN induces MUC5AC hypersecretion in a dose- and time-dependent manner; moreover, the MUC5AC over synthesis induced by SN is strongly associated with the enhanced binding of EGF to NRP1 and the activation of EGFR and ERK1/2 subsequently.

  12. Hypertonic saline reduces inflammation and enhances the resolution of oleic acid induced acute lung injury

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    Costello Joseph F

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline (HTS reduces the severity of lung injury in ischemia-reperfusion, endotoxin-induced and ventilation-induced lung injury. However, the potential for HTS to modulate the resolution of lung injury is not known. We investigated the potential for hypertonic saline to modulate the evolution and resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury. Methods Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in all experiments. Series 1 examined the potential for HTS to reduce the severity of evolving oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 12 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 12, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Series 2 examined the potential for HTS to enhance the resolution of oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 6 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 6, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Results In Series I, HTS significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL neutrophil count compared to Control [61.5 ± 9.08 versus 102.6 ± 11.89 × 103 cells.ml-1]. However, there were no between group differences with regard to: A-a O2 gradient [11.9 ± 0.5 vs. 12.0 ± 0.5 KPa]; arterial PO2; static lung compliance, or histologic injury. In contrast, in Series 2, hypertonic saline significantly reduced histologic injury and reduced BAL neutrophil count [24.5 ± 5.9 versus 46.8 ± 4.4 × 103 cells.ml-1], and interleukin-6 levels [681.9 ± 190.4 versus 1365.7 ± 246.8 pg.ml-1]. Conclusion These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the potential for HTS to reduce pulmonary inflammation and enhance the resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury.

  13. Diclofenac enhances proinflammatory cytokine-induced phagocytosis of cultured microglia via nitric oxide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakita, Hiroki [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Aoyama, Mineyoshi, E-mail: ao.mine@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Asai, Hayato [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Hussein, Mohamed Hamed [Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Pediatric Hospital, Cairo University, Cairo 11559 (Egypt); Maternal and Child Health Department, VACSERA, 51 Wizaret El-Zeraa-Agouza, Giza 22311 (Egypt); Suzuki, Mieko [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Kato, Shin [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Saitoh, Shinji [Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Asai, Kiyofumi [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is a central nervous system complication with a high mortality rate, which is increased significantly by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (DCF). In the present study, we investigated the effects of DCF on brain immune cells (i.e. microglia) stimulated with three proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interferon-γ. Similar to previous findings in astrocytes, all three cytokines induced the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), as well as NO production, in microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system augmented iNOS expression and NO production. Immunocytochemical analysis and the phagocytosis assay revealed that cytokine treatment induced morphological changes to and phagocytosis by the microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system enhanced microglial activation, as well as the phagocytic activity of cytokine-stimulated microglia. Inhibitors of nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibited iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated microglia with or without DCF, suggesting that the NF-κB pathway is one of the main signaling pathways involved. The iNOS inhibitor N{sup G}-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) reduced both cytokine-induced phagocytosis and phagocytosis induced by the combination of cytokines plus DCF. Furthermore, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside induced phagocytosis, indicating that NO production is a key regulator of microglial phagocytosis. In conclusion, DCF acts synergistically with proinflammatory cytokines to increase the production of NO in microglia, leading to phagocytic activity of the activated microglia. These findings, together with previous observations regarding astrocytes, may explain the significant increase in mortality of IAE patients treated with DCF. - Highlights: ► Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is associated with a high mortality rate. ► Hyperimmunization in the brain is believed to be responsible for

  14. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (DDIT3) induces osteoblastic cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Renata C; Delany, Anne M; Canalis, Ernesto

    2004-04-01

    CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP/DDIT3), a member of the C/EBP family of transcription factors, plays a role in cell survival and differentiation. CHOP/DDIT3 binds to C/EBPs to form heterodimers that do not bind to consensus Cebp sequences, acting as a dominant-negative inhibitor. CHOP/DDIT3 blocks adipogenesis, and we postulated it could induce osteoblastogenesis. We investigated the effects of constitutive CHOP/DDIT3 overexpression in murine ST-2 stromal cells transduced with retroviral vectors. ST-2 cells differentiated toward osteoblasts, and CHOP/DDIT3 accelerated and enhanced the appearance of mineralized nodules, and the expression of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase mRNAs, particularly in the presence of bone morphogenetic protein-2. CHOP/DDIT3 overexpression opposed adipogenesis, and did not cause substantial changes in cell number. CHOP/DDIT3 overexpression did not modify C/EBPalpha or -beta mRNA levels but decreased C/EBPdelta after 24 d of culture. Electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays demonstrated that overexpression of CHOP/DDIT3 decreased the binding of C/EBPs to their consensus sequence by interacting with C/EBPalpha and -beta, confirming its dominant-negative role. In addition, CHOP/DDIT3 enhanced bone morphogenetic protein-2/Smad signaling. In conclusion, CHOP/DDIT3 enhances osteoblastic differentiation of stromal cells, in part by interacting with C/EBPalpha and -beta and also by enhancing Smad signaling.

  15. Cyclic mechanical stretch enhances BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Tang, Yinhong; Song, Jinlin; Lei, Mingxing; Liang, Panpan; Fu, Tiwei; Su, Xudong; Zhou, Pengfei; Yang, Li; Huang, Enyi

    2018-02-10

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mechanical stretch can enhance the bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9)-induced osteogenic differentiation in MSCs. Recombinant adenoviruses were used to overexpress the BMP9 in C3H10T1/2 MSCs. Cells were seeded onto six-well BioFlex collagen I-coated plates and subjected to cyclic mechanical stretch [6% elongation at 60 cycles/minute (1 Hz)] in a Flexercell FX-4000 strain unit for up to 12 hours. Immunostaining and confocal microscope were used to detect cytoskeleton organization. Cell cycle progression was checked by flow cytometry. Alkaline phosphatase activity was measured with a Chemiluminescence Assay Kit and was quantified with a histochemical staining assay. Matrix mineralization was examined by Alizarin Red S Staining. Mechanical stretch induces cytoskeleton reorganization and inhibits cell proliferation by preventing cells entry into S phase of the cell cycle. Although mechanical stretch alone does not induce the osteogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 MSCs, co-stimulation with mechanical stretch and BMP9 enhances alkaline phosphatase activity. The expression of key lineage-specific regulators (e.g., osteocalcin (OCN), SRY-related HMG-box 9, and runt-related transcription factor 2) is also increased after the co-stimulation, compared to the mechanical stretch stimulation along. Furthermore, mechanical stretch augments the BMP9-mediated bone matrix mineralization of C3H10T1/2 MSCs. Our results suggest that mechanical stretch enhances BMP9-induced osteoblastic lineage specification in C3H10T1/2 MSCs.

  16. Enhanced adipose afferent reflex contributes to sympathetic activation in diet-induced obesity hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Wei-Wei; Han, Ying; Zhou, Ye-Bo; Zhang, Feng; Gao, Xing-Ya; Zhu, Guo-Qing

    2012-11-01

    We recently found that adipose afferent reflex (AAR) induced by chemical stimulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) increased sympathetic outflow and blood pressure in normal rats. The study was designed to test the hypothesis that AAR contributes to sympathetic activation in obesity hypertension. Male rats were fed with a control diet (12% kcal as fat) or high-fat diet (42% kcal as fat) for 12 weeks to induce obesity hypertension. Stimulation of WAT with capsaicin increased renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure. Both AAR and WAT afferent activity were enhanced in obesity hypertension (OH) compared with obesity nonhypertension (ON) and in ON compared with obesity-resistant or control diet rats. WAT sensory denervation induced by resiniferatoxin caused greater decreases in renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure in OH than ON and in ON than obesity-resistant or control. The depressor effect of resiniferatoxin lasted ≥ 3 weeks in OH. Leptin antagonist in WAT reduced renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure in OH. WAT injection of capsaicin increased plasma renin, angiotensin II, and norepinephrine levels in OH and caused more c-fos expression in paraventricular nucleus in OH than ON and in ON than obesity-resistant or control rats. Inhibiting paraventricular nucleus neurons with lidocaine attenuated renal sympathetic nerve activity in OH and ON, decreased mean arterial pressure in OH, and abolished the capsaicin-induced AAR in all groups. The results indicate that enhanced AAR contributes to sympathetic activation in OH, and paraventricular nucleus plays an important role in the enhanced AAR and sympathetic activation in OH.

  17. Fatigue hydraulic fracturing by cyclic reservoir treatment enhances permeability and reduces induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Arno; Yoon, Jeoung Seok; Stephansson, Ove; Heidbach, Oliver

    2013-11-01

    The occurrence of induced seismic events during hydraulic fracturing of reservoirs to enhance permeability is an unavoidable process. Due to the increased public concern with respect to the risks imposed by induced seismicity, however, the development of a soft stimulation method is needed creating higher permeability with less induced seismicity. We use a discrete element model of naturally fractured rock with pore fluid flow algorithm in order to analyse two scenarios of high-pressure fluid injection (hydraulic fracturing) at depth and associated induced seismicity. The ratio of pumped-in energy to released seismic energy is in agreement with field data. Our results suggest that cyclic reservoir treatment is a safer alternative to conventional hydraulic fracture stimulation as both, the total number of induced events as well as the occurrence of larger magnitude events are lowered. This work is motivated by results of laboratory triaxial indenter tests on granite rock samples where continuous loading leads to a wide fracture process zone while cyclic treatment with frequent starting and stopping of loading fatigues the rock, resulting in smaller damage volume and more persistent fracture growth.

  18. Inhibiting ROS-TFEB-Dependent Autophagy Enhances Salidroside-Induced Apoptosis in Human Chondrosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Xiao, Tao; Cai, Anlie; Cai, Weiliang; Liu, Huanhuan; Liu, Jingling; Li, Jie; Tan, Miduo; Xie, Li; Liu, Ying; Yang, Xiangcheng; Long, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy modulation has been considered a potential therapeutic strategy for human chondrosarcoma, and a previous study indicated that salidroside exhibits significant anti-carcinogenic activity. However, the ability of salidroside to induce autophagy and its role in human chondrosarcoma cell death remains unclear. We exposed SW1353 cells to different concentrations of salidroside (0.5, 1 and 2 mM) for 24 h. RT-PCR, Western-blotting, Immunocytofluorescence, and Luciferase Reporter Assays were used to evaluate whether salidroside activated the TFEB-dependent autophagy. We show that salidroside induced significant apoptosis in the human chondrosarcoma cell line SW1353. In addition, we demonstrate that salidroside-induced an autophagic response in SW1353 cells, as evidenced by the upregulation of LC3-II and downregulation of P62. Moreover, pharmacological or genetic blocking of autophagy enhanced salidroside -induced apoptosis, indicating the cytoprotective role of autophagy in salidroside-treated SW1353 cells. Salidroside also induced TFEB (Ser142) dephosphorylation, subsequently to activated TFEB nuclear translocation and increase of TFEB reporter activity, which contributed to lysosomal biogenesis and the expression of autophagy-related genes. Importantly, we found that salidroside triggered the generation of ROS in SW1353 cells. Furthermore, NAC, a ROS scavenger, abrogated the effects of salidroside on TFEB-dependent autophagy. These data demonstrate that salidroside increased TFEB-dependent autophagy by activating ROS signaling pathways in human chondrosarcoma cells. These data also suggest that blocking ROS-TFEB-dependent autophagy to enhance the activity of salidroside warrants further attention in treatment of human chondrosarcoma cells. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Cocaine enhances HIV-1 gp120-induced lymphatic endothelial dysfunction in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Jiang, Susan; Yu, Jinlong; Kuzontkoski, Paula M; Groopman, Jerome E

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary complications are common in both AIDS patients and cocaine users. We addressed the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which HIV and cocaine may partner to induce their deleterious effects. Using primary lung lymphatic endothelial cells (L-LECs), we examined how cocaine and HIV-1 gp120, alone and together, modulate signaling and functional properties of L-LECs. We found that brief cocaine exposure activated paxillin and induced cytoskeletal rearrangement, while sustained exposure increased fibronectin (FN) expression, decreased Robo4 expression, and enhanced the permeability of L-LEC monolayers. Moreover, incubating L-LECs with both cocaine and HIV-1 gp120 exacerbated hyperpermeability, significantly enhanced apoptosis, and further impaired in vitro wound healing as compared with cocaine alone. Our studies also suggested that the sigma-1 receptor (Sigma-1R) and the dopamine-4 receptor (D4R) are involved in cocaine-induced pathology in L-LECs. Seeking clinical correlation, we found that FN levels in sera and lung tissue of HIV(+) donors were significantly elevated as compared to HIV(-) donors. Our in vitro data demonstrate that cocaine and HIV-1 gp120 induce dysfunction and damage of lung lymphatics, and suggest that cocaine use may exacerbate pulmonary edema and fibrosis associated with HIV infection. Continued exploration of the interplay between cocaine and HIV should assist the design of therapeutics to ameliorate HIV-induced pulmonary disorders within the drug using population. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  20. Inhibiting ROS-TFEB-Dependent Autophagy Enhances Salidroside-Induced Apoptosis in Human Chondrosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zeng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Autophagy modulation has been considered a potential therapeutic strategy for human chondrosarcoma, and a previous study indicated that salidroside exhibits significant anti-carcinogenic activity. However, the ability of salidroside to induce autophagy and its role in human chondrosarcoma cell death remains unclear. Methods: We exposed SW1353 cells to different concentrations of salidroside (0.5, 1 and 2 mM for 24 h. RT-PCR, Western-blotting, Immunocytofluorescence, and Luciferase Reporter Assays were used to evaluate whether salidroside activated the TFEB-dependent autophagy. Results: We show that salidroside induced significant apoptosis in the human chondrosarcoma cell line SW1353. In addition, we demonstrate that salidroside-induced an autophagic response in SW1353 cells, as evidenced by the upregulation of LC3-II and downregulation of P62. Moreover, pharmacological or genetic blocking of autophagy enhanced salidroside -induced apoptosis, indicating the cytoprotective role of autophagy in salidroside-treated SW1353 cells. Salidroside also induced TFEB (Ser142 dephosphorylation, subsequently to activated TFEB nuclear translocation and increase of TFEB reporter activity, which contributed to lysosomal biogenesis and the expression of autophagy-related genes. Importantly, we found that salidroside triggered the generation of ROS in SW1353 cells. Furthermore, NAC, a ROS scavenger, abrogated the effects of salidroside on TFEB-dependent autophagy. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that salidroside increased TFEB-dependent autophagy by activating ROS signaling pathways in human chondrosarcoma cells. These data also suggest that blocking ROS-TFEB-dependent autophagy to enhance the activity of salidroside warrants further attention in treatment of human chondrosarcoma cells.

  1. l-Serine Enhances Light-Induced Circadian Phase Resetting in Mice and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuo, Shinobu; Iwamoto, Ayaka; Lee, Sang-Il; Ochiai, Shotaro; Hitachi, Rina; Shibata, Satomi; Uotsu, Nobuo; Tarumizu, Chie; Matsuoka, Sayuri; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Higuchi, Shigekazu

    2017-12-01

    Background: The circadian clock is modulated by the timing of ingestion or food composition, but the effects of specific nutrients are poorly understood.Objective: We aimed to identify the amino acids that modulate the circadian clock and reset the light-induced circadian phase in mice and humans.Methods: Male CBA/N mice were orally administered 1 of 20 l-amino acids, and the circadian and light-induced phase shifts of wheel-running activity were analyzed. Antagonists of several neurotransmitter pathways were injected before l-serine administration, and light-induced phase shifts were analyzed. In addition, the effect of l-serine on the light-induced phase advance was investigated in healthy male students (mean ± SD age 22.2 ± 1.8 y) by using dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO) determined by saliva samples as an index of the circadian phase.Results: l-Serine administration enhanced light-induced phase shifts in mice (1.86-fold; P light-dark cycle by 6 h, l-serine administration slightly accelerated re-entrainment to the shifted cycle. In humans, l-serine ingestion before bedtime induced significantly larger phase advances of DLMO after bright-light exposure during the morning (means ± SEMs-l-serine: 25.9 ± 6.6 min; placebo: 12.1 ± 7.0 min; P light-induced phase resetting in mice and humans, and it may be useful for treating circadian disturbances. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Cytokine-induced memory-like natural killer cells exhibit enhanced responses against myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romee, Rizwan; Rosario, Maximillian; Berrien-Elliott, Melissa M.; Wagner, Julia A.; Jewell, Brea A.; Schappe, Timothy; Leong, Jeffrey W.; Abdel-Latif, Sara; Schneider, Stephanie E.; Willey, Sarah; Neal, Carly C.; Yu, Liyang; Oh, Stephen T.; Lee, Yi-Shan; Mulder, Arend; Claas, Frans; Cooper, Megan A.; Fehniger, Todd A.

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are an emerging cellular immunotherapy for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, the best approach to maximize NK cell antileukemia potential is unclear. Cytokine-induced memory-like NK cells differentiate after a brief preactivation with interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-15, and IL-18 and exhibit enhanced responses to cytokine or activating receptor restimulation for weeks to months after preactivation. We hypothesized that memory-like NK cells exhibit enhanced antileukemia functionality. We demonstrated that human memory-like NK cells have enhanced interferon-γ production and cytotoxicity against leukemia cell lines or primary human AML blasts in vitro. Using mass cytometry, we found that memory-like NK cell functional responses were triggered against primary AML blasts, regardless of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) to KIR-ligand interactions. In addition, multidimensional analyses identified distinct phenotypes of control and memory-like NK cells from the same individuals. Human memory-like NK cells xenografted into mice substantially reduced AML burden in vivo and improved overall survival. In the context of a first-in-human phase 1 clinical trial, adoptively transferred memory-like NK cells proliferated and expanded in AML patients and demonstrated robust responses against leukemia targets. Clinical responses were observed in five of nine evaluable patients, including four complete remissions. Thus, harnessing cytokine-induced memory-like NK cell responses represents a promising translational immunotherapy approach for patients with AML. PMID:27655849

  3. 28-Homobrassinolide mitigates boron induced toxicity through enhanced antioxidant system in Vigna radiata plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to establish relationship between boron induced oxidative stress and antioxidant system in Vigna radiata plants and also to investigate whether brassinosteroids will enhance the level of antioxidant system that could confer tolerance to the plants from the boron induced oxidative stress. The mung bean (V. radiata cv. T-44) plants were administered with 0.50, 1.0 and 2.0 mM boron at 6 d stage for 7 d along with nutrient solution. At 13 d stage, the seedlings were sprayed with deionized water (control) or 10(-8) M of 28-homobrassinolide and plants were harvested at 21 d stage to assess growth, leaf gas-exchange traits and biochemical parameters. The boron treatments diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activity in the concentration dependent manner whereas, it enhanced lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H(2)O(2) as well as proline, and various antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of mung bean which were more pronounced at higher concentrations of boron. However, the follow-up application of 28-homobrassinolide to the boron stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthesis and further enhanced the various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and content of proline. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the B-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute stress blocks the caffeine-induced enhancement of contextual memory retrieval in mice.

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    Pierard, Chistophe; Krazem, Ali; Henkous, Nadia; Decorte, Laurence; Béracochéa, Daniel

    2015-08-15

    This study investigated in mice the dose-effect of caffeine on memory retrieval in non-stress and stress conditions. C57 Bl/6 Jico mice learned two consecutive discriminations (D1 and D2) in a four-hole board which involved either distinct contextual (CSD) or similar contextual (SSD) cues. All mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or caffeine (8, 16 or 32mg/kg) 30min before the test session. Results showed that in non-stress conditions, the 16mg/kg caffeine dose induced a significant enhancement of D1 performance in CSD but not in SSD. Hence, we studied the effect of an acute stress (electric footshocks) administered 15min before the test session on D1 performance in caffeine-treated mice. Results showed that stress significantly decreased D1 performance in vehicle-treated controls and the memory-enhancing effect induced by the 16mg/kg caffeine dose in non-stress condition is no longer observed. Interestingly, whereas caffeine-treated mice exhibited weaker concentrations of plasma corticosterone as compared to vehicles in non-stress condition, stress significantly increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in caffeine-treated mice which reached similar level to that of controls. Overall, the acute stress blocked both the endocrinological and memory retrieval enhancing effects of caffeine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Intervention-induced enhancement in intrinsic brain activity in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shufei; Zhu, Xinyi; Li, Rui; Niu, Yanan; Wang, Baoxi; Zheng, Zhiwei; Huang, Xin; Huo, Lijuan; Li, Juan

    2014-12-04

    This study examined the effects of a multimodal intervention on spontaneous brain activity in healthy older adults. Seventeen older adults received a six-week intervention that consisted of cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling, while 17 older adults in a control group attended health knowledge lectures. The intervention group demonstrated enhanced memory and social support compared to the control group. The amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in the middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, and anterior cerebellum lobe was enhanced for the intervention group, while the control group showed reduced ALFF in these three regions. Moreover, changes in trail-making performance and well-being could be predicted by the intervention-induced changes in ALFF. Additionally, individual differences in the baseline ALFF were correlated with intervention-related changes in behavioral performance. These findings suggest that a multimodal intervention is effective in improving cognitive functions and well-being and can induce functional changes in the aging brain. The study extended previous training studies by suggesting resting-state ALFF as a marker of intervention-induced plasticity in older adults.

  6. Innate type 2 response to Alternaria extract enhances ryegrass-induced lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Kyoo; Lund, Sean; Baum, Rachel; Rosenthal, Peter; Khorram, Naseem; Doherty, Taylor A

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to the fungal allergen Alternaria alternata as well as ryegrass pollen has been implicated in severe asthma symptoms during thunderstorms. We have previously shown that Alternaria extract induces innate type 2 lung inflammation in mice. We hypothesized that the innate eosinophilic response to Alternaria extract may enhance lung inflammation induced by ryegrass. Mice were sensitized to ryegrass allergen and administered a single challenge with A. alternata extract before or after final ryegrass challenges. Levels of eosinophils, neutrophils, Th2 cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) as well as inflammation and mucus were assessed. Mice receiving ryegrass sensitization and challenge developed an eosinophilic lung response. A single challenge with Alternaria extract given 3 days before or 3 days after ryegrass challenges resulted in increased eosinophils, peribronchial inflammation and mucus production in the airways compared with ryegrass-only challenges. Type 2 ILC2 and Th2 cell recruitment to the airways was increased after Alternaria extract exposure in ryegrass-challenged mice. Innate immune challenges with Alternaria extract induced BAL eosinophilia, Th2 cell recruitment as well as ILC2 expansion and proliferation. A single exposure to Alternaria extract in ryegrass-sensitized and -challenged mice enhances the type 2 lung inflammatory response, including airway eosinophilia, peribronchial infiltrate, and mucus production, possibly through Th2 cell recruitment and ILC2 expansion. If translated to humans, exposure to both grass pollen and Alternaria may be a potential cause of thunderstorm-related asthma.

  7. Innate Type-2 Response to Alternaria Extract Enhances Ryegrass-induced Lung Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Kyoo; Lund, Sean; Baum, Rachel; Rosenthal, Peter; Khorram, Naseem; Doherty, Taylor A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to the fungal allergen Alternaria alternata as well as ryegrass pollen has been implicated in severe asthma symptoms during thunderstorms. We have previously shown that Alternaria extract induces innate type 2 lung inflammation in mice. We hypothesized that the innate eosinophilic response to Alternaria extract may enhance lung inflammation induced by ryegrass. Methods Mice were sensitized to ryegrass allergen and administered a single challenge with Alternaria alternata extract before or after final ryegrass challenges. Levels of BAL eosinophils, neutrophils, Th2 cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), IL-5 and IL-13 as well as inflammation and mucus were assessed. Results Mice receiving ryegrass sensitization and challenge developed an eosinophilic lung response. A single challenge with Alternaria extract given 3 days before or 3 days after ryegrass challenges resulted in increased eosinophils, peribronchial inflammation and mucus production in the airway compared with ryegrass only challenges. Type 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) and Th2 cell recruitment to the airway was increased after Alternaria extract exposure in ryegrass challenged mice. Innate challenges with Alternaria extract induced BAL eosinophilia, Th2 cell recruitment as well as ILC2 expansion and proliferation. Conclusions A single exposure of Alternaria extract in ryegrass sensitized and challenged mice enhances the type-2 lung inflammatory response including airway eosinophilia, peribronchial infiltrate, and mucus production possibly through Th2 cell recruitment and ILC2 expansion. If translated to humans, exposures to both grass pollen and Alternaria may be a potential cause of thunderstorm-related asthma. PMID:24296722

  8. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) promotes inflammation-induced tumorigenesis by enhancing epithelial cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppsson, Sabrina; Srinivasan, Shanthi; Chandrasekharan, Bindu

    2017-02-01

    We have demonstrated that neuropeptide Y (NPY), abundantly produced by enteric neurons, is an important regulator of intestinal inflammation. However, the role of NPY in the progression of chronic inflammation to tumorigenesis is unknown. We investigated whether NPY could modulate epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis, and thus regulate tumorigenesis. Repeated cycles of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) were used to model inflammation-induced tumorigenesis in wild-type (WT) and NPY knockout (NPY -/- ) mice. Intestinal epithelial cell lines (T84) were used to assess the effects of NPY (0.1 µM) on epithelial proliferation and apoptosis in vitro. DSS-WT mice exhibited enhanced intestinal inflammation, polyp size, and polyp number (7.5 ± 0.8) compared with DSS-NPY -/- mice (4 ± 0.5, P inflammation-induced tumorigenesis by NPY-epithelial cross talk as mediated by activation of PI3-K signaling and downregulation of miR-375. Our work exemplifies a novel role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in regulating inflammation-induced tumorigenesis via two modalities: first by enhanced proliferation (PI3-K/pAkt), and second by downregulation of microRNA-375 (miR-375)-dependent apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells. Our data establish the existence of a microRNA-mediated cross talk between enteric neurons producing NPY and intestinal epithelial cells, and the potential of neuropeptide-regulated miRNAs as potential therapeutic molecules for the management of inflammation-associated tumors in the gut.

  9. Hepatocyte growth factor enhances death receptor-induced apoptosis by up-regulating DR5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodwin C Rory

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF and its receptor c-MET are commonly expressed in malignant gliomas and embryonic neuroectodermal tumors including medulloblastoma and appear to play an important role in the growth and dissemination of these malignancies. Dependent on cell context and the involvement of specific downstream effectors, both pro- and anti-apoptotic effects of HGF have been reported. Methods Human medulloblastoma cells were treated with HGF for 24–72 hours followed by death receptor ligand TRAIL (Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand for 24 hours. Cell death was measured by MTT and Annexin-V/PI flow cytometric analysis. Changes in expression levels of targets of interest were measured by Northern blot analysis, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, Western blot analysis as well as immunoprecipitation. Results In this study, we show that HGF promotes medulloblastoma cell death induced by TRAIL. TRAIL alone triggered apoptosis in DAOY cells and death was enhanced by pre-treating the cells with HGF for 24–72 h prior to the addition of TRAIL. HGF (100 ng/ml enhanced TRAIL (10 ng/ml induced cell death by 36% (P Conclusion Taken together, these and previous findings indicate that HGF:c-Met pathway either promotes or inhibits medulloblastoma cell death via pathway and context specific mechanisms.

  10. Induced over voltage test on transformers using enhanced Z-source inverter based circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Geno; Sherine, Anli

    2017-09-01

    The normal life of a transformer is well above 25 years. The economical operation of the distribution system has its roots in the equipments being used. The economy being such, that it is financially advantageous to replace transformers with more than 15 years of service in the second perennial market. Testing of transformer is required, as its an indication of the extent to which a transformer can comply with the customers specified requirements and the respective standards (IEC 60076-3). In this paper, induced over voltage testing on transformers using enhanced Z source inverter is discussed. Power electronic circuits are now essential for a whole array of industrial electronic products. The bulky motor generator set, which is used to generate the required frequency to conduct the induced over voltage testing of transformers is nowadays replaced by static frequency converter. First conventional Z-source inverter, and second an enhanced Z source inverter is being used to generate the required voltage and frequency to test the transformer for induced over voltage test, and its characteristics is analysed.

  11. Multiphase contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging features of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin-induced granulomatous prostatitis in five patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawada, Hiroshi; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Goshima, Satoshi; Kondo, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Haruo; Noda, Yoshifumi; Tanahashi, Yukichi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki [Gifu University Hospital, Gifu (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    To evaluate the multiphase contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-induced granulomatous prostatitis (GP). Magnetic resonance images obtained from five patients with histopathologically proven BCG-induced GP were retrospectively analyzed for tumor location, size, signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted images (DWI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, and appearance on gadolinium-enhanced multiphase images. MR imaging findings were compared with histopathological findings. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin-induced GP (size range, 9-40 mm; mean, 21.2 mm) were identified in the peripheral zone in all patients. The T2WI showed lower signal intensity compared with the normal peripheral zone. The DWIs demonstrated high signal intensity and low ADC values (range, 0.44-0.68 x 10(-3) mm2/sec; mean, 0.56 x 10(-3) mm2/sec), which corresponded to GP. Gadolinium-enhanced multiphase MR imaging performed in five patients showed early and prolonged ring enhancement in all cases of GP. Granulomatous tissues with central caseation necrosis were identified histologically, which corresponded to ring enhancement and a central low intensity area on gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. The findings on T2WI, DWI, and gadolinium-enhanced images became gradually obscured with time. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin-induced GP demonstrates early and prolonged ring enhancement on gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging which might be a key finding to differentiate it from prostate cancer.

  12. Interleukin-6-induced Twist and N-cadherin enhance melanoma cell metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yi-Rang; Lee, Jin-Sub; Lee, Seok-Jong; Seok, Seung-Hyeok

    2013-12-01

    Melanoma patients frequently have elevated serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), which is correlated with a poor prognosis. IL-6 activates STAT3 phosphorylation, inducing the transcription of genes that regulate tumor cell proliferation and antiapoptosis. In addition, recent evidence suggests that IL-6 induces the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and enhances the invasiveness of tumor cells of epithelial origin. However, it is unknown whether IL-6 affects mesenchymal tumor cells. In this study, we examined the effects of IL-6 on melanoma cells and found that IL-6 can enhance their metastatic potential by regulating the expression of Twist and N-cadherin. First, we confirmed that human melanoma tissues express IL-6 (especially at the lesion site), the IL-6 receptor, N-cadherin, and nuclear Twist. Next, we found that IL-6 induces STAT3 phosphorylation in WM-266-4 human melanoma cells, resulting in transient upregulation of Twist, which is a key regulator of metastasis. Importantly, the expression of N-cadherin, a protein downstream of Twist, was also increased on the cell surface after treatment with IL-6. These cells showed enhanced invasiveness, assessed using an invasion assay, and formed more metastatic nodules in the lungs of NOD-SCID mice after an intravenous injection. Importantly, melanoma cells with knocked-down N-cadherin formed less lung nodules compared with control in the NOD-SCID mouse model. Our data suggest that increased serum IL-6 in cancer patients could increase the invasiveness of melanoma cells and accelerate metastasis. Blocking IL-6 in the melanoma microenvironment may therefore inhibit disease progression.

  13. Novel monoamine transporter ligands reduce cocaine-induced enhancement of brain stimulation reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcińska, M; Pimentel, P; Stellar, J R; Hanson, R N; Choi, S W; Elmaleh, D R; Zhang, J; Prakash, K R; Tamiz, A P; Kozikowski, A P; Johnson, K M; Smith, M P; Babich, J W

    2001-01-01

    Six novel monoamine reuptake inhibitors were screened for their intrinsic effects on brain stimulation reward (BSR), as well as for their potential to reduce cocaine-induced reward-enhancement in that paradigm. Two of the compounds, nocaine-3B and 5-ara-74A (disubstituted piperidines) significantly reduced locus of rise (LOR), threshold measure of reward, at some doses. One compound, 1-RV-96A (a hybrid of the GBR and WIN-like agents) significantly reduced reward (increased LOR), but only at the highest dose tested. No effect of dose was found for MC9-20 (a GBR-like acyclic analogue of the N-bisarylmethoxyethyl-N'-phenylpropyl piperazine), nocaine-250B or 4-ara-42C (disubstituted piperidines). When cocaine (10 mg/kg, ip) and selected, hedonically neutral doses of novel compounds were combined, the following findings were obtained: MC9-20 (2.5 mg/kg, ip) showed a significant increase in cocaine-induced reward enhancement (0.2 log units or 53%). In contrast, nocaine-250B and 1-RV-96A (both at 10 mg/kg, ip) demonstrated a significant reduction (0.13 log units or 41%) in cocaine-induced reward enhancement (P<.01 and P<.05, respectively), as measured by changes in LOR. There were no differences in the maximum behavioral output (MAX) at either dose of each of the six drugs, or when selected doses were combined with cocaine. These results indicate that nocaine-250B and 1-RV-96A constitute two potential anticocaine compounds worthy of further behavioral and biochemical evaluation.

  14. Personality Does not Influence Exercise-Induced Mood Enhancement Among Female Exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew M; Milton, Karen E; Terry, Peter C

    2005-09-01

    The present study investigated the influence of personality on exercise-induced mood changes. It was hypothesised that (a) exercise would be associated with significant mood enhancement across all personality types, (b) extroversion would be associated with positive mood and neuroticism with negative mood both pre- and post-exercise, and (c) personality measures would interact with exercise-induced mood changes. Participants were 90 female exercisers (M = 25.8 yr, SD = 9.0 yr) who completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) once and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) before and after a 60-minute exercise session. Median splits were used to group participants into four personality types: stable introverts (n = 25), stable extroverts (n = 20), neurotic introverts (n = 26), and neurotic extroverts (n = 19). Repeated measures MANOVA showed significant mood enhancement following exercise across all personality types. Neuroticism was associated with negative mood scores pre- and post-exercise but the effect of extroversion on reported mood was relatively weak. There was no significant interaction effect between exercise-induced mood enhancement and personality. In conclusion, findings lend support to the notion that exercise is associated with improved mood. However, findings show that personality did not influence this effect, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood. Key PointsResearch in general psychology has found that stable personality trait are associated changes in mood states. Ninety females exercisers completed a personality test and mood scales before and after exercise. Results indicated mood changes were not associated with personality, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood.

  15. Enhanced magnetization of CuCr2O4 thin films by substrate-induced strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Jodi M.; Chopdekar, Rajesh V.; Wong, Franklin J.; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany B.; Arenholz, Elke; Suzuki, Yuri

    2009-04-01

    The first synthesis of epitaxial spinel CuCr2O4 thin films is reported, which exhibit enhanced magnetization in excess of 200% of the accepted bulk value when grown on single-crystal (110) MgAl2O4 substrates. Bulk CuCr2O4 is a ferrimagnetic insulator with a low net magnetic moment of 0.5μB due to its tetragonal unit cell with a c /a ratio of 1.29 and frustrated moment configuration. It is shown that through epitaxial growth and substrate-induced strain, it is possible to enhance the magnetization of these films by reducing the tetragonality of its unit cell which, in turn, effectively decreases magnetic moment frustration allowing for a greater net moment.

  16. Enhancement mechanism of femtosecond double-pulse laser-induced Cu plasma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Chen, Anmin; Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Suyu; Wang, Ying; Sui, Laizhi; Jiang, Yuanfei; Jin, Mingxing

    2017-11-01

    A dual-wavelength femtosecond double-pulse laser is used to induce the Cu plasma spectroscopy in air. The laser wavelengths are a fundamental wavelength (800 nm) and a second harmonic wavelength (400 nm) from Ti:sapphire laser. The inter-pulse delay of double-pulse is from -300 ps to 160 ps. The observed spectral intensity is dependent on the inter-pulse delay of the dual-wavelength femtosecond double-pulse. We analyze the characteristics of the plasma temperature and the electron number density on the inter-pulse delay of double-pulse with two different wavelengths. For 800 nm + 400 nm, the spectral emission enhancement is based on more material ablation. For 400 nm + 800 nm, the enhanced mechanism is plasma reheating effect. This study will provide a better way to understand the mechanism of femtosecond double-pulse LIBS.

  17. Vectorization of biomacromolecules into cells using extracellular vesicles with enhanced internalization induced by macropinocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakase, Ikuhiko; Noguchi, Kosuke; Fujii, Ikuo; Futaki, Shiroh

    2016-10-17

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs, exosomes) are approximately 30- to 200-nm-long vesicles that have received increased attention due to their role in cell-to-cell communication. Although EVs are highly anticipated to be a next-generation intracellular delivery tool because of their pharmaceutical advantages, including non-immunogenicity, their cellular uptake efficacy is low because of the repulsion of EVs and negatively charged cell membranes and size limitations in endocytosis. Here, we demonstrate a methodology for achieving enhanced cellular EV uptake using arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) to induce active macropinocytosis. The induction of macropinocytosis via a simple modification to the exosomal membrane using stearylated octaarginine, which is a representative CPP, significantly enhanced the cellular EV uptake efficacy. Consequently, effective EV-based intracellular delivery of an artificially encapsulated ribosome-inactivating protein, saporin, in EVs was attained.

  18. Cyanostilben-based derivatives: mechanical stimuli-responsive luminophors with aggregation-induced emission enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujian; Sun, Jingwei; Bian, Gaofeng; Chen, Yiyi; Ouyang, Mi; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Cheng

    2012-09-01

    Cyanostilbene derivatives with the aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AIEE) activity are prepared by Knoevenagel and Suzuki reactions. Among them, the dye (Z)-2,3-bis(4'-(diphenylamino)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)acrylonitrile (CNS-4) nanoparticle suspension shows the polarity-dependent characteristics of the fluorescence properties. By the fluorescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, the restriction of transfer from the local excited (LE) state to the intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) state and crystal formation results in a blue-shift in emission and enhances the intensity in the aggregate state. Additionally, the luminophors CNS-3 and CNS-4 possess the AIEE effect as well as mechanochromic fluorescent properties. This mechanofluorochromic behavior originates from the change between the crystalline and the amorphous state.

  19. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy based on single beam splitting and geometric configuration for effective signal enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Lin, Qingyu; Ding, Yu; Tian, Di; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-01-05

    A new laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) based on single-beam-splitting (SBS) and proper optical geometric configuration has been initially explored in this work for effective signal enhancement. In order to improve the interaction efficiency of laser energy with the ablated material, a laser beam operated in pulse mode was divided into two streams to ablate/excite the target sample in different directions instead of the conventional one beam excitation in single pulse LIBS (SP-LIBS). In spatial configuration, the laser beam geometry plays an important role in the emission signal enhancement. Thus, an adjustable geometric configuration with variable incident angle between the two splitted laser beams was constructed for achieving maximum signal enhancement. With the optimized angles of 60° and 70° for Al and Cu atomic emission lines at 396.15 nm and 324.75 nm respectively, about 5.6- and 4.8-folds signal enhancements were achieved for aluminum alloy and copper alloy samples compared to SP-LIBS. Furthermore, the temporal analysis, in which the intensity of atomic lines in SP-LIBS decayed at least ten times faster than the SBS-LIBS, proved that the energy coupling efficiency of SBS-LIBS was significantly higher than that of SP-LIBS.

  20. Infection-induced viscerosensory signals from the gut enhance anxiety: implications for psychoneuroimmunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehler, Lisa E; Lyte, Mark; Gaykema, Ronald P A

    2007-08-01

    Infection and inflammation lead to changes in mood and cognition. Although the "classic" sickness behavior syndrome, involving fatigue, social withdrawal, and loss of appetites are most familiar, other emotional responses accompany immune activation, including anxiety. Recent studies have shown that gastrointestinal bacterial infections lead to enhanced anxiety-like behavior in mice. The bacteria-induced signal is most likely carried by vagal sensory neurons, and occurs early on (within 6h) during the infection. These signals induce evidence of activation in brain regions that integrate viscerosensory information with mood, and potentiate activation in brain regions established as key players in fear and anxiety. The findings underline the importance of viscerosensory signals arising from the gastrointestinal tract in modulation of behaviors appropriate for coping with threats, and suggest that these signals may contribute to affective symptoms associated with gastrointestinal disorders.

  1. Macrophage activation induced by Brucella DNA suppresses bacterial intracellular replication via enhancing NO production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Wang, Lin; Sun, Changjiang; Yang, Li; Tang, Bin; Sun, Wanchun; Peng, Qisheng

    2015-12-01

    Brucella DNA can be sensed by TLR9 on endosomal membrane and by cytosolic AIM2-inflammasome to induce proinflammatory cytokine production that contributes to partially activate innate immunity. Additionally, Brucella DNA has been identified to be able to act as a major bacterial component to induce type I IFN. However, the role of Brucella DNA in Brucella intracellular growth remains unknown. Here, we showed that stimulation with Brucella DNA promote macrophage activation in TLR9-dependent manner. Activated macrophages can suppresses wild type Brucella intracellular replication at early stage of infection via enhancing NO production. We also reported that activated macrophage promotes bactericidal function of macrophages infected with VirB-deficient Brucella at the early or late stage of infection. This study uncovers a novel function of Brucella DNA, which can help us further elucidate the mechanism of Brucella intracellular survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Macroscopic Polarization Enhancement Promoting Photo- and Piezoelectric-Induced Charge Separation and Molecular Oxygen Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongwei; Tu, Shuchen; Zeng, Chao; Zhang, Tierui; Reshak, Ali H; Zhang, Yihe

    2017-09-18

    Efficient photo- and piezoelectric-induced molecular oxygen activation are both achieved by macroscopic polarization enhancement on a noncentrosymmetric piezoelectric semiconductor BiOIO 3 . The replacement of V 5+ ions for I 5+ in IO 3 polyhedra gives rise to strengthened macroscopic polarization of BiOIO 3 , which facilitates the charge separation in the photocatalytic and piezoelectric catalytic process, and renders largely promoted photo- and piezoelectric induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) evolution, such as superoxide radicals ( . O 2 - ) and hydroxyl radicals ( . OH). This work advances piezoelectricity as a new route to efficient ROS generation, and also discloses macroscopic polarization engineering on improvement of multi-responsive catalysis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Carbon dots with aggregation induced emission enhancement for visual permittivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze Xi; Wu, Zhu Lian; Gao, Ming Xuan; Liu, Hui; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-02-04

    Photoluminescent carbon dots (CDs), hydrothermally prepared using tannic acid (TA), show visual aggregation induced emission enhancement (AIEE) properties at 455 nm when excited at 350 nm owing to the rotational hindering of the surface groups on CDs such as aromatic rings and phenolic hydroxyl ones, causing exponential decay between the ratio of the photoluminescence intensity in organic solvents to that in water and the permittivity of the solvent, and thus dazzling emissions of the CDs in the presence of solvents with small permittivity, tetrahydrofuran (THF), for instance, could be visually observed.

  4. Wnt5a induces ROR1/ROR2 heterooligomerization to enhance leukemia chemotaxis and proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jian; Chen, Liguang; Cui, Bing; Widhopf, George F.; Shen, Zhouxin; Wu, Rongrong; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Suping; Briggs, Steven P.; Kipps, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionarily conserved receptor tyrosine kinase–like orphan receptor-1 and -2 (ROR1/2) are considered distinct receptors for Wnt5a and are implicated in noncanonical Wnt signaling in organogenesis and cancer metastasis. We found that Wnt5a enhanced proliferation and migration of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells and that these effects were blocked by the humanized anti-ROR1 mAb cirmtuzumab (UC-961). Treatment of CLL cells with Wnt5a induced ROR1 to oligomerize with ROR2 and recruit g...

  5. Graphene/CdTe heterostructure solar cell and its enhancement with photo-induced doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shisheng, E-mail: shishenglin@zju.edu.cn; Chen, Hongsheng [Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Shengjiao; Wang, Peng; Xu, Zhijuan; Zhong, Huikai; Wu, Zhiqian [Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-11-09

    We report a type of solar cell based on graphene/CdTe Schottky heterostructure, which can be improved by surface engineering as graphene is atomic thin. By coating a layer of ultrathin CdSe quantum dots onto graphene/CdTe heterostructure, the power conversion efficiency is increased from 2.08% to 3.10%. Photo-induced doping is mainly accounted for this enhancement, as evidenced by field effect transport, Raman, photoluminescence, and quantum efficiency measurements. This work demonstrates a feasible way of improving the performance of graphene/semiconductor heterostructure solar cells by combining one dimensional with two dimensional materials.

  6. Enhanced sensitivity of dopaminergic neurons to rotenone-induced toxicity with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, Amie L; Andringa, Gerda; Bol, John G J M; Wolters, Erik Ch; van Muiswinkel, Freek L; van Dam, Anne-Marie W; Drukarch, Benjamin

    2006-05-01

    Rotenone has been reported to induce various degrees of Parkinsonism in rats. We tested whether advancing age alters the sensitivity of dopaminergic neurons to rotenone. A low, systemic dose of rotenone had no effect on young rats, but led to a 20-30% reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra of older rats. The effect was specific to nigral dopaminergic neurons and may be associated with the increase of glial cell activation in older rats. These data suggest that age enhances the sensitivity of dopaminergic neurons to rotenone and should be considered when assessing models of Parkinson's disease.

  7. Accuracy enhancement of laser induced breakdown spectra using permittivity and size optimized plasma confinement rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, An; Guo, Shuai; Wazir, Nasrullah; Chai, Ke; Liang, Liang; Zhang, Min; Hao, Yan; Nan, Pengfei; Liu, Ruibin

    2017-10-30

    The inevitable problems in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy are matrix effect and statistical fluctuation of the spectral signal, which can be partly avoided by utilizing a proper confined unit. The dependences of spectral signal enhancement on relative permittivity were studied by varying materials to confine the plasma, which include polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE), nylon/dacron, silicagel, and nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) with the relative permittivity 2.2, ~3.3, 3.6, 8~13, 15~22. We found that higher relative permittivity rings induce stronger enhancement ability, which restricts the energy dissipation of plasma better and due to the reflected electromagnetic wave from the wall of different materials, the electromagnetic field of plasma can be well confined and makes the distribution of plasma more orderly. The spectral intensities of the characteristic lines Si I 243.5 nm and Si I 263.1 nm increased approximately 2 times with relative permittivity values from 2.2 to ~20. The size dependent enhancement of PTFE was further checked and the maximum gain was realized by using a confinement ring with a diameter size of 5 mm and a height of 3 mm (D5mmH3mm), and the rings with D2mmH1mm and D3mmH2mm also show higher enhancement factor. In view of peak shift, peak lost and accidental peaks in the obtained spectra were properly treated in data progressing; the spectral fluctuation decreased drastically for various materials with different relative permittivities as confined units, which means the core of plasma is stabilized, attributing to the confinement effect. Furthermore, the quantitative analysis in coal shows wonderful results-the prediction fitting coefficient R2 reaches 0.98 for ash and 0.99 for both volatile and carbon.

  8. Application of terpene-induced cell for enhancing biodegradation of TCE contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekawan Luepromchai

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Trichloroethylene (TCE, a chlorinated solvent, is a major water pollutant originating from spillage and inappropriate disposal of dry cleaning agents, degreasing solvents, and paint strippers. Due to its widespread contamination and potential health threat, remediation technology to clean-up TCE is necessary. Aerobic biodegradation of TCE is reported to occur via cometabolism, by which TCE degrading bacteria utilize other compounds such as toluene, phenol, and methane as growth substrate and enzyme inducer. Although toluene is reported to be the most effective inducer, it is regulated as a hazardous material and should not be applied to the environment. The objectives of this study were to identify an alternative enzyme inducer as well as to apply the induced bacteria for degradation of TCE in contaminated soil. We investigated the effect of terpenes, the main components in volatile essential oils of plants, on induction of TCE degradation in Rhodococcus gordoniae P3, a local Gram (+ bacterium. Selected terpenes including cumene, limonene, carvone and pinene at various concentrations were used in the study. Results from liquid culture showed that 25 mg l-1 cumeneinduced R. gordoniae P3 cells resulted in 75% degradation of 10 ppm TCE within 24 hrs. Soil microcosms were later employed to investigate the ability of cumene to enhance TCE biodegradation in the environment. There were two bioremediation treatments studied, including bioaugmentation, the inoculation of cumeneinduced R. gordoniae P3, and biostimulation, the addition of cumene to induce soil indigenous microorganisms to degrade TCE. Bioaugmentation and biostimulation were shown to accelerate TCE reduction significantly more than control treatment at the beginning of study. The results suggest that cumene-induced R. gordoniae P3 and cumene can achieve rapid TCE biodegradation.

  9. Resveratrol enhances palmitate-induced ER stress and apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rojas

    Full Text Available Palmitate, a saturated fatty acid (FA, is known to induce toxicity and cell death in various types of cells. Resveratrol (RSV is able to prevent pathogenesis and/or decelerate the progression of a variety of diseases. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have also shown a protective effect of RSV on fat accumulation induced by FAs. Additionally, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress has recently been linked to cellular adipogenic responses. To address the hypothesis that the RSV effect on excessive fat accumulation promoted by elevated saturated FAs could be partially mediated by a reduction of ER stress, we studied the RSV action on experimentally induced ER stress using palmitate in several cancer cell lines.We show that, unexpectedly, RSV promotes an amplification of palmitate toxicity and cell death and that this mechanism is likely due to a perturbation of palmitate accumulation in the triglyceride form and to a less important membrane fluidity variation. Additionally, RSV decreases radical oxygen species (ROS generation in palmitate-treated cells but leads to enhanced X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1 splicing and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP expression. These molecular effects are induced simultaneously to caspase-3 cleavage, suggesting that RSV promotes palmitate lipoapoptosis primarily through an ER stress-dependent mechanism. Moreover, the lipotoxicity reversion induced by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA or by a liver X receptor (LXR agonist reinforces the hypothesis that RSV-mediated inhibition of palmitate channeling into triglyceride pools could be a key factor in the aggravation of palmitate-induced cytotoxicity.Our results suggest that RSV exerts its cytotoxic role in cancer cells exposed to a saturated FA context primarily by triglyceride accumulation inhibition, probably leading to an intracellular palmitate accumulation that triggers a lipid-mediated cell death. Additionally, this cell death is promoted by ER stress through a CHOP

  10. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor activation enhances BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Chieri [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: tsuyo-i@huhs.ac.jp [Division of Pharmacotherapy, Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Hyogo University of Health Sciences, 1-3-6 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8530 (Japan); Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sano, Hajime [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan)

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the role of S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-stimulated osteoblast differentiation by C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P signaling enhanced BMP-2-stimulated Smad and ERK phosphorylation by C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MEK/ERK signaling is a pathway underlying S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. -- Abstract: We previously demonstrated that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-mediated signaling induced proliferation and prostaglandin productions by synovial cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. In the present study we investigated the role of S1P receptor-mediated signaling for osteoblast differentiation. We investigated osteoblast differentiation using C2C12 myoblasts, a cell line derived from murine satellite cells. Osteoblast differentiation was induced by the treatment of bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 in the presence or absence of either S1P or FTY720 (FTY), a high-affinity agonist of S1P receptors. Osteoblast differentiation was determined by osteoblast-specific transcription factor, Runx2 mRNA expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production by the cells. Smad1/5/8 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation was examined by Western blotting. Osteocalcin production by C2C12 cells were determined by ELISA. Runx2 expression and ALP activity by BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells were enhanced by addition of either S1P or FTY. Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-induced ERK1/2 and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. The effect of FTY was stronger than that of S1P. S1P receptor-mediated signaling on osteoblast differentiation was inhibited by addition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, indicating that the S1P receptor-mediated MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway enhanced BMP-2-Smad signaling. These results indicate that S1P

  11. Low rate loading-induced convection enhances net transport into the intervertebral disc in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullbrand, Sarah E; Peterson, Joshua; Mastropolo, Rosemarie; Roberts, Timothy T; Lawrence, James P; Glennon, Joseph C; DiRisio, Darryl J; Ledet, Eric H

    2015-05-01

    The intervertebral disc primarily relies on trans-endplate diffusion for the uptake of nutrients and the clearance of byproducts. In degenerative discs, diffusion is often diminished by endplate sclerosis and reduced proteoglycan content. Mechanical loading-induced convection has the potential to augment diffusion and enhance net transport into the disc. The ability of convection to augment disc transport is controversial and has not been demonstrated in vivo. To determine if loading-induced convection can enhance small molecule transport into the intervertebral disc in vivo. Net transport was quantified via postcontrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into the discs of the New Zealand white rabbit lumbar spine subjected to in vivo cyclic low rate loading. Animals were administered the MRI contrast agent gadodiamide intravenously and subjected to in vivo low rate loading (0.5 Hz, 200 N) via a custom external loading apparatus for either 2.5, 5, 10, 15, or 20 minutes. Animals were then euthanized and the lumbar spines imaged using postcontrast enhanced MRI. The T1 constants in the nucleus, annulus, and cartilage endplates were quantified as a measure of gadodiamide transport into the loaded discs compared with the adjacent unloaded discs. Microcomputed tomography was used to quantify subchondral bone density. Low rate loading caused the rapid uptake and clearance of gadodiamide in the nucleus compared with unloaded discs, which exhibited a slower rate of uptake. Relative to unloaded discs, low rate loading caused a maximum increase in transport into the nucleus of 16.8% after 5 minutes of loading. Low rate loading increased the concentration of gadodiamide in the cartilage endplates at each time point compared with unloaded levels. Results from this study indicate that forced convection accelerated small molecule uptake and clearance in the disc induced by low rate mechanical loading. Low rate loading may, therefore, be therapeutic to the disc as it

  12. Ascorbic acid does not enhance hypoxia‐induced vasodilation in healthy older men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Jonathan P.; Patel, Hardikkumar M.; Randolph, Brittney J.; Heffernan, Matthew J.; Leuenberger, Urs A.; Muller, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In response to hypoxia, a net vasodilation occurs in the limb vasculature in young healthy humans and this is referred to as “hypoxia‐induced vasodilation”. We performed two separate experiments to determine (1) if hypoxia‐induced forearm vasodilation is impaired in older men (n = 8) compared to young men (n = 7) and (2) if acute systemic infusion of ascorbic acid would enhance hypoxia‐induced vasodilation in older men (n = 8). Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, oxygen saturation, minute ventilation, forearm vascular conductance (FVC, Doppler ultrasound), and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC, laser Doppler flowmetry) were recorded continuously while subjects breathed 10% oxygen for 5 min. Changes from baseline were compared between groups and between treatments. The older adults had a significantly attenuated increase in FBF (13 ± 4 vs. 30 ± 7%) and FVC (16 ± 4 vs. 30 ± 7%) in response to 5 min of hypoxia. However, skin blood flow responses were comparable between groups (young: 35 ± 9, older: 30 ± 6%). In Experiment 2, FVC responses to 5 min of breathing 10% oxygen were not significantly different following saline (3 ± 10%) and ascorbic acid (8 ± 10%) in the older men. Ascorbic acid also had no physiological effects in the young men. These findings advance our basic understanding of how aging influences vascular responses to hypoxia and suggest that, in healthy humans, hypoxia‐induced vasodilation is not restrained by reactive oxygen species. PMID:25052494

  13. Piperlongumine induces pancreatic cancer cell death by enhancing reactive oxygen species and DNA damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsharan Dhillon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is one of the most deadly cancers with a nearly 95% mortality rate. The poor response of pancreatic cancer to currently available therapies and the extremely low survival rate of pancreatic cancer patients point to a critical need for alternative therapeutic strategies. The use of reactive oxygen species (ROS-inducing agents has emerged as an innovative and effective strategy to treat various cancers. In this study, we investigated the potential of a known ROS inducer, piperlongumine (PPLGM, a bioactive agent found in long peppers, to induce pancreatic cancer cell death in cell culture and animal models. We found that PPLGM inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer cell cultures by elevating ROS levels and causing DNA damage. PPLGM-induced DNA damage and pancreatic cancer cell death was reversed by treating the cells with an exogenous antioxidant. Similar to the in vitro studies, PPLGM caused a reduction in tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model of human pancreatic cancer. Tumors from the PPLGM-treated animals showed decreased Ki-67 and increased 8-OHdG expression, suggesting PPLGM inhibited tumor cell proliferation and enhanced oxidative stress. Taken together, our results show that PPLGM is an effective inhibitor for in vitro and in vivo growth of pancreatic cancer cells, and that it works through a ROS-mediated DNA damage pathway. These findings suggest that PPLGM has the potential to be used for treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  14. Obstructive apneas induce early activation of mesenchymal stem cells and enhancement of endothelial wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Josep M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to test the hypothesis that the blood serum of rats subjected to recurrent airway obstructions mimicking obstructive sleep apnea (OSA induces early activation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC and enhancement of endothelial wound healing. Methods We studied 30 control rats and 30 rats subjected to recurrent obstructive apneas (60 per hour, lasting 15 s each, for 5 h. The migration induced in MSC by apneic serum was measured by transwell assays. MSC-endothelial adhesion induced by apneic serum was assessed by incubating fluorescent-labelled MSC on monolayers of cultured endothelial cells from rat aorta. A wound healing assay was used to investigate the effect of apneic serum on endothelial repair. Results Apneic serum showed significant increase in chemotaxis in MSC when compared with control serum: the normalized chemotaxis indices were 2.20 ± 0.58 (m ± SE and 1.00 ± 0.26, respectively (p Conclusions The early increases induced by recurrent obstructive apneas in MSC migration, adhesion and endothelial repair suggest that these mechanisms play a role in the physiological response to the challenges associated to OSA.

  15. Helminth Protein Vaccine Induced Follicular T Helper Cell for Enhancement of Humoral Immunity against Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyao Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein vaccines combined with adjuvants have been widely used to induce immune responses, especially the humoral immune response, against molecular targets including parasites. Follicular T helper (Tfh cells are the specialized providers of B-cell help, however, the induction of Tfh cells in protein vaccination has been rarely studied. Here, we report that the Schistosoma japonicum recombinant protein (SjGST-32 combined with tacrolimus (FK506 augmented the induction of Tfh cells, which expressed the canonical markers CXCR5, BCL6, and IL-21, and enhanced the humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, the expression of IL-21R on germinal center (GC B cells and memory B cells increased in immunized mice, which indicated that IL-21 from the induced Tfh cells interacted with IL-21R for activation of B cells and maintenance of long-lived humoral immunity. Our results suggest that helminth protein vaccine combined with FK506 induces Tfh cell for stimulating humoral immune responses and inducing long-lived humoral immunity.

  16. Lipid Emulsions Enhance the Norepinephrine-Mediated Reversal of Local Anesthetic-Induced Vasodilation at Toxic Doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Hee; Sung, Hui-Jin; Ok, Seong-Ho; Yu, Jongsun; Choi, Mun-Jeoung; Lim, Jin Soo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Intravenous lipid emulsions have been used to treat the systemic toxicity of local anesthetics. The goal of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of lipid emulsions on the norepinephrine-mediated reversal of vasodilation induced by high doses of levobupivacaine, ropivacaine, and mepivacaine in isolated endothelium-denuded rat aorta, and to determine whether such effects are associated with the lipid solubility of local anesthetics. Materials and Methods The effects of lipid emulsions (0.30, 0.49, 1.40, and 2.61%) on norepinephrine concentration-responses in high-dose local anesthetic (6×10-4 M levobupivacaine, 2×10-3 M ropivacaine, and 7×10-3 M mepivacaine)-induced vasodilation of isolated aorta precontracted with 60 mM KCl were assessed. The effects of lipid emulsions on local anesthetic- and diltiazem-induced vasodilation in isolated aorta precontracted with phenylephrine were also assessed. Results Lipid emulsions (0.30%) enhanced norepinephrine-induced contraction in levobupivacaine-induced vasodilation, whereas 1.40 and 2.61% lipid emulsions enhanced norepinephrine-induced contraction in both ropivacaine- and mepivacaine-induced vasodilation, respectively. Lipid emulsions (0.20, 0.49 and 1.40%) inhibited vasodilation induced by levobupivacaine and ropivacaine, whereas 1.40 and 2.61% lipid emulsions slightly attenuated mepivacaine (3×10-3 M)-induced vasodilation. In addition, lipid emulsions attenuated diltiazem-induced vasodilation. Lipid emulsions enhanced norepinephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-denuded aorta without pretreatment with local anesthetics. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that lipid emulsions enhance the norepinephrine-mediated reversal of local anesthetic-induced vasodilation at toxic anesthetic doses and inhibit local anesthetic-induced vasodilation in a manner correlated with the lipid solubility of a particular local anesthetic. PMID:24142661

  17. Caffeine intake improves fructose-induced hypertension and insulin resistance by enhancing central insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Tung-Chen; Liu, Chun-Peng; Cheng, Wen-Han; Chen, Bo-Rong; Lu, Pei-Jung; Cheng, Pei-Wen; Ho, Wen-Yu; Sun, Gwo-Ching; Liou, Jau-Cheng; Tseng, Ching-Jiunn

    2014-03-01

    Recent clinical studies found that fructose intake leads to insulin resistance and hypertension. Fructose consumption promotes protein fructosylation and formation of superoxide. In a previous study, we revealed that inhibition of superoxide production in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) reduces blood pressure. Caffeine displays significant antioxidant ability in protecting membranes against oxidative damage and can lower the risk of insulin resistance. However, the mechanism through which caffeine improves fructose-induced insulin resistance is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether caffeine consumption can abolish superoxide generation to enhance insulin signaling in the NTS, thereby reducing blood pressure in rats with fructose-induced hypertension. Treatment with caffeine for 4 weeks decreased blood pressure, serum fasting glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, and triglyceride levels and increased the serum direct high-density lipoprotein level in fructose-fed rats but not in control rats. Caffeine treatment resulted in the recovery of fructose-induced decrease in nitric oxide production in the NTS. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses further showed that caffeine reduced the fructose-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1(S307)) and reversed Akt(S473) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation. Similarly, caffeine was able to improve insulin sensitivity and decrease insulin levels in the NTS evoked by fructose. Caffeine intake also reduced the production of superoxide and expression of receptor of advanced glycation end product in the NTS. These results suggest that caffeine may enhance insulin receptor substrate 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt-neuronal nitric oxide synthase signaling to decrease blood pressure by abolishing superoxide production in the NTS.

  18. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand deficiency enhances survival in murine colon ascendens stent peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyer K

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Katharina Beyer,1 Laura Stollhof,1 Christian Poetschke,2 Wolfram von Bernstorff,1 Lars Ivo Partecke,1 Stephan Diedrich,1 Stefan Maier,1 Barbara M Bröker,2 Claus-Dieter Heidecke1 1Department of General, Visceral, Thoracic, and Vascular Surgery, 2Institute of Immunology, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, GermanyBackground: Apart from inducing apoptosis in tumor cells, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL influences inflammatory reactions. Murine colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP represents a model of diffuse peritonitis. Recently, it has been demonstrated that administration of exogenous TRAIL not only induces apoptosis in neutrophils but also enhances survival in this model. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of genetic TRAIL deficiency on the course of CASP.Methods: Peritonitis was induced in 6- to 8-week-old female TRAIL−/− mice as well as in wild-type mice. The sepsis severity score and survival of mice were monitored. Bacterial loads in blood as well as in the lymphoid organs were examined. Additionally, the number of apoptotic cells within the lymphoid organs was determined.Results: As early as 8 hours postinduction of CASP, TRAIL−/− mice were significantly more affected by sepsis than wild-type mice, as measured by the sepsis severity score. However, during the further course of sepsis, TRAIL deficiency led to significantly decreased sepsis severity scores, resulting in an enhanced overall survival in TRAIL−/− mice. The better survival of TRAIL−/− mice was accompanied by a decreased bacterial load within the blood. In marked contrast, the number of apoptotic cells within the lymphoid organs was highly increased in TRAIL−/− mice 20 hours after induction of CASP.Conclusion: Hence, exogenous and endogenous TRAIL is protective during the early phase of sepsis, while endogenous TRAIL appears to be detrimental in the later course of this disease.Keywords: CASP, mice

  19. Enhanced cough reflex in a model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Blanco, Joan Antoni; Aguilera, Mònica; Domènech, Anna; Tarrasón, Gema; Prats, Neus; Miralpeix, Montse; De Alba, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    Fibrotic lung diseases, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, are associated with spontaneous dry cough and hypersensitivity to tussive agents. Understanding the pathophysiology driving enhanced cough may help us to define better therapies for patients. We hypothesized that lung fibrosis induced by intratracheal bleomycin would exacerbate the cough reflex induced by tussive agents in guinea pigs. Disease progression in the lungs was characterized at days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after bleomycin administration. Inflammatory and fibrotic markers, as well as neurotrophin levels, were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and/or lung tissue. Cough sensitivity to citric acid, capsaicin and allylisothiocyanate was evaluated in conscious animals at days 14 and 21 after bleomycin administration. Pulmonary lesions evolved from an early inflammatory phase (from day 1 to day 7) to a fibrotic stage (between days 14 and 28). Fibrosis was related to increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (day 21: saline, 0.26 ng/ml; bleomycin, 0.49 ng/ml). At day 14, we also observed increased cough reflexes to citric acid (163%), capsaicin (125%) and allylisothiocyanate (178%). Cough exacerbation persisted, but at a lower extent, by day 21 for capsaicin (100%) and allylisothiocyanate (54%). Moreover, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, suggested to induce nerve remodelling in chronic cough, were also enhanced (day 1: saline, 14.21 pg/ml; bleomycin, 30.09 pg/ml). In summary, our model of bleomycin-induced cough exacerbation may be a valuable tool to investigate cough hypersensitivity and develop antitussive therapies for fibrotic lung diseases. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  20. Cisplatin Induces Bmi-1 and Enhances the Stem Cell Fraction in Head and Neck Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Nör

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has unveiled a subpopulation of highly tumorigenic, multipotent cells capable of self-renewal in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs. These unique cells, named here cancer stem cells (CSCs, proliferate slowly and might be involved in resistance to conventional chemotherapy. We have shown that CSCs are found in perivascular niches and rely on endothelial cell-secreted factors [particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6] for their survival and self-renewal in HNSCC. Here, we hypothesized that cisplatin enhances the stem cell fraction in HNSCC. To address this hypothesis, we generated xenograft HNSCC tumors with University of Michigan-squamous cell carcinoma 22B (UM-SCC-22B cells and observed that cisplatin treatment increased (P = .0013 the fraction of CSCs [i.e., aldehyde dehydrogenase activity high and cluster of differentiation 44 high (ALDHhighCD44high]. Cisplatin promoted self-renewal and survival of CSCs in vitro, as seen by an increase in the number of orospheres in ultralow attachment plates and induction in B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi-1 and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 expression. Cisplatin-resistant cells expressed more Bmi-1 than cisplatinsensitive cells. IL-6 potentiated cisplatin-induced orosphere formation generated when primary human HNSCC cells were sorted for ALDHhighCD44high immediately after surgery and plated onto ultralow attachment plates. IL-6-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 phosphorylation (indicative of stemness was unaffected by treatment with cisplatin in UM-SCC-22B cells, whereas IL-6-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation (indicative of differentiation processes was partially inhibited by cisplatin. Notably, cisplatin-induced Bmi-1 was inhibited by interleukin-6 receptor blockade in parental and cisplatin-resistant cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that cisplatin enhances the fraction of CSCs

  1. Enhancement of mite antigen-induced histamine release by deuterium oxide from leucocytes of chronic urticarial patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamura, T.

    1981-09-01

    The mite antigen-induced histamine release from leucocytes of chronic urticarial patients was enhanced in the presence of deuterium oxide, which stabilizes microtubules. This enhancing effect of deuterium oxide on the histamine release from leucocytes may provide a useful means for the detection of allergens in vitro in chronic urticaria.

  2. Strain induced ionic conductivity enhancement in epitaxial Ce0.9Gd0.1O22d

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kant, K. Mohan; Esposito, Vincenzo; Pryds, Nini

    2012-01-01

    Strained epitaxial Ce0.9Gd0.1O2d (CGO) thin films are deposited on MgO(001) substrates with SrTiO3 (STO) buffer layers. The strain in CGO epitaxial thin films is induced and controlled by varying the thickness of STO buffer layers. The induced strain is found to significantly enhance the in...

  3. TRAIL enhances paracetamol-induced liver sinusoidal endothelial cell death in a Bim- and Bid-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badmann, A; Langsch, S; Keogh, A; Brunner, T; Kaufmann, T; Corazza, N

    2012-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) is a universally used analgesic and antipyretic agent. Considered safe at therapeutic doses, overdoses cause acute liver damage characterized by centrilobular hepatic necrosis. One of the major clinical problems of paracetamol-induced liver disease is the development of hemorrhagic alterations. Although hepatocytes represent the main target of the cytotoxic effect of paracetamol overdose, perturbations within the endothelium involving morphological changes of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) have also been described in paracetamol-induced liver disease. Recently, we have shown that paracetamol-induced liver damage is synergistically enhanced by the TRAIL signaling pathway. As LSECs are constantly exposed to activated immune cells expressing death ligands, including TRAIL, we investigated the effect of TRAIL on paracetamol-induced LSEC death. We here demonstrate for the first time that TRAIL strongly enhances paracetamol-mediated LSEC death with typical features of apoptosis. Inhibition of caspases using specific inhibitors resulted in a strong reduction of cell death. TRAIL appears to enhance paracetamol-induced LSEC death via the activation of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins Bid and Bim, which initiate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Taken together this study shows that the liver endothelial layer, mainly LSECs, represent a direct target of the cytotoxic effect of paracetamol and that activation of TRAIL receptor synergistically enhances paracetamol-induced LSEC death via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. TRAIL-mediated acceleration of paracetamol-induced cell death may thus contribute to the pathogenesis of paracetamol-induced liver damage. PMID:23254290

  4. TRAIL enhances paracetamol-induced liver sinusoidal endothelial cell death in a Bim- and Bid-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badmann, A; Langsch, S; Keogh, A; Brunner, T; Kaufmann, T; Corazza, N

    2012-12-20

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) is a universally used analgesic and antipyretic agent. Considered safe at therapeutic doses, overdoses cause acute liver damage characterized by centrilobular hepatic necrosis. One of the major clinical problems of paracetamol-induced liver disease is the development of hemorrhagic alterations. Although hepatocytes represent the main target of the cytotoxic effect of paracetamol overdose, perturbations within the endothelium involving morphological changes of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) have also been described in paracetamol-induced liver disease. Recently, we have shown that paracetamol-induced liver damage is synergistically enhanced by the TRAIL signaling pathway. As LSECs are constantly exposed to activated immune cells expressing death ligands, including TRAIL, we investigated the effect of TRAIL on paracetamol-induced LSEC death. We here demonstrate for the first time that TRAIL strongly enhances paracetamol-mediated LSEC death with typical features of apoptosis. Inhibition of caspases using specific inhibitors resulted in a strong reduction of cell death. TRAIL appears to enhance paracetamol-induced LSEC death via the activation of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins Bid and Bim, which initiate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Taken together this study shows that the liver endothelial layer, mainly LSECs, represent a direct target of the cytotoxic effect of paracetamol and that activation of TRAIL receptor synergistically enhances paracetamol-induced LSEC death via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. TRAIL-mediated acceleration of paracetamol-induced cell death may thus contribute to the pathogenesis of paracetamol-induced liver damage.

  5. Gold nanoparticles enhance the X-ray-induced degradation of human centrin 2 protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Emilie [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, CNRS UMR 8000, Universite Paris-Sud 11, Bat. 350, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Duchambon, Patricia; Blouquit, Yves [INSERM U759, Imagerie Integrative, Campus Universitaire d' Orsay, Bat. 112, Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche, Laboratoire R. Latarjet, Campus Universitaire d' Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Keller, Gerard [UMR CNRS 8612, Physico-Chimie-Pharmacotechnie-Biopharmacie, Universite Paris 11, Faculte de Pharmacie, 5 rue Jean-Baptiste Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Sanche, Leon [Groupe en Sciences des Radiations, Departement de Medecine Nucleaire et Radiobiologie, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada J1H 5N4 (Canada); Sicard-Roselli, Cecile [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, CNRS UMR 8000, Universite Paris-Sud 11, Bat. 350, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)], E-mail: cecile.sicard@u-psud.fr

    2009-03-15

    In the war against cancer, radiotherapy is a prominent tool but counterbalanced by the fact that it also induces damages in healthy tissues. Nanotechnologies could open a new possibility to decrease these side effects. In particular, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) could be used as radio-sensitizers. As the role of proteins in the processes leading to cell death cannot be neglected, their radio-sensitization by GNPs is of great interest. This is particularly true in the case of the human centrin 2 protein, which has been proposed to be involved in DNA repair processes. To investigate this effect, we quantified for the first time the degradation of this protein in a gold colloidal solution when submitted to X-rays. We showed that the X-ray-induced degradation of the human centrin 2 protein is enhanced 1.5-fold in the presence of GNPs, even though no covalent bond exists between protein and GNPs. Among the conditions tested, the maximum enhancement was found with the higher GNP:protein ratio of 2x10{sup -4} and with the higher X-ray energy of 49 keV.

  6. Halogenated salicylaldehyde azines: The heavy atom effect on aggregation-induced emission enhancement properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiao-tong, E-mail: chenxiaotong@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tong, Ai-jun [Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry and Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-01-15

    This study investigates the heavy-atom effect (HAE) on aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AIEE) properties of salicylaldehyde azines. For this purpose, a series of halogenated salicylaldehyde azine derivatives, namely, chloro-salicylaldehyde azine (1), bromo-salicylaldehyde azine (2) and iodo-salicylaldehyde azine (3) are synthesized. 1 and 2 display typical AIEE characteristics of salicylaldehyde azine compounds; whereas for the iodo-substituent in 3, is found to be effective “external” heavy atom quenchers to salicylaldehyde azine fluorescence in aggregated state. Based on its weak fluorescence in aggregated state and relative strong fluorescence in dispersed state, 3 can also be applied as a turn-on fluorescence probe for egg albumin detection attributed to hydrophobic interaction. -- Highlights: • This study investigates the heavy-atom effect (HAE) on aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AIEE) properties of salicylaldehyde azines. • Chloro- and bromo-salicylaldehyde display typical AIEE properties of salicylaldehyde azine, whereas the iodo-substitute quenches AIEE in aggregated state. • Iodo-salicylaldehyde can be applied as a turn-on fluorescence probe for egg albumin detection attributed to hydrophobic interaction.

  7. Morphine-induced mu opioid receptor trafficking enhances reward yet prevents compulsive drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Amy Chang; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2011-07-01

    Morphine, heroin and other commonly abused opioids induce little mu opioid receptor (MOR) trafficking compared to endogenous opioids. We utilized knock-in mice expressing a mutant recycling MOR (RMOR) that desensitizes and is internalized in response to morphine to show that facilitating MOR trafficking not only enhances morphine reward but, despite this, reduces the development of addiction-like behaviours. To demonstrate this, we developed a novel model of the transition from controlled to compulsive drug use that recapitulates many features of human addiction, including persistent drug seeking despite adverse consequences and a decreased preference for alternative rewards. These behaviours emerged spontaneously in wild-type but not RMOR mice, and their intensity predicted the reinstatement of morphine seeking after extended abstinence, while prior morphine intake did not. These results confirm previous findings in the rat that addiction can be dissociated from both reward and consumption. Most importantly, these results demonstrate that one can simultaneously reduce the 'addictiveness' of morphine and enhance its desirable effects by promoting agonist-induced MOR trafficking. Copyright © 2011 EMBO Molecular Medicine.

  8. Gold nanoparticles enhance the X-ray-induced degradation of human centrin 2 protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Emilie; Duchambon, Patricia; Blouquit, Yves; Keller, Gérard; Sanche, Léon; Sicard-Roselli, Cécile

    2009-03-01

    In the war against cancer, radiotherapy is a prominent tool but counterbalanced by the fact that it also induces damages in healthy tissues. Nanotechnologies could open a new possibility to decrease these side effects. In particular, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) could be used as radio-sensitizers. As the role of proteins in the processes leading to cell death cannot be neglected, their radio-sensitization by GNPs is of great interest. This is particularly true in the case of the human centrin 2 protein, which has been proposed to be involved in DNA repair processes. To investigate this effect, we quantified for the first time the degradation of this protein in a gold colloidal solution when submitted to X-rays. We showed that the X-ray-induced degradation of the human centrin 2 protein is enhanced 1.5-fold in the presence of GNPs, even though no covalent bond exists between protein and GNPs. Among the conditions tested, the maximum enhancement was found with the higher GNP:protein ratio of 2×10 -4 and with the higher X-ray energy of 49 keV.

  9. PI3K inhibition enhances doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in sarcoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marklein

    Full Text Available We searched for a drug capable of sensitization of sarcoma cells to doxorubicin (DOX. We report that the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor PI103 enhances the efficacy of DOX in several sarcoma cell lines and interacts with DOX in the induction of apoptosis. PI103 decreased the expression of MDR1 and MRP1, which resulted in DOX accumulation. However, the enhancement of DOX-induced apoptosis was unrelated to DOX accumulation. Neither did it involve inhibition of mTOR. Instead, the combination treatment of DOX plus PI103 activated Bax, the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, and caspase 3. Caspase 3 activation was also observed in xenografts of sarcoma cells in nude mice upon combination of DOX with the specific PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941. Although the increase in apoptosis did not further impact on tumor growth when compared to the efficient growth inhibition by GDC-0941 alone, these findings suggest that inhibition of PI3K may improve DOX-induced proapoptotic effects in sarcoma. Taken together with similar recent studies of neuroblastoma- and glioblastoma-derived cells, PI3K inhibition seems to be a more general option to sensitize tumor cells to anthracyclines.

  10. Valproic acid induces cutaneous wound healing in vivo and enhances keratinocyte motility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soung-Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cutaneous wound healing is a complex process involving several signaling pathways such as the Wnt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling pathways. Valproic acid (VPA is a commonly used antiepileptic drug that acts on these signaling pathways; however, the effect of VPA on cutaneous wound healing is unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We created full-thickness wounds on the backs of C3H mice and then applied VPA. After 7 d, we observed marked healing and reduced wound size in VPA-treated mice. In the neo-epidermis of the wounds, β-catenin and markers for keratinocyte terminal differentiation were increased after VPA treatment. In addition, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, collagen I and collagen III in the wounds were significantly increased. VPA induced proliferation and suppressed apoptosis of cells in the wounds, as determined by Ki67 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL staining analyses, respectively. In vitro, VPA enhanced the motility of HaCaT keratinocytes by activating Wnt/β-catenin, ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase/Akt signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: VPA enhances cutaneous wound healing in a murine model and induces migration of HaCaT keratinocytes.

  11. Inducing half-metallicity with enhanced stability in zigzag graphene nanoribbons via fluorine passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Neeraj K., E-mail: neerajkjaiswal@gmail.com [Discipline of Physics, Indian Institute of Information Technology Design & Manufacturing, Jabalpur 482005 (India); Tyagi, Neha [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 (India); Kumar, Amit [Discipline of Physics, Indian Institute of Information Technology Design & Manufacturing, Jabalpur 482005 (India); Srivastava, Pankaj [Nanomaterials Research Group, ABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology & Management, Gwalior 474015 (India)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • F passivated zigzag graphene nanoribbon (F-ZGNR) are more favorable than pristine ones. • External electric field induces half metallicity in F-ZGNR. • The observed half metallicity is independent of ribbon widths. • Enhanced stability makes F-ZGNR preferable over pristine ribbon. - Abstract: Half metals are the primary ingredients for the realization of novel spintronic devices. In the present work, by employing density functional theory based first-principles calculation, we predict half metallic behavior in fluorine passivated zigzag graphene nanoribbons (F-ZGNR). Four different structures have been investigated viz. one edge F passivated ZGNR (F-ZGNR-1), both edges F passivated ZGNR (F-ZGNR-2), F passivation on alternate sites in first configuration (alt-1) and F passivation on alternate sites in second configuration (alt-2). Interestingly, it is noticed that F passivation is analogous to H passivation (pristine), however, F-ZGNR are reckoned energetically more stable than pristine ones. An spin induced band gap is noticed for all F-ZGNR irrespective of their widths although its magnitude is slightly less than the pristine counterparts. With an external transverse electric field, ribbons undergo semiconducting to half metallic transformation. The observed half metallic character with enhanced stability present F-ZGNR as a better candidate than pristine ZGNR towards the realization of upcoming spintronic devices.

  12. [Study on the enhanced spectrum quantitative analysis of SDBS induced by beta-cyclodextrin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dong-Po; Yin, Xian-Qing; Zheng, Yan-Cheng; Chen, Wu; Fu, Jia-Xin; Ren, Zhao-Hua

    2013-08-01

    A novel enhanced ultraviolet absorption spectrometry method was developed for the quantitative analysis of SDBS induced by beta-cyclodextrin(beta-CD) with strong interferences. The ultraviolet absorption spectra of SDBS indicated that the presence of beta-CD could result in the enhancement of absorption intensities of SDBS. A good linearity was obtained between the UV-absorption intensity of the system and the concentration of SDBS. The results indicated that the determination precision and the determination ranges of SDBS could be greatly improved by beta-CD. The effect of several common interfering substances (SDS, OP-10, HPAM) on the determination of SDBS could be significantly reduced in beta-CD aqueous solution. Therefore, the maximum errors of the determined SDBS were less than 2.0% under multifactor interferences, and the precision of the method was also as high as 10(-2) - 10(-3) mg x L(-1). The stable inclusion of beta-CD and SDBS could be automatically formed in water with molar ratio of 1 : 1. The stability constant of the inclusion, K(a), was 87 and the standard Gibbs function of molar reaction, delta(gamma)G(m)(see symbol) (298 K), was -11.064 kJ x mol(-1). FTIR analysis exhibited that SDBS could be induced by beta-CD since the phenyl group in SDBS molecule could exist stably in the cavity of beta-CD and form the inclusion.

  13. Chronic clozapine treatment in female rats does not induce weight gain or metabolic abnormalities but enhances adiposity: implications for animal models of antipsychotic-induced weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, G D; Harrold, J A; Halford, J C G; Goudie, A J

    2008-02-15

    The ability of clozapine to induce weight gain in female rats was investigated in three studies with progressively lowered doses of clozapine. In an initial preliminary high dose study, clozapine at 6 and 12 mg/kg (i.p., b.i.d.) was found to induce weight loss. In a subsequent intermediate dose study, we obtained no evidence for clozapine-induced weight gain despite using identical procedures and doses of clozapine (1-4 mg/kg, i.p., b.i.d.) with which we have observed olanzapine-induced weight gain, hyperphagia, enhanced adiposity and metabolic changes [Cooper G, Pickavance L, Wilding J, Halford J, Goudie A (2005). A parametric analysis of olanzapine-induced weight gain in female rats. Psychopharmacology; 181: 80-89.]. Instead, clozapine induced weight loss without alteration in food intake and muscle mass or changes in levels of glucose, insulin, leptin and prolactin. However, these intermediate doses of clozapine enhanced visceral adiposity and elevated levels of adiponectin. In a final study, low doses of clozapine (0.25-0.5 mg/kg, i.p, b.i.d.) induced weight loss. These data demonstrate that clozapine-induced weight gain can be much more difficult to observe in female rats than olanzapine-induced weight gain. Moreover, these findings contrast with clinical findings with clozapine, which induces substantial weight gain in humans. Clozapine-induced enhanced adiposity appears to be easier to observe in rats than weight gain. These findings, along with other preclinical studies, suggest that enhanced adiposity can be observed in the absence of antipsychotic-induced weight gain and hyperphagia, possibly reflecting a direct drug effect on adipocyte function independent of drug-induced hyperphagia [e.g. Minet-Ringuet J, Even P, Valet P, Carpene C, Visentin V, Prevot D, Daviaud D, Quignard-Boulange A, Tome D, de Beaurepaire R (2007). Alterations of lipid metabolism and gene expression in rat adipocytes during chronic olanzapine treatment. Molecular Psychiatry; 12: 562

  14. 2-deoxy-D-glucose-induced metabolic stress enhances resistance to Listeria monocytogenes infection in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. S.; Bates, R. A.; Koebel, D. A.; Fuchs, B. B.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to different forms of psychological and physiological stress can elicit a host stress response, which alters normal parameters of neuroendocrine homeostasis. The present study evaluated the influence of the metabolic stressor 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG; a glucose analog, which when administered to rodents, induces acute periods of metabolic stress) on the capacity of mice to resist infection with the facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Female BDF1 mice were injected with 2-DG (500 mg/kg b. wt.) once every 48 h prior to, concurrent with, or after the onset of a sublethal dose of virulent L. monocytogenes. Kinetics of bacterial growth in mice were not altered if 2-DG was applied concurrently or after the start of the infection. In contrast, mice exposed to 2-DG prior to infection demonstrated an enhanced resistance to the listeria challenge. The enhanced bacterial clearance in vivo could not be explained by 2-DG exerting a toxic effect on the listeria, based on the results of two experiments. First, 2-DG did not inhibit listeria replication in trypticase soy broth. Second, replication of L. monocytogenes was not inhibited in bone marrow-derived macrophage cultures exposed to 2-DG. Production of neopterin and lysozyme, indicators of macrophage activation, were enhanced following exposure to 2-DG, which correlated with the increased resistance to L. monocytogenes. These results support the contention that the host response to 2-DG-induced metabolic stress can influence the capacity of the immune system to resist infection by certain classes of microbial pathogens.

  15. Pharmacological Mechanisms of Cortical Enhancement Induced by the Repetitive Pairing of Visual/Cholinergic Stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Il Kang

    Full Text Available Repetitive visual training paired with electrical activation of cholinergic projections to the primary visual cortex (V1 induces long-term enhancement of cortical processing in response to the visual training stimulus. To better determine the receptor subtypes mediating this effect the selective pharmacological blockade of V1 nicotinic (nAChR, M1 and M2 muscarinic (mAChR or GABAergic A (GABAAR receptors was performed during the training session and visual evoked potentials (VEPs were recorded before and after training. The training session consisted of the exposure of awake, adult rats to an orientation-specific 0.12 CPD grating paired with an electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain for a duration of 1 week for 10 minutes per day. Pharmacological agents were infused intracortically during this period. The post-training VEP amplitude was significantly increased compared to the pre-training values for the trained spatial frequency and to adjacent spatial frequencies up to 0.3 CPD, suggesting a long-term increase of V1 sensitivity. This increase was totally blocked by the nAChR antagonist as well as by an M2 mAChR subtype and GABAAR antagonist. Moreover, administration of the M2 mAChR antagonist also significantly decreased the amplitude of the control VEPs, suggesting a suppressive effect on cortical responsiveness. However, the M1 mAChR antagonist blocked the increase of the VEP amplitude only for the high spatial frequency (0.3 CPD, suggesting that M1 role was limited to the spread of the enhancement effect to a higher spatial frequency. More generally, all the drugs used did block the VEP increase at 0.3 CPD. Further, use of each of the aforementioned receptor antagonists blocked training-induced changes in gamma and beta band oscillations. These findings demonstrate that visual training coupled with cholinergic stimulation improved perceptual sensitivity by enhancing cortical responsiveness in V1. This enhancement is mainly mediated by n

  16. Phospholipase D2 Enhances Epidermal Growth Factor-Induced Akt Activation in EL4 Lymphoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet S. Chahal

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase D2 (PLD2 generates phosphatidic acid through hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine. PLD2 has been shown to play a role in enhancing tumorigenesis. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR can both activate and interact with PLD2. Murine lymphoma EL4 cells lacking endogenous PLD2 present a unique model to elucidate the role of PLD2 in signal transduction. In the current study, we investigated effects of PLD2 on EGF response. Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to establish that both parental cells and PLD2 transfectants express endogenous EGFR. Levels of EGFR protein are increased in cells expressing active PLD2, as compared to parental cells or cells expressing inactive PLD2. EGF stimulates proliferation of EL4 cells transfected with active PLD2, but not parental cells or cells transfected with inactive PLD2. EGF-mediated proliferation in cells expressing active PLD2 is dependent on the activities of both the EGFR and the PI3K/Akt pathway, as demonstrated by studies using protein kinase inhibitors. EGF-induced invasion through a synthetic extracellular matrix is enhanced in cells expressing active PLD2, as compared to parental cells or cells expressing inactive PLD2. Taken together, the data suggest that PLD2 acts in concert with EGFR to enhance mitogenesis and invasion in lymphoma cells.

  17. Phospholipase D2 Enhances Epidermal Growth Factor-Induced Akt Activation in EL4 Lymphoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Manpreet S; Brauner, Daniel J; Meier, Kathryn E

    2010-07-02

    Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) generates phosphatidic acid through hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine. PLD2 has been shown to play a role in enhancing tumorigenesis. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can both activate and interact with PLD2. Murine lymphoma EL4 cells lacking endogenous PLD2 present a unique model to elucidate the role of PLD2 in signal transduction. In the current study, we investigated effects of PLD2 on EGF response. Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to establish that both parental cells and PLD2 transfectants express endogenous EGFR. Levels of EGFR protein are increased in cells expressing active PLD2, as compared to parental cells or cells expressing inactive PLD2. EGF stimulates proliferation of EL4 cells transfected with active PLD2, but not parental cells or cells transfected with inactive PLD2. EGF-mediated proliferation in cells expressing active PLD2 is dependent on the activities of both the EGFR and the PI3K/Akt pathway, as demonstrated by studies using protein kinase inhibitors. EGF-induced invasion through a synthetic extracellular matrix is enhanced in cells expressing active PLD2, as compared to parental cells or cells expressing inactive PLD2. Taken together, the data suggest that PLD2 acts in concert with EGFR to enhance mitogenesis and invasion in lymphoma cells.

  18. An exploration of exercise-induced cognitive enhancement and transfer effects to dietary self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Cassandra J; Kolev, Dimitar; Hall, Peter A

    2016-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on executive function, specifically inhibitory control, and the transfer to self-control in the dietary domain. It was hypothesized that exercise would enhance inhibitory control, and that this enhancement would facilitate self-control in a laboratory taste test paradigm. Using a crossover design, 51 participants completed counterbalanced sessions of both moderate exercise (experimental condition) and minimal effort walking (control condition) using a treadmill; the intersession interval was 7days. Prior to each exercise bout participants completed a Stroop task. Following each bout participants completed a second Stoop task, as well as a bogus taste test involving three appetitive calorie dense snack foods and two control foods; the amount of each food type consumed during the taste test was covertly measured. Results revealed that moderate exercise significantly improved performance on the Stroop task, and also reduced food consumption during the taste test for appetitive calorie dense snack foods; there was no exercise effect on control food consumption. Exercise-induced gains in Stroop performance mediated the effects of moderate exercise on appetitive snack food consumption. Together these findings provide evidence that a bout of a moderate aerobic exercise can enhance inhibitory control, and support for cross-domain transfer effects to dietary self-control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduced platelet-mediated and enhanced leukocyte-mediated fibrinolysis in experimentally induced diabetes in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winocour, P.D.; Colwell, J.A.

    1985-05-01

    Studies of fibrinolytic activity in diabetes mellitus have produced conflicting results. This may be a result of methodologic insensitivity or of variable contributions of the different blood components to whole blood fibrinolysis. To explore these two possibilities, the authors used a sensitive solid-phase radiometric assay to examine the fibrinolytic activity of whole blood, platelet-rich plasma, leukocytes, and platelet- and leukocyte-poor plasma prepared from control rats and rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes at various times after induction of diabetes. Fibrinolytic activity of whole blood from diabetic rats after 7 days was significantly reduced, and remained reduced after longer durations of diabetes up to 28 days. Platelet-rich plasma from diabetic rats had decreased fibrinolytic activity, which followed the same time course of changes as in whole blood. The platelet contribution to whole blood fibrinolysis was further reduced in vivo after 14 days of diabetes by a reduced whole blood platelet count. In contrast, fibrinolytic activity of leukocytes from diabetic rats became enhanced after 7 days of diabetes. After 49 days of diabetes, the whole blood leukocyte count was reduced, and in vivo would offset the enhanced activity. Plasma fibrinolytic activity was small compared with that of whole blood and was unaltered in diabetic rats. The authors conclude that altered platelet function contributes to decreased fibrinolytic activity of whole blood in diabetic rats, and that this may be partially offset by enhanced leukocyte-mediated fibrinolysis.

  20. Enhancement of Aggregation-Induced Emission by Introducing Multiple o-Carborane Substitutions into Triphenylamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Nishino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The enhancement of aggregation-induced emission (AIE is presented on the basis of the strategy for improving solid-state luminescence by employing multiple o-carborane substituents. We synthesized the modified triphenylamines with various numbers of o-carborane units and compared their optical properties. From the optical measurements, the emission bands from the twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT state were obtained from the modified triphenylamines. It was notable that emission efficiencies of the multi-substituted triphenylamines including two or three o-carborane units were enhanced 6- to 8-fold compared to those of the mono-substituted triphenylamine. According to mechanistic studies, it was proposed that the single o-carborane substitution can load the AIE property via the TICT mechanism. It was revealed that the additional o-carborane units contribute to improving solid-state emission by suppressing aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ. Subsequently, intense AIEs were obtained. This paper presents a new role of the o-carborane substituent in the enhancement of AIEs.

  1. Nitroxyl radicals remarkably enhanced the superoxide anion radical-induced chemiluminescence of Cypridina luciferin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Keizo; Okazaki, Shoko; Itoda, Akiko

    2013-07-16

    Measuring the superoxide anion radical (superoxide) with high sensitivity is necessary to clarify the mechanisms of diseases for the development of methods for their prophylaxes, diagnoses, and therapies. The chemiluminescence technique using Cypridina luciferin analogues such as MCLA and CLA is currently the most sensitive method available. Using large concentrations of these reagents, however, leads to increases in background levels due to spontaneous luminescence of the reagent, which is a limitation of this method. This study demonstrated that the superoxide-induced chemiluminescence of MCLA or CLA was markedly enhanced by adding a cyclic nitroxyl radical to the reaction medium. When MCLA was measured spectrophotometrically, the nitroxyl radical was shown to increase the reaction rate of superoxide and MCLA without altering their stoichiometry, whereas consumption of the nitroxyl radical was negligible, as determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. These observations indicate that the nitroxyl radical catalytically enhanced the reaction between superoxide and MCLA, resulting in an enhancement in superoxide-dependent MCLA chemiluminescence. This method is applicable to biological systems such as superoxide-generation by neutrophils. The inclusion of the cyclic nitroxyl radical in a sample solution contributed to reductions in the concentration of the chemiluminescence reagent, thereby decreasing background levels. The catalytic mechanism was also discussed.

  2. Plasmon resonance-induced photoluminescence enhancement of CdTe/Cds quantum dots thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu [Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210003 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructure and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Ling, E-mail: xuling@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructure and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, Yangqing; Xu, Jun; Ma, Zhongyuan; Chen, Kunji [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructure and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • CdTe/CdS quantum dots/Au nano-rods nano-composite films were fabricated. • PL intensity of the quantum dots films was enhanced due to Au nanorods. • Internal quantum efficiency increased due to localized surface plasmon resonance. • The lifetimes of quantum dots films decreased after interaction with Au nano-rods. - Abstract: CdTe/CdS quantum dots/Au nano-rods nano-composite films were fabricated on planar Si substrates. The optical properties of all samples were investigated and the corresponding simulations were studied. It was found that the photoluminescence intensity of the CdTe/CdS quantum dots films was enhanced about 9-fold after the incorporation of Au nano-rods, the internal quantum efficiency increased from 24.3% to 35.2% due to the localized surface plasmon resonance. The time-resolved luminescence decay curves showed that the lifetimes of CdTe/CdS quantum dots films decreased to 2.8 ns after interaction with Au nano-rods. The results of finite-difference time-domain simulation indicated that Au nano-rods induced the localization of electric field, which enhanced the PL intensity of quantum dots films in the vicinity of Au nano-rods.

  3. Respiratory syncytial virus infections enhance cigarette smoke induced COPD in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F Foronjy

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial viral (RSV infections are a frequent cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations, which are a major factor in disease progression and mortality. RSV is able to evade antiviral defenses to persist in the lungs of COPD patients. Though RSV infection has been identified in COPD, its contribution to cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation and lung tissue destruction has not been established. Here we examine the long-term effects of cigarette smoke exposure, in combination with monthly RSV infections, on pulmonary inflammation, protease production and remodeling in mice. RSV exposures enhanced the influx of macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes to the airways of cigarette smoke exposed C57BL/6J mice. This infiltration of cells was most pronounced around the vasculature and bronchial airways. By itself, RSV caused significant airspace enlargement and fibrosis in mice and these effects were accentuated with concomitant smoke exposure. Combined stimulation with both smoke and RSV synergistically induced cytokine (IL-1α, IL-17, IFN-γ, KC, IL-13, CXCL9, RANTES, MIF and GM-CSF and protease (MMP-2, -8, -12, -13, -16 and cathepsins E, S, W and Z expression. In addition, RSV exposure caused marked apoptosis within the airways of infected mice, which was augmented by cigarette smoke exposure. RSV and smoke exposure also reduced protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A and protein tyrosine phosphates (PTP1B expression and activity. This is significant as these phosphatases counter smoke-induced inflammation and protease expression. Together, these findings show for the first time that recurrent RSV infection markedly enhances inflammation, apoptosis and tissue destruction in smoke-exposed mice. Indeed, these results indicate that preventing RSV transmission and infection has the potential to significantly impact on COPD severity and progression.

  4. Caffeine may enhance orthodontic tooth movement through increasing osteoclastogenesis induced by periodontal ligament cells under compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jianru; Yan, Boxi; Li, Meile; Wang, Yu; Zheng, Wei; Li, Yu; Zhao, Zhihe

    2016-04-01

    Caffeine is the kernel component of coffee and has multiple effects on bone metabolism. Here we aimed to investigate the effects of caffeine intake on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). (1) In the in vivo study, two groups comprising 15 randomly assigned rats each underwent orthodontic treatment. One group ingested caffeine at 25mg/kg body weight per day and the other, plain water. After 3 weeks, the degree of tooth movement and effect on the periodontium were assessed. (2) In the in vitro study, we established a model mimicking the essential bioprocess of OTM, which contained a periodontal ligament tissue model (PDLtm), and a co-culture system of osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclast precursors (pre-OCs). After being subjected to static compressive force with or without caffeine administration, the conditioned media from the PDLtm were used for the OB/pre-OC co-cultures to induce osteoclastogenesis. (1) In vivo, the caffeine group displayed a significantly greater rate of tooth movement than the control. The alveolar bone mineral density and bone volume fraction were similar between the two groups; however, immunohistochemical staining showed that the caffeine group had significantly more TRAP(+) osteoclasts and higher RANKL expression in the compressed periodontium. (2) In vitro, caffeine at 0.01mM significantly enhanced the compression-induced expression of RANKL and COX-2, as well as prostaglandin E2 production in the PDLtm. Furthermore, the "caffeine+compression"-conditioned media induced significantly more TRAP(+) OC formation when compared with compression alone. Daily intake of caffeine, at least at some specific dosage, may enhance OTM through increasing osteoclastogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced Coalescence-Induced Droplet-Jumping on Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Surfaces in the Absence of Microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Maeda, Yota; Lv, Fengyong; Takata, Yasuyuki; Orejon, Daniel

    2017-10-11

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are receiving increasing attention due to the enhanced condensation heat transfer, self-cleaning, and anti-icing properties by easing droplet self-removal. Despite the extensive research carried out on this topic, the presence or absence of microstructures on droplet adhesion during condensation has not been fully addressed yet. In this work we, therefore, study the condensation behavior on engineered superhydrophobic copper oxide surfaces with different structural finishes. More specifically, we investigate the coalescence-induced droplet-jumping performance on superhydrophobic surfaces with structures varying from the micro- to the nanoscale. The different structural roughness is possible due to the specific etching parameters adopted during the facile low-cost dual-scale fabrication process. A custom-built optical microscopy setup inside a temperature and relative humidity controlled environmental chamber was used for the experimental observations. By varying the structural roughness, from the micro- to the nanoscale, important differences on the number of droplets involved in the jumps, on the frequency of the jumps, and on the size distribution of the jumping droplets were found. In the absence of microstructures, we report an enhancement of the droplet-jumping performance of small droplets with sizes in the same order of magnitude as the microstructures. Microstructures induce further droplet adhesion, act as a structural barrier for the coalescence between droplets growing on the same microstructure, and cause the droplet angular deviation from the main surface normal. As a consequence, upon coalescence, there is a decrease in the net momentum in the out-of-plane direction, and the jump does not ensue. We demonstrate that the absence of microstructures has therefore a positive impact on the coalescence-induced droplet-jumping of micrometer droplets for antifogging, anti-icing, and condensation heat transfer applications.

  6. Voluntarily induced vomiting - A yoga technique to enhance pulmonary functions in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Ragavendrasamy; Nanjundaiah, Ramesh Mavathur; Manjunath, Nandi Krishnamurthy

    2017-12-11

    Vomiting is a complex autonomic reflex orchestrated by several neurological centres in the brain. Vagus, the cranial nerve plays a key role in regulation of vomiting. Kunjal Kriya (Voluntarily Induced Vomiting), is a yogic cleansing technique which involves voluntarily inducing vomiting after drinking saline water (5%) on empty stomach. This study was designed with an objective to understand the effect of voluntary induced vomiting (ViV) on pulmonary functions in experienced practitioners and novices and derive its possible therapeutic applications. Eighteen healthy individuals volunteered for the study of which nine had prior experience of ViV while nine did not. Pulmonary function tests were performed before and after 10 min of rest following ViV. Analysis of Covariance was performed adjusted for gender and baseline values. No significant changes were observed across genders. The results of the present study suggest a significant increase in Slow Vital Capacity [F (1,13)  = 5.699; p = 0.03] and Forced Inspiratory Volume in 1st Second [p = 0.02] and reduction in Expiratory Reserve Volume [F (1,13)  = 5.029; p = 0.04] and Respiratory Rate [F (1,13)  = 3.244, p = 0.09]. These changes suggest the possible role of ViV in enhancing the endurance of the respiratory muscles, decreased airway resistance, better emptying of lungs and vagal predominance respectively. We conclude that ViV when practiced regularly enhances the endurance of the respiratory muscles and decreases airway resistance. These findings also indicate need for scientific understanding of ViV in the management of motion sickness and restrictive pulmonary disorders like bronchitis and bronchial asthma. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections Enhance Cigarette Smoke Induced COPD in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronjy, Robert F.; Dabo, Abdoulaye J.; Taggart, Clifford C.; Weldon, Sinead; Geraghty, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial viral (RSV) infections are a frequent cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, which are a major factor in disease progression and mortality. RSV is able to evade antiviral defenses to persist in the lungs of COPD patients. Though RSV infection has been identified in COPD, its contribution to cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation and lung tissue destruction has not been established. Here we examine the long-term effects of cigarette smoke exposure, in combination with monthly RSV infections, on pulmonary inflammation, protease production and remodeling in mice. RSV exposures enhanced the influx of macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes to the airways of cigarette smoke exposed C57BL/6J mice. This infiltration of cells was most pronounced around the vasculature and bronchial airways. By itself, RSV caused significant airspace enlargement and fibrosis in mice and these effects were accentuated with concomitant smoke exposure. Combined stimulation with both smoke and RSV synergistically induced cytokine (IL-1α, IL-17, IFN-γ, KC, IL-13, CXCL9, RANTES, MIF and GM-CSF) and protease (MMP-2, -8, -12, -13, -16 and cathepsins E, S, W and Z) expression. In addition, RSV exposure caused marked apoptosis within the airways of infected mice, which was augmented by cigarette smoke exposure. RSV and smoke exposure also reduced protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and protein tyrosine phosphates (PTP1B) expression and activity. This is significant as these phosphatases counter smoke-induced inflammation and protease expression. Together, these findings show for the first time that recurrent RSV infection markedly enhances inflammation, apoptosis and tissue destruction in smoke-exposed mice. Indeed, these results indicate that preventing RSV transmission and infection has the potential to significantly impact on COPD severity and progression. PMID:24587397

  8. Lymphocytes from wasted mice express enhanced spontaneous and {gamma}-ray-induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States); Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Chung, Jen; Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Mice bearing the autosomal recessive mutation wasted (wst/wst) display a disease pattern including faulty repair of DNA damage in lymphocytes after radiation exposure, neurologic abnormalities, and immunodeficiency. Many of the features of this mouse model have suggested a premature or increased spontaneous frequency of apoptosis in thymocytes; past work has shown an inability to establish cultured T cell lines, an abnormally high death rate of stimulated T cells in culture, and an increased sensitivity of T cells to the killing effects of ionizing radiations in wst/wst mice relative to controls. The experiments reported here were designed to examine splenic and thymic lymphocytes from wasted and control mice for signs of early apoptosis. Our results revealed enhanced expression of Rp-8 mRNA (associated with apoptosis) in thymic lymphocytes and reduced expression in splenic lymphocytes of wst/wst mice relative to controls; expression of Rp-2 and Td-30 mRNA (induced during apoptosis) were not detectable in spleen or thymus. Higher spontaneous DNA fragmentation was observed in wasted mice than in controls; however, {gamma}-ray-induced DNA fragmentation peaked at a lower dose and occurred to a greater extent in wasted mice relative to controls. These results provide evidence for high spontaneous and {gamma}-ray-induced apoptosis in T cells of wasted mice as a mechanism underlying the observed lymphocyte and DNA repair abnormalities.

  9. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 9 Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Leukocyte Recruitment to the Vascular Endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Sarah L; Mitrofan, Claudia-Gabriela; Crosby, Alexi; Hoenderdos, Kim; Lodge, Katharine; Upton, Paul D; Yates, Clara M; Nash, Gerard B; Chilvers, Edwin R; Morrell, Nicholas W

    2016-10-15

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)9 is a circulating growth factor that is part of the TGF-β superfamily and is an essential regulator of vascular endothelial homeostasis. Previous studies have suggested a role for BMP9 signaling in leukocyte recruitment to the endothelium, but the directionality of this effect and underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. In this study, we report that BMP9 upregulates TLR4 expression in human endothelial cells and that BMP9 pretreatment synergistically increases human neutrophil recruitment to LPS-stimulated human endothelial monolayers in an in vitro flow adhesion assay. BMP9 alone did not induce neutrophil recruitment to the endothelium. We also show that E-selectin and VCAM-1, but not ICAM-1, are upregulated in response to BMP9 in LPS-stimulated human endothelial cells. Small interfering RNA knockdown of activin receptor-like kinase 1 inhibited the BMP9-induced expression of TLR4 and VCAM-1 and inhibited BMP9-induced human neutrophil recruitment to LPS-stimulated human endothelial cells. BMP9 treatment also increased leukocyte recruitment within the pulmonary circulation in a mouse acute endotoxemia model. These results demonstrate that although BMP9 alone does not influence leukocyte recruitment, it primes the vascular endothelium to mount a more intense response when challenged with LPS through an increase in TLR4, E-selectin, and VCAM-1 and ultimately through enhanced leukocyte recruitment. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Stress-induced enhancement of leukocyte trafficking into sites of surgery or immune activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Kavitha; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.

    2005-04-01

    Effective immunoprotection requires rapid recruitment of leukocytes into sites of surgery, wounding, infection, or vaccination. In contrast to immunosuppressive chronic stressors, short-term acute stressors have immunoenhancing effects. Here, we quantify leukocyte infiltration within a surgical sponge to elucidate the kinetics, magnitude, subpopulation, and chemoattractant specificity of an acute stress-induced increase in leukocyte trafficking to a site of immune activation. Mice acutely stressed before sponge implantation showed 200-300% higher neutrophil, macrophage, natural killer cell, and T cell infiltration than did nonstressed animals. We also quantified the effects of acute stress on lymphotactin- (LTN; a predominantly lymphocyte-specific chemokine), and TNF-- (a proinflammatory cytokine) stimulated leukocyte infiltration. An additional stress-induced increase in infiltration was observed for neutrophils, in response to TNF-, macrophages, in response to TNF- and LTN, and natural killer cells and T cells in response to LTN. These results show that acute stress initially increases trafficking of all major leukocyte subpopulations to a site of immune activation. Tissue damage-, antigen-, or pathogen-driven chemoattractants subsequently determine which subpopulations are recruited more vigorously. Such stress-induced increases in leukocyte trafficking may enhance immunoprotection during surgery, vaccination, or infection, but may also exacerbate immunopathology during inflammatory (cardiovascular disease or gingivitis) or autoimmune (psoriasis, arthritis, or multiple sclerosis) diseases. chemokine | psychophysiological stress | surgical sponge | wound healing | lymphotactin

  11. Sirolimus Enhances Cyclosporine A-Induced Cytotoxicity in Human Renal Glomerular Mesangial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séin O'Connell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD is an ever increasing problem worldwide. However the mechanisms underlying disease progression are not fully elucidated. This work addressed nephrotoxicity induced by the immunosuppressive agents’ cyclosporine A (CsA and sirolimus (SRL. Nephrotoxicity is the major limiting factor in long term use of CsA. SRL causes less nephrotoxicity than CsA. Therefore investigations into the differential effects of these agents may identify potential mechanisms of nephrotoxicity and means to prevent ESRD induced by therapeutic drugs. Using ELISA, Western blotting, quantitative PCR and a reporter gene assay we detailed the differential effects of CsA and SRL in human renal mesangial cells. CsA treatment increased profibrotic TGF-β1 secretion in human mesangial cells whereas SRL did not, indicating a role for TGF-β in CsA toxicity. However we observed a synergistic nephrotoxic effect when CsA and SRL were co-administered. These synergistic alterations may have been due to an increase in CTGF which was not evident when the immunosuppressive drugs were used alone. The CsA/SRL combination therapy significantly enhanced Smad signalling and altered the extracellular matrix regulator matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9. Inhibition of the ERK 1/2 pathway, attenuated these CsA/SRL induced alterations indicating a potentially significant role for this pathway.

  12. Enhancement of deuterium retention in damaged tungsten by plasma-induced defect clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Younggil; Roh, Ki-Baek; Sheen, Mi-Hyang; Kim, Nam-Kyun; Song, Jaemin; Kim, Young-Woon; Kim, Gon-Ho

    2017-12-01

    The enhancement of deuterium retention was investigated for tungsten in the presence of both 2.8 MeV self-ion induced cascade damage and fuel hydrogen isotope plasma. Vacancy clustering in cascade damaged polycrystalline tungsten occurred due to deuterium irradiation and was observed near the grain boundary by using all-step transmission electron microscopy analysis. Analysis of the highest desorption temperature peak using thermal desorption spectroscopy supports reasonable evidence of defect clustering in the damaged polycrystalline tungsten. The defect clustering was neither observed on the damaged polycrystalline tungsten without deuterium irradiation nor on the damaged single-crystalline tungsten with deuterium irradiation. This result implies the synergetic role of deuterium and grain boundary on defect clustering. This study proposes a path for the defect transform from point defect to defect cluster, by the agglomeration between irradiated deuterium and cascade damage-induced defect. This agglomeration may induce more severe damage on the tungsten divertor at which the high fuel hydrogen ions, fast neutrons, and self-ions are irradiated simultaneously and it would increase the in-vessel tritium inventory.

  13. Optimal emission enhancement in orthogonal double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanginés, R. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (CCADET-UNAM), Apartado Postal 70-186, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Cátedra CONACyT, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 14, Ensenada, BC 22800 (Mexico); Contreras, V. [Department of Physics, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Sobral, H., E-mail: martin.sobral@ccadet.unam.mx [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (CCADET-UNAM), Apartado Postal 70-186, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Robledo-Martinez, A. [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Unidad Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Azcapotzalco, México, DF 02200 (Mexico)

    2015-08-01

    Orthogonal double-pulse (DP) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was performed using reheating and pre-ablative configurations. The ablation pulse power density was varied by two orders of magnitude and the DP experiments were carried out for a wide range of interpulse delays. For both DP-LIBS schemes, the signal enhancement was evaluated with respect to the corresponding single-pulse (SP) LIBS as a function of the interpulse delay. The reheating scheme shows a sharp maximum signal enhancement of up to 200-fold for low ablative power densities (0.4 GW cm{sup −2}); however, for power densities larger than 10 GW cm{sup −2} this configuration did not improve the SP outcome. On the other hand, a more uniform signal enhancement of about 4–6 was obtained for the pre-ablative scheme nearly independently of the used ablative power density. In terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) the pre-ablative scheme shows a monotonic increment with the ablative power density. Whereas the reheating configuration reaches a maximum at 2.2 GW cm{sup −2}, its enhancement effect collapses markedly for fluencies above 10 GW cm{sup −2}. - Highlights: • Comparison of reheating and pre-ablative double-pulse LIBS was done using a wide range of ablation power densities. • Experimental parameters that could achieve optimal signal-to-noise ratio were investigated. • A reheating scheme is better for low-ablation power densities. • A pre-ablative configuration is better for high-ablation power densities.

  14. Locomotion Induces Stimulus-Specific Response Enhancement in Adult Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Megumi; Fu, Yu; Stryker, Michael P

    2017-03-29

    The responses of neurons in the visual cortex (V1) of adult mammals have long been thought to be stable over long periods. Here, we investigated whether repeated exposure to specific stimuli would enhance V1 visual responses in mice using intrinsic signal imaging through the intact skull and two-photon imaging of calcium signals in single neurons. Mice ran on Styrofoam balls floating on air while viewing one of three different, high-contrast visual stimuli. V1 responses to the stimuli that were viewed by the animal were specifically enhanced, while responses to other stimuli were unaffected. Similar exposure in stationary mice or in mice in which NMDA receptors were partially blocked did not significantly enhance responses. These findings indicate that stimulus-specific plasticity in the adult visual cortex depends on concurrent locomotion, presumably as a result of the high-gain state of the visual cortex induced by locomotion. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We report a rapid and persistent increase in visual cortical responses to visual stimuli presented during locomotion in intact mice. We first used a method that is completely noninvasive to image intrinsic signals through the intact skull. We then measured the same effects on single neurons using two-photon calcium imaging and found that the increase in response to a particular stimulus produced by locomotion depends on how well the neuron is initially driven by the stimulus. To our knowledge, this is the first time such enhancement has been described in single neurons or using noninvasive measurements. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/373532-12$15.00/0.

  15. Ascorbic acid does not enhance hypoxia-induced vasodilation in healthy older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Jonathan P; Patel, Hardikkumar M; Randolph, Brittney J; Heffernan, Matthew J; Leuenberger, Urs A; Muller, Matthew D

    2014-07-01

    In response to hypoxia, a net vasodilation occurs in the limb vasculature in young healthy humans and this is referred to as "hypoxia-induced vasodilation". We performed two separate experiments to determine (1) if hypoxia-induced forearm vasodilation is impaired in older men (n = 8) compared to young men (n = 7) and (2) if acute systemic infusion of ascorbic acid would enhance hypoxia-induced vasodilation in older men (n = 8). Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, oxygen saturation, minute ventilation, forearm vascular conductance (FVC, Doppler ultrasound), and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC, laser Doppler flowmetry) were recorded continuously while subjects breathed 10% oxygen for 5 min. Changes from baseline were compared between groups and between treatments. The older adults had a significantly attenuated increase in FBF (13 ± 4 vs. 30 ± 7%) and FVC (16 ± 4 vs. 30 ± 7%) in response to 5 min of hypoxia. However, skin blood flow responses were comparable between groups (young: 35 ± 9, older: 30 ± 6%). In Experiment 2, FVC responses to 5 min of breathing 10% oxygen were not significantly different following saline (3 ± 10%) and ascorbic acid (8 ± 10%) in the older men. Ascorbic acid also had no physiological effects in the young men. These findings advance our basic understanding of how aging influences vascular responses to hypoxia and suggest that, in healthy humans, hypoxia-induced vasodilation is not restrained by reactive oxygen species. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  16. Fractalkine-induced MFG-E8 leads to enhanced apoptotic cell clearance by macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksa, Michael; Amin, Dhruv; Wu, Rongqian; Ravikumar, Thanjavur S; Wang, Ping

    2007-01-01

    Clearance of apoptotic cells is crucial to maintain cellular function under normal and pathological conditions. We have recently shown that administration of immature dendritic cell-derived exosomes to septic animals promotes phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and improves survival by providing milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-factor VIII (MFG-E8). MFG-E8 acts as an opsonin for apoptotic cells to be engulfed by phagocytosis. In the present study we investigated whether the CX(3)C-chemokine fractalkine (CX(3)CL1) promotes apoptotic cell clearance through the induction of MFG-E8 in peritoneal macrophages. Cultured rat peritoneal macrophages (pMphi) and RAW264.7 macrophages were stimulated with LPS and CX(3)CL1. MFG-E8 expression was assessed by Western blot, cytokine secretion was assessed by ELISA, and phagocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes was determined by microscopy. For in vivo studies, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was used to induce sepsis in rats and mice. LPS significantly decreased MFG-E8 levels and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, whereas CX(3)CL1 induced MFG-E8 expression in both nonstimulated and LPS-stimulated pMphi, without affecting TNF-alpha and IL-6 release. Anti-MFG-E8 blocking antibodies completely abrogated the prophagocytic effect of CX(3)CL1. Twenty hours after the induction of sepsis in rats via CLP, plasma CX(3)CL1 levels as well as MFG-E8 production in peritoneal macrophages decreased by 21% and 56%, respectively. Administration of CX(3)CL1 on the other hand induced MFG-E8 and prevented tissue injury. We conclude that CX(3)CL1 induces MFG-E8 in vitro and in vivo and enhances clearance of apoptotic cells in an MFG-E8-dependent manner. These findings suggest a possible novel treatment for patients in sepsis.

  17. Autophagy inhibition enhances RAD001-induced cytotoxicity in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ji-Fan; Lin, Yi-Chia; Yang, Shan-Che; Tsai, Te-Fu; Chen, Hung-En; Chou, Kuang-Yu; Hwang, Thomas I-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), involved in PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, is known to play a central role in regulating the growth of cancer cells. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway enhances tumor survival and proliferation through suppressing autophagy, which sustains energy homeostasis by collecting and recycling cellular components under stress conditions. Conversely, inhibitors of the mTOR pathway such as RAD001 induce autophagy, leading to promotion of tumor survival and limited antitumor efficacy. We thus hypothesized that the use of autophagy inhibitor in combination with mTOR inhibition improves the cytotoxicity of mTOR inhibitors in bladder cancer. The cytotoxicity of RT4, 5637, HT1376, and T24 human bladder cancer cells treated with RAD001 alone or combined with autophagy inhibitors (3-methyladenine (3-MA), bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1), chloroquine, or hydroxychloroquine) was assessed using the WST-8 cell viability kit. The autophagy status in cells was analyzed by the detection of microtubule-associated light chain 3 form II (LC3-II), using immunofluorescent staining and Western blot. Acidic vesicular organelle (AVO) formation in treated cells was determined by acridine orange vital staining. Inhibition of mTOR pathway by RAD001 was monitored by using a homemade quantitative polymerase chain reaction gene array, while phospho-mTOR was detected using Western blot. Induced apoptosis was determined by measurement of caspase 3/7 activity and DNA fragmentation in cells after treatment. Advanced bladder cancer cells (5637, HT1376, and T24) were more resistant to RAD001 than RT4. Autophagy flux detected by the expression of LC3-II showed RAD001-induced autophagy. AVO formation was detected in cells treated with RAD001 and was inhibited by the addition of 3-MA or Baf A1. Cotreatment of RAD001 with autophagy inhibitors further reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in bladder cancer cells. Our results indicate that simultaneous inhibition of the mTOR and autophagy

  18. Inhibition with N-acetylcysteine of enhanced production of tumor necrosis factor in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara, M; Satoh, J; Zhu, X P; Takahashi, K; Fukuzawa, M; Muto, G; Muto, Y; Toyota, T

    1994-06-01

    We previously reported that the in vivo production of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) was significantly enhanced after the onset of diabetes in spontaneous type 1 and 2 diabetic animals. In this report we confirmed the enhanced production of TNF in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and then attempted to suppress the enhanced TNF production with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione synthesis. The lipopolysaccharide-induced serum TNF activities were significantly enhanced in STZ-induced diabetic rats (6-18 weeks of age) compared with those of nondiabetic rats throughout the 12-week experiment. A single, oral administration of NAC (200 or 1000 mg/kg body wt) significantly suppressed the enhanced TNF production in the diabetic rats compared with that in untreated rats in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, in the long-term (6 or 12 weeks) administrations, smaller doses of NAC (50 or 200 mg/kg/day) also significantly inhibited the enhanced production of TNF regardless of the dose of NAC. NAC administration, however, did not suppress the TNF production of nondiabetic rats. The long-term NAC administration affected neither body weight nor levels of serum glucose, fructosamine, albumin, and triglyceride. These results show that NAC administration significantly suppressed the enhanced TNF production in diabetic rats and indicate that NAC might be useful in preventing TNF-mediated pathological conditions in diabetes.

  19. Enhanced Magnetization of CuCr2O4 Thin Films by Substrate-Induced Strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Jodi M.; Chopdekar, Rajesh V.; Wong, Franklin; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany B.; Arenholz, Elke; Suzuki, Yuri

    2008-09-17

    We report the synthesis of epitaxial spinel CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films that display enhanced magnetization in excess of 200% of the bulk values when grown on single-crystal (110) MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} substrates. Bulk CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} is a ferrimagnetic insulator with a net magnetic moment of 0.5 {micro}{sub B} due to its distorted tetragonal unit cell (c/a= 1.29) and frustrated triangular moment configuration. We show that through epitaxial growth and substrate-induced strain, it is possible to tune the magnetic functionality of our films by reducing the tetragonal distortion of the unit cell which effectively decreases the frustration of the magnetic moments allowing for an overall greater net moment.

  20. Giant Pressure-Induced Enhancement of Seebeck Coefficient and Thermoelectric Efficiency in SnTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Jason [HiPSEC and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 S. Maryland Parkway Las Vegas NV 89154 USA; Kumar, Ravhi [HiPSEC and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 S. Maryland Parkway Las Vegas NV 89154 USA; Park, Changyong [(HPCAT) Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Kenney-Benson, Curtis [(HPCAT) Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Cornelius, Andrew [HiPSEC and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 S. Maryland Parkway Las Vegas NV 89154 USA; Velisavljevic, Nenad [Shock and Detonation Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 857545 USA

    2017-10-30

    The thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline SnTe have been measured up to 4.5 GPa at 330 K. SnTe shows an enormous enhancement in Seebeck coefficient, greater than 200 % after 3 GPa, which correlates to a known pressure-induced structural phase transition that is observed through simultaneous in situ X-ray diffraction measurement. Electrical resistance and relative changes to the thermal conductivity were also measured, enabling the determination of relative changes in the dimensionless figure of merit (ZT), which increases dramatically after 3 GPa, reaching 350 % of the lowest pressure ZT value. The results demonstrate a fundamental relationship between structure and thermoelectric behaviours and suggest that pressure is an effective tool to control them.

  1. Little enhancement of meal-induced glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion in Japanese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yabe, Daisuke; Kuroe, Akira; Lee, Soushou

    2010-01-01

    Although glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) levels have been characterized previously, GLP-1 levels in Asians remain unclear. Here, we investigate total and intact levels of GLP-1, as well as GIP during oral glucose and meal tolerance tests (OGTT and MTT) in Japanese patients...... with or without type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Seventeen Japanese healthy controls and 18 age-matched and untreated patients with T2DM of short duration participated in the present study. Fasting levels of total GPL-1 were similar between the two groups (approximately 15 pM), and intact GLP-1 levels were considerably...... are considerably low in the Japanese and that meal-induced enhancement of GLP-1 secretion is negligible in the Japanese. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040-1124.2010.00010.x, 2010)....

  2. Genetic Phagocyte NADPH Oxidase Deficiency Enhances Nonviable Candida albicans-Induced Inflammation in Mouse Lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Daiki; Fujimoto, Kenta; Hirose, Rika; Yamanaka, Hiroko; Homme, Mizuki; Ishibashi, Ken-Ichi; Miura, Noriko; Ohno, Naohito; Aratani, Yasuaki

    2017-02-01

    Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) have mutated phagocyte NADPH oxidase, resulting in reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). While the mechanism underlying hyperinfection in CGD is well understood, the basis for inflammatory disorders that arise in the absence of evident infection has not been fully explained. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of phagocyte NADPH oxidase deficiency on lung inflammation induced by nonviable Candida albicans (nCA). Mice deficient in this enzyme (CGD mice) showed more severe neutrophilic pneumonia than nCA-treated wild-type mice, which exhibited significantly higher lung concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC). Neutralization of these proinflammatory mediators significantly reduced neutrophil infiltration. In vitro, production of IL-1β and TNF-α from neutrophils and that of KC from macrophages was enhanced in nCA-stimulated neutrophils from CGD mice. Expression of IL-1β mRNA was higher in the stimulated CGD neutrophils than in the stimulated wild-type cells, concomitant with upregulation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and its upstream regulator extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. Pretreatment with an NADPH oxidase inhibitor significantly enhanced IL-1β production in the wild-type neutrophils stimulated with nCA. These results suggest that lack of ROS production because of NADPH oxidase deficiency results in the production of higher levels of proinflammatory mediators from neutrophils and macrophages, which may at least partly contribute to the exacerbation of nCA-induced lung inflammation in CGD mice.

  3. Flavanol-rich cocoa consumption enhances exercise-induced executive function improvements in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Hayato; Suga, Tadashi; Ishibashi, Aya; Takenaka, Saki; Tanaka, Daichi; Hirano, Yoshitaka; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Goto, Kazushige; Ebi, Kumiko; Isaka, Tadao; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2018-02-01

    Aerobic exercise is known to acutely improve cognitive functions, such as executive function (EF) and memory function (MF). Additionally, consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa has been reported to acutely improve cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine whether high cocoa flavanol (CF; HCF) consumption would enhance exercise-induced improvement in cognitive function. To test this hypothesis, we examined the combined effects of HCF consumption and moderate-intensity exercise on EF and MF during postexercise recovery. Ten healthy young men received either an HCF (563 mg of CF) or energy-matched low CF (LCF; 38 mg of CF) beverage 70 min before exercise in a single-blind counterbalanced manner. The men then performed moderate-intensity cycling exercise at 60% of peak oxygen uptake for 30 min. The participants performed a color-word Stroop task and face-name matching task to evaluate EF and MF, respectively, during six time periods throughout the experimental session. EF significantly improved immediately after exercise compared with before exercise in both conditions. However, EF was higher after HCF consumption than after LCF consumption during all time periods because HCF consumption improved EF before exercise. In contrast, HCF consumption and moderate-intensity exercise did not improve MF throughout the experiment. The present findings demonstrated that HCF consumption before moderate-intensity exercise could enhance exercise-induced improvement in EF, but not in MF. Therefore, we suggest that the combination of HCF consumption and aerobic exercise may be beneficial for improving EF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. AN ENHANCED TOLERANCE TO PERMETHRIN IN ANOPHELES STEPHENSI WITH PERMETHRIN AND OTHERENZYME INDUCERS

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    H. Vatandoost

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available  Pretreatment of adults of IRAQ strain of AfhStephenSt with a sub-letlial dose of pcrmethrin resulted in a 65% enliancemenl of tolerance to this insecticide. Similarly, pre-exposure of DUB-LPR larvae to a sub-lethal dose of pcrmethrin resulted in increased tolerance to pcrmethrin. For the sensitive IND-S strain, the inductive effect was smaller. Tiie results of bioassays of resistant and susceptible AtX.StCphensi females following pretreatment with sodium phenobarbital and subsequent exposure to pcrmethrin indicated that sodium phenobarbital increases the tolerance level of the IND-S strain to a greater extent titan the DVB-APR strain. Tliere was some evidence of enhancement of pcrmethrin tolerance in larvae of DUB-LPR and IND-S strains when they were treated with sodium phenobarbitaL Larvae of DUB-LPR and IND-S strains pretreated with mentlwl-related compounds exJiibited a significantly enlutnced tolerance to pcrmethrin. Treatment with a mentfwl - related compound induced a significant level of enhanced tolerance, as high as 3-fold in the case of larvae exposed to breeding water containing peppermint leaves in which menthol is probably the main active compound.

  5. Metformin, but not sitagliptin, enhances WP 631-induced apoptotic HepG2 cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwinska, Agnieszka; Rogalska, Aneta; Marczak, Agnieszka; Kasznicki, Jacek; Drzewoski, Jozef

    2015-08-01

    Metformin and sitagliptin are hypoglycemic drugs with potential use in cancer treatment. Evidence indicates that metformin may inhibit the proliferation and growth of various types of cancer cells. Data regarding the relationship between sitagliptin and cancer cells is limited. Therapy based on anthracycline derivatives, mainly doxorubicin, is commonly used in the treatment of resistant liver cancers. WP 631 is a new structural analogue of doxorubicin that exerts an anticancer action by the induction of apoptosis. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of metformin and sitagliptin on WP 631-induced apoptotic cell death in a human hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2). HepG2 cancer cells are known to be resistant to chemotherapeutic cytotoxic agents. Both MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis showed that WP 631 reduced the growth of HepG2 cells by apoptosis induction, accompanied by elevated NF-κB and p53 levels. Metformin enhanced the pro-apoptotic effect of WP 631, increasing the NF-κB level but not the p53 level. Sitagliptin did not affect the action of WP 631 in HepG2 cancer cells, however, it increased the p53 level. To conclude, our results suggest that metformin significantly enhances the efficacy of anthracycline derivative, although this effect is not observed in the case of sitagliptin. Therefore, metformin seems to be a good candidate for combined therapy of resistant liver cancer with anthracycline derivatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Wortmannin-induced vacuole fusion enhances amyloplast dynamics in Arabidopsis zigzag1 hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Ashley Ann; Han, Sang Won; Toyota, Masatsugu; Brillada, Carla; Zheng, Jiameng; Gilroy, Simon; Rojas-Pierce, Marcela

    2016-12-01

    Gravitropism in Arabidopsis shoots depends on the sedimentation of amyloplasts in the endodermis, and a complex interplay between the vacuole and F-actin. Gravity response is inhibited in zigzag-1 (zig-1), a mutant allele of VTI11, which encodes a SNARE protein involved in vacuole fusion. zig-1 seedlings have fragmented vacuoles that fuse after treatment with wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and underscore a role of phosphoinositides in vacuole fusion. Using live-cell imaging with a vertical stage microscope, we determined that young endodermal cells below the apical hook that are smaller than 70 μm in length are the graviperceptive cells in dark-grown hypocotyls. This result was confirmed by local wortmannin application to the top of zig-1 hypocotyls, which enhanced shoot gravitropism in zig-1 mutants. Live-cell imaging of zig-1 hypocotyl endodermal cells indicated that amyloplasts are trapped between juxtaposed vacuoles and their movement is severely restricted. Wortmannin-induced fusion of vacuoles in zig-1 seedlings increased the formation of transvacuolar strands, enhanced amyloplast sedimentation and partially suppressed the agravitropic phenotype of zig-1 seedlings. Hypergravity conditions at 10 g were not sufficient to displace amyloplasts in zig-1, suggesting the existence of a physical tether between the vacuole and amyloplasts. Our results overall suggest that vacuole membrane remodeling may be involved in regulating the association of vacuoles and amyloplasts during graviperception. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Salinity induced oxidative stress enhanced biofuel production potential of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancha, Imran; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Maurya, Rahulkumar; Trivedi, Khanjan; Patidar, Shailesh Kumar; Ghosh, Arup; Mishra, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal biomass is considered as potential feedstock for biofuel production. Enhancement of biomass, lipid and carbohydrate contents in microalgae is important for the commercialization of microalgal biofuels. In the present study, salinity stress induced physiological and biochemical changes in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 were studied. During single stage cultivation, 33.13% lipid and 35.91% carbohydrate content was found in 400 mM NaCl grown culture. During two stage cultivation, salinity stress of 400 mM for 3 days resulted in 24.77% lipid (containing 74.87% neutral lipid) along with higher biomass compared to single stage, making it an efficient strategy to enhance biofuel production potential of Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. Apart from biochemical content, stress biomarkers like hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, ascorbate peroxidase, proline and mineral contents were also studied to understand the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated lipid accumulation in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Induced biofilm cultivation enhances riboflavin production by an intertidally derived Candida famata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sayani; Thawrani, Dheeraj; Banerjee, Priyam; Gachhui, Ratan; Mukherjee, Joydeep

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the investigation was to ascertain if surface attachment of Candida famata and aeration enhanced riboflavin production. A newly designed polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) conico-cylindrical flask (CCF) holding eight equidistantly spaced rectangular strips mounted radially on a circular disk allowed comparison of riboflavin production between CCFs with hydrophobic surface (PMMA-CCF), hydrophilic glass surface (GS-CCF), and 500-ml Erlenmeyer flask (EF). Riboflavin production (mg/l) increased from 12.79 to 289.96, from 54.44 to 238.14, and from 36.98 to 158.71 in the GS-CCF, EF, and PMMA-CCF, respectively, when C. famata was grown as biofilm-induced cultures in contrast to traditional planktonic culture. Production was correlated with biofilm formation and planktonic growth was suppressed in cultivations that allowed higher biofilm formation. Enhanced aeration increased riboflavin production in hydrophilic vessels. Temporal pattern of biofilm progression based on two-channel fluorescence detection of extracellular polymeric substances and whole cells in a confocal laser scanning microscope followed by application of PHLIP and ImageJ volume viewer software demonstrated early maturity of a well-developed, stable biofilm on glass in contrast to PMMA surface. A strong correlation between hydrophilic reactor surface, aeration, biofilm formation, and riboflavin production was established in C. famata. Biofilm culture is a new-found means to improve riboflavin production by C. famata.

  9. DNA Tetrahedron Delivery Enhances Doxorubicin-Induced Apoptosis of HT-29 Colon Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiyu; Zhang, Zhiyong; Yang, Junen

    2017-08-01

    As a nano-sized drug carrier with the advantage of modifiability and proper biocompatibility, DNA tetrahedron (DNA tetra) delivery is hopeful to enhance the inhibitory efficiency of nontargeted anticancer drugs. In this investigation, doxorubicin (Dox) was assembled to a folic acid-modified DNA tetra via click chemistry to prepare a targeted antitumor agent. Cellular uptake efficiency was measured via fluorescent imaging. Cytotoxicity, inhibition efficiency, and corresponding mechanism on colon cancer cell line HT-29 were evaluated by MTT assay, cell proliferation curve, western blot, and flow cytometry. No cytotoxicity was induced by DNA tetra, but the cellular uptake ratio increased obviously resulting from the DNA tetra-facilitated penetration through cellular membrane. Accordingly, folic acid-DNA tetra-Dox markedly increased the antitumor efficiency with increased apoptosis levels. In details, 100 μM was the effective concentration and a 6-h incubation period was needed for apoptosis induction. In conclusion, nano-sized DNA tetrahedron was a safe and effective delivery system for Dox and correspondingly enhanced the anticancer efficiency.

  10. Chemotherapy-Induced Macrophage Infiltration into Tumors Enhances Nanographene-Based Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Chenran; Gao, Liquan; Yu, Xinhe; Lai, Jianhao; Lu, Dehua; Bao, Rui; Wang, Yanpu; Jia, Bing; Wang, Fan; Liu, Zhaofei

    2017-11-01

    Increased recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) to tumors following chemotherapy promotes tumor resistance and recurrence and correlates with poor prognosis. TAM depletion suppresses tumor growth, but is not highly effective due to the effects of tumorigenic mediators from other stromal sources. Here, we report that adoptive macrophage transfer led to a dramatically enhanced photodynamic therapy (PDT) effect of 2-(1-hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophor-bide-alpha (HPPH)-coated polyethylene glycosylated nanographene oxide [GO(HPPH)-PEG] by increasing its tumor accumulation. Moreover, tumor treatment with commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs induced an increase in macrophage infiltration into tumors, which also enhanced tumor uptake and the PDT effects of GO(HPPH)-PEG, resulting in tumor eradication. Macrophage recruitment to tumors after chemotherapy was visualized noninvasively by near-infrared fluorescence and single-photon emission CT imaging using F4/80-specific imaging probes. Our results demonstrate that chemotherapy combined with GO(HPPH)-PEG PDT is a promising strategy for the treatment of tumors, especially those resistant to chemotherapy. Furthermore, TAM-targeted molecular imaging could potentially be used to predict the efficacy of combination therapy and select patients who would most benefit from this treatment approach. Cancer Res; 77(21); 6021-32. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Enhanced generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from a subpopulation of human fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Byrne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs provides new possibilities for basic research and novel cell-based therapies. Limitations, however, include our current lack of understanding regarding the underlying mechanisms and the inefficiency of reprogramming. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report identification and isolation of a subpopulation of human dermal fibroblasts that express the pluripotency marker stage specific embryonic antigen 3 (SSEA3. Fibroblasts that expressed SSEA3 demonstrated an enhanced iPSC generation efficiency, while no iPSC derivation was obtained from the fibroblasts that did not express SSEA3. Transcriptional analysis revealed NANOG expression was significantly increased in the SSEA3 expressing fibroblasts, suggesting a possible mechanistic explanation for the differential reprogramming. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this study is the first to identify a pluripotency marker in a heterogeneous population of human dermal fibroblasts, to isolate a subpopulation of cells that have a significantly increased propensity to reprogram to pluripotency and to identify a possible mechanism to explain this differential reprogramming. This discovery provides a method to significantly increase the efficiency of reprogramming, enhancing the feasibility of the potential applications based on this technology, and a tool for basic research studies to understand the underlying reprogramming mechanisms.

  12. Signal enhancement in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using fast square-pulse discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, H.; Robledo-Martinez, A.

    2016-10-01

    A fast, high voltage square-shaped electrical pulse initiated by laser ablation was investigated as a means to enhance the analytical capabilities of laser Induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The electrical pulse is generated by the discharge of a charged coaxial cable into a matching impedance. The pulse duration and the stored charge are determined by the length of the cable. The ablation plasma was produced by hitting an aluminum target with a nanosecond 532-nm Nd:YAG laser beam under variable fluence 1.8-900 J cm- 2. An enhancement of up to one order of magnitude on the emission signal-to-noise ratio can be achieved with the spark discharge assisted laser ablation. Besides, this increment is larger for ionized species than for neutrals. LIBS signal is also increased with the discharge voltage with a tendency to saturate for high laser fluences. Electron density and temperature evolutions were determined from time delays of 100 ns after laser ablation plasma onset. Results suggest that the spark discharge mainly re-excites the laser produced plume.

  13. Anomalous diffusion of seismicity induced by the stimulation of an enhanced geothermal system below Basel, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michas, Georgios; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities, associated with fluid or gas injections or extractions from the Earth's crust, geothermal exploitation, the impoundment of water reservoirs and mining activities can induce earthquakes. Such earthquakes can ever occur in zones of low deformation, posing a higher seismic risk than the one expected in the conventional hazard models. Although the failure condition of a fault in the presence of pressurized fluids seems relatively simple, a complication emerges from the diffusion of the pore-pressure triggering front that can trigger earthquakes at great distances away from the initial site of the pore-pressure perturbation and at time scales that may vary from days, up to months or even years. A characteristic example is the development of an enhanced geothermal system (EGS) below Basel, Switzerland, in 2006. The water injection under high pressures into the impermeable crystalline basement induced more than 10,000 earthquakes during the 6-days injection phase, which reached magnitudes that required the reduction of the injection flow rates, the eventual well shut-in and the abandonment of the project. The spatiotemporal properties of the induced seismicity indicate the migration of the seismic front away from the borehole cashing shoe, which is more likely associated with pore-pressure diffusion into a complex network of fractures. During the first three days of the injection phase, seismicity diffuses away from the cashing show at slow diffusion rates, which can be described by a slow sub-diffusive process. The diffusion process changes dramatically following the increase of the injection flow rates and the wellhead pressure, where a fast migration of seismicity and super-diffusion is observed. After the reduction of the injection rates and the eventual well bled-off, the induced seismicity rates decreased drastically and the earthquake diffusion process turned back to slow sub-diffusion, which persisted for a 100-days period. Overall, the

  14. Kokumi substances, enhancers of basic tastes, induce responses in calcium-sensing receptor expressing taste cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Maruyama

    Full Text Available Recently, we reported that calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR is a receptor for kokumi substances, which enhance the intensities of salty, sweet and umami tastes. Furthermore, we found that several γ-glutamyl peptides, which are CaSR agonists, are kokumi substances. In this study, we elucidated the receptor cells for kokumi substances, and their physiological properties. For this purpose, we used Calcium Green-1 loaded mouse taste cells in lingual tissue slices and confocal microscopy. Kokumi substances, applied focally around taste pores, induced an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](i in a subset of taste cells. These responses were inhibited by pretreatment with the CaSR inhibitor, NPS2143. However, the kokumi substance-induced responses did not require extracellular Ca(2+. CaSR-expressing taste cells are a different subset of cells from the T1R3-expressing umami or sweet taste receptor cells. These observations indicate that CaSR-expressing taste cells are the primary detectors of kokumi substances, and that they are an independent population from the influenced basic taste receptor cells, at least in the case of sweet and umami.

  15. Hydrogen–water enhances 5-fluorouracil-induced inhibition of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Runtuwene

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in cancer development. Hydrogen (H2 is a potent antioxidant and exhibits anti-inflammatory and potentially anticancer-like activities. This study aimed to investigate the role of H2 incombination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU in cancer treatment both in vitro and in vivo using the colon 26 cell line. The survival rate was determined using the Kaplan–Meier survival test, and cell viability was assessed using cell viability imaging kit and the MTT assay, and activation of the cell apoptosis pathway (Phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (p-AMPK, Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF and Caspase 3 were characterized by western blots. Hydrogen water administration improved the survival of mice with colon 26-induced cancer. Furthermore, hydrogen water enhanced cell apoptosis in cancer cells, resulting in a marked increase in the expression of p-AMPK, AIF and Caspase 3 in colon 26 cells. Hydrogen water also increased the inhibitory effect of 5-FU on colon 26 cells with spect to cell survival rate and anticancer functions. Additionally, high-content hydrogen water exhibited stronger antioxidative and anticancer activity than did the natural hydrogen water. In conclusion, high-content hydrogen water can inhibit colon cancer, particularly in combination with 5-fluorouracil.

  16. Apoptosis induced by ultraviolet radiation is enhanced by amplitude modulated radiofrequency radiation in mutant yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkanen, Ari; Penttinen, Piia; Naarala, Jonne; Pelkonen, Jukka; Sihvonen, Ari-Pekka; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure affects cell death processes of yeast cells. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells of the strains KFy417 (wild-type) and KFy437 (cdc48-mutant) were exposed to 900 or 872 MHz RF fields, with or without exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and incubated simultaneously with elevated temperature (+37 degrees C) to induce apoptosis in the cdc48-mutated strain. The RF exposure was carried out in a special waveguide exposure chamber where the temperature of the cell cultures can be precisely controlled. Apoptosis was analyzed using the annexin V-FITC method utilizing flow cytometry. Amplitude modulated (217 pulses per second) RF exposure significantly enhanced UV induced apoptosis in cdc48-mutated cells, but no effect was observed in cells exposed to unmodulated fields at identical time-average specfic absorption rates (SAR, 0.4 or 3.0 W/kg). The findings suggest that amplitude modulated RF fields, together with known damaging agents, can affect the cell death process in mutated yeast cells. Bioelectromagnetics 25:127-133, 2004. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Host-Induced Silencing of Pathogenicity Genes Enhances Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum Wilt in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Poonam; Jyoti, Poonam; Kapoor, Priya; Sharma, Vandana; Shanmugam, V; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a novel approach of controlling vascular wilt in tomato by RNAi expression directed to pathogenicity genes of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Vascular wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici leads to qualitative and quantitative loss of the crop. Limitation in the existing control measures necessitates the development of alternative strategies to increase resistance in the plants against pathogens. Recent findings paved way to RNAi, as a promising method for silencing of pathogenicity genes in fungus and provided effective resistance against fungal pathogens. Here, two important pathogenicity genes FOW2, a Zn(II)2Cys6 family putative transcription regulator, and chsV, a putative myosin motor and a chitin synthase domain, were used for host-induced gene silencing through hairpinRNA cassettes of these genes against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. HairpinRNAs were assembled in appropriate binary vectors and transformed into tomato plant targeting FOW2 and chsV genes, for two highly pathogenic strains of Fusarium oxysporum viz. TOFOL-IHBT and TOFOL-IVRI. Transgenic tomatoes were analyzed for possible attainment of resistance in transgenic lines against fungal infection. Eight transgenic lines expressing hairpinRNA cassettes showed trivial disease symptoms after 6-8 weeks of infection. Hence, the host-induced posttranscriptional gene silencing of pathogenicity genes in transgenic tomato plants has enhanced their resistance to vascular wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum.

  18. Prenatal choline deficiency does not enhance hippocampal vulnerability after kainic acid-induced seizures in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J E; Tognoni, Christina M; Mellott, Tiffany J; Glenn, Melissa J; Blusztajn, Jan K; Williams, Christina L

    2011-09-21

    Choline is a vital nutrient needed during early development for both humans and rodents. Severe dietary choline deficiency during pregnancy leads to birth defects, while more limited deficiency during mid- to late pregnancy causes deficits in hippocampal plasticity in adult rodent offspring that are accompanied by cognitive deficits only when task demands are high. Because prenatal choline supplementation confers neuroprotection of the adult hippocampus against a variety of neural insults and aids memory, we hypothesized that prenatal choline deficiency may enhance vulnerability to neural injury. To examine this, adult offspring of rat dams either fed a control diet (CON) or one deficient in choline (DEF) during embryonic days 12-17 were given multiple injections (i.p.) of saline (control) or kainic acid to induce seizures and were euthanized 16 days later. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, DEF rats were not more susceptible to seizure induction and showed similar levels of seizure-induced hippocampal histopathology, GAD expression loss, upregulated hippocampal GFAP and growth factor expression, and increased dentate cell and neuronal proliferation as that seen in CON rats. Although prenatal choline deficiency compromises adult hippocampal plasticity in the intact brain, it does not appear to exacerbate the neuropathological response to seizures in the adult hippocampus at least shortly after excitotoxic injury. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pulsed microwave induced light, sound, and electrical discharge enhanced by a biopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, J L; Seaman, R L; Mathur, S P; Parker, J E; Wright, J R; Alls, J L; Morales, P J

    1999-01-01

    Intense flashes of light were observed in sodium bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide solutions when they were exposed to pulsed microwave radiation, and the response was greatly enhanced by a microwave-absorbing, biosynthesized polymer, diazoluminomelanin. A FPS-7B radar transmitter, operating at 1.25 GHz provided pulses of 5.73 +/- 0.09 micros in duration at 10.00 +/- 0.03 pulses/s with 2.07 +/- 0.08 MW forward power (mean +/- standard deviation), induced the effect but only when the appropriate chemical interaction was present. This phenomenon involves acoustic wave generation, bubble formation, pulsed luminescence, ionized gas ejection, and electrical discharge. The use of pulsed microwave radiation to generate highly focused energy deposition opens up the possibility of a variety of biomedical applications, including targeting killing of microbes or eukaryotic cells. The full range of microwave intensities and frequencies that induce these effects has yet to be explored and, therefore, the health and safety implications of generating the phenomena in living tissues remain an open question.

  20. Enhancement of synaptic transmission induced by BDNF in cultured cortical neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun; Li, Yanling; Luo, Qingming

    2005-03-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), like other neurotrophins, has long-term effects on neuronal survival and differentiation; furthermore, BDNF has been reported to exert an acute potentiation of synaptic activity and are critically involved in long-term potentiation (LTP). We found that BDNF rapidly induced potentiation of synaptic activity and an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in cultured cortical neurons. Within minutes of BDNF application to cultured cortical neurons, spontaneous firing rate was dramatically increased as were the frequency and amplitude of excitatory spontaneous postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Fura-2 recordings showed that BDNF acutely elicited an increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]c). This effect was partially dependent on [Ca2+]o; The BDNF-induced increase in [Ca2+]c can not be completely blocked by Ca2+-free solution. It was completely blocked by K252a and partially blocked by Cd2+ and TTX. The results demonstrate that BDNF can enhances synaptic transmission and that this effect is accompanied by a rise in [Ca2+]c that requires two route: the release of Ca2+ from intracellular calcium stores and influx of extracellular Ca2+ through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in cultured cortical neurons.

  1. Acupuncture manipulation enhances anti-nociceptive effect on formalin-induced pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gun Ho; Yeom, Mijung; Yin, Chang Shik; Lee, Hyejung; Shim, Insop; Hong, Mee Sook; Kim, Chang-Ju; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2010-02-01

    In order to apply appropriate acupuncture stimulation, different needle manipulation techniques are required. These manipulations are performed in many ways such as twirling the needle, varying the insertion angle, etc. The present study was designed to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of these manipulations to the acupuncture point ST36 on formalin-induced pain in rats. Animals were divided into four groups: non-treated control (CON), acupuncture without manipulation (AT), acupuncture with twirling manipulation (TM) and acupuncture with lifting-thrusting manipulation (LM) group. Level of pain was measured in formalin-injected rats in the early (0-10 minutes) and the late (10-60 minutes) phase. Several pain-related gene expressions were investigated in the spinal cord using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Formalin-induced pain was significantly reduced in the TM and the LM groups, compared with the CON and the AT groups. TM was more effective than LM in both phases. Needle manipulation was also effective in suppressing the mRNA expression of pain-related genes such as Fos, opioid receptor-like 1, tachykinin 1, tachykinin receptor 1, mu-opioid receptor and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A in the spinal cord. The TM and the LM groups showed enhanced analgesia, compared with the AT group. This effect might be related to the suppression of the transcription of pain-related genes.

  2. Insulin-induced enhancement of MCF-7 breast cancer cell response to 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Siddarth; Łuc, Mateusz; Ziółkowski, Piotr; Agrawal, Anil Kumar; Pielka, Ewa; Walaszek, Kinga; Zduniak, Krzysztof; Woźniak, Marta

    2017-06-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the potential use of insulin for cancer-specific treatment. Insulin-induced sensitivity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide was evaluated. To investigate and establish the possible mechanisms of this phenomenon, we assessed cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, activation of apoptotic and autophagic pathways, expression of glucose transporters 1 and 3, formation of reactive oxygen species, and wound-healing assay. Additionally, we reviewed the literature regarding theuse of insulin in cancer-specific treatment. We found that insulin increases the cytotoxic effect of 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide in vitro up to two-fold. The effect was linked to enhancement of apoptosis, activation of apoptotic and autophagic pathways, and overexpression of glucose transporters 1 and 3 as well as inhibition of cell proliferation and motility. We propose a model for insulin-induced sensitization process. Insulin acts as a sensitizer of cancer cells to cytotoxic therapy through various mechanisms opening a possibility for metronomic insulin-based treatments.

  3. Plant nodulation inducers enhance horizontal gene transfer of Azorhizobium caulinodans symbiosis island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jun; Wang, Hui; Wu, Ping; Li, Tao; Tang, Yu; Naseer, Nawar; Zheng, Huiming; Masson-Boivin, Catherine; Zhong, Zengtao; Zhu, Jun

    2016-11-29

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of genomic islands is a driving force of bacterial evolution. Many pathogens and symbionts use this mechanism to spread mobile genetic elements that carry genes important for interaction with their eukaryotic hosts. However, the role of the host in this process remains unclear. Here, we show that plant compounds inducing the nodulation process in the rhizobium-legume mutualistic symbiosis also enhance the transfer of symbiosis islands. We demonstrate that the symbiosis island of the Sesbania rostrata symbiont, Azorhizobium caulinodans, is an 87.6-kb integrative and conjugative element (ICE Ac ) that is able to excise, form a circular DNA, and conjugatively transfer to a specific site of gly-tRNA gene of other rhizobial genera, expanding their host range. The HGT frequency was significantly increased in the rhizosphere. An ICE Ac -located LysR-family transcriptional regulatory protein AhaR triggered the HGT process in response to plant flavonoids that induce the expression of nodulation genes through another LysR-type protein, NodD. Our study suggests that rhizobia may sense rhizosphere environments and transfer their symbiosis gene contents to other genera of rhizobia, thereby broadening rhizobial host-range specificity.

  4. Beverage-induced enhanced bioavailability of carbamazepine and its consequent effect on antiepileptic activity and toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmoy Karmakar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the food–drug interaction of carbamazepine (CBZ. Common fruit juices [grapefruit juice (GFJ, lime juice (LJ], known to inhibit the enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4, and some widely consumed beverages [milk (M, black tea (BT] were involved in this study in the presence of CBZ, as might happen during clinical therapy. The effects of the beverages on the pharmacokinetics and drug-induced toxicity of CBZ was observed after concomitant administration for a period of 28 days. Accordingly, the influence of altered bioavailability of CBZ on its antiepileptic activity was investigated. A significant shift in the Cmax as well as Tmax of CBZ was observed in the presence of LJ and GFJ. This increase in bioavailability significantly enhanced hepatotoxicity and delayed the onset of tremor and piloerection against pentylene tetrazole (PTZ-induced seizure in experimental animals. However, increased toxicity of CBZ was found to be absent with BT. Thus, from our observation, LJ or GFJ in the presence of CBZ significantly increased the bioavailability of CBZ, which might lead to increased toxicity and antiepileptic activity of the drug.

  5. Spinal vasopressin alleviates formalin-induced nociception by enhancing GABAA receptor function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang; Qu, Zu-Wei; Qiu, Chun-Yu; Liao, Min; Hu, Wang-Ping

    2015-04-23

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays a regulatory role in nociception. Intrathecal administration of AVP displays an antinociceptive effect. However, little is understood about the mechanism underlying spinal AVP analgesia. Here, we have found that spinal AVP dose dependently reduced the second, but not first, phase of formalin-induced spontaneous nociception in mice. The AVP analgesia was completely blocked by intrathecal injected SR 49059, a vasopressin-1A (V1A) receptor antagonist. However, spinal AVP failed to exert its antinociceptive effect on the second phase formalin-induced spontaneous nociception in V1A receptor knock-out (V1A-/-) mice. The AVP analgesia was also reversed by bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist. Moreover, AVP potentiated GABA-activated currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons from wild-type littermates, but not from V1A-/- mice. Our results may reveal a novel spinal mechanism of AVP analgesia by enhancing the GABAA receptor function in the spinal cord through V1A receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electromagnetically induced 2D grating via refractive index enhancement in a far-off resonant system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Zhuan-Zhuan; Wan, Ren-Gang

    2017-07-01

    We propose a scheme for electromagnetically induced 2D grating in a mixture of two three-level Λ systems driven by two pairs of far-detuned coherent standing-wave fields. The key idea, which has been used to achieve the refractive index enhancement with vanishing absorption, is to induce two Raman resonances for the probe field, and their strength can be tuned via the two-photon detunings and the intensity of coupling field. By manipulating the absorption and gain properties of these two Raman resonances, absorption-phase grating, phase grating and gain-phase grating which effectively diffract a probe field into high-order directions can be formed in the atoms with the help of standing-wave pattern coherent fields. The diffracting power of the presented gratings strongly depends on the two-photon resonance condition and amplitude of coherent fields, hence the gratings can be used as all-optical multi-channel splitters or all-optical router in optical networking and communication.

  7. Lipopolysaccharide-induced biliary factors enhance invasion of Salmonella enteritidis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A F; Moss, N D; Dai, Y; Smith, M S; Collins, A M; Jackson, G D

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the role of the hepatobiliary system in the early pathogenesis of Salmonella enteritidis infection was investigated in a rat model. Intravenous (i.v.) challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has previously been shown to enhance the translocation of normal gut flora. We first confirmed that LPS can similarly promote the invasion of S. enteritidis. Oral infection of outbred Australian Albino Wistar rats with 10(6) to 10(7) CFU of S. enteritidis led to widespread tissue invasion after days. If animals were similarly challenged after intravenous administration of S. enteritidis LPS (3 to 900 microg/kg of body weight), significant invasion of the livers and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) occurred within 24 h, with invasion of the liver increasing in a dose-dependent fashion (P < 0.01). If bile was prevented from reaching the intestine by bile duct ligation or cannulation, bacterial invasion of the liver and MLN was almost totally abrogated (P < 0.001). As i.v. challenge with LPS could induce the delivery of inflammatory mediators into the bile, biliary tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) concentrations were measured by bioassay. Biliary concentrations of TNF-alpha rose shortly after LPS challenge, peaked with a mean concentration of 27.0 ng/ml at around 1 h postchallenge, and returned to baseline levels (3.1 ng/ml) after 2.5 h. Although TNF-alpha cannot be directly implicated in the invasion process, we conclude that the invasiveness of the enteric pathogen S. enteritidis is enhanced by the presence of LPS in the blood and that this enhanced invasion is at least in part a consequence of the delivery of inflammatory mediators to the gastrointestinal tract by the hepatobiliary system.

  8. Aging enhances maceration-induced ultrastructural alteration of the epidermis and impairment of skin barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minematsu, Takeo; Yamamoto, Yuko; Nagase, Takashi; Naito, Ayumi; Takehara, Kimie; Iizaka, Shinji; Komagata, Kazunori; Huang, Lijuan; Nakagami, Gojiro; Akase, Tomoko; Oe, Makoto; Yoshimura, Kotaro; Ishizuka, Tadao; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2011-06-01

    Skin maceration is recognized as a risk factor for the development of certain skin lesions. In health care settings, incontinence-associated skin maceration is highly prevalent in the elderly. However, the effect of senescence on maceration has not been fully elucidated. To reveal the enhancement of the maceration-induced ultrastructural alteration and barrier function of the epidermis by aging. Skin maceration was reproduced by exposure to agarose gel in human and rat. The ultrastructural alterations in human and rat tissue were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The skin barrier function was evaluated by noninvasive methods in human, and by the transdermal penetration of small- and large-fluorescent molecules in rat. In order to reveal the effect of aging on the skin maceration, we compared these parameters between young and aged rats. In macerated skin, we observed expansion of the interstices of the stratum corneum, spinosum, and basale of the epidermis; disruption of the intercellular lipid structure in the stratum corneum; a decreased number of cell processes in the stratum spinosum and basale. The transdermal penetration test in the rat using two types of fluorescein indicated that maceration disrupted skin barrier function. Furthermore, senescence-enhanced ultrastructural and functional alterations were revealed in the rodent studies. This study demonstrates that aging enhances skin maceration. Considering that maceration is a risk factor for the skin damage, the development of technology to promote skin barrier recovery after maceration in the elderly is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. LPS-induced galectin-3 oligomerization results in enhancement of neutrophil activation.

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    Marise Lopes Fermino

    Full Text Available Galectin-3 (Gal 3 is a glycan-binding protein that can be secreted by activated macrophages and mast cells at inflammation sites and plays an important role in inflammatory diseases caused by Bacteria and their products, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS. Although it is well established that Gal 3 can interact with LPS, the pathophysiological importance of LPS/Gal 3 interactions is not fully understood. Data presented herein demonstrate for the first time that the interaction of Gal 3, either via its carbohydrate binding C-terminal domain or via its N-terminal part, with LPS from different bacterial strains, enhances the LPS-mediated neutrophil activation in vitro. Gal 3 allowed low LPS concentrations (1 µg/mL without serum, 1 ng/mL with serum to upregulate CD11b expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation on human neutrophils in vitro and drastically enhanced the binding efficiency of LPS to the neutrophil surface. These effects required LPS preincubation with Gal 3, before neutrophil stimulation and involved specific Gal 3/LPS interaction. A C-terminal Gal-3 fragment, which retains the lectin domain but lacks the N-terminal part, was still able to bind both to Escherichia coli LPS and to neutrophils, but had lost the ability to enhance neutrophil response to LPS. This result emphasizes the importance of an N-terminus-mediated Gal 3 oligomerization induced by its interaction with LPS. Finally we demonstrated that Balb/C mice were more susceptible to LPS-mediated shock when LPS was pretreated with Gal 3. Altogether, these results suggest that multimeric interactions between Gal 3 oligomers and LPS potentiate its pro-inflammatory effects on neutrophils.

  10. Reactive oxygen species prevent imiquimod-induced psoriatic dermatitis through enhancing regulatory T cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Ran Kim

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease resulting from immune dysregulation. Regulatory T cells (Tregs are important in the prevention of psoriasis. Traditionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS are known to be implicated in the progression of inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis, but many recent studies suggested the protective role of ROS in immune-mediated diseases. In particular, severe cases of psoriasis vulgaris have been reported to be successfully treated by hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT, which raises tissue level of ROS. Also it was reported that Treg function was closely associated with ROS level. However, it has been only investigated in lowered levels of ROS so far. Thus, in this study, to clarify the relationship between ROS level and Treg function, as well as their role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, we investigated imiquimod-induced psoriatic dermatitis (PD in association with Treg function both in elevated and lowered levels of ROS by using knockout mice, such as glutathione peroxidase-1(-/- and neutrophil cytosolic factor-1(-/- mice, as well as by using HBOT or chemicals, such as 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and N-acetylcysteine. The results consistently showed Tregs were hyperfunctional in elevated levels of ROS, whereas hypofunctional in lowered levels of ROS. In addition, imiquimod-induced PD was attenuated in elevated levels of ROS, whereas aggravated in lowered levels of ROS. For the molecular mechanism that may link ROS level and Treg function, we investigated the expression of an immunoregulatory enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO which is induced by ROS, in PD lesions. Taken together, it was implied that appropriately elevated levels of ROS might prevent psoriasis through enhancing IDO expression and Treg function.

  11. Antibiotic tigecycline enhances cisplatin activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma through inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jun; Song, Meijun; Zhou, Mi; Hu, Yaoren

    2017-01-29

    Targeting mitochondrial metabolism has been recently demonstrated to be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various cancer. In this work, we demonstrate that antibiotic tigecycline is selectively against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage. Tigecycline is more effective in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of HCC than normal liver cells. Importantly, tigecycline significantly enhances the inhibitory effects of chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin in HCC in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, tigecycline specifically inhibits mitochondrial translation as shown by the decreased protein levels of Cox-1 and -2 but not Cox-4 or Grp78, and increased mRNA levels of Cox-1 and -2 but not Cox-4 in HCC cells exposed to tigecycline. In addition, tigecycline significantly induces mitochondrial dysfunction in HCC cells via decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential, complex I and IV activities, mitochondrial respiration and ATP levels. Tigecycline also increases levels of mitochondrial superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and ROS levels. Consistent with oxidative stress, oxidative damage on DNA, protein and lipid are also observed in tigecycline-treated cells. Importantly, antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) reverses the effects of tigecycline, suggesting that oxidative stress is required for the action of tigecycline in HCC cells. We further show that HCC cells have higher level of mitochondrial biogenesis than normal liver cells which might explain the different sensitivity to tigecycline between HCC and normal liver cells. Our work is the first to demonstrate that tigecycline is a promising candidate for HCC treatment and highlight the therapeutic value of targeting mitochondrial metabolism in HCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced Lithium-Induced Brain Recovery Following Cranial Irradiation Is Not Impeded by Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaterre, Jordane; McPherson, Cameron S.; Denoyer, Delphine; Lai, Emily; Hagekyriakou, Jim; Lightowler, Sally; Shudo, Koishi; Ernst, Matthias; Ashley, David M.; Short, Jennifer L.; Wheeler, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced brain injury occurs in many patients receiving cranial radiation therapy, and these deleterious effects are most profound in younger patients. Impaired neurocognitive functions in both humans and rodents are associated with inflammation, demyelination, and neural stem cell dysfunction. Here we evaluated the utility of lithium and a synthetic retinoid receptor agonist in reducing damage in a model of brain-focused irradiation in juvenile mice. We found that lithium stimulated brain progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation following cranial irradiation while also preventing oligodendrocyte loss in the dentate gyrus of juvenile mice. In response to inflammation induced by radiation, which may have encumbered the optimal reparative action of lithium, we used the anti-inflammatory synthetic retinoid Am80 that is in clinical use in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Although Am80 reduced the number of cyclooxygenase-2-positive microglial cells following radiation treatment, it did not enhance lithium-induced neurogenesis recovery, and this alone was not significantly different from the effect of lithium on this proinflammatory response. Similarly, lithium was superior to Am80 in supporting the restoration of new doublecortin-positive neurons following irradiation. These data suggest that lithium is superior in its restorative effects to blocking inflammation alone, at least in the case of Am80. Because lithium has been in routine clinical practice for 60 years, these preclinical studies indicate that this drug might be beneficial in reducing post-therapy late effects in patients receiving cranial radiotherapy and that blocking inflammation in this context may not be as advantageous as previously suggested. PMID:23197851

  13. Capsaicin Enhances the Drug Sensitivity of Cholangiocarcinoma through the Inhibition of Chemotherapeutic-Induced Autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zai-Fa Hong

    Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA, a devastating cancer with a poor prognosis, is resistant to the currently available chemotherapeutic agents. Capsaicin, the major pungent ingredient found in hot red chili peppers of the genus Capsicum, suppresses the growth of several malignant cell lines. Our aims were to investigate the role and mechanism of capsaicin with respect to the sensitivity of CCA cells to chemotherapeutic agents. The effect of capsaicin on CCA tumor sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU was assessed in vitro in CCA cells and in vivo in a xenograft model. The drug sensitivity of QBC939 to 5-FU was significantly enhanced by capsaicin compared with either agent alone. In addition, the combination of capsaicin with 5-FU was synergistic, with a combination index (CI < 1, and the combined treatment also suppressed tumor growth in the CCA xenograft to a greater extent than 5-FU alone. Further investigation revealed that the autophagy induced by 5-FU was inhibited by capsaicin. Moreover, the decrease in AKT and S6 phosphorylation induced by 5-FU was effectively reversed by capsaicin, indicating that capsaicin inhibits 5-FU-induced autophagy by activating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway in CCA cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that capsaicin may be a useful adjunct therapy to improve chemosensitivity in CCA. This effect likely occurs via PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activation, suggesting a promising strategy for the development of combination drugs for CCA.

  14. Loperamide-induced Cardiac Depression Is Enhanced by Hyperglycemia: Evidence Relevant to Loperamide Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Hsiang; Niu, Ho-Shan; Cheng, Yung-Ze; Niu, Chiang-Shan; Cheng, Juei-Tang; Ku, Po-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac dysryhthmias and death are reported after loperamide abuse. The mechanism of death is not clear and cardiac depression may play a role in this mechanism. Loperamide is widely used as an agonist of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) in clinical practice. In skeletal muscle, an increase in MOR in response to hyperglycemia is largely attributable to higher expression of the transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which binds to the promoter of the MOR genes. Therefore, we investigated the changes in cardiac MOR caused by hyperglycemia both in vivo and in vitro. Streptozotocin-induced type 1-like diabetic rats (STZ rats) were used to estimate cardiac performance and changes in cardiac MOR under the influence of loperamide. STAT3 was measured in cultured cardiomyocytes under high glucose (HG) to mimic the in vivo changes. Loperamide-induced reduction of cardiac performance was more marked in STZ rats than in normal rats. The increased MOR in the hearts of STZ rats was reversed by the reduction of hyperglycemia. Higher MOR expression paralleled the increase in STAT3 in cardiomyocytes under HG and was reversed by siRNA of STAT3. Stattic at a dose sufficient to inhibit STAT3 reduced MOR both in vivo and in vitro. Cardiac depression induced by loperamide is enhanced by hyperglycemia due to higher MOR expression, which is associated with higher expression of STAT3 in the heart. These results suggest that loperamide abuse is particularly dangerous for individuals with hyperglycemia. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chronic corticosterone treatment enhances extinction-induced depression in aged rats.

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    Huston, Joseph P; Komorowski, Mara; de Souza Silva, Maria A; Lamounier-Zepter, Valéria; Nikolaus, Susanne; Mattern, Claudia; Müller, Christian P; Topic, Bianca

    2016-11-01

    Withdrawal and avoidance behavior are common symptoms of depression and can appear as a consequence of absence of reward, i.e. extinction-induced depression (EID). This is particularly relevant for the aged organism subjected to pronounced loss of former rewards. Avoidance of the former site of reward and increased withdrawal into a distant compartment accompany extinction of food-rewarded behavior in rodent models. During extinction, behavioral markers for re-learning dissociate from indicators of extinction-induced depression. Here we examined the effect of a chronic treatment with corticosterone (CORT), a well-known inducer of depression-related behavior, on EID in adult and aged rats. Adult (3-4months) and aged (18months) male rats were treated with CORT via drinking water for 3weeks prior to extinction of a cued food-reward task. CORT treatment increased the distance from the site of reward and decreased goal tracking behavior during extinction, especially in the aged rats. Plasma hormone levels measured before and after restraint stress showed a decline in basal ACTH- and CORT-levels after chronic CORT treatment in aged animals. The treatment significantly impaired the HPA-axis activation after acute stress in both, adult and aged animals, alike. Altogether, these findings show an enhancement of EID after chronic CORT treatment in the aged organism, which may be mediated by an impaired HPA-axis sensitivity. These findings may have special relevance for the investigation of human geriatric depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Citalopram enhances B cell numbers in a murine model of morphine-induced immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao; Kramer, Jeffery; Vallejo, Ricardo; Stanton, George; Heidenreich, Byron A; Benyamin, Ramsin; Vogel, Laura A

    2009-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain are often challenged with depression stemming from the long-term psychophysiological effects of their condition. Consequently, patients with chronic pain are often treated with morphine, which can induce immunosuppression, along with an antidepressant. The antidepressant citalopram (CTP; Sigma-Aldrich Chemical, St. Louis, MO, U.S.A.) is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is reported to have immunomodulatory effects. Thus, we investigated whether CTP administration impacted immunity in morphine-treated animals. Adult mice were pretreated for 7 days with either saline or CTP (10 or 30 mg/kg intraperitoneal injections twice daily), followed by subcutaneous implantation of a 25 mg morphine pellet for 48 hours. Spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes were harvested to analyze total cell numbers, relative lymphocyte populations, and lymphocyte function. In this study, CTP had no effect on either total cell counts or lymphocyte populations in the thymus. However, in the spleen, total splenocyte numbers in all CTP-treated animals displayed an increasing trend over saline-treated animals. Interestingly, although more cells were found in the spleen, distribution of splenic lymphocyte populations did not differ between treatments. Despite no increase in total cell number, a high dose of CTP (30 mg/kg) resulted in a significantly higher B cell population in the lymph nodes, while T cell and NK cell numbers were not different. CTP did not significantly reverse morphine-induced weight loss or splenic B cell antibody secretion in vitro. Additionally, CTP treatment demonstrated a slight but not significant increase in both splenic B and T cell mitogen-induced proliferation in vitro. In summary, CTP may have a specific potential in the attenuation of morphine's immunosuppressive effect by enhancing splenocyte numbers and lymph node B cell populations.

  17. Stretch-induced human myometrial cytokines enhance immune cell recruitment via endothelial activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Hui; Shynlova, Oksana; Lye, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous term labour is associated with amplified inflammatory events in the myometrium including cytokine production and leukocyte infiltration; however, potential mechanisms regulating such events are not fully understood. We hypothesized that mechanical stretch of the uterine wall by the growing fetus facilitates peripheral leukocyte extravasation into the term myometrium through the release of various cytokines by uterine myocytes. Human myometrial cells (hTERT-HM) were subjected to static mechanical stretch; stretch-conditioned media was collected and analysed using 48-plex Luminex assay and ELISA. Effect of stretch-conditioned media on cell adhesion molecule expression of human uterine microvascular endothelial cells (UtMVEC-Myo) was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and flow cytometry; functional assays testing leukocyte–endothelial interactions: adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells and transendothelial migration of calcein-labelled primary human neutrophils as well as migration of THP-1 monocytic cells were assessed by fluorometry. The current in vitro study demonstrated that mechanical stretch (i) directly induces secretion of multiple cytokines and chemokines by hTERT-HM cells (IL-6, CXCL8, CXCL1, migration inhibitory factor (MIF), VEGF, G-CSF, IL-12p70, bFGF and platelet-derived growth factor subunit B (PDGF-bb), Pstretch-induced cytokines (ii) enhance leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium of the surrounding uterine microvasculature by (iii) inducing the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules and (iv) directing the transendothelial migration of peripheral leukocytes. (vi) Chemokine-neutralizing antibodies and broad-spectrum chemokine inhibitor block leukocyte migration. Our data provide a proof of mechanical regulation for leukocyte recruitment from the uterine blood vessels to the myometrium, suggesting a putative mechanism for the leukocyte infiltrate into the uterus during labour and postpartum involution

  18. Bcl-2 homologue Debcl enhances α-synuclein-induced phenotypes in Drosophila

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    P. Githure M’Angale

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Parkinson disease (PD is a debilitating movement disorder that afflicts 1–2% of the population over 50 years of age. The common hallmark for both sporadic and familial forms of PD is mitochondrial dysfunction. Mammals have at least twenty proapoptotic and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members, in contrast, only two Bcl-2 family genes have been identified in Drosophila melanogaster, the proapoptotic mitochondrial localized Debcl and the antiapoptotic Buffy. The expression of the human transgene α-synuclein, a gene that is strongly associated with inherited forms of PD, in dopaminergic neurons (DA of Drosophila, results in loss of neurons and locomotor dysfunction to model PD in flies. The altered expression of Debcl in the DA neurons and neuron-rich eye and along with the expression of α-synuclein offers an opportunity to highlight the role of Debcl in mitochondrial-dependent neuronal degeneration and death. Results The directed overexpression of Debcl using the Ddc-Gal4 transgene in the DA of Drosophila resulted in flies with severely decreased survival and a premature age-dependent loss in climbing ability. The inhibition of Debcl resulted in enhanced survival and improved climbing ability whereas the overexpression of Debcl in the α-synuclein-induced Drosophila model of PD resulted in more severe phenotypes. In addition, the co-expression of Debcl along with Buffy partially counteracts the Debcl-induced phenotypes, to improve the lifespan and the associated loss of locomotor ability observed. In complementary experiments, the overexpression of Debcl along with the expression of α-synuclein in the eye, enhanced the eye ablation that results from the overexpression of Debcl. The co-expression of Buffy along with Debcl overexpression results in the rescue of the moderate developmental eye defects. The co-expression of Buffy along with inhibition of Debcl partially restores the eye to a roughened eye phenotype. Discussion The

  19. Bcl-2 homologue Debcl enhances α-synuclein-induced phenotypes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Angale, P Githure; Staveley, Brian E

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a debilitating movement disorder that afflicts 1-2% of the population over 50 years of age. The common hallmark for both sporadic and familial forms of PD is mitochondrial dysfunction. Mammals have at least twenty proapoptotic and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members, in contrast, only two Bcl-2 family genes have been identified in Drosophila melanogaster, the proapoptotic mitochondrial localized Debcl and the antiapoptotic Buffy. The expression of the human transgene α-synuclein, a gene that is strongly associated with inherited forms of PD, in dopaminergic neurons (DA) of Drosophila, results in loss of neurons and locomotor dysfunction to model PD in flies. The altered expression of Debcl in the DA neurons and neuron-rich eye and along with the expression of α-synuclein offers an opportunity to highlight the role of Debcl in mitochondrial-dependent neuronal degeneration and death. The directed overexpression of Debcl using the Ddc-Gal4 transgene in the DA of Drosophila resulted in flies with severely decreased survival and a premature age-dependent loss in climbing ability. The inhibition of Debcl resulted in enhanced survival and improved climbing ability whereas the overexpression of Debcl in the α-synuclein-induced Drosophila model of PD resulted in more severe phenotypes. In addition, the co-expression of Debcl along with Buffy partially counteracts the Debcl-induced phenotypes, to improve the lifespan and the associated loss of locomotor ability observed. In complementary experiments, the overexpression of Debcl along with the expression of α-synuclein in the eye, enhanced the eye ablation that results from the overexpression of Debcl. The co-expression of Buffy along with Debcl overexpression results in the rescue of the moderate developmental eye defects. The co-expression of Buffy along with inhibition of Debcl partially restores the eye to a roughened eye phenotype. The overexpression of Debcl in DA neurons produces flies with

  20. Spike-timing-dependent plasticity enhanced synchronization transitions induced by autapses in adaptive Newman-Watts neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yubing; Wang, Baoying; Xie, Huijuan

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we numerically study the effect of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) on synchronization transitions induced by autaptic activity in adaptive Newman-Watts Hodgkin-Huxley neuron networks. It is found that synchronization transitions induced by autaptic delay vary with the adjusting rate Ap of STDP and become strongest at a certain Ap value, and the Ap value increases when network randomness or network size increases. It is also found that the synchronization transitions induced by autaptic delay become strongest at a certain network randomness and network size, and the values increase and related synchronization transitions are enhanced when Ap increases. These results show that there is optimal STDP that can enhance the synchronization transitions induced by autaptic delay in the adaptive neuronal networks. These findings provide a new insight into the roles of STDP and autapses for the information transmission in neural systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 14-Day thawed plasma retains clot enhancing properties and inhibits tPA-induced fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Benjamin R; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Hunter B; Shepherd-Singh, Raymond; Sauaia, Angela; Stettler, Gregory R; Nunns, Geoffrey R; Silliman, Christopher C

    2017-11-01

    Plasma-first resuscitation attenuates trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC); however, the logistics of plasma-first resuscitation require thawed plasma (TP) be readily available due to the obligatory thawing time of fresh frozen plasma (FFP). The current standard is storage of TP for up to 5 days at 4°C, based on factor levels at outdate, for use in patients at risk for TIC, but there remains a 2.2% outdated wastage rate. However, the multitude of plasma proteins in attenuating TIC remains unknown. We hypothesize that TP retains the ability to enhance clotting and reduce tPA-induced fibrinolysis at 14-day storage. FFP was thawed and stored at 4°C at the following intervals: 14, 10, 7, 5, 3, and 1-day prior to the experiment. Healthy volunteers underwent blood draws followed by 50% dilution with TP stored at previously mentioned intervals as well as FFP, normal saline (NS), albumin, and whole blood (WB) control. Samples underwent tPA-modified (75 ng/mL) thrombelastography (TEG) with analysis of R-time, angle, maximum amplitude (MA), and LY30. TEG properties did not change significantly over the thawed storage. 14-day TP retained the ability to inhibit tPA-induced hyperfibrinolysis (median LY30% 9.6%) similar to FFP (5.6%), WB (14.6%), and superior to albumin (59.3%) and NS (58.1%). 14-day TP also retained faster clot formation (median angle, 66.2°) and superior clot strength (MA, 61.5 mm) to albumin (34.8°, 21.6 mm) and NS (41.6°, 32.2 mm). TP plasma stored for 14 days retains clot-enhancing ability and resistance to clot degradation similar to FFP. A clinical trial is needed to validate these in vitro results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acetylsalicylic acid enhances and synchronizes thidiazuron-induced somatic embryogenesis in geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey) tissue cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, M J; Saxena, P K

    1996-03-01

    Thidiazuron (TDZ) effectively induced somatic embryogenesis in cultured hypocotyl explants of geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey) during only a 3-day period of induction. The presence of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) during this period caused a two-fold increase in the number of somatic embryos and enhanced synchronization of embryo development compared to the TDZ treatment alone. Salicylic acid was ineffective in modulating similar embryogenic responses as ASA. The ASA-induced enhancement and synchronization of somatic embryogenesis could possibly be used as an experimental system to study the interplay of growth regulators in somatic embryogenesis.

  3. Inhibition of autophagy enhances DNA damage-induced apoptosis by disrupting CHK1-dependent S phase arrest

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    Liou, Jong-Shian; Wu, Yi-Chen; Yen, Wen-Yen; Tang, Yu-Shuan [Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kakadiya, Rajesh B.; Su, Tsann-Long [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yih, Ling-Huei, E-mail: lhyih@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-08-01

    DNA damage has been shown to induce autophagy, but the role of autophagy in the DNA damage response and cell fate is not fully understood. BO-1012, a bifunctional alkylating derivative of 3a-aza-cyclopenta[a]indene, is a potent DNA interstrand cross-linking agent with anticancer activity. In this study, BO-1012 was found to reduce DNA synthesis, inhibit S phase progression, and induce phosphorylation of histone H2AX on serine 139 (γH2AX) exclusively in S phase cells. Both CHK1 and CHK2 were phosphorylated in response to BO-1012 treatment, but only depletion of CHK1, but not CHK2, impaired BO-1012-induced S phase arrest and facilitated the entry of γH2AX-positive cells into G2 phase. CHK1 depletion also significantly enhanced BO-1012-induced cell death and apoptosis. These results indicate that BO-1012-induced S phase arrest is a CHK1-dependent pro-survival response. BO-1012 also resulted in marked induction of acidic vesicular organelle (AVO) formation and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) processing and redistribution, features characteristic of autophagy. Depletion of ATG7 or co-treatment of cells with BO-1012 and either 3-methyladenine or bafilomycin A1, two inhibitors of autophagy, not only reduced CHK1 phosphorylation and disrupted S phase arrest, but also increased cleavage of caspase-9 and PARP, and cell death. These results suggest that cells initiate S phase arrest and autophagy as pro-survival responses to BO-1012-induced DNA damage, and that suppression of autophagy enhances BO-1012-induced apoptosis via disruption of CHK1-dependent S phase arrest. - Highlights: • Autophagy inhibitors enhanced the cytotoxicity of a DNA alkylating agent, BO-1012. • BO-1012-induced S phase arrest was a CHK1-dependent pro-survival response. • Autophagy inhibition enhanced BO-1012 cytotoxicity via disrupting the S phase arrest.

  4. Simulation of B Cell Affinity Maturation Explains Enhanced Antibody Cross-Reactivity Induced by the Polyvalent Malaria Vaccine AMA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Enhanced Antibody Cross-Reactivity Induced by the Polyvalent Malaria Vaccine AMA1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Induced by the Polyvalent Malaria Vaccine AMA1 Sidhartha Chaudhury, Jaques Reifman, and Anders Wallqvist Polyvalent vaccines use a mixture of Ags... vaccine based on the highly polymorphic malaria Ag apical membrane antigen-1. Our simulations show how polyvalent apical membrane Ag-1 vaccination

  5. The Activation of IL-1-Induced Enhancers Depends on TAK1 Kinase Activity and NF-κB p65

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Jurida

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The inflammatory gene response requires activation of the protein kinase TAK1, but it is currently unknown how TAK1-derived signals coordinate transcriptional programs in the genome. We determined the genome-wide binding of the TAK1-controlled NF-κB subunit p65 in relation to active enhancers and promoters of transcribed genes by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq experiments. Out of 35,000 active enhancer regions, 410 H3K4me1-positive enhancers show interleukin 1 (IL-1-induced H3K27ac and p65 binding. Inhibition of TAK1 or IKK2 or depletion of p65 blocked inducible enhancer activation and gene expression. As exemplified by the CXC chemokine cluster located on chromosome 4, the TAK1-p65 pathway also regulates the recruitment kinetics of the histone acetyltransferase CBP, of NF-κB p50, and of AP-1 transcription factors to both promoters and enhancers. This study provides a high-resolution view of epigenetic changes occurring during the IL-1 response and allows the genome-wide identification of a distinct class of inducible p65 NF-κB-dependent enhancers in epithelial cells.

  6. Autophagy inhibition enhances RAD001-induced cytotoxicity in human bladder cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin JF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ji-Fan Lin,1 Yi-Chia Lin,2,3 Shan-Che Yang,1 Te-Fu Tsai,2,3 Hung-En Chen,2 Kuang-Yu Chou,2,3 Thomas I-Sheng Hwang2–4 1Central Laboratory, Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Division of Urology, School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 4Department of Urology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan Background: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, involved in PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, is known to play a central role in regulating the growth of cancer cells. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway enhances tumor survival and proliferation through suppressing autophagy, which sustains energy homeostasis by collecting and recycling cellular components under stress conditions. Conversely, inhibitors of the mTOR pathway such as RAD001 induce autophagy, leading to promotion of tumor survival and limited antitumor efficacy. We thus hypothesized that the use of autophagy inhibitor in combination with mTOR inhibition improves the cytotoxicity of mTOR inhibitors in bladder cancer.Materials and methods: The cytotoxicity of RT4, 5637, HT1376, and T24 human bladder cancer cells treated with RAD001 alone or combined with autophagy inhibitors (3-methyladenine (3-MA, bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1, chloroquine, or hydroxychloroquine was assessed using the WST-8 cell viability kit. The autophagy status in cells was analyzed by the detection of microtubule-associated light chain 3 form II (LC3-II, using immunofluorescent staining and Western blot. Acidic vesicular organelle (AVO formation in treated cells was determined by acridine orange vital staining. Inhibition of mTOR pathway by RAD001 was monitored by using a homemade quantitative polymerase chain reaction gene array, while phospho-mTOR was detected using Western blot. Induced apoptosis was determined by measurement of caspase 3/7 activity and DNA fragmentation in cells after

  7. Lenalidomide induces lipid raft assembly to enhance erythropoietin receptor signaling in myelodysplastic syndrome progenitors.

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    Kathy L McGraw

    Full Text Available Anemia remains the principal management challenge for patients with lower risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS. Despite appropriate cytokine production and cellular receptor display, erythropoietin receptor (EpoR signaling is impaired. We reported that EpoR signaling is dependent upon receptor localization within lipid raft microdomains, and that disruption of raft integrity abolishes signaling capacity. Here, we show that MDS erythroid progenitors display markedly diminished raft assembly and smaller raft aggregates compared to normal controls (p = 0.005, raft number; p = 0.023, raft size. Because lenalidomide triggers raft coalescence in T-lymphocytes promoting immune synapse formation, we assessed effects of lenalidomide on raft assembly in MDS erythroid precursors and UT7 cells. Lenalidomide treatment rapidly induced lipid raft formation accompanied by EpoR recruitment into raft fractions together with STAT5, JAK2, and Lyn kinase. The JAK2 phosphatase, CD45, a key negative regulator of EpoR signaling, was displaced from raft fractions. Lenalidomide treatment prior to Epo stimulation enhanced both JAK2 and STAT5 phosphorylation in UT7 and primary MDS erythroid progenitors, accompanied by increased STAT5 DNA binding in UT7 cells, and increased erythroid colony forming capacity in both UT7 and primary cells. Raft induction was associated with F-actin polymerization, which was blocked by Rho kinase inhibition. These data indicate that deficient raft integrity impairs EpoR signaling, and provides a novel strategy to enhance EpoR signal fidelity in non-del(5q MDS.

  8. Senescence-induced loss in photosynthesis enhances cell wall beta-glucosidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Pranab Kishor; Patro, Lichita; Raval, Mukesh Kumar; Ramaswamy, Nemmara Krishnan; Biswal, Udaya Chand; Biswal, Basanti

    2010-03-01

    A link between senescence-induced decline in photosynthesis and activity of beta-glucosidase is examined in the leaves of Arabidopsis. The enzyme is purified and characterized. The molecular weight of the enzyme is 58 kDa. It shows maximum activity at pH 5.5 and at temperature of 50 degrees C. Photosynthetic measurements and activity of the enzyme are conducted at different developmental stages including senescence of leaves. Senescence causes a significant loss in total chlorophyll, stomatal conductance, rate of evaporation and in the ability of the leaves for carbon dioxide fixation. The process also brings about a decline in oxygen evolution, quantum yield of photosystem II (PS II) and quantum efficiency of PS II photochemistry of thylakoid membrane. The loss in photosynthesis is accompanied by a significant increase in the activity of the cell wall-bound beta-glucosidase that breaks down polysaccharides to soluble sugars. The loss in photosynthesis as a signal for the enhancement in the activity of the enzyme is confirmed from the observation that incubation of excised mature leaves in continuous dark or in light with a photosynthesis inhibitor 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea (DCMU) that leads to sugar starvation enhances the activity of the enzyme. The work suggests that in the background of photosynthetic decline, the polysaccharides bound to cell wall that remains intact even during late phase of senescence may be the last target of senescing leaves for a possible source of sugar for remobilization and completion of the energy-dependent senescence program.

  9. Arachidonic acid enhances reproduction in Daphnia magna and mitigates changes in sex ratios induced by pyriproxyfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginjupalli, Gautam K; Gerard, Patrick D; Baldwin, William S

    2015-03-01

    Arachidonic acid is 1 of only 2 unsaturated fatty acids retained in the ovaries of crustaceans and an inhibitor of HR97g, a nuclear receptor expressed in adult ovaries. The authors hypothesized that, as a key fatty acid, arachidonic acid may be associated with reproduction and potentially environmental sex determination in Daphnia. Reproduction assays with arachidonic acid indicate that it alters female:male sex ratios by increasing female production. This reproductive effect only occurred during a restricted Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata diet. Next, the authors tested whether enriching a poorer algal diet (Chlorella vulgaris) with arachidonic acid enhances overall reproduction and sex ratios. Arachidonic acid enrichment of a C. vulgaris diet also enhances fecundity at 1.0 µM and 4.0 µM by 30% to 40% in the presence and absence of pyriproxyfen. This indicates that arachidonic acid is crucial in reproduction regardless of environmental sex determination. Furthermore, the data indicate that P. subcapitata may provide a threshold concentration of arachidonic acid needed for reproduction. Diet-switch experiments from P. subcapitata to C. vulgaris mitigate some, but not all, of arachidonic acid's effects when compared with a C. vulgaris-only diet, suggesting that some arachidonic acid provided by P. subcapitata is retained. In summary, arachidonic acid supplementation increases reproduction and represses pyriproxyfen-induced environmental sex determination in D. magna in restricted diets. A diet rich in arachidonic acid may provide protection from some reproductive toxicants such as the juvenile hormone agonist pyriproxyfen. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:527-535. © 2014 SETAC. © 2014 SETAC.

  10. Cognition Enhancing Activity of Sulforaphane Against Scopolamine Induced Cognitive Impairment in Zebra Fish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Venugopalan; Ilanthalir, Sakthivel

    2016-10-01

    Several epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of large quantities of vegetables especially cruciferous vegetables (Broccoli and Brussels sprouts) can protect against chronic diseases. Sulforaphane, an isothiocynate found in cruciferous vegetables has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective effects in several experimental paradigms. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of sulforaphane on cognitive impairment in zebra fish model using a novel method of fear conditioning. Initially, the normal behaviour of zebra fishes was studied in light-dark tank for 10 min daily for 10 days. Fishes were then divided into seven groups of twelve in each. Group I served as normal, group II served as fear conditioned control, group III and group IV were sulforaphane (25 µM/L) and piracetam (200 mg/L) treated respectively. Group V served as scopolamine (400 µM/L) induced memory impairment fishes. Group VI and VII were sulforaphane (25 µM/L) and piracetam (200 mg/L) treated scopolamine induced memory impairment groups respectively. In normal behavioural analysis, fishes preferred to stay in dark compartment. The average number of entries into the dark and time spent in dark were significantly more. Fishes in group II to VII were individually subjected to fear conditioning passive avoidance task and evaluated for learned task memory. It was observed that the average number of entries into dark and time spent in dark were significantly decreased. After exposure to respective treatment fishes in group III to VII were subjected to cognitive evaluation. There was no significant difference in cognition of group III and IV fishes exposed to sulforaphane and piracetam alone respectively. Fishes exposed to scopolamine showed a significant cognitive impairment. Sulforaphane exposure prior to scopolamine significantly retained the memory of learned task. These findings suggest that sulforaphane might be a promising therapeutic agent for cognitive enhancement in

  11. Stretch-induced human myometrial cytokines enhance immune cell recruitment via endothelial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Hui; Shynlova, Oksana; Lye, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous term labour is associated with amplified inflammatory events in the myometrium including cytokine production and leukocyte infiltration; however, potential mechanisms regulating such events are not fully understood. We hypothesized that mechanical stretch of the uterine wall by the growing fetus facilitates peripheral leukocyte extravasation into the term myometrium through the release of various cytokines by uterine myocytes. Human myometrial cells (hTERT-HM) were subjected to static mechanical stretch; stretch-conditioned media was collected and analysed using 48-plex Luminex assay and ELISA. Effect of stretch-conditioned media on cell adhesion molecule expression of human uterine microvascular endothelial cells (UtMVEC-Myo) was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and flow cytometry; functional assays testing leukocyte-endothelial interactions: adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells and transendothelial migration of calcein-labelled primary human neutrophils as well as migration of THP-1 monocytic cells were assessed by fluorometry. The current in vitro study demonstrated that mechanical stretch (i) directly induces secretion of multiple cytokines and chemokines by hTERT-HM cells (IL-6, CXCL8, CXCL1, migration inhibitory factor (MIF), VEGF, G-CSF, IL-12p70, bFGF and platelet-derived growth factor subunit B (PDGF-bb), Pcytokines (ii) enhance leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium of the surrounding uterine microvasculature by (iii) inducing the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules and (iv) directing the transendothelial migration of peripheral leukocytes. (vi) Chemokine-neutralizing antibodies and broad-spectrum chemokine inhibitor block leukocyte migration. Our data provide a proof of mechanical regulation for leukocyte recruitment from the uterine blood vessels to the myometrium, suggesting a putative mechanism for the leukocyte infiltrate into the uterus during labour and postpartum involution.

  12. Sialoadhesin expressed on IFN-induced monocytes binds HIV-1 and enhances infectivity.

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    Hans Rempel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection dysregulates the immune system and alters gene expression in circulating monocytes. Differential gene expression analysis of CD14(+ monocytes from subjects infected with HIV-1 revealed increased expression of sialoadhesin (Sn, CD169, Siglec 1, a cell adhesion molecule first described in a subset of macrophages activated in chronic inflammatory diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed sialoadhesin expression on CD14(+ monocytes by flow cytometry and found significantly higher expression in subjects with elevated viral loads compared to subjects with undetectable viral loads. In cultured CD14(+ monocytes isolated from healthy individuals, sialoadhesin expression was induced by interferon-alpha and interferon-gamma but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Using a stringent binding assay, sialoadhesin-expressing monocytes adsorbed HIV-1 through interaction with the sialic acid residues on the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120. Furthermore, monocytes expressing sialoadhesin facilitated HIV-1 trans infection of permissive cells, which occurred in the absence of monocyte self-infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Increased sialoadhesin expression on CD14(+ monocytes occurred in response to HIV-1 infection with maximum expression associated with high viral load. We show that interferons induce sialoadhesin in primary CD14(+ monocytes, which is consistent with an antiviral response during viremia. Our findings suggest that circulating sialoadhesin-expressing monocytes are capable of binding HIV-1 and effectively delivering virus to target cells thereby enhancing the distribution of HIV-1. Sialoadhesin could disseminate HIV-1 to viral reservoirs during monocyte immunosurveillance or migration to sites of inflammation and then facilitate HIV-1 infection of permissive cells.

  13. Error-enhancing robot therapy to induce motor control improvement in childhood onset primary dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casellato Claudia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robot-generated deviating forces during multijoint reaching movements have been applied to investigate motor control and to tune neuromotor adaptation. Can the application of force to limbs improve motor learning? In this framework, the response to altered dynamic environments of children affected by primary dystonia has never been studied. Methods As preliminary pilot study, eleven children with primary dystonia and eleven age-matched healthy control subjects were asked to perform upper limb movements, triangle-reaching (three directions and circle-writing, using a haptic robot interacting with ad-hoc developed task-specific visual interfaces. Three dynamic conditions were provided, null additive external force (A, constant disturbing force (B and deactivation of the additive external force again (C. The path length for each trial was computed, from the recorded position data and interaction events. Results The results show that the disturbing force affects significantly the movement outcomes in healthy but not in dystonic subjects, already compromised in the reference condition: the external alteration uncalibrates the healthy sensorimotor system, while the dystonic one is already strongly uncalibrated. The lack of systematic compensation for perturbation effects during B condition is reflected into the absence of after-effects in C condition, which would be the evidence that CNS generates a prediction of the perturbing forces using an internal model of the environment. The most promising finding is that in dystonic population the altered dynamic exposure seems to induce a subsequent improvement, i.e. a beneficial after-effect in terms of optimal path control, compared with the correspondent reference movement outcome. Conclusions The short-time error-enhancing training in dystonia could represent an effective approach for motor performance improvement, since the exposure to controlled dynamic alterations induces a refining

  14. Enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction via field-induced reagent concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Pang, Yuanjie; Zhang, Bo; De Luna, Phil; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Xu, Jixian; Zheng, Xueli; Dinh, Cao Thang; Fan, Fengjia; Cao, Changhong; de Arquer, F Pelayo García; Safaei, Tina Saberi; Mepham, Adam; Klinkova, Anna; Kumacheva, Eugenia; Filleter, Tobin; Sinton, David; Kelley, Shana O; Sargent, Edward H

    2016-09-15

    Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to carbon monoxide (CO) is the first step in the synthesis of more complex carbon-based fuels and feedstocks using renewable electricity. Unfortunately, the reaction suffers from slow kinetics owing to the low local concentration of CO2 surrounding typical CO2 reduction reaction catalysts. Alkali metal cations are known to overcome this limitation through non-covalent interactions with adsorbed reagent species, but the effect is restricted by the solubility of relevant salts. Large applied electrode potentials can also enhance CO2 adsorption, but this comes at the cost of increased hydrogen (H2) evolution. Here we report that nanostructured electrodes produce, at low applied overpotentials, local high electric fields that concentrate electrolyte cations, which in turn leads to a high local concentration of CO2 close to the active CO2 reduction reaction surface. Simulations reveal tenfold higher electric fields associated with metallic nanometre-sized tips compared to quasi-planar electrode regions, and measurements using gold nanoneedles confirm a field-induced reagent concentration that enables the CO2 reduction reaction to proceed with a geometric current density for CO of 22 milliamperes per square centimetre at -0.35 volts (overpotential of 0.24 volts). This performance surpasses by an order of magnitude the performance of the best gold nanorods, nanoparticles and oxide-derived noble metal catalysts. Similarly designed palladium nanoneedle electrocatalysts produce formate with a Faradaic efficiency of more than 90 per cent and an unprecedented geometric current density for formate of 10 milliamperes per square centimetre at -0.2 volts, demonstrating the wider applicability of the field-induced reagent concentration concept.

  15. PD-1 blockade enhances the vaccination-induced immune response in glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonios, Joseph P; Soto, Horacio; Everson, Richard G; Orpilla, Joey; Moughon, Diana; Shin, Namjo; Sedighim, Shaina; Yong, William H; Li, Gang; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Liau, Linda M; Prins, Robert M

    2016-07-07

    DC vaccination with autologous tumor lysate has demonstrated promising results for the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) in preclinical and clinical studies. While the vaccine appears capable of inducing T cell infiltration into tumors, the effectiveness of active vaccination in progressively growing tumors is less profound. In parallel, a number of studies have identified negative costimulatory pathways, such as programmed death 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1), as relevant mediators of the intratumoral immune responses. Clinical responses to PD-1 pathway inhibition, however, have also been varied. To evaluate the relevance to established glioma, the effects of PD-1 blockade following DC vaccination were tested in intracranial (i.c.) glioma tumor- bearing mice. Treatment with both DC vaccination and PD-1 mAb blockade resulted in long-term survival, while neither agent alone induced a survival benefit in animals with larger, established tumors. This survival benefit was completely dependent on CD8+ T cells. Additionally, DC vaccine plus PD-1 mAb blockade resulted in the upregulation of integrin homing and immunologic memory markers on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). In clinical samples, DC vaccination in GBM patients was associated with upregulation of PD-1 expression in vivo, while ex vivo blockade of PD-1 on freshly isolated TILs dramatically enhanced autologous tumor cell cytolysis. These findings strongly suggest that the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway plays an important role in the adaptive immune resistance of established GBM in response to antitumor active vaccination and provide us with a rationale for the clinical translation of this combination therapy.

  16. Impact ionization in high resistivity silicon induced by an intense terahertz field enhanced by an antenna array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarekegne, Abebe Tilahun; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Zalkovskij, Maksim

    2015-01-01

    We report on the observation of ultrafast impact ionization and carrier generation in high resistivity silicon induced by intense subpicosecond terahertz transients. Local terahertz peak electric fields of several MV cm−1 are obtained by field enhancement in the near field of a resonant metallic...

  17. Ondansetron can enhance cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity via inhibition of multiple toxin and extrusion proteins (MATEs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qing [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Guo, Dong [Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Dong, Zhongqi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Zhang, Wei [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan 410078 (China); Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew-Mei [Office of Clinical Pharmacology, Office of Translational Sciences, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Polli, James E. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Shu, Yan, E-mail: yshu@rx.umaryland.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The nephrotoxicity limits the clinical application of cisplatin. Human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) work in concert in the elimination of cationic drugs such as cisplatin from the kidney. We hypothesized that co-administration of ondansetron would have an effect on cisplatin nephrotoxicity by altering the function of cisplatin transporters. The inhibitory potencies of ondansetron on metformin accumulation mediated by OCT2 and MATEs were determined in the stable HEK-293 cells expressing these transporters. The effects of ondansetron on drug disposition in vivo were examined by conducting the pharmacokinetics of metformin, a classical substrate for OCTs and MATEs, in wild-type and Mate1−/− mice. The nephrotoxicity was assessed in the wild-type and Mate1−/− mice received cisplatin with and without ondansetron. Both MATEs, including human MATE1, human MATE2-K, and mouse Mate1, and OCT2 (human and mouse) were subject to ondansetron inhibition, with much greater potencies by ondansetron on MATEs. Ondansetron significantly increased tissue accumulation and pharmacokinetic exposure of metformin in wild-type but not in Mate1−/− mice. Moreover, ondansetron treatment significantly enhanced renal accumulation of cisplatin and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity which were indicated by increased levels of biochemical and molecular biomarkers and more severe pathohistological changes in mice. Similar increases in nephrotoxicity were caused by genetic deficiency of MATE function in mice. Therefore, the potent inhibition of MATEs by ondansetron enhances the nephrotoxicity associated with cisplatin treatment in mice. Potential nephrotoxic effects of combining the chemotherapeutic cisplatin and the antiemetic 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT{sub 3}) receptor antagonists, such as ondansetron, should be investigated in patients. - Highlights: • Nephrotoxicity significantly limits clinical use of the chemotherapeutic

  18. Melatonin enhances arsenic trioxide-induced cell death via sustained upregulation of Redd1 expression in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sun-Mi; Woo, Sang Hyeok; Oh, Sang Taek; Hong, Sung-Eun; Choe, Tae-Boo; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Seong, Min Ki; Kim, Hyun-A; Noh, Woo Chul; Lee, Jin Kyung; Jin, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Yun-Han; Park, In-Chul

    2016-02-15

    Melatonin is implicated in various physiological functions, including anticancer activity. However, the mechanism(s) of its anticancer activity is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the combined effects of melatonin and arsenic trioxide (ATO) on cell death in human breast cancer cells. Melatonin enhanced the ATO-induced apoptotic cell death via changes in the protein levels of Survivin, Bcl-2, and Bax, thus affecting cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol. Interestingly, we found that the cell death induced by co-treatment with melatonin and ATO was mediated by sustained upregulation of Redd1, which was associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Combined treatment with melatonin and ATO induced the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAP kinase downstream from Redd1 expression. Rapamycin and S6K1 siRNA enhanced, while activation of mTORC1 by transfection with TSC2 siRNA suppressed the cell death induced by melatonin and ATO treatment. Taken together, our findings suggest that melatonin enhances ATO-induced apoptotic cell death via sustained upregulation of Redd1 expression and inhibition of mTORC1 upstream of the activation of the p38/JNK pathways in human breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Interaction of processes may explain induced seismicity after shut-in in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Silvia; Carrera, Jesus; Vilarrasa, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Deep fluid injection is a necessary operation in several engineering sectors, like geothermal energy production, natural gas storage, CO2 storage, etc. The seismicity associated to these activities has, in some occasions, reached unexpected magnitude, raising public concern. Moreover, the occurrence of such seismicity after the injection shut-in pointed out the incompleteness of the knowledge and the inability of fully managing these processes. On the other hand, the growing attention toward clean energy makes it clear that we cannot abandon these procedures, which have a huge potential. Therefore, deeply understanding the mechanisms that induce seismicity is crucial. In this study we consider hydraulic stimulation of deep geothermal systems and analyze the mechanisms that may induce or trigger seismicity. Given that the basic mechanism is fluid pressure increase, secondary triggering processes have been studied. In detail, we attempt to identify the potential mechanisms that may trigger seismicity in the post-injection phase, when the overpressure decreases. These mechanisms have been investigated with a coupled and uncoupled approach, in order to understand the individual effects of each one and the effects of the interactions between them on the reservoir stability. Besides fluid overpressure, another relevant process is the temperature variation. Indeed, in the case of enhanced geothermal systems, the temperature contrast between the injected cold fluid and the deep hot reservoir is great and induces thermal stress, which sensibly affects the in-situ stress field. Therefore, we have studied overpressure and temperature effects by means of analytic solutions and by means of hydro-mechanical and thermo-hydro-mechanical numerical simulations. Results show that in fractured rocks the spatial variability of hydraulic and mechanic parameters provokes no isotropic variation of the tensional field, in response to pressure and temperature perturbations. Another

  20. Modulation of innate immune mechanisms to enhance vaccine induced immunity: Role of co-inhibitory molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivas eGannavaram

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available No licensed human vaccines are currently available against any parasitic disease including leishmaniasis. Several anti-leishmanial vaccine formulations have been tested in various animal models including genetically modified live attenuated parasite vaccines. Experimental infection studies have shown that Leishmania parasites utilize a broad range of strategies to undermine effector properties of host phagocytic cells i.e., dendritic cells (DC and macrophages (M. Further, Leishmania parasites have evolved strategies to actively inhibit TH1 polarizing functions of DCs, and to condition the infected M towards anti-inflammatory/alternative/M2 phenotype. The altered phenotype of phagocytic cells is characterized by decreased production of anti-microbial reactive oxygen, nitrogen molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-, IL-12 and TNF-α. These early events limit the activation of TH1 effector cells and set the stage for pathogenesis. Further, this early control of innate immunity by the virulent parasites results in substantial alteration in the adaptive immunity characterized by reduced proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and TH2 biased immunity that results in production of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as TGF-, and IL-10. More recent studies have also documented the induction of co-inhibitory ligands such as CTLA-4, PD-L1, CD200 and Tim-3 that induce exhaustion and/or non-proliferation in antigen experienced T cells. Most of these studies focus on viral infections in chronic phase thus limiting the direct application of these results from these studies to parasitic infections and much less to parasitic vaccines. However, these studies suggest that vaccine induced protective immunity can be modulated using strategies that enhance the co-stimulation that might reduce the threshold necessary for T cell activation and conversely by strategies that reduce or block inhibitory molecules such as PD-L1 and CD200. In this

  1. Modulation of Innate Immune Mechanisms to Enhance Leishmania Vaccine-Induced Immunity: Role of Coinhibitory Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Bhattacharya, Parna; Ismail, Nevien; Kaul, Amit; Singh, Rakesh; Nakhasi, Hira L

    2016-01-01

    No licensed human vaccines are currently available against any parasitic disease including leishmaniasis. Several antileishmanial vaccine formulations have been tested in various animal models, including genetically modified live-attenuated parasite vaccines. Experimental infection studies have shown that Leishmania parasites utilize a broad range of strategies to undermine effector properties of host phagocytic cells, i.e., dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MΦ). Furthermore, Leishmania parasites have evolved strategies to actively inhibit TH1 polarizing functions of DCs and to condition the infected MΦ toward anti-inflammatory/alternative/M2 phenotype. The altered phenotype of phagocytic cells is characterized by decreased production of antimicrobial reactive oxygen, nitrogen molecules, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-γ, IL-12, and TNF-α. These early events limit the activation of TH1-effector cells and set the stage for pathogenesis. Furthermore, this early control of innate immunity by the virulent parasites results in substantial alteration in the adaptive immunity characterized by reduced proliferation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and TH2-biased immunity that results in production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as TGF-β, and IL-10. More recent studies have also documented the induction of coinhibitory ligands, such as CTLA-4, PD-L1, CD200, and Tim-3, that induce exhaustion and/or non-proliferation in antigen-experienced T cells. Most of these studies focus on viral infections in chronic phase, thus limiting the direct application of these results to parasitic infections and much less to parasitic vaccines. However, these studies suggest that vaccine-induced protective immunity can be modulated using strategies that enhance the costimulation that might reduce the threshold necessary for T cell activation and conversely by strategies that reduce or block inhibitory molecules, such as PD-L1 and CD200. In this review, we will focus on

  2. Stress-induced visceral analgesia assessed non-invasively in rats is enhanced by prebiotic diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muriel Larauche; Agata Mulak; Pu-Qing Yuan; Osamu Kanauchi; Yvette Taché

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of repeated water avoidance stress (rWAS) on the visceromotor response (VMR) to colorectal distension (CRD) and the modulation of the response by a prebiotic diet in rats using a novel surgery-free method of solid-state manometry.METHODS: Male Wistar rats fed a standard diet with or without 4% enzyme-treated rice fiber (ERF) for 5 wk were subjected to rWAS (1 h daily x 10 d) or no stress. The VMR to graded phasic CRD was assessed by intraluminal colonic pressure recording on days 0 (baseline), 1 and 10 (45 min) and 11 (24 h) after rWAS and expressed as percentage change from baseline. Cecal content of short chain fatty acids and distal colonic histology were assessed on day 11.RESULTS: WAS on day 1 reduced the VMR to CRD at 40 and 60 mmHg similarly by 28.9% ± 6.6% in both diet groups. On day 10, rWAS-induced reduction of VMR occurred only at 40 mmHg in the standard diet group (36.2% ± 17.8%) while in the ERF group VMR was lowered at 20, 40 and 60 mmHg by 64.9% ± 20.9%, 49.3% ± 11.6% and 38.9% ± 7.3% respectively. The visceral analgesia was still observed on day 11 in ERF- but not in standard diet-fed rats. By contrast the non-stressed groups (standard or ERF diet) exhibited no changes in VMR to CRD. In standard diet-fed rats, rWAS induced mild colonic histological changes that were absent in ERF-fed rats exposed to stress compared to non-stressed rats. The reduction of cecal content of isobutyrate and total butyrate, but not butyrate alone, was correlated with lower visceral pain response. Additionally, ERF diet increased rWAS-induced defecation by 26% and 75% during the first 0-15 min and last 15-60 min, respectively, compared to standard diet, and reduced rats' body weight gain by 1.3 fold independently of their stress status. CONCLUSION: These data provide the first evidence of psychological stress-related visceral analgesia in rats that was enhanced by chronic intake of ERF prebiotic.

  3. Curcumin enhances recovery of pancreatic islets from cellular stress induced inflammation and apoptosis in diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Kahkashan; Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@jcbose.ac.in

    2015-02-01

    The phytochemical, curcumin, has been reported to play many beneficial roles. However, under diabetic conditions, the detail mechanism of its beneficial action in the glucose homeostasis regulatory organ, pancreas, is poorly understood. The present study has been designed and carried out to explore the role of curcumin in the pancreatic tissue of STZ induced and cellular stress mediated diabetes in eight weeks old male Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal dose of STZ (65 mg/kg body weight). Post to diabetes induction, animals were treated with curcumin at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for eight weeks. Underlying molecular and cellular mechanism was determined using various biochemical assays, DNA fragmentation, FACS, histology, immunoblotting and ELISA. Treatment with curcumin reduced blood glucose level, increased plasma insulin and mitigated oxidative stress related markers. In vivo and in vitro experimental results revealed increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL1-β and IFN-γ), reduced level of cellular defense proteins (Nrf-2 and HO-1) and glucose transporter (GLUT-2) along with enhanced levels of signaling molecules of ER stress dependent and independent apoptosis (cleaved Caspase-12/9/8/3) in STZ administered group. Treatment with curcumin ameliorated all the adverse changes and helps the organ back to its normal physiology. Results suggest that curcumin protects pancreatic beta-cells by attenuating inflammatory responses, and inhibiting ER/mitochondrial dependent and independent pathways of apoptosis and crosstalk between them. This uniqueness and absence of any detectable adverse effect proposes the possibility of using this molecule as an effective protector in the cellular stress mediated diabetes mellitus. - Highlights: • STZ induced cellular stress plays a vital role in pancreatic dysfunction. • Cellular stress causes inflammation, pancreatic islet cell death and diabetes. • Deregulation of Nrf-2

  4. Ultrasound-induced transformation of fluorescent organic nanoparticles from a molecular rotor into rhomboidal nanocrystals with enhanced emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Matthias; Torres, Tomás; Barone, Vincenzo; Brancato, Giuseppe; Guldi, Dirk M; Bottari, Giovanni

    2014-11-04

    Fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) based on aggregation-induced emission (AIE) are receiving increasing attention owing to their simple preparation, enhanced optical properties, and a wide range of applications. Therefore, finding simple methods to tune the structural and emissive properties of FONs is highly desirable. In this context, we discuss the preparation of highly emissive, amorphous AIE spherical nanoparticles based on a structurally-simple molecular rotor and their sonochemical transformation into rhomboidal nanocrystals. Interestingly, the ultrasound-induced modification of the morphology is accompanied by a remarkable enhancement in the stability and emission of the resulting nanocrystals. Detailed characterization of both spherical and rhomboidal nanoparticles was carried out by means of several microscopic, crystallographic, and spectroscopic techniques as well as quantum mechanical calculations. In a nutshell, this work provides a unique example of the ultrasound-induced switching of morphology, stability, and emission in FONs.

  5. Light-induced symmetry breaking and related giant enhancement of nonlinear properties in CdZnTe:V crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwartz, Sharon; Weil, Raoul; Segev, Mordechai; Lakin, Eugene; Zolotoyabko, Emil; Menon, Vinod M; Forrest, Stephen R; El-Hanany, Uri

    2006-10-02

    We report on enormous light-induced reversible strain effects in CdZnTe:V crystals, which lead to a remarkable enhancement of their nonlinear properties, such as electrostriction and electro-optic effects. Using both high resolution x-ray diffraction and optical interferometry we measure light-induced relative deformation of the initial crystalline lattice (changes in d-spacings) up to 0.15%. The experimental findings are attributed to light-induced breaking of the initial cubic crystalline symmetry. Our results point to a family of inorganic materials whose nonlinear properties can be remarkably enhanced by light, offering new possibilities for nonlinear frequency conversion, generation of Terahertz radiation, electro-optic modulation, and self-deflection of optical beams.

  6. The mechanism of the nitric oxide-mediated enhancement of tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced DNA single strand breakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidarelli, Andrea; Clementi, Emilio; Sciorati, Clara; Cantoni, Orazio

    1998-01-01

    Caffeine (Cf) enhances the DNA cleavage induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (tB-OOH) in U937 cells via a mechanism involving Ca2+-dependent mitochondrial formation of DNA-damaging species (Guidarelli et al., 1997b). Nitric oxide (NO) is not involved in this process since U937 cells do not express the constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS).Treatment with the NO donors S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP, 10 μM), or S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, 300 μM), however, potentiated the DNA strand scission induced by 200 μM tB-OOH. The DNA lesions generated by tB-OOH alone, or combined with SNAP, were repaired with superimposable kinetics and were insensitive to anti-oxidants and peroxynitrite scavengers but suppressed by iron chelators.SNAP or GSNO did not cause mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation but their enhancing effects on the tB-OOH-induced DNA strand scission were prevented by ruthenium red, an inhibitor of the calcium uniporter of mitochondria. Furthermore, the enhancing effects of both SNAP and GSNO were identical to and not additive with those promoted by the Ca2+-mobilizing agents Cf or ATP.The SNAP- or GSNO-mediated enhancement of the tB-OOH-induced DNA cleavage was abolished by the respiratory chain inhibitors rotenone and myxothiazol and was not apparent in respiration-deficient cells.It is concluded that, in cells which do not express the enzyme cNOS, exogenous NO enhances the accumulation of DNA single strand breaks induced by tB-OOH via a mechanism involving inhibition of complex III. PMID:9846647

  7. Enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and intrinsic excitability of NAc medium spiny neurons in adult but not adolescent rats susceptible to diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F.; Maust, Joel D.; Corthell, John T.; Ferrario, Carrie R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Basal and diet-induced differences in mesolimbic function, particularly within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), may contribute to human obesity; these differences may be more pronounced in susceptible populations. Objectives We determined whether there are differences in cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity in rats that are susceptible vs. resistant to diet-induced obesity, and basal differences in the striatal neuron function in adult and adolescent obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Methods Susceptible and resistant outbred rats were identified based on “junk-food” diet-induced obesity. Then, the induction and expression of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization, which is mediated by enhanced striatal function and is associated with increased motivation for rewards and reward-paired cues, were evaluated. Basal differences in mesolimbic function were examined in selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats (P70-80 and P30-40) using both cocaine induced locomotion and whole-cell patch clamping approaches in NAc core medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Results In rats that became obese after eating “junk-food”, the expression of locomotor sensitization was enhanced compared to non-obese rats, with similarly strong responses to 7.5 and 15 mg/kg cocaine. Without diet manipulation, obesity-prone rats were hyper-responsive to the acute locomotor-activating effects of cocaine, and the intrinsic excitability of NAc core MSNs was enhanced by ~60% at positive and negative potentials. These differences were present in adult, but not adolescent rats. Post-synaptic glutamatergic transmission was similar between groups. Conclusions Mesolimbic systems, particularly NAc MSNs, are hyper-responsive in obesity-prone individuals; and interactions between predisposition and experience influence neurobehavioral plasticity in ways that may promote weight gain and hamper weight loss in susceptible rats. PMID:26612617

  8. Enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and intrinsic excitability of NAc medium spiny neurons in adult but not in adolescent rats susceptible to diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F; Maust, Joel D; Corthell, John T; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-03-01

    Basal and diet-induced differences in mesolimbic function, particularly within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), may contribute to human obesity; these differences may be more pronounced in susceptible populations. We examined differences in cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity in rats that are susceptible vs. resistant to diet-induced obesity and basal differences in striatal neuron function in adult and in adolescent obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Susceptible and resistant outbred rats were identified based on "junk-food" diet-induced obesity. Then, the induction and expression of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization, which is mediated by enhanced striatal function and is associated with increased motivation for rewards and reward-paired cues, were evaluated. Basal differences in mesolimbic function were examined in selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats (P70-80 and P30-40) using both cocaine-induced locomotion and whole-cell patch clamping approaches in NAc core medium spiny neurons (MSNs). In rats that became obese after eating junk-food, the expression of locomotor sensitization was enhanced compared to non-obese rats, with similarly strong responses to 7.5 and 15 mg/kg cocaine. Without diet manipulation, obesity-prone rats were hyper-responsive to the acute locomotor-activating effects of cocaine, and the intrinsic excitability of NAc core MSNs was enhanced by ∼60 % at positive and negative potentials. These differences were present in adult, but not adolescent rats. Post-synaptic glutamatergic transmission was similar between groups. Mesolimbic systems, particularly NAc MSNs, are hyper-responsive in obesity-prone individuals, and interactions between predisposition and experience influence neurobehavioral plasticity in ways that may promote weight gain and hamper weight loss in susceptible rats.

  9. Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin I. Bayala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter in the energy balance model. However, the spatial resolution of the retrieved LST from sensors with high temporal resolution is not accurate enough to be used in local-scale studies. To explore the LST–Normalised Difference Vegetation Index relationship potential and obtain thermal images with high spatial resolution, six enhanced image sharpening techniques were assessed: the disaggregation procedure for radiometric surface temperatures (TsHARP, the Dry Edge Quadratic Function, the Difference of Edges (Ts∗DL and three models supported by the relationship of surface temperature and water stress of vegetation (Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Infrared Index and Soil wetness index. Energy Balance Station data and in situ measurements were used to validate the enhanced LST images over a mixed agricultural landscape in the sub-humid Pampean Region of Argentina (PRA, during 2006–2010. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS thermal datasets were assessed for different spatial resolutions (e.g., 960, 720 and 240 m and the performances were compared with global and local TsHARP procedures. Results suggest that the Ts∗DL technique is the most adequate for simulating LST to high spatial resolution over the heterogeneous landscape of a sub-humid region, showing an average root mean square error of less than 1 K.

  10. GLP-1R agonism enhances adjustable gastric banding in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habegger, Kirk M; Kirchner, Henriette; Yi, Chun-Xia; Heppner, Kristy M; Sweeney, Dan; Ottaway, Nickki; Holland, Jenna; Amburgy, Sarah; Raver, Christine; Krishna, Radhakrishna; Müller, Timo D; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Pfluger, Paul T; Obici, Silvana; DiMarchi, Richard D; D'Alessio, David A; Seeley, Randy J; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2013-09-01

    Bariatric procedures vary in efficacy, but overall are more effective than behavioral and pharmaceutical treatment. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass causes increased secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and reduces body weight (BW) more than adjustable gastric banding (AGB), which does not trigger increased GLP-1 secretion. Since GLP-1-based drugs consistently reduce BW, we hypothesized that GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists would augment the effects of AGB. Male Long-Evans rats with diet-induced obesity received AGB implantation or sham surgery. GLP-1R agonism, cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1-R) antagonism, or vehicle was combined with inflation to evaluate interaction between AGB and pharmacological treatments. GLP1-R agonism reduced BW in both sham and AGB rats (left uninflated) compared with vehicle-treated animals. Subsequent band inflation was ineffective in vehicle-treated rats but enhanced weight loss stimulated by GLP1-R agonism. In contrast, there was no additional BW loss when CB1-R antagonism was given with AGB. We found band inflation to trigger neural activation in areas of the nucleus of the solitary tract known to be targeted by GLP-1R agonism, offering a potential mechanism for the interaction. These data show that GLP-1R agonism, but not CB1-R antagonism, improves weight loss achieved by AGB and suggest an opportunity to optimize bariatric surgery with adjunctive pharmacotherapy.

  11. Ultrasmall Organic Nanoparticles with Aggregation-Induced Emission and Enhanced Quantum Yield for Fluorescence Cell Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Suying; Bai, Xilin; Ma, Jingwen; Xu, Minmin; Hu, Gaofei; James, Tony D; Wang, Leyu

    2016-08-02

    The use of fluorescence probes for biomedical imaging has attracted significant attention over recent years owing to their high resolution at cellular level. The probes are available in many formats including small particle size based imaging agents which are considered to be promising candidates, due to their excellent stabilities. Yet, concerns over the potential cytotoxicity effects of inorganic luminescent particles have led to questions about their suitability for imaging applications. Exploration of alternatives inspired us to use organic fluorophores with aggregation-induced emission (AIE), prepared by functionalizing the amine group on tetraphenylethene with 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl isocyanate. The as-synthesized novel AIE fluorophore (TPE-F) display enhanced quantum yield and longer lifetime as compared with its counterparts (4,4',4″,4‴-(ethene-1,1,2,2-tetrayl)tetraaniline, TPE-AM). Furthermore, the TPE-F was encapsulated into small-size organic nanoparticles (NPs; dynamic light scattering size, ∼10 nm) with polysuccinimide (PSI). The biocompatibility, excellent stability, bright fluorescence, and selective cell targeting of these NPs enable the as-prepared TPE-F NPs to be suitable for specific fluorescence cell imaging.

  12. Cognitive Performance Enhancement Induced by Caffeine, Carbohydrate and Guarana Mouth Rinsing during Submaximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pomportes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of serial mouth rinsing (MR with nutritional supplements on cognitive performance (i.e., cognitive control and time perception during a 40-min submaximal exercise. Twenty-four participants completed 4 counterbalanced experimental sessions, during which they performed MR with either placebo (PL, carbohydrate (CHO: 1.6 g/25 mL, guarana complex (GUAc: 0.4 g/25 mL or caffeine (CAF: 67 mg/25 mL before and twice during exercise. The present study provided some important new insights regarding the specific changes in cognitive performance induced by nutritional supplements. The main results were: (1 CHO, CAF and GUA MR likely led participants to improve temporal performance; (2 CAF MR likely improved cognitive control; and (3 CHO MR led to a likely decrease in subjective perception of effort at the end of the exercise compared to PL, GUA and CAF. Moreover, results have shown that performing 40-min submaximal exercise enhances information processing in terms of both speed and accuracy, improves temporal performance and does not alter cognitive control. The present study opens up new perspectives regarding the use of MR to optimize cognitive performance during physical exercise.

  13. Enhancement of photovoltaic response in multilayer MoS2 induced by plasma doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, Sungjin; Kim, Hyunsoo; Chen, Mikai; Nam, Hongsuk; Guo, L Jay; Meyhofer, Edgar; Liang, Xiaogan

    2014-05-27

    Layered transition-metal dichalcogenides hold promise for making ultrathin-film photovoltaic devices with a combination of excellent photovoltaic performance, superior flexibility, long lifetime, and low manufacturing cost. Engineering the proper band structures of such layered materials is essential to realize such potential. Here, we present a plasma-assisted doping approach for significantly improving the photovoltaic response in multilayer MoS2. In this work, we fabricated and characterized photovoltaic devices with a vertically stacked indium tin oxide electrode/multilayer MoS2/metal electrode structure. Utilizing a plasma-induced p-doping approach, we are able to form p-n junctions in MoS2 layers that facilitate the collection of photogenerated carriers, enhance the photovoltages, and decrease reverse dark currents. Using plasma-assisted doping processes, we have demonstrated MoS2-based photovoltaic devices exhibiting very high short-circuit photocurrent density values up to 20.9 mA/cm(2) and reasonably good power-conversion efficiencies up to 2.8% under AM1.5G illumination, as well as high external quantum efficiencies. We believe that this work provides important scientific insights for leveraging the optoelectronic properties of emerging atomically layered two-dimensional materials for photovoltaic and other optoelectronic applications.

  14. Strain-Induced Enhancement of the Electron Energy Relaxation in Strongly Correlated Superconductors

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    C. Gadermaier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We use femtosecond optical spectroscopy to systematically measure the primary energy relaxation rate Γ_{1} of photoexcited carriers in cuprate and pnictide superconductors. We find that Γ_{1} increases monotonically with increased negative strain in the crystallographic a axis. Generally, the Bardeen-Shockley deformation potential theorem and, specifically, pressure-induced Raman shifts reported in the literature suggest that increased negative strain enhances electron-phonon coupling, which implies that the observed direct correspondence between a and Γ_{1} is consistent with the canonical assignment of Γ_{1} to the electron-phonon interaction. The well-known nonmonotonic dependence of the superconducting critical temperature T_{c} on the a-axis strain is also reflected in a systematic dependence T_{c} on Γ_{1}, with a distinct maximum at intermediate values (∼16  ps^{−1} at room temperature. The empirical nonmonotonic systematic variation of T_{c} with the strength of the electron-phonon interaction provides us with unique insight into the role of electron-phonon interaction in relation to the mechanism of high-T_{c} superconductivity as a crossover phenomenon.

  15. Enhanced sialylation of the K 562 cell surface membrane glycoconjugates induced by adriamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentesaux, C; Laplace, B; Madoulet, C; Rebel, G; Jardillier, J C

    1987-01-01

    The antitumor agent Adriamycin (ADM) increases the sialic acid content of K 562 cell plasma membrane glycoconjugates. Total and neuraminidase-sensitive sialic acid are enhanced 3 to 4 times when expressed per 10(6) cells. This fact is a consequence of an increase in cell surface and in plasma membrane sialic acid density. Protein-bound and lipid-bound sialic acid are increased in the same way and exhibit the same ratio 90/10. After external radiolabelling by periodide-borotritide and neuraminidase-galactose oxidase-borotritide treatment, only some quantitative changes can be observed. Fractionation of gangliosides by thin layer chromatography gives the same results. Further experiments lead to the following conclusions: the hypersialylation cannot be explained by a G2-block in the cell cycle induced by ADM; it is not a consequence of a differentiation process; it is not observed in a population of adriamycin-resistant K 562 cells and can therefore be considered as a metabolic event linked to the cytotoxic activity of ADM.

  16. Fluorescent lighting enhances chemically induced papilloma formation and increases susceptibility to tumor challenge in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskemann, A; Sturm, E; Klehr, N W

    1986-01-01

    To study whether fluorescent lighting at work might increase carcinogenesis, hairless mice were exposed to a bank of six 36 W standard fluorescent lamps (neutral-white) every workday for 8 h at an illuminance level of 1,000 lx. For comparison, other mice were exposed to UVB radiation or to simulated solar radiation. In experiment A the animals were irradiated for 6 weeks prior to the application of 7,12-dimethyl-benzanthracene once and--following an interval of 2 days--for 10 weeks after DMBA application. The number of blue nevi and papillomas was enhanced by exposure to all spectra 10 weeks after chemical tumor induction. In experiment B the animals were irradiated for 6 weeks prior to the transplantation of UV-induced fibrosarcoma cells from syngeneic mice into the dorsal and ventral skin. Within the following 4 months fibrosarcoma developed in the dorsal skin exposed to the fluorescent lighting and to the UVB radiation, as well as in the non-irradiated ventral skin of 10-20% of the mice. The results suggest that fluorescent lighting as used in certain work environments may increase carcinogenesis caused by other factors.

  17. Curcumin enhances the activity of fluconazole against Cryptococcus gattii-induced cryptococcosis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, D L; Magalhães, T F F; Dos Santos, J R A; de Paula, T P; Modolo, L V; de Fátima, A; Buzanello Martins, C V; Santos, D A; de Resende-Stoianoff, M A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo activities of pure curcumin, as well as its combination with fluconazole, against Cryptococcus gattii. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of curcumin and its interactions with fluconazole against C. gattii were assessed in vitro using standard methods. This same combination was used to treat C. gattii-induced cryptococcosis in mice. The behavioural and functional assessment of the mice during treatment was also performed. The average MIC for curcumin was 19·8 μg ml(-1) . Its combination with fluconazole resulted in FICΣ (fractional inhibitory concentration index) values between 0·79 and 2·29. Curcumin (alone or combined with fluconazole) significantly reduced pulmonary damage and fungal burden in the brain. No colonies were found in the brain following combination treatment, which was also confirmed by the improved behaviour of mice. The combination therapy with curcumin and fluconazole was the most effective among the treatments tested, as in addition to reducing the fungal burden and damage on lung tissues, it was able to eliminate the fungal burden in the brain, enhancing the survival of mice. This study points to the possibility of using curcumin in combination with fluconazole as a clinical treatment of cryptococcosis. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Drug perfusion enhancement in tissue model by steady streaming induced by oscillating microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jin Sun; Kwon, Yong Seok; Lee, Kyung Ho; Jeong, Woowon; Chung, Sang Kug; Rhee, Kyehan

    2014-01-01

    Drug delivery into neurological tissue is challenging because of the low tissue permeability. Ultrasound incorporating microbubbles has been applied to enhance drug delivery into these tissues, but the effects of a streaming flow by microbubble oscillation on drug perfusion have not been elucidated. In order to clarify the physical effects of steady streaming on drug delivery, an experimental study on dye perfusion into a tissue model was performed using microbubbles excited by acoustic waves. The surface concentration and penetration length of the drug were increased by 12% and 13%, respectively, with streaming flow. The mass of dye perfused into a tissue phantom for 30s was increased by about 20% in the phantom with oscillating bubbles. A computational model that considers fluid structure interaction for streaming flow fields induced by oscillating bubbles was developed, and mass transfer of the drug into the porous tissue model was analyzed. The computed flow fields agreed with the theoretical solutions, and the dye concentration distribution in the tissue agreed well with the experimental data. The computational results showed that steady streaming with a streaming velocity of a few millimeters per second promotes mass transfer into a tissue. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Targeting catalase but not peroxiredoxins enhances arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis in K562 cells.

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    Li-Li Song

    Full Text Available Despite considerable efficacy of arsenic trioxide (As2O3 in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL treatment, other non-APL leukemias, such as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, are less sensitive to As2O3 treatment. However, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Here we show that relative As2O3-resistant K562 cells have significantly lower ROS levels than As2O3-sensitive NB4 cells. We compared the expression of several antioxidant enzymes in these two cell lines and found that peroxiredoxin 1/2/6 and catalase are expressed at high levels in K562 cells. We further investigated the possible role of peroxirdoxin 1/2/6 and catalase in determining the cellular sensitivity to As2O3. Interestingly, knockdown of peroxiredoxin 1/2/6 did not increase the susceptibility of K562 cells to As2O3. On the contrary, knockdown of catalase markedly enhanced As2O3-induced apoptosis. In addition, we provide evidence that overexpression of BCR/ABL cannot increase the expression of PRDX 1/2/6 and catalase. The current study reveals that the functional role of antioxidant enzymes is cellular context and treatment agents dependent; targeting catalase may represent a novel strategy to improve the efficacy of As2O3 in CML treatment.

  20. Pyrene-Phosphonate Conjugate: Aggregation-Induced Enhanced Emission, and Selective Fe3+Ions Sensing Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padghan, Sachin D; Bhosale, Rajesh S; Bhosale, Sidhanath V; Antolasic, Frank; Al Kobaisi, Mohammad; Bhosale, Sheshanath V

    2017-08-29

    A new pyrene-phosphonate colorimetric receptor 1 has been designed and synthesized in a one-step process via amide bond formation between pyrene butyric acid chloride and phosphonate-appended aniline. The pyrene-phosphonate receptor 1 showed aggregation-induced enhanced emission (AIEE) properties in water/acetonitrile (ACN) solutions. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) characterization revealed that the aggregates of receptor 1 at 80% water fraction have an average size of ≈142 nm. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis confirmed the formation of spherical aggregates upon solvent evaporation. The sensing properties of receptor 1 were investigated by UV-vis, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, and other optical methods. Among the tested metal ions, receptor 1 is capable of recognizing the Fe 3+ ion selectively. The changes in spectral measurements were explained on the basis of complex formation. The composition of receptor 1 and Fe 3+ ions was determined by using Job's plot and found to be 1:1. The receptor 1 -Fe 3 + complex showed a reversible UV-vis response in the presence of EDTA.

  1. Enhanced vaginal drug delivery through the use of hypotonic formulations that induce fluid uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Laura M; Hoen, Timothy E; Maisel, Katharina; Cone, Richard A; Hanes, Justin S

    2013-09-01

    Mucosal epithelia use osmotic gradients for fluid absorption and secretion. We hypothesized that administration of hypotonic solutions would induce fluid uptake that could be advantageous for rapidly delivering drugs through mucus to the vaginal epithelium. We found that hypotonic formulations markedly increased the rate at which small molecule drugs and mucoinert nanoparticles (mucus-penetrating particles, or MPP), but not conventional mucoadhesive nanoparticles (CP), reached the vaginal epithelial surface in vivo in mice. Additionally, hypotonic formulations greatly enhanced drug and MPP delivery to the entire epithelial surface, including deep into the vaginal folds (rugae) that drugs or MPP in isotonic formulations failed to reach efficiently. However, hypotonic formulations caused unencapsulated "free" drugs to be drawn through the epithelium, reducing vaginal retention. In contrast, hypotonic formulations caused MPP to accumulate rapidly and uniformly on vaginal surfaces, ideally positioned for localized sustained drug delivery. Using a mouse model of vaginal genital herpes (HSV-2) infection, we found that hypotonic delivery of free drug led to improved immediate protection, but diminished longer-term protection. In contrast, as we previously demonstrated, hypotonic delivery of drug via MPP led to better long-term retention and protection in the vagina. Importantly, we demonstrate that slightly hypotonic formulations provided rapid and uniform delivery of MPP to the entire vaginal surface, thus enabling formulations with minimal risk of epithelial toxicity. Hypotonic formulations for vaginal drug delivery via MPP may significantly improve prevention and treatment of reproductive tract diseases and disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ΔNp73 enhances promoter activity of TGF-β induced genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Niemantsverdriet

    Full Text Available The p53 homolog p73 is frequently overexpressed in cancers. Especially the transactivation domain truncated isoform ΔNp73 has oncogenic properties and its upregulation is associated with poor patient survival. It has been shown that ΔNp73 has an inhibitory effect on the transactivation capacity of p53 and other p73 isoforms. Here, we confirm this finding but surprisingly find that ΔNp73 may also stimulate the expression of TGF-β signaling targets. Promoter-reporter analysis indicated that the presence of Smad Binding Elements (SBE in the promoter is sufficient for stimulation of gene expression by ΔNp73. TGF-β signaling was less efficient in ΔNp73 downregulated cells, whereas tetracycline induced ΔNp73 increased expression of endogenous TGF-β regulated genes PAI-1 and Col1a1. Pull-down assays with SBE DNA suggest that ΔNp73 enhances smad3/4 binding to SBEs, thereby stimulating TGF-β signaling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed a direct interaction between ΔNp73 and SBE. Given the role of TGF-β signaling in carcinogenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis via targets like PAI-1 and Col1a1, our data suggest a model on how this effect of ΔNp73 could be a contributing factor in cancer progression.

  3. Toward an Enhanced Sampling Molecular Dynamics Method for Studying Ligand-Induced Conformational Changes in Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ole Juul; Grouleff, Julie; Needham, Perri; Walker, Ross C; Jensen, Frank

    2015-11-19

    Current enhanced sampling molecular dynamics methods for studying large conformational changes in proteins suffer from certain limitations. These include, among others, the need for user defined collective variables, the prerequisite of both start and end point structures of the conformational change, and the need for a priori knowledge of the amount by which to boost specific parts of the potential. In this paper, a framework is proposed for a molecular dynamics method for studying ligand-induced conformational changes, in which the nonbonded interactions between the ligand and the protein are used to calculate a biasing force. The method requires only a single input structure, and does not entail the use of collective variables. We provide a proof-of-concept for accelerating conformational changes in three simple test molecules, as well as promising results for two proteins known to undergo domain closure upon ligand binding. For the ribose-binding protein, backbone root-mean-square deviations as low as 0.75 Å compared to the crystal structure of the closed conformation are obtained within 50 ns simulations, whereas no domain closures are observed in unbiased simulations. A skewed closed structure is obtained for the glutamine-binding protein at high bias values, indicating that specific protein-ligand interactions might suppress important protein-protein interactions.

  4. Enhanced fat consumption potentiates acrylamide-induced oxidative stress in epididymis and epididymal sperm and effect spermatogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J X; Yue, W B; Ren, Y S; Zhang, C X

    2010-02-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) and high contents of fat could be found co-existent in many foods processed by high temperature, such as deep-frying and roasting. This study investigated the effect of enhanced fat consumption on deficits of spermatogenesis induced by ACR, and explored potential mechanisms of oxidative damage involved in this pathology in mice. Results show that enhanced feeding of corn oil and pork fat on mice potentiated the decreases of spermatogonia along with mature sperms after treatment of ACR, and that spermatozoa quality is significantly reduced as a result of enhanced feeding of corn oil and pork fat on mice treated with ACR. Moreover, enhanced consumption of corn oil and pork fat potentiated the up-regulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) level in epididymal sperm and cauda epididymides, also up-regulated level of Protein carbonyls (PCOs) in cauda epididymides, of mice after treatment of ACR. Last, enhanced consumption of corn oil and pork fat potentiated the reduced activity of superoxide dismutases (SOD) in epididymal sperm, corpus, and cauda epididymides, also reduced activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in cauda epididymides, of mice treated with ACR. These data suggest that enhanced feeding of corn oil and pork fat on mice potentiates ACR-induced oxidative stress in the epididymis and epididymal sperm and a subsequent effect on spermatogenesis.

  5. Pre-B Cell Receptor Signaling Induces Immunoglobulin κ Locus Accessibility by Functional Redistribution of Enhancer-Mediated Chromatin Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadhouders, Ralph; de Bruijn, Marjolein J. W.; Rother, Magdalena B.; Yuvaraj, Saravanan; de Almeida, Claudia Ribeiro; Kolovos, Petros; Van Zelm, Menno C.; van Ijcken, Wilfred; Grosveld, Frank; Soler, Eric; Hendriks, Rudi W.

    2014-01-01

    During B cell development, the precursor B cell receptor (pre-BCR) checkpoint is thought to increase immunoglobulin κ light chain (Igκ) locus accessibility to the V(D)J recombinase. Accordingly, pre-B cells lacking the pre-BCR signaling molecules Btk or Slp65 showed reduced germline Vκ transcription. To investigate whether pre-BCR signaling modulates Vκ accessibility through enhancer-mediated Igκ locus topology, we performed chromosome conformation capture and sequencing analyses. These revealed that already in pro-B cells the κ enhancers robustly interact with the ∼3.2 Mb Vκ region and its flanking sequences. Analyses in wild-type, Btk, and Slp65 single- and double-deficient pre-B cells demonstrated that pre-BCR signaling reduces interactions of both enhancers with Igκ locus flanking sequences and increases interactions of the 3′κ enhancer with Vκ genes. Remarkably, pre-BCR signaling does not significantly affect interactions between the intronic enhancer and Vκ genes, which are already robust in pro-B cells. Both enhancers interact most frequently with highly used Vκ genes, which are often marked by transcription factor E2a. We conclude that the κ enhancers interact with the Vκ region already in pro-B cells and that pre-BCR signaling induces accessibility through a functional redistribution of long-range chromatin interactions within the Vκ region, whereby the two enhancers play distinct roles. PMID:24558349

  6. Sarcosine attenuates toluene-induced motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not brain stimulation reward enhancement in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Ming-Huan [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Institute of Neuroscience, National Changchi University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Shiang-Sheng [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Department of Pharmacy, Yuli Veterans Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Stoker, Astrid K.; Markou, Athina [Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Chen, Hwei-Hsien, E-mail: hwei@nhri.org.tw [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Division of Mental Health and Addiction Medicine, Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-01

    Toluene, a widely used and commonly abused organic solvent, produces various behavioral disturbances, including motor incoordination and cognitive impairment. Toluene alters the function of a large number of receptors and ion channels. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been suggested to play a critical role in toluene-induced behavioral manifestations. The present study determined the effects of various toluene doses on motor coordination, recognition memory, body temperature, and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds in mice. Additionally, the effects of sarcosine on the behavioral and physiological effects induced by toluene were evaluated. Sarcosine may reverse toluene-induced behavioral manifestations by acting as an NMDA receptor co-agonist and by inhibiting the effects of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1). Mice were treated with toluene alone or combined with sarcosine pretreatment and assessed for rotarod performance, object recognition memory, rectal temperature, and ICSS thresholds. Toluene dose-dependently induced motor incoordination, recognition memory impairment, and hypothermia and lowered ICSS thresholds. Sarcosine pretreatment reversed toluene-induced changes in rotarod performance, novel object recognition, and rectal temperature but not ICSS thresholds. These findings suggest that the sarcosine-induced potentiation of NMDA receptors may reverse motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not the enhancement of brain stimulation reward function associated with toluene exposure. Sarcosine may be a promising compound to prevent acute toluene intoxications by occupational or intentional exposure. -- Highlights: ► Toluene induces impairments in Rotarod test and novel object recognition test. ► Toluene lowers rectal temperature and ICSS thresholds in mice. ► Sarcosine reverses toluene-induced changes in motor, memory and body temperature. ► Sarcosine pretreatment does not affect toluene-induced

  7. Re-expression of ARHI (DIRAS3 induces autophagy in breast cancer cells and enhances the inhibitory effect of paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bast Robert C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ARHI is a Ras-related imprinted gene that inhibits cancer cell growth and motility. ARHI is downregulated in the majority of breast cancers, and loss of its expression is associated with its progression from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS to invasive disease. In ovarian cancer, re-expression of ARHI induces autophagy and leads to autophagic death in cell culture; however, ARHI re-expression enables ovarian cancer cells to remain dormant when they are grown in mice as xenografts. The purpose of this study is to examine whether ARHI induces autophagy in breast cancer cells and to evaluate the effects of ARHI gene re-expression in combination with paclitaxel. Methods Re-expression of ARHI was achieved by transfection, by treatment with trichostatin A (TSA or by a combination of TSA and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC in breast cancer cell cultures and by liposomal delivery of ARHI in breast tumor xenografts. Results ARHI re-expression induces autophagy in breast cancer cells, and ARHI is essential for the induction of autophagy. When ARHI was re-expressed in breast cancer cells treated with paclitaxel, the growth inhibitory effect of paclitaxel was enhanced in both the cell culture and the xenografts. Although paclitaxel alone did not induce autophagy in breast cancer cells, it enhanced ARHI-induced autophagy. Conversely, ARHI re-expression promoted paclitaxel-induced apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Conclusions ARHI re-expression induces autophagic cell death in breast cancer cells and enhances the inhibitory effects of paclitaxel by promoting autophagy, apoptosis, and G2/M cell cycle arrest.

  8. Electron-ion relaxation time dependent signal enhancement in ultrafast double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, S. S.; Diwakar, P. K.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2013-07-22

    We investigated the emission properties of collinear double-pulse compared to single-pulse ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Our results showed that the significant signal enhancement noticed in the double pulse scheme is strongly correlated to the characteristic electron-ion relaxation time and hence to the inter-pulse delays. Spectroscopic excitation temperature analysis showed that the improvement in signal enhancement is caused by the delayed pulse efficient reheating of the pre-plume. The signal enhancement is also found to be related to the upper excitation energy of the selected lines, i.e., more enhancement noticed for lines originating from higher excitation energy levels, indicating reheating is the major mechanism behind the signal improvement.

  9. Electron-ion relaxation time dependent signal enhancement in ultrafast double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harilal, S. S.; Diwakar, P. K.; Hassanein, A.

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the emission properties of collinear double-pulse compared to single-pulse ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Our results showed that the significant signal enhancement noticed in the double pulse scheme is strongly correlated to the characteristic electron-ion relaxation time and hence to the inter-pulse delays. Spectroscopic excitation temperature analysis showed that the improvement in signal enhancement is caused by the delayed pulse efficient reheating of the pre-plume. The signal enhancement is also found to be related to the upper excitation energy of the selected lines, i.e., more enhancement noticed for lines originating from higher excitation energy levels, indicating reheating is the major mechanism behind the signal improvement.

  10. Attenuation of polyglutamine-induced toxicity by enhancement of mitochondrial OXPHOS in yeast and fly models of aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetenik, Andrea L.; Ocampo, Alejandro; Ruan, Kai; Zhu, Yi; Li, Chong; Zhai, R. Grace; Barrientos, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Defects in mitochondrial biogenesis and function are common in many neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington’s disease (HD). We have previously shown that in yeast models of HD, enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis through overexpression of Hap4, the catalytic subunit of the transcriptional complex that regulates mitochondrial gene expression, alleviates the growth arrest induced by expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tract peptides in rapidly dividing cells. However, the mechanism through which HAP4 overexpression exerts this protection remains unclear. Furthermore, it remains unexplored whether HAP4 overexpression and increased respiratory function during growth can also protect against polyQ-induced toxicity during yeast chronological lifespan. Here, we show that in yeast, mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) are essential for protection against the polyQ-induced growth defect by HAP4 overexpression. In addition, we show that not only increased HAP4 levels, but also alternative interventions, including calorie restriction, that result in enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis confer protection against polyQ toxicity during stationary phase. The data obtained in yeast models guided experiments in a fly model of HD, where we show that enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis can also protect against neurodegeneration and behavioral deficits. Our results suggest that therapeutic interventions aiming at the enhancement of mitochondrial respiration and OXPHOS could reduce polyQ toxicity and delay disease onset. PMID:28357370

  11. Persistent attenuation and enhancement of the earthworm main muscle contraction generator response induced by repeated stimulation of a peripheral neuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.C. Chang

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Responses evoked in the earthworm, Amynthas hawayanus, main muscle contraction generator M-2 (postsynaptic mechanical-stimulus-sensitive neuron by threshold mechanical stimuli in 2-s intertrial intervals (ITI were used as the control or unconditioned responses (UR. Their attenuation induced by decreasing these intervals in non-associative conditioning and their enhancement induced by associating the unconditioned stimuli (US to a train of short (0.1 s hyperpolarizing electrical substitutive conditioning stimuli (SCS in the Peri-Kästchen (PK neuron were measured in four parameters, i.e., peak numbers (N and amplitude (averaged from 120 responses, sum of these amplitudes (SAMP and the highest peak amplitude (V over a period of 4 min. Persistent attenuation similar to habituation was induced by decreasing the control ITI to 0.5 s and 2.0 s in non-associative conditioning within less than 4 min. Dishabituation was induced by randomly pairing one of these habituated US to an electrical stimulus in the PK neuron. All four parameters of the UR were enhanced by forward (SCS-US, but not backward (US-SCS, association of the US with 25, 100 and 250-Hz trains of SCS with 40-ms interstimulus intervals (ISI for 4 min and persisted for another 4 min after turning off the SCS. The enhancement of these parameters was proportional to the SCS frequencies in the train. No UR was evoked by the SCS when the US was turned off after 4 min of classical conditioning.

  12. Enhanced Au induced lateral crystallization in electron-irradiated amorphous Ge on SiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakiyama, Shin; Kaneko, Takahiro; Ootsubo, Takanobu; Sakai, Takatsugu; Nakashima, Kazutoshi; Moto, Kenta; Yoneoka, Masashi; Takakura, Kenichiro; Tsunoda, Isao, E-mail: isao_tsunoda@kumamoto-nct.ac.jp

    2014-04-30

    We have investigated the low temperature of Au induced lateral crystallization of electron irradiated amorphous Ge on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. The reduction of the critical annealing time to cause the Au induced lateral crystallization is realized by high energy electron irradiation. In addition, the lateral crystallization region of the sample with electron irradiation has high crystalline quality as well as the sample without electron irradiation. We have speculated that the Au induced lateral crystallization of amorphous Ge on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate was enhanced by electron irradiation, due to the introduction of point defects into amorphous Ge able to diffuse easily of Au atoms. - Highlights: • Au induced lateral crystallization of electron irradiated Ge is investigated. • Crystallization annealing time is significantly reduced. • High crystalline quality of lateral region was not changed by electron irradiation.

  13. Enhancement of ATRA-induced differentiation of neuroblastoma cells with LOX/COX inhibitors: an expression profiling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermanova Marketa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We performed expression profiling of two neuroblastoma cell lines, SK-N-BE(2 and SH-SY5Y, after combined treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and inhibitors of lipoxygenases (LOX and cyclooxygenases (COX. This study is a continuation of our previous work confirming the possibility of enhancing ATRA-induced cell differentiation in these cell lines by the application of LOX/COX inhibitors and brings more detailed information concerning the mechanisms of the enhancement of ATRA-induced differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. Methods Caffeic acid, as an inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, and celecoxib, as an inhibitor on cyclooxygenase-2, were used in this study. Expression profiling was performed using Human Cancer Oligo GEArray membranes that cover 440 cancer-related genes. Results Cluster analyses of the changes in gene expression showed the concentration-dependent increase in genes known to be involved in the process of retinoid-induced neuronal differentiation, especially in cytoskeleton remodeling. These changes were detected in both cell lines, and they were independent of the type of specific inhibitors, suggesting a common mechanism of ATRA-induced differentiation enhancement. Furthermore, we also found overexpression of some genes in the same cell line (SK-N-BE(2 or SH-SY5Y after combined treatment with both ATRA and CA, or ATRA and CX. Finally, we also detected that gene expression was changed after treatment with the same inhibitor (CA or CX in combination with ATRA in both cell lines. Conclusions Obtained results confirmed our initial hypothesis of the common mechanism of enhancement in ATRA-induced cell differentiation via inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolic pathway.

  14. Trans-generational radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the female enhances the action of chemical mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camats, Núria; García, Francisca; Parrilla, Juan José; Calaf, Joaquim; Martín, Miguel; Caldés, Montserrat Garcia

    2008-04-02

    Genomic instability can be produced by ionising radiation, so-called radiation-induced genomic instability, and chemical mutagens. Radiation-induced genomic instability occurs in both germinal and somatic cells and also in the offspring of irradiated individuals, and it is characterised by genetic changes including chromosomal rearrangements. The majority of studies of trans-generational, radiation-induced genomic instability have been described in the male germ line, whereas the authors who have chosen the female as a model are scarce. The aim of this work is to find out the radiation-induced effects in the foetal offspring of X-ray-treated female rats and, at the same time, the possible impact of this radiation-induced genomic instability on the action of a chemical mutagen. In order to achieve both goals, the quantity and quality of chromosomal damage were analysed. In order to detect trans-generational genomic instability, a total of 4806 metaphases from foetal tissues from the foetal offspring of X-irradiated female rats (5Gy, acute dose) were analysed. The study's results showed that there is radiation-induced genomic instability: the number of aberrant metaphases and the breaks per total metaphases studied increased and were found to be statistically significant (p generational, radiation-induced chromosomal instability could influence the chromosomal behaviour of the offspring of irradiated rat females in front of a chemical agent (aphidicolin), a total of 2481 metaphases were studied. The observed results showed that there is an enhancement of the action of the chemical agent: chromosomal breaks per aberrant metaphases show significant differences (p generational, radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the foetal cells from X-ray-treated female rats and that this RIGI enhances the chromosomal damage caused by the chemical agent aphidicolin.

  15. Virus-induced enhancement of arachidonate metabolism by bovine alveolar macrophages in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laegreid, W.W.; Taylor, S.M.; Leid, R.W.; Silflow, R.M.; Evermann, J.R.; Breeze, R.G.; Liggitt, H.D.

    1989-04-01

    Virus infection of alveolar macrophages both in vivo and in vitro has been associated with a variety of changes in cellular function. Some of these changes are identical to the effects that arachidonate-derived mediators, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, have on macrophage function. Virus infection of macrophages has been previously shown to increase the output of some arachidonate metabolites, most notably PGE2. However, the effect of virus infection on arachidonate metabolism in general has not been well described. In our experiments, primary cultures of alveolar macrophages obtained from normal cattle by bronchoalveolar lavage, were infected in vitro with parainfluenza type 3 virus. At days 0 to 4 post-infection (p.i.) these cells were labelled with 3H-arachidonic acid and stimulated with either serum-coated zymosan, the calcium ionophore A23187, or phorbol myristate acetate. The complete spectrum of arachidonate-derived metabolites was determined by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography with UV and on-line radiometric monitoring of column eluant. The total output of metabolites of arachidonic acid by virus-infected alveolar macrophages was increased over that of noninfected controls (with all stimuli tested) by day 4 p.i. (P less than or equal to 0.05). The production of metabolites by the cyclooxygenase, 12- and 5-lipoxygenase enzyme systems was significantly increased, as was the release of 3H-arachidonate. The lack of stimulus specificity and the increases in arachidonate release suggest that greater substrate availability, due either to increased phospholipase activity or direct virus-membrane interaction, may be responsible for the virus-induced enhancement of metabolite output.

  16. Nogo receptor inhibition enhances functional recovery following lysolecithin-induced demyelination in mouse optic chiasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Pourabdolhossein

    Full Text Available Inhibitory factors have been implicated in the failure of remyelination in demyelinating diseases. Myelin associated inhibitors act through a common receptor called Nogo receptor (NgR that plays critical inhibitory roles in CNS plasticity. Here we investigated the effects of abrogating NgR inhibition in a non-immune model of focal demyelination in adult mouse optic chiasm.A focal area of demyelination was induced in adult mouse optic chiasm by microinjection of lysolecithin. To knock down NgR levels, siRNAs against NgR were intracerebroventricularly administered via a permanent cannula over 14 days, Functional changes were monitored by electrophysiological recording of latency of visual evoked potentials (VEPs. Histological analysis was carried out 3, 7 and 14 days post demyelination lesion. To assess the effect of NgR inhibition on precursor cell repopulation, BrdU was administered to the animals prior to the demyelination induction. Inhibition of NgR significantly restored VEPs responses following optic chiasm demyelination. These findings were confirmed histologically by myelin specific staining. siNgR application resulted in a smaller lesion size compared to control. NgR inhibition significantly increased the numbers of BrdU+/Olig2+ progenitor cells in the lesioned area and in the neurogenic zone of the third ventricle. These progenitor cells (Olig2+ or GFAP+ migrated away from this area as a function of time.Our results show that inhibition of NgR facilitate myelin repair in the demyelinated chiasm, with enhanced recruitment of proliferating cells to the lesion site. Thus, antagonizing NgR function could have therapeutic potential for demyelinating disorders such as Multiple Sclerosis.

  17. Enhanced mucosal re-epithelialization induced by short chain fatty acids in experimental colitis

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    Aguilar-Nascimento J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The short chain fatty acids (SCFA are the best nutrients for the colonocytes. Glucose is poorly used as a fuel but may be transformed into SCFA by colonic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SCFA or glucose on experimental colitis. Colitis was induced in 30 Wistar rats by colonic instillation of 4% acetic acid. Five days later they were randomized to receive twice a day colonic lavage containing saline (controls, N = 10, 10% hypertonic glucose (N = 10 or SCFA (N = 10 until day 8 when they were killed. At autopsy, the colon was removed and weighed and the mucosa was evaluated macro- and microscopically and stripped out for DNA assay. Data are reported as mean ± SD or median [range] as appropriate. All animals lost weight but there was no difference between groups. Colon weight was significantly lower in the SCFA group (3.8 ± 0.5 g than in the control (5.3 ± 2.1 g and glucose (5.2 ± 1.3 g groups (P<0.05. Macroscopically, the severity of inflammation was less in SCFA (grade 2 [1-5] than in control (grade 9 [4-10] and glucose-treated (grade 9 [2-10] animals (P<0.01. Microscopically, ulceration of the mucosa was more severe in the glucose and control groups than in the SCFA group. The DNA content of the mucosa of SCFA-treated animals (8.2 [5.0-20.2] mg/g of tissue was higher than in glucose-treated (5.1 [4.2-8.5] mg/g of tissue; P<0.01 and control (6.2 [4.5-8.9] mg/g of tissue; P<0.05 animals. We conclude that SCFA may enhance mucosal re-epithelialization in experimental colitis, whereas hypertonic glucose is of no benefit.

  18. Allicin enhances chemotherapeutic response and ameliorates tamoxifen-induced liver injury in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suddek, Ghada M

    2014-08-01

    Tamoxifen (TAM) is widely used for treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer; however, it may be accompanied with hepatic injury. Allicin is the most abundant thiosulfinate molecule from garlic with the potential to provide beneficial effects on various diseases. To elucidate the effect of commercially available allicin on both antitumor activity and liver injury of TAM. The cytotoxicity of TAM and/or allicin was evaluated in vitro using cultured Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells and in vivo against murine tumor (solid) model of EAC. TAM induced liver injury in rats by intraperitoneally (i.p.) injection at a dose of 45 mg/kg, for 7 successive days. TAM at a dose of 3 µM (IC50) significantly decreased percent survival of EAC to 52%. TAM combination with allicin (5 or 10 µM) showed a significant cytotoxic effect compared with the TAM-treated group as manifested by a decrease in percent survival of EAC to 35% and 29%, respectively. Allicin (10 mg/kg, orally) enhanced the efficacy of TAM (1 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice as manifested by a significant increase in solid tumor growth inhibition by 82% compared with 70% in the TAM group. In rats, TAM intoxication resulted in a significant decline in SOD, GSH, and total protein with significant elevation in TBARS, ALT and AST, ALP, LDH, total bilirubin, γGT, and TNF-α levels. These changes are abrogated by allicin treatment. The results suggest the beneficial role of allicin as an adjuvant to TAM in cancer treatment by alleviating liver injury.

  19. Signal enhancement in collinear double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy applied to different soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolodelli, Gustavo, E-mail: gunicolodelli@hotmail.com [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Senesi, Giorgio Saverio, E-mail: giorgio.senesi@imip.cnr.it [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, CNR, Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Romano, Renan Arnon, E-mail: renan.romano@gmail.com [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Physics Institute of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, IFSC-USP, Av. Trabalhador são-carlense, 400 Pq. Arnold Schimid, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Oliveira Perazzoli, Ivan Luiz de, E-mail: ivanperazzoli@hotmail.com [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Milori, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira, E-mail: debora.milori@embrapa.br [Embrapa Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, CEP 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-09-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a well-known consolidated analytical technique employed successfully for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of solid, liquid, gaseous and aerosol samples of very different nature and origin. Several techniques, such as dual-pulse excitation setup, have been used in order to improve LIBS's sensitivity. The purpose of this paper was to optimize the key parameters as excitation wavelength, delay time and interpulse, that influence the double pulse (DP) LIBS technique in the collinear beam geometry when applied to the analysis at atmospheric air pressure of soil samples of different origin and texture from extreme regions of Brazil. Additionally, a comparative study between conventional single pulse (SP) LIBS and DP LIBS was performed. An optimization of DP LIBS system, choosing the correct delay time between the two pulses, was performed allowing its use for different soil types and the use of different emission lines. In general, the collinear DP LIBS system improved the analytical performances of the technique by enhancing the intensity of emission lines of some elements up to about 5 times, when compared with conventional SP-LIBS, and reduced the continuum emission. Further, the IR laser provided the best performance in re-heating the plasma. - Highlights: • The correct choice of the delay time between the two pulses is crucial for the DP system. • An optimization of DP LIBS system was performed allowing its use for different soil and the use of different emission lines. • The DP LIBS system improved the analytical performances of the technique up to about 5 times, when compared with SP LIBS. • The IR laser provided the best performance in re-heating the plasma.

  20. BEMER Electromagnetic Field Therapy Reduces Cancer Cell Radioresistance by Enhanced ROS Formation and Induced DNA Damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Storch

    Full Text Available Each year more than 450,000 Germans are expected to be diagnosed with cancer subsequently receiving standard multimodal therapies including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. On top, molecular-targeted agents are increasingly administered. Owing to intrinsic and acquired resistance to these therapeutic approaches, both the better molecular understanding of tumor biology and the consideration of alternative and complementary therapeutic support are warranted and open up broader and novel possibilities for therapy personalization. Particularly the latter is underpinned by the increasing utilization of non-invasive complementary and alternative medicine by the population. One investigated approach is the application of low-dose electromagnetic fields (EMF to modulate cellular processes. A particular system is the BEMER therapy as a Physical Vascular Therapy for which a normalization of the microcirculation has been demonstrated by a low-frequency, pulsed EMF pattern. Open remains whether this EMF pattern impacts on cancer cell survival upon treatment with radiotherapy, chemotherapy and the molecular-targeted agent Cetuximab inhibiting the epidermal growth factor receptor. Using more physiological, three-dimensional, matrix-based cell culture models and cancer cell lines originating from lung, head and neck, colorectal and pancreas, we show significant changes in distinct intermediates of the glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways and enhanced cancer cell radiosensitization associated with increased DNA double strand break numbers and higher levels of reactive oxygen species upon BEMER treatment relative to controls. Intriguingly, exposure of cells to the BEMER EMF pattern failed to result in sensitization to chemotherapy and Cetuximab. Further studies are necessary to better understand the mechanisms underlying the cellular alterations induced by the BEMER EMF pattern and to clarify the application areas for human disease.

  1. BEMER Electromagnetic Field Therapy Reduces Cancer Cell Radioresistance by Enhanced ROS Formation and Induced DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Katja; Dickreuter, Ellen; Artati, Anna; Adamski, Jerzy; Cordes, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Each year more than 450,000 Germans are expected to be diagnosed with cancer subsequently receiving standard multimodal therapies including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. On top, molecular-targeted agents are increasingly administered. Owing to intrinsic and acquired resistance to these therapeutic approaches, both the better molecular understanding of tumor biology and the consideration of alternative and complementary therapeutic support are warranted and open up broader and novel possibilities for therapy personalization. Particularly the latter is underpinned by the increasing utilization of non-invasive complementary and alternative medicine by the population. One investigated approach is the application of low-dose electromagnetic fields (EMF) to modulate cellular processes. A particular system is the BEMER therapy as a Physical Vascular Therapy for which a normalization of the microcirculation has been demonstrated by a low-frequency, pulsed EMF pattern. Open remains whether this EMF pattern impacts on cancer cell survival upon treatment with radiotherapy, chemotherapy and the molecular-targeted agent Cetuximab inhibiting the epidermal growth factor receptor. Using more physiological, three-dimensional, matrix-based cell culture models and cancer cell lines originating from lung, head and neck, colorectal and pancreas, we show significant changes in distinct intermediates of the glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways and enhanced cancer cell radiosensitization associated with increased DNA double strand break numbers and higher levels of reactive oxygen species upon BEMER treatment relative to controls. Intriguingly, exposure of cells to the BEMER EMF pattern failed to result in sensitization to chemotherapy and Cetuximab. Further studies are necessary to better understand the mechanisms underlying the cellular alterations induced by the BEMER EMF pattern and to clarify the application areas for human disease.

  2. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Reveals Exercise-Induced Perfusion Deficits in Claudicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundi, Rishi; Prior, Steven J; Addison, Odessa; Lu, Michael; Ryan, Alice S; Lal, Brajesh K

    2017-01-01

    Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography (CEUS) is an imaging modality allowing perfusion quantification in targeted regions of interest of the lower extremity that has not been possible with color-flow imaging or with measurement of ankle brachial indices. We developed a protocol to quantify lower extremity muscle perfusion impairment in PAD patients in response to exercise. Thirteen patients with Rutherford Class I-III Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) and no prior revascularization procedures were recruited from the Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center and compared with eight control patients without PAD. CEUS interrogation of the index limb gastrocnemius muscle was performed using an intravenous bolus of lipid-stabilized microsphere contrast before and after a standardized treadmill protocol. Peak perfusion (PEAK) and time to peak perfusion (TTP) were measured before and after exercise. Between and within group differences were assessed. Control subjects demonstrated a more rapid TTP (p<0.01) and an increase in peak perfusion (PEAK, p=0.02) after exercise, when compared to their baseline measures. Patients with PAD demonstrated TTP and PEAK measures equivalent to controls at baseline (p=0.39, p=0.71, respectively). However, they exhibited no significant exercise-induced changes in perfusion (TTP p=0.49 and PEAK 0.67, respectively compared to baseline). After exercise, normal subjects had significantly shorter TTP (p=0.04) and greater PEAK (p=0.02) than PAD patients. Consistent with their lack of ischemic symptoms at rest, class I to III claudicant PAD patients showed similar perfusion measures (TTP and PEAK) at rest. PAD patients, however, were unable to increase perfusion in response to exercise, whereas controls increased perfusion significantly. This corresponds with claudication and limited walking capacity observed in PAD. CEUS with bolus injection offers a convenient, objective, quantitative and visual physiologic assessment of perfusion limitation in

  3. Enhanced detection of PCR products through use of TOTO and YOYO intercalating dyes with laser induced fluorescence--capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, K; Morris, S C; Girard, J E; Kline, M C; Reeder, D J

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments in the chemical synthesis of DNA-binding dyes have enhanced detection of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products by capillary electrophoresis. These dyes are dimers of thiazole orange (TOTO) or oxazole orange (YOYO) and have a very high binding affinity for DNA (Haugland, 1992). These dyes show enhanced fluorescence signals when they bind to double-stranded DNA and their fluorescence in the unbound state is almost zero, making them extremely useful in detecting minute (fg) quantities of DNA. We report here the utility of these dyes in DNA typing applications using a laser-induced fluorescence detector in conjunction with a capillary electrophoresis system.

  4. Stattic Enhances Radiosensitivity and Reduces Radio-Induced Migration and Invasion in HCC Cell Lines through an Apoptosis Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3 is involved in tumorigenesis, development, and radioresistance of many solid tumors. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of stattic (an inhibitor of STAT3 on the radiosensitivity and radio-induced migration and invasion ability in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cell lines. Methods. HCC cells were treated with stattic, and cell survival rate was analyzed through CCK-8 assay. Radiosensitivity was evaluated using cloning formation analysis; STAT3, p-STAT3, and apoptosis related proteins were detected by western blot. Radio-induced migration and invasion ability in HCC cells were analyzed by wound-healing assay and transwell test. Results. Stattic inhibits the expression of p-STAT3 and reduces cell survival in a dose-dependent manner in HCC cell lines, and the IC50 values for Hep G2, Bel-7402, and SMMC-7721 are 2.94 μM, 2.5 μM, and 5.1 μM, respectively. Cloning formation analysis shows that stattic enhances the radiosensitivity of HCC cells. Wound-healing assay and transwell test show that stattic inhibits radio-induced migration and invasion. Further study indicates that stattic promotes radio-induce apoptosis through regulating the expression of apoptosis related proteins in HCC cells. Conclusion. Stattic enhances radiosensitivity and reduces radio-induced migration and invasion ability in HCC cells probably through apoptosis pathway.

  5. Synergistic enhancement of topotecan-induced cell death by ascorbic acid in human breast MCF-7 tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Birandra K; van 't Erve, Thomas J; Kumar, Ashutosh; Bortner, Carl D; Motten, Ann G; Mason, Ronald P

    2017-12-01

    Topotecan, a derivative of camptothecin, is an important anticancer drug for the treatment of various human cancers in the clinic. While the principal mechanism of tumor cell killing by topotecan is due to its interactions with topoisomerase I, other mechanisms, e.g., oxidative stress induced by reactive free radicals, have also been proposed. However, very little is known about how topotecan induces free radical-dependent oxidative stress in tumor cells. In this report we describe the formation of a topotecan radical, catalyzed by a peroxidase-hydrogen peroxide system. While this topotecan radical did not undergo oxidation-reduction with molecular O 2 , it rapidly reacted with reduced glutathione and cysteine, regenerating topotecan and forming the corresponding glutathiyl and cysteinyl radicals. Ascorbic acid, which produces hydrogen peroxide in tumor cells, significantly increased topotecan cytotoxicity in MCF-7 tumor cells. The presence of ascorbic acid also increased both topoisomerase I-dependent topotecan-induced DNA cleavage complex formation and topotecan-induced DNA double-strand breaks, suggesting that ascorbic acid participated in enhancing DNA damage induced by topotecan and that the enhanced DNA damage is responsible for the synergistic interactions of topotecan and ascorbic acid. Cell death by topotecan and the combination of topotecan and ascorbic acid was predominantly due to necrosis of MCF-7 breast tumor cells. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. On the light-induced enhancement in photovoltaic performance of PEDOT:PSS/Si organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhui; Yang, Linlin; Ge, Kunpeng; Chen, Bingbing; Shen, Yanjiao; Guo, Jianxin; Liu, Haixu; Xu, Ying; Fan, Jiandong; Mai, Yaohua

    2017-10-01

    Light-induced degradation has been identified to be a critical issue for most silicon-based solar cell technologies. This study presents an observation of an opposite light-induced enhancement (LIE) effect in photovoltaic performance in poly(3,4-ethylthiophene):polystyrenesulfonate/n-Si organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells. The reduced density of interface states under light soaking (LS) is found to be responsible for the LIE of the hybrid solar cells. An increased minor carrier lifetime under LS and a switchable photoluminescence intensity while applying a voltage bias are observed, providing evidence for the underlying physical mechanism.

  7. Temperature measurements of micro-droplets using pulsed 2-color laser-induced fluorescence with MDR-enhanced energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Johannes; Reddemann, Manuel A.; Kirsch, Valeri; Kneer, Reinhold

    2016-12-01

    In this work, a new measurement system is presented for studying temperature of micro-droplets by pulsed 2-color laser-induced fluorescence. Pulsed fluorescence excitation allows motion blur suppression and thus simultaneous measurements of droplet size, velocity and temperature. However, high excitation intensities of pulsed lasers lead to morphology-dependent resonances inside micro-droplets, which are accompanied by disruptive stimulated emission. Investigations showed that stimulated emission can be avoided by enhanced energy transfer via an additional dye. The suitability and accuracy of the new pulsed method are verified on the basis of a spectroscopic analysis and comparison to continuously excited 2-color laser-induced fluorescence.

  8. Infection-Induced Retrotransposon-Derived Noncoding RNAs Enhance Herpesviral Gene Expression via the NF-κB Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Karijolich

    Full Text Available Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs are highly abundant, RNA polymerase III-transcribed noncoding retrotransposons that are silenced in somatic cells but activated during certain stresses including viral infection. How these induced SINE RNAs impact the host-pathogen interaction is unknown. Here we reveal that during murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68 infection, rapidly induced SINE RNAs activate the antiviral NF-κB signaling pathway through both mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS-dependent and independent mechanisms. However, SINE RNA-based signaling is hijacked by the virus to enhance viral gene expression and replication. B2 RNA expression stimulates IKKβ-dependent phosphorylation of the major viral lytic cycle transactivator protein RTA, thereby enhancing its activity and increasing progeny virion production. Collectively, these findings suggest that SINE RNAs participate in the innate pathogen response mechanism, but that herpesviruses have evolved to co-opt retrotransposon activation for viral benefit.

  9. COGNITIVE-ENHANCING PROPERTIES OF MORINDA LUCIDA (RUBIACEAE) AND PELTOPHORUM PTEROCARPUM (FABACEAE) IN SCOPOLAMINE-INDUCED AMNESIC MICE

    OpenAIRE

    O, Elufioye Taiwo; Halimah A., Hameed

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cognitive disorders associated with aging have been successfully managed by African traditional medical practitioners using various plants. This study evaluated the cognitive enhancing potentials of Morinda lucida (L) Rubiaceae and Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC) ex. K Heyne in scopolamine induced amnesic animals. Materials and Methods: The anti-amnesic activity of the ethyl acetate extracts of Morinda lucida and Peltophorum pterocarpum at doses of 4 mg/kg, 6 mg/kg and 8 mg/kg were a...

  10. Staurosporine enhances ATRA-induced granulocytic differentiation in human leukemia U937 cells via the MEK/ERK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Weng, Xiang-Qin; Sheng, Yan; Wu, Jing; Ding, Ming; Cai, Xun

    2016-11-01

    Although all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is regarded as a prominent example of differentiation therapy, it is not effective for the treatment of other subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) beyond acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Therefore, new strategies need to be explored to extend the efficacy of ATRA-based therapy to non-APL AML patients. In the present study, staurosporine, a protein kinase C (PKC) pan-inhibitor, exhibited synergism with ATRA to promote granulocytic differentiation in poorly ATRA-sensitive U937 cells but not in ATRA unresponsive K562 and Kasumi cells. Staurosporine or the combined treatment did not affect PKC activity in U937 cells. Moreover, other selective PKC inhibitors, UCN-01, Go6976 or rottlerin failed to enhance ATRA‑induced granulocytic differentiation in U937 cells. Therefore, staurosporine-enhanced ATRA-induced granulocytic differentiation in U937 cells may be independent of PKC. Staurosporine activated mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK). Meanwhile, staurosporine also enhanced ATRA-promoted upregulation of the protein level of CCAAT/enhancer‑binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and C/EBPε in U937 cells. Furthermore, blockade of MEK activation suppressed staurosporine‑enhanced differentiation as well as the elevated protein level of C/EBPs. Taken together, we concluded that staurosporine enhanced ATRA‑induced granulocytic differentiation in U937 cells via MEK/ERK-mediated modulation of the protein level of C/EBPs.

  11. In situ generated CdS nanostructure induced enhanced photoluminescence from Dy{sup 3+} ions doped dielectric nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Chirantan; Karmakar, Basudeb [Glass Science and Technology Section, Glass Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2017-08-15

    We report CdS nanostructure induced enhanced photoluminescence (PL) from Dy{sup +3}:CdS co-doped dielectric-nanocomposites synthesized by the conventional melt-quench technique. CdS nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized as in situ within the dielectric medium and their growth was controlled by heat treatment duration. Nanoparticles were investigated with absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The experimentally obtained sizes of the NCs are found to increase from 5-11 nm to 50-80 nm. Bandgap enhancement for the carrier confinement was found to alter within the range of 0.20-0.38 eV. Phonon confinement effect has been confirmed by blue shifting of Raman peak for CdS NCs at 303 cm{sup -1}. Enhanced highly intense sharp PL peak at 576 nm was detected, and different parameters associated with the PL enhancement including energy transfer from CdS NCs to Dy{sup 3+} ions have been studied. This PL enhancement was steered by varying CdS NC sizes. Enhanced PL of these nanocomposites finds their potential applications as gain medium in the field of solid state lasers. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Acute cold hypersensitivity characteristically induced by oxaliplatin is caused by the enhanced responsiveness of TRPA1 in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Meng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxaliplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, causes an unusual acute peripheral neuropathy. Oxaliplatin-induced acute peripheral neuropathy appears in almost all patients rapidly after infusion, and is triggered or exacerbated by cold, while its mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, the involvement of thermosensitive transient receptor potential channels (TRPA1, TRPM8 and TRPV1 in oxaliplatin-induced acute hypersensitivity was investigated in mice. Results A single intraperitoneal administration of oxaliplatin (1–10 mg/kg induced cold but not mechanical hypersensitivity within 2 h in a dose-dependent manner. Infusion of the oxaliplatin metabolite, oxalate (1.7 mg/kg, also induced acute cold hypersensitivity, while another platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin (5 mg/kg, or the non-platinum-containing chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel (6 mg/kg failed to induce mechanical or cold hypersensitivity. The oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hypersensitivity was abolished by the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 (100 mg/kg and by TRPA1 deficiency. The nocifensive behaviors evoked by intraplantar injections of allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC; TRPA1 agonist were significantly enhanced in mice treated for 2 h with oxaliplatin (1–10 mg/kg in a dose-dependent manner, while capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist-evoked nocifensive behaviors were not affected. Menthol (TRPM8/TRPA1 agonist-evoked nocifensive-like behaviors were also enhanced by oxaliplatin pretreatment, which were inhibited by TRPA1 deficiency. Similarly, oxalate enhanced, but neither cisplatin nor paclitaxel affected AITC-evoked nocifensive behaviors. Pretreatment of cultured mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons with oxaliplatin (30–300 μM for 1, 2, or 4 h significantly increased the number of AITC-sensitive neurons in a concentration-dependent manner whereas there was no change in the number of menthol- or capsaicin-sensitive neurons

  13. Transformation of electromagnetically induced transparency into enhanced absorption with a standing-wave coupling field in an Rb vapor cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, In-Ho; Moon, Han Seb; Kim, Min-Koeung; Lee, Lim; Kim, Jung Bog

    2010-01-18

    We present the transformation of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) into narrow enhanced absorption with an on-resonant standing-wave coupling field in the 5S(1/2)-5P(1/2) transition of the Lambda-type system of (87)Rb atoms. When a coupling laser field was changed from a travelling-wave to a standing-wave that was made by adding a counter-propagating L(C) laser, the transmittance spectrum of the L(P) laser transformed the typical EIT into dramatically enhanced absorption, and a Bragg reflection signal was generated by the periodic modulation of atomic absorption. The reflected probe laser corresponding to a Bragg reflection was measured to be approximately 11.5% of the power of the incident probe laser. We analyzed the enhanced absorption signal and Bragg reflection spectrum as a function of the power and frequency detuning of the coupling laser.

  14. DNA Bending is Induced in an Enhancer by the DNA-Binding Domain of the Bovine Papillomavirus E2 Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskaluk, Christopher; Bastia, Deepak

    1988-03-01

    The E2 gene of bovine papillomavirus type 1 has been shown to encode a DNA-binding protein and to trans-activate the viral enhancer. We have localized the DNA-binding domain of the E2 protein to the carboxyl-terminal 126 amino acids of the E2 open reading frame. The DNA-binding domain has been expressed in Escherichia coli and partially purified. Gel retardation and DNase I ``footprinting'' on the bovine papillomavirus type 1 enhancer identify the sequence motif ACCN6GGT (in which N = any nucleotide) as the E2 binding site. Using electrophoretic methods we have shown that the DNA-binding domain changes conformation of the enhancer by inducing significant DNA bending.

  15. Adaptation of Candida albicans to environmental pH induces cell wall remodelling and enhances innate immune recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Sherrington

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is able to proliferate in environments that vary dramatically in ambient pH, a trait required for colonising niches such as the stomach, vaginal mucosal and the GI tract. Here we show that growth in acidic environments involves cell wall remodelling which results in enhanced chitin and β-glucan exposure at the cell wall periphery. Unmasking of the underlying immuno-stimulatory β-glucan in acidic environments enhanced innate immune recognition of C. albicans by macrophages and neutrophils, and induced a stronger proinflammatory cytokine response, driven through the C-type lectin-like receptor, Dectin-1. This enhanced inflammatory response resulted in significant recruitment of neutrophils in an intraperitoneal model of infection, a hallmark of symptomatic vaginal colonisation. Enhanced chitin exposure resulted from reduced expression of the cell wall chitinase Cht2, via a Bcr1-Rim101 dependent signalling cascade, while increased β-glucan exposure was regulated via a non-canonical signalling pathway. We propose that this "unmasking" of the cell wall may induce non-protective hyper activation of the immune system during growth in acidic niches, and may attribute to symptomatic vaginal infection.

  16. Sarcosine attenuates toluene-induced motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not brain stimulation reward enhancement in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ming-Huan; Chung, Shiang-Sheng; Stoker, Astrid K; Markou, Athina; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2012-01-01

    Toluene, a widely used and commonly abused organic solvent, produces various behavioral disturbances, including motor incoordination and cognitive impairment. Toluene alters the function of a large number of receptors and ion channels. Blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been suggested to play a critical role in toluene-induced behavioral manifestations. The present study determined the effects of various toluene doses on motor coordination, recognition memory, body temperature, and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds in mice. Additionally, the effects of sarcosine on the behavioral and physiological effects induced by toluene were evaluated. Sarcosine may reverse toluene-induced behavioral manifestations by acting as an NMDA receptor co-agonist and inhibiting the effects of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1). Mice were treated with toluene alone or combined with sarcosine pretreatment and assessed for rotarod performance, object recognition memory, rectal temperature, and ICSS thresholds. Toluene dose-dependently induced motor incoordination, recognition memory impairment, and hypothermia and lowered ICSS thresholds. Sarcosine pretreatment reversed toluene-induced changes in rotarod performance, novel object recognition, and rectal temperature but not ICSS thresholds. These findings suggest that the sarcosine-induced potentiation of NMDA receptors may reverse motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not the enhancement of brain stimulation reward function associated with toluene exposure. Sarcosine may be a promising compound to prevent acute toluene intoxications by occupational or intentional exposure. PMID:23067721

  17. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induce apoptosis in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cells and enhance their sensitivity for TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Frank K; Al-Yacoub, Nadya; Plötz, Michael; Möbs, Markus; Sterry, Wolfram; Eberle, Jürgen

    2012-02-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) form a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the skin. In previous studies, we had characterized CTCL cells as resistant to the death ligand tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), which correlated to pronounced expression of the caspase-8/-10 inhibitor c-FLIP. For identification of proapoptotic strategies in CTCL cells and for overcoming their death ligand resistance, we investigated the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as acetylsalicylic acid, sodium salicylate, and diclofenac (DF). These drugs strongly enhanced apoptosis, as well as decreased CTCL cell proliferation and vitality, and DF furthermore sensitized for TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Full activation of the caspase cascade (caspase-3, -8, -9) and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential were characteristic for NSAID treatment, whereas cytochrome c release was seen only for DF. Downregulation of Mcl-1 and enhanced surface expression of TRAIL were seen in response to NSAIDs. Most characteristic for apoptosis induction was the downregulation of c-FLIP. In agreement with the critical role of c-FLIP for apoptosis deficiency of CTCL cells, its overexpression decreased NSAID-mediated apoptosis and its downregulation by small hairpin RNA-enhanced apoptosis. The study provides a rationale for the use of NSAIDs as a new therapeutic option for CTCL patients. Supporting this concept, ex vivo lymphoma cells of CTCL patients also revealed significant sensitivity for NSAID treatment.

  18. Muramyl Dipeptide Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption through Increased RANKL Expression in Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Ishida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is bacterial cell wall component capable of inducing osteoclast formation and pathological bone resorption. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP, the minimal essential structural unit responsible for the immunological activity of peptidoglycans, is ubiquitously expressed by bacterium. In this study, we investigated the effect of MDP in LPS-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption. LPS was administered with or without MDP into the supracalvariae of mice. The number of osteoclasts, the level of mRNA for cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, the ratio of the bone destruction area, the level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase form 5b (TRACP 5b, and C-terminal telopeptides fragments of type I collagen as a marker of bone resorption in mice administrated both LPS and MDP were higher than those in mice administrated LPS or MDP alone. On the other hand, MDP had no effect on osteoclastogenesis in parathyroid hormone administrated mice. MDP enhanced LPS-induced receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL expression and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 expression in vivo and in stromal cells in vitro. MDP also enhanced LPS-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling, including ERK, p38, and JNK, in stromal cells. These results suggest that MDP might play an important role in pathological bone resorption in bacterial infection diseases.

  19. Fatty acid synthase as a factor required for exercise-induced cognitive enhancement and dentate gyrus cellular proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorna, Nataliya E; Santos-Soto, Iván J; Carballeira, Nestor M; Morales, Joan L; de la Nuez, Janneliz; Cátala-Valentin, Alma; Chornyy, Anatoliy P; Vázquez-Montes, Adrinel; De Ortiz, Sandra Peña

    2013-01-01

    Voluntary running is a robust inducer of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Given that fatty acid synthase (FASN), the key enzyme for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, is critically involved in proliferation of embryonic and adult neural stem cells, we hypothesized that FASN could mediate both exercise-induced cell proliferation in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) and enhancement of spatial learning and memory. In 20 week-old male mice, voluntary running-induced hippocampal-specific upregulation of FASN was accompanied also by hippocampal-specific accumulation of palmitate and stearate saturated fatty acids. In experiments addressing the functional role of FASN in our experimental model, chronic intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) microinfusions of C75, an irreversible FASN inhibitor, and significantly impaired exercise-mediated improvements in spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze. Unlike the vehicle-injected mice, the C75 group adopted a non-spatial serial escape strategy and displayed delayed escape latencies during acquisition and memory tests. Furthermore, pharmacologic blockade of FASN function with C75 resulted in a significant reduction, compared to vehicle treated controls, of the number of proliferative cells in the DG of running mice as measured by immunoreactive to Ki-67 in the SGZ. Taken together, our data suggest that FASN plays an important role in exercise-mediated cognitive enhancement, which might be associated to its role in modulating exercise-induced stimulation of neurogenesis.

  20. Fatty acid synthase as a factor required for exercise-induced cognitive enhancement and dentate gyrus cellular proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya E Chorna

    Full Text Available Voluntary running is a robust inducer of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Given that fatty acid synthase (FASN, the key enzyme for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, is critically involved in proliferation of embryonic and adult neural stem cells, we hypothesized that FASN could mediate both exercise-induced cell proliferation in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus (DG and enhancement of spatial learning and memory. In 20 week-old male mice, voluntary running-induced hippocampal-specific upregulation of FASN was accompanied also by hippocampal-specific accumulation of palmitate and stearate saturated fatty acids. In experiments addressing the functional role of FASN in our experimental model, chronic intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. microinfusions of C75, an irreversible FASN inhibitor, and significantly impaired exercise-mediated improvements in spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze. Unlike the vehicle-injected mice, the C75 group adopted a non-spatial serial escape strategy and displayed delayed escape latencies during acquisition and memory tests. Furthermore, pharmacologic blockade of FASN function with C75 resulted in a significant reduction, compared to vehicle treated controls, of the number of proliferative cells in the DG of running mice as measured by immunoreactive to Ki-67 in the SGZ. Taken together, our data suggest that FASN plays an important role in exercise-mediated cognitive enhancement, which might be associated to its role in modulating exercise-induced stimulation of neurogenesis.

  1. Chloroquine enhances cobalt chloride-induced leukemic cell differentiation via the suppression of autophagy at the late phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhao-Wen; Hou, Jia-Kai; He, Wei; Fan, Li; Huang, Ying

    2013-01-18

    We previously reported that moderate hypoxia and hypoxia-mimetic agents including cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) induce differentiation of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells through hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1 α), which interacts with and enhances transcriptional activity of CCAAT-enhancer binding factor alpha and Runx1/AML1, two important transcriptional factors for hematopoietic cell differentiation. Here, we show that autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) increases HIF-1 α accumulation, thus potentiating CoCl(2)-induced growth arrest and differentiation of leukemic cells. Furthermore, the increased effect of CQ on differentiation induction is dependent of the inhibition of autophagosome maturation and degradation, since this sensitization could be mimicked by the suppression of expression of both lysosome-associated membrane proteins 1 and 2 (LAMP1 and LAMP2). These findings not only provide the evidence that CQ is a sensitizer for CoCl(2)-induced differentiation of leukemic cells but also possibly propose the new therapeutic strategy for differentiation induction of AML. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. COGNITIVE-ENHANCING PROPERTIES OF MORINDA LUCIDA (RUBIACEAE) AND PELTOPHORUM PTEROCARPUM (FABACEAE) IN SCOPOLAMINE-INDUCED AMNESIC MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O, Elufioye Taiwo; Halimah A, Hameed

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive disorders associated with aging have been successfully managed by African traditional medical practitioners using various plants. This study evaluated the cognitive enhancing potentials of Morinda lucida (L) Rubiaceae and Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC) ex. K Heyne in scopolamine induced amnesic animals. The anti-amnesic activity of the ethyl acetate extracts of Morinda lucida and Peltophorum pterocarpum at doses of 4 mg/kg, 6 mg/kg and 8 mg/kg were assessed in scopolamine induced amnesic mice using Morris water maze test model. Effect of the extracts on the histology of the hippocampus was also evaluated. The ethyl acetate extract of Morinda lucida and Peltophorum pterocarpum ameliorated scopolamine induced memory deficit in the animals under study. There was no effect of the extract on the histology of the hippocampus. However, there was an increase in the density of cells in the hippocampus of treated group as compared to the untreated. Morinda lucida and Peltophorum pterocarpum showed considerable enhancement of cognition in scopolamine induced amnesic mice.

  3. The importance of earthquake interactions for injection-induced seismicity: Retrospective modeling of the Basel Enhanced Geothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalli, Flaminia; Rinaldi, Antonio P.; Gischig, Valentin; Nespoli, Massimo; Wiemer, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    We explore the role of earthquake interactions during an injection-induced seismic sequence. We propose a model, which considers both a transient pressure and static stress redistribution due to event interactions as triggering mechanisms. By calibrating the model against observations at the Enhanced Geothermal System of Basel, Switzerland, we are able to reproduce the time behavior of the seismicity rate. We observe that considering earthquake interactions in the modeling leads to a larger number of expected seismic events (24% more) if compared to a pressure-induced seismicity only. The increase of the number of events is particularly evident after the end of the injection. We conclude that implementing a model for estimating the static stress changes due to mutual event interactions increases significantly the understanding of the process and the behavior of induced seismicity.

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyoung Jun; Han, Jeongsu; Jang, Yunseon; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kang Sik [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Soyeon; Shin, Soyeon; Lim, Kyu [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Infection Signaling Network Research Center, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Jun Young, E-mail: junyoung3@gmail.com [Brainscience Institute, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kweon, Gi Ryang, E-mail: mitochondria@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Infection Signaling Network Research Center, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • DHA prevents PQ-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss via decreasing of excessive ROS. • DHA increases GR and GCLm derivate GSH pool by enhancement of Nrf2 expression. • Protective mechanism is removal of PQ-induced ROS via DHA-dependent GSH pool. • DHA may be a good preventive strategy for Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapy. - Abstract: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson’s disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson’s disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuron loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis.

  5. Noradrenergic Activation of the Basolateral Amygdala Enhances Object Recognition Memory and Induces Chromatin Remodeling in the Insular Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassiba eBeldjoud

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that arousal-induced memory enhancement requires noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA and modulatory influences on information storage processes in its many target regions. While this concept is well accepted, the molecular basis of such BLA effects on neural plasticity changes within other brain regions remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether noradrenergic activation of the BLA after object recognition training induces chromatin remodeling through histone post-translational modifications in the insular cortex (IC, a brain region that is importantly involved in object recognition memory. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were trained on an object recognition task, followed immediately by bilateral microinfusions of norepinephrine (1.0 µg or saline administered into the BLA. Saline-treated control rats exhibited poor 24-h retention, whereas norepinephrine treatment induced robust 24-h object recognition memory. Most importantly, this memory-enhancing dose of norepinephrine induced a global reduction in the acetylation levels of histone H3 at lysine 14, H2B and H4 in the IC 1 h later, whereas it had no effect on the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 or tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27. Norepinephrine administered into the BLA of non-trained control rats did not induce any changes in the histone marks investigated in this study. These findings indicate that noradrenergic activation of the BLA induces training-specific effects on chromatin remodeling mechanisms, and presumably gene transcription, in its target regions, which may contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stress and emotional arousal effects on memory consolidation.

  6. p38 Activation Is Required Upstream of Potassium Current Enhancement and Caspase Cleavage in Thiol Oxidant-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, BethAnn; Pal, Sumon; Tran, Minhnga P.; Parsons, Andrew A.; Barone, Frank C.; Erhardt, Joseph A.; Aizenman, Elias

    2013-01-01

    Oxidant-induced neuronal apoptosis has been shown to involve potassium and zinc dysregulation, energetic dysfunction, activation of stress-related kinases, and caspase cleavage. The temporal ordering and interdependence of these events was investigated in primary neuronal cultures exposed to the sulfhydryl oxidizing agent 2,2′-dithiodipyridine (DTDP), a compound that induces the intracellular release of zinc. We previously observed that tetraethylammonium (TEA), high extracellular potassium, or cysteine protease inhibitors block apoptosis induced by DTDP. We now report that both p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation are evident in neuronal cultures within 2 hr of a brief exposure to 100 μm DTDP. However, only p38 inhibition is capable of blocking oxidant-induced toxicity. Cyclohexamide or actinomycin D does not attenuate DTDP-induced cell death, suggesting that posttranslational modification of existing targets, rather than transcriptional activation, is responsible for the deleterious effects of p38. Indeed, an early robust increase in TEA-sensitive potassium channel currents induced by DTDP is attenuated by p38 inhibition but not by caspase inhibition. Moreover, we found that activation of p38 is required for caspase 3 and 9 cleavage, suggesting that potassium currents enhancement is required for caspase activation. Finally, we observed that DTDP toxicity could be blocked with niacinamide or benzamide, inhibitors of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase. Based on these findings, we conclude that oxidation of sulfhydryl groups on intracellular targets results in intracellular zinc release, p38 phosphorylation, enhancement of potassium currents, caspase cleavage, energetic dysfunction, and translationally independent apoptotic cell death. PMID:11331359

  7. Enhanced glycolysis, regulated by HIF-1α via MCT-4, promotes inflammation in arsenite-induced carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fei; Zou, Zhonglan; Liu, Xinlu; Ling, Min; Wang, Qingling; Wang, Qi; Lu, Lu; Shi, Le; Liu, Yonglian; Liu, Qizhan; Zhang, Aihua

    2017-06-01

    Arsenite is well established as a human carcinogen, but the molecular mechanisms leading to arsenite-induced carcinogenesis are complex and elusive. Accelerated glycolysis, a common process in tumor cells called the Warburg effect, is associated with various biological phenomena. However, the role of glycolysis induced by arsenite is unknown. We have found that, with chronic exposure to arsenite, L-02 cells undergo a metabolic shift to glycolysis. In liver cells exposed to arsenite, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and monocarboxylate transporter-4 (MCT-4) are over-expressed. MCT-4, directly mediated by HIF-1α, maintains a high level of glycolysis, and the enhanced glycolysis promotes pro-inflammatory properties, which are involved in arsenite carcinogenesis. In addition, serum lactate and cytokines are higher in arsenite-exposed human populations, and there is a positive correlation between them. Moreover, there is a positive relationship between lactate and cytokines with arsenic in hair. In sum, these findings indicate that MCT-4, mediated by HIF-1α, enhances the glycolysis induced by arsenite. Lactate, the end product of glycolysis, is released into the extracellular environment. The acidic microenvironment promotes production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which contribute to arsenite-induced liver carcinogenesis. These results provide a link between the induction of glycolysis and inflammation in liver cells exposed to arsenite, and thus establish a previously unknown mechanism for arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Plant species richness leaves a legacy of enhanced root litter-induced decomposition in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cong, Wen-Feng; van Ruijven, Jasper; van der Werf, Wopke; De Deyn, Gerlinde B.; Mommer, Liesje; Berendse, Frank; Hoffland, Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Increasing plant species richness generally enhances plant biomass production, which may enhance accumulation of carbon (C) in soil. However, the net change in soil C also depends on the effect of plant diversity on C loss through decomposition of organic matter. Plant diversity can affect organic

  9. Bilateral Saccades Increase Intrahemispheric Processing but Not Interhemispheric Interaction: Implications for Saccade-Induced Retrieval Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Keith B.; Martin, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Retrieval of memories is enhanced when bilateral saccades are made immediately before attempting retrieval. One hypothesis is that saccades enhance retrieval by increasing interaction of the brain hemispheres. To test this, subjects viewed arrays of lateralized letters and indicated whether target letters matched either of two probe letters.…

  10. Osmotic stress-induced polyamine oxidation mediates defence responses and reduces stress-enhanced grapevine susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatmi, Saloua; Trotel-Aziz, Patricia; Villaume, Sandra; Couderchet, Michel; Clément, Christophe; Aziz, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic factors inducing osmotic stress can influence the plant immune response and resistance to pathogen infections. In this study, the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG)- and sucrose-induced osmotic stress on polyamine (PA) homeostasis and the basal immune response in grapevine plantlets before and after Botrytis cinerea infection was determined. Pharmacological approaches were also addressed to assess the contribution of osmotic stress-induced PA oxidation to the regulation of defence responses and the susceptibility of grapevine to B. cinerea. Following osmotic stress or pathogen infection, PA homeostasis was linked to enhanced activity of diamine oxidases (CuAO) and PA oxidases (PAO) and the production of 1,3-diaminopropane. These responses paralleled the accumulation of the main stilbenic phytoalexins, resveratrol and ε-viniferin and upregulation of gene transcripts including STS (a stilbene synthase), PR-2 (a β-1,3-glucanase), PR3-4c (acidic chitinase IV), and PR-5 (a thaumatin-like protein), as well as NCED2 involved in abscisic acid biosynthesis. It was also demonstrated that leaves pre-exposed to osmotic stress and later inoculated with B. cinerea showed enhanced PA accumulation and attenuation of CuAO and PAO activities. This was consistent with the impaired production of phytoalexins and transcript levels of defence- and stress-related genes following infection, and the enhanced susceptibility to B. cinerea. Pharmacological experiments revealed that, under osmotic stress conditions, CuAO and PAO were involved in PA homeostasis and in the regulation of defence responses. Specific inhibition of CuAO and PAO in osmotically stressed leaves strongly attenuated the induction of defence responses triggered by B. cinerea infection and enhanced susceptibility to the pathogen. Taken together, this study reveals a contribution of PA catabolism to the resistance state through modulation of immune response in grapevine following osmotic stress and/or after B

  11. Diosgenin-induced cognitive enhancement in normal mice is mediated by 1,25D3-MARRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohda, Chihiro; Lee, Young-A.; Goto, Yukiori; Nemere, Ilka

    2013-12-01

    We previously reported that diosgenin, a plant-derived steroidal sapogenin, improved memory and reduced axonal degeneration in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Diosgenin directly activated the membrane-associated rapid response steroid-binding receptor (1,25D3-MARRS) in neurons. However, 1,25D3-MARRS-mediated diosgenin signaling was only shown in vitro in the previous study. Here, we aimed to obtain in vivo evidence showing that diosgenin signaling is mediated by 1,25D3-MARRS in the mouse brain. Diosgenin treatment in normal mice enhanced object recognition memory and spike firing and cross-correlation in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampal CA1. In diosgenin-treated mice, axonal density and c-Fos expression was increased in the medial prefrontal and perirhinal cortices, suggesting that neuronal network activation may be enhanced. The diosgenin-induced memory enhancement and axonal growth were completely inhibited by co-treatment with a neutralizing antibody for 1,25D3-MARRS. Our in vivo data indicate that diosgenin is a memory-enhancing drug and that enhancement by diosgenin is mediated by 1,25D3-MARRS-triggered axonal growth.

  12. Detection of parenchymal abnormalities in experimentally induced acute pyelonephritis in rabbits using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, CT, and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Ah; Kim, Bo Hyun; Kim, Seung Kwon; Seo, Jin Won [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Sung [Laboratory Animal Research Center, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    We evaluated the efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in detecting acute pyelonephritis (APN) using the rabbit kidney model and compared it with CT and MRI. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. In a total of 20 New Zealand White rabbits, APN was induced experimentally. CEUS, CT, and MRI were performed on the first, third, and seventh postoperative days. After imaging studies, the subjects were sacrificed and the pathological diagnosis of APN was confirmed in each animal by a pathologist. Imaging studies were obtained in eight animals, including eight CEUS, four computed tomography (CT), and four magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. CEUS depicted diffuse renal enlargement (7), diffuse heterogeneous parenchymal enhancement (6), and focal areas of decreased parenchymal enhancement (6). These findings were well correlated with the CT and MRI findings in five cases in which these studies were available. CT and MRI showed diffuse renal enlargement, diffuse heterogeneous parenchymal enhancement, focal areas of decreased parenchymal enhancement, focal contour bulging, and the finding of perinephric spread of infection. In a rabbit model, CEUS could depict the parenchymal lesions of APN similar to CT or MRI; however, it was limited in depicting the perinephric extension of inflammation.

  13. Enhancement of hyperthermia-induced apoptosis by 5Z-7-oxozeaenol, a TAK1 inhibitor, in Molt-4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhao, Qing-Li; Jawaid, Paras; Rehman, Mati Ur; Ahmed, Kanwal; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Kondo, Takashi

    2017-01-22

    Transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase1 (TAK1) plays an anti-apoptotic role in response to multiple stresses. TAK1 inhibitor, 5Z-7-oxozeaenol (OZ) has been studied for its apoptotic effects. However, the combined effect of OZ with physical stresses remains to be elusive. Therefore, in this study we focussed to determine the combined effects of OZ with hyperthermia (HT) using Molt-4 cell line. Molt-4 cells were pre-treated with OZ for 1 h followed by heat exposure (44 °C, 10 min) and harvested 24 h after incubation at 37 °C, apoptosis was measured by Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining assay using flow cytometry and cell growth was observed by cell counting assay. Further mechanism involved in the combination was investigated by measuring mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular ROS generation, expression of apoptosis related protein, intracellular calcium ion level and Fas activity. Combination of OZ with HT significantly enhances MMP loss and superoxide generation. Furthermore, OZ pre-treatment promotes caspase-8 cleavage, Fas externalisation, caspase 3 activity and intracellular calcium ion levels. OZ pre-treatment decreased the expression of HT-induced Bcl-2 and increased the expression of pro-apoptotic Bax, while markedly suppressed the phosphorylation of JNK and p38. In addition, increased expression of CHOP following combined treatment indicates that ER stress may also involve in the enhancement of HT-induced apoptosis. Our data showed for the first time that OZ sensitizes Molt-4 cells to HT-induced apoptosis via extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Furthermore, ROS and ER stress may also play role in the enhancement of HT-induced apoptosis by OZ.

  14. Phonon-induced enhancements of the energy gap and critical current in superconducting aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligson, D.

    1983-05-01

    8 to 10 GHz phonons were generated by piezoelectric transduction of a microwave and by means of a quartz delay line, were allowed to enter the aluminum only after the microwaves had long since disappeared. The maximum enhancements detected were (deltaT/T/sub c/) = -0.07, for i/sub c/ and (deltaT/T/sub c/) = -0.03 for ..delta... The power- and temperature-dependence (0.82 less than or equal to T/T/sub c/ less than or equal to 0.994) of the enhancements were compared with the prediction of a theory given by Eliashberg. The gap-enhancement was in good agreement with the theory only for low input lower. The critical current measurements are predicted to be in rough agreement with the ..delta.. measurements but this was not observed. The magnitude of the critical current enhancements was typically more than twice the observed gap enhancements. The measured critical current enhancement was relatively independent of temperature whereas the gap enhancement decreased rapidly as the temperature was lowered.

  15. Nanoparticle-induced enhancement and suppression of photocurrent in a silicon photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, Sri Priya; Grady, Nathaniel K; Mirin, Nikolay; Halas, Naomi J

    2008-02-01

    Nanoparticles are capable of both enhancing and suppressing the photocurrent in a silicon diode when deposited on the active face of the device. Photocurrent imaging of the individual nanoparticles and nanoparticle aggregates responsible for this effect reveals that Au nanospheres, nanoshells, and nanoshell dimers each exhibit unique wavelength-dependent suppression-enhancement characteristics. In contrast, silica nanospheres provide a sizable and relatively uniform photocurrent enhancement across the same spectral range (532-980 nm). Unusual light-harvesting behavior observed correlates with a highly complex energy flow (optical "vortexing") for the forward scattered light of plasmon resonant nanoparticles into the device.

  16. In Vivo Evaluation of the Visual Pathway in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes by Diffusion Tensor MRI and Contrast Enhanced MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarupa Kancherla

    Full Text Available Visual function has been shown to deteriorate prior to the onset of retinopathy in some diabetic patients and experimental animal models. This suggests the involvement of the brain's visual system in the early stages of diabetes. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by examining the integrity of the visual pathway in a diabetic rat model using in vivo multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into an experimental diabetic group by intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin in 0.01 M citric acid, and a sham control group by intraperitoneal injection of citric acid only. One month later, diffusion tensor MRI (DTI was performed to examine the white matter integrity in the brain, followed by chromium-enhanced MRI of retinal integrity and manganese-enhanced MRI of anterograde manganese transport along the visual pathway. Prior to MRI experiments, the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed significantly smaller weight gain and higher blood glucose level than the control rats. DTI revealed significantly lower fractional anisotropy and higher radial diffusivity in the prechiasmatic optic nerve of the diabetic rats compared to the control rats. No apparent difference was observed in the axial diffusivity of the optic nerve, the chromium enhancement in the retina, or the manganese enhancement in the lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus between groups. Our results suggest that streptozotocin-induced diabetes leads to early injury in the optic nerve when no substantial change in retinal integrity or anterograde transport along the visual pathways was observed in MRI using contrast agent enhancement. DTI may be a useful tool for detecting and monitoring early pathophysiological changes in the visual system of experimental diabetes non-invasively.

  17. Enhanced visible-light induced degradation of benzene on Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI nanospheres: In situ FTIR investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yu [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Zhao, Qidong [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Xinyong, E-mail: xyli@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Yuan, Deling; Hou, Yang [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Shaomin, E-mail: shaomin.liu@curtin.edu.au [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2012-11-30

    Graphical abstract: The dramatic enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Mg-ferrite/hematite nanospheres photocatalyst on benzene were obtained after hybridized by polyaniline (PANI) using the chemisorption method. The enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of benzene under visible-light irradiation was mainly ascribed to the high efficiency of charge separation induced by the hybrid effect of PANI and Mg-ferrite/hematite. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO{sub 2} is produced as the final product during the reaction process. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI photocatalysts showed enhanced photocatalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde were the intermediate products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} was produced as the final product during the reaction process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high efficiency of charge separation was mainly ascribed to the hybrid effect. - Abstract: The dramatic enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Mg-ferrite/hematite nanospheres photocatalysts on benzene were obtained after hybridized by polyaniline (PANI) using the chemisorption method. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of benzene under visible-light irradiation was mainly ascribed to the high efficiency of charge separation induced by the hybrid effect of PANI and Mg-ferrite/hematite. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO{sub 2} is determined as the final product during the reaction process.

  18. Traditional Herbal Medicine, Rikkunshito, Induces HSP60 and Enhances Cytoprotection of Small Intestinal Mucosal Cells as a Nontoxic Chaperone Inducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko Tamaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing incidence of small intestinal ulcers associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs has become a topic with recent advances of endoscopic technology. However, the pathogenesis and therapy are not fully understood. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of Rikkunshito (TJ-43, a traditional herbal medicine, on expression of HSP60 and cytoprotective ability in small intestinal cell line (IEC-6. Effect of TJ-43 on HSP60 expression in IEC-6 cells was evaluated by immunoblot analysis. The effect of TJ-43 on cytoprotective abilities of IEC-6 cells against hydrogen peroxide or indomethacin was studied by MTT assay, LDH-release assay, caspase-8 activity, and TUNEL. HSP60 was significantly induced by TJ-43. Cell necrosis and apoptosis were significantly suppressed in IEC-6 cells pretreated by TJ-43 with overexpression of HSP60. Our results suggested that HSP60 induced by TJ-43 might play an important role in protecting small intestinal epithelial cells from apoptosis and necrosis in vitro.

  19. The ATRA-induced differentiation of medulloblastoma cells is enhanced with LOX/COX inhibitors: an analysis of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlapek, Petr; Neradil, Jakub; Redova, Martina; Zitterbart, Karel; Sterba, Jaroslav; Veselska, Renata

    2014-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the expression of 440 cancer-related genes was performed after the combined treatment of medulloblastoma cells with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and inhibitors of lipoxygenases (LOX) and cyclooxygenases (COX). The combinations of retinoids and celecoxib as a COX-2 inhibitor were reported to be effective in some regimens of metronomic therapy of relapsed solid tumors with poor prognosis. Our previous findings on neuroblastoma cells using expression profiling showed that LOX/COX inhibitors have the capability of enhancing the differentiating action of ATRA. Presented study focused on the continuation of our previous work to confirm the possibility of enhancing ATRA-induced cell differentiation in these cell lines via the application of LOX/COX inhibitors. This study provides more detailed information concerning the mechanisms of the enhancement of the ATRA-induced differentiation of medulloblastoma cells. The Daoy and D283 Med medulloblastoma cell lines were chosen for this study. Caffeic acid (an inhibitor of 5-LOX) and celecoxib (an inhibitor on COX-2) were used in combined treatment with ATRA. The expression profiling was performed using Human Cancer Oligo GEArray membranes, and the most promising results were verified using RT-PCR. The expression profiling of the selected cancer-related genes clearly confirmed that the differentiating effects of ATRA should be enhanced via its combined administration with caffeic acid or celecoxib. This effect was detected in both cell lines. An increased expression of the genes that encoded the proteins participating in induced differentiation and cytoskeleton remodeling was detected in both cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was also observed for the CDKN1A gene encoding the p21 protein, which is an important regulator of the cell cycle, and for the genes encoding proteins that are associated with proteasome activity. Furthermore, our results showed that D283 Med cells are

  20. Oncostatin M induces RIG-I and MDA5 expression and enhances the double-stranded RNA response in fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergovits, Sabine; Mais, Christine; Haan, Claude; Costa-Pereira, Ana P; Hermanns, Heike M

    2017-11-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokines have no direct antiviral activity; nevertheless, they display immune-modulatory functions. Oncostatin M (OSM), a member of the IL-6 family, has recently been shown to induce a distinct number of classical interferon stimulated genes (ISG). Most of them are involved in antigen processing and presentation. However, induction of retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RLR) has not been investigated. Here we report that OSM has the capability to induce the expression of the DExD/H-Box RNA helicases RIG-I and melanoma differentiation antigen 5 (MDA5) as well as of the transcription factors interferon regulatory factor (IRF)1, IRF7 and IRF9 in primary fibroblasts. Induction of the helicases depends on tyrosine as well as serine phosphorylation of STAT1. Moreover, we could show that the OSM-induced STAT1 phosphorylation is predominantly counter-regulated by a strong STAT3-dependent SOCS3 induction, as Stat3 as well as Socs3 knock-down results in an enhanced and prolonged helicase and IRF expression. Other factors involved in regulation of STAT1 or IRF1 activity, like protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2), promyelocytic leukaemia protein (PML) or small ubiquitin-related modifier 1 (SUMO1), play a minor role in OSM-mediated induction of RLR. Remarkably, OSM and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) synergize to mediate transcription of RLR and pre-treatment of fibroblasts with OSM fosters the type I interferon production in response to a subsequent encounter with double-stranded RNA. Together, these findings suggest that the OSM-induced JAK/STAT1 signalling is implicated in virus protection of non-professional immune cells and may cooperate with interferons to enhance RLR expression in these cells. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  1. Nicotinamide enhances repair of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes and ex vivo skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjana, Devita; Halliday, Gary M; Damian, Diona L

    2013-05-01

    Nicotinamide (vitamin B3) protects from ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced carcinogenesis in mice and from UV-induced immunosuppression in mice and humans. Recent double-blinded randomized controlled Phase 2 studies in heavily sun-damaged individuals have shown that oral nicotinamide significantly reduces premalignant actinic keratoses, and may reduce new non-melanoma skin cancers. Nicotinamide is a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), an essential coenzyme in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Previously, we showed that nicotinamide prevents UV-induced ATP decline in HaCaT keratinocytes. Energy-dependent DNA repair is a key determinant of cellular survival after exposure to DNA-damaging agents such as UV radiation. Hence, in this study we investigated whether nicotinamide protection from cellular energy loss influences DNA repair. We treated HaCaT keratinocytes with nicotinamide and exposed them to low-dose solar-simulated UV (ssUV). Excision repair was quantified using an assay of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Nicotinamide increased both the proportion of cells undergoing excision repair and the repair rate in each cell. We then investigated ssUV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8oxoG) formation and repair by comet assay in keratinocytes and with immunohistochemistry in human skin. Nicotinamide reduced CPDs and 8oxoG in both models and the reduction appeared to be due to enhancement of DNA repair. These results show that nicotinamide enhances two different pathways for repair of UV-induced photolesions, supporting nicotinamide's potential as an inexpensive, convenient and non-toxic agent for skin cancer chemoprevention.

  2. Labeling thiols on proteins, living cells, and tissues with enhanced emission induced by FRET

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuan, Yue; Wang, Xijun; Mei, Bin; Zhang, Dongxin; Tang, Anming; An, Linna; He, Xiaoxiao; Jiang, Jun; Liang, Gaolin

    2013-01-01

    .... With this method, enhanced fluorescence imaging of thiols on proteins, outer membranes of living cells, translocation of membrane proteins, and endothelial cell layers of small arteries was successfully achieved.

  3. Trans-generational radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the female enhances the action of chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camats, Nuria [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, Francisca [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Parrilla, Juan Jose [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 El Palmar, Murcia (Spain); Calaf, Joaquim [Servei de Ginecologia i Obstetricia, Hospital Universitari de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Martin, Miguel [Departament de Pediatria, d' Obstetricia i Ginecologia i de Medicina Preventiva, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Caldes, Montserrat Garcia [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: Montserrat.Garcia.Caldes@uab.es

    2008-04-02

    Genomic instability can be produced by ionising radiation, so-called radiation-induced genomic instability, and chemical mutagens. Radiation-induced genomic instability occurs in both germinal and somatic cells and also in the offspring of irradiated individuals, and it is characterised by genetic changes including chromosomal rearrangements. The majority of studies of trans-generational, radiation-induced genomic instability have been described in the male germ line, whereas the authors who have chosen the female as a model are scarce. The aim of this work is to find out the radiation-induced effects in the foetal offspring of X-ray-treated female rats and, at the same time, the possible impact of this radiation-induced genomic instability on the action of a chemical mutagen. In order to achieve both goals, the quantity and quality of chromosomal damage were analysed. In order to detect trans-generational genomic instability, a total of 4806 metaphases from foetal tissues from the foetal offspring of X-irradiated female rats (5 Gy, acute dose) were analysed. The study's results showed that there is radiation-induced genomic instability: the number of aberrant metaphases and the breaks per total metaphases studied increased and were found to be statistically significant (p {<=} 0.05), with regard to the control group. In order to identify how this trans-generational, radiation-induced chromosomal instability could influence the chromosomal behaviour of the offspring of irradiated rat females in front of a chemical agent (aphidicolin), a total of 2481 metaphases were studied. The observed results showed that there is an enhancement of the action of the chemical agent: chromosomal breaks per aberrant metaphases show significant differences (p {<=} 0.05) in the X-ray- and aphidicolin-treated group as regards the aphidicolin-treated group. In conclusion, our findings indicate that there is trans-generational, radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the foetal

  4. Oxyhemoglobin-induced suppression of voltage-dependent K+ channels in cerebral arteries by enhanced tyrosine kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Masanori; Morielli, Anthony D; Zvarova, Katarina; Tranmer, Bruce I; Penar, Paul L; Wellman, George C

    2006-11-24

    Cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has devastating consequences. Oxyhemoglobin (oxyhb) has been implicated in SAH-induced cerebral vasospasm as it causes cerebral artery constriction and increases tyrosine kinase activity. Voltage-dependent, Ca(2+)-selective and K(+)-selective ion channels play an important role in the regulation of cerebral artery diameter and represent potential targets of oxyhb. Here we provide novel evidence that oxyhb selectively decreases 4-aminopyridine sensitive, voltage-dependent K(+) channel (K(v)) currents by approximately 30% in myocytes isolated from rabbit cerebral arteries but did not directly alter the activity of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels or large conductance Ca(2+)-activated (BK) channels. A combination of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (tyrphostin AG1478, tyrphostin A23, tyrphostin A25, genistein) abolished both oxyhb-induced suppression of K(v) channel currents and oxyhb-induced constriction of isolated cerebral arteries. The K(v) channel blocker 4-aminopyridine also inhibited oxyhb-induced cerebral artery constriction. The observed oxyhb-induced decrease in K(v) channel activity could represent either channel block, or a decrease in K(v) channel density on the plasma membrane. To explore whether oxyhb altered trafficking of K(v) channels to the plasma membrane, we used an antibody generated against an extracellular epitope of K(v)1.5 channels. In the presence of oxyhb, staining of K(v)1.5 on the plasma membrane surface was markedly reduced. Furthermore, oxyhb caused a loss of spatial distinction between staining with K(v)1.5 and the general anti-phosphotyrosine antibody PY-102. We propose that oxyhb-induced suppression of K(v) currents occurs via a mechanism involving enhanced tyrosine kinase activity and channel endocytosis. This novel mechanism may contribute to oxyhb-induced cerebral artery constriction following SAH.

  5. Treadmill and wheel exercise alleviate lipopolysaccharide-induced short-term memory impairment by enhancing neuronal maturation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Eun; Ko, Il-Gyu; Park, Chang-Youl; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin derived from Gram‑negative bacteria, which induces brain inflammation. LPS‑induced brain inflammation deteriorates hippocampus‑dependent cognitive deficits. In the present study, we investigated the effects of forced treadmill exercise and voluntary wheel exercise on short‑term memory in relation to neuronal maturation in LPS‑induced brain inflammation of rats. Brain inflammation in rats was induced by an injection of LPS into the cerebral ventricle. Short‑term memory was evaluated using a step‑down avoidance task. Cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was determined by 5‑bromo‑2'‑deoxyuridine (BrdU), a marker of new cells, immunohistochemistry. Western blot analysis for the determination of doublecortin (DCX), a marker of immature neurons and neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN), a marker of mature neurons, was performed. In the present study, LPS‑induced brain inflammation impaired short‑term memory by increasing DCX expression and suppressing NeuN expression. These results suggest that LPS‑induced brain inflammation disturbs neuronal maturation. The number of BrdU‑positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was increased by LPS injection. This increase in the number of BrdU‑positive cells can be ascribed to the increase in the number of of immature neurons following LPS injection. On the other hand, forced treadmill exercise and voluntary wheel exercise improved brain inflammation‑induced short‑term memory impairment by suppressing DCX expression and increasing NeuN expression, enhancing neuronal maturation. Forced treadmill exercise and voluntary wheel exercise showed similar efficacy. From these results, it can be inferred that forced treadmill exercise and voluntary wheel exercise may improve memory function deteriorated by brain inflammation.

  6. Hydrogen-enhanced-plasticity mediated decohesion for hydrogen-induced intergranular and ``quasi-cleavage'' fracture of lath martensitic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Akihide; Dadfarnia, Mohsen; Somerday, Brian P.; Sofronis, Petros; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2018-03-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement of lath martenistic steels is characterized by intergranular and "quasi-cleavage" transgranular fracture. Recent transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses (Nagao et al., 2012a, 2014a, 2014b, 2014c) of samples lifted from beneath fracture surfaces through focused ion beam machining (FIB) revealed a failure mechanism that can be termed hydrogen-enhanced-plasticity mediated decohesion. Fracture occurs by the synergistic action of the hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity and decohesion. In particular, intergranular cracking takes place by dislocation pile-ups impinging on prior austenite grain boundaries and "quasi-cleavage" is the case when dislocation pile-ups impinge on block boundaries. These high-angle boundaries, which have already weakened by the presence of hydrogen, debond by the pile-up stresses. The micromechanical model of Novak et al. (2010) is used to quantitatively describe and predict the hydrogen-induced failure of these steels. The model predictions verify that introduction of nanosized (Ti,Mo)C precipitates in the steel microstructure enhances the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. The results are used to discuss microstructural designs that are less susceptible to hydrogen-induced failure in systems with fixed hydrogen content (closed systems).

  7. Diet-induced weight loss and exercise alone and in combination enhance the expression of adiponectin receptors in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, but only diet-induced weight loss enhanced circulating adiponectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Tore; Paulsen, Søren K; Bruun, Jens M

    2009-01-01

    by the intervention. Conclusion: Exercise alone and in combination with a diet-induced weight loss enhance the mRNA expression of adiponectin receptors in AT and in SM but only a pronounced hypocaloric-induced weight-loss increases circulating adiponectin in obese subjects.......Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of weight loss and exercise independently and in combination on circulating levels of adiponectin including low molecular weight, medium molecular weight, and high molecular weight adiponectin and expression of adiponectin...... and adiponectin receptors (AdipoR) in adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle (SM). Design and Methods: Seventy-nine obese males and females were randomized into the following: 1) exercise only (12 wk of exercise without diet restriction); 2) hypocaloric diet [8 wk of very low energy diet (600 kcal/d) followed...

  8. Tramadol Pretreatment Enhances Ketamine-Induced Antidepressant Effects and Increases Mammalian Target of Rapamycin in Rat Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that acute administration of ketamine elicits fast-acting antidepressant effects. Moreover, tramadol also has potential antidepressant effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment with tramadol on ketamine-induced antidepressant activity and was to determine the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR in rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Rats were intraperitoneally administrated with ketamine at the dose of 10 mg/kg or saline 1 h before the second episode of the forced swimming test (FST. Tramadol or saline was intraperitoneally pretreated 30 min before the former administration of ketamine or saline. The locomotor activity and the immobility time of FST were both measured. After that, rats were sacrificed to determine the expression of mTOR in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Tramadol at the dose of 5 mg/kg administrated alone did not elicit the antidepressant effects. More importantly, pretreatment with tramadol enhanced the ketamine-induced antidepressant effects and upregulated the expression of mTOR in rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Pretreatment with tramadol enhances the ketamine-induced antidepressant effects, which is associated with the increased expression of mTOR in rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

  9. Mutant GDF5 enhances ameloblast differentiation via accelerated BMP2-induced Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Saito, Kan; Maruya, Yuriko; Nakamura, Takashi; Yamada, Aya; Fukumoto, Emiko; Ishikawa, Momoko; Iwamoto, Tsutomu; Miyazaki, Kanako; Yoshizaki, Keigo; Ge, Lihong; Fukumoto, Satoshi

    2016-03-31

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate hard tissue formation, including bone and tooth. Growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5), a known BMP, is expressed in cartilage and regulates chondrogenesis, and mutations have been shown to cause osteoarthritis. Notably, GDF5 is also expressed in periodontal ligament tissue; however, its role during tooth development is unclear. Here, we used cell culture and in vivo analyses to determine the role of GDF5 during tooth development. GDF5 and its associated BMP receptors are expressed at the protein and mRNA levels during postnatal tooth development, particularly at a stage associated with enamel formation. Furthermore, whereas BMP2 was observed to induce evidently the differentiation of enamel-forming ameloblasts, excess GDF5 induce mildly this differentiation. A mouse model harbouring a mutation in GDF5 (W408R) showed enhanced enamel formation in both the incisors and molars, but not in the tooth roots. Overexpression of the W408R GDF5 mutant protein was shown to induce BMP2-mediated mRNA expression of enamel matrix proteins and downstream phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8. These results suggest that mutant GDF5 enhances ameloblast differentiation via accelerated BMP2-signalling.

  10. Time domain modeling of induced birefringence and phase shift in piezoelectric resonance enhanced electro-optic modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Robert; Bhalla, Amar; Guo, Ruyan

    2013-09-01

    In our continuing effort of developing electromagnetic-electromechanical-electrooptic interactive devices, the effect of piezoelectric resonance on the performance of electrooptic modulators is investigated. Time domain finite element models were constructed to determine the phase shift due to the induced birefringence of the device. Two sinusoidal voltage sources are used one to sweep over a range of frequencies while the other setting the modulator at a selected resonance frequency. Ferroelectric single crystals such as LiNbO3 and Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3, were examined for their induced index of refraction, the induced phase shift, and the half-wave voltage of given configurations. The time domain model of dual signal ac biased configuration displayed wide bandwidth enhancement when biased at proper resonant modes, which matches well with experimental observations. The results demonstrate the piezoresonant enhancement in terms of low half wave voltage and high electrooptic coefficients in broad frequency ranges. The results also provided corresponding insights that further our understanding on experimental observations reported previously by the authors. The models are suitable for designing of electrooptic device configurations that optimize the properties desired.

  11. Signal enhancement of neutral He emission lines by fast electron bombardment of laser-induced He plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyanto, Hery [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University, Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Denpasar 80361, Bali (Indonesia); Pardede, Marincan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Pelita Harapan, 1100 M.H. Thamrin Boulevard, Lippo Village, Tangerang 15811 (Indonesia); Hedwig, Rinda [Department of Computer Engineering, Bina Nusantara University, 9 K.H. Syahdan, Jakarta 14810 (Indonesia); Marpaung, Alion Mangasi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Jakarta State University, Rawamangun, Jakarta 12440 (Indonesia); Ramli, Muliadi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Lie, Tjung Jie; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik, E-mail: kurnia18@cbn.net.id [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Tjia, May On [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Physics of Magnetism and Photonics Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, 10 Ganesha,Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Kagawa, Kiichiro [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Fukui Science Education Academy, Takagi Chuo 2 chome, Fukui 910-0804 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    A time-resolved spectroscopic study is performed on the enhancement signals of He gas plasma emission using nanosecond (ns) and picosecond (ps) lasers in an orthogonal configuration. The ns laser is used for the He gas plasma generation and the ps laser is employed for the ejection of fast electrons from a metal target, which serves to excite subsequently the He atoms in the plasma. The study is focused on the most dominant He I 587.6 nm and He I 667.8 nm emission lines suggested to be responsible for the He-assisted excitation (HAE) mechanism. The time-dependent intensity enhancements induced by the fast electrons generated with a series of delayed ps laser ablations are deduced from the intensity time profiles of both He emission lines. The results clearly lead to the conclusion that the metastable excited triplet He atoms are actually the species overwhelmingly produced during the recombination process in the ns laser-induced He gas plasma. These metastable He atoms are believed to serve as the major energy source for the delayed excitation of analyte atoms in ns laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using He ambient gas.

  12. CD8+ T cells prevent antigen-induced antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, Raphaël M; Eddy, William E; Tang, William W; Miller, Robyn; Shresta, Sujan

    2014-10-15

    Dengue virus (DENV) causes pathologies ranging from the febrile illness dengue fever to the potentially lethal severe dengue disease. A major risk factor for developing severe dengue disease is the presence of subprotective DENV-reactive Abs from a previous infection (or from an immune mother), which can induce Ab-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE). However, infection in the presence of subprotective anti-DENV Abs does not always result in severe disease, suggesting that other factors influence disease severity. In this study we investigated how CD8(+) T cell responses influence the outcome of Ab-mediated severe dengue disease. Mice were primed with aluminum hydroxide-adjuvanted UV-inactivated DENV prior to challenge with DENV. Priming failed to induce robust CD8(+) T cell responses, and it induced nonneutralizing Ab responses that increased disease severity upon infection. Transfer of exogenous DENV-activated CD8(+) T cells into primed mice prior to infection prevented Ab-dependent enhancement and dramatically reduced viral load. Our results suggest that in the presence of subprotective anti-DENV Abs, efficient CD8(+) T cell responses reduce the risk of Ab-mediated severe dengue disease. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Study on shear-induced thermal conductivity for heat transfer enhancement with non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Ryul; Yoon, Hyun-Joong

    2013-09-01

    Shear-induced viscosity and thermal conductivity measurements were performed for viscoelastic fluids. This research was also designed to investigate the extent to which the thermal conductivity of viscoelastic fluids is affected by fluid motion under conditions in which it is known that the viscous properties undergo significant changes, and then the effect of the shear-induced thermal conductivity measured on the convective heat transfer enhancement for a heat exchanger system. It was also found experimentally that the thermal conductivity increased with shear rate for two polyacrylamide solutions of 1000 and 2000 wppm with order of 23%-43% and 17%-21%, respectively, depending on temperature (20-50 °C). The increase in the thermal conductivity with a shear rate was greater for lower concentration polyacrylamide solutions than for higher concentration ones, with a difference of 8%-22% depending on temperature range (20-50 °C). The convective heat transfer enhancement with the shear-induced thermal conductivity in the infinite rectangular duct was of the order of 41%-74% and 41%-52% over the entire temperature range (20-50 °C) of the two polyacrylamide solutions of 1000 and 2000 wppm, respectively.

  14. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib induces an inhibitory chromatin environment at a distal enhancer of the estrogen receptor-α gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginny L Powers

    Full Text Available Expression of the estrogen receptor-α (ERα gene, ESR1, is a clinical biomarker used to predict therapeutic outcome of breast cancer. Hence, there is significant interest in understanding the mechanisms regulating ESR1 gene expression. Proteasome activity is increased in cancer and we previously showed that proteasome inhibition leads to loss of ESR1 gene expression in breast cancer cells. Expression of ESR1 mRNA in breast cancer cells is controlled predominantly through a proximal promoter within ∼400 base pair (bp of the transcription start site (TSS. Here, we show that loss of ESR1 gene expression induced by the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is associated with inactivation of a distal enhancer located 150 kilobases (kb from the TSS. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays reveal several bortezomib-induced changes at the distal site including decreased occupancy of three critical transcription factors, GATA3, FOXA1, and AP2γ. Bortezomib treatment also resulted in decreased histone H3 and H4 acetylation and decreased occupancy of histone acetyltransferase, p300. These data suggest a mechanism to explain proteasome inhibitor-induced loss of ESR1 mRNA expression that highlights the importance of the chromatin environment at the -150 kb distal enhancer in regulation of basal expression of ESR1 in breast cancer cells.

  15. POCS‐enhanced inherent correction of motion‐induced phase errors (POCS‐ICE) for high‐resolution multishot diffusion MRI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guo, Hua; Ma, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Bida; Yuan, Chun; Huang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    .... Instead of solving phase errors and the image sequentially in the two-step parallel imaging, the proposed method, named POCS-enhanced Inherent Correction of motion-induced phase Errors (POCS-ICE...

  16. POCS-enhanced inherent correction of motion-induced phase errors (POCS-ICE) for high-resolution multishot diffusion MRI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hua Guo; Xiaodong Ma; Zhe Zhang; Bida Zhang; Chun Yuan; Feng Huang

    2016-01-01

    .... Theory and Methods Instead of solving phase errors and the image sequentially in the two-step parallel imaging, the proposed method, named POCS-enhanced Inherent Correction of motion-induced phase Errors (POCS-ICE...

  17. Curcuma aromatica Water Extract Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Gastritis via Enhancement of Antioxidant Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Young Jeon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma aromatica is an herbal medicine and traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases in Asia. We investigated the effects of C. aromatica water extract (CAW in the stomach of rats with ethanol-induced gastritis. Gastritis was induced in rats by intragastric administration of 5 mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol. The CAW groups were given 250 or 500 mg of extract/kg 2 h before administration of ethanol, respectively. To determine the antioxidant effects of CAW, we determined the level of lipid peroxidation, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH, the activities of catalase, degree of inflammation, and mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced ethanol-induced inflammation and loss of epithelial cells and increased the mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced the increase in lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced gastritis (250 and 500 mg/kg, p<0.01, resp. and increased mucosal GSH content (500 mg/kg, p<0.01 and the activity of catalase (250 and 500 mg/kg, p<0.01, resp.. CAW increased the production of prostaglandin E2. These findings suggest that CAW protects against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury by increasing antioxidant status. We suggest that CAW could be developed for the treatment of gastritis induced by alcohol.

  18. Disordered photonics coupled with embedded nano-Au plasmonics inducing efficient photocurrent enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Junling; Dai, Zhihui; Li, Hongbo

    2018-01-01

    Spatial order used to be considered as a benefit for photonics; but recently the study of disorder has broken into people's horizons for its strong random scattering of light. In this work, disordered photonics coupled with plasmonics for efficiently enhanced photocurrent was first investigated using Au-ZnO nanowire array as a model. The embedded Au-ZnO nanowire array was facilely prepared using a template-free electrodeposition method. On the optimal plasmonic substrate, the photocurrent of disorder-enhanced Au-ZnO nanowire array is about 20-fold that of ZnO nanowire array. Both the plasmonic effect of Au NPs such as localized surface plasmons, surface plasmon polarizations and the disorder-enhanced photonics in the hybrid structure are available to improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency by enhancing the trapping of the simulated sunlight and the collection of charge carriers. Herein, disordered photonics was coupled with plasmonics to explain for the enhanced photocurrent. This work also provided a facile fabricating avenue for plasmonic noble metal embedded in semiconductor devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancement of hyperthermia-induced apoptosis by 5Z-7-oxozeaenol, a TAK1 inhibitor, in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhao, Qing-Li; Jawaid, Paras; Rehman, Mati Ur; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Kondo, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    KRAS mutant lung cancers have long been considered as untreatable with drugs. Transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) appears to play an anti-apoptotic role in response to multiple stresses and has been reported to be a responsive kinase that regulates cell survival in KRAS-dependent cells. In this study, in order to find a useful approach to treat KRAS mutant lung cancer, we focused on the combined effects of 5Z-7-oxozeaenol, a TAK1 inhibitor, with hyperthermia (HT) in KRAS mutant lung cancer cell line A549. Annexin V-FITC/PI assay, cell cycle analysis, and colony formation assay revealed a significant enhancement in apoptosis induced by HT treatment, when the cells were pre-incubated with 5Z-7-oxozeaenol in a dose-dependent manner. The enhanced apoptosis by 5Z-7-oxozeaenol was accompanied by a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). In addition, western blot showed that 5Z-7-oxozeaenol enhanced HT-induced expressions of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, and HSP70 and decreased HT-induced expressions of Bcl-2, p-p38, p-JNK, and LC3. Moreover, 5Z-7-oxozeaenol pre-treatment resulted in a marked elevation of intracellular calcium level which might be associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related pathway. Taken together, our data provides further insights of the mechanism of action of 5Z-7-oxozeaenol and HT treatment, and their potential application as a novel approache to treat patients with KRAS mutant lung cancer.

  20. Selective activation of M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors reverses MK-801-induced behavioral impairments and enhances associative learning in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M; Dencker, Ditte; Gould, Robert W; Grannan, Michael; Noetzel, Meredith J; Lamsal, Atin; Niswender, Colleen M; Daniels, J Scott; Poslusney, Michael S; Melancon, Bruce J; Tarr, James C; Byers, Frank W; Wess, Jürgen; Duggan, Mark E; Dunlop, John; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Wood, Michael R; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K

    2014-10-15

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) represent a novel approach for the treatment of psychotic symptoms associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. We recently reported that the selective M4 PAM VU0152100 produced an antipsychotic drug-like profile in rodents after amphetamine challenge. Previous studies suggest that enhanced cholinergic activity may also improve cognitive function and reverse deficits observed with reduced signaling through the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of the glutamate receptor (NMDAR) in the central nervous system. Prior to this study, the M1 mAChR subtype was viewed as the primary candidate for these actions relative to the other mAChR subtypes. Here we describe the discovery of a novel M4 PAM, VU0467154, with enhanced in vitro potency and improved pharmacokinetic properties relative to other M4 PAMs, enabling a more extensive characterization of M4 actions in rodent models. We used VU0467154 to test the hypothesis that selective potentiation of M4 receptor signaling could ameliorate the behavioral, cognitive, and neurochemical impairments induced by the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801. VU0467154 produced a robust dose-dependent reversal of MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion and deficits in preclinical models of associative learning and memory functions, including the touchscreen pairwise visual discrimination task in wild-type mice, but failed to reverse these stimulant-induced deficits in M4 KO mice. VU0467154 also enhanced the acquisition of both contextual and cue-mediated fear conditioning when administered alone in wild-type mice. These novel findings suggest that M4 PAMs may provide a strategy for addressing the more complex affective and cognitive disruptions associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  1. Manganese ions enhance mitochondrial H2O2emission from Krebs cycle oxidoreductases by inducing permeability transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonke, Erik; Siebels, Ilka; Zwicker, Klaus; Dröse, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Manganese-induced toxicity has been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and an increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We could recently show in mechanistic studies that Mn 2+ ions induce hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) production from the ubiquinone binding site of mitochondrial complex II (II Q ) and generally enhance H 2 O 2 formation by accelerating the rate of superoxide dismutation. The present study with intact mitochondria reveals that manganese additionally enhances H 2 O 2 emission by inducing mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT). In mitochondria fed by NADH-generating substrates, the combination of Mn 2+ and different respiratory chain inhibitors led to a dynamically increasing H 2 O 2 emission which was sensitive to the mPT inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) as well as Ru-360, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). Under these conditions, flavin-containing enzymes of the mitochondrial matrix, e.g. the mitochondrial 2-oxoglutaratedehydrogenase (OGDH), were major sources of ROS. With succinate as substrate, Mn 2+ stimulated ROS production mainly at complex II, whereby the applied succinate concentration had a marked effect on the tendency for mPT. Also Ca 2+ increased the rate of H 2 O 2 emission by mPT, while no direct effect on ROS-production of complex II was observed. The present study reveals a complex scenario through which manganese affects mitochondrial H 2 O 2 emission: stimulating its production from distinct sites (e.g. site II Q ), accelerating superoxide dismutation and enhancing the emission via mPT which also leads to the loss of soluble components of the mitochondrial antioxidant systems and favors the ROS production from flavin-containing oxidoreductases of the Krebs cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced both in vitro and in vivo kinetics by SLNs induced transdermal system of furosemide: A novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannam, Revathi; Yallamalli, Indira Muzib

    2017-11-28

    Furosemide is a potent diuretic agent used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension. Variable dosage regimen and poor pharmacokinetic parameters has led to the development of transdermal drug delivery system. A patent on suitability of multi-lamellar structures for excellent transdermal delivery (US 0367475A1) has encouraged us to formulate the solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) induced transdermal systems of furosemide to enhance the kinetic properties without incorporating any penetration enhancer and rate limiting polymers. SLNs were prepared by hot homogenization and ultra-sonication method; optimization was done basing on entrapment efficiency and particle size. Optimized SLNs were incorporated in to transdermal patches by solvent casting method. In-vitro and in-vivo studies were carried out for characterization of transdermal patches. SLNs of F9 (GMS: Span 60: Pluronic F 68 in 6:2.5:0.2) were optimized for incorporating in to transdermal system (entrapment efficiency 94.5±0.045%, particle size 69.6±1.48 nm and in-vitro release 94.38±1.02%). Transdermal patches were formulated using combinations of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers to study the diffusion kinetics. Formulation FS1 (HPMC 4 parts) was optimized for further studies (in-vitro release 98.11±1.21% with flux of 58.726±0.023 µg/cm2/h) and no significant difference from ex-vivo permeation studies was observed. Drug release followed mixed order diffusion kinetics and super case -II transport mechanism. In-vivo pharmacokinetic data of SLNs induced transdermal system suggested a 3.6 times increase in AUC and 5.4 times increase in MRT when compared with oral route. The SLNs induced transdermal patch was found to beneficial in enhancing kinetic properties both in-vitro and in-vivo. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. beta-very low density lipoprotein enhances inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in cytokine-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Sadao; Shimpo, Masahisa; Naito, Akitaka; Ogata, Yukiyo; Kobayashi, Eiji; Ikeda, Uichi; Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2002-06-01

    beta-very low-density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL), a collective term for VLDL and chylomicron remnants, has recently shown to potently promote the development of atherosclerosis. However, the effects of beta-VLDL on the accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) have not been determined. In this study, we measured the accumulation of nitrite, stable metabolite of NO and examined the expression of iNOS protein and mRNA using Western blotting and RT-PCR, respectively, in VSMC. NF-kappaB activation in VSMC was examined by gel retardation assay. Incubation of cell cultures with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) for 24 h caused a significant increase in nitrite accumulation. Although beta-VLDL alone did not increase nitrite accumulation in unstimulated VSMC, beta-VLDL significantly enhanced nitrite accumulation in IL-1beta-stimulated VSMC in a time- and dose-dependent manner. beta-VLDL-induced nitrite accumulation in IL-1beta-stimulated VSMC was accompanied by an increase in iNOS protein and mRNA expression. In addition, IL-1beta induced NF-kappaB activation in VSMC, an effect that was increased by the addition of beta-VLDL. Use of specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A, genistein, or PP2 (Src family kinase inhibitor) indicated that tyrosine kinases are required for IL-1beta-stimulated and beta-VLDL-enhanced nitrite accumulation, while specific inhibition of ERK1/2 or p38-MAP kinase had no effects. Our results suggest that beta-VLDL enhances iNOS expression and nitrite accumulation in IL-1beta-stimulated VSMC through tyrosine kinase(s)-dependent mechanisms.

  4. Synthesis of surface oxygen-deficient BiPO{sub 4} nanocubes with enhanced visible light induced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Bingtao; Yin, Haoyong; Li, Tao; Gong, Jianying; Lv, Shumei; Nie, Qiulin, E-mail: yhy@hdu.edu.cn [College of Materials & Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou (China)

    2017-05-15

    The visible light driven BiPO{sub 4} nanocubes with sufficient surface oxygen deficiency were fabricated by a hydrothermal process and subsequently ultrasonic assistant Fe reduction process. The products were characterized by XRD, DRS, XPS, SEM and TEM which showed that the BiPO{sub 4} had cuboid-like shape with a smooth surface and clear edges and the oxygen vacancies were successfully introduced on the surface of the BiPO{sub 4} nanocubes. The as prepared oxygen-deficient BiPO{sub 4} nanocubes showed greatly enhanced visible light induced photocatalytic activity in degradation of Rhodamine B. The enhanced photocatalytic performance and expanded visible light response of BiPO{sub 4} may be due to the introduction of surface oxygen vacancies which can generate the oxygen vacancies mid-gap states lower to the conduction band of BiPO{sub 4}. (author)

  5. Near-infrared optical absorption enhanced in black silicon via Ag nanoparticle-induced localized surface plasmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Shibin; Liu, Chunhua; Wei, Xiongbang; Wu, Zhiming; Jiang, Yadong; Chen, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Due to the localized surface plasmon (LSP) effect induced by Ag nanoparticles inside black silicon, the optical absorption of black silicon is enhanced dramatically in near-infrared range (1,100 to 2,500 nm). The black silicon with Ag nanoparticles shows much higher absorption than black silicon fabricated by chemical etching or reactive ion etching over ultraviolet to near-infrared (UV-VIS-NIR, 250 to 2,500 nm). The maximum absorption even increased up to 93.6% in the NIR range (820 to 2,500 nm). The high absorption in NIR range makes LSP-enhanced black silicon a potential material used for NIR-sensitive optoelectronic device. 78.67.Bf; 78.30.Fs; 78.40.-q; 42.70.Gi.

  6. Enhanced visible-light induced degradation of benzene on Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI nanospheres: in situ FTIR investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu; Zhao, Qidong; Li, Xinyong; Yuan, Deling; Hou, Yang; Liu, Shaomin

    2012-11-30

    The dramatic enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Mg-ferrite/hematite nanospheres photocatalysts on benzene were obtained after hybridized by polyaniline (PANI) using the chemisorption method. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of benzene under visible-light irradiation was mainly ascribed to the high efficiency of charge separation induced by the hybrid effect of PANI and Mg-ferrite/hematite. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO(2) is determined as the final product during the reaction process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanical bending induced catalytic activity enhancement of monolayer 1 T'-MoS2 for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenwu; Wang, Zhiguo; Fu, Yong Qing

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, mechanisms behind enhancement of catalytic activity of MoS2 mono-layer (three atomic layers) for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) by mechanically applying bending strain were investigated using density functional theory. Results showed that with the increase of bending strains, the Gibbs free energy for hydrogen adsorption on the MoS2 mono-layer was decreased from 0.18 to -0.04 eV and to 0.13 eV for the bend strains applied along the zigzag and armchair directions, respectively. The mechanism for the enhanced catalytic activity comes from the changes of density of electronic states near the Fermi energy level, which are induced by the changes of the Mo-S and Mo-Mo bonds upon bending. This report provides a new design methodology to improve the catalytic activity of catalysts based on two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides through a simple mechanical bending.

  8. Two weeks of metformin treatment induces AMPK dependent enhancement of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse soleus muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Treebak, Jonas Thue; Schjerling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    signaling. Methods: Oral doses of metformin or saline treatment were given muscle-specific kinase α2 dead AMPK mice (KD) and wild type (WT) littermates either once or chronically for 2 weeks. Soleus and Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL) muscles were used for measurements of glucose transport and Western blot......Background: Metformin-induced activation of AMPK has been associated with enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle but so far no direct causality has been examined. We hypothesized that an effect of in vivo metformin treatment on glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscles is dependent upon AMPK...... analyzes. Results: Chronic treatment with metformin enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in soleus muscles of WT (45%, P...

  9. Chemically Bonding of Amantadine with Gardenamide A Enhances the Neuroprotective Effects against Corticosterone-Induced Insults in PC12 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiaqiang; Peng, Lizhi; Zheng, Wenhua; Wang, Rikang; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jian; Chen, Heru

    2015-09-21

    Two amantadine (ATD)-gardenamide A (GA) ligands have been designed and synthesized. The bonding of ATD with GA through a methylene carbonyl brigde (L1) enhances the neuroprotective effect against corticosterone (CORT)-induced impairments in PC12 cells; while the bonding through a succinyl brigde (L2) does not. L1 reduces the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell apoptosis generated by CORT. It restores CORT-changed cell morphology to a state that is closed to normal PC12 cells. One mechanism of L1 to attenuate CORT-induced cell apoptosis is through the adjustment of both caspase-3 and Bcl-2 proteins. Like GA, both nNOS and eNOS might be involved in the neuroprotective mechanism of L1. All the evidences suggest that L1 may be a potential agent to treat depression.

  10. Chemically Bonding of Amantadine with Gardenamide A Enhances the Neuroprotective Effects against Corticosterone-Induced Insults in PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqiang Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two amantadine (ATD-gardenamide A (GA ligands have been designed and synthesized. The bonding of ATD with GA through a methylene carbonyl brigde (L1 enhances the neuroprotective effect against corticosterone (CORT-induced impairments in PC12 cells; while the bonding through a succinyl brigde (L2 does not. L1 reduces the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS and cell apoptosis generated by CORT. It restores CORT-changed cell morphology to a state that is closed to normal PC12 cells. One mechanism of L1 to attenuate CORT-induced cell apoptosis is through the adjustment of both caspase-3 and Bcl-2 proteins. Like GA, both nNOS and eNOS might be involved in the neuroprotective mechanism of L1. All the evidences suggest that L1 may be a potential agent to treat depression.

  11. Amino acid substitutions in the FXYD motif enhance phospholemman-induced modulation of cardiac L-type calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kai; Wang, Xianming; Gao, Guofeng; Huang, Congxin; Elmslie, Keith S; Peterson, Blaise Z

    2010-11-01

    We have found that phospholemman (PLM) associates with and modulates the gating of cardiac L-type calcium channels (Wang et al., Biophys J 98: 1149-1159, 2010). The short 17 amino acid extracellular NH(2)-terminal domain of PLM contains a highly conserved PFTYD sequence that defines it as a member of the FXYD family of ion transport regulators. Although we have learned a great deal about PLM-dependent changes in calcium channel gating, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed changes. Therefore, we investigated the role of the PFTYD segment in the modulation of cardiac calcium channels by individually replacing Pro-8, Phe-9, Thr-10, Tyr-11, and Asp-12 with alanine (P8A, F9A, T10A, Y11A, D12A). In addition, Asp-12 was changed to lysine (D12K) and cysteine (D12C). As expected, wild-type PLM significantly slows channel activation and deactivation and enhances voltage-dependent inactivation (VDI). We were surprised to find that amino acid substitutions at Thr-10 and Asp-12 significantly enhanced the ability of PLM to modulate Ca(V)1.2 gating. T10A exhibited a twofold enhancement of PLM-induced slowing of activation, whereas D12K and D12C dramatically enhanced PLM-induced increase of VDI. The PLM-induced slowing of channel closing was abrogated by D12A and D12C, whereas D12K and T10A failed to impact this effect. These studies demonstrate that the PFXYD motif is not necessary for the association of PLM with Ca(V)1.2. Instead, since altering the chemical and/or physical properties of the PFXYD segment alters the relative magnitudes of opposing PLM-induced effects on Ca(V)1.2 channel gating, PLM appears to play an important role in fine tuning the gating kinetics of cardiac calcium channels and likely plays an important role in shaping the cardiac action potential and regulating Ca(2+) dynamics in the heart.

  12. Crystal splitting and enhanced photocatalytic behavior of TiO2 rutile nano-belts induced by dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seung I; Hwang, Kyu Hyeon; Kim, Yu Hyun; Yun, Min Ju; Seo, Seon Hee; Shin, Yun Ji; Moon, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Dong Yoon

    2013-01-21

    Crystal splitting and enhanced photocatalytic activities caused by implied dislocations were observed in hierarchical TiO(2) nano-architectures prepared by one-pot hydrothermal synthesis in concentrated HCl. Microstructural observation revealed that the nanowires formed by continuous splitting of TiO(2) nano-belts, which is caused by a lattice misorientation of about 6°, were generated by an array of dislocations. In addition, the larger amount of dislocations implied in TiO(2) nano-architectures induces higher photocatalytic activities under ultra-violet illumination.

  13. Near-infrared optical absorption enhanced in black silicon via Ag nanoparticle-induced localized surface plasmon

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Shibin; Liu, Chunhua; Wei, Xiongbang; Wu, Zhiming; Jiang, Yadong; Chen, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Due to the localized surface plasmon (LSP) effect induced by Ag nanoparticles inside black silicon, the optical absorption of black silicon is enhanced dramatically in near-infrared range (1,100 to 2,500 nm). The black silicon with Ag nanoparticles shows much higher absorption than black silicon fabricated by chemical etching or reactive ion etching over ultraviolet to near-infrared (UV-VIS-NIR, 250 to 2,500 nm). The maximum absorption even increased up to 93.6% in the NIR range (820 to 2,500...

  14. Aloin enhances cisplatin antineoplastic activity in B16-F10 melanoma cells by transglutaminase-induced differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabolacci, Claudio; Rossi, Stefania; Lentini, Alessandro; Provenzano, Bruno; Turcano, Lorenzo; Facchiano, Francesco; Beninati, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Aloin, a natural anthracycline from aloe plant, is a hydroxyanthraquinone derivative shown to have antitumor properties. This study demonstrated that aloin exerted inhibition of cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion abilities of B16-F10 melanoma cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Furthermore, aloin induced melanoma cell differentiation through the enhancement of melanogenesis and transglutaminase activity. To improve the growth-inhibiting effect of anticancer agents, we found that the combined treatment of cells with aloin and low doses of cisplatin increases the antiproliferative activity of aloin. The results suggest that aloin possesses antineoplastic and antimetastatic properties, exerted likely through the induction of melanoma cell differentiation.

  15. Dietary krill oil enhances neurocognitive functions and modulates proteomic changes in brain tissues of d-galactose induced aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Sun, Tingting; Li, Yanyan; Zhou, Jun; Lu, Chenyang; Li, Ye; Huang, Zhongbai; Su, Xiurong

    2017-05-24

    The effects of dietary krill oil on neurocognitive functions and proteomic changes in brain tissues of d-galactose-induced aging mice were evaluated. Dietary krill oil enhanced the neurocognitive functions of aging mice with a significant (P aging mice administered with krill oil showed significant (P changes in the serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level. In terms of proteomic changes, krill oil resulted in upregulation of the Celsr3 and Ppp1r1b gene expression, which contribute to brain development, learning and memory behavior processes. In particular, the Ppp1r1b gene is associated with the inhibition of dopamine releases, which decreases the motivation for learning.

  16. Inducible activation of ERK5 MAP kinase enhances adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb and improves olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbin; Lu, Song; Li, Tan; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Abel, Glen M; Xu, Lihong; Storm, Daniel R; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-05-20

    Recent discoveries have suggested that adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory bulb (OB) may be required for at least some forms of olfactory behavior in mice. However, it is unclear whether conditional and selective enhancement of adult neurogenesis by genetic approaches is sufficient to improve olfactory function under physiological conditions or after injury. Furthermore, specific signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB are not fully defined. We previously reported that ERK5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain, plays a critical role in adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB. Using a site-specific knock-in mouse model, we report here that inducible and targeted activation of the endogenous ERK5 in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances adult neurogenesis in the OB by increasing cell survival and neuronal differentiation. This conditional ERK5 activation also improves short-term olfactory memory and odor-cued associative olfactory learning under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these mice show enhanced recovery of olfactory function and have more adult-born neurons after a zinc sulfate-induced lesion of the main olfactory epithelium. We conclude that ERK5 MAP kinase is an important endogenous signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and that conditional activation of endogenous ERK5 is sufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis in the OB thereby improving olfactory function both under normal conditions and after injury. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357833-17$15.00/0.

  17. Diazoxide enhances excitotoxicity-induced neurogenesis and attenuates neurodegeneration in the rat non-neurogenic hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moreno, M; Batlle, M; Ortega, F J; Gimeno-Bayón, J; Andrade, C; Mahy, N; Rodríguez, M J

    2016-10-01

    Diazoxide, a well-known mitochondrial KATP channel opener with neuroprotective effects, has been proposed for the effective and safe treatment of neuroinflammation. To test whether diazoxide affects the neurogenesis associated with excitotoxicity in brain injury, we induced lesions by injecting excitotoxic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) into the rat hippocampus and analyzed the effects of a daily oral administration of diazoxide on the induced lesion. Specific glial and neuronal staining showed that NMDA elicited a strong glial reaction associated with progressive neuronal loss in the whole hippocampal formation. Doublecortin immunohistochemistry and bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-NeuN double immunohistochemistry revealed that NMDA also induced cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the lesioned non-neurogenic hippocampus. Furthermore, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells in the injured hippocampus expressed transcription factor Sp8 indicating that the excitotoxic lesion elicited the migration of progenitors from the subventricular zone and/or the reprograming of reactive astrocytes. Diazoxide treatment attenuated the NMDA-induced hippocampal injury in rats, as demonstrated by decreases in the size of the lesion, neuronal loss and microglial reaction. Diazoxide also increased the number of BrdU/NeuN double-stained cells and elevated the number of Sp8-positive cells in the lesioned hippocampus. These results indicate a role for KATP channel activation in regulating excitotoxicity-induced neurogenesis in brain injury. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Turmeric active substance, curcumin, enhanced apomorphine-induced yawning in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeal Tamaddonfard

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Curcumin is a major constituent of turmeric and influences many functions of the brain. In the present study, we investigated the effect of curcumin on yawning induced by apomorphine in rats. Materials and Methods: Curcumin administered orallyfor 10 consecutive days. Yawning was induced by subcutaneous (s.c. injection of apomorphine (a dopamine receptor agonist and the number of yawns was recorded for a period of 30 min. Results: Apomorphine (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg produced yawning. Haloperidol (a dopamine receptors antagonist at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg partially and at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg completely inhibited apomorphine-induced yawning. Curcumin alone produced no yawning, whereas at doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg, it increased yawning induced by 0.1 mg/kg of apomorphine. Curcumin at the high doses (30 and 60 mg/kg produced yawning when apomorphine (0.1 mg/kg action was partially blocked with 0.5 mg/kg of haloperidol. In the presence of complete blockade of apomorphine (0.1 mg/kg action with 0.2 mg/kg of haloperidol, curcumin did not produce yawning. Conclusion: The results showed that curcumin at high doses increased apomorphine-induced yawning. In the presence of partial, but not complete blockade of apomorphine action, curcumin produced yawning. Curcumin produced a dopamine-like effect on yawning.

  19. Enhanced endogenous bone morphogenetic protein signaling protects against bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Langhe, Ellen; Cailotto, Frederic; De Vooght, Vanessa; Aznar-Lopez, Carolina; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen Alfons; Luyten, Frank Prosper; Lories, Rik Jozef Urbain

    2015-03-15

    Effective treatments for fibrotic diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are largely lacking. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) plays a central role in the pathophysiology of fibrosis. We hypothesized that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), another family within the TGFβ superfamily of growth factors, modulate fibrogenesis driven by TGFβ. We therefore studied the role of endogenous BMP signaling in bleomycin induced lung fibrosis. Lung fibrosis was induced in wild-type or noggin haploinsufficient (Nog +/LacZ ) mice by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin, or phosphate buffered saline as a control. Invasive pulmonary function tests were performed using the flexiVent® SCIREQ system. The mice were sacrificed and lung tissue was collected for analysis using histopathology, collagen quantification, immunohistochemistry and gene expression analysis. Nog +/LacZ mice are a known model of increased BMP signaling and were partially protected from bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis with reduced Ashcroft score, reduced collagen content and preservation of pulmonary compliance. In bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, TGFβ and BMP signaling followed an inverse course, with dynamic activation of TGFβ signaling and repression of BMP signaling activity. Upon bleomycin exposure, active BMP signaling is decreased. Derepression of BMP signaling in Nog +/LacZ mice protects against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Modulating the balance between BMP and TGFβ, in particular increasing endogenous BMP signals, may therefore be a therapeutic target in fibrotic lung disease.

  20. Hericium erinaceus enhances doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Seok; Hong, Eock Kee

    2010-11-28

    It has been demonstrated that the Hericium erinaceus (HE) mushroom, which primarily consists of polysaccharides, possesses anti-tumor activities. However, the mechanisms by which HE inhibits human hepatocellular carcinoma growth remain unknown. Our study demonstrates that HE acts as an enhancer to sensitize doxorubicin (Dox)-mediated apoptotic signaling, and this sensitization can be achieved by reducing c-FLIP expression via JNK activation and enhancing intracellular Dox accumulation via the inhibition of NF-κB activity. These findings suggest that HE in combination with Dox serves as an effective tool for treating drug-resistant human hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vibration-induced coherence enhancement of the performance of a biological quantum heat engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Bin; Chiu, Pin-Yi; Chen, Yueh-Nan

    2016-11-01

    Photosynthesis has been a long-standing research interest due to its fundamental importance. Recently, studies on photosynthesis processes also have inspired attention from a thermodynamical aspect when considering photosynthetic apparatuses as biological quantum heat engines. Quantum coherence is shown to play a crucial role in enhancing the performance of these quantum heat engines. Based on the experimentally reported structure, we propose a quantum heat engine model with a non-Markovian vibrational mode. We show that one can obtain a performance enhancement easily for a wide range of parameters in the presence of the vibrational mode. Our results provide insights into the photosynthetic processes and a design principle mimicking natural organisms.

  2. Vibration-induced coherence enhances the performance of a biological quantum heat engine

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hong-Bin; Chen, Yueh-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis has been the long-standing research interest due to its fundamental importance. Recently, studies on photosynthesis processes also inspire attention from thermodynamical aspect when considering photosynthetic apparatuses as biological quantum heat engines. Quantum coherence is shown to play a crucial role in enhancing the performance of these quantum heat engines. Based on the experimentally reported structure, we propose a quantum heat engine model with a non-Markovian vibrational mode. We show that one can obtain a performance enhancement easily for a wide range of parameters in the presence of the vibrational mode. Our results suggest new insights into the photosynthetic processes and a design principle mimicking natural organisms.

  3. TAK1 knockdown enhances lipopolysaccharide-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in myeloid cells via unleashing MEKK3 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Wang, Meichen; Hu, Yaping; Xu, Na; Yu, Qin; Wang, Qinfu

    2016-12-01

    TGF-β activating protein kinase 1 (TAK1) belongs to the MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) family. TAK1 is involved in many signaling pathways, especially the innate and adaptive immune responses. TAK1 mediates nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and MAPK signaling pathway in response to interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and toll-like receptor agonists, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The regulatory roles of TAK1 in LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines production are dependent on the cell types. In this study, we examined the effects of TAK1 on the LPS induced production of proinflammatory cytokines in myeloid cells. Knockdown of TAK1 enhanced the secretion of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β) and TNFα induced by LPS. In addition, LPS-activated TAK1 negatively regulates mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase 3 (MEKK3). Moreover, TAK1 inhibited MEKK3 activation, which, in turn, activated NF-κB. These results indicate that TAK1 negatively regulates LPS-induced cytokine secretion in myeloid cells by inhibiting MEKK3 activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Roasting Enhances the Anti-Cataract Effect of Coffee Beans: Ameliorating Selenite-Induced Cataracts in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimori, Nana; Oguchi, Jun; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Kobata, Kenji; Funakoshi-Tago, Megumi; Tamura, Hiroomi

    2017-06-01

    Coffee is a widely consumed beverage. While recent studies have linked its intake to a reduced risk of cataracts, caffeine is believed to be the key factor for its effect. To know how roasting beans affects the effect of coffee on cataract formation, we investigated the impact roasting using a selenite-induced cataract rat model. Sprague Dawley rats were given a single injection of sodium selenite, which induced formation of nuclear cataracts by day 6, with or without coffee intake (100% coffee, 0.2 mL/day) for following 3 days. The concentrations of glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA) in selenite-induced cataract lenses declined to half that of controls. However, 3 days of coffee intake ameliorated the reduction of GSH and AsA so that concentrations remained at 70-80% that of controls. Roasting enhanced the preventive effect of coffee by further reducing cataract formation and ameliorating selenite-induced reduction of antioxidants. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed degradation of chlorogenic acid and generation of pyrocatechol during the coffee roasting process. We discovered that pyrocatechol, at doses equivalent to that found in dark-roasted coffee, was equally effective as caffeine at reducing cataract formation and ameliorating the reduction of antioxidants. Our results indicate that pyrocatechol, generated during the roasting process, acts as an antioxidant together with caffeine to prevent cataract formation.

  5. The importance of earthquake interactions in forecasting injection induced seismicity: retrospective modelling of the Basel Enhanced Geothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalli, Flaminia; Rinaldi, Antonio Pio; Gischig, Valentin; Wiemer, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    We explore the role of earthquake interactions during an injection induced seismic sequence. We propose a model, which considers both a transient pressure and the static stress redistribution due to event interactions as triggering mechanisms for induced seismicity. We produce more than one thousand of stochastic seismic catalogues that allow a probabilistic analysis of the problem. By calibrating the model against observations at the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) of Basel, Switzerland, we are able to reproduce the time behaviour of the seismicity rate. In particular, we observe that considering earthquake interactions in the modelling can lead to a larger number of expected seismic events (27% more) if compared to a pressure-induced seismicity only. The increase of the rate is true particularly after the end of the injection activity, in accordance with the simultaneous increase of the Coulomb Index (CI, i.e. the percentage of events that occur in locations with positive, cumulative Coulomb static stress changes). We conclude that implementing a model for estimating the static stress changes due to mutual event interactions increases significantly the understanding of the process. This implicitly allows for an improved methodology to forecast the behaviour of induced seismicity, therefore having a significant implication in hazard assessment.

  6. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging for the detection of focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ching-Hsiang; Lin, Wun-Hao; Ting, Chien-Yu; Chai, Wen-Yen; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liu, Hao-Li; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) can be transiently and locally opened by focused ultrasound (FUS) in the presence of microbubbles (MBs). Various imaging modalities and contrast agents have been used to monitor this process. Unfortunately, direct ultrasound imaging of BBB opening with MBs as contrast agent is not feasible, due to the inability of MBs to penetrate brain parenchyma. However, FUS-induced BBB opening is accompanied by changes in blood flow and perfusion, suggesting the possibility of perfusion-based ultrasound imaging. Here we evaluated the use of MB destruction-replenishment, which was originally developed for analysis of ultrasound perfusion kinetics, for verifying and quantifying FUS-induced BBB opening. MBs were intravenously injected and the BBB was disrupted by 2 MHz FUS with burst-tone exposure at 0.5-0.7 MPa. A perfusion kinetic map was estimated by MB destruction-replenishment time-intensity curve analysis. Our results showed that the scale and distribution of FUS-induced BBB opening could be determined at high resolution by ultrasound perfusion kinetic analysis. The accuracy and sensitivity of this approach was validated by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Our successful demonstration of ultrasound imaging to monitor FUS-induced BBB opening provides a new approach to assess FUS-dependent brain drug delivery, with the benefit of high temporal resolution and convenient integration with the FUS device.

  7. Enhanced green fluorescent protein in optofluidic Fabry-Perot microcavity to detect laser induced temperature changes in a bacterial culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz, F.; Martín, I. R.; Walo, D.; Freire, R.; Gil-Rostra, J.; Yubero, F.; Gonzalez-Elipe, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    Thermal therapy using laser sources can be used in combination with other cancer therapies to eliminate tumors. However, high precision temperature control is required to avoid damage in healthy surrounding tissues. Therefore, in order to detect laser induced temperature changes, we have used the fluorescence signal of the enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (eGFP) over-expressed in an E. coli bacterial culture. For that purpose, the bacteria expressing eGFP are injected in a Fabry-Perot (FP) optofluidic planar microcavity. In order to locally heat the bacterial culture, external infrared or ultraviolet lasers were used. Shifts in the wavelengths of the resonant FP modes are used to determine the temperature increase as a function of the heating laser pump power. Laser induced local temperature increments up to 6-7 °C were measured. These results show a relatively easy way to measure laser induced local temperature changes using a FP microcavity and using eGFP as a molecular probe instead of external nanoparticles, which could damage/alter the cell. Therefore, we believe that this approach can be of interest for the study of thermal effects in laser induced thermal therapies.

  8. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte activity is enhanced in tumors with low IL-10 production in HBV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yang, E-mail: yangshi_xz@126.com; Song, Qingwei; Hu, Dianhe; Zhuang, Xiaohu; Yu, Shengcai

    2015-05-22

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and can be induced by chronic HBV infection. The role of HBV-specific immune responses in mediating tumorigenesis and HCC prognosis is debated. The effect of intratumoral microenvironment on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is also unclear. Here, we examined resected tumor tissue from 36 patients with HBV-induced HCC. We categorized study cohort based on ex vivo IL-10 secretion by tumor cells into high IL-10-secreting (Hi10) and low IL-10-secreting (Lo10) groups, and found that the Lo10 group was less sensitive to TLR ligand stimulation. TILs from the Lo10 group contained higher frequencies of HBV-specific IFN-g-producing cells and total IFN-g-producing cells, and possessed higher proliferative capacity. Moreover, the proliferative capacity of TILs from the Hi10 group was negatively correlated with IL-10 secretion from tumor cells. Together, our data demonstrated that low IL-10-producing capacity in HBV-induced HCC tumors is associated with enhanced TIL activity. - Highlights: • We examined intratumoral IL-10 production in HBV-induced HCC. • We grouped HCC tumors into Hi10 and Lo10 groups based on their IL-10 production. • Lo10 groups had better IFN-g response by TILs. • Lo10 groups had better TIL proliferative capacity. • Lo10 group tumor cells were refractory to TLR ligand stimulation.

  9. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand enhances vinorelbine-induced apoptosis and antitumor activity in a preclinical model of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kunshou; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Yuanmei; Lin, Shaofeng; Chen, Xiaohui

    2014-09-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is relatively insensitive to chemotherapy. NP [vinorelbine (NVB) + cisplatin] is the standard chemotherapy regimen in clinical treatment; however, its side-effects are intolerable for most patients. In some reports, the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can enhance the sensitivity of chemotherapy drugs by inducing apoptosis without toxicity to normal cells. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumor effects of the two drugs (TRAIL and NVB alone or in combination) by inducing apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Using the human NSCLC cell line (A549) and a BALB/c nude mice model, we observed the cell viability (MTT assay), cell apoptosis [Hoechst staining, Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining assay, immunohistochemical staining, RT-PCR and western blotting] and cell proliferation (soft agar colony formation and cell cycle assay). The results showed that TRAIL and NVB alone inhibited tumor growth both in vivo and in vitro. However, the combination of the two drugs produced a more potent antitumor effect (Papoptosis in tumor tissue (Pinduced a more potent apoptosis than either drug alone (Papoptosis Papoptosis pathway.

  10. Effects of the histamine H₃ receptor antagonist ABT-239 on cognition and nicotine-induced memory enhancement in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Marta; Miszkiel, Joanna; McCreary, Andrew C; Przegaliński, Edmund; Filip, Małgorzata; Biała, Grażyna

    2012-01-01

    The strong correlation between central histaminergic and cholinergic pathways on cognitive processes has been reported extensively. However, the role of histamine H(3) receptor mechanisms interacting with nicotinic mechanisms has not previously been extensively investigated. The current study was conducted to determine the interactions of nicotinic and histamine H(3) receptor systems with regard to learning and memory function using a modified elevated plus-maze test in mice. In this test, the latency for mice to move from the open arm to the enclosed arm (i.e., transfer latency) was used as an index of memory. We tested whether ABT-239 (4-(2-{2-[(2R)-2-methylpyrrolidinyl]ethyl}-benzofuran-5-yl), an H(3) receptor antagonist/inverse agonist, had influence on two different stages of memory, i.e., memory acquisition and consolidation (administered prior to or immediately after the first trial, respectively) and whether ABT-239 influenced nicotine-induced memory enhancement. Our results revealed that the acute administration of nicotine (0.035 and 0.175 mg/kg), but not of ABT-239 (0.1-3 mg/kg) reduced transfer latency in the acquisition and consolidation phases. In combination studies, concomitant administration of either ABT-239 (1 and 3 mg/kg) and nicotine (0.035 mg/kg), or ABT-239 (0.1 mg/kg) and nicotine (0.0175 mg/kg) further increased nicotine-induced improvement in both memory acquisition and consolidation. The present data confirm an important role for H(3) receptors in regulating nicotine-induced mnemonic effects since inhibition of H(3) receptors augmented nicotine-induced memory enhancement in mice.

  11. Equol Inhibits LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress and Enhances the Immune Response in Chicken HD11 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyong Gou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: There has been increasing recent attention on the antioxidative capacity of equol. This study tested the effect of equol on oxidative stress induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS and regulation of immunity in chicken macrophages. Methods: Chicken HD11 macrophages were challenged with LPS (100 ng/mL alone or with LPS (100 ng/mL and (±equol (10, 20, 40, 80, 160 μmol/L together for 24h. Evaluated responses included the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH, activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, transcript abundance of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2, catalase (CAT, glutathione transferase (GST, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, and contents of the cytokines TNFα, IL-1β, interleukin-2 (IL-2 and interferon beta (IFNβ. Results: Exposure to LPS induced oxidative stress as contents of MDA increased and GSH decreased in LPS-treated cells (P SOD2 and GST transcripts (P TLR4, TNFα and IL-1β (P < 0.05. And there were similar changes in contents of IL-1β, IL-2, IFNβ and TNFα in the cells (P < 0.05. Conclusions: It concluded that equol can protect chicken HD11 macrophages from oxidative stress induced by LPS through reducing lipid peroxidation products and enhancing contents of antioxidants, and activities of relevant antioxidase enzymes; effects were also seen in gene expression related to the immune response and increased contents of cytokines. The optimal concentration of equol on antioxidation and immune enhancement in chicken macrophages was 40 μmol/L.

  12. Equol Inhibits LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress and Enhances the Immune Response in Chicken HD11 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Zhongyong; Jiang, Shouqun; Zheng, Chuntian; Tian, Zhimei; Lin, Xiajing

    2015-01-01

    There has been increasing recent attention on the antioxidative capacity of equol. This study tested the effect of equol on oxidative stress induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and regulation of immunity in chicken macrophages. Chicken HD11 macrophages were challenged with LPS (100 ng/mL) alone or with LPS (100 ng/mL) and (±)equol (10, 20, 40, 80, 160 μmol/L) together for 24h. Evaluated responses included the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), transcript abundance of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), catalase (CAT), glutathione transferase (GST), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and contents of the cytokines TNFα, IL-1β, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon beta (IFNβ). Exposure to LPS induced oxidative stress as contents of MDA increased and GSH decreased in LPS-treated cells (P equol (20 μmol/L, 40 μmol/L or 80 μmol/L) reduced contents of MDA and increased those of GSH (both P equol (80 μmol/L or 160 μmol/L), however, all concentrations (20 μmol/L to 160 μmol/L) increased activity of iNOS (P equol (160 μmol/L) increased SOD2 and GST transcripts (P Equol treatment increased transcripts of TLR4, TNFα and IL-1β (P equol can protect chicken HD11 macrophages from oxidative stress induced by LPS through reducing lipid peroxidation products and enhancing contents of antioxidants, and activities of relevant antioxidase enzymes; effects were also seen in gene expression related to the immune response and increased contents of cytokines. The optimal concentration of equol on antioxidation and immune enhancement in chicken macrophages was 40 μmol/L. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Stress-induced enhancement of mouse amygdalar synaptic plasticity depends on glucocorticoid and ß-adrenergic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Angela Sarabdjitsingh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoid hormones, in interaction with noradrenaline, enable the consolidation of emotionally arousing and stressful experiences in rodents and humans. Such interaction is thought to occur at least partly in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA which is crucially involved in emotional memory formation. Extensive evidence points to long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP as a mechanism contributing to memory formation. Here we determined in adolescent C57/Bl6 mice the effects of stress on LTP in the LA-BLA pathway and the specific roles of corticosteroid and β-adrenergic receptor activation in this process. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Exposure to 20 min of restraint stress (compared to control treatment prior to slice preparation enhanced subsequent LTP induction in vitro, without affecting baseline fEPSP responses. The role of glucocorticoid receptors, mineralocorticoid receptors and β2-adrenoceptors in the effects of stress was studied by treating mice with the antagonists mifepristone, spironolactone or propranolol respectively (or the corresponding vehicles prior to stress or control treatment. In undisturbed controls, mifepristone and propranolol administration in vivo did not influence LTP induced in vitro. By contrast, spironolactone caused a gradually attenuating form of LTP, both in unstressed and stressed mice. Mifepristone treatment prior to stress strongly reduced the ability to induce LTP in vitro. Propranolol normalized the stress-induced enhancement of LTP to control levels during the first 10 min after high frequency stimulation, after which synaptic responses further declined. CONCLUSIONS: Acute stress changes BLA electrical properties such that subsequent LTP induction is facilitated. Both β-adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors are involved in the development of these changes. Mineralocorticoid receptors are important for the maintenance of LTP in the BLA, irrespective of stress-induced changes in the

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization enhances ventilator-associated pneumonia-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Tzyy-Bin; Jiang, Yu-Zhen; Hsu, Ching-Mei; Chen, Lee-Wei

    2016-08-09

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is the single-most common pathogen of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Large quantities of PA in the trachea of ventilated patients are associated with an increased risk of death. However, the role of PA colonization in PA VAP-induced lung injury remains elusive. This study examined the effect and mechanism of PA colonization in VAP-induced lung injury. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase knockout (JNK1(-/-)) mice received mechanical ventilation for 3 h at 2 days after receiving nasal instillation of PA (1 × 10(6) colony forming unit) or normal saline. Intranasal instillation of PA or mechanical ventilation induced the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the lungs. Phospho-JNK protein expression in the lungs was significantly increased in mice receiving mechanical ventilation after PA instillation as compared with those receiving ventilation alone. Mechanical ventilation after PA instillation significantly increased the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-1β, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) proteins; neutrophil sequestration; and TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels in the lungs of WT mice, but not in JNK1(-/-) mice. PA colonization plays an important role in PA VAP-induced lung injury through the induction of JNK1-mediated inflammation. PA-induced VAP causes lung injury through JNK signaling pathway in the lungs. JNK inhibition in ICU patients with higher percentages of PA colonization may reduce VAP-induced lung injury and mortality.

  15. Mechanism of the Ca2+-induced enhancement of the intrinsic factor VIIa activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelke, Jais R; Olsen, Ole H; Fodje, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The intrinsic activity of coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) is dependent on Ca(2+) binding to a loop (residues 210-220) in the protease domain. Structural analysis revealed that Ca(2+) may enhance the activity by attenuating electrostatic repulsion of Glu(296) and/or by facilitating interactions...... by a combination of charge neutralization and loop stabilization....

  16. Symmetry-Breaking-Induced Enhancement of Visible Light Absorption in Delafossite Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huda, M. N.; Yan, Y.; Walsh, A.; Wei, S. H.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2009-06-01

    Through density functional theory calculations, we demonstrate that enhancement of optical absorption and optimization of the fundamental band gap for Cu delafossites can be achieved through alloying group IIIA and IIIB delafossites. These alloys significantly improved the flexibility in designing delafossite-based photoelectrodes for application in photoelectrochemical decomposition of water by visible spectra of solar light.

  17. A novel serine protease secreted by medicinal maggots enhances plasminogen activator-induced fibrinolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Plas, Mariena J A; Andersen, Anders S; Nazir, Sheresma

    2014-01-01

    Maggots of the blowfly Lucilia sericata are used for the treatment of chronic wounds. As haemostatic processes play an important role in wound healing, this study focused on the effects of maggot secretions on coagulation and fibrinolysis. The results showed that maggot secretions enhance...

  18. Bubble induced flow field modulation for pool boiling enhancement over a tubular surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathi, P. A.; Joshi, I. M.; Jaikumar, A.; Emery, T. S.; Kandlikar, S. G.

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate the efficacy of using a strategically placed enhancement feature to modify the trajectory of bubbles nucleating on a horizontal tubular surface to increase both the critical heat flux (CHF) and the heat transfer coefficient (HTC). The CHF on a plain tube is shown to be triggered by a local dryout at the bottom of the tube due to vapor agglomeration. To mitigate this effect and delay CHF, the nucleating bubble trajectory is modified by incorporating a bubble diverter placed axially at the bottom of the tube. The nucleating bubble at the base of the diverter experiences a tangential evaporation momentum force (EMF) which causes the bubble to grow sideways away from the tube and avoid localized bubble patches that are responsible for CHF initiation. High speed imaging confirmed the lateral displacement of the bubbles away from the diverter closely matched with the theoretical predictions using EMF and buoyancy forces. Since the EMF is stronger at higher heat fluxes, bubble displacement increases with heat flux and results in the formation of separate liquid-vapor pathways wherein the liquid enters almost unobstructed at the bottom and the vapor bubble leaves sideways. Experimental results yielded CHF and HTC enhancements of ˜60% and ˜75%, respectively, with the diverter configuration when compared to a plain tube. This work can be used for guidance in developing enhancement strategies to effectively modulate the liquid-vapor flow around the heater surface at various locations to enhance HTC and CHF.

  19. Virtual nature environment with nature sound exposure induce stress recovery by enhanced parasympathetic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annerstedt, Matilda; Jönsson, Peter; Wallergård, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    of nature) and in one control condition. Cardiovascular data and saliva cortisol were collected. Repeated ANOVA measurements indicated parasympathetic activation in the group subjected to sounds of nature in a virtual natural environment, suggesting enhanced stress recovery may occur in such surroundings...

  20. The nucleus of differentiated root plant cells: modifications induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Lingua

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The nuclei of plant cells show marked differences in chromatin organisation, related to their DNA content, which ranges from the type with large strands of condensed chromatin (reticulate or chromonematic nuclei to one with mostly decondensed chromatin (chromocentric or diffuse nuclei. A loosening of the chromatin structure generally occurs in actively metabolising cells, such as differentiating and secretory cells, in relation to their high transcriptional activity. Endoreduplication may occur, especially in plants with a small genome, which increases the availability of nuclear templates, the synthesis of DNA, and probably regulates gene expression. Here we describe structural and quantitative changes of the chromatin and their relationship with transcription that occur in differentiated cells following an increase of their metabolism. The nuclei of root cortical cells of three plants with different 2C DNA content (Allium porrum, Pisum sativum and Lycopersicon esculentm and their modifications induced by arbuscular mycorrhization, which strongly increase the metabolic activity of colonised cells, are taken as examples.

  1. RGD-avidin–biotin pretargeting to αvβ₃ integrin enhances the proapoptotic activity of TNFα related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarrus, M.; Sloot, A.M. van der; Temming, K.; Lacombe, M.; Opdam, F.; Quax, W.J.; Molema, G.; Poelstra, K.; Kok, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is considered a powerful and selective inducer of tumor cell death. We hypothesize that TRAIL’s potential as anticancer agent can be enhanced further by promoting its accumulation in tumor tissue. For this purpose, we developed TRAIL

  2. RGD-avidin-biotin pretargeting to alpha(v)beta(3) integrin enhances the proapoptotic activity of TNF alpha related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarrus, Marc; van der Sloot, Almer M.; Temming, Kai; Lacombe, Marie; Opdam, Frank; Quax, Wim J.; Molema, Grietje; Poelstra, Klaas; Kok, Robbert J.

    Recombinant TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is considered a powerful and selective inducer of tumor cell death. We hypothesize that TRAIL's potential as anticancer agent can be enhanced further by promoting its accumulation in tumor tissue. For this purpose, we developed TRAIL

  3. Poling of glass waveguides by a Metal-induced X(3) enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Kristensen, Martin; Beerman, J.

    2003-01-01

    While the perspectives of making 2nd-order nonlinearities in optical glasses are exciting, present poling techniques are still inadequate. When inducing a permanent field Edc in the glass, the effective 2nd-order susceptibility χ(2)=3χ(3)Edc has been limited by the small intrinsic value of χ(3...

  4. Purple potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) anthocyanins attenuate alcohol-induced hepatic injury by enhancing antioxidant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhihui; Chen, Chen; Wang, Jian; Xie, Wenyan; Wang, Meng; Li, Xinsheng; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a serious and challenging health issue. In the past decade, natural components possessing hepatoprotective properties have gained more attention for ALD intervention. In this study, the phytochemical components of anthocyanins from purple potato were assessed using UPLC-MS/MS, and the hepatoprotective effects of purple potato anthocyanins (PPAs) were investigated in the ALD mouse model. Serum and liver biochemical parameters were determined, along with histopathological changes in liver tissue. In addition, the major contributors to alcohol-induced oxidative stress were assessed. The results indicated that the levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase were lower in the serum of the PPA-treated group than the alcohol-treated group. PPAs significantly inhibited the reduction of total cholesterol and triglycerides. Higher levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione enzymes as well as a reduction in the formation of malondialdehyde occurred in mice fed with PPAs. In addition, PPAs protected against increased alcohol-induced levels and activity of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which demonstrates the effects of PPAs against alcohol-induced oxidative stress and liver injury. This study suggests that PPAs could be an effective therapeutic agent in alcohol-induced liver injuries by inhibiting CYP2E1 expression and thereby strengthening antioxidant defenses.

  5. Fibrinogen Induces Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus suis and Enhances Its Antibiotic Resistance▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bonifait, Laetitia; Grignon, Louis; Grenier, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we showed that supplementing the culture medium with fibrinogen induced biofilm formation by Streptococcus suis in a dose-dependent manner. Biofilm-grown S. suis cells were much more resistant to penicillin G than planktonic cells. S. suis bound fibrinogen to its surface, a property that likely contributes to biofilm formation.

  6. Myths and facts on wastewater injection, hydraulic fracturing, enhanced oil recovery, and induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Justin L.; Mahani, Alireza Babaie

    2015-01-01

    The central United States has undergone a dramatic increase in seismicity over the past 6 years (Fig. 1), rising from an average of 24 M≥3 earthquakes per year in the years 1973–2008 to an average of 193 M≥3 earthquakes in 2009–2014, with 688 occurring in 2014 alone. Multiple damaging earthquakes have occurred during this increase including the 2011 M 5.6 Prague, Oklahoma, earthquake; the 2011 M 5.3 Trinidad, Colorado, earthquake; and the 2011M 4.7 Guy‐Greenbrier, Arkansas, earthquake. The increased seismicity is limited to a few areas and the evidence is mounting that the seismicity in many of these locations is induced by the deep injection of fluids from nearby oil and gas operations. Earthquakes that are caused by human activities are known as induced earthquakes. Most injection operations, though, do not appear to induce earthquakes. Although the message that these earthquakes are induced by fluid injection related to oil and gas production has been communicated clearly, there remains confusion in the popular press beyond this basic level of understanding.

  7. Calotropis procera: A potential cognition enhancer in scopolamine and electroconvulsive shock-induced amnesia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malabade, Rohit; Taranalli, Ashok D

    2015-01-01

    Present study evaluates the effect of Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) dry latex on cognitive function in rats using scopolamine and electroconvulsive shock (ECS) induced amnesia model. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of C. procera dry latex in scopolamine-induced amnesia model. Dose showing maximum effect in cognitive performance was selected and further evaluated using scopolamine and ECS-induced amnesia model for its effect on neurochemical enzymes and cognitive performance. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, β amyloid1-42, and dopamine level were analyzed, while the cognitive performance was assessed by elevated plus maze, step-through passive avoidance test, and Morris water maze. Simultaneously, C. procera dry latex (25, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 μg/mL) was screened for in vitro AChE inhibition assay. Pretreatment with (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) C. procera dry latex shows dose dependent increase in cognitive performance in scopolamine-induced amnesia. Further, pretreatment with the selected dose (800 mg/kg) showed significant improvement in transfer latency (P amnesia model.

  8. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) Infection Induces Proliferation through Enhancer of Zeste Homologue 2 (EZH2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Kenneth; Aitken, Karen J; Penna, Frank; Samiei, Alaleh Najdi; Sidler, Martin; Jiang, Jia-Xin; Ibrahim, Fadi; Tolg, Cornelia; Delgado-Olguin, Paul; Rosenblum, Norman; Bägli, Darius J

    2016-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions can induce epigenetic changes in the host directly, as well as indirectly through secreted factors. Previously, uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) was shown to increase DNA methyltransferase activity and expression, which was associated with methylation-dependent alterations in the urothelial expression of CDKN2A. Here, we showed that paracrine factors from infected cells alter expression of another epigenetic writer, EZH2, coordinate with proliferation. Urothelial cells were inoculated with UPEC, UPEC derivatives, or vehicle (mock infection) at low moi, washed, then maintained in media with Gentamycin. Urothelial conditioned media (CM) and extracellular vesicles (EV) were isolated after the inoculations and used to treat naïve urothelial cells. EZH2 increased with UPEC infection, inoculation-induced CM, and inoculation-induced EV vs. parallel stimulation derived from mock-inoculated urothelial cells. We found that infection also increased proliferation at one day post-infection, which was blocked by the EZH2 inhibitor UNC1999. Inhibition of demethylation at H3K27me3 had the opposite effect and augmented proliferation. Uropathogen-induced paracrine factors act epigenetically by altering expression of EZH2, which plays a key role in early host cell proliferative responses to infection.

  9. Green Tea Catechin Consumption Enhances Exercise-Induced Abdominal Fat Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aim: This study evaluated the influence of a green tea catechin beverage on body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese adults during exercised-induced weight loss. Methods: Participants (N=132) were randomly assigned to receive a 500 mL beverage containing approximately 625 mg of...

  10. CCL2 enhances pluripotency of human induced pluripotent stem cells by activating hypoxia related genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasegawa, Yuki; Tang, Dave; Takahashi, Naoko; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Suzuki, Harukazu; Kawaji, Hideya; Rehli, Michael; Baillie, J. Kenneth; de Hoon, Michiel J. L.; Haberle, Vanja; Lassmann, Timo; Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.; Lizio, Marina; Itoh, Masayoshi; Andersson, Robin; Mungall, Christopher J.; Meehan, Terrence F.; Schmeier, Sebastian; Bertin, Nicolas; Jørgensen, Mette; Dimont, Emmanuel; Arner, Erik; Schmidl, Christian; Schaefer, Ulf; Medvedeva, Yulia A.; Plessy, Charles; Vitezic, Morana; Severin, Jessica; Semple, Colin A.; Ishizu, Yuri; Young, Robert S.; Francescatto, Margherita; Alam, Intikhab; Albanese, Davide; Altschuler, Gabriel M.; Arakawa, Takahiro; Archer, John A. C.; Arner, Peter; Babina, Magda; Baker, Sarah; Balwierz, Piotr J.; Beckhouse, Anthony G.; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Blake, Judith A.; Blumenthal, Antje; Bodega, Beatrice; Bonetti, Alessandro; Briggs, James; Brombacher, Frank; Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Califano, Andrea; Cannistraci, Carlo V.; Carbajo, Daniel; Chen, Yun; Chierici, Marco; Ciani, Yari; Clevers, Hans C.; Dalla, Emiliano; Davis, Carrie A.; Detmar, Michael; Diehl, Alexander D.; Dohi, Taeko; Drabløs, Finn; Edge, Albert S. B.; Edinger, Matthias; Ekwall, Karl; Endoh, Mitsuhiro; Enomoto, Hideki; Fagiolini, Michela; Fairbairn, Lynsey; Fang, Hai; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Favorov, Alexander V.; Fisher, Malcolm E.; Frith, Martin C.; Fujita, Rie; Fukuda, Shiro; Furlanello, Cesare; Furuno, Masaaki; Furusawa, Jun-ichi; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B.; Gibson, Andrew; Gingeras, Thomas; Goldowitz, Daniel; Gough, Julian; Guhl, Sven; Guler, Reto; Gustincich, Stefano; Ha, Thomas J.; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Hara, Mitsuko; Harbers, Matthias; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hasegawa, Akira; Hashimoto, Takehiro; Herlyn, Meenhard; Hitchens, Kelly J.; Ho Sui, Shannan J.; Hofmann, Oliver M.; Hoof, Ilka; Hori, Fumi; Huminiecki, Lukasz; Iida, Kei; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Jankovic, Boris R.; Jia, Hui; Joshi, Anagha; Jurman, Giuseppe; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Kai, Chieko; Kaida, Kaoru; Kaiho, Ai; Kajiyama, Kazuhiro; Kanamori-Katayama, Mutsumi; Kasianov, Artem S.; Kasukawa, Takeya; Katayama, Shintaro; Kato, Sachi; Kawaguchi, Shuji; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yuki I.; Kawashima, Tsugumi; Kempfle, Judith S.; Kenna, Tony J.; Kere, Juha; Khachigian, Levon M.; Kitamura, Toshio; Klinken, S. Peter; Knox, Alan J.; Kojima, Miki; Kojima, Soichi; Kondo, Naoto; Koseki, Haruhiko; Koyasu, Shigeo; Krampitz, Sarah; Kubosaki, Atsutaka; Kwon, Andrew T.; Laros, Jeroen F. J.; Lee, Weonju; Lennartsson, Andreas; Li, Kang; Lilje, Berit; Lipovich, Leonard; Mackay-sim, Alan; Manabe, Ri-ichiroh; Mar, Jessica C.; Marchand, Benoit; Mathelier, Anthony; Mejhert, Niklas; Meynert, Alison; Mizuno, Yosuke; Morais, David A. de Lima; Morikawa, Hiromasa; Morimoto, Mitsuru; Moro, Kazuyo; Motakis, Efthymios; Motohashi, Hozumi; Mummery, Christine L.; Murata, Mitsuyoshi; Nagao-Sato, Sayaka; Nakachi, Yutaka; Nakahara, Fumio; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yukio; Nakazato, Kenichi; van Nimwegen, Erik; Ninomiya, Noriko; Nishiyori, Hiromi; Noma, Shohei; Nozaki, Tadasuke; Ogishima, Soichi; Ohkura, Naganari; Ohmiya, Hiroko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Okazaki, Yasushi; Orlando, Valerio; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A.; Pain, Arnab; Passier, Robert; Patrikakis, Margaret; Persson, Helena; Piazza, Silvano; Prendergast, James G. D.; Rackham, Owen J. L.; Ramilowski, Jordan A.; Rashid, Mamoon; Ravasi, Timothy; Rizzu, Patrizia; Roncador, Marco; Roy, Sugata; Rye, Morten B.; Saijyo, Eri; Sajantila, Antti; Saka, Akiko; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Sakai, Mizuho; Sato, Hiroki; Satoh, Hironori; Savvi, Suzana; Saxena, Alka; Schneider, Claudio; Schultes, Erik A.; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula G.; Schwegmann, Anita; Sengstag, Thierry; Sheng, Guojun; Shimoji, Hisashi; Shimoni, Yishai; Shin, Jay W.; Simon, Christophe; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Takaaki; Suzuki, Masanori; Suzuki, Naoko; Swoboda, Rolf K.; 't Hoen, Peter A. C.; Tagami, Michihira; Takai, Jun; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tatsukawa, Hideki; Tatum, Zuotian; Thompson, Mark; Toyoda, Hiroo; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Valen, Eivind; van de Wetering, Marc; van den Berg, Linda M.; Verardo, Roberto; Vijayan, Dipti; Vorontsov, Ilya E.; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; Watanabe, Shoko; Wells, Christine A.; Winteringham, Louise N.; Wolvetang, Ernst; Wood, Emily J.; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yoneda, Misako; Yonekura, Yohei; Yoshida, Shigehiro; Zabierowski, Suzan E.; Zhang, Peter G.; Zhao, Xiaobei; Zucchelli, Silvia; Summers, Kim M.; Daub, Carsten O.; Kawai, Jun; Heutink, Peter; Hide, Winston; Freeman, Tom C.; Lenhard, Boris; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Taylor, Martin S.; Makeev, Vsevolod J.; Sandelin, Albin; Hume, David A.; Carninci, Piero

    2014-01-01

    Standard culture of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) requires basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) to maintain the pluripotent state, whereas hiPSC more closely resemble epiblast stem cells than true naive state ES which requires LIF to maintain pluripotency. Here we show that

  11. Tumor irradiation enhances homing of vaccine induced tumor-specific CTLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draghiciu, Oana; Walczak, Mateusz; Hoogeboom, Baukje-Nynke; Meijerhof, Tjarko; Nijman, Hans; Daemen, Toos

    2012-01-01

    The recombinant Semliki Forest virus (rSFV) encoding human papilloma virus (HPV)-E6,7 tumor antigens induces both strong, longlasting CTL responses in a mouse model of cervical carcinoma and effective eradication of established tumors of HPV-transformed cells. Current therapeutic approaches of

  12. Inactivation of EGFR/AKT signaling enhances TSA-induced ovarian cancer cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Genbao; Lai, Wensheng; Wan, Xiaolei; Xue, Jing; Wei, Ye; Jin, Jie; Zhang, Liuping; Lin, Qiong; Shao, Qixiang; Zou, Shengqiang

    2017-05-01

    Ovarian tumor is one of the most lethal gynecologic cancers, but differentiation therapy for this cancer is poorly characterized. Here, we show that thrichostatin A (TSA), the well known inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), can induce cell differentiation in HO8910 ovarian cancer cells. TSA-induced cell differentiation is characterized by typical morphological change, increased expression of the differentiation marker FOXA2, decreased expression of the pluripotency markers SOX2 and OCT4, suppressing cell proliferation, and cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. TSA also induces an elevated expression of cell cycle inhibitory protein p21Cip1 along with a decrease in cell cycle regulatory protein cyclin D1. Significantly, blockage of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway with specific inhibitors of this signaling cascade promotes the TSA-induced differentiation of HO8910 cells. These results imply that the EGFR cascade inhibitors in combination with TSA may represent a promising differentiation therapy strategy for ovarian cancer.

  13. Enhanced Chondrocyte Proliferation in a Prototyped Culture System with Wave-Induced Agitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilarek Maciej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the actual challenges in tissue engineering applications is to efficiently produce as high of number of cells as it is only possible, in the shortest time. In static cultures, the production of animal cell biomass in integrated forms (i.e. aggregates, inoculated scaffolds is limited due to inefficient diffusion of culture medium components observed in such non-mixed culture systems, especially in the case of cell-inoculated fiber-based dense 3D scaffolds, inside which the intensification of mass transfer is particularly important. The applicability of a prototyped, small-scale, continuously wave-induced agitated system for intensification of anchorage-dependent CP5 chondrocytes proliferation outside and inside three-dimensional poly(lactic acid (PLA scaffolds has been discussed. Fibrous PLA-based constructs have been inoculated with CP5 cells and then maintained in two independent incubation systems: (i non-agitated conditions and (ii culture with wave-induced agitation. Significantly higher values of the volumetric glucose consumption rate have been noted for the system with the wave-induced agitation. The advantage of the presented wave-induced agitation culture system has been confirmed by lower activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH released from the cells in the samples of culture medium harvested from the agitated cultures, in contrast to rather high values of LDH activity measured for static conditions. Results of the proceeded experiments and their analysis clearly exhibited the feasibility of the culture system supported with continuously wave-induced agitation for robust proliferation of the CP5 chondrocytes on PLA-based structures. Aside from the practicability of the prototyped system, we believe that it could also be applied as a standard method offering advantages for all types of the daily routine laboratory-scale animal cell cultures utilizing various fiber-based biomaterials, with the use of only regular laboratory

  14. Light-induced retinal injury enhanced neurotrophins secretion and neurotrophic effect of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate neurotrophins expression and neurotrophic effect change in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs under different types of stimulation. METHODS: Rats were exposed in 10,000 lux white light to develop light-induced retinal injury. Supernatants of homogenized retina (SHR, either from normal or light-injured retina, were used to stimulate MSCs. Quantitative real time for polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA were conducted for analysis the expression change in basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF in MSCs after stimulation. Conditioned medium from SHR-stimulated MSCs and control MSCs were collected for evaluation their effect on retinal explants. RESULTS: Supernatants of homogenized retina from light-injured rats significantly promoted neurotrophins secretion from MSCs (p<0.01. Conditioned medium from mesenchymal stem cells stimulated by light-injured SHR significantly reduced DNA fragmentation (p<0.01, up-regulated bcl-2 (p<0.01 and down-regulated bax (p<0.01 in retinal explants, displaying enhanced protective effect. CONCLUSIONS: Light-induced retinal injury is able to enhance neurotrophins secretion from mesenchymal stem cells and promote the neurotrophic effect of mesenchymal stem cells.

  15. Enhanced antioxidant effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and Trolox in combination against radiation induced-oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hua; Liu, Rui; Chen, Hong-Li; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Di; Li, Wen-Li; Hai, Chun-Xu

    2014-01-25

    Combinations of antioxidants are believed to be more effective than single antioxidant because when antioxidants are combined they support each other synergistically to create a magnified effect. Discovering the enhancer effects or synergies between bioactive components is valuable for resisting oxidative stress and improving health benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible cooperation of natural antioxidant caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) with synthetic antioxidant Trolox in the model systems of chemical generation of free radicals, lipid peroxidation of microsomes and radiation-induced oxidative injury in L929 cells. Based on the intermolecular interaction between CAPE and Trolox, the present study shows a synergistic effect of CAPE and Trolox in combination on elimination of three different free radicals and inhibition of lipid peroxidation initiated by three different systems. CAPE and Trolox added simultaneously to the L929 cells exerted an enhanced preventive effect on the oxidative injury induced by radiation through decreasing ROS generation, protecting plasma membrane and increasing the ratios of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione and the expression of key antioxidant enzymes mediated by nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Our results showed for the first time that administration of CAPE and Trolox in combination may exert synergistic antioxidant effects, and further indicate that CAPE and Trolox combination functions mainly through scavenging ROS directly, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and promoting redox cycle of GSH mediated by Nrf2-regulated glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase expression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancement of cyclophosphamide-induced antitumor effect by a novel polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum in sarcoma 180-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjuan; Nie, Shaoping; Chen, Yi; Wang, Yuanxing; Li, Chang; Xie, Mingyong

    2011-04-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the enhancement of Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) on cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced antitumor effect in sarcoma 180 (S-180)-bearing mice. Results showed that both CTX and PSG-1 delayed tumor growth and resulted in tumor apoptosis. The combined regimen was superior to either modality alone. Moreover, the combined treatment-induced apoptosis was mediated via mitochondrial pathway, as evidenced by alterations of Bcl-2 family proteins, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ(m)), cytochrome c release, and caspases activation. Our results also showed that thymus and spleen indexes, lymphocytes proliferation, and concentrations of cytokine in the CTX group were decreased, which were alleviated by PSG-1. Additionally, the combined treatment ameliorated oxidative stress as compared with CTX alone. Taken together, we conclude that PSG-1 improved the antitumor effect of CTX, possibly in part mediated by enhancing the induction of apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways, activating host immune function, and modifying the redox system in S-180-bearing mice.

  17. Enhancing performance of a motor imagery based brain-computer interface by incorporating electrical stimulation-induced SSSEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Weibo; Qiu, Shuang; Wang, Kun; Qi, Hongzhi; Zhao, Xin; He, Feng; Zhou, Peng; Yang, Jiajia; Ming, Dong

    2017-04-01

    Objective. We proposed a novel simultaneous hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) by incorporating electrical stimulation into a motor imagery (MI) based BCI system. The goal of this study was to enhance the overall performance of an MI-based BCI. In addition, the brain oscillatory pattern in the hybrid task was also investigated. Approach. 64-channel electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded during MI, selective attention (SA) and hybrid tasks in fourteen healthy subjects. In the hybrid task, subjects performed MI with electrical stimulation which was applied to bilateral median nerve on wrists simultaneously. Main results. The hybrid task clearly presented additional steady-state somatosensory evoked potential (SSSEP) induced by electrical stimulation with MI-induced event-related desynchronization (ERD). By combining ERD and SSSEP features, the performance in the hybrid task was significantly better than in both MI and SA tasks, achieving a ~14% improvement in total relative to the MI task alone and reaching ~89% in mean classification accuracy. On the contrary, there was no significant enhancement obtained in performance while separate ERD feature was utilized in the hybrid task. In terms of the hybrid task, the performance using combined feature was significantly better than using separate ERD or SSSEP feature. Significance. The results in this work validate the feasibility of our proposed approach to form a novel MI-SSSEP hybrid BCI outperforming a conventional MI-based BCI through combing MI with electrical stimulation.

  18. Ferroelectric BaTiO3 dipole induced charge transfer enhancement in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Keyuan; Liu, Xiaoyan; Si, Donghui; Tang, Xiao; Xing, An; Osada, Minoru; Xiao, Peng

    2017-05-01

    BaTiO3/TiO2 nanocomposite films with varied amount of BaTiO3 are fabricated and applied as photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) and demonstrated enhanced power conversion efficiency. Ferroelectricity of BaTiO3 in the film after subjected to a annealing process up to 450 °C is examined by Switching Spectroscopy Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (SSPFM). The highest performance is achieved in 1.0 wt% BaTiO3 addition as a result of increased photocurrent density (Jsc) and fill factor (FF), regardless of reduction of dye-loading. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements at different bias voltages (≦Voc) in dark suggest that ferroelectric dipole induced electric field has positive effects on enhancing electron mobility and suppressing charge recombination. Although more detailed experiments are needed in designing of the nanocomposite films for compensating characteristics of dye-loading and electron mobility, introduction of ferroelectric dipole induced electric field into the photoanode would be a good strategy in achieving further improvement of power conversion efficiency of DSCs through improved charge transfer properties.

  19. Kazinol Q from Broussonetia kazinoki Enhances Cell Death Induced by Cu(ll through Increased Reactive Oxygen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsue-Yin Hsu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the flavan kazinol Q (KQ to induce DNA breakage in the presence of Cu(II was examined by agarose gel electrophoresis using supercoiled plasmid DNA. In KQ-mediated DNA breakage reaction, the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS, H2O2 and O2 - was established by the inhibition of DNA breakage by catalase and revealed DNA breakage by superoxide dismutase (SOD. The cell viability of gastric carcinoma SCM-1 cells treated with various concentrations of KQ was significantly decreased by cotreatment with Cu(II. Treatment of SCM-1 cells with 300 μM Cu(II enhanced the necrosis induced by 100 μM KQ. Treatment of SCM-1 cells with 100 mM KQ in the presence of 300 mM Cu(II increased the generation of H2O2. Taken together, the above finding suggested that KQ cotreatment with Cu(II produced increased amounts of H2O2, thus enhancing subsequent cell death due to necrosis.

  20. Enhanced critical current density in the pressure-induced magnetic state of the high-temperature superconductor FeSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soon-Gil; Kang, Ji-Hoon; Park, Eunsung; Lee, Sangyun; Lin, Jiunn-Yuan; Chareev, Dmitriy A.; Vasiliev, Alexander N.; Park, Tuson

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the relation of the critical current density (Jc) and the remarkably increased superconducting transition temperature (Tc) for the FeSe single crystals under pressures up to 2.43 GPa, where the Tc is increased by ~8 K/GPa. The critical current density corresponding to the free flux flow is monotonically enhanced by pressure which is due to the increase in Tc, whereas the depinning critical current density at which the vortex starts to move is more influenced by the pressure-induced magnetic state compared to the increase of Tc. Unlike other high-Tc superconductors, FeSe is not magnetic, but superconducting at ambient pressure. Above a critical pressure where magnetic state is induced and coexists with superconductivity, the depinning Jc abruptly increases even though the increase of the zero-resistivity Tc is negligible, directly indicating that the flux pinning property compared to the Tc enhancement is a more crucial factor for an achievement of a large Jc. In addition, the sharp increase in Jc in the coexisting superconducting phase of FeSe demonstrates that vortices can be effectively trapped by the competing antiferromagnetic order, even though its antagonistic nature against superconductivity is well documented. These results provide new guidance toward technological applications of high-temperature superconductors. PMID:26548444

  1. Accuracy of non-enhanced MRI to monitor histological lesion size during laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremer, Christoph; Kreft, Gerald [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Muenster (Germany); Filler, Timm [Institute for Anatomy, University of Muenster (Germany); Reimer, Peter [Zentralinstitut fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik, Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of non-enhanced MRI using a T1-weighted 2D turbo fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence during laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) to determine histological lesion size of laser-induced hepatic lesions. The LITT was performed on pig liver samples at various power settings and durations. For MR monitoring during and after LITT a T1-weighted 2D turbo-FLASH sequence was applied. Lesions seen by MRI during and after LITT were correlated with histological lesion size. Histologically, a core zone of complete tissue ablation close to the tip of the applicator could be differentiated from an adjacent transitional zone showing incomplete necrosis. Magnetic resonance imaging right at the end of LITT (i.e., with maximum heating effects) grossly overestimated the core zone but accurately described the transitional zone. Magnetic resonance imaging after cooling of the tissue (therefore showing structural as opposed to thermal changes) exactly depicted the core zone of complete tissue ablation. Non-enhanced MRI using a T1-weighted 2D turbo FLASH sequence strongly overestimates the histological lesion size during LITT; however, structural changes of the tissue seen after cooling accurately define lesion size in LITT. For clinical purposes the lesion geometry seen during MR monitoring should therefore well extend the tumor margins. (orig.)

  2. Oral salmon calcitonin enhances insulin action and glucose metabolism in diet-induced obese streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feigh, Michael; Hjuler, Sara T; Andreassen, Kim V

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that oral delivery of salmon calcitonin (sCT) improved energy and glucose homeostasis and attenuated diabetic progression in animal models of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and type 2 diabetes, although the glucoregulatory mode of action was not fully elucidated. In the present...... was enhanced in conjunction with protection of pancreatic insulin content. The results of the present study indicate that oral sCT exerts a novel insulin-sensitizing effect to improve glucose metabolism in obesity and type 2 diabetes....... study we hypothesized that oral sCT as pharmacological intervention 1) exerted anti-hyperglycemic efficacy, and 2) enhanced insulin action in DIO-streptozotocin (DIO-STZ) diabetic rats. Diabetic hyperglycemia was induced in male selectively bred DIO rats by a single low dose (30mg/kg) injection of STZ....... Oral sCT by gavage was delivered as once-daily administration with lead-in (2mg/kg) and maintenance (0.5mg/kg) dose of oral sCT for a total of 21 days. Food intake, body weight, blood glucose, HbA1c, glucose and insulin tolerance test, and parameters of insulin sensitivity were investigated. Plasma...

  3. An increase in reactive oxygen species by deregulation of ARNT enhances chemotherapeutic drug-induced cancer cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Min Shieh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unique characteristics of tumor microenvironments can be used as targets of cancer therapy. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT is an important mediator of tumor progression. However, the functional role of ARNT in chemotherapeutic drug-treated cancer remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we found that knockdown of ARNT in cancer cells reduced the proliferation rate and the transformation ability of those cells. Moreover, cisplatin-induced cell apoptosis was enhanced in ARNT-deficient cells. Expression of ARNT also decreased in the presence of cisplatin through proteasomal degradation pathway. However, ARNT level was maintained in cisplatin-treated drug-resistant cells, which prevented cell from apoptosis. Interestingly, reactive oxygen species (ROS dramatically increased when ARNT was knocked down in cancer cells, enhancing cisplatin-induced apoptosis. ROS promoted cell death was inhibited in cells treated with the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggested that the anticancer activity of cisplatin is attributable to its induction of the production of ROS by ARNT degradation. Targeting ARNT could be a potential strategy to eliminate drug resistance in cancer cells.

  4. Design and optimization of self-nanoemulsifying delivery system to enhance quercetin hepatoprotective activity in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Osama A A; Badr-Eldin, Shaimaa M; Tawfik, Mona K; Ahmed, Tarek A; El-Say, Khalid M; Badr, Jihan M

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to develop optimized quercetin (QT)-loaded self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) that offers protective effect against liver damage. Solubility study of QT in different oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants was performed. Ternary phase mixtures of the selected components were constructed to select a suitable range for each component. Experimental mixture design was utilized to optimize SNEDDSs that possess smaller globule size with enhanced emulsification and dissolution rates. QT SNEDDS was compared with QT suspension control and silymarin. In vivo evaluation and histopatholgical study of the selected QT SNEDDSs were achieved after administration of paracetamol over dosage to albino rats. Two optimized formulations were selected; one based on Sefsol and the other based on linoleic acid as an oily phase, Tween(®) 80 and polyethylene glycol 400 as surfactant and cosurfactant, respectively. Both Sefsol and linoleic-acid-optimized SNEDDS formulation showed no symptoms associated with toxicity and offered protective effect against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity by scavenging free radicals, attenuating lipid peroxidation, and enhancing the activity of antioxidants. The histopatholgical observations revealed that the inflammatory infiltrations induced by paracetamol were significantly ameliorated. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  5. Propofol enhances the cisplatin-induced apoptosis on cervical cancer cells via EGFR/JAK2/STAT3 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoran; Lu, Yan; Pang, Yangyang; Li, Mengjiao; Cheng, Xi; Chen, Jiawei

    2017-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate propofol and its combined effect with cisplatin on apoptosis of cervical cancer cells and molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon. The effects of propofol and cisplatin on cell viability and apoptosis were detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, colony formation assay and flow cytometry assay. Besides, protein expression of EGFR/JAK2/STAT3 pathway was determined by western blot. STAT3 was over-expressed in cervical cancer cells by STAT3 cDNA. Expression of EGFR and STAT3 protein of human tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. In this study, we found that not only propofol alone could inhibit cervical cancer cells viability but also could increase the inhibitory effect of cisplatin on cervical cancer cells growth. Meanwhile, propofol sensitized cervical cancer cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis but not affected normal cervical cells. In genetic level, propofol could enhance the anti-tumor effect of cisplatin through EGFR/JAK2/STAT3 pathway. Further studies indicated that overexpression of EGFR and STAT3 is related to poor prognoses in cervical cancer patients, which contributed to confirm the clinical role of combined application of propofol and cisplatin. Propofol enhances the cisplatin-induced cell apoptosis cervical cancer cells via EGFR/JAK2/STAT3 pathway and may be developed as a potential therapeutic agent to treat cervical cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. MicroRNA-661 Enhances TRAIL or STS Induced Osteosarcoma Cell Apoptosis by Modulating the Expression of Cytochrome c1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Fan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Osteosarcoma (OS is an aggressive bone malignancy that affects rapidly growing bones and is associated with a poor prognosis. Our previous study showed that cytochrome c1 (CYC1, a subunit of the cytochrome bc1 complex (complex III of the mitochondrial electron chain, is overexpressed in human OS tissues and cell lines and its silencing induces apoptosis in vitro and inhibits tumor growth in vivo. Here, we investigated the mechanism underlying the modulation of CYC1 expression in OS and its role in the resistance of OS to apoptosis. Methods: qRT-PCR, luciferase reporter assay, western blotting, fow cytometry, and animal experiments were performed in this study. Results: MicroRNA (miR-661 was identified as a downregulated miRNA in OS tissues and cells and shown to directly target CYC1. Ectopically expressed miR-661 inhibited OS cell growth, promoted apoptosis, and reduced the activity of mitochondrial complex III. miR-661 overexpression enhanced TRAIL or STS induced apoptosis and promoted the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, which induced caspase-9 activation, and these effects were abolished by a caspase-3 inhibitor. Overexpression of CYC1 rescued the effects of miR-661 on sensitizing OS cells to TRAIL or STS induced apoptosis, indicating that the antitumor effect of miR-661 is mediated by the downregulation of CYC1. In vivo, miR-661 overexpression sensitized tumors to TRAIL or STS induced apoptosis in a xenograft mouse model, and these effects were attenuated by co-expression of CYC1. Conclusion: Taken together, our results indicate that miR-661 plays a tumor suppressor role in OS mediated by the downregulation of CYC1, suggesting a potential mechanism underlying cell death resistance in OS.

  7. The long non-coding RNA HOTAIR enhances pancreatic cancer resistance to TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shan-Zhong; Xu, Fei; Zhou, Tong; Zhao, Xinyang; McDonald, Jay M; Chen, Yabing

    2017-06-23

    Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm with a high mortality rate. Therapeutic agents that activate TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis have shown promising efficacy, but many pancreatic cancers are resistant to TRAIL therapy. Epigenetic regulation plays important roles in tumor pathogenesis and resistance, and a recent study indicated that the long non-coding RNA HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. However, the role of HOTAIR in pancreatic cancer resistance to anticancer agents is unknown. The present study determined the role of HOTAIR in pancreatic cancer TRAIL resistance and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We observed that TRAIL-resistant pancreatic cancer cells had higher levels of HOTAIR expression, whereas TRAIL-sensitive pancreatic cancer cells had lower HOTAIR levels. Overexpressing HOTAIR in TRAIL-sensitive cells attenuated TRAIL-induced apoptosis, and shRNA-mediated HOTAIR knockdown in TRAIL-resistant PANC-1 cells sensitized them to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These results support a causative effect of HOTAIR on TRAIL sensitivity. Mechanistically, we found that increased HOTAIR expression inhibited the expression of the TRAIL receptor death receptor 5 (DR5), whereas HOTAIR knockdown increased DR5 expression. We further demonstrated that HOTAIR regulates DR5 expression via the epigenetic regulator enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and that EZH2 controls histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation on the DR5 gene. Taken together, these results demonstrate that high HOTAIR levels increase the resistance of pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via epigenetic regulation of DR5 expression. Our study therefore supports the notion that targeting HOTAIR function may represent a strategy to overcome TRAIL resistance in pancreatic cancer. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Insulin receptor substrate 1 expression enhances the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Holly A., E-mail: hport001@umaryland.edu [Center for Vascular and Inflammatory Diseases, 800 West Baltimore Street, Room 318, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Molecular Medicine Program, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Carey, Gregory B., E-mail: gcarey@som.umaryland.edu [Center for Vascular and Inflammatory Diseases, 800 West Baltimore Street, Room 318, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Keegan, Achsah D., E-mail: akeegan@som.umaryland.edu [Center for Vascular and Inflammatory Diseases, 800 West Baltimore Street, Room 318, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Molecular Medicine Program, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    The adapters IRS1 and IRS2 link growth factor receptors to downstream signaling pathways that regulate proliferation and survival. Both suppress factor-withdrawal-induced apoptosis and have been implicated in cancer progression. However, recent studies suggest IRS1 and IRS2 mediate differential functions in cancer pathogenesis. IRS1 promoted breast cancer proliferation, while IRS2 promoted metastasis. The role of IRS1 and IRS2 in controlling cell responses to chemotherapy is unknown. To determine the role of IRS1 and IRS2 in the sensitivity of cells to chemotherapy, we treated 32D cells lacking or expressing IRS proteins with various concentrations of chemotherapeutic agents. We found that expression of IRS1, in contrast to IRS2, enhanced the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. When IRS2 was expressed with IRS1, the cells no longer showed enhanced sensitivity. Expression of IRS1 did not alter the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins; however, 32D-IRS1 cells expressed higher levels of Annexin A2. In 32D-IRS1 cells, IRS1 and Annexin A2 were both located in cytoplasmic and membrane fractions. We also found that IRS1 coprecipitated with Annexin A2, while IRS2 did not. Decreasing Annexin A2 levels reduced 32D-IRS1 cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. These results suggest IRS1 enhances sensitivity to chemotherapy in part through Annexin A2. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IRS1 enhanced the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This sensitivity is abrogated by the expression of IRS2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expressing IRS1 in 32D cells increased levels of Annexin A2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both IRS1 and Annexin A2 were located in cytoplasmic and membrane fractions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreasing Annexin A2 in 32D-IRS1 cells abated their sensitivity to chemotherapy.

  9. Fermentation enhances Ginkgo biloba protective role on gamma-irradiation induced neuroinflammatory gene expression and stress hormones in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amel F M; El-Sonbaty, Sawsan M

    2016-05-01

    Ionizing radiation has attracted a lot of attention due to its beneficial and possible harmful effects to the human population. The brain displays numerous biochemical and functional alterations after exposure to irradiation, which induces oxidative-stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study evaluated the neuro-protective role of fermented Ginkgo biloba (FGb) leaf extract, compared to non-fermented G. biloba (Gb) leaf extract against γ-irradiation (6Gy) in the rats' brain. The changes of the Gb phytochemical constituents after fermentation, using Aspergillus niger were evaluated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The results showed a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and elevation of the calcium level in the brain cytosolic fraction of γ-irradiated rats. Further, significant increases in the malondialdehyde (MDA), the stress hormones (catecholamines); epinephrine (EN), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) levels and the interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene expression relative ratio in parallel with a significant decrease in the glutathione (GSH) content and DNA fragmentation in the brain tissues of the γ-irradiated rats were observed. The pre-treatment with Gb extract significantly amended these biochemical parameters. Meanwhile, the pre-treatment with the FGb showed more improvement, compared to Gb, of these biochemical parameters in the brain of γ-irradiated rats, which could be attributed to the enhancement of its antioxidant activity after fermentation. These findings suggested that fermentation enhances the protective effect of Gb in the brain on the neuroinflammation, release of the stress hormones, apoptosis and oxidative damage induced by γ-irradiation. fermentation improved the bio-activities of Gb leaf extract and thus enhanced the in-vivo antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities, leading to

  10. Nanostructure induced changes in lifetime and enhanced second-harmonic response of organic-plasmonic hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leißner, Till [NanoSYD, Mads Clausen Institute, University of Southern Denmark, Alsion 2, 6400 Sønderborg (Denmark); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense (Denmark); Kostiučenko, Oksana; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Fiutowski, Jacek, E-mail: fiutowski@mci.sdu.dk [NanoSYD, Mads Clausen Institute, University of Southern Denmark, Alsion 2, 6400 Sønderborg (Denmark); Brewer, Jonathan R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense (Denmark)

    2015-12-21

    In this letter we show that the optical response of organic nanofibers, grown from functionalized para-quaterphenylene molecules, can be controlled by forming organic-plasmonic hybrid systems. The interaction between nanofibers and supporting regular arrays of nanostructures leads to a strongly enhanced second harmonic response. At the same time, the fluorescence lifetime of the nanofibers is reduced from 0.32 ns for unstructured gold films to 0.22 ns for gold nanosquare arrays, demonstrating efficient organic–plasmonic interaction. To study the origin of these effects, we applied two-photon laser scanning microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. These findings provide an effective approach for plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation at the nanoscale, which is attractive for nanophotonic circuitry.

  11. Dewetting-Induced Photoluminescent Enhancement of Poly(lauryl methacrylate)/Quantum Dot Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldmeier, Jeffrey; Rile, Lexy; Yoon, Young Jun; Jung, Jaehan; Lin, Zhiqun; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2017-12-19

    A new method for enhancing photoluminescence from quantum dot (QD)/polymer nanocomposite films is proposed. Poly(lauryl methacrylate) (PLMA) thin films containing embedded QDs are intentionally allowed to undergo dewetting on substrates by exposure to a nonsolvent vapor. After controlled dewetting, films exhibited typical dewetting morphologies with increased amounts of scattering that served to outcouple photoluminescence from the film and reduce internal light propagation within the film. Up to a 5-fold enhancement of the film emission was achieved depending on material factors such as the initial film thickness and QD concentration within the film. An increase in initial film thickness was shown to increase the dewetted maximum feature size and its characteristic length until a critical thickness was reached where dewetting became inhibited. A unique light exposure-based photopatterning method is also presented for the creation of high contrast emissive patterns as guided by spatially controlled dewetting.

  12. Interface-Induced Enhancement of Ferromagnetism in Insulating LaMnO3 Ultrathin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liang; Li, Changjian; Chen, Mingfeng; Zhang, Yujun; Han, Kun; Zeng, Shengwei; Liu, Xin; Ma, Ji; Liu, Chen; Chen, Jiahui; Zhang, Jinxing; Ariando; Venkatesan, T Venky; Pennycook, Stephen J; Coey, J M D; Shen, Lei; Ma, Jing; Wang, X Renshaw; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2017-12-27

    Engineering ferromagnetism, by modulating its magnitude or anisotropy, is an important topic in the field of magnetism and spintronics. Among different types of magnetic materials, ferromagnetic insulators, in which magnetic moment unusually coexists with localized electrons, are of particular interest. Here, we report a remarkable interfacial enhancement of the ferromagnetism by adding one unit-cell LaAlO3 adjacent to an insulating LaMnO3 ultrathin film. The enhancement of ferromagnetism is explained in terms of charge transfer at the interface, as evidenced by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. This study demonstrates an effective and dramatic approach to modulate the functionality of ferromagnetic insulators, contributing to the arsenal of engineering techniques for future spintronics.

  13. SAHA-induced TRAIL-sensitisation of Multiple Myeloma cells is enhanced in 3D cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhoma, A; Chantry, A D; Haywood-Small, S L; Cross, N A

    2017-11-15

    Multiple Myeloma (MM) is currently incurable despite many novel therapies. Tumour Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) is a potential anti-tumour agent although effects as a single agent are limited. In this study, we investigated whether the Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor SAHA can enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis and target TRAIL resistance in both suspension culture, and 3D cell culture as a model of disseminated MM lesions that form in bone. The effects of SAHA and/or TRAIL in 6 Multiple Myeloma cell lines were assessed in both suspension cultures and in an Alginate-based 3D cell culture model. The effect of SAHA and/or TRAIL was assessed on apoptosis by assessment of nuclear morphology using Hoechst 33342/Propidium Iodide staining. Viable cell number was assessed by CellTiter-Glo luminescence assay, Caspase-8 and -9 activities were measured by Caspase-Glo™ assay kit. TRAIL-resistant cells were generated by culture of RPMI 8226 and NCI-H929 by acute exposure to TRAIL followed by selection of TRAIL-resistant cells. TRAIL significantly induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in OPM-2, RPMI 8226, NCI-H929, U266, JJN-3 MM cell lines and ADC-1 plasma cell leukaemia cells. SAHA amplified TRAIL responses in all lines except OPM-2, and enhanced TRAIL responses were both via Caspase-8 and -9. SAHA treatment induced growth inhibition that further increased in the combination treatment with TRAIL in MM cells. The co-treatment of TRAIL and SAHA reduced viable cell numbers all cell lines. TRAIL responses were further potentiated by SAHA in 3D cell culture in NCI-H929, RPMI 8226 and U266 at lower TRAIL + SAHA doses than in suspension culture. However TRAIL responses in cells that had been selected for TRAIL resistance were not further enhanced by SAHA treatment. SAHA is a potent sensitizer of TRAIL responses in both TRAIL sensitive and resistant cell lines, in both suspension and 3D culture, however SAHA did not sensitise TRAIL-sensitive cell

  14. Intervention-induced enhancement in intrinsic brain activity in healthy older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Shufei Yin; Xinyi Zhu; Rui Li; Yanan Niu; Baoxi Wang; Zhiwei Zheng; Xin Huang; Lijuan Huo; Juan Li

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a multimodal intervention on spontaneous brain activity in healthy older adults. Seventeen older adults received a six-week intervention that consisted of cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling, while 17 older adults in a control group attended health knowledge lectures. The intervention group demonstrated enhanced memory and social support compared to the control group. The amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in the middle fro...

  15. A mechanistic understanding of processing additive-induced efficiency enhancement in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, Kristin

    2013-10-31

    The addition of processing additives is a widely used approach to increase power conversion efficiencies for many organic solar cells. We present how additives change the polymer conformation in the casting solution leading to a more intermixed phase-segregated network structure of the active layer which in turn results in a 5-fold enhancement in efficiency. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Learning math as you play: comparing arithmetic performance enhancement induced by game play and paper exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Nunez Castellar, Elena Patricia; All, Anissa; Van Looy, Jan

    2013-01-01

    One of the promises of video game training is that, compared to traditional training, it can be more engaging and entertaining (Boot et. al., 2008). However, besides entertainment, games have shown to have the potential to impact a larger variety of cognitive abilities. Previous research has consistently shown that several aspects in cognition such as visual short-memory, multitasking and spatial cognition can be enhanced by game play. In a previous study, we found that playing Monkey Tales, ...

  17. The exercise-induced biochemical milieu enhances collagen content and tensile strength of engineered ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel W D; Lee-Barthel, Ann; McIntyre, Todd; Shamim, Baubak; Lee, Cassandra A; Baar, Keith

    2015-10-15

    Exercise stimulates a dramatic change in the concentration of circulating hormones, such as growth hormone (GH), but the biological functions of this response are unclear. Pharmacological GH administration stimulates collagen synthesis; however, whether the post-exercise systemic milieu has a similar action is unknown. We aimed to determine whether the collagen content and tensile strength of tissue-engineered ligaments is enhanced by serum obtained post-exercise. Primary cells from a human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) were used to engineer ligament constructs in vitro. Blood obtained from 12 healthy young men 15 min after resistance exercise contained GH concentrations that were ∼7-fold greater than resting serum (P Ligament constructs were treated for 7 days with medium supplemented with serum obtained at rest (RestTx) or 15 min post-exercise (ExTx), before tensile testing and collagen content analysis. Compared with RestTx, ExTx enhanced collagen content (+19%; 181 ± 33 vs. 215 ± 40 μg per construct P = 0.001) and ligament mechanical properties - maximal tensile load (+17%, P = 0.03 vs. RestTx) and ultimate tensile strength (+10%, P = 0.15 vs. RestTx). In a separate set of engineered ligaments, recombinant IGF-1, but not GH, enhanced collagen content and mechanics. Bioassays in 2D culture revealed that acute treatment with post-exercise serum activated mTORC1 and ERK1/2. In conclusion, the post-exercise biochemical milieu, but not recombinant GH, enhances collagen content and tensile strength of engineered ligaments, in association with mTORC1 and ERK1/2 activation. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  18. Enhanced horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in freshwater microcosms induced by an ionic liquid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    Full Text Available The spread and propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs is a worldwide public health concern. Ionic liquids (ILs, considered as "environmentally friendly" replacements for industrial organic solvents, have been widely applied in modern industry. However, few data have been collected regarding the potential ecological and environmental risks of ILs, which are important for preparing for their potential discharge into the environment. In this paper, the IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF6] (0.001-5.0 g/L was tested for its effects on facilitating ARGs horizontal transfer mediated by plasmid RP4 in freshwater microcosms. In the horizontal transfer microcosms, the transfer frequency of plasmid RP4 was significantly enhanced (60-fold higher than untreated groups by the IL [BMIm][PF6] (1.0 g/L. Meanwhile, two strains of opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were isolated among the transconjugants, illustrating plasmid RP4 mediated horizontal transfer of ARGs occurred in pathogen. This could increase the risk of ARGs dissemination to human pathogens and pose great threat to public health. The cause that [BMIm[PF6] enhanced the transfer frequency of plasmid RP4 was proposed by suppressed cell membrane barrier and enhanced cell membrane permeability, which was evidenced by flow cytometry (FCM. This is the first report that some ILs facilitate horizontal transfer of plasmid RP4 which is widely distributed in the environment and thus add the adverse effects of the environmental risk of ILs.

  19. Enhanced horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in freshwater microcosms induced by an ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Mao, Daqing; Mu, Quanhua; Luo, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The spread and propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is a worldwide public health concern. Ionic liquids (ILs), considered as "environmentally friendly" replacements for industrial organic solvents, have been widely applied in modern industry. However, few data have been collected regarding the potential ecological and environmental risks of ILs, which are important for preparing for their potential discharge into the environment. In this paper, the IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF6]) (0.001-5.0 g/L) was tested for its effects on facilitating ARGs horizontal transfer mediated by plasmid RP4 in freshwater microcosms. In the horizontal transfer microcosms, the transfer frequency of plasmid RP4 was significantly enhanced (60-fold higher than untreated groups) by the IL [BMIm][PF6] (1.0 g/L). Meanwhile, two strains of opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were isolated among the transconjugants, illustrating plasmid RP4 mediated horizontal transfer of ARGs occurred in pathogen. This could increase the risk of ARGs dissemination to human pathogens and pose great threat to public health. The cause that [BMIm[PF6] enhanced the transfer frequency of plasmid RP4 was proposed by suppressed cell membrane barrier and enhanced cell membrane permeability, which was evidenced by flow cytometry (FCM). This is the first report that some ILs facilitate horizontal transfer of plasmid RP4 which is widely distributed in the environment and thus add the adverse effects of the environmental risk of ILs.

  20. Nickel-induced morphology change of mesostructured alumina with enhanced catalytic activity for selective CO methanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shubo; Chen, Aihua; Zhao, Yongbin; Lu, Yanluo

    2015-03-01

    Nickel-induced morphology change of mesostructured alumina with amorphous walls to bayerite tetrahedra when treated in water, and then to γ-alumina with worm-like mesopores topologically after it was calcined at 400 °C is reported. The catalytic activity for selective CO methanation increased significantly after this treatment.Nickel-induced morphology change of mesostructured alumina with amorphous walls to bayerite tetrahedra when treated in water, and then to γ-alumina with worm-like mesopores topologically after it was calcined at 400 °C is reported. The catalytic activity for selective CO methanation increased significantly after this treatment. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07577c

  1. Valproate-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy enhanced by topiramate and phenobarbitone: A case report and an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivekanandan S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although sodium valproate (VPA-induced hepatic encephalopathy is a well-recognized entity, VPA can occasionally produce encephalopathy secondary to hyperammonemia in the presence of normal hepatic function, namely valproate-induced non-hepatic hyperammonemic encephalopathy (VNHE. Known risk factors include therapy with multiple antiepileptic drugs, especially when topiramate is one of the drugs; presence of underlying inborn errors of metabolism; febrile states; and insufficient nutritional intake. We describe a 5-year-old male child who developed VNHE while on polypharmacy with topiramate and phenobarbitone; the child also had poor nutritional intake. The encephalopathy reversed with withdrawal of VPA and treatment with L-carnitine. We emphasize the need for early recognition, investigation, and treatment of this potentially life-threatening condition. We also recommend that VPA, topiramate, and phenobarbitone should not be given in combination.

  2. Nalbuphine could decrease the rewarding effect induced by tramadol in mice while enhancing its antinociceptive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghany, Rasha; Nabil, Mahmoud; Abdel-Aal, Mohamed; Barakat, Waleed

    2015-07-05

    Nalbuphine, a kappa-opioid agonist and mu-opioid partial agonist, has been used as an analgesic or an adjuvant with morphine to attenuate the development of morphine dependence and rewarding effect. In this study, we investigated the effect of nalbuphine on tramadol rewarding effect and antinociception. Using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in mice, we demonstrated that co-administration of nalbuphine (7mg/kg, s.c.) with tramadol (70mg/kg, s.c.) during conditioning completely blocked the CPP induced by tramadol. Co-administration of nalbuphine blocked the increase in dopamine level in the nucleus accumbens induced by tramadol. These actions were accompanied by an increase rather than attenuation of the antinociceptive effect of tramadol. These results suggest that nalbuphine could have a great potential as a pharmacotherapy for tramadol abuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Astaxanthin enhances pemetrexed-induced cytotoxicity by downregulation of thymidylate synthase expression in human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kai-Sheng; Wei, Chia-Li; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Zheng, Hao-Yu; Chen, Wen-Ching; Wu, Chia-Hung; Wang, Tai-Jing; Peng, Yi-Shuan; Chang, Po-Yuan; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2016-11-01

    Pemetrexed, a multitargeted antifolate agent, has demonstrated clinical activity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Increased expression of thymidylate synthase (TS) is thought to be associated with resistance to pemetrexed. Astaxanthin exhibits a wide range of beneficial effects including anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we showed that down-regulating of TS expression in two NSCLC cell lines, human lung adenocarcinoma H1650 and squamous cell carcinoma H1703 cells, with astaxanthin were associated with decreased MKK1/2-ERK1/2 activity. Enforced expression of constitutively active MKK1 (MKK1-CA) vector significantly rescued the decreased TS mRNA and protein levels in astaxanthin-treated NSCLC cells. Combined treatment with a MKK1/2 inhibitor (U0126 or PD98059) further decreased the TS expression in astaxanthin-exposed NSCLC cells. Knockdown of TS using small interfering RNA (siRNA) or inhibiting ERK1/2 activity enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of astaxanthin. Combination of pemetrexed and astaxanthin resulted in synergistic enhancing cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition in NSCLC cells, accompanied with reduced activation of phospho-MKK1/2, phopho-ERK1/2, and TS expression. Overexpression of MKK1/2-CA reversed the astaxanthin and pemetrexed-induced synergistic cytotoxicity. Our findings suggested that the down-regulation of MKK1/2-ERK1/2-mediated TS expression by astaxanthin is an important regulator of enhancing the pemetrexed-induced cytotoxicity in NSCLC cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tph2 gene deletion enhances amphetamine-induced hypermotility: effect of 5-HT restoration and role of striatal noradrenaline release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Mirjana; Kostoula, Chrysaugi; Sacchetti, Giuseppina; Mainolfi, Pierangela; Anastasia, Alessia; Villani, Claudia; Invernizzi, Roberto William

    2015-11-01

    Variants of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2), the gene encoding enzyme responsible for the synthesis of brain serotonin (5-HT), have been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, substance abuse and addiction. This study assessed the effect of Tph2 gene deletion on motor behavior and found that motor activity induced by 2.5 and 5 mg/kg amphetamine was enhanced in Tph2(-/-) mice. Using the in vivo microdialysis technique we found that the ability of amphetamine to stimulate noradrenaline (NA) release in the striatum was reduced by about 50% in Tph2(-/-) mice while the release of dopamine (DA) was not affected. Tph2 deletion did not affect the release of NA and DA in the prefrontal cortex. The role of endogenous 5-HT in enhancing the effect of amphetamine was confirmed showing that treatment with the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (10 mg/kg) restored tissue and extracellular levels of brain 5-HT and the effects of amphetamine on striatal NA release and motor activity in Tph2(-/-) mice. Treatment with the NA precursor dihydroxyphenylserine (400 mg/kg) was sufficient to restore the effect of amphetamine on striatal NA release and motor activity in Tph2(-/-) mice. These findings indicate that amphetamine-induced hyperactivity is attenuated by endogenous 5-HT through the inhibition of striatal NA release. Tph2(-/-) mice may be a useful preclinical model to assess the role of 5-HT-dependent mechanisms in the action of psychostimulants. Acute sensitivity to the motor effects of amphetamine has been associated to increased risk of psychostimulant abuse. Here, we show that deletion of Tph2, the gene responsible for brain 5-HT synthesis, enhances the motor effect of amphetamine in mice through the inhibition of striatal NA release. This suggests that Tph2(-/-) mice is a useful preclinical model to assess the role of 5-HT-dependent mechanisms in psychostimulants action. Tph2, tryptophan hydroxylase-2. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Enhanced insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in young lambs with placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Leticia E; Chen, Xiaochuan; Hay, William W; Limesand, Sean W

    2017-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with persistent metabolic complications, but information is limited for IUGR infants. We determined glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and insulin sensitivity in young lambs with placental insufficiency-induced IUGR. Lambs with hyperthermia-induced IUGR ( n = 7) were compared with control lambs ( n = 8). GSIS was measured at 8 ± 1 days of age, and at 15 ± 1 days, body weight-specific glucose utilization rates were measured with radiolabeled d-glucose during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC). IUGR lambs weighed 23% less ( P insulin concentrations were not different between IUGR and controls for either study. First-phase insulin secretion was enhanced 2.3-fold in IUGR lambs compared with controls. However, second-phase insulin concentrations, glucose-potentiated arginine-stimulated insulin secretion, and β-cell mass were not different, indicating that IUGR β-cells have an intrinsic enhancement in acute GSIS. Compared with controls, IUGR lambs had higher body weight-specific glucose utilization rates and greater insulin sensitivity at fasting (1.6-fold) and hyperinsulinemic periods (2.4-fold). Improved insulin sensitivity for glucose utilization was not due to differences in skeletal muscle insulin receptor and glucose transporters 1 and 4 concentrations. Plasma lactate concentrations during HEC were elevated in IUGR lambs compared with controls, but no differences were found for glycogen content or citrate synthase activity in liver and muscle. Greater insulin sensitivity for glucose utilization and enhanced acute GSIS in young lambs are predicted from fetal studies but may promote conditions that exaggerate glucose disposal and lead to episodes of hypoglycemia in IUGR infants. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Ω3 Supplementation and Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia Induce Cardioprotection Enhancing Antioxidant Mechanisms in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio A. Herrera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IH is linked with oxidative stress, impairing cardiac function. However, early IH also activate cardio-protective mechanisms. Omega 3 fatty acids (Ω3 induce cardioprotection by reducing infarct size and reinforcing antioxidant defenses. The aim of this work was to determine the combined effects of IH and Ω3 on cardiac function; oxidative balance and inflammatory state. Twenty-eight rats were randomly divided into four groups: normobaric normoxia (N; N + Ω3 (0.3 g·kg−1·day−1; IH; and IH + Ω3. IH was induced by 4 intercalate periods of hypoxia (4 days—normoxia (4 days in a hypobaric chamber during 32 days. At the end of the exposure, hearts were mounted in a Langendorff system and subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. In addition, we determined HIF-1α and ATP levels, as well as oxidative stress by malondialdehyde and nitrotyrosine quantification. Further, the expression of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase was determined. NF-kappaB and myeloperoxidase levels were assessed in the hearts. Relative to N hearts, IH improved left ventricular function (Left ventricular developed pressure: N; 21.8 ± 3.4 vs. IH; 42.8 ± 7.1 mmHg; p < 0.05; reduced oxidative stress (Malondialdehyde: N; 14.4 ± 1.8 vs. IH; 7.3 ± 2.1 μmol/mg prot.; p < 0.05; and increased antioxidant enzymes expression. Supplementation with Ω3 induces similar responses as IH group. Our findings suggest that both, IH and Ω3 in an independent manner, induce functional improvement by antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, establishing cardio-protection.

  7. Senescence-inducible LEC2 enhances triacylglycerol accumulation in leaves without negatively affecting plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Jung, Su-Jin; Shin, Hyun A; Go, Young Sam; Suh, Mi-Chung; Kim, Jong Bum

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis of fatty acids and glycerolipids in wild-type Arabidopsis leaves does not typically lead to strong triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation. LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) is a master regulator of seed maturation and oil accumulation in seeds. Constitutive ectopic LEC2 expression causes somatic embryogenesis and defects in seedling growth. Here, we report that senescence-inducible LEC2 expression caused a threefold increase in TAG levels in transgenic leaves compared with that in the leaves of wild-type plants. Plant growth was not severely affected by the accumulation the TAG in response to LEC2 expression. The levels of plastid-synthesized lipids, mono- and di-galactosyldiacylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol were reduced more in senescence-induced LEC2 than in endoplasmic reticulum-synthesized lipids, including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. Senescence-induced LEC2 up-regulated the expression of many genes involved in fatty acid and TAG biosynthesis at precise times in senescent leaves, including WRINKLED1 (WRI1), which encodes a fatty acid transcription factor. The expressions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 and phospholipid:diacylglycerol 2 were increased in the transgenic leaves. Five seed-type oleosin-encoding genes, expressed during oil-body formation, and the seed-specific FAE1 gene, which encodes the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of C20:1 and C22:1 fatty acids, were also expressed at higher levels in senescing transgenic leaves than in wild-type leaves. Senescence-inducible LEC2 triggers the key metabolic steps that increase TAG accumulation in vegetative tissues. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Divalent metal ions enhance DOPAL-induced oligomerization of alpha-synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinsmaa, Yunden; Sullivan, Patricia; Gross, Daniel; Cooney, Adele; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Goldstein, David S

    2014-05-21

    Parkinson disease (PD) features profound striatal dopamine depletion and Lewy bodies containing abundant precipitated alpha-synuclein. Mechanisms linking alpha-synucleinopathy with the death of dopamine neurons remain incompletely understood. One such link may be 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL). All of the intra-neuronal metabolism of dopamine passes through DOPAL, which is toxic. DOPAL also potently oligomerizes alpha-synuclein and alpha-synuclein oligomers are thought to be pathogenic in PD. Another implicated factor in PD pathogenesis is metal ions, and alpha-synuclein contains binding sites for these ions. In this study we tested whether divalent metal ions augment DOPAL-induced oligomerization of alpha-synuclein in cell-free system and in PC12 cells conditionally over-expressing alpha-synuclein. Incubation with divalent metal ions augmented DOPAL-induced oligomerization of alpha-synuclein (Cu(2+)>Fe(2+)>Mn(2+)), whereas monovalent Cu(1+) and trivalent Fe(3+) were without effect. Other dopamine metabolites, dopamine itself, and metal ions alone or in combination with dopamine, also had no effect. Antioxidant treatment with ascorbic acid and divalent cation chelation with EDTA attenuated the augmentation by Cu(2+) of DOPAL-induced alpha-synuclein oligomerization. Incubation of PC12 cells with L-DOPA markedly increased intracellular DOPAL content and promoted alpha-synuclein dimerization. Co-incubation with Cu(2+) amplified (p=0.01), while monoamine oxidase inhibition prevented, L-DOPA-related dimerization of alpha-synuclein (p=0.01). We conclude that divalent metal ions augment DOPAL-induced oligomerization of alpha-synuclein. Drugs that interfere with this interaction might constitute a novel approach for future treatment or prevention approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.